Science.gov

Sample records for ancient peruvian burial

  1. Mitochondrial DNA analysis of ancient Peruvian highlanders.

    PubMed

    Shinoda, Ken-ichi; Adachi, Noboru; Guillen, Sonia; Shimada, Izumi

    2006-09-01

    Ancient DNA recovered from 57 individuals excavated by Hiram Bingham at the rural communities of Paucarcancha, Patallacta, and Huata near the famed Inca royal estate and ritual site of Machu Picchu was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction, and the results were compared with ancient and modern DNA from various Central Andean areas to test their hypothesized indigenous highland origins. The control and coding regions of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of 35 individuals in this group were sequenced, and the haplogroups of each individual were determined. The frequency data for the haplogroups of these samples show clear proximity to those of modern Quechua and Aymara populations in the Peruvian and Bolivian highlands, and contrast with those of pre-Hispanic individuals of the north coast of Peru that we defined previously. Our study suggests a strong genetic affinity between sampled late pre-Hispanic individuals and modern Andean highlanders. A previous analysis of the Machu Picchu osteological collection suggests that the residents there were a mixed group of natives from various coastal and highland regions relocated by the Inca state for varied purposes. Overall, our study indicates that the sampled individuals from Paucarcancha and Patallacta were indigenous highlanders who provided supportive roles for nearby Machu Picchu. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Different element ratios of red cosmetics excavated from ancient burials of Japan.

    PubMed

    Yamada, M; Minami, T; Yamada, G; Tohno, Y; Tohno, S; Ikeda, Y; Tashiro, T; Kohno, Y; Kawakami, K

    1997-07-01

    Marker elements of red cosmetics, collected from ancient burials of Matsuyama, Tokushima and Nara Japan, were determined by emission spectrometry (ICP/AES). The mass ratios of Hg, Fe, Cu, and Zn were different between samples. Element levels were compared with reference to relative amounts of sulfur. Of the possible contaminants from the bone and sand of burials, the relative amounts of Hg and Fe to S were most commonly available to evaluate the difference between the cosmetics. The cosmetics were divided into four groups; type I (high Hg with less Fe), type II (both moderate Hg and Fe), type III (moderate Hg with high Fe) and type IV (less Hg with high Fe). The main constituents of cosmetics are mercury sulfide (cinnabar) or ferric oxide mixed with trace metals. Zinc contents differ between the Fe and Hg amounts for the three areas. Cosmetic compositions varied with each burial site, suggesting that they were derived from different mines of ancient Japan.

  3. Possible contaminant origins of the red cosmetics decorating ancient burial sites in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yamada, M O; Okayama, M; Chikamori, K; Yamada, G; Moriwake, Y; Minami, T; Tohno, S; Takeuchi, R; Tohno, Y

    2000-11-01

    Marker elements were estimated from the red cosmetics collected from different ancient burials and mine ruins in three separate districts of Japan. Element levels were displayed in reference to the relative amount to sulfur (RA/S), by which the cosmetics were divided into five types: I--a low Hg/S with a low Fe/S; II--both moderate Hg/S and Fe/S; III--a moderate Hg/S with a high Fe/S; III 2--a high Hg/S with a moderate Fe/S; IV--a high Hg/S with a high Fe/S. The cosmetics can be further characterized by referring to other contaminants such as Zn, Cu, and Mn. These combined analyses with contaminant metals were capable of characterizing the origins of the cosmetics; it is useful to compare them to each other. The cosmetics were identified as being due to several groups of contaminants from ancient mines in Japan, and also with this system analysis of the markers it is possible to identify them from neighboring countries.

  4. News from the west: ancient DNA from a French megalithic burial chamber.

    PubMed

    Deguilloux, Marie-France; Soler, Ludovic; Pemonge, Marie-Hélène; Scarre, Chris; Joussaume, Roger; Laporte, Luc

    2011-01-01

    Recent paleogenetic studies have confirmed that the spread of the Neolithic across Europe was neither genetically nor geographically uniform. To extend existing knowledge of the mitochondrial European Neolithic gene pool, we examined six samples of human skeletal material from a French megalithic long mound (c.4200 cal BC). We retrieved HVR-I sequences from three individuals and demonstrated that in the Neolithic period the mtDNA haplogroup N1a, previously only known in central Europe, was as widely distributed as western France. Alternative scenarios are discussed in seeking to explain this result, including Mesolithic ancestry, Neolithic demic diffusion, and long-distance matrimonial exchanges. In light of the limited Neolithic ancient DNA (aDNA) data currently available, we observe that all three scenarios appear equally consistent with paleogenetic and archaeological data. In consequence, we advocate caution in interpreting aDNA in the context of the Neolithic transition in Europe. Nevertheless, our results strengthen conclusions demonstrating genetic discontinuity between modern and ancient Europeans whether through migration, demographic or selection processes, or social practices.

  5. Hematite mining in the ancient Americas: Mina Primavera, A 2,000 year old Peruvian mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughn, Kevin J.; Grados, Moises Linares; Eerkens, Jelmer W.; Edwards, Matthew J.

    2007-12-01

    Mina Primavera, a hematite (Fe2O3) mine located in southern Peru, was exploited beginning approximately 2,000 years ago by two Andean civilizations, the Nasca and Wari. Despite the importance of hematite in the material culture of the ancient Americas, few hematite mines have been reported in the New World literature and none have been reported for the Central Andes. An estimated 3,710 tonnes of hematite were extracted from the mine for over 1,400 years at an average rate of 2.65 tonnes per year, suggesting regular and extensive mining prior to Spanish conquest. The hematite was likely used as a pigment for painting pottery, and the mine demonstrates that iron ores were extracted extensively at an early date in the Americas.

  6. Ancient coins: cluster analysis applied to find a correlation between corrosion process and burial soil characteristics.

    PubMed

    Reale, Rita; Plattner, Susanne H; Guida, Giuseppe; Sammartino, Maria Pia; Visco, Giovanni

    2012-05-02

    Although it is well known that any material degrades faster when exposed to an aggressive environment as well as that "aggressive" cannot be univocally defined as depending also on the chemical-physical characteristics of material, few researches on the identification of the most significant parameters influencing the corrosion of metallic object are available.A series of ancient coins, coming from the archaeological excavation of Palazzo Valentini (Rome) were collected together with soils, both near and far from them, and then analysed using different analytical techniques looking for a correlation between the corrosion products covering the coins and the chemical-physical soil characteristics. The content of soluble salts in the water-bearing stratum and surfacing in the archaeological site, was also measured.The obtained results stress the influence of alkaline soils on formation of patina. Cerussite, probably due to the circulation of water in layers rich in marble and plaster fragments, was the main corrosion product identified by X-ray Diffraction (XRD). Copper, lead and vanadium were found in soil surrounding coins. By measuring conductivity, pH and soluble salts content of the washing solutions from both coins and soils, we could easily separate coins coming from different stratigraphic units of the site.Data were treated by cluster and multivariate analysis, revealing a correlation between part of the coins and the nearby soil samples.

  7. Ancient coins: cluster analysis applied to find a correlation between corrosion process and burial soil characteristics

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Although it is well known that any material degrades faster when exposed to an aggressive environment as well as that "aggressive" cannot be univocally defined as depending also on the chemical-physical characteristics of material, few researches on the identification of the most significant parameters influencing the corrosion of metallic object are available. A series of ancient coins, coming from the archaeological excavation of Palazzo Valentini (Rome) were collected together with soils, both near and far from them, and then analysed using different analytical techniques looking for a correlation between the corrosion products covering the coins and the chemical-physical soil characteristics. The content of soluble salts in the water-bearing stratum and surfacing in the archaeological site, was also measured. The obtained results stress the influence of alkaline soils on formation of patina. Cerussite, probably due to the circulation of water in layers rich in marble and plaster fragments, was the main corrosion product identified by X-ray Diffraction (XRD). Copper, lead and vanadium were found in soil surrounding coins. By measuring conductivity, pH and soluble salts content of the washing solutions from both coins and soils, we could easily separate coins coming from different stratigraphic units of the site. Data were treated by cluster and multivariate analysis, revealing a correlation between part of the coins and the nearby soil samples. PMID:22594444

  8. Peruvian Moche Jewelry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Berniece

    1998-01-01

    Surveys the history of the pre-Columbian, Peruvian Moche art, particularly the ornamental jewelry found in Moche burial sites. Outlines a procedure for creating pins reminiscent of Moche jewelry out of paper and other inexpensive materials. Points to ways that the lesson can be combined with lessons in history and science. (DSK)

  9. Ancient DNA reveals kinship burial patterns of a pre-Columbian Andean community

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A detailed genetic study of the pre-Columbian population inhabiting the Tompullo 2 archaeological site (department Arequipa, Peru) was undertaken to resolve the kin relationships between individuals buried in six different chullpas. Kin relationships were an important factor shaping the social organization in the pre-Columbian Andean communities, centering on the ayllu, a group of relatives that shared a common land and responsibilities. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether this Andean model of a social organization had an influence on mortuary practices, in particular to determine whether chullpas served as family graves. Results The remains of forty-one individuals were analyzed with both uniparental (mtDNA, Y–chromosome) and biparental (autosomal microsatellites) markers. Reproducible HVRI sequences, autosomal and Y chromosomal STR profiles were obtained for 24, 16 and 11 individuals, respectively. Mitochondrial DNA diversity was comparable to that of ancient and contemporary Andean populations. The Tompullo 2 population exhibited the closest relationship with the modern population from the same region. A kinship analysis revealed complex pattern of relations within and between the graves. However mean relatedness coefficients regarding the pairs of individuals buried in the same grave were significantly higher than those regarding pairs buried in different graves. The Y chromosome profiles of 11 males suggest that only members of one male line were buried in the same grave. Conclusions Genetic investigation of the population that inhabited Tompullo 2 site shows continuity between pre-Columbian and modern Native Amerindian populations inhabiting the Arequipa region. This suggests that no major demographic processes have influenced the mitochondrial DNA diversity of these populations during the past five hundred years. The kinship analysis involving uni- and biparental markers suggests that the community that inhabited the Tompullo 2 site

  10. Ancient DNA reveals selection acting on genes associated with hypoxia response in pre-Columbian Peruvian Highlanders in the last 8500 years

    PubMed Central

    Fehren-Schmitz, Lars; Georges, Lea

    2016-01-01

    Archaeological evidence shows that humans began living in the high altitude Andes approximately 12,000 years ago. Andean highlanders are known to have developed the most complex societies of pre-Columbian South America despite challenges to their health and reproductive success resulting from chronic exposure to hypoxia. While the physiological adaptations to this environmental stressor are well studied in contemporary Andean highlanders, the molecular evolutionary processes associated with such adaptations remain unclear. We aim to better understand how humans managed to demographically establish in this harsh environment by addressing a central question: did exposure to hypoxia drive adaptation via natural selection within Andean populations or did an existing phenotype –characterized by reduced susceptibility to hypoxic stress–enable human settlement of the Andes? We genotyped three variable loci within the NOS3 and EGLN1 genes previously associated with adaptation to high altitude in 150 ancient human DNA samples from Peruvian high altitude and coastal low altitude sites in a time frame between ~8500–560 BP. We compare the data of 109 successful samples to forward simulations of genetic drift with natural selection and find that selection, rather than drift, explains the gradual frequency changes observed in the highland populations for two of the three SNPs. PMID:26996763

  11. Ancient DNA reveals selection acting on genes associated with hypoxia response in pre-Columbian Peruvian Highlanders in the last 8500 years.

    PubMed

    Fehren-Schmitz, Lars; Georges, Lea

    2016-03-21

    Archaeological evidence shows that humans began living in the high altitude Andes approximately 12,000 years ago. Andean highlanders are known to have developed the most complex societies of pre-Columbian South America despite challenges to their health and reproductive success resulting from chronic exposure to hypoxia. While the physiological adaptations to this environmental stressor are well studied in contemporary Andean highlanders, the molecular evolutionary processes associated with such adaptations remain unclear. We aim to better understand how humans managed to demographically establish in this harsh environment by addressing a central question: did exposure to hypoxia drive adaptation via natural selection within Andean populations or did an existing phenotype--characterized by reduced susceptibility to hypoxic stress--enable human settlement of the Andes? We genotyped three variable loci within the NOS3 and EGLN1 genes previously associated with adaptation to high altitude in 150 ancient human DNA samples from Peruvian high altitude and coastal low altitude sites in a time frame between ~8500-560 BP. We compare the data of 109 successful samples to forward simulations of genetic drift with natural selection and find that selection, rather than drift, explains the gradual frequency changes observed in the highland populations for two of the three SNPs.

  12. Preconquest Peruvian neurosurgeons: a study of Inca and pre-Columbian trephination and the art of medicine in ancient Peru.

    PubMed

    Marino, R; Gonzales-Portillo, M

    2000-10-01

    Trephination and craniotomy performed by abrasion, scraping, crosscut sawing, and drilling are the oldest known surgical techniques used by primitive peoples. As a result of archaeological findings, the human skull is the most frequently studied part of the excavated body, leading to the creation of a new aspect of anthropology known as "cultural osteology." Found in ancient tombs, the human remains, mummies, skeletons, and their belongings, including war instruments, pottery, clothing, jewels, and surgical instruments, constitute the richest source of insight into the lives and pragmatic activities of ancient cultures. This study summarizes thousands of years of pre-Columbian history and medical evolution, specifically in the early and primitive practice of trephination, as precursors of neurosurgery. Comparative osteology studies have demonstrated that using primitive stone or metal instruments, the sirkaks (Inca surgeons) achieved an average survival rate of 50 to 70% of their craniectomy patients, with little incidence of infection or other complications. Despite their rudimentary knowledge of disease and pathology, a considerable knowledge of anatomy and natural medicine provided them with hemostatic agents, antiseptics, and other medical drugs, such as quinine for fever and malaria, as well as gold, silver, and other products to perform cranioplasties. Living in a world of continuous hand-to-hand combat, they also developed aggressive and defensive weapons that necessitated refinement of surgical techniques to save soldiers from battle wounds to their poorly protected crania.

  13. Comparison of the Distributions of Bromine, Lead and Zinc in Tooth and Bone from an Ancient Peruvian Burial site by X-ray Fluorescence

    SciTech Connect

    Martin,R.; Naftel, S.; Nelson, A.; Sapp, W.

    2007-01-01

    Synchrotron micro X-ray fluorescence was used to study the distribution of selected trace elements (Zn, Pb, and Br) in tooth and bone samples obtained from an individual from a pre-Columbian archaeological site (Cabur) located on the north coast of Peru. The results show that Zn, Pb, and Br are present in both the teeth and bone samples and that the Zn and Pb seem to be confined to similar regions (cementum and periostium), while Br shows a novel distribution with enrichment close to the Haversian canals and (or) in regions that appear to be Ca deficient.

  14. Ancient Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swamy, Ashwin Balegar

    This thesis involves development of an interactive GIS (Geographic Information System) based application, which gives information about the ancient history of Egypt. The astonishing architecture, the strange burial rituals and their civilization were some of the intriguing questions that motivated me towards developing this application. The application is a historical timeline starting from 3100 BC, leading up to 664 BC, focusing on the evolution of the Egyptian dynasties. The tool holds information regarding some of the famous monuments which were constructed during that era and also about the civilizations that co-existed. It also provides details about the religions followed by their kings. It also includes the languages spoken during those periods. The tool is developed using JAVA, a programing language and MOJO (Map Objects Java Objects) a product of ESRI (Environmental Science Research Institute) to create map objects, to provide geographic information. JAVA Swing is used for designing the user interface. HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language) pages are created to provide the user with more information related to the historic period. CSS (Cascade Style Sheets) and JAVA Scripts are used with HTML5 to achieve creative display of content. The tool is kept simple and easy for the user to interact with. The tool also includes pictures and videos for the user to get a feel of the historic period. The application is built to motivate people to know more about one of the prominent and ancient civilization of the Mediterranean world.

  15. NEUTRONIC REACTOR BURIAL ASSEMBLY

    DOEpatents

    Treshow, M.

    1961-05-01

    A burial assembly is shown whereby an entire reactor core may be encased with lead shielding, withdrawn from the reactor site and buried. This is made possible by a five-piece interlocking arrangement that may be easily put together by remote control with no aligning of bolt holes or other such close adjustments being necessary.

  16. Dwarfs in ancient Egypt.

    PubMed

    Kozma, Chahira

    2006-02-15

    Ancient Egypt was one of the most advanced and productive civilizations in antiquity, spanning 3000 years before the "Christian" era. Ancient Egyptians built colossal temples and magnificent tombs to honor their gods and religious leaders. Their hieroglyphic language, system of organization, and recording of events give contemporary researchers insights into their daily activities. Based on the record left by their art, the ancient Egyptians documented the presence of dwarfs in almost every facet of life. Due to the hot dry climate and natural and artificial mummification, Egypt is a major source of information on achondroplasia in the old world. The remains of dwarfs are abundant and include complete and partial skeletons. Dwarfs were employed as personal attendants, animal tenders, jewelers, and entertainers. Several high-ranking dwarfs especially from the Old Kingdom (2700-2190 BCE) achieved important status and had lavish burial places close to the pyramids. Their costly tombs in the royal cemeteries and the inscriptions on their statutes indicate their high-ranking position in Egyptian society and their close relation to the king. Some of them were Seneb, Pereniankh, Khnumhotpe, and Djeder. There were at least two dwarf gods, Ptah and Bes. The god Ptah was associated with regeneration and rejuvenation. The god Bes was a protector of sexuality, childbirth, women, and children. He was a favored deity particularly during the Greco-Roman period. His temple was recently excavated in the Baharia oasis in the middle of Egypt. The burial sites and artistic sources provide glimpses of the positions of dwarfs in daily life in ancient Egypt. Dwarfs were accepted in ancient Egypt; their recorded daily activities suggest assimilation into daily life, and their disorder was not shown as a physical handicap. Wisdom writings and moral teachings in ancient Egypt commanded respect for dwarfs and other individuals with disabilities. Copyright (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Peruvian villages go solar

    SciTech Connect

    Duffy, J.

    1999-12-01

    Students and faculty from an American University work with indigenous Peruvians to electrify their village and improve their quality of life. The remote village of Malvas in the Andes seems typical of many in Peru. The 500 Inca descendants have no electricity, no running water, one telephone and mud adobe houses. At a 10,000-foot (3,048 m) altitude, residents survive through subsistence farming. And this project might sound like a typical solar system installation--a system is donated, consultants install it, no one owns it and if something goes wrong, no one fixes it. The equipment ultimately helps no one and few learn from the experience. But two aspects of this project make it unique - the unusual level of communal sharing in the town and the design and installation of the solar system by students.

  18. Burial Ground Expansion Hydrogeologic Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Gaughan , T.F.

    1999-02-26

    Sirrine Environmental Consultants provided technical oversight of the installation of eighteen groundwater monitoring wells and six exploratory borings around the location of the Burial Ground Expansion.

  19. Native Communities and the Peruvian Constitutional Assembly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Indian Journal, 1978

    1978-01-01

    A loosely knit coalition of over 25 native groups, the Peruvian Amazon Peoples has prepared a statement directed at the Peruvian Constitutional Assembly for purposes of Native input into the preparation of a revised national constitution. (JC)

  20. Burial metamorphism in rocks of the Western Andes of Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Offler, R.; Aguirre, L.; Levi, B.; Child, S.

    1980-01-01

    An unconformity bound, episodic pattern of burial metamorphism is preserved in marine and terrestrial volcanic and sedimentary rocks which were deposited in the West Peruvian Trough during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic Eras. A particular metamorphic facies series is developed in each of the stratigraphic-structural units bounded by unconformities. In each unit, grade increases with stratigraphic depth and covers part or all of the range from zeolite to greenschist facies. At every unconformity a mineralogic break occurs where higher grade assemblages on top of the unconformity plane overlie lower grade assemblages. The presence of wairakite and the development of a wide range of metamorphic facies in thin sequences suggest high geothermal gradients, possibly related to generation of magma at depth.

  1. Organic carbon production, mineralization and preservation on the Peruvian margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dale, A. W.; Sommer, S.; Lomnitz, U.; Montes, I.; Treude, T.; Gier, J.; Hensen, C.; Dengler, M.; Stolpovsky, K.; Bryant, L. D.; Wallmann, K.

    2014-09-01

    Carbon cycling in Peruvian margin sediments (11° S and 12° S) was examined at 16 stations from 74 m on the inner shelf down to 1024 m water depth by means of in situ flux measurements, sedimentary geochemistry and modeling. Bottom water oxygen was below detection limit down to ca. 400 m and increased to 53 μM at the deepest station. Sediment accumulation rates and benthic dissolved inorganic carbon fluxes decreased rapidly with water depth. Particulate organic carbon (POC) content was lowest on the inner shelf and at the deep oxygenated stations (< 5%) and highest between 200 and 400 m in the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ, 15-20%). The organic carbon burial efficiency (CBE) was unexpectedly low on the inner shelf (< 20%) when compared to a global database, for reasons which may be linked to the frequent ventilation of the shelf by oceanographic anomalies. CBE at the deeper oxygenated sites was much higher than expected (max. 81%). Elsewhere, CBEs were mostly above the range expected for sediments underlying normal oxic bottom waters, with an average of 51 and 58% for the 11° S and 12° S transects, respectively. Organic carbon rain rates calculated from the benthic fluxes alluded to a very efficient mineralization of organic matter in the water column, with a Martin curve exponent typical of normal oxic waters (0.88 ± 0.09). Yet, mean POC burial rates were 2-5 times higher than the global average for continental margins. The observations at the Peruvian margin suggest that a lack of oxygen does not affect the degradation of organic matter in the water column but promotes the preservation of organic matter in marine sediments.

  2. Organic carbon production, mineralisation and preservation on the Peruvian margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dale, A. W.; Sommer, S.; Lomnitz, U.; Montes, I.; Treude, T.; Liebetrau, V.; Gier, J.; Hensen, C.; Dengler, M.; Stolpovsky, K.; Bryant, L. D.; Wallmann, K.

    2015-03-01

    Carbon cycling in Peruvian margin sediments (11 and 12° S) was examined at 16 stations, from 74 m water depth on the middle shelf down to 1024 m, using a combination of in situ flux measurements, sedimentary geochemistry and modelling. Bottom water oxygen was below detection limit down to ca. 400 m and increased to 53 μM at the deepest station. Sediment accumulation rates decreased sharply seaward of the middle shelf and subsequently increased at the deep stations. The organic carbon burial efficiency (CBE) was unusually low on the middle shelf (<20%) when compared to an existing global database, for reasons which may be linked to episodic ventilation of the bottom waters by oceanographic anomalies. Deposition of reworked, degraded material originating from sites higher up on the slope is proposed to explain unusually high sedimentation rates and CBE (>60%) at the deep oxygenated sites. In line with other studies, CBE was elevated under oxygen-deficient waters in the mid-water oxygen minimum zone. Organic carbon rain rates calculated from the benthic fluxes alluded to efficient mineralisation of organic matter in the water column compared to other oxygen-deficient environments. The observations at the Peruvian margin suggest that a lack of oxygen does not greatly affect the degradation of organic matter in the water column but promotes the preservation of organic matter in sediments.

  3. Overpressure by burial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podladchikov, Yury; Dabrowski, Marcin

    2017-04-01

    Preservation of peak metamorphic assemblages cannot be explain by sluggish kinetics only due to high temperatures. Moreover, frequently reported near isothermal decompression from peak conditions testify continuing capacity of lower pressure metamorphic reactions to overcome kinetic barriers. Often these observations come from the same rock sample, or even or from a single host crystal. Natural conclusion on preservation of peak pressures in a 'pressure vessel' in order to preserve the peak mineral assemblages was firmly made already in the first years after convincing identifying of ultra-high pressure minerals in continental rocks. The 'pressure vessels' model is thus the current view on mechanical state during retrogression assuming up to several GPa excess pressure in inclusion maintained by host mineral all the way through retrogression. Same arguments apply to preservation of outcrop scale eclogite boudins in lower pressure amphibolite gneisses. If strength of rocks and minerals is sufficient to keep the pressure difference during retrogression, the same applies to the prograde stage of the metamorphic history of the rock. We investigate and quantify the overpressure development during burial of continental rocks. We show that eclogite lenses are expected to develop over mafic lithology embedded in average crustal rock at lower crustal condition, thus eliminating the need for 'deep continental subduction' as the only mechanism to form it.

  4. Indien Personhood III: Water Burial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jay

    2005-01-01

    Water burial is a way to return a body to its key primal element. It revives and transforms both the soul and the person. Sometimes water burial leads to a new life floating in a womb. Sometimes it disperses to provide a moist and nutrient-rich medium for a vast variety of other lives, making a contribution to the much larger whole. In this…

  5. Indien Personhood III: Water Burial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jay

    2005-01-01

    Water burial is a way to return a body to its key primal element. It revives and transforms both the soul and the person. Sometimes water burial leads to a new life floating in a womb. Sometimes it disperses to provide a moist and nutrient-rich medium for a vast variety of other lives, making a contribution to the much larger whole. In this…

  6. 38 CFR 3.1610 - Burial in national cemeteries; burial of unclaimed bodies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... cemeteries; burial of unclaimed bodies. 3.1610 Section 3.1610 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Burial Benefits § 3.1610 Burial in national cemeteries; burial of... veteran is in a national cemetery, provided that burial in a national cemetery is desired by the person...

  7. Neil Armstrong Burial at Sea

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-09-13

    US Navy personnel carry the cremains of Apollo 11 astronaut Neil Armstrong off of a military aircraft at Naval Station Mayport the day before the Armstrong burial at sea service, Thursday, Sept. 13, 2012, Mayport, Fla. Armstrong, the first man to walk on the moon during the 1969 Apollo 11 mission, died Saturday, Aug. 25. He was 82. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  8. 78 FR 76574 - Burial Benefits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-18

    ... include burial allowances for service-connected and non-service-connected deaths, a plot or interment... and plot or interment allowances that are equal to the maximum benefit authorized by law, and priority... allowance for service-connected deaths (38 U.S.C. 2307). Congress also authorized VA to pay a plot...

  9. 20 CFR 61.205 - Burial expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Burial expense. 61.205 Section 61.205... § 61.205 Burial expense. (a) When the death of a person listed in § 61.1(a) results from an injury caused by a war-risk hazard, the Office shall pay reasonable burial expenses up to the amount...

  10. 20 CFR 61.205 - Burial expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Burial expense. 61.205 Section 61.205... § 61.205 Burial expense. (a) When the death of a person listed in § 61.1(a) results from an injury caused by a war-risk hazard, the Office shall pay reasonable burial expenses up to the amount...

  11. 20 CFR 61.205 - Burial expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Burial expense. 61.205 Section 61.205... § 61.205 Burial expense. (a) When the death of a person listed in § 61.1(a) results from an injury caused by a war-risk hazard, the Office shall pay reasonable burial expenses up to the amount...

  12. 20 CFR 61.205 - Burial expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Burial expense. 61.205 Section 61.205... § 61.205 Burial expense. (a) When the death of a person listed in § 61.1(a) results from an injury caused by a war-risk hazard, the Office shall pay reasonable burial expenses up to the amount...

  13. 20 CFR 61.205 - Burial expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Burial expense. 61.205 Section 61.205... § 61.205 Burial expense. (a) When the death of a person listed in § 61.1(a) results from an injury caused by a war-risk hazard, the Office shall pay reasonable burial expenses up to the amount...

  14. 38 CFR 3.1700 - Types of VA burial benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Types of VA burial... ADJUDICATION Burial Benefits Burial Benefits: General § 3.1700 Types of VA burial benefits. Pt. 3, Subpt. B, Nt. (a) Burial benefits. VA provides the following types of burial benefits, which are discussed in §§...

  15. Ancient Egypt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evers, Virginia

    This four-week fourth grade social studies unit dealing with religious dimensions in ancient Egyptian culture was developed by the Public Education Religion Studies Center at Wright State University. It seeks to help students understand ancient Egypt by looking at the people, the culture, and the people's world view. The unit begins with outlines…

  16. Benthic phosphorus cycling in the Peruvian oxygen minimum zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomnitz, U.; Sommer, S.; Dale, A. W.; Löscher, C. R.; Noffke, A.; Wallmann, K.; Hensen, C.

    2015-10-01

    Oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) that impinge on continental margins favor the release of phosphorus (P) from the sediments to the water column, enhancing primary productivity and the maintenance or expansion of low-oxygen waters. A comprehensive field program in the Peruvian OMZ was undertaken to identify the sources of benthic P, including the analysis of particles from the water column, surface sediments and pore fluids as well as in situ benthic flux measurements. A major fraction of solid phase P was bound as particulate inorganic P (PIP) both in the water column and in sediments. Sedimentary PIP increased with depth in the sediment at the expense of particulate organic P (POP). The ratio of particulate organic carbon (POC) to POP exceeded the Redfield Ratio both in the water column (202 ± 29) and in surface sediments (303 ± 77). However, the POC to total particulate P (TPP = POP + PIP) ratio was close to Redfield in the water column (103 ± 9) and in sediment samples (102 ± 15) taken from the core of the OMZ. This observation suggests that the burial efficiencies of POC and TPP are similar under the low oxygen conditions prevailing in the Peruvian OMZ. Benthic fluxes of dissolved P were extremely high (up to 1.04 ± 0.31 mmol m-2 d-1) and exceeded the fluxes resulting from the degradation of particulate organic matter raining to the seabed. Most of the excess P may have been released by bacterial mats that had stored P during previous periods when bottom waters were less reducing. At one station located at the lower rim of the OMZ, dissolved P was taken up by the sediments indicating recent phosphorite formation.

  17. Neil Armstrong Burial at Sea

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-09-13

    Mark Armstrong, left, and his family look on as US Navy personnel carry the cremains of his father, Apollo 11 astronaut Neil Armstrong, off of a military aircraft at Naval Station Mayport the day before the Armstrong burial at sea service, Thursday, Sept. 13, 2012, Mayport, Fla. Armstrong, the first man to walk on the moon during the 1969 Apollo 11 mission, died Saturday, Aug. 25. He was 82. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  18. Neil Armstrong Burial at Sea

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-09-13

    US Navy personnel salute as the cremains of Apollo 11 astronaut Neil Armstrong are transferred from a military aircraft at Naval Station Mayport the day before the Armstrong burial at sea service, Thursday, Sept. 13, 2012, Mayport, Fla. Armstrong, the first man to walk on the moon during the 1969 Apollo 11 mission, died Saturday, Aug. 25. He was 82. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  19. U-Th Burial Dates on Ostrich Eggshell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharp, W. D.; Fylstra, N. D.; Tryon, C. A.; Faith, J. T.; Peppe, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    Obtaining precise and accurate dates at archaeological sites beyond the range of radiocarbon dating is challenging but essential for understanding human origins. Eggshells of ratites (large flightless birds including ostrich, emu and others) are common in many archaeological sequences in Africa, Australia and elsewhere. Ancient eggshells are geochemically suitable for the U-Th technique (1), which has about ten times the range of radiocarbon dating (>500 rather than 50 ka), making eggshells attractive dating targets. Moreover, C and N isotopic studies of eggshell provide insights into paleovegetation and paleoprecipitation central to assessing past human-environment interactions (2,3). But until now, U-Th dates on ratite eggshell have not accounted for the secondary origin of essentially all of their U. We report a novel approach to U-Th dating of eggshell that explicitly accounts for secondary U uptake that begins with burial. Using ostrich eggshell (OES) from Pleistocene-Holocene east African sites, we have measured U and 232Th concentration profiles across OES by laser ablation ICP-MS. U commonly peaks at 10s to 100s of ppb and varies 10-fold or more across the ~2 mm thickness of OES, with gradients modulated by the layered structure of the eggshell. Common Th is high near the shell surfaces, but low in the middle "pallisade" layer of OES, making it optimal for U-Th dating. We determine U-Th ages along the U concentration gradient by solution ICP-MS analyses of two or more fractions of the pallisade layer. We then estimate OES burial dates using a simple model for diffusive uptake of uranium. Comparing such "U-Th burial dates" with radiocarbon dates for OES calcite from the same shells, we find good agreement in 7 out of 9 cases, consistent with rapid burial and confirming the accuracy of the approach. The remaining 2 eggshells have anomalous patterns of apparent ages that reveal they are unsuitable for U-Th dating, thereby providing reliability criteria innate

  20. Dental health and disease in ancient Egypt.

    PubMed

    Forshaw, R J

    2009-04-25

    In ancient Egypt the exceptionally dry climate together with the unique burial customs has resulted in the survival of large numbers of well-preserved skeletal and mummified remains. Examinations of these remains together with an analysis of the surviving documentary, archaeological and ethnographic evidence has enabled a detailed picture of the dental health of these ancient people to be revealed, perhaps more so than for any other civilisation in antiquity. In this, the first of two articles, the dental pathological conditions that afflicted the ancient Egyptians is considered. The commonest finding is that of tooth wear, which was often so excessive that it resulted in pulpal exposure. Multiple abscesses were frequently seen, but caries was not a significant problem. Overall the findings indicate that the various pathological conditions and non-pathological abnormalities of teeth evident in dentitions in the twenty-first century were also manifest in ancient Egypt, although the incidences of these conditions varies considerably between the civilisations.

  1. Ubinas Volcano Activity in Peruvian Andes

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-05-01

    On April 28, 2014, NASA Terra spacecraft spotted signs of activity at Ubinas volcano in the Peruvian Andes. The appearance of a new lava dome in March 2014 and frequent ash emissions are signs of increasing activity at this volcano.

  2. Ancient DNA

    PubMed Central

    Willerslev, Eske; Cooper, Alan

    2004-01-01

    In the past two decades, ancient DNA research has progressed from the retrieval of small fragments of mitochondrial DNA from a few late Holocene specimens, to large-scale studies of ancient populations, phenotypically important nuclear loci, and even whole mitochondrial genome sequences of extinct species. However, the field is still regularly marred by erroneous reports, which underestimate the extent of contamination within laboratories and samples themselves. An improved understanding of these processes and the effects of damage on ancient DNA templates has started to provide a more robust basis for research. Recent methodological advances have included the characterization of Pleistocene mammal populations and discoveries of DNA preserved in ancient sediments. Increasingly, ancient genetic information is providing a unique means to test assumptions used in evolutionary and population genetics studies to reconstruct the past. Initial results have revealed surprisingly complex population histories, and indicate that modern phylogeographic studies may give misleading impressions about even the recent evolutionary past. With the advent and uptake of appropriate methodologies, ancient DNA is now positioned to become a powerful tool in biological research and is also evolving new and unexpected uses, such as in the search for extinct or extant life in the deep biosphere and on other planets. PMID:15875564

  3. Intestinal helminths in wild Peruvian red uakari monkeys (Cacajao calvus ucayalii) in the northeastern Peruvian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Conga, David F; Bowler, Mark; Tantalean, Manuel; Montes, Daniel; Serra-Freire, Nicolau Maués; Mayor, Pedro

    2014-04-01

    Parasites are important in the management of the health of primate populations. We examined 36 fecal samples from Peruvian red uakari monkeys (Cacajao calvus ucayalii) collected from wild animals in the northeastern Peruvian Amazon. Samples were positive for helminth infection. Nematodes egg: Strongyloididae, Trypanoxyuris sp., Spirurid, and a cestode egg were identified.

  4. Carbon sequestration via wood burial

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Ning

    2008-01-01

    To mitigate global climate change, a portfolio of strategies will be needed to keep the atmospheric CO2 concentration below a dangerous level. Here a carbon sequestration strategy is proposed in which certain dead or live trees are harvested via collection or selective cutting, then buried in trenches or stowed away in above-ground shelters. The largely anaerobic condition under a sufficiently thick layer of soil will prevent the decomposition of the buried wood. Because a large flux of CO2 is constantly being assimilated into the world's forests via photosynthesis, cutting off its return pathway to the atmosphere forms an effective carbon sink. It is estimated that a sustainable long-term carbon sequestration potential for wood burial is 10 ± 5 GtC y-1, and currently about 65 GtC is on the world's forest floors in the form of coarse woody debris suitable for burial. The potential is largest in tropical forests (4.2 GtC y-1), followed by temperate (3.7 GtC y-1) and boreal forests (2.1 GtC y-1). Burying wood has other benefits including minimizing CO2 source from deforestation, extending the lifetime of reforestation carbon sink, and reducing fire danger. There are possible environmental impacts such as nutrient lock-up which nevertheless appears manageable, but other concerns and factors will likely set a limit so that only part of the full potential can be realized. Based on data from North American logging industry, the cost for wood burial is estimated to be $14/tCO2($50/tC), lower than the typical cost for power plant CO2 capture with geological storage. The cost for carbon sequestration with wood burial is low because CO2 is removed from the atmosphere by the natural process of photosynthesis at little cost. The technique is low tech, distributed, easy to monitor, safe, and reversible, thus an attractive option for large-scale implementation in a world-wide carbon market. PMID:18173850

  5. 38 CFR 3.1703 - Claims for burial benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Claims for burial... ADJUDICATION Burial Benefits Burial Benefits: General § 3.1703 Claims for burial benefits. Pt. 3, Subpt. B, Nt... section, VA must receive a claim for the non-service-connected burial allowance no later than 2...

  6. 38 CFR 3.1610 - Burial in national cemeteries; burial of unclaimed bodies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... cemeteries; burial of unclaimed bodies. 3.1610 Section 3.1610 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief... unclaimed bodies. The statutory burial allowance and permissible transportation charges as provided in §§ 3... from the officers having jurisdiction over burials in national cemeteries; or (b) Where the body of a...

  7. 38 CFR 3.1610 - Burial in national cemeteries; burial of unclaimed bodies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... cemeteries; burial of unclaimed bodies. 3.1610 Section 3.1610 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief... unclaimed bodies. The statutory burial allowance and permissible transportation charges as provided in §§ 3... from the officers having jurisdiction over burials in national cemeteries; or (b) Where the body of a...

  8. 38 CFR 3.1610 - Burial in national cemeteries; burial of unclaimed bodies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... cemeteries; burial of unclaimed bodies. 3.1610 Section 3.1610 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief... unclaimed bodies. The statutory burial allowance and permissible transportation charges as provided in §§ 3... from the officers having jurisdiction over burials in national cemeteries; or (b) Where the body of a...

  9. 38 CFR 3.1610 - Burial in national cemeteries; burial of unclaimed bodies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... cemeteries; burial of unclaimed bodies. 3.1610 Section 3.1610 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief... unclaimed bodies. The statutory burial allowance and permissible transportation charges as provided in §§ 3... from the officers having jurisdiction over burials in national cemeteries; or (b) Where the body of a...

  10. 20 CFR 416.1231 - Burial spaces and certain funds set aside for burial expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... resources of an individual, the value of burial spaces for the individual, the individual's spouse or any member of the individual's immediate family will be excluded from resources. (2) Burial spaces defined... any accumulated interest, will be excluded from resources. We do not consider a burial space “held for...

  11. 77 FR 4676 - Parents Eligible for Burial

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-31

    ... reflect a new statutory authority to extend eligibility for burial in a national cemetery to include... training-related injury, is interred in a VA national cemetery in a gravesite with available space, and has... burial, in a national cemetery. DATES: Effective Date: This rule is effective January 31,...

  12. Relative Burial Depths of Nakhlites: An Update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikouchi, T.; Miyamoto, M.; Koizumi, E.; Makishima, J.; McKay, G.

    2006-03-01

    We updated our model of the nakhlite igneous body in terms of their relative burial depths. Olivine chemical zoning gave burial depths of 1-2 m for NWA817, 4 m for MIL03346, 7 m for Y000593, 10 m for Nakhla/Gov. Val. and >30 m for Lafayette/ NWA998.

  13. 38 CFR 3.954 - Burial allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Burial allowance. 3.954..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Protection § 3.954 Burial allowance. When any person who had a status under any law in effect on December 31, 1957, which afforded entitlement to...

  14. 38 CFR 3.954 - Burial allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Burial allowance. 3.954..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Protection § 3.954 Burial allowance. When any person who had a status under any law in effect on December 31, 1957, which afforded entitlement to...

  15. 38 CFR 3.954 - Burial allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Burial allowance. 3.954..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Protection § 3.954 Burial allowance. When any person who had a status under any law in effect on December 31, 1957, which afforded entitlement to...

  16. 38 CFR 3.954 - Burial allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Burial allowance. 3.954..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Protection § 3.954 Burial allowance. When any person who had a status under any law in effect on December 31, 1957, which afforded entitlement to...

  17. 38 CFR 3.954 - Burial allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Burial allowance. 3.954..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Protection § 3.954 Burial allowance. When any person who had a status under any law in effect on December 31, 1957, which afforded entitlement to...

  18. Ancient genomics

    PubMed Central

    Der Sarkissian, Clio; Allentoft, Morten E.; Ávila-Arcos, María C.; Barnett, Ross; Campos, Paula F.; Cappellini, Enrico; Ermini, Luca; Fernández, Ruth; da Fonseca, Rute; Ginolhac, Aurélien; Hansen, Anders J.; Jónsson, Hákon; Korneliussen, Thorfinn; Margaryan, Ashot; Martin, Michael D.; Moreno-Mayar, J. Víctor; Raghavan, Maanasa; Rasmussen, Morten; Velasco, Marcela Sandoval; Schroeder, Hannes; Schubert, Mikkel; Seguin-Orlando, Andaine; Wales, Nathan; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Willerslev, Eske; Orlando, Ludovic

    2015-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed a revolution in ancient DNA (aDNA) research. Although the field's focus was previously limited to mitochondrial DNA and a few nuclear markers, whole genome sequences from the deep past can now be retrieved. This breakthrough is tightly connected to the massive sequence throughput of next generation sequencing platforms and the ability to target short and degraded DNA molecules. Many ancient specimens previously unsuitable for DNA analyses because of extensive degradation can now successfully be used as source materials. Additionally, the analytical power obtained by increasing the number of sequence reads to billions effectively means that contamination issues that have haunted aDNA research for decades, particularly in human studies, can now be efficiently and confidently quantified. At present, whole genomes have been sequenced from ancient anatomically modern humans, archaic hominins, ancient pathogens and megafaunal species. Those have revealed important functional and phenotypic information, as well as unexpected adaptation, migration and admixture patterns. As such, the field of aDNA has entered the new era of genomics and has provided valuable information when testing specific hypotheses related to the past. PMID:25487338

  19. Ancient genomics.

    PubMed

    Der Sarkissian, Clio; Allentoft, Morten E; Ávila-Arcos, María C; Barnett, Ross; Campos, Paula F; Cappellini, Enrico; Ermini, Luca; Fernández, Ruth; da Fonseca, Rute; Ginolhac, Aurélien; Hansen, Anders J; Jónsson, Hákon; Korneliussen, Thorfinn; Margaryan, Ashot; Martin, Michael D; Moreno-Mayar, J Víctor; Raghavan, Maanasa; Rasmussen, Morten; Velasco, Marcela Sandoval; Schroeder, Hannes; Schubert, Mikkel; Seguin-Orlando, Andaine; Wales, Nathan; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Willerslev, Eske; Orlando, Ludovic

    2015-01-19

    The past decade has witnessed a revolution in ancient DNA (aDNA) research. Although the field's focus was previously limited to mitochondrial DNA and a few nuclear markers, whole genome sequences from the deep past can now be retrieved. This breakthrough is tightly connected to the massive sequence throughput of next generation sequencing platforms and the ability to target short and degraded DNA molecules. Many ancient specimens previously unsuitable for DNA analyses because of extensive degradation can now successfully be used as source materials. Additionally, the analytical power obtained by increasing the number of sequence reads to billions effectively means that contamination issues that have haunted aDNA research for decades, particularly in human studies, can now be efficiently and confidently quantified. At present, whole genomes have been sequenced from ancient anatomically modern humans, archaic hominins, ancient pathogens and megafaunal species. Those have revealed important functional and phenotypic information, as well as unexpected adaptation, migration and admixture patterns. As such, the field of aDNA has entered the new era of genomics and has provided valuable information when testing specific hypotheses related to the past.

  20. The presence of nuclear families in prehistoric collective burials revisited: the bronze age burial of Montanissell Cave (Spain) in the light of aDNA.

    PubMed

    Simón, Marc; Jordana, Xavier; Armentano, Nuria; Santos, Cristina; Díaz, Nancy; Solórzano, Eduvigis; López, Joan B; González-Ruiz, Mercedes; Malgosa, Assumpció

    2011-11-01

    Ancient populations have commonly been thought to have lived in small groups where extreme endogamy was the norm. To contribute to this debate, a genetic analysis has been carried out on a collective burial with eight primary inhumations from Montanissell Cave in the Catalan pre-Pyrenees. Radiocarbon dating clearly placed the burial in the Bronze Age, around 3200 BP. The composition of the group-two adults (one male, one female), one young woman, and five children from both sexes-seemed to represent the structure of a typical nuclear family. The genetic evidence proves this assumption to be wrong. In fact, at least five out of the eight mitochondrial haplotypes were different, denying the possibility of a common maternal ancestor for all of them. Nevertheless, 50% of the inhumations shared haplogroup J, so the possibility of a maternal relationship cannot be ruled out. Actually, combining different analyses performed using ancient and living populations, the probability of having four related J individuals in Montanissell Cave would range from 0.9884 to 0.9999. Owing to the particularities of this singular collective burial (small number of bodies placed altogether in a hidden cave, the evidence of non-simultaneous interments, close dating and unusual grave goods), we suggest that it might represent a small group with a patrilocal mating system.

  1. Shallow land burial technology: Humid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, E. C.; Yeh, G. T.

    Trench lining and grouting, are being demonstrated and evaluated experimental trenches containing compacted low-level waste. Two finite-element hydrologic models were developed to model water movement and solute transport at a waste disposal site. Though the economic analysis of the two trench treatments favored Hypalon lining, results of field experiments examining waste hydrologic isolation favored the cement-bentonite grout treatment. Data from water pump-out and water pump-in tests suggest that the original goal of constructing watertight liners in three experimental trenches was not achieved. Trench-cover subsidence measured over two of the three lined trenches did not occur over any of the three grouted or three control (untreated) trenches. Results indicate that the cement-bentonite treatment provides a degree of waste isolation not afforded by the lined and control trenches and should be considered for use at shallow land burial (SLB) sites with water-related problems.

  2. Carbon Sequestration via Wood Burial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, N.

    2007-12-01

    To mitigate global climate change, a portfolio of strategies will be needed to keep the atmospheric CO2 concentration below a dangerous level. Here a carbon sequestration strategy is proposed in which forest dead wood or old trees are harvested via collection or selective cutting, then buried in trenches or stowed away in above-ground shelters. The largely anaerobic condition under a sufficiently thick layer of soil will prevent the decomposition of the buried wood. Because a large flux of CO2 is constantly being assimilated into the world's forests via photosynthesis, cutting off its return pathway to the atmosphere forms an effective carbon sink. It was estimated that the carbon sequestration potential of forest wood harvest and burial is 10GtC y-1 with an uncertainty range of 5-15 GtC y-1. Based on data from North American logging industry, the cost was crudely estimated at $50/tC, significantly lower than the cost for power plant CO2 capture with geological storage, a carbon sequestration technique currently under most serious consideration. The low cost is largely because the CO2 capture is achieved at little cost by the natural process of photosynthesis. The technique is low tech, distributed, safe and can be stopped or reversed at any time. The relatively low cost may soon be competitive enough for large-scale implementation in a world-wide carbon trading market. In tropical regions with ongoing deforestation, wood burial instead of burning will immediately reduce that portion of the anthropogenic CO2 emission.

  3. Paleomagnetic dating of burial diagenesis in Mississippian carbonates, Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blumstein, Angela M.; Elmore, R. Douglas; Engel, Michael H.; Elliot, Crawford; Basu, Ankan

    2004-04-01

    The objective of this study is to test models for the origin of widespread secondary magnetizations in the Mississippian Deseret Limestone. The Delle Phosphatic Member of the Deseret Limestone is a source rock for hydrocarbons, and modeling studies indicate that it entered the oil window in the Early Cretaceous during the Sevier orogeny. Paleomagnetic and rock magnetic results from the Deseret Limestone and the stratigraphically equivalent Chainman Shale in central and western Utah indicate that the units contain two ancient magnetizations residing in magnetite. Burial temperatures are too low for the magnetizations to be thermoviscous in origin, and they are interpreted to be chemical remanent magnetizations (CRMs). Fold tests from western Utah indicate the presence of a prefolding Triassic to Jurassic CRM. Geochemical (87Sr/86Sr, δ13C, and δ18O) and petrographic analyses suggest that externally derived fluids did not alter these rocks. This CRM was acquired at the beginning of the oil window and is interpreted to be the result of burial diagenesis of organic matter. A second younger CRM in western central Utah is apparently postfolding and is probably Late Cretaceous to early Tertiary in age. On the basis of the thermal modeling, the timing overlaps with the oil window. These results are consistent with a connection between organic matter maturation and remagnetization. Modeling of the smectite-to-illite transformation in the Deseret Limestone suggests a mean age prior to acquisition of both CRMs, although the range for illitization overlaps with the Triassic to Jurassic CRM. The results of this study support the hypothesis that pervasive CRMs can be related to burial diagenetic processes. In addition, paleomagnetism can be used to determine the timing of such processes, which can benefit hydrocarbon exploration efforts.

  4. View southwest toward Eldred Avenue from within Friend's Burial Ground, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View southwest toward Eldred Avenue from within Friend's Burial Ground, Benjamin Carr Farm in distance through the trees - Friends' Burial Ground, Eldred & Beacon Avenues, Jamestown, Newport County, RI

  5. Sediment Burial Intolerance of Marine Macroinvertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Hendrick, Vicki J.; Hutchison, Zoë L.; Last, Kim S.

    2016-01-01

    The marine environment contains suspended particulate matter which originates from natural and anthropogenic sources. Settlement of this material can leave benthic organisms susceptible to smothering, especially if burial is sudden i.e. following storms or activities such as dredging. Their survival will depend on their tolerance to, and their ability to escape from burial. Here we present data from a multi-factorial experiment measuring burial responses incorporating duration, sediment fraction and depth. Six macroinvertebrates commonly found in sediment rich environments were selected for their commercial and/or conservation importance. Assessments revealed that the brittle star (Ophiura ophiura), the queen scallop (Aequipecten opercularis) and the sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis) were all highly intolerant to burial whilst the green urchin (Psammichinus miliaris) and the anemone (Sagartiogeton laceratus), showed intermediate and low intolerance respectively, to burial. The least intolerant, with very high survival was the Ross worm (Sabellaria spinulosa). With the exception of C. intestinalis, increasing duration and depth of burial with finer sediment fractions resulted in increased mortality for all species assessed. For C. intestinalis depth of burial and sediment fraction were found to be inconsequential since there was complete mortality of all specimens buried for more than one day. When burial emergence was assessed O. ophiura emerged most frequently, followed by P. miliaris. The former emerged most frequently from the medium and fine sediments whereas P. miliaris emerged more frequently from coarse sediment. Both A. opercularis and S. laceratus showed similar emergence responses over time, with A. opercularis emerging more frequently under coarse sediments. The frequency of emergence of S. laceratus increased with progressively finer sediment and C. intestinalis did not emerge from burial irrespective of sediment fraction or depth. Finally, and perhaps

  6. Sediment Burial Intolerance of Marine Macroinvertebrates.

    PubMed

    Hendrick, Vicki J; Hutchison, Zoë L; Last, Kim S

    2016-01-01

    The marine environment contains suspended particulate matter which originates from natural and anthropogenic sources. Settlement of this material can leave benthic organisms susceptible to smothering, especially if burial is sudden i.e. following storms or activities such as dredging. Their survival will depend on their tolerance to, and their ability to escape from burial. Here we present data from a multi-factorial experiment measuring burial responses incorporating duration, sediment fraction and depth. Six macroinvertebrates commonly found in sediment rich environments were selected for their commercial and/or conservation importance. Assessments revealed that the brittle star (Ophiura ophiura), the queen scallop (Aequipecten opercularis) and the sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis) were all highly intolerant to burial whilst the green urchin (Psammichinus miliaris) and the anemone (Sagartiogeton laceratus), showed intermediate and low intolerance respectively, to burial. The least intolerant, with very high survival was the Ross worm (Sabellaria spinulosa). With the exception of C. intestinalis, increasing duration and depth of burial with finer sediment fractions resulted in increased mortality for all species assessed. For C. intestinalis depth of burial and sediment fraction were found to be inconsequential since there was complete mortality of all specimens buried for more than one day. When burial emergence was assessed O. ophiura emerged most frequently, followed by P. miliaris. The former emerged most frequently from the medium and fine sediments whereas P. miliaris emerged more frequently from coarse sediment. Both A. opercularis and S. laceratus showed similar emergence responses over time, with A. opercularis emerging more frequently under coarse sediments. The frequency of emergence of S. laceratus increased with progressively finer sediment and C. intestinalis did not emerge from burial irrespective of sediment fraction or depth. Finally, and perhaps

  7. The first meeting of Peruvian women physicists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loayza, María Luisa Cerón

    2015-12-01

    The First Meeting of Peruvian Women Physicists helped bring together women physicists from different universities, especially from regions in the interior of Peru. Our initial statistical analysis about women entering and completing their undergraduate and graduate studies in Peruvian universities showed a low participation of women in study programs in physics. This situation motivated us to discuss this and propose solutions. In this First Meeting it was possible to broaden our vision of the problems that are common to women in the context of our social reality. We feel we have the strength and will continue working to improve this situation for the benefit of future generations.

  8. Ancient quarries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friebele, Elaine

    Using a unique set of remote sensing techniques, a team of University of Colorado researchers has detected mining pits dug by Montana Indians 10,000 years ago. The team used satellite images, aerial photographs, and ground tests to locate quarries where ancient North Americans obtained chert for making tools. Anthropology doctoral student Thomas Carr, Mort Turner, of the University of Colorado's Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research, and four undergraduate and graduate students developed 12 “spectral classes” characterizing distinct geologic and vegetation types found in the Horse Prairie Valley study area in southwest Montana. Their data included electromagnetic measurements of soil conductivity from a known Indian quarry in the area, where the altered bedrock contains veins of chert, and an adjacent area of disturbed soil. Using special computer software, the team compared characteristics of nearly one million 30-m2 pixels from a 1985 regional Landsat satellite image to those of the 12 spectral classes. Twelve possible ancient mining sites in the 800-square-mile research area were identified. During a later ground survey using GPS satellite receivers, eight of these were confirmed to be ancient Indian quarries.

  9. Bilingual Education: An Experience in Peruvian Amazonia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Mildred L., Ed.; Davis, Patricia M., Ed.

    This book reports on an experimental bilingual education program conducted in Peru by Peruvian educators and Summer Institute of Linguistics (SIL) linguists. Sections of the book discuss: (1) the historical perspective of the program; (2) program aspects such as teacher training, goals, and curriculum; (3) what this program may contribute to the…

  10. Evaluating the Peruvian Rural Communication Services Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayo, John

    1988-01-01

    Reviews the Peruvian Rural Communication Services (PRCS) Project and outlines selected findings. Topics discussed include a brief description of Peru's economic and social conditions; satellite communication systems; audio teleconferencing; telephone service; planning and administration; research design features; data collection; and project…

  11. Contact dermatitis due to Alstroemeria (Peruvian lily).

    PubMed

    Apted, J H

    1990-01-01

    Two cases of hand dermatitis due to contact with the plant Alstroemeria (Peruvian Lily) are recorded. This plant has been increasingly used for making floral decorations during the last decade. As it is available throughout the year in Victoria more cases are likely to be discovered in the community.

  12. Investment opportunities in the Peruvian oil indusry

    SciTech Connect

    Zuniga, E.

    1993-12-31

    Investment opportunities in the Peruvian oil industry are discussed. The following topics are discussed: historical highlights; sedimentary basins currently available; renewed investment climate; need for oil exploration investment; petroperu`s privatization; global strategy for the sale of petroperu; petroperu`s main assets; and financial profile.

  13. Peruvian Higher Education: Expansions Amid Economic Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Post, David

    1991-01-01

    Development of the Peruvian university system is described, focusing on periods of rapid expansion. Enrollment declines in 1974-78 are analyzed in the context of the educational reform program of the military government. The 1983 new university law, following return to civilian government, and future prospects for higher education are discussed.…

  14. Evaluating the Peruvian Rural Communication Services Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayo, John

    1988-01-01

    Reviews the Peruvian Rural Communication Services (PRCS) Project and outlines selected findings. Topics discussed include a brief description of Peru's economic and social conditions; satellite communication systems; audio teleconferencing; telephone service; planning and administration; research design features; data collection; and project…

  15. Solid waste burial grounds interim safety analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, G.H.

    1994-10-01

    This Interim Safety Analysis document supports the authorization basis for the interim operation and restrictions on interim operations for the near-surface land disposal of solid waste in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. The Solid Waste Burial Grounds Interim Safety Basis supports the upgrade progress for the safety analysis report and the technical safety requirements for the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. Accident safety analysis scenarios have been analyzed based on the significant events identified in the preliminary hazards analysis. The interim safety analysis provides an evaluation of the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds to determine if the radiological and hazardous material exposures will be acceptable from an overall health and safety standpoint to the worker, the onsite personnel, the public, and the environment.

  16. Cleanup Verification Package for the 618-2 Burial Ground

    SciTech Connect

    W. S. Thompson

    2006-12-28

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 618-2 Burial Ground, also referred to as Solid Waste Burial Ground No. 2; Burial Ground No. 2; 318-2; and Dry Waste Burial Site No. 2. This waste site was used primarily for the disposal of contaminated equipment, materials and laboratory waste from the 300 Area Facilities.

  17. 38 CFR 38.629 - Outer Burial Receptacle Allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Outer Burial Receptacle... (CONTINUED) NATIONAL CEMETERIES OF THE DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS § 38.629 Outer Burial Receptacle Allowance. (a) Definitions—Outer burial receptacle. For purposes of this section, an outer burial...

  18. 38 CFR 38.629 - Outer Burial Receptacle Allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Outer Burial Receptacle... (CONTINUED) NATIONAL CEMETERIES OF THE DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS § 38.629 Outer Burial Receptacle Allowance. (a) Definitions—Outer burial receptacle. For purposes of this section, an outer burial...

  19. 38 CFR 38.629 - Outer Burial Receptacle Allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Outer Burial Receptacle... (CONTINUED) NATIONAL CEMETERIES OF THE DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS § 38.629 Outer Burial Receptacle Allowance. (a) Definitions—Outer burial receptacle. For purposes of this section, an outer burial...

  20. 38 CFR 38.629 - Outer Burial Receptacle Allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Outer Burial Receptacle... (CONTINUED) NATIONAL CEMETERIES OF THE DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS § 38.629 Outer Burial Receptacle Allowance. (a) Definitions—Outer burial receptacle. For purposes of this section, an outer burial...

  1. Benthic phosphorus cycling in the Peruvian oxygen minimum zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomnitz, Ulrike; Sommer, Stefan; Dale, Andrew W.; Löscher, Carolin R.; Noffke, Anna; Wallmann, Klaus; Hensen, Christian

    2016-03-01

    Oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) that impinge on continental margins favor the release of phosphorus (P) from the sediments to the water column, enhancing primary productivity and the maintenance or expansion of low-oxygen waters. A comprehensive field program in the Peruvian OMZ was undertaken to identify the sources of benthic P at six stations, including the analysis of particles from the water column, surface sediments, and pore fluids, as well as in situ benthic flux measurements. A major fraction of solid-phase P was bound as particulate inorganic P (PIP) both in the water column and in sediments. Sedimentary PIP increased with depth in the sediment at the expense of particulate organic P (POP). The ratio of particulate organic carbon (POC) to POP exceeded the Redfield ratio both in the water column (202 ± 29) and in surface sediments (303 ± 77). However, the POC to total particulate P (TPP = POP + PIP) ratio was close to Redfield in the water column (103 ± 9) and in sediment samples (102 ± 15). This suggests that the relative burial efficiencies of POC and TPP are similar under low-oxygen conditions and that the sediments underlying the anoxic waters on the Peru margin are not depleted in P compared to Redfield. Benthic fluxes of dissolved P were extremely high (up to 1.04 ± 0.31 mmol m-2 d-1), however, showing that a lack of oxygen promotes the intensified release of dissolved P from sediments, whilst preserving the POC / TPP burial ratio. Benthic dissolved P fluxes were always higher than the TPP rain rate to the seabed, which is proposed to be caused by transient P release by bacterial mats that had stored P during previous periods when bottom waters were less reducing. At one station located at the lower rim of the OMZ, dissolved P was taken up by the sediments, indicating ongoing phosphorite formation. This is further supported by decreasing porewater phosphate concentrations with sediment depth, whereas solid-phase P concentrations were comparatively

  2. Shallow Land Burial Technology - Humid

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, E.C.; Spalding, B.P.; Lee, S.Y.

    1983-01-01

    The Shallow Land Burial Technology - Humid Project is being conducted for the Department of Energy Low-Level Waste Management Program with the objective of identifying and demonstrating improved technology for disposing of low-level solid waste in humid environments. Two improved disposal techniques are currently being evaluated using nine demonstration trenches at the Engineered Test Facility (ETF). The first is use of a cement-bentonite grout applied as a waste backfill material prior to trench closure and covering. The second is complete hydrologic isolation of waste by emplacement in a trench that is lined on all four sides, top and bottom using synthetic impermeable lining material. An economic analysis of the trench grouting and lining demonstration favored the trench lining operation ($1055/demonstration trench) over trench grouting ($1585/demonstration trench), with the cost differential becoming even greater (as much as a factor of 6 in favor of lining for typical ORNL trenches) as trench dimensions increase and trench volumes exceed those of the demonstration trenches. In addition to the evaluation of trench grouting and lining, major effort has centered on characterization of the ETF site. Though only a part of the overall study, characterization is an extremely important component of the site selection process; it is during these activities that potential problems, which may obviate the site from further consideration, are found. Characterization of the ETF has included studies of regional and site-specific geology, the physical and chemical properties of the soils in which the demonstration trenches are located, and hydrology of the small watershed of which the ETF is a part. 12 references, 6 figures, 2 tables.

  3. Shallow land burial technology: humid

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, E.C.; Yeh, G.T.

    1984-01-01

    Applying engineered modifications to present shallow land burial (SLB) practices is one method of ensuring safe operation and improving overall disposal-site performance. Two such engineered modifications, trench lining and grouting, are being demonstrated and evaluated at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Engineered Test Facility (ETF), using nine 28-m/sup 3/ experimental trenches containing compacted low-level waste (LLW). Concurrent to this field demonstration experiment, two finite-element hydrologic models have been developed to model water movement and solute transport at a waste disposal site. This paper covers progress made in these two areas during FY 1984. Though the economic analysis of the two trench treatments favored Hypalon lining (lining costs were 33% lower at this demonstration scale), results of field experiments examining waste hydrologic isolation favored the cement-bentonite grout treatment. Data from water pump-out and water pump-in tests, combined with observed intratrench water-level fluctuations, suggest that the original goal of constructing watertight liners in three experimental trenches was not achieved. In addition, trench-cover subsidence of approx. 2% of the total trench depth has been measured over two of the three lined trenches but has not occurred over any of the three grouted or three control (untreated) trenches. The evaluation of the two trench treatments is continuing. However, results indicate that the cement-bentonite treatment, implemented at a cost of $160/m/sup 3/ of grout, provides a degree of waste isolation not afforded by the lined and control trenches and should be considered for use at SLB sites with water-related problems. 11 references, 6 figures, 2 tables.

  4. An integrative approach to mortuary analysis: social and symbolic dimensions of Chumash burial practices.

    PubMed

    Gamble, L H; Walker, P L; Russell, G S

    2001-04-01

    Although most archaeologists recognize that valuable information about the social lives of ancient people can be obtained through the study of burial practices, it is clear that the symbolic nature of burial rituals makes interpreting their social significance a hazardous enterprise. These analytical difficulties can be greatly reduced using a research strategy that draws upon the strengths of a broad range of conceptually and methodologically independent data sources. We illustrate this approach by using archaeological data from cemeteries at Malibu, California, to explore an issue over which researchers are sharply divided: when did the simple chiefdoms of the Chumash Indians first appear in the Santa Barbara Channel area? First we establish the social correlates of Chumash burial practices through the comparison of historic-period cemetery data, ethnohistoric records, and ethnographic accounts. The resulting understanding of mortuary symbolism is then used to generate hypotheses about the social significance of prehistoric-period Malibu burial patterns. Finally, bioarchaeological data on genetic relationships, health status, and activity are used to independently test artifact-based hypotheses about prehistoric Chumash social organization. Together, these independent data sources constitute strong evidence for the existence of a ranked society with a hereditary elite during the late Middle period in the Santa Barbara Channel area.

  5. 20 CFR 416.1231 - Burial spaces and certain funds set aside for burial expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Burial spaces and certain funds set aside for burial expenses. 416.1231 Section 416.1231 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Resources and Exclusions § 416.1231...

  6. 20 CFR 416.1231 - Burial spaces and certain funds set aside for burial expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Burial spaces and certain funds set aside for burial expenses. 416.1231 Section 416.1231 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Resources and Exclusions § 416.1231...

  7. 20 CFR 416.1231 - Burial spaces and certain funds set aside for burial expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Burial spaces and certain funds set aside for burial expenses. 416.1231 Section 416.1231 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Resources and Exclusions § 416.1231...

  8. Hysterical paralysis and premature burial: a medieval Persian case, fear and fascination in the West, and modern practice.

    PubMed

    Agutter, Paul S; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Tubbs, R Shane; Rashidi, Mohammad Reza; Khalili, Majid; Hosseini, Seyed Fazel; Ghabili, Kamyar; Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A; Loukas, Marios

    2013-04-01

    Premature burial (taphophobia) is an ancient fear, but it became especially common in 18th and 19th century Europe and may have a modern-day counterpart. Examination of a well-documented case from medieval Persia reveals the importance of funeral practices in the risk of actual premature burial and sheds light on the question of why taphophobia became so prevalent in Europe during the early industrial revolution period. The medieval Persian case was attributed to hysterical paralysis (conversion). We discuss the relationship between hysterical paralysis and premature burial more generally and show that although understanding of conversion syndrome remains incomplete, modern knowledge and practices have limited the risk of any similar tragedy today.

  9. Attitudes and values of Peruvian coca growers.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Maritza R

    2002-01-01

    This study uses semi-structured interviews to examine the attitudes and values of Peruvian coca growers toward coca leaf and cocaine basic paste (CBP) consumption and its distribution. The subjects of the study were 186 coca growers from Peruvian jungle valleys who are involved in illegal commercialization of coca leaf and cocaine paste production. Data collected in 1994 reveal that growers consider coca leaf to be a most profitable product and a unique opportunity to improve their quality of life. Although growers acknowledge that a problem exists among local users, they do not assume any responsibility for CBP consumption and dissemination in rural areas. This leads to the conclusion that awareness of a CBP consumption problem is not enough for growers to stop drug production; they need consistent training in social values, as well as support in legal and economic alternatives.

  10. Ancient Rivers

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-01-14

    Early in Martian history, liquid water energetically carved the surface, forming channel systems that look remarkably similar to river valleys and drainage networks on Earth. Exactly how these channels formed -- by rainfall, snowmelt, or seepage from underground springs -- is often debated. The answer has important ramifications about the early Martian climate. Clues about the source of the water may indicate the shape, layout, and scale of the various tributaries in a channel system. Our image shows an example of just such a water-carved channel. The channel pattern, called "dendritic" because of its tree-like branching, begins at the top of the image and runs down over the rim of an ancient impact basin across the basin floor. The soil surface overlying these channels, and indeed the entire landscape, has been changed and reworked over the intervening millions of years, by the combined actions of wind and ice. Over time, the original channels become muted or even erased. Nevertheless, some characteristics of the smallest tributary channels are still visible at scales seen by HiRISE. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20337

  11. Peruvian Rural School Construction System. SERP 71: Sierra Type.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cangiano, Miguel

    Based on cooperative action of the government and local communities, the Peruvian Rural School System (SERP 71) evolved from the necessity to reconstruct Peruvian schools of the Sierra region after the earthquake of 1970, and from Peru's new educational reform law (1970) which called for an active-dynamic pupil attitude, continuous updating of…

  12. 38 CFR 38.620 - Persons eligible for burial.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) NATIONAL CEMETERIES OF THE DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS § 38.620 Persons eligible for burial. The following is a list of those individuals who are eligible for burial in a national cemetery:...

  13. The evaluation of Bedfordshire burial registration, 1538-1851.

    PubMed

    Razzell, Peter; Spence, Christine; Woollard, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    This article is based mainly on a digital transcript of burials for 126 Bedfordshire parishes 1538-1851, and a county index of wills for the same period. The comparison of probate with burial register data indicated that there was little long-term change over time in burial under-registration, with between 21 and 27 per cent of will entries missing in the registers. There was also little variation between parishes of different population sizes, suggesting that burial under-registration was predominantly a random process linked to clerical negligence. A comparison of 1841 and 1851 census data, linked to the Bedfordshire burial database, revealed that missing burials amongst married couples was 29 per cent, similar to that found in the probate/burial register comparison in the 1840s. These findings on the adequacy of burial registers suggest that similar research on others counties will be necessary in order to establish reliable conclusions about England's population history.

  14. Ancient Human Parasites in Ethnic Chinese Populations.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Hui-Yuan; Mitchell, Piers D

    2016-10-01

    Whilst archaeological evidence for many aspects of life in ancient China is well studied, there has been much less interest in ancient infectious diseases, such as intestinal parasites in past Chinese populations. Here, we bring together evidence from mummies, ancient latrines, and pelvic soil from burials, dating from the Neolithic Period to the Qing Dynasty, in order to better understand the health of the past inhabitants of China and the diseases endemic in the region. Seven species of intestinal parasite have been identified, namely roundworm, whipworm, Chinese liver fluke, oriental schistosome, pinworm, Taenia sp. tapeworm, and the intestinal fluke Fasciolopsis buski. It was found that in the past, roundworm, whipworm, and Chinese liver fluke appear to have been much more common than the other species. While roundworm and whipworm remained common into the late 20th century, Chinese liver fluke seems to have undergone a marked decline in its prevalence over time. The iconic transport route known as the Silk Road has been shown to have acted as a vector for the transmission of ancient diseases, highlighted by the discovery of Chinese liver fluke in a 2,000 year-old relay station in northwest China, 1,500 km outside its endemic range.

  15. Ancient Human Parasites in Ethnic Chinese Populations

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Hui-Yuan; Mitchell, Piers D.

    2016-01-01

    Whilst archaeological evidence for many aspects of life in ancient China is well studied, there has been much less interest in ancient infectious diseases, such as intestinal parasites in past Chinese populations. Here, we bring together evidence from mummies, ancient latrines, and pelvic soil from burials, dating from the Neolithic Period to the Qing Dynasty, in order to better understand the health of the past inhabitants of China and the diseases endemic in the region. Seven species of intestinal parasite have been identified, namely roundworm, whipworm, Chinese liver fluke, oriental schistosome, pinworm, Taenia sp. tapeworm, and the intestinal fluke Fasciolopsis buski. It was found that in the past, roundworm, whipworm, and Chinese liver fluke appear to have been much more common than the other species. While roundworm and whipworm remained common into the late 20th century, Chinese liver fluke seems to have undergone a marked decline in its prevalence over time. The iconic transport route known as the Silk Road has been shown to have acted as a vector for the transmission of ancient diseases, highlighted by the discovery of Chinese liver fluke in a 2,000 year-old relay station in northwest China, 1,500 km outside its endemic range. PMID:27853113

  16. The Role of Variability in Mine Burial Prediction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    The Role of Variability in Mine Burial Prediction Roy H. Wilkens Hawaii Institute of Geophysics and Planetology University of Hawaii 1680 East...www.mbp.unh.edu LONG-TERM GOALS The ultimate long-term goal of the ONR Mine Burial Prediction (MBP) program is the development of mine burial...burial predictive capabilities by using existing models and an enhanced understanding of environmental databases and seafloor geotechnical properties

  17. Development of an Expert System for Mine Burial Prediction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-09-30

    Development of an Expert System for Mine Burial Prediction Alan Brandt Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory 11100 Johns Hopkins...about mine burial processes into a Mine Burial Expert System Model (MBESM). Specific technical objectives include: • Identify and incorporate...Develope a prototype Mine Burial Expert System Model (MBESM) to provide a systematic organization of this knowledge base, combining physics-based models

  18. 20 CFR 416.1231 - Burial spaces and certain funds set aside for burial expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... separation; i.e., a circumstance beyond an individual's control which makes conversion/separation impossible... parental deeming situations. If an individual is an eligible child, the burial funds (up to $1,500) that...

  19. 40 CFR 229.1 - Burial at sea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Burial at sea. 229.1 Section 229.1... Burial at sea. (a) All persons subject to title I of the Act are hereby granted a general permit to... location for the purpose of burial at sea and to bury such remains at sea subject to the...

  20. 40 CFR 229.1 - Burial at sea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Burial at sea. 229.1 Section 229.1... Burial at sea. (a) All persons subject to title I of the Act are hereby granted a general permit to... location for the purpose of burial at sea and to bury such remains at sea subject to the...

  1. 40 CFR 229.1 - Burial at sea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Burial at sea. 229.1 Section 229.1... Burial at sea. (a) All persons subject to title I of the Act are hereby granted a general permit to... location for the purpose of burial at sea and to bury such remains at sea subject to the...

  2. Suspect burial excavation procedure: a cautionary tale.

    PubMed

    Ruffell, Alastair; Donnelly, Colm; Carver, Naomi; Murphy, Eileen; Murray, Emily; McCambridge, James

    2009-01-10

    Geographic location, time of reporting and need for rapid evaluation contributed to a lack of intelligence concerning a suspect burial site in scrub woodland (approximately 15 km from the last known location of a missing person) in Northern Ireland. Police received reports of a subsiding 'grave', which was evaluated positively using GPR and victim recovery dogs (VRD). After 24h work, archaeological excavation showed a vertical-sided, stepped excavation on undisturbed clay with no inhumation. Subsequent research showed the feature to be an engineering trial pit. The GPR response was a water table and rocks, VRD were possibly reacting to disturbed ground. The work serves as a demonstration of good archaeological practice in suspect burial excavation, following a lack of landscape evaluation and poor overall intelligence.

  3. SRS Burial Ground Complex: Remediation in Progress

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, M.; Crapse, B.; Cowan, S.

    1998-01-21

    Closure of the various areas in the Burial Ground Complex (BGC) represents a major step in the reduction of risk at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and a significant investment of resources. The Burial Ground Complex occupies approximately 195 acres in the central section of the SRS. Approximately 160 acres of the BGC consists of hazardous and radioactive waste disposal sites that require remediation. Of these source acres, one-third have been remediated while two-thirds are undergoing interim or final action. These restoration activities have been carried out in a safe and cost effective manner while minimizing impact to operating facilities. Successful completion of these activities is in large part due to the teamwork demonstrated by the Department of Energy, contractor/subcontractor personnel, and the regulatory agencies. The experience and knowledge gained from the closure of these large disposal facilities can be used to expedite closure of similar facilities.

  4. Burial at Srebrenica: linking place and trauma.

    PubMed

    Pollack, Craig Evan

    2003-02-01

    Five years after the massacre at Srebrenica in Bosnia-Herzegovina, survivors were faced with the decision: where did they want their loved ones buried? This report explores the reasons for their choice in qualitative interviews with 37 survivors of the massacre and 22 key informants performed over the summer 2000. Survivors wanted the loved ones buried at Potocari, a site just outside of Srebrenica, because it represented the site of ultimate horror, was connected to their sense of home, and underscored the various power relationships. The data points to the importance of place for health. Trauma, as it occurs in particular locations, breaks the sense of attachment to a particular place. Restoring the physical and social environment through burial and memorials mitigates the consequences of the trauma. The burial at Potocari provides a window into the mourning, politics, and recovery after mass violence.

  5. Expert System for Mine Burial Prediction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    of the mine deployment and environmental conditions. Therefore, a probabilistic predictive structure is appropriate. An expert system that synthesizes...Team for Sea Mine Burial Expert System (ST-SMBES). Further research into the scour portion of the expert system is continuing....predictive performance as well as documentation of the operational shell used by NAVOCEANO to provide input and output connectivity with the expert

  6. Soil temperature calculation for burial site analysis.

    PubMed

    Prangnell, Jonathan; McGowan, Glenys

    2009-10-30

    The effect of air and water temperature upon the decomposition of human remains and upon biological activity has been extensively studied. However, less attention has been devoted to the temperature of the soil surrounding burials, despite its potential influence upon chemical reactions involved in the decomposition of human remains, drugs and toxins, as well as upon microbial and insect activity. A soil temperature calculation equation usually employed in civil engineering was used to calculate soil temperature at various depths in a cemetery located in Brisbane, Australia, in order to explain the extensive degradation of human remains and funerary objects observed at exhumation. The results showed that for the 160 years of the site's history, ground temperature at burial level had been sufficiently high for biological activity and chemical degradation reactions to continue right up until the time of exhumation. The equation used has potential in the analysis of both cemetery and clandestine burials, since it allows ground temperature to be calculated from ambient air temperature figures, for a variety of depths, soil types and vegetation conditions.

  7. A model for microbial phosphorus cycling in bioturbated marine sediments: Significance for phosphorus burial in the early Paleozoic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dale, Andrew W.; Boyle, Richard A.; Lenton, Timothy M.; Ingall, Ellery D.; Wallmann, Klaus

    2016-09-01

    A diagenetic model is used to simulate the diagenesis and burial of particulate organic carbon (Corg) and phosphorus (P) in marine sediments underlying anoxic versus oxic bottom waters. The latter are physically mixed by animals moving through the surface sediment (bioturbation) and ventilated by burrowing, tube-dwelling organisms (bioirrigation). The model is constrained using an empirical database including burial ratios of Corg with respect to organic P (Corg:Porg) and total reactive P (Corg:Preac), burial efficiencies of Corg and Porg, and inorganic carbon-to-phosphorus regeneration ratios. If Porg is preferentially mineralized relative to Corg during aerobic respiration, as many previous studies suggest, then the simulated Porg pool is found to be completely depleted. A modified model that incorporates the redox-dependent microbial synthesis of polyphosphates and Porg (termed the microbial P pump) allows preferential mineralization of the bulk Porg pool relative to Corg during both aerobic and anaerobic respiration and is consistent with the database. Results with this model show that P burial is strongly enhanced in sediments hosting fauna. Animals mix highly labile Porg away from the aerobic sediment layers where mineralization rates are highest, thereby mitigating diffusive PO43- fluxes to the bottom water. They also expand the redox niche where microbial P uptake occurs. The model was applied to a hypothetical shelf setting in the early Paleozoic; a time of the first radiation of benthic fauna. Results show that even shallow bioturbation at that time may have had a significant impact on P burial. Our model provides support for a recent study that proposed that faunal radiation in ocean sediments led to enhanced P burial and, possibly, a stabilization of atmospheric O2 levels. The results also help to explain Corg:Porg ratios in the geological record and the persistence of Porg in ancient marine sediments.

  8. Apps for Ancient Civilizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    This project incorporates technology and a historical emphasis on science drawn from ancient civilizations to promote a greater understanding of conceptual science. In the Apps for Ancient Civilizations project, students investigate an ancient culture to discover how people might have used science and math smartphone apps to make their lives…

  9. Apps for Ancient Civilizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    This project incorporates technology and a historical emphasis on science drawn from ancient civilizations to promote a greater understanding of conceptual science. In the Apps for Ancient Civilizations project, students investigate an ancient culture to discover how people might have used science and math smartphone apps to make their lives…

  10. Rethinking the Ancient Sulfur Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fike, David A.; Bradley, Alexander S.; Rose, Catherine V.

    2015-05-01

    The sulfur biogeochemical cycle integrates the metabolic activity of multiple microbial pathways (e.g., sulfate reduction, disproportionation, and sulfide oxidation) along with abiotic reactions and geological processes that cycle sulfur through various reservoirs. The sulfur cycle impacts the global carbon cycle and climate primarily through the remineralization of organic carbon. Over geological timescales, cycling of sulfur is closely tied to the redox state of Earth's exosphere through the burial of oxidized (sulfate) and reduced (sulfide) sulfur species in marine sediments. Biological sulfur cycling is associated with isotopic fractionations that can be used to trace the fluxes through various metabolic pathways. The resulting isotopic data provide insights into sulfur cycling in both modern and ancient environments via isotopic signatures in sedimentary sulfate and sulfide phases. Here, we review the deep-time δ34S record of marine sulfates and sulfides in light of recent advances in understanding how isotopic signatures are generated by microbial activity, how these signatures are encoded in marine sediments, and how they may be altered following deposition. The resulting picture shows a sulfur cycle intimately coupled to ambient carbon cycling, where sulfur isotopic records preserved in sedimentary rocks are critically dependent on sedimentological and geochemical conditions (e.g., iron availability) during deposition.

  11. Series of disasters strikes Peruvian Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scanlon, Jim

    A midday blaze severely damaged the Geophysical Observatory at Huancayo, Peru, high in the Andes above Lima on August 28, 1996. The fire, which started accidentally, was one of a series of misfortunes suffered by the Peruvian Geophysical Institute (IGP) in recent years.The observatory, which was built in 1919 by the Carnegie Institution of Washington, is a 4-hour drive by bus from the Pacific coast between cosmopolitan Lima and the Amazonian lowlands. From the late 1980s until 1992, the observatory was isolated from the international community due to political developments in Peru, namely the Maoist Communist insurrection known as Sendero Luminoso. The turmoil resulted in the loss of nearly all cooperative contracts with American universities for research at Huancayo. IGP did maintain a few contracts, such as one with Cornell for the Radio Observatory at Jicamarca in the northern part of the country.

  12. Cleanup Verification Package for the118-F-2 Burial Ground

    SciTech Connect

    J. M. Capron and K. A. Anselm

    2008-02-21

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action, sampling activities, and compliance with cleanup criteria for the 118-F-2 Burial Ground. This burial ground, formerly called Solid Waste Burial Ground No. 1, was the original solid waste disposal site for the 100-F Area. Eight trenches contained miscellaneous solid waste from the 105-F Reactor and one trench contained solid waste from the biology facilities.

  13. Cleanup Verification Package for the 618-8 Burial Ground

    SciTech Connect

    M. J. Appel

    2006-08-10

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 618-8 Burial Ground, also referred to as the Solid Waste Burial Ground No. 8, 318-8, and the Early Solid Waste Burial Ground. During its period of operation, the 618-8 site is speculated to have been used to bury uranium-contaminated waste derived from fuel manufacturing, and construction debris from the remodeling of the 313 Building.

  14. Cleanup Verification Package for the 618-3 Burial Ground

    SciTech Connect

    M. J. Appel

    2006-09-12

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 618-3 Solid Waste Burial Ground, also referred to as Burial Ground Number 3 and the Dry Waste Burial Ground Number 3. During its period of operation, the 618-3 site was used to dispose of uranium-contaminated construction debris from the 311 Building and construction/demolition debris from remodeling of the 313, 303-J and 303-K Buildings.

  15. Pesticide burial grounds in Poland: a review.

    PubMed

    Gałuszka, Agnieszka; Migaszewski, Zdzisław M; Manecki, Piotr

    2011-10-01

    Obsolete pesticides were stored in Poland from the middle sixties until the late eighties of the 20th century mostly in underground disposal sites, called "pesticide burial grounds" or "pesticide tombs". The total amount of pesticide waste and packaging materials disposed of in these landfills exceeded 20000 Mg. Typically, the content of a pesticide tomb was dominated by organochlorine pesticides (comprising 10-100% of the total waste volume) with DDT as the prevailing compound. Other pesticide types, such as phosphoroorganic, carbamate insecticides, dinitrophenols, phenoxyacids, and inorganic compounds were stored in smaller quantities, usually not exceeding 10-20% of the total waste volume. With the growing awareness of the threats that these landfills posed to the environment, the first inventory for the whole country was made in 1993 and remediation was initiated in 1999. The total amount of waste, which had to be removed from the known pesticide tombs (hazardous substances, contaminated soils, construction materials etc.) was about 100000 Mg. According to the National Waste Management Plan, the reclamation of pesticide tombs was assumed to have been finished by the end of 2010, however, this goal has not been achieved. The aim of this review is to present a historical perspective of pesticide burial grounds in Poland with an emphasis on their creation, function, inventory, and remediation. Based on unpublished reports, and other published materials of limited availability written in Polish, this review may serve as a source of information for representatives of other countries, where remediation of pesticide burial grounds is still in progress. The experience gained over a ten-year period, when restoration of pesticide tombs was implemented in Poland, reveals that there are many obstacles to this action arising not only from technical, but also from economic and social issues.

  16. [Skeleton or mummy: practices and structures for secondary burial in southern Italy in modern and contemporary age].

    PubMed

    Fornaciari, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The ancient concepts of death as duration and the practices of secondary burial,first analysed by Robert Hertz, still survive in many areas of southern Italy. According to these beliefs death was perceived not as a sudden event, but as a long-lasting process, during which the deceased person had to go through a transitory phase, passing from one state of existence to another. Recent archeological research documents the persistence of secondary burial rites in Southern Italy during the Modern Age. A survey conducted in the province of Messina in Eastern Sicily has identified two surviving architectural structures appointed for the treatment of the bodies: the 'sitting colatoio' aimed at favoring the skeletonisation and the 'horizontal colatoio' used to obtain mummification by dehydration. Both these structures controlled the corpse's decay and transformed the body in a stable and durable simulacra of the dead.

  17. Miscellaneous Burial Recovery in Eastern Washington, 1981.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    identification of the cloth and beetle specimens, respectively. Office and laboratory support was cheerfully provided by Cathy Lubben and Chris Fuhrman...shell shell button tar paper wood/ bark Total 1 1 1 2 7 2 1 17 12 30 93 5 98 30 1 31 27 27 766 312 10 279 1374 3 13 12 28 120 7 1 1...Palus Reburial Site overlooking the original burial location. The hide, possibly buffalo, was found to have been infested with some sort of beetle

  18. Radiocarbon dating of the Peruvian Chachapoya/Inca site at the Laguna de los Condores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wild, Eva Maria; Guillen, Sonia; Kutschera, Walter; Seidler, Horst; Steier, Peter

    2007-06-01

    In 1997 a new archaeological site was discovered in the Peruvian tropical rain forest. The site is located in an area which has been occupied by the Chachapoya, a pre-Incan people, from about 800AD on. The site comprises a large funerary place with several mausoleums built in the cliffs next to the Laguna de los Condores. More than 200 human mummies and funerary bone-bundles together with numerous grave artefacts have been found there. Although the site has been ascribed to the Chachapoya, the mummification method used is very similar to the one applied by the Inca. As part of an ongoing multidisciplinary project to explore the history of this site and of the Chachapoya people, twenty-seven (27) 14C-AMS age determinations were performed. Samples, bones and textile wrappings as well as samples from a funerary bone bundle plus associated grave artefacts were dated. The 14C data show that the site originates from the Chachapoya pre-Inca period and that in addition, it was used as a funerary place during the subsequent Inca occupation era. The radiocarbon results indicate that the Chachapoya may have changed their burial tradition due to the colonization by the Inca.

  19. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-F-1 Burial Ground

    SciTech Connect

    E. J. Farris and H. M. Sulloway

    2008-01-10

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 118-F-1 Burial Ground on the Hanford Site. This burial ground is a combination of two locations formerly called Minor Construction Burial Ground No. 2 and Solid Waste Burial Ground No. 2. This waste site received radioactive equipment and other miscellaneous waste from 105-F Reactor operations, including dummy elements and irradiated process tubing; gun barrel tips, steel sleeves, and metal chips removed from the reactor; filter boxes containing reactor graphite chips; and miscellaneous construction solid waste.

  20. Jurassic Haynesville limestones of east Texas: burial diagenesis and more burial diagenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Dravis, J.J.

    1989-03-01

    Progressive loss of primary porosity due to a continuum of pressure solution and associated burial cementation dominated Haynesville porosity evolution. Porosity loss, however, was punctuated at depth by major grain dissolution and microporosity development in oolitic grainstones. Absence of freshwater precompaction cements allowed incipient burial diagenesis to affect the entire Haynesville sequence. Micritic facies experienced extensive stylolitization and associated cementation, losing their effective porosities relatively early in their burial history. Oolitic grainstones also initially lost porosity due to pervasive suturing of ooids and concomitant interparticle cementation, a relationship confirmed by cathodoluminescence and cement geochemistry. Yet they retained sufficient primary porosity to later reservoir bitumen. Subsequent to bitumen emplacement, however, ooids underwent extensive burial dissolution which created uniform micromoldic porosity, now the dominant pore type in these gas reservoirs. Dissolution postdated most pressure solution fabrics in these grainstones; adjacent micritic facies were unaffected by this dissolution. Cathodoluminescence and vertical porosity profiles demonstrate that reduction of some reservoir quality in these oolitic grainstones resulted from renewed pressure solution and cementation, controlled largely by grainstone thickness and proximity to micritic facies.

  1. Preterm birth in ancient Greece: a synopsis.

    PubMed

    Malamitsi-Puchner, Ariadne

    2017-01-01

    This report refers to preterm birth in Ancient Greece based on mythological, historical and archeological data. The two antique goddesses, patronesses of labor and birth, Artemis and Eileithyia, cared for full-term, as well as preterm infants, among them for the mythological preterms Dionysos and Eurystheus. The former was rapidly transported by Hermes and received special care by the nymphs Hyades in a mountain cave with "incubator" properties. Historical data are related to the nine months duration of a normal pregnancy, to the definition of "Elitomina" (preterms), the lower limit of viability, the causes for preterm birth, the existence of small for gestational age infants and relevant causes, the physical examination of neonates and postpartum care. Lastly, excavations in Athens and Astypalaia discovered burials - in wells or pots - of preterm infants with gestational age 24-37 weeks.

  2. 38 CFR 3.1710 - Escheat (payment of burial benefits to an estate with no heirs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... burial benefits to an estate with no heirs). 3.1710 Section 3.1710 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Burial Benefits Burial Benefits: Other § 3.1710 Escheat (payment of burial benefits to an estate with no heirs). VA will not pay burial benefits if...

  3. 38 CFR 3.1701 - Deceased veterans for whom VA may provide burial benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... whom VA may provide burial benefits. 3.1701 Section 3.1701 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Burial Benefits Burial Benefits: General § 3.1701 Deceased veterans for whom VA may provide burial benefits. For purposes of providing burial benefits under subpart...

  4. Radioactive Waste Burial Grounds. Environmental Information Document

    SciTech Connect

    Jaegge, W.J.; Kolb, N.L.; Looney, B.B.; Marine, I.W.; Towler, O.A.; Cook, J.R.

    1987-03-01

    This document provides environmental information on postulated closure options for the Radioactive Waste Burial Grounds at the Savannah River Plant and was developed as background technical documentation for the Department of Energy`s proposed Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on waste management activities for groundwater protection at the plant. The results of groundwater and atmospheric pathway analyses, accident analysis, and other environmental assessments discussed in this document are based upon a conservative analysis of all foreseeable scenarios as defined by the National Environmental Policy Act (CFR, 1986). The scenarios do not necessarily represent actual environmental conditions. This document is not meant to be used as a closure plan or other regulatory document to comply with required federal or state environmental regulations. The closure options considered for the Radioactive Waste Burial Grounds are waste removal and closure, no waste removal and closure, and no action. The predominant pathways for human exposure to chemical and/or radioactive constituents are through surface, subsurface, and atmospheric transport. Modeling calculations were made to determine the risks to human population via these general pathways for the three postulated closure options. An ecological assessment was conducted to predict the environmental impacts on aquatic and terrestrial biota. The relative costs for each of the closure options were estimated.

  5. Relative Burial Depths of Nakhlites: An Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikouchi, T.; Miyamoto, M.; Koizumi, E.; Makishima, J.; McKay, G.

    2006-01-01

    Nakhlites are augite-rich cumulate rocks with variable amounts of olivine and groundmass plus minor Fe, Ti oxides [e.g., 1]. Our previous studies revealed that nakhlites showed correlated petrography and mineralogy that could be explained by different locations (burial depths) in a common cooling cumulate pile [e.g., 2]. We so far analyzed six of the seven currently known nakhlites, Nakhla (Nak), Governador Valadares (GV), Lafayette (Laf), NWA817, Y000593 (Y) and MIL03346 (MIL) [e.g., 2,3] and calculated cooling rates of four nakhlites (Nak, GV, Laf, and NWA817) by using chemical zoning of olivine [e.g., 4]. In this abstract, we complete our examination of petrographic and mineralogical variation of all currently known nakhlites by adding petrology and mineralogy of NWA998. We also report results of cooling calculations for Y, MIL and NWA998. Then, we update our model of the nakhlite igneous body in terms of relative burial depth of each sample.

  6. 38 CFR 38.629 - Outer Burial Receptacle Allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) NATIONAL CEMETERIES OF THE DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS § 38.629 Outer Burial Receptacle... VA national cemetery where a privately-purchased outer burial receptacle has been used in lieu of a... permitted in the same grave unless the national cemetery director determines that the already...

  7. Urban Stream Burial Increases Watershed-Scale Nitrate Export

    PubMed Central

    Beaulieu, Jake J.; Golden, Heather E.; Knightes, Christopher D.; Mayer, Paul M.; Kaushal, Sujay S.; Pennino, Michael J.; Arango, Clay P.; Balz, David A.; Elonen, Colleen M.; Fritz, Ken M.; Hill, Brian H.

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) uptake in streams is an important ecosystem service that reduces nutrient loading to downstream ecosystems. Here we synthesize studies that investigated the effects of urban stream burial on N-uptake in two metropolitan areas and use simulation modeling to scale our measurements to the broader watershed scale. We report that nitrate travels on average 18 times farther downstream in buried than in open streams before being removed from the water column, indicating that burial substantially reduces N uptake in streams. Simulation modeling suggests that as burial expands throughout a river network, N uptake rates increase in the remaining open reaches which somewhat offsets reduced N uptake in buried reaches. This is particularly true at low levels of stream burial. At higher levels of stream burial, however, open reaches become rare and cumulative N uptake across all open reaches in the watershed rapidly declines. As a result, watershed-scale N export increases slowly at low levels of stream burial, after which increases in export become more pronounced. Stream burial in the lower, more urbanized portions of the watershed had a greater effect on N export than an equivalent amount of stream burial in the upper watershed. We suggest that stream daylighting (i.e., uncovering buried streams) can increase watershed-scale N retention. PMID:26186731

  8. Urban Stream Burial Increases Watershed-Scale Nitrate Export.

    PubMed

    Beaulieu, Jake J; Golden, Heather E; Knightes, Christopher D; Mayer, Paul M; Kaushal, Sujay S; Pennino, Michael J; Arango, Clay P; Balz, David A; Elonen, Colleen M; Fritz, Ken M; Hill, Brian H

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) uptake in streams is an important ecosystem service that reduces nutrient loading to downstream ecosystems. Here we synthesize studies that investigated the effects of urban stream burial on N-uptake in two metropolitan areas and use simulation modeling to scale our measurements to the broader watershed scale. We report that nitrate travels on average 18 times farther downstream in buried than in open streams before being removed from the water column, indicating that burial substantially reduces N uptake in streams. Simulation modeling suggests that as burial expands throughout a river network, N uptake rates increase in the remaining open reaches which somewhat offsets reduced N uptake in buried reaches. This is particularly true at low levels of stream burial. At higher levels of stream burial, however, open reaches become rare and cumulative N uptake across all open reaches in the watershed rapidly declines. As a result, watershed-scale N export increases slowly at low levels of stream burial, after which increases in export become more pronounced. Stream burial in the lower, more urbanized portions of the watershed had a greater effect on N export than an equivalent amount of stream burial in the upper watershed. We suggest that stream daylighting (i.e., uncovering buried streams) can increase watershed-scale N retention.

  9. URBAN STREAM BURIAL INCREASES WATERSHED-SCALE NITRATE EXPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrogen (N) uptake in streams is an important ecosystem service that may be affected by the widespread burial of streams in stormwater pipes in urban watersheds. We predicted that stream burial reduces the capacity of streams to remove nitrate (NO3-) from the water column by in...

  10. URBAN STREAM BURIAL INCREASES WATERSHED-SCALE NITRATE EXPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrogen (N) uptake in streams is an important ecosystem service that may be affected by the widespread burial of streams in stormwater pipes in urban watersheds. We predicted that stream burial reduces the capacity of streams to remove nitrate (NO3-) from the water column by in...

  11. Fire hazards analysis for solid waste burial grounds

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, K.M.

    1995-09-28

    This document comprises the fire hazards analysis for the solid waste burial grounds, including TRU trenches, low-level burial grounds, radioactive mixed waste trenches, etc. It analyzes fire potential, and fire damage potential for these facilities. Fire scenarios may be utilized in future safety analysis work, or for increasing the understanding of where hazards may exist in the present operation.

  12. Geochemistry of Peruvian near-surface sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böning, Philipp; Brumsack, Hans-Jürgen; Böttcher, Michael E.; Schnetger, Bernhard; Kriete, Cornelia; Kallmeyer, Jens; Borchers, Sven Lars

    2004-11-01

    Sixteen short sediment cores were recovered from the upper edge (UEO), within (WO) and below (BO) the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) off Peru during cruise 147 of R/V Sonne. Solids were analyzed for major/trace elements, total organic carbon, total inorganic carbon, total sulfur, the stable sulfur isotope composition (δ 34S) of pyrite, and sulfate reduction rates (SRR). Pore waters were analyzed for dissolved sulfate/sulfide and δ 34S of sulfate. In all cores highest SRR were observed in the top 5 cm where pore water sulfate concentrations varied little due to resupply of sulfate by sulfide oxidation and/or diffusion of sulfate from bottom water. δ 34S of dissolved sulfate showed only minor downcore increases. Strong 32S enrichments in sedimentary pyrite (to -48‰ vs. V-CDT) are due to processes in the oxidative part of the sulfur cycle in addition to sulfate reduction. Manganese and Co are significantly depleted in Peruvian upwelling sediments most likely due to mobilization from particles settling through the OMZ, whereas release of both elements from reducing sediments only seems to occur in near-coastal sites. Cadmium, Mo and Re are exceptionally enriched in WO sediments (<600 m water depth). High Re and moderate Cd and Mo enrichments are seen in BO sediments (>600 m water depth). Re/Mo ratios indicate anoxic and suboxic conditions for WO and BO sediments, respectively. Cadmium and Mo downcore profiles suggest considerable contribution to UEO/WO sediments by a biodetrital phase, whereas Re presumably accumulates via diffusion across the sediment-water interface to precipitation depth. Uranium is distinctly enriched in WO sediments (due to sulfidic conditions) and in some BO sediments (due to phosphorites). Silver transfer to suboxic BO sediments is likely governed by diatomaceous matter input, whereas in anoxic WO sediments Ag is presumably trapped due to sulfide precipitation. Cadmium, Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr, Ag, and T1 predominantly accumulate via biogenic pre

  13. Studying Ancient History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrow, Robin

    1982-01-01

    Defends the value and relevance of the study of ancient history and classics in history curricula. The unique homogeneity of the classical period contributes to its instructional manageability. A year-long, secondary-level course on fifth-century Greece and Rome is described to illustrate effective approaches to teaching ancient history. (AM)

  14. Ancient Astronomy in Armenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsamian, Elma S.

    2007-08-01

    The most important discovery, which enriched our knowledge of ancient astronomy in Armenia, was the complex of platforms for astronomical observations on the Small Hill of Metzamor, which may be called an ancient “observatory”. Investigations on that Hill show that the ancient inhabitants of the Armenian Highlands have left us not only pictures of celestial bodies, but a very ancient complex of platforms for observing the sky. Among the ancient monuments in Armenia there is a megalithic monument, probably, being connected with astronomy. 250km South-East of Yerevan there is a structure Zorats Kar (Karahunge) dating back to II millennium B.C. Vertical megaliths many of which are more than two meters high form stone rings resembling ancient stone monuments - henges in Great Britain and Brittany. Medieval observations of comets and novas by data in ancient Armenian manuscripts are found. In the collection of ancient Armenian manuscripts (Matenadaran) in Yerevan there are many manuscripts with information about observations of astronomical events as: solar and lunar eclipses, comets and novas, bolides and meteorites etc. in medieval Armenia.

  15. Ancient Maya Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pendergast, David M.

    1982-08-01

    Discovery of mercury in an ancient Maya offering at Lamanai, Belize, has stimulated examination of possible sources of the material in the Maya area. Two zones of cinnabar and native mercury deposits can be defined in the Maya highlands, and the presence of the native metal suggests that the ancient Maya collected rather than extracted the mercury from ore.

  16. Studying Ancient History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrow, Robin

    1982-01-01

    Defends the value and relevance of the study of ancient history and classics in history curricula. The unique homogeneity of the classical period contributes to its instructional manageability. A year-long, secondary-level course on fifth-century Greece and Rome is described to illustrate effective approaches to teaching ancient history. (AM)

  17. The eye and its diseases in Ancient Egypt.

    PubMed

    Andersen, S R

    1997-06-01

    Based on a study of mummies, skeletons, burial rites, medical instruments, medicaments, literature and objets d'art from Ancient Egypt before the Hellenistic Period, the understanding of the eye, its diseases and their treatment at that time is described. Magic spells, religious rites and medical treatments, especially with eye ointments, were probably used often complementary to one another. We must be very cautious about our conclusions in regard to the effectiveness of the treatments. Eye diseases have been depicted only exceptionally in Egyptian art, except for blindness and 'symbolic blindness'.

  18. Hypercapnia increases core temperature cooling rate during snow burial.

    PubMed

    Grissom, Colin K; Radwin, Martin I; Scholand, Mary Beth; Harmston, Chris H; Muetterties, Mark C; Bywater, Tim J

    2004-04-01

    Previous retrospective studies report a core body temperature cooling rate of 3 degrees C/h during avalanche burial. Hypercapnia occurs during avalanche burial secondary to rebreathing expired air, and the effect of hypercapnia on hypothermia during avalanche burial is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the core temperature cooling rate during snow burial under normocapnic and hypercapnic conditions. We measured rectal core body temperature (T(re)) in 12 subjects buried in compacted snow dressed in a lightweight clothing insulation system during two different study burials. In one burial, subjects breathed with a device (AvaLung 2, Black Diamond Equipment) that resulted in hypercapnia over 30-60 min. In a control burial, subjects were buried under identical conditions with a modified breathing device that maintained normocapnia. Mean snow temperature was -2.5 +/- 2.0 degrees C. Burial time was 49 +/- 14 min in the hypercapnic study and 60 min in the normocapnic study (P = 0.02). Rate of decrease in T(re) was greater with hypercapnia (1.2 degrees C/h by multiple regression analysis, 95% confidence limits of 1.1-1.3 degrees C/h) than with normocapnia (0.7 degrees C/h, 95% confidence limit of 0.6-0.8 degrees C/h). In the hypercapnic study, the fraction of inspired carbon dioxide increased from 1.4 +/- 1.0 to 7.0 +/- 1.4%, minute ventilation increased from 15 +/- 7 to 40 +/- 12 l/min, and oxygen saturation decreased from 97 +/- 1 to 90 +/- 6% (P < 0.01). During the normocapnic study, these parameters remained unchanged. In this study, T(re) cooling rate during snow burial was less than previously reported and was increased by hypercapnia. This may have important implications for prehospital treatment of avalanche burial victims.

  19. Diagnosis of Cystic Echinococcosis, Central Peruvian Highlands

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Armando E.; Zhang, Wenbao; McManus, Donald P.; Lopera, Luis; Ninaquispe, Berenice; Garcia, Hector H.; Rodríguez, Silvia; Verastegui, Manuela; Calderon, Carmen; Pan, William K.Y.; Gilman, Robert H.

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated prevalence of cystic echinococcosis (CE) in a central Peruvian Highland district by using 4 diagnostic methods: ultrasonography for 949 persons, radiography for 829, and 2 serologic tests for 929 (2 immunoblot formats using bovine hydatid cyst fluid [IBCF] and recombinant EpC1 glutathione S-transferase [rEpC1-GST] antigens). For the IBCF and rEpC1-GST testing, prevalence of liver and pulmonary CE was 4.7% and 1.1% and seropositivity was 8.9% and 19.7%, respectively. Frequency of seropositive results for IBCF and rEpC1-GST testing was 35.7% and 16.7% (all hepatic cysts), 47.1% and 29.4% (hepatic calcifications excluded), and 22.2% and 33.3% (lung cysts), respectively. Weak immune response against lung cysts, calcified cysts, small cysts, and cysts in sites other than lung and liver might explain the poor performance of the serodiagnostic tests. We confirm that CE is highly endemic to Peru and emphasize the limited performance of available serologic assays in the field. PMID:18258119

  20. Rickettsial Disease in the Peruvian Amazon Basin

    PubMed Central

    Kocher, Claudine; Morrison, Amy C.; Leguia, Mariana; Loyola, Steev; Castillo, Roger M.; Galvez, Hugo A.; Astete, Helvio; Flores-Mendoza, Carmen; Ampuero, Julia S.; Bausch, Daniel G.; Halsey, Eric S.; Cespedes, Manuel; Zevallos, Karine; Jiang, Ju; Richards, Allen L.

    2016-01-01

    Using a large, passive, clinic-based surveillance program in Iquitos, Peru, we characterized the prevalence of rickettsial infections among undifferentiated febrile cases and obtained evidence of pathogen transmission in potential domestic reservoir contacts and their ectoparasites. Blood specimens from humans and animals were assayed for spotted fever group rickettsiae (SFGR) and typhus group rickettsiae (TGR) by ELISA and/or PCR; ectoparasites were screened by PCR. Logistic regression was used to determine associations between patient history, demographic characteristics of participants and symptoms, clinical findings and outcome of rickettsial infection. Of the 2,054 enrolled participants, almost 2% showed evidence of seroconversion or a 4-fold rise in antibody titers specific for rickettsiae between acute and convalescent blood samples. Of 190 fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) and 60 ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus) tested, 185 (97.4%) and 3 (5%), respectively, were positive for Rickettsia spp. Candidatus Rickettsia asemboensis was identified in 100% and 33% of the fleas and ticks tested, respectively. Collectively, our serologic data indicates that human pathogenic SFGR are present in the Peruvian Amazon and pose a significant risk of infection to individuals exposed to wild, domestic and peri-domestic animals and their ectoparasites. PMID:27416029

  1. Rickettsial Disease in the Peruvian Amazon Basin.

    PubMed

    Kocher, Claudine; Morrison, Amy C; Leguia, Mariana; Loyola, Steev; Castillo, Roger M; Galvez, Hugo A; Astete, Helvio; Flores-Mendoza, Carmen; Ampuero, Julia S; Bausch, Daniel G; Halsey, Eric S; Cespedes, Manuel; Zevallos, Karine; Jiang, Ju; Richards, Allen L

    2016-07-01

    Using a large, passive, clinic-based surveillance program in Iquitos, Peru, we characterized the prevalence of rickettsial infections among undifferentiated febrile cases and obtained evidence of pathogen transmission in potential domestic reservoir contacts and their ectoparasites. Blood specimens from humans and animals were assayed for spotted fever group rickettsiae (SFGR) and typhus group rickettsiae (TGR) by ELISA and/or PCR; ectoparasites were screened by PCR. Logistic regression was used to determine associations between patient history, demographic characteristics of participants and symptoms, clinical findings and outcome of rickettsial infection. Of the 2,054 enrolled participants, almost 2% showed evidence of seroconversion or a 4-fold rise in antibody titers specific for rickettsiae between acute and convalescent blood samples. Of 190 fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) and 60 ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus) tested, 185 (97.4%) and 3 (5%), respectively, were positive for Rickettsia spp. Candidatus Rickettsia asemboensis was identified in 100% and 33% of the fleas and ticks tested, respectively. Collectively, our serologic data indicates that human pathogenic SFGR are present in the Peruvian Amazon and pose a significant risk of infection to individuals exposed to wild, domestic and peri-domestic animals and their ectoparasites.

  2. Pharmacogenomic assessment of Mexican and Peruvian populations

    PubMed Central

    Marsh, Sharon; King, Cristi R; Van Booven, Derek J; Revollo, Jane Y; Gilman, Robert H; McLeod, Howard L

    2015-01-01

    Background Clinically relevant polymorphisms often demonstrate population-specific allele frequencies. Central and South America remain largely uncategorized in the context of pharmacogenomics. Materials & methods We assessed 15 polymorphisms from 12 genes (ABCB1 3435C>T, ABCG2 Q141K, CYP1B1*3, CYP2C19*2, CYP3A4*1B, CYP3A5*3C, ERCC1 N118N, ERCC2 K751Q, GSTP1 I105V, TPMT 238G>C, TPMT 460G>A, TPMT 719A>G, TYMS TSER, UGT1A1*28 and UGT1A1 −3156G>A) in 81 Peruvian and 95 Mexican individuals. Results Six polymorphism frequencies differed significantly between the two populations: ABCB1 3435C>T, CYP1B1*3, GSTP1 I105V, TPMT 460G>A, UGT1A1*28 and UGT1A1 −3156G>A. The pattern of observed allele frequencies for all polymorphisms could not be accurately estimated from any single previously studied population. Conclusion This highlights the need to expand the scope of geographic data for use in pharmacogenomics studies. PMID:25916516

  3. Bioarchaeology in the ancient Near East: Challenges and future directions for the southern Levant.

    PubMed

    Sheridan, Susan Guise

    2017-01-01

    The synthesis of biological anthropology, archaeology, and social theory provides a bioarchaeological model to reconstruct nuanced aspects of demography, diet, disease, death, daily activities, and biodistance, even in the absence of discrete burials. Numerous skeletal assemblages in the southern Levant are composed of mixed and fragmented bones resulting from generational use of cemeteries, mass burial, and additional communal burial practices. Others become commingled due to taphonomic processes such as flooding, geological events, or human mediated mechanisms like looting, improper excavation, and poor curation. Such collections require one to ask broader questions of human adaptability, exercise a holistic approach, use broad demographic categories, and remain cognizant of the limitations posed by fragmentation. Expanded research questions and ethical considerations, the use of centralized databases and understudied collections, as well as the application of social media, citizen science, and crowd sourcing provide new tools for bioarchaeological analyses of the many commingled ancient Near Eastern collections in the southern Levant.

  4. Fish and mammals in the economy of an ancient Peruvian kingdom.

    PubMed

    Marcus, J; Sommer, J D; Glew, C P

    1999-05-25

    Fish and mammal bones from the coastal site of Cerro Azul, Peru shed light on economic specialization just before the Inca conquest of A. D. 1470. The site devoted itself to procuring anchovies and sardines in quantity for shipment to agricultural communities. These small fish were dried, stored, and eventually transported inland via caravans of pack llamas. Cerro Azul itself did not raise llamas but obtained charqui (or dried meat) as well as occasional whole adult animals from the caravans. Guinea pigs were locally raised. Some 20 species of larger fish were caught by using nets; the more prestigious varieties of these show up mainly in residential compounds occupied by elite families.

  5. Fish and mammals in the economy of an ancient Peruvian kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Marcus, Joyce; Sommer, Jeffrey D.; Glew, Christopher P.

    1999-01-01

    Fish and mammal bones from the coastal site of Cerro Azul, Peru shed light on economic specialization just before the Inca conquest of A.D. 1470. The site devoted itself to procuring anchovies and sardines in quantity for shipment to agricultural communities. These small fish were dried, stored, and eventually transported inland via caravans of pack llamas. Cerro Azul itself did not raise llamas but obtained charqui (or dried meat) as well as occasional whole adult animals from the caravans. Guinea pigs were locally raised. Some 20 species of larger fish were caught by using nets; the more prestigious varieties of these show up mainly in residential compounds occupied by elite families. PMID:10339628

  6. The effect of the burial environment on adipocere formation.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Shari L; Stuart, Barbara H; Dent, Boyd B

    2005-11-10

    Adipocere is a decomposition product comprising predominantly of saturated fatty acids which results from the hydrolysis and hydrogenation of neutral fats in the body. Adipocere formation may occur in various decomposition environments but is chiefly dependent on the surrounding conditions. In a soil burial environment these conditions may include such factors as soil pH, temperature, moisture and the oxygen content within the grave site. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of these particular burial factors on the rate and extent of adipocere formation. Controlled laboratory experiments were conducted in an attempt to form adipocere from pig adipose tissue in model burial environments. Infrared spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were employed to determine the lipid profile and fatty acid composition of the adipocere product which formed in the burial environments. The results suggest that adipocere can form under a variety of burial conditions. Several burial factors were identified as enhancing adipocere formation whilst others clearly inhibited its formation. This study acts as a preliminary investigation into the effect of the burial environment on the resultant preservation of decomposing tissue via adipocere formation.

  7. Ancient Egyptian herbal wines

    PubMed Central

    McGovern, Patrick E.; Mirzoian, Armen; Hall, Gretchen R.

    2009-01-01

    Chemical analyses of ancient organics absorbed into pottery jars from the beginning of advanced ancient Egyptian culture, ca. 3150 B.C., and continuing for millennia have revealed that a range of natural products—specifically, herbs and tree resins—were dispensed by grape wine. These findings provide chemical evidence for ancient Egyptian organic medicinal remedies, previously only ambiguously documented in medical papyri dating back to ca. 1850 B.C. They illustrate how humans around the world, probably for millions of years, have exploited their natural environments for effective plant remedies, whose active compounds have recently begun to be isolated by modern analytical techniques. PMID:19365069

  8. Evaluation method of leachate leaking from carcass burial site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, S.; Kim, H.; Lee, M.; Lee, K.; Kim, S.; Kim, M.; Kim, H.; Kim, T.; Han, J.

    2012-12-01

    More than 150,000 cattle carcasses and 3,140,000 pig carcasses were buried all over the nation in Korea because of 2010 outbreak of foot and mouth disease (FMD). Various disposal Techniques such as incineration, composting, rendering, and burial have been developed and applied to effectively dispose an animal carcass. Since a large number of carcasses should be disposed for a short-term period to prevent the spread of FMD virus, most of the carcasses were disposed by mass burial technique. However, a long-term management and monitoring of leachate discharges are required because mass burial can cause soil and groundwater contamination. In this study, we used key parameters related to major components of leachate such as NH4-N, NO3-N, Cl-, E.coli and electrical conductivity as potential leachate contamination indicator to determine leachate leakage from the site. We monitored 300 monitoring wells in both burial site and the monitoring well 5m away from burial sites to identify leachate leaking from burial site. Average concentration of NH3-N in 300 monitoring wells, both burial site and the well 5m away from burial sites, were 2,593 mg/L and 733 mg/L, respectively. 24% out of 300 monitoring wells showed higher than 10 mg/L NH4-N, 100 mg/L Cl- and than 800 μS/cm electrical conductivity. From this study, we set up 4 steps guidelines to evaluate leachate leakage like; step 1 : High potential step of leachate leakage, step 2 : Middle potential step of leachate leakage, step 3 : Low potential step of leachate leakage, step 4 : No leachate leakage. On the basis of this result, we moved 34 leachate leaking burial sites to other places safely and it is necessary to monitor continuously the monitoring wells for environmental protection and human health.

  9. Identification and Tracing Groundwater Contamination by Livestock Burial Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, K.; Ha, K.; Park, S.; Kim, Y.; Lee, K.

    2011-12-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) or hoof-and-mouth disease is a severe plague for animal farming that affects cloven-hoofed animals such as cattle, pigs, sheep, and goats. Since it is highly infectious and can be easily proliferated by infected animals, contaminated equipments, vehicles, clothing, people, and predators. It is widely known that the virus responsible for FMD is a picornavirus, the prototypic member of the genus Aphthovirus. A serious outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease, leading to the stamping out of 3.53 millions of pigs and cattle and the construction of 4,538 burial sites until 15th March, 2011. The build-up of carcass burial should inevitably produce leachate by the decomposition of buried livestock affecting the surround environment such as air, soil, groundwater, and surface water. The most important issues which are currently raised by scientists are groundwater contamination by leachate from the livestock burial sites. This study examined the current status of FMD outbreak occurred in 2010-2011 and the issues of groundwater contamination by leachate from livestock burial sites. The hydrogeochemical, geophysical, and hydrogeological studies were executed to identify and trace groundwater contamination by leachate from livestock burial sites. Generally livestock mortality leachate contains high concentrations of NH3-N, HCO3-, Cl-, SO42-, K+, Na+, P along with relative lesser amounts of iron, calcium, and magnesium. The groundwater chemical data around four burial sites showed high NH3-N, HCO3-, and K+ suggesting the leachate leakage from burial sites. This is also proved by resistivity monitoring survey and tracer tests. The simulation results of leachate dispersion showed the persistent detrimental impacts for groundwater environment for a long time (~50 years). It is need to remove the leachate of burial sites to prevent the dispersion of leachate from livestock burial to groundwater and to monitor the groundwater quality. The most important

  10. A likely case of scurvy in a rural Early Classic Maya burial from Actun Uayazba Kab, Belize.

    PubMed

    Wrobel, Gabriel

    2014-11-01

    A Maya burial of a late adolescent (Burial 98-3) found in the rockshelter entrance of Actun Uayazba Kab (AUK), Belize, displays a combination of lesions that is consistent with scurvy. Signs include large, active lesions on the posterior surfaces of maxilla; relatively mild porotic hyperostosis along the midline of the skull on the parietals and occipital; cribra orbitalia; potential pinprick lesions on the greater wings of sphenoid and temporal; reactive lesions on the palate, temporal lines of frontal and parietals, and external and internal surfaces of zygomatics; small lesions on the popliteal surfaces of both femora; and periodontal disease. Identification of scurvy at AUK potentially informs the analysis of other primary burials and scattered bone found there and at other nearby sites, which often reveal evidence of nonspecific lesions that are usually attributed to anemia and infection, but that are also consistent with scurvy. The social and ecological context of this Protoclassic (0-AD 300) individual, who lived in a rural agricultural community with no evidence of complex social hierarchy, contrasts with typical discussions of disease among the Maya, which tend to focus on the degrading effects of overcrowding and resource deficiencies. While scurvy has been largely overlooked in the Maya area, this study supports earlier arguments for its presence that were based largely on clinical and ethnographic analogies and suggests the need to incorporate scurvy into broader synergistic models of ancient health. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Hydrological Predictability for the Peruvian Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Towner, Jamie; Stephens, Elizabeth; Cloke, Hannah; Bazo, Juan; Coughlan, Erin; Zsoter, Ervin

    2017-04-01

    Population growth in the Peruvian Amazon has prompted the expansion of livelihoods further into the floodplain and thus increasing vulnerability to the annual rise and fall of the river. This growth has coincided with a period of increasing hydrological extremes with more frequent severe flood events. The anticipation and forecasting of these events is crucial for mitigating vulnerability. Forecast-based Financing (FbF) an initiative of the German Red Cross implements risk reducing actions based on threshold exceedance within hydrometeorological forecasts using the Global Flood Awareness System (GloFAS). However, the lead times required to complete certain actions can be long (e.g. several weeks to months ahead to purchase materials and reinforce houses) and are beyond the current capabilities of GloFAS. Therefore, further calibration of the model is required in addition to understanding the climatic drivers and associated hydrological response for specific flood events, such as those observed in 2009, 2012 and 2015. This review sets out to determine the current capabilities of the GloFAS model while exploring the limits of predictability for the Amazon basin. More specifically, how the temporal patterns of flow within the main coinciding tributaries correspond to the overall Amazonian flood wave under various climatic and meteorological influences. Linking the source areas of flow to predictability within the seasonal forecasting system will develop the ability to expand the limit of predictability of the flood wave. This presentation will focus on the Iquitos region of Peru, while providing an overview of the new techniques and current challenges faced within seasonal flood prediction.

  12. Brief communication: Conjoined twins at angel mounds? an ancient DNA perspective.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Charla; Tench, Patricia A; Cook, Della Collins; Kaestle, Frederika A

    2011-09-01

    Conjoined twins are born when a single fertilized egg partially splits into two fetuses. A hypothetical case of infant conjoined twins from Angel Mounds, a Middle Mississippian site (A.D. 1050-1400) on the Ohio River near Evansville, Indiana, was discovered in 1941. Morphological analysis does not rule out the field interpretation of this double burial as twins. Ancient mitochondrial DNA recovered from both infants demonstrates that they were not maternal relatives, and hence that they cannot have been conjoined twins.

  13. Direction and timing of uplift propagation in the Peruvian Andes deduced from molecular phylogenetics of highland biotaxa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picard, Damien; Sempere, Thierry; Plantard, Olivier

    2008-07-01

    Physical paleoaltimetric methods are increasingly used to estimate the amount and timing of surface uplift in orogens. Because the rise of mountains creates new ecosystems and triggers evolutionary changes, biological data may also be used to assess the development and timing of regional surface uplift. Here we apply this idea to the Peruvian Andes through a molecular phylogeographic and phylochronologic analysis of Globodera pallida, a potato parasite nematode that requires cool temperatures and thus thrives above 2.0-2.5 km in these tropical highlands. The Peruvian populations of this species exhibit a clear evolutionary pattern with deeper, more ancient lineages occurring in Andean southern Peru and shallower, younger lineages occurring progressively northwards. Genetically diverging G. pallida populations thus progressively colonized highland areas as these were expanding northwards, demonstrating that altitude in the Peruvian Andes was acquired longitudinally from south to north, i.e. in the direction of decreasing orogenic volume. This phylogeographic structure is recognized in other, independent highland biotaxa, and point to the Central Andean Orocline (CAO) as the region where high altitudes first emerged. Moreover, molecular clocks relative to Andean taxa, including the potato-tomato group, consistently estimate that altitudes high enough to induce biotic radiation were first acquired in the Early Miocene. After calibration by geological and biological tie-points and intervals, the phylogeny of G. pallida is used as a molecular clock, which estimates that the 2.0-2.5 km threshold elevation range was reached in the Early Miocene in southernmost Peru, in the Middle and Late Miocene in the Abancay segment (NW southern Peru), and from the latest Miocene in central and northern Peru. Although uncertainties attached to phylochronologic ages are significantly larger than those derived from geochronological methods, these results are fairly consistent with coeval

  14. Physicians of ancient India

    PubMed Central

    Saini, Anu

    2016-01-01

    A survey of Indian medical historiography will reveal no dearth of work on the systems of medicine and medical literature of ancient India. However, the people who were responsible for the healing have not received much attention. This article traces the evolution of the physician as a professional in ancient India. This article reviews the secondary literature on healing and medical practice in India, specifically pertaining to the individual medical practitioner, drawing from varied sources. The healers of ancient India hailed from different castes and classes. They were well-respected and enjoyed state patronage. They were held to the highest ethical standards of the day and were bound by a strict code of conduct. They underwent rigorous training in both medicine and surgery. Most physicians were multi-skilled generalists, and expected to be skilled in elocution and debate. They were reasonably well-off financially. The paper also briefly traces the evolution of medicinal ideas in ancient India. PMID:27843823

  15. Reconstructing an Ancient Wonder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imhof, Christopher J.

    2001-01-01

    Describes a Montessori class project involving the building of a model of the ancient Briton monument, Stonehenge. Illustrates how the flexibility of the Montessori elementary curriculum encourages children to make their own toys and learn from the process. (JPB)

  16. Ancient Egyptian Astronomical Calander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Patrice; Lodhi, M. A. K.

    2001-03-01

    In this paper, we discuss how certain astronomical concepts are related to the ancient Egyptian culture and their daily life. One of them is different ways of creating their calendar systems. The ancient Egyptian calendar seems to have quite a bit of its origin in astronomy and its development over the course of history. There is an important role played by events, as determined in the heavens, in developing their calendar system. Along with astronomical observations by the ancient people of Egypt, there were several outside cultures that helped develop their calendar system and Egyptian idea of how life was created on this planet, most notably the inclusion of the star Sirius in the constellation of Canis Major. We give a brief discussion of these influences. For the ancient Egyptians, the cycle of life and death is a concept that ties in with a calendar system used to determine daily events.

  17. Endocrinology in ancient Sparta.

    PubMed

    Tsoulogiannis, Ioannis N; Spandidos, Demetrios A

    2007-01-01

    This article attempts to analyze the crucial link between the plant Agnus castus and human health, particularly hormonal status, with special reference to the needs of the society of ancient Sparta. The ancient Spartans used Agnus both as a cure for infertility and as a remedy to treat battle wounds. These special properties were recognized by the sanctuary of Asclepios Agnita, which was located in Sparta, as well as by medical practitioners in Sparta during the classical, Hellenistic and Roman ages.

  18. Serologic Evidence of Scrub Typhus in the Peruvian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Ju; Morrison, Amy C.; Castillo, Roger; Leguia, Mariana; Loyola, Steev; Ampuero, Julia S.; Cespedes, Manuel; Halsey, Eric S.; Bausch, Daniel G.; Richards, Allen L.

    2017-01-01

    Using a large, passive, febrile surveillance program in Iquitos, Peru, we retrospectively tested human blood specimens for scrub typhus group orientiae by ELISA, immunofluorescence assay, and PCR. Of 1,124 participants, 60 (5.3%) were seropositive, and 1 showed evidence of recent active infection. Our serologic data indicate that scrub typhus is present in the Peruvian Amazon. PMID:28726619

  19. An Information System for the Peruvian Air Force Hospital.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    INFORMATION SYSTEM IN THE PERUVIAN AIR FORCE HOSPITAL ------------------------------- 21 A. THE USE OF COMPUTER CENTER IN THE NEW SYSTEM...29 4. Pharmacy System -------------------------- 31 5. Financial System ------------------------ 32 VI. REACTION AGAINST A NEW SYSTEM...problems that all new Systems bring when implemented, especially with the use of a computer, and reactions of the medical personnel to the innovation of

  20. Prevalence and Factors Associated with Frailty Among Peruvian Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Runzer-Colmenares, Fernando M.; Samper-Ternent, Rafael; Snih, Soham Al; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J.; Parodi, José F.; Wong, Rebeca

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the prevalence and factors associated with frailty in Peruvian Navy Veteran's older adults and family members. A total of 311 non-institutionalized men and women aged 60 years and older, from the Geriatrics Service of the Peruvian Navy Medical Center (Centro Médico Naval “Cirujano Mayor Santiago Távara”) were assessed between May and October 2010. Frailty was defined as having two or more of the following components: 1) unintentional weight-loss, 2) weakness (lowest 20% in grip-strength), 3) self-reported exhaustion, and 4) slow walking speed (lowest 20% 8-meter walk-time in seconds). Additionally, information on socio-demographic factors, medical conditions, depressive symptoms, disability, and cognitive function were obtained. Of the 311 participants, 78 (25.1%) were not frail, 147 (47.3%) were pre-frail, and 86 (27.8%) were frail. Using logistic regression analysis, we found that older age, being married, falls in the last year and disability were factors significantly associated with being frail. We conclude that prevalence of pre-frail and frail status in Peruvian Navy Veterans and family members is high. Our data reports risk factors for frailty that have been reported in the past in other population groups. A larger sample and longitudinal follow-up are needed to design and implement comprehensive geriatric interventions that can benefit Peruvian Navy Veteran's older adults at risk of becoming frail. PMID:23978328

  1. Moral Education and Post-War Societies: The Peruvian Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisancho, Susana; Reategui, Felix

    2009-01-01

    This article analyses the unique challenges and needs of moral and citizenship education in post-war Peruvian society. It assumes the explanation of the roots, the facts and the enduring negative consequences of violence as described in the final report of the Comision de la Verdad y Reconciliacion (CVR) [Truth and Reconciliation Commission]…

  2. Moral Education and Post-War Societies: The Peruvian Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisancho, Susana; Reategui, Felix

    2009-01-01

    This article analyses the unique challenges and needs of moral and citizenship education in post-war Peruvian society. It assumes the explanation of the roots, the facts and the enduring negative consequences of violence as described in the final report of the Comision de la Verdad y Reconciliacion (CVR) [Truth and Reconciliation Commission]…

  3. Layout as Political Expression: Visual Literacy and the Peruvian Press.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnhurst, Kevin G.

    Newspaper layout and design studies ignore politics, and most studies of newspaper politics ignore visual design. News layout is generally thought to be a set of neutral, efficient practices. This study suggests that the political position of Peruvian newspapers parallels their visual presentation of terrorism. The liberal "La Republica"…

  4. SECTION D, WITH FLAT GROUP BURIAL MARKER AT RIGHT FOREGROUND. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SECTION D, WITH FLAT GROUP BURIAL MARKER AT RIGHT FOREGROUND. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Rock Island National Cemetery, Rock Island Arsenal, 0.25 mile north of southern tip of Rock Island, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  5. Bone foreshafts from a clovis burial in southwestern montana.

    PubMed

    Lahren, L; Bonnichsen, R

    1974-10-11

    Formal and functional analyses of bone artifacts from a Clovis burial in southwestern Montana suggest that they were constructed to serve as (detachable or nondetachable) foreshafts for attaching fluted projectile points to lance shafts.

  6. [The craniofacial identification of the remains from the Yekaterinburg burial].

    PubMed

    Abramov, S S

    1998-01-01

    Based on expert evaluation of remains of 7 members of Imperial Romanov family and 4 persons in their attendance, the author demonstrates methodological approaches to identification craniocephalic studies in cases with group burials.

  7. The effect of the method of burial on adipocere formation.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Shari L; Stuart, Barbara H; Dent, Boyd B

    2005-11-10

    A controlled laboratory experiment was conducted in order to investigate the effect of the method of burial (i.e. the presence of coffin and clothing) on the formation of adipocere. This study follows previous studies by the authors who have investigated the effect of physical conditions on the formation of adipocere present in a controlled burial environment. The study utilises infrared spectroscopy to provide a preliminary lipid profile of the remains following a 12 month decomposition period. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry was employed as a technique for determining the salts of fatty acids present in adipocere. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used as the confirmatory test for the identification and determination of the chemical composition of adipocere which formed in the controlled burial environments. The results suggest that coffins will retard the rate at which adipocere forms but that clothing enhances its formation. The results concur with previous observations on adipocere formation in burial environments.

  8. 38 CFR 3.1709 - Transportation expenses for burial in a national cemetery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... for burial in a national cemetery. 3.1709 Section 3.1709 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Burial Benefits Burial Benefits: Allowances & Expenses Paid by Va A08se3. § 3.1709 Transportation expenses for burial in a national cemetery. (a) General. VA...

  9. 25 CFR 20.324 - When can the Bureau provide Burial Assistance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false When can the Bureau provide Burial Assistance? 20.324... ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Direct Assistance Burial Assistance § 20.324 When can the Bureau provide Burial Assistance? In the absence of other resources, the Bureau can provide Burial Assistance...

  10. 25 CFR 20.324 - When can the Bureau provide Burial Assistance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When can the Bureau provide Burial Assistance? 20.324... ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Direct Assistance Burial Assistance § 20.324 When can the Bureau provide Burial Assistance? In the absence of other resources, the Bureau can provide Burial Assistance...

  11. 38 CFR Pt. 3, Subpt. B, Nt. - Burial of a veteran whose remains are unclaimed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Burial of a veteran whose...' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Burial Benefits Burial Benefits: Allowances & Expenses Paid by Va A08se3. Pt. 3, Subpt. B, Nt. Burial of a veteran whose remains are unclaimed. (a)...

  12. 25 CFR 20.324 - When can the Bureau provide Burial Assistance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false When can the Bureau provide Burial Assistance? 20.324... ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Direct Assistance Burial Assistance § 20.324 When can the Bureau provide Burial Assistance? In the absence of other resources, the Bureau can provide Burial Assistance...

  13. 25 CFR 20.326 - Does Burial Assistance cover transportation costs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Does Burial Assistance cover transportation costs? 20.326... ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Direct Assistance Burial Assistance § 20.326 Does Burial Assistance cover transportation costs? Transportation costs directly associated with burials are normally a part...

  14. 25 CFR 20.326 - Does Burial Assistance cover transportation costs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Does Burial Assistance cover transportation costs? 20.326... ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Direct Assistance Burial Assistance § 20.326 Does Burial Assistance cover transportation costs? Transportation costs directly associated with burials are normally a part...

  15. 25 CFR 20.324 - When can the Bureau provide Burial Assistance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false When can the Bureau provide Burial Assistance? 20.324... ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Direct Assistance Burial Assistance § 20.324 When can the Bureau provide Burial Assistance? In the absence of other resources, the Bureau can provide Burial Assistance...

  16. 25 CFR 20.325 - Who can apply for Burial Assistance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Who can apply for Burial Assistance? 20.325 Section 20... AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Direct Assistance Burial Assistance § 20.325 Who can apply for Burial Assistance? If you are a relative of a deceased Indian, you can apply for burial assistance for the...

  17. 38 CFR - § 3.1705 Burial allowance based on non-service-connected death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false § 3.1705 Burial... OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Burial Benefits Burial Benefits: Allowances & Expenses Paid by Va A08se3. § 3.1705 Burial allowance based on non-service-connected death. (a) General rule. VA will pay...

  18. 25 CFR 20.325 - Who can apply for Burial Assistance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Who can apply for Burial Assistance? 20.325 Section 20... AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Direct Assistance Burial Assistance § 20.325 Who can apply for Burial Assistance? If you are a relative of a deceased Indian, you can apply for burial assistance for the...

  19. 25 CFR 20.326 - Does Burial Assistance cover transportation costs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Does Burial Assistance cover transportation costs? 20.326... ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Direct Assistance Burial Assistance § 20.326 Does Burial Assistance cover transportation costs? Transportation costs directly associated with burials are normally a part...

  20. 38 CFR 3.1600 - Payment of burial expenses of deceased veterans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Payment of burial... VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Burial Benefits § 3.1600 Payment of burial expenses of deceased veterans. For the purpose of payment of burial expenses the term veteran includes a person who died during a...

  1. 25 CFR 20.326 - Does Burial Assistance cover transportation costs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Does Burial Assistance cover transportation costs? 20.326... ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Direct Assistance Burial Assistance § 20.326 Does Burial Assistance cover transportation costs? Transportation costs directly associated with burials are normally a part...

  2. 25 CFR 20.325 - Who can apply for Burial Assistance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Who can apply for Burial Assistance? 20.325 Section 20... AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Direct Assistance Burial Assistance § 20.325 Who can apply for Burial Assistance? If you are a relative of a deceased Indian, you can apply for burial assistance for the...

  3. 25 CFR 20.325 - Who can apply for Burial Assistance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who can apply for Burial Assistance? 20.325 Section 20... AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Direct Assistance Burial Assistance § 20.325 Who can apply for Burial Assistance? If you are a relative of a deceased Indian, you can apply for burial assistance for the...

  4. 25 CFR 20.324 - When can the Bureau provide Burial Assistance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true When can the Bureau provide Burial Assistance? 20.324... ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Direct Assistance Burial Assistance § 20.324 When can the Bureau provide Burial Assistance? In the absence of other resources, the Bureau can provide Burial Assistance...

  5. 25 CFR 20.325 - Who can apply for Burial Assistance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Who can apply for Burial Assistance? 20.325 Section 20.325... SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Direct Assistance Burial Assistance § 20.325 Who can apply for Burial Assistance? If you are a relative of a deceased Indian, you can apply for burial assistance for the...

  6. 25 CFR 20.326 - Does Burial Assistance cover transportation costs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Does Burial Assistance cover transportation costs? 20.326... ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Direct Assistance Burial Assistance § 20.326 Does Burial Assistance cover transportation costs? Transportation costs directly associated with burials are normally a part...

  7. [Ideas and projects for Napoleonic Naples burial reform].

    PubMed

    Carnevale, Diego

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to describe the attempts made by Napoleonic administrators in Naples to reforming the urban burials system, paying attention, firstly, on medical theories at the basis of the new cemetery projects, secondarily on people involved in the reform, especially technicians. The article deals also with the origins of the European need for burial reform in 18th century and its following establishment by the Napoleonic laws, through an hard compromise between traditional practices and hygienic principles.

  8. LLCE burial container high density polyethylene chemical compatibility

    SciTech Connect

    Veith, E.M., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-20

    An independent chemical compatibility review of LLCE HDPE polyethylene burial containers was conducted to evaluate the container resistance to the chemicals and constituents thought to reside within the Tank Farms. The study concluded that the LLCE Burial Container fabricated from HDPE Polyethylene was a good choice for this application. The reviewer was unaware that the specification for these containers require 2 - 3 percent finely dispensed carbon black which allows long term storage outside.

  9. Molybdenum speciation and burial pathway in weakly sulfidic environments: Insights from XAFS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Meghan; Chappaz, Anthony; Lyons, Timothy W.

    2017-06-01

    Sedimentary molybdenum (Mo) accumulation is a robust proxy for sulfidic conditions in both modern and ancient aquatic systems and has been used to infer changing marine redox chemistry throughout Earth's history. Accurate interpretation of any proxy requires a comprehensive understanding of its biogeochemical cycling, but knowledge gaps remain concerning the geochemical mechanism(s) leading to Mo burial in anoxic sediments. Better characterization of Mo speciation should provide mechanistic insight into sedimentary Mo accumulation, and therefore in this study we investigate Mo speciation from both modern (Castle Lake, USA) and ancient (Doushantuo Formation, China) environments using X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) spectroscopy. By utilizing a series of laboratory-synthesized oxythiomolybdate complexes-many containing organic ligands-we expand the number of available standards to encompass a greater range of known Mo chemistry and test the linkage between Mo and total organic carbon (TOC). In weakly euxinic systems ([H2S(aq)] < 11 μM), or where sulfide is restricted to pore waters, natural samples are best represented by a linear combination of MoO3, MoOxS4-x2- (intermediate thiomolybdates), and [MoOx(cat)4-x]2- (cat = catechol, x = 2 or 3). These results suggest a revised model for how Mo accumulates in weakly sulfidic sediments, including a previously unrecognized role for organic matter in early sequestration of Mo and a de-emphasized importance for MoS42- (tetrathiomolybdate).

  10. Tritium in the burial ground of the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Hyder, M.L.

    1993-06-01

    This memorandum reviews the available information on tritium-contaminated material discarded to burial grounds. Tritium was the first isotope studied because it represents the most immediate concern with regard to release to the environment. Substantial amounts of tritium are known to be present in the ground water underneath the area, and outcropping of this ground water in springs and seeps has been observed. The response to this release of tritium from the burial ground is a current concern. The amount of tritium emplaced in the burial ground facilities is very uncertain, however, some general conclusions can be made. In particular, most of the tritium buried is associated with spent equipment and other waste, rather than spent melts. Correspondingly, most of the tritium in the ground water seems to be associated with burials of this type, rather than the spent melts. Maps are presented showing the location of burials of tritiated waste by type, and the location of the largest individual burials according to COBRA records.

  11. Cyclic 100-ka (glacial-interglacial) migration of subseafloor redox zonation on the Peruvian shelf

    PubMed Central

    Contreras, Sergio; Meister, Patrick; Liu, Bo; Prieto-Mollar, Xavier; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe; Khalili, Arzhang; Ferdelman, Timothy G.; Kuypers, Marcel M. M.; Jørgensen, Bo Barker

    2013-01-01

    The coupling of subseafloor microbial life to oceanographic and atmospheric conditions is poorly understood. We examined diagenetic imprints and lipid biomarkers of past subseafloor microbial activity to evaluate its response to glacial-interglacial cycles in a sedimentary section drilled on the Peruvian shelf (Ocean Drilling Program Leg 201, Site 1229). Multiple and distinct layers of diagenetic barite and dolomite, i.e., minerals that typically form at the sulfate−methane transition (SMT), occur at much shallower burial depth than the present SMT around 30 meters below seafloor. These shallow layers co-occur with peaks of 13C-depleted archaeol, a molecular fossil of anaerobic methane-oxidizing Archaea. Present-day, non-steady state distributions of dissolved sulfate also suggest that the SMT is highly sensitive to variations in organic carbon flux to the surface shelf sediments that may lead to shoaling of the SMT. Reaction-transport modeling substantiates our hypothesis that shallow SMTs occur in response to cyclic sediment deposition with a high organic carbon flux during interglacials and a low organic carbon flux during glacial stages. Long diffusion distances expectedly dampen the response of deeply buried microbial communities to changes in sediment deposition and other oceanographic drivers over relatively short geological time scales, e.g., glacial-interglacial periods. However, our study demonstrates how dynamically sediment biogeochemistry of the Peru Margin has responded to glacial-interglacial change and how these changes are now preserved in the geological record. Such changes in subsurface biogeochemical zonation need to be taken into account to assess the role of the subseafloor biosphere in global element and redox cycling. PMID:24145422

  12. Cyclic 100-ka (glacial-interglacial) migration of subseafloor redox zonation on the Peruvian shelf.

    PubMed

    Contreras, Sergio; Meister, Patrick; Liu, Bo; Prieto-Mollar, Xavier; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe; Khalili, Arzhang; Ferdelman, Timothy G; Kuypers, Marcel M M; Jørgensen, Bo Barker

    2013-11-05

    The coupling of subseafloor microbial life to oceanographic and atmospheric conditions is poorly understood. We examined diagenetic imprints and lipid biomarkers of past subseafloor microbial activity to evaluate its response to glacial-interglacial cycles in a sedimentary section drilled on the Peruvian shelf (Ocean Drilling Program Leg 201, Site 1229). Multiple and distinct layers of diagenetic barite and dolomite, i.e., minerals that typically form at the sulfate-methane transition (SMT), occur at much shallower burial depth than the present SMT around 30 meters below seafloor. These shallow layers co-occur with peaks of (13)C-depleted archaeol, a molecular fossil of anaerobic methane-oxidizing Archaea. Present-day, non-steady state distributions of dissolved sulfate also suggest that the SMT is highly sensitive to variations in organic carbon flux to the surface shelf sediments that may lead to shoaling of the SMT. Reaction-transport modeling substantiates our hypothesis that shallow SMTs occur in response to cyclic sediment deposition with a high organic carbon flux during interglacials and a low organic carbon flux during glacial stages. Long diffusion distances expectedly dampen the response of deeply buried microbial communities to changes in sediment deposition and other oceanographic drivers over relatively short geological time scales, e.g., glacial-interglacial periods. However, our study demonstrates how dynamically sediment biogeochemistry of the Peru Margin has responded to glacial-interglacial change and how these changes are now preserved in the geological record. Such changes in subsurface biogeochemical zonation need to be taken into account to assess the role of the subseafloor biosphere in global element and redox cycling.

  13. Pre-Columbian population dynamics in coastal southern Peru: A diachronic investigation of mtDNA patterns in the Palpa region by ancient DNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Fehren-Schmitz, Lars; Reindel, Markus; Cagigao, Elsa Tomasto; Hummel, Susanne; Herrmann, Bernd

    2010-02-01

    Alternative models have been proposed to explain the formation and decline of the south Peruvian Nasca culture, ranging from migration or invasion to autochthonous development and ecological crisis. To reveal to what extent population dynamic processes accounted for cultural development in the Nasca mainland, or were influenced by them, we analyzed ancient mitochondrial DNA of 218 individuals, originating from chronologically successive archaeological sites in the Palpa region, the Paracas Peninsula, and the Andean highlands in southern Peru. The sampling strategy allowed a diachronic analysis in a time frame from approximately 800 BC to 800 AD. Mitochondrial coding region polymorphisms were successfully analyzed and replicated for 130 individuals and control region sequences (np 16021-16408) for 104 individuals to determine Native American mitochondrial DNA haplogroups and haplotypes. The results were compared with ancient and contemporary Peruvian populations to reveal genetic relations of the archaeological samples. Frequency data and statistics show clear proximity of the Nasca populations to the populations of the preceding Paracas culture from Palpa and the Peninsula, and suggest, along with archaeological data, that the Nasca culture developed autochthonously in the Rio Grande drainage. Furthermore, the influence of changes in socioeconomic complexity in the Palpa area on the genetic diversity of the local population could be observed. In all, a strong genetic affinity between pre-Columbian coastal populations from southern Peru could be determined, together with a significant differentiation from ancient highland and all present-day Peruvian reference populations, best shown in the differential distribution of mitochondrial haplogroups.

  14. Multiple Palaeoproterozoic carbon burial episodes and excursions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, A. P.; Prave, A. R.; Condon, D. J.; Lepland, A.; Fallick, A. E.; Romashkin, A. E.; Medvedev, P. V.; Rychanchik, D. V.

    2015-08-01

    Organic-rich rocks (averaging 2-5% total organic carbon) and positive carbonate-carbon isotope excursions (δ13C > + 5 ‰ and locally much higher, i.e. the Lomagundi-Jatuli Event) are hallmark features of Palaeoproterozoic successions and are assumed to archive a global event of unique environmental conditions following the c. 2.3 Ga Great Oxidation Event. Here we combine new and published geochronology that shows that the main Palaeoproterozoic carbon burial episodes (CBEs) preserved in Russia, Gabon and Australia were temporally discrete depositional events between c. 2.10 and 1.85 Ga. In northwest Russia we can also show that timing of the termination of the Lomagundi-Jatuli Event may have differed by up to 50 Ma between localities, and that Ni mineralisation occurred at c. 1920 Ma. Further, CBEs have traits in common with Mesozoic Oceanic Anoxic Events (OAEs); both are exceptionally organic-rich relative to encasing strata, associated with contemporaneous igneous activity and marked by organic carbon isotope profiles that exhibit a stepped decrease followed by a stabilisation period and recovery. Although CBE strata are thicker and of greater duration than OAEs (100 s of metres versus metres, ∼106 years versus ∼105 years), their shared characteristics hint at a commonality of cause(s) and feedbacks. This suggests that CBEs represent processes that can be either basin-specific or global in nature and a combination of circumstances that are not unique to the Palaeoproterozoic. Our findings urge circumspection and re-consideration of models that assume CBEs are a Deep Time singularity.

  15. Dentistry in ancient mesopotamia.

    PubMed

    Neiburger, E J

    2000-01-01

    Sumer, an empire in ancient Mesopotamia (southern Iraq), is well known as the cradle of our modern civilization and the home of biblical Abraham. An analysis of skeletal remains from cemeteries at the ancient cities of Ur and Kish (circa 2000 B.C.), show a genetically homogeneous, diseased, and short-lived population. These ancient Mesopotamians suffered severe dental attrition (95 percent), periodontal disease (42 percent), and caries (2 percent). Many oral congenital and neoplastic lesions were noted. During this period, the "local dentists" knew only a few modern dental techniques. Skeletal (dental) evidence indicates that the population suffered from chronic malnutrition. Malnutrition was probably caused by famine, which is substantiated in historic cuneiform and biblical writings, geologic strata samples, and analysis of skeletal and forensic dental pathology. These people had modern dentition but relatively poor dental health. The population's lack of malocclusions, caries, and TMJ problems appear to be due to flat plane occlusion.

  16. Scour and Burial of Submerged Mines in Wave Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatton, K. A.; Foster, D. L.; Traykovski, P.; Smith, H. D.

    2004-12-01

    Resolving the hydrodynamics and sediment response leading to the scour and burial of three-dimensional submarine objects remains an area of interest for engineers, oceanographers, and military personnel. Improving methods for detection of buried and submerged mines is of great importance due to the limitations of the present detection methods. A computational fluid dynamics model, FLOW-3D is used for the three-dimensional simulation of flow around individual cylindrical mines. FLOW-3D is a three-dimensional non-hydrostatic finite difference model that closes the continuity and Navier-Stokes equations with a k-ɛ closure scheme. In this presentation, numerical simulations are performed for a single storm event observed during the Martha's Vineyard Coastal Observatory (MVCO) Mine Burial Experiment in 2003. Significant wave heights of 3 m with peak periods of 4-8 s resulted in significant amounts of mine scour and burial during the event. The model is forced with 4 different conditions representing the free stream flow prior to, during, and following the storm event. In each case, simulations are performed for two grain sizes with bottom boundary conditions specified with 1) a fixed flat bed with no initial mine burial or scour and 2) the observed bed profile. Patterns of scour and deposition are inferred from calculations of the bed shear velocity and Rouse parameter, respectively. Model results are compared with two-axis sonar images obtained during the MVCO Mine Burial Experiment. Consistent with the observations, model simulations indicate mine scour initiates at the ends of the mine. Model simulations also show that subsequent mine burial and scour is highly sensitive to the initial assumption of the bed profile. These results may allow us to improve our understanding and predictive capability for mine burial and scour.

  17. Ancient Chinese constellations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Junjun

    2011-06-01

    China, a country with a long history and a specific culture, has also a long and specific astronomy. Ancient Chinese astronomers observed the stars, named and distributed them into constellations in a very specific way, which is quite different from the current one. Around the Zodiac, stars are divided into four big regions corresponding with the four orientations, and each is related to a totem, either the Azure Dragon, the Vermilion Bird, the White Tiger or the Murky Warrior. We present a general pattern of the ancient Chinese constellations, including the four totems, their stars and their names.

  18. [Psychiatry in ancient Mexico].

    PubMed

    Calderón Narváez, G

    1992-12-01

    Using studies on prehispanic and early post-conquest documents of Ancient Mexico--such as the Badianus Manuscript, also known as Libellus de Medicinalibus Indorum Herbis, and Brother Bernardino de Sahagún's famous work History of the Things of the New Spain, a description of some existing medical and psychiatric problems, and treatments Ancient Aztecs resorted to, is presented. The structure of the Aztec family, their problems with the excessive ingestion of alcoholic beverages, and the punishments native authorities had implemented in order to check alcoholism up are also described.

  19. [Ancient DNA: principles and methodologies].

    PubMed

    De Angelis, Flavio; Scorrano, Gabriele; Rickards, Olga

    2013-01-01

    Paleogenetics is providing increasing evidence about the biological characteristics of ancient populations. This paper examines the guiding principles and methodologies to the study of ancient DNA with constant references to the state of the art in this fascinating disciplin.

  20. Silica burial enhanced by iron limitation in oceanic upwelling margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pichevin, L. E.; Ganeshram, R. S.; Geibert, W.; Thunell, R.; Hinton, R.

    2014-07-01

    In large swaths of the ocean, primary production by diatoms may be limited by the availability of silica, which in turn limits the biological uptake of carbon dioxide. The burial of biogenic silica in the form of opal is the main sink of marine silicon. Opal burial occurs in equal parts in iron-limited open-ocean provinces and upwelling margins, especially the eastern Pacific upwelling zone. However, it is unclear why opal burial is so efficient in this margin. Here we measure fluxes of biogenic material, concentrations of diatom-bound iron and silicon isotope ratios using sediment traps and a sediment core from the Gulf of California upwelling margin. In the sediment trap material, we find that periods of intense upwelling are associated with transient iron limitation that results in a high export of silica relative to organic carbon. A similar correlation between enhanced silica burial and iron limitation is evident in the sediment core, which spans the past 26,000 years. A global compilation also indicates that hotspots of silicon burial in the ocean are all characterized by high silica to organic carbon export ratios, a diagnostic trait for diatoms growing under iron stress. We therefore propose that prevailing conditions of silica limitation in the ocean are largely caused by iron deficiency imposing an indirect constraint on oceanic carbon uptake.

  1. Bioactive Compounds from Plants Used in Peruvian Traditional Medicine.

    PubMed

    Lock, Olga; Perez, Eleucy; Villar, Martha; Flores, Diana; Rojas, Rosario

    2016-03-01

    It is estimated that there are as many as 1400 plant species currently used in traditional Peruvian medicine; however, only a few have undergone scientific investigation. In this paper, we make a review of the botanical, chemical, pharmacological and clinical propierties of the most investigated Peruvian medicinal plants. The plant species selected for this review are: Smallanthus sonchifolius (yacon), Croton lechleri (sangre de grado), Uncaria tomentosa/U. guianensis (uña de gato), Lepidium meyenii (maca), Physalis peruviana (aguaymanto), Minthostachys mollis (muña), Notholaena nivea (cuti-cuti), Maytenus macrocarpa (chuchuhuasi), Dracontium loretense (jergon sacha), Gentianella nitida (hercampuri), Plukenetia volubilis (sacha inchi) and Zea mays (maiz morado). For each of these plants, information about their traditional uses and current commercialization is also included.

  2. Ancient deforestation revisited.

    PubMed

    Hughes, J Donald

    2011-01-01

    The image of the classical Mediterranean environment of the Greeks and Romans had a formative influence on the art, literature, and historical perception of modern Europe and America. How closely does is this image congruent with the ancient environment as it in reality existed? In particular, how forested was the ancient Mediterranean world, was there deforestation, and if so, what were its effects? The consensus of historians, geographers, and other scholars from the mid-nineteenth century through the first three quarters of the twentieth century was that human activities had depleted the forests to a major extent and caused severe erosion. My research confirmed this general picture. Since then, revisionist historians have questioned these conclusions, maintaining instead that little environmental damage was done to forests and soils in ancient Greco-Roman times. In a reconsideration of the question, this paper looks at recent scientific work providing proxy evidence for the condition of forests at various times in ancient history. I look at three scientific methodologies, namely anthracology, palynology, and computer modeling. Each of these avenues of research offers support for the concept of forest change, both in abundance and species composition, and episodes of deforestation and erosion, and confirms my earlier work.

  3. Printing Ancient Terracotta Warriors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadecki, Victoria L.

    2010-01-01

    Standing in awe in Xian, China, at the Terra Cotta warrior archaeological site, the author thought of sharing this experience and excitement with her sixth-grade students. She decided to let her students carve patterns of the ancient soldiers to understand their place in Chinese history. They would make block prints and print multiple soldiers on…

  4. Ancient Egypt: History 380.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turk, Laraine D.

    "Ancient Egypt," an upper-division, non-required history course covering Egypt from pre-dynastic time through the Roman domination is described. General descriptive information is presented first, including the method of grading, expectation of student success rate, long-range course objectives, procedures for revising the course, major…

  5. Printing Ancient Terracotta Warriors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadecki, Victoria L.

    2010-01-01

    Standing in awe in Xian, China, at the Terra Cotta warrior archaeological site, the author thought of sharing this experience and excitement with her sixth-grade students. She decided to let her students carve patterns of the ancient soldiers to understand their place in Chinese history. They would make block prints and print multiple soldiers on…

  6. Beijing Ancient Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yunli

    The Beijing Ancient Observatory is now the only complete example of an observatory from the seventeenth century in the world. It is a monument to the prosperity of astronomy in traditional China. Its instruments are emblems of the encounter and amalgamation of Chinese and European Science in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.

  7. Creative Ventures: Ancient Civilizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Rebecca

    The open-ended activities in this book are designed to extend the imagination and creativity of students and encourage students to examine their feelings and values about historic eras. Civilizations addressed include ancient Egypt, Greece, Rome, Mayan, Stonehenge, and Mesopotamia. The activities focus upon the cognitive and affective pupil…

  8. Creative Ventures: Ancient Civilizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Rebecca

    The open-ended activities in this book are designed to extend the imagination and creativity of students and encourage students to examine their feelings and values about historic eras. Civilizations addressed include ancient Egypt, Greece, Rome, Mayan, Stonehenge, and Mesopotamia. The activities focus upon the cognitive and affective pupil…

  9. Ancient Egypt: Personal Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolinski, Arelene

    This teacher resource book provides information on ancient Egypt via short essays, photographs, maps, charts, and drawings. Egyptian social and religious life, including writing, art, architecture, and even the practice of mummification, is conveniently summarized for the teacher or other practitioner in a series of one to three page articles with…

  10. Ancient Egypt: History 380.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turk, Laraine D.

    "Ancient Egypt," an upper-division, non-required history course covering Egypt from pre-dynastic time through the Roman domination is described. General descriptive information is presented first, including the method of grading, expectation of student success rate, long-range course objectives, procedures for revising the course, major…

  11. Ancient Egypt: Personal Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolinski, Arelene

    This teacher resource book provides information on ancient Egypt via short essays, photographs, maps, charts, and drawings. Egyptian social and religious life, including writing, art, architecture, and even the practice of mummification, is conveniently summarized for the teacher or other practitioner in a series of one to three page articles with…

  12. [Midwifes in ancient Greece].

    PubMed

    Arata, Luigi

    2009-01-01

    The article deals with the evidence about obstetrics and in particular midwifes in ancient Greece. The substantives which mean "obstetrician" in Greek are quite numerous, but the most attested and common is [see text]. This work examines all the tasks which were connected with this profession (e.g. in the legal field).

  13. Susceptibility of Peruvian Mosquitoes to Eastern Equine Encephalitis virus

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-01

    VECTOR/PATHOGEN/HOST INTERACTION, TRANSMISSION Susceptibility of Peruvian Mosquitoes to Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus M. J. TURELL,1 M. L...the Amazon Basin, near Iquitos, Peru, and used in experimental studies to evaluate their susceptibility to strains of eastern equine encephalitis virus...enzootic vector of EEEV in this region. KEY WORDS Peru, eastern equine encephalitis virus, transmission, mosquito Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV

  14. [Development of pneumoconiosis and outsourcing work in peruvian miners].

    PubMed

    Cáceres-Mejía, Brenda; Mayta-Tristán, Percy; Pereyra-Elías, Reneé; Collantes, Héctor; Cáceres-Leturia, Walter

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between the time of outsourced work and the development of pneumoconiosis in Peruvian miners who attended the "Centro Nacional de Salud Ocupacional y Protección al Ambiente para la Salud" between 2008 and 2011. Retrospective case-control study. Cases were defined as workers diagnosed of pneumoconiosis under standardized criteria. Outsourced work was defined as the time (in months) of work in a company that does not own the primary mining project. The project owner company was registered in the Mining Companies Directory (Ministerio de Energía y Minas). We used multiple logistic regression with crude and adjusted ORs. The study comprised 391 cases and 1519 controls. In both groups, most of the study subjects had a level of education lower than complete high school and were born and currently lived in the Peruvian highlands. There was statistically significant association between more frequency of pneumoconiosis and working 10 or more years in an outsourced company (OR: 1.50; 95%CI: 1.05-1.14; p=0.026). Miners with pneumoconiosis were more likely not to have education (OR: 3.07; 95%CI: 1.55-6.08; p=0.001), be currently living at the Peruvian highlands (OR: 1.40; 95%CI: 1.10-1.78; p=0.007) and to have more than 20 years of underground work history (OR: 8.92; 95%CI: 4.53-18.25; p<0.001). A statistically significant association was found between pneumoconiosis and the time of outsourced work. Not having education, residing in the Peruvian highlands and the time of underground work were associated risk factors.

  15. Retroviral Infections in Peruvian Men Who Have Sex With Men

    PubMed Central

    La Rosa, Alberto M.; Zunt, Joseph R.; Peinado, Jesus; Lama, Javier R.; Ton, Thanh G.N.; Suarez, Luis; Pun, Monica; Cabezas, Cesar; Sanchez, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    We tested 2,655 Peruvian MSM for retroviral infection: HTLV-1 was detected in 48 (1.8%), HTLV-2 in 28 (1.1%), and HTLV-1 and -2 in 5 (0.2%); HIV infection was detected in 329 (12.4 %); 24 (7.3%) were coinfected with HTLV. Risk factors for HTLV-1 and -2 varied with sexual role. PMID:19480577

  16. Ancient DNA, Strontium isotopes, and osteological analyses shed light on social and kinship organization of the Later Stone Age

    PubMed Central

    Haak, Wolfgang; Brandt, Guido; de Jong, Hylke N.; Meyer, Christian; Ganslmeier, Robert; Heyd, Volker; Hawkesworth, Chris; Pike, Alistair W. G.; Meller, Harald; Alt, Kurt W.

    2008-01-01

    In 2005 four outstanding multiple burials were discovered near Eulau, Germany. The 4,600-year-old graves contained groups of adults and children buried facing each other. Skeletal and artifactual evidence and the simultaneous interment of the individuals suggest the supposed families fell victim to a violent event. In a multidisciplinary approach, archaeological, anthropological, geochemical (radiogenic isotopes), and molecular genetic (ancient DNA) methods were applied to these unique burials. Using autosomal, mitochondrial, and Y-chromosomal markers, we identified genetic kinship among the individuals. A direct child-parent relationship was detected in one burial, providing the oldest molecular genetic evidence of a nuclear family. Strontium isotope analyses point to different origins for males and children versus females. By this approach, we gain insight into a Late Stone Age society, which appears to have been exogamous and patrilocal, and in which genetic kinship seems to be a focal point of social organization. PMID:19015520

  17. Ancient DNA, Strontium isotopes, and osteological analyses shed light on social and kinship organization of the Later Stone Age.

    PubMed

    Haak, Wolfgang; Brandt, Guido; de Jong, Hylke N; Meyer, Christian; Ganslmeier, Robert; Heyd, Volker; Hawkesworth, Chris; Pike, Alistair W G; Meller, Harald; Alt, Kurt W

    2008-11-25

    In 2005 four outstanding multiple burials were discovered near Eulau, Germany. The 4,600-year-old graves contained groups of adults and children buried facing each other. Skeletal and artifactual evidence and the simultaneous interment of the individuals suggest the supposed families fell victim to a violent event. In a multidisciplinary approach, archaeological, anthropological, geochemical (radiogenic isotopes), and molecular genetic (ancient DNA) methods were applied to these unique burials. Using autosomal, mitochondrial, and Y-chromosomal markers, we identified genetic kinship among the individuals. A direct child-parent relationship was detected in one burial, providing the oldest molecular genetic evidence of a nuclear family. Strontium isotope analyses point to different origins for males and children versus females. By this approach, we gain insight into a Late Stone Age society, which appears to have been exogamous and patrilocal, and in which genetic kinship seems to be a focal point of social organization.

  18. Clinical research training of Peruvian neurologists: a baseline assessment.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Chumbes, Gian Carlos; Montano-Torres, Silvia Margarita; Díaz-Vásquez, Alberto; Zunt, Joseph Raymond

    2010-06-21

    In Peru, despite a strong clinical research infrastructure in Lima, and Masters degree programs in epidemiology at three universities, few neurologists participate in clinical research. It was our objective to identify perceived needs and opportunities for increasing clinical research capacity and training opportunities for Peruvian neurologists. We conducted a descriptive, cross-sectional survey of Peruvian neurologists in Lima and Arequipa, Peru. Forty-eight neurologists completed written surveys and oral interviews. All neurologists reported interest in clinical research, but noted that lack of time and financial resources limited their ability to participate. Although most neurologists had received some training in epidemiology and research design as medical students or residents, the majority felt these topics were not adequately covered. Neurologists in Arequipa noted international funding for clinical research was uncommon outside the capital city of Lima. We concluded that clinical research is important to Peruvian neurologists. The three main barriers to increased participation in clinical research identified by neurologists were insufficient training in clinical research methodology, meager funding opportunities, and lack of dedicated time to participate in clinical research. Distance learning holds promise as a method for providing additional training in clinical research methodology, especially for neurologists who may have difficulty traveling to larger cities for additional training.

  19. Clinical research training of Peruvian neurologists: a baseline assessment

    PubMed Central

    Navarro-Chumbes, Gian Carlos; Montano-Torres, Silvia Margarita; Díaz-Vásquez, Alberto; Zunt, Joseph Raymond

    2010-01-01

    In Peru, despite a strong clinical research infrastructure in Lima, and Masters degree programs in epidemiology at three universities, few neurologists participate in clinical research. It was our objective to identify perceived needs and opportunities for increasing clinical research capacity and training opportunities for Peruvian neurologists. We conducted a descriptive, cross-sectional survey of Peruvian neurologists in Lima and Arequipa, Peru. Forty-eight neurologists completed written surveys and oral interviews. All neurologists reported interest in clinical research, but noted that lack of time and financial resources limited their ability to participate. Although most neurologists had received some training in epidemiology and research design as medical students or residents, the majority felt these topics were not adequately covered. Neurologists in Arequipa noted international funding for clinical research was uncommon outside the capital city of Lima. We concluded that clinical research is important to Peruvian neurologists. The three main barriers to increased participation in clinical research identified by neurologists were insufficient training in clinical research methodology, meager funding opportunities, and lack of dedicated time to participate in clinical research. Distance learning holds promise as a method for providing additional training in clinical research methodology, especially for neurologists who may have difficulty traveling to larger cities for additional training. PMID:21577342

  20. Influence of Anchoring on Burial Depth of Submarine Pipelines.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Yuan; Li, Yang; Su, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Since the beginning of the twenty-first century, there has been widespread construction of submarine oil-gas transmission pipelines due to an increase in offshore oil exploration. Vessel anchoring operations are causing more damage to submarine pipelines due to shipping transportation also increasing. Therefore, it is essential that the influence of anchoring on the required burial depth of submarine pipelines is determined. In this paper, mathematical models for ordinary anchoring and emergency anchoring have been established to derive an anchor impact energy equation for each condition. The required effective burial depth for submarine pipelines has then been calculated via an energy absorption equation for the protection layer covering the submarine pipelines. Finally, the results of the model calculation have been verified by accident case analysis, and the impact of the anchoring height, anchoring water depth and the anchor weight on the required burial depth of submarine pipelines has been further analyzed.

  1. Influence of Anchoring on Burial Depth of Submarine Pipelines

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Yuan; Li, Yang; Su, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Since the beginning of the twenty-first century, there has been widespread construction of submarine oil-gas transmission pipelines due to an increase in offshore oil exploration. Vessel anchoring operations are causing more damage to submarine pipelines due to shipping transportation also increasing. Therefore, it is essential that the influence of anchoring on the required burial depth of submarine pipelines is determined. In this paper, mathematical models for ordinary anchoring and emergency anchoring have been established to derive an anchor impact energy equation for each condition. The required effective burial depth for submarine pipelines has then been calculated via an energy absorption equation for the protection layer covering the submarine pipelines. Finally, the results of the model calculation have been verified by accident case analysis, and the impact of the anchoring height, anchoring water depth and the anchor weight on the required burial depth of submarine pipelines has been further analyzed. PMID:27166952

  2. Sulfate Burial Constraints on the Phanerozoic Sulfur Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halevy, Itay; Peters, Shanan E.; Fischer, Woodward W.

    2012-07-01

    The sulfur cycle influences the respiration of sedimentary organic matter, the oxidation state of the atmosphere and oceans, and the composition of seawater. However, the factors governing the major sulfur fluxes between seawater and sedimentary reservoirs remain incompletely understood. Using macrostratigraphic data, we quantified sulfate evaporite burial fluxes through Phanerozoic time. Approximately half of the modern riverine sulfate flux comes from weathering of recently deposited evaporites. Rates of sulfate burial are unsteady and linked to changes in the area of marine environments suitable for evaporite formation and preservation. By contrast, rates of pyrite burial and weathering are higher, less variable, and largely balanced, highlighting a greater role of the sulfur cycle in regulating atmospheric oxygen.

  3. Sulfate burial constraints on the Phanerozoic sulfur cycle.

    PubMed

    Halevy, Itay; Peters, Shanan E; Fischer, Woodward W

    2012-07-20

    The sulfur cycle influences the respiration of sedimentary organic matter, the oxidation state of the atmosphere and oceans, and the composition of seawater. However, the factors governing the major sulfur fluxes between seawater and sedimentary reservoirs remain incompletely understood. Using macrostratigraphic data, we quantified sulfate evaporite burial fluxes through Phanerozoic time. Approximately half of the modern riverine sulfate flux comes from weathering of recently deposited evaporites. Rates of sulfate burial are unsteady and linked to changes in the area of marine environments suitable for evaporite formation and preservation. By contrast, rates of pyrite burial and weathering are higher, less variable, and largely balanced, highlighting a greater role of the sulfur cycle in regulating atmospheric oxygen.

  4. Controls on biogenic silica burial in the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chase, Zanna; Kohfeld, Karen E.; Matsumoto, Katsumi

    2015-10-01

    Understanding the controls on opal export in the Southern Ocean can inform both the prediction of how the leakage of silicic acid from the Southern Ocean responds to climate and the interpretation of paleo-proxies. We have compiled a database of 185 230Thorium-normalized opal burial rates and 493 opal concentration measurements in Southern Ocean sediments and matched these with environmental climatologies. By subdividing the Southern Ocean on the basis of oceanographic regions and interpolating the opal burial rates, we estimate a total biogenic Si burial south of 40°S of 2.3 ± 1.0 Tmol Si yr-1. In both the seasonally ice-covered and permanently ice-free regions we can explain 73% of opal burial variability from surface ocean properties. Where sea ice is present for at least part of the year, the length of the ice-free season determines the upper limit of opal burial in the underlying sediments. In the ice-free regions of the Southern Ocean, the supply of silicic acid through winter mixing is the most important factor. Our results do not support a strong role of iron in controlling opal burial. We do however find that satellite-derived net primary production increases with increasing (modeled) dust delivery. These findings support the decoupling between carbon and opal fluxes in the Southern Ocean. When corrected for opal dissolution, the observed opal fluxes are in reasonable agreement with fluxes simulated using an ocean biogeochemical model. However, the results suggest current preservation algorithms for opal could be improved by incorporating the composition of particle flux, not only its magnitude.

  5. Taenia sp. in human burial from Kan River, East Siberia.

    PubMed

    Slepchenko, Sergey Mikhailovich; Ivanov, Sergey Nikolaevich; Vybornov, Anton Vasilevich; Alekseevich, Tsybankov Alexander; Sergeyevich, Slavinsky Vyacheslav; Lysenko, Danil Nikolaevich; Matveev, Vyacheslav Evgenievich

    2017-05-01

    We present an arhaeoparasitological analysis of a unique burial from the Neftprovod II burial ground in East Siberia, which dated from the Bronze Age. Analysis of a sediment sample from the sacral region of the pelvis revealed the presence of Taenia sp. eggs. Because uncooked animal tissue is the primary source of Taenia, this indicated that the individual was likely consuming raw or undercooked meat of roe deer, red deer, or elk infected with Taenia. This finding represents the oldest case of a human infected with Taenia sp. from Eastern Siberia and Russia.

  6. Alternatives to the burial of low-level radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Price, J. Mark

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The approach for management of LLRW in different countries has evolved differently due to many factors such as culture and public sentiment, systems of government, public policy, and geography. There are also various methods to disposition LLRW including but not limited to: - Long term statutes and unconditional or conditional release of material, - Direct Burial, - Treatment (Processing) {yields} Burial, - Treatment {yields} Unconditional Release, - Recycle for Unconditional Release or Reuse Within Any Industry, - Controlled Recycle within Nuclear Industry. (author)

  7. Mummification in the Ancient and New World.

    PubMed

    Rosso, Ana Maria

    2014-01-01

    In the Ancient and New World there was a custom to preserve the corpse in a natural and artificial way. Since Paleolithic man believed in an afterlife and even in Mesoamerica and the Andes cultures, care and ceremony were practiced to the burial of the dead in an ancestral cult. Mortuary rituals were developed in Pre-dynastic Egypt (4500-3100 BC) but apparently they had begun before in America, c. 5000 BC. Mummies served for assisting the soul to survive and for preventing the dead from frightening the livings. Incas arrived at a point of perfection in these practices after other Andean cultures but we should not forget their older predecessors, the Chinchorro culture on the arid coast of the Atacama Desert. Different steps in the technique can be distinguished in both worlds: natural desiccation covered by animal skins, methods to protect the body skin and flesh removal, replacement with clay; black, red or mud-coated corpses, evisceration, body cavity treatment, cleansing and anointing the interior, brain removal, mummified bodies, corpses covered with natron, before being washed and bandaged or wrapped. It will be necessary to carefully check dates, techniques and periods in the two zones to establish exactly the evolution of the methods applied.

  8. The growth responses of coastal dune species are determined by nutrient limitation and sand burial.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Matthew; Pammenter, Norman; Ripley, Brad

    2008-05-01

    Past work suggests that burial and low nutrient availability limit the growth and zonal distribution of coastal dune plants. Given the importance of these two factors, there is a surprising lack of field investigations of the interactions between burial and nutrient availability. This study aims to address this issue by measuring the growth responses of four coastal dune plant species to these two factors and their interaction. Species that naturally experience either high or low rates of burial were selected and a factorial burial by nutrient addition experiment was conducted. Growth characteristics were measured in order to determine which characteristics allow a species to respond to burial. Species that naturally experience high rates of burial (Arctotheca populifolia and Scaevola plumieri) displayed increased growth when buried, and this response was nutrient-limited. Stable-dune species had either small (Myrica cordifolia, N-fixer) or negligible responses to burial (Metalasia muricata), and were not nutrient-limited. This interspecific difference in response to burial and/or fertiliser is consistent with the idea that burial maintains the observed zonation of species on coastal dunes. Species that are unable to respond to burial are prevented from occupying the mobile dunes. Species able to cope with high rates of burial had high nitrogen-use efficiencies and low dry mass costs of production, explaining their ability to respond to burial under nutrient limitation. The interaction between burial and nutrient limitation is understudied but vital to understanding the zonation of coastal dune plant species.

  9. A preliminary study of a Peruvian diet using dietary analysis and hair mineral content as indicators.

    PubMed

    Tueller, Daniel J; Eggett, Dennis L; Parker, Tory L

    2013-11-01

    Observations among former American residents living long-term in Peru suggested that hair health improved while in Peru. To determine if a Peruvian diet correlates with hair composition, dietary intake of nutrients and mineral content of hair were measured among Peruvian and matched US residents. Selected foods from Peru were also analyzed for mineral and antioxidant content and compared with equivalent foods available in the USA. Statistically significant differences between Peruvian and US residents' hair were found for sodium (decreased in Peru, p = 0.007) and vanadium (decreased in Peru, p = 0.03). Differences in hair composition between residencies may be explained by lower dietary sodium and vanadium intake among Peruvian residents or by lower concentrations of these minerals in Peruvian drinking water. Many significant mineral differences were also identified between Peruvian foods and their US equivalents. Although no statistically significant correlations between dietary intake and hair mineral content were found, results indicate that a Peruvian diet contributes differently to hair composition than a US diet. More research is needed to elucidate the link between a Peruvian diet and specific aspects of hair health.

  10. Interculturality for Afro-Peruvians: Towards a Racially Inclusive Education in Peru

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdiviezo, Laura Alicia

    2006-01-01

    Intercultural education policy and programs in Peru emerged as a response to the right of education for marginalised indigenous populations. Under the influence of international dialogue regarding education for all, Peruvian policy has recently proposed interculturality as a guiding principle of education for all Peruvians. In this context,…

  11. Ancient human microbiomes

    PubMed Central

    Warinner, Christina; Speller, Camilla; Collins, Matthew J.; Lewis, Cecil M.

    2015-01-01

    Very recently, we discovered a vast new microbial self: the human microbiome. Our native microbiota interface with our biology and culture to influence our health, behavior, and quality of life, and yet we know very little about their origin, evolution, or ecology. With the advent of industrialization, globalization, and modern sanitation, it is intuitive that we have changed our relationship with microbes, but we have little information about the ancestral state of our microbiome, and therefore, we lack a foundation for characterizing this change. High-throughput sequencing has opened up new opportunities in the field of paleomicrobiology, allowing us to investigate the evolution of the complex microbial ecologies that inhabit our bodies. By focusing on recent coprolite and dental calculus research, we explore how emerging research on ancient human microbiomes is changing the way we think about ancient disease and how archaeological studies can contribute to a medical understanding of health and nutrition today. PMID:25559298

  12. Ancient Sedimentary Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-469, 31 August 2003

    The terraced area in this Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image is an outcropping of ancient, sedimentary rock. It occurs in a crater in western Arabia Terra near 10.8oN, 4.5oW. Sedimentary rocks provide a record of past environments on Mars. Field work will likely be required to begin to get a good understanding of the nature of the record these rocks contain. Their generally uniform thickness and repeated character suggests that deposition of fine sediment in this crater was episodic, if not cyclic. These rocks might be indicators of an ancient lake, or they might have been deposited from grains settling out of an earlier, thicker, martian atmosphere. This image covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) across and is illuminated from the lower left.

  13. Ancient human microbiomes.

    PubMed

    Warinner, Christina; Speller, Camilla; Collins, Matthew J; Lewis, Cecil M

    2015-02-01

    Very recently, we discovered a vast new microbial self: the human microbiome. Our native microbiota interface with our biology and culture to influence our health, behavior, and quality of life, and yet we know very little about their origin, evolution, or ecology. With the advent of industrialization, globalization, and modern sanitation, it is intuitive that we have changed our relationship with microbes, but we have little information about the ancestral state of our microbiome, and we therefore lack a foundation for characterizing this change. High-throughput sequencing has opened up new opportunities in the field of paleomicrobiology, allowing us to investigate the evolution of the complex microbial ecologies that inhabit our bodies. By focusing on recent coprolite and dental calculus research, we explore how emerging research on ancient human microbiomes is changing the way we think about ancient disease and how archaeological studies can contribute to a medical understanding of health and nutrition today.

  14. Large increases in carbon burial in northern lakes during the Anthropocene

    PubMed Central

    Heathcote, Adam J.; Anderson, N. John; Prairie, Yves T.; Engstrom, Daniel R.; del Giorgio, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Northern forests are important ecosystems for carbon (C) cycling and lakes within them process and bury large amounts of organic-C. Current burial estimates are poorly constrained and may discount other shifts in organic-C burial driven by global change. Here we analyse a suite of northern lakes to determine trends in organic-C burial throughout the Anthropocene. We found burial rates increased significantly over the last century and are up to five times greater than previous estimates. Despite a correlation with temperature, warming alone did not explain the increase in burial, suggesting the importance of other drivers including atmospherically deposited reactive nitrogen. Upscaling mean lake burial rates for each time period to global northern forests yields up to 4.5 Pg C accumulated in the last 100 years—20% of the total burial over the Holocene. Our results indicate that lakes will become increasingly important for C burial under future global change scenarios. PMID:26607672

  15. Large increases in carbon burial in northern lakes during the Anthropocene.

    PubMed

    Heathcote, Adam J; Anderson, N John; Prairie, Yves T; Engstrom, Daniel R; del Giorgio, Paul A

    2015-11-26

    Northern forests are important ecosystems for carbon (C) cycling and lakes within them process and bury large amounts of organic-C. Current burial estimates are poorly constrained and may discount other shifts in organic-C burial driven by global change. Here we analyse a suite of northern lakes to determine trends in organic-C burial throughout the Anthropocene. We found burial rates increased significantly over the last century and are up to five times greater than previous estimates. Despite a correlation with temperature, warming alone did not explain the increase in burial, suggesting the importance of other drivers including atmospherically deposited reactive nitrogen. Upscaling mean lake burial rates for each time period to global northern forests yields up to 4.5 Pg C accumulated in the last 100 years--20% of the total burial over the Holocene. Our results indicate that lakes will become increasingly important for C burial under future global change scenarios.

  16. 40 CFR 229.1 - Burial at sea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Burial at sea. 229.1 Section 229.1 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING GENERAL PERMITS § 229.1... materials which are readily de-com-pos-a-ble in the marine environment may be disposed of under the general...

  17. Effect of Burial Depth on Seismic Signals. Volume I

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-05-01

    from a buried explosion receives positive or negative reinforcement from the free- surface reflection. The more refined calculations, which include...wave is relatively delayed in time, so that transitions between positive and negative reinforcement occur at shallower depths of burial. A surface

  18. 38 CFR 38.620 - Persons eligible for burial.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... was directed at a hostile force or what was thought to be a hostile force; or (C) Died from a training...) of this section. (2) A parent is not eligible for burial if the veteran dies due to the elements, a...

  19. 38 CFR 38.620 - Persons eligible for burial.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... was directed at a hostile force or what was thought to be a hostile force; or (C) Died from a training...) of this section. (2) A parent is not eligible for burial if the veteran dies due to the elements, a...

  20. 38 CFR 38.620 - Persons eligible for burial.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... was directed at a hostile force or what was thought to be a hostile force; or (C) Died from a training...) of this section. (2) A parent is not eligible for burial if the veteran dies due to the elements, a...

  1. Burial preservation of trace fossils as indicator of storm deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, A.J.

    1986-05-01

    Positive semirelief epichnia (ridgelike trace fossils on the top surface of a bed) commonly represent burrow structures, perhaps originally supported by a mucoidal matrix, that have been infilled by sediment. The preservation of these structures, in addition to other trace fossils on a bed superface, suggests an instantaneous burial event and a minimum of concomitant erosion. This supposition can be verified by an absence of paucity of biogenic sedimentary structures accompanied by certain physical sedimentary structures (laminated shell hashes, graded bedding, fissile shales) in strata directly overlying bioturbated surfaces. The main process involved in this burial preservation (the rapid burial of biogenic sedimentary structures with minimum erosion) are probably storm-generated in most instances. Sediments would be deposited primarily in the suspension mode, and mean storm wave base would be slightly above the sediment-water interface. This burial preservation model is most applicable to relatively small stratigraphic intervals (several centimeters or decimeters) representing deposition on an open-marine shelf. Positive semirelief epichnia, interpreted as burrow system infilling, from the Cincinnatian Series (Upper Ordovician) of Ohio and Indiana are used to illustrate these concepts.

  2. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-F-6 Burial Ground

    SciTech Connect

    H. M. Sulloway

    2008-10-02

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 118-F-6 Burial Ground located in the 100-FR-2 Operable Unit of the 100-F Area on the Hanford Site. The trenches received waste from the 100-F Experimental Animal Farm, including animal manure, animal carcasses, laboratory waste, plastic, cardboard, metal, and concrete debris as well as a railroad tank car.

  3. The effects of burial on drug detection in skeletal tissues.

    PubMed

    Desrosiers, Nathalie A; Watterson, James H

    2010-07-01

    Skeletal tissues have recently been investigated for use in post-mortem toxicology. Variables affecting drug concentration in these tissues, however, are still poorly characterized. In this work, the relative effects of burial on the response of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) assays were examined. Rats were acutely exposed to ketamine or diazepam, euthanized and buried outdoors. After one month, the remains were exhumed and skeletal tissue drug levels were compared those of non-buried rats. A climate-controlled burial was also undertaken using defleshed bones to approximate an extended decomposition. Long bones (femora, tibiae) were isolated and separated into tissue type (diaphyseal bone, epiphyseal bone, and marrow), and according to treatment (i.e. buried or non-buried). Following methanolic extraction (bone) or simple homogenization (marrow), samples were analyzed with ELISA. Samples were then pooled according to treatment, extracted by solid phase extraction (SPE) and confirmed with GC-MS. Under the conditions examined, the effects of burial appear to be drug and tissue dependent. Ketamine-exposed tissues demonstrated the greatest differences, especially in bone marrow. In diazepam-exposed tissues, burial did not seem to greatly affect drug response and some gave greater assay response compared to the non-buried set. Overall, the data suggest that fresh tissue samples may not be representative of decomposed samples in terms of skeletal tissue drug levels.

  4. 40 CFR 229.1 - Burial at sea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... transport human remains from the United States and all persons owning or operating a vessel or aircraft... instrumentalities of the United States are hereby granted a general permit to transport human remains from any... conditions: (1) Except as herein otherwise provided, human remains shall be prepared for burial at sea and...

  5. Organic carbon burial efficiency in a subtropical hydroelectric reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendonça, Raquel; Kosten, Sarian; Sobek, Sebastian; Jaqueline Cardoso, Simone; Figueiredo-Barros, Marcos Paulo; Henrique Duque Estrada, Carlos; Roland, Fábio

    2016-06-01

    Hydroelectric reservoirs bury significant amounts of organic carbon (OC) in their sediments. Many reservoirs are characterized by high sedimentation rates, low oxygen concentrations in bottom water and a high share of terrestrially derived OC, and all of these factors have been linked to a high efficiency of OC burial. However, investigations of OC burial efficiency (OCBE, i.e., the ratio between buried and deposited OC) in reservoirs are limited to a few studies, none of which include spatially resolved analyses. In this study we determined the spatial variation in OCBE in a large subtropical reservoir and related it to sediment characteristics. Our results show that the sediment accumulation rate explains up to 92 % of the spatial variability in OCBE, outweighing the effect of other variables, such as OC source and oxygen exposure time. OCBE at the pelagic sites varied from 48 to 86 % (mean 67 %) and decreased towards the dam. At the margins, OCBE was lower (9-17 %) due to the low sediment accumulation in shallow areas. Our data show that the variability in OCBE both along the rivers-dam and the margin-pelagic axes must be considered in whole-reservoir assessments. Combining these results with a spatially resolved assessment of sediment accumulation and OC burial in the studied reservoir, we estimated a spatially resolved mean OC burial efficiency of 57 %. Being the first assessment of OCBE with such a high spatial resolution in a reservoir, these results suggest that reservoirs may bury OC more efficiently than natural lakes.

  6. Prediction and observation of munitions burial in energetic storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klammler, Harald; Sheremet, Alexandru; Calantoni, Joseph

    2017-04-01

    The fate of munitions or unexploded ordnance (UXO) resting on a submarine sediment bed is a critical safety concern. Munitions may be transported in uncontrolled ways to create potentially dangerous situations at places like beaches or ports. Alternatively, they may remain in place or completely disappear for significant but unknown periods, after becoming buried in the sediment bed. Clearly, burial of munitions drastically complicates the detection and removal of potential threats. Here, we present field data of wave height and (surrogate) munitions burial depths near the 8-m isobath at the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Field Research Facility, Duck, North Carolina, observed between January and March 2015. The experiment captured a remarkable sequence of storms that included at least 10 events, of which 6 were characterized by wave fields of significant heights exceeding 2 m and with peak periods of approximately 10 s. During the strongest storm, waves of 14 s period and heights exceeding 2 m were recorded for more than 3 days; significant wave height reached 5 m at the peak of activity. At the end of the experiment, divers measured munition burial depths of up to 60 cm below the seabed level. However, the local bathymetry showed less than 5 cm variation between the before and after-storm states, suggesting the local net sediment accumulation / loss was negligible. The lack of bathymetric variability excludes the possibility of burial by a migrating bed form or by sediment deposition, and strongly indicates that the munitions sank into the bed. The depth of burial also suggest an extreme state of sand agitation during the storm. For predicting munitions burial depths, we explore existing analytical solutions for the dynamic interaction between waves and sediment. Measured time series of wave pressure near the sediment bed were converted into wave-induced changes in pore pressures and the effective stress states of the sediment. Different sediment failure criteria

  7. Suicide in ancient Greece.

    PubMed

    Laios, K; Tsoukalas, G; Kontaxaki, M-I; Karamanou, M; Androutsos, G

    2014-01-01

    The theme of suicide appears several times in ancient Greek literature. However, each such reference acquires special significance depending on the field from which it originates. Most of the information found in mythology, but the suicide in a mythological tale, although in terms of motivation and mental situation of heroes may be in imitation of similar incidents of real life, in fact is linked with the principles of the ancient Greek religion. In ancient drama and mainly in tragedies suicide conduces to the tragic hypostasis of the heroes and to the evolution of the plot and also is a tool in order to be presented the ideas of poets for the relations of the gods, the relation among gods and men and the relation among the men. In ancient Greek philosophy there were the deniers of suicide, who were more concerned about the impact of suicide on society and also these who accepted it, recognizing the right of the individual to put an end to his life, in order to avoid personal misfortunes. Real suicides will be found mostly from historical sources, but most of them concern leading figures of the ancient world. Closer to the problem of suicide in the everyday life of antiquity are ancient Greek medicines, who studied the phenomenon more general without references to specific incidents. Doctors did not approve in principal the suicide and dealt with it as insane behavior in the development of the mental diseases, of melancholia and mania. They considered that the discrepancy of humors in the organ of logic in the human body will cause malfunction, which will lead to the absurdity and consequently to suicide, either due to excessive concentration of black bile in melancholia or due to yellow bile in mania. They believed that greater risk to commit suicide had women, young people and the elderly. As therapy they used the drugs of their time with the intention to induce calm and repression in the ill person, therefore they mainly used mandragora. In general, we would say

  8. Emerging genetic patterns of the European Neolithic: perspectives from a late Neolithic Bell Beaker burial site in Germany.

    PubMed

    Lee, Esther J; Makarewicz, Cheryl; Renneberg, Rebecca; Harder, Melanie; Krause-Kyora, Ben; Müller, Stephanie; Ostritz, Sven; Fehren-Schmitz, Lars; Schreiber, Stefan; Müller, Johannes; von Wurmb-Schwark, Nicole; Nebel, Almut

    2012-08-01

    The transition from hunting and gathering to agriculture in Europe is associated with demographic changes that may have shifted the human gene pool of the region as a result of an influx of Neolithic farmers from the Near East. However, the genetic composition of populations after the earliest Neolithic, when a diverse mosaic of societies that had been fully engaged in agriculture for some time appeared in central Europe, is poorly known. At this period during the Late Neolithic (ca. 2,800-2,000 BC), regionally distinctive burial patterns associated with two different cultural groups emerge, Bell Beaker and Corded Ware, and may reflect differences in how these societies were organized. Ancient DNA analyses of human remains from the Late Neolithic Bell Beaker site of Kromsdorf, Germany showed distinct mitochondrial haplotypes for six individuals, which were classified under the haplogroups I1, K1, T1, U2, U5, and W5, and two males were identified as belonging to the Y haplogroup R1b. In contrast to other Late Neolithic societies in Europe emphasizing maintenance of biological relatedness in mortuary contexts, the diversity of maternal haplotypes evident at Kromsdorf suggests that burial practices of Bell Beaker communities operated outside of social norms based on shared maternal lineages. Furthermore, our data, along with those from previous studies, indicate that modern U5-lineages may have received little, if any, contribution from the Mesolithic or Neolithic mitochondrial gene pool. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Identification of kinship and occupant status in Mongolian noble burials of the Yuan Dynasty through a multidisciplinary approach

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yinqiu; Song, Li; Wei, Dong; Pang, Yuhong; Wang, Ning; Ning, Chao; Li, Chunmei; Feng, Binxiao; Tang, Wentao; Li, Hongjie; Ren, Yashan; Zhang, Chunchang; Huang, Yanyi; Hu, Yaowu; Zhou, Hui

    2015-01-01

    The Yuan Dynasty (AD 1271–1368) was the first dynasty in Chinese history where a minority ethnic group (Mongols) ruled. Few cemeteries containing Mongolian nobles have been found owing to their tradition of keeping burial grounds secret and their lack of historical records. Archaeological excavations at the Shuzhuanglou site in the Hebei province of China led to the discovery of 13 skeletons in six separate tombs. The style of the artefacts and burials indicate the cemetery occupants were Mongol nobles. However, the origin, relationships and status of the chief occupant (M1m) are unclear. To shed light on the identity of the principal occupant and resolve the kin relationships between individuals, a multidisciplinary approach was adopted, combining archaeological information, stable isotope data and molecular genetic data. Analysis of autosomal, mitochondrial and Y-chromosomal DNA show that some of the occupants were related. The available evidence strongly suggests that the principal occupant may have been the Mongol noble Korguz. Our study demonstrates the power of a multidisciplinary approach in elucidating information about the inhabitants of ancient historical sites. PMID:25487330

  10. Identification of kinship and occupant status in Mongolian noble burials of the Yuan Dynasty through a multidisciplinary approach.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yinqiu; Song, Li; Wei, Dong; Pang, Yuhong; Wang, Ning; Ning, Chao; Li, Chunmei; Feng, Binxiao; Tang, Wentao; Li, Hongjie; Ren, Yashan; Zhang, Chunchang; Huang, Yanyi; Hu, Yaowu; Zhou, Hui

    2015-01-19

    The Yuan Dynasty (AD 1271-1368) was the first dynasty in Chinese history where a minority ethnic group (Mongols) ruled. Few cemeteries containing Mongolian nobles have been found owing to their tradition of keeping burial grounds secret and their lack of historical records. Archaeological excavations at the Shuzhuanglou site in the Hebei province of China led to the discovery of 13 skeletons in six separate tombs. The style of the artefacts and burials indicate the cemetery occupants were Mongol nobles. However, the origin, relationships and status of the chief occupant (M1m) are unclear. To shed light on the identity of the principal occupant and resolve the kin relationships between individuals, a multidisciplinary approach was adopted, combining archaeological information, stable isotope data and molecular genetic data. Analysis of autosomal, mitochondrial and Y-chromosomal DNA show that some of the occupants were related. The available evidence strongly suggests that the principal occupant may have been the Mongol noble Korguz. Our study demonstrates the power of a multidisciplinary approach in elucidating information about the inhabitants of ancient historical sites. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of the ORNL area for future waste burial facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Lomenick, T.F.; Byerly, D.W.; Gonzales, S.

    1983-10-01

    Additional waste-burial facilities will be needed at ORNL within this decade. In order to find environmentally acceptable sites, the ORNL area must be systematically evaluated. This document represents the first step in that selection process. Geologic and hydrologic data from the literature and minor field investigations are used to identify more favorable sites for Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 7. Also underway at this time is a companion study to locate a Central Waste Storage Area which could be used in the future to accommodate wastes generated by the X-10, Y-12, and K-25 facilities. From the several watershed options available, the Whiteoak Creek drainage basin is selected as the most promising hydrologic regime. This area contains all past and present waste-disposal facilities and is thus already well monitored. The seven bedrock units within the ORNL area are evaluated as potential burial media. Shales of the Conasauga Group, which are currently used for waste burial in the Whiteoak Creek drainage basin, and the Knox Group are considered the leading candidates. Although the residuum derived from and overlying the Knox dolomite has many favorable characteristics and may be regarded as having a high potential for burial of low-level wastes, at the present it is unproven. Therefore, the Conasauga shales are considered a preferable option for SWSA 7 within the ORNL area. Since the Conasauga interval is currently used for waste burial, it is better understood. One tract in Melton Valley that is underlain by Conasauga shales is nominated for detailed site-characterization studies, and several other tracts are recommended for future exploratory drilling. Exploration is also suggested for a tract in the upper Whiteoak Creek basin where Knox residuum is the shallow subsurface material.

  12. Why did ancient people have atherosclerosis?: from autopsies to computed tomography to potential causes.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Gregory S; Wann, L Samuel; Allam, Adel H; Thompson, Randall C; Michalik, David E; Sutherland, M Linda; Sutherland, James D; Lombardi, Guido P; Watson, Lucia; Cox, Samantha L; Valladolid, Clide M; Abd El-Maksoud, Gomaa; Al-Tohamy Soliman, Muhammad; Badr, Ibrahem; el-Halim Nur el-Din, Abd; Clarke, Emily M; Thomas, Ian G; Miyamoto, Michael I; Kaplan, Hillard S; Frohlich, Bruno; Narula, Jagat; Stewart, Alexandre F R; Zink, Albert; Finch, Caleb E

    2014-06-01

    Computed tomographic findings of atherosclerosis in the ancient cultures of Egypt, Peru, the American Southwest and the Aleutian Islands challenge our understanding of the fundamental causes of atherosclerosis. Could these findings be true? Is so, what traditional risk factors might be present in these cultures that could explain this apparent paradox? The recent computed tomographic findings are consistent with multiple autopsy studies dating as far back as 1852 that demonstrate calcific atherosclerosis in ancient Egyptians and Peruvians. A nontraditional cause of atherosclerosis that could explain this burden of atherosclerosis is the microbial and parasitic inflammatory burden likely to be present in ancient cultures inherently lacking modern hygiene and antimicrobials. Patients with chronic systemic inflammatory diseases of today, including systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, and human immunodeficiency virus infection, experience premature atherosclerosis and coronary events. Might the chronic inflammatory load of ancient times secondary to infection have resulted in atherosclerosis? Smoke inhalation from the use of open fires for daily cooking and illumination represents another potential cause. Undiscovered risk factors could also have been present, potential causes that technologically cannot currently be measured in our serum or other tissue. A synthesis of these findings suggests that a gene-environmental interplay is causal for atherosclerosis. That is, humans have an inherent genetic susceptibility to atherosclerosis, whereas the speed and severity of its development are secondary to known and potentially unknown environmental factors. Copyright © 2014 World Heart Federation (Geneva). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. 20 CFR 219.59 - Evidence of responsibility for or payment of burial expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... burial expenses. 219.59 Section 219.59 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER... Evidence of responsibility for or payment of burial expenses. The Board will ask for the following evidence... funeral home expenses or paid some or all of these expenses or other burial expenses; or the name...

  14. 77 FR 20888 - Proposed Information Collection (Application for Burial Benefits) Activity: Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-06

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Application for Burial Benefits) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY... information needed to determine a deceased veteran's eligibility for burial benefits. DATES: Written comments... techniques or the use of other forms of information technology. Title: Application for Burial Benefits...

  15. 38 CFR 1.516 - Disclosure of information to undertaker concerning burial of a deceased veteran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... to undertaker concerning burial of a deceased veteran. 1.516 Section 1.516 Pensions, Bonuses, and... burial of a deceased veteran. When an undertaker requests information believed to be necessary in connection with the burial of a deceased veteran, such as the name and address of the beneficiary of...

  16. 38 CFR 1.516 - Disclosure of information to undertaker concerning burial of a deceased veteran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... to undertaker concerning burial of a deceased veteran. 1.516 Section 1.516 Pensions, Bonuses, and... burial of a deceased veteran. When an undertaker requests information believed to be necessary in connection with the burial of a deceased veteran, such as the name and address of the beneficiary of...

  17. 20 CFR 219.58 - When evidence regarding payment of burial expenses is required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false When evidence regarding payment of burial... evidence regarding payment of burial expenses is required. If a person applies for the lump-sum death payment because he or she is responsible for paying the funeral home or burial expenses of the employee...

  18. 32 CFR 553.16 - Persons eligible for burial in Soldiers' Home National Cemetery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Persons eligible for burial in Soldiers' Home... eligible for burial in Soldiers' Home National Cemetery. The Board of Commissioners of the US Soldiers' and Airmen's Home will prescribe rules governing burial in the Soldiers' Home National Cemetery....

  19. 32 CFR 553.16 - Persons eligible for burial in Soldiers' Home National Cemetery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Persons eligible for burial in Soldiers' Home... eligible for burial in Soldiers' Home National Cemetery. The Board of Commissioners of the US Soldiers' and Airmen's Home will prescribe rules governing burial in the Soldiers' Home National Cemetery....

  20. 20 CFR 219.58 - When evidence regarding payment of burial expenses is required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true When evidence regarding payment of burial... evidence regarding payment of burial expenses is required. If a person applies for the lump-sum death payment because he or she is responsible for paying the funeral home or burial expenses of the employee...

  1. 38 CFR 1.516 - Disclosure of information to undertaker concerning burial of a deceased veteran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... to undertaker concerning burial of a deceased veteran. 1.516 Section 1.516 Pensions, Bonuses, and... burial of a deceased veteran. When an undertaker requests information believed to be necessary in connection with the burial of a deceased veteran, such as the name and address of the beneficiary of...

  2. 20 CFR 219.59 - Evidence of responsibility for or payment of burial expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... burial expenses. 219.59 Section 219.59 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER... Evidence of responsibility for or payment of burial expenses. The Board will ask for the following evidence... funeral home expenses or paid some or all of these expenses or other burial expenses; or the name...

  3. 20 CFR 219.59 - Evidence of responsibility for or payment of burial expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... burial expenses. 219.59 Section 219.59 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER... Evidence of responsibility for or payment of burial expenses. The Board will ask for the following evidence... funeral home expenses or paid some or all of these expenses or other burial expenses; or the name...

  4. 38 CFR 1.516 - Disclosure of information to undertaker concerning burial of a deceased veteran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... to undertaker concerning burial of a deceased veteran. 1.516 Section 1.516 Pensions, Bonuses, and... burial of a deceased veteran. When an undertaker requests information believed to be necessary in connection with the burial of a deceased veteran, such as the name and address of the beneficiary of...

  5. 32 CFR 553.16 - Persons eligible for burial in Soldiers' Home National Cemetery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Persons eligible for burial in Soldiers' Home... eligible for burial in Soldiers' Home National Cemetery. The Board of Commissioners of the US Soldiers' and Airmen's Home will prescribe rules governing burial in the Soldiers' Home National Cemetery....

  6. 20 CFR 219.59 - Evidence of responsibility for or payment of burial expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... burial expenses. 219.59 Section 219.59 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER... Evidence of responsibility for or payment of burial expenses. The Board will ask for the following evidence... funeral home expenses or paid some or all of these expenses or other burial expenses; or the name...

  7. 20 CFR 219.58 - When evidence regarding payment of burial expenses is required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When evidence regarding payment of burial... evidence regarding payment of burial expenses is required. If a person applies for the lump-sum death payment because he or she is responsible for paying the funeral home or burial expenses of the employee...

  8. 38 CFR 1.516 - Disclosure of information to undertaker concerning burial of a deceased veteran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... to undertaker concerning burial of a deceased veteran. 1.516 Section 1.516 Pensions, Bonuses, and... burial of a deceased veteran. When an undertaker requests information believed to be necessary in connection with the burial of a deceased veteran, such as the name and address of the beneficiary of...

  9. 20 CFR 219.58 - When evidence regarding payment of burial expenses is required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false When evidence regarding payment of burial... evidence regarding payment of burial expenses is required. If a person applies for the lump-sum death payment because he or she is responsible for paying the funeral home or burial expenses of the employee...

  10. 20 CFR 219.59 - Evidence of responsibility for or payment of burial expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... burial expenses. 219.59 Section 219.59 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER... Evidence of responsibility for or payment of burial expenses. The Board will ask for the following evidence... funeral home expenses or paid some or all of these expenses or other burial expenses; or the name...

  11. 20 CFR 219.58 - When evidence regarding payment of burial expenses is required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true When evidence regarding payment of burial... evidence regarding payment of burial expenses is required. If a person applies for the lump-sum death payment because he or she is responsible for paying the funeral home or burial expenses of the employee...

  12. 77 FR 35114 - Agency Information Collection (NCA PreNeed Burial Planning) Activity Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-12

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (NCA PreNeed Burial Planning) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY... INFORMATION: Title: NCA PreNeed Burial Planning, VA Form 40-10007. OMB Control Number: 2900--New. Type of... the pre-need burial program should be extended to all Veterans and service members, and not limited...

  13. A European Mitochondrial Haplotype Identified in Ancient Phoenician Remains from Carthage, North Africa.

    PubMed

    Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth A; Gosling, Anna L; Boocock, James; Kardailsky, Olga; Kurumilian, Yara; Roudesli-Chebbi, Sihem; Badre, Leila; Morel, Jean-Paul; Sebaï, Leïla Ladjimi; Zalloua, Pierre A

    2016-01-01

    While Phoenician culture and trade networks had a significant impact on Western civilizations, we know little about the Phoenicians themselves. In 1994, a Punic burial crypt was discovered on Byrsa Hill, near the entry to the National Museum of Carthage in Tunisia. Inside this crypt were the remains of a young man along with a range of burial goods, all dating to the late 6th century BCE. Here we describe the complete mitochondrial genome recovered from the Young Man of Byrsa and identify that he carried a rare European haplogroup, likely linking his maternal ancestry to Phoenician influenced locations somewhere on the North Mediterranean coast, the islands of the Mediterranean or the Iberian Peninsula. This result not only provides the first direct ancient DNA evidence of a Phoenician individual but the earliest evidence of a European mitochondrial haplogroup, U5b2c1, in North Africa.

  14. A European Mitochondrial Haplotype Identified in Ancient Phoenician Remains from Carthage, North Africa

    PubMed Central

    Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth A.; Gosling, Anna L.; Boocock, James; Kardailsky, Olga; Kurumilian, Yara; Roudesli-Chebbi, Sihem; Badre, Leila; Morel, Jean-Paul; Sebaï, Leïla Ladjimi; Zalloua, Pierre A.

    2016-01-01

    While Phoenician culture and trade networks had a significant impact on Western civilizations, we know little about the Phoenicians themselves. In 1994, a Punic burial crypt was discovered on Byrsa Hill, near the entry to the National Museum of Carthage in Tunisia. Inside this crypt were the remains of a young man along with a range of burial goods, all dating to the late 6th century BCE. Here we describe the complete mitochondrial genome recovered from the Young Man of Byrsa and identify that he carried a rare European haplogroup, likely linking his maternal ancestry to Phoenician influenced locations somewhere on the North Mediterranean coast, the islands of the Mediterranean or the Iberian Peninsula. This result not only provides the first direct ancient DNA evidence of a Phoenician individual but the earliest evidence of a European mitochondrial haplogroup, U5b2c1, in North Africa. PMID:27224451

  15. Immune response to measles vaccine in Peruvian children.

    PubMed Central

    Bautista-López, N. L.; Vaisberg, A.; Kanashiro, R.; Hernández, H.; Ward, B. J.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the immune response in Peruvian children following measles vaccination. METHODS: Fifty-five Peruvian children received Schwarz measles vaccine (about 10(3) plaque forming units) at about 9 months of age. Blood samples were taken before vaccination, then twice after vaccination: one sample at between 1 and 4 weeks after vaccination and the final sample 3 months post vaccination for evaluation of immune cell phenotype and lymphoproliferative responses to measles and non-measles antigens. Measles-specific antibodies were measured by plaque reduction neutralization. FINDINGS: The humoral response developed rapidly after vaccination; only 4 of the 55 children (7%) had plaque reduction neutralization titres <200 mlU/ml 3 months after vaccination. However, only 8 out of 35 children tested (23%) had lymphoproliferative responses to measles antigens 3-4 weeks after vaccination. Children with poor lymphoproliferative responses to measles antigens had readily detectable lymphoproliferative responses to other antigens. Flow cytometric analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells revealed diffuse immune system activation at the time of vaccination in most children. The capacity to mount a lymphoproliferative response to measles antigens was associated with expression of CD45RO on CD4+ T-cells. CONCLUSION: The 55 Peruvian children had excellent antibody responses after measles vaccination, but only 23% (8 out of 35) generated detectable lymphoproliferative responses to measles antigens (compared with 55-67% in children in the industrialized world). This difference may contribute to the less than uniform success of measles vaccination programmes in the developing world. PMID:11731811

  16. Seasonality in marine ecosystems: Peruvian seabirds, anchovy, and oceanographic conditions.

    PubMed

    Passuni, Giannina; Barbraud, Christophe; Chaigneau, Alexis; Demarcq, Hervé; Ledesma, Jesus; Bertrand, Arnaud; Castillo, Ramiro; Perea, Angel; Mori, Julio; Viblanc, Vincent A; Torres-MaitaA, Jose; Bertrand, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    In fluctuating environments, matching breeding timing to periods of high resource availability is crucial for the fitness of many vertebrate species, and may have major consequences on population health. Yet, our understanding of the proximate environmental cues driving seasonal breeding is limited. This is particularly the case in marine ecosystems, where key environmental factors and prey abundance and availability are seldom quantified. The Northern Humboldt Current System (NHCS) is a highly productive, low-latitude ecosystem of moderate seasonality. In this ecosystem, three tropical seabird species (the Guanay Cormorant Phalacrocorax bougainvillii, the Peruvian Booby Sula variegata, and the Peruvian Pelican Pelecanus thagus) live in sympatry and prey almost exclusively on anchovy, Engraulis ringens. From January 2003 to December 2012, we monitored 31 breeding sites along the Peruvian coast to investigate the breeding cycle of these species. We tested for relationships between breeding timing, oceanographic conditions, and prey availability using occupancy models. We found that all three seabird species exhibited seasonal breeding patterns, with marked interspecific differences. Whereas breeding mainly started during the austral winter/early spring and ended in summer/early fall, this pattern was stronger in boobies and pelicans than in cormorants. Breeding onset mainly occurred when upwelling was intense but ecosystem productivity was below its annual maxima, and when anchovy were less available and in poor physiological condition. Conversely, the abundance and availability of anchovy improved during chick rearing and peaked around the time of fledging. These results suggest that breeding timing is adjusted so that fledging may occur under optimal environmental conditions, rather than being constrained by nutritional requirements during egg laying. Adjusting breeding time so that fledglings meet optimal conditions at independence is unique compared with other

  17. Seasonality in marine ecosystems: Peruvian seabirds, anchovy, and oceanographic conditions.

    PubMed

    Passuni, Giannina; Barbraud, Christophe; Chaigneau, Alexis; Demarcq, Hervé; Ledesma, Jesus; Bertrand, Arnaud; Castillo, Ramiro; Perea, Angel; Mori, Julio; Viblanc, Vincent A; Torres-Maita, Jose; Bertrand, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    In fluctuating environments, matching breeding timing to periods of high resource availability is crucial for the fitness of many vertebrate species, and may have major consequences on population health. Yet, our understanding of the proximate environmental cues driving seasonal breeding is limited. This is particularly the case in marine ecosystems, where key environmental factors and prey abundance and availability are seldom quantified. The Northern Humboldt Current System (NHCS) is a highly productive, low-latitude ecosystem of moderate seasonality. In this ecosystem, three tropical seabird species (the Guanay Cormorant Phalacrocorax bougainvillii, the Peruvian Booby Sula variegata, and the Peruvian Pelican Pelecanus thagus) live in sympatry and prey almost exclusively on anchovy, Engraulis ringens. From January 2003 to December 2012, we monitored 31 breeding sites along the Peruvian coast to investigate the breeding cycle of these species. We tested for relationships between breeding timing, oceanographic conditions, and prey availability using occupancy models. We found that all three seabird species exhibited seasonal breeding patterns, with marked interspecific differences. Whereas breeding mainly started during the austral winter/early spring and ended in summer/early fall, this pattern was stronger in boobies and pelicans than in cormorants. Breeding onset mainly occurred when upwelling was intense but ecosystem productivity was below its annual maxima, and when anchovy were less available and in poor physiological condition. Conversely, the abundance and availability of anchovy improved during chick rearing and peaked around the time of fledging. These results suggest that breeding timing is adjusted so that fledging may occur under optimal environmental conditions, rather than being constrained by nutritional requirements during egg laying. Adjusting breeding time so that fledglings meet optimal conditions at independence is unique compared with other

  18. Gallstone disease in Peruvian coastal natives and highland migrants

    PubMed Central

    Moro, P; Checkley, W; Gilman, R; Cabrera, L; Lescano, A; Bonilla, J; Silva, B

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—In a previous study, we found that gallstones were a common occurrence in the high altitude villages of the Peruvian Andes.
AIMS—To determine if high altitude (⩾ 1500 m) is a contributing risk factor for gallstone disease.
METHODS—We conducted a cross sectional study in a periurban community in Lima, Peru, and compared the prevalence of gallstone disease between coastal natives, highland (Sierra) natives and Sierra natives who had migrated to the coast. We also compared the prevalence rates from this study with those from a previous study conducted at high altitude. We examined 1534 subjects >15 years of age for gallstone disease. Subjects were interviewed for the presence or absence of risk factors.
RESULTS—Gallstone disease was more common in females (16.1 cases per 100, 95% CI 13.8-18.2) than in males (10.7 per 100, 95% CI 8.0-13.4). Females had a greater risk of gallstone disease, especially if they had used oral contraception and/or had four or more children. The age adjusted prevalence was not significantly different between coastal natives, Sierra migrants, and Andean villagers. The prevalence of gallstone disease was not associated with time since migration or with having native Sierra parents. After adjusting for other risk factors, Sierra natives who migrated to the coast had a lower prevalence of gallstone disease than coastal natives (odds ratio 0.74, 95% CI 0.58-0.94).
CONCLUSIONS—This study indicates that high altitude is not a positive risk factor for gallstone disease and confirms that this disease is common in Peruvians, which may be attributable to Peruvian-Indian ethnicity.


Keywords: gallstone disease; cholelithiasis; high altitude; risk factors; epidemiology; Peru PMID:10716689

  19. Fine-grained debris flows and extraordinary vertebrate burials in the Late Cretaceous of Madagascar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Raymond R.

    2005-04-01

    Vertebrate fossils are remarkably abundant and exceptionally well preserved within the Upper Cretaceous Maevarano Formation of northwestern Madagascar. The vast majority of these fossils, including all of the currently known bone beds, are entombed within deposits of fine-grained cohesive debris flows. These deposits are typically massive and are characterized by very poor sorting and a significant montmorillonite-dominated silt-clay (mud) fraction ranging from 17% to 46% by weight. Deposition is attributed to recurrent exceptional rainfall events that prompted erosion and flooded ancient channel belts with sediment-laden flows. These extraordinary burial events shielded vertebrate remains from destructive surface processes and also afforded protection for soft tissues. Taphonomic attributes of associated bone concentrations suggest that debris flows had limited transport potential and generally entombed subaerially exposed bone assemblages. The remarkable and recurrent association of bone beds and debris-flow deposits likely reflects marked seasonality in this Late Cretaceous terrestrial ecosystem, with prolonged dry spells prompting mortality and subsequent rains setting debris flows in motion.

  20. Widespread mixing and burial of Earth's Hadean crust by asteroid impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchi, S.; Bottke, W. F.; Elkins-Tanton, L. T.; Bierhaus, M.; Wuennemann, K.; Morbidelli, A.; Kring, D. A.

    2014-07-01

    The history of the Hadean Earth (~4.0-4.5 billion years ago) is poorly understood because few known rocks are older than ~3.8 billion years old. The main constraints from this era come from ancient submillimetre zircon grains. Some of these zircons date back to ~4.4 billion years ago when the Moon, and presumably the Earth, was being pummelled by an enormous flux of extraterrestrial bodies. The magnitude and exact timing of these early terrestrial impacts, and their effects on crustal growth and evolution, are unknown. Here we provide a new bombardment model of the Hadean Earth that has been calibrated using existing lunar and terrestrial data. We find that the surface of the Hadean Earth was widely reprocessed by impacts through mixing and burial by impact-generated melt. This model may explain the age distribution of Hadean zircons and the absence of early terrestrial rocks. Existing oceans would have repeatedly boiled away into steam atmospheres as a result of large collisions as late as about 4 billion years ago.

  1. Molecular genetic analysis of 400-year-old human remains found in two Yakut burial sites.

    PubMed

    Ricaut, François-Xavier; Kolodesnikov, Sergei; Keyser-Tracqui, Christine; Alekseev, Anatoly Nikoyevich; Crubézy, Eric; Ludes, Bertrand

    2006-01-01

    The excavation of five frozen graves at the Sytygane Syhe and Istekh-Myrane burial sites (dated at 400 years old) in central Yakutia revealed five human skeletons belonging to the Yakut population. To investigate the origin and evolution of the Yakut population as well as the kinship system between individuals buried in these two sites, DNA was extracted from bone samples and analyzed by autosomal short tandem repeats (STRs) and by sequencing hypervariable region I (HV1) of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region. The results showed a diversity of sepulchral organizations linked probably to the social or genetic background of the subjects. Comparison of STR profiles, mitochondrial haplotypes, and haplogroups with data from Eurasian populations indicated affinities with Asian populations and suggested a relative specificity and continuity of part of the Yakut mitochondrial gene pool during the last five centuries. Moreover, our results did not support a Central Asian (with the exception of maternal lineage of West Eurasian origin) or Siberian origin of the maternal lineages of these ancient Yakut subjects, implying an ethnogenesis of the Yakut population probably more complex than previously proposed.

  2. Widespread mixing and burial of Earth's Hadean crust by asteroid impacts.

    PubMed

    Marchi, S; Bottke, W F; Elkins-Tanton, L T; Bierhaus, M; Wuennemann, K; Morbidelli, A; Kring, D A

    2014-07-31

    The history of the Hadean Earth (∼4.0-4.5 billion years ago) is poorly understood because few known rocks are older than ∼3.8 billion years old. The main constraints from this era come from ancient submillimetre zircon grains. Some of these zircons date back to ∼4.4 billion years ago when the Moon, and presumably the Earth, was being pummelled by an enormous flux of extraterrestrial bodies. The magnitude and exact timing of these early terrestrial impacts, and their effects on crustal growth and evolution, are unknown. Here we provide a new bombardment model of the Hadean Earth that has been calibrated using existing lunar and terrestrial data. We find that the surface of the Hadean Earth was widely reprocessed by impacts through mixing and burial by impact-generated melt. This model may explain the age distribution of Hadean zircons and the absence of early terrestrial rocks. Existing oceans would have repeatedly boiled away into steam atmospheres as a result of large collisions as late as about 4 billion years ago.

  3. Changed clonal growth form induced by sand burial facilitates the acclimation of Carex brevicuspis to competition.

    PubMed

    Li, Feng; Xie, Yonghong; Zhu, Lianlian; Jiang, Li; Chen, Xinsheng; Pan, Baihan; Deng, Zhengmiao

    2015-01-01

    Both competition and burial are important factors that influence plant growth and structuring plant communities. Competition intensity may decline with increased burial stress. However, experimental evidence is scarce. The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of burial stress in influencing plant competition by investigating biomass accumulation, biomass allocation, and clonal growth performance of Carex brevicuspis, one of the dominant species in the Dongting Lake wetland in China. The experiment was conducted with two typical wetland species, C. brevicuspis (target plant) and Polygonum hydropiper (neighbor plant), in a target-neighbor design containing three densities (0, 199, and 398 neighbor plants m-2) and two burial depths (0 and 12 cm). The biomass accumulation of C. brevicuspis decreased with increment of P. hydropiper density in the 0 cm burial treatment. However, in the 12 cm burial treatment, biomass accumulation of C. brevicuspis did not change under medium and high P. hydropiper densities. The relative neighbor effect index (RNE) increased with enhancement of P. hydropiper density but decreased with increasing burial depth. The shoot mass fraction decreased with P. hydropiper density in the 12 cm burial treatments, but the root mass fraction was only affected by burial depth. However, the rhizome mass fraction increased with both P. hydropiper density and burial depth. The number of ramets decreased with increasing P. hydropiper density. With increasing burial depth and density, the proportion of spreading ramets increased from 34.23% to 80.44%, whereas that of clumping ramets decreased from 65.77% to 19.56%. Moreover, increased P. hydropiper density and burial depth led to greater spacer length. These data indicate that the competitive effect of P. hydropiper on C. brevicuspis was reduced by sand burial, which was reflected by different patterns of biomass accumulation and RNE at the two burial depth treatments. A change from a phalanx to a

  4. The Peruvian Continental Margin: Results from wide angle seismic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krabbenhoeft, A.; Bialas, J.; Kopp, H.; Kukowski, N.; Huebscher, C.

    2003-04-01

    Within the scope of the GEOPECO (Geophysical Experiments at the Peruvian Continental Margin) project, seismic investigations along the Pacific margin of Peru were carried out using ocean bottom hydrophones (OBH) and seismometers (OBS) recording marine airgun shots. The structure and the P- wave velocity of the oblique subducting Nazca and overriding South-American Plates from 8°S to 15°S were determined by forward modeling and tomographic inversion of the wide-angle seismic data combined with the analysis of reflection seismic data. The region south of 12°S has been influenced by the southward migration of the aseismic Nazca Ridge the past 11 Ma. The oceanic Nazca Plate is divided by Mendana Fracture Zone (MFZ) which marks a transition zone of a different crustal age of approximately 28 Ma in the north to 38 Ma in the south at the Peruvian trench. North of MFZ the oceanic crust is influenced by Trujillo Trough trending N15E and the surrounding extensional stresses leading to a crustal thinning as can be seen in the northernmost refraction seismic model. The oceanic crust south of MFZ is overall homogeneous with a thin pelagic sedimentary layer and normal oceanic crustal layers. The P-wave velocity of the mantle is overall 7.9-8.1km/s. The Peruvian Continental Margin is characterized by the continental slope and several basins, Trujillo and Yaquina basin, Lima basin and Pisco basin, which are partly affected by the southward migration of the subducting Nazca Ridge. This caused uplift and subsidence along the margin leading to erosional tectonic features. The basins and continental basement could be mapped with forward modeling and tomographic inversion as well as the continental backstop on each profile. An accretionary prism is set up with a width of 20 to 30 km and 4 to 5 km thickness which does not further increase in size as revealed by the profiles recorded further north of Nazca Ridge. This and a taper of 14- 17 degrees at the collision zone indicates that

  5. Isolation of cytotoxic metabolites from targeted peruvian amazonian medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Aponte, José C; Vaisberg, Abraham J; Rojas, Rosario; Caviedes, Luz; Lewis, Walter H; Lamas, Gerardo; Sarasara, César; Gilman, Robert H; Hammond, Gerald B

    2008-01-01

    The antiproliferative bioassay-guided fractionation of five Peruvian plants, Doliocarpus dentatus, Picramnia sellowii, Strychnos mitscherlichii, Iryanthera juruensis, and Croton alnifolius, led to the isolation and identification of their different major cytotoxic constituents, betulinic acid (1), nataloe-emodin (2), bisnordihydrotoxyferine (4), 2',4'-dihydroxy-6'-methoxy-3,4-methylenedioxydihydrochalcone (5), and 2',4'-dihydroxy-4,6'-dimethoxydihydrochalcone (6) and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (7), respectively. Eight human tumor cell lines and two nontumorigenic cell lines were used in this investigation. Their in vitro activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis is also reported.

  6. First documented outbreak of dengue in the Peruvian Amazon region.

    PubMed

    Phillips, I; Need, J; Escamilla, J; Colán, E; Sánchez, S; Rodríguez, M; Vásquez, L; Seminario, J; Betz, T; da Rosa, A T

    1992-01-01

    This article describes a classical dengue outbreak caused by dengue serotypes 1 and 4 that occurred from March to July 1990 in the city of Iquitos and surrounding areas of Loreto Department in the Peruvian Amazon. Epidemiologic data indicate that more than 150,000 persons may have been affected in Iquitos alone. Another dengue outbreak occurred in Tarapoto, a city in the neighboring department of San Martín. Laboratory data indicate that the same dengue serotypes were involved in both outbreaks. No cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever/shock syndrome appear to have occurred. Prior to this outbreak, no indigenous dengue cases had been documented in Peru.

  7. Mitochondrial genome of the Peruvian scallop Argopecten purpuratus (Bivalvia: Pectinidae).

    PubMed

    Marín, Alan; Alfaro, Rubén; Fujimoto, Takafumi; Arai, Katsutoshi

    2015-01-01

    The mitochondrial genome of the Peruvian scallop Argopecten purpuratus was determined. The length of the mitochondrial coding region is 15,608 bp. A typical bivalve mitochondrial composition was detected with 12 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 21 transfer RNA genes, with the absence of the atp8 gene. Fifty percent of the protein-coding genes use typical ATG start codon, whereas five genes utilize ATA as their start codon. Only one gene was found to utilize TTG as its start codon. The A. purpuratus mitogenome shows a significant similarity to that of A. irradians irradians, in length as well as in gene composition.

  8. Retroviral infection in Peruvian men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    La Rosa, Alberto M; Zunt, Joseph R; Peinado, Jesus; Lama, Javier R; Ton, Thanh G N; Suarez, Luis; Pun, Monica; Cabezas, Cesar; Sanchez, Jorge

    2009-07-01

    We tested 2655 Peruvian men who have sex with men for the presence of retroviral infection. Human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) was detected in 48 (1.8%) of the patients, HTLV-2 was detected in 28 (1.1%), and HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 were both detected in 5 (0.2%). Human immunodeficiency virus infection was detected in 329 (12.4%) of the patients; 24 (7.3%) had HTLV coinfection. Risk factors for HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 infection varied with sexual role.

  9. Infectious diseases in ancient Egypt.

    PubMed

    Brier, Bob

    2004-03-01

    Techniques for studying infectious disease in the ancient world are discussed. A brief survey of infectious diseases, such as schistosomiasis and malaria, in ancient Egypt is presented, and the physical traces of these diseases are examined. A discussion of the ancient Egyptian physician's response to infectious disease is included. There are two substantial sources of evidence for infectious diseases-physical remains and descriptions in Egyptian medical papyri. This preliminary survey suggests that ancient Egypt was far from the idyllic paradise on the Nile that some historians would like to imagine.

  10. Gnomons in Ancient China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Geng

    Gnomon shadow measurement was one of the most fundamental astronomical observations in ancient China. It was crucial for calendar making, which constituted an important aspect of imperial governance. A painted stick discovered from a prehistoric (2300 BC) astronomical site of Taosi (see Chap. 201, "Taosi Observatory", 10.1007/978-1-4614-6141-8_215") is the oldest gnomon known of China. From second century BC onward, gnomon shadow measurements have been essential part of calendrical practice. Various historical measurements are discussed in this chapter.

  11. Tracheostomy in ancient Egypt.

    PubMed

    Blomstedt, Patric

    2014-08-01

    It has often been reported that the ancient Egyptians performed tracheostomies. An analysis of this claim demonstrates it to be founded on only two depictions from the Protodynastic period (thirty-first century bc). These depictions are difficult to reconcile with tracheostomy from an anatomical point of view and can more easily be explained as human sacrifices. Considering that Egyptian surgery included only minor procedures even at its zenith during later dynastic periods, it is difficult to imagine that they would have developed such an advanced procedure at such an early date.

  12. Urology in ancient India

    PubMed Central

    Das, Sakti

    2007-01-01

    The practice of medical and surgical measures in the management of urological ailments prevailed in ancient India from the Vedic era around 3000 BC. Subsequently in the Samhita period, the two stalwarts - Charaka in medicine and Susruta in surgery elevated the art of medicine in India to unprecedented heights. Their elaboration of the etiopathological hypothesis and the medical and surgical treatments of various urological disorders of unparalleled ingenuity still remain valid to some extent in our contemporary understanding. The new generation of accomplished Indian urologists should humbly venerate the legacy of the illustrious pioneers in urology of our motherland. PMID:19675749

  13. The moon's ancient magnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Runcorn, S. K.

    1987-12-01

    While the moon at present has no magnetic field, magnetized areas on its surface called magnetic anomalies do exist. Evidence is presented here that these anomalies are due to an ancient magnetic field. This field was produced by an internal dynamo due to a once molten lunar core of iron. The anomalies fall into three groups which were formed at different times and point in different directions, indicating that the moon underwent reorientation during its early history. It is shown that this reorienation could have been caused by the impact of disintegrated lunar satellites on the lunar surface.

  14. Soil burial contribution to deep soil organic carbon storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaopricha, N. T.; Marin-Spiotta, E.

    2013-12-01

    Previous reviews of deep soil C have focused on root inputs and the vertical transport of particulate and dissolved organic matter through mixing, gravity, and preferential flowpaths as the main modes of delivery of C to the deep subsoil. Depositional processes have received considerable attention in the context of long-range soil erosion and sedimentation on land, but the role of soil burial in the sequestration of C photosynthesized in situ at depositional sites has been largely absent from discussions of deep soil organic C (SOC) dynamics. Burial can disconnect a soil from atmospheric conditions and slow or inhibit microbial decomposition. Buried soil horizons, which are former surface soils that have been buried through various depositional processes, can store more SOC than would exist at such depths from in situ root inputs and leaching from upper horizons. Here, we discuss factors contributing to SOC storage in soils below 1 m with a focus on soil burial. We review the contributions of geomorphic and anthropogenic depositional processes to deep SOC storage and describe how environmental conditions or state factors during and since burial influence SOC persistence in buried soils. We draw from examples in the paleosol and geomorphology literature to identify the effects of soil burial by volcanic, aeolian, alluvial, colluvial, glacial, and anthropogenic processes on soil C storage. Buried soils have been traditionally studied for information about past environments and can also serve as useful case studies for understanding both the sensitivity of landscape processes to future environmental change and the mechanisms contributing to soil organic matter stabilization. Soil burial can store SOC at any depth. Here, we focus particularly on buried soil horizons at ≥ 1 m depth to highlight how much SOC exists at depths below those typically considered in SOC inventories, studies of soil organic matter dynamics, and most biogeochemical models. Understanding the

  15. Molecular identification of bacteria by total sequence screening: determining the cause of death in ancient human subjects.

    PubMed

    Thèves, Catherine; Senescau, Alice; Vanin, Stefano; Keyser, Christine; Ricaut, François Xavier; Alekseev, Anatoly N; Dabernat, Henri; Ludes, Bertrand; Fabre, Richard; Crubézy, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Research of ancient pathogens in ancient human skeletons has been mainly carried out on the basis of one essential historical or archaeological observation, permitting specific pathogens to be targeted. Detection of ancient human pathogens without such evidence is more difficult, since the quantity and quality of ancient DNA, as well as the environmental bacteria potentially present in the sample, limit the analyses possible. Using human lung tissue and/or teeth samples from burials in eastern Siberia, dating from the end of 17(th) to the 19(th) century, we propose a methodology that includes the: 1) amplification of all 16S rDNA gene sequences present in each sample; 2) identification of all bacterial DNA sequences with a degree of identity ≥ 95%, according to quality criteria; 3) identification and confirmation of bacterial pathogens by the amplification of the rpoB gene; and 4) establishment of authenticity criteria for ancient DNA. This study demonstrates that from teeth samples originating from ancient human subjects, we can realise: 1) the correct identification of bacterial molecular sequence signatures by quality criteria; 2) the separation of environmental and pathogenic bacterial 16S rDNA sequences; 3) the distribution of bacterial species for each subject and for each burial; and 4) the characterisation of bacteria specific to the permafrost. Moreover, we identified three pathogens in different teeth samples by 16S rDNA sequence amplification: Bordetella sp., Streptococcus pneumoniae and Shigella dysenteriae. We tested for the presence of these pathogens by amplifying the rpoB gene. For the first time, we confirmed sequences from Bordetella pertussis in the lungs of an ancient male Siberian subject, whose grave dated from the end of the 17(th) century to the early 18(th) century.

  16. Molecular Identification of Bacteria by Total Sequence Screening: Determining the Cause of Death in Ancient Human Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Thèves, Catherine; Senescau, Alice; Vanin, Stefano; Keyser, Christine; Ricaut, François Xavier; Alekseev, Anatoly N.; Dabernat, Henri; Ludes, Bertrand; Fabre, Richard; Crubézy, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Research of ancient pathogens in ancient human skeletons has been mainly carried out on the basis of one essential historical or archaeological observation, permitting specific pathogens to be targeted. Detection of ancient human pathogens without such evidence is more difficult, since the quantity and quality of ancient DNA, as well as the environmental bacteria potentially present in the sample, limit the analyses possible. Using human lung tissue and/or teeth samples from burials in eastern Siberia, dating from the end of 17th to the 19th century, we propose a methodology that includes the: 1) amplification of all 16S rDNA gene sequences present in each sample; 2) identification of all bacterial DNA sequences with a degree of identity ≥95%, according to quality criteria; 3) identification and confirmation of bacterial pathogens by the amplification of the rpoB gene; and 4) establishment of authenticity criteria for ancient DNA. This study demonstrates that from teeth samples originating from ancient human subjects, we can realise: 1) the correct identification of bacterial molecular sequence signatures by quality criteria; 2) the separation of environmental and pathogenic bacterial 16S rDNA sequences; 3) the distribution of bacterial species for each subject and for each burial; and 4) the characterisation of bacteria specific to the permafrost. Moreover, we identified three pathogens in different teeth samples by 16S rDNA sequence amplification: Bordetella sp., Streptococcus pneumoniae and Shigella dysenteriae. We tested for the presence of these pathogens by amplifying the rpoB gene. For the first time, we confirmed sequences from Bordetella pertussis in the lungs of an ancient male Siberian subject, whose grave dated from the end of the 17th century to the early 18th century. PMID:21765907

  17. Epigenetics of Ancient DNA

    PubMed Central

    Zhenilo, S. V.; Sokolov, A.S.; Prokhortchouk, E. B.

    2016-01-01

    Initially, the study of DNA isolated from ancient specimens had been based on the analysis of the primary nucleotide sequence. This approach has allowed researchers to study the evolutionary changes that occur in different populations and determine the influence of the environment on genetic selection. However, the improvement of methodological approaches to genome-wide analysis has opened up new possibilities in the search for the epigenetic mechanisms involved in the regulation of gene expression. It was discovered recently that the methylation status of the regulatory elements of the HOXD cluster and MEIS1 gene changed during human evolution. Epigenetic changes in these genes played a key role in the evolution of the limbs of modern humans. Recent works have demonstrated that it is possible to determine the transcriptional activity of genes in ancient DNA samples by combining information on DNA methylation and the DNAaseI hypersensitive sequences located at the transcription start sites of genes. In the nearest future, if a preserved fossils brain is found, it will be possible to identify the evolutionary changes in the higher nervous system associated with epigenetic differences. PMID:27795845

  18. Ancient celtic horns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Murray

    2002-11-01

    There is considerable evidence from iconographic and documentary sources that musical lip-reed instruments were important in the early celtic communities of Scotland and Ireland. In recent years several studies have been undertaken with the aim of gaining a better understanding of the musical nature of these ancient horns, and of their place in the life and culture of the time. A valuable source of tangible evidence is to be found in the archaeological remains deposited across Scotland and the whole of Ireland. A project is now under way, under the auspices of the Kilmartin House Trust and the general direction of John Purser, which has brought together an international team of musicians, craftsmen, archaeologists, musicologists and physicists with the aim of analyzing ancient musical artifacts, reconstructing some of the original instruments, and analyzing the sounds they produce. This paper describes acoustical studies carried out on a number of recent reconstructions of wooden and bronze instruments, and discusses the role of acoustics in this type of investigation. [Work supported by Sciart and EPSRC.

  19. Phanerozoic burial and unroofing history of the western Slave craton and Wopmay orogen from apatite (U-Th)/He thermochronometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ault, Alexis K.; Flowers, Rebecca M.; Bowring, Samuel A.

    2009-06-01

    Low temperature thermochronometry of cratonic regions can illuminate relationships among burial and unroofing patterns, surface subsidence and uplift, and lithosphere-asthenosphere interactions. The Slave craton, initially stabilized by the development of a thick lithospheric mantle root in late Archean time, is an excellent location in which to examine these connections. Although the Slave craton currently lacks Phanerozoic cover, Phanerozoic sedimentary xenoliths entrained in ca. 610 to 45 Ma kimberlites indicate that the region underwent a more dynamic history of burial and unroofing than widely recognized. We report new apatite (U-Th)/He thermochronometry data along a southeast to northwest transect from the interior of the Slave craton into the adjacent Paleoproterozoic Wopmay orogen to resolve the region's depositional and denudational history. Six samples from the western Slave craton and three samples from Wopmay orogen yield mean dates from 296 ± 41 Ma to 212 ± 39 Ma. Individual apatite dates are broadly uniform over a wide span of apatite [eU], and this pattern can be used to more tightly restrict the spectrum of viable temperature-time paths that can explain the dataset. When coupled with geologic and stratigraphic information, temperature-time simulations of the thermochronometry results suggest complete He loss from the apatites at minimum peak temperatures of ~ 88 °C in Devonian-Pennsylvanian time, cooling to near-surface conditions by the Early Cretaceous, followed by reheating to ≤ 72 °C during Cretaceous-Early Tertiary time. Consideration of modern and ancient geotherm constraints implies ≥ 3.3 km of burial during the first Phanerozoic heating phase, with an ancillary phase of reburial in late Mesozoic-Cenozoic time. The uniformity of the apatite (U-Th)/He dates indicates that the rocks encompassed by our > 250 km-long sample transect experienced similar Phanerozoic thermal histories. Despite the distinctly different lithospheric

  20. Revisiting Field Burial by Accretion onto Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Dipanjan

    2017-09-01

    The surface magnetic field strength of millisecond pulsars (MSPs) is found to be about 4 orders of magnitude lower than that of garden variety radio pulsars (with a spin of {˜ }0.5-5 s and B{˜ }10^{12} G). The exact mechanism of the apparent reduction of field strength in MSPs is still a subject of debate. One of the proposed mechanisms is burial of the surface magnetic field under matter accreted from a companion. In this article we review the recent work on magnetic confinement of accreted matter on neutron stars poles. We present the solutions of the magneto-static equations with a more accurate equation of state of the magnetically confined plasma and discuss its implications for the field burial mechanism.

  1. Two contemporaneous mitogenomes from terminal Pleistocene burials in eastern Beringia.

    PubMed

    Tackney, Justin C; Potter, Ben A; Raff, Jennifer; Powers, Michael; Watkins, W Scott; Warner, Derek; Reuther, Joshua D; Irish, Joel D; O'Rourke, Dennis H

    2015-11-10

    Pleistocene residential sites with multiple contemporaneous human burials are extremely rare in the Americas. We report mitochondrial genomic variation in the first multiple mitochondrial genomes from a single prehistoric population: two infant burials (USR1 and USR2) from a common interment at the Upward Sun River Site in central Alaska dating to ∼11,500 cal B.P. Using a targeted capture method and next-generation sequencing, we determined that the USR1 infant possessed variants that define mitochondrial lineage C1b, whereas the USR2 genome falls at the root of lineage B2, allowing us to refine younger coalescence age estimates for these two clades. C1b and B2 are rare to absent in modern populations of northern North America. Documentation of these lineages at this location in the Late Pleistocene provides evidence for the extent of mitochondrial diversity in early Beringian populations, which supports the expectations of the Beringian Standstill Model.

  2. Preliminary report on a glass burial experiment in granite

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.E.; Zhu, B.F.; Robinson, R.S.; Wicks, G.G.

    1983-01-01

    Preliminary results of a two-year burial experiment in granite are discussed. Three compositions of simulated alkali borosilicate waste glasses were placed in boreholes approximately 350 meters deep. The glass sample configurations include mini-cans (stainless steel rings into which glass has been cast) and pineapple slices (thin sections from cylindrical blocks). Assemblies of these glass samples were prepared by stacking them together with granite, compacted bentonite and metal rings to provide several types of interfaces that are expected to occur in the repository. The assemblies were maintained at either ambient mine temperature (8 to 10/sup 0/C) or 90/sup 0/C. The glasses were analyzed before burial and after one month storage at 90/sup 0/C. The most extensive surface degradation occurred on the glasses interfaced with bentonite. In general, very little attack was observed on glass surfaces in contact with the other materials. The limited field and laboratory data are compared.

  3. Two contemporaneous mitogenomes from terminal Pleistocene burials in eastern Beringia

    PubMed Central

    Tackney, Justin C.; Potter, Ben A.; Raff, Jennifer; Powers, Michael; Watkins, W. Scott; Warner, Derek; Reuther, Joshua D.; Irish, Joel D.; O’Rourke, Dennis H.

    2015-01-01

    Pleistocene residential sites with multiple contemporaneous human burials are extremely rare in the Americas. We report mitochondrial genomic variation in the first multiple mitochondrial genomes from a single prehistoric population: two infant burials (USR1 and USR2) from a common interment at the Upward Sun River Site in central Alaska dating to ∼11,500 cal B.P. Using a targeted capture method and next-generation sequencing, we determined that the USR1 infant possessed variants that define mitochondrial lineage C1b, whereas the USR2 genome falls at the root of lineage B2, allowing us to refine younger coalescence age estimates for these two clades. C1b and B2 are rare to absent in modern populations of northern North America. Documentation of these lineages at this location in the Late Pleistocene provides evidence for the extent of mitochondrial diversity in early Beringian populations, which supports the expectations of the Beringian Standstill Model. PMID:26504230

  4. Outbreak of gastroenteritis at a Peruvian naval base.

    PubMed

    Jones, Franca R; Ortiz, Mario; Soriano, Imelda; Utz, Gregory; Saldarriaga, Emilia; Cumpa, Raquel; Collantes, Violeta; Leandro, Yuliana; Bernal, Manuela Maria; Ucanan, Luis Enrique; Colina, Olga; Lescano, Andres; Batsel, Tanis

    2006-11-01

    In April of 2003, an outbreak of gastroenteritis was reported in a training command (Centro de Instrucción Técnica y Entrenamiento Naval (CITEN)) at a Peruvian naval base located near Lima, Peru. The Naval Medical Research Center Detachment, in collaboration with the National Peruvian Naval Hospital, conducted an investigation to determine the causative agent and potential source of the outbreak. Between April 3 and 5, 172 (16%) of 1,092 military trainees reported to the CITEN clinic with diarrhea. Of 74 trainees for whom bacterial cultures were performed, Shigella spp. were isolated from 5 (6.8%), Campylobacter spp. from 5 (6.8%), and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli from 2 (2.7%). Pathogenic parasites were identified in 22 of 64 (34%) trainees for whom microscopic observation for ova and parasites was performed. Stool samples from asymptomatic controls could not be collected, thus we were unable to confirm that the enteropathogens isolated were the etiologic agent(s). Several food items and the hands of food handlers were contaminated with coliform bacteria and drinking water was not adequately chlorinated. Preventative measures have since reduced the number of diarrhea cases at the CITEN.

  5. [Visibility and productivity of the biomedical Peruvian journals].

    PubMed

    Huamaní, Charles; Pacheco-Romero, José

    2009-01-01

    Biomedical journals have suffered world wide revolutions due to globalization of information, evolving from the printed version to the electronic one. The status of Peruvian medical journals is not currently known. To determine indexing, production for 2005 to 2007; and visibility of Peruvian biomedical journals for 2008. We identified indexed journals in Medline, SciELO-Peru, Redalyc, LILACS, and others, through informatic search and described the journals production with more indizations, estimating the original research production index. An analysis of electronic visibility of the journals most indexed in SciELO-Peru, Redalyc and SISBIB data bases is done. We identified 29 current journals by 2007. Only Revista de Gastroenterologia del Peru was indexed to Medline. Revista Peruana de Medicina Experimental y Salud Publica was the journal with more production, with 176 publications between 2005 and 2007.Anales de la Facultad de Medicina was the journal with the higher original investigation index, with 0,61. Anales de la Facultad de Medicina had the higher number of electronic visits with 963 965 visits in 2008. There is a great diversity of biomedical journals in Peru but few are indexed and only one is seen in Medline. Original research production is not high but journals electronic visibility is above 600 thousand visitors.

  6. Clay Mineralogy and Organic Carbon Burial in Proterozoic Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tosca, N. J.; Johnston, D. T.; Mushegian, A.; Rothman, D. H.; Knoll, A. H.

    2008-12-01

    Pedogenic, or soil-derived, clay minerals have long been implicated in the efficiency of organic matter (OM) burial and coincident accumulation of atmospheric oxygen. As diagenesis and metamorphism obscure pedogenic clays in many Precambrian rocks, clay mineralogy and its role in OM burial through much of geologic time remains incompletely understood. In this study we analyzed the mineralogy and total organic carbon (TOC) of a number of organic rich shales deposited in Late Archean to Early Cambrian sedimentary basins. Across all samples, diagenetic transformation of pre-existing smectite minerals has led to the predominance of glauconite and the diagenetic 1M and 1Md illite polytypes, which, collectively, can be thought of as "proto-smectite". The correlations between TOC and illite crystallinity suggest that OM burial and preservation in the Proterozoic proceeded by the physical aggregation of OM and pedogenic clays upon deposition. This association, in turn, led to the interference of OM with the illitization process, resulting in the ubiquitous relationship between high surface area (or, finely crystalline) material and high TOC. This interpretation is consistent with suggestions that the preservation of OM after burial proceeds by physical exclusion, with mineral surfaces effectively isolating OM from enzymatic breakdown. Together, it appears that the deposition of pedogenic clays has remained broadly constant over Proterozoic time and into the Early Cambrian, which is incompatible with the hypothesis that late Neoproterozoic oxygenation was influenced by increases in pedogenic clay production. As no clear temporal relationship exists between clays and OM, Precambrian oxygenation was likely controlled by other mechanisms.

  7. Low-Level Burial Grounds Waste Analysis Plan

    SciTech Connect

    ELLEFSON, M.D.

    2000-03-02

    The purpose of this waste analysis plan (WAP) is to document the waste acceptance process, sampling methodologies, analytical techniques, and overall processes that are undertaken for waste accepted for storage and/or disposal at the Low-Level Burial Grounds which are located in the 200 East and West Areas of the Hanford Facility, Richland, Washington. This WAP documents the methods used to characterize, obtain and analyze representative samples of waste managed at this unit.

  8. Enhanced Site Characterization of the 618-4 Burial Ground

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, Christopher J.; Last, George V.; Chien, Yi-Ju

    2001-09-25

    This report describes the results obtained from deployment of the Enhanced Site Characterization System (ESCS) at the Hanford Site's 618-4 Burial Ground. The objective of this deployment was to use advanced geostatistical methods to integrate and interpret geophysical and ground truth data, to map the physical types of waste materials present in unexcavated portions of the burial ground. One issue of particularly interest was the number of drums (containing depleted uranium metal shavings or uranium-oxide powder) remaining in the burial ground and still requiring removal.Fuzzy adaptive resonance theory (ART), a neural network classification method, was used to cluster the study area into 3 classes based on their geophysical signatures. Multivariate statistical analyses and discriminant function analysis (DFA) indicated that the drum area as well as a second area (the SW anomaly) had similar geophysical signatures that were different from the rest of the burial ground. Further analysis of the drum area suggested that as many as 770 drums to 850 drums may remain in that area. Similarities between the geophysical signatures of the drum area and the SW anomaly suggested that excavation of the SW anomaly area also proceed with caution.Deployment of the ESCS technology was successful in integrating multiple geophysical variables and grouping these observations into clusters that are relevant for planning further excavation of the buried ground. However, the success of the technology could not be fully evaluated because reliable ground truth data were not available to enable calibration of the different geophysical signatures against actual waste types.

  9. Scour and Burial Mechanics of Objects in the Nearshore

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    equilibrium bottom profiles in response to seasonal changes in wave climate and accretion /erosion waves spawned by fluxes of sediment into the littoral...waves cause erosion of the bar-berm portion of the profile, exposing mines close to shore, and accretion of the shorerise profile, causing burial of... North Quincy Street Arlington VA 22217-5000 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) ONR 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT 12. DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY

  10. Burying Dogs in Ancient Cis-Baikal, Siberia: Temporal Trends and Relationships with Human Diet and Subsistence Practices

    PubMed Central

    Losey, Robert J.; Garvie-Lok, Sandra; Leonard, Jennifer A.; Katzenberg, M. Anne; Germonpré, Mietje; Nomokonova, Tatiana; Sablin, Mikhail V.; Goriunova, Olga I.; Berdnikova, Natalia E.; Savel’ev, Nikolai A.

    2013-01-01

    The first objective of this study is to examine temporal patterns in ancient dog burials in the Lake Baikal region of Eastern Siberia. The second objective is to determine if the practice of dog burial here can be correlated with patterns in human subsistence practices, in particular a reliance on terrestrial mammals. Direct radiocarbon dating of a suite of the region’s dog remains indicates that these animals were given burial only during periods in which human burials were common. Dog burials of any kind were most common during the Early Neolithic (∼7–8000 B.P.), and rare during all other time periods. Further, only foraging groups seem to have buried canids in this region, as pastoralist habitation sites and cemeteries generally lack dog interments, with the exception of sacrificed animals. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope data indicate that dogs were only buried where and when human diets were relatively rich in aquatic foods, which here most likely included river and lake fish and Baikal seal (Phoca sibirica). Generally, human and dog diets appear to have been similar across the study subregions, and this is important for interpreting their radiocarbon dates, and comparing them to those obtained on the region’s human remains, both of which likely carry a freshwater old carbon bias. Slight offsets were observed in the isotope values of dogs and humans in our samples, particularly where both have diets rich in aquatic fauna. This may result from dietary differences between people and their dogs, perhaps due to consuming fish of different sizes, or even different tissues from the same aquatic fauna. This paper also provides a first glimpse of the DNA of ancient canids in Northeast Asia. PMID:23696851

  11. Burying dogs in ancient Cis-Baikal, Siberia: temporal trends and relationships with human diet and subsistence practices.

    PubMed

    Losey, Robert J; Garvie-Lok, Sandra; Leonard, Jennifer A; Katzenberg, M Anne; Germonpré, Mietje; Nomokonova, Tatiana; Sablin, Mikhail V; Goriunova, Olga I; Berdnikova, Natalia E; Savel'ev, Nikolai A

    2013-01-01

    The first objective of this study is to examine temporal patterns in ancient dog burials in the Lake Baikal region of Eastern Siberia. The second objective is to determine if the practice of dog burial here can be correlated with patterns in human subsistence practices, in particular a reliance on terrestrial mammals. Direct radiocarbon dating of a suite of the region's dog remains indicates that these animals were given burial only during periods in which human burials were common. Dog burials of any kind were most common during the Early Neolithic (∼7-8000 B.P.), and rare during all other time periods. Further, only foraging groups seem to have buried canids in this region, as pastoralist habitation sites and cemeteries generally lack dog interments, with the exception of sacrificed animals. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope data indicate that dogs were only buried where and when human diets were relatively rich in aquatic foods, which here most likely included river and lake fish and Baikal seal (Phoca sibirica). Generally, human and dog diets appear to have been similar across the study subregions, and this is important for interpreting their radiocarbon dates, and comparing them to those obtained on the region's human remains, both of which likely carry a freshwater old carbon bias. Slight offsets were observed in the isotope values of dogs and humans in our samples, particularly where both have diets rich in aquatic fauna. This may result from dietary differences between people and their dogs, perhaps due to consuming fish of different sizes, or even different tissues from the same aquatic fauna. This paper also provides a first glimpse of the DNA of ancient canids in Northeast Asia.

  12. Communication Media in Ancient Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jabusch, David M.

    Interest in early means of communication and in the uses and kinds of media that existed in ancient cultures is starting to grow among communication scholars. Conversation analysis of these cultures is obviously impossible, so that the emphasis must rest with material cultural artifacts. Many ancient cultures used non-verbal codes for dyadic…

  13. The Ancients' Appliance of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, Philip; Sword, Frances

    2004-01-01

    An innovative collaboration between the Fitzwilliam Museum in Cambridge and the University of Cambridge Faculty of Education encourages new questions to be asked of ancient objects. In the museum galleries children work directly from ancient Egyptian objects through activities designed to encourage questioning that unpicks the technologies of the…

  14. Ground resistance influences lizard burial in dry and wet sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharpe, Sarah; Kuckuk, Robyn; Goldman, Daniel

    2012-11-01

    Many terrestrial animals move within soil in which water content can vary, and little is known about how water content affects locomotor performance. To investigate the effect of water content on burial, we created controlled dry and wet substrates. We used 0.3 mm glass particles and varied water content W, the mass of water to mass of dry loosely packed sand. Drag force on a submerged 1.6 cm diameter rod increased by a factor of 4 as W increased from 0 to 0.03, after which force increases were small. Drag force in wet media periodically fluctuated with time and corresponded with surface fracturing. We characterized how W affected burial performance and strategy of a generalist burrower, the ocellated skink lizard (Chalcides ocellatus). High speed x-ray imaging was used to measure head, body and limb kinematics in substrates with W= 0 and W= 0.03. In both states during burial the body was maintained in a curved posture and the animal moved using a start-stop motion. During movement, the head oscillated and the forelimb on the convex side of the body was used to push the animal forward. Both speed and angular excursion of the head oscillation decreased in the W= 0.03 state. The differences in locomotion were attributed to the changing resistance force within the media.

  15. Undulation frequency affects burial performance in living and model flatfishes.

    PubMed

    McKee, Amberle; MacDonald, Ian; Farina, Stacy C; Summers, Adam P

    2016-04-01

    Flatfishes bury themselves under a thin layer of sand to hide from predators or to ambush prey. We investigated the role of undulation frequency of the body in burial in five species of flatfishes (Isopsetta isolepis, Lepidopsetta bilineata, Hippoglossoides elassodon, Parophrys vetulus, and Psettichthys melanostictus). High-speed videos show that undulations begin cranially and pass caudally while burying, as in forward swimming in many other fishes. The flatfishes also flick the posterior edge of their dorsal and anal fins during burial, which may increase the total surface area covered by substrate. We built a simple physical model - a flexible, oval silicone plate with a motorized, variable-speed actuator - to isolate the effect of undulation frequency on burial. In both the model and actuated dead flatfish, increased undulation frequency resulted in an increase in the area of sand coverage. Complete coverage required an undulation frequency of no more than 10Hz for our models, and that was also sufficient for live flatfishes. The model shows that undulation is sufficient to bury the animal, but live flatfishes showed a superior ability to bury, which we attribute to the action of the median fins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Interrelationship of age and diet in Romania's oldest human burial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonsall, Clive; Boroneanţ, Adina; Soficaru, Andrei; McSweeney, Kathleen; Higham, Tom; Miriţoiu, Nicolae; Pickard, Catriona; Cook, Gordon

    2012-04-01

    In 1968, excavations in the Climente II cave in the Iron Gates gorge of the River Danube in southwest Romania unearthed the skeleton of an adult male. The burial was assumed to be of Late Pleistocene age because of the presence of Late Upper Palaeolithic (LUP) artefacts in the cave. However, there was no strong supporting stratigraphic evidence, and the body position is reminiscent of Early Neolithic burial practice in the region. Here, we report the results of radiocarbon and stable isotope analyses of the Climente II skeleton, which show that the skeleton dates to the Bølling-Allerød Interstadial ~14,500 cal BP. This is several millennia older than any previously dated human remains from the Iron Gates region and confirms its status as the oldest known burial from Romania. The stable isotope results indicate a diet with an emphasis on aquatic resources, contrary to the commonly held view that the LUP inhabitants of the Iron Gates subsisted mainly by hunting large land mammals.

  17. Episodic burial metamorphism in the Andes—A viable model?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bevins, R. E.; Robinson, D.; Aguirre, L.; Vergara, M.

    2003-08-01

    Burial metamorphism of regional extent throughout Mesozoic to Cenozoic sequences in the Andean Mountain belt has been attributed previously to a unique model of metamorphic development, involving episodic ˜40 m.y. cycles of extensional basin formation, burial, metamorphism, and then exhumation. A main premise of this model is that breaks in metamorphic grade occur at major stratigraphic unconformities, so marking successive metamorphic cycles. This model is tested in a Mesozoic Cenozoic sequence east of Santiago, where three metamorphic episodes have been reported on the basis of sharp breaks in metamorphic grade at two main unconformities. In metabasites from this area, reaction progress in mafic phyllosilicates shows a continuum across the sequence without breaks at the unconformities. There are differences in mineral assemblages between the various stratigraphic units, from which contrasting subgreenschist facies can be recognized. However, consideration of the controls on mineral paragenesis at subgreenschist facies conditions demonstrates that these different facies cannot be used as evidence of sharp breaks in metamorphic grade at unconformities, as has been reported in many previous publications. Thus, metamorphic breaks within this Andean section cannot be confirmed. Accordingly, models of Andean burial metamorphism linked to episodic tectonic cycles throughout the Mesozoic and Cenozoic appear unfounded.

  18. Organic carbon burial rates in the Baltic Sea sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winogradow, A.; Pempkowiak, J.

    2014-02-01

    Recent studies indicate the important role of the marine environment in the circulation of CO2. This is due to the occurrence of the so called "biological pump" mechanism. A special role in this process is played by the shelf seas. The paper presents estimates of organic carbon burial rates in the Baltic Sea sediments. Quantification of the burial rate required the determination of organic carbon accumulation rate to the Baltic sediments and the carbon return flux from sediments to the water column. Results of both sediment and mass accumulation rates as well as profiles of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) were used. Sediment accumulation rates were based on 210Pb method validated by 137Cs measurements and ranged from 66 g m-2 yr-1 to 744 g m-2 yr-1 as regards mass accumulation rates and from 0.07 cm yr-1 to 0.25 cm yr-1 as regards linear accumulation rates. Carbon deposition to the Baltic sediments amounts to 1.955 ± 0.585 Tg m-2 yr-1, while 0.759 ± 0.020 g m-2 yr-1 of carbon returns from sediments to the water column. Thus the organic carbon burial rate in the Baltic Sea sediments is equal to 1.197 ± 0.584 Tg C m-2 yr-1.

  19. Interrelationship of age and diet in Romania's oldest human burial.

    PubMed

    Bonsall, Clive; Boroneanţ, Adina; Soficaru, Andrei; McSweeney, Kathleen; Higham, Tom; Miriţoiu, Nicolae; Pickard, Catriona; Cook, Gordon

    2012-04-01

    In 1968, excavations in the Climente II cave in the Iron Gates gorge of the River Danube in southwest Romania unearthed the skeleton of an adult male. The burial was assumed to be of Late Pleistocene age because of the presence of Late Upper Palaeolithic (LUP) artefacts in the cave. However, there was no strong supporting stratigraphic evidence, and the body position is reminiscent of Early Neolithic burial practice in the region. Here, we report the results of radiocarbon and stable isotope analyses of the Climente II skeleton, which show that the skeleton dates to the Bølling-Allerød Interstadial ~14,500 cal BP. This is several millennia older than any previously dated human remains from the Iron Gates region and confirms its status as the oldest known burial from Romania. The stable isotope results indicate a diet with an emphasis on aquatic resources, contrary to the commonly held view that the LUP inhabitants of the Iron Gates subsisted mainly by hunting large land mammals.

  20. Plant Sensitivity to Burial and Coastal Foredune Morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, E. B.; Moore, L. J.; deVries, E.; Jass, T. L.; Duran Vinent, O.

    2015-12-01

    Coastal dunes arise from a feedback between plant growth and aeolian sediment transport. Dune plants are uniquely adapted to the harsh coastal environment, and are able to tolerate high temperature, drought, salt spray, and burial by sand. Accurate modeling of coastal dunes relies on understanding how coastal plants respond to these stresses, and how the dune building feedback is modified as a result. We use two years of data from an experimental planting on Hog Island, VA, USA to parameterize a logistic growth model that explicitly includes the effects of plant burial on three species of common dune plants on the US East Coast: Spartina patens, Ammophila breviligulata, and Uniola paniculata. We couple this new plant growth model to the Coastal Dune Model of Durán and Moore (2013). Using this enhanced model we explore the consequences of plant sensitivity to burial on coastal dune growth. These results will add to the growing literature on coupled vegetation and sand transport models, specifically the modeling of coastal dunes.

  1. Self-burial mechanics of hygroscopically active awns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Wonjong; Kim, Wonjung; Kim, Ho-Young

    2013-11-01

    We present the results of a combined experimental and theoretical investigation of the mechanics of self-burial of some plant seeds whose morphologies respond to humidity change of the surroundings. The seeds of Pelargonium species have hygroscopically active awns that play a critical role in the dispersal from the parent plant and burial in soil. While the awn uncoils to a linear shape in a highly humid condition, it recoils to a helical shape when dry. The rotation is driven by the structure of the cell walls that are comprised of cellulose microfibers aligned in a tilted helix. During uncoiling of the awn, the revolving tail generates thrust to burrow into soil, so that the seed is self-buried. We present the direct observation of the self-burial of the seed with the thrust into a soft substrate being measured at the same time. The elastica theory allows us to rationalize this botanical digging mechanics using the structural deformations of the hygroexpansive tissues. This work was supported by the Sogang University Research Grant of 2013 (201310009.01) and the National Research Foundation of Korea (grant no. 2012-008023).

  2. Self-burial mechanics of hygroscopically responsive awns.

    PubMed

    Jung, Wonjong; Kim, Wonjung; Kim, Ho-Young

    2014-12-01

    We present the results of a combined experimental and theoretical investigation of the mechanics of self-burial of some plant seeds whose morphologies respond to environmental changes in humidity. The seeds of Erodium and Pelargonium have hygroscopically responsive awns that play a critical role in their self-burial into soil. The awn, coiled in a dry state, uncoils to stretch linearly under highly humid condition because of a tilted arrangement of cellulose microfibrils in one of the layers of the awn's bilayered structure. By measuring the mechanical characteristics of the awns of Pelargonium carnosum, we find that the extensional force of the awn can be aptly modeled by the theory of elasticity for a coiled spring. We further show that although the resistance to the seed-head penetrating relatively coarse soils without spinning is large enough to block the digging seed, the rotation of the seed greatly reduces the soil's resistance down to a level the awn can easily overcome. Our mechanical analysis reveals that the self-burial of the seed is a sophisticated outcome of the helically coiled configuration of the awn.

  3. Submarine cementation patterns of Holocene reefs provide models for porosity development in ancient reef reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Lighty, R.G.

    1983-03-01

    An understanding of processes of formation and postdepositional alteration of Holocene carbonate buildups can aid the explorationist in locating and predicting reservoir facies in subsurface analogs. In the subsurface, ancient shelf-edge reefs may contain primary porosity that has escaped shallow subsurface cementation. This preserved primary porosity is commonly enhanced later by carbonate dissolution associated with widespread subsurface fluid migration and/or dissolution fronts along permeable stylolite zones. Therefore, given a burial history of continued subsidence, knowledge of early submarine cementation patterns is important for understanding reef facies distribution of late subsurface diagenesis.

  4. Tamil Merchant in Ancient Mesopotamia

    PubMed Central

    Palanichamy, Malliya gounder; Mitra, Bikash; Debnath, Monojit; Agrawal, Suraksha; Chaudhuri, Tapas Kumar; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Recent analyses of ancient Mesopotamian mitochondrial genomes have suggested a genetic link between the Indian subcontinent and Mesopotamian civilization. There is no consensus on the origin of the ancient Mesopotamians. They may be descendants of migrants, who founded regional Mesopotamian groups like that of Terqa or they may be merchants who were involved in trans Mesopotamia trade. To identify the Indian source population showing linkage to the ancient Mesopotamians, we screened a total of 15,751 mitochondrial DNAs (11,432 from the literature and 4,319 from this study) representing all major populations of India. Our results although suggest that south India (Tamil Nadu) and northeast India served as the source of the ancient Mesopotamian mtDNA gene pool, mtDNA of these ancient Mesopotamians probably contributed by Tamil merchants who were involved in the Indo-Roman trade. PMID:25299580

  5. Tamil merchant in ancient Mesopotamia.

    PubMed

    Palanichamy, Malliya Gounder; Mitra, Bikash; Debnath, Monojit; Agrawal, Suraksha; Chaudhuri, Tapas Kumar; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Recent analyses of ancient Mesopotamian mitochondrial genomes have suggested a genetic link between the Indian subcontinent and Mesopotamian civilization. There is no consensus on the origin of the ancient Mesopotamians. They may be descendants of migrants, who founded regional Mesopotamian groups like that of Terqa or they may be merchants who were involved in trans Mesopotamia trade. To identify the Indian source population showing linkage to the ancient Mesopotamians, we screened a total of 15,751 mitochondrial DNAs (11,432 from the literature and 4,319 from this study) representing all major populations of India. Our results although suggest that south India (Tamil Nadu) and northeast India served as the source of the ancient Mesopotamian mtDNA gene pool, mtDNA of these ancient Mesopotamians probably contributed by Tamil merchants who were involved in the Indo-Roman trade.

  6. Ancient Chinese Sundials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Kehui

    Timekeeping was essential in the agricultural society of ancient China. The use of sundials for timekeeping was associated with the use of the gnomon, which had its origin in remote antiquity. This chapter studies three sundials (guiyi 晷仪) from the Qin and Han dynasties, the shorter shadow plane sundial (duanying ping yi 短影平仪) invented by Yuan Chong in the Sui Dynasty, and the sundial chart (guiyingtu 晷影图) invented by Zeng Minxing in the Southern Song dynasty. This chapter also introduces Guo Shoujing's hemispherical sundial (yang yi 仰仪). A circular stone sundial discovered at the Small Wild Goose Pagoda in Xi'an is also mentioned. It is dated from the Sui and Tang dynasties. A brief survey of sundials from the Qing dynasty shows various types of sundials.

  7. Speciation in ancient lakes.

    PubMed

    Martens, K

    1997-05-01

    About a dozen lakes in the world are up to three orders of magnitude older than most others. Lakes Tanganyika (East Africa) and Baikal (Siberia) have probably existed in some form for 12-20 million years, maybe more. Such lakes can have different origins, sizes, shapes, depths and limnologies, but, in contrast to short-lived (mostly post-glacial) lakes, they have exceptionally high faunal diversity and levels of endemicity. A multitude of and processes accounting for these explosive radiations have recently been documented, most of them based on particular groups in certain lakes, but comparative research can detect repeated patterns. No special speciafion mechanism, exclusive to ancient lakes has been demonstrated, although cases of ultra-rapid speciation have been documented. Extant diversity results not by simple accumulation, but by a complex process of immigration, speciation and extinction.

  8. An Ancient Valley Network

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-05-09

    Most of the oldest terrains on Mars have eroded into branching valleys, as seen here in by NASA's Mars Reconnaisance Orbiter, much like many land regions of Earth are eroded by rain and snowmelt runoff. This is the primary evidence for major climate change on Mars billions of years ago. How the climate of Mars could have supported a warmer and wetter environment has been the subject of scientific debates for 40 years. A full-resolution enhanced color closeup reveals details in the bedrock and dunes on the valley floor (upper left). The bedrock of ancient Mars has been hardened and cemented by groundwater. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21630

  9. Characterization of Ancient Tripitaka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Y. X.; Geng, L.; Gong, D. C.

    2015-08-01

    Tripitaka is the world's most comprehensive version of Buddhist sutra. There are limited numbers of Tripitaka currently preserved, most of them present various patterns of degradation. As little is known about the materials and crafts used in Tripitaka, it appeared necessary to identify them, and to further define adapted conservation treatment. In this work, a study concerning the paper source and dyestuff of the Tripitaka from approximate 16th century was carried out using fiber analysis and thin-layer chromatography (TLC). The results proved that the papers were mainly made from hemp or bark of mulberry tree, and indigo was used for colorizing the paper. At the end, we provide with suggestions for protecting and restoring the ancient Tripitaka.

  10. Ancient River revealed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Recent flights of the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) mission aboard the space shuttle Endeavour discovered a previously unknown branch of an ancient river. The images, released at AGU's Spring Meeting, show the river channel buried under thousands of years worth of windblown sand in a region of North Africa's Sahara Desert near the Kufra Oasis in southeast Libya, centered at 23.3°N latitude, 22.9°E longitude. The image from the flight last October reveals a system of old, now inactive stream valleys, called “paleodrainage systems,” which carried running water northward across the Sahara during periods of wetter climate.

  11. Reanimation of Ancient Bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Vreeland, Russell H.

    2009-01-09

    Recent highly publicized experiments conducted on salt crystals taken from the Permian Salado Formation in Southeastern New Mexico have shown that some ancient crystals contain viable microorganisms trapped within fluid inclusions. Stringent geological and microbiological selection criteria were used to select crystals and conduct all sampling. This talk will focus on how each of these lines of data support the conclusion that such isolated bacteria are as old as the rock in which they are trapped. In this case, the isolated microbes are salt tolerant bacilli that grow best in media containing 8% NaCl, and respond to concentrated brines by forming spores. One of the organisms is phylogenetically related to several bacilli, but does have several unique characteristics. This talk will trace the interdisciplinary data and procedures supporting these discoveries, and describe the various isolated bacteria.

  12. Reanimation of Ancient Bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Vreeland, Russell H.

    2002-01-09

    Recent highly publicized experiments conducted on salt crystals taken from the Permian Salado Formation in Southeastern New Mexico have shown that some ancient crystals contain viable microorganisms trapped within fluid inclusions. Stringent geological and microbiological selection criteria were used to select crystals and conduct all sampling. This talk will focus on how each of these lines of data support the conclusion that such isolated bacteria are as old as the rock in which they are trapped. In this case, the isolated microbes are salt tolerant bacilli that grow best in media containing 8% NaCl, and respond to concentrated brines by forming spores. One of the organisms is phylogenetically related to several bacilli, but does have several unique characteristics. This talk will trace the interdisciplinary data and procedures supporting these discoveries, and describe the various isolated bacteria.

  13. Multibeam observations of mine burial near Clearwater, FL, including comparisons to predictions of wave-induced burial

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolfson, M.L.; Naar, D.F.; Howd, P.A.; Locker, S.D.; Donahue, B.T.; Friedrichs, Carl T.; Trembanis, A.C.; Richardson, M.D.; Wever, T.F.

    2007-01-01

    A Kongsberg Simrad EM 3000 multibeam sonar (Kongsberg Simrad, Kongsberg, Norway) was used to conduct a set of six repeat high-resolution bathymetric surveys west of Indian Rocks Beach (IRB), just to the south of Clearwater, FL, between January and March 2003, to observe in situ scour and burial of instrumented inert mines and mine-like cylinders. Three closely located study sites were chosen: two fine-sand sites, a shallow one located in ??? 13 m of water depth and a deep site located in ???14 m of water depth; and a coarse-sand site in ???13 m. Results from these surveys indicate that mines deployed in fine sand are nearly buried within two months of deployment (i.e., they sunk 74.5% or more below the ambient seafloor depth). Mines deployed in coarse sand showed a lesser amount of scour, burying until they present roughly the same hydrodynamic roughness as the surrounding rippled bedforms. These data were also used to test the validity of the Virginia Institute of Marine Science (VIMS, Gloucester Point, VA) 2-D burial model. The model worked well in areas of fine sand, sufficiently predicting burial over the course of the experiment. In the area of coarse sand, the model greatly overpredicted the amount of burial. This is believed to be due to the presence of rippled bedforms around the mines, which affect local bottom morphodynamics and are not accounted for in the model, an issue currently being addressed by the modelers. This paper focuses specifically on two instrumented mines: an acoustic mine located in fine sand and an optical instrumented mine located in coarse sand. ?? 2007 IEEE.

  14. Dynamics of Sandwaves under Combined Wave - Current Forcing and Mine Burial Processes, and RIVET I and Mine Burial Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    the mine burial project has been documented in previous annual reports. Preparation of new side-looking multibeam bedform imaging sonars and mine...Instrumentation for Plume, Sediment and Bed Dynamics in Energetic Coastal Environments: A Multibeam Sidescan Sonar and Portable Turbulance Profiler”) is a...support of optical measurements of particle dynamics (Environmental Optics ), and integrating the pcADPs on Geyer’s MAST (Physical Oceanography). The

  15. Burial Duration and Frequency Influences Resilience of Differing Propagule Types in a Subtidal Seagrass, Posidonia australis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Sedimentation that leads to periodic, and often prolonged, burial events is becoming more common on the world’s coastlines as human populations expand and create urbanised marine environments. Different seagrass species react differently to sediment burial but many species in the southern hemisphere are yet to be examined. How seagrasses react to burial has restoration implications. There is a need to critically assess seagrass transplant propagule responses to periodic (pulse) and prolonged (press) burial events before selecting the most appropriate species, transplant propagule, and transplant site. In my study, mesocosm experiments, coupled with field measurements were used to assess how sexual (seedlings) and vegetative (sprigs) propagules of Posidonia australis responded to pulse and press burial events. Seedlings were highly susceptible to burial (both pulse and press), with no survival at the end of the experimental period. In contrast, rhizome growth in vegetative propagules was stimulated by pulse burial, although press burial events resulted in mortality. The implication for Posidonia australis restoration efforts in areas where burial is periodic, was that vegetative propagules are optimal transplant units, in comparison to seedlings. Press burial however, renders a transplant site sub-optimal for both seedling and sprig transplants. PMID:27526020

  16. Burial Duration and Frequency Influences Resilience of Differing Propagule Types in a Subtidal Seagrass, Posidonia australis.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Marnie L

    2016-01-01

    Sedimentation that leads to periodic, and often prolonged, burial events is becoming more common on the world's coastlines as human populations expand and create urbanised marine environments. Different seagrass species react differently to sediment burial but many species in the southern hemisphere are yet to be examined. How seagrasses react to burial has restoration implications. There is a need to critically assess seagrass transplant propagule responses to periodic (pulse) and prolonged (press) burial events before selecting the most appropriate species, transplant propagule, and transplant site. In my study, mesocosm experiments, coupled with field measurements were used to assess how sexual (seedlings) and vegetative (sprigs) propagules of Posidonia australis responded to pulse and press burial events. Seedlings were highly susceptible to burial (both pulse and press), with no survival at the end of the experimental period. In contrast, rhizome growth in vegetative propagules was stimulated by pulse burial, although press burial events resulted in mortality. The implication for Posidonia australis restoration efforts in areas where burial is periodic, was that vegetative propagules are optimal transplant units, in comparison to seedlings. Press burial however, renders a transplant site sub-optimal for both seedling and sprig transplants.

  17. The Genetic History of Peruvian Quechua-Lamistas and Chankas: Uniparental DNA Patterns among Autochthonous Amazonian and Andean Populations.

    PubMed

    Sandoval, José R; Lacerda, Daniela R; Acosta, Oscar; Jota, Marilza S; Robles-Ruiz, Paulo; Salazar-Granara, Alberto; Vieira, Pedro Paulo R; Paz-Y-Miño, César; Fujita, Ricardo; Santos, Fabricio R

    2016-03-01

    This study focuses on the genetic history of the Quechua-Lamistas, inhabitants of the Lamas Province in the San Martin Department, Peru, who speak their own distinct variety of the Quechua family of languages. It has been suggested that different pre-Columbian ethnic groups from the Peruvian Amazonia, like the Motilones or "shaven heads", assimilated the Quechua language and then formed the current native population of Lamas. However, many Quechua-Lamistas claim to be direct descendants of the Chankas, a famous pre-Columbian indigenous group that escaped from Inca rule in the Andes. To investigate the Quechua-Lamistas and Chankas' ancestries, we compared uniparental genetic profiles (17 STRs of Q-M3 Y-chromosome and mtDNA complete control region haplotypes) among autochthonous Amazonian and Andean populations from Peru, Bolivia and Ecuador. The phylogeographic and population genetic analyses indicate a fairly heterogeneous ancestry for the Quechua-Lamistas, while they are closely related to their neighbours who speak Amazonian languages, presenting no direct relationships with populations from the region where the ancient Chankas lived. On the other hand, the genetic profiles of self-identified Chanka descendants living in Andahuaylas (located in the Apurimac Department, Peru, in the Central Andes) were closely related to those living in Huancavelica and the assumed Chanka Confederation area before the Inca expansion.

  18. The Genetic History of Peruvian Quechua‐Lamistas and Chankas: Uniparental DNA Patterns among Autochthonous Amazonian and Andean Populations

    PubMed Central

    Sandoval, José R.; Lacerda, Daniela R.; Acosta, Oscar; Jota, Marilza S.; Robles‐Ruiz, Paulo; Salazar‐Granara, Alberto; Vieira, Pedro Paulo R.; Paz‐y‐Miño, César; Fujita, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Summary This study focuses on the genetic history of the Quechua‐Lamistas, inhabitants of the Lamas Province in the San Martin Department, Peru, who speak their own distinct variety of the Quechua family of languages. It has been suggested that different pre‐Columbian ethnic groups from the Peruvian Amazonia, like the Motilones or “shaven heads”, assimilated the Quechua language and then formed the current native population of Lamas. However, many Quechua‐Lamistas claim to be direct descendants of the Chankas, a famous pre‐Columbian indigenous group that escaped from Inca rule in the Andes. To investigate the Quechua‐Lamistas and Chankas’ ancestries, we compared uniparental genetic profiles (17 STRs of Q‐M3 Y‐chromosome and mtDNA complete control region haplotypes) among autochthonous Amazonian and Andean populations from Peru, Bolivia and Ecuador. The phylogeographic and population genetic analyses indicate a fairly heterogeneous ancestry for the Quechua‐Lamistas, while they are closely related to their neighbours who speak Amazonian languages, presenting no direct relationships with populations from the region where the ancient Chankas lived. On the other hand, the genetic profiles of self‐identified Chanka descendants living in Andahuaylas (located in the Apurimac Department, Peru, in the Central Andes) were closely related to those living in Huancavelica and the assumed Chanka Confederation area before the Inca expansion. PMID:26879156

  19. Language, Culture, and Power: Intercultural Bilingual Education among the Urarina of Peruvian Amazonia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Bartholomew

    1999-01-01

    The Peruvian national indigenous federation established a bilingual, intercultural teachers' training program to counter stereotypes of indigenous people portrayed in the authoritarian, monolingual Spanish national curriculum, and to enhance language preservation, ethnic mobilization, and cultural survival. A complementary transitional bilingual…

  20. Language, Culture, and Power: Intercultural Bilingual Education among the Urarina of Peruvian Amazonia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Bartholomew

    1999-01-01

    The Peruvian national indigenous federation established a bilingual, intercultural teachers' training program to counter stereotypes of indigenous people portrayed in the authoritarian, monolingual Spanish national curriculum, and to enhance language preservation, ethnic mobilization, and cultural survival. A complementary transitional bilingual…

  1. Finding ancient parasite larvae in a sample from a male living in late 17th century Korea.

    PubMed

    Shin, D H; Chai, J Y; Park, E A; Lee, W; Lee, H; Lee, J S; Choi, Y M; Koh, B J; Park, J B; Oh, C S; Bok, G D; Kim, W L; Lee, E; Lee, E J; Seo, M

    2009-06-01

    Parasitological examination of samples from tombs of the Korean Joseon Dynasty (1392-1910) could be helpful to researchers in understanding parasitic infection prevalence in pre-industrial Korean society. Whereas most of our previous parasitological studies revealed the presence of ancient parasite eggs in coprolites of Korean mummies, a sample from a man living in late 17th century Korea proved to be relatively unique in possessing what appeared to be several species of parasite larvae. The larvae identified included Strongyloides stercoralis and Trichostrongylus spp., along with eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and Paragonimus westermani. Since ancient parasite larvae retain enough morphology to make proper species identification possible, even after long burial times, the examination of parasite larvae within ancient samples will be conducted more carefully in our future work.

  2. Senenmut: An Ancient Egyptian Astronomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novakovic, B.

    2008-10-01

    The celestial phenomena have always been a source of wonder and interest to people, even as long ago as the ancient Egyptians. While the ancient Egyptians did not know all the things about astronomy that we do now, they had a good understanding of some celestial phenomena. The achievements in astronomy of ancient Egyptians are relatively well known, but we know very little about the people who made these achievements. The goal of this paper is to bring some light on the life of Senenmut, the chief architect and astronomer during the reign of Queen Hatshepsut.

  3. Lead in Ancient Peru: the Curamba Smelter and Lead Sling Bullets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, William E.; Parodi, Luisa Vetter; Farfán, Armando V.; Dykstra, David

    2012-11-01

    Since the 16th century, the Inca site of Curamba, in southern Peru, has been interpreted as a metallurgical center for processing silver ore. Yet, aside from the many shallow pits, interpreted as hornos for smelting silver, there was no physical evidence for the use of huayras or tocochimbos, which were the structures traditionally used for precontact silver smelting in the ancient Andes. Geochemical analyses (inductively coupled plasma) of scoria excavated from the hornos at Curamba indicate low Ag (<0.3 ppm to 0.4 ppm), Au (<2 ppm), and Cu (18 ppm to 31 ppm) contents, whereas Pb (155 ppm to 234 ppm) and Zn (125 ppm to 259 ppm) contents were high. This suggests that nonargentiferous galena (PbS) was smelted to obtain lead. A lead-zinc signature is also indicated by the presence of As, Ba, Fe, Mn, and V, yet no ore minerals such as PbS or sphalerite [(Zn,Fe)S] have been found at the site. Several precontact lead artifacts from ancient Peru have been described as bars ( lingotes) or weights ( pesos). However, alternatively, these artifacts might be more accurately described as: (a) biconic to ovoid (30 mm to 60 mm, 30 g to 40 g) or (b) spherical (35 mm, 80 g to 160 g); therefore, in composition, dimensions, form, and weight, these ancient Peruvian lead artifacts from the north coast are strikingly similar to ancient Roman and Celtic lead sling ammunition from first-century BC battle sites, and are herein interpreted to have served a similar function in ancient Andean warfare.

  4. Compositional characterization of native Peruvian chili peppers (Capsicum spp.).

    PubMed

    Meckelmann, Sven W; Riegel, Dieter W; van Zonneveld, Maarten J; Ríos, Llermé; Peña, Karla; Ugas, Roberto; Quinonez, Lourdes; Mueller-Seitz, Erika; Petz, Michael

    2013-03-13

    The national Capsicum germplasm bank of Peru at INIA holds a unique collection of more than 700 Capsicum accessions, including many landraces. These conserved accessions have never been thoroughly characterized or evaluated. Another smaller collection exists at UNALM, and CIDRA provided taxonomically characterized fruits from the Amazon region of Ucayali. Of these collections, 147 accessions have been selected to represent the biodiversity of Peruvian Capsicum annuum , Capsicum baccatum , Capsicum chinense , and Capsicum frutescens by morphological traits as well as by agronomic characteristics and regional origin. All fruits from the selected accessions have been oven-dried and ground in Peru and analyzed in Germany. Results are reported for each accession by total capsaicinoids and capsaicinoid pattern, total polyphenol content, antioxidant capacity, specific flavonoids (quercetin, kaempferol, luteolin, apigenin), fat content, vitamin C, surface color, and extractable color. A wide variability in phytochemical composition and concentration levels was found.

  5. [Ethics and medicine: the experience of the Peruvian Medical Association].

    PubMed

    Mendoza F, Alfonso

    2011-12-01

    This article shows the work of the Peruvian Medical Association with respect to ethical disciplinary procedures, but also shows how, beyond the ethical control, the Order has promoted through a set of actions, a technically competent health care that respects the dignity and fundamental human rights. Part of these actions are the establishment of the Patient's Day, the emphasis in improving the quality and safety in the care of the users of the health services, the initiative to prevent and treat adverse events, the regulation and improvement of the physicians training both in pre as in post-graduate levels, and the demand for the establishment of an optimal health system and policies that will realize the right to health in the context of the principles of bioethics.

  6. Logging Concessions Enable Illegal Logging Crisis in the Peruvian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Finer, Matt; Jenkins, Clinton N.; Sky, Melissa A. Blue; Pine, Justin

    2014-01-01

    The Peruvian Amazon is an important arena in global efforts to promote sustainable logging in the tropics. Despite recent efforts to achieve sustainability, such as provisions in the US–Peru Trade Promotion Agreement, illegal logging continues to plague the region. We present evidence that Peru's legal logging concession system is enabling the widespread illegal logging via the regulatory documents designed to ensure sustainable logging. Analyzing official government data, we found that 68.3% of all concessions supervised by authorities were suspected of major violations. Of the 609 total concessions, nearly 30% have been cancelled for violations and we expect this percentage to increase as investigations continue. Moreover, the nature of the violations indicate that the permits associated with legal concessions are used to harvest trees in unauthorized areas, thus threatening all forested areas. Many of the violations pertain to the illegal extraction of CITES-listed timber species outside authorized areas. These findings highlight the need for additional reforms. PMID:24743552

  7. [Blood lead in the inhabitants of 4 Peruvian localities].

    PubMed

    Ramírez, A V; Paucar, J C; Medina, J M

    1997-05-01

    During 1994 and 1995, a cross-sectional study was carried out to investigate the concentrations of lead in the blood of inhabitants of four Peruvian cities (Lima, Huancayo, La Oroya, and Yaupi) with different population densities and degrees of industrial development. In a random sample of 180 men and 180 women without occupational exposure to lead, blood lead levels were measured by the atomic absorption method with a Perkin Elmer 603 spectrophotometer without a graphite oven. The results revealed blood lead concentrations of 269 +/- 63 micrograms per liter (micrograms/L) in Lima, 224 +/- 47 micrograms/L in Huancayo; 348 +/- 40 micrograms/L in La Oroya, and 140 +/- 27 micrograms/L in Yaupi. It was concluded that blood lead levels in the inhabitants of these cities were related to the degree of industrialization and the population density of each locality.

  8. [Cat's Claw: an herb from the Peruvian Amazon].

    PubMed

    Steinberg, P N

    1995-01-01

    Uncaria tomentosa, also known as cat's claw, an herb from the highlands of the Peruvian Amazon, has been used by natives for hundreds of years to treat immunologic and digestive disorders. Research began in the 1970s to discover the benefits of this plant in relieving symptoms of cancers, arthritis, and other ailments. It has the ability to cleanse the digestive tract, aiding victims of Crohn's, colitis, gastritis and more. In a 1989 study by Klaus Keplinger, several alkaloid oxidants found in the plant's roots showed an ability to stimulate the immune system. The principal alkaloids are isopteropodine and rynchophyiline. Extracts of cat's claw mixed with AZT in an experimental drug, called Krallendom, were effective in reducing symptoms in AIDS patients in Austria. The plant has been useful in reducing secondary effects of radiation and chemotherapy in cancer victims as well.

  9. Logging Concessions Enable Illegal Logging Crisis in the Peruvian Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finer, Matt; Jenkins, Clinton N.; Sky, Melissa A. Blue; Pine, Justin

    2014-04-01

    The Peruvian Amazon is an important arena in global efforts to promote sustainable logging in the tropics. Despite recent efforts to achieve sustainability, such as provisions in the US-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement, illegal logging continues to plague the region. We present evidence that Peru's legal logging concession system is enabling the widespread illegal logging via the regulatory documents designed to ensure sustainable logging. Analyzing official government data, we found that 68.3% of all concessions supervised by authorities were suspected of major violations. Of the 609 total concessions, nearly 30% have been cancelled for violations and we expect this percentage to increase as investigations continue. Moreover, the nature of the violations indicate that the permits associated with legal concessions are used to harvest trees in unauthorized areas, thus threatening all forested areas. Many of the violations pertain to the illegal extraction of CITES-listed timber species outside authorized areas. These findings highlight the need for additional reforms.

  10. The Peruvian diaspora: portrait of a migratory process.

    PubMed

    Durand, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    Since the 1980s and especially the 1990s, Peru has become a nation of emigrants. Emigration has become massive over the past two decades, and the Peruvian populations of the United States, Japan, and Spain have tripled in less than a decade. A survey of households in five localities, three urban and two rural, in and around Lima helps to reveal the special character of this emigration. It tends to involve older and better-educated individuals than are typical of international migration and to target a wider variety of destinations. Moreover, it is a multiclass phenomenon. The economic, political, and social crisis brought about by a change in the economic model, two decades of terrorism, and a succession of failed democratic administrations has affected the society as a whole, and international migration seems to operate as an escape valve.

  11. Ancient Astronomy in Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artemenko, Tatyana G.; Vavilova, Iryna B.

    2007-08-01

    Astronomical culture and research have long-standing traditions in Ukraine. The first signs of astronomical knowledge were found in archaeological excavations and records. The most ancient find (dated as 15,000 B.C.) is a mammoth tusk with a fretwork image of a table of lunar phases found in the Poltava region. The so-called Trypillya culture (dated 4,000 - 3,000 B.C) had numerous examples of ornaments at the howls, distaffs, wheels and other everyday articles with symbolic images of zodiac constellations, and vessel-calendars indicating the vernal/autumnal equinoxes and the motion of the Sun. Some of such unique exhibits stored at the National Museum of History of Ukraine will be described in details in this paper. For example, the vessel calendar dating by IV century of our era (from village Romashki, Kyiv region). This image was interpreted by B. Rybakov as an agricultural calendar from May to August (time of harvesting). Most of exhibits of Museum were founded by archaeologist Vikenty Khvoyko and presented by him to Museum in 1905. Description and pictures of vessels and cups from Chernyahiv, Trypillya IV century B.C. with the Solar signs and tusk of the mammoth from Kyrilovska parking with notches interpreted as a calendar as well as tree-storied pictures of vessel from Trypillya interpreted as a “vertical cross section of the world” in dynamics will be also given. Another unique historical record relates to the times of the powerful state of the Kievan Rus' (X- XIII centuries), when astronomical observations were conducted mainly in cloisters. For example, the authors of the Lavrentievska chronicle describe the solar eclipses of the years 1064, 1091, and 1115 A.D. and the lunar eclipses of 1161 A.D. At that times some natural cataclysms have been connected with eclipses that, for example, was described in “The Word about Igor's shelf” by Nestor Letopisec. Thus, facts discussed in paper pointed out once more that astronomy is one of the most ancient

  12. Experimental assessment of critical anthropogenic sediment burial in eelgrass Zostera marina.

    PubMed

    Munkes, Britta; Schubert, Philipp R; Karez, Rolf; Reusch, Thorsten B H

    2015-11-15

    Seagrass meadows, one of the world's most important and productive coastal habitats, are threatened by a range of anthropogenic actions. Burial of seagrass plants due to coastal activities is one important anthropogenic pressure leading to the decline of local populations. In our study, we assessed the response of eelgrass Zostera marina to sediment burial from physiological, morphological, and population parameters. In a full factorial field experiment, burial level (5-20cm) and burial duration (4-16weeks) were manipulated. Negative effects were visible even at the lowest burial level (5cm) and shortest duration (4weeks), with increasing effects over time and burial level. Buried seagrasses showed higher shoot mortality, delayed growth and flowering and lower carbohydrate storage. The observed effects will likely have an impact on next year's survival of buried plants. Our results have implications for the management of this important coastal plant.

  13. Developmental Effects Determine Submaximal Arterial Oxygen Saturation in Peruvian Quechua

    PubMed Central

    León-Velarde, Fabiola; Rivera-Chira, María; Elías, Gianpietro; Brutsaert, Tom D.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Kiyamu, Melisa, Fabiola León-Velarde, María Rivera-Chira, Gianpietro Elías, and Tom D. Brutsaert. Developmental effects determine submaximal arterial oxygen saturation in Peruvian Quechua. High Alt Med Biol 16, 138–146, 2015.—Andean high altitude natives show higher arterial oxygen saturation (Sao2) during exercise in hypoxia, compared to acclimatized sojourners. In order to evaluate the effects of life-long exposure to high altitude on Sao2, we studied two groups of well-matched, self-identified Peruvian Quechua natives who differed in their developmental exposure to hypoxia before and after a 2-month training period. Male and female volunteers (18–35 years) were recruited in Lima, Peru (150 m). The two groups were: a) Individuals who were born and raised at sea-level (BSL, n=34) and b) Individuals who were born and raised at high altitude (BHA, n=32), but who migrated to sea-level as adults (>16 years old). Exercise testing was conducted using a submaximal exercise protocol in normobaric hypoxia in Lima (BP=750 mmHg, Fio2=0.12), in order to measure Sao2 (%), ventilation (VE L/min) and oxygen consumption (Vo2, L/min). Repeated-measures ANOVA, controlling for VE/VO2 (L/min) and sex during the submaximal protocol showed that BHA maintained higher Sao2 (%) compared to BSL at all workloads before (p=0.005) and after training (p=0.017). As expected, both groups showed a decrease in Sao2 (%) (p<0.001), as workload increased. Resting Sao2 levels were not found to be different between groups. The results suggest that developmental exposure to altitude contributes to the maintenance of higher Sao2 levels during submaximal exercise at hypoxia. PMID:25977978

  14. Childhood abuse and adult-onset asthma among Peruvian women.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Dipti; Gelaye, Bizu; Zhong, Qiu-Yue; Sanchez, Sixto E; Williams, Michelle A

    2017-06-26

    Childhood abuse has been found to be associated with adult-onset asthma; however, this association has not been studied in low- and middle-income countries with a high burden of gender-based violence, including childhood abuse. We examined the odds of asthma diagnosed at age 18 or older in relation to history of physical and sexual abuse among Peruvian pregnant women. This cross-sectional study collected demographic characteristics, history of abuse and asthma diagnoses from 3081 pregnant women. Logistic regression procedures estimated adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (aOR, [95% CI]) for asthma diagnoses in relation to abuse. Overall, 71% of the women reported a history of abuse (<18 years), and asthma was diagnosed among 2.6% of the cohort participants. The prevalence of physical only, sexual only and both physical and sexual childhood abuse was 38, 8 and 25%, respectively. The history of physical only (1.16, [0.63-2.17]), sexual only (2.11, [0.92-4.84]) or both physical and sexual childhood abuse (1.75, [0.94-3.29]) was positively associated with increased odds of asthma, although the associations were not statistically significant in the multivariate analysis. However, the odds of asthma increased with increasing numbers of abuse events (ptrend = 0.01). Women who reported ≥3 abuse events had an increased odds of asthma (1.88, [1.06-3.34]). Our results do not provide convincing evidence that childhood abuse is associated with asthma among pregnant Peruvian women; however, we were able to demonstrate that an increased number of abuse events are associated with asthma. Further research is required to better understand the effects of abuse on asthma.

  15. Education and the community in the Peruvian educational reform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malpica, Carlos

    1980-09-01

    The reform of Peruvian education initiated in 1972 was based on new concepts, postulated new policies and proposed to convert the old school system into a new educational system in accordance with the revolutionary process begun in 1968. The principles of permanent education, education in the community and the educating community inspired an ambitious educational model on a national scale, to organise community education nuclei (NECs) of a local dimension, in which a dynamic social education of a participatory and self-managerial character could be created. This process of nuclearisation, which has historical antecedents going back to the social, economic and political organisation of the Incan Empire, and was revived in the twentieth century by the creation of the famous Warisata School in Bolivia, has now undergone nine years of valuable experience in Peru, attempting to develop an efficient alternative to the old school model which originated before the Christian era. The community/education dialectic has suffered a profound change in Peru in the last ten years and the experience, whether of obstacles and limitations, appears to be valuable and irreversible. The non-statist, non-bureaucratic, non-party and non-private solution that was pursued by the Peruvian Revolution in the field of education is very attractive and could interest other countries of the region which, during the last 30 years have applied the nuclearisation model, as well as other countries in Latin America or other regions who have recently either initiated or considered it. This article presents the experience, relates it to its historical antecedents, gives some information on evaluation studies in progress and traces some perspectives or projections for educational nuclearisation.

  16. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-B-1, 105-B Solid Waste Burial Ground

    SciTech Connect

    J. M. Capron

    2008-01-21

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action, sampling activities, and compliance criteria for the 118-B-1, 105-B Solid Waste Burial Ground. This waste site was the primary burial ground for general wastes from the operation of the 105-B Reactor and P-10 Tritium Separation Project and also received waste from the 105-N Reactor. The burial ground received reactor hardware, process piping and tubing, fuel spacers, glassware, electrical components, tritium process wastes, soft wastes and other miscellaneous debris.

  17. Sediment burial stimulates the growth and propagule production of Spartina alterniflora Loisel.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Zifa; An, Shuqing; Zhao, Congjiao; Chen, Lin; Zhou, Changfang; Zhi, Yingbiao; Li, Hongli

    2008-03-01

    Spartina alterniflora Loisel., an extensively invasive species on the Chinese coast, is a focus of increasing management concern due to its high expansion rate in estuaries and tidal zone, and the significant damage it causes to native ecosystems. In order to understand the processes and mechanisms of invasion of S. alterniflora in China, the impact of three sediment types (sand, sand-loam mixture and loam) and five buried patterns (unburied, 50% burial of initial plant height, 75% burial of initial plant height, complete burial and repeated burial) on the growth of seedlings or ramets was investigated. Results showed that each of the three factors (sediment types, burial pattern and plant materials) and interactions between/among them, significantly affected height and clonal growth, and biomass accumulation and allocation. Plant height, total biomass and number of new vegetative propagules significantly increased with progressive burial treatments. However, the complete burial treatment resulted in the death of all plant materials, and the maximum values of three parameters were found in the 50% burial or repeated burial treatments. Plant responses were determined by the instantaneous thickness of sediment of each time burial rather than by the total quantity of repeated burial. The growth of S. alterniflora was not shown to be dependent on specific types of sediment in sedimentation environment. In contrast to the unburied control, the proportion of primary tillers produced directly from initial individuals and the ratio between the aboveground and belowground biomass were greater under burial treatments. Seedlings produced more new vegetative propagules than vegetative offspring in all experimental treatments, and the former were apt to produce ramets from rhizomes rather than primary tillers. It is concluded that under various sedimentation environments, the clonal spread efficiency of seedlings was higher than that of vegetative offspring, and there is a

  18. Precipitation data for burial grounds 5 and 6, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee, 1976-1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webster, D.A.; Beatty, J.S.; Benjamin, Pamela K.; Tranum, W.M.

    1981-01-01

    As part of a hydrogeologic investigation, precipitation data were collected at two stations, one each in Burial Grounds 5 and 6 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee. Daily, monthly, and annual values are reported herein for the period from January 1976 through December 1980. During this period, annual values ranged from about 25 percent above to about 25 percent below the calculated mean of 51.96 inches at Burial Ground 5 and 49.60 inches at Burial Ground 6. (USGS)

  19. GPR and bulk ground resistivity surveys in graveyards: locating unmarked burials in contrasting soil types.

    PubMed

    Hansen, James D; Pringle, Jamie K; Goodwin, Jon

    2014-04-01

    With graveyards and cemeteries globally being increasingly designated as full, there is a growing need to identify unmarked burial positions to find burial space or exhume and re-inter if necessary. In some countries, for example the U.S. and U.K., burial sites are not usually re-used; however, most graveyard and cemetery records do not have maps of positions. One non-invasive detection method is near-surface geophysics, but there has been a lack of research to-date on optimal methods and/or equipment configuration. This paper presents three case studies in contrasting burial environments, soil types, burial styles and ages in the U.K. Geophysical survey results reveal unmarked burials could be effectively identified from these case studies that were not uniform or predicted using 225 MHz frequency antennae GPR 2D 0.5 m spaced profiles. Bulk ground electrical surveys, rarely used for unmarked burials, revealed 1 m probe spacings were optimal compared to 0.5 m, with datasets needing 3D detrending to reveal burial positions. Results were variable depending upon soil type; in very coarse soils GPR was optimal; whereas resistivity was optimal in clay-rich soils and both were optimal in sandy and black earth soils. Archaeological excavations revealed unmarked burials, extra/missing individuals from parish records and a variety of burial styles from isolated, brick-lined, to vertically stacked individuals. Study results, evidence unmarked burial targets were significantly different from clandestine burials of murder victims which are used as analogues. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Burial history influence on the generation of some Italian oils

    SciTech Connect

    Mattavelli, L.; Novelli, L. )

    1990-05-01

    Many Italian oils were sourced by Triassic source rock; evidence of this exists in the Po Plain. In the Adriatic Sea, and offshore southern Sicily. Bulk and geochemical characteristics of these oils are quite dissimilar: heavy oils as well as gasolines were discovered. Such differences are partly attributable to the organic matter type and to environmental conditions, but the role of the source rock's burial histories is fundamental in determining oil characteristics. The different burial histories in these two areas definitely account for these differences. In the Po Plain, the Raethian Argilliti di Riva di Solto Formation, source rock of condensates of the Malossa area, started to generate very early as a consequence of the noticeable Rhaetian-Liassic subsidence. The generation of oil continued for a long geological time, but probably hydrocarbons were lost for the lack of traps. Only condensates, generated by the further Pliocene-Quaternary burial, were accumulated in the Neogene traps. In the western part of the Po Plain, Gaggiano and Villafortuna oils (34 and 40{degree} API), sourced by the Ladinian Meride Formation, were generated only during the sizeable Neogene-Quaternary subsidence. The high heating rate in this case probably enhanced expulsion efficiency, allowing secondary migration toward shallower depths and, consequently, preventing hydrocarbons from secondary cracking. Offshore in southern Sicily (Gela field), the recent subsidence (Pliocene-Pleistocene) is responsible for Triassic source rock maturation. In this case the shallower depth reached by the source rock and, consequently, the lower temperatures at which maturity occurred are partly responsible for the generation of heavy oils, even if other factors such as early expulsion due to tectonics and organic matter type probably play a more important role.

  1. Biomass burial and storage to reduce atmospheric CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, N.

    2012-04-01

    To mitigate global climate change, a portfolio of strategies will be needed to keep the atmospheric CO2 concentration below a dangerous level. Here a carbon sequestration strategy is proposed in which certain dead or live trees are harvested via collection or selective cutting, then buried in trenches or stowed away in above-ground shelters. The largely anaerobic condition under a sufficiently thick layer of soil will prevent the decomposition of the buried wood. Because a large flux of CO2 is constantly being assimilated into the world's forests via photosynthesis, cutting off its return pathway to the atmosphere forms an effective carbon sink. It is estimated that a theoretical carbon sequestration potential for wood burial is 10 ± 5 GtC/y, but probably 1-3 GtC/y can be realized in practice. Burying wood has other benefits including minimizing CO2 source from deforestation, extending the lifetime of reforestation carbon sink, and reducing fire danger. There are possible environmental impacts such as nutrient lock-up which nevertheless appears manageable, but other environmental concerns and factors will likely set a limit so that only part of the full potential can be realized. Based on data from forest industry, the cost for wood burial is estimated to be 14/tCO2 (50/tC), lower than the typical cost for power plant CO2 capture with geological storage. The low cost for carbon sequestration with wood burial is possible because the technique uses the natural process of photosynthesis to remove carbon from the atmosphere. The technique is low tech, distributed, safe, and can be stopped at any time, thus an attractive option for large-scale implementation in a world-wide carbon market.

  2. Astronomical Significance of Ancient Monuments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonia, I.

    2011-06-01

    Astronomical significance of Gokhnari megalithic monument (eastern Georgia) is considered. Possible connection of Amirani ancient legend with Gokhnari monument is discussed. Concepts of starry practicality and solar stations are proposed.

  3. Petrology: Ancient magma sources revealed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Elizabeth

    2017-06-01

    The composition of Earth's oldest crust is uncertain. Comparison of the most ancient mineral grains with more recent analogues suggests that formation of the earliest crust was heavily influenced by re-melting of igneous basement rocks.

  4. Ancient Astronomical Monuments of Athens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theodossiou, E.; Manimanis, V. N.

    2010-07-01

    In this work, four ancient monuments of astronomical significance found in Athens and still kept in the same city in good condition are presented. The first one is the conical sundial on the southern slope of the Acropolis. The second one is the Tower of the Winds and its vertical sundials in the Roman Forum of Athens, a small octagonal marble tower with sundials on all 8 of its sides, plus a water-clock inside the tower. The third monument-instrument is the ancient clepsydra of Athens, one of the findings from the Ancient Agora of Athens, a unique water-clock dated from 400 B.C. Finally, the fourth one is the carved ancient Athenian calendar over the main entrance of the small Byzantine temple of the 8th Century, St. Eleftherios, located to the south of the temple of the Annunciation of Virgin Mary, the modern Cathedral of the city of Athens.

  5. Ancient Astronomers Along the Nile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, George

    1986-01-01

    Discussed contributions to the field of astronomy made by ancient Egyptians. Provides examples of how some of the observations made were applied to science. The use of geometry is illustrated by several calculations of celestial alignment. (TW)

  6. Layout of Ancient Maya Cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aylesworth, Grant R.

    Although there is little doubt that the ancient Maya of Mesoamerica laid their cities out based, in part, on astronomical considerations, the proliferation of "cosmograms" in contemporary scholarly discourse has complicated matters for the acceptance of rigorous archaeoastronomical research.

  7. Identification of metallic objects with various sizes and burial depths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sezgin, Mehmet; Kaplan, Gülay; Deniz, Sencer M.; Bahadırlar, Yıldırım; İçoğlu, Oğuz

    2009-05-01

    In this study, identification of the different metallic objects with various burial depths was considered. Metal Detector (MD) and Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) were used to obtain metallic content and dielectric characteristic of the buried objects. Discriminative features were determined and calculated for data set. Six features were selected for metal detector and one for Ground Penetrating Radar. Twenty classification algorithms were examined to obtain the best classification method, for this data set. A Meta learner algorithm completed the classification process with 100% performance.

  8. Closure Plan for Active Low Level Burial Grounds

    SciTech Connect

    SKELLY, W.A.

    2000-11-16

    This plan has been prepared in response to direction from the U.S. Department of Energy. The purpose of the plan is to define approaches that will be implemented to ensure protection of the public and the environment when active Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBGs) at the Hanford Site are closed. Performance assessments for active burial grounds in the 200 East and West 200 Areas provide current estimates of potential environmental contamination and doses to the ''maximum exposed individual'' from burial ground operation and closure and compare dose estimates to performance objective dose limits for the facilities. This is an Operational Closure Plan. The intent of the guidance in DOE Order 435.1 is that this plan will be a living document, like the facility performance assessments, and will be revised periodically through the operational life of the LLBGs to reflect updated information on waste inventory. management practices, facility transition planning, schedule dates, assessments of post-closure performance, and environmental consequences. Out year dates identified in this plan are tentative. A Final Closure Plan will be prepared in the future when the timing and extent of closure-related activities for LLBGs can be established with greater certainty. After current operations at the LLBGs are concluded, this plan proposes transitioning of these facilities to the Environmental Restoration Program. This action will enable the Environmental Restoration Program to design and implement consistent and coordinated final remedial actions for active and inactive LLBGs. Active and inactive burial grounds in the 200 West and 200 East Areas are commingled. This plan describes approaches that will be implemented during Interim Closure, Final Closure, and Institutional Control Periods to prepare LLBGs for surface barriers, and the construction of barriers, as well as the scope of inspection, monitoring and maintenance practices that will be performed during and after closure

  9. Geologic setting of the low-level burial grounds

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsey, K.A.; Jaeger, G.K.; Slate, J.L.; Swett, K.J.; Mercer, R.B.

    1994-10-13

    This report describes the regional and site specific geology of the Hanford Sites low-level burial grounds in the 200 East and West Areas. The report incorporates data from boreholes across the entire 200 Areas, integrating the geology of this area into a single framework. Geologic cross-sections, isopach maps, and structure contour maps of all major geological units from the top of the Columbia River Basalt Group to the surface are included. The physical properties and characteristics of the major suprabasalt sedimentary units also are discussed.

  10. Progressive chemical modification of clastic sediments with burial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtis, C. D.

    1987-03-01

    The porosity of clastic sediments at deposition varies very approximately between about 45% (sands) and 85% (muds). With burial, consolidation takes place as pore water is progressively eliminated. It would be misleading, however, to attribute alterations in sediment bulk properties to physical processes alone. Very significant mineralogical changes occur and these start soon after burial, especially in mudrocks. Striking heterogeneities such as thin, laterally continuous cemented horizons or discrete concretions are commonly introduced. These shallow burial processes are predominently the result of microbial activity. Thermodynamically unstable mixtures of organic matter and various oxidants [dissolved oxygen, sulphate, nitrate, particulate Fe(III) and Mn(IV)] provide both substrate and energy source for a variety of different microbial ecosystems. Mineralogical consequences include both leaching and the precipitation of carbonate, sulphide, phosphate and silica cements. The type and extent of mineral modification depends strongly on depositional environment variables such as rate of sedimentation and water composition. At greater depths, large scale modification of detrital clay minerals (particularly the smectite-I/S-illite transformation) takes place. Recent work of various kinds, however, has demonstrated that these changes may not be solid state transformations: clay mineral dissolution, transport and precipitation occur much more widely than was formerly supposed. In sandstones, authigenic precipitation of clay minerals from pore solution is much more obviouis. Systematic patterns of precipitation, alteration and replacement have been documented in many sedimentary basins. Porosity and permeability are reduced by cementation and, sometimes, enhanced by mineral dissolution. Whereas the general nature of these chemical reactions is fairly well understood, it is not yet possible to predict with certainty the scale or distribution of mineralogical consequences

  11. Relationship between plant traits and resistance to burial by marly sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burylo, M.; Rey, F.; Dutoit, T.

    2009-04-01

    In marly lands of the French Southern Alps, harsh soil erosion results in sediment movements during intensive rainfall events. Plants can be submitted to sediment burial in their early stages of development and their protective function may be reduced. In a context of land restoration, it is important to know species resistance to environmental disturbances and to be able to predict it, in particular from plant traits (height, biomass, sugar and starch accumulation). However, few studies about woody species tolerance to burial by sediment have been carried out. Seedlings of five woody species were buried in marly sediment at three different depths in pot experiment during eight weeks: no burial (control), partial burial (50% stem height) and complete burial (100% stem height). Height through time, biomass and survival rates were measured to assess species resistance to burial. Results show that among the five species, only one (Acer campestre) survived complete burial. All plants survived partial burial, but there were significant differences in height and biomass between buried plants and control, and significant differences between species responses. Three different responses to disturbance were identified: negative (Hippophae rhamnoides, Ononis fruticosa), neutral (Robinia pseudo acacia, Pinus nigra) and positive (Acer campestre). Results finally suggest that species resistance to burial by marly sediment is related to sugar accumulation in plant stems.

  12. Burial Level Change Defines a High Energetic Relevance for Protein Binding Interfaces.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhenhua; He, Ying; Wong, Limsoon; Li, Jinyan

    2015-01-01

    Protein-protein interfaces defined through atomic contact or solvent accessibility change are widely adopted in structural biology studies. But, these definitions cannot precisely capture energetically important regions at protein interfaces. The burial depth of an atom in a protein is related to the atom's energy. This work investigates how closely the change in burial level of an atom/residue upon complexation is related to the binding. Burial level change is different from burial level itself. An atom deeply buried in a monomer with a high burial level may not change its burial level after an interaction and it may have little burial level change. We hypothesize that an interface is a region of residues all undergoing burial level changes after interaction. By this definition, an interface can be decomposed into an onion-like structure according to the burial level change extent. We found that our defined interfaces cover energetically important residues more precisely, and that the binding free energy of an interface is distributed progressively from the outermost layer to the core. These observations are used to predict binding hot spots. Our approach's F-measure performance on a benchmark dataset of alanine mutagenesis residues is much superior or similar to those by complicated energy modeling or machine learning approaches.

  13. Preliminary soilwater conductivity analysis to date clandestine burials of homicide victims.

    PubMed

    Pringle, Jamie K; Cassella, John P; Jervis, John R

    2010-05-20

    This study reports on a new geoscientific method to estimate the post-burial interval (PBI) and potential post-mortem interval (PMI) date of homicide victims in clandestine graves by measuring decomposition fluid conductivities. Establishing PBI/PMI dates may be critical for forensic investigators to establish time-lines to link or indeed rule out suspects to a crime. Regular in situ soilwater analysis from a simulated clandestine grave (which contained a domestic buried pig carcass) in a semi-rural environment had significantly elevated conductivity measurements when compared to background values. A temporal rapid increase of the conductivity of burial fluids was observed until one-year post-burial, after this values slowly increased until two years (end of the current study period). Conversion of x-axis from post-burial days to 'accumulated degree days' (ADDs) corrected for both local temperature variations and associated depth of burial and resulted in an improved fit for multiple linear regression analyses. ADD correction also allowed comparison with a previous conductivity grave study on a different site with a different soil type and environment; this showed comparable results with a similar trend observed. A separate simulated discovered burial had a conductivity estimated PBI date that showed 12% error from its actual burial date. Research is also applicable in examining illegal animal burials; time of burial and waste deposition. Further research is required to extend the monitoring period, to use human cadavers and to repeat this with other soil types and depositional environments.

  14. Development and Applications of Thallium isotopes: a new proxy tracking the extent of manganese oxide burial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, J. D.; Nielsen, S.; Ostrander, C.; Peterson, L. C.; Anbar, A. D.

    2015-12-01

    Thallium (Tl) isotopes are a new and potential powerful paleoredox proxy with the possibility to track bottom water oxygen conditions based on the burial flux of manganese oxides. Thallium has a residence time of ~20 thousand years, which is long enough to render modern oxic seawater conservative with respect to concentration and isotopes. The isotopic signature of Tl in the global ocean is driven mainly by two outputs (1) adsorption onto manganese oxides and (2) low temperature oceanic crust alteration. Importantly, the isotopic inputs of Tl are all nearly the same value; thus, the isotopic composition and flux of the outputs almost exclusively set the seawater signature. For relatively short term redox events it is reasonable to assume that the dominant isotope fractionation process is associated with manganese oxide precipitation because low temperature alteration is controlled by long-term average ocean crust production rates. We present a broad range of modern samples that span several open ocean profiles combined with water column and sediment profiles from the permanently anoxic basins of the Black Sea and Cariaco Basins. The open ocean shows no variation in depth profiles that encompass most of the major water masses in the Atlantic and Southern Oceans. The anoxic basins, however, reveal Tl isotope signatures closer to their inputs, which is likely due to basinal restriction. The authigenic fraction of organic-rich sediments from the Black Sea and Cariaco Basin capture the Tl isotope value of the overlying water column, which shows that Tl isotopes could be applied as a faithful deep time redox proxy. For the first time, we will present new data showing that Tl isotopes is tracking bottom water ocean oxygenation. We are applying this isotope system to ancient samples, testing the spatial and temporal variability of ocean oxygenation coinciding with major biogeochemical events.

  15. Micromorphology of two prehistoric ritual burials from Yemen, and considerations on methodological aspects of sampling the burial matrix - work in progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usai, Maria-Raimonda; Brothwell, Don; Buckley, Stephen; Ai-Thour, Kalid; Canti, Matthew

    2010-05-01

    Introduction In the central area of Yemen, two burial sites placed high in the crevices of vertical cliff face of Cretaceous sandstone (Tawilah Group) provided evidence of human remains and yielded burial soils. Radiocarbon dating indicated c.2500-2900 years BP for the burials. In other local comparable sites the deep horizontal crevices yielded Bronze Age human remains, in exceptional state of preservation Questions: What was the nature of the burial matrix? Are other human influences superimposed on the soils derived from it? Is it simply decomposed crevice rock, scraped together at the time of burial, or the result of a more complex burial practice? Such questions are also relevant to a variety of other burials of different periods and world regions. Methods Seven matrix samples from Cliff Burials (A) Talan (Layers 4,10,12,14,18,20 and 22, from top to bottom) and (B) Shiban Kawkaban (Layer 1 and 9) were analysed with micromorphology, supplemented by SEM microprobe, X-ray diffraction, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Results Cliff Burial Site Talan. The presence of cholesterol was confirmed in the lower sample. The second layer contained darker earth with fibrous plant material. A hard calcareous upper capping contrasted with the other levels of matrix, and it displayed a highly birefingent material with a significant component of uric acid. The other levels had variable organic content and plant inclusions, and possibly pollen. In Layer 10, aromatic acids indicative of balsam and sugar markers suggested plant gum. Cholesterol was the major sterol in Layers 10 and 22, but whilst in Layer 10 its oxidation products were present and cholestanol was abundant as normally in soils, it was only a minor component of Layer 22 where, rather, a significant amount of coprostanol indicated faecal input, and cholesterol oxidation products were absent. Cliff Burial Site Shiban Kawkaban. Although no stratification was visible to the naked eye, variation was observed at a

  16. Digital Workflows for a 3d Semantic Representation of AN Ancient Mining Landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiebel, G.; Hanke, K.

    2017-08-01

    The ancient mining landscape of Schwaz/Brixlegg in the Tyrol, Austria witnessed mining from prehistoric times to modern times creating a first order cultural landscape when it comes to one of the most important inventions in human history: the production of metal. In 1991 a part of this landscape was lost due to an enormous landslide that reshaped part of the mountain. With our work we want to propose a digital workflow to create a 3D semantic representation of this ancient mining landscape with its mining structures to preserve it for posterity. First, we define a conceptual model to integrate the data. It is based on the CIDOC CRM ontology and CRMgeo for geometric data. To transform our information sources to a formal representation of the classes and properties of the ontology we applied semantic web technologies and created a knowledge graph in RDF (Resource Description Framework). Through the CRMgeo extension coordinate information of mining features can be integrated into the RDF graph and thus related to the detailed digital elevation model that may be visualized together with the mining structures using Geoinformation systems or 3D visualization tools. The RDF network of the triple store can be queried using the SPARQL query language. We created a snapshot of mining, settlement and burial sites in the Bronze Age. The results of the query were loaded into a Geoinformation system and a visualization of known bronze age sites related to mining, settlement and burial activities was created.

  17. Ancient lakes on Mars?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldspiel, J. M.; Squyres, S. W.

    1989-01-01

    The valley systems in Mars' ancient cratered terrain provide strong evidence for a warmer and wetter climate very early in planetary history. The valley systems in some instances debouch into closed depressions that could have acted as local ponding basins for the flow. A survey of the Martian equatorial region shows that numerous local depressions at the confluence of valley systems exist. These depressions (approximately 100 km) typically are characterized by many valleys flowing into them and few or none flowing out. If ponding did take place, these basin would have contained lakes for some period during Mars' early warmer epoch. Although the collection basins are numerous, location of ones that have not suffered significant subsequent geologic modification is difficult. Some morphologic features suggest that volcanic lavas may have filled them subsequent to any early fluvial activity. Two detailed maps of valley systems and local ponding basins in USGC 1:2,000,000 subquadrangles were completed and a third is in progress. The completed regions are in Mare Tyrrhenum (MC-22 SW) and Margarifter Sinus (MC-19 SE), and the region in progress is in Iapygia (MC-21 NW). On the maps, the valley systems and interpreted margins of ponding basins are indicated. The depressions are of interest for two reasons. First, the depressions were surely the sites in which the materials eroded from the valleys were deposited. Such sediments could preserve important information about the physical conditions at the time of deposition. Second, the sediments could preserve evidence of water-atmosphere interactions during the early period of the Martian climate. Atmospheric carbon dioxide would dissolve in water, and solid carbonate minerals would tend to precipitate out to form carbonate sedimentary deposits. Formation of carbonates in this manner might account for some of the CO2 lost from the early more dense atmosphere.

  18. Ancient biomolecules in Quaternary palaeoecology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofreiter, Michael; Collins, Matthew; Stewart, John R.

    2012-02-01

    The last few years have seen an enormous proliferation of ancient biomolecules research, especially in the field of ancient DNA. Ancient DNA studies have been transformed by the advent of next generation sequencing, with the first Pleistocene sample being analysed in 2005, and several complete and draft genomes that have been compiled from ancient DNA to date. At the same time, although less conspicuous, research on ancient proteins has also seen advances, with the time limit for research on ancient biomolecules now extending to over 1 million years. Here we review which effects these developments have on research in Quaternary science. We identify several lines of research that have the potential to profit substantially from these recent developments in ancient biomolecules research. First, the identification of taxa can be made using ancient biomolecules, and in the case of ancient DNA, specimens can even be assigned to specific populations within a species. Second, increasingly large DNA data sets from Pleistocene animals allow the elucidation of ever more precise pictures of the population dynamic processes whereby organisms respond to climate and environmental change. With the accompanying better understanding of process in the Quaternary, past ecologies can also more realistically be interpreted from proxy data sets. The dominant message from this research so far is that the Quaternary saw a great deal more dynamism in populations than had been forecast by conventional palaeoecology. This suggests that reconstructions of past environmental conditions need to be done with caution. Third, ancient DNA can also now be obtained directly from sediments to elucidate the presence of both plant and animal species in an area even in the absence of identifiable fossils, be it macro- or micro-fossils. Finally, the analysis of proteins enables the identification of bone remains to genus and sometimes species level far beyond the survival time of DNA, at least in temperate

  19. A burial cave in the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska.

    PubMed

    West, Dixie; Lefèvre, Christine; Corbett, Debra; Crockford, Susan

    2003-01-01

    During the 1998 field season, the Western Aleutians Archaeological and Paleobiological Project (WAAPP) team located a cave in the Near Islands, Alaska. Near the entrance of the cave, the team identified work areas and sleeping/sitting areas surrounded by cultural debris and animal bones. Human burials were found in the cave interior. In 2000, with permission from The Aleut Corporation, archaeologists revisited the site. Current research suggests three distinct occupations or uses for this cave. Aleuts buried their dead in shallow graves at the rear of the cave circa 1,200 to 800 years ago. Aleuts used the front of the cave as a temporary hunting camp as early as 390 years ago. Finally, Japanese and American military debris and graffiti reveal that the cave was visited during and after World War II. Russian trappers may have also taken shelter there 150 to 200 years ago. This is the first report of Aleut cave burials west of the Delarof Islands in the central Aleutians.

  20. The Application of GPR in Florida for Detecting Forensic Burials

    SciTech Connect

    S. K. Koppenjan; J. J. Schultz; S. Ono; H. Lee

    2003-01-01

    A study was performed at the University of Florida to measure ground penetrating radar(GPR) performance for detecting forensic burials. In controlled scenarios, 24 burials were constructed with pig cadavers. Two soils were utilized to represent two of the most common soil orders in Florida: an Entisol and an Ultisol. Graves were monitored on a monthly basis for time periods up to 21 months with grid data acquired with pulsed and swept-frequency GPR systems incorporating several different frequency antennas. A small subset of the graves was excavated to assess decomposition and relate to the GPR images during the test. The grave anomalies in the GPR depth profiles became less distinctive over time due to body decomposition and settling of the disturbed soil (backfill) as it compacted. Soil type was a major factor. Grave anomalies became more difficult to recognize over time for deep targets that were within clay. Forensic targets that were in sandy soil were recognized for the duration of this study. Time elapsed imagery will be presented to elucidate the changes, or lack thereof, of grave anomalies over the duration of this study. Further analysis was performed using Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) reconstruction of images in 2-D and 3-D.

  1. Burial increases seed longevity of two Artemisia tridentata (Asteraceae) subspecies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wijayratne, Upekala C.; Pyke, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Premise of the study: Seed longevity and persistence in soil seed banks may be especially important for population persistence in ecosystems where opportunities for seedling establishment and disturbance are unpredictable. The fire regime, an important driver of population dynamics in sagebrush steppe ecosystems, has been altered by exotic annual grass invasion. Soil seed banks may play an active role in postfire recovery of the foundation shrub Artemisia tridentata, yet conditions under which seeds persist are largely unknown. Methods: We investigated seed longevity of two Artemisia tridentata subspecies in situ by retrieving seed bags that were placed at varying depths over a 2 yr period. We also sampled naturally dispersed seeds in litter and soil immediately after seed dispersal and before flowering in subsequent seasons to estimate seed persistence. Key results: After 24 mo, seeds buried at least 3 cm below the soil surface retained 30–40% viability whereas viability of seeds on the surface and under litter declined to 0 and Artemisia tridentata has the potential to form a short-term soil seed bank that persists longer than has been commonly assumed, and that burial is necessary for seed longevity. Use of seeding techniques that promote burial of some seeds to aid in formation of a soil seed bank may increase restoration potential.

  2. Burial increases seed longevity of two Artemisia tridentata (Asteraceae) subspecies.

    PubMed

    Wijayratne, Upekala C; Pyke, David A

    2012-03-01

    Seed longevity and persistence in soil seed banks may be especially important for population persistence in ecosystems where opportunities for seedling establishment and disturbance are unpredictable. The fire regime, an important driver of population dynamics in sagebrush steppe ecosystems, has been altered by exotic annual grass invasion. Soil seed banks may play an active role in postfire recovery of the foundation shrub Artemisia tridentata, yet conditions under which seeds persist are largely unknown. We investigated seed longevity of two Artemisia tridentata subspecies in situ by retrieving seed bags that were placed at varying depths over a 2 yr period. We also sampled naturally dispersed seeds in litter and soil immediately after seed dispersal and before flowering in subsequent seasons to estimate seed persistence. After 24 mo, seeds buried at least 3 cm below the soil surface retained 30-40% viability whereas viability of seeds on the surface and under litter declined to 0 and < 11%, respectively. The density of naturally dispersed seeds in the seed bank was highly heterogeneous both spatially and temporally, and attrition varied significantly by region. Our study suggests that Artemisia tridentata has the potential to form a short-term soil seed bank that persists longer than has been commonly assumed, and that burial is necessary for seed longevity. Use of seeding techniques that promote burial of some seeds to aid in formation of a soil seed bank may increase restoration potential.

  3. A clandestine burial in Costa Rica: prospection and excavation.

    PubMed

    Congram, Derek R

    2008-07-01

    This case report describes the search for a clandestine grave in Costa Rica for which the police sought the assistance of an archaeologist. An anonymous informant suggested that the victim had been kidnapped and murdered, placed in a shallow grave in the woods, then covered with lime and cement. A search of the area to detect conventional signs of burial (e.g., slumping, different plant growth) resulted in excavation of unrelated features of past disturbance. Different aspects of the grave including the deposition of cement powder over the body prevented its initial discovery. Improvisation of conventional archaeological excavation methods and use of police familiar with archaeological excavation resulted in the location of the grave and exhumation of the victim without loss of important contextual evidence that supported testimony on the cause of death. The taphonomic effects of high-lying ground water and lime in the tropical burial environment are briefly discussed. Recommendations such as the construction of a temporary sump to lower the ground water level in the grave during excavation are made to assist in similar investigations in the future.

  4. Equation for compaction of paleosols due to burial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheldon, Nathan D.; Retallack, Gregory J.

    2001-03-01

    Existing empirically derived compaction curves for marine sediments fail to estimate the compaction of paleosols, flood-plain sediments, and peats as indicated by deformation of clastic dikes, dinosaur footprints, and sandstone paleochannels. Yet compaction estimates are vital to reconstructing paleoclimate and geochemical profiles of paleosols, to modeling sediment accumulation rates of nonmarine rocks, and to tectonic flexural modeling of molasse facies. This paper presents a compaction equation and physically derived constants that make geologically realistic estimates of compaction of paleosols and other nonmarine sediments. A protocol for the application of the equation is suggested that would allow the following equation to solve for burial compaction (C as a fraction of original thickness) given depth of burial (D in km) as: C = -Si/[(F0/ eDk) - 1]. This equation can be applied to nonmarine sedimentary rocks or paleosols given appropriate empirical data on the physical constants in the equation, such as initial solidity (Si), initial porosity (F0), and the corresponding curve-fitting constant (k). Data on physical constants useful for this equation are compiled here for a range of paleosol and nonmarine sediment types.

  5. Genetic research at a fivefold children's burial from medieval Berlin.

    PubMed

    Rothe, Jessica; Melisch, Claudia; Powers, Natasha; Geppert, Maria; Zander, Judith; Purps, Josephine; Spors, Birgit; Nagy, Marion

    2015-03-01

    Berlin originated from the two twin cities Berlin and Cölln, which both were founded at the beginning of the 13th century. However the real date of their foundation as well as the origin of the first settlers is still unknown. On the Berlin site the historic city center is still visible in the Nikolaiviertel, but the medieval origin of Cölln disappeared almost completely. In 2007 a large scale excavation, which comprised an area of about 1700m(2) of the historical center of the St. Peters church, recovers the remains of Cölln's first citizens and span a period of 500 years of medieval population. Here we present the first genetic analysis of a fivefold children's burial from excavations in Berlin. The genetic data unveiled next to ancestry and eye color data also the kinship and the gender of the five individuals. Together with the archeological context the new gained information help to shed more light on the possible reasons for this burial.

  6. Peruvian Maca (Lepidium peruvianum): (I) Phytochemical and Genetic Differences in Three Maca Phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Meissner, Henry O; Mscisz, Alina; Mrozikiewicz, Mieczyslaw; Baraniak, Marek; Mielcarek, Sebastian; Kedzia, Bogdan; Piatkowska, Ewa; Jólkowska, Justyna; Pisulewski, Pawel

    2015-09-01

    Glucosinolates were previously reported as physiologically-important constituents present in Peruvian Maca (Lepidium peruvianum Chacon) and linked to various therapeutic functions of differently-colored Peruvian Maca hypocotyls. In two separate Trials, three colours of Maca hypocotyls "Black", "Red" and "Yellow" (termed "Maca phenotypes"), were selected from mixed crops of Peruvian Maca for laboratory studies as fresh and after being dried. Individual Maca phenotypes were cultivated in the highlands of the Peruvian Andes at 4,200m a.s.l. (Junin and Ninacaca). Glucosinolate levels, chromatographic HPLC profiles and DNA variability in the investigated Maca phenotypes are presented. Genotypic profiles were determined by the ISSR-PCR and RAPD techniques. Compared to the Black and Red phenotypes, the Yellow phenotype contained much lower Glucosinolate levels measured against Glucotropaeolin and m-methoxy-glucotropaeolin standards, and exhibited different RAPD and ISSR-PCR reactions. The Red Maca phenotype showed the highest concentrations of Glucosinolates as compared to the Black and Yellow Maca. It appears that the traditional system used by natives of the Peruvian Andean highlands in preparing Maca as a vegetable dish (boiling dried Maca after soaking in water), to supplement their daily meals, is as effective as laboratory methods - for extracting Glucosinolates, which are considered to be one of the key bioactive constituents responsible for therapeutic functions of Peruvian Maca phenotypes. It is reasonable to assume that the HPLC and DNA techniques combined, or separately, may assist in determining ID and "Fingerprints" identifying individual Peruvian Maca phenotypes, hence confirming the authenticity of marketable Maca products. The above assumptions warrant further laboratory testing.

  7. Peruvian Maca (Lepidium peruvianum): (I) Phytochemical and Genetic Differences in Three Maca Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Meissner, Henry O.; Mscisz, Alina; Mrozikiewicz, Mieczyslaw; Baraniak, Marek; Mielcarek, Sebastian; Kedzia, Bogdan; Piatkowska, Ewa; Jólkowska, Justyna; Pisulewski, Pawel

    2015-01-01

    Glucosinolates were previously reported as physiologically-important constituents present in Peruvian Maca (Lepidium peruvianum Chacon) and linked to various therapeutic functions of differently-colored Peruvian Maca hypocotyls. In two separate Trials, three colours of Maca hypocotyls “Black”, “Red” and “Yellow” (termed “Maca phenotypes”), were selected from mixed crops of Peruvian Maca for laboratory studies as fresh and after being dried. Individual Maca phenotypes were cultivated in the highlands of the Peruvian Andes at 4,200m a.s.l. (Junin and Ninacaca). Glucosinolate levels, chromatographic HPLC profiles and DNA variability in the investigated Maca phenotypes are presented. Genotypic profiles were determined by the ISSR-PCR and RAPD techniques. Compared to the Black and Red phenotypes, the Yellow phenotype contained much lower Glucosinolate levels measured against Glucotropaeolin and m-methoxy-glucotropaeolin standards, and exhibited different RAPD and ISSR-PCR reactions. The Red Maca phenotype showed the highest concentrations of Glucosinolates as compared to the Black and Yellow Maca. It appears that the traditional system used by natives of the Peruvian Andean highlands in preparing Maca as a vegetable dish (boiling dried Maca after soaking in water), to supplement their daily meals, is as effective as laboratory methods - for extracting Glucosinolates, which are considered to be one of the key bioactive constituents responsible for therapeutic functions of Peruvian Maca phenotypes. It is reasonable to assume that the HPLC and DNA techniques combined, or separately, may assist in determining ID and “Fingerprints” identifying individual Peruvian Maca phenotypes, hence confirming the authenticity of marketable Maca products. The above assumptions warrant further laboratory testing. PMID:26508907

  8. A second hydrocarbon boom threatens the Peruvian Amazon: trends, projections, and policy implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finer, Matt; Orta-Martínez, Martí

    2010-01-01

    The Peruvian Amazon is home to extraordinary biological and cultural diversity, and vast swaths of this mega-diverse region remain largely intact. Recent analysis indicates, however, that the rapid proliferation of oil and gas exploration zones now threatens the region's biodiversity, indigenous peoples, and wilderness areas. To better elucidate this dynamic situation, we analyzed official Peruvian government hydrocarbon information and generated a quantitative analysis of the past, present, and future of oil and gas activities in the Peruvian Amazon. We document an extensive hydrocarbon history for the region—over 104 000 km of seismic lines and 679 exploratory and production wells—highlighted by a major exploration boom in the early 1970s. We show that an unprecedented 48.6% of the Peruvian Amazon has been recently covered by oil and gas concessions, up from just 7.1% in 2003. These oil and gas concessions overlap 17.1% of the Peruvian Amazon protected area system and over half of all titled indigenous lands. Moreover, we found that up to 72% of the Peruvian Amazon has been zoned for hydrocarbon activities (concessions plus technical evaluation agreements and proposed concessions) in the past two years, and over 84% at some point during the past 40 years. We project that the recent rapid proliferation of hydrocarbon zones will lead to a second exploration boom, characterized by over 20 000 km of new seismic testing and construction of over 180 new exploratory wells in remote, intact, and sensitive forest areas. As the Peruvian Amazon oil frontier rapidly expands, we conclude that a rigorous policy debate is urgently needed in order to avoid the major environmental impacts associated with the first exploration boom of the 1970s and to minimize the social conflict that recently led to deadly encounters between indigenous protesters and government forces.

  9. Classification of Ancient Mammal Individuals Using Dental Pulp MALDI-TOF MS Peptide Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Thi-Nguyen-Ny; Aboudharam, Gérard; Gardeisen, Armelle; Davoust, Bernard; Bocquet-Appel, Jean-Pierre; Flaudrops, Christophe; Belghazi, Maya; Raoult, Didier; Drancourt, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Background The classification of ancient animal corpses at the species level remains a challenging task for forensic scientists and anthropologists. Severe damage and mixed, tiny pieces originating from several skeletons may render morphological classification virtually impossible. Standard approaches are based on sequencing mitochondrial and nuclear targets. Methodology/Principal Findings We present a method that can accurately classify mammalian species using dental pulp and mass spectrometry peptide profiling. Our work was organized into three successive steps. First, after extracting proteins from the dental pulp collected from 37 modern individuals representing 13 mammalian species, trypsin-digested peptides were used for matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis. The resulting peptide profiles accurately classified every individual at the species level in agreement with parallel cytochrome b gene sequencing gold standard. Second, using a 279–modern spectrum database, we blindly classified 33 of 37 teeth collected in 37 modern individuals (89.1%). Third, we classified 10 of 18 teeth (56%) collected in 15 ancient individuals representing five mammal species including human, from five burial sites dating back 8,500 years. Further comparison with an upgraded database comprising ancient specimen profiles yielded 100% classification in ancient teeth. Peptide sequencing yield 4 and 16 different non-keratin proteins including collagen (alpha-1 type I and alpha-2 type I) in human ancient and modern dental pulp, respectively. Conclusions/Significance Mass spectrometry peptide profiling of the dental pulp is a new approach that can be added to the arsenal of species classification tools for forensics and anthropology as a complementary method to DNA sequencing. The dental pulp is a new source for collagen and other proteins for the species classification of modern and ancient mammal individuals. PMID:21364886

  10. Interdisciplinary investigation on ancient Ephedra twigs from Gumugou Cemetery (3800 B.P.) in Xinjiang region, northwest China.

    PubMed

    Xie, Mingsi; Yang, Yimin; Wang, Binghua; Wang, Changsui

    2013-07-01

    In the dry northern temperate regions of the northern hemisphere, the genus Ephedra comprises a series of native shrub species with a cumulative application history reaching back well over 2,000 years for the treatment of asthma, cold, fever, as well as many respiratory system diseases, especially in China. There are ethnological and philological evidences of Ephedra worship and utilization in many Eurasia Steppe cultures. However, no scientifically verifiable, ancient physical proof has yet been provided for any species in this genus. This study reports the palaeobotanical finding of Ephedra twigs discovered from burials of the Gumugou archaeological site, and ancient community graveyard, dated around 3800 BP, in Lop Nor region of northwestern China. The macro-remains were first examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and then by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for traits of residual biomarkers under the reference of modern Ephedra samples. The GC-MS result of chemical analysis presents the existence of Ephedra-featured compounds, several of which, including benzaldehyde, tetramethyl-pyrazine, and phenmetrazine, are found in the chromatograph of both the ancient and modern sample. These results confirm that the discovered plant remains are Ephedra twigs. Although there is no direct archaeological evidence for the indication of medicinal use of this Ephedra, the unified burial deposit in which the Ephedra was discovered is a strong indication of the religious and medicinal awareness of the human inhabitants of Gumugou towards this plant.

  11. Gravity and magnetic investigations along the Peruvian continental margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinbockel, R.; Dehghani, G. A.; Huebscher, Ch.

    2003-04-01

    This work presents the first three-dimensional gravity and magnetic investigation along the convergent Peruvian margin. Three-dimensional magnetic modelling is still a relatively untried and challenging technique. The gravity and magnetic models image nearly the whole margin which has been only partly resolved with geophysical methods up to now. The gravity and magnetic models are constructed for three areas between 7.25°S and 16.75°S and are based on the available wide-angle seismic velocity models (Hampel et al., 2002a; Broser et al., 2002). The continental margin is characterised by positive free-air anomalies of varying amplitudes, indicating that the margin has been shaped by the subduction of different features on the Nazca Plate. A comparison of the shipboard gravity measurements with the satellite data ensures that the data compiled from different marine surveys are compatible. In the Yaquina Area (7.25°S to 11°S) gravity anomalies caused by the Trujillo Trough and the Mendaña Fracture Zone are successfully modelled with remarkable undulations in the layer geometry of the oceanic crust. Along the continental margin, especially in the Lima Area (10.50°S to 14.40°S), strong undulations of the lower continental crust influence the upper sedimentary layers and support the development of basins along the Peruvian margin. The theory stating that the Peruvian margin is uplifted by the subducting Nazca Ridge (Kulm et al., 1988; Hagen &Moberly, 1994) is supported by gravity modelling. Consequently the buoyant Nazca Ridge is, at least partly, responsible for the extended region of flat subduction. The thickened and slightly asymmetrical crust of the Nazca Ridge is envisaged in gravity modelling. In the Nazca Ridge Area (14.25°S to 16.75°S) no accretionary prism is modelled. We conclude that the ridge is eroding the continental margin; furthermore the subduction of eroded sediments is probable. Gravity modelling suggests that the Nazca Ridge has fractured the

  12. 618-10 Burial Ground Trench Remediation and 618-10 and 618-11 Burial Ground Nonintrusive Characterization of Vertical Pipe Units Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect

    Darby, J. W.

    2012-06-28

    A “lessons learned” is a noteworthy practice or innovative approach that is captured and shared to promote repeat application, or an adverse work practice/experience that is captured and shared to avoid reoccurrence. This document provides the lessons learned identified by the 618-10 Burial Ground trench remediation and the 618-10 and 618-11 Burial Ground nonintrusive characterization of the vertical pipe units (VPUs).

  13. 38 CFR 3.1603 - Authority for burial of certain unclaimed bodies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... certain unclaimed bodies. 3.1603 Section 3.1603 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Burial Benefits § 3.1603 Authority for burial of certain unclaimed bodies. If the body of a deceased veteran is unclaimed, there being no relatives or friends to claim the body...

  14. 38 CFR 3.1603 - Authority for burial of certain unclaimed bodies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... certain unclaimed bodies. 3.1603 Section 3.1603 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Burial Benefits § 3.1603 Authority for burial of certain unclaimed bodies. If the body of a deceased veteran is unclaimed, there being no relatives or friends to claim the body...

  15. 38 CFR 3.1603 - Authority for burial of certain unclaimed bodies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... certain unclaimed bodies. 3.1603 Section 3.1603 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Burial Benefits § 3.1603 Authority for burial of certain unclaimed bodies. If the body of a deceased veteran is unclaimed, there being no relatives or friends to claim the body...

  16. 38 CFR 3.1603 - Authority for burial of certain unclaimed bodies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... certain unclaimed bodies. 3.1603 Section 3.1603 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Burial Benefits § 3.1603 Authority for burial of certain unclaimed bodies. If the body of a deceased veteran is unclaimed, there being no relatives or friends to claim the body...

  17. 38 CFR 3.1603 - Authority for burial of certain unclaimed bodies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... certain unclaimed bodies. 3.1603 Section 3.1603 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Burial Benefits § 3.1603 Authority for burial of certain unclaimed bodies. If the body of a deceased veteran is unclaimed, there being no relatives or friends to claim the body...

  18. Messrs. Dinkins, Rangel, and Savage in Colloquy on the African Burial Ground: A Companion Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodnight, G. Thomas

    1999-01-01

    Expands the symbolic resources of the African Burial Ground through a dialogical reading of an essay in the same issue of this journal which offers a rhetorical examination of the controversy surrounding the African Burial Ground. Argues that, post-critique, controversies may be recuperated to recover an expanded sense of coalitional engagement,…

  19. Effects of Urban Stream Burial on Organic Matter Dynamics and Reach Scale Nitrate Retention

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrogen (N) retention in streams is an important ecosystem service that may be affected by the widespread burial of streams in stormwater pipes in urban watersheds. We predicted that stream burial suppresses the capacity of streams to retain nitrate (NO3-) by eliminating primar...

  20. Effects of urban stream burial on organic matter dynamics and reach scale nitrate retention - final

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrogen (N) retention in streams is an important ecosystem service that may be affected by the widespread burial of streams in stormwater pipes in urban watersheds. We predicted that stream burial suppresses the capacity of streams to retain nitrate (NO3 −) by eliminating primar...

  1. Effects of Urban Stream Burial on Organic Matter Dynamics and Reach Scale Nitrate Retention

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrogen (N) retention in streams is an important ecosystem service that may be affected by the widespread burial of streams in stormwater pipes in urban watersheds. We predicted that stream burial suppresses the capacity of streams to retain nitrate (NO3-) by eliminating primar...

  2. Technical data summary: Plan for closure of the 643-G burial ground

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, J R

    1987-08-17

    This report involves the actions of closing the 643-G burial ground which involves waste removal, stabilization, and capping. Remedial action involves the removing of the transuranic waste and closing of the grid wells. The closure cap for the burial site will consist of native soil, clay, and gravel. This will assure long-term physical and chemical stability. (MB)

  3. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-C-1, 105-C Solid Waste Burial Ground

    SciTech Connect

    M. J. Appel and J. M. Capron

    2007-07-25

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 118-C-1, 105-C Solid Waste Burial Ground. This waste site was the primary burial ground for general wastes from the operation of the 105-C Reactor and received process tubes, aluminum fuel spacers, control rods, reactor hardware, spent nuclear fuel and soft wastes.

  4. 76 FR 61148 - Proposed Information Collection (Application for United States Flag for Burial Purposes) Activity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Application for United States Flag for Burial Purposes) Activity... information technology. Title: Application for United States Flag for Burial Purposes, VA Form 21-2008....

  5. Burial affects the biogeochemistry of headwater streams in a midwestern US metropolitan area

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrogen (N) retention in stream networks is an important ecosystem service that may be affected by the widespread burial of headwater streams in urban basins. Urban stream burial has only recently been recognized by ecologists and little research has addressed the extent to whi...

  6. Messrs. Dinkins, Rangel, and Savage in Colloquy on the African Burial Ground: A Companion Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodnight, G. Thomas

    1999-01-01

    Expands the symbolic resources of the African Burial Ground through a dialogical reading of an essay in the same issue of this journal which offers a rhetorical examination of the controversy surrounding the African Burial Ground. Argues that, post-critique, controversies may be recuperated to recover an expanded sense of coalitional engagement,…

  7. Burial affects the biogeochemistry of headwater streams in a midwestern US metropolitan area - slides

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrogen (N) retention in stream networks is an important ecosystem service that may be affected by the widespread burial of headwater streams in urban basins. Urban stream burial has only recently been recognized by ecologists as a regional environmental impact and little resea...

  8. Burial affects the biogeochemistry of headwater streams in a midwestern US metropolitan area

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrogen (N) retention in stream networks is an important ecosystem service that may be affected by the widespread burial of headwater streams in urban basins. Urban stream burial has only recently been recognized by ecologists and little research has addressed the extent to whi...

  9. 76 FR 31683 - Proposed Information Collection (NCA PreNeed Burial Evaluation) Activity: Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (NCA PreNeed Burial Evaluation) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY... techniques or the use of other forms of information technology. Title: NCA PreNeed Burial...

  10. Effects of urban stream burial on organic matter dynamics and reach scale nitrate retention - final

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrogen (N) retention in streams is an important ecosystem service that may be affected by the widespread burial of streams in stormwater pipes in urban watersheds. We predicted that stream burial suppresses the capacity of streams to retain nitrate (NO3 −) by eliminating primar...

  11. Molecular characterization of an earliest cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) collection from Peruvian Amazon using microsatllite DNA markers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) is indigenous to the Amazon region of South America. The Peruvian Amazon harbors a large number of diverse cacao populations. Since the 1930s, several numbers of populations have been collected from the Peruvian Amazon and maintained as ex situ germplasm repositories in ...

  12. Biosecurity procedures for the environmental management of carcasses burial sites in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Geon-Ha; Pramanik, Sudipta

    2016-12-01

    Avian influenza and foot-and-mouth disease are two main contagious pathogenic viral disease which are responsible for the massive burials of livestock in Korea since burial is the primary measure to control these outbreaks. Biosecurity is a set of preventive measures designed to prevent the risk of spreading of these infectious diseases. The main objective of this paper is to discuss about the requirements of biosecurity and develop protocol outlines for environmental management of burial sites in Korea. Current practice prescribes to minimize the potential for on-farm pollution and the spread of the infectious diseases. Specific biosecurity procedures such as proper assessment of leachate quality, safe handling and disposal of leachate, adequate leachate pollution monitoring, necessary seasonal management of burial site, and appropriate sterilization process must be carried out to prevent the indirect transmission of pathogens from the burial sites. Policy makers should acquire robust knowledge of biosecurity for establishing more effective future legislation for carcasses disposal in Korea.

  13. Evidence supporting an intentional Neandertal burial at La Chapelle-aux-Saints

    PubMed Central

    Rendu, William; Beauval, Cédric; Crevecoeur, Isabelle; Bayle, Priscilla; Balzeau, Antoine; Bismuth, Thierry; Bourguignon, Laurence; Delfour, Géraldine; Faivre, Jean-Philippe; Lacrampe-Cuyaubère, François; Tavormina, Carlotta; Todisco, Dominique; Turq, Alain; Maureille, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    The bouffia Bonneval at La Chapelle-aux-Saints is well known for the discovery of the first secure Neandertal burial in the early 20th century. However, the intentionality of the burial remains an issue of some debate. Here, we present the results of a 12-y fieldwork project, along with a taphonomic analysis of the human remains, designed to assess the funerary context of the La Chapelle-aux-Saints Neandertal. We have established the anthropogenic nature of the burial pit and underlined the taphonomic evidence of a rapid burial of the body. These multiple lines of evidence support the hypothesis of an intentional burial. Finally, the discovery of skeletal elements belonging to the original La Chapelle aux Saints 1 individual, two additional young individuals, and a second adult in the bouffia Bonneval highlights a more complex site-formation history than previously proposed. PMID:24344286

  14. Distribution of maximum burial temperatures across northern Appalachian Basin and implications for Carboniferous sedimentation patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Johnsson, M.J.

    1986-05-01

    Clay-mineral diagenesis and apatite fission-track age data indicate that the maximum burial temperatures to which the Middle Devonian Tioga metabentonite was exposed rise abruptly from low values in western New York State to higher values in the east. The highest temperatures, which approach 175/sup 0/C, were reached just west of Syracuse. Neither the pattern nor the magnitude of burial temperatures can be explained solely by burial of the metabentonite beneath Upper Devonian sediments. Although spatial variations in the geothermal gradient could have produced the observed pattern of burial temperatures, it is more likely that Carboniferous sediments, no longer preserved in the area, were responsible for the indicated burial. The inferred presence of thick Carboniferous sequences in western New York State suggests that the Allegheny orogeny had a stronger influence on sedimentation in the northern Appalachian Basin than has been previously recognized. 25 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  15. Burial patterns during times of armed conflict in Cyprus in the 1960s and 1970s.

    PubMed

    Mikellide, Maria

    2014-09-01

    The island of Cyprus experienced two periods of intercommunal conflict during which c. 2000 individuals went missing. The Committee on Missing Persons in Cyprus began a program of exhumations in 2005, through which more than 185 burial sites pertaining to the two periods of conflict have been identified and excavated. The aim of this study was twofold: (i) to present a classification of the main types of clandestine burial and (ii) to test the hypothesis that the nature of conflict influences the mode of interment. Burials can be divided into "public burials" and "concealed burials," based on the possible motives of those involved in the interment and then subdivided into smaller categories based on similarities in archeological context. A comparison of results from the two periods of conflict reveals that there are statistical differences (p < 0.005), which indicate that the mode of interment may reflect the nature, character, and atmosphere of conflict.

  16. Evidence supporting an intentional Neandertal burial at La Chapelle-aux-Saints.

    PubMed

    Rendu, William; Beauval, Cédric; Crevecoeur, Isabelle; Bayle, Priscilla; Balzeau, Antoine; Bismuth, Thierry; Bourguignon, Laurence; Delfour, Géraldine; Faivre, Jean-Philippe; Lacrampe-Cuyaubère, François; Tavormina, Carlotta; Todisco, Dominique; Turq, Alain; Maureille, Bruno

    2014-01-07

    The bouffia Bonneval at La Chapelle-aux-Saints is well known for the discovery of the first secure Neandertal burial in the early 20th century. However, the intentionality of the burial remains an issue of some debate. Here, we present the results of a 12-y fieldwork project, along with a taphonomic analysis of the human remains, designed to assess the funerary context of the La Chapelle-aux-Saints Neandertal. We have established the anthropogenic nature of the burial pit and underlined the taphonomic evidence of a rapid burial of the body. These multiple lines of evidence support the hypothesis of an intentional burial. Finally, the discovery of skeletal elements belonging to the original La Chapelle aux Saints 1 individual, two additional young individuals, and a second adult in the bouffia Bonneval highlights a more complex site-formation history than previously proposed.

  17. Ancient "Observatories" - A Relevant Concept?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belmonte, Juan Antonio

    It is quite common, when reading popular books on astronomy, to see a place referred to as "the oldest observatory in the world". In addition, numerous books on archaeoastronomy, of various levels of quality, frequently refer to the existence of "prehistoric" or "ancient" observatories when describing or citing monuments that were certainly not built with the primary purpose of observing the skies. Internet sources are also guilty of this practice. In this chapter, the different meanings of the word observatory will be analyzed, looking at how their significances can be easily confused or even interchanged. The proclaimed "ancient observatories" are a typical result of this situation. Finally, the relevance of the concept of the ancient observatory will be evaluated.

  18. Ancient suture zones within continents.

    PubMed

    Moores, E M

    1981-07-03

    Ancient suture belts within continents are deformed regions which contain the remnants of former ocean basins. They form when two continents or island arcs that earlier were separated by an ocean basin converge and collide during plate tectonic activity. These belts provide the only record we have of deep oceanic crust and of ancient sea-floor processes for the first 94 percent of the earth's history, that is, prior to the oldest preserved crust in the oceans. Ten criteria for the recognition and interpretation of these ancient belts are discussed. A comprehensive program for the study of these belts should have great scientific and economic benefit for the United States and would be relatively cheap compared to other large national scientific efforts.

  19. Neonatal medicine in ancient art.

    PubMed

    Yurdakök, Murat

    2010-01-01

    There are a limited number of artistic objects from ancient times with particular importance in neonatal medicine. The best examples are figurines from ancient Egypt of Isis nursing Horus, showing the importance of breastfeeding. The earliest images of the human fetus were made by the Olmecs in Mexico around 1200- 400 BCE. One of the earliest representations of congenital anomalies is a figurine of diencephalic twins thought to be the goddess of Anatolia, dated to around 6500 BCE. In addition to these figurines, three sets of twins in the ancient world have medical importance, and Renaissance artists often used them as a subject for their paintings: "direct suckling animals" (Romulus and Remus), "heteropaternal superfecundation" (mother: Leda, fathers: Zeus, the king of the Olympian gods, and Leda's husband, Tyndareus), and "twin-to-twin transfusion" in monozygotic twins (Jacob and Esau).

  20. Improving ancient DNA genome assembly

    PubMed Central

    Nieselt, Kay

    2017-01-01

    Most reconstruction methods for genomes of ancient origin that are used today require a closely related reference. In order to identify genomic rearrangements or the deletion of whole genes, de novo assembly has to be used. However, because of inherent problems with ancient DNA, its de novo assembly is highly complicated. In order to tackle the diversity in the length of the input reads, we propose a two-layer approach, where multiple assemblies are generated in the first layer, which are then combined in the second layer. We used this two-layer assembly to generate assemblies for two different ancient samples and compared the results to current de novo assembly approaches. We are able to improve the assembly with respect to the length of the contigs and can resolve more repetitive regions. PMID:28392981

  1. Effects of urban stream burial on nitrogen uptake and ecosystem metabolism: implications for watershed nitrogen and carbon fluxes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Urbanization has resulted in extensive burial and channelization of headwater streams, yet little is known about impacts on stream ecosystem functions critical for reducing downstream nitrogen pollution. To characterize the biogeochemical impact of stream burial, we measured NO3...

  2. Effects of urban stream burial on nitrogen uptake and ecosystem metabolism: implications for watershed nitrogen and carbon fluxes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Urbanization has resulted in extensive burial and channelization of headwater streams, yet little is known about impacts on stream ecosystem functions critical for reducing downstream nitrogen pollution. To characterize the biogeochemical impact of stream burial, we measured NO3...

  3. Skeletal dysplasia in ancient Egypt.

    PubMed

    Kozma, Chahira

    2008-12-01

    The ancient Egyptian civilization lasted for over 3000 years and ended in 30 BCE. Many aspects of ancient Egyptian culture, including the existence of skeletal dysplasias, and in particular achondroplasia, are well known through the monuments and records that survived until modern times. The hot and dry climate in Egypt allowed for the preservation of bodies and skeletal anomalies. The oldest dwarf skeleton, the Badarian skeleton (4500 BCE), possibly represents an epiphyseal disorder. Among the remains of dwarfs with achondroplasia from ancient Egypt (2686-2190 BCE), exists a skeleton of a pregnant female, believed to have died during delivery with a baby's remains in situ. British museums have partial skeletons of dwarfs with achondroplasia, humeri probably affected with mucopolysaccharidoses, and a skeleton of a child with osteogenesis imperfecta. Skeletal dysplasia is also found among royal remains. The mummy of the pharaoh Siptah (1342-1197 BCE) shows a deformity of the left leg and foot. A mummified fetus, believed to be the daughter of king Tutankhamun, has scoliosis, spina bifida, and Sprengel deformity. In 2006 I reviewed the previously existing knowledge of dwarfism in ancient Egypt. The purpose of this second historical review is to add to that knowledge with an expanded contribution. The artistic documentation of people with skeletal dysplasia from ancient Egypt is plentiful including hundreds of amulets, statues, and drawing on tomb and temple walls. Examination of artistic reliefs provides a glance of the role of people with skeletal dysplasia and the societal attitudes toward them. Both artistic evidence and moral teachings in ancient Egypt reveal wide integration of individuals with disabilities into the society.

  4. Structural characterization of Peruvian carrot (Arracacia xanthorrhiza) starch and the effect of annealing on its semicrystalline structure.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Thais S; Cunha, Verena A G; Jane, Jay-Lin; Franco, Celia M L

    2011-04-27

    Structural characteristics of native and annealed Peruvian carrot (Arracacia xanthorrhiza) starches were determined and compared to those of cassava and potato starches. Peruvian carrot starch presented round and irregular shaped granules, low amylose content and B-type X-ray pattern. Amylopectin of this starch contained a large proportion of long (DP > 37) and short (DP 6-12) branched chains. These last ones may contribute to its low gelatinization temperature. After annealing, the gelatinization temperatures of all starches increased, but the ΔH and the crystallinity increased only in Peruvian carrot and potato starches. The annealing process promoted a higher exposure of Peruvian carrot amylose molecules, which were more quickly attacked by enzymes, whereas amylopectin molecules became more resistant to hydrolysis. Peruvian carrot starch had structural characteristics that differed from those of cassava and potato starches. Annealing affected the semicrystalline structure of this starch, enhancing its crystallinity, mainly due to a better interaction between amylopectin chains.

  5. Investigation and simulation on fate and transport of leachate from a livestock mortality burial site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, J.-W.; Lee, S.; Kaown, D.; Lee, K.-K.

    2012-04-01

    Leachate released from livestock mortality burial during decomposition of carcasses can be a threat to groundwater quality. Monitoring study of groundwater quality in the vicinity of livestock burial reported that a caution is needed to prevent contamination of both groundwater and soil, especially in case of mortality burial (Glanville, 2000; Ritter and Chirnside, 1995). The average concentration of ammonium-N and chloride is reported to be 12,600 mg/l and 2,600 mg/l respectively, which is 2-4 times higher than leachate from earthen manure storages and landfills (Pratt, 2009). To assess the potential threat of burial leachate to groundwater quality, simulation of leachate transport is performed based on a hydrogeologic model of an actual mortality burial site. At the burial site of this study located at a hill slope, two mortality pits have been constructed along the slope to bury swine during the outbreak of nationwide foot and mouth disease(FMD) in 2011. Though the pits were partially lined with impermeable material, potential threat of leachate leakage is still in concern. Electrical resistivity survey has been performed several times at the burial site and abnormal resistivity zones have been detected which are supposed as leachate leakage from the burial. Subsurface model including unsaturated zone is built since the leakage is supposed to occur mainly in lateral of the burial pits which is in unsaturated zone. When examining leachate transport, main focus is given to a nitrogenous compound and colloidal character of FMD virus. Nitrifying of denitrifying characters of nitrogenous compound and transport of colloidal particles are affected mainly by soil water content in unsaturated zone. Thus, the fate and transport of burial leachate affected by seasonal variation in recharge pattern is investigated.

  6. Mine burial in the seabed of high-turbidity area—Findings of a first experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baeye, Matthias; Fettweis, Michael; Legrand, Sebastien; Dupont, Yves; Van Lancker, Vera

    2012-07-01

    The seabed of the North Sea is covered with ammunition dating back from World Wars I and II. With increasing human interference (e.g. fisheries, aggregate extraction, harbor related activities), it forms a threat to the safety at sea. In this study, test mines were deployed on a sandy seabed for 3 months to investigate mine burial processes as a function of hydrodynamic and meteorological conditions. The mine experiment was conducted in a shallow (9 m), macrotidal environment characterized by highly turbid waters (yearly and depth-averaged suspended particulate matter concentration of 100 mg l-1). Results showed some variability of the overall mine burial, which corresponded with scouring processes induced by a (sub-) tidal forcing mechanism. The main burial events however were linked to storm-related scouring processes, and subsequent mine roll into the resulting pit. Two storms affecting the mines during the 3-month experiment resulted in enduring increases in burial volume to 60% and 80%, respectively. More cyclic and ephemeral burial and exposure events appear to be linked to the local hydrodynamic regime. During slack tides, suspended sediment settles on the seabed, increasing the burial volume. In between slack tides, sediment is resuspended, decreasing the burial volume. The temporal pattern of this never reported burial mechanism, as measured optically, mimics the cyclicity of the suspended sediment concentration as recorded by ultrasonic signals at a nearby benthic observatory. Given the similarity in response signals at the two sites, we hypothesize that the formation of high-concentrated mud suspensions (HCMS) is a mechanism causing short-term burial and exposure of mines. This short-term burial and exposure increase the chance that mines are 'missed' during tracking surveys. Test mines contribute to our understanding of the settling and erosion of HCMS, and thus shed a light on generic sedimentary processes.

  7. Radionuclide distributions and migration mechanisms at shallow land burial sites

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, L.J.; Toste, A.P.; Thomas, C.W.; Rickard, W.H.; Nielson, H.L.; Campbell, R.M.; McShane, M.C.; Wilkerson, C.L.; Robertson, D.E.

    1991-02-01

    During the past several years, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has conducted research at the Maxey Flats Disposal Site (MFDS) for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This work has identified the spectrum of radionuclides present in the waste trenches, determined the processes that were occurring relative to degradation of radioactive material within the burial trenches, determined the chemical and physical characteristics of the trench leachates and the chemical forms of the leached radionuclides, determined the mobility of these radionuclides, investigated the subsurface and surface transport processes, determined the biological uptake by the native vegetation, developed strategies for environmental monitoring, and investigated other factors that influence the long-term fate of the radionuclide inventory at the disposal site. This report is a final summary of the research conducted by PNL and presents the results and discussions relative to the above investigative areas. 45 refs., 31 figs., 17 tabs.

  8. Stress-induced chemical waves in sediment burial diagenesis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yifeng; Budd, David A

    2012-02-21

    Lateral metre-scale periodic variations in porosity and composition are found in many dolomite strata. Such variations may embed important information about dolomite formation and transformation. Here we show that these variations could be fossilized chemical waves emerging from stress-mediated mineral-water interaction during sediment burial diagenesis. Under the overlying loading, crystals in higher porosity domains are subjected to a higher effective stress, causing pressure solution. The dissolved species diffuse to and precipitate in neighbouring lower porosity domains, further reducing the porosity. This positive feedback leads to lateral porosity and compositional patterning in dolomite. The pattern geometry depends on fluid flow regimes. In a diffusion-dominated case, the low- and high-porosity domains alternate spatially with no directional preference, while, in the presence of an advective flow, this alternation occurs only along the flow direction, propagating like a chemical wave. Our work provides a new perspective for interpreting diagenetic signatures in sedimentary rocks.

  9. Determination of post-burial interval using entomology: A review.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rajinder; Sharma, Sahil; Sharma, Arun

    2016-08-01

    Insects and other arthropods are used in different matters pertinent to the criminal justice system as they play very important role in the decomposition of cadavers. They are used as evidence in a criminal investigation to determine post mortem interval (PMI). Various researches and review articles are available on forensic entomology to determine PMI in the terrestrial environment but very less work has been reported in context to buried bodies. Burring the carcass, is one of the methods used by criminals to conceal the crime. So, to drive the attention of researchers toward this growing field and to help various investigating agencies, the present paper reviews the studies done on determination of post-burial interval (PBI), its importance and future prospective.

  10. Alternatives To The Burial Of Low-Level Radioactive Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Price, J. Mark

    2008-01-15

    The approach for management of LLRW in different countries has evolved differently due to many factors such as culture and public sentiment, systems of government, public policy, and geography. There are also various methods to disposition LLRW including but not limited to: - Long term statutes and unconditional or conditional release of material; - Direct Burial; - Treatment (Processing); - Burial; - Treatment; - Unconditional Release; - Recycle for Unconditional Release or Reuse Within Any Industry; - Controlled Recycle within Nuclear Industry. This paper examines the options of controlled recycle of material within the nuclear industry and cites several successful examples. Controlled recycling of LLRW materials within the nuclear industry has been demonstrated to be practical and economical. The reuse of materials within the nuclear industry properly addressed stakeholder concerns for material being used for what they believe to be improper purposes. There are a number of environmental benefits including: - Preservation of resources; - Energy Conservation (in cases where less energy is required to recycle/reuse as compared to mainstream new fuel storages. - Preservation of burial space at disposal sites. In many cases recycling is cost beneficial as compared to other options to disposition the LLRW. In some cases burial costs are comparatively higher. To further the advancement of controlled recycle countries must continue to embrace the concept and create large enough feedstocks of like type material to achieve economies of scale. Additionally, a mechanism to uniformly track material to show where material has been moved and ultimately dispositioned would also contribute to enhancing the endorsement of controlled recycling. There is a large amount of LLRW material that could potentially be recycled. To date, 100 mines, 90 commercial power reactors, over 250 research reactors and a number of fuel cycle facilities, have been retired from operation. Some of these

  11. High integrity container evaluation for solid waste disposal burial containers

    SciTech Connect

    Josephson, W.S.

    1996-06-19

    In order to provide radioactive waste disposal practices with the greatest measure of public protection, Solid Waste Disposal (SWD) adopted the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requirement to stabilize high specific activity radioactive waste prior to disposal. Under NRC guidelines, stability may be provided by several mechanisms, one of which is by placing the waste in a high integrity container (HIC). During the implementation process, SWD found that commercially-available HICs could not accommodate the varied nature of weapons complex waste, and in response developed a number of disposal containers to function as HICs. This document summarizes the evaluation of various containers that can be used for the disposal of Category 3 waste in the Low Level Burial Grounds. These containers include the VECTRA reinforced concrete HIC, reinforced concrete culvert, and the reinforced concrete vault. This evaluation provides justification for the use of these containers and identifies the conditions for use of each.

  12. Night Blindness and Ancient Remedy

    PubMed Central

    Al Binali, H.A. Hajar

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to briefly review the history of night blindness and its treatment from ancient times until the present. The old Egyptians, the Babylonians, the Greeks and the Arabs used animal liver for treatment and successfully cured the disease. The author had the opportunity to observe the application of the old remedy to a patient. Now we know what the ancients did not know, that night blindness is caused by Vitamin A deficiency and the animal liver is the store house for Vitamin A. PMID:25774260

  13. Titling indigenous communities protects forests in the Peruvian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Blackman, Allen; Corral, Leonardo; Lima, Eirivelthon Santos; Asner, Gregory P

    2017-04-18

    Developing countries are increasingly decentralizing forest governance by granting indigenous groups and other local communities formal legal title to land. However, the effects of titling on forest cover are unclear. Rigorous analyses of titling campaigns are rare, and related theoretical and empirical research suggests that they could either stem or spur forest damage. We analyze such a campaign in the Peruvian Amazon, where more than 1,200 indigenous communities comprising some 11 million ha have been titled since the mid-1970s. We use community-level longitudinal data derived from high-resolution satellite images to estimate the effect of titling between 2002 and 2005 on contemporaneous forest clearing and disturbance. Our results indicate that titling reduces clearing by more than three-quarters and forest disturbance by roughly two-thirds in a 2-y window spanning the year title is awarded and the year afterward. These results suggest that awarding formal land titles to local communities can advance forest conservation.

  14. A developmental analysis of generic nouns in Southern Peruvian Quechua.

    PubMed

    Mannheim, Bruce; Gelman, Susan A; Escalante, Carmen; Huayhua, Margarita; Puma, Rosalía

    2010-01-01

    Generic noun phrases (e.g., "Cats like to drink milk") are a primary means by which adults express generalizations to children, yet they pose a challenging induction puzzle for learners. Although prior research has established that English speakers understand and produce generic noun phrases by preschool age, little is known regarding the cross-cultural generality of generic acquisition. Southern Peruvian Quechua provides a valuable comparison because, unlike English, it is a highly inflected language in which generics are marked by the absence rather than the presence of any linguistic markers. Moreover, Quechua is spoken in a cultural context that differs markedly from the highly educated, middle-class contexts within which earlier research on generics was conducted. We presented participants from 5 age groups (3-6, 7-9, 10-12, 14-35, and 36-90 years of age) with two tasks that examined the ability to distinguish generic from non-generic utterances. In Study 1, even the youngest children understood generics as applying broadly to a category (like "all") and distinct from indefinite reference ("some"). However, there was a developmental lag before children understood that generics, unlike "all", can include exceptions. Study 2 revealed that generic interpretations are more frequent for utterances that (a) lack specifying markers and (b) are animate. Altogether, generic interpretations are found among the youngest participants, and may be a default mode of quantification. These data demonstrate the cross-cultural importance of generic information in linguistic expression.

  15. Titling indigenous communities protects forests in the Peruvian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Blackman, Allen; Corral, Leonardo; Lima, Eirivelthon Santos; Asner, Gregory P.

    2017-01-01

    Developing countries are increasingly decentralizing forest governance by granting indigenous groups and other local communities formal legal title to land. However, the effects of titling on forest cover are unclear. Rigorous analyses of titling campaigns are rare, and related theoretical and empirical research suggests that they could either stem or spur forest damage. We analyze such a campaign in the Peruvian Amazon, where more than 1,200 indigenous communities comprising some 11 million ha have been titled since the mid-1970s. We use community-level longitudinal data derived from high-resolution satellite images to estimate the effect of titling between 2002 and 2005 on contemporaneous forest clearing and disturbance. Our results indicate that titling reduces clearing by more than three-quarters and forest disturbance by roughly two-thirds in a 2-y window spanning the year title is awarded and the year afterward. These results suggest that awarding formal land titles to local communities can advance forest conservation. PMID:28373565

  16. [Tolerance and digestibility of Peruvian "common foods" in malnourished infants].

    PubMed

    López de Romaña, G L; Creed, H M; Graham, G G

    1978-12-01

    Six diets were prepared based on commonly used Peruvian foods, mainly of vegetable origin, which were offered to eight infants (mean age: 12.8 +/- 8.2 months) recovering from malnutrition. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the acceptability, tolerance and digestibility of the diets in question. Five were prepared with a potato and wheat base (noodle) and the sixth with a quinua-oats base. The acceptability and tolerance was satisfacotry, allowing maintenance of an adequate calorie and protein intake in all patients except one. On the quinua-oats based diet, the mean apparent absorption of nitrogen and fat was significantly lower (P less than 0.05) than in the case of the other diets. The increase in height coefficient (height age/chronological age X 100) and weight/age proved to be adequate during the study, except in the three youngest patients. The authors consider that this type of diets (potato-wheat based) can be recommended for infant feeding after the first year of life, and that the quinua-oats based diet still needs a more thorough evaluation prior to recommending its use.

  17. The Association between Socioeconomic Status and Obesity in Peruvian Women

    PubMed Central

    Poterico, J.A.; Stanojevic, S.; Ruiz, P.; Bernabe-Ortiz, A.; Miranda, J. J.

    2012-01-01

    Historically in developing countries, the prevalence of obesity has been greater in more advantaged socioeconomic groups. However, in recent years the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and obesity has changed and varies depending on the country’s development stage. This study examines the relationship between SES and obesity using two indicators of SES: education or possession assets. Using the cross-sectional 2008 National Demographic and Family Health Survey of Peru (ENDES 2008) we investigated this relationship in women aged 15 to 49 years living in rural and urban settings. Descriptive, linear and logistic regressions analyses were conducted accounting for the multi-staged nature of the sampling design. The overall prevalence of obesity in this study was 14.1% (95%CI: 13.3–14.8); 8.4% (95%CI: 7.5–9.3) in rural areas and 16.2% (95%CI: 15.2–17-2) in urban areas. Wealthier women were more likely to be obese, and this association was stronger in rural areas. Conversely, more educated women were less likely to be obese, especially in urban areas. The distribution of obesity in Peruvian women is strongly related to socioeconomic position, and differs whether measured as possession assets or by level of education. These findings could have important implications for policy development in Peru. PMID:21959344

  18. Subsistence economy of el paraiso, an early peruvian site.

    PubMed

    Quilter, J; E, B O; Pearsall, D M; Sandweiss, D H; Jones, J G; Wing, E S

    1991-01-18

    Studies of food remains from the Preceramic monumental site of E1 Paraíso, Peru (1800 to 1500 B.C.), have shed new light on a debate regarding the relative importance of seafood versus terrestrial resources and the role of cultigens in subsistence economies during the early development of Peruvian civilization. Fish was the primary animal food at the site whereas plant foods consisted of a mixture of cultivated resources (squashes, beans, peppers, and jicama) with an additional reliance on fruits (guava, lucuma, and pacae). Wild plants, especially the roots of sedges and cat-tail, also may have accounted for a substantial part of the diet. Cotton was a chief crop, used in making fishing tackle and the textiles that served as clothing and items of high value and status. As an example of the beginnings of civilization, El Paraíso is a case in which impressive architecture was built on a relatively simple subsistence economy and energy was expended in the production of resources useful in local and regional exchange systems.

  19. Epidemiology of Taeniasis and Cysticercosis in a Peruvian Village

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, F.; Garcia, H. H.; Gilman, R. H.; Gonzales, A. E.; Castro, M.; Tsang, V. C. W.; Pilcher, J. B.; Vasquez, L. E.; Lescano, M.; Carcamo, C.; Madico, G.; Miranda, E.

    2011-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of cysticercosis in a rural area where the disease is endemic, the authors studied the seroepidemiology of human and porcine cysticercosis in a Peruvian jungle community (Maceda, Peru) in 1988 using an enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) assay. Of the 371 sampled inhabitants, 30 (8%) were seropositive, most of whom were asymptomatic. After niclosamide therapy, four Taenia species worms were identified in the seropositive group, compared with one in the control group (p = 0.06). Pigs were frequently infected: 44 of 133 (33%) were found positive for Taenia by tongue examination and 57 of 133 (43%) were positive by EITB. In 69% of the sampled households that had pigs, there was at least one seropositive pig. The number of pigs diagnosed positive by the tongue examination was significantly greater in households that had latrines than in those that did not. Cysticercosis is a common but usually asymptomatic infection that affects both humans and pigs in the high jungle areas of Peru. PMID:1585900

  20. Dermatoglyphics of a high altitude Peruvian population and interpopulation comparisons.

    PubMed

    Baca, O R; Del Valle Mendoza, L; Guerrero, N A

    2001-01-01

    Studies of genetic structures of Andean human populations have not been numerous, even though these studies could be used to answer questions concerning migration routes of the indigenous peoples who populated America. Such studies could provide basic genetic information and clarify uncertainties surrounding genetic relatedness of South American indigenous peoples. This present work describes, quantifies, and analyzes the digital and palmar dermatoglyphics of 120 people in the community of San Pedro de Casta, Perú. The results were then compared using distance analysis to all other Peruvian population values studied to date and other South American populations. The dermatoglyphic indicators studied were the distribution of digital pattern frequencies, the total ridge counts (TRC), the pattern intensity index (PII), the atd angle, and the a-b ridge counts. The results did not show statistically significant differences for digital patterns between hands, neither within a sex nor between sexes. The means and standard deviations of PII and TRC were 12.32 +/- 3.97 and 112.18 +/- 45.09, respectively. The means and standard deviations for the other two indicators were the following: atd angle, 94.85 degrees +/- 12.33; and a-b ridge counts, 81.57 +/- 9.06. The distance analyses results suggest the existence of two different genetic lines among high altitude populations, as well as the need for further research.

  1. Absence of infection with human immunodeficiency virus in Peruvian prostitutes.

    PubMed

    Golenbock, D T; Guerra, J; Pfister, J; Golubjatnikov, R; Tejada, A; Abugattas, J; Kemper, R; Maki, D G

    1988-12-01

    We serologically tested 140 female prostitutes (mean age, 30 years) from the port city of Callao, Peru, for evidence of infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), Chlamydia trachomatis, Treponema pallidum, herpes simplex viruses (HSV) I and II, and hepatitis B virus. The women had worked as prostitutes for an average of 5 years; one-fourth serviced foreign visitors exclusively, mainly sailors. Only 4 women used condoms, and only 1 woman gave a history of parenteral narcotic abuse, although 53% were regularly exposed to unsterile needles outside the medical setting for injections of vitamins, antibiotics, or steroids; another 29% are thought to probably use unsterile needles. None of the 140 prostitutes screened was seropositive for HIV, despite a very high prevalence of antibody to T. pallidum (24%), C. trachomatis (97%), HSV I and II (100%), and hepatitis B (51%); 5% were HbsAg positive. These data indicate that HIV has not yet been introduced into female prostitutes in the Peruvian port city. We believe that widespread use of unsterile needles in developing countries, such as Peru, represents a serious health threat and will amplify the spread of HIV, once introduced.

  2. The association between socioeconomic status and obesity in Peruvian women.

    PubMed

    Poterico, Julio A; Stanojevic, Sanja; Ruiz-Grosso, Paulo; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Miranda, J Jaime

    2012-11-01

    Historically in developing countries, the prevalence of obesity has been greater in more advantaged socioeconomic groups. However, in recent years the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and obesity has changed and varies depending on the country's development stage. This study examines the relationship between SES and obesity using two indicators of SES: education or possession assets. Using the cross-sectional 2008 National Demographic and Family Health Survey of Peru (ENDES 2008), we investigated this relationship in women aged 15-49 years living in rural and urban settings. Descriptive, linear and logistic regressions analyses were conducted accounting for the multistage nature of the sampling design. The overall prevalence of obesity in this study was 14.1% (95% confidence interval (CI): 13.3-14.8); 8.4% (95% CI: 7.5-9.3) in rural areas and 16.2% (95% CI: 15.2-17.2) in urban areas. Wealthier women were more likely to be obese, and this association was stronger in rural areas. Conversely, more educated women were less likely to be obese, especially in urban areas. The distribution of obesity in Peruvian women is strongly related to socioeconomic position, and differs whether measured as possession assets or by level of education. These findings could have important implications for policy development in Peru.

  3. Meteorological constraints on oceanic halocarbons above the Peruvian Upwelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuhlbrügge, S.; Quack, B.; Atlas, E.; Fiehn, A.; Hepach, H.; Krüger, K.

    2015-07-01

    Halogenated very short lived substances (VSLS) are naturally produced in the ocean and emitted to the atmosphere. Recently, oceanic upwelling regions in the tropical East Atlantic were identified as strong sources of brominated halocarbons to the atmosphere. During a cruise of R/V METEOR in December 2012 the oceanic sources and emissions of various halogenated trace gases and their mixing ratios in the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) were investigated above the Peruvian Upwelling for the first time. This study presents novel observations of the three VSLS bromoform, dibromomethane and methyl iodide together with high resolution meteorological measurements and Lagrangian transport modelling. Although relatively low oceanic emissions were observed, except for methyl iodide, surface atmospheric abundances were elevated. Radiosonde launches during the cruise revealed a low, stable MABL and a distinct trade inversion above acting both as strong barriers for convection and trace gas transport in this region. Significant correlations between observed atmospheric VSLS abundances, sea surface temperature, relative humidity and MABL height were found. We used a simple source-loss estimate to identify the contribution of oceanic emissions to observed atmospheric concentrations which revealed that the observed marine VSLS abundances were dominated by horizontal advection below the trade inversion. The observed VSLS variations can be explained by the low emissions and their accumulation under different MABL and trade inversion conditions. This study confirms the importance of oceanic upwelling and trade wind systems on creating effective transport barriers in the lower atmosphere controlling the distribution of VSLS abundances above ocean upwelling regions.

  4. Epidemiology of Echinococcus granulosus infection in the central Peruvian Andes.

    PubMed Central

    Moro, P. L.; McDonald, J.; Gilman, R. H.; Silva, B.; Verastegui, M.; Malqui, V.; Lescano, G.; Falcon, N.; Montes, G.; Bazalar, H.

    1997-01-01

    The prevalence of human, canine, and ovine echinococcosis was determined in an endemic area of the Peruvian Andes where control programmes have not been operational since 1980. Prevalence of infection in humans was determined using portable ultrasound, chest X-rays, and an enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) assay. Canine and ovine echinococcal prevalence was determined by microscopic stool examinations following arecoline purging for tapeworm detection and by examination of the viscera from slaughtered livestock animals, respectively. The prevalence among 407 humans surveyed was 9.1%. The frequency of disease in the liver, lung, and in both organs was 3.4%, 2.0%, and 0.2%, respectively. Portable ultrasound or portable chest X-ray has shown that, compared to adults, children under 11 years had significantly higher seropositive rates without evidence of hydatid disease (P < 0.05). Among the 104 dogs inspected for echinococcus after arecoline purging, 33 (32%) were positive for adult tapeworms. Among the 117 sheep slaughtered at the local abattoir, 102 (87%) had hydatid cysts. The prevalence of human hydatidosis in this endemic area of Peru is one of the highest in the world and nearly five times higher than previously reported in 1980. An increase in echinococcosis prevalence may result after premature cessation of control programmes. PMID:9509628

  5. Seroincidence of porcine T. solium infection in the Peruvian highlands.

    PubMed

    Garcia, H H; Gonzalez, A E; Gavidia, C; Falcon, N; Bernal, T; Verastegui, M; Rodriguez, S; Tsang, V C W; Gilman, R H

    2003-04-15

    We performed repeated serological sampling of pigs in an endemic area of the Peruvian highlands (eight villages) to assess the feasibility of detecting incident cases of Taenia solium infection as indicators of ongoing transmission of the parasite. A total of 2245 samples corresponding to 1548 pigs were collected in three sampling rounds (n=716, 926, and 603, respectively). Village-period specific seroprevalences of antibodies by enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) assay varied from 39% (95% CI: 34, 44) to 76% (95% CI: 72, 79). The prevalence of cysticercosis increased with the age of the pigs (similarly for both sexes). Around 40% of pigs were re-sampled at the end of each 4-month period. Crude incidence risks were 48% (57/120, 95% CI: 43-52) and 58% (111/192, 95% CI: 54-61) for each period. A proportion of seropositive animals became seronegative at the end of each period (23 and 15%). Incidence varied by the village, and the exposure period, and was higher in males than females (but did not differ by age).

  6. Organic carbon burial in fjords: Terrestrial versus marine inputs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Xingqian; Bianchi, Thomas S.; Savage, Candida; Smith, Richard W.

    2016-10-01

    Fjords have been identified as sites of enhanced organic carbon (OC) burial and may play an important role in regulating climate change on glacial-interglacial timescales. Understanding sediment processes and sources of sedimentary OC are necessary to better constrain OC burial in fjords. In this study, we use Fiordland, New Zealand, as a case study and present data on surface sediments, sediment down-cores and terrestrial end-members to examine dynamics of sediments and the sources of OC in fjord sediments. Sediment cores showed evidence of multiple particle sources, frequent bioturbation and mass-wasting events. A multi-proxy approach (stable isotopes, lignin-phenols and fatty acids) allowed for separation of marine, soil and vascular plant OC in surface sediments. The relationship between mass accumulation rate (MAR) and OC contents in fjord surface sediments suggested that mineral dilution is important in controlling OC content on a global scale, but is less important for specific regions (e.g., New Zealand). The inconsistency of OC budgets calculated by using MAR weighted %OC and OC accumulation rates (AR; 6 vs 21-31 Tg OC yr-1) suggested that sediment flux in fjords was likely underestimated. By using end-member models, we propose that 55% to 62% of total OC buried in fjords is terrestrially derived, and accounts for 17 ± 12% of the OCterr buried in all marine sediments. The strong correlation between MAR and OC AR indicated that OC flux will likely decrease in fjords in the future with global warming due to decrease in sediment flux caused by glacier denudation.

  7. Does burial diagenesis reset pristine isotopic compositions in paleosol carbonates?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bera, M. K.; Sarkar, A.; Tandon, S. K.; Samanta, A.; Sanyal, P.

    2010-11-01

    Sedimentological study of early Oligocene continental carbonates from the fluvial Dagshai Formation of the Himalayan foreland basin, India resulted in the recognition of four different types namely, soil, palustrine, pedogenically modified palustrine and groundwater carbonates. Stable oxygen and carbon isotopic ( δ18O and δ13C) analyses of fabric selective carbonate microsamples show that although the pristine isotopic compositions are largely altered during deep-burial diagenesis, complete isotopic homogenization does not occur. δ18O and δ13C analyses of ~ 200 calcrete and palustrine carbonates from different stratigraphic horizons and comparison with δ18O of more robust bioapatite (fossil vertebrate tooth) phase show that dense micrites (~ > 70% carbonate) invariably preserve the pristine δ18O value (mean) of ~ - 9.8‰, while altered carbonates show much lower δ18O value ~ - 13.8‰. Such inhomogeneity causes large intra-sample and intra-soil profile variability as high as > 5‰, suggesting that soils behave like a closed system where diagenetic overprinting occurs in local domains. A simple fluid-rock interaction model suggests active participation of clay minerals to enhance the effect of fluid-rock ratio in local domains during diagenesis. This places an upper limit of 70% micrite concentration above which the effect of diagenetic alteration is minimal. Careful sampling of dense micritic part of the soil carbonate nodules, therefore, does provide pristine isotopic composition and it is inappropriate, as proposed recently, to reject the paleoclimatic potential of all paleosol carbonates affected by burial diagenesis. Based on pristine δ13C value of - 8.8 ± 0.2‰ in soil carbonates an atmospheric CO 2 concentration between ~ 764 and ~ 306 ppmv is estimated for the early Oligocene (~ 31 Ma) Dagshai time. These data show excellent agreement between two independent proxy records (viz. soil carbonate and marine alkenone) and support early Oligocene

  8. Organomineral nanocomposite carbon burial during Oceanic Anoxic Event 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löhr, S. C.; Kennedy, M. J.

    2014-05-01

    Organic carbon (OC) enrichment in sediments deposited during Oceanic Anoxic Events (OAEs) is commonly attributed to elevated productivity and marine anoxia. We find that OC enrichment in the late Cenomanian aged OAE2 at Demerara Rise was controlled by co-occurrence of anoxic bottom-water, sufficient productivity to saturate available mineral surfaces and variable deposition of high surface area detrital smectite clay. Redox indicators show consistently oxygen-depleted conditions, while a strong correlation between OC concentration and sediment mineral surface area (R2=0.92) occurs across a range of TOC values from 9-33%. X-ray diffraction data indicates intercalation of OC in smectite interlayers while electron, synchrotron infrared and X-ray microscopy show an intimate association between clay minerals and OC, consistent with preservation of OC as organomineral nanocomposites and aggregates rather than discrete, μm-scale pelagic detritus. Since the consistent ratio between TOC and mineral surface area suggests that excess OC relative to surface area is lost, we propose that it is the varying supply of smectite that best explains variable organic enrichment against a backdrop of continuous anoxia, which is conducive to generally high TOC during OAE2 at Demerara Rise. Smectitic clays are unique in their ability to form stable organomineral nanocomposites and aggregates that preserve organic matter, and are common weathering products of continental volcanic deposits. An increased flux of smectite coinciding with high carbon burial is consistent with evidence for widespread volcanism during OAE2, so that organomineral carbon burial may represent a potential feedback to volcanic degassing of CO2.

  9. Organomineral nanocomposite carbon burial during Oceanic Anoxic Event 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löhr, S. C.; Kennedy, M. J.

    2014-09-01

    Organic carbon (OC) enrichment in sediments deposited during Oceanic Anoxic Events (OAEs) is commonly attributed to elevated productivity and marine anoxia. We find that OC enrichment in the late Cenomanian aged OAE 2 at the Demerara Rise was controlled by the co-occurrence of anoxic bottom water, sufficient productivity to saturate available mineral surfaces, and variable deposition of high surface area detrital smectite clay. Redox indicators show consistently oxygen-depleted conditions, while a strong correlation between OC concentration and sediment mineral surface area (R2 = 0.92) occurs across a range of total organic carbon (TOC) values from 9 to 33%. X-ray diffraction data indicate the intercalation of OC in smectite interlayers, while electron, synchrotron infrared and X-ray microscopy show an intimate association between clay minerals and OC, consistent with preservation of OC as organomineral nanocomposites and aggregates rather than discrete, μm-scale pelagic detritus. Since the consistent ratio between TOC and mineral surface area suggests that excess OC relative to surface area is lost, we propose that it is the varying supply of smectite that best explains variable organic enrichment against a backdrop of continuous anoxia, which is conducive to generally high TOC during OAE 2 at the Demerara Rise. Smectitic clays are unique in their ability to form stable organomineral nanocomposites and aggregates that preserve organic matter, and are common weathering products of continental volcanic deposits. An increased flux of smectite coinciding with high carbon burial is consistent with evidence for widespread volcanism during OAE 2, so that organomineral carbon burial may represent a potential feedback to volcanic degassing of CO2.

  10. CHALLENGES WITH RETRIEVING TRANSURANIC WASTE FROM THE HANFORD BURIAL GROUNDS

    SciTech Connect

    SWAN, R.J.; LAKES, M.E.

    2007-08-06

    The U.S. DOE's Hanford Reservation produced plutonium and other nuclear materials for the nation's defense starting in World War II. The defense mission generated wastes that were either retrievably stored (i.e. retrievably stored waste) and/or disposed of in burial grounds. Challenges have emerged from retrieving suspect TRU waste including adequacy of records, radiological concerns, container integrity, industrial hygiene and safety issues, the lack of processing/treatment facilities, and the integration of regulatory requirements. All retrievably stored waste is managed as mixed waste and assumed to be TRU waste, unless documented otherwise. Mixed waste is defined as radioactive waste that contains hazardous constituents. The Atomic Energy Act governs waste with radionuclides, and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) governs waste with hazardous constituents. Waste may also be governed by the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), and a portion may be managed under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). In 1970, TRU waste was required to be placed in 20-year retrievable storage and segregated from other Waste. Prior to that date, segregation did not occur. Because of the changing definition of TRU over the years, and the limitations of early assay equipment, all retrievably stored waste in the burial grounds is managed as suspect TRU. Experience has shown that some of this waste will be characterized as low-level (non-TRU) waste after assay. The majority of the retrieved waste is not amenable to sampling due to waste type and/or radiological issues. Key to waste retrieval and disposition are characterization, historical investigation and research, knowledge of past handling and packaging, as well as a broad understanding and application of the regulations.

  11. A Molecular Approach to the Sexing of the Triple Burial at the Upper Paleolithic Site of Dolní Věstonice.

    PubMed

    Mittnik, Alissa; Wang, Chuan-Chao; Svoboda, Jiří; Krause, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    In the past decades ancient DNA research has brought numerous insights to archaeological research where traditional approaches were limited. The determination of sex in human skeletal remains is often challenging for physical anthropologists when dealing with incomplete, juvenile or pathological specimens. Molecular approaches allow sexing on the basis of sex-specific markers or by calculating the ratio of DNA derived from different chromosomes. Here we propose a novel approach that relies on the ratio of X chromosome-derived shotgun sequencing data to the autosomal coverage, thus establishing the probability of an XX or XY karyotype. Applying this approach to the individuals of the Upper Paleolithic triple burial of Dolní Věstonice reveals that all three skeletons, including the individual DV 15, whose sex has long been debated due to a pathological condition, were male.

  12. A Molecular Approach to the Sexing of the Triple Burial at the Upper Paleolithic Site of Dolní Věstonice

    PubMed Central

    Svoboda, Jiří; Krause, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    In the past decades ancient DNA research has brought numerous insights to archaeological research where traditional approaches were limited. The determination of sex in human skeletal remains is often challenging for physical anthropologists when dealing with incomplete, juvenile or pathological specimens. Molecular approaches allow sexing on the basis of sex-specific markers or by calculating the ratio of DNA derived from different chromosomes. Here we propose a novel approach that relies on the ratio of X chromosome-derived shotgun sequencing data to the autosomal coverage, thus establishing the probability of an XX or XY karyotype. Applying this approach to the individuals of the Upper Paleolithic triple burial of Dolní Věstonice reveals that all three skeletons, including the individual DV 15, whose sex has long been debated due to a pathological condition, were male. PMID:27706187

  13. Reproduction and population levels of Peruvian Guano Birds, 1980 to 1986

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tovar, H.; GuilléN, V.; Cabrera, D.

    1987-12-01

    The three species of guano birds, guanay cormorant (Phalacrocorax bougainvillii), Peruvian booby (Sula variegate), and Peruvian pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis thagus), depend mainly on the Peruvian anchovy (Engraulis ringens) for sustenance. A naturally occurring limitation on the population size of these birds is the oceanographic phenomenon known as "El Niño". The industrialization of the anchovy fishery during the 1960s and 1970s has also affected seabird populations: The annual extraction of huge volumes offish has decreased the availability of food for the guano birds, causing large population fluctuations and considerable changes in the relative abundance of the birds. Because of its great intensity and duration, the 1982-1983 El Niño caused high avian mortality, depressing populations to levels from which they have not yet recovered.

  14. 20 CFR 10.412 - Will OWCP pay the costs of burial and transportation of the remains?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Will OWCP pay the costs of burial and... the costs of burial and transportation of the remains? In a case accepted for death benefits, OWCP will pay up to $800 for funeral and burial expenses. When an employee's home is within the...

  15. 25 CFR 20.210 - Can eligibility criteria or payments for Burial Assistance, Child Assistance, and Disaster...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Can eligibility criteria or payments for Burial Assistance... SERVICES PROGRAMS Welfare Reform § 20.210 Can eligibility criteria or payments for Burial Assistance, Child..., the Bureau nor a tribe may change eligibility criteria or levels of payment for Burial...

  16. 20 CFR 10.412 - Will OWCP pay the costs of burial and transportation of the remains?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Will OWCP pay the costs of burial and... the costs of burial and transportation of the remains? In a case accepted for death benefits, OWCP will pay up to $800 for funeral and burial expenses. When an employee's home is within the...

  17. 20 CFR 10.412 - Will OWCP pay the costs of burial and transportation of the remains?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Will OWCP pay the costs of burial and... the costs of burial and transportation of the remains? In a case accepted for death benefits, OWCP will pay up to $800 for funeral and burial expenses. When an employee's home is within the...

  18. 20 CFR 10.412 - Will OWCP pay the costs of burial and transportation of the remains?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Will OWCP pay the costs of burial and... the costs of burial and transportation of the remains? In a case accepted for death benefits, OWCP will pay up to $800 for funeral and burial expenses. When an employee's home is within the...

  19. 20 CFR 10.412 - Will OWCP pay the costs of burial and transportation of the remains?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Will OWCP pay the costs of burial and... the costs of burial and transportation of the remains? In a case accepted for death benefits, OWCP will pay up to $800 for funeral and burial expenses. When an employee's home is within the...

  20. 31 CFR 538.535 - Importation and exportation of human remains for burial, cremation, or interment authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... remains for burial, cremation, or interment authorized. 538.535 Section 538.535 Money and Finance... Policy § 538.535 Importation and exportation of human remains for burial, cremation, or interment authorized. (a) The importation into the United States of human remains for burial, cremation, or...

  1. 31 CFR 538.535 - Importation and exportation of human remains for burial, cremation, or interment authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... remains for burial, cremation, or interment authorized. 538.535 Section 538.535 Money and Finance... Policy § 538.535 Importation and exportation of human remains for burial, cremation, or interment authorized. (a) The importation into the United States of human remains for burial, cremation, or...

  2. 31 CFR 538.535 - Importation and exportation of human remains for burial, cremation, or interment authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... remains for burial, cremation, or interment authorized. 538.535 Section 538.535 Money and Finance... Policy § 538.535 Importation and exportation of human remains for burial, cremation, or interment authorized. (a) The importation into the United States of human remains for burial, cremation, or...

  3. 77 FR 58591 - Report on Waste Burial Charges: Changes in Decommissioning Waste Disposal Costs at Low-Level...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-21

    ... COMMISSION Report on Waste Burial Charges: Changes in Decommissioning Waste Disposal Costs at Low-Level Waste... document entitled: NUREG-1307 Revision 15, ``Report on Waste Burial Charges: Changes in Decommissioning Waste Disposal Costs at Low-Level Waste Burial Facilities.'' DATES: Please submit comments by October 22...

  4. 77 FR 64361 - Report on Waste Burial Charges: Changes in Decommissioning Waste Disposal Costs at Low-Level...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-19

    ... COMMISSION Report on Waste Burial Charges: Changes in Decommissioning Waste Disposal Costs at Low-Level Waste... Commission (NRC or the Commission) issued Draft NUREG-1307, Revision 15, ``Report on Waste Burial Charges: Changes in Decommissioning Waste Disposal Costs at Low-Level Waste Burial Facilities,'' in the Federal...

  5. Water-level data for wells in Burial Ground 6, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee, 1975-1979

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webster, D.A.; Beatty, J.S.; Benjamin, Pamela K.; Tranum, W.M.

    1980-01-01

    At Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tenn., solid waste materials contaminated by low levels of radioactivity are disposed of in shallow trench burial areas termed ' burial grounds'. Data pertaining to wells in Burial Ground 6 are presented for the period 1975 to 1979. Included are an inventory of wells, measurements of water levels, well hydrographs, and a map showing the location of the wells. (USGS)

  6. Searching for Pedogenic Phyllosilicates in Ancient Soils on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horgan, B.; Christensen, P. R.; Bell, J. F.

    2011-12-01

    On Earth, vast deposits rich in phyllosilicates are commonly created during soil formation, or pedogenesis. When soils are preserved in the stratigraphic record as paleosols, they become valuable resources for terrestrial geologists because paleosol isotopes, mineralogy, and chemical weathering profiles can be used to reconstruct ancient surface environments and to provide quantitative constraints on regional paleo-climate. Thus, paleosol sequences developed in sedimentary settings can record millions of years of surface and climatic evolution. Ancient paleosols on Earth also have excellent organic and biosignature preservation potential, and therefore harbor some of the oldest known (2-3 Ga) non-marine organics, biosignatures, and fossils. On Mars, pedogenesis in the ancient past may be responsible for some of the phyllosilicate-bearing units observed today, especially for regionally extensive deposits and those in clear sedimentary settings (e.g., Arabia Terra/Mawrth Vallis, Gale Crater, Noctis Labyrinthus). Many of these possibly pedogenic deposits exhibit compositional layering (e.g., interbedded kaolinites, smectites, and sulfates), which may have formed due to episodic sediment deposition under changing environmental conditions. Such deposits represent excellent targets for in situ investigation, as finding and characterizing paleosols on Mars would allow us to place constraints on the extent and duration of past surface and near-surface habitability, and may even provide preserved samples of ancient martian organics. We are currently investigating a broad range of methods for identifying and characterizing paleosols on Mars from orbit and in situ with Mars Science Laboratory, based on analysis of phyllosilicate-rich (30-95 wt.%) Eocene-Oligocene paleosols in the Painted Hills of the John Day Fossil Beds National Monument in Eastern Oregon. These paleosols were formed under a wide range of environmental conditions, and include highly weathered soils rich in

  7. Ancient Earth, Alien Earths Event

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-08-20

    Panelists pose for a group photo at the “Ancient Earth, Alien Earths” Event at NASA Headquarters in Washington, DC Wednesday, August 20, 2014. The event was sponsored by NASA, the National Science Foundation (NSF), and the Smithsonian Institution and highlighted how research on early Earth could help guide our search for habitable planets orbiting other stars. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  8. Retroflex Endings in Ancient Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashimoto, Mantaro J.

    1973-01-01

    Reconstruction of Ancient Chinese retroflex endings (syllable-final consonants) based on internal phonological evidence in Modern Chinese. Paper read at the December 1972 meeting of the Kukeo Hakhoe (The National Language Association of Korea); research supported by the Social Science Research Council, Committee for Korean Studies. (RS)

  9. The Echoes of Ancient Humans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watzman, Haim

    2006-01-01

    Several artifacts found at the Gesher Benot Ya'aqov, or Daughters of Jacob Bridge, archaeological site in Israel provide a picture of ancient human ancestors that is different from the once accepted by most scholars. The discoveries by Israeli archaeologist Naama Goren-Inbar suggest that humans developed language and other key abilities far…

  10. Drinking habits in ancient India.

    PubMed

    Somasundaram, Ottilingam; Raghavan, D Vijaya; Murthy, A G Tejus

    2016-01-01

    Consumption of one or other form of intoxicating substances has been present throughout the history of the world. This article traces such use in the Indian subcontinent, both in North and South India. References to the use of intoxicants are to be found in the Vedas, the Great Epics, and the ancient Tamil literature.

  11. Adult Reading of Ancient Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casler, Frederick H.

    Traditionally, students of ancient languages have been taught to translate rather than read. The four most popular current approaches to language instruction--the grammar-translation method, the direct-reading or inductive approach, the audiolingual method, and the structural approach--all have inherent deficiencies that are magnified when applied…

  12. Discovering the Ancient Temperate Rainforest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, Anne

    1997-01-01

    Two activities for grades 3 through 8 explore species adaptation and forestry issues in the North American rainforests. In one activity, students create imaginary species of plants or animals that are adapted for life in an ancient temperate rainforest. In the second activity, students role play groups affected by plans to log an area of the…

  13. Ancient medicine--a review.

    PubMed

    Zuskin, Eugenija; Lipozencić, Jasna; Pucarin-Cvetković, Jasna; Mustajbegović, Jadranka; Schachter, Neil; Mucić-Pucić, Branka; Neralić-Meniga, Inja

    2008-01-01

    Different aspects of medicine and/or healing in several societies are presented. In the ancient times as well as today medicine has been closely related to magic, science and religion. Various ancient societies and cultures had developed different views of medicine. It was believed that a human being has two bodies: a visible body that belongs to the earth and an invisible body of heaven. In the earliest prehistoric days, a different kind of medicine was practiced in countries such as Egypt, Greece, Rome, Mesopotamia, India, Tibet, China, and others. In those countries, "medicine people" practiced medicine from the magic to modern physical practices. Medicine was magical and mythological, and diseases were attributed mostly to the supernatural forces. The foundation of modern medicine can be traced back to ancient Greeks. Tibetan culture, for instance, even today, combines spiritual and practical medicine. Chinese medicine developed as a concept of yin and yang, acupuncture and acupressure, and it has even been used in the modern medicine. During medieval Europe, major universities and medical schools were established. In the ancient time, before hospitals had developed, patients were treated mostly in temples.

  14. Watchers of the Ancient Skies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Ben

    1998-01-01

    Describes Lakota belief systems connected with the stars and how those beliefs directed Lakota existence, movements during the year, and ceremonies. Discusses winter camps, associated cultural practices such as storytelling, ancient wisdom, the concept of mirroring (constellations and corresponding land forms on earth), and the Black Hills annual…

  15. Discovering the Ancient Temperate Rainforest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, Anne

    1997-01-01

    Two activities for grades 3 through 8 explore species adaptation and forestry issues in the North American rainforests. In one activity, students create imaginary species of plants or animals that are adapted for life in an ancient temperate rainforest. In the second activity, students role play groups affected by plans to log an area of the…

  16. Drinking habits in ancient India

    PubMed Central

    Somasundaram, Ottilingam; Raghavan, D. Vijaya; Murthy, A. G. Tejus

    2016-01-01

    Consumption of one or other form of intoxicating substances has been present throughout the history of the world. This article traces such use in the Indian subcontinent, both in North and South India. References to the use of intoxicants are to be found in the Vedas, the Great Epics, and the ancient Tamil literature. PMID:26985113

  17. The ancient name of rose.

    PubMed

    Dalby, A

    2001-01-01

    The article is a survey of plants foods and drugs that Greeks and Romans thought to be aphrodisiac and to have a specific effect on the male libido. The article is a useful support to study the sexual therapy in ancient world.

  18. Astronomical Deities in Ancient Mesoamerica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milbrath, Susan

    The best known astronomical deities in ancient Mesoamerica are the sun, moon, and Venus. The Milky Way was also deified, and its constellations were visualized as celestial animals or locations. The sun and Venus were male deities, but the moon had both male and female aspects. Some of these concepts survive today in Mesoamerican ethnographic accounts referencing different transformations of the moon.

  19. The Echoes of Ancient Humans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watzman, Haim

    2006-01-01

    Several artifacts found at the Gesher Benot Ya'aqov, or Daughters of Jacob Bridge, archaeological site in Israel provide a picture of ancient human ancestors that is different from the once accepted by most scholars. The discoveries by Israeli archaeologist Naama Goren-Inbar suggest that humans developed language and other key abilities far…

  20. Ancient India: The Asiatic Ethiopians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Carolyn McPherson

    This curriculum unit was developed by a participant in the 1993 Fulbright-Hays Program "India: Continuity and Change." The unit attempts to place India in the "picture frame" of the ancient world as a part of a whole, not as a separate entity. Reading materials enable students to draw broader general conclusions based on the…

  1. The ancient art of memory.

    PubMed

    Hobson, Allan

    2013-12-01

    Revision of Freud's theory requires a new way of seeking dream meaning. With the idea of elaborative encoding, Sue Llewellyn has provided a method of dream interpretation that takes into account both modern sleep science and the ancient art of memory. Her synthesis is elegant and compelling. But is her hypothesis testable?

  2. Preclinical testing of Peruvian anti-bothropic anti-venom against Bothrops andianus snake venom.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Francisco S; Starling, Maria C; Duarte, Clara G; Machado de Avila, Ricardo; Kalapothakis, Evanguedes; Silva Suarez, Walter; Tintaya, Benigno; Flores Garrido, Karin; Seraylan Ormachea, Silvia; Yarleque, Armando; Bonilla, César; Chávez-Olórtegui, Carlos

    2012-11-01

    Bothrops andianus is a venomous snake found in the area of Machu Picchu (Peru). Its venom is not included in the antigenic pool used for production of the Peruvian anti-bothropic anti-venom. B. andianus venom can elicit many biological effects such as hemorrhage, hemolysis, proteolytic activity and lethality. The Peruvian anti-bothropic anti-venom displays consistent cross-reactivity with B. andianus venom, by ELISA and Western Blotting and is also effective in neutralizing the venom's toxic activities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Description of Lutzomyia (Trichophoromyia) nautaensis n. sp. (Diptera: Psychodidae) from the Peruvian Amazon Basin

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Roberto; Lopez, Victor; Cardenas, Roldan; Requena, Edwin

    2015-01-01

    A new species of sand fly, which we describe as Lutzomyia (Trichophoromyia) nautaensis n. sp., was collected in the northern Peruvian Amazon Basin. In this region of Peru, cutaneous leishmaniasis is transmitted primarily by anthropophilic sand flies; however, zoophilic sand flies of the subgenus Trichophoromyia may also be incriminated in disease transmission. Detection of Leishmania spp. in Lutzomyia auraensis Mangabeira captured in the southern Peruvian Amazon indicates the potential of this and other zoophilic sand flies for human disease transmission, particularly in areas undergoing urban development. Herein, we describe Lutzomyia (Trichophoromyia) nautaensis n. sp., and report new records of sand flies in Peru. PMID:26335468

  4. Description of Lutzomyia (Trichophoromyia) nautaensis n. sp. (Diptera: Psychodidae) from the Peruvian Amazon Basin.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Roberto; Lopez, Victor; Cardenas, Roldan; Requena, Edwin

    2015-07-01

    A new species of sand fly, which we describe as Lutzomyia (Trichophoromyia) nautaensis n. sp., was collected in the northern Peruvian Amazon Basin. In this region of Peru, cutaneous leishmaniasis is transmitted primarily by anthropophilic sand flies; however, zoophilic sand flies of the subgenus Trichophoromyia may also be incriminated in disease transmission. Detection of Leishmania spp. in Lutzomyia auraensis Mangabeira captured in the southern Peruvian Amazon indicates the potential of this and other zoophilic sand flies for human disease transmission, particularly in areas undergoing urban development. Herein, we describe Lutzomyia (Trichophoromyia) nautaensis n. sp., and report new records of sand flies in Peru.

  5. Oligocene - modern paleoenvironmental change in of the Peruvian central Andes: Implications for late Miocene uplift and aridification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundell, K. E.; Saylor, J. E.; Lapen, T. J.; Villarreal, D. P.; Styron, R. H.; Usnayo Perales, W. P.; Cárdenas, J.

    2016-12-01

    Elevation and development of rainshadows play a first-order control on the paleoenvironment of hinterland basins. Understanding which of several factors may be driving paleoenvironmental changes is therefore central to understanding the interplay between topography and climate of orogenic plateaus. Late Cenozoic basins in the Peruvian Western Cordillera, situated deep in the rainshadow of the modern Andean plateau, are valuable yet largely unexplored archives of past environments. The Tincopalca-Huacochullo Basin in this region is a rare example of well-preserved, largely undeformed, Oligocene - Miocene stratigraphy that spans a critical time in the development of the Andean plateau. We present results from stable isotopic analysis of ancient water preserved in rhyolitic glass in the context of newly logged stratigraphy, temporally controlled by new zircon U-Pb ages, and compare these results to the stable isotopic signatures of modern stream water samples. Results show a decrease in δD values from -90 to -100‰ synchronous with a change from a dominantly fluvial to evaporitic lacustrine depositional environment in the late Oligocene - early Miocene. This is followed by an abrupt middle - late Miocene change in δD values between -160 and -170‰ coincident with deposition of voluminous volcanic stratigraphy. Finally, late Miocene - modern δD values increase to -105 - -120‰ during slowed arc volcanism. Modern waters feature relatively high d excess (δD - 8*δ18O) of 1 to 9‰. These findings are consistent with 1) slow late Oligocene - Miocene uplift between moderate (2 - 3 km) elevations, 2) either a middle - late Miocene change in moisture source, or increased rate of surface uplift; the latter is our preferred hypothesis, and 3) increasing aridity from late Miocene - present as uplift of the Altiplano, Eastern Cordillera and Subandes pushes this region deeper into the orogenic rainshadow.

  6. Geology and hydrology of radioactive solid-waste burial grounds at the Hanford Reservation, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LaSala, Albert Mario; Doty, Gene C.

    1976-01-01

    The geology and hydrology of radioactive solid waste burial grounds at the Hanford Reservation were investigated, using existing data, by the U.S. Geological Survey as part of the waste management plan of the Richland Operations Office of the Energy Research and Development Administration. The purpose of the investigation was to assist the operations office in characterizing the burial sites as to present environmental safety and as to their suitability for long-term storage (several thousand to tens of thousands of years) of radioactive sol id wastes. The burial ground sites fall into two classifications: (1) those on the low stream terraces adjacent to the Columbia River, mainly in the 100 Areas and 300 Area, and (2) those lying on the high terraces south of Gable Mountain in the 200 Areas. Evaluation of the suitability of the burial grounds for long-term storage was made almost entirely on hydrologic, geologic, and topographic criteria. Of greatest concern was the possibility that radionuclides might be leached from the buried wastes by infiltrating water and carried downward to the water table. The climate is semi-arid and the average annual precipitation is 6.4 inches at the Hanford Meteorological Station. However, the precipitation is seasonally distributed with about 50 percent occurring during the months of November, December, January, and February when evapotranspiration is negligible and conditions for infiltration are most favorable. None of the burial grounds are instrumented with monitoring devices that could be used to determine if radionuclides derived from them are reaching the water table. Burial grounds on the low stream terraces are mainly underlain by permeable materials and the water table lies at relatively shallow depths. Radionuclides conceivably could be leached from these burial grounds by percolating soil water, and radionuclides might reach the Columbia River in a relatively short time. These sites could also be inundated by erosion

  7. Ancient and Modern Coins Unit Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United States Mint (Dept. of Treasury), Washington, DC.

    Ancient times comes to life when a student can hold in his/her hand or read about an artifact, such as a coin of the Greek or Roman era. Students are familiar with coins, and this commonality helps them understand the similarities and differences between their lives and times in ancient Greece or Rome. Many symbols on the ancient coins can be…

  8. Ab initio protein folding simulations using atomic burials as informational intermediates between sequence and structure.

    PubMed

    van der Linden, Marx Gomes; Ferreira, Diogo César; de Oliveira, Leandro Cristante; Onuchic, José N; de Araújo, Antônio F Pereira

    2014-07-01

    The three-dimensional structure of proteins is determined by their linear amino acid sequences but decipherment of the underlying protein folding code has remained elusive. Recent studies have suggested that burials, as expressed by atomic distances to the molecular center, are sufficiently informative for structural determination while potentially obtainable from sequences. Here we provide direct evidence for this distinctive role of burials in the folding code, demonstrating that burial propensities estimated from local sequence can indeed be used to fold globular proteins in ab initio simulations. We have used a statistical scheme based on a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) to classify all heavy atoms of a protein into a small number of burial atomic types depending on sequence context. Molecular dynamics simulations were then performed with a potential that forces all atoms of each type towards their predicted burial level, while simple geometric constraints were imposed on covalent structure and hydrogen bond formation. The correct folded conformation was obtained and distinguished in simulations that started from extended chains for a selection of structures comprising all three folding classes and high burial prediction quality. These results demonstrate that atomic burials can act as informational intermediates between sequence and structure, providing a new conceptual framework for improving structural prediction and understanding the fundamentals of protein folding. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Effect of head and face insulation on cooling rate during snow burial.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Scott E; Crouch, Andre K; Dorais, Andrew; McDevitt, Marion; Wilson, Courtney; Harmston, Chris H; Radwin, Marty I; Grissom, Colin K

    2015-03-01

    Avalanche victims are subjected to a number of physiological stressors during burial. We simulated avalanche burial to monitor physiological data and determine whether wearing head and face insulation slows cooling rate during snow burial. In addition, we sought to compare 3 different types of temperature measurement methods. Nine subjects underwent 2 burials each, 1 with head and face insulation and 1 without. Burials consisted of a 60-minute burial phase followed by a 60-minute rewarming phase. Temperature was measured via 3 methods: esophageal probe, ingestible capsule, and rectal probe. Cooling and rewarming rates were not statistically different between the 2 testing conditions when measured by the 3 measurement methods. All temperature measurement methods correlated significantly. Head and face insulation did not protect the simulated avalanche victim from faster cooling or rewarming. Because the 3 temperature measurement methods correlated, the ingestible capsule may provide an advantageous noninvasive method for snow burial and future hypothermia studies if interruptions in data transmission can be minimized. Copyright © 2015 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Organic carbon burial in lakes and reservoirs of the conterminous United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clow, David W.; Stackpoole, Sarah M.; Verdin, Kristine L.; Butman, David E.; Zhu, Zhi-Liang; Krabbenhoft, David P.; Striegl, Robert G.

    2015-01-01

    Organic carbon (OC) burial in lacustrine sediments represents an important sink in the global carbon cycle; however, large-scale OC burial rates are poorly constrained, primarily because of the sparseness of available data sets. Here we present an analysis of OC burial rates in water bodies of the conterminous U.S. (CONUS) that takes advantage of recently developed national-scale data sets on reservoir sedimentation rates, sediment OC concentrations, lake OC burial rates, and water body distributions. We relate these data to basin characteristics and land use in a geostatistical analysis to develop an empirical model of OC burial in water bodies of the CONUS. Our results indicate that CONUS water bodies sequester 20.8 (95% CI: 9.4–65.8) Tg C yr–1, and spatial patterns in OC burial are strongly influenced by water body type, size, and abundance; land use; and soil and vegetation characteristics in surrounding areas. Carbon burial is greatest in the central and southeastern regions of the CONUS, where cultivation and an abundance of small water bodies enhance accumulation of sediment and OC in aquatic environments.

  11. Organic Carbon Burial in Lakes and Reservoirs of the Conterminous United States.

    PubMed

    Clow, David W; Stackpoole, Sarah M; Verdin, Kristine L; Butman, David E; Zhu, Zhiliang; Krabbenhoft, David P; Striegl, Robert G

    2015-07-07

    Organic carbon (OC) burial in lacustrine sediments represents an important sink in the global carbon cycle; however, large-scale OC burial rates are poorly constrained, primarily because of the sparseness of available data sets. Here we present an analysis of OC burial rates in water bodies of the conterminous U.S. (CONUS) that takes advantage of recently developed national-scale data sets on reservoir sedimentation rates, sediment OC concentrations, lake OC burial rates, and water body distributions. We relate these data to basin characteristics and land use in a geostatistical analysis to develop an empirical model of OC burial in water bodies of the CONUS. Our results indicate that CONUS water bodies sequester 20.8 (95% CI: 9.4-65.8) Tg C yr(-1), and spatial patterns in OC burial are strongly influenced by water body type, size, and abundance; land use; and soil and vegetation characteristics in surrounding areas. Carbon burial is greatest in the central and southeastern regions of the CONUS, where cultivation and an abundance of small water bodies enhance accumulation of sediment and OC in aquatic environments.

  12. Land-use change, not climate, controls organic carbon burial in lakes.

    PubMed

    Anderson, N J; Dietz, R D; Engstrom, D R

    2013-10-22

    Lakes are a central component of the carbon cycle, both mineralizing terrestrially derived organic matter and storing substantial amounts of organic carbon (OC) in their sediments. However, the rates and controls on OC burial by lakes remain uncertain, as do the possible effects of future global change processes. To address these issues, we derived OC burial rates in (210)Pb-dated sediment cores from 116 small Minnesota lakes that cover major climate and land-use gradients. Rates for individual lakes presently range from 7 to 127 g C m(-2) yr(-1) and have increased by up to a factor of 8 since Euro-American settlement (mean increase: 2.8×). Mean pre-disturbance OC burial rates were similar (14-22 g C m(-2) yr(-1)) across all land-cover categories (prairie, mixed deciduous and boreal forest), indicating minimal effect of the regional temperature gradient (approx. 4 °C) on background carbon burial. The relationship between modern OC burial rates and temperature was also not significant after removal of the effect of total phosphorus. Contemporary burial rates were strongly correlated with lake-water nutrients and the extent of agricultural land cover in the catchment. Increased OC burial, documented even in relatively undisturbed boreal lake ecosystems, indicates a possible role for atmospheric nitrogen deposition. Our results suggest that globally, future land-cover change, intensification of agriculture and associated nutrient loading together with atmospheric N-deposition will enhance OC sequestration by lakes.

  13. Intraspecific variation of a desert shrub species in phenotypic plasticity in response to sand burial.

    PubMed

    Xu, Liang; Huber, Heidrun; During, Heinjo J; Dong, Ming; Anten, Niels P R

    2013-09-01

    Shoot elongation is one of the main plastic responses of plants to burial, a ubiquitous stress factor in dry ecosystems. Yet, intraspecific variation in this response to burial and the extent to which this variation is functionally coordinated with variation in other trait responses are largely unknown. We subjected seedlings of the shrub Caragana intermedia from 18 maternal parents (i.e. different half-sib families) to repeated partial burial to investigate how burial affects shoot growth, stem mechanical traits and associated plasticity. Burial increased both stem elongation and diameter growth of plants, but decreased biomass production. Half-sib families had different rates of shoot elongation, and differed in their response to burial with respect to biomechanical stem properties. Across half-sib families, the magnitude of these responses in mechanical traits was positively correlated with the magnitude of the stem elongation response. These results indicate that plasticity in different stem traits in response to sand burial and intraspecific variation therein are functionally coordinated with respect to mechanical stability. The results emphasize the importance of considering functionally coordinated traits when analyzing phenotypic plasticity in plants.

  14. Burial depth and stolon internode length independently affect survival of small clonal fragments.

    PubMed

    Dong, Bi-Cheng; Liu, Rui-Hua; Zhang, Qian; Li, Hong-Li; Zhang, Ming-Xiang; Lei, Guang-Chun; Yu, Fei-Hai

    2011-01-01

    Disturbance can fragment plant clones into different sizes and unstabilize soils to different degrees, so that clonal fragments of different sizes can be buried in soils at different depths. As a short-term storage organ, solon internode may help fragmented clones of stoloniferous plants to withstand deeper burial in soils. We address (1) whether burial in soils decreases survival and growth of small clonal fragments, and (2) whether increasing internode length increases survival and growth of small fragments under burial. We conducted an experiment with the stoloniferous, invasive herb Alternanthera philoxeroides, in which single-node fragments with stolon internode of 0, 2, 4 and 8 cm were buried in soils at 0, 2, 4 and 8 cm depth, respectively. Increasing burial depth significantly reduced survival of the A. philoxeroides plants and increased root to shoot ratio and total stolon length, but did not change growth measures. Increasing internode length significantly increased survival and growth measures, but there was no interaction effect with burial depth on any traits measured. These results indicate that reserves stored in stolon internodes can contribute to the fitness of the A. philoxeroides plants subject to disturbance. Although burial reduced the regeneration capacity of the A. philoxeroides plants, the species may maintain the fitness by changing biomass allocation and stolon length once it survived the burial. Such responses may play an important role for A. philoxeroides in establishment and invasiveness in frequently disturbed habitats.

  15. General description of the hydrology and burial trenches at the low-level radioactive waste burial facility near Barnwell, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDonald, B.B.

    1984-01-01

    The Barnwell low-level radioactive solid waste burial site is located in Barnwell County, South Carolina, 5 miles west of the city of Barnwell. Approximately 1,050 feet of stratified gravel, sand, silt, clay, and limestone, ranging in age from Late Cretaceous to Holocene, underlie the burial site. Ground water within the study area occurs under water table, semi-confined, and artesian conditions. Overland flow and most precipitation that recharges the ground-water system at the burial site is discharged to Marys Branch Creek. This creek originates as a spring about 3,000 feet south of the burial site and flows to the southwest into lower Three Runs. Lower Three Runs discharges into the Savannah River. Waste shipments to the site were reduced from 200,000 cubic feet per month for the period 1971 to 1979 to 100,000 cubic feet per month by October 1981. The wastes consist of both nonfuel cycle and nuclear fuel-cycle wastes. The standard trench dimensions at the burial site are 100 feet wide by 1,000 feet long and 22 feet deep. Trench bottoms are a minimum of 5 feet above the water table. Seven soil mapping units occur at the waste disposal facility. The three major soil types are all well drained and cover approximately 84 percent of the study area. (USGS)

  16. Technology, Safety and Costs of Decommissioning a Reference Low-Level Waste Burial Ground. Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    1980-06-01

    Safety and cost information are developed for the conceptual decommissioning of commercial low-level waste (LLW) burial grounds. Two generic burial grounds, one located on an arid western site and the other located on a humid eastern site, are used as reference facilities for the study. The two burial grounds are assumed to have the same site capacity for waste, the same radioactive waste inventory, and similar trench characteristics and operating procedures. The climate, geology. and hydrology of the two sites are chosen to be typical of real western and eastern sites. Volume 2 (Appendices) contains the detailed analyses and data needed to support the results given in Volume 1.

  17. Hydrogeological influences on radionuclide migration from the major radioactive waste burial sites at Chernobyl (A review)

    SciTech Connect

    Dgepo, S.P.; Skalsky, A.S.; Bugai, D.A.; Marchuk, V.V.; Waters, R.D.

    1994-03-01

    This paper summarizes the recent hydrogeological investigations of several research organizations on waste confinement at the major radioactive waste (RW) burial sites immediately adjacent to the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (Ch. NPP). Hydrogeological conditions and radiologic ground-water contamination levels are described. Ongoing ground-water monitoring practices are evaluated. The chemical and physical characteristics of the radionuclides within the burial sites are considered. Ground water and radionuclide transport modeling studies related to problems of the RW disposal sites are also reviewed. Current concerns on future impacts of the RW burial sites on the hydrological environment and water resources of the Ch.NPP area are discussed.

  18. Technology, Safety and Costs of Decommissioning a Reference Low-Level Waste Burial Ground. Main Report

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, E. S.; Holter, G. M.

    1980-06-01

    Safety and cost information are developed for the conceptual decommissioning of commercial low-level waste (LLW) burial grounds. Two generic burial grounds, one located on an arid western site and the other located on a humid eastern site, are used as reference facilities for the study. The two burial grounds are assumed to have the same site capacity for waste, the same radioactive waste inventory, and similar trench characteristics and operating procedures. The climate, geology. and hydrology of the two sites are chosen to be typical of real western and eastern sites. Volume 1 (Main Report) contains background information and study results in summary form.

  19. Forensic archaeoentomology--An insect fauna from a burial in York Minster.

    PubMed

    Panagiotakopulu, Eva; Buckland, Paul C

    2012-09-10

    An insect fauna associated with the medieval burial of Archbishop Greenfield, interred in December 1315 in a lead coffin within a stone sarcophagus beneath the floor of York Minster, is examined and compared with the limited entomological data from other medieval burials. The implications of the archaeoentomological data are discussed. The fauna is dominated by the so-called coffin beetle Rhizophagus parallelocollis and the generalised staphylinid predator Quedius mesomelinus, together with a number of subterranean fungal feeders. The beetle assemblage is probably immediately post burial, and the lead coffin in the case of Greenfield had not been able to shield the body from decay.

  20. Hydroclimatic change disparity of Peruvian Pacific drainage catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rau, Pedro; Bourrel, Luc; Labat, David; Frappart, Frédéric; Ruelland, Denis; Lavado, Waldo; Dewitte, Boris; Felipe, Oscar

    2017-09-01

    Peruvian Pacific drainage catchments only benefit from 2% of the total national available freshwater while they concentrate almost 50% of the population of the country. This situation is likely to lead a severe water scarcity and also constitutes an obstacle to economic development. Catchment runoff fluctuations in response to climate variability and/or human activities can be reflected in extreme events, representing a serious concern (like floods, erosion, droughts) in the study area. To document this crucial issue for Peru, we present here an insightful analysis of the water quantity resource variability of this region, exploring the links between this variability and climate and/or anthropogenic pressure. We first present a detailed analysis of the hydroclimatologic variability at annual timescale and at basin scale over the 1970-2008 period. In addition to corroborating the influence of extreme El Niño events over precipitation and runoff in northern catchments, a mean warming of 0.2 °C per decade over all catchments was found. Also, higher values of temperature and potential and actual evapotranspiration were found over northern latitudes. We chose to apply the Budyko-Zhang framework that characterizes the water cycle as a function of climate only, allowing the identification of catchments with significant climatic and anthropogenic influence on water balance. The Budyko-Zhang methodology revealed that 11 out of 26 initial catchments are characterized by low water balance disparity related to minor climatic and anthropogenic influence. These 11 catchments were suitable for identifying catchments with contrasting change in their hydroclimatic behavior using the Budyko trajectories. Our analysis further reveals that six hydrological catchment responses can be characterized by high sensitivity to climate variability and land use changes.