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  1. Emergence of swine flu in Andhra Pradesh: Facts and future.

    PubMed

    Venkataramana, Musturi; Vindal, Vaibhav; Kondapi, Anand K

    2009-12-01

    Swine flu is a common term representing the respiratory viral infections caused by influenza A virus strain H1N1. This disease was noticed for the first time in Mexico during early 2009, spread worldwide very soon and took nearly 4000 lives. It is observed that this infection is due to an evolved virulent version of previously existing H1N1. The first report of this infection was noticed in a traveler from USA to India at the Hyderabad international airport. Later, because of its highly contagious and fast-spreading nature through air, many people reported to have the infection throughout the country. In Andhra Pradesh, there were 735 officially confirmed cases of which 44 died. These cases were not only from Hyderabad which is the state capital having frequent travelers from abroad but are also reported from different parts of the state. The incidence and mortality rate is less in Andhra Pradesh compared to some of the other Indian states. This raises a question whether the type of the strain is different or genetic features of the population is playing the role in reducing the severity of the disease. In this review we have discussed about the occurrence, spread and mortality of the current H1N1 pandemic. We have also discussed about the current status of research on H1N1 and efforts in the state of Andhra Pradesh.

  2. Longitudinal Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study: rationale, study design and research methodology.

    PubMed

    Khanna, Rohit C; Murthy, Gudlavalleti Vs; Marmamula, Srinivas; Mettla, Asha Latha; Giridhar, Pyda; Banerjee, Seema; Shekhar, Konegari; Chakrabarti, Subhabrata; Gilbert, Clare; Rao, Gullapalli N

    2016-03-01

    The rationale, objectives, study design and procedures for the longitudinal Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study are described. A longitudinal cohort study was carried out. Participants include surviving cohort from the rural component of Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study. During 1996-2000, Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Survey was conducted in three rural (n = 7771) and one urban (n = 2522) areas (now called Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 1). In 2009-2010, a feasibility exercise (Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 2) for a longitudinal study (Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 3) was undertaken in the rural clusters only, as urban clusters no longer existed. In Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 3, a detailed interview will be carried out to collect data on sociodemographic factors, ocular and systemic history, risk factors, visual function, knowledge of eye diseases and barriers to accessing services. All participants will also undergo a comprehensive eye examination including photography of lens, optic disc and retina, Optic Coherence Tomography of the posterior segment, anthropometry, blood pressure and frailty measures. Measures include estimates of the incidence of visual impairment and age-related eye disease (lens opacities, glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration) and the progression of eye disease (lens opacities and myopia) and associated risk factors. Of the 7771 respondents examined in rural areas in Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 1, 5447 (70.1%) participants were traced in Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 2. These participants will be re-examined. Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 3 will provide data on the incidence and progression of visual impairment and major eye diseases and their associated risk factors in India. The study will provide further evidence to aid planning eye care services. © 2015 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  3. GIS for public health : A study of Andhra Pradesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrinagesh, B.; Kalpana, Markandey; Kiran, Baktula

    2014-06-01

    Geographic information systems and remote sensing have capabilities that are ideally suited for use in infectious disease surveillance and control, particularly for the many vector-borne neglected diseases that are often found in poor populations in remote rural areas. They are also highly relevant to meet the demands of outbreak investigation and response, where prompt location of cases, rapid communication of information, and quick mapping of the epidemic's dynamics are vital. The situation has changed dramatically over the past few years. GIS helps in determining geographic distribution of diseases, analysing spatial and temporal trends, Mapping populations at risk, Stratifying risk factors, Assessing resource allocation, Planning and targeting interventions, Monitoring diseases and interventions over time. There are vast disparities in people's health even among the different districts across the state of Andhra Pradesh largely attributed to the resource allocation by the state government. Despite having centers of excellence in healthcare delivery, these facilities are limited and are inadequate in meeting the current healthcare demands. The main objectives are to study the prevalent diseases in Andhra Pradesh, to study the infrastructural facilities available in A.P. The methodology includes the Spatial Database, which will be mostly in the form of digitized format. The Non-Spatial Database includes both secondary data as well as the primary data.

  4. Ethno – Medico – Botany of Chenchus of Mahaboobnagar District, Andhra Pradesh

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, T. Dharmachandra; Pullaiah, T.

    1999-01-01

    The present paper deals with the ethno-medico-botany of Chenchus of Mahaboobnagar district, Andhra Pradesh. About fourty four plants are enumerated with knowledge of the tribals for their medicinal uses in curing different diseases and ailments. PMID:22556915

  5. Tuberculosis management practices by private practitioners in Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Achanta, Shanta; Jaju, Jyoti; Kumar, Ajay M V; Nagaraja, Sharath Burugina; Shamrao, Srinivas Rao Motta; Bandi, Sasidhar Kumar; Kumar, Ashok; Satyanarayana, Srinath; Harries, Anthony David; Nair, Sreenivas Achutan; Dewan, Puneet K

    2013-01-01

    Private medical practitioners in Visakhapatnam district, Andhra Pradesh, India. To evaluate self-reported TB diagnostic and treatment practices amongst private medical practitioners against benchmark practices articulated in the International Standards of Tuberculosis Care (ISTC), and factors associated with compliance with ISTC. Cross- sectional survey using semi-structured interviews. Of 296 randomly selected private practitioners, 201 (68%) were assessed for compliance to ISTC diagnostic and treatment standards in TB management. Only 11 (6%) followed a combination of 6 diagnostic standards together and only 1 followed a combination of all seven treatment standards together. There were 28 (14%) private practitioners who complied with a combination of three core ISTC (cough for tuberculosis suspects, sputum smear examination and use of standardized treatment). Higher ISTC compliance was associated with caring for more than 20 TB patients annually, prior sensitization to TB control guidelines, and practice of alternate systems of medicine. Few private practitioners in Visakhapatnam, India reported TB diagnostic and treatment practices that met ISTC. Better engagement of the private sector is urgently required to improve TB management practices and to prevent diagnostic delay and drug resistance.

  6. Tuberculosis Management Practices by Private Practitioners in Andhra Pradesh, India

    PubMed Central

    Achanta, Shanta; Jaju, Jyoti; Kumar, Ajay M. V.; Nagaraja, Sharath Burugina; Shamrao, Srinivas Rao Motta; Bandi, Sasidhar Kumar; Kumar, Ashok; Satyanarayana, Srinath; Harries, Anthony David; Nair, Sreenivas Achutan; Dewan, Puneet K.

    2013-01-01

    Setting Private medical practitioners in Visakhapatnam district, Andhra Pradesh, India. Objectives To evaluate self-reported TB diagnostic and treatment practices amongst private medical practitioners against benchmark practices articulated in the International Standards of Tuberculosis Care (ISTC), and factors associated with compliance with ISTC. Design Cross- sectional survey using semi-structured interviews. Results Of 296 randomly selected private practitioners, 201 (68%) were assessed for compliance to ISTC diagnostic and treatment standards in TB management. Only 11 (6%) followed a combination of 6 diagnostic standards together and only 1 followed a combination of all seven treatment standards together. There were 28 (14%) private practitioners who complied with a combination of three core ISTC (cough for tuberculosis suspects, sputum smear examination and use of standardized treatment). Higher ISTC compliance was associated with caring for more than 20 TB patients annually, prior sensitization to TB control guidelines, and practice of alternate systems of medicine. Conclusion Few private practitioners in Visakhapatnam, India reported TB diagnostic and treatment practices that met ISTC. Better engagement of the private sector is urgently required to improve TB management practices and to prevent diagnostic delay and drug resistance. PMID:23967158

  7. Factors of Role Conflict among Livestock Extension Professionals in Andhra Pradesh, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasidhar, P. V. K.; Rao, B. Sudhakar; Sreeramulu, Piedy

    2008-01-01

    To know the factors of role conflict among livestock extension professionals in Andhra Pradesh, India. Study was conducted following ex-post facto research design. Data were collected from 180 respondents through survey questionnaires. The data were subjected to multiple regression and path analyses to know the factors of role conflict.…

  8. Community Managed Services for Persons with Intellectual Disability: Andhra Pradesh Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narayan, Jayanthi; Pratapkumar, Raja; Reddy, Sudhakara P.

    2017-01-01

    In resource poor settings innovative and bottom-up approaches are required to provide services to people with with disabilities. In this context, the present paper explains a community-based model of manpower development and coordination of services for people with intellectual disabilities in unified state of Andhra Pradesh in India. Women with…

  9. Combining Work and School: The Dynamics of Girls' Involvement in Agricultural Work in Andhra Pradesh, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, Virginia; Vennam, Uma

    2010-01-01

    Child labour in India has long been the focus of research, policy concern and intervention. This article presents an analysis of children's involvement in agricultural work, particularly cottonseed production, drawing on evidence gathered for Young Lives in 2007 and 2008. In parts of Andhra Pradesh, children work in cotton fields for two or three…

  10. Organizational Climate as Perceived by Veterinary Assistant Surgeons of Andhra Pradesh in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratnayake, Talata Chandrakanthi; Gupta, Jancy

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To identify various organizational climatic factors responsible for role performances of veterinary officers in Andhra Pradesh, India. Design/methodology/approach: Study was conducted in 11 selected districts. Data were collected from 220 respondents through a pretested interview schedule and subjected to correlation and multiple…

  11. An Inspector Calls: The Regulation of 'Budget' Private Schools in Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tooley, J.; Dixon, P.

    2005-01-01

    Research explored the regulatory regime, both 'on paper' and 'in practice', for private unaided schools serving low-income families ('budget' private schools), in Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India. Interviews were conducted with school managers, teachers, parents, and senior government officials and politicians. A Supreme Court Judgement rules out…

  12. Modern and ancestral genotypes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Shirly K; Iravatham, Chitra C; Moni, Bottu Heleena; Kumar, Ashutosh; Archana, Bandaru V; Majid, Mohammad; Priyadarshini, Yerra; Rani, Pittu Sandhya; Valluri, Vijayalakshmi; Hasnain, Seyed E; Ahmed, Niyaz

    2011-01-01

    Traditionally, the distribution of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genotypes in India has been characterized by widespread prevalence of ancestral lineages (TbD1+ strains and variants) in the south and the modern forms (TbD1(-) CAS and variants) predominating in the north of India. The pattern was, however, not clearly known in the south-central region such as Hyderabad and the rest of the state of Andhra Pradesh where the prevalence of both tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is one of the highest in the country; this area has been the hotspot of TB vaccine trials. Spoligotyping of 101 clinical isolates obtained from Hyderabad and rural Andhra Pradesh confirmed the occurrence of major genogroups such as the ancestral (or the TbD1+ type or the East African Indian (EAI) type), the Central Asian (CAS) or Delhi type and the Beijing lineage in Andhra Pradesh. Sixty five different spoligotype patterns were observed for the isolates included in this study; these were further analyzed based on specific genetic signatures/mutations. It was found that the major genogroups, CAS and "ancestral," were almost equally prevalent in our collection but followed a north-south compartmentalization as was also reported previously. However, we observed a significant presence of MANU lineage in south Andhra Pradesh, which was earlier reported to be overwhelmingly present in Mumbai. This study portrays genotypic diversity of M. tuberculosis from the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh and provides a much needed snapshot of the strain diversity that will be helpful in devising effective TB control programs in this part of the world.

  13. Pseudoexfoliation in southern India: the Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Ravi; Nirmalan, Praveen Kumar; Krishnaiah, Sannapaneni

    2005-04-01

    To report the prevalence of pseudoexfoliation (PXF) and its associations with ocular diseases in a south Indian population. This was a population-based, cross-sectional epidemiologic study in the south Indian state of Andhra Pradesh (AP). A total of 10,293 subjects of all ages from one urban and three rural areas representative of the population of AP were interviewed and underwent a comprehensive ophthalmic evaluation. PXF was diagnosed on slit lamp biomicroscopy by the presence of white dandruff-like material in the pupillary margin, on the trabecular meshwork, and/or on the anterior lens capsule of one or both eyes. The age-gender-area-adjusted overall prevalence of PXF was 0.69% (95% CI: 0.53-0.86). The prevalence of PXF increased with increasing age: 3.01% (95% CI: 2.45-3.80), in those 40 years of age or older, and 6.28% (95% CI: 4.80-7.76), in those 60 years of age or older. The prevalence of PXF was significantly higher among people whose occupation involved outdoor activities (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 2.14; 95% CI: 1.10-4.16). After adjustment for age, the prevalence of PXF was significantly higher in those with nuclear cataract (adjusted OR, 2.00; 95% CI: 1.13-3.54). PXF was significantly associated with blindness (adjusted OR, 2.19; 95% CI: 1.16-4.13). Fifteen (20.5%; 95% CI: 11.20-29.80) of those with PXF were blind, with age-adjusted relative risk (RR) = 4.25 (95% CI: 4.01-4.51). Unilateral blindness (41.2%; 95% CI: 29.81-52.39) and visual impairment (45.21%; 95% CI: 34.29-57.13) were also more common with PXF. Four subjects (5.5%; 95% CI: 0.27-10.2) of those with PXF had glaucoma. The prevalence of PXF in those with glaucoma was 4.2%; (95% CI: 0.17-8.23). In general linear models, the estimated mean +/- SE of IOP with glaucoma and PXF was 24.14 +/- 1.41 mm Hg and was 18.94 +/- 0.26 mm Hg with glaucoma in the absence of PXF; the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.0001). The association of PXF with blindness and aging has public health

  14. Genetic structure of Rajaka caste and affinities with other caste populations of Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Parvatheesam, C; Babu, B V; Babu, M C

    1997-01-01

    The present study gives an account of the genetic structure in terms of distribution of a few genetic markers, viz., A1A2B0, Rh(D), G6PD deficiency and haemoglobin among the Rajaka caste population of Andhra Pradesh, India. The genetic relationships of the Rajaka caste with other Andhra caste populations were investigated in terms of genetic distance, i.e., Sq B (mn) of Balakrishnan and Sanghvi. Relatively lesser distance was established between the Rajaka and two Panchama castes. Also, the pattern of genetic distance corroborates the hierarchical order of the Hindu varna system.

  15. Medicinal Plant-Lore of Sugali Tribe of Anantapur District, Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, M. Hamambara; Reddy, K. Eshwara; Venkataraju, R.R

    2000-01-01

    The preliminary investigations of crude during resources of sugali tribes of Anantapur district, Andhra Pradesh with their recipes, preparation of drugs, administration, usage form several centuries. Fifty plant crude drugs (species) belong to twenty nine families were collected based on folk-lore knowledge. Botanical name, family name, part used, mode of preparation and administration and purpose, for which it as been used were enumerated. PMID:22556937

  16. Population-based assessment of prevalence and risk factors for pterygium in the South Indian state of Andhra Pradesh: the Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study.

    PubMed

    Marmamula, Srinivas; Khanna, Rohit C; Rao, Gullapalli N

    2013-08-09

    To describe the prevalence and risk factors for pterygium in a population-based sample of individuals aged 30 years and older in South Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. A cross-sectional study was conducted in one urban and three rural locations in which 10,293 subjects were examined. All the subjects underwent comprehensive eye examination and a detailed interview by trained professionals. Pterygium was defined as fleshy fibro vascular growth, crossing the limbus, and typically seen on the nasal conjunctiva in either eye. Data were analyzed for 5586 subjects who were aged 30 years and older at the time of participation. The mean age of the participants was 47.5 years (SD 13 years; range 30-102 years). In total, 46.4% were male, 56.7% had no education, 52.2% of them were involved in outdoor occupations, and 25% belonged to urban area. The prevalence of pterygium was 11.7% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 10.9-12.6). The multiple logistic regression analysis revealed significantly higher odds of pterygium among older age groups, rural residents (odds ratio [OR]: 1.8; 95% CI: 1.4-2.4; P > 0.01), and those involved in outdoor occupations (OR: 1.8; 95% CI: 1.5-2.2, P < 0.001). Education had a protective effect (OR: 0.6; 95% CI: 0.5-0.7; P < 0.001). Pterygium is common in the South Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. Exposure to sunlight is a significant modifiable risk factor. Protecting the eyes from sunlight may decrease the risk of pterygium. However, the important public health challenge is to encourage the use of this protection as a routine in developing countries such as India.

  17. Biogeochemical study of termite mounds: a case study from Tummalapalle area of Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Arveti, Nagaraju; Reginald, S; Kumar, K Sunil; Harinath, V; Sreedhar, Y

    2012-04-01

    Termite mounds are abundant components of Tummalapalle area of uranium mineralization of Cuddapah District of Andhra Pradesh, India. The systematic research has been carried out on the application of termite mound sampling to mineral exploration in this region. The distribution of chemical elements Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, Co, Cr, Li, Rb, Sr, Ba, and U were studied both in termite soils and adjacent surface soils. Uranium accumulations were noticed in seven termite mounds ranging from 10 to 36 ppm. A biogeochemical parameter called "Biological Absorption Coefficient" of the termite mounds indicated the termite affected soils contained huge amounts of chemical elements than the adjacent soils.

  18. Stochastic Analysis of Wind Energy for Wind Pump Irrigation in Coastal Andhra Pradesh, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raju, M. M.; Kumar, A.; Bisht, D.; Rao, D. B.

    2014-09-01

    The rapid escalation in the prices of oil and gas as well as increasing demand for energy has attracted the attention of scientists and researchers to explore the possibility of generating and utilizing the alternative and renewable sources of wind energy in the long coastal belt of India with considerable wind energy resources. A detailed analysis of wind potential is a prerequisite to harvest the wind energy resources efficiently. Keeping this in view, the present study was undertaken to analyze the wind energy potential to assess feasibility of the wind-pump operated irrigation system in the coastal region of Andhra Pradesh, India, where high ground water table conditions are available. The stochastic analysis of wind speed data were tested to fit a probability distribution, which describes the wind energy potential in the region. The normal and Weibull probability distributions were tested; and on the basis of Chi square test, the Weibull distribution gave better results. Hence, it was concluded that the Weibull probability distribution may be used to stochastically describe the annual wind speed data of coastal Andhra Pradesh with better accuracy. The size as well as the complete irrigation system with mass curve analysis was determined to satisfy various daily irrigation demands at different risk levels.

  19. Suicide deaths in rural Andhra Pradesh--a cause for global health action.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Rohina; Guggilla, Rama; Praveen, Devarsetty; Maulik, Pallab K

    2015-02-01

    To determine the proportion of deaths attributable to suicides in rural Andhra Pradesh, India over a 4-year period using a verbal autopsy method. Deaths occurring in 45 villages (population 185,629) were documented over a 4-year period from 2003 to 2007 by non-physician healthcare workers trained in the use of a verbal autopsy tool. Causes of death were assigned by physicians trained in the International Classification of Diseases, version 10. All data were entered and processed electronically using a secure study website. Verbal autopsies were completed for 98.2% (5786) of the deaths (5895) recorded. The crude death rate was 8.0/1000. 4.8% (95% CI 4.3-5.4) of all deaths were suicides, giving a suicide rate of 37.5/100,000 population. Forty-three percent of suicides occurred in the age group 15-29 years, and 62% were in men. In the younger age groups (10-29 years), suicides by women (56%) were more common than by men (44%). Poisoning (40%) was the most common method of self-harm followed by hanging (12%). The suicide rate in this part of rural Andhra Pradesh is three times higher than the national average of 11.2/100,000, but is in line with that reported in the Million Death Study. There is an urgent need to develop strategies targeted at young individuals to prevent deaths by suicide in India. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Anthropometrics of mental foramen in dry dentate and edentulous mandibles in Coastal Andhra population of Andhra Pradesh State.

    PubMed

    Moogala, Srinivas; Sanivarapu, Sahitya; Boyapati, Ramanarayana; Devulapalli, Narasimha Swamy; Chakrapani, Swarna; Kolaparthy, Laxmikanth

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the morphological features and morphometrics of mental foramen with reference to surrounding anatomical landmarks in Coastal Andhra population of Andhra Pradesh State. Two-hundred and nineteen dry dentate and edentulous mandibles are examined in this study. Out of these 127 were dentate and 92 were edentulous. Various morphological and morphometrical parameters were measured by using digital Vernier caliper, metallic wire and metallic scale on both the right and left sides. In the present study, the distance between most anterior margin of mental foramen and posterior border of ramus of the mandible is [MF-PR], MF-PR is 69.61 ± 6.03 mm on the right side and is 69.17 ± 6. 0 mm on left side in dentate mandible. In edentulous type, MF-PR is 68.39 ±6.4 mm on right side and 68.81 ± 6.55 mm on left side. In the present study, the distance between symphysis menti and most anterior margin of mental foramen [MF-SM] in dentate mandible is 28.24 ± 5.09 mm on right side and is 27.45 ± 3.7 mm on left side. In edentulous mandible (MF-SM) is 28.51 ± 4.5 mm on right side and on left side is 27.99 ± 4.50 mm. Acquiring the knowledge and importance of anatomy of mental foramen is helpful in avoiding neurovascular complications, during regional anesthesia, peri apical surgeries, nerve repositioning and dental implant placement.

  1. Risk factors for diabetic retinopathy: Findings from The Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study

    PubMed Central

    Krishnaiah, Sannapaneni; Das, Taraprasad; Nirmalan, Praveen K; Shamanna, Bindiganavale R; Nutheti, Rishita; Rao, Gullapalli N; Thomas, Ravi

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To assess prevalence, potential risk factors and population attributable risk percentage (PAR%) for diabetic retinopathy (DR) in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. Methods: A population-based study, using a stratified, random, cluster, systematic sampling strategy, was conducted in the state of Andhra Pradesh in India during 1996 and 2000. Participants from 94 clusters in one urban and three rural areas representative of the population of Andhra Pradesh, underwent a detailed interview and a comprehensive dilated ocular evaluation by trained professionals. DR was defined according to the international classification and grading system. For subjects more than or equal to 30 years of age, we explored associations of DR with potential risk factors using bivariable and multivariable analyses. Population attributable risk percent was calculated using Levin’s formula. Results: Diabetic retinopathy was present in 39 of 5586 subjects, an age-gender-area-adjusted prevalence of 0.72% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.49%–0.93%) among subjects aged ≥ 30 years old, and 0.27% (95% CI: 0.17%–0.37%) for all ages. Most of the DR was either mild (51.3%) or moderate (35.9%) non-proliferative type; one subject (2.6%) had proliferative retinopathy. Multivariable analysis showed that increasing age, adjusted odds ratio (OR); 4.04 (95% CI: 1.88–8.68), middle and upper socioeconomic status group (OR); 2.34 (95% CI: 1.16–4.73), hypertension (OR); 3.48 (95% CI: 1.50–8.11) and duration of diabetes ≥ 15 years (OR); 8.62 (95% CI: 2.63–28.29) were significantly associated with increasing risk of DR. The PAR % for hypertension was 50%; it was 10% for cigarette smokers. Conclusions: Extrapolating the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in our sample to the Indian population suggests that there may be an estimated 2.77 million people with DR, approximately 0.07 million people with severe DR. As the population demographics change towards aging, this number is likely to

  2. Risk factors for diabetic retinopathy: Findings from The Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study.

    PubMed

    Krishnaiah, Sannapaneni; Das, Taraprasad; Nirmalan, Praveen K; Shamanna, Bindiganavale R; Nutheti, Rishita; Rao, Gullapalli N; Thomas, Ravi

    2007-12-01

    To assess prevalence, potential risk factors and population attributable risk percentage (PAR%) for diabetic retinopathy (DR) in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. A population-based study, using a stratified, random, cluster, systematic sampling strategy, was conducted in the state of Andhra Pradesh in India during 1996 and 2000. Participants from 94 clusters in one urban and three rural areas representative of the population of Andhra Pradesh, underwent a detailed interview and a comprehensive dilated ocular evaluation by trained professionals. DR was defined according to the international classification and grading system. For subjects more than or equal to 30 years of age, we explored associations of DR with potential risk factors using bivariable and multivariable analyses. Population attributable risk percent was calculated using Levin's formula. Diabetic retinopathy was present in 39 of 5586 subjects, an age-gender-area-adjusted prevalence of 0.72% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.49%-0.93%) among subjects aged >/= 30 years old, and 0.27% (95% CI: 0.17%-0.37%) for all ages. Most of the DR was either mild (51.3%) or moderate (35.9%) non-proliferative type; one subject (2.6%) had proliferative retinopathy. Multivariable analysis showed that increasing age, adjusted odds ratio (OR); 4.04 (95% CI: 1.88-8.68), middle and upper socioeconomic status group (OR); 2.34 (95% CI: 1.16-4.73), hypertension (OR); 3.48 (95% CI: 1.50-8.11) and duration of diabetes >/= 15 years (OR); 8.62 (95% CI: 2.63-28.29) were significantly associated with increasing risk of DR. The PAR % for hypertension was 50%; it was 10% for cigarette smokers. Extrapolating the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in our sample to the Indian population suggests that there may be an estimated 2.77 million people with DR, approximately 0.07 million people with severe DR. As the population demographics change towards aging, this number is likely to increase further. Health care programs in India need to

  3. State health insurance and out-of-pocket health expenditures in Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Fan, Victoria Y; Karan, Anup; Mahal, Ajay

    2012-09-01

    In 2007 the state of Andhra Pradesh in southern India began rolling out Aarogyasri health insurance to reduce catastrophic health expenditures in households 'below the poverty line'. We exploit variation in program roll-out over time and districts to evaluate the impacts of the scheme using difference-in-differences. Our results suggest that within the first nine months of implementation Phase I of Aarogyasri significantly reduced out-of-pocket inpatient expenditures and, to a lesser extent, outpatient expenditures. These results are robust to checks using quantile regression and matching methods. No clear effects on catastrophic health expenditures or medical impoverishment are seen. Aarogyasri is not benefiting scheduled caste and scheduled tribe households as much as the rest of the population.

  4. Distribution of Major and trace elements in Koppunuru area, Guntur district, Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Arumugam, K; Srinivasalu, S; Purvaja, R; Ramesh, R

    2018-06-01

    From koppunuru study area totally 58 samples were collected in 7 different boreholes, minimum depth of 28 m and Maximum depth of 157.7 m. The borehole samples geochemical analysis (major and trace elements) was carried out at Atomic Minerals Directorate for Exploration & Research (AMD), Hyderabad, India. Major and trace element studies have been conducted on the Neoproterozoic Palnad sub-basin Andhra Pradesh, South India, to determine their Geochemistry, Uranium mineralization and provenance characteristics. Geochemically, this sedimentary basin has a different litho - unit like as gritty quartzite, conglomerate, and Shale. This study area mainly dominated by Uranium deposited and radioactive elements are predominately deposit. Strong positive correlation between Uranium and Lead ( r = 0.887) suggested radiogenic nature of this system.

  5. Finger ridge count correlations among four tribes of Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Kusuma, Y S; Babu, B V; Naidu, J M

    2002-06-01

    The present paper reports the distribution of finger ridge count correlations among four tribal populations from Andhra Pradesh, India viz., Dulia, Kotia, Manne Dora and Manzai Mali, and examines the intra and inter population variation. Higher correlations are recorded in left hands compared to right hands, but they are not significant. The homologous fingers exhibit a stronger correlation. In all the tribes, the correlations between right hand fingers are relatively higher among women when compared to men. Regarding inter population variation Dulia men differ significantly from the men of Manne Dora and the Manzai Mali tribes, and Kotia women also differ from the women of the Manne Dora significantly. The average correlation coefficient of the present populations is similar to other Indian populations reported earlier but lower than African and European populations.

  6. Incidence of cleft Lip and palate in the state of Andhra Pradesh, South India

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Srinivas Gosla; Reddy, Rajgopal R.; Bronkhorst, Ewald M.; Prasad, Rajendra; Ettema, Anke M.; Sailer, Hermann F.; Bergé, Stefaan J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess the incidence of cleft lip and palate defects in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India. Design Setting: The study was conducted in 2001 in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India. The state has a population of 76 million. Three districts, Cuddapah, Medak and Krishna, were identified for this study owing to their diversity. They were urban, semi-urban and rural, respectively. Literacy rates and consanguinity of the parents was elicited and was compared to national averages to find correlations to cleft births. Type and side of cleft were recorded to compare with other studies around the world and other parts of India. Results: The birth rate of clefts was found to be 1.09 for every 1000 live births. This study found that 65% of the children born with clefts were males. The distribution of the type of cleft showed 33% had CL, 64% had CLP, 2% had CP and 1% had rare craniofacial clefts. Unilateral cleft lips were found in 79% of the patients. Of the unilateral cleft lips 64% were left sided. There was a significant correlation of children with clefts being born to parents who shared a consanguineous relationship and those who were illiterate with the odds ratio between 5.25 and 7.21 for consanguinity and between 1.55 and 5.85 for illiteracy, respectively. Conclusion: The birth rate of clefts was found to be comparable with other Asian studies, but lower than found in other studies in Caucasian populations and higher than in African populations. The incidence was found to be similar to other studies done in other parts of India. The distribution over the various types of cleft was comparable to that found in other studies. PMID:21217978

  7. Geospatial monitoring and prioritization of forest fire incidences in Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Manaswini, G; Sudhakar Reddy, C

    2015-10-01

    Forest fire has been identified as one of the key environmental issue for long-term conservation of biodiversity and has impact on global climate. Spatially multiple observations are necessary for monitoring of forest fires in tropics for understanding conservation efficacy and sustaining biodiversity in protected areas. The present work was carried out to estimate the spatial extent of forest burnt areas and fire frequency using Resourcesat Advanced Wide Field Sensor (AWiFS) data (2009, 2010, 2012, 2013 and 2014) in Andhra Pradesh, India. The spatio-temporal analysis shows that an area of 7514.10 km(2) (29.22% of total forest cover) has been affected by forest fires. Six major forest types are distributed in Andhra Pradesh, i.e. semi-evergreen, moist deciduous, dry deciduous, dry evergreen, thorn and mangroves. Of the total forest burnt area, dry deciduous forests account for >75%. District-wise analysis shows that Kurnool, Prakasam and Cuddapah have shown >100 km(2) of burnt area every year. The total forest burnt area estimate covering protected areas ranges between 6.9 and 22.3% during the study period. Spatial burnt area analysis for protected areas in 2014 indicates 37.2% of fire incidences in the Nagarjunasagar Srisailam Tiger Reserve followed by 20.2 % in the Sri Lankamalleswara Wildlife Sanctuary, 20.1% in the Sri Venkateswara Wildlife Sanctuary and 17.4% in the Gundla Brahmeswaram Wildlife Sanctuary. The analysis of cumulative fire occurrences from 2009 to 2014 has helped in delineation of conservation priority hotspots using a spatial grid cell approach. Conservation priority hotspots I and II are distributed in major parts of study area including protected areas of the Nagarjunasagar Srisailam Tiger Reserve and Gundla Brahmeswaram Wildlife Sanctuary. The spatial database generated will be useful in studies related to influence of fires on species adaptability, ecological damage assessment and conservation planning.

  8. Cost-effectiveness of HIV prevention interventions in Andhra Pradesh state of India

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Information on cost-effectiveness of the range of HIV prevention interventions is a useful contributor to decisions on the best use of resources to prevent HIV. We conducted this assessment for the state of Andhra Pradesh that has the highest HIV burden in India. Methods Based on data from a representative sample of 128 public-funded HIV prevention programs of 14 types in Andhra Pradesh, we have recently reported the number of HIV infections averted by each type of HIV prevention intervention and their cost. Using estimates of the age of onset of HIV infection, we used standard methods to calculate the cost per Disability Adjusted Life Year (DALY) saved as a measure of cost-effectiveness of each type of HIV prevention intervention. Results The point estimates of the cost per DALY saved were less than US $50 for blood banks, men who have sex with men programmes, voluntary counselling and testing centres, prevention of parent to child transmission clinics, sexually transmitted infection clinics, and women sex worker programmes; between US $50 and 100 for truckers and migrant labourer programmes; more than US $100 and up to US $410 for composite, street children, condom promotion, prisoners and workplace programmes and mass media campaign for the general public. The uncertainty range around these estimates was very wide for several interventions, with the ratio of the high to the low estimates infinite for five interventions. Conclusions The point estimates for the cost per DALY saved from the averted HIV infections for all interventions was much lower than the per capita gross domestic product in this Indian state. While these indicative cost-effectiveness estimates can inform HIV control planning currently, the wide uncertainty range around estimates for several interventions suggest the need for more firm data for estimating cost-effectiveness of HIV prevention interventions in India. PMID:20459755

  9. Building nurse education capacity in India: insights from a faculty development programme in Andhra Pradesh

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background India faces an acute shortage of nurses. Strategies to tackle the human resource crisis depend upon scaling up nursing education provision in a context where the social status and working conditions of nurses are highly variable. Several national and regional situation assessments have revealed significant concerns about educational governance, institutional and educator capacity, quality and standards. Improving educational capacity through nursing faculty development has been proposed as one of several strategies to address a complex health human resource situation. This paper describes and critically reflects upon the experience of one such faculty development programme in the state of Andhra Pradesh. Discussion The faculty development programme involved a 2 year partnership between a UK university and 7 universities in Andhra Pradesh. It adopted a participatory approach and covered training and support in 4 areas: teaching, research/scholarship, leadership/management and clinical education. Senior hospital nurses were also invited to participate. Summary The programme was evaluated positively and some changes to educational practice were reported. However, several obstacles to wider change were identified. At the programme level, there was a need for more intensive individual and institutional mentorship as well as involvement of Indian Centres of Excellence in Nursing to provide local (as well as international) expertise. At the organisational level, the participating Colleges reported heavy workloads, lack of control over working conditions, lack of control over the curriculum and poor infra-structure/resources as ongoing challenges. In the absence of wider educational reform in nursing and government commitment to the profession, faculty development programmes alone will have limited impact. PMID:23537273

  10. Fear of blindness and perceptions about blind people. The Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study.

    PubMed

    Giridhar, Pyda; Dandona, Rakhi; Prasad, Mudigonda N; Kovai, Vilas; Dandona, Lalit

    2002-09-01

    This study assessed the fear of being affected by illness and disability including blindness, and perceptions of the population towards blind people in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. A total of 11,786 subjects of all ages were sampled from 94 clusters in one urban and three rural study areas of Andhra Pradesh using stratified, random, cluster, systematic sampling to represent the population of this state. A total of 10,293 subjects of all ages underwent a detailed interview and dilated ocular evaluation. Subjects > 15 years of age (7,432) were interviewed regarding fear of illness/disability and their perceptions of blind people. The fear of blindness was assessed in comparison to cancer, severe mental illness, heart attack, losing limbs, deafness, inability to speak, and paralysis. A majority of the study population feared all the illnesses and disabilities assessed. The prevalence of fear of blindness was 90.9% (95% confidence interval 89.1-92.8%) and 92.1% (95% confidence interval 90.6-93.6%) in urban and rural study areas respectively. With multiple logistic regression the fear of blindness was significantly higher for those with any level of education and for those living in the rural study areas. The proportion of those having positive feelings towards blind people was higher in the urban study area. A high prevalence of blindness, 1.84%, has been reported in this population previously. These data suggest that this population feared blindness, and yet there is a high rate of blindness. This reflects the need for increasing awareness about blindness in this population through eye health promotion strategies in order to reduce blindness, and awareness regarding the availability of rehabilitation services.

  11. mtDNA variation in caste populations of Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Bamshad, M; Fraley, A E; Crawford, M H; Cann, R L; Busi, B R; Naidu, J M; Jorde, L B

    1996-02-01

    Various anthropological analyses have documented extensive regional variation among populations on the subcontinent of India using morphological, protein, blood group, and nuclear DNA polymorphisms. These patterns are the product of complex population structure (genetic drift, gene flow) and a population history noted for numerous branching events. As a result, the interpretation of relationships among caste populations of South India and between Indians and continental populations remains controversial. The Hindu caste system is a general model of genetic differentiation among endogamous populations stratified by social forces (e.g., religion and occupation). The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) molecule has unique properties that facilitate the exploration of population structure. We analyzed 36 Hindu men born in Andhra Pradesh who were unrelated matrilineally through at least 3 generations and who represent 4 caste populations: Brahmin (9), Yadava (10), Kapu (7), and Relli (10). Individuals from Africa (36), Asia (36), and Europe (36) were sampled for comparison. A 200-base-pair segment of hypervariable segment 2 (HVS2) of the mtDNA control region was sequenced in all individuals. In the Indian castes 25 distinct haplotypes are identified. Aside from the Cambridge reference sequence, only two haplotypes are shared between caste populations. Middle castes form a highly supported cluster in a neighbor-joining network. Mean nucleotide diversity within each caste is 0.015, 0.012, 0.011, and 0.012 for the Brahmin, Yadava, Kapu, and Relli, respectively. mtDNA variation is highly structured between castes (GST = 0.17; p < 0.002). The effects of social structure on mtDNA variation are much greater than those on variation measured by traditional markers. Explanations for this discordance include (1) the higher resolving power of mtDNA, (2) sex-dependent gene flow, (3) differences in male and female effective population sizes, and (4) elements of the kinship structure. Thirty

  12. Food Price Spikes Are Associated with Increased Malnutrition among Children in Andhra Pradesh, India123

    PubMed Central

    Vellakkal, Sukumar; Fledderjohann, Jasmine; Basu, Sanjay; Agrawal, Sutapa; Ebrahim, Shah; Campbell, Oona; Doyle, Pat; Stuckler, David

    2015-01-01

    Background: Global food prices have risen sharply since 2007. The impact of food price spikes on the risk of malnutrition in children is not well understood. Objective: We investigated the associations between food price spikes and childhood malnutrition in Andhra Pradesh, one of India’s largest states, with >85 million people. Because wasting (thinness) indicates in most cases a recent and severe process of weight loss that is often associated with acute food shortage, we tested the hypothesis that the escalating prices of rice, legumes, eggs, and other staples of Indian diets significantly increased the risk of wasting (weight-for-height z scores) in children. Methods: We studied periods before (2006) and directly after (2009) India’s food price spikes with the use of the Young Lives longitudinal cohort of 1918 children in Andhra Pradesh linked to food price data from the National Sample Survey Office. Two-stage least squares instrumental variable models assessed the relation of food price changes to food consumption and wasting prevalence (weight-for-height z scores). Results: Before the 2007 food price spike, wasting prevalence fell from 19.4% in 2002 to 18.8% in 2006. Coinciding with India’s escalating food prices, wasting increased significantly to 28.0% in 2009. These increases were concentrated among low- (χ2: 21.6, P < 0.001) and middle- (χ2: 25.9, P < 0.001) income groups, but not among high-income groups (χ2: 3.08, P = 0.079). Each 10.0 rupee ($0.170) increase in the price of rice/kg was associated with a drop in child-level rice consumption of 73.0 g/d (β: −7.30; 95% CI: −10.5, −3.90). Correspondingly, lower rice consumption was significantly associated with lower weight-for-height z scores (i.e., wasting) by 0.005 (95% CI: 0.001, 0.008), as seen with most other food categories. Conclusion: Rising food prices were associated with an increased risk of malnutrition among children in India. Policies to help ensure the affordability of food

  13. Ocular trauma in a rural population of southern India: the Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study.

    PubMed

    Krishnaiah, Sannapaneni; Nirmalan, Praveen K; Shamanna, Bindiganavale R; Srinivas, Marmamula; Rao, Gullapalli N; Thomas, Ravi

    2006-07-01

    To determine the prevalence of ocular trauma and proportion of blindness and visual impairment due to ocular trauma in a rural population of southern India. Population-based cross-sectional epidemiological study. A total of 7771 subjects of all ages, representative of the rural population of Andhra Pradesh. The subjects underwent a detailed interview and comprehensive ocular evaluation as part of the population-based Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study. An eye was considered to be blind due to trauma if best-corrected distance visual acuity was worse than 6/60 and the cause was attributed to ocular trauma. A total of 824 (10.6%) subjects gave a history of ocular trauma in either eye, including 76 (1.0%) persons reporting trauma in both eyes. The overall age- and gender-adjusted prevalence of history of eye injury in this rural population was 7.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 7.0%-8.1%). Men were more likely to have an eye injury than women (odds ratio [OR], 2.1 [95% CI, 1.8-2.5]). After adjusting for gender and other demographic factors, ocular trauma was significantly more frequent among laborers (OR, 1.5 [95% CI, 1.2-1.7]) when compared with other occupational groups. After adjusting for gender, injury with vegetable matter such as a thorn, branch of a tree, plant secretion, etc. (n = 373 [45.3%]) was the major cause of trauma reported in this population. The majority of the eye injuries occurred at the workplace (n = 461 [55.9%]), followed by home (n = 179 [21.7%]). The majority of those affected (n = 806 [97.8%]) did not wear any eye protection at the time of trauma. A significant proportion (n = 307 [43.1%]) of subjects who sought treatment for an eye injury went to an ophthalmologist. Trauma was responsible for unilateral blindness in 39 subjects, an age- and gender-adjusted prevalence of 0.6% (95% CI, 0.4%-0.8%). Most ocular injuries in this rural population occurred at the workplace, suggesting the need to explore workplace strategies to minimize ocular

  14. Community managed services for persons with intellectual disability: Andhra Pradesh experience.

    PubMed

    Narayan, Jayanthi; Pratapkumar, Raja; Reddy, Sudhakara P

    2017-09-01

    In resource poor settings innovative and bottom-up approaches are required to provide services to people with with disabilities. In this context, the present paper explains a community-based model of manpower development and coordination of services for people with intellectual disabilities in unified state of Andhra Pradesh in India. Women with disabilities from the village were identified, and those willing to be trained to work as community resource persons (CRPs) were selected and given hands-on training in a phased manner. A total of 130 women were trained in five groups of 25-30 per group and were deployed in the community to screen, identify and refer children with intellectual disabilities. The training content included basic stimulation and interface with functionaries of other government departments of health, education and welfare to ensure comprehensive service delivery. Neighbourhood centres (NHCs) were established where the CRPs could meet with families collectively. The results indicated that the CRPs were welcomed by the families. The NHCs established primarily as recreation centres, promoted inclusion and functioned as information dissemination centre. The services provided by the CRPs were owned and monitored by the Women's self-help group and the disability groups thus ensuring sustainability of the model.

  15. Violence in contract work among female sex workers in Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    George, Annie; Sabarwal, Shagun; Martin, P

    2011-12-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) are vulnerable to physical and sexual violence at work. This article examines the prevalence of recent physical and sexual violence victimization and associations of type of sex work among a large sample of young FSWs. We used data from a cross-sectional survey on sex trafficking and sex work in southern India that included 1138 FSWs aged 18-25 years residing in 3 districts of Andhra Pradesh state. The independent variable was organization of sex work. FSWs on contract at sex work establishments outside their home district were classified as contract workers, as compared with women who worked autonomously within their home district. Using logistic regression models adjusted for sociodemographic factors, we assessed the relation between contract/ non-contract sex work and various forms of violence experienced by FSWs. Results indicate a high prevalence of work-related physical and sexual violence; 50% FSWs reported physical violence, and 77% reported sexual violence. FSWs performing contract work were at increased risk of physical and sexual violence at work, compared with women engaged in sex work in their home districts. The findings that contract work outside the home district increases the vulnerabilities faced by FSWs in India suggest that violence and disease prevention services aimed at FSWs would be more effective if organization of sex work--as contract or noncontract--is taken into account.

  16. Correlation of HIV/AIDS prevalence with social, economic and demographic measures in Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Kandwal, R; Garg, P K; Garg, R D

    2012-09-01

    In this study, the spatial distribution of HIV/AIDS is investigated with several socioeconomic variables. Results of exploratory analysis of correlations have been reported between the prevalence of HIV/AIDS as it is the dependent variable against a range of socioeconomic and demographic measures in Andhra Pradesh, India. The state ranks among the top six states for HIV prevalence in the country. This study offers an insight to the distribution of HIV prevalence and the potential impacts of the epidemic on the high-, medium- and low-risk groups determined through cluster analyses of population and cumulative HIV infections. The impacts have been addressed through selective social and economic measures as HIV/AIDS is considered more of a social epidemic. These results help in identifying factors that are contributing more towards the spread of HIV and so guide policies to counteract dominant factors in order to control the disease. Future investigations are necessary to elucidate characterization of the rates of infection according to gender, age groups and regions.

  17. Vulnerability re-assessed: the changing face of sex work in Guntur district, Andhra Pradesh.

    PubMed

    Beattie, Tara S H; Bradley, Janet E; Vanta, Uma Devi; Lowndes, Catherine M; Alary, Michel

    2013-01-01

    We conducted a qualitative study to examine the impact of an HIV prevention programme on female sex workers' lives in Guntur district, Andhra Pradesh. The study found evidence that, in addition to the HIV prevention programme, structural and environmental factors had recently changed the way sex work was being practiced. Recent closure of the brothels and implementation of a late-night street curfew by the police meant sex work had become more hidden, with clients often solicited using mobile phones from home or their work place (e.g., in the fields or factories). Sex work had become safer, with violence by non-regular partners rarely reported. Women understood the risks of unprotected vaginal sex and reported using condoms with their clients. However, clients were more frequently requesting anal sex, possibly due to recent exposure to pornography following increased accessibility to modern technologies such as mobile phones and the Internet. Anal sex with clients was common but women were often unaware of the associated risks and reported unprotected anal sex. HIV positive and/or older women faced severe financial hardship and difficulty soliciting sufficient clients, and reported unprotected vaginal and anal sex to earn enough to survive. Taken together, the findings from this study suggest changing vulnerability to HIV in this setting. It will be important for HIV prevention programmes to be flexible and creative in their approaches if they are to continue to reach this target community effectively.

  18. Groundwater quality from a part of Prakasam District, Andhra Pradesh, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subba Rao, N.

    2018-03-01

    Quality of groundwater is assessed from a part of Prakasam district, Andhra Pradesh, India. Groundwater samples collected from thirty locations from the study area were analysed for pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), calcium (Ca2+), magnesium (Mg2+), sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), bicarbonate ( {HCO}3^{ - } ), chloride (Cl-), sulphate ( {SO}4^{2 - } ), nitrate ( {NO}3^{ - } ) and fluoride (F-). The results of the chemical analysis indicate that the groundwater is alkaline in nature and are mainly characterized by Na+- {HCO}3^{ - } and Na+-Cl- facies. Groundwater chemistry reflects the dominance of rock weathering and is subsequently modified by human activities, which are supported by genetic geochemical evolution and hydrogeochemical relations. Further, the chemical parameters (pH, TDS, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, {HCO}3^{ - } , Cl-, {SO}4^{2 - } , {NO}3^{ - } and F-) were compared with the drinking water quality standards. The sodium adsorption ratio, percent sodium, permeability index, residual sodium carbonate, magnesium ratio and Kelly's ratio were computed and USSL, Wilcox and Doneen's diagrams were also used for evaluation of groundwater quality for irrigation. For industrial purpose, the pH, TDS, {HCO}3^{ - } , Cl- and {SO}4^{2 - } were used to assess the impact of incrustation and corrosion activities on metal surfaces. As a whole, it is observed that the groundwater quality is not suitable for drinking, irrigation and industrial purposes due to one or more chemical parameters exceeding their standard limits. Therefore, groundwater management measures were suggested to improve the water quality.

  19. Spatial and temporal variation of precipitation trends in Andhra Pradesh, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivajothi, R.; Karthikeyan, K.

    2017-11-01

    Long-term samples of meteorological data are periodically necessary to assess the long standing effects of future hydrological changes. The evaluations are repeatedly undertaken using deterministic statistical analyze which requires daily weather data as input. Andhra Pradesh had experienced frequent disasters like cyclones, floods, droughts etc. The frequency and intensity of the hazardous events has been significantly increasing in there cent decades due to climatic changes and global warming. This model is being applied to all the districts of the state to evaluate the results of abnormally low rainfall and to evaluate possible adjustment polices. The final results shows that the lack of rainfall has larger influence on the living society and the major adaptation sustained by irrigation and the ecosystem which illustrates the potential of hydrological modelling for multiple dimensions of water resources. No significant trend has been detected for annual and seasonal precipitation in the entire state, some of the district’s annual and monsoon precipitation has decreased, and has increased during post monsoon and winter seasons.

  20. Police-related experiences and HIV risk among female sex workers in Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Erausquin, Jennifer Toller; Reed, Elizabeth; Blankenship, Kim M

    2011-12-01

    Research suggests experiences with police are related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) sexual risk among women working as sex workers. However, little is known about the links between specific police-related behaviors and HIV vulnerability. We examine whether 5 police-related experiences are associated with measures of HIV risk and violence among a sample of female sex workers (FSWs) in Andhra Pradesh, India, and consider the implications for HIV prevention. FSWs at least 18 years of age (n = 835) were recruited through respondent-driven sampling for a cross-sectional survey conducted as part of Avahan, the India AIDS Initiative. Using logistic regression models adjusted for age, age at start of sex work, and sex work venue, we assessed police-related experiences reported by FSWs in relation to HIV risk behaviors and violence. Results showed having sex with police to avoid trouble, giving gifts to police to avoid trouble, having police take condoms away, experiencing a workplace raid, and being arrested were associated with sexually transmitted infection symptoms, inconsistent condom use, acceptance of more money for sex without a condom, and experience of client violence. These findings suggest a need for interventions targeting police-FSW interactions to reduce HIV vulnerability among FSWs.

  1. Geochemical evolution of groundwater in the Western Delta region of River Godavari, Andhra Pradesh, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nageswara Rao, P. V.; Appa Rao, S.; Subba Rao, N.

    2017-05-01

    The present study on geochemical evolution of groundwater is taken up to assess the controlling processes of water chemistry in the Western Delta region of the River Godavari (Andhra Pradesh), which is one of the major rice-producing centers in India. The study region is underlain by coarse sand with black clay (buried channels), black silty clay of recent origin (floodplain) and gray/white fine sand of modern beach sediment of marine source (coastal zone), including brown silty clay with fine sand (paleo-beach ridges). Groundwater is mostly brackish and very hard. It is characterized by Na+ > Mg2+ > Ca2+:HCO3 - > Cl- > SO4 2- > NO3 -, Na+ > Mg2+ > Ca2+:Cl- > HCO3 - > SO4 2-, and Mg2+ > Na+ > Ca2+ > or < K+:HCO3 - > Cl- > or > SO4 2- facies. The ionic relations (Ca2+ + Mg2+:HCO3 -, Ca2+ + Mg2+:SO4 2- + HCO3 -, Na+ + K+:TC, Na+ + K+:Cl- + SO4 2-, HCO3 -:TC, HCO3 -:Ca2+ + Mg2+, Na+:Cl- and Na+:Ca2+) indicate that the rock weathering, mineral dissolution, evaporation and ion exchange are the processes to control the aquifer chemistry. Anthropogenic and marine sources are also the supplementary factors for brackish water quality. These observations are further supported by Gibbs mechanisms that control the water chemistry. Thus, the study suggests that the initial quality of groundwater of geogenic origin has been subsequently modified by the influences of anthropogenic and marine sources.

  2. Police-Related Experiences and HIV Risk Among Female Sex Workers in Andhra Pradesh, India

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Elizabeth; Blankenship, Kim M.

    2011-01-01

    Research suggests experiences with police are related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) sexual risk among women working as sex workers. However, little is known about the links between specific police-related behaviors and HIV vulnerability. We examine whether 5 police-related experiences are associated with measures of HIV risk and violence among a sample of female sex workers (FSWs) in Andhra Pradesh, India, and consider the implications for HIV prevention. FSWs at least 18 years of age (n = 835) were recruited through respondent-driven sampling for a cross-sectional survey conducted as part of Avahan, the India AIDS Initiative. Using logistic regression models adjusted for age, age at start of sex work, and sex work venue, we assessed police-related experiences reported by FSWs in relation to HIV risk behaviors and violence. Results showed having sex with police to avoid trouble, giving gifts to police to avoid trouble, having police take condoms away, experiencing a workplace raid, and being arrested were associated with sexually transmitted infection symptoms, inconsistent condom use, acceptance of more money for sex without a condom, and experience of client violence. These findings suggest a need for interventions targeting police–FSW interactions to reduce HIV vulnerability among FSWs. PMID:22043036

  3. Quality characterization of groundwater in Koilsagar project area, Mahabubnagar District, Andhra Pradesh, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raju, C. Sudarsana; Goud, P. V. Prakash

    1990-09-01

    Studies of groundwater chemistry in the Koilsagar project area of Andhra Pradesh indicate that the waters are sodium bicarbonate, sodium chloride, mixed cationic-mixed anionic, mixed cationic Na dominating bicarbonate, and mixed cationic Ca dominating bicarbonate types. Of them, sodium bicarbonate and mixed cationic Mg dominating bicarbonate types of waters are more prevalent. Isocone mapping of specific conductance indicates that the ionic concentration increases from east to west in the area. Graphical treatment of chemical data reveals that, in general, the area has basic water, whereas the left flank canal area is dominated by secondary alkaline water, and Pallamarri and Pedda Rajmur villages have strongly acidic waters. Ion-exchange studies show that cation-anion exchanges exist all over the area except for two places, which have a base exchange hardened type of water. Graphical representation further shows that most of the area has medium salinity-low sodium (C2S1) water useful for irrigation purposes. High salinity-low sodium (C3S1) and high salinity-medium sodium (C3S2) waters are present in some areas, which need adequate drainage to overcome the salinity problem.

  4. Molecular characterization of chikungunya virus from Andhra Pradesh, India & phylogenetic relationship with Central African isolates.

    PubMed

    M Naresh Kumar, C V; Anthony Johnson, A M; R Sai Gopal, D V

    2007-12-01

    Chikungunya virus has caused numerous large outbreaks in India. Suspected blood samples from the epidemic were collected and characterized for the identification of the responsible causative from Rayalaseema region of Andhra Pradesh. RT-PCR was used for screening of suspected blood samples. Primers were designed to amplify partial E1 gene and the amplified fragment was cloned and sequenced. The sequence was analyzed and compared with other geographical isolates to find the phylogenetic relationship. The sequence was submitted to the Gen bank DNA database (accession DQ888620). Comparative nucleotide homology analysis of the AP Ra-CTR isolate with the other isolates revealed 94.7+/-3.6 per cent of homology of CHIKAPRa-CTR with other isolates of Chikungunya virus at nucleotide level and 96.8+/-3.2 per cent of homology at amino acid level. The current epidemic was caused by the Central African genotype of CHIKV, grouped in Central Africa cluster in phylogenetic trees generated based on nucleotide and amino acid sequences.

  5. Comprehensive dental health care program at an orphanage in Nellore district of Andhra Pradesh.

    PubMed

    Muralidharan, Dhanya; Fareed, Nusrath; Shanthi, M

    2012-01-01

    Provision of oral health care in India, especially for the underprivileged is limited due to inadequate finances and manpower. Resources of dental colleges in such a scenario can be utilized to provide prevention oriented oral health care. To improve the oral health status of children at an institute in Nellore district of Andhra Pradesh, India, through prevention based comprehensive dental health care program (CDHP). A longitudinal institution based interventional study conducted among the primary grade children (n=162). Baseline data collection included (i) basic demographic data (ii) body mass index (BMI) (iii) assessment of the dentition status and treatment needs according to WHO 1997 criteria. The CDHP included group based dental health education, professional oral prophylaxis, weekly (0.2%) sodium fluoride mouth rinse program, biannual application of topical fluoride (1.23% APF), pit and fissure sealants for all first permanent molars and provision of all necessary curative services. Mean treatment requirements per child decreased at 18 months. New caries lesions developed among four children. BMI of children with decay was seen to improve significantly after instituting the CDHP. CDHP is effective in overall improvement of general and oral health. In resource limited countries like India, such programs organized by dental schools can improve oral health.

  6. Knowledge and opinion about smoke-free laws and second-hand smoke among hospitality venue managers in Gujarat and Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Vinay K; Arora, Monika; Sharma, Indrani; Nazar, Gaurang P; Modi, Bhavesh; Singh, Deepti; Millett, Christopher; Reddy, K Srinath

    2013-01-01

    India's Smoke-Free Law (SFL) was implemented in 2004 and reinforced on 2nd October 2008. This research attempts to understand the knowledge and opinion of hospitality venue (HV) managers about second-hand smoke (SHS) and SFL as well as self-reported compliance with SFL in two Indian states. A survey was conducted among 804 randomly sampled HVs from project STEPS (Strengthening of tobacco control efforts through innovative partnerships and strategies) in Gujarat and Andhra Pradesh, India. Four hundred and three HVs from two districts in Gujarat and 401 HVs from six districts in Andhra Pradesh were selected. The owner, manager or supervisor of each HV was interviewed using a pre-tested structured interview schedule. Association of opinion scales with respondents' background characteristics was assessed through the analysis of variance (ANOVA) method. Out of the 403 respondents in Gujarat and 401 in Andhra Pradesh, 56.1% and 84.3% had knowledge about SFL respectively. Compliance of HVs with SFL was 21.8% in Gujarat and 31.2% in Andhra Pradesh as reported by the managers. Knowledge about SHS was noted among 39.7% of respondents in Gujarat and 25.4% in Andhra Pradesh. Bivariate results indicated that more educated HV managers showed higher support for smoke-free public places (P < 0.001) and were more concerned about the health effects of SHS exposure (P = 0.002). Complete self-reported compliance with, and knowledge of SFL as well as SHS was not found in Gujarat and Andhra Pradesh. The education level of HV managers is an important determinant to ensure compliance with SFL in public places.

  7. Addressing healthcare needs of people living below the poverty line: a rapid assessment of the Andhra Pradesh Health Insurance Scheme.

    PubMed

    Rao, M; Ramachandra, S S; Bandyopadhyay, S; Chandran, A; Shidhaye, R; Tamisettynarayana, S; Thippaiah, A; Sitamma, M; Sunil George, M; Singh, V; Sivasankaran, S; Bangdiwala, S I

    2011-01-01

    Families living below the poverty line in countries which do not have universal healthcare coverage are drawn into indebtedness and bankruptcy. The state of Andhra Pradesh in India established the Rajiv Aarogyasri Community Health Insurance Scheme (RACHIS) in 2007 with the aim of breaking this cycle by improving the access of below the poverty line (BPL) families to secondary and tertiary healthcare. It covered a wide range of surgical and medical treatments for serious illnesses requiring specialist healthcare resources not always available at district-level government hospitals. The impact of this scheme was evaluated by a rapid assessment, commissioned by the government of Andhra Pradesh. The aim of the assessment was to explore the contribution of the scheme to the reduction of catastrophic health expenditure among the poor and to recommend ways by which delivery of the scheme could be improved. We report the findings of this assessment. Two types of data were used for the assessment. Patient data pertaining to 89 699 treatment requests approved by the scheme during its first 18 months were examined. Second, surveys of scheme beneficiaries and providers were undertaken in 6 randomly selected districts of Andhra Pradesh. This novel scheme was beginning to reach the BPL households in the state and providing access to free secondary and tertiary healthcare to seriously ill poor people. An integrated model encompassing primary, secondary and tertiary care would be of greater benefit to families below the poverty line and more cost-effective for the government. There is considerable potential for the government to build on this successful start and to strengthen equity of access and the quality of care provided by the scheme. Copyright 2011, NMJI.

  8. Consanguinity and its relationship to differential fertility and mortality in the Kotia: a tribal population of Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Yasim; Naidu, J M; Mascie-Taylor, C G

    1997-04-01

    Data on patterns of marriage, differential fertility and mortality were collected from 211 Kotia women residing in Visakhapatnam district of Andhra Pradesh, India. Consanguineous marriages made up just over a quarter of the total, and of these, father's sister's daughter (FSD) were more common than mother's brother's daughter (MBD). The mean inbreeding coefficient for the sample (F) was 0.0172. Women in consanguineous marriages had a lower mean number of total conceptions, live births and living offspring (net fertility) than women in non-consanguineous marriages. Significant heterogeneity was found in the means of living offspring for FSD, MBD and non-consanguineous couples, but not for conceptions and live births.

  9. Exploring dynamics of anal sex among female sex workers in Andhra Pradesh.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Saroj; Krishna, Rama; Prabhakar, Parimi; Panyam, Swarup; Anand, Pankaj

    2012-01-01

    The anal sex among heterosexual couples is on the rise as reported in many scientific studies. Considering that unprotected anal sex has higher risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission than the vaginal sex, we undertook a study to understand the anal sex practices among Female Sex Workers (FSW). The study was conducted among FSW attending 11 randomly selected sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinics in Bill and Melinda Gates supported targeted interventions in Andhra Pradesh. A structured questionnaire was administered to the 555 FSW attending these clinics by project clinic counselors. Informed consent was obtained from all the study participants. Engaging in anal sex was self reported by 22% of sex workers, though demand from clients was reported to be much higher (40%). The reasons for anal sex practices included more money (61%), clout/influence of the client (45%), risk of losing client (27%), and forced sex (1.2%). Factors associated with anal sex were higher number of clients, higher duration of sex work, higher income, and older age group. Associated risks perceived by FSW were bleeding and injury to anal canal (98%) while only 28% associated it with higher HIV transmission risk. Reported Condom and lubricant use was about 88% and 39% respectively. The study shows that there is frequent anal sex, inconsistent condom and infrequent lubricant usage, economic and physical coercion, and low awareness of STI/HIV transmission risk among FSW, which have serious implications for HIV prevention programmes. There is a need to focus on anal sex education and use of lubricants along with condoms during anal sex in FSW-targeted interventions in AP.

  10. Influence of socioeconomic aspects on lymphatic filariasis: A case-control study in Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Mutheneni, Srinivasa Rao; Upadhyayula, Suryanaryana Murty; Kumaraswamy, Sriram; Kadiri, Madhusudhan Rao; Nagalla, Balakrishna

    2016-01-01

    Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a major public health problem in India. The objective of the study was to assess the impact of socioeconomic conditions on LF in Chittoor district of Andhra Pradesh, India. A survey was carried out from 2004 to 2007 during which, an epidemiological and socioeconomic data were collected and analysed. The microfilaria (mf) positive samples were taken as cases and matched with control group by sex and age (1:1) for case-control study. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression was used to identify the potential risk factors for filariasis. Using principal component analysis (PCA), a socioeconomic index was developed and the data/scores were classified into low, medium and high categories. In total 5,133 blood smears were collected, of which 77 samples were found positive for microfilaria (1.52%). Multivariate analysis showed that the risk of filariasis was higher in groups of people with income < ₹1000 per month [OR = 2.752 (95%CI, 0.435-17.429)]; ₹ 1000-3000 per month [3.079 (0.923-0.275)]; people living in tiled house structure [1.641 (0.534-5.048)], with kutcha (uncemented) drainage system [19.427 (2.985- 126.410)], respondents who did not implemented mosquito avoidance measures [1.737 (0.563-5.358)]; and in people who were not aware about prevention and control of filariasis [1.042 (0.368-2.956)]. PCA showed that respondents with low (41.6%) and medium (33.8%) socioeconomic status are more prone to filariasis (p=0.036). The cross sectional study showed that the population with low and medium socioeconomic status are at higher risk of filariasis. The identified socioeconomic risk factors can be used as a guideline for improving the conditions for effective management of filariasis.

  11. Fluoride occurrence in the groundwater in a coastal region of Andhra Pradesh, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, N. Subba; Rao, P. Surya; Dinakar, A.; Rao, P. V. Nageswara; Marghade, Deepali

    2017-06-01

    Fluoride (F-) content varies from 0.60 to 1.80 mg/L in the coastal region between Chirala and Ongole of Andhra Pradesh, India. It exceeds the threshold limit of 1.20 mg/L in 20 % of the total groundwater samples. The aim of the present study is to assess the controlling factors of F- content. The study area experiences a dry climate and is underlain by Charnockite Group of rocks over which the river and coastal alluvium occur. The results of the study identify the four factors that control the high F- content. First one is related to alkalinity, leading to active dissolution and leaching of F--bearing minerals, which supports the positive correlation of F- with pH and HCO3 -. A longer water residence time in the clays is the second factor, which activates not only solubility and dissolution of F--bearing minerals, but also anion exchange between F- and OH-. Third factor is a result of higher Na+ due to impact of saline water, ion exchange between Na+ and Ca2+, and precipitation of CaCO3. This reduces the Ca2+ content, causing dissolution of CaF2 to maintain the chemical equilibria, which is supported by positive correlation between Na2+ and F-. The influence of anthropogenic activities is the last factor, which acts as an additional source of F-. Thus, the shallow groundwater shows higher content of F- and the hydrogeochemical facies also support this hypothesis. The study suggests the remedial measures to reduce the F- content.

  12. Power, community mobilization, and condom use practices among female sex workers in Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Blankenship, Kim M; West, Brooke S; Kershaw, Trace S; Biradavolu, Monica R

    2008-12-01

    We used a structural interventions framework to analyse the associations between power and condom use among a sample of female sex workers (FSW), and how exposure to a local community mobilization intervention (CMI) affects these associations. Data came from a cross-sectional survey of 812 FSW in the East Godavari district of Andhra Pradesh, India, recruited through respondent-driven sampling. We identified three types of power - collective power, control over work, and economic power, and three dimensions of collective power - collective identity, efficacy, and agency. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to analyse the relationship of these three types of power and exposure to a CMI with consistent condom use with clients. A total of 803 respondents exchanged sex with an occasional or regular client in the 7 days before the interview. Multivariate logistic regression shows that control over both the type of sex [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.70, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.23-2.34] and the amount charged (AOR 1.56, 95% CI 1.12-2.16), and economic dependence (AOR 0.54, 95% CI 0.35-0.83) are associated with consistent condom use as is programme exposure (AOR 2.09, 95% CI 1.48-2.94). The interaction between programme exposure and collective agency was also significant (chi-square 6.62, P = 0.01). Among respondents who reported both programme exposure and high levels of collective agency, the odds ratio of consistent condom use was 2.5 times that of other FSW. A structural interventions framework is useful for understanding HIV risk among FSW. More needs to be done to promote FSW control over work and access to economic resources.

  13. Consumer preferences for household water treatment products in Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Poulos, Christine; Yang, Jui-Chen; Patil, Sumeet R; Pattanayak, Subhrendu; Wood, Siri; Goodyear, Lorelei; Gonzalez, Juan Marcos

    2012-08-01

    Over 5 billion people worldwide are exposed to unsafe water. Given the obstacles to ensuring sustainable improvements in water supply infrastructure and the unhygienic handling of water after collection, household water treatment and storage (HWTS) products have been viewed as important mechanisms for increasing access to safe water. Although studies have shown that HWTS technologies can reduce the likelihood of diarrheal illness by about 30%, levels of adoption and continued use remain low. An understanding of household preferences for HWTS products can be used to create demand through effective product positioning and social marketing, and ultimately improve and ensure commercial sustainability and scalability of these products. However, there has been little systematic research on consumer preferences for HWTS products. This paper reports the results of the first state-of-the-art conjoint analysis study of HWTS products. In 2008, we conducted a conjoint analysis survey of a representative sample of households in Andhra Pradesh (AP), India to elicit and quantify household preferences for commercial HWTS products. Controlling for attribute non-attendance in an error components mixed logit model, the study results indicate that the most important features to respondents, in terms of the effect on utility, were the type of product, followed by the extent to which the product removes pathogens, the retail outlet and, the time required to treat 10 L. Holding all other product attributes constant, filters were preferred to combination products and chemical additives. Department stores and weekly markets were the most favorable sales outlets, followed by mobile salespeople. In general, households do not prefer to purchase HWTS products at local shops. Our results can inform the types of products and sales outlets that are likely to be successful in commercial HWTS markets in AP, as well as the influence of different pricing and financing strategies on product demand

  14. Traditional food consumption and nutritional status of Dalit mothers in rural Andhra Pradesh, South India.

    PubMed

    Schmid, M A; Egeland, G M; Salomeyesudas, B; Satheesh, P V; Kuhnlein, H V

    2006-11-01

    To describe prevalence of malnutrition and their correlates of nutrient and traditional food consumption in rural Dalit mothers. In a cross-sectional study, we used socio-cultural questionnaires, anthropometric measurements and clinical eye examinations during the rainy season in 2003. Food frequency questionnaires and 24-h recalls were conducted during both summer and rainy seasons. Dalit mothers with young children were recruited from 37 villages in the Medak District of rural Andhra Pradesh, India. Dalit mothers (n = 220) participated. The prevalence of chronic energy-deficient (CED) mothers (body mass index <18.5 kg/m2) was 58%. Illiterate women and active women were more likely to have CED than those literate and non-active (relative risks (RR) = 1.6 and 1.4, respectively, P < or = 0.05), but literacy and activity level were not significant in multivariable analyses including sanitation and number of children < or =5 years of age. Increasing levels of fat intake, as a percent of total energy, was significantly associated with lower risk of CED (RR of the lowest 25th percentile compared to those in the 75th percentile or above was 1.6, P < or = 0.05), findings that remained significant in multivariable analyses. Consumption of pulses (g/day) was also inversely related to CED in univariate and multivariable analyses. Carbohydrate intake, as a percent of total energy, was inversely related to percent energy from fat (r = -0.96, P < or = 0.01), and, although positively related to CED in univariate analyses, carbohydrate consumption was not significant in multivariable analyses. Mothers' age in years and income was positively related to vitamin A deficiency. These results confirm that CED and vitamin A malnutrition among Dalit women are predominant problems in this area. Increased consumption of local traditional Dalit food (particularly sorghum, pulses, vegetables and animal source food) should be incorporated as an important component of intervention strategies

  15. Reasons for seeking HIV-test: evidence from a private hospital in rural Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Sivaram, Sudha; Saluja, Gurcharan Singh; Das, Manik; Reddy, P Sudhakar; Yeldandi, Vijay

    2008-12-01

    This study sought to describe the development of HIV counselling and testing services in a rural private hospital and to explore the factors associated with reasons for seeking HIV testing and sexual behaviours among adults seeking testing in the rural hospital. Data for this study were drawn from a voluntary counselling and testing clinic in a private hospital in rural Andhra Pradesh state in southern India. In total, 5,601 rural residents sought HIV counselling and testing and took part in a behavioural risk-assessment survey during October 2003-June 2005. The prevalence of HIV was 1.1%. Among the two reported reasons for test-seeking--based on past sexual behaviour and based on being sick at the time of testing--men, individuals reporting risk behaviours, such as those having multiple pre- and postmarital sexual partners, individuals whose recent partner was a sex worker, and those who reported using alcohol before sex, were more likely to seek testing based on their past sexual behaviour. Men also were more likely to seek testing because they were sick. The findings from this large sample in rural India suggest that providing HIV-prevention and care services as part of an ongoing system of healthcare-delivery may benefit rural residents who otherwise may not have access to these services. The implications of involving the private sector in HIV-related service-delivery and in conducting research in rural areas are discussed. It is argued that services that are gaining prominence in urban areas, such as addressing male heterosexual behaviours and assessing the role of alcohol-use, are equally relevant areas of intervention in rural India.

  16. Maternal autonomy is inversely related to child stunting in Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Shroff, Monal; Griffiths, Paula; Adair, Linda; Suchindran, Chirayath; Bentley, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Child stunting, an outcome of chronic undernutrition, contributes to poor quality of life, morbidity and mortality. In South Asia, the low status of women is thought to be one of the primary determinants of undernutrition across the lifespan. Low female status can result in compromised health outcomes for women, which in turn are related to lower infant birthweight and may affect the quality of infant care and nutrition. Maternal autonomy (defined as a woman's personal power in the household and her ability to influence and change her environment) is likely an important factor influencing child care and ultimately infant and child health outcomes. To examine the relationship between maternal autonomy and child stunting in Andhra Pradesh, India, we analysed data from National Family Health Survey (NFHS)-2. We used cross-sectional demographic, health and anthropometric information for mothers and their oldest child <36 months (n = 821) from NFHS-2. The main explanatory variables of autonomy are presented by four dimensions - decision making, permission to travel, attitude towards domestic violence and financial autonomy - constructed using seven binary variables. Logistic regression models were used to test associations between indicators of female autonomy and the risk of having a stunted child. Women with higher autonomy {indicated by access to money [odds ratio (OR) = 0.731; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.546, 0.981] and freedom to choose to go to the market [OR = 0.593; 95% CI 0.376, 0.933]} were significantly less likely to have a stunted child, after controlling for household socio-economic status and mother's education. In this south Indian state, two dimensions of female autonomy have an independent effect on child growth, suggesting the need for interventions that increase women's financial and physical autonomy.

  17. Barriers to accessing eye care services among visually impaired populations in rural Andhra Pradesh, South India

    PubMed Central

    Krishnaiah, Sannapaneni; Shamanna, Bindiganavale Ramaswamy; Thomas, Ravi; Rao, Gullapalli N

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To understand the reasons why people in rural south India with visual impairment arising from various ocular diseases do not seek eye care. Materials and Methods: A total of 5,573 persons above the age of 15 were interviewed and examined in the South Indian state of Andhra Pradesh covering the districts of Adilabad, West Godavari and Mahaboobnagar. A pre-tested structured questionnaire on barriers to eye care was administered by trained field investigators. Results: Of the eligible subjects, 1234 (22.1%, N=5573)) presented with distant visual acuity < 20/60 or equivalent visual field loss in the better eye. Of these, 898 (72.7%, N=1234) subjects had not sought treatment despite noticing a decrease in vision citing personal, economic and social reasons. The analysis also showed that the odds of seeking treatment was significantly higher for literates [odds ratio (OR) 1.91, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.38 to 2.65], for those who would be defined as blind by visual acuity category (OR 1.35, 95% CI 0.96 to 1.90) and for those with cataract and other causes of visual impairment (OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.11 to 2.03). Barriers to seeking treatment among those who had not sought treatment despite noticing a decrease in vision over the past five years were personal in 52% of the respondents, economic in 37% and social in 21%. Conclusion: Routine planning for eye care services in rural areas of India must address the barriers to eye care perceived by communities to increase the utilization of services. PMID:17699946

  18. Environmental tritium and radiocarbon studies in the Vedavati River basin, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhija, B. S.; Achutha Rao, A.

    1983-01-01

    Environmental tritium and radiocarbon studies were undertaken in the Vedavati river basin situated partly in Karnataka and partly in Andhra Pradesh, India, aimed at the determination of the general recharge condition of the water-bearing zones in the gneissic complex, granites and the Dharwar Group of metamorphic rocks, where groundwater occurs under semi-unconfined to semi-confined conditions and at places under the water-table condition. The groundwater movement is controlled by fractures, fissures, a weathered zone and surficial mantle. An attempt was also made to find out whether substantial recharge occurs along fractured lineaments; whether the water-bearing zones can be considered as interconnected or isolated, and whether the recharge and discharge areas identified by geohydrological considerations can be confirmed. Environmental tritium and radiocarbon contents, measured in ˜ 45 groundwater samples, show that a large number of samples are very young, containing water from post-thermonuclear-era rain, thus indicating an age less than 25 yr. In some other samples, despite radiocarbon ages found to be older, some component of recent precipitation is found to be present as indicated by bomb tritium. Groundwater dating in the area shows an excellent correlation between hydro-isochrons of minimum age with the recharge contour of maximum magnitude. This study has clearly resulted in the demarcation of the recharge areas. However, the discharge areas as such cannot be clearly delineated because of lack of a pattern indicating increase of ages in any particular direction. This, however, also reflects somewhat discontinuous groundwater bodies, which may also be expected from the general structure and hydrogeology of the region. Along a major lineament the groundwater is found to be very young thus confirming that substantial recharge occurs along lineaments.

  19. Some Precipitation Studies over Andhra Pradesh and the Bay of Bengal using TRMM and SSMI data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, S. Ramalingeswara; Krishna, K. Muni; Kumar, Bhanu

    2007-07-01

    One of the most difficult issues in modeling the global atmosphere and climate by General Circulation Models is the simulation and initialization of precipitation processes and at the same time rainfall is most important meteorological parameter that effects India's economy. An attempt is made in the present study to evaluate diurnal variation of rain rates over the Bay of Bengal (BoB) for the months June through December during 1999-2002. TMI rainfall product of Wentz and Spencer and SSMI data sets were used in this study. Mean hourly rain rates were calculated over the BoB (10°-15° N and 85°-95°E) and discussed; this study highlights that maximum rain rates are observed in the afternoons during summer monsoon seasons. Secondly mean monthly annual cycle of rainfall is prepared using 3B42RT merged rain product and compared with mean monthly India Meteorological Department (IMD) data for the study period over Andhra Pradesh (A.P). Time series of daily variations of 3B42RT precipitation and observed real time rainfall data over A.P. for the study period is validated and the relationship between them is statistically significant at 1% level. Similarly mean monthly data prepared from the daily analysis and compared with the IMD mean monthly rainfall maps. The comparison suggests that even with only available real time data from 3B42RT and rain gauge, it is possible to construct usable large-scale rainfall maps on regular latitude-longitude grids. This analysis, which uses a high resolution and more local rain gauge data, is able to produce realistic details of Indian summer monsoon rainfall over the study period.

  20. Evaluation of potable groundwater quality in some villages of Adilabad in Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Rasheed, M A; Radha, B Anu; Rao, P L Srinivasa; Lakshmi, M; Chennaiah, J Bala; Dayal, A M

    2012-07-01

    Reconnaissance hydrochemical survey was conducted in some villages of Adilabad district, Andhra Pradesh to assess the quality of groundwater, which is mainly used for drinking purpose. The study consists of the determination of physico-chemical properties, trace metals, heavy metals and rare earth elements in water samples. The data showed the variation of the investigated parameters in samples as follows: pH 6.92 to 8.32, EC 192 to 2706 microS cm(-1), TDS 129.18 to 1813.02 ppm. The pH of the waters was within the permissible limits whereas EC and TDS were above the permissible limits of World Health Organization (WHO). Total 27 elements (Li, Be, B, Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Co, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sb, Ba and Pb) were analyzed using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS). The concentration of elements in water samples ranged between 0.063 to 0.611 mg l(-1) for B, 11.273 to 392 mg l(-)1 for Na, 5.871 to 77.475 mg l(-1) for Mg, 0.035 to 1.905 mg l(-1) for Al, 0.752 to 227.893 mg l(-1) for K, 11.556 to 121.655 mg l(-1) for Ca and 0.076 to 0.669 mg l(-1) for Fe respectively. The concentrations of Na, Mg, Al, K, Ca, and Fe exceeded the permissible limits of WHO and BIS guidelines for drinking water quality. In the present study, Bhimavaram, Kazipalli, Kannepalli and Chennur areas of the Adilabad are especially prone to geogenic contamination. Overall water quality was found unsatisfactory for drinking purposes.

  1. Chemistry and quality of groundwater in a coastal region of Andhra Pradesh, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, N. Subba; Vidyasagar, G.; Surya Rao, P.; Bhanumurthy, P.

    2017-03-01

    The chemistry of groundwater in the coastal region between Chirala and Ongole of Andhra Pradesh, India shows pollution to varying extent. The relative contribution of ions in six zones divided based on TDS indicates unsuitability of groundwater here for drinking, irrigation and industrial use. The water is brackish except in first zone and further alkaline. TDS is less than 1,000 mg/L in first zone, while it is more in other zones. This classification of groundwater into zones is also investigated by hydrogeochemical facies, genetic classification, mechanisms of groundwater chemistry and geochemical signatures. Hydrogeochemical facies of Na+>Mg2+>Ca2+: {{HCO}}3^{ - } > Cl- > SO 4^{2 - } is observed from zone I, while that of Na+>Mg2+>Ca2+:Cl- > HCO 3^{ - } > SO 4^{2 - } from second to sixth zones. The genetic classification of groundwater in first and second zones is HCO 3^{ - } type and supported by good drainage conditions, while zones III to VI belong to Cl- category evident from poor drainage scenario. The location of six zones on mechanisms of groundwater chemistry supports sluggish drainage conditions of second to six zones, while predominate rock-water interaction in first zone. The geochemical signatures (HCO 3^{ - } :Cl- > 1 and Na+:Cl- < 1) also endorse the pollution. The quantities of chemical species (Mg2+, Na+, K+, HCO 3^{ - } , Cl ^{ - } , SO 4^{2 - } , NO 3^{ - } and F ^{ - } ) and TDS in all zones are far greater than the stipulated limits for drinking. The United States Salinity Laboratory plots discriminated the suitability of groundwater in second to sixth zones for irrigation after only special soil treatment. Higher concentrations of TDS, HCO 3^{ - } , Cl- and SO 4^{2 - } in all zones render it unsuitable for industry too. This information is crucial for public and civic authorities for taking up strategic management plan for preventing further deterioration of hydrogeochemical environmental conditions of this part of the coastal region.

  2. Geochemistry of groundwater in parts of Guntur district, Andhra Pradesh, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subba Rao, N.

    2002-01-01

    Hydrogeochemical investigations, which are significant for the assessment of water quality, have been carried out to study the sources of dissolved ions in groundwaters of some rural areas of Guntur district, Andhra Pradesh, India. Groundwaters in the area are mostly brackish. High contents of SiO2, and Na+ and Cl- ions in groundwater, in comparison with those of seawater, suggests a meteoric origin of groundwater. The high concentration of SiO2 and various geochemical signatures reflect the weathering of minerals. However, the Na++K+ vs Cl- ratio suggests weathering, has occurred only to some extent. The chemistry of groundwater favours the formation of clay minerals (montmorillonite, illite and chlorite), because of evapotranspiration. The positive saturation index of CaCO3 and the high signatures of Ma2+:Ca2+ and Na+:Ca2+ reveals the occurrence of evaporation. The evaporation enhances the concentration of ions (which occurred originally in the water) in the soils during summer. The very high SO{4/2-} and Cl- contents in some groundwaters and the occurrence of kankar (CaCO3) in the area suggest a long history of evaporation. Greater ionic concentration in the groundwaters of post-monsoon compared with pre-monsoon indicates the increasing addition of leachates into the groundwater from the soils in the monsoon and anthropogenic activities, which leads to a deteriorating quality of groundwater. According to the Gibbs' diagrams, rock weathering, to some extent, and evaporation are the dominant phenomena responsible for the higher ionic concentrations found in groundwater. Measures that benefit sustainable management of groundwater quality are suggested in this study.

  3. Spectacle Coverage and Spectacles Use among Elderly Population in Residential Care in the South Indian State of Andhra Pradesh

    PubMed Central

    Marmamula, Srinivas; Ravuri, L. V. Chandra Sekhar; Boon, Mei Ying; Khanna, Rohit C.

    2013-01-01

    Background. There is limited research conducted on uncorrected refractive errors, presbyopia, and spectacles use among the elderly population in residential care in developing countries such as India. We conducted a cross-sectional study among elderly in residential care to assess the spectacle coverage and spectacles usage in the south Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. Methods. All 524 residents in the 26 “homes for aged” institutions in the district were enumerated. Eye examination was performed that included visual acuity (VA) assessment for distant and near vision. A questionnaire was used to collect information on spectacles use. Results. 494/524 individuals were examined, 78% were women, and 72% had no education. The mean age of participants was 70 years. The spectacle coverage for refractive errors was 35.1% and 23.9% for presbyopia. The prevalence of current use and past use of spectacles was 38.5% (95% CI: 34.2–42.8; n = 190) and 17.2% (95% CI: 13.9–42.8), respectively. Conclusions. There is low spectacle coverage for both refractive errors and presbyopia among elderly individuals in residential care in the south Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. Appropriate service delivery systems should be developed to reach out this vulnerable group of seniors on a priority basis. PMID:23865041

  4. Characterization of a potyvirus associated with yellow mosaic disease of jasmine (Jasminum sambac L.) in Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Sudheera, Y; Vishnu Vardhan, G P; Hema, M; Krishna Reddy, M; Sreenivasulu, P

    2014-01-01

    A virus isolate associated with yellow mosaic disease was purified from commercially cultivated jasmine (Jasminum sambac) from Andhra Pradesh, India and it contained flexuous filamentous particles of ~720 × 13 nm. The denatured purified virus had single major polypeptide of molecular weight 32 kDa. Complementary DNA representing 1678 nucleotides (nt) of the 3' terminus of viral RNA was cloned and sequenced. Comparisons of complete coat protein (CP) gene nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the present virus isolate with certain reported potyviruses revealed 86.1 and 92.7 % identity, respectively with jasmine potyvirus T (JaVT) reported from Taiwan and less than 70 % with other potyviruses. Based on the phylogenetic analysis of 3' UTR and CP gene, the present virus isolate was identified as an isolate of JaVT that belongs to the genus Potyvirus and the name Jasmine yellow mosaic virus-Andhra Pradesh (JaYMV-AP) is proposed.

  5. Haplotype diversity and linkage disequilibrium at DRD2 locus--a study on four population groups of Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Saraswathy, Kallur Nava; Mukhopadhyay, Rupak; Shukla, Deepti; Kaur, Harpreet; Sachdeva, Mohinder Pal; Rao, A P; Saksena, Deepti; Kalla, Aloke Kumar

    2009-02-01

    Dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2) is expressed in the central nervous system and has a high affinity for many antipsychotic drugs. Besides several epidemiological investigations on association of DRD2 locus polymorphism(s) with neuropsychiatric problems and addictive behavior, a few polymorphisms in this locus have also been used to understand genomic diversity and population migratory histories globally. The present study attempts to understand the genomic diversity/affinity among four endogamous groups of Andhra Pradesh (India) against the backdrop of diversity studies from other parts of India and the rest of the world, with special reference to DRD2 locus. The four population groups from Adilabad District of Andhra Pradesh, namely, Brahmin (n=50), Nayakpod (n=49), Thoti (n=52), and Kolam (n=53), were included in the study. The DRD2 markers typed for the present study are three biallelic restriction fragments, that is, TaqI A (rs1800497), TaqI B (rs1079597), and TaqI D (rs1800498). Scoring of DRD2 haplotypes with respect to the three TaqI sites shows that five out of eight possible haplotypes are shared by the four populations. Ancestral haplotype B2D2A1 is most frequent among Thotis (0.359). The results of the present study indicate a differential gene flow into South India followed by certain important demographic events resulting in diversified peopling of India.

  6. Increasing Choice or Inequality? Pathways through Early Education in Andhra Pradesh, India. Working Papers in Early Childhood Development, No. 58. Studies in Early Childhood Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Streuli, Natalia; Vennam, Uma; Woodhead, Martin

    2011-01-01

    This working paper is part of the Studies in Early Transitions series emerging from "Young Lives", a 15-year longitudinal study of childhood poverty in Ethiopia, India, Peru and Vietnam. It explores recent trends for children growing up in Andhra Pradesh, one of India's most populous states, based on Young Lives survey data collected for…

  7. Does Growth in Private Schooling Contribute to Education for All? Evidence from a Longitudinal, Two Cohort Study in Andhra Pradesh, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodhead, Martin; Frost, Melanie; James, Zoe

    2013-01-01

    This paper informs debates about the potential role for low-fee private schooling in achieving Education for All goals in India. It reports "Young Lives" longitudinal data for two cohorts (2906 children) in the state of Andhra Pradesh. Eight year olds uptake of private schooling increased from 24 per cent (children born in 1994-5) to 44…

  8. Economic vulnerability to health shocks and coping strategies: evidence from Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Dhanaraj, Sowmya

    2016-07-01

    Empirical research has shown that households in developing countries are unable to sustain current levels of consumption during and after severe health crises due to substantial increase in medical expenditure and/or loss of income. Health events are also found to have an adverse impact on nutritional status and educational attainment of household members. Thus, in this study, we investigate: who are vulnerable to welfare loss from health shocks, what are the household responses to cope with the economic burden of health shocks and if policy responses like state health insurance schemes are effective in reducing the economic vulnerability. We use self-reported measures of health shocks and coping strategies from the longitudinal survey of the ongoing Young Lives project in India [Andhra Pradesh (AP)] to identify the characteristics of vulnerable groups and perform three-level random intercept logistic regression that takes into account contextual or environmental factors. What emerges is socioeconomic status of household (determined by education, wealth, occupation and caste/religious group) and its demographic characteristics like gender of the household head and proportion of elderly and disabled members matter for outcomes related to health events. Households adopt different strategies to cope with the economic costs of ill-health; borrowing is the most widely used strategy. For credit, majority of households rely on informal sources (moneylenders, friends, relatives, etc.) and have little or no access to formal sources. However, health shock to main breadwinner leads to households adopting costly strategies like reducing consumption or sending children to work. We found no evidence that the state health insurance scheme reduced the household welfare loss from health shocks and their coping strategies. The results suggest that health insurance schemes have to be complemented with access to micro-credit and social security schemes for self-employed persons

  9. Value added products with popular low grade rice varieties of Andhra Pradesh.

    PubMed

    Anitha, G; Rajyalakshmi, P

    2014-12-01

    Eight Popular Low Grade Rice Varieties (PLRVs) MTU 3626, MTU 1001, MTU 1010, MTU 4870 and NLR 145, NLR 34242, NLR 30491, NLR 34449, (developed and released by ANGR agricultural University, Andhra Pradesh) having poor cooking quality were selected for the study. ANGRAU variety BPT 5204 popularly consumed as staple rice was used as check. Eight products of traditional/commercial importance were standardized incorporating PLRVs as a major ingredient in the form of rice flour (burfi, noodles and extruded snack product and vennaundalu (butter coated balls), palathalikalu (dough rolled into strips, steamed/cooked in milk); rice semolina (instant kheer mix and instant upma mix), and flaked rice (nutritious bar). The products were evaluated for nutritional, cooking quality characteristics, consumer acceptability and shelf-life. Consumer acceptability of the PLR products was carried out with 60 farm women based on 9 point hedonic scale. Shelf-life of the products (packed in both metalized PP and PE pouches) was evaluated monthly for chemical, microbiological and sensory parameters. Energy values of control and PLR products showed no significant difference. Upon cooking, PLR Noodles showed no significant difference with water absorption and volume but more (p < 0.05) solid loss and cooked weight. Utilization of PLR flakes in nutritious bar resulted in highly crispy and crunchy texture, enhanced flavor and taste as compared to control. The percent total solids and suspended solids were more (though not significant) in PLR kheer and palathalikalu. Extruded product (control and PLR) showed no significant difference with length, diameter, weight and volume expansion ratio and water absorption index (WAI). Consumer acceptability was high for PLR products palathalikalu (95%), instant kheer mix (92%) and extruded product (88%). As per sensory scores, all the PLR products were well accepted with no observable changes in flavor or taste upon storage. PLR products showed increased

  10. Smoking and its association with cataract: results of the Andhra Pradesh eye disease study from India.

    PubMed

    Krishnaiah, Sannapaneni; Vilas, Kovai; Shamanna, Bindiganavale R; Rao, Gullapalli N; Thomas, Ravi; Balasubramanian, Dorairajan

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the associations between tobacco smoking and various forms of cataracts among the people of a state in India. A population-based cross-sectional epidemiologic study was conducted in the south Indian state of Andhra Pradesh (AP). A total of 10,293 subjects of all ages from one urban and three rural areas, representative of the population of AP, were interviewed, and each underwent a detailed dilated ocular evaluation by trained professionals. Data were analyzed for 7416 (72%) of the subjects aged >15 years. Increasing age was significantly associated with all cataract types and history of prior cataract surgery and/or total cataract. In multivariate analyses, after adjusting for all demographic factors and for history of smoking, females, illiterate persons, and those belonging to the extreme lower socioeconomic status group were found to have a significantly higher prevalence of any cataract, adjusted odds ratio (OR)=1.60 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.24-1.96), 1.46 (95% CI: 1.17-1.70), and 1.92 (95% CI: 1.14-3.24), respectively. After adjustment, cigarette and cigar smokers had a significantly higher prevalence of any cataract, adjusted OR=1.51 (95% CI: 1.10-2.06) and 1.44 (95% CI: 1.12-1.84), respectively, compared with those who had never smoked ("never-smokers"). A significantly higher prevalence of nuclear, cortical cataract, and history of prior cataract surgery and/ or total cataract was found among cigarette smokers. A dose-response relationship was seen with respect to cigarette and cigar smoking. After adjustment, compared with never-smokers, cigarette smokers who smoked heavily (>14 "pack-years" of smoking) had a significantly higher prevalence of nuclear cataract (OR=1.65; 95% CI: 1.10-2.59), cortical cataract (OR=2.11; 95% CI: 1.38-3.24), and history of prior cataract surgery and/or total cataract (OR=2.10; 95% CI: 1.05-4.22). Nuclear cataract was significantly higher in cigar smokers (adjusted OR=1.55; 95% CI: 1.16-2.01) and in cigar

  11. Risk factors for age-related macular degeneration: findings from the Andhra Pradesh eye disease study in South India.

    PubMed

    Krishnaiah, Sannapaneni; Das, Taraprasad; Nirmalan, Praveen K; Nutheti, Rishita; Shamanna, Bindiganavale R; Rao, Gullapalli N; Thomas, Ravi

    2005-12-01

    To assess prevalence, potential risk factors, and population attributable risk percentage (PAR%) for age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. A population-based study, using a stratified, random, cluster, systematic sampling strategy, was conducted in the state of Andhra Pradesh in India from 1996 to 2000. Participants from 94 clusters in one urban and three rural areas representative of the population of Andhra Pradesh underwent a detailed interview and a detailed dilated ocular evaluation by trained professionals. In this report, the authors present the prevalence estimates of AMD and examine the association of AMD with potential risk factors in persons aged 40 to 102 years (n = 3723). AMD was defined according to the international classification and grading system. Standard bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify the potential risk factors for AMD. PAR% was calculated by Levin's formula. AMD was present in 71 subjects--an age-gender-area-adjusted prevalence of 1.82% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.39%-2.25%). Risk factors that were significant in bivariate analyses were considered for multivariate logistic regression analysis. Multivariate analysis showed that the adjusted prevalence of AMD was significantly higher in those 60 years of age or older (odds ratio [OR], 3.55; 95% CI, 1.61-7.82) and history of prior cigar smoking (OR, 3.29; 95%CI, 1.42-7.57). Presence of cortical cataract and prior cataract surgery were significantly associated with increased prevalence of AMD (adjusted OR, 2.87; 95% CI, 1.57-5.26 and 3.79; 95% CI, 2.1-6.78), respectively. The prevalence of AMD was significantly lower in light alcohol drinkers (adjusted OR, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.19-0.76) compared with nondrinkers. The PAR% for hypertension and heavy cigar smoking was 10% and 14%, respectively, in this population. The prevalence of AMD in this south Indian population is similar to those reported in other developed countries

  12. Confidentiality, Privacy, and Respect: Experiences of Female Sex Workers Participating in HIV Research in Andhra Pradesh, India

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Elizabeth; Khoshnood, Kaveh; Blankenship, Kim M.; Fisher, Celia B.

    2014-01-01

    Female sex workers (FSW) from Andhra Pradesh, India who had participated in HIV research were interviewed to examine participant perspectives on research ethics. Content analysis indicated that aspects of the consent process, staff gender and demeanor, study environment, survey content, time requirements for study participation, and perceived FSW community support for research were key factors influencing whether FSW perceived their confidentiality and privacy had been maintained, and whether they felt the study was conducted respectfully. Findings suggest that partnership with community-based organizations and investigation of participant’s experiences in HIV prevention research can provide critical information to best inform research ethics protocols, a particular priority among research studies with highly stigmatized populations, such as FSW. PMID:24572080

  13. Rajiv Aarogyasri Community Health Insurance Scheme in Andhra Pradesh, India: a comprehensive analytic view of private public partnership model.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Sunita; Mary, Immaculate

    2013-01-01

    The Rajiv Aarogyasri Community Health Insurance (RACHI) in Andhra Pradesh (AP) has been very popular social insurance scheme with a private public partnership model to deal with the problems of catastrophic medical expenditures at tertiary level care for the poor households. A brief analysis of the RACHI scheme based on officially available data and media reports has been undertaken from a public health perspective to understand the nature and financing of partnership and the lessons it provides. The analysis of the annual budget spent on the surgeries in private hospitals compared to tertiary public hospitals shows that the current scheme is not sustainable and pose huge burden on the state exchequers. The private hospital association's in AP, further acts as pressure groups to increase the budget or threaten to withdraw services. Thus, profits are privatized and losses are socialized.

  14. Cataract, Visual Impairment and Long-Term Mortality in a Rural Cohort in India: The Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study

    PubMed Central

    Khanna, Rohit C.; Murthy, Gudlavalleti V. S.; Giridhar, Pyda; Krishnaiah, Sannapaneni; Pant, Hira B.; Palamaner Subash Shantha, Ghanshyam; Chakrabarti, Subhabrata; Gilbert, Clare; Rao, Gullapalli N.

    2013-01-01

    Background A large-scale prevalence survey of blindness and visual impairment (The Andhra Pradesh Eye Diseases Study [APEDS1]) was conducted between 1996-2000 on 10,293 individuals of all ages in three rural and one urban clusters in Andhra Pradesh, Southern India. More than a decade later (June 2009-March 2010), APEDS1 participants in rural clusters were traced (termed APEDS2) to determine ocular risk factors for mortality in this longitudinal cohort. Methods and Findings Mortality hazard ratio (HR) analysis was performed for those aged >30 years at APEDS1, using Cox proportional hazard regression models to identify associations between ocular exposures and risk of mortality. Blindness and visual impairment (VI) were defined using Indian definitions. 799/4,188 (19.1%) participants had died and 308 (7.3%) had migrated. Mortality was higher in males than females (p<0.001). In multivariable analysis, after adjusting for age, gender, diabetes, hypertension, body mass index, smoking and education status the mortality HR was 1.9 (95% CI: 1.5-2.5) for blindness; 1.4 (95% CI: 1.2-1.7) for VI; 1.8 (95% CI: 1.4-2.3) for pure nuclear cataract, 1.5 (95% CI: 1.1-2.1) for pure cortical cataract; 1.96 (95% CI: 1.6-2.4) for mixed cataract, 2.0 (95% CI: 1.4-2.9) for history of cataract surgery, and 1.58 (95% CI: 1.3-1.9) for any cataract. When all these factors were included in the model, the HRs were attenuated, being 1.5 (95% CI: 1.1-2.0) for blindness and 1.2 (95% CI: 0.9-1.5) for VI. For lens type, the HRs were as follows: pure nuclear cataract, 1.6 (95% CI: 1.3-2.1); pure cortical cataract, 1.5 (95% CI: 1.1-2.1); mixed cataract, 1.8 (95% CI: 1.4-2.2), and history of previous cataract surgery, 1.8 (95% CI: 1.3-2.6). Conclusions All types of cataract, history of cataract surgery and VI had an increased risk of mortality that further suggests that these could be potential markers of ageing. PMID:24282482

  15. Cataract, visual impairment and long-term mortality in a rural cohort in India: the Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study.

    PubMed

    Khanna, Rohit C; Murthy, Gudlavalleti V S; Giridhar, Pyda; Krishnaiah, Sannapaneni; Pant, Hira B; Palamaner Subash Shantha, Ghanshyam; Chakrabarti, Subhabrata; Gilbert, Clare; Rao, Gullapalli N

    2013-01-01

    A large-scale prevalence survey of blindness and visual impairment (The Andhra Pradesh Eye Diseases Study [APEDS1]) was conducted between 1996-2000 on 10,293 individuals of all ages in three rural and one urban clusters in Andhra Pradesh, Southern India. More than a decade later (June 2009-March 2010), APEDS1 participants in rural clusters were traced (termed APEDS2) to determine ocular risk factors for mortality in this longitudinal cohort. Mortality hazard ratio (HR) analysis was performed for those aged >30 years at APEDS1, using Cox proportional hazard regression models to identify associations between ocular exposures and risk of mortality. Blindness and visual impairment (VI) were defined using Indian definitions. 799/4,188 (19.1%) participants had died and 308 (7.3%) had migrated. Mortality was higher in males than females (p<0.001). In multivariable analysis, after adjusting for age, gender, diabetes, hypertension, body mass index, smoking and education status the mortality HR was 1.9 (95% CI: 1.5-2.5) for blindness; 1.4 (95% CI: 1.2-1.7) for VI; 1.8 (95% CI: 1.4-2.3) for pure nuclear cataract, 1.5 (95% CI: 1.1-2.1) for pure cortical cataract; 1.96 (95% CI: 1.6-2.4) for mixed cataract, 2.0 (95% CI: 1.4-2.9) for history of cataract surgery, and 1.58 (95% CI: 1.3-1.9) for any cataract. When all these factors were included in the model, the HRs were attenuated, being 1.5 (95% CI: 1.1-2.0) for blindness and 1.2 (95% CI: 0.9-1.5) for VI. For lens type, the HRs were as follows: pure nuclear cataract, 1.6 (95% CI: 1.3-2.1); pure cortical cataract, 1.5 (95% CI: 1.1-2.1); mixed cataract, 1.8 (95% CI: 1.4-2.2), and history of previous cataract surgery, 1.8 (95% CI: 1.3-2.6). All types of cataract, history of cataract surgery and VI had an increased risk of mortality that further suggests that these could be potential markers of ageing.

  16. What influences the decision to undergo institutional delivery by skilled birth attendants? A cohort study in rural Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Nair, M; Ariana, P; Webster, P

    2012-01-01

    Despite continuing efforts to promote skilled institutional delivery, eight women die every hour in India due to causes related to pregnancy and child birth. The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence and the determinants of institutional delivery by skilled birth attendants in a rural population in Andhra Pradesh, India. This cross-sectional study used data from 'Young Lives', a longitudinal study on childhood poverty, and the study population was a cohort of 1419 rural, economically deprived women (from the Young Lives study) in Andhra Pradesh, India. The data are from round-1 of Young Lives younger cohort recruited in 2002 and followed until 2015. The participation rate of households was 99.5%. Prevalence of skilled institutional delivery was 36.8%. Women's education (odds ratio [OR] for secondary education 2.06; 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 1.33-3.19), desire to be pregnant (OR 1.89; 95% CI 1.12-3.22) and adequate prenatal care (OR 1.69; 95% CI 1.30-2.21) were found to be the positive determinants of skilled institutional delivery. High birth order (OR for second birth 0.44; 95% CI 0.32-0.60, OR for third birth 0.47; 95% CI 0.30-0.72 and OR for ≥fourth 0.47; 95% CI 0.27-0.81), schedule caste/schedule tribe social background (OR 0.70; 95% CI 0.53-0.93) and poor economic status of the household (OR for the poorest households 0.67; 95% CI 0.46-0.99) were negatively associated with skilled institutional delivery. Despite existence of supporting schemes, the utilisation of skilled institutional delivery services was low in the study population. Educated women and women with adequate prenatal care who have a desired pregnancy were more likely to utilise health institutions and skilled delivery care. There is a need for integrated approaches through maternal health, family planning and education programs, and a focus on uneducated, poor women belonging to disadvantaged social groups.

  17. Anal sex and associated HIV-related sexual risk factors among female sex workers in Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Patra, Rajesh Kumar; Mahapatra, Bidhubhusan; Kovvali, Dolly; Proddutoor, Laxminarayana; Saggurti, Niranjan

    2012-11-01

    This study aims to understand the correlates of anal sex practices among female sex workers (FSWs) and examine the association of anal sex with HIV-related sexual risk factors in Andhra Pradesh, India. A cross-sectional behavioural survey was conducted in 2011 among 795 FSWs aged 18 years or older. Probability-based cluster sampling was used to select respondents from sex work hotspots. One-quarter (23%) of FSWs had practiced anal sex in the last year. The odds of practicing anal sex were higher among FSWs aged 35 years or more than in those aged less than 25 years (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 2.05, P<0.05), in those formerly married compared to those currently married (AOR: 1.88, P<0.01), in those having an income only from sex work compared to those having additional sources of income (AOR: 1.54, P<0.05), those reporting heavy alcohol consumption compared to those who did not (AOR: 2.80, P<0.01) and those who experienced violence compared to those who had not (AOR: 2.80, P<0.01). FSWs practicing anal sex were more likely to experience sexually transmissible infection (STI) related symptoms than those practicing only vaginal sex. There was no association between anal sex practice and condom use. Anal sex is associated with STI symptoms, a factor for HIV risk. HIV intervention programmes need to educate FSWs about the risks associated with anal sex.

  18. The Distribution of Genotype and Allelic Frequency of IL28B Gene Polymorphism in Andhra Pradesh, India

    PubMed Central

    Sivaprasad, Siddapuram; Rao, Padaki Nagaraja; Gupta, Rajesh; Ashwini, Kaitha; Reddy, Duvvuru Nageshwar

    2012-01-01

    Background The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of IL28B gene on chromosome 19, encoding for the interferon (IFN)-λ-3 is strongly associated with treatment response to pegylated-IFN and ribavirin in patients infected with different genotypes of hepatitis C virus (HCV). Difference between ethnicity and treatment response rates suggesting a key role of host genetics. The IL28B polymorphism (rs12979860C/T) shows a marked differential distribution between racial groups. Aim The present study is aimed to evaluate genotype and allelic frequency of IL28B gene polymorphism (rs12979860C/T) in Andhra Pradesh, India. Methods A total of 220 healthy controls were recruited for the study. The genotyping of SNP rs12979860C/T on IL28B gene was performed by polymerase chain reaction-direct sequencing method. Result The frequency of CC genotype was found to be significantly (59.09%) higher compared to CT (34.09%) and TT (6.81%) genotypes, respectively. The frequency of major allele C is 0.762 whereas minor allele T is 0.238. Conclusion The higher distribution of genotype ‘CC’ of SNP, rs12979860C/T of IL28B gene in study subjects is suggestive of better response of HCV patients to standard anti-HCV therapy. PMID:25755419

  19. Filaria monitoring visualization system: a geographical information system-based application to manage lymphatic filariasis in Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Upadhyayula, Suryanaryana Murty; Mutheneni, Srinivasa Rao; Kumaraswamy, Sriram; Kadiri, Madhusudhan Rao; Pabbisetty, Sampath Kumar; Yellepeddi, Venkata Suryanarayana Murthy

    2012-05-01

    Among various public health diseases, filariasis constitutes a major public health problem in India, wherein an estimated 553.7 million people are at risk of infection. The aim of this article is to present a spatial mapping and analysis of filariasis data over a 3-year period (2004-2007) from Karimnagar, Chittoor, East and West Godavari districts of Andhra Pradesh, India. The data include epidemiological and entomological studies (i.e., infection rate, infectivity rate, mosquito per man hour, and microfilaria rate). These parameters were customized on Geographical Information System (GIS) platform and developed filaria monitoring visualization system (FMVS) for identifying the endemic/risk areas of filariasis among these four districts. GIS map for filariasis transmission from the study areas was created and stratified into different spatial entities like low, medium, and high risk zones. On the basis of the data and FMVS maps, it was demonstrated that filariasis remained unevenly distributed within the districts. Balancing the intervention coverage in different villages with overall mass drug administration and continued promotion of the proper use of control measures are necessary for further reduction of filarial cases in these districts.

  20. Molecular characterization of Orientia tsutsugamushi serotypes causing scrub typhus outbreak in southern region of Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Usha, K; Kumar, E; Kalawat, Usha; Kumar, B Siddhartha; Chaudhury, A; Gopal, D V R Sai

    2016-10-01

    Scrub typhus is a vector-borne zoonotic infection caused by Orientiatsutsugamushi. Local epidemiology of the circulating serotypes of scrub typhus is not available from most parts of India. We conducted this study for the diagnosis of scrub typhus using IgM ELISA and to detect O. tsutsugamushi serotypes circulating in southern Andhra Pradesh, India. Samples were collected from patients clinically suspected to have scrub typhus and were subjected to IgM ELISA to measure IgM antibodies against O. tsutsugamushi. Nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed targeting strain-specific regions in ELISA-positive samples. Of a total of 663 samples, 258 (38.91%) were found to be positive by IgM ELISA. Serotypes could be detected in 230 (34.69%) samples only. Only two serotypes, Karp and Kawasaki, were found in the serum samples, with the former being predominant. The dual infection of Karp and Kawasaki serotypes was found in seven patients. Other serotypes such as Gilliam, Kuroki and Kato were not detected in the samples. The nested PCR products proved useful in presumptively identifying the endemic O. tsutsugamushi serotypes. The present study could be significant in understanding scrub typhus epidemiology in this region.

  1. Study on the availability of physical infrastructure and manpower facilities in sub-centers of Chittoor district of Andhra Pradesh.

    PubMed

    Reddy, N Bayapa; Prabhu, G Ravi; Sai, T S R

    2012-01-01

    The sub-centers (SCs) are under constant criticism for their inability to deliver quality services due to the nonavailability of adequate infrastructure, manpower and supply of drugs.A cross-sectional study was conducted in Chittoor District of Andhra Pradesh to assess the availability of physical infrastructure and manpower in the SCs. A total of 34 SCs were selected by multistage and stratified random sampling technique. The data was statistically analyzed by using Microsoft Excel. The deficiency in the availability of health workers male and female were found to be 67.7% and 27.5%, respectively. The residential facility for health workers was available only in 26.4% SCs. Only 20.6% of SCs had stethoscope and B.P apparatus. The physical infrastructure and manpower availability at the SCs needs considerable improvement as per the Indian Public Health Standard (IPHS). Facilities to conduct the normal delivery and 24-hours emergency referral services need to be addressed at the earliest.

  2. Poverty and development in a marginal community: case study of a settlement of the Sugali Tribe in Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Kasi, Eswarappa

    2011-01-01

    The concepts of poverty and development have many meanings in contemporary globalized societies. Development by definition implies desired changes in terms of livelihood, improved quality of life and better access to assets and services, etc. However in reality development programmes sometimes have negative consequences, perhaps unintended, multiplying the acute scarcity of resources and opportunities, or reproducing poverty. Also, the consequences of developmental programmes often appear to be out of focus, and seen at the ground level, there seems to be a gap between what is intended and what is actualized. In this framework, this paper presents a case study of the social, cultural and economic correlates of the development processes in Adadakulapalle, a settlement of Sugali peoples, once a semi-nomadic tribe, in Anantapur District of Andhra Pradesh, South India. The paper shows how factionalism and faction politics affect the implementation of development interventions. It also looks at the poverty in the settlement and focuses on the types of change that people have experienced with the implementation of different schemes by both government and other agencies. The type of change is discussed in the present study through the macro and micro analysis of development programmes.

  3. Greening the Grid: Pathways to Integrate 175 Gigawatts of Renewable Energy into India's Electric Grid, Regional Study: Andhra Pradesh

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, Jaquelin M; Palchak, Joseph D; Ehlen, Annaliese K

    This chapter on Andhra Pradesh is one of six state chapters included in Appendix C of 'Greening the Grid: Pathways to Integrate 175 Gigawatts of Renewable Energy into India's Electric Grid, Vol. II - Regional Study' (the Regional Study). The objective of the state chapters is to provide modeling assumptions, results, and next steps to use and improve the model specific to each state. The model has inherent uncertainties, particularly in how the intrastate transmission network and RE generation projects will develop (e.g., locations, capacities). The model also does not include information on contracts or must-run status of particular plantsmore » for reliability purposes. By providing details on the higher spatial resolution model of 'Greening the Grid: Pathways to Integrate 175 Gigawatts of Renewable Energy into India's Electric Grid, Vol. II - Regional Study' (the Regional Study), which better represents the impact of congestion on least-cost scheduling and dispatch, provides a deeper understanding of the relationship among renewable energy (RE) location, transmission, and system flexibility with regard to RE integration, compared to 'Greening the Grid: Pathways to Integrate 175 Gigawatts of Renewable Energy into India's Electric Grid, Vol. I - National Study.'« less

  4. Correlates of health care utilization under targeted interventions: The case of female sex workers in Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Varun; Suryawanshi, Dipak; Saggurti, Niranjan; Bharat, Shalini

    2017-11-01

    Accessibility and frequency of use of health care services among female sex workers (FSWs) are constrained by various factors. In this analysis, we examined the correlates of frequency of using health care services under targeted interventions among FSWs. A sample of FSWs (N = 1,973) was obtained from a second round (2012) of Behavioral Tracking Survey, conducted in five districts of Andhra Pradesh, a high-HIV-prevalence state in southern India. We used negative binomial regression models to analyze frequency of utilization of health care services among FSWs. Based on our analysis, we suggest that various predisposing and enabling factors were found to be significantly associated with the visit to NGO clinics for treatment of any health problem, any sexually transmitted infection symptom, and the number of condoms received from the peer worker or condom depot. We suggest the need for further research with respect to various correlates of frequency of using health care among FSWs to develop effective intervention strategies in countries that have high HIV prevalence among FSWs and targeted interventions need more diligent implementation to reach the unreached.

  5. Seropositivity of toxoplasmosis in antenatal women with bad obstetric history in a tertiary-care hospital of Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Munmun Das; Anuradha, B; Sharma, Neelam; Roy, Rabindra Nath

    2012-03-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a well-documented cause of bad obstetric history (BOH) and a major reason of congenitally-acquired infection. The study was conducted to determine the seropositivity of toxoplasmosis in women with BOH, attending the antenatal clinic of the Mamata General Hospital, Khammam, Andhra Pradesh, India. The study subjects included 105 antenatal women with BOH and 105 antenatal women who had previous normal deliveries. A serological evaluation was carried out to determine the presence of Toxoplasma gondii-specific IgG and IgM antibodies, using commercial diagnostic kits, by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. The seropositivity for Toxoplasma was 49.52% in the study group compared to 12.38% in the control group. The difference in seropositivity was significant (p=0.00). The seroprevalence gradually increased with advancing age. Abortion (51.92%) was the commonest form of pregnancy wastage, followed by stillbirths (36.53%) and premature deliveries (7.69%). The seropositivity of toxoplasmosis was significantly higher in the study group than that in the control group, and the seropositivity played an important role in determining the foetal outcome. Considering the subclinical pattern of infection, routine serological test is recommended for all pregnant women for both IgG and IgM antibodies.

  6. Transformations in the age and gender of unfree workers on hybrid cotton seed farms in Andhra Pradesh.

    PubMed

    Venkateshwarlu, D; DaCorta, L

    2001-01-01

    Unfreedom in Indian agriculture is ordinarily associated with adult male bonded labour, and it is generally argued that unfreedom is likely to disappear as capitalism spreads/advances. By contrast, we find that workers employed on advanced capitalist cotton seed farms in Andhra Pradesh - accumulation linked to national and multinational capital - involves the employment of labour-power which is mostly unfree, female and young (7-14 years). Addressed here are the reasons for the transformations in the age and gender of unfree workers on such farms since the early 1970s. We argue that, in the context of men's emancipation from bonded labour, employers actively sought out relatively cheaper, more easily disciplined, unfree female labour. Then, in order to secure even cheaper female child labour, employers segmented the female labour market via ideologies about the superiority of female children over adult females. Corresponding changes in labourers' gender relations, which put more of the onus of family maintenance on to women and daughters, were found to facilitate the unfreedom of females.

  7. Topographic factor in the groundwater estimations--a case study in typical semi-arid hard rock environments of Andhra Pradesh.

    PubMed

    Raj, Pradeep

    2011-07-01

    Water table fluctuation (δh) can be used to rapidly assess changes in groundwater storage. But δh gives acceptable results only if the point of observation is ideally located in the catchment of interest and gives average δh of the area, a condition which is rarely met. However, if large numbers of observation wells are located within a basin (a catchment) the average δh can be computed and used. But, a better way is to use points obtained by shallowest water level and deepest water levels to construct a wedge of water table fluctuation across the area of interest; the mean height of this wedge can be assumed to be the mean δh in the area. And when there is only one observation well, the fact that water table is a subdued replica of the topography, is made use to construct the wedge of water table fluctuation. The results from some randomly selected observations in typical semi-arid, hard rock environment in Andhra Pradesh show that through this approach mean δh can be effectively used to get change in groundwater storage in area. The mean recharge obtained in this study is in the order of 75 and mean draft is 58 mm/a, while mean recharge and draft obtained by conventional technique are 66 and 54 mm/a, respectively. The most likely specific yield around the middle reaches of a catchment ranges between 0.012 and 0.041 which is within the range given by Groundwater Estimation Committee of India for hard rocks.

  8. Tropical Cyclone Storm Surge Inundation and Velocity Hazard Mapping of the State of Andhra Pradesh (India) using ADCIRC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brackins, J. T.; Kalyanapu, A. J.

    2017-12-01

    The Northern Indian Ocean Bay of Bengal region, including parts of India, Bangladesh, Myanmar, and Sri Lanka, is the largest bay in the world and is structured in such a manner as to produce the world's largest tropical cyclone (TC) storm surges (SS), with approximately five surge events greater than 5 meters in magnitude each decade. (Needham et al. 2015). Although some studies have been performed to attempt to capture the magnitude and location of historical surges (Shaji et al. 2014) and to model surges in the immediate sense, there is a notable lack of application to the effects on coastal infrastructure in these areas. Given that these areas are some of the most densely populated and least economically able to prepare and recover, it is important to consider the potential effects of storm surge to discover areas where improvements can be made with the limited resources available to these areas. To this end, an ADvanced-CIRCulation (ADCIRC) model (Luettich and Westerink 2004) was created for the Bay of Bengal, using the General Bathymetric Chart of the Oceans (GEBCO 2014) as bathymetric and topographic data, and a combination of the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) and India Meteorological Department (IMD) records for storm tracks. For the state of Andhra Pradesh, several major TC events ranging from 1977 to 2014 were selected to be modeled with the goal of creating hazard maps of storm surge inundation and velocity for the state. These hazard maps would be used to identify high-vulnerability areas with the goal of implementing land-use planning and coastal development practices that will aid in ameliorating both the loss of life and economic damages sustained as a result of these TCs.

  9. History of sex trafficking, recent experiences of violence, and HIV vulnerability among female sex workers in coastal Andhra Pradesh, India

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Jhumka; Reed, Elizabeth; Kershaw, Trace; Blankenship, Kim M.

    2011-01-01

    Synopsis Findings from female sex workers in southern India indicate that women who enter sex work via trafficking are exposed to unique HIV vulnerabilities. Objectives To estimate the prevalence of sex trafficking as a mode of entry into sex work, and to examine associations between sex trafficking and recent violence experiences and HIV vulnerability among female sex workers (FSWs). Methods In a cross-sectional study in 2006 in coastal Andhra Pradesh, India, 812 FSWs were recruited via respondent-driven sampling to take part in an oral survey of their experiences in sex work. Results One in 5 (19.3%) FSWs met the UN definition of sex trafficking. Women trafficked into sex work were more likely than other FSWs to report recent violence experiences (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.93; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.32–2.81), more clients per week (AOR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.11–2.41), and more days of sex work per week (AOR, 1.76; 95% CI, 1.18–2.63), and were less likely to report use of FSW-focused services (AOR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.42–0.86). No significant differences emerged regarding HIV knowledge or consistent condom use. Conclusion There was a high prevalence of sex trafficking. A history of sex trafficking was associated with a greater vulnerability to recent violence and HIV risk behaviors, underscoring the need for increased attention to the public health needs of trafficked populations. PMID:21620402

  10. Effect of public-private partnership in treatment of sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers in Andhra Pradesh, India

    PubMed Central

    Kokku, Suresh Babu; Mahapatra, Bidhubhusan; Tucker, Saroj; Saggurti, Niranjan; Prabhakar, Parimi

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: Providing sexually transmitted infection (STI) services to female sex workers (FSWs) in rural and resource constrained settings is a challenge. This paper describes an approach to address this challenge through a partnership with government health facilities, and examines the effect of this partnership on the utilization of STI services by FSWs in Andhra Pradesh, India. Methods: Partnerships were formed with 46 government clinics located in rural areas for providing STI treatment to FSWs in 2007. Government health facilities were supported by local and State level non-government organizations (NGOs) through provision of medicines, training of medical staff, outreach in the communities, and other coordination activities. Data from programme monitoring and behaviour tracking survey were used to examine the accessibility and acceptability in utilization of STI services from partnership clinics. Results: The number of FSWs accessing services at the partnership clinics increased from 1627 in 2007 to over 15,000 in 2010. The average number of annual visits by FSWs to these clinics in 2010 was 3.4. In opinion surveys, the majority of FSWs accessing services at the partnership clinics expressed confidence that they would continue to receive effective services from the government facilities even if the programme terminates. The overall attitude of FSWs to visit government clinics was more positive among FSWs from partnership clinic areas compared to those from non-partnership clinic areas. Interpretation & conclusions: The partnership mechanism between the NGO-supported HIV prevention programme and government clinic facilities appeared to be a promising opportunity to provide timely and accessible STI services for FSWs living in rural and remote areas. PMID:24718405

  11. Migration/mobility and risk factors for HIV among female sex workers in Andhra Pradesh, India: implications for HIV prevention.

    PubMed

    Reed, E; Gupta, J; Biradavolu, M; Blankenship, K M

    2012-04-01

    We examined the relation between high mobility/migration (sex work in three or more villages/towns within the past year) and HIV risk factors among a sample of female sex workers (FSWs) in Andhra Pradesh, India. We recruited FSWs aged ≥18 years (n = 673) through respondent-driven sampling for a survey on HIV risk. Adjusted logistic and linear regression models assessed high mobility in relation to sexual and physical victimization, sexually transmitted infection (STI) symptoms and treatment, condom use and negotiation, number and/or types of sex trades, number of clients and number of days worked. Twelve percent (n = 82) of FSWs were highly mobile; those with high mobility were more likely to report recent HIV risk factors: sexual violence (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 5.2; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.0-8.9), physical violence (AOR = 1.7; 95% CI: 1.1-2.7), unprotected sex for more money (AOR = 1.7; 95% CI: 1.1-3.0), at least one STI symptom (AOR = 1.9; 95% CI: 1.1-3.1), a greater number of vaginal sex trades (β = 3.9, P = 0.003), a greater number of clients (β = 2.5, P = 0.02) and anal sex with clients (AOR = 2.4; 95% CI: 1.4-4.1). Findings from this study underscore the violence and HIV-related vulnerability faced by mobile/migrant FSWs and highlight the need to inform and tailor related prevention strategies.

  12. Socio-ecological studies on marine fishing villages in the selective south coastal districts of Andhra Pradesh.

    PubMed

    Jacob, M Jaya Kumar; Rao, P Brahmaji

    2016-12-01

    Coasts are an amazing gift of nature. Industrialization, infrastructure development, urbanisation, tourism, mechanized fishing, disposal of industrial and urban wastes and effluents, are all ringing the death-knell of the sensitive coastal ecosystems of recently separated State of Andhra Pradesh. These modern interventions have been violent, disregarding both nature's rejuvenating mechanisms, and the symbiotic relationship that exist between the coast and traditional marine fishing communities. Modern fishing tecnologies using mechanized trawlers and small meshed nets lead directly to overexploitation, which is not sustainable. It is evident that fish have to breed successfully and need to have time to grow if the yield has to be used sustainably. Multiple pressures and excessive technological invasion on these marine fishing villages had created an environment in which life has become physically and mentally unhealthy. The focus of this paper is to emphasize that investing in large-scale industrial fishing, building bigger boats, and giving subsidies for pursuing deep sea fishing would be a waste of resources as the fish hauls in these selelctive districts i.e. Krishna, Guntur, Prakasam and Nellore coastal communities have dropped off alarmingly in recent years. It is essential and crucial to focus research and scientific analysis and establish awareness and education to provide a means of distinguishing responses between improvements in quality of ecosystem and those of damages. The study is to elaborate that long-term ecological gains cannot be sacrificed for short-term economic gains that unfortunately lead to environmental damage. Investigating coastal regulations, policies, and their implementation is an urgent social need for the sake of socio-ecological safety and security of coasts and host communities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Association of Interleukin-10 Promoter Polymorphism (-1082 G/A) and Gastric Cancer in Andhra Pradesh Population of South India

    PubMed Central

    Chand-Bhayal, Amar; Krishnaveni, Devulapalli; Pandu-Ranga-Rao, Kondadasula; Prabhakar, Boddu; Vidyasagar, Abbagani; Murali-Krishna, Bal; Anita, Penchikala; Jyothy, Akka; Nallari, Pratibha; Venkateshwari, Ananthapur

    2012-01-01

    Background Gastric Cancer (GC) is one of the most commonly diagnosed malignancies. Genetic variation in genes encoding cytokines and their receptors, determine the intensity of the inflammatory response, which may contribute to individual differences in the outcome and severity of the disease. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is a multifunctional cytokine with both immunosuppressive and antiangiogenic functions. Polymorphisms in the IL-10 gene promoter genetically determine inter-individual differences in IL-10 production. In the present study, we investigated the association between the IL-10 -1082 G/A polymorphism and the susceptibility to gastric cancer in a South Indian population from Andhra Pradesh. Methods We genotyped 100 patients diagnosed with gastric cancer and 132 healthy control subjects for -1082G/A single nucleotide polymorphism by Amplification Refractory Mutation System-Polymerase Chain Reaction (ARMS-PCR) method followed by agarose gel electrophoresis. Results The distribution of IL-10 genotypes at -1082 G/A were GG 18 %, GA 35% and AA 47 % in gastric cancer patients and GG 31.82 %, GA 37.88 % and AA 30.3% in control subjects. The allelic frequencies of G and A were 0.355 and 0.645 in GC patients and 0.508 and 0.492 in control subjects respectively. The IL-10 -1082 A allele was associated with risk of gastric cancer (OR=1.873, 95%CI-1.285-2.73and P= 0.001048**). Conclusion Our study indicates that allele A of IL-10-1082 G/A polymorphism may be considered as one of the important risk factor in the etiology of gastric cancer. PMID:25628830

  14. Association of interleukin-10 promoter polymorphism (-1082 g/a) and gastric cancer in andhra pradesh population of South India.

    PubMed

    Chand-Bhayal, Amar; Krishnaveni, Devulapalli; Pandu-Ranga-Rao, Kondadasula; Prabhakar, Boddu; Vidyasagar, Abbagani; Murali-Krishna, Bal; Anita, Penchikala; Jyothy, Akka; Nallari, Pratibha; Venkateshwari, Ananthapur

    2012-01-01

    Gastric Cancer (GC) is one of the most commonly diagnosed malignancies. Genetic variation in genes encoding cytokines and their receptors, determine the intensity of the inflammatory response, which may contribute to individual differences in the outcome and severity of the disease. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is a multifunctional cytokine with both immunosuppressive and antiangiogenic functions. Polymorphisms in the IL-10 gene promoter genetically determine inter-individual differences in IL-10 production. In the present study, we investigated the association between the IL-10 -1082 G/A polymorphism and the susceptibility to gastric cancer in a South Indian population from Andhra Pradesh. We genotyped 100 patients diagnosed with gastric cancer and 132 healthy control subjects for -1082G/A single nucleotide polymorphism by Amplification Refractory Mutation System-Polymerase Chain Reaction (ARMS-PCR) method followed by agarose gel electrophoresis. The distribution of IL-10 genotypes at -1082 G/A were GG 18 %, GA 35% and AA 47 % in gastric cancer patients and GG 31.82 %, GA 37.88 % and AA 30.3% in control subjects. The allelic frequencies of G and A were 0.355 and 0.645 in GC patients and 0.508 and 0.492 in control subjects respectively. The IL-10 -1082 A allele was associated with risk of gastric cancer (OR=1.873, 95%CI-1.285-2.73and P= 0.001048**). Our study indicates that allele A of IL-10-1082 G/A polymorphism may be considered as one of the important risk factor in the etiology of gastric cancer.

  15. Prevalence and risk factors for refractive errors in the South Indian adult population: The Andhra Pradesh Eye disease study.

    PubMed

    Krishnaiah, Sannapaneni; Srinivas, Marmamula; Khanna, Rohit C; Rao, Gullapalli N

    2009-01-01

    To report the prevalence, risk factors and associated population attributable risk percentage (PAR) for refractive errors in the South Indian adult population. A population-based cross-sectional epidemiologic study was conducted in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. A multistage cluster, systematic, stratified random sampling method was used to obtain participants (n = 10293) for this study. The age-gender-area-adjusted prevalence rates in those >/=40 years of age were determined for myopia (spherical equivalent [SE] < -0.5 D) 34.6% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 33.1-36.1), high-myopia (SE < -5.0 D) 4.5% (95% CI: 3.8-5.2), hyperopia (SE > +0.5 D) 18.4% (95% CI: 17.1-19.7), astigmatism (cylinder < -0.5 D) 37.6% (95% CI: 36-39.2), and anisometropia (SE difference between right and left eyes >0.5 D) 13.0% (95% CI: 11.9-14.1). The prevalence of myopia, astigmatism, high-myopia, and anisometropia significantly increased with increasing age (all p < 0.0001). There was no gender difference in prevalence rates in any type of refractive error, though women had a significantly higher rate of hyperopia than men (p < 0.0001). Hyperopia was significantly higher among those with a higher educational level (odds ratio [OR] 2.49; 95% CI: 1.51-3.95) and significantly higher among the hypertensive group (OR 1.24; 95% CI: 1.03-1.49). The severity of lens nuclear opacity was positively associated with myopia and negatively associated with hyperopia. The prevalence of myopia in this adult Indian population is much higher than in similarly aged white populations. These results confirm the previously reported association between myopia, hyperopia, and nuclear opacity.

  16. Impact of feeding and breastfeeding practices on the nutritional status of infants in a district of Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Meshram, I I; A, Laxmaiah; K, Venkaiah; N V, Brahmam G

    2012-01-01

    Infant feeding practices have a major role in determining the nutritional status of children and are associated with household socioeconomic and demographic factors. We did a cross-sectional household study to assess feeding practices of infants and young children in rural areas of Medak district, Andhra Pradesh. A total of 805 child-mother pairs were included using systematic random sampling. Age-specific feeding patterns were described using frequencies, proportions and survival analysis. Logistic regression was done with feeding practice as dependent and sociodemographic factors as independent variables. Breastfeeding was universal in the study area. Only 22% of mothers initiated breastfeeding within one hour whereas 44% initiated it within three hours after delivery. The median duration of exclusive breastfeeding was 5.5 months. Pre-lacteal use was high (44.7%). Only 41% of infants were exclusively breastfed for 6 months and 58% of infants (6-11 months) received complementary feeding at 6-9 months of age. Timely initiation of breastfeeding and exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months was significantly more likely among mothers belonging to scheduled castes and scheduled tribes (OR 0.27, 95% CI 0.10-0.76 and OR 0.24, 95% CI 0.08-0.76). Timely initiation of complementary feeding was more likely among scheduled caste and scheduled tribe communities (OR 0.24, 95% CI 0.11-0.54). Early initiation of breastfeeding (within an hour of birth) and other feeding practices were associated with community, type of family and education of mother. Efforts are needed to promote early initiation of breastfeeding, exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months and age-appropriate complementary feeding among infants. Copyright 2012, NMJI.

  17. Prevalence and risk factors for refractive errors in the South Indian adult population: The Andhra Pradesh Eye disease study

    PubMed Central

    Krishnaiah, Sannapaneni; Srinivas, Marmamula; Khanna, Rohit C; Rao, Gullapalli N

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To report the prevalence, risk factors and associated population attributable risk percentage (PAR) for refractive errors in the South Indian adult population. Methods: A population-based cross-sectional epidemiologic study was conducted in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. A multistage cluster, systematic, stratified random sampling method was used to obtain participants (n = 10293) for this study. Results: The age-gender-area-adjusted prevalence rates in those ≥40 years of age were determined for myopia (spherical equivalent [SE] < −0.5 D) 34.6% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 33.1–36.1), high-myopia (SE < −5.0 D) 4.5% (95% CI: 3.8–5.2), hyperopia (SE > +0.5 D) 18.4% (95% CI: 17.1–19.7), astigmatism (cylinder < −0.5 D) 37.6% (95% CI: 36–39.2), and anisometropia (SE difference between right and left eyes >0.5 D) 13.0% (95% CI: 11.9–14.1). The prevalence of myopia, astigmatism, high-myopia, and anisometropia significantly increased with increasing age (all p < 0.0001). There was no gender difference in prevalence rates in any type of refractive error, though women had a significantly higher rate of hyperopia than men (p < 0.0001). Hyperopia was significantly higher among those with a higher educational level (odds ratio [OR] 2.49; 95% CI: 1.51–3.95) and significantly higher among the hypertensive group (OR 1.24; 95% CI: 1.03–1.49). The severity of lens nuclear opacity was positively associated with myopia and negatively associated with hyperopia. Conclusions: The prevalence of myopia in this adult Indian population is much higher than in similarly aged white populations. These results confirm the previously reported association between myopia, hyperopia, and nuclear opacity. PMID:19668540

  18. Effect of public-private partnership in treatment of sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers in Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Kokku, Suresh Babu; Mahapatra, Bidhubhusan; Tucker, Saroj; Saggurti, Niranjan; Prabhakar, Parimi

    2014-02-01

    Providing sexually transmitted infection (STI) services to female sex workers (FSWs) in rural and resource constrained settings is a challenge. This paper describes an approach to address this challenge through a partnership with government health facilities, and examines the effect of this partnership on the utilization of STI services by FSWs in Andhra Pradesh, India. Partnerships were formed with 46 government clinics located in rural areas for providing STI treatment to FSWs in 2007. Government health facilities were supported by local and State level non-government organizations (NGOs) through provision of medicines, training of medical staff, outreach in the communities, and other coordination activities. Data from programme monitoring and behaviour tracking survey were used to examine the accessibility and acceptability in utilization of STI services from partnership clinics. The number of FSWs accessing services at the partnership clinics increased from 1627 in 2007 to over 15,000 in 2010. The average number of annual visits by FSWs to these clinics in 2010 was 3.4. In opinion surveys, the majority of FSWs accessing services at the partnership clinics expressed confidence that they would continue to receive effective services from the government facilities even if the programme terminates. The overall attitude of FSWs to visit government clinics was more positive among FSWs from partnership clinic areas compared to those from non-partnership clinic areas. The partnership mechanism between the NGO-supported HIV prevention programme and government clinic facilities appeared to be a promising opportunity to provide timely and accessible STI services for FSWs living in rural and remote areas.

  19. Trends in condom use among female sex workers in Andhra Pradesh, India: the impact of a community mobilisation intervention.

    PubMed

    Erausquin, Jennifer Toller; Biradavolu, Monica; Reed, Elizabeth; Burroway, Rebekah; Blankenship, Kim M

    2012-10-01

    Community mobilisation interventions for HIV prevention among female sex workers (FSWs) aim to organise FSWs for collective action and challenge the structures of power that underlie HIV risk. Assessing intervention impact is challenging because the importance of direct individual exposure to intervention components may decrease over time as change occurs at social-normative, policy and other structural levels. In this paper, the authors examine changes over time in consistent condom use among FSWs in Rajahmundry, Andhra Pradesh, the location of a long-standing community mobilisation intervention. The authors analyse cross-sectional data collected among FSWs at three time points (n=2276) using respondent-driven sampling. Multiple logistic regression was used to assess the association of programme exposure with consistent condom use and whether this association varied over time. The proportion of FSWs having no exposure or only receptive exposure to the intervention decreased over time, while active utilisation increased from 19.4% in 2006 to 48.5% in 2009-2010. Consistent condom use with clients also increased from 56.3% in 2006 to 75.3% in 2009-2010. Multivariate analysis showed that age, age at start of sex work, venue, living conditions and programme exposure were significantly associated with condom use. The positive association between programme exposure and consistent condom use did not vary significantly over time. Findings indicate improvements in HIV risk reduction behaviour among FSWs and suggest that the intervention has substantial reach in the FSW population. The intervention's strategies may be contributing to population-level HIV risk reduction among FSWs.

  20. Groundwater targeting in a hard-rock terrain using fracture-pattern modeling, Niva River basin, Andhra Pradesh, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasa Rao, Y.; Reddy, T. V. K.; Nayudu, P. T.

    2000-09-01

    In hard-rock terrain, due to the lack of primary porosity in the bedrock, joints, fault zones, and weathered zones are the sources for groundwater occurrence and movement. To study the groundwater potential in the hard-rock terrain and drought-prone area in the Niva River basin, southern Andhra Pradesh state, India, Landsat 5 photographic data were used to prepare an integrated hydrogeomorphology map. Larsson's integrated deformation model was applied to identify the various fracture systems, to pinpoint those younger tensile fracture sets that are the main groundwater reservoirs, and to understand the importance of fracture density in groundwater prospecting. N35°-55°E fractures were identified as tensile and N35°-55°W fractures as both tensile and shear in the study area. Apparently, these fractures are the youngest open fractures. Wherever N35°-55°E and N35°-55°W fracture densities are high, weathered-zone thickness is greater, water-table fluctuations are small, and well yields are high. Groundwater-potential zones were delineated and classified as very good, good to very good, moderate to good, and poor. Résumé. Dans les roches de socle, l'absence de porosité primaire dans la roche fait que les fractures, les zones de faille et les zones d'altération sont les sites où l'eau souterraine est présente et s'écoule. Pour étudier le potentiel en eau souterraine dans la région de socle sujette à la sécheresse du bassin de la rivière Niva (sud de l'État d'Andhra Pradesh, Inde), des données photographiques de Landsat 5 ont été utilisées pour préparer une carte hydro-géomorphologique. Le modèle intégré de déformation de Larssons a été mis en œuvre pour identifier les différents systèmes de fractures, pour mettre l'accent sur les ensembles de fractures en extension les plus jeunes qui constituent les principaux réservoirs d'eau souterraine, et pour comprendre l'importance de la densité de fractures pour la prospection de l

  1. Geospatial Modelling Approach for Interlinking of Rivers: A Case Study of Vamsadhara and Nagavali River Systems in Srikakulam, Andhra Pradesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swathi Lakshmi, A.; Saran, S.; Srivastav, S. K.; Krishna Murthy, Y. V. N.

    2014-11-01

    India is prone to several natural disasters such as floods, droughts, cyclones, landslides and earthquakes on account of its geoclimatic conditions. But the most frequent and prominent disasters are floods and droughts. So to reduce the impact of floods and droughts in India, interlinking of rivers is one of the best solutions to transfer the surplus flood waters to deficit/drought prone areas. Geospatial modelling provides a holistic approach to generate probable interlinking routes of rivers based on existing geoinformatics tools and technologies. In the present study, SRTM DEM and AWiFS datasets coupled with land-use/land -cover, geomorphology, soil and interpolated rainfall surface maps have been used to identify the potential routes in geospatial domain for interlinking of Vamsadhara and Nagavali River Systems in Srikakulam district, Andhra Pradesh. The first order derivatives are derived from DEM and road, railway and drainage networks have been delineated using the satellite data. The inundation map has been prepared using AWiFS derived Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI). The Drought prone areas were delineated on the satellite image as per the records declared by Revenue Department, Srikakulam. Majority Rule Based (MRB) aggregation technique is performed to optimize the resolution of obtained data in order to retain the spatial variability of the classes. Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) based Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) is implemented to obtain the prioritization of parameters like geomorphology, soil, DEM, slope, and land use/land-cover. A likelihood grid has been generated and all the thematic layers are overlaid to identify the potential grids for routing optimization. To give a better routing map, impedance map has been generated and several other constraints are considered. The implementation of canal construction needs extra cost in some areas. The developed routing map is published into OGC WMS services using open source Geo

  2. Dental Service Utilization: Patterns and Barriers among Rural Elderly in Guntur District, Andhra Pradesh

    PubMed Central

    Koka, Krishna Mohan; Pachava, Srinivas; Sanikommu, Suresh; Ravoori, Srinivas; Chandu, Viswa Chaitanya

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The biological process of ageing is outside human control and has its own dynamics. It is a known fact that elderly people have more treatment needs compared to the younger population and at the same time elderly people are facing a multitude of barriers in utilization of health care as well as oral health care. Aim To identify the utilization patterns of oral health care and barriers for utilization among rural population. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was done on 621 rural elderly subjects to identify the utilization of oral health care services and the barriers for utilization. Using stratified cluster sampling study area was stratified into 13 rural clusters, fifty houses were randomly selected from each stratum. All the elderly subjects, as defined by the age criteria were considered for study. The data were analysed using SPSS 20 v and Chi-square tests were used to analyse the data. Results Only 31.9% of participants reported visiting a dentist in the past while 36.7% reported experiencing a dental problem at some point in their life. There were no significant differences in utilization of dental services based on gender, socio-economic status, age groups and religion. However, significant differences were found in utilization of dental services based on the response of participants to past experience of dental problems. Conclusion The present study results conclude that fear was one of the most commonly reported barriers for utilisation of dental services and there is a need for oral health education and promotion among elderly population. PMID:27135000

  3. Utility of check dams in dilution of fluoride concentration in ground water and the resultant analysis of blood serum and urine of villagers, Anantapur District, Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Bhagavan, S V B K; Raghu, V

    2005-02-01

    High levels of fluoride (beyond 1.5 ppm) in ground water as source of drinking water are common in many parts of Andhra Pradesh, India, causing fluorosis. The study carried out in endemic Nalgonda District, Andhra Pradesh, has indicated that the fluoride-rich ground water present in the wells located down stream and close to the surface water bodies is getting diluted by the low-fluoride surface water. Encouraged by this result, check dams were constructed upstream of the identified marginally high fluoride bearing ground water zones in Anantapur District to reduce fluoride levels as an alternate solution for safe drinking water. In this paper, an attempt is made to study the utility and effect of these check dams in dilution of fluoride concentration in drinking water and its resultant impact on the health aspects of certain villagers of Anantapur District through the analysis of their blood serum and urine. Ground water samples from three fluoride-affected villages, blood and urine of males and females from the same villages were collected and analyzed for fluoride using ion selective electrode method. The results indicated that the fluoride levels in blood serum and urine of males in the age group of 5-11 years are found to be the highest. The concentration of fluoride in ground water is directly proportional to the concentration of fluoride in blood serum and urine. The concentration of fluoride in ground water with depth of the aquifer is a function of lithology, amount and duration of rainfall, rate of infiltration, level of ground water exploitation in the area etc. The construction of check dams upstream of the identified marginally high fluoride waters will not only cause additional recharge of ground water but also reduces the fluoride concentration eventually improving the health of the villagers.

  4. Outcomes of Cataract Surgery in Urban and Rural Population in the South Indian State of Andhra Pradesh: Rapid Assessment of Visual Impairment (RAVI) Project.

    PubMed

    Marmamula, Srinivas; Khanna, Rohit C; Shekhar, Konegari; Rao, Gullapalli N

    2016-01-01

    To assess the visual outcomes after cataract surgery among urban and rural population aged ≥40 years in the South India state of Andhra Pradesh. A population based cross-sectional study was conducted in which 7800 subjects were sampled from two rural and one urban location. Visual Acuity was assessed and eye examination were performed by trained personnel. A questionnaire was used to collect personal and demographic information, and history of cataract surgery. Blindness and moderate Visual Impairment (MVI) was defined as presenting VA <6/60 and <6/18 to 6/60 in the better eye respectively. In total, 7378 (94.6%) were examined. Of these, 1228 eyes of 870 individuals were operated for cataract. The mean age of operated subjects was 63.7 years (SD: 10.7 years). Overall, 56.3% of those operated were women, 76% were illiterate and 42% of them were using spectacles after cataract surgery. Even after surgery, 12.2% of the operated eyes had MVI and blindness was seen in 14.7% of the eyes. A significantly higher proportion of subjects in urban area had good outcome as compared to those in the rural area (p = 0.01). Uncorrected refractive error (58.7%) was the leading cause of MVI, and posterior segment disease (34.3%) was the leading cause of blindness. On applying multiple logistic regression, risk factors for poor outcomes were age ≥ 70 years (OR: 1.9, 95% CI: 1.3-2.8), rural residence (OR: 1.3, 95% CI:1.0-1.8) and presence of aphakia (OR: 8.9, 95% CI: 5.7-13.8). Post cataract surgery, refractive errors remain an important correctable cause of MVI, in the south Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. The correction of refractive errors is required to provide good visual recovery and achieve the benefit of cataract surgery.

  5. Mobilising community collectivisation among female sex workers to promote STI service utilisation from the government healthcare system in Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Parimi, Prabhakar; Mishra, Ram Manohar; Tucker, Saroj; Saggurti, Niranjan

    2012-10-01

    To assess the association between female sex workers' (FSWs) degree of community collectivisation and self-efficacy, utilisation of sexually transmitted infection (STI) services from government-run health centres in Andhra Pradesh, India. Cross-sectional analyses of 1986 FSWs recruited using a probability-based sampling from five districts of Andhra Pradesh during 2010-2011. Multiple logistic regression models were constructed to assess associations. The independent variables included-collective efficacy, collective agency and collective action-measured using a series of items that assessed the grouping of the community on issues that concern most sex workers. An additional independent variable included FSWs belonging to an area where there was a project partnership with government health centres to provide STI treatment services to FSWs. The outcome indicators included self-efficacy for service utilisation from government health facilities and the treatment for STIs from government health facilities at least once in the past year experience of STI symptoms. Of the 1986 FSWs, nearly two-fifths (39.5%) reported a high level of overall collectivisation (collective efficacy: 89%, collective agency: 50.7%; collective action: 12.7%). Sex workers with a high degree compared with low degree of overall collectivisation were significantly more likely to report high self-efficacy to use government health facilities (75.0% vs 57.3%, adjusted OR 2.5, 95% CI 2.0 to 3.1) and to use government health centres for STI treatment in past 1 year (78.1% vs 63.2%, adjusted OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.6 to 2.8), irrespective of project partnership with government centres. The current research findings reinforce the need for stronger community mobilisation for better utilisation of government health facilities for STI and HIV prevention interventions.

  6. Awareness, Attitude, and Prevalence of usage of magnification devices among the dental practitioners in the state of Andhra Pradesh – A questionnaire-based study

    PubMed Central

    Penmetsa, Gautami Subhadra; Mani, Loda Princee; Praveen, Gadde; Dwarakanath, Chini Dorai; Suresh, S.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Dentistry, dealing with teeth and supporting tissues in the oral cavity is not only an ever-evolving science but also an art combined with good eye-hand coordination. It not only encompasses clinical and theoretical skills which play a crucial role in the success of therapy but also a lot of intrinsic work is accomplished in dentistry. In a journey to fulfill the above accomplishments and for facilitating early diagnosis of pathologies which usually go unnoticed, a clearer and magnified field of vision are also essential. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the awareness, attitude, and prevalence of the usage of magnification devices among the dental practitioners in the state of Andhra Pradesh. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire-based study was conducted to assess the awareness, attitude, and prevalence of magnification devices among the 370 dental practitioners in Andhra Pradesh. All the participants were provided with a prestructured questionnaire comprising of 24 questions and answering was completely self-based. Results: Among the participants, majority were aware about magnification in dentistry (91.1%), and also of the different types of magnification devices available (90.5%). On the other hand, when the reason for not using magnification devices was taken into consideration, 32.7% attributed that they have not experienced the devices and 32.4% felt that devices were too expensive. Moreover, when regarding the usage of devices was taken into account, only 23.8% of the total participants were exposed to the usage of magnification aids. Conclusion: Among the selected group of participants, even though majority were aware of magnification in dentistry its application in practice was very less. PMID:29491587

  7. Condom use and prevalence of syphilis and HIV among female sex workers in Andhra Pradesh, India – following a large-scale HIV prevention intervention

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Avahan, the India AIDS initiative began HIV prevention interventions in 2003 in Andhra Pradesh (AP) among high-risk groups including female sex workers (FSWs), to help contain the HIV epidemic. This manuscript describes an assessment of this intervention using the published Avahan evaluation framework and assesses the coverage, outcomes and changes in STI and HIV prevalence among FSWs. Methodology Multiple data sources were utilized including Avahan routine program monitoring data, two rounds of cross-sectional survey data (in 2006 and 2009) and STI clinical quality monitoring assessments. Bi-variate and multivariate analyses, Wald Chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regressions were used to measure changes in behavioural and biological outcomes over time and their association. Results Avahan scaled up in conjunction with the Government program to operate in all districts in AP by March 2009. By March 2009, 80% of the FSWs were being contacted monthly and 21% were coming to STI services monthly. Survey data confirmed an increase in peer educator contacts with the mean number increasing from 2.9 in 2006 to 5.3 in 2009. By 2008 free and Avahan-supported socially marketed condoms were adequate to cover the estimated number of commercial sex acts, at 45 condoms/FSW/month. Consistent condom use was reported to increase with regular (63.6% to 83.4%; AOR=2.98; p<0.001) and occasional clients (70.8% to 83.7%; AOR=2.20; p<0.001). The prevalence of lifetime syphilis decreased (10.8% to 6.1%; AOR=0.39; p<0.001) and HIV prevalence decreased in all districts combined (17.7% to 13.2%; AOR 0.68; p<0.01). Prevalence of HIV among younger FSWs (aged 18 to 20 years) decreased (17.7% to 8.2%, p=0.008). A significant increase in condom use at last sex with occasional and regular clients and consistent condom use with occasional clients was observed among FSWs exposed to the Avahan program. There was no association between exposure and HIV or STIs, although numbers

  8. Condom use and prevalence of syphilis and HIV among female sex workers in Andhra Pradesh, India - following a large-scale HIV prevention intervention.

    PubMed

    Rachakulla, Hari Kumar; Kodavalla, Venkaiah; Rajkumar, Hemalatha; Prasad, S P V; Kallam, Srinivasan; Goswami, Prabuddhagopal; Dale, Jayesh; Adhikary, Rajatashuvra; Paranjape, Ramesh; Brahmam, G N V

    2011-12-29

    Avahan, the India AIDS initiative began HIV prevention interventions in 2003 in Andhra Pradesh (AP) among high-risk groups including female sex workers (FSWs), to help contain the HIV epidemic. This manuscript describes an assessment of this intervention using the published Avahan evaluation framework and assesses the coverage, outcomes and changes in STI and HIV prevalence among FSWs. Multiple data sources were utilized including Avahan routine program monitoring data, two rounds of cross-sectional survey data (in 2006 and 2009) and STI clinical quality monitoring assessments. Bi-variate and multivariate analyses, Wald Chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regressions were used to measure changes in behavioural and biological outcomes over time and their association. Avahan scaled up in conjunction with the Government program to operate in all districts in AP by March 2009. By March 2009, 80% of the FSWs were being contacted monthly and 21% were coming to STI services monthly. Survey data confirmed an increase in peer educator contacts with the mean number increasing from 2.9 in 2006 to 5.3 in 2009. By 2008 free and Avahan-supported socially marketed condoms were adequate to cover the estimated number of commercial sex acts, at 45 condoms/FSW/month. Consistent condom use was reported to increase with regular (63.6% to 83.4%; AOR=2.98; p<0.001) and occasional clients (70.8% to 83.7%; AOR=2.20; p<0.001). The prevalence of lifetime syphilis decreased (10.8% to 6.1%; AOR=0.39; p<0.001) and HIV prevalence decreased in all districts combined (17.7% to 13.2%; AOR 0.68; p<0.01). Prevalence of HIV among younger FSWs (aged 18 to 20 years) decreased (17.7% to 8.2%, p=0.008). A significant increase in condom use at last sex with occasional and regular clients and consistent condom use with occasional clients was observed among FSWs exposed to the Avahan program. There was no association between exposure and HIV or STIs, although numbers were small. The absence of control

  9. Tobacco use, smoking quit rates, and socioeconomic patterning among men and women: a cross-sectional survey in rural Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Corsi, Daniel J; Subramanian, S V; Lear, Scott A; Teo, Koon K; Boyle, Michael H; Raju, P Krishnam; Joshi, Rohina; Neal, Bruce; Chow, Clara K

    2014-10-01

    Tobacco use is common in India and a majority of users are in rural areas. We examine tobacco use and smoking quit rates along gender and socioeconomic dimensions in rural Andhra Pradesh. Data come from a cross-sectional survey. Markers of socioeconomic status (SES) were education, occupation, and income. Regression analyses were undertaken to examine determinants of current smoking, smoking quit rates, tobacco use by type (cigarettes, bidis, and chewing), and quantity consumed (number per day, pack-years). The weighted prevalence of current smoking and tobacco chewing was higher in men (50.3%, 95% confidence interval, CI, 48.1-52.6 and 5.0%, 95% CI 4.1-5.9, respectively) compared with women (4.8%, 95% CI 3.9-5.7 and 1.0%, 95% CI 0.6-1.4, respectively) and higher among older age groups. The quit rate was higher in women (45.5%, 95% CI 38.7-52.2) compared to men (18.8%, 95% CI 16.7-20.9). Illiterate individuals were more likely to be current smokers of any type compared to those with secondary/higher education (odds ratio, OR, 3.25, 95% CI 2.54-4.16), although cigarette smoking was higher in men of high SES. Smoking quit rates were positively associated with SES (OR 2.56, 95% CI 1.76-3.71) for secondary/higher education vs. illiterates. Level of consumption increased with SES and those with secondary/higher education smoked an additional 1.93 (95% CI 1.08-2.77) cigarettes or bidis per day and had an additional 1.87 (95% CI 0.57-3.17) pack-years vs. illiterates. The social gradients in cigarette smoking and level of consumption contrasted those for indigenous forms of tobacco (bidi smoking and chewing). International prevention and cessation initiatives designed at modifying Western-style cigarette usage will need to be tailored to the social context of rural Andhra Pradesh to effectively influence the use of cigarettes and equally harmful indigenous forms of tobacco. © The European Society of Cardiology 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  10. Environmental isotope investigation for the identification of source of springs observed in the hillock on the left flank of Gollaleru Earthen Dam, Andhra Pradesh, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noble, J.; Arzoo Ansari, MD

    2017-07-01

    A hydrometric, hydrochemical and environmental isotopic study was conducted to identify the source and origin of observed springs on the foot of the hillock abutting the left flank of the Gollaleru earthen dam, Nandyal, Andhra Pradesh, India. Water samples (springs, reservoir water and groundwater) in and around the dam area were collected and analyzed for environmental isotopes (δ^{18}!O, δ2H and 3H) and hydrochemistry. Reservoir level, spring discharges and physico-chemical parameters (temperature, electrical conductivity, pH, etc.) were monitored in-situ. Isotopic results indicated that the source of springs is from the Owk reservoir and groundwater contribution to the springs is insignificant. Based on hydrometric observations, it is inferred that the springs might be originated from the reservoir level of 209 m amsl. It is found that the lower spring discharges were derived from diffuse sources (seepage) which could be a mixture of reservoir water and the groundwater, while the relatively higher spring discharges were resulted from concentrated sources (leakage) from the reservoir. Thus, the study portraits the usefulness of isotope techniques in understanding the dam seepage/leakage related problems.

  11. A survey of severe visual impairment in children attending schools for the blind in a coastal district of Andhra Pradesh in South India

    PubMed Central

    Krishnaiah, S; Subba Rao, B; Lakshmi Narasamma, K; Amit, G

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To identify the major causes of severe childhood visual impairment and blindness among students attending schools for the blind in a coastal district of Andhra Pradesh (AP) in South India. Methods Children ≤16 years of age attending six schools for the blind in the study area were interviewed and examined in the year 2009, and causes were classified according to the World Health Organization Program for Prevention of Blindness (WHO/PBL) childhood blindness proforma. A total of 113 children underwent a detailed eye examination by an experienced ophthalmologist. Results The major causes of blindness were congenital eye anomalies in 46 children (41.4; 95% confidence interval (CI): 32.3–50.6), followed by retinal disorders in 21 children (18.9% 95% CI: 11.6–26.2), cataract in 9 children (9.7% 95% CI: 2.9–12.9), and corneal conditions (scar and Staphyloma) in 8 children (7.1% 95% CI: 2.4–11.8). More than half the children (56.6%) were blind due to conditions that could have been treated or prevented. Discussion Congenital anomalies were found to be the most common cause of blindness. The majority of the cases were due to avoidable causes of blindness. Therefore, robust screening measures may help reduce the burden of visual impairment in children. PMID:22576826

  12. Understanding the causes and consequences of injuries to adolescents growing up in poverty in Ethiopia, Andhra Pradesh (India), Vietnam and Peru: a mixed method study.

    PubMed

    Morrow, Virginia; Barnett, Inka; Vujcich, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The World Health Organization estimates that almost half of all premature deaths among 15- to 19-year olds can be attributed to injuries with most (95%) fatal injuries occurring in low- and middle-income countries. Yet the evidence base for adolescent injuries in low-income countries is poor. This article uses a mixed method approach to gain an understanding of patterns, causes and consequences of unintentional injuries among adolescents aged between 14 and 16 years in four low-income country settings. Survey data collected in 2009 in Ethiopia, India (Andhra Pradesh), Peru and Vietnam (from ~900 adolescents in each country) were integrated with qualitative research (conducted between 2007 and 2011) with a nested sample of older cohort children in Ethiopia (n = 25) and India (n = 25) using an iterative process. Logistic regression models were fitted to examine potential risk factors for injuries. Injuries were a concern for adolescents in all countries and occurred during work, recreation and sports or transportation. Being male was associated with an increased risk for all types of injuries, whereas being poor was only significantly associated with work injuries. Area of residence (urban vs rural) made a difference in some countries and for some kinds of injuries as did perceived health status. Qualitative findings highlight the consequences of injuries not only for the adolescents but also for the social and economic status of the entire household. Injury prevention programmes need to be specific to cultural and environmental settings, expectations of adolescent's responsibilities and responsive to the context of poverty.

  13. Documentation of ethnomedicinal information and antimicrobial validation of Thespesia populnea used by Yanadi tribe of Ganugapenta village, Chittoor district, Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Savithramma, Nataru; Yugandhar, Pulicherla; Devi, Pallipati Suvarnalatha; Ankanna, Sade; Suhrulatha, Damai; Prasad, Koya Siva; Ranjani, Ramakrishanan; Nagaraju, Nagoji; Chetty, Kummara Madhava

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to document the traditional knowledge of medicinal plants and antimicrobial validation of Thespesia populnea used by Yanadi tribe of Chittoor district, Andhra Pradesh, India. The study was mainly focused on documentation of medicinal plants used by Yanadi tribe to treat different diseases with a standard questionnaire. These plants were cross-checked in Dr. Dukes Database and available literature to know the significance of this tribe on medicinal knowledge. Among the documented plants, T. populnea was selected for antimicrobial activity with disc diffusion assay. Among the documented medicinal plants, herbs were the most utilized plants, followed by leaf part of the plants; paste form of medicinal preparation was the dominant one among the mode of preparations and oral administration was generally followed by this tribe. When checked these plants in Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Database most of the medicinal plants were matched at least one medicinal use and most of them were correlated with existing literature. In antimicrobial activity, the microbial pathogens Klebsiella pneumonia among bacteria and Rhizopus arrhizus among fungi were most susceptible to methanol extract of T. populnea . From this study, we conclude that the preparation and dosage of the medicines by Yanadi tribe of this area is unique and the correlation of medicinal data with Duke's Database and existing literature reveals high medicinal significance of claimed data of this tribe and potential inhibitory activity of T. populnea could be studied further to isolate effective antimicrobial agents.

  14. Characterization of the water chemistry, sediment (13)C and (18)O compositions of Kolleru Lake-a Ramsar wetland in Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Das Sharma, Subrata; Sujatha, D

    2016-07-01

    The chemistry of surface water sampled at different locations of the Kolleru Lake in Andhra Pradesh (India) show heterogeneous variability. The concentrations of dissolved sodium and chloride ions, total dissolved solids (TDS) together with high conductivity documented in water samples are indicative of mixing of saline seawater. This interpretation is further corroborated by enriched δ(18)O compositions of the carbonate fraction of the surface sediments collected at the same locations (as that of water) of the lake, and fairly good positive correlations of δ(18)O -Na(+) and δ(18)O-TDS. The saline water intrusion into the lake appears to be resulted due to its near stagnant to dry condition with reduced inflow and outflow. Such dry condition facilitated seawater intrusion into the lake due to several reasons: (i) proximity of lake to the sea (~35 km), (ii) overexploitation of fresh groundwater for agriculture as well as livestock farming, and (iii) incursion of tidal seawater (high sea waves) through Upputeru River, which is directly linked to the sea. We also document highly heterogeneous distribution of certain potentially toxic metal ions like chromium, copper, manganese, and zinc in the lake waters. Indiscriminate disposal of domestic and industrial effluents around the lake appears to be responsible for the presence of potentially toxic heavy metals. Based on these results, we finally suggest some measures for environmental rehabilitation of the lake and its surroundings.

  15. A survey of severe visual impairment in children attending schools for the blind in a coastal district of Andhra Pradesh in South India.

    PubMed

    Krishnaiah, S; Subba Rao, B; Lakshmi Narasamma, K; Amit, G

    2012-08-01

    To identify the major causes of severe childhood visual impairment and blindness among students attending schools for the blind in a coastal district of Andhra Pradesh (AP) in South India. Children ≤ 16 years of age attending six schools for the blind in the study area were interviewed and examined in the year 2009, and causes were classified according to the World Health Organization Program for Prevention of Blindness (WHO/PBL) childhood blindness proforma. A total of 113 children underwent a detailed eye examination by an experienced ophthalmologist. The major causes of blindness were congenital eye anomalies in 46 children (41.4; 95% confidence interval (CI): 32.3-50.6), followed by retinal disorders in 21 children (18.9%; 95% CI: 11.6-26.2), cataract in 9 children (9.7%; 95% CI: 2.9-12.9), and corneal conditions (scar and Staphyloma) in 8 children (7.1%; 95% CI: 2.4-11.8). More than half the children (56.6%) were blind due to conditions that could have been treated or prevented. Congenital anomalies were found to be the most common cause of blindness. The majority of the cases were due to avoidable causes of blindness. Therefore, robust screening measures may help reduce the burden of visual impairment in children.

  16. Documentation of ethnomedicinal information and antimicrobial validation of Thespesia populnea used by Yanadi tribe of Ganugapenta village, Chittoor district, Andhra Pradesh, India

    PubMed Central

    Savithramma, Nataru; Yugandhar, Pulicherla; Devi, Pallipati Suvarnalatha; Ankanna, Sade; Suhrulatha, Damai; Prasad, Koya Siva; Ranjani, Ramakrishanan; Nagaraju, Nagoji; Chetty, Kummara Madhava

    2017-01-01

    Aim: This study aimed to document the traditional knowledge of medicinal plants and antimicrobial validation of Thespesia populnea used by Yanadi tribe of Chittoor district, Andhra Pradesh, India. Materials and Methods: The study was mainly focused on documentation of medicinal plants used by Yanadi tribe to treat different diseases with a standard questionnaire. These plants were cross-checked in Dr. Dukes Database and available literature to know the significance of this tribe on medicinal knowledge. Among the documented plants, T. populnea was selected for antimicrobial activity with disc diffusion assay. Results: Among the documented medicinal plants, herbs were the most utilized plants, followed by leaf part of the plants; paste form of medicinal preparation was the dominant one among the mode of preparations and oral administration was generally followed by this tribe. When checked these plants in Dr. Duke’s Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Database most of the medicinal plants were matched at least one medicinal use and most of them were correlated with existing literature. In antimicrobial activity, the microbial pathogens Klebsiella pneumonia among bacteria and Rhizopus arrhizus among fungi were most susceptible to methanol extract of T. populnea. Conclusion: From this study, we conclude that the preparation and dosage of the medicines by Yanadi tribe of this area is unique and the correlation of medicinal data with Duke’s Database and existing literature reveals high medicinal significance of claimed data of this tribe and potential inhibitory activity of T. populnea could be studied further to isolate effective antimicrobial agents. PMID:28512597

  17. Distribution of trace elements in certain ecological components and animal products in a dairy farm at Tirupati, Chittoor District, Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Raghu, V

    2013-12-01

    Biogeochemical characteristics of the cattle are dealt based on the observations made in Ayurveda in the light of modern scientific developments in applied environmental geochemistry. The biogeochemical characteristics of certain important ecological components and animal products of the stall-fed animals were studied. For this purpose, a dairy farm of Tirumala-Tirupati Devasthanams, a religious organization in Tirupati, Chittoor District, Andhra Pradesh was selected. This study is intended to trace out the trace element interactions in the ecological components (soil, water, fodder, feed) of the stall-fed animals and their output components viz. dung, urine and milk. Physical, physico-chemical properties and certain trace elements were determined for composite samples of ecological components and dung, urine, and milk of stall-fed animals. The variations in the distribution of pH and EC of urine and milk reflect the variations in their physico-chemical or hydro-chemical properties. As mentioned in Ayurveda, not only the properties of milk but also the properties of dung and urine reflect their diet and conditions of their habitat. Even though the diet is the same, the cows of different breeds yield milk of variable physical, physico-chemical properties and trace element composition which can be attributed to their body colour, substantiating Ayurveda.

  18. Morbidity pattern of hydatid disease (cystic echinococcosis) and lack of its knowledge in patients attending Mamata General Hospital, Khammam, Andhra Pradesh.

    PubMed

    Hemachander, S Suguna; Prasad, C Rajendra; Jessica, M

    2008-01-01

    There is hearsay that prevalence of hydatid disease in Khammam and Nalgonda districts of Andhra Pradesh is high. We report here a preliminary study conducted to determine the magnitude of the problem of hydatid disease and the morbidity associated with it in patients attending MGH, KMM, A.P. (rural hospital). Eleven cases were identified during the period from November 2005 to May 2006 (seven months). Pain in abdomen, mass per abdomen, loss of appetite, pregnancy complicated by cystic echinococcosis (CE), and jaundice were the main clinical symptoms and signs. Ultrasonography, detection and removal of the cysts on the operation table, microscopic examination of the aspirated hydatid fluid were confirmatory. Ziehl-Neelsen stain of the aspirated fluid revealed acid-fast scolices. Interrogation of the patients and their family members (50) revealed that there was a total lack of knowledge of dog-tapeworm-caused infection in humans. They knew 'rabies' as the only disease man gets from dogs, and tapeworms are from pork and beef.

  19. Contributions of an intensive HIV prevention programme in increasing HIV testing among men who have sex with men in Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, Sowmya; Mehrotra, Purnima; Saggurti, Niranjan

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the factors associated with uptake of HIV testing and to assess their relative contributions in increasing HIV testing. Data are drawn from two rounds of cross-sectional Integrated Behavioural and Biological Assessment (IBBA) surveys of self-identified men who have sex with men (MSM) from Andhra Pradesh, India, recruited through probability-based sampling in 2005-2006 and 2009-2010 (IBBA1, n = 1621; IBBA2, n = 1608, respectively). Logistic regression model was used to assess the relationship between socio-demographic characteristics, sexual behaviours, programme exposure and HIV testing. Significant factors were further parsed using decomposition analysis to examine the contribution of different components of that factor towards the change in HIV testing. There was a significant increase in the proportion of MSM reporting HIV testing from IBBA1 to IBBA2. Higher literacy levels, being 25-34 years old, being a kothi (predominantly receptive), engaging in both commercial and non-commercial sexual relationships and intervention programme exposure contributed the most to the increase in HIV testing.

  20. Long-term variation of Surface Ozone, NO2, temperature and relative humidity on crop yield over Andhra Pradesh (AP), India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arunachalam, M. S.; Obili, Manjula; Srimurali, M.

    2016-07-01

    Long-term variation of Surface Ozone, NO2, Temperature, Relative humidity and crop yield datasets over thirteen districts of Andhra Pradesh(AP) has been studied with the help of OMI, MODIS, AIRS, ERA-Interim re-analysis and Directorate of Economics and Statistics (DES) of AP. Inter comparison of crop yield loss estimates according to exposure metrics such as AOT40 (accumulated ozone exposure over a threshold of 40) and non-linear variation of surface temperature for twenty and eighteen varieties of two major crop growing seasons namely, kharif (April-September) and rabi (October-March), respectively has been made. Study is carried to establish a new crop-yield-exposure relationship for different crop cultivars of AP. Both ozone and temperature are showing a correlation coefficient of 0.66 and 0.87 with relative humidity; and 0.72 and 0.80 with NO2. Alleviation of high surface ozone results in high food security and improves the economy thereby reduces the induced warming of the troposphere caused by ozone. Keywords: Surface Ozone, NO2, Temperature, Relative humidity, Crop yield, AOT 40.

  1. Development and evaluation of the Andhra Pradesh Children and Parent Study Physical Activity Questionnaire (APCAPS-PAQ): a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Matsuzaki, Mika; Sullivan, Ruth; Ekelund, Ulf; Krishna, K V Radha; Kulkarni, Bharati; Collier, Tim; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Kinra, Sanjay; Kuper, Hannah

    2016-01-19

    There is limited availability of context-specific physical activity questionnaires in low and middle income countries. The aim of this study was to develop and examine the validity of a new Indian physical activity questionnaire, the Andhra Pradesh Children and Parent Study Physical Activity Questionnaire (APCAPS-PAQ). The current study was conducted with the cohort from the Hyderabad DXA Study (n = 2321), recruited in 2009-2010. Criterion validity (n = 245) was examined by comparing the APCAPS-PAQ to a combined heart rate and motion sensor worn for 8 days. Construct validity (n = 2321) was assessed with linear regression, comparing APCAPS-PAQ against BMI, percent body fat, and pulse rate. The APCAPS-PAQ criterion validity was variable depending on the PA intensity groups (ρ = 0.26, 0.07, 0.39; к = 0.14, 0.04, 0.16 for sedentary, light, moderate/vigorous physical activity (MVPA) respectively). Sedentary and light intensity activities from the questionnaire were underestimated when compared to the criterion data while MVPA in APCAPS-PAQ was overestimated. Higher time spent in sedentary activity in APCAPS-PAQ was associated with higher BMI and percent body fat, suggesting construct validity. The APCAPS-PAQ validity is comparable to other physical activity questionnaires. This tool is able to assess sedentary behavior, moderate/vigorous activity and physical activity energy expenditure on a group level with reasonable validity. This new questionnaire may be used for ranking individuals according to their sedentary time and physical activity in southern India.

  2. Socio-economic position and cardiovascular risk in rural Indian adolescents: evidence from the Andhra Pradesh children and parents study (APCAPS).

    PubMed

    Kinra, S; Johnson, M; Kulkarni, B; Rameshwar Sarma, K V; Ben-Shlomo, Y; Smith, G D

    2014-09-01

    This study examined association between socio-economic position and cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents to investigate whether childhood socio-economic position is a risk factor for future cardiovascular disease, independently of adult behaviours. Participants (n = 1128, 46% girls, aged 13-18 years) were members of a birth cohort (Andhra Pradesh Children and Parents Study or APCAPS) established to investigate long-term effects of a pregnancy and childhood nutritional supplementation trial conducted in 29 villages near Hyderabad in South India. Cross-sectional associations between socio-economic position and cardiovascular risk factors were examined using linear regression models. The mean BMI was 16.7 kg/m(2) for boys and 17.8 kg/m(2) for girls. Socio-economic position was positively associated with fat mass index (0.15 kg/m(2); 95% CI: 0.05-0.25) and inversely associated with central-peripheral skinfold ratio (-0.04; 95% CI: -0.06 to -0.01) and, in boys, fasting triglycerides (-0.05; 95% CI: -0.09 to -0.01). Association of socio-economic position with other risk factors (blood pressure, arterial stiffness, fasting glucose, insulin and cholesterol) was weak and inconsistent, and did not persist after adjustment for potential confounders, including age, sex, pubertal stage, height, adiposity and nutrition supplementation. The study thus showed that lower socio-economic position may be associated with greater central adiposity and higher triglyceride levels in these settings. Socio-economic gradient in cardiovascular risk may strengthen in future with later economic and lifestyle changes. Cardiovascular disease prevention strategies should therefore focus on the youth from the low income group. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Effectiveness of VIA, Pap, and HPV DNA Testing in a Cervical Cancer Screening Program in a Peri-Urban Community in Andhra Pradesh, India

    PubMed Central

    Gravitt, Patti E.; Paul, Proma; Katki, Hormuzd A.; Vendantham, Haripriya; Ramakrishna, Gayatri; Sudula, Mrudula; Kalpana, Basany; Ronnett, Brigitte M.; Vijayaraghavan, K.; Shah, Keerti V.

    2010-01-01

    Background While many studies have compared the efficacy of Pap cytology, visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) and human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA assays for the detection cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cancer, few have evaluated the program effectiveness. Methods and Findings A population-based sample of 5603 women from Medchal Mandal in Andhra Pradesh, India were invited to participate in a study comparing Pap cytology, VIA, and HPV DNA screening for the detection of CIN3+. Participation in primary screening and all subsequent follow-up visits was rigorously tracked. A 20% random sample of all women screened, in addition to all women with a positive screening test result underwent colposcopy with directed biopsy for final diagnosis. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were adjusted for verification bias. HPV testing had a higher sensitivity (100%) and specificity (90.6%) compared to Pap cytology (sensitivity  =  78.2%; specificity = 86.0%) and VIA (sensitivity = 31.6%; specificity = 87.5%). Since 58% of the sample refused involvement and another 28% refused colposcopy or biopsy, we estimated that potentially 87.6% of the total underlying cases of CIN3 and cancer may have been missed due to program failures. Conclusions We conclude that despite our use of available resources, infrastructure, and guidelines for cervical cancer screening implementation in resource limited areas, community participation and non-compliance remain the major obstacles to successful reduction in cervical cancer mortality in this Indian population. HPV DNA testing was both more sensitive and specific than Pap cytology and VIA. The use of a less invasive and more user-friendly primary screening strategy (such as self-collected swabs for HPV DNA testing) may be required to achieve the coverage necessary for effective reduction in cervical cancer mortality. PMID:21060889

  4. Community advocacy groups as a means to address the social environment of female sex workers: a case study in Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Punyam, Swarup; Pullikalu, Renuka Somanatha; Mishra, Ram Manohar; Sandri, Prashanth; Mutupuru, Balakrishna Prasad; Kokku, Suresh Babu; Parimi, Prabhakar

    2012-10-01

    To examine the association between the presence of community advocacy groups (CAGs) and female sex workers' (FSWs) access to social entitlements and outcomes of police advocacy. Data were used from a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2010-2011 among 1986 FSWs and 104 NGO outreach workers from five districts of Andhra Pradesh. FSWs were recruited using a probability-based sampling from 104 primary sampling units (PSUs). A PSU is a geographical area covered by one outreach worker and is expected to have an active CAG as per community mobilisation efforts. The presence of active CAGs was defined as the presence of an active committee or advocacy group in the area (PSU). Outcome indicators included acquisition of different social entitlements and measures of police response as reported by FSWs. Multivariate linear and logistic regression analyses were used to examine the associations. Areas with active CAGs compared with their counterparts had a significantly higher mean number of FSWs linked to ration cards (12.8 vs 6.8; p<0.01), bank accounts (9.3 vs 5.9; p=0.05) and health insurance (13.1 vs 7.0; p=0.02). A significantly higher percentage of FSWs from areas with active CAGs as compared with others reported that the police treat them more fairly now than a year before (79.7% vs 70.3%; p<0.05) and the police explained the reasons for arrest when arrested the last time (95.7% vs 87%; p<0.05). FSWs from areas with active CAGs were more likely to access certain social entitlements and to receive a fair response from the police, highlighting the contributions of CAGs in community mobilisation.

  5. Oral Health Status among 12- and 15-Year-Old Children from Government and Private Schools in Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India

    PubMed Central

    Sukhabogi, JR; Shekar, CBR; Hameed, IA; Ramana, IV; Sandhu, G

    2014-01-01

    Background: The assessment of oral health status of children in government and private schools provide data on the oral health status of children from different socio-economic background. Aim: The aim of the following study is to assess and to compare the oral hygiene status, gingival status and caries experience between children from government and private schools in Andhra Pradesh, India. Subjects and Methods: A combination of cluster and stratified random sampling was employed to select the study participants. Oral hygiene status, gingival status and caries experience was assessed and compared among 12- and 15-year-old children from three government and private schools each. The examination was carried out by three trained and calibrated investigators using a mouth mirror and explorer under natural daylight. Results: A total of 604 children (331 government and 273 private) were examined in the study. The mean oral hygiene index-simplified (OHI-S) was higher among government school children (2.9 [1.1]) compared private school children (0.6 [0.4]). The mean gingival score and mean decayed missing filled teeth were also higher among government school children compared with private school children. A significantly higher number of children in the government schools had poor oral hygiene status, moderate to severe gingivitis and caries experience. Conclusion: The prevalence of oral diseases was relatively less among children from private schools in comparison with those from government schools. Hence, the children from government schools should be given the priority compared with private school children in any school dental health programs planned on a statewide basis. PMID:25364601

  6. 'First we go to the small doctor': first contact for curative health care sought by rural communities in Andhra Pradesh & Orissa, India.

    PubMed

    Gautham, Meenakshi; Binnendijk, Erika; Koren, Ruth; Dror, David M

    2011-11-01

    Against the backdrop of insufficient public supply of primary care and reports of informal providers, the present study sought to collect descriptive evidence on 1 st contact curative health care seeking choices among rural communities in two States of India - Andhra Pradesh (AP) and Orissa. The cross-sectional study design combined a Household Survey (1,810 households in AP; 5,342 in Orissa), 48 Focus Group Discussions (19 in AP; 29 in Orissa), and 61 Key Informant Interviews with healthcare providers (22 in AP; 39 in Orissa). In AP, 69.5 per cent of respondents accessed non-degree allopathic practitioners (NDAPs) practicing in or near their village; in Orissa, 40.2 per cent chose first curative contact with NDAPs and 36.2 per cent with traditional healers. In AP, all NDAPs were private practitioners, in Orissa some pharmacists and nurses employed in health facilities, also practiced privately. Respondents explained their choice by proximity and providers' readiness to make house-calls when needed. Less than a quarter of respondents chose qualified doctors as their first point of call: mostly private practitioners in AP, and public practitioners in Orissa. Amongst those who chose a qualified practitioner, the most frequent reason was doctors' quality rather than proximity. The results of this study show that most rural persons seek first level of curative healthcare close to home, and pay for a composite convenient service of consulting-cum-dispensing of medicines. NDAPs fill a huge demand for primary curative care which the public system does not satisfy, and are the de facto first level access in most cases.

  7. Prevalence and causes of blindness and visual impairment and their associated risk factors, in three tribal areas of Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Nakul; Eeda, Shiva Shankar; Gudapati, Bala Krishna; Reddy, Srinivasa; Kanade, Pushkar; Shantha, Ghanshyam Palamaner Subash; Rani, Padmaja Kumari; Chakrabarti, Subhabrata; Khanna, Rohit C

    2014-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of blindness and visual impairment (VI), their associated causes and underlying risk factors in three tribal areas of Andhra Pradesh, India and compare this data in conjunction with data from other countries with low and middle income settings. Using a validated Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness methodology, a two stage sampling survey was performed in these areas involving probability proportionate to size sampling and compact segment sampling methods. Blindness, VI and severe visual impairment (SVI) were defined as per the WHO guidelines and Indian definitions. Based on a prior enumeration, 7281 (97.1%) subjects were enrolled (mean age = 61.0+/-7.9 years). Based on the presenting visual acuity (PVA), the prevalences of VI, SVI and blindness were 16.9% (95% CI: 15.7-18.1), 2.9% (95% CI: 2.5-3.4), and 2.3% (95% CI: 1.9-2.7), respectively. When based on the Pinhole corrected visual acuity (PCVA), the prevalences were lower in VI (6.2%, 95% CI: 5.4-6.9), SVI (1.5%, 95% CI: 1.2-1.9) and blindness (2.1%, 95% CI: 1.7-2.5). Refractive error was the major cause of VI (71.4%), whereas, cataract was the major cause of SVI and blindness (70.3%). Based on the PVA, the odds ratio (OR) of blindness increased in the age groups of 60-69 years (OR = 3.8, 95% CI: 2.8, 5.1), 70-79 years (OR = 10.6, 95% CI: 7.2, 15.5) and 80 years and above (OR = 30.7, 95% CI: 19.2, 49). The ORs were relatively higher in females (OR = 1.3, 95% CI: 1.0, 1.6) and illiterate subjects (OR = 4.3, 95% CI: 2.2, 8.5), but lower in those wearing glasses (OR = 0.2, 95% CI: 0.1, 0.4). This is perhaps the first study to assess the prevalence of blindness and VI in these tribal regions and the majority of the causes of blindness and SVI were avoidable (88.5%). These findings may be useful for planning eye care services in these underserved regions.

  8. Prevalence and Causes of Blindness and Visual Impairment and Their Associated Risk Factors, in Three Tribal Areas of Andhra Pradesh, India

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Nakul; Eeda, Shiva Shankar; Gudapati, Bala Krishna; Reddy, Srinivasa; Kanade, Pushkar; Shantha, Ghanshyam Palamaner Subash; Rani, Padmaja Kumari; Chakrabarti, Subhabrata; Khanna, Rohit C

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the prevalence of blindness and visual impairment (VI), their associated causes and underlying risk factors in three tribal areas of Andhra Pradesh, India and compare this data in conjunction with data from other countries with low and middle income settings. Methods Using a validated Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness methodology, a two stage sampling survey was performed in these areas involving probability proportionate to size sampling and compact segment sampling methods. Blindness, VI and severe visual impairment (SVI) were defined as per the WHO guidelines and Indian definitions. Results Based on a prior enumeration, 7281 (97.1%) subjects were enrolled (mean age  = 61.0+/−7.9 years). Based on the presenting visual acuity (PVA), the prevalences of VI, SVI and blindness were 16.9% (95% CI: 15.7–18.1), 2.9% (95% CI: 2.5–3.4), and 2.3% (95% CI: 1.9–2.7), respectively. When based on the Pinhole corrected visual acuity (PCVA), the prevalences were lower in VI (6.2%, 95% CI: 5.4–6.9), SVI (1.5%, 95% CI: 1.2–1.9) and blindness (2.1%, 95% CI: 1.7–2.5). Refractive error was the major cause of VI (71.4%), whereas, cataract was the major cause of SVI and blindness (70.3%). Based on the PVA, the odds ratio (OR) of blindness increased in the age groups of 60–69 years (OR = 3.8, 95% CI: 2.8, 5.1), 70–79 years (OR = 10.6, 95% CI: 7.2, 15.5) and 80 years and above (OR = 30.7, 95% CI: 19.2, 49). The ORs were relatively higher in females (OR = 1.3, 95% CI: 1.0, 1.6) and illiterate subjects (OR = 4.3, 95% CI: 2.2, 8.5), but lower in those wearing glasses (OR = 0.2, 95% CI: 0.1, 0.4). Conclusions This is perhaps the first study to assess the prevalence of blindness and VI in these tribal regions and the majority of the causes of blindness and SVI were avoidable (88.5%). These findings may be useful for planning eye care services in these underserved regions. PMID:25007075

  9. Dental Fluorosis and Dental Caries Prevalence among 12 and 15-Year-Old School Children in Nalgonda District, Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Sukhabogi, J R; Parthasarathi, P; Anjum, S; Shekar, Brc; Padma, Cm; Rani, As

    2014-09-01

    Fluoride is a double edged sword. The assessment of dental caries and fluorosis in endemic fluoride areas will facilitate in assessing the relation between fluoride concentrations in water with dental caries, dental fluorosis simultaneously. The objective of the following study is to assess the dental caries and dental fluorosis prevalence among 12 and 15-year-old school children in Nalgonda district, Andhra Pradesh, India. This was a cross-sectional study. Two stage cluster sampling technique was employed to select 20 schools from Nalgonda district. The oral examination of available 12 and 15-year-old children fulfilling the inclusion and exclusion criteria was carried out to assess dental caries and fluorosis. The examination was conducted by a single trained and calibrated examiner using the mouth mirror and community periodontal index probe under natural daylight. These areas were divided into four categories, low, medium, high and very high fluoride areas based on the fluoride concentration at the time of statistical analysis. The data was analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16 (IBM, Chicago, USA). The caries prevalence was less among 12-year-old children (39.9% [369/924]) compared with 15-years-old children (46.7% [444/951]). The prevalence was more among females (50.4% [492/977]) than males (35.8% [321/898]). The prevalence was more in low fluoride area (60.5% [300/496]) followed by very high fluoride area (54.8% [201/367]), high fluoride area (32.4% [293/904]) and medium fluoride area (17.6% [19/108]) in the descending order. The fluorosis prevalence increased with increasing fluoride concentration with no difference in gender and age distribution. Low fluoride areas require fluoridation or alternate sources of fluoride, whereas high fluoride areas require defluoridation. Defluoridation of water is an immediate requirement in areas with fluoride concentration of 4 parts per million and above as dental fluorosis is a public

  10. Dental Fluorosis and Dental Caries Prevalence among 12 and 15-Year-Old School Children in Nalgonda District, Andhra Pradesh, India

    PubMed Central

    Sukhabogi, JR; Parthasarathi, P; Anjum, S; Shekar, BRC; Padma, CM; Rani, AS

    2014-01-01

    Background: Fluoride is a double edged sword. The assessment of dental caries and fluorosis in endemic fluoride areas will facilitate in assessing the relation between fluoride concentrations in water with dental caries, dental fluorosis simultaneously. Aim: The objective of the following study is to assess the dental caries and dental fluorosis prevalence among 12 and 15-year-old school children in Nalgonda district, Andhra Pradesh, India. Subjects and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. Two stage cluster sampling technique was employed to select 20 schools from Nalgonda district. The oral examination of available 12 and 15-year-old children fulfilling the inclusion and exclusion criteria was carried out to assess dental caries and fluorosis. The examination was conducted by a single trained and calibrated examiner using the mouth mirror and community periodontal index probe under natural daylight. These areas were divided into four categories, low, medium, high and very high fluoride areas based on the fluoride concentration at the time of statistical analysis. The data was analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16 (IBM, Chicago, USA). Results: The caries prevalence was less among 12-year-old children (39.9% [369/924]) compared with 15-years-old children (46.7% [444/951]). The prevalence was more among females (50.4% [492/977]) than males (35.8% [321/898]). The prevalence was more in low fluoride area (60.5% [300/496]) followed by very high fluoride area (54.8% [201/367]), high fluoride area (32.4% [293/904]) and medium fluoride area (17.6% [19/108]) in the descending order. The fluorosis prevalence increased with increasing fluoride concentration with no difference in gender and age distribution. Conclusion: Low fluoride areas require fluoridation or alternate sources of fluoride, whereas high fluoride areas require defluoridation. Defluoridation of water is an immediate requirement in areas with fluoride concentration of 4

  11. Client-perpetrated and husband-perpetrated violence among female sex workers in Andhra Pradesh, India: HIV/STI risk across personal and work contexts.

    PubMed

    Reed, Elizabeth; Erausquin, J T; Groves, Allison K; Salazar, Marissa; Biradavolu, Monica; Blankenship, Kim M

    2016-09-01

    This study examines violence experienced in work and personal contexts and relation to HIV risk factors in these contexts among female sex workers (FSW) in Andhra Pradesh, India. FSW at least 18 years of age (n=2335) were recruited through three rounds of respondent-driven sampling between 2006 and 2010 for a survey on HIV risk. Using crude and adjusted logistic regression models, any sexual/physical violence (last 6 months) perpetrated by clients and husbands were separately assessed in association with accepting more money for sex without a condom (last 30 days), consistent condom use with clients and husbands (last 30 days), and sexually transmitted infection (STI) symptoms (last 6 months). The mean age among participants was 32, 22% reported being currently married, and 22% and 21% reported physical/sexual violence by clients and husbands, respectively. In adjusted logistic regression models, FSW who experienced client violence were more likely to report accepting more money for unprotected sex trades (adjusted OR (AOR)=1.7; 95% CI 1.4 to 2.2), less likely to report consistent condom use with clients (AOR=0.6; 95% CI 0.5 to 0.7) and more likely to report STI symptoms (AOR=3.5; 95% CI 2.6 to 4.6). Women who reported husband violence were more likely to report accepting more money for unprotected sex trades (AOR=2.1; 95% CI 1.2 to 3.7), less likely to report consistent condom use with clients (AOR=0.5; 95% CI 0.3 to 0.8) and more likely to report STI symptoms (AOR=2.6; 95% CI 1.6 to 4.1). Among FSW, experiences of violence in work and personal contexts are associated with sexual HIV risk behaviours with clients as well as STI symptoms. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  12. Analysing ethnobotanical and fishery-related importance of mangroves of the East-Godavari Delta (Andhra Pradesh, India) for conservation and management purposes.

    PubMed

    Dahdouh-Guebas, F; Collin, S; Lo Seen, D; Rönnbäck, P; Depommier, D; Ravishankar, T; Koedam, N

    2006-05-08

    Mangrove forests, though essentially common and wide-spread, are highly threatened. Local societies along with their knowledge about the mangrove also are endangered, while they are still underrepresented as scientific research topics. With the present study we document local utilization patterns, and perception of ecosystem change. We illustrate how information generated by ethnobiological research can be used to strengthen the management of the ecosystem. This study was conducted in the Godavari mangrove forest located in the East-Godavari District of the state Andhra Pradesh in India, where mangroves have been degrading due to over-exploitation, extensive development of aquaculture, and pollution from rural and urbanized areas (Kakinada).One hundred interviews were carried out among the fisherfolk population present in two mangrove zones in the study area, a wildlife sanctuary with strong conservation status and an adjacent zone. Results from the interviews indicated that Avicennia marina (Forsk.) Vierh., a dominant species in the Godavari mangroves, is used most frequently as firewood and for construction. Multiple products of the mangrove included the bark of Ceriops decandra (Griff.) Ding Hou to dye the fishing nets and improve their durability, the bark of Aegiceras corniculatum (L.) Blanco to poison and catch fish, and the leaves of Avicennia spp. and Excoecaria agallocha L. as fodder for cattle. No medicinal uses of true mangrove species were reported, but there were a few traditional uses for mangrove associates. Utilization patterns varied in the two zones that we investigated, most likely due to differences in their ecology and legal status. The findings are discussed in relation with the demographic and socio-economic traits of the fisherfolk communities of the Godavari mangroves and indicate a clear dependency of their livelihood on the mangrove forest.Reported changes in the Godavari mangrove cover also differed in the two zones, with significantly

  13. Analysing ethnobotanical and fishery-related importance of mangroves of the East-Godavari Delta (Andhra Pradesh, India) for conservation and management purposes

    PubMed Central

    Dahdouh-Guebas, F; Collin, S; Lo Seen, D; Rönnbäck, P; Depommier, D; Ravishankar, T; Koedam, N

    2006-01-01

    Mangrove forests, though essentially common and wide-spread, are highly threatened. Local societies along with their knowledge about the mangrove also are endangered, while they are still underrepresented as scientific research topics. With the present study we document local utilization patterns, and perception of ecosystem change. We illustrate how information generated by ethnobiological research can be used to strengthen the management of the ecosystem. This study was conducted in the Godavari mangrove forest located in the East-Godavari District of the state Andhra Pradesh in India, where mangroves have been degrading due to over-exploitation, extensive development of aquaculture, and pollution from rural and urbanized areas (Kakinada). One hundred interviews were carried out among the fisherfolk population present in two mangrove zones in the study area, a wildlife sanctuary with strong conservation status and an adjacent zone. Results from the interviews indicated that Avicennia marina (Forsk.) Vierh., a dominant species in the Godavari mangroves, is used most frequently as firewood and for construction. Multiple products of the mangrove included the bark of Ceriops decandra (Griff.) Ding Hou to dye the fishing nets and improve their durability, the bark of Aegiceras corniculatum (L.) Blanco to poison and catch fish, and the leaves of Avicennia spp. and Excoecaria agallocha L. as fodder for cattle. No medicinal uses of true mangrove species were reported, but there were a few traditional uses for mangrove associates. Utilization patterns varied in the two zones that we investigated, most likely due to differences in their ecology and legal status. The findings are discussed in relation with the demographic and socio-economic traits of the fisherfolk communities of the Godavari mangroves and indicate a clear dependency of their livelihood on the mangrove forest. Reported changes in the Godavari mangrove cover also differed in the two zones, with significantly

  14. Effects of Antiretroviral Therapy on the Survival of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-positive Adult Patients in Andhra Pradesh, India: A Retrospective Cohort Study, 2007-2013

    PubMed Central

    Chaturvedi, Himanshu; Jayaseelan, Lakshmanan; Harvey, Pauline; Seguy, Nicole; Chavan, Laxmikant; Raj, Pinnamaneni; Pandey, Arvind

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The survival outcomes of antiretroviral treatment (ART) programs have not been systematically evaluated at the state level in India. This retrospective study assessed the survival rates and factors associated with survival among adult human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients in Andhra Pradesh, India. Methods The present study used data from 139 679 HIV patients aged ≥15 years on ART who were registered from 2007 to 2011 and were followed up through December 2013. The primary end point was death of the patient. Mortality densities (per 1000 person-years) were calculated. Kaplan-Meier and Cox-regression models were used to estimate survival and explore the factors associated with survival. Results The overall median follow-up time was 16.0 months (2.0 months for the deceased and 14.0 months for those lost to follow-up). Approximately 13.2% of those newly initiated on ART died during follow-up. Of those deaths, 56% occurred in the first three months. The crude mortality rate was 80.9 per 1000 person-years at risk. The CD4 count (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR],4.88; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.36 to 5.46 for <100 cells/mm3 vs. >350 cells/mm3), functional status (aHR, 3.05; 95% CI, 2.82 to 3.30 for bedridden vs. normal), and body weight (aHR, 3.69; 95% CI, 3.42 to 3.97 for <45 kg vs. >60 kg) were strongly associated with the survival of HIV patients. Conclusions The study findings revealed that high mortality was observed within the first three months of ART initiation. Patients with poor baseline clinical characteristics had a higher risk of mortality. Expanded testing and counseling should be encouraged, with the goal of ensuring early enrollment into the program followed by the initiation of ART in HIV-infected patients. PMID:27951632

  15. Study of dung, urine, and milk of selected grazing animals as bioindicators in environmental geoscience--a case study from Mangampeta barite mining area, Kadapa District, Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Raghu, V

    2015-01-01

    The ancient scientific Sanskrit texts of Ayurveda (science of longevity) deal with waters, plants, and animals in relation to human health. Based on the studies mentioned in Ayurveda and modern literature, biological responses of grazing animals in Mangampeta barite mining area in Kadapa District, Andhra Pradesh, were studied. A non-mineralized Tirupati area in Chittoor District, Andhra Pradesh, was selected for the purpose of comparison. In these areas, certain animal products of selected grazing animals were studied if they could be used as tools in mineral exploration. Samples of dung, urine, and milk from cow, bullock, she-buffalo, he-buffalo, sheep, and goat were collected from these two areas during winter and summer seasons. Goat dung was found to have lowest moisture content and highest organic matter while goat urine contained highest amounts of organic matter and ash content. All these animal products were analyzed for 11 trace elements. The concentration of trace elements released through dung, urine, and milk widely varied in different animal species with seasonal variations. The elemental concentration was higher in dung and lower in urine, when compared to that of milk. The concentration of all elements in dung, urine, and milk of all animals, in both the areas, was higher in winter than that in summer. Dung represents the metabolic process of the whole animal and reflects the dietary conditions whether fed on natural or inorganic supplement. It can be inferred that dung, urine, and milk of any animal can be used as tools in mineral exploration during winter, while during summer, only dung can be useful. The dung of goat when compared to that of the other cattle serves as a better tool in environmental studies as goat depends almost entirely on natural vegetation without human interference.

  16. Relationship Between Drinking Water Fluoride Levels, Dental Fluorosis, Dental Caries and Associated Risk Factors in 9-12 Years Old School Children of Nelakondapally Mandal of Khammam District, Andhra Pradesh, India: A Cross-sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Shanthi, M; Reddy, B Vishnuvardhan; Venkataramana, V; Gowrisankar, S; Reddy, B V Thimma; Chennupati, Sireesha

    2014-01-01

    Background: The present study was conducted to assess the relationship between drinking water fluoride (F) levels, dental fluorosis and dental caries among 9-12 years old school children of Nelakondapally Mandal, Khammam district, Andhra Pradesh. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional analytical study was conducted on 1500 school children aged 9-12 years, selected by stratified random sampling from different areas with different levels of naturally occurring F in drinking water. The children were assessed for dental fluorosis according to WHO basic survey guidelines. The overall oral health status of the child was assessed by decayed missing filled teeth (DMFT)/dmft index. Statistical analysis was done using mean, standard deviation, standard error, Z-test, ANOVA test, and Chi-square test. Results: The results of the present study revealed that the prevalence of fluorosis was 74.9%. Number of children having dental fluorosis was highest in children who consume water from bore wells. Caries prevalence in the study population was about 56.5%. Caries prevalence and mean DMFT/dmft scores were least in children with optimal F areas and highest in children with below optimal F areas. Conclusion: There was moderate prevalence of fluorosis in Nelakondapally Mandal of Khammam district, and caries prevalence is high in areas below optimal F areas. How to cite the article: Shanthi M, Reddy BV, Venkataramana V, Gowrisankar S, Reddy BV, Chennupati S. Relationship between drinking water fluoride levels, dental fluorosis, dental caries and associated risk factors in 9-12 year old school children of Nelakondapally Mandal of Khammam district, Andhra Pradesh, India: A cross-sectional survey. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(3):106-10. PMID:25083044

  17. Community health promotion and medical provision for neonatal health-CHAMPION cluster randomised trial in Nagarkurnool district, Telangana (formerly Andhra Pradesh), India.

    PubMed

    Boone, Peter; Eble, Alex; Elbourne, Diana; Frost, Chris; Jayanty, Chitra; Lakshminarayana, Rashmi; Mann, Vera; Mukherjee, Rohini; Piaggio, Gilda; Reddy, Padmanabh

    2017-07-01

    In the mid-2000s, neonatal mortality accounted for almost 40% of deaths of children under 5 years worldwide, and constituted 65% of infant deaths in India. The neonatal mortality rate in Andhra Pradesh was 44 per 1,000 live births, and was higher in the rural areas and tribal regions, such as the Nagarkurnool division of Mahabubnagar district (which became Nagarkurnool district in Telangana in 2014). The aim of the CHAMPION trial was to investigate whether a package of interventions comprising community health promotion and provision of health services (including outreach and facility-based care) could lead to a reduction of the order of 25% in neonatal mortality. The design was a trial in which villages (clusters) in Nagarkurnool with a population < 2,500 were randomised to the CHAMPION package of health interventions or to the control arm (in which children aged 6-9 years were provided with educational interventions-the STRIPES trial). A woman was eligible for the CHAMPION package if she was married and <50 years old, neither she nor her husband had had a family planning operation, and she resided in a trial village at the time of a baseline survey before randomisation or married into the village after randomisation. The CHAMPION intervention package comprised community health promotion (including health education via village health worker-led participatory discussion groups) and provision of health services (including outreach, with mobile teams providing antenatal check-ups, and facility-based care, with subsidised access to non-public health centres [NPHCs]). Villages were stratified by travel time to the nearest NPHC and tribal status, and randomised (1:1) within strata. The primary outcome was neonatal mortality. Secondary outcomes included maternal mortality, causes of death, health knowledge, health practices including health service usage, satisfaction with care, and costs. The baseline survey (enumeration) was carried out between August and November 2007

  18. Community health promotion and medical provision for neonatal health—CHAMPION cluster randomised trial in Nagarkurnool district, Telangana (formerly Andhra Pradesh), India

    PubMed Central

    Boone, Peter; Eble, Alex; Frost, Chris; Mann, Vera; Reddy, Padmanabh

    2017-01-01

    Background In the mid-2000s, neonatal mortality accounted for almost 40% of deaths of children under 5 years worldwide, and constituted 65% of infant deaths in India. The neonatal mortality rate in Andhra Pradesh was 44 per 1,000 live births, and was higher in the rural areas and tribal regions, such as the Nagarkurnool division of Mahabubnagar district (which became Nagarkurnool district in Telangana in 2014). The aim of the CHAMPION trial was to investigate whether a package of interventions comprising community health promotion and provision of health services (including outreach and facility-based care) could lead to a reduction of the order of 25% in neonatal mortality. Methods and findings The design was a trial in which villages (clusters) in Nagarkurnool with a population < 2,500 were randomised to the CHAMPION package of health interventions or to the control arm (in which children aged 6–9 years were provided with educational interventions—the STRIPES trial). A woman was eligible for the CHAMPION package if she was married and <50 years old, neither she nor her husband had had a family planning operation, and she resided in a trial village at the time of a baseline survey before randomisation or married into the village after randomisation. The CHAMPION intervention package comprised community health promotion (including health education via village health worker–led participatory discussion groups) and provision of health services (including outreach, with mobile teams providing antenatal check-ups, and facility-based care, with subsidised access to non-public health centres [NPHCs]). Villages were stratified by travel time to the nearest NPHC and tribal status, and randomised (1:1) within strata. The primary outcome was neonatal mortality. Secondary outcomes included maternal mortality, causes of death, health knowledge, health practices including health service usage, satisfaction with care, and costs. The baseline survey (enumeration) was

  19. Evaluation of Fluoride Retention Due to Most Commonly Consumed Estuarine Fishes Among Fish Consuming Population of Andhra Pradesh as a Contributing Factor to Dental Fluorosis: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Ganta, Shravani; Nagaraj, Anup; Pareek, Sonia; Sidiq, Mohsin; Singh, Kushpal; Vishnani, Preeti

    2015-01-01

    Background Fluoride in drinking water is known for both beneficial and detrimental effects on health. The principal sources of fluoride include water, some species of vegetation, certain edible marine animals, dust and industrial processes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the fluoride retention of most commonly consumed estuarine fishes among fish consuming population of Andhra Pradesh. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the amount of fluoride retention due to ten most commonly consumed estuarine fishes as a contributing factor to Fluorosis by SPADNS Spectrophotometric method. The presence and severity of dental fluorosis among fish consuming population was recorded using Community Fluorosis Index. Statistical analysis was done using MedCalc v12.2.1.0 software. Results For Sea water fishes, the fluoride levels in bone were maximum in Indian Sardine (4.22 ppm). Amongst the river water fishes, the fluoride levels in bone were maximum in Catla (1.51 ppm). Also, the mean total fluoride concentrations of all the river fishes in skin, muscle and bone were less (0.86 ppm) as compared to the sea water fishes (2.59 ppm). It was unveiled that sea fishes accumulate relatively large amounts of Fluoride as compared to the river water fishes. The mean Community Fluorosis Index was found to be 1.06 amongst a sampled fish consuming population. Evaluation by Community Index for Dental fluorosis (CFI) suggested that fluorosis is of medium public health importance. Conclusion It was analysed that bone tends to accumulate more amount of fluoride followed by muscle and skin which might be due to the increased permeability and chemical trapping of fluoride inside the tissues. The amount of fluoride present in the fishes is directly related to the severity of fluorosis amongst fish consuming population, suggesting fishes as a contributing factor to fluorosis depending upon the dietary consumption. PMID:26266208

  20. Determinants of VIA (Visual Inspection of the Cervix After Acetic Acid Application) Positivity in Cervical Cancer Screening of Women in a Peri-Urban Area in Andhra Pradesh, India

    PubMed Central

    Vedantham, Haripriya; Silver, Michelle I.; Kalpana, B.; Rekha, C.; Karuna, B.P.; Vidyadhari, K.; Mrudula, S.; Ronnett, Brigitte M.; Vijayaraghavan, K.; Ramakrishna, Gayatri; Sowjanya, Pavani; Laxmi, Shantha; Shah, Keerti V.; Gravitt, Patti E.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Visual inspection of the cervix after acetic acid application (VIA) is widely recommended as the method of choice in cervical cancer screening programs in resource-limited settings because of its simplicity and ability to link with immediate treatment. In testing the effectiveness of VIA, human papillomavirus DNA testing, and Pap cytology in a population-based study in a peri-urban area in Andhra Pradesh, India, we found the sensitivity of VIA for detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 and worse (CIN2+) to be 26.3%, much lower than the 60% to 90% reported in the literature. We therefore investigated the determinants of VIA positivity in our study population. Methods We evaluated VIA positivity by demographics and reproductive history, results of clinical examination, and results from the other screening methods. Results Of the 19 women diagnosed with CIN2+, only 5 were positive by VIA (positive predictive value, 3.1%). In multivariate analysis, VIA positivity (12.74%) was associated with older age, positive Pap smear, visually apparent cervical inflammation, and interobserver variation. Cervical inflammation of unknown cause was present in 21.62% of women. In disease-negative women, cervical inflammation was associated with an increase in VIA positivity from 6.1% to 15.5% (P < 0.001). Among the six gynecologists who performed VIA, the positivity rate varied from 4% to 31%. Conclusions The interpretation of VIA is subjective and its performance cannot be readily evaluated against objective standards. Impact VIA is not a robust screening test and we caution against its use as the primary screening test in resource-limited regions. PMID:20447927

  1. Should Governments engage health insurance intermediaries? A comparison of benefits with and without insurance intermediary in a large tax funded community health insurance scheme in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh.

    PubMed

    Nagulapalli, Srikant; Rokkam, Sudarsana Rao

    2015-09-10

    A peculiar phenomenon of engaging insurance intermediaries for government funded health insurance schemes for the poor, not usually found globally, is gaining ground in India. Rajiv Aarogyasri Scheme launched in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh, is first largest tax funded community health insurance scheme in the country covering more than 20 million poor families. Aarogyasri Health Care Trust (trust), the scheme administrator, transfers funds to hospitals through two routes one, directly and the other through an insurance intermediary. The objective of this paper is to find out if engaging an insurance intermediary has any effect on cost efficiency of the insurance scheme. We used payment data of RAS for the period 2007-12, to find out the influence of insurance intermediary on the two variables, benefit cost ratio defined as benefit payment divided by premium payment, and claim denial ratio defined as benefit payment divided by treatment cost. Relationship between scheme expenditure and number of beds empanelled under the scheme is examined. OLS regression is used to perform all analyses. We found that adding an additional layer of insurance intermediary between the trust and hospitals reduced the benefit cost ratio under the scheme by 12.2% (p-value = 0.06). Every addition of 100 beds under the scheme increases the scheme payments by US$ 0.75 million (p-value < 0.001). The gap in claim denial ratio between insurance and trust modes narrowed down from 2.84% in government hospitals to 0.41% in private hospitals (p-value < 0.001). The scheme is a classic case of Roemer's principle in operation. Introduction of insurance intermediary has the twin effects of reduction in benefit payments to beneficiaries, and chocking fund flow to government hospitals. The idea of engaging insurance intermediary should be abandoned.

  2. Evaluation of Fluoride Retention Due to Most Commonly Consumed Estuarine Fishes Among Fish Consuming Population of Andhra Pradesh as a Contributing Factor to Dental Fluorosis: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Ganta, Shravani; Yousuf, Asif; Nagaraj, Anup; Pareek, Sonia; Sidiq, Mohsin; Singh, Kushpal; Vishnani, Preeti

    2015-06-01

    Fluoride in drinking water is known for both beneficial and detrimental effects on health. The principal sources of fluoride include water, some species of vegetation, certain edible marine animals, dust and industrial processes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the fluoride retention of most commonly consumed estuarine fishes among fish consuming population of Andhra Pradesh. A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the amount of fluoride retention due to ten most commonly consumed estuarine fishes as a contributing factor to Fluorosis by SPADNS Spectrophotometric method. The presence and severity of dental fluorosis among fish consuming population was recorded using Community Fluorosis Index. Statistical analysis was done using MedCalc v12.2.1.0 software. For Sea water fishes, the fluoride levels in bone were maximum in Indian Sardine (4.22 ppm). Amongst the river water fishes, the fluoride levels in bone were maximum in Catla (1.51 ppm). Also, the mean total fluoride concentrations of all the river fishes in skin, muscle and bone were less (0.86 ppm) as compared to the sea water fishes (2.59 ppm). It was unveiled that sea fishes accumulate relatively large amounts of Fluoride as compared to the river water fishes. The mean Community Fluorosis Index was found to be 1.06 amongst a sampled fish consuming population. Evaluation by Community Index for Dental fluorosis (CFI) suggested that fluorosis is of medium public health importance. It was analysed that bone tends to accumulate more amount of fluoride followed by muscle and skin which might be due to the increased permeability and chemical trapping of fluoride inside the tissues. The amount of fluoride present in the fishes is directly related to the severity of fluorosis amongst fish consuming population, suggesting fishes as a contributing factor to fluorosis depending upon the dietary consumption.

  3. Prevalence of dental caries and dental fluorosis among 12 and 15 years old school children in relation to fluoride concentration in drinking water in an endemic fluoride belt of Andhra Pradesh.

    PubMed

    Shekar, Chandra; Cheluvaiah, Manjunath Bhadravathi; Namile, Dinesh

    2012-01-01

    The published literature on the prevalence and severity of dental caries and dental fluorosis among school going children in Nalgonda district - An Endemic Fluoride belt was lacking . To assess the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis and dental caries among 12 and 15 years old children in relation to fluoride concentration in drinking water . It was a cross-sectional study, done in Nalgonda district of Andhra Pradesh, India (endemic fluoride belt) . 5 of the 59 mandals in the district of Nalgonda were selected by simple random sampling. Then, 3 schools from each of these selected mandals were chosen at random. All the eligible 6 th and 9 th standard children were considered for final analysis. The demographic and other relevant information was collected by 3 trained and calibrated dentists, using a structured questionnaire. Dental caries were recorded using dentition status and treatment needs and fluorosis were recorded by Dean's fluorosis index. The statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 16. The prevalence of dental caries among children was 56.3% with the highest in below optimal fluoride area (71.3%) and lowest in optimal fluoride area (24.3%). The prevalence of dental fluorosis was 71.5%. The prevalence was 39.7% in below optimal fluoride area and 100% in high and very fluoride areas. The prevalence and severity of fluorosis increased with increasing fluoride concentration. The caries experience was more among boys than girls. There was a negative correlation between dental caries and fluoride concentration for the entire study population. However, in high fluoride areas, there was a positive correlation between fluoride concentration and dental caries. Water defluoridation on an urgent basis is a priority here than water fluoridation, because the prevalence and severity of dental flurorosis is very high.

  4. HIV, sexually transmitted infections and sexual behaviour of male clients of female sex workers in Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Maharashtra, India: results of a cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Thilakavathi; Gupte, Mohan D; Paranjape, Ramesh S; Brahmam, Ginnela N V; Ramakrishnan, Lakshmi; Adhikary, Rajatashuvra; Kangusamy, Boopathi; Thomas, Beena E; Kallam, Srinivasan; Girish, C P K

    2008-12-01

    To characterize and describe patterns of HIV, sexually transmitted infections (STI) and sexual behaviour of male clients of female sex workers (FSW). A cross-sectional study was conducted among 4821 clients of FSW from 12 districts in three states in India: Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu. A structured questionnaire was administered to elicit demographic characteristics and sexual behavioural patterns. Blood and urine samples were tested for HIV, syphilis and herpes simplex type 2 serology, gonococcal and chlamydial infection. The median age of clients surveyed was 30 years; 57% were married and 64% had a steady sexual partner; 61% had sex with more than one FSW and 39% had four or more sexual encounters in the past month. The prevalence of HIV ranged from 2.0% to 10.9%, syphilis ranged from 3.1% to 10.1%; gonorrhoea and chlamydia ranged between 0% and 4.5%. Clients older than 30 years [odds ratio (OR) 1.65; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.33-2.05] and having a different mix of commercial and non-commercial partners (OR 1.56; 95% CI 1.25-1.96) had a higher volume of sex acts with FSW. Inconsistent condom use with FSW was significantly associated with older clients (OR 4.2; 95% CI 3.33-5.29), illiteracy (OR 1.39; 95% CI 1.14-1.69), age <18 years at first paid sex (OR 1.83; 95% CI 1.24-2.70) and having different FSW partners in the past month (OR 1.64; 95% CI 1.23-2.18). Clients of FSW studied here constitute a significant bridge group for HIV and other STI, because of their high volume of different sexual partners and very low consistent condom use. HIV prevention programmes need to address male clients.

  5. Maternal Health Situation in Bihar and Madhya Pradesh: A Comparative Analysis of State Fact Sheets of National Family Health Survey (NFHS)-3 and 4.

    PubMed

    Dehury, Ranjit Kumar; Samal, Janmejaya

    2016-09-01

    Maternal health constitutes the health of women during pregnancy, childbirth and the postpartum period. Bihar and Madhya Pradesh (MP) constitute the Empowered Action Group (EAG) states under National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) and are consistently having poor maternal health indicators. The main objective of this study was to assess the maternal health situation of Bihar and MP based on National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3) and 4 fact sheets. The study adopted a narrative description in which the NFHS fact sheets (NFHS-3 & 4) of both these states were obtained from appropriate sources and compared for various maternal health indicators. Albeit progress has been observed from NFHS-3 to NFHS-4 however, the progress is very dismal compared with the progress of other similar Indian states. Relatively MP has shown better progress compared to Bihar. Poor performance is being observed in all the three levels of maternal health; pregnancy {Ante-Natal Care (ANC), Tetanus toxoid (TT) and Iron and Folic Acid (IFA)}, child birth (Institutional delivery by Skilled Birth Attendant (SBA), Caesarean Section (CS) and post partum care (hospital stay and Janani Suraksha Yojna (JSY). The poor performance of both these states in all these indicators requires multipronged approach strong political will, health system strengthening, community mobilization and awareness. Given the status of maternal health in India and more especially in states BIMARU (Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh) and EAG states (Empowered action group), improvement in the performance of maternal health related activities is highly necessary.

  6. Knowledge and exercise of human rights, and barriers and facilitators to claiming rights: a cross-sectional study of female sex workers and high-risk men who have sex with men in Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Ganju, Deepika; Patel, Sangram Kishor; Prabhakar, Parimi; Adhikary, Rajatashurva

    2016-11-17

    HIV prevention interventions recognize the need to protect the rights of key populations and support them to claim their rights as a vulnerability reduction strategy. This study explores knowledge of human rights, and barriers and facilitators to claiming rights, among female sex workers (FSWs) and high-risk men who have sex with men (HR-MSM) who are beneficiaries of a community mobilization intervention in Andhra Pradesh, India. Data are drawn from a cross-sectional survey (2014) among 2400 FSWs and 1200 HR-MSM. Human rights awareness was assessed by asking respondents if they had heard of human rights (yes/no); those reporting awareness of rights were asked to spontaneously name specific rights from the following five pre-defined categories: right to health; dignity/equality; education; property; and freedom from discrimination. Respondents were classified into two groups: more knowledgeable (could identify two or more rights) and less knowledgeable (could identify one or no right). Univariate and bivariate analyses and chi-square tests were used. Data were analyzed using STATA 11.2. Overall 17% FSWs and 8% HR-MSM were not aware of their rights. Among those aware, 62% and 31% respectively were aware of just one or no right (less knowledgeable); only around half (54% vs 57%) were aware of health rights, and fewer (20% vs 16%) aware of their right to freedom from discrimination. Notably, 27% and 17% respectively had not exercised their rights. Barriers to claiming rights among FSWs and HR-MSM were neighbors (35% vs 37%), lack of knowledge (15% vs 14%), stigma (13% vs 22%) and spouse (19% FSWs). Community organizations (COs) were by far the leading facilitator in claiming rights (57% vs 72%). The study findings show that awareness of human rights is limited among FSWs and HR-MSM, and a large proportion have not claimed their rights, elevating their HIV vulnerability. For a sustained HIV response, community mobilization efforts must focus on building key populations

  7. Challenges and Opportunities in Establishing and Maintaining Newborn Screening in a Rural Area of Andhra Pradesh - Task Force Study by Indian Council of Medical Research.

    PubMed

    Radha Rama Devi, A; Ananthalakshmi, Y; Srimannarayana Rao, K

    2018-02-19

    The primary objective was to evaluate the feasibility of setting up newborn screening in rural areas in India. Secondary objective was to enhance the knowledge and awareness towards early detection of diseases by newborn screening, management of the affected baby and to impart genetic counseling. Awareness programs were conducted at different mandals in the district for the medical practioners during the preparatory phase of the Task Force Project. Educative lectures and clinical meetings regarding the importance and relevance of newborn screening were held every 3 months initially and half yearly later. Families were counselled during antenatal check-ups. Good co-operation was obtained from medical doctors and their willingness to participate in sample collection from the hospitals. Families accepted screening after an initial period of resistance. The fact that screening of this kind will help their babies made a positive impact. Many families started promoting newborn screening to their friends and relations. Confirmation of diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up were satisfactory with almost negligible number of cases lost to follow-up. With proper planning and commitment on the part of health authorities, it is possible to implement newborn screening in rural areas in India as well.

  8. Mineral chemistry of Pangidi basalt flows from Andhra Pradesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nageswara Rao, P. V.; Swaroop, P. C.; Karimulla, Syed

    2012-04-01

    This paper elucidates the compositional studies on clinopyroxene, plagioclase, titaniferous magnetite and ilmenite of basalts of Pangidi area to understand the geothermometry and oxybarometry conditions. Petrographic evidence and anorthite content (up to 85%) of plagioclase and temperature estimates of clinopyroxene indicate that the clinopyroxene is crystallized later than or together with plagioclase. The higher An content indicates that the parent magma is tholeiitic composition. The equilibration temperatures of clinopyroxene (1110-1190°C) and titaniferous magnetite and ilmenite coexisting mineral phases (1063-1103°C) are almost similar in lower basalt flow and it is higher for clinopyroxene (900-1110°C) when compared to titaniferous magnetite and ilmenite coexisting mineral phases (748-898°C) in middle and upper basalt flows. From this it can be inferred that the clinopyroxene is crystallized earlier than Fe-Ti oxide phases reequilibration, which indicates that the clinopyroxene temperature is the approximate eruption temperature of the present lava flows. The wide range of temperatures (900-1190°C) attained by clinopyroxene may point out that the equilibration of clinopyroxene crystals initiated from depth till closer to the surface before the melt erupted. Pangidi basalts follow the QFM buffer curve which indicates the more evolved tholeiitic composition. This suggests the parent tholeiitic magma suffered limited fractionation at high temperature under increasing oxygen fugacity in lower basalt flow and more fractionation at medium to lower temperatures under decreasing oxygen fugacity conditions during cooling of middle and upper basalt flows. The variation of oxygen fugacity indicates the oxidizing conditions for lower basalt flow (9.48-10.3) and extremely reducing conditions for middle (12.1-15.5) and upper basalt (12.4-15.54) flows prevailed at the time of cooling. Temperature vs. (FeO+Fe2O3)/(FeO+Fe2O3 +MgO) data plots for present basalts suggested the lower basaltic flow is formed at higher temperatures while the middle and upper basalt flows at medium to lower temperatures. The lower basalt flow is represented by higher temperatures which shows high modal values of opaques and glass whereas the medium to lower temperatures of middle and upper flow are caused by vesicular nature which contain larger content of gases and humid to semi-arid conditions during cooling.

  9. Groundwater quality around Tummalapalle area, Cuddapah District, Andhra Pradesh, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreedhar, Y.; Nagaraju, A.

    2017-11-01

    The suitability of groundwater for drinking and irrigation was assessed in Tummalapalle area. Forty groundwater samples were analysed for major cations, anions and other parameters such as pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids (TDS), total alkalinity and total hardness (TH). The parameters such as sodium adsorption ratio, adjusted sodium adsorption ratio (adj.SAR), per cent sodium, potential salinity, residual sodium carbonate, non-carbonate hardness, Kelly's ratio and permeability index were calculated for the evaluation of irrigation water quality. Groundwater chemistry was also analysed by statistical analysis, USSL, Wilcox, Doneen, Piper and Chadhas diagrams, to find out their suitability for irrigation. TDS and TH were used as main parameters to interpret the suitability of groundwater for drinking purpose. The correlation coefficient matrix between the hydrochemical parameters was carried out using Pearson's correlation to infer the possible water-rock interactions responsible for the variation of groundwater chemistry and this has been supported by Gibbs diagram. The results indicate that the groundwater in Tummalapalle area is alkaline in nature. Ca-Mg-HCO3 is the dominant hydrogeochemical facies. Water chemistry of the study area strongly reflects the dominance of weathering of rock-forming minerals such as bicarbonates and silicates. All parameters and diagrams suggest that the water samples of the study are good for irrigation, and the plots of TDS and TH suggest that 12.5% of the samples are good for human consumption.

  10. Relationship between mobility, violence and HIV/STI among female sex workers in Andhra Pradesh, India

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Violence and mobility have been identified as critical factors contributing to the spread of HIV worldwide. This study aimed to assess the independent and combined associations of mobility and violence with sexual risk behaviors and HIV, STI prevalence among female sex workers (FSWs) in India. Methods Data were drawn from a cross-sectional, bio-behavioral survey conducted among 2042 FSWs across five districts of southern India in 2005–06. Regression models were used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for sexual risk behaviors and HIV infection based on experience of violence and mobility after adjusting for socio-demographic and sex work related characteristics. Results One-fifth of FSWs (19%) reported experiencing violence; 68% reported travelling outside their current place of residence at least once in the past year and practicing sex work during their visit. Mobile FSWs were more likely to report violence compared to their counterparts (23% vs. 10%, p < 0.001). Approximately 1 in 5 tested positive for HIV. In adjusted models, FSWs reporting both mobility and violence as compared to their counterparts were more likely to be infected with HIV (Adjusted odds ratio (adjusted OR): 2.07, 95% CI: 1.42–3.03) and to report unprotected sex with occasional (adjusted OR: 2.86, 95% CI: 1.76–4.65) and regular clients (adjusted OR: 2.07, 95% CI: 1.40–3.06). Conclusions The findings indicate that mobility and violence were independently associated with HIV infection. Notably, the combined effect of mobility and violence posed greater HIV risk than their independent effect. These results point to the need for the provision of an enabling environment and safe spaces for FSWs who are mobile, to augment existing efforts to reduce the spread of HIV/AIDS. PMID:22967276

  11. Choosing and Changing Schools in India's Private and Government Sectors: Young Lives Evidence from Andhra Pradesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Zoe; Woodhead, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The growth and increasing popularity of 'low-fee' private schooling across many parts of India has attracted much research and policy attention. This paper broadens the discussion by drawing attention to the increasing heterogeneity of the educational landscape in many communities. Our specific focus is on the consequences for school choices made…

  12. Sediment fluxes and the littoral drift along northeast Andhra Pradesh Coast, India: estimation by remote sensing.

    PubMed

    Kunte, Pravin D; Alagarsamy, R; Hursthouse, A S

    2013-06-01

    The littoral drift regime along the northeastern coast of India was investigated by analyzing coastal drift indicators and shoreline changes based on multitemporal satellite images. The study of offshore turbidity patterns and quantitative estimation of suspended sediments was undertaken to understand the magnitude and direction of movement of sediment fluxes. The study revealed that: (1) the character of coastal landforms and sedimentation processes indicate that the sediment transport is bidirectional and monsoon dependent; (2) multidate, multitemporal analysis of satellite images helps to show the nature of sediment transport along the coast. The dominant net sediment transport is in a NE direction along the eastern coast of India. Finally, this assessment demonstrates the potential of remote sensing technology in understanding the coastal morphometric changes, long-term sediment transport, shoreline changes, and offshore turbidity distribution pattern and the implications for the transport of sediment-associated pollutants.

  13. Troubling Transitions? Young People's Experiences of Growing up in Poverty in Rural Andhra Pradesh, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, Virginia

    2013-01-01

    Global policy attention has begun to focus on young people in developing countries and much of the discourse is framed around notions of "transition to adulthood" based on the idea that individuals develop in linear ways, separate from family and community. This idea has already been widely critiqued in western contexts. This article…

  14. Whose Values? Young People's Aspirations and Experiences of Schooling in Andhra Pradesh, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, Virginia

    2013-01-01

    Increasing rates of school enrolment have changed childhoods in the global South, so that it is now the norm for children to attend at least some years of primary school. This paper explores the extent to which valuing of children as educational projects and outcomes may be displacing previous valuations of children as contributors to the domestic…

  15. Geochemical patterns in soils in and around Siddipet, Medak District, Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Dantu, Sujatha

    2010-11-01

    This paper reports the first results of geochemical survey carried out in and around Siddipet, taking soil (topsoil 0-25 cm and subsoil 70-95 cm) as the sampling media. The data were obtained in a consistent way from 61 sites. The samples were analyzed for 29 elements (As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, F, Mo, Ni, Pb, Rb, Se, Sr, Th, U, V, Y, Zn, Zr, Si, Al, Fe, Mn, Mg, Ca, Na, K, Ti, and P) by X-ray fluorescence spectrometer, and baseline levels for these elements are presented. Results reveal that the correlation between the geochemical patterns in the soils developed on different litho-variants is not straight forward, but some general trends can be observed. Regional parent materials and pedogenesis are the primary factors influencing the concentrations of trace elements while anthropogenic activities have secondary influence.

  16. Predictors of no-scalpel vasectomy acceptance in Karimnagar district, Andhra Pradesh.

    PubMed

    Valsangkar, Sameer; Sai, Surendranath K; Bele, Samir D; Bodhare, Trupti N

    2012-07-01

    Karimnagar District has consistently achieved highest rates of no-scalpel vasectomy (NSV) in the past decade when compared to state and national rates. This study was conducted to elucidate the underlying causes for higher acceptance of NSV in the district. A community-based, case control study was conducted. Sampling techniques used were purposive and simple random sampling. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to evaluate the socio-demographic, family characteristics, contraceptive history and predictors of contraceptive choice in 116 NSV acceptors and 120 other contraceptive users (OCUs). Postoperative complications and experiences were ascertained in NSV acceptors. Age (χ(2)=11.79, P value = 0.008), literacy (χ(2)=17.95, P value = 0.03), duration of marriage (χ(2)=14.23, P value = 0.008) and number of children (χ(2)=10.45, P value = 0.01) were significant for acceptance of NSV. Among the predictors, method suggested by peer/ health worker (OR = 1.5, P value = 0.01), method does not require regular intervention (OR = 1.3, P value = 0.004) and permanence of the method (OR = 1.2, P value = 0.031) were significant. Acceptors were most satisfied with the shorter duration required to return to work and the most common complication was persistent postoperative pain among 12 (10.34%) of the acceptors. Advocating and implementing family planning is of high significance in view of the population growth in India and drawing from the demographic profile, predictors, pool of trainers and experiences in Karimnagar District, a similar achievement of higher rates of this simple procedure with few complications can be replicated.

  17. Predictors of no-scalpel vasectomy acceptance in Karimnagar district, Andhra Pradesh

    PubMed Central

    Valsangkar, Sameer; Sai, Surendranath K.; Bele, Samir D.; Bodhare, Trupti N.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Karimnagar District has consistently achieved highest rates of no-scalpel vasectomy (NSV) in the past decade when compared to state and national rates. This study was conducted to elucidate the underlying causes for higher acceptance of NSV in the district. Materials and Methods: A community-based, case control study was conducted. Sampling techniques used were purposive and simple random sampling. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to evaluate the socio-demographic, family characteristics, contraceptive history and predictors of contraceptive choice in 116 NSV acceptors and 120 other contraceptive users (OCUs). Postoperative complications and experiences were ascertained in NSV acceptors. Results: Age (χ2=11.79, P value = 0.008), literacy (χ2=17.95, P value = 0.03), duration of marriage (χ2=14.23, P value = 0.008) and number of children (χ2=10.45, P value = 0.01) were significant for acceptance of NSV. Among the predictors, method suggested by peer/ health worker (OR = 1.5, P value = 0.01), method does not require regular intervention (OR = 1.3, P value = 0.004) and permanence of the method (OR = 1.2, P value = 0.031) were significant. Acceptors were most satisfied with the shorter duration required to return to work and the most common complication was persistent postoperative pain among 12 (10.34%) of the acceptors. Conclusion: Advocating and implementing family planning is of high significance in view of the population growth in India and drawing from the demographic profile, predictors, pool of trainers and experiences in Karimnagar District, a similar achievement of higher rates of this simple procedure with few complications can be replicated. PMID:23204657

  18. Hydrogeochemical characterization of fluoride rich groundwater of Wailpalli watershed, Nalgonda District, Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Reddy, A G S; Reddy, D V; Rao, P N; Prasad, K Maruthy

    2010-12-01

    The groundwater of Nalgonda district is well known for its very high fluoride content for the past five decades. Many researchers have contributed their scientific knowledge to unravel causes for fluoride enrichment of groundwater. In the present paper, an attempt has been made to relate the high fluoride content in the groundwater to hydrogeochemical characterization of the water in a fracture hard rock terrain--the Wailpally watershed. Groundwater samples collected from all the major geomorphic units in pre- and post-monsoon seasons were analyzed for its major ion constituents such as Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Na(+), K(+), CO3-, HCO3-, Cl(-), SO4(-2), NO3-, and F(-). The groundwaters in the watershed have the average fluoride content of 2.79 mg/l in pre-monsoon and 2.83 mg/l in post-monsoon. Fluoride concentration in groundwater does not show perceptible change neither with time nor in space. The ionic dominance pattern is in the order of Na(+) > Ca(2+) > Mg(2+) > K(-) among cations and HCO3- Cl(-) > SO4(-2) NO3- F(-) among anions in pre-monsoon. In post-monsoon, Mg replaces Ca(2+) and NO3- takes the place of SO4(-2). The Modified Piper diagram reflect that the water belong to Ca(+2)-Mg(+2)-HCO3- to Na(+)-HCO3- facies. Negative chloralkali indices in both the seasons prove that ion exchange between Na(+) and K(+) in aquatic solution took place with Ca(+2) and Mg(+2) of host rock. The interpretation of plots for different major ions and molar ratios suggest that weathering of silicate rocks and water-rock interaction is responsible for major ion chemistry of groundwater in Wailpally watershed. Chemical characteristics and evolution of this fluoride-contaminated groundwater is akin to normal waters of other hard rock terrain; hence, it can be concluded that aquifer material play an important role in the contribution of fluoride in to the accompanying water. High fluoride content in groundwater can be attributed to the continuous water-rock interaction during the process of percolation with fluoride-bearing country rocks under arid, low precipitation, and high evapotranspiration conditions.

  19. Prescription pattern in the department of surgery in a tribal district hospital of andhra pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Khade, A; Bashir, Msm; Sheethal, A

    2013-07-01

    Usually, surgical management cannot be completed without the use of antimicrobial and analgesic drugs. Irrational prescription may lead to severe postoperative complications. The objective of this study was to evaluate the prescription trend in the surgery department of a tribal district hospital so as to determine the extent of rational use of medicines. It was a retrospective study in which 50 cases were selected randomly. Case records were analyzed for prescription trend. Data was analyzed using Microsoft Office Excel 2007 and values were presented descriptively. Most of the cases were between the age group of 21 and 40 years, 18 cases (36%). Commonest cause of hospitalization was renal calculi (10 (20%)) followed by acute abdomen and abscess (6, (12%)). Total of 255 numbers of drugs were used with an average of 5.1 drugs per patient. Most preferred route was intravenous route (174 drugs, 68.2%). Antimicrobial was the most common (97 (38.0%)) group of drugs followed by analgesic/antipyretics (50 (19.6%)). Among antimicrobials, ciprofloxacin (22 (22.7%)) was the most common drug followed by metronidazole (21 (18.5%)). All the cases were managed by empirical treatment. Two different antimicrobials were prescribed to 20 (40%) of cases. Dosage of 83 (32.6%) drugs was inappropriate while frequency was inappropriate in 26 (10.2%) cases. Urgent steps like specific guidelines, training, and monitoring of drugs use are needed to correct some irrational approaches.

  20. Facies analysis of tuffaceous volcaniclastics and felsic volcanics of Tadpatri Formation, Cuddapah basin, Andhra Pradesh, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, Sukanta; Dey, Sukanta

    2018-05-01

    The felsic volcanics, tuff and volcaniclastic rocks within the Tadpatri Formation of Proterozoic Cuddapah basin are not extensively studied so far. It is necessary to evaluate the extrusive environment of felsic lavas with associated ash fall tuffs and define the resedimented volcaniclastic components. The spatial and temporal bimodal association were addressed, but geochemical and petrographic studies of mafic volcanics are paid more attention so far. The limited exposures of eroded felsic volcanics and tuffaceous volcaniclastic components in this terrain are highly altered and that is the challenge of the present facies analysis. Based on field observation and mapping of different lithounits a number of facies are categorized. Unbiased lithogeochemical sampling have provided major and selective trace element data to characterize facies types. Thin-section studies are also carried out to interpret different syn- and post- volcanic features. The facies analysis are used to prepare a representative facies model to visualize the entire phenomenon with reference to the basin evolution. Different devitrification features and other textural as well as structural attributes typical of flow, surge and ash fall deposits are manifested in the middle, lower and upper stratigraphic levels. Spatial and temporal correlation of lithologs are also supportive of bimodal volcanism. Felsic and mafic lavas are interpreted to have erupted through the N-S trending rift-associated fissures due to lithospheric stretching during late Palaeoproterozoic. It is also established from the facies model that the volcaniclastics were deposited in the deeper part of the basin in the east. The rifting and associated pressure release must have provided suitable condition of decompression melting at shallow depth with high geothermal gradient and this partial melting of mantle derived material at lower crust must have produced mafic magmas. Such upwelling into cold crust also caused partial heat transfer and associated melting of the surrounding shallow crustal rocks to generate felsic magmas.

  1. Water quality analysis of the Rapur area, Andhra Pradesh, South India using multivariate techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagaraju, A.; Sreedhar, Y.; Thejaswi, A.; Sayadi, Mohammad Hossein

    2017-10-01

    The groundwater samples from Rapur area were collected from different sites to evaluate the major ion chemistry. The large number of data can lead to difficulties in the integration, interpretation, and representation of the results. Two multivariate statistical methods, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and factor analysis (FA), were applied to evaluate their usefulness to classify and identify geochemical processes controlling groundwater geochemistry. Four statistically significant clusters were obtained from 30 sampling stations. This has resulted two important clusters viz., cluster 1 (pH, Si, CO3, Mg, SO4, Ca, K, HCO3, alkalinity, Na, Na + K, Cl, and hardness) and cluster 2 (EC and TDS) which are released to the study area from different sources. The application of different multivariate statistical techniques, such as principal component analysis (PCA), assists in the interpretation of complex data matrices for a better understanding of water quality of a study area. From PCA, it is clear that the first factor (factor 1), accounted for 36.2% of the total variance, was high positive loading in EC, Mg, Cl, TDS, and hardness. Based on the PCA scores, four significant cluster groups of sampling locations were detected on the basis of similarity of their water quality.

  2. Development Programs and the Maoist Insurgency in Andhra Pradesh and Chhattisgarh: A Comparative Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-01

    Praveen Swami, “India’s Counter-insurgency Conundrum,” Hindu, July 23, 2010, http://www.hindu.com/2010/07/23/stories/2010072354911200.htm. 27 Varun Vira... Praveen . “India’s Counter-Insurgency Conundrum.” Hindu, July 23, 2010. Taber, Robert. War of the Flea: The Classic Study of Guerilla Warfare. Dulles

  3. Is Greulich and Pyle standards of skeletal maturation applicable for age estimation in South Indian Andhra children?

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Rezwana Begum; Rao, Dola Srinivasa; Goud, Alampur Srinivas; Sailaja, S; Thetay, Anshuj Ajay Rao; Gopalakrishnan, Meera

    2015-01-01

    Now-a-day age determination has gained importance for various forensic and legal reasons. Skeletal age (SA) of a test population can be estimated by comparing with established standards of Greulich and Pyle (G-P). As this atlas has been prepared using data from upper-class children born between 1917 and 1942 in the USA and the applicability of these standards to contemporary populations has yet to be tested on Andhra children living in India. Hence, this study was aimed to assess the reliability of bone age calculated by G-P atlas in estimation of age in selected population. A total of 660 children (330 girls, 330 boys) between ages 9 and 20 years were randomly selected from outpatient Department of Oral Medicine in GITAM Dental College, Andhra Pradesh. Digital hand-wrist radiographs were obtained and assessed for SA using G-P atlas and the difference between estimated SA and chronological age (CA) were compared with paired t-test and Wilcoxon signed rank test. G-P method underestimated the SA by 0.23 ± 1.53 years for boys and overestimated SA by 0.02 ± 2 years in girls and mild underestimation was noted in the total sample of about 0.1 ± 1.78 years. Spearman rank test showed significant correlation between SA and CA (r = 0.86; P < 0.001). This study concluded that G-P standards were reliable in assessing age in South Indian Andhra children of age 9-20 years with unknown CA.

  4. Genetic variation among the Golla pastoral caste subdivisions of Andhra Pradesh, India, according to the HLA system.

    PubMed

    Crawford, M H; Reddy, B M; Martinez-Laso, J; Mack, S J; Erlich, H A

    2001-09-01

    The HLA allele frequency distributions have been characterized for the HLA class I and class II loci of the Golla pastoral caste, from Southeast India, subdivided into the subcastes (Puja, Punugu, Kurava, Pokanati, Karnam, and Doddi). Genetic distances, neighbor-joining, correspondence, and haplotype analyses all indicate that the subcastes exhibit a high haplotype variability and that their genetic substratum may be the result of European-Middle East/Asian admixture with the autochthonous populations. The Karnam subcaste seems to be the one that has undergone a higher degree of admixture, when compared with the other subcastes. The Golla speak an old Indian Dravidian language and should theoretically represent the basic Indian substratum that existed before the postulated "Aryan" invasion.

  5. Change over Time in Police Interactions and HIV Risk Behavior Among Female Sex Workers in Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Erausquin, Jennifer Toller; Reed, Elizabeth; Blankenship, Kim M

    2015-06-01

    Little is known about the effectiveness of intervening to change interactions between female sex workers (FSWs) and police in order to reduce HIV risk. Using data collected in the context of a HIV prevention intervention that included components to change policing practices (n = 1,680), we examine the association of FSWs' reports of negative police interactions and HIV risk behaviors and whether these associations varied over time. Results show negative police interactions declined significantly over time. FSWs who had more than one negative police interaction were more likely to experience STI symptoms (AOR 2.97 [95 % CI 2.27-3.89]), inconsistently use condoms with their clients (AOR 1.36 [95 % CI 1.03-1.79]), and accept more money for condomless sex (AOR 2.37 [95 % CI 1.76-3.21]). Over time, these associations were stable or increased. Even where interventions have reduced the number of police incidents experienced by FSWs, stakeholders in HIV prevention must remain vigilant in challenging these incidents.

  6. Geo - hydrological investigations and impact of water harvesting structures on groundwater potential in Anantapur District, Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Suryanarayana, K V; Krishnaiah, S; Khokalay, Murthy Rao V

    2010-10-01

    In this paper, the data pertaining to the rainfall, its departure from normal, moving mean rainfall, depth of water levels in pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons, groundwater availability, groundwater utilization and impact of storage of water in large water bodies are analyzed graphically. The results indicate that the groundwater is over exploited in many places in Anantapur District (India). The groundwater levels found fluctuating, when compared the observations in pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons. Hence, it is concluded that the construction of water harvesting structures at suitable locations will have a definite impact on the groundwater potential in Anantapur District.

  7. Change over Time in Police Interactions and HIV Risk Behavior Among Female Sex Workers in Andhra Pradesh, India

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Elizabeth; Blankenship, Kim M.

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the effectiveness of intervening to change interactions between female sex workers (FSWs) and police in order to reduce HIV risk. Using data collected in the context of a HIV prevention intervention that included components to change policing practices (n = 1,680), we examine the association of FSWs’ reports of negative police interactions and HIV risk behaviors and whether these associations varied over time. Results show negative police interactions declined significantly over time. FSWs who had more than one negative police interaction were more likely to experience STI symptoms (AOR 2.97 [95 % CI 2.27–3.89]), inconsistently use condoms with their clients (AOR 1.36 [95 % CI 1.03–1.79]), and accept more money for condomless sex (AOR 2.37 [95 % CI 1.76–3.21]). Over time, these associations were stable or increased. Even where interventions have reduced the number of police incidents experienced by FSWs, stakeholders in HIV prevention must remain vigilant in challenging these incidents. PMID:25354735

  8. Impact of seasonality on the nutrient concentrations in Gautami-Godavari Estuarine Mangrove Complex, Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Rao, Karuna; Priya, Namrata; Ramanathan, A L

    2018-04-01

    Spatiotemporal variations of dissolved nutrients were studied along Gautami-Godavari mangrove ecosystem to delineate their sources and fate. Average values of nitrate (NO 3 - ), dissolved silica (DSi) and phosphate (PO 4 3- ) is 2.09 mg/l, 12.7 mg/l and 0.16 mg/l in wet season and 0.47 mg/l, 6.96 mg/l and 0.29 mg/l in dry season respectively. In wet season river discharge has significant influence on NO 3 - and DSi. In dry season, NO 3 - and PO 4 3- are controlled by groundwater discharge, benthic exchange and various in situ processes owing to sediment redox condition. Mixing model shows net addition of phosphate in Coringa mangroves (95%) and Lower estuary (13%) and net removal of nitrate (24.79%) in Coringa mangrove and in estuary (58.9%). Thus present mangrove acts as net source for phosphate and net sink for nitrate and DSi. Nutrient ratio shows seasonal switching between potential Phosphorus and Nitrogen limitation in wet and dry season respectively. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Assessment of Nutritional Status of Boys and Girls in Government School Children in Rompicherla Mandal Andhra Pradesh, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasikala, P.

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition is the intake of food to meet the body's dietary needs through different sources namely vegetarian and non-vegetarian foods. Good nutrition and well balanced diet with regular physical activities is acceptable. Poor nutrition leads to reduction in immunity of an individual, on the other hand increased levels of nutrition leads…

  10. Virulence gene profiles of Arcobacter species isolated from animals, foods of animal origin, and humans in Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Sekhar, M Soma; Tumati, S R; Chinnam, B K; Kothapalli, V S; Sharif, N Mohammad

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to detect putative virulence genes in Arcobacter species of animal and human origin. A total of 41 Arcobacter isolates (16 Arcobacter butzleri , 13 Arcobacter cryaerophilus , and 12 Arcobacter skirrowii ) isolated from diverse sources such as fecal swabs of livestock (21), raw foods of animal origin (13), and human stool samples (7) were subjected to a set of six uniplex polymerase chain reaction assays targeting Arcobacter putative virulence genes ( ciaB , pldA , tlyA , mviN , cadF , and cj1349 ). All the six virulence genes were detected among all the 16 A. butzleri isolates. Among the 13 A. cryaerophilus isolates, cadF, ciaB , cj1349, mviN , pldA , and tlyA genes were detected in 61.5, 84.6, 76.9, 76.9, 61.5, and 61.5% of isolates, respectively. Among the 12 A. skirrowii isolates, cadF, ciaB , cj1349, mviN , pldA , and tlyA genes were detected in 50.0, 91.6, 83.3, 66.6, 50, and 50% of isolates, respectively. Putative virulence genes were detected in majority of the Arcobacter isolates examined. The results signify the potential of Arcobacter species as an emerging foodborne pathogen.

  11. A Study on Ground Water Resource Management in Gondwana Formations in Western Part of West Godavari District Andhra Pradesh India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singara, S.

    2006-05-01

    Groundwater source forms nearly fifty percent of the total irrigation in the country. With green revolution, there has been an increasing demand for water for agricultural and this led to overexploitation of groundwater resources in many parts of the state and the study area is not an exception. With the success of groundwater exploration and development through deep tube wells in the study area, the farmers plunged into hectic activity of tapping groundwater. The present study was taken up to assess to groundwater recharge and draft in the area and to suggest remedial measures to redress overexploitation condition. The study area is underlain by a vide range of geological formations from Archean to Tertiary age. Crystallines consist of two-tier setting of aquifers with weathered and fracture zones. The Gondwana formations with Sandstone, shale and clay zones form unconfined to confined aquifer system. Deccan trap basalt occurs subsurface in some parts. Crystalline aquifers are exploited through borewells with a depth range of 29 to 101.5 m. Static water levels range in depth from 2.5 and 19.27 m bgl. Their yields range from 2.53 to 19.27 m3/hr. Sedimentary aquifers are exploited through tube wells with a depth range of 18 to 293 m and static water levels range from 2.1m agl to 48.0 m bgl. Yields of the wells vary form 1.3 to 67 m3 /hr. Groundwater is lifted by monoblock pumpsets of 5 HP in some places but mostly by submersible pumpsets with 5 to 12.5 HP. The tube wells are subjected to pumping from 5 to 18 hours per day depending on availability of electricity (power supply). They are operated form 90 days to throughout the year in different places. Groundwater development in the study area shows a steady increase since 1960 with number of tube wells uniformly increasing in each decade, from an initial figure of 592 wells in 1960 to 17,173 tube wells in 2002. Crop pattern was shifted from dry crops to paddy and sugar cane as major crops and irrigated dry crops like maize, tobacco, palm oil, garden crops in minor extent and coconut was planted in large extents. Piezometric surface shows uniform gradient over the entire area indicating hydraulic continuity between different geological formations. The water budgeting was computed by using norms recommended by GEC (Ground Water Estimation Committee) of CGWB 1997, Govt. of India. For the present study, June 2000 to May 2001 period is taken as groundwater year. Groundwater recharge is calculated (formation wise) by rainfall infiltration and water table fluctuation methods, and recharge from other sources reservoirs, tanks, canals, irrigation water returns etc. the total recharge comes to be 626 MCM. Groundwater draft for irrigation and domestic purposes is found to be 994.96 MCM. Groundwater balance shows overdraft by 364.15 MCM. Well density is increased from <1/Sq. km in 60s to >30/Sq.km in 2000. Piezometric surface profiles in N-S direction also show a drop from 1960 to 2000 year by 44m. Taking into consideration, the mined water during 1990-2000, the overdraft comes to 704 MCM i.e. 70.4 MCM/year. Groundwater draft in the study area is found to be 2.85 times more than the actual requirement (342 MCM) of the crops in the area due to highly permeable sandy soils. In view of the alarming imbalance in the groundwater recharge and draft, some management practices are suggested to restore the original groundwater condition which includes proper well spacing, artificial recharge, change of cropping pattern and irrigation methods to suit to the local conditions. Quality of groundwater is suitable for drinking and agricultural purposes.

  12. The Effect of Cement Dust Exposure on Haematological Parameters of Cement Factory workers in Nalagonda, Andhra Pradesh.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guguloth, Mohan Rao.; Sambanaik, A.; srinivasnaik, L.; Mude, Jagadishnaik.

    2012-10-01

    This study was measured on haematological parameters in workers exposed to cement dust in order to test the the hypothesis and to identify a simple, readily available, cost effective screening test that could help in identifying the presence of disease, its severity, that Cement dust exposure may perturb these functions related to their workplace.Assesment of haematological parameters were performed in 100exposed workers occupationally exposed to cement dust and 50 matched unexposed controls with ages ranging from 20-35, 35-50, 50-65 years. The blood samples were taken from them and percentage of hemoglobin, Lymphocytes / monocytes count were analysed.The hemoglobin percentage of exposed workers were significantly lower(P<0.05).Lymphocytes/Monocytes counts of exposed workers was insignificant (P<0.05).These results suggest that long term occupational exposure to cement dust may perturb haemopoietic function.

  13. Chemical characteristics of groundwater and assessment of groundwater quality in Varaha River Basin, Visakhapatnam District, Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Rao, N Subba; Rao, P Surya; Reddy, G Venktram; Nagamani, M; Vidyasagar, G; Satyanarayana, N L V V

    2012-08-01

    Study on chemical characteristics of groundwater and impacts of groundwater quality on human health, plant growth, and industrial sector is essential to control and improve the water quality in every part of the country. The area of the Varaha River Basin is chosen for the present study, where the Precambrian Eastern Ghats underlain the Recent sediments. Groundwater quality is of mostly brackish and very hard, caused by the sources of geogenic, anthropogenic, and marine origin. The resulting groundwater is characterized by Na(+) > Mg(2+) > Ca(2+) : [Formula: see text] > Cl(-) > [Formula: see text], Na(+) > Mg(2+) > Ca(2+) : [Formula: see text] > Cl(-) > [Formula: see text] > [Formula: see text], Na(+) > Mg(2+) > Ca(2+) : [Formula: see text] > Cl(-), and Na(+) > Mg(2+) > Ca(2+) : Cl(-) > [Formula: see text] > [Formula: see text] facies, following the topographical and water flow-path conditions. The genetic geochemical evolution of groundwater ([Formula: see text] and Cl(-)-[Formula: see text] types under major group of [Formula: see text]) and the hydrogeochemical signatures (Na(+)/Cl(-), >1 and [Formula: see text]/Cl(-), <1) indicate that the groundwater is of originally fresh quality, but is subsequently modified to brackish by the influences of anthropogenic and marine sources, which also supported by the statistical analysis. The concentrations of total dissolved solids (TDS), TH, Mg(2+), Na(+), K(+), [Formula: see text], Cl(-), [Formula: see text], and F(-) are above the recommended limits prescribed for drinking water in many locations. The quality of groundwater is of mostly moderate in comparison with the salinity hazard versus sodium hazard, the total salt concentration versus percent sodium, the residual sodium carbonate, and the magnesium hazard, but is of mostly suitable with respect to the permeability index for irrigation. The higher concentrations of TDS, TH, [Formula: see text], Cl(-), and [Formula: see text] in the groundwater cause the undesirable effects of incrustation and corrosion in many locations. Appropriate management measures are, therefore, suggested to improve the groundwater quality.

  14. Angle-closure glaucoma in an urban population in southern India. The Andhra Pradesh eye disease study.

    PubMed

    Dandona, L; Dandona, R; Mandal, P; Srinivas, M; John, R K; McCarty, C A; Rao, G N

    2000-09-01

    To assess the prevalence and features of angle-closure glaucoma (ACG) in an urban population in southern India. A population-based, cross-sectional study. A total of 2522 (85.4% of those eligible) persons of all ages, including 1399 persons 30 years of age or older, from 24 clusters representative of the population of Hyderabad city. The participants underwent an interview and detailed eye examination that included logarithm of minimum angle of resolution visual acuity, refraction, slit-lamp biomicroscopy, applanation tonometry, and gonioscopy; pupil dilatation and stereoscopic fundus evaluation was performed if the risk of angle-closure as a result of dilatation was not believed to be imminent. Humphrey threshold 24-2 visual fields (Humphrey Instruments Inc., San Leandro, CA) were performed when indicated by standardized criteria for disc damage or if intraocular pressure (IOP) was 22 mmHg or more. An occludable angle was defined as pigmented posterior trabecular meshwork not visible by gonioscopy in three quarters or more of the angle circumference. Manifest primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) was defined as IOP of 22 mmHg or more or glaucomatous optic disc damage with visual field loss in the presence of an occludable angle. An IOP of 22 mmHg or more or glaucomatous optic disc damage in the presence of an occludable angle secondary to an obvious cause was defined as secondary ACG. Manifest PACG and occludable angles without ACG were present in 12 and 24 participants, respectively, with age- and gender-adjusted prevalence (95% confidence interval [CI]) of 0.71% (0.34%-1.31%) and 1.41% (0.73%-2.09%) in participants 30 years of age or older, and 1.08% (0.36%-1.80%) and 2.21% (1.15%-3.27%) in participants 40 years of age or older, respectively. With multivariate analysis, the prevalence of these two conditions considered together increased significantly with age (P < 0.001); although not statistically significant, these were more common in females (odds ratio 1.70; 95% CI, 0.82-3.54) and in those belonging to lower socioeconomic strata as compared with middle and upper strata (odds ratio, 1.82; 95% CI, 0.88-3.74). The odds of manifest PACG were higher in the presence of hyperopia of more than 2 diopters ([D]; odds ratio, 3.69; 95% CI, 0.89-15.2). Only four of 12 participants (33.3%) with manifest PACG had been previously diagnosed, and one of 12 (8.3%) had peripheral iridotomy performed previously. Manifest PACG had caused blindness in one or both eyes in five of these 12 participants (41.7%); best-corrected distance visual acuity less than 20/400 in one or both eyes in four patients, and acuity less than 20/200 in one eye in another patient. Most (83.3%) of those with manifest PACG could be classified as having chronic form of the disease. We may have underestimated manifest PACG because visual fields were per- formed only on those with clinical suspicion of optic disc damage. Secondary ACG was present in two participants. The prevalence of PACG in this urban population in southern India is close to that reported recently in a Mongolian population. A large proportion of the PACG in this population was undiagnosed and untreated. Because visual loss resulting from PACG is potentially preventable if peripheral iridotomy or iridectomy is performed in the early stage, strategies for early detection of PACG could reduce the high risk of blindness resulting from PACG seen in this urban population in India.

  15. Genesis of copper-lead mineralization in the regionally zoned Agnigundala Sulfide Belt, Cuddapah Basin, Andhra Pradesh, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, H. N.; Bandyopadhyay, Sandip

    2018-03-01

    Shallow marine sandstone-shale-carbonate sedimentary rocks of the Paleoproterozoic northern Cuddapah basin host copper (Nallakonda deposit), copper-lead (Dhukonda deposit), and lead mineralization (Bandalamottu deposit) which together constitute the Agnigundala Sulfide Belt. The Cu sulfide mineralization in sandstone is both stratabound and disseminated, and Pb sulfide mineralization occurs as stratabound fracture filling veins and/or replacement veins within dolomite. Systematic mineralogical and sulfur, carbon, and oxygen isotope studies of the three deposits indicate a common ore-fluid that deposited copper at Nallakonda, copper-lead at Dhukonda, and lead at Bandalamottu under progressive cooling during migration through sediments. The ore-fluid was of low temperature (< 200 °C) and oxidized. Thermochemical reduction of basinal water sulfate produced sulfide for ore deposition. It is envisaged that basal red-bed and evaporite-bearing rift-related continental to shallow marine sediments might have acted as the source for the metals. Rift-related faults developed during sedimentation in the basin might have punctured the ore-fluid pool in the lower sedimentary succession and also acted as conduits for their upward migration. The ore-bearing horizons have participated in deformations during basin inversion without any recognizable remobilization.

  16. Alcohol Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Nicotine Facts Other Drugs of Abuse What is Addiction? What are some signs and symptoms of someone ... use problem? How Does Drug Use Become an Addiction? What Makes Someone More Likely to Get Addicted ...

  17. Snack, Facts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Suzanne M.

    2005-01-01

    The American diet has undergone substantial changes, a fact that has negatively impacted the dental health of children. Primary prevention is the ideal method to address the current increased incidence of tooth decay. Educating kids, and their parents, about the qualities of snacks as well as the role of frequency of snacking could help to reduce…

  18. Reptile Facts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinheimer, Margaret

    1993-01-01

    Describes an award-winning bulletin board for introducing a unit on reptiles. This interactive bulletin board contains fun facts and counters common misconceptions about reptiles. Twelve true-false statements are hidden behind pull-up flaps. Four pictures ask students to identify the difference between often-confused animals. (PR)

  19. Brain Facts.

    PubMed

    Wright, Kerri

    2013-11-20

    The Brain Facts website is a treasure trove of information about neuroscience and the brain. It covers a range of diseases and disorders, as well as the science of ageing, and is relevant to practitioners and students in all branches of nursing and midwifery.

  20. Facts First

    SciTech Connect

    Wiley, H. S.

    2009-02-01

    I enjoy reading online news and opinions not only because of convenience, but also because of the responses from the readers. I know that these responses tend to be biased towards the extremes of opinions, but it is always interesting to see the diverse reactions from even seemingly non-controversial subjects. A recent example was the response to an editorial by Richard Gallaghar (October, 2008) that proffered the seemingly obvious opinion that science students need a strong understanding of scientific history and philosophy to help them face future challenges. This provoked a response from a reader, a college professor, that amore » major reason for the lack of good university science education was the laziness of his colleagues. They were taking the “easy way out” by concentrating on teaching facts rather than scientific concepts. In the respondent’s viewpoint, it was far better to teach students how to think. Facts could always be looked up in textbooks. If you did not understand how to think critically and create knowledge, you could not be considered educated. Although I am very sympathetic to this point of view, I don’t believe that laziness is the reason why students are flooded with facts rather than concepts in biology class.« less

  1. Painkiller (Oxy, Vike) Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... That People Abuse Alcohol Facts Bath Salts Facts Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Heroin (Smack, Junk) Facts Marijuana ( ... these pills just like they sell heroin or cocaine. Some people borrow or steal these pills from ...

  2. Indiana crash facts 1997

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1997-01-01

    Indiana Crash Facts 1997...is the fifth annual publication : of Indiana Crash Facts. This year significant changes have been made : to the book, including the consolidation of the Alcohol Crash Facts and : the Crash Facts book into one publication. A...

  3. Diet myths and facts

    MedlinePlus

    Obesity - diet myths and facts; Overweight - diet myths and fact; Weight-loss diet myths and facts ... evidence: using the proposed effect of breakfast on obesity to show 2 practices that distort scientific evidence. ...

  4. Life-course determinants of bone mass in young adults from a transitional rural community in India: the Andhra Pradesh Children and Parents Study (APCAPS)123

    PubMed Central

    Matsuzaki, Mika; Kuper, Hannah; Kulkarni, Bharati; Radhakrishna, KV; Viljakainen, Heli; Taylor, Amy E; Sullivan, Ruth; Bowen, Liza; Tobias, Jon H; Ploubidis, George B; Wells, Jonathan C; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Davey Smith, George; Ebrahim, Shah; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Kinra, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    Background: Undernutrition and physical inactivity are both associated with lower bone mass. Objective: This study aimed to investigate the combined effects of early-life undernutrition and urbanized lifestyles in later life on bone mass accrual in young adults from a rural community in India that is undergoing rapid socioeconomic development. Design: This was a prospective cohort study of participants of the Hyderabad Nutrition Trial (1987–1990), which offered balanced protein-calorie supplementation to pregnant women and preschool children younger than 6 y in the intervention villages. The 2009–2010 follow-up study collected data on current anthropometric measures, bone mineral density (BMD) measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, blood samples, diet, physical activity, and living standards of the trial participants (n = 1446, aged 18–23 y). Results: Participants were generally lean and had low BMD [mean hip BMD: 0.83 (women), 0.95 (men) g/cm2; lumbar spine: 0.86 (women), 0.93 (men) g/cm2]. In models adjusted for current risk factors, no strong evidence of a positive association was found between BMD and early-life supplementation. On the other hand, current lean mass and weight-bearing physical activity were positively associated with BMD. No strong evidence of an association was found between BMD and current serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D or dietary intake of calcium, protein, or calories. Conclusions: Current lean mass and weight-bearing physical activity were more important determinants of bone mass than was early-life undernutrition in this population. In transitional rural communities from low-income countries, promotion of physical activity may help to mitigate any potential adverse effects of early nutritional disadvantage. PMID:24695898

  5. Assessment of anxiety related to dental treatments among patients attending dental clinics and hospitals in Ranga Reddy District, Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Prathima, Vedati; Anjum, M Shakeel; Reddy, P Parthasarathi; Jayakumar, A; Mounica, M

    2014-01-01

    To assess the levels of dental anxiety among patients anticipating dental treatments in dental clinics/hospitals of Ranga Reddy district. A cross-sectional study was conducted among a representative sample of 1200 subjects (at least 18 years old) in dental clinics/hospitals which were selected from a list obtained through systematic random sampling. The data were collected using a pre-tested and calibrated questionnaire consisting of the Modified Corah Dental Anxiety Scale (MDAS) to assess anxiety levels. The majority (52.4%) of subjects showed a low level of anxiety. Females (11.44 ± 4.41) were found to have higher mean MDAS scores than males, and the highest mean MDAS scores were found among 18- to 34-year-olds (11.28 ± 4.67) (P < 0.05). Significant differences were found among subjects anticipating different treatments, with higher MDAS scores for extraction (11.25 ± 5.4), followed by examination, root canal treatment, gum surgery, scaling, restoration and others, e.g. orthodontic treatment, restoration with crowns, bridges and dentures (7.79 ± 3.80). The highest mean MDAS scores were found among subjects who were apprehensive due to 'past difficult experience in dental treatments', followed by 'drill' and 'injection', with the lowest scores among subjects indicating 'other reasons' (7.82 ± 3.84). The present data show that anxiety levels are higher in patients who have to undergo extractions than those who must be fitted with dentures. Thus, dental health care providers should pay more attention to patients' anxiety levels associated with different types of treatment.

  6. Quantitative trait loci at the 11q23.3 chromosomal region related to dyslipidemia in the population of Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Pranavchand, Rayabarapu; Reddy, Battini Mohan

    2017-06-13

    Given the characteristic atherogenic dyslipidemia of south Indian population and crucial role of APOA1, APOC3, APOA4 and APOA5 genes clustered in 11q23.3 chromosomal region in regulating lipoprotein metabolism and cholesterol homeostasis, a large number of recently identified variants are to be explored for their role in regulating the serum lipid parameters among south Indians. Using fluidigm SNP genotyping platform, a prioritized set of 96 SNPs of the 11q23.3 chromosomal region were genotyped on 516 individuals from Hyderabad, India, and its vicinity and aged >45 years. The linear regression analysis of the individual lipid traits viz., TC, LDLC, HDLC, VLDL and TG with each of the 78 SNPs that confirm to HWE and with minor allele frequency > 1%, suggests 23 of those to be significantly associated (p ≤ 0.05) with at least one of these quantitative traits. Most importantly, the variant rs632153 is involved in elevating TC, LDLC, TG and VLDLs and probably playing a crucial role in the manifestation of dyslipidemia. Additionally, another three SNPs rs633389, rs2187126 and rs1263163 are found risk conferring to dyslipidemia by elevating LDLC and TC levels in the present population. Further, the ROC (receiver operating curve) analysis for the risk scores and dyslipidemia status yielded a significant area under curve (AUC) = 0.675, suggesting high discriminative power of the risk variants towards the condition. The interaction analysis suggests rs10488699-rs2187126 pair of the BUD13 gene to confer significant risk (Interaction odds ratio = 14.38, P = 7.17 × 10 5 ) towards dyslipidemia by elevating the TC levels (β = 37.13, p = 6.614 × 10 5 ). On the other hand, the interaction between variants of APOA1 gene and BUD13 and/or ZPR1 regulatory genes at this region are associated with elevated TG and VLDL. The variants at 11q23.3 chromosomal region seem to determine the quantitative lipid traits and in turn dyslipidemia in the population of Hyderabad. Particularly, the variants rs632153, rs633389, rs2187126 and rs1263163 might be risk conferring to dyslipidemia by elevating LDLC and TC levels, while the variants of APOC3 and APOA1 genes might be the genetic determinants of elevated triglycerides in the present population.

  7. Life-course determinants of bone mass in young adults from a transitional rural community in India: the Andhra Pradesh Children and Parents Study (APCAPS).

    PubMed

    Matsuzaki, Mika; Kuper, Hannah; Kulkarni, Bharati; Radhakrishna, K V; Viljakainen, Heli; Taylor, Amy E; Sullivan, Ruth; Bowen, Liza; Tobias, Jon H; Ploubidis, George B; Wells, Jonathan C; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Davey Smith, George; Ebrahim, Shah; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Kinra, Sanjay

    2014-06-01

    Undernutrition and physical inactivity are both associated with lower bone mass. This study aimed to investigate the combined effects of early-life undernutrition and urbanized lifestyles in later life on bone mass accrual in young adults from a rural community in India that is undergoing rapid socioeconomic development. This was a prospective cohort study of participants of the Hyderabad Nutrition Trial (1987-1990), which offered balanced protein-calorie supplementation to pregnant women and preschool children younger than 6 y in the intervention villages. The 2009-2010 follow-up study collected data on current anthropometric measures, bone mineral density (BMD) measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, blood samples, diet, physical activity, and living standards of the trial participants (n = 1446, aged 18-23 y). Participants were generally lean and had low BMD [mean hip BMD: 0.83 (women), 0.95 (men) g/cm²; lumbar spine: 0.86 (women), 0.93 (men) g/cm²]. In models adjusted for current risk factors, no strong evidence of a positive association was found between BMD and early-life supplementation. On the other hand, current lean mass and weight-bearing physical activity were positively associated with BMD. No strong evidence of an association was found between BMD and current serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D or dietary intake of calcium, protein, or calories. Current lean mass and weight-bearing physical activity were more important determinants of bone mass than was early-life undernutrition in this population. In transitional rural communities from low-income countries, promotion of physical activity may help to mitigate any potential adverse effects of early nutritional disadvantage.

  8. An approach of understanding acid volcanics and tuffaceous volcaniclastics from field studies: A case from Tadpatri Formation, Proterozoic Cuddapah basin, Andhra Pradesh, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, Sukanta; Upadhyay, P. K.; Bhagat, Sangeeta; Zakaulla, Syed; Bhatt, A. K.; Natarajan, V.; Dey, Sukanta

    2018-03-01

    The lower stratigraphic part of the Cuddapah basin is marked by mafic and felsic volcanism. Tadpatri Formation consists of a greater variety of rock types due to bimodal volcanism in the upper part. Presence of bimodal volcanism is an indication of continental rift setting. Various genetic processes involved in the formation of such volcanic sequence result in original textures which are classified into volcaniclastic and coherent categories. Detailed and systematic field works in Tadpatri-Tonduru transect of SW Cuddapah basin have provided information on the physical processes producing this diversity of rock types. Felsic volcanism is manifested here with features as finger print of past rhyolite-dacite eruptions. Acid volcanics, tuffs and associated shale of Tadpatri Formation are studied and mapped in the field. With supporting subordinate studies on geochemistry, mineralogy and petrogenesis of the volcanics to validate field features accurately, it is understood that volcanism was associated with rifting and shallow marine environmental condition. Four facies (i.e., surge, flow, fall and resedimented volcaniclastic) are demarcated to describe stratigraphic units and volcanic history of the mapped area. The present contribution focuses on the fundamental characterization and categorization of field-based features diagnostic of silica-rich volcanic activities in the Tadpatri Formation.

  9. Maternal Self Esteem and Locus of Control Relates to the Quality of Young Children's Environment (HOME) in Rural Andhra Pradesh, India: Research and Policy Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Sylvia; Vazir, Shahnaz; Bentley, Peggy; Johnson, Susan; Engle, Patrice

    2008-01-01

    The Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) scale has been shown to be a significant predictor of later cognitive outcomes in many cultures. Therefore identifying factors associated with HOME could be used to promote child development. Maternal psychological well-being is often overlooked although critical in the creation of…

  10. Climate drivers on malaria transmission in Arunachal Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Upadhyayula, Suryanaryana Murty; Mutheneni, Srinivasa Rao; Chenna, Sumana; Parasaram, Vaideesh; Kadiri, Madhusudhan Rao

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted during the years 2006 to 2012 and provides information on prevalence of malaria and its regulation with effect to various climatic factors in East Siang district of Arunachal Pradesh, India. Correlation analysis, Principal Component Analysis and Hotelling's T² statistics models are adopted to understand the effect of weather variables on malaria transmission. The epidemiological study shows that the prevalence of malaria is mostly caused by the parasite Plasmodium vivax followed by Plasmodium falciparum. It is noted that, the intensity of malaria cases declined gradually from the year 2006 to 2012. The transmission of malaria observed was more during the rainy season, as compared to summer and winter seasons. Further, the data analysis study with Principal Component Analysis and Hotelling's T² statistic has revealed that the climatic variables such as temperature and rainfall are the most influencing factors for the high rate of malaria transmission in East Siang district of Arunachal Pradesh.

  11. Evaluation of telemedicine centres in Madhya Pradesh, Central India.

    PubMed

    Bali, Surya; Gupta, Arti; Khan, Asif; Pakhare, Abhijit

    2016-04-01

    In a developing country such as India, there is substantial inequality in health care distribution. Telemedicine facilities were established in Madhya Pradesh in 2007-2008. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the infrastructure, equipment, manpower, and functional status of Indian Space and Research Organisation (ISRO) telemedicine nodes in Madhya Pradesh. All district hospitals and medical colleges with nodes were visited by a team of three members. The study was conducted from December 2013-January 2014. The team recorded the structural facility situation and physical conditions on a predesigned pro forma. The team also conducted interviews with the nodal officers, data entry operator and other relevant people at these centres. Of the six specialist nodes, four were functional and two were non-functional. Of 10 patient nodes, two nodes were functional, four were semi-functional and four were non-functional. Most of the centres were not working due to a problem with their satellite modem. The overall condition of ISRO run telemedicine centres in Madhya Pradesh was found to be poor. Most of these centres failed to provide telemedicine consultations. We recommend replacing this system with another cost effective system available in the state wide area network (SWAN). We suggest the concept of the virtual out-patient department. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Meth (Crank, Ice) Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Crank, Ice) Facts Meth (Crank, Ice) Facts Listen Methamphetamine—meth for short—is a white, bitter powder. ... names for meth are: Crank Ice Crystal Glass Chalk In This Section Signs of Meth Use and ...

  13. Key Facts about Tularemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Methyl isocyanate Case Definition: Methyl Isocyanate Poisoning Mustard gas (H) (sulfur mustard) Facts About Sulfur Mustard Case ... choking/lung agents Ricin Riot control agents/tear gas Facts About Riot Control Agents Case Definition: Riot ...

  14. Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... That People Abuse » Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Listen Cocaine is a white ... 69 KB) "My life was built around getting cocaine and getting high." ©istock.com/ Marjot Stacey is ...

  15. Heroin (Smack, Junk) Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... That People Abuse » Heroin (Smack, Junk) Facts Heroin (Smack, Junk) Facts Listen ©istock.com/ Bestfotostudio Heroin ... 301.56 KB) (301.56 KB) "I needed heroin just to get by." ©istock.com/ pixelheadphoto Deon ...

  16. Marijuana: Facts for Teens

    MedlinePlus

    ... Publications » Marijuana: Facts for Teens » Letter to Teens Marijuana: Facts for Teens Email Facebook Twitter Letter to ... about 1 in 14 teens say they used marijuana in the past month. 1 So, if you ...

  17. Marijuana (Weed, Pot) Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... That People Abuse » Marijuana (Weed, Pot) Facts Marijuana (Weed, Pot) Facts Listen Marijuana is a green, brown, or gray mix of dried, shredded leaves and flowers from the marijuana plant. Marijuana can be rolled up and smoked ...

  18. Facts about Hib Disease. ARC Facts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Retarded Citizens, Arlington, TX.

    The fact sheet provides basic information about Hib Disease in young children, which may involve a bacterial meningitis causing mental retardation, hearing loss, partial blindness, speech disorders, partial paralysis, behavioral problems, or seizures. Stressed is prevention of Hib Disease through immunization. The question and answer format…

  19. Seroprevalence of Scrub Typhus Infection in Arunachal Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Jakharia, Aniruddha; Borkakoty, Biswajyoti; Biswas, Dipankar; Yadav, Kaushal; Mahanta, Jagadish

    2016-10-01

    Scrub typhus is a major reason for febrile illness, caused by a bacterium Orientia tsutsugamushi, a rickettsial pathogen. Few outbreaks of scrub typhus have been reported from Arunachal Pradesh in recent past. However, there is lack of seroprevalence data from the region. In this regard, this study was undertaken using archival serum sample available from seven districts of Arunachal Pradesh. This serological study was conducted in Regional Medical Research Center for NE Region, Dibrugarh. Reactivity to IgG class of antibodies against scrub typhus was done using Scrub typhus detect IgG ELISA kit as per manufacturer's protocol. Seroprevalence of scrub typhus in seven districts of Arunachal Pradesh was found to be 40% (120/300). The age-specific scrub typhus seroprevalence rose steadily from 5.6% in children <10 years of age to 61.8% in persons aged ≥40 years (p = 0.0001). Prevalence is lowest in Papumpare (25.9%) and highest in East Siang (72.5%) (p = 0.0001). The seroprevalence in males and females was very similar, however, the female prevalence increases from age group ≥30 years (p = 0.053). Moreover, among the farmers, the seroprevalence is higher (58.3%) (p = 0.0001). As clinical symptoms overlap with other viral/bacterial infections, scrub typhus infection should be considered in differential diagnosis of any acute febrile illness in this part of the country. In view of the high prevalence, empirical therapy of doxycycline/azithromycin may be done in cases of undiagnosed fever. Active surveillance has to be done to understand exact magnitude, epidemiological aspects, and distribution of vector and disease of this reemerging neglected tropical disease.

  20. Facts for Feeding Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academy for Educational Development, Washington, DC.

    This document compiles several fact sheets, in multiple languages, for mothers and parent educators providing information and answering questions concerning breastfeeding infants. The fact sheets are published in English, French, and Spanish, and cover the following topics: (1) "Recommended Practices To Improve Infant Nutrition during the…

  1. Communication Fact Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, Rockville, MD.

    This brief fact sheet examines key aspects of communication, communication disabilities, and intervention. The fact sheet addresses the following questions: the nature of communication; communication disabilities (definitions of hearing impairments and speech and language impairments are given); effects of communication disabilities (factors…

  2. Sleep Apnea Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Apnea Facts Sleep Apnea Links Sleep Apnea Facts Sleep apnea affects up to 18 million Americans The condition was ... member is the first to notice signs of sleep apnea in someone with the ... diagnosed. The condition affects about 4 percent of middle-aged men and ...

  3. Tinnitus: Understanding the Facts

    MedlinePlus

    American Tinnitus Association Donate Become A Member Member Login Find A Provider Support Search form Search Menu Close Understanding The Facts Managing Your Tinnitus Research Toward A Cure About Us Initiatives News & ...

  4. 2008 Montana transportation facts

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2008-12-01

    This publication provides an overview of the Department's responsibilities as well as facts and figures related to Montana's highway system, public transportation, rail system, and air service. The publication also includes information on funding sou...

  5. Childhood Obesity Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Local Programs Related Topics Diabetes Nutrition Childhood Obesity Facts Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... Children (WIC) Program, 2000-2014 Prevalence of Childhood Obesity in the United States Childhood obesity is a ...

  6. Sepsis Fact Sheet

    MedlinePlus

    ... News & Meetings Science Education About NIGMS NIGMS Home > Science Education > Sepsis Sepsis Tagline (Optional) Middle/Main Content Area PDF Version (392 KB) En español Other Fact Sheets What is sepsis? Sepsis is a serious ...

  7. Trauma Fact Sheet

    MedlinePlus

    ... News & Meetings Science Education About NIGMS NIGMS Home > Science Education > Physical Trauma Physical Trauma Tagline (Optional) Middle/Main Content Area PDF Version (420 KB) Other Fact Sheets What is physical trauma? Physical trauma is ...

  8. Pharmacogenomics Fact Sheet

    MedlinePlus

    ... News & Meetings Science Education About NIGMS NIGMS Home > Science Education > Pharmacogenomics Pharmacogenomics Tagline (Optional) Middle/Main Content Area PDF Version (376 KB) Other Fact Sheets What is pharmacogenomics? Pharmacogenomics (sometimes called pharmacogenetics) ...

  9. Anesthesia Fact Sheet

    MedlinePlus

    ... News & Meetings Science Education About NIGMS NIGMS Home > Science Education > Anesthesia Anesthesia Tagline (Optional) Middle/Main Content Area En español PDF Version (464 KB) Other Fact Sheets What is anesthesia? Anesthesia is a medical ...

  10. Facts about Physical Activity

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Facts about Physical Activity ... Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs File Formats Help: How ...

  11. Postpartum Depression Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Where can I find more information? Share Postpartum Depression Facts Download PDF Download ePub Download Mobi Order ... for herself or her family. What is postpartum depression? Postpartum depression is a mood disorder that can ...

  12. Facts about Pulmonary Atresia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Living With Heart Defects Data & Statistics Tracking & Research Articles & Key Findings Free Materials Multimedia and Tools Links to Other Websites Information For… Media Policy Makers Facts about Pulmonary Atresia Recommend on ...

  13. [Suicide, a social fact].

    PubMed

    Baudelot, Christian

    2017-04-01

    Treating suicide as a social fact means disregarding its individual and dramatic dimensions. Sociologists do not reason on the basis of specific cases but by studying the variations, in space and time, of suicide rates. Their contribution relates essentially to a renewed perspective on society: suicide is in fact a very accurate indicator of the intensity and quality of the bonds which unite or isolate individuals in a society. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Biodiesel Basics (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    This fact sheet provides a brief introduction to biodiesel, including a discussion of biodiesel blends, which blends are best for which vehicles, where to buy biodiesel, how biodiesel compares to diesel fuel in terms of performance, how biodiesel performs in cold weather, whether biodiesel use will plug vehicle filters, how long-term biodiesel use may affect engines, biodiesel fuel standards, and whether biodiesel burns cleaner than diesel fuel. The fact sheet also dismisses the use of vegetable oil as a motor fuel.

  15. Dental caries prevalence and treatment needs among 12- and 15- Year old schoolchildren in Shimla city, Himachal Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Shailee, Fotedar; Sogi, G M; Sharma, K R; Nidhi, Pruthi

    2012-01-01

    Dental caries is one of the commonest oral diseases in children. Despite this fact, not many studies have been done on this issue among school children in Shimla. To assess the prevalence of dental caries and treatment needs among schoolchildren aged 12 years and 15 years in Shimla city, Himachal Pradesh, India. With this study we also aimed to establish reliable baseline data. Cross-sectional study. This study was conducted among 12 - and 15 - year old schoolchildren in Shimla city, Himachal Pradesh-India. A sample of 1011 schoolchildren was selected by a two-stage cluster sampling method. Clinical recording of dental caries, was done according to WHO diagnostic criteria (1997). The statistical tests used were the t- test, and the Chi-square test. The prevalence of dental caries was 32.6% and 42.2% at 12 years and 15 years respectively. At 12 years of age, the mean Decayed Missing Filled Teeth was 0.62 ± 1.42 and it was 1.06 ± 2.93 at 15 years of age. Females had higher level of caries than males at both the ages. Dental caries was higher in children from government schools as compared to those from private schools. The 'decayed' component was the biggest contributor to the DMFT index. The highest treatment need at both ages was one surface restoration. The caries experience of 12- and 15- year-old children was low compared to WHO - 'recommended' values. Effective oral health promotion strategies need to be implemented to further improve the dental health of school children in Shimla city.

  16. Bat Facts and Fun.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, Judith A.

    1992-01-01

    Describes a unit of study for elementary school science on bats. Students investigate the different types of bats; examine their behavior; find facts that other students are unlikely to know; write stories about bats; and examine the concept of echolocation, the means by which bats navigate. Suggests integrated activities for mathematics…

  17. Fitness. Health Facts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krantzler, Nora J.; Miner, Kathleen R.

    The 10-volume "Health Facts" series is intended to supplement health education curricula and to provide a handy reference for individuals who would like additional background information on particular health topics. The emphasis is placed on topics and examples relevant to youth of middle and high school age. The five sections in this…

  18. Insulation Fact Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service (DOE), Silver Spring, MD.

    Heating and cooling account for 50-70% of the energy consumed in the average American home. Heating water accounts for another 20%. A poorly insulated home loses much of this energy, causing drafty rooms and high energy bills. This fact sheet discusses how to determine if your home needs more insulation, the additional thermal resistance (called…

  19. Ethanol Basics (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  20. 2012 BC Education Facts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Teachers' Federation, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This report presents facts and figures on British Columbia's education for 2012. It is divided into the following seven sections: (1) Schools, which covers: (a) Number of public schools; (b) Number of independent (private) schools; (c) School closures; (d) Rural schools and students; (e) School-district amalgamation; and (f) School safety: Seismic…

  1. Marijuana: Facts for Teens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHHS), Rockville, MD. Div. of Research.

    Using a question and answer format, this booklet is designed to inform teens about the dangers of marijuana usage. Inset facts about marijuana and teen perspectives compliment the following topics: (1) What is marijuana? (2) How is marijuana used? (3) How long does marijuana stay in the user's body? (4) How many teens smoke marijuana? (5) Why do…

  2. NASA Facts, The Countdown.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet describes the preparations for launching a giant Atlas, Gemini (Titan 11), or Saturn launch vehicle. The material is intended for use in elementary general science. The pamphlet is one of the NASA Facts Science Series (each of which consists of four pages) and is designed to fit in the standard size three-ring notebook. Review…

  3. Nutrition. Health Facts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stang, Lucas; Miner, Kathleen R.

    The 10-volume "Health Facts" series is intended to supplement to health education curricula and provide a handy reference for individuals who would like additional background information on particular health topics. The emphasis is on topics and examples relevant to youth of middle and high school age. The five sections in this book…

  4. Energy Facts 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Energy Information Administration (DOE), Washington, DC.

    This booklet is a compilation of energy data providing a reference to a much broader range of domestic and international energy data. It is designed especially as a quick reference to major facts about energy. The data includes information for 1976 through 1988, except for international energy data, which is for 1977 through 1987. Graphs, charts,…

  5. Fact Book 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaylord, Thomas A.; And Others

    This 1993 fact book provides historical and current information concerning the University of Alaska at Fairbanks. The book provides academic and assessment data, student enrollment data, and information on faculty and staff, financial budgets, research and public services, and educational facilities. Historical data includes, beside the…

  6. HIV Prevention. Health Facts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stang, Lucas; Miner, Kathleen R.

    The 10-volume "Health Facts" series is intended to supplement health education curricula and provide a handy reference for individuals who would like additional background information on particular health topics. The emphasis is placed on topics and examples relevant to youth of middle and high school age. The seven sections in this book…

  7. NASA Facts, Solar Cells.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    The design and function of solar cells as a source of electrical power for unmanned space vehicles is described in this pamphlet written for high school physical science students. The pamphlet is one of the NASA Facts Science Series (each of which consists of four pages) and is designed to fit in the standard size three-ring notebook. Review…

  8. Gun Sales. Firearm Facts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duker, Laurie, Ed.

    Minimal federal regulations on firearm sales have facilitated the proliferation of guns, gun owners, and gun dealers in the United States. This fact sheet offers data on the growing number of firearm dealers, the relative ease of obtaining and keeping a license to sell guns from the Federal Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms, the lack of…

  9. Sexuality. Health Facts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stang, Lucas; Miner, Kathleen R.

    The 10-volume "Health Facts" series is intended to supplement health education curricula and provide a handy reference for individuals who would like additional background information on particular health topics. The emphasis is placed on topics and examples relevant to youth of middle and high school age. The seven sections in this book…

  10. STD Prevention. Health Facts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stang, Lucas; Miner, Kathleen R.

    The 10-volume "Health Facts" series is intended to supplement health education curricula and provide a handy reference for individuals who would like additional background information on particular health topics. The emphasis is placed on topics and examples relevant to youth of middle and high school age. The five sections in this book…

  11. NASA Facts, Weightlessness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    Weightlessness and how it can be artificially produced is described in this pamphlet written for junior high school students. The pamphlet is one of the NASA Facts Science Series (each of which consists of four pages) and is designed to fit in the standard size three-ring notebook. Review questions, suggested activities, and references are…

  12. Fingertip Facts 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shumway, Larry K.

    2010-01-01

    This paper offers facts and figures on Utah's education status for 2010. This paper contains the following: (1) Core CRT Language Arts Testing, 2009; (2) Core CRT Mathematics Testing, 2009; (3) 2009 Public Education General Fund--Funding by Source and Expenditures by Function; (4) 2009-10 Public School Enrollment Demographics; (5) Public Schools…

  13. Indiana crash facts 2000

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2000-01-01

    The 2000 Crash Facts, a compilation of the approximately 220,000 : crashes that occurred throughout the state of Indiana. The year 2000 established a number of : record-setting lows in the area of traffic safety for our state. Specifically, fatal cra...

  14. NASA Facts, Voyager.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC. Educational Programs Div.

    This document is one of a series of publications of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) on facts about the exploration of Jupiter and Saturn. This NASA mission consists of two unmanned Voyager spacecrafts launched in August and September of 1977, and due to arrive at Jupiter in 1979. An account of the scientific equipment…

  15. Mastering the Multiplication Facts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Ettorre, Jenna

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to share the results of a six-week research project (after baseline data was collected) that focused on three different strategies (flashcards, interactive games, and music) and their effectiveness in helping fifth grade students memorize the basic multiplication facts. Many teachers face a serious problem when their…

  16. Faith, Fact, and Behaviorism

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    David Hume argued that ought cannot be derived from is. That is, no set of facts, no amount of scientific knowledge, is by itself sufficient to urge us to action. Yet generations of well-meaning scientists (more and more as secular influences grow in the West) seem to have forgotten Hume's words of wisdom. All motivated action depends ultimately on beliefs that cannot be proved by the methods of science, that is, on faith. PMID:28018034

  17. Ethnobotany of the Monpa ethnic group at Arunachal Pradesh, India

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The present paper documents the uses of plants in traditional herbal medicine for human and veterinary ailments, and those used for dietary supplements, religious purpose, local beverage, and plants used to poison fish and wild animals. Traditional botanical medicine is the primary mode of healthcare for most of the rural population in Arunachal Pradesh. Materials and methods Field research was conducted between April 2006 and March 2009 with randomly selected 124 key informants using semi-structured questionnaire. The data obtained was analyzed through informant consensus factor (FIC) to determine the homogeneity of informant's knowledge on medicinal plants. Results We documented 50 plants species belonging to 29 families used for treating 22 human and 4 veterinary ailments. Of the medicinal plants reported, the most common growth form was herbs (40%) followed by shrubs, trees, and climbers. Leaves were most frequently used plant parts. The consensus analysis revealed that the dermatological ailments have the highest FIC (0.56) and the gastro-intestinal diseases have FIC (0.43). FIC values indicated that there was high agreement in the use of plants in dermatological and gastro-intestinal ailments category among the users. Gymnocladus assamicus is a critically rare and endangered species used as disinfectant for cleaning wounds and parasites like leeches and lice on livestocks. Two plant species (Illicium griffithii and Rubia cordifolia) are commonly used for traditional dyeing of clothes and food items. Some of the edible plants recorded in this study were known for their treatment against high blood pressure (Clerodendron colebrookianum), diabetes mellitus (Momordica charantia), and intestinal parasitic worms like round and tape worms (Lindera neesiana, Solanum etiopicum, and Solanum indicum). The Monpas of Arunachal Pradesh have traditionally been using Daphne papyracea for preparing hand-made paper for painting and writing religious scripts in

  18. Agricultural practices and irrigation water demand in Uttar Pradesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Keeffe, J.; Buytaert, W.; Brozovic, N.; Mijic, A.

    2013-12-01

    Changes in farming practices within Uttar Pradesh, particularly advances in irrigation technology, have led to a significant drop in water tables across the region. While the acquisition of monitoring data in India is a challenge, current water use practices point towards water overdraught. This is exacerbated by government and state policies and practices, including the subsidising of electricity, seeds and fertilizer, and an agreement to buy all crops grown, promoting the over use of water resources. Taking India's predicted population growth, increases in industrialisation and climate change into account, both farmland and the water resources it depends upon will be subject to increased pressures in the future. This research is centred around irrigation demands on water resources within Uttar Pradesh, and in particular, quantifying those demands both spatially and temporally. Two aspects of this will be presented; the quantification of irrigation water applied and the characterisation of the spatial heterogeneity of water use practices. Calculating the volumes of applied irrigation water in the absence of observed data presents a major challenge and is achieved here through the use of crop models. Regional crop yields provided by statistical yearbooks are replicated by the crop models AquaCrop and InfoCrop, and by doing so the amount of irrigation water needed to produce the published yields is quantified. In addition, proxy information, for example electrical consumption for agricultural use, is used to verify the likely volumes of water abstracted from tubewells. Statistical analyses of borehole distribution and the characterisation of the spatial heterogeneity of water use practices, particularly farmer decision making, collected during a field trip are also presented. The evolution of agricultural practices, technological advancement and water use for irrigation is reconstructed through the use of multiple regression and principle component analysis

  19. Water facts for Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1945-01-01

    Water descends from the clouds, and forms rivers, lakes, and seas. It is delivered to the earth absolutely free, not in accordance with man-made specifications or orders but at the caprice of the elements. Hence man to realize fully the benefits of this incomparable and recurring resource must have full knowledge of its erratic occurrence before ways and means may be devised for putting water to beneficial use and for preventing it from doing harm. Water facts are essential for the effective and efficient utility of water.

  20. Laboratory investigation of drinking water sources of Kangra, Himachal Pradesh.

    PubMed

    Thakur, S D; Panda, A K

    2012-06-01

    A total of 70 drinking water sources including piped water supply (n = 36), ground water sources (n = 24, hand pumps and bore wells) and natural water sources (n = 10, springs/step-wells) from various parts of district Kangra, Himachal Pradesh were investigated for their suitability for drinking purpose by presumptive coliform test. Three samples were collected from each source during different parts of the year. Piped water sources (91.7%) were most contaminated followed by natural water sources (90%) and ground water sources (62.5%). 70.5% of the total water samples (n = 210) were positive for coliforms. All the three samples from 8.3% (n = 3), 37.5% (n = 9) and 10% (n = 1) piped water, ground water and natural sources respectively, were negative for coliform organisms. A variety of organisms including Proteus, Klebsiella, Citrobacter, Escherichia coli (E. coli), Pasteurella, Enterobacter and Serratia liquefaciens were isolated from water samples positive for coliforms in presumptive coliform test. Thermo-tolerant coliform organisms; Escherichia coli, Citrobacter, Klebsiella and Enterobacter were 71.2% (n = 52) of the total bacterial isolations. These findings suggest absence of adequate treatment and disinfection of the water sources supplying drinking water in district Kangra.

  1. Fertility in Hill Korwas -- a primitive tribe of Madhya Pradesh.

    PubMed

    Pandey, G D; Tiwary, R S

    1996-12-01

    This study examines fertility behavior among 604 eligible couples in Hill Korwa tribes in Madhya Pradesh state, India. Low fertility patterns are compared to those of neighboring Gonds and nontribals from rural Jabalpur. The Hill Korwa are a subtribe of the Korwa, who remained in the hills and dense forests. Over 60% live in three tehsils of Surguja district, including Ambikapur tehsil where the study was conducted. Data were obtained in March 1991. Eligible couples were those where both partners live together and the noncontracepting wife is under age 50 and nonmenopausal. Only 3% were literate. Female marriage age was about 15 years. The median age was 23.8 years. 92% lived below the poverty line. The average number of children ever born (CEB) per couple was 1.9, compared to 2.5 for the Gond and 2.9 for nontribal couples. The CEB in a reproductive lifetime was 2.9, compared to 5.3 for Gond women and 5.9 for nontribal women. Fecundity among Hill Korwa women was 66% lower at younger ages (16-17 years and 17-18 years), and the differences increased with an increase in age at marriage. Hill Korwas had a low female age at marriage, low literacy, low percentages engaged in agriculture, and higher percentages living above the poverty line.

  2. Dust Quantization and Effects on Agriculture Over Uttar Pradesh, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munshi, Pavel; Tiwari, Shubhansh

    2017-01-01

    Dust plays a very important role in the atmosphere and the biosphere. In this communication, the effect of atmospheric dust on the yields of certain crops grown in Uttar Pradesh, India is assessed. Coherent physical and thermodynamic fingerprints of dust parameters such as from Satellite data- KALPANA-1, MODIS, OMI, CALIPSO; Model data- DREAM, HYSPLIT, ECMWF; have been considered to run the APSIM model to derive the impacts. This paper assesses dust as a physical atmospheric phenomenon including its Long Range Transport (LRT) and dispersion along with considerable variations of Aerosol Optical Depths (AODs) over the subcontinent of India. While AODs significantly increase by more dust concentration, the local dispersion of pollutants is a major concern with deposition of atmospheric dust such as sulphates and other chemical constituents that affect agricultural land. An approach in atmospheric physics is also taken to parameterize the model outputs. This communication indicates dust to be a positive factor for the cultivation of certain crops such as wheat, maize in the experimental location. Initial results suggest that LRT dust is a viable counterpart to decrease the concentration of soil acidity and related parameters thus enhancing the vitality of crops.

  3. Photovoltaics Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2016-02-01

    This fact sheet is an overview of the Photovoltaics (PV) subprogram at the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Solar Energy Technologies Office works with industry, academia, national laboratories, and other government agencies to advance solar PV, which is the direct conversion of sunlight into electricity by a semiconductor, in support of the goals of the SunShot Initiative. SunShot supports research and development to aggressively advance PV technology by improving efficiency and reliability and lowering manufacturing costs. SunShot’s PV portfolio spans work from early-stage solar cell research through technology commercialization, including work on materials,more » processes, and device structure and characterization techniques.« less

  4. Systems Integration Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2016-06-01

    This fact sheet is an overview of the Systems Integration subprogram at the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative. The Systems Integration subprogram enables the widespread deployment of safe, reliable, and cost-effective solar energy technologies by addressing the associated technical and non-technical challenges. These include timely and cost-effective interconnection procedures, optimal system planning, accurate prediction of solar resources, monitoring and control of solar power, maintaining grid reliability and stability, and many more. To address the challenges associated with interconnecting and integrating hundreds of gigawatts of solar power onto the electricity grid, the Systems Integration program funds research, development, and demonstrationmore » projects in four broad, interrelated focus areas: grid performance and reliability, dispatchability, power electronics, and communications.« less

  5. Soft Costs Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2016-05-01

    This fact sheet is an overview of the systems integration subprogram at the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative. Soft costs can vary significantly as a result of a fragmented energy marketplace. In the U.S., there are 18,000 jurisdictions and 3,000 utilities with different rules and regulations for how to go solar. The same solar equipment may vary widely in its final installation price due to process and market variations across jurisdictions, creating barriers to rapid industry growth. SunShot supports the development of innovative solutions that enable communities to build their local economies and establish clean energy initiatives that meetmore » their needs, while at the same time creating sustainable solar market conditions.« less

  6. Anthropogenically accelerated mass movement, Kulu Valley, Himachal Pradesh, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sah, M. P.; Mazari, R. K.

    1998-12-01

    A devastating landslide occurred on 12 September 1995 near Luggar Bhatti, Kulu, Himachal Pradesh, and killed 65 people. An estimated 0.96×10 6 m 3 of unconsolidated mass slid SSE down the terminal part of a thick alluvial fan of Quaternary age on the left bank of the Beas River. About 0.03×10 6 m 3 of dislodged material formed a 15-m high and 150-m long hump at the bottom of the failed slope; a shallow sag pond developed in the rear. The slide occurred after heavy rains on 3-6 September in the region when the Beas rose to a bankfull position. Factors involved in this toppling-cum-debris slide include steep slope, continuous seepage with high pore water pressure in unconsolidated material, a road-cut obliterating the foot of the fan slope, and impinging by the Beas River during the flood. A survey in the area showed that a variety of mass movement processes were triggered by the heavy rains in September; the most predominant being a series of slope failures on the outside of meander loops and bank erosion caused by turbulence of the overflowing Beas River. Extensive damage was sustained by National Highway-21 (NH-21), a bridge ramp near Bhuntar, a suspension bridge at Kulu and two other bridges upstream. Most damage occurred in the Manali area where massive buildings were washed away by the flash flood. This paper examines the factors and processes responsible for triggering widespread mass movement and related damages in the Kulu Valley. Whereas some smaller events occurred in the early and middle part of this century, the recurrence and intensity of mass movements are recent phenomena attributed mainly to escalating socio-economic development, growth of tourism, and population pressure. Some long term policy is suggested for mitigation of landslides and other denudational processes in relation to impelling human factors.

  7. Sociocultural diversity and substance use pattern in Arunachal Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, H K; Mahanta, J

    2004-04-09

    An epidemiological study on substance use was carried out to assess the prevalence and pattern of tobacco, alcohol, and opium being used commonly in ethnographic diverse population of Arunachal Pradesh, India. Representative sample of 5135 people age > or =10 years were interviewed to collect information about their habit of substance use. Over all, prevalence of substance use was 30.9% tobacco (22.8% chewers and 12.1% smokers), 30% alcohol, and 4.8% opium, which vary across location, gender, race, age, education, and occupation. Though tobacco and alcohol was commonly used among all the tribes, but high alcohol use among Tangsa and Tutsa tribes reflects strong cultural belief. Religiously, opium use was low among Christian and Hindu at lower (< 1000 m) altitude, but high among Buddhist, Indigenous, and Hindu living at higher altitude. Among males, high multivariate rate ratio of opium users was seen among the population of high altitude (9.1). Moreover, it was also high among Singpho (7.1) and Khamti (9.7) tribes living in low altitude area, which shows the strong geo-ethnographic influence. Average age at initiation of alcohol use (12.4 years) was significantly lower than tobacco (17.6 years), and opium (23.3 years) indicate social acceptability of alcohol drinking at early age. Use of multiple substances and high prevalence of opium express the alarming situation of substance misuse in the region. Besides few limitations, varied results of socio-cultural and ethnic influences recalls integrated approach to break the traditional belief associated with alcohol and drug abuse from the society.

  8. Patterns of Maxillofacial Fractures in Uttar Pradesh, India

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Padmanidhi; Mehrotra, Divya; Agarwal, Rajul; Kumar, Sumit; Pandey, Rahul

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to obtain dependable epidemiologic data of the variation in cause and characteristics of maxillofacial fractures by identifying, describing, and quantifying trauma. This retrospective study was conducted in the state of Uttar Pradesh, India, over 1 year, based on a systematic computer-assisted database search from March 2015 to March 2016 for maxillofacial fractures. The demographics, etiology, geographic distribution, date of injury, site and number of fractures, and type of intervention were recorded for each. The study population consisted of 1,000 patients with 1,543 fractures. The male:female ratio was 8:1. A peak incidence of fractures was seen in the third decade (mean age: 30.3) with maximum patients younger than 40 years (80.8%). The incidence of fractures was highest in spring (42.9%). Road traffic accidents were the most common cause of trauma (64.4%) and mainly involved two wheelers (60.2%). Single-site fractures were most common. Mostly zygomatic (45.1%) and mandibular fractures (44.4%) were encountered, accounting for approximately 90% of all fractures. The main site of mandibular fractures was the body (34.4%); 46.2% of fractures underwent open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) while 53.8% were treated by closed methods. The study provides important data to contrive future plans for injury prevention. The trend of most traffic-related injuries continues with the increasing traffic on roads. Zygomatic complex and mandibular fractures remain the most frequent. The major populations at risk are young men and those driving two wheelers. The use of helmets could achieve a large reduction in maxillofacial fractures. Awareness for preventive measures and safety guidelines should be propagated and legislation on traffic rules strictly reinforced. PMID:28210408

  9. Facts, values, and journalism.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Susan

    2017-03-01

    At a time of fake news, hacks, leaks, and unverified reports, many people are unsure whom to believe. How can we communicate in ways that make individuals question their assumptions and learn? My colleagues at The Hastings Center and many journalists and scientists are grappling with this question and have, independently, reached the same first step: recognize that facts can't be fully understood without probing their connection to values. "Explaining the basics is important, of course, but we also need to diversify our approach to the coverage of science-particularly as it intersects with the matrix of cultural, religious, social, and political values of our readers," said an article in Undark, an online magazine of science journalism. An editorial in Nature called for scientists to engage directly with citizens in debates over climate change and genome editing, noting that "the ethical issues can be critically dependent on the science, for example, in understanding where the boundaries between non-heritable and heritable genome modifications might be." We're here to help. © 2017 The Hastings Center.

  10. Michigan transportation facts & figures : railroads

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2002-08-16

    This on-line document is part of a series, Transportation Facts & Figures, by the Michigan Department of Transportation (MDOT). The Railroad section of Transportation Facts & Figures cover such topics as miles of track owned by companies in Michigan,...

  11. Michigan transportation facts & figures : marine

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2002-08-17

    This on-line document is part of a series, Transportation Facts & Figures, by the Michigan Department of Transportation (MDOT). The Marine section of Transportation Facts & Figures cover such topics as commercial ports, commodities carried, and ferry...

  12. Michigan transportation facts & figures : finance

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2002-08-16

    This on-line document is part of a series, Transportation Facts & Figures, by the Michigan Department of Transportation (MDOT). The Finance section of Transportation Facts & Figures cover such topics as Michigan Transportation Fund, fuel taxes, fuel ...

  13. Michigan transportation facts & figures : highways

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2002-08-16

    This on-line document is part of a series, Transportation Facts & Figures, by the Michigan Department of Transportation (MDOT). The Highways section of Transportation Facts & Figures cover such topics as population changes, vehicle registrations, fue...

  14. Field Audit Checklist Tool (FACT)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Download EPA's The Field Audit Checklist Tool (FACT). FACT is intended to help auditors perform field audits, to easily view monitoring plan, quality assurance and emissions data and provides access to data collected under MATS.

  15. Ethanol : separating fact from fiction

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1999-08-01

    This fact sheet presents documented information that dispels some of the myths that people have developed about ethanol. Once the facts are revealed, it becomes clear that using and producing ethanol for transportation is good for the country's econo...

  16. Fact Finders Go to Work!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Anitra

    2005-01-01

    Every class needs at least one certified Fact Finder. Most classes have at least one student who is years ahead of the class in reading ability and intellectual curiosity. The teacher and the library media specialist can identify one or more of these students in each class who might be delighted to become a certified Fact Finder. Fact Finders…

  17. VAKT for Basic Subtraction Facts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Carol A.; Toohey, Margaret A.

    Guidelines are presented for modifying basic instruction of subtraction facts for elementary level learning disabled students. A detailed case study is used to illustrate a five-step structured program: (1) find a way to work it out; (2) add to check; (3) learn the partner facts; (4) study families of facts; (5) review and practice. The selection…

  18. Three new species of the genus Kisaura Ross (1956) (Trichoptera: Philopotamidae) from Arunachal Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Pandher, Manpreet Singh; Kaur, Simarjit; Parey, Sajad H

    2018-04-05

    In this paper three new species of the genus Kisaura from Arunachal Pradesh, northeastern India, are described and illustrated. The newly described species are K. sainii sp. n. (from Lumla), K. dirangensis sp. n. and K. vikrami sp. n. (both from Dirang). With these additions the total number of species in the genus from India now stands at 27.

  19. Evaluating facts and facting evaluations: On the fact-value relationship in HTA.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Bjørn; Bond, Ken; Sandman, Lars

    2018-04-03

    Health technology assessment (HTA) is an evaluation of health technologies in terms of facts and evidence. However, the relationship between facts and values is still not clear in HTA. This is problematic in an era of "fake facts" and "truth production." Accordingly, the objective of this study is to clarify the relationship between facts and values in HTA. We start with the perspectives of the traditional positivist account of "evaluating facts" and the social-constructivist account of "facting values." Our analysis reveals diverse relationships between facts and a spectrum of values, ranging from basic human values, to the values of health professionals, and values of and in HTA, as well as for decision making. We argue for sensitivity to the relationship between facts and values on all levels of HTA, for being open and transparent about the values guiding the production of facts, and for a primacy for the values close to the principal goals of health care, ie, relieving suffering. We maintain that philosophy (in particular ethics) may have an important role in addressing the relationship between facts and values in HTA. Philosophy may help us to avoid fallacies of inferring values from facts; to disentangle the normative assumptions in the production or presentation of facts and to tease out implicit value judgements in HTA; to analyse evaluative argumentation relating to facts about technologies; to address conceptual issues of normative importance; and to promote reflection on HTA's own value system. In this we argue for a(n Aristotelian) middle way between the traditional positivist account of "evaluating facts" and the social-constructivist account of "facting values," which we call "factuation." We conclude that HTA is unique in bringing together facts and values and that being conscious and explicit about this "factuation" is key to making HTA valuable to both individual decision makers and society as a whole. © 2018 The Authors Journal of Evaluation in

  20. Strain: Fact or Fiction?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heilbronner, Renée

    2017-04-01

    2017 marks the 50th anniversary of the publication of John Ramsay's well known textbook "Folding and Fracturing of Rocks" - ... and the 30th anniversary of the rejection of a rather less well known paper entitled "Strain: Fact or Fiction?" submitted by Renée Panozzo to the Journal of Structural Geology. The gist of the paper was simple and straight forward: it was argued that not every fabric that can be observed in deformed rocks is necessarily a measure of the amount of strain the rock incurred. A distinction was made between a general "fabric", i.e., the traceable geometry of grain boundaries, for example, and a so-called "strain fabric", i.e., the model geometry that would result from homogeneously straining an initially isotropic fabric and that would exhibit at least orthorhombic symmetry. To verify if a given fabric was indeed a strain fabric it was therefore suggested to use the SURFOR method (published by Panozzo) and to carry out a so-called strain test, i.e., a check of symmetry, before interpreting the results of a fabric analysis in terms of strain. The problem with the paper was that it was very obviously written out of frustration. The frustration came form having reviewed a number of manuscripts which tried to use the then novel SURFOR method for strain analysis without first checking if the the fabric was a indeed a "strain fabric" or not, and then blaming the SURFOR method for producing ambiguous results. As a result, the paper was not exactly well balanced and carefully thought out. It was considered "interesting but not scholarly" by one of the reviewers and down-right offensive by the second. To tell the truth, however, the paper was not formally rejected. The editor Sue Treagus strongly encouraged Panozzo to revise the paper, ... and 30 years later, I will follow her advise and offer a revised paper as a tribute to John Ramsay. To quote from the original manuscript: "We should be a little more impressed that strain works so well, and less

  1. Glof Study in Tawang River Basin, Arunachal Pradesh, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panda, R.; Padhee, S. K.; Dutta, S.

    2014-11-01

    Glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) is one of the major unexpected hazards in the high mountain regions susceptible to climate change. The Tawang river basin in Arunachal Pradesh is an unexplored region in the Eastern Himalayas, which is impending to produce several upcoming hydro-electric projects (HEP). The main source of the river system is the snow melt in the Eastern Himalayas, which is composed of several lakes located at the snout of the glacier dammed by the lateral or end moraine. These lakes might prove as potential threat to the future scenario as they have a tendency to produce flash flood with large quantity of sediment load during outbursts. This study provides a methodology to detect the potential lakes as a danger to the HEP sites in the basin, followed by quantification of volume of discharge from the potential lake and prediction of hydrograph at the lake site. The remote location of present lakes induced the use of remote sensing data, which was fulfilled by Landsat-8 satellite imagery with least cloud coverage. Suitable reflectance bands on the basis of spectral responses were used to produce informational layers (NDWI, Potential snow cover map, supervised classification map) in GIS environment for discriminating different land features. The product obtained from vector overlay operation of these layers; representing possible water area, was further utilized in combination with Google earth to identify the lakes within the watershed. Finally those identified lakes were detected as potentially dangerous lakes based on the criteria of elevation, area, proximity from streamline, slope and volume of water held. HEC-RAS simulation model was used with cross sections from Google Earth and field survey as input to simulate dam break like situation; hydrodynamic channel routing of the outburst hydrograph along river reach was carried out to get the GLOF hydrograph at the project sites. It was concluded from the results that, the assessed GLOF would be a

  2. Perchlorate Regulatory Determination Fact Sheets

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Fact sheets have been developed for the perchlorate regulatory determination corresponding to the following stages published in the Federal Register: Final, Supplemental request for comments, and Preliminary.

  3. Multiplication Fact Fluency Using Doubles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowers, Judith M.; Rubenstein, Rheta N.

    2010-01-01

    Not knowing multiplication facts creates a gap in a student's mathematics development and undermines confidence and disposition toward further mathematical learning. Learning multiplication facts is a first step in proportional reasoning, "the capstone of elementary arithmetic and the gateway to higher mathematics" (NRC 2001, p. 242). Proportional…

  4. Fact Book on Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Joseph L.; Diaz, Alicia A.

    2009-01-01

    The "Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) Fact Book on Higher Education" is one of the nation's most comprehensive collections of comparative data on higher education. For decades, state leaders, policy-makers, researchers and journalists have used the "Fact Book" to find useful data quickly--and to learn more about…

  5. Communication Fact Sheets for Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stremel, Kathleen; Bixler, Betsy; Morgan, Susanne; Layton, Kristen

    This booklet contains 28 fact sheets on communication written primarily for parents and families with a child who is deaf-blind. They attempt to address fundamental but complex issues related to the communication needs of children with vision and hearing impairments. Each fact sheet targets a specific area, including: (1) communication; (2)…

  6. Math Fact Strategies Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boso, Annie

    2011-01-01

    An action research project was conducted in order to determine effective math fact strategies for first graders. The traditional way of teaching math facts included using timed tests and flashcards, with most students counting on their fingers or a number line. Six new research-based strategies were taught and analyzed to decide which methods…

  7. Research Facts on Homeschooling. General Facts and Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Brian D.

    2006-01-01

    This fact sheet presents the following general facts and trends. Homeschooling may be the fastest-growing form of education in the United States and it is also growing around the world in many nations. There are about 2 million homeschool students in the United States. There were an estimated 1.9 to 2.4 million children (in grades K to 12) home…

  8. Selected risk factors associated with pulmonary tuberculosis among Saharia tribe of Madhya Pradesh, central India.

    PubMed

    Rao, Vikas G; Gopi, P G; Bhat, Jyothi; Yadav, Rajiv; Selvakumar, N; Wares, Douglas F

    2012-04-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health problem among the Saharia, a marginalized tribal group in Madhya Pradesh state, central India. However, there is no information on the risk factors associated with the development of TB disease in this community. A cross-sectional TB prevalence survey was conducted among the Saharia residing in Sheopur district of Madhya Pradesh. Information on tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption was collected from all the individuals. Persons aged ≥45 years, males, smokers and alcohol consumers had higher risks of developing TB disease. There is an urgent need to develop and implement culturally appropriate awareness raising activities to target smoking and alcohol consumption to support the efforts to control TB in this community.

  9. The Uttar Pradesh State Observatory --- some recollections and some history (1954-1982)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinvhal, S. D.

    2006-03-01

    An attempt is made to present a picture of pre-historic and initial formative years of the well known Uttar Pradesh State Observatory, Nainital. The development of academic activities along with infrastructure are described. The emphasis on the frontline research work, self-reliance and international interaction was given during the formative years of the observatory. The largest telescope 104-cm of the observatory was installed in 1972 and has produced good scientific results.

  10. Seroprevalence of viral and bacterial diseases among the bovines in Himachal Pradesh, India

    PubMed Central

    Katoch, Shailja; Dohru, Shweta; Sharma, Mandeep; Vashist, Vikram; Chahota, Rajesh; Dhar, Prasenjit; Thakur, Aneesh; Verma, Subhash

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The study was designed to measure the seroprevalence of viral and bacterial diseases: Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, bovine viral diarrhea, bovine leukemia, bovine parainfluenza, bovine respiratory syncytial disease, brucellosis, and paratuberculosis among bovine of Himachal Pradesh during the year 2013-2015. Materials and Methods: The serum samples were collected from seven districts of state, namely, Bilaspur, Kangra, Kinnaur, Lahul and Spiti, Mandi, Sirmour, and Solan. The samples were screened using indirect ELISA kits to measure the seroprevalence of viral and bacterial diseases. Results: The overall seroprevalence of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis was 24.24%, bovine viral diarrhea 1.52%, bovine leukemia 9.09%, bovine parainfluenza 57.58%, bovine respiratory syncytial disease 50%, brucellosis 19.69%, and paratuberculosis 9.09% in Himachal Pradesh. The seroprevalence of bovine rhinotracheitis, bovine leukemia, bovine parainfluenza, bovine respiratory syncytial disease, and paratuberculosis in the state varied significantly (p<0.01) while was insignificant for bovine viral diarrhea and brucellosis (p>0.01). Multiple seropositivity has been observed in this study. Bovine parainfluenza virus 3 was observed commonly in mixed infection with almost all viruses and bacteria under study. Conclusion: The viral and bacterial diseases are prevalent in the seven districts of Himachal Pradesh investigated in the study. Therefore, appropriate management practices and routine vaccination programs should be adopted to reduce the prevalence of these diseases. PMID:29391682

  11. 2009 Kentucky traffic collision facts

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-01-01

    KENTUCKYS TRAFFIC COLLISION FACTS report for 2009 is based on collision reports submitted to the Kentucky State Police : Records Branch. As required by Kentucky Revised Statutes 189.635, every law enforcement agency whose officers investigate :...

  12. Traffic safety facts 1996 : overview

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1997-01-01

    This overview fact sheet contains statistics on motor vehicle fatalities based on data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS). FARS is a census of fatal crashes within the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico (although Pue...

  13. 2010 Kentucky traffic collision facts

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-01-01

    KENTUCKYS TRAFFIC COLLISION FACTS report for 2010 is based on collision reports submitted to the Kentucky State Police Records Branch. As required by Kentucky Revised Statutes 189.635, every law enforcement agency whose officers investigate a v...

  14. 2005 Kentucky traffic collision facts

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2005-01-01

    KENTUCKYS TRAFFIC COLLISION FACTS report for 2005 is based on collision reports submitted to the Kentucky State Police : Records Branch. As required by Kentucky Revised Statutes 189.635, every law enforcement agency whose officers investigate :...

  15. 2004 Kentucky traffic collision facts

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2004-01-01

    KENTUCKYS TRAFFIC COLLISION FACTS report for 2004 is based on collision reports submitted to the Kentucky State Police : Records Branch. As required by Kentucky Revised Statutes 189.635, every law enforcement agency whose officers investigate :...

  16. 2008 Kentucky traffic collision facts

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2008-01-01

    KENTUCKYS TRAFFIC COLLISION FACTS report for 2008 is based on collision reports submitted to the Kentucky State Police : Records Branch. As required by Kentucky Revised Statutes 189.635, every law enforcement agency whose officers investigate :...

  17. Geometric Design Laboratory Fact Sheet

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2006-08-02

    This fact sheet provides concise information about the Geometric Design Laboratory (GDL) at the Turner-Fairbank Highway Research Center. The mission of the GDL is to provide technical support to the Federal Highway Administration's Office of Safety R...

  18. 2008 public transportation fact book

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2008-06-01

    This Public Transportation Fact Book presents statistics describing the entire United States transit industry for 1995 : through 2006 with additional detail and overview presentations for 2006. Also included are definitions of reported data : items.

  19. Kentucky traffic collision facts 2015.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2016-01-01

    KENTUCKYS TRAFFIC COLLISION FACTS report for 2015 is based on collision reports submitted to the Kentucky State Police Records Branch. As required by Kentucky Revised Statutes 189.635, every law enforcement agency whose officers investigate a v...

  20. 2010 public transportation fact book

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-04-01

    The Public Transportation Fact Book, published annually, contains national aggregate statistical data covering all aspects of the transit industry in the United States and Canada. Two appendices, also available, provide additional in-depth informatio...

  1. 2002 Kentucky traffic collision facts

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2002-01-01

    KENTUCKYS TRAFFIC COLLISION FACTS report for 2002 is based on collision reports submitted to the Kentucky State Police : Records Branch. As required by Kentucky Revised statutes 189.635, every law enforcement agency whose officers investigate :...

  2. 2003 Kentucky traffic collision facts

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2003-01-01

    KENTUCKYS TRAFFIC COLLISION FACTS report for 2003 is based on collision reports submitted to the Kentucky State Police : Records Branch. As required by Kentucky Revised Statutes 189.635, every law enforcement agency whose officers investigate :...

  3. 2001 Kentucky traffic collision facts

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2001-01-01

    KENTUCKYS TRAFFIC COLLISION FACTS report for 2001 is based on collision reports submitted to the Kentucky State Police : Records Branch. As required by Kentucky Revised Statutes 189.635, every law enforcement agency whose officers investigate :...

  4. Connecticut traffic accident facts, 2006

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2008-04-01

    This report documents facts on reported 2006 traffic accidents included in the : Department database. Sections of the report contain statistics on major categories of traffic : accidents. These categories include all reported accidents, reported alco...

  5. Freight facts and figures, 2012.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-11-01

    Freight Facts and Figures 2012 is a snapshot of the volume and : value of freight flows in the United States, the physical network : over which freight moves, the economic conditions that generate : freight movements, the industry that carries freigh...

  6. Freight facts and figures, 2013.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-01-01

    This tenth edition of Freight Facts and Figures was developed : collaboratively by the Federal Highway Administration : and the Bureau of Transportation Statistics. It provides a : snapshot of the volume and value of freight flows in the : United Sta...

  7. Freight facts and figures, 2011.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-11-01

    Freight Facts and Figures 2011 is a snapshot of the volume and : value of freight flows in the United States, the physical network : over which freight moves, the economic conditions that generate : freight movements, the industry that carries freigh...

  8. Holiday Suicides: Fact or Myth?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Press Room Social Media Publications Injury Center Holiday Suicides: Fact or Myth? Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... Developing and evaluating prevention programs. Learn More About Suicide CDC’s Overview of Suicide CDC’s Strategic Direction for ...

  9. 1996 Kentucky traffic accident facts

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1996-01-01

    KENTUCKYS TRAFFIC ACCIDENT FACTS report for 1996 is based on accident reports submitted to the Accident Unit housed : in the Kentucky State Police Information Services Branch, Records Section. As required by Kentucky Revised statutes 189.635, : ...

  10. Industrial Stormwater Fact Sheet Series

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Fact sheets for the industrial sectors regulated by the MSGP. Each describes the types of facilities included in the sector, typical pollutants associated with the sector, and types of stormwater control measures used to minimize pollutant discharge.

  11. 1995 Kentucky traffic accident facts

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1995-01-01

    KENTUCKYS TRAFFIC ACCIDENT FACTS report for 1995 is based on accident reports submitted to the Accident Unit housed : in the Kentucky State Police Information Services Branch, Records Section. As required by Kentucky Revised statutes 189.635, : ...

  12. Tuberculosis Facts - Exposure to TB

    MedlinePlus

    Tuberculosis (TB) Facts Exposure to TB What is TB? “TB” is short for a disease called tuberculosis. TB is spread through the air from one ... Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination

  13. Tuberculosis Facts - Testing for TB

    MedlinePlus

    Tuberculosis (TB) Facts Testing for TB What is TB? “TB” is short for a disease called tuberculosis. TB is spread through the air from one ... Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination

  14. Traffic safety facts 1995 : overview

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1996-01-01

    This overview fact sheet contains statistics on motor vehicle fatalities based on data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS). FARS is a census of fatal crashes within the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico (although Pue...

  15. NJ transportation fact book, 2007

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-01-01

    The New Jersey Transportation Fact Book 2006-07 presents information about the New Jersey Department of Transportation : and other agencies that provide transportation services in New Jersey. We hope it will prove helpful.

  16. 2002 Wisconsin traffic crash facts

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2003-09-01

    2002 Facts and Figures : 805 persons were killed in Wisconsin motor vehicle traffic crashes (36% involved alcohol, : 34% involved speed, and 18% involved both speed and alcohol). : 57,776 persons were injured in 39,634 reported injury crashes...

  17. 2007 Kentucky traffic collision facts

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2007-01-01

    KENTUCKYS TRAFFIC COLLISION FACTS report for 2007 is based on collision reports submitted to the Kentucky State Police : Records Branch. As required by Kentucky Revised Statutes 189.635, every law enforcement agency whose officers investigate :...

  18. 1998 Kentucky traffic accident facts

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1998-01-01

    KENTUCKYS TRAFFIC ACCIDENT FACTS report for 1998 is based on accident reports submitted to the Accident Unit housed : in the Kentucky State Police Information Services Branch, Records Section. As required by Kentucky Revised statutes 189.635, : ...

  19. 2006 Kentucky traffic collision facts

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2006-01-01

    KENTUCKYS TRAFFIC COLLISION FACTS report for 2006 is based on collision reports submitted to the Kentucky State Police : Records Branch. As required by Kentucky Revised Statutes 189.635, every law enforcement agency whose officers investigate :...

  20. 1999 Kentucky traffic accident facts

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1999-01-01

    KENTUCKYS TRAFFIC COLLISION FACTS report for 1999 is based on accident reports submitted to the Accident Unit housed in the Kentucky State Police Information Services Branch, Records Section. As required by Kentucky Revised statutes 189.635, ev...

  1. 1997 Kentucky traffic accident facts

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1997-01-01

    KENTUCKYS TRAFFIC ACCIDENT FACTS report for 1997 is based on accident reports submitted to the Accident Unit housed : in the Kentucky State Police Information Services Branch, Records Section. As required by Kentucky Revised statutes 189.635, : ...

  2. 2012 Swimming Season Fact Sheets

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    To help beachgoers make informed decisions about swimming at U.S. beaches, EPA annually publishes state-by-state data about beach closings and advisories for the previous year's swimming season. These fact sheets summarize that information by state.

  3. Kentucky Traffic Collision Facts 2016

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2016-09-26

    KENTUCKYS TRAFFIC COLLISION FACTS report is based on collision reports submitted to the Kentucky State Police Records Branch. As required by Kentucky Revised Statutes 189.635, every law enforcement agency whose officers investigate a vehicle ac...

  4. Large truck crash facts 2005

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2007-02-01

    This annual edition of Large Truck Crash Facts contains descriptive statistics about fatal, injury, and property damage only crashes involving large trucks in 2005. Selected crash statistics on passenger vehicles are also presented for comparison pur...

  5. 2000 Kentucky traffic collision facts

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2000-01-01

    KENTUCKYS TRAFFIC COLLISION FACTS report for 2000 is based on collision reports submitted to the Kentucky State Police : Records Branch. As required by Kentucky Revised statutes 189.635, every law enforcement agency whose officers investigate :...

  6. 1999 Wisconsin traffic crash facts

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2000-09-01

    1999 Facts and Figures : 744 persons were killed in Wisconsin motor vehicle traffic crashes. : (36% involved Alcohol, 27% involved Speed, and 14% involved both Speed and Alcohol). : 61,577 persons were injured in 41,345 reported injury crashe...

  7. Facts about Ventricular Septal Defect

    MedlinePlus

    ... Living With Heart Defects Data & Statistics Tracking & Research Articles & Key Findings Free Materials Multimedia and Tools Links to Other Websites Information For… Media Policy Makers Facts about Ventricular Septal Defect Language: ...

  8. Facts about Atrial Septal Defect

    MedlinePlus

    ... Living With Heart Defects Data & Statistics Tracking & Research Articles & Key Findings Free Materials Multimedia and Tools Links to Other Websites Information For… Media Policy Makers Facts about Atrial Septal Defect Language: ...

  9. Facts about Tetralogy of Fallot

    MedlinePlus

    ... Living With Heart Defects Data & Statistics Tracking & Research Articles & Key Findings Free Materials Multimedia and Tools Links to Other Websites Information For… Media Policy Makers Facts about Tetralogy of Fallot Language: ...

  10. Minority games and stylized facts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Challet, Damien; Marsili, Matteo; Zhang, Yi-Cheng

    2001-10-01

    The minority game is a generic model of competing adaptive agents, which is often believed to be a model of financial markets. We discuss to which extent this is a reasonable statement, and present minimal modifications that make this model reproduce stylized facts. The resulting model shows that without speculators, prices follow random walks, and that stylized facts disappear if enough speculators take into account their market impact.

  11. Fact Sheet: Summary of Self-Determination. NRC Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Michael; Lewin, Lori

    2010-01-01

    This fact sheet provides an explanation of what self determination is, provides the four principles of self determination, describes the values supported by self determination. The authors contend that if self-determination is going to be successful, it requires that those who supply services and fund them make certain changes in both the way they…

  12. NASA Facts, The Viking Mission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC. Educational Programs Div.

    Presented is one of a series of publications of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) facts about the exploration of Mars. The Viking mission to Mars, consisting of two unmanned NASA spacecraft launched in August and September, 1975, is described. A description of the spacecraft and their paths is given. A diagram identifying the…

  13. Facing Facts. Annual Report, 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace Foundation, The, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This annual report highlights the work of some grantees who are finding innovative ways to respond to today's new challenges based on a rigorous commitment by their leadership to gathering pertinent facts. These include cities that are planning wide-scale, lasting improvements in arts learning or out-of-school opportunities, basing their choices…

  14. 2003 Wisconsin traffic crash facts

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2004-10-01

    2003 Facts and Figures: 836 persons were killed in Wisconsin motor vehicle traffic crashes. This is an average of two lives lost each day on Wisconsin trafficways. The fatality rate per 100 million miles of travel was 1.4, compared to 1.37 in 2002. 5...

  15. Facts About Delta Pi Epsilon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delta Pi Epsilon Journal, 1976

    1976-01-01

    The article discusses the purpose and structure of Delta Pi Epsilon and the general qualifications for membership. Service projects and publications, research awards, timely facts, the year of each chapter's origination, national presidents, and executive secretaries for the last 40 years are listed. (BP)

  16. 2000 Wisconsin traffic crash facts

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2001-10-01

    2000 Facts and Figures: 801 persons were killed in Wisconsin motor vehicle traffic crashes (38% invloved alcohol, 29% involved speed, and 15% involved both speed and alcohol). 63,890 persons were injured in 43, 145 reported injury crashes and 718 fat...

  17. 2001 Wisconsin traffic crash facts

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2002-09-01

    2001 Facts and Figures: 764 persons were killed in Wisconsin motor vehicle traffic crashes (40% involved alcohol, 32% involved : speed, and 16% involved both speed and alcohol). : 58,279 persons were injured in 39,358 reported injury crashes and ...

  18. 2007 Wisconsin traffic crash facts

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2008-12-01

    2007 Facts and Figures - 737 persons were killed in Wisconsin motor vehicle traffic crashes. This is an average of just over two lives lost each day on Wisconsin traffic arteries. - 50,676 persons were injured in 36,048 reported injury crashes and 65...

  19. Thorndike Revisited--Some Facts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuinman, J. Jaap

    1971-01-01

    Examines some historical facts surrounding Thorndike's 1917 article, Reading as Reasoning: A Study of Mistakes in Paragraph Reading," (republished in Reading Research Quarterly, 1971, 6, 425-48), in an attempt to put the article in its proper perspective both as a research study and as a contribution to the psychology of reading. (VJ)

  20. [Fact Sheets on Working Women].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Commission on Working Women, Washington, DC.

    These four fact sheets address a number of issues relating to women in the work force. The first, "An Overview of Women in the Work Force," offers a look at the numbers of women in the labor force, the occupational categories represented by women workers, women in professional and nonprofessional occupations, and women in nontraditional…

  1. [Communication Interactions. Three Fact Sheets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stremel, Kathleen; Wilson, Rebecca M.

    1995-01-01

    This document consists of three separately published fact sheets (for parents and teachers of children who are deaf-blind) combined here because of the close relationship of their subject matter: (1) "Communication Interactions: It Takes Two," by Kathleen Stremel; (2) "Expressive Communication: How Children Send Their Messages to You," by Kathleen…

  2. 2006 Wisconsin traffic crash facts

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2008-01-01

    2006 Facts and Figures : 712 persons were killed in Wisconsin motor vehicle traffic crashes. This is an average of : more than two lives lost each day on Wisconsin traffic arteries. : 50,236 persons were injured in 35,296 reported injury cras...

  3. 2008 Wisconsin traffic crash facts

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-01-01

    2008 Facts and Figures 587 persons were killed in Wisconsin motor vehicle traffic crashes. This is an average of just over one life lost each day on Wisconsin traffic arteries. 46,637 persons were injured in 33,766 reported injury crashes and 542 fat...

  4. Fact Sheet: Vulnerable Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Evelyn, Comp.; Goode, Sue, Comp.

    2008-01-01

    This fact sheet provides data on infants, toddlers and young children who are experiencing high stress as a result of a number of risk factors specifically identified in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 (IDEA 2004), including substantiated abuse or neglect, foster care placement, homelessness, exposure to family…

  5. Guns in Schools. Firearm Facts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duker, Laurie, Ed.

    Common reasons that young people choose to carry firearms outside of school--protection, intimidation of others, or to be like their peers--are the same reasons they carry guns into the school. This fact sheet presents statistics regarding the prevalence of firearms amongst students in American schools, including: shooting fatalities and woundings…

  6. Los Medanos College Fact Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Ross; And Others

    Prepared to support the self-study and strategic planning processes at Los Medanos College (LMC), in Pittsburgh, California, this fact book offers information about LMC's students, staff, programs, services, facilities, and expenditures. The first section focuses on the student population, including a trend analysis and longitudinal data on…

  7. 2005 Wisconsin traffic crash facts

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2006-11-01

    2005 Facts and Figures : 801 persons were killed in Wisconsin motor vehicle traffic crashes. This is an average of : over two lives lost each day on Wisconsin traffic arteries. : 53,462 persons were injured in 37,515 reported injury crashes a...

  8. Freight Facts and Figures 2017

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2018-03-15

    This 12th edition of Freight Facts and Figures was developed by the Bureau of Transportation Statistics. It provides a snapshot of the volume and value of freight flows in the United States; the extent and condition of the physical network over which...

  9. Freight facts and figures, 2015.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2015-01-01

    This 11th edition of Freight Facts and Figures was developed by the Bureau of : Transportation Statistics. It provides a snapshot of the volume and value of : freight flows in the United States; the extent, condition, and performance of the : physica...

  10. Women and Guns. Firearm Facts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duker, Laurie, Ed.

    Many gun manufacturers market guns to women claiming a gun can provide protection. Statistics provided in this fact sheet indicate gun ownership may provide a false sense of security that can be fatal, since the greatest threat to a woman comes from the people and guns within her own home. Contrary to "typical" scenarios created by advertisers,…

  11. 2009 Wisconsin traffic crash facts

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-10-01

    2009 Facts and Figures: 542 persons were killed in Wisconsin motor vehicle traffic crashes. This is an average of just over one life lost each day on Wisconsin traffic arteries. 41,589 persons were injured in 29,907 reported injury crashes and 488 fa...

  12. Ohio traffic crash facts, 2007

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2008-05-07

    The Ohio Department of Public Safety is pleased to present the 2007 Ohio Traffic Crash : Facts Book, an in-depth highway safety statistical profile and analysis compiled from : data supplied by law enforcement agencies from across the state. : This a...

  13. Ohio traffic crash facts, 2010

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-10-01

    The Ohio Department of Public Safety is pleased to present the 2010 Ohio Traffic Crash Facts Book, an in-depth highway safety profile and analysis compiled from data supplied by law enforcement agencies across the state. This annual report provides a...

  14. Ohio traffic crash facts, 2008

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-07-01

    The Ohio Department of Public Safety is pleased to present the 2008 Ohio Traffic Crash : Facts Book, an in-depth highway safety statistical profile and analysis compiled from : data supplied by law enforcement agencies from across the state. This ann...

  15. Ohio traffic crash facts, 2009

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-11-01

    The Ohio Department of Public Safety is pleased to present the 2009 Ohio Traffic Crash Facts Book, an in-depth highway safety statistical profile and analysis compiled from data supplied by law enforcement agencies from across the state. This annual ...

  16. Fact Sheets on Institutional Racism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foundation for Change, Inc., New York, NY.

    This fact sheet on institutional racism contains statistics on white control of the economy, health, housing, education, the media, and government. It also shows the oppression of minorities in these areas. The areas of wealth, the stock exchange, business, banks, unions, poverty, and unemployment, are discussed in terms of economy. Health matters…

  17. MATC Fact Book, January 1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milwaukee Area Technical Coll., WI. Dept. of Research, Planning, and Development.

    This 1986-87 fact book for Milwaukee Area Technical College (MATC) presents data on institutional characteristics, faculty and staff, full-time equivalent enrollments, student characteristics, and facilities for the MATC district and each of the college campuses. Highlights derived from an analysis of data and trends include the following: (1)…

  18. NASA Facts, Mars and Earth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC. Educational Programs Div.

    Presented is one of a series of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) facts about the exploration of Mars. In this publication, emphasis is placed on the sun's planetary system with note made that there is no one theory for the origin and subsequent evolution of the Solar System that is generally accepted. Ideas from many scientists…

  19. 2004 Wisconsin traffic crash facts

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2005-07-01

    2004 Facts and Figures - 784 persons were killed in Wisconsin motor vehicle traffic crashes. This is an average of two lives lost each day on Wisconsin trafficways. - 55,258 persons were injured in 38,451 reported injury crashes and 714 fatal crashes...

  20. Use the Nutrition Facts Label

    MedlinePlus

    ... Department of Health & Human Services Health Topics The Science Grants and Training News and Events About NHLBI Home » Health Information for the Public » Educational Campaigns & Programs » We Can! » Eat Right » Use the Nutrition Facts Label Ways to Enhance Children's Activity & Nutrition About ...

  1. Fingertip Facts 2011-12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utah State Office of Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper offers facts and figures on Utah's education status for the school year 2011-2012. This paper contains the following: (1) Core CRT Language Arts Testing, 2011; (2) Core CRT Mathematics Testing, 2011; (3) 2011 Public Education General Fund--Funding by Source and Expenditures by Function; (4) 2010-11 Public School Enrollment Demographics;…

  2. Public Education: Fingertip Facts 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Patti

    2007-01-01

    This paper offers facts and figures on Utah's state of education for 2007. This paper contains the following: (1) Core CRT Language Arts Testing; (2) Core CRT Mathematics Testing; (3) 2006 Public Education General Fund--Funding by Source and Expenditures by Function; (4) 2006-07 Public School Enrollment Demographics; (5) Public Schools by Grade…

  3. Public Education: Fingertip Facts 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Patti

    2005-01-01

    This paper offers facts and figures on Utah's state of education for 2005. This paper contains the following: (1) Education Contacts; (2) Utah State Board of Education members; (3) Value of Weighted Pupil Unit (WPU) for the 2004-05 school year; (4) Per Pupil Spending in Perspective (2002); (5) Public School Enrollment per district (October…

  4. Public Education: Fingertip Facts 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Patti

    2008-01-01

    This paper offers facts and figures on Utah's education status for 2008. This paper contains the following: (1) Core CRT Language Arts Testing, 2007; (2) Core CRT Mathematics Testing, 2007; (3) 2007 Public Education General Fund--Funding by Source and Expenditures by Function; (4) 2007-08 Public School Enrollment Demographics; (5) Public Schools…

  5. Public Education: Fingertip Facts 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Patti

    2009-01-01

    This paper offers facts and figures on Utah's education status for 2009. This paper contains the following: (1) Core CRT Language Arts Testing, 2008; (2) Core CRT Mathematics Testing, 2008; (3) 2008 Public Education General Fund--Funding by Source and Expenditures by Function; (4) 2008-09 Public School Enrollment Demographics; (5) Public Schools…

  6. Socioeconomic and geographical disparities in under-five and neonatal mortality in Uttar Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Dettrick, Zoe; Jimenez-Soto, Eliana; Hodge, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    As a part of the Millennium Development Goals, India seeks to substantially reduce its burden of childhood mortality. The success or failure of this goal may depend on outcomes within India's most populous state, Uttar Pradesh. This study examines the level of disparities in under-five and neonatal mortality across a range of equity markers within the state. Estimates of under-five and neonatal mortality rates were computed using five datasets, from three available sources: sample registration system, summary birth histories in surveys, and complete birth histories. Disparities were evaluated via comparisons of mortality rates by rural-urban location, ethnicity, wealth, and districts. While Uttar Pradesh has experienced declines in both rates of under-five (162-108 per 1,000 live births) and neonatal (76-49 per 1,000 live births) mortality, the rate of decline has been slow (averaging 2 % per annum). Mortality trends in rural and urban areas are showing signs of convergence, largely due to the much slower rate of change in urban areas. While the gap between rich and poor households has decreased in both urban and rural areas, trends suggest that differences in mortality will remain. Caste-related disparities remain high and show no signs of diminishing. Of concern are also the signs of stagnation in mortality amongst groups with greater ability to access services, such as the urban middle class. Notwithstanding the slow but steady reduction of absolute levels of childhood mortality within Uttar Pradesh, the distribution of the mortality by sub-state populations remains unequal. Future progress may require significant investment in quality of care provided to all sections of the community.

  7. Associations Between Mistreatment by a Provider during Childbirth and Maternal Health Complications in Uttar Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Raj, Anita; Dey, Arnab; Boyce, Sabrina; Seth, Aparna; Bora, Siddhartha; Chandurkar, Dharmendra; Hay, Katherine; Singh, Kultar; Das, Arup Kumar; Chakraverty, Amit; Ramakrishnan, Aparajita; Shetye, Mrunal; Saggurti, Niranjan; Silverman, Jay G

    2017-09-01

    Objectives This study assesses associations between mistreatment by a provider during childbirth and maternal complications in Uttar Pradesh, India. Methods Cross-sectional survey data were collected from women (N = 2639) who had delivered at 68 public health facilities in Uttar Pradesh, participating in a quality of care study. Participants were recruited from April to July 2015 and surveyed on demographics, mistreatment during childbirth (measure developed for this study, Cronbach's alpha = 0.70), and maternal health complications. Regression models assessed associations between mistreatment during childbirth and maternal complications, at delivery and postpartum, adjusting for demographics and pregnancy complications. Results Participants were aged 17-48 years, and 30.3% were scheduled caste/scheduled tribe. One in five (20.9%) reported mistreatment by their provider during childbirth, including discrimination and abuse; complications during delivery (e.g., obstructed labor) and postpartum (e.g., excessive bleeding) were reported by 45.8 and 41.5% of women, respectively. Health providers at delivery included staff nurses (81.8%), midwives (14.0%), and physicians (2.2%); Chi square analyses indicate that women were significantly more likely to report mistreatment when their provider was a nurse rather than a physician or midwife. Women reporting mistreatment by a provider during childbirth had higher odds of complications at delivery (AOR = 1.32; 95% CI 1.05-1.67) and postpartum (AOR = 2.12; 95% CI 1.67-2.68). Conclusions for Practice Mistreatment of women by their provider during childbirth is a pervasive health and human rights violation, and is associated with increased risk for maternal health complications in Uttar Pradesh. Efforts to improve quality of maternal care should include greater training and monitoring of providers to ensure respectful treatment of patients.

  8. An acute flaccid paralysis surveillance-based serosurvey of poliovirus antibodies in Western Uttar Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Bahl, Sunil; Gary, Howard E; Jafari, Hamid; Sarkar, Bidyut K; Pathyarch, Surendra K; Sethi, Raman; Deshpande, Jagadish

    2014-11-01

    Despite intensified use of monovalent oral poliovirus type 1 vaccine and improved coverage of immunization campaigns, wild poliovirus type 1 persisted in Indian states of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar during 2006 to 2009. A serosurvey was conducted among cases of acute flaccid paralysis in the 25 high-polio-incidence districts of western Uttar Pradesh. Children were recruited by age group (6-11 months, 12-24 months, and 25-69 months) from among cases reported through the acute flaccid paralysis surveillance system between November 2008 and August 2009. Seroprevalence for type 1 wild poliovirus was >96.4% for each age group. The seroprevalence of wild poliovirus types 2 and 3 increased with age, from 36.7% to 73.4% for type 2 and from 39.0% to 74.1% for type 3. In addition to the number of type-specific vaccine doses, father's level of education, being from a Muslim family, height for age, and female sex were the socioeconomic risk factors associated with seronegativity to poliovirus. The seroprevalence and risk factors identified in this study were consistent with the epidemiology of polio, and the findings were instrumental in optimizing vaccination strategy in western Uttar Pradesh with respect to the choice of OPV types, the frequency of supplementary immunization campaigns, and the urgency to improve routine immunization services. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Identification of different lineages of measles virus strains circulating in Uttar Pradesh, North India.

    PubMed

    Shakya, Akhalesh Kumar; Shukla, Vibha; Maan, Harjeet Singh; Dhole, Tapan N

    2012-10-16

    Genetic analysis of measles viruses associated with recent cases and outbreaks has proven to bridge information gaps in routine outbreak investigations and has made a substantial contribution to measles control efforts by helping to identify the transmission pathways of the virus. The present study describes the genetic characterization of wild type measles viruses from Uttar Pradesh, India isolated between January 2008 and January 2011. In the study, 526 suspected measles cases from 15 outbreaks were investigated. Blood samples were collected from suspected measles outbreaks and tested for the presence of measles specific IgM; throat swab and urine samples were collected for virus isolation and RT-PCR. Genotyping of circulating measles viruses in Uttar Pradesh was performed by sequencing a 450-bp region encompassing the nucleoprotein hypervariable region and phylogenetic analysis. Based on serological results, all the outbreaks were confirmed as measles. Thirty eight strains were obtained. Genetic analysis of circulating measles strains (n = 38) in Uttar Pradesh from 235 cases of laboratory-confirmed cases from 526 suspected measles cases between 2008 and 2011 showed that all viruses responsible for outbreaks were within clade D and all were genotype D8.Analysis of this region showed that it is highly divergent (up to 3.4% divergence in the nucleotide sequence and 4.1% divergence in the amino acid sequence between most distant strains). Considerable genetic heterogeneity was observed in the MV genotype D8 viruses in North India and underscores the need for continued surveillance and in particular increases in vaccination levels to decrease morbidity and mortality attributable to measles.

  10. Nutritional status of tribal preschool children in three ecological zones of Madhya Pradesh.

    PubMed

    Rao, D H; Rao, K M; Radhaiah, G; Rao, N P

    1994-06-01

    A health and nutrition survey was conducted on tribals in three ecological zones of Madhya Pradesh namely Jhabua (West Zone), Bastar (South Zone) and Sarguja (East Zone) taking into consideration the relative contribution of agriculture, forest and a combination of both to the economy, respectively. The consumption of both foods and nutrients appear to be worse among preschool children of Jhabua compared to Bastar and Sarguja. Clinically overt forms of Protein Energy Malnutrition and other vitamin deficiency signs were strikingly low. However, 4% of children in Sarguja exhibited signs of goitre. Both by extent and severity of malnutrition, the children of Jhabua appear to be worse followed by Bastar and Sarguja.

  11. Oral Health in the US: Key Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Policy Oral Health in the U.S.: Key Facts Oral Health in the U.S.: Key Facts Published: Jun 01, ... Email Print This fact sheet provides data on oral health care coverage and access for children, nonelderly adults ...

  12. Marijuana: Facts Parents Need to Know

    MedlinePlus

    ... Parents Need to Know » A Letter to Parents Marijuana: Facts Parents Need to Know Email Facebook Twitter ... their children to review the scientific facts about marijuana: (1) Marijuana: Facts Parents Need to Know and ( ...

  13. Quantum Mechanics: Myths and Facts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolić, Hrvoje

    2007-11-01

    A common understanding of quantum mechanics (QM) among students and practical users is often plagued by a number of “myths”, that is, widely accepted claims on which there is not really a general consensus among experts in foundations of QM. These myths include wave-particle duality, time-energy uncertainty relation, fundamental randomness, the absence of measurement-independent reality, locality of QM, nonlocality of QM, the existence of well-defined relativistic QM, the claims that quantum field theory (QFT) solves the problems of relativistic QM or that QFT is a theory of particles, as well as myths on black-hole entropy. The fact is that the existence of various theoretical and interpretational ambiguities underlying these myths does not yet allow us to accept them as proven facts. I review the main arguments and counterarguments lying behind these myths and conclude that QM is still a not-yet-completely-understood theory open to further fundamental research.

  14. Technology to Market Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2016-02-01

    This fact sheet is an overview of the Technology to Market subprogram at the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative. The SunShot Initiative’s Technology to Market subprogram builds on SunShot’s record of moving groundbreaking and early-stage technologies and business models through developmental phases to commercialization. Technology to Market targets two known funding gaps: those that occur at the prototype commercialization stage and those at the commercial scale-up stage.

  15. International waste management fact book

    SciTech Connect

    Amaya, J P; LaMarche, M N; Upton, J F

    1997-10-01

    Many countries around the world are faced with nuclear and environmental management problems similar to those being addressed by the US Department of Energy. The purpose of this Fact Book is to provide the latest information on US and international organizations, programs, activities and key personnel to promote mutual cooperation to solve these problems. Areas addressed include all aspects of closing the commercial and nuclear fuel cycle and managing the wastes and sites from defense-related, nuclear materials production programs.

  16. Fact Sheets - The National Guard

    Science.gov Websites

    National Guard About Us By the Numbers Contact Us FAQ Federal Mission History Join Us Leaders Director of March Today in Guard History Leadership CNGB VCNGB SEA DANG DARNG Joint Staff J-1 J-2 J-3 J-4 J-5 J-6 J ARNG Readiness Home : Resources : Fact Sheets General Information Air Guard History Army National Guard

  17. Five Indisputable Facts on Modern Power Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bloom, Aaron P; Brinkman, Gregory L; Lopez, Anthony J

    This presentation overviews five indisputable facts about modern power systems: Fact one: The grid can handle more renewable generation than previously thought. Fact two: Geographic and resource diversity provide additional reliability to the system. Fact three: Wind and solar forecasting provide significant value. Fact four: Our electric power markets were not originally designed for variable renewables -- but they could be adapted. Fact five: Modern power electronics are creating new sources of essential reliability services.

  18. Final NPDES Electronic Reporting Rule Fact Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Fact sheet explaining the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Electronic Reporting Rule. The fact sheet provides information on the purpose of the rule, benefits and implementation.

  19. Communicative Language Teaching: Possibilities and Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sreehari, Pusuluri

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the teaching of English at undergraduate colleges in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India in the backdrop of Andhra Pradesh English Lecturers' Retraining Program. The program was jointly sponsored and conducted by the Directorate of Collegiate Education, Government of AP and the US State Department English Language Fellow…

  20. Genetic and Biochemical Diversity among Valeriana jatamansi Populations from Himachal Pradesh

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sunil Kumar; Katoch, Rajan; Kapila, Rakesh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Valeriana jatamansi Jones is an important medicinal plant that grows wild in Himachal Pradesh, India. Molecular and biochemical diversity among 13 natural populations from Himachal Pradesh was assessed using RAPD and GC-MS to know the extent of existing variation. A total of seven genetically diverse groups have been identified based on RAPD analysis which corroborated well with the analysis based on chemical constituents. The essential oil yield ranged from 0.6% to 1.66% (v/w). A negative correlation between patchouli alcohol and viridiflorol, the two major valued constituents, limits the scope of their simultaneous improvement. However, other few populations like Chamba-II and Kandi-I were found promising for viridiflorol and patchouli alcohol, respectively. The analysis of chemical constitution of oil of the populations from a specific region revealed predominance of specific constituents indicating possibility of their collection/selection for specific end uses like phytomedicines. The prevalence of genetically diverse groups along with sufficient chemical diversity in a defined region clearly indicates the role of ecology in the maintenance of evolution of this species. Sufficient molecular and biochemical diversity detected among natural populations of this species will form basis for the future improvement. PMID:25741533

  1. Counseling during Maternal and Infant Health Visits and Postpartum Contraceptive use in Uttar Pradesh, India

    PubMed Central

    Rajan, Sowmya; Speizer, Ilene S.; Calhoun, Lisa M.; Nanda, Priya

    2017-01-01

    Context Postpartum family planning is a compelling concern of global significance due to its salience to unplanned pregnancies, and to maternal and infant health in developing countries. Yet, women face the highest level of unmet need for contraception in the year following a birth. A cost-effective way to inform women about their risk of becoming pregnant after the birth of a child is to integrate family planning counseling and services with maternal and infant health services. Methods We use recently collected survey data from 2733 women from six cities in Uttar Pradesh, India who had a recent birth (since 2011) to examine the role of exposure to family planning information at maternal and infant health visits on (1) any contraceptive use in the postpartum period, and (2) choice of modern method in the postpartum period. We use discrete-time event history multinomial logit models to examine the duration to contraceptive use, and choice of modern method, in the 12 months following the last birth since 2011. Results We find that receiving counseling in an institution at the time of delivery has the strongest influence on women’s subsequent uptake of modern contraception (female sterilization and IUD). Being visited by a CHW in the extended postpartum period was also strongly associated with subsequent uptake of modern contraception (IUD, condom and hormonal contraception). Conclusion Providing postpartum family planning counseling at key junctures during maternal health visits has the potential to increase uptake of modern contraceptive method in urban Uttar Pradesh. PMID:28649295

  2. Helicobacter pylori: fact or fiction?

    PubMed

    Korman, M G

    1990-01-01

    The recent isolation and classification of the spiral gastric bacteria Helicobacter pylori has led to an explosion of worldwide research. The data strongly suggest that H. pylori is the causative agent for type-B active chronic gastritis. The role of H. pylori in duodenal ulcer awaits clarification, and, more importantly, potential treatment regimens need clear documentation and further detailed research. The past decade has revealed many intriguing facts about H. pylori infection. If, during the 1990s, eradication of H. pylori by means of appropriate and safe medication can lead to the control and prevention of gastroduodenal disease, then major clinical and economic benefits can be anticipated.

  3. FACT, Mega-ROSA, SOLAROSA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spence, Brian; White, Steve; Schmid, Kevin; Douglas Mark

    2012-01-01

    The Flexible Array Concentrator Technology (FACT) is a lightweight, high-performance reflective concentrator blanket assembly that can be used on flexible solar array blankets. The FACT concentrator replaces every other row of solar cells on a solar array blanket, significantly reducing the cost of the array. The modular design is highly scalable for the array system designer, and exhibits compact stowage, good off-pointing acceptance, and mass/cost savings. The assembly s relatively low concentration ratio, accompanied by a large radiative area, provides for a low cell operating temperature, and eliminates many of the thermal problems inherent in high-concentration-ratio designs. Unlike other reflector technologies, the FACT concentrator modules function on both z-fold and rolled flexible solar array blankets, as well as rigid array systems. Mega-ROSA (Mega Roll-Out Solar Array) is a new, highly modularized and extremely scalable version of ROSA that provides immense power level range capability from 100 kW to several MW in size. Mega-ROSA will enable extremely high-power spacecraft and SEP-powered missions, including space-tug and largescale planetary science and lunar/asteroid exploration missions. Mega-ROSA's inherent broad power scalability is achieved while retaining ROSA s solar array performance metrics and missionenabling features for lightweight, compact stowage volume and affordability. This innovation will enable future ultra-high-power missions through lowcost (25 to 50% cost savings, depending on PV and blanket technology), lightweight, high specific power (greater than 200 to 400 Watts per kilogram BOL (beginning-of-life) at the wing level depending on PV and blanket technology), compact stowage volume (greater than 50 kilowatts per cubic meter for very large arrays), high reliability, platform simplicity (low failure modes), high deployed strength/stiffness when scaled to huge sizes, and high-voltage operation capability. Mega-ROSA is adaptable to

  4. Vietnamese Hurricane Response Fact Sheets

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Các tờ dữ kiện được cung cấp nơi đây mô tả vai trò của EPA trong việc đáp ứng với bão và cách các chương trình cụ thể cung cấp sự hỗ trợ. The Vietnamese fact sheets provided here describe EPA's role in a hurricane response.

  5. Family Engagement in Education in Uttar Pradesh, India: Factors Associated with the Involvement of Families in Their Children's Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Amanda Joy

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which families within the Shravasti district of Uttar Pradesh, India are engaged in their children's education, as well as to examine the child, family, school, and community factors that are potentially associated with families' involvement in their children's education. Additionally,…

  6. Concentrating Solar Power Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2015-12-01

    This fact sheet is an overview of the Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) subprogram at the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative. CSP is a dispatchable, renewable energy option that uses mirrors to focus and concentrate sunlight onto a receiver, from which a heat transfer fluid carries the intense thermal energy to a power block to generate electricity. CSP systems can store solar energy to be used when the sun is not shining. It will help meet the nation’s goal of making solar energy fully cost-competitive with other energy sources by the end of the decade. Worldwide, CSP activity is rapidlymore » scaling, with approximately 10 gigawatts (GW) in various stages of operation or development. In the United States alone, nearly 2 GW of CSP are in operation.« less

  7. Out-of-pocket expenditure on maternity care for hospital births in Uttar Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Goli, Srinivas; Rammohan, Anu; Moradhvaj

    2018-02-27

    The studies measured Out-of-Pocket Expenditure (OOPE) for hospital births previously suffer from serious data limitations. To overcome such limitations, we designed a hospital-based study for measuring the levels and factors of OOPE on maternity care for hospital births by its detailed components. Data were collected from women for non-complicated deliveries 24-h before the survey and complicated deliveries 48-h prior to the survey at the hospital settings in Uttar Pradesh, India during 2014. The simple random sampling design was used in the selection of respondents. Bivariate analyses were used to estimate mean expenditure on Antenatal care services (ANCs), Delivery care and Total Maternity Expenditure (TME). Multivariate linear regression was employed to examine the factor associated with the absolute and relative share of expenditure in couple's annual income on ANCs, delivery care, and TME. The findings show that average expenditure on maternal health care is high ($155) in the study population. Findings suggest that factors such as income, place, and number of ANCs, type, and place of institutional delivery are significantly associated with both absolute and relative expenditure on maternity care. The likelihood of incidence of catastrophic expenditure on maternity care is significantly higher for women delivered in private hospitals (β = 2.427, p < 0.001) compared to the government hospital (β = 0). Also, it is higher among caesarean or forceps deliveries (β = 0.617, p < 0.01), deliveries conducted on doctor advise (β = 0.598, p < 0.01), than in normal deliveries (β = 0) and self or family planned deliveries (β = 0). The findings of this study suggest that the OOPE on maternity care for hospital births reported in this study is much higher as it was collected with a better methodology, although with smaller sample size. Therefore, ongoing maternity benefit scheme in India in general and Uttar Pradesh in particular

  8. Soil information system of Arunachal Pradesh in a GIS environment for land use planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maji, Amal K.; Nayak, Dulal C.; Krishna, Nadimpalli, , DR; Srinivas, Challa V.; Kamble, Kalpana; Reddy, Gangalakunta P. Obi; Velayutham, Mariappan

    Arunachal Pradesh, the largest mountainous state of India, is situated in the northeastern part of the Himalayan region and characterized by high annual rainfall, forest vegetation and diversity in soils. Information on the soils of the state is essential for scientific land use planning and sustainable production. A soil resource inventory and subsequent database creation for thematic mapping using a Geographical Information System (GIS) is presented in this paper. Physiographically, Arunachal Pradesh can be divided into four distinct zones: snow-capped mountains (5500 m amsl); lower Himalayan ranges (3500 m amsl); the sub-Himalayan Siwalik hills (700 m amsl); and the eastern Assam plains. Soils occurring in these physiographic zones are Inceptisols (37 percent), Entisols (35 percent), Ultisols (14 percent) and Alfisols (0.5 percent). The remaining soils can be classed as miscellaneous. Soil resource inventory studies show that the soils of the warm perhumid eastern Himalayan ecosystem, with a 'thermic' temperature regime, are Inceptisols and Entisols; and that they are highly acidic in nature. Soils of the warm perhumid Siwalik hill ecosystem, with a 'hyperthermic' temperature regime, are also Entisols and Inceptisols with a high to moderate acidic condition. The dominant soils of the northeastern Purvachal hill ecosystem, with 'hyperthermic' and 'thermic' temperature regimes, are Ultisols and Inceptisols. Inceptisols and Entisols are the dominant soils in the hot and humid plain ecosystem. Steeply sloping landform and high rainfall are mainly responsible for a high erosion hazard in the state. The soil erosion map indicates that very severe (20 percent of TGA) to severe (25 percent of TGA) soil erosion takes place in the warm per-humid zone, whereas, moderate erosion takes place in the Siwalik hills and hot, humid plain areas. This is evident from the soil depth class distribution of Arunachal Pradesh, which shows that shallow soils cover 20 percent of the TGA

  9. The emergence of maternal health as a political priority in Madhya Pradesh, India: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Politics plays a critical role in agenda setting in health affairs; therefore, understanding the priorities of the political agenda in health is very important. The political priority for safe motherhood has been investigated at the national level in different countries. The objective of this study was to explore why and how maternal health became a political priority at sub-national level in the state of Madhya Pradesh in India. Methods This study followed a qualitative design. Data were collected by carrying out interviews and review of documents. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with twenty respondents from four stakeholder groups: government officials, development partners, civil society and academics. Data analysis was performed using thematic analysis. The analysis was guided by Kingdon’s multiple streams model. Results The emergence of maternal health as a political priority in Madhya Pradesh was the result of convergence in the developments in different streams: the development of problem definition, policy generation and political change. The factors which influenced this process were: emerging evidence of the high magnitude of maternal mortality, civil society’s positioning of maternal mortality as a human rights violation, increasing media coverage, supportive policy environment and launch of the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM), the availability of effective policy solutions, India’s aspiration of global leadership, international influence, maternal mortality becoming a hot debate topic and political transition at the national and state levels. Most of these factors first became important at national level which then cascaded to the state level. Currently, there is a supportive policy environment in the state for maternal health backed by greater political will and increased resources. However, malnutrition and population stabilization are the competing priorities which may push maternal health off the agenda. Conclusions

  10. The emergence of maternal health as a political priority in Madhya Pradesh, India: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Jat, Tej Ram; Deo, Prakash Ramchandra; Goicolea, Isabel; Hurtig, Anna-Karin; San Sebastian, Miguel

    2013-09-30

    Politics plays a critical role in agenda setting in health affairs; therefore, understanding the priorities of the political agenda in health is very important. The political priority for safe motherhood has been investigated at the national level in different countries. The objective of this study was to explore why and how maternal health became a political priority at sub-national level in the state of Madhya Pradesh in India. This study followed a qualitative design. Data were collected by carrying out interviews and review of documents. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with twenty respondents from four stakeholder groups: government officials, development partners, civil society and academics. Data analysis was performed using thematic analysis. The analysis was guided by Kingdon's multiple streams model. The emergence of maternal health as a political priority in Madhya Pradesh was the result of convergence in the developments in different streams: the development of problem definition, policy generation and political change. The factors which influenced this process were: emerging evidence of the high magnitude of maternal mortality, civil society's positioning of maternal mortality as a human rights violation, increasing media coverage, supportive policy environment and launch of the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM), the availability of effective policy solutions, India's aspiration of global leadership, international influence, maternal mortality becoming a hot debate topic and political transition at the national and state levels. Most of these factors first became important at national level which then cascaded to the state level. Currently, there is a supportive policy environment in the state for maternal health backed by greater political will and increased resources. However, malnutrition and population stabilization are the competing priorities which may push maternal health off the agenda. The influence of the events and factors

  11. Sustainability of integrated leprosy services in rural India: perceptions of community leaders in Uttar Pradesh.

    PubMed

    Raju, M S; Rao, P S S

    2011-01-01

    As part of a community-based action research to reduce leprosy stigma, village committees were formed in 3 hyper endemic states of India. From a total of 10 village committees with nearly 200 members from Uttar Pradesh, a systematic random sample of 69 men and 23 women were interviewed in-depth regarding their views on sustainability of integrated leprosy services, as currently adopted. Their recommendations were also sought for further enhancement. Percentages were computed and compared for statistical significance using the z-normal test. The findings show that less than 50% of the respondents were confident that the present trend in voluntary early reporting for MDT and management of complications was adequate to sustain the integrated leprosy services. There were no differences by men or women members and they felt that lack of proper facilities, training and orientation of staff are most influencing factors. Many suggestions were given for improving the sustainability.

  12. Rhizopalmoxylon nypoides - a new palm root from the Deccan Intertrappean beds of Sagar, Madhya Pradesh, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kathal, P. K.; Srivastava, Rashmi; Mehrotra, R. C.; Alexander, P. O.

    2017-04-01

    A new species of fossil palm rhizome having root-mat under the organ genus Rhizopalamoxylon ( Rhizopalmoxylon nypoides sp. nov.) is reported. The specimen shows the closest resemblance with the modern monotypic genus Nypa Wurmb of the Arecaceae. The specimen was collected from the late Maastrichtian-early Danian sediments of Deccan Intertrappean beds, Mothi, Sagar district, Madhya Pradesh, India. Nypa is a mangrove palm naturally found in estuaries and swamps of the tropical region and represents one of the oldest records of the genus from the Deccan Intertrappean beds of central India. The abundance of palms, including Nypa and previously recorded coastal and mangrove elements such as Acrostichum, Barringtonia, Cocos, Sonneratia and marine algae ( Distichoplax and Peyssonellia) from the Deccan Intertrappean beds indicate marine influence and existence of tropical rainforest ecosystem in the vicinity of fossil locality in contrast to the deciduous forests occurring there at present.

  13. Consumption of junk foods by school-aged children in rural Himachal Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Aakriti; Kapil, Umesh; Singh, Gajendra

    2018-01-01

    There has been an increase in the consumption of junk food (JF) among school-aged children (SAC) possibly leading to obesity and diet-related diseases among them. We do not have evidence on consumption of JF in rural areas; hence, we conducted a study to assess the consumption of JF by SAC in rural, Himachal Pradesh. A total of 425 children in the age group of 12-18 years studying in 30 government schools (clusters) were included. The clusters were selected using population proportionate to size sampling methodology. We found high prevalence (36%) of consumption of JF among SAC during the last 24 h. Efforts should be taken to reduce the consumption of JF by promotion of healthy dietary habits and educating children about the ill effects of JF.

  14. Barriers of mistrust: public and private health sectors' perceptions of each other in Madhya Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    De Costa, Ayesha; Johansson, Eva; Diwan, Vinod K

    2008-06-01

    India has one of the most highly privatized health care systems in the world. The dominant private health sector functions alongside a traditional tiered public health sector. There has been an overall lack of collaboration between the two sectors despite international policy recommendations and local initiatives. It has been postulated that "conflicting perceptions" might contribute to the uncooperative attitude between the two sectors. But there has been little empirical exploration of the existing perceptions that the private and public health sectors have of each other. We explored these perceptions among key stakeholders (who influence the direction of health policy) in the public and private health sectors in the province of Madhya Pradesh, India. The barriers of mistrust, which hinder true dialogue, are complex, and have social, moral, and economic bases. They can be best addressed by necessary structural change before any significant long-term partnership between the two sectors is possible.

  15. Michigan transportation facts & figures : public transportation

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2002-08-16

    This on-line document is part of a series, Transportation Facts & Figures, by the Michigan Department of Transportation (MDOT). The Public Transit section of Transportation Facts & Figures cover such topics as intercity bus service, intercity rail se...

  16. Family planning use among urban poor women from six cities of Uttar Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Speizer, Ilene S; Nanda, Priya; Achyut, Pranita; Pillai, Gita; Guilkey, David K

    2012-08-01

    Family planning has widespread positive impacts for population health and well-being; contraceptive use not only decreases unintended pregnancies and reduces infant and maternal mortality and morbidity, but it is critical to the achievement of Millennium Development Goals. This study uses baseline, representative data from six cities in Uttar Pradesh, India to examine family planning use among the urban poor. Data were collected from about 3,000 currently married women in each city (Allahabad, Agra, Varanasi, Aligarh, Gorakhpur, and Moradabad) for a total sample size of 17,643 women. Participating women were asked about their fertility desires, family planning use, and reproductive health. The survey over-sampled slum residents; this permits in-depth analyses of the urban poor and their family planning use behaviors. Bivariate and multivariate analyses are used to examine the role of wealth and education on family planning use and unmet need for family planning. Across all of the cities, about 50% of women report modern method use. Women in slum areas generally report less family planning use and among those women who use, slum women are more likely to be sterilized than to use other methods, including condoms and hormonal methods. Across all cities, there is a higher unmet need for family planning to limit childbearing than for spacing births. Poorer women are more likely to have an unmet need than richer women in both the slum and non-slum samples; this effect is attenuated when education is included in the analysis. Programs seeking to target the urban poor in Uttar Pradesh and elsewhere in India may be better served to identify the less educated women and target these women with appropriate family planning messages and methods that meet their current and future fertility desire needs.

  17. Disjunctive Grade Variation from Greenschist to Granulite Facies, Siyom Valley, Eastern Arunachal Pradesh, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, G. L.; Bhowmik, S. K.; Aitchison, J. C.; Ireland, T. R.

    2014-12-01

    The Siyom Valley section in eastern Arunachal Pradesh exposes an inverted metamorphic succession (Nandini & Thakur, 2011), metapelitic assemblages increasing in grade northwards from chlorite, through biotite, garnet-staurolite and kyanite-bearing schist to kyanite-sillimanite migmatite. Grade changes are mostly controlled by shallowly north, and northwest-dipping fault structures. Two textural stages of garnet growth can be identified in the ilmenite-bearing amphibolite facies rocks, staurolite having formed late in, or after, deformation responsible for the main penetrative foliation (S2). Kyanite and rutile inclusions in garnet indicate that their growth in migmatite preceded that of matrix sillimanite, ilmenite and cordierite, though unrecrystallized kyanite is also common in the feldspathic matrix. Preliminary data indicate the pronounced tectonic thinning of metasedimentary protoliths during exhumation, and the probability of a pronounced step in grade in the middle part of the river section. Similarities with sections in the Sikkim (Dasgupta et al., 2004) and western Arunachal Pradesh (Goswami et al., 2009) Himalaya reflect the lateral continuity of the south-vergent thrusts that controlled the exhumation of the high-grade rocks, with debate concerning the location and significance of the Main Central Thrust zone begging protolith and metamorphic age data. Dasgupta, S.,Ganguly, J. & Neogi, S., 2004. Inverted metamorphic sequence in the Sikkim Himalayas: crystallization history, P-T gradient and implications. Journal of Metamorphic Geology, 22, 395-412. Goswami, S., Bhowmik, S.K. & Dasgupta, S., 2009. Petrology of a non-classical Barrovian inverted metamorphic sequence from the western Arunachal Himalaya, India. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 36, 390-406. Nandini, P. & Thakur, S.S., 2011. Metamorphic evolution of the Lesser Himalayan Crystalline Sequence, Siyom Valley, NE Himalaya, India. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 40, 1089-1100

  18. Fighting malaria in Madhya Pradesh (Central India): Are we loosing the battle?

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Neeru; Dash, Aditya P; Thimasarn, Krongthong

    2009-01-01

    Malaria control in Madhya Pradesh is complex because of vast tracts of forest with tribal settlement. Fifty four million individuals of various ethnic origins, accounting for 8% of the total population of India, contributed 30% of total malaria cases, 60% of total falciparum cases and 50% of malaria deaths in the country. Ambitious goals to control tribal malaria by launching "Enhanced Malaria Control Project" (EMCP) by the National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme (NVBDCP), with the World Bank assistance, became effective in September 1997 in eight north Indian states. Under EMCP, the programme used a broader mix of new interventions, i.e. insecticide-treated bed nets, spraying houses with effective residual insecticides, use of larvivorous fishes, rapid diagnostic tests for prompt diagnosis, treatment of the sick with effective radical treatment and increased public awareness and IEC. However, the challenge is to scale up these services. A retrospective analysis of data on malaria morbidity and associated mortality reported under the existing surveillance system of the Madhya Pradesh (Central India) for the years 1996–2007 was carried out to determine the impact of EMCP on malaria morbidity and associated mortality. Analysis revealed that despite the availability of effective intervention tools for the prevention and control of malaria, falciparum malaria remains uncontrolled and deaths due to malaria have increased. Precisely, the aim of this epidemiological analysis is to draw lessons applicable to all international aid efforts, bureaucracy, policy makers and programme managers in assessing its project performance as a new Global Malaria Action Plan is launched with ambitious goal of reducing malaria and its elimination by scaling up the use of existing tools. PMID:19419588

  19. First detection of canine parvovirus type 2b from diarrheic dogs in Himachal Pradesh.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Shalini; Dhar, Prasenjit; Thakur, Aneesh; Sharma, Vivek; Sharma, Mandeep

    2016-09-01

    The present study was conducted to detect the presence of canine parvovirus (CPV) among diarrheic dogs in Himachal Pradesh and to identify the most prevalent antigenic variant of CPV based on molecular typing and sequence analysis of VP2 gene. A total of 102 fecal samples were collected from clinical cases of diarrhea or hemorrhagic gastroenteritis from CPV vaccinated or non-vaccinated dogs. Samples were tested using CPV-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting VP2 gene, multiplex PCR for detection of CPV-2a and CPV-2b antigenic variants, and a PCR for the detection of CPV-2c. CPV-2b isolate was cultured on Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell lines and sequenced using VP2 structural protein gene. Multiple alignment and phylogenetic analysis was done using ClustalW and MEGA6 and inferred using the Neighbor-Joining method. No sample was found positive for the original CPV strain usually present in the vaccine. However, about 50% (52 out of 102) of the samples were found to be positive with CPV-2ab PCR assay that detects newer variants of CPV circulating in the field. In addition, multiplex PCR assay that identifies both CPV-2ab and CPV-2b revealed that CPV-2b was the major antigenic variant present in the affected dogs. A PCR positive isolate of CPV-2b was adapted to grow in MDCK cells and produced characteristic cytopathic effect after 5 th passage. Multiple sequence alignment of VP2 structural gene of CPV-2b isolate (Accession number HG004610) used in the study was found to be similar to other sequenced isolates in NCBI sequence database and showed 98-99% homology. This study reports the first detection of CPV-2b in dogs with hemorrhagic gastroenteritis in Himachal Pradesh and absence of other antigenic types of CPV. Further, CPV-specific PCR assay can be used for rapid confirmation of circulating virus strains under field conditions.

  20. Clean cord care practices and neonatal mortality: evidence from rural Uttar Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Praween K; Agrawal, Sutapa; Mullany, Luke C; Darmstadt, Gary L; Kumar, Vishwajeet; Kiran, Usha; Ahuja, Ramesh C; Srivastava, Vinod K; Santosham, Mathuram; Black, Robert E; Baqui, Abdullah H

    2012-08-01

    About a million newborns die each year in India, accounting for about a fourth of total global neonatal deaths. Infections are among the leading causes of neonatal mortality. Care practices immediately following delivery contribute to newborns' risk of infection and mortality. This study examined the association between clean cord care practices and neonatal mortality in rural Uttar Pradesh, India. The study used data from a household survey conducted to evaluate a community-based intervention program in two districts of Uttar Pradesh, India. Analysis included data from 5741 singleton live births delivered at home during 2005. The association between clean cord care (clean instrument used to cut cord, clean thread used to tie cord and antiseptics or nothing applied to the cord) and neonatal mortality was estimated using multivariate logistic regression models. Thirty per cent of the study mothers practiced clean cord care. Neonatal mortality rate was significantly lower among newborns exposed to clean cord care (36.5/1000 live births, 95% CI 28.0 to 46.8) than those who did not practice (53.0/1000 live births, 95% CI 46.1 to 60.6). Clean cord care was associated with 37% lower neonatal mortality (OR=0.63; 95% CI 0.46 to 0.87) after adjusting for mother's age, education, caste/tribe, religion, household wealth, newborn thermal care practice and care-seeking during the first week after birth and study arms. Promoting clean cord care practice among neonates in community-based maternal and newborn care programs has the potential to improve neonatal survival in rural India and similar other settings.

  1. A Guide to Immigration Facts and Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Immigration Forum, Washington, DC.

    This packet contains fact sheets and issue briefs on immigration and immigrants. Fact sheets, most of which are presented in 1994 and 1997 versions, contain brief summaries of information on immigration law and regulations, the status of immigrants, their countries of origin, and where they settle. These fact sheets make it clear that most…

  2. The Individual Basic Facts Assessment Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tait-McCutcheon, Sandi; Drake, Michael

    2015-01-01

    There is an identified and growing need for a levelled diagnostic basic facts assessment tool that provides teachers with formative information about students' mastery of a broad range of basic fact sets. The Individual Basic Facts Assessment tool has been iteratively and cumulatively developed, trialled, and refined with input from teachers and…

  3. Facts of life for adults.

    PubMed

    Paxman, J M

    1991-04-01

    The editorial commentary reflects the desire for openness in providing contraceptive services for adolescents, rather than pretending that the emperor has new clothes. The simile is used to expose the coverup intended by adults who desire adolescent sexual behavior that does not exist. Examples of 4 European countries, (Sweden, Netherlands, France, and England and Wales) who support contraceptive use for teenagers are given. Lessons can be learned from these countries which have a 3 times lower teenage pregnancy rate than the US. In the Netherlands contraceptives are used by 90% of sexually active teenagers. The birth rate of 14/1000 and the abortion rate of 10/1000 is the lowest of the 4 countries. Swedish contraceptive, birth, and abortion rates are similar, but the age of the 1st sexual experience is the earliest. England and Wales has a similar contraception rate but the birth rate is also 45/1000 and the abortion rate is slightly higher. All countries provide teenage contraceptive services free or at low cost as well as sex education. The debate over contraception in other countries links access to sexual activity, when the facts of life are that teenagers become sexually active before contraception. In Sweden to curb abortions, contraception was increased between 1974-1981 with a concomitant decline of 27% in the abortion rate. In the US, it rose 59%. The experience of all 4 countries has been to reduce abortion, but still provide access to abortion services. The formula for successful management of teenage sexuality such as sex education, low cost contraceptive services, and access to early safe abortion services may not meet the needs of the AIDS pandemic. Many questions arise and Europe may provide the answers.

  4. Vehicle Technologies Fact of the Week 2015

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Stacy C.; Diegel, Susan W.; Moore, Sheila A.

    Each week the U.S. Department of Energy s Vehicle Technology Office (VTO) posts a Fact of the Week on their website: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/ . These Facts provide statistical information, usually in the form of charts and tables, on vehicle sales, fuel economy, gasoline prices, and other transportation-related trends. Each Fact is a stand-alone page that includes a graph, text explaining the significance of the data, the supporting information on which the graph was based, and the source of the data. A link to the current week s Fact is available on the VTO homepage, but older Facts (back to 2009) aremore » archived and still available at: http://energy.gov/eere/vehicles/current-and-past-years-facts-week. Each Fact of the Week website page includes a link to an Excel file. That file contains the data from the Supporting Information section of the page so that researchers can easily use data from the Fact of the Week in their work. Beginning in August of 2015, a subscription list is available on the DOE website so that those interested can sign up for an email to be sent each Monday which includes the text and graphic from the current week s Fact. This report is a compilation of the Facts that were posted during calendar year 2015. The Facts were created, written and prepared by staff in Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Center for Transportation Analysis.« less

  5. Contact dermatitis: facts and controversies.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Ronni; Orion, Edith; Ruocco, Eleonora; Baroni, Adone; Ruocco, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    The history of contact dermatitis (CD) is inseparable from the history of the patch test, and the patch test is inseparable from the pioneer in the field, Josef Jadassohn (1860-1936). Despite the fact that we have been diagnosing, treating, and investigating the condition for more than 100 years, there are still many unsolved questions and controversies, which show no signs of coming to an end in the foreseeable future. This contribution reviews and highlights some of the disagreements and discrepancies associated with CD. For example: • What is the real sensitizer in balsam of Peru, one of the most common allergens, and what, if any, is the value of a low-balsam diet? • Is benzalkonium chloride, which has well-known and undisputed irritant properties, a contact allergen as well? • Is cocamidopropyl betaine (CABP) a common contact allergen and what is the actual sensitizer in CABP allergy the molecule itself, or impurities, or intermediaries in its synthesis? • How can the significant differences in the prevalence of sensitization of formaldehyde (FA, a common cause of contact allergy) between the United States (8%-9%) and Europe (2%-3%) be explained? • What is the relationship between formaldehyde releasers (FRs) allergy and an FA allergy? Should we recommend that FA-allergic patients also avoid FRs, and, if so, to what extent? • What is the true frequency of lanolin allergy? This issue remains enigmatic despite the expenditure of thousands of dollars and the innumerable hours spent investigating this subject. • What is the basis behind the so-called "lanolin paradox"? This label was coined in 1996 and is still a matter of controversy. • Is there such a thing as systemic CD from nickel, and, if so, to what extent? Is there a cross-reactivity or concomitant sensitization between nickel and cobalt?These are some of the controversial problems discussed. We have selected the ones that we consider to be of special interest and importance to the

  6. Provider imposed restrictions to clients’ access to family planning in urban Uttar Pradesh, India: a mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Medical barriers refer to unnecessary policies or procedures imposed by health care providers that are not necessarily medically advised; these restrictions impede clients’ access to family planning (FP). This mixed methods study investigates provider imposed barriers to provision of FP using recent quantitative and qualitative data from urban Uttar Pradesh, India. Methods Baseline quantitative data were collected in six cities in Uttar Pradesh, India from service delivery points (SDP), using facility audits, exit interviews, and provider surveys; for this study, the focus is on the provider surveys. More than 250 providers were surveyed in each city. Providers were asked about the FP methods they provide, and if they restrict clients’ access to each method based on age, parity, partner consent, or marital status. For the qualitative research, we conducted one-on-one interviews with 21 service providers in four of the six cities in Uttar Pradesh. Each interview lasted approximately 45 minutes. Results The quantitative findings show that providers restrict clients’ access to spacing and long-acting and permanent methods of FP based on age, parity, partner consent and marital status. Qualitative findings reinforce that providers, at times, make judgments about their clients’ education, FP needs and ability to understand FP options thereby imposing unnecessary barriers to FP methods. Conclusions Provider restrictions on FP methods are common in these urban Uttar Pradesh sites. This means that women who are young, unmarried, have few or no children, do not have the support of their partner, or are less educated may not be able to access or use FP or their preferred method. These findings highlight the need for in-service training for staff, with a focus on reviewing current guidelines and eligibility criteria for provision of methods. PMID:24365015

  7. Fact sheet for Applicants Intergovernmental Review Process

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    When submitting your application for Federal assistance, please observe the following steps pertaining to the intergovernmental review process. This is the Fact sheet for Applicants Intergovernmental Review Process.

  8. Sex composition and its impact on future childbearing: a longitudinal study from urban Uttar Pradesh.

    PubMed

    Rajan, Sowmya; Nanda, Priya; Calhoun, Lisa M; Speizer, Ilene S

    2018-02-27

    The sex composition of existing children has been shown to influence childbearing decision-making and behaviors of women and couples. One aspect of this influence is the preference for sons. In India, where son preference is deeply entrenched, research has normally focused on rural areas using cross-sectional data. However, urban areas in India are rapidly changing, with profound implications for childbearing patterns. Yet, evidence on the effect of the sex composition of current children on subsequent childbearing intentions and behavior in urban areas is scant. In this study, we analyze the impact of sex composition of children on subsequent (1) parity progression, (2) contraceptive use, and (3) desire for another child. We analyze prospective data from women over a four year period in urban Uttar Pradesh using discrete-time event history logistic regression models to analyze parity progression from the first to second parity, second to third parity, and third to fourth parity. We also use logistic regression models to analyze contraceptive use and desire for another child. Relative to women with no daughters, women with no sons had significantly higher odds of progressing to the next birth (parity 1 - aOR: 1.31; CI: 1.04-1.66; parity 2 - aOR: 4.65; CI: 3.11-6.93; parity 3 - aOR:3.45; CI: 1.83-6.52), as well as reduced odds of using contraception (parity 2 - aOR:.58; CI: .44-.76; parity 3 - aOR: .58; CI: .35-.98). Relative to women with two or more sons, women with two or more daughters had significantly higher odds of wanting to have another child (parity 1 - aOR: 1.33; CI: 1.06-1.67; parity 2 - aOR: 3.96; CI: 2.45-6.41; parity 3-4.89; CI: 2.22-10.77). Our study demonstrates the pervasiveness of son preference in urban areas of Uttar Pradesh. We discuss these findings for future programmatic strategies to mitigate son preference in urban settings.

  9. Socio-epidemiological determinants of 2002 plague outbreak in Himachal Pradesh, India: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This qualitative investigation was conducted to determine the socio-epidemiological factors related to the plague outbreak (2002) in Himachal Pradesh (HP), India. Methods The data for socio-epidemiological factors related to the plague outbreak (2002) in HP was obtained from residents through 150 in-depth Interviews (IDI) and 30 Focus Group Discussions (FGD) during six visits (from May 2011 to April 2012) by the research team. Natives, health officials and the nomadic population were interviewed. According to their opinion and viewpoints data was collected and their lifestyle and hunting practices were studied in detail. Tape recorders were used during various FGDs and IDIs. The interviews and FGDs were later transcribed and coded. In-depth analysis of the recorded data was done using an inductive thematic analysis approach. Results The study reports that the outbreak in 2002 in a few villages of Himachal Pradesh was that of plague and it occurred by the contact of an index case with wild animals after hunting and de-skinning. The first wave of plague transmission which took 16 lives of residents was followed by a second wave of transmission in a ward of a tertiary care hospital where one visitor acquired it from relatives of the index case and succumbed. The life-style practices of residents (hunting behavior, long stay in caves and jungles, overcrowding in houses, poor hygiene and sanitation, belief in ‘God’ and faith healers for cure of diseases) was optimal for the occurrence and rapid spread of such a communicable disease. The man-rodent contact is intensified due to the practice of hunting in such a rodent-ridden environment. The residents harbor a strong belief that plague occurs due to the wrath of gods. Various un-reported outbreaks of plague were also observed by officials, residents and old folk. The persistence of plague in HP is favoured by its hilly terrain, inaccessible areas, inclement weather (snow) in winters, unhygienic lifestyle

  10. Water quality and pollution status of Chambal river in National Chambal Sanctuary, Madhya Pradesh.

    PubMed

    Saksena, D N; Garg, R K; Rao, R J

    2008-09-01

    The physico-chemical characteristics of Chambal river water in National Chambal sanctuary (Madhya Pradesh) have been studied. The stretch of Chambal river contained in the National Chambal sanctuary (located at 25 degrees 23'-26 degrees 52'N, 76 degrees 28'-79 degrees 15'E) is extending up to 600 km downstream from Kota (Rajasthan) to the confluence of the Chambal with Yamuna river (Etawah). The river flow in Madhya Pradesh spans up to approximately 400 km. Three sampling stations viz., Station A--near Palighat, district Sheopurkalan, Station B--near Rajghat, district Morena and Station C--near Baraighat, district Bhind were established for the collection of water samples during April, 2003 to March, 2004. The water quality parameters namely transparency (12.12-110 cm), colour (transparent-very turbid), turbidity (1-178 TNU), electrical conductivity (145.60-884 microS cm(-1)), total dissolved solids (260-500 mgl(-1)), pH (7.60-9.33), dissolved oxygen (4.86-14.59 mgl(-1)), free carbon dioxide (0-16.5 mgl(-1)), total alkalinity (70-290 mgl(-1)), total hardness (42-140 mgl(-1)), chloride (15.62-80.94 mgl(-1)), nitrate (0.008-0.025 mgl(-1)), nitrite (0.002-0.022 mgl(-1)), sulphate (3.50-45 mgl(-1)), phosphate (0.004-0.050 mgl(-1)), silicate (2.80-13.80 mgl(-1)), biochemical oxygen demand (0.60-5.67 mgl(-1)), chemical oxygen demand (2.40-26.80 mgl(-1)), ammonia (nil-0.56 mgl(-1)), sodium (14.30-54.40 mgl(-1)) and potassium (2.10 mgl(-1)-6.30 mgl(-1)) reflects on the pristine nature of the river in National Chambal sanctuary. On the basis of various parameters studied, Chambal river in this stretch can be placed under the category of oligosaprobic. The water quality analysis, indicated that the riverwater in the sanctuary area is pollution free and can serve as a good habitat for many aquatic animals including endangered species.

  11. Worlds apart 1: Tamil Nadu and Madhya Pradesh. Reaping rewards of social development.

    PubMed

    Chhabra, R

    1994-01-01

    Tamil Nadu had a 1991 annual growth rate of 1.1% compared to a rate of over 2% in the northern states of Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh. The lower fertility and mortality in Tamil Nadu was achieved through a sustained, multifaceted social and economic effort and through promotion, reach, and quality of family planning in a short time period. Political leadership and media efforts since the 1960s have strengthened support for the small family norm, later marriage, and improved status of women. Infrastructure development includes roads and water supplies in every village, rural electrification, and a government center in every village. Tamil Nadu devotes over 33% of its total budget to health and education. Special emphasis was placed on a program initiated in 1982 to provide a nutritious midday meal in school to every child living in poverty. In 1994, this program cost Rs. 3350. The result has been increasing school enrollment, greater retention of female children, reductions in malnutrition, and opportunities for local part-time employment and increased social status in the community. In some locations, the meal program includes day care centers and meals for the aged. Another social program provides cash loans of Rs. 5000 to couples at first marriage who are over the age of 18 years with a completed high school degree. Rs. 300 are provided for nutritional support for the first two pregnancies. Rs. 10,000 are also given to girls whose family income is under Rs. 12,000 a year. Financial assistance is available for widows who remarry and for intercaste marriages. A new program provides a gold ring, educational expenses, and Rs. 20 for families with an only girl child or two girl children and which accept a permanent method of family planning. A negligible 20,000 couples joined the program, although about 15% of the total population was eligible. 50-55% of women receive state subsidies and loans. Collectives exist in 12,000 women's groups. Tamil

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (EIMS) FACT SHEET

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the fact sheet is to provide information about the US EPA Office of Research and Developments Environmental Information Management System. The fact sheet indicates the type of records that are in EIMS, systems that are integrated with EIMS as well as some highligh...

  13. Snapple[R] Real Facts Watercolors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, Stephanie

    2007-01-01

    Did you know that a hummingbird weighs less than a penny? Or that an elephant swims twenty miles a day? These are just two of the many facts that Snapple prints on the lids of their drink bottles. When Snapple first introduced the Snapple Real Facts the author was excited to see that something so trivial was also educational. She asked herself if…

  14. Vehicle Technologies' Fact of the Week 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Stacy Cagle; Diegel, Susan W; Moore, Sheila A

    2013-02-01

    Each week the U.S. Department of Energy s Vehicle Technology Office (VTO) posts a Fact of the Week on their website: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/ . These Facts provide statistical information, usually in the form of charts and tables, on vehicle sales, fuel economy, gasoline prices, and other transportation-related trends. Each Fact is a stand-alone page that includes a graph, text explaining the significance of the data, the supporting information on which the graph was based, and the source of the data. A link to the current week s Fact is available on the VTO homepage, but older Facts are archived and stillmore » available at: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/facts/. This report is a compilation of the Facts that were posted during calendar year 2012. The Facts were written and prepared by staff in Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Center for Transportation Analysis.« less

  15. Vehicle Technologies Fact of the Week 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Stacy Cagle; Williams, Susan E.; Moore, Sheila A.

    2014-03-01

    Each week the U.S. Department of Energy s Vehicle Technology Office (VTO) posts a Fact of the Week on their website: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/ . These Facts provide statistical information, usually in the form of charts and tables, on vehicle sales, fuel economy, gasoline prices, and other transportation-related trends. Each Fact is a stand-alone page that includes a graph, text explaining the significance of the data, the supporting information on which the graph was based, and the source of the data. A link to the current week s Fact is available on the VTO homepage, but older Facts are archived and stillmore » available at: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/facts/. This report is a compilation of the Facts that were posted during calendar year 2013. The Facts were written and prepared by staff in Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Center for Transportation Analysis.« less

  16. Reinforcing Consent as a "Private Facts" Defense.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haberman, David A.

    To delineate the ideas of newsworthiness and consent as they apply to journalism and private facts lawsuits (those in which plaintiffs seek to stop publication of facts about themselves), this paper covers key areas of dispute. Various sections of the paper discuss (1) the definition of newsworthiness, (2) consent as a legal defense, (3) the…

  17. Retrieval-Induced Forgetting of Arithmetic Facts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Jamie I. D.; Thompson, Valerie A.

    2012-01-01

    Retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF) is a widely studied phenomenon of human memory, but RIF of arithmetic facts remains relatively unexplored. In 2 experiments, we investigated RIF of simple addition facts (2 + 3 = 5) from practice of their multiplication counterparts (2 x 3 = 6). In both experiments, robust RIF expressed in response times occurred…

  18. Three Steps to Mastering Multiplication Facts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kling, Gina; Bay-Williams, Jennifer M.

    2015-01-01

    "That was the day I decided I was bad at math." Countless times, preservice and in-service teachers make statements such as this after sharing vivid memories of learning multiplication facts. Timed tests; public competitive games, such as Around the World; and visible displays of who has and has not mastered groups of facts still…

  19. Tuberculosis Facts - TB Can Be Treated

    MedlinePlus

    Tuberculosis (TB) Facts TB Can Be Treated What is TB? “TB” is short for a disease called tuberculosis. TB is spread through the air from one ... Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination Page 1 of 2 TB Facts: TB ...

  20. Tuberculosis Facts - You Can Prevent TB

    MedlinePlus

    Tuberculosis (TB) Facts You Can Prevent TB What is TB? “TB” is short for a disease called tuberculosis. TB is spread through the air from one ... Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination TB Facts: You Can Prevent TB What ...

  1. 16 CFR 460.13 - Fact sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... heat flow. The higher the R-value, the greater the insulating power. Compare insulation R-values before... INSULATION § 460.13 Fact sheets. If you are a manufacturer, you must give retailers and installers fact sheets for the insulation products you sell to them. Each sheet must contain what is listed here. You can...

  2. 16 CFR 460.13 - Fact sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... heat flow. The higher the R-value, the greater the insulating power. Compare insulation R-values before... INSULATION § 460.13 Fact sheets. If you are a manufacturer, you must give retailers and installers fact sheets for the insulation products you sell to them. Each sheet must contain what is listed here. You can...

  3. 16 CFR 460.13 - Fact sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... heat flow. The higher the R-value, the greater the insulating power. Compare insulation R-values before... INSULATION § 460.13 Fact sheets. If you are a manufacturer, you must give retailers and installers fact sheets for the insulation products you sell to them. Each sheet must contain what is listed here. You can...

  4. 16 CFR 460.13 - Fact sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... heat flow. The higher the R-value, the greater the insulating power. Compare insulation R-values before... INSULATION § 460.13 Fact sheets. If you are a manufacturer, you must give retailers and installers fact sheets for the insulation products you sell to them. Each sheet must contain what is listed here. You can...

  5. 16 CFR 460.13 - Fact sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... heat flow. The higher the R-value, the greater the insulating power. Compare insulation R-values before... INSULATION § 460.13 Fact sheets. If you are a manufacturer, you must give retailers and installers fact sheets for the insulation products you sell to them. Each sheet must contain what is listed here. You can...

  6. Quick Facts for 2013-2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabama State Department of Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The Alabama Department of Education presents "Quick Facts," an annual snapshot of general state statistics, facts about public schools, the State Board of Education, and general financial data. The data presented in this report covers the school year 2013-2014.

  7. Some Surprising Introductory Physics Facts and Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallmann, A. James

    2016-01-01

    In the entertainment world, people usually like, and find memorable, novels, short stories, and movies with surprise endings. This suggests that classroom teachers might want to present to their students examples of surprising facts associated with principles of physics. Possible benefits of finding surprising facts about principles of physics are…

  8. Computational Fact Checking by Mining Knowledge Graphs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiralkar, Prashant

    2017-01-01

    Misinformation and rumors have become rampant on online social platforms with adverse consequences for the real world. Fact-checking efforts are needed to mitigate the risks associated with the spread of digital misinformation. However, the pace at which information is generated online limits the capacity to fact-check claims at the same rate…

  9. Comparative Survey of Entomophagy and Entomotherapeutic Practices in Six Tribes of Eastern Arunachal Pradesh (India)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A consolidated list of edible insects used in the eastern part of Arunachal Pradesh (N.E. India) by Wangcho (Wancho) and Nocte tribes of the Tirap District and the Shingpo, Tangsa, Deori and Chakma of the Changlang District has been prepared. The list is based on thorough, semi-structured field-interviews with 20 informants of each tribal group. At least 51 insect species, belonging to 9 orders were considered edible. The largest number of the edible species belonged to the Coleoptera (14), followed by 10 each of the Orthoptera and Hymenoptera, 9 of the Hemiptera, 3 Lepidoptera, 2 Isoptera and one each of Ephemeroptera, Odonata and Mantodea. As far as therapeutic uses of insects are concerned, 4 species (Hemiptera) were mentioned by the Wangcho (Wancho). Food insects are chosen by members of the various tribes according to traditional beliefs, taste, regional and seasonal availability of the insects. Depending on the species, only certain, but sometimes all, developmental stages are consumed. Preparation of the food insects for consumption involves mainly roasting or boiling. With the degradation of natural resources, habitat loss, rapid population growth, and increasing ‘westernization’ , the traditional wisdom of North-East Indian tribals related to insect uses is at risk of being lost. PMID:23866996

  10. Comparative survey of entomophagy and entomotherapeutic practices in six tribes of eastern Arunachal Pradesh (India).

    PubMed

    Chakravorty, Jharna; Ghosh, Sampat; Meyer-Rochow, V Benno

    2013-07-19

    A consolidated list of edible insects used in the eastern part of Arunachal Pradesh (N.E. India) by Wangcho (Wancho) and Nocte tribes of the Tirap District and the Shingpo, Tangsa, Deori and Chakma of the Changlang District has been prepared. The list is based on thorough, semi-structured field-interviews with 20 informants of each tribal group. At least 51 insect species, belonging to 9 orders were considered edible. The largest number of the edible species belonged to the Coleoptera (14), followed by 10 each of the Orthoptera and Hymenoptera, 9 of the Hemiptera, 3 Lepidoptera, 2 Isoptera and one each of Ephemeroptera, Odonata and Mantodea. As far as therapeutic uses of insects are concerned, 4 species (Hemiptera) were mentioned by the Wangcho (Wancho). Food insects are chosen by members of the various tribes according to traditional beliefs, taste, regional and seasonal availability of the insects. Depending on the species, only certain, but sometimes all, developmental stages are consumed. Preparation of the food insects for consumption involves mainly roasting or boiling. With the degradation of natural resources, habitat loss, rapid population growth, and increasing 'westernization' , the traditional wisdom of North-East Indian tribals related to insect uses is at risk of being lost.

  11. Factors associated with treatment seeking for malaria in Madhya Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Mrigendra P; Saha, Kalyan B; Chand, Sunil K; Anvikar, Anup

    2017-11-01

    To determine household factors associated with treatment seeking for malaria. The study was carried out in four districts of Madhya Pradesh with different malaria endemicity. A total of 1470 households were interviewed in which at least one member suffered from microscopically confirmed malaria in the 3 months preceding the survey. Socio-demographic, economic, cultural characteristics, their health beliefs, knowledge and practices regarding malaria and choice of treatment seeking were explored. A total of 764 households were from high-endemic and 706 from low-endemic areas. More than half of household heads were illiterate; most are farmers. Approximately 46% sought treatment for malaria from unqualified informal providers; 19% from qualified private health practitioners and 35% from government health providers. Analysis revealed that household's area of residence, education, occupation, ethnicity, use of preventive measures, economic status, knowledge and practices, distance and delayed treatment seeking was strongly associated with the type of healthcare providers selected. Demand for formal health services among the poor, illiterate, tribal population living in remote areas is low. Accessible and affordable health services and a sensitisation programme to increase the demand for formal providers are needed. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Clinico-immunological aspects of vernal catarrh in hilly terrains of Himachal Pradesh.

    PubMed

    Bisht, R; Goyal, A; Thakur; Singh, T; Sharma; Vijay; Goyal, B K

    1992-01-01

    Very few immunological studies in vernal catarrh have been conducted in India and abroad, but none in Himachal Pradesh in spite of its high incidence in the State. In the present study 25 patients of vernal catarrh residing at a height ranging between 1000 to 2500 meters above mean sea level have been evaluated. Their immunological status of serum and tears after detailed clinical assessment was studied by single radial immunodiffusion technique of Mancini et al. The values of serum IgA and IgM were significantly higher in patients than in controls. The serum IgE level had no significant difference. The IgG was significantly lower in patients with vernal catarrh. The values of tear IgM, IgE and IgA in these patients were significantly higher than in controls. However, in no case or control group C3C and C4 were detected in tears. The limbal type of vernal catarrh was found to be the most common in this part of the country. No mixed case was seen. Derangement of the immune system in the pathogenesis of vernal catarrh is suggested.

  13. Portfolio of Outpatients Attending Centre for Urban Health, Madhya Pradesh, Central India.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Arti; Reddy, B Venkatashiva; Nagar, Mukesh Kumar; Chandel, Ajeet; Bali, Surya

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge on distribution and burden of diseases in a community is essential for planning of public health services. In the absence of information on morbidity profile through community-based surveys, facility-based data provide a good alternative. The aim of this study was to describe the morbidity profile of patients attending the Centre for Urban Health All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS) Bhopal (CUHA). A record-based descriptive study was carried out in the CUHA Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, Central India. Information on age, gender, residence, new case, and principal diagnosis were extracted from the outpatient registers for the period between January 2014 and December 2014. Only newly registered patients for the study year (2014) were included. Descriptive analysis was done. A total of 6685 new episodes of illnesses were treated. Adults (>15 years) constituted about 85.0%. Overall, the respiratory disorders were the most common (27.2%) followed by the digestive disorders (10.9%), circulatory disorders (9.9%), musculoskeletal disorders (8.8%), and infectious and parasitic disorders (7.4%). This study gives a brief description of the morbidity profile of patients attending a primary health care center over a period of 1 year. This knowledge would help in planning health services to meet the patients' needs and help in training health staff.

  14. Efficiency of health care system at the sub-state level in Madhya Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Purohit, Brijesh C

    2010-01-01

    This paper attempts a sub-state-level analysis of health system for a low-income Indian state, namely, Madhya Pradesh. The objective of our study is to establish efficiency parameters that may help health policy makers to improve district-level and thus state-level health system performance. It provides an idealized yardstick to evaluate the performance of the health sector by using stochastic frontier technique. The study was carried out in two stages of estimation, and our results suggest that life expectancy in the Indian state could be enhanced considerably by correcting the factors that are adversely influencing sub-state-level health system efficiency. Our results indicate that main factors within the health system for discrepancy in interdistrict performance are inequitable distribution of supplies, availability of skilled attention at birth, and inadequate staffing relative to patient load of rural population at primary health centers. Overcoming these factors through additional resources in the deficient districts, mobilized partly from grants in aid and partly from patient welfare societies, may help the state to improve life expectancy speedily and more equitably. Besides the direct inputs from the health sector, a more conducive environment for gender development, reducing inequality in opportunities for women in health, education and other rights may provide the necessary impetus towards reducing maternal morbidity and mortality and add to overall life expectancy in the state.

  15. Cephalometric norms for orthognathic surgery for North India (Eastern Uttar Pradesh).

    PubMed

    Gulati, Rajeev; Jain, Shikha

    2011-01-01

    The present study was aimed at development of the cephalometric norms for orthognathic surgery for the population of eastern Uttar Pradesh in North India. This study was conducted at a dental college. The study sample consisted of 50 males and 50 females. Each lateral cephalogram was taken in occlusion and subsequently traced. All reference points, landmarks, and measurements were made according to cephalometrics for orthognathic surgery (COGS) system. The statistical analysis involved calculation of mean and standard deviation for each of the 23 parameters assessed for each subject. The data was subsequently compared with COGS study by using Normal (Z) test. The norms were derived for the purvanchal population of North India and these were found to be quite distinct compared to those obtained from COGS study with respect to specific parameters. Male subjects indicated greater prominence of chin relative to the face, decreased posterior divergence, infraeruption of upper and lower molar as well as lower incisors, decreased total effective length of the maxilla, tendency towards Class III occlusion, and procumbent lower incisors. Female subjects, however, indicated increased anterior cranial base length, greater prominence of chin relative to the face, prognathic maxilla and mandible, increased middle third facial height, infraerupted lower incisors, increased mandibular body length, and procumbent lower incisors.

  16. Prevalence of dental fluorosis among primary school children in rural areas of Karera Block, Madhya Pradesh.

    PubMed

    Narwaria, Y S; Saksena, D N

    2013-09-01

    To determine prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis in school going children of ten villages of Karera block of Shivpuri District, Madhya Pradesh. Fluoride ion concentration was measured in ten hand pump and two wells waters with a fluoride meter (ORION model 720). For the study total 750 school children were selected from ten government primary schools of ten rural villages. The survey was conducted during the period of November 2007 through December 2009. The dental and oral examination was done by two trained dentists. The occurrence and severity of dental fluorosis was recorded using Dean's index. Drinking water sources considered for study were hand pumps, and wells. Out of 750 children surveyed, 341 were found affected with dental fluorosis. The boys had greater prevalence (46.75%) as compared to girls (42.18%). Dental fluorosis, as assessed by Dean's Index shows that 20.8% children had grade I, 19.47% grade II, 5.2% grade III. Overall, 45.46% of the sample showed some grades of dental fluorosis. In all the 144 water samples from ten villages fluoride level was higher than permissible limits. The boys had greater prevalence of dental fluorosis over the girls.

  17. Glacier fluctuation using Satellite Data in Beas basin, 1972-2006, Himachal Pradesh, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Shruti; Ramanathan, A. L.; Linda, Anurag

    2012-10-01

    Glaciers are widely recognized as sensitive indicators for regional climate change. Very few studies have been conducted to investigate the long term deglaciation status in the Himalaya. In the present study, glaciers in the Beas basin, Himachal Pradesh, India were mapped by interpretation of various glacio-morphological features using the Landsat and IRS images. The mapping of 224 glaciers during the period 1972-2006 reveals that the glacier cover reduced from 419 to 371 km2, witnessing approximately 11.6% deglaciation in the Beas basin. A higher rate of retreat of the glaciers was observed during 1989-2006 as compared to the retreat during 1972-1989. Also, the loss has been more prominent in the glaciers with an areal extent of 2-5 km2. The number of glaciers increased from 224 to 236 due to fragmentation in this period. The average elevation of the ablation zone basin showed an upward shift from 3898 m (1972) to 4171 m (2006) which may be a consequence of a shift in Equilibrium Line Altitude (ELA) reflecting imbalance.

  18. Couple Interaction and Predicting Vulnerability to Domestic Violence in Uttar Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Brijesh P; Singh, Kaushalendra K; Singh, Neha

    2014-08-01

    Domestic violence, when conducted against women, is a type of gender-based violence that negatively impacts a woman's physical and psychological health, causing insecurity, lack of safety, and loss of health and self-worth. Domestic violence is an important consideration for sexual, reproductive, and child health, as it can affect contraceptive behaviors of couples as well as levels of infant mortality. In the present analysis, an attempt has been made to study the relationship between women's experience of domestic violence and couple interaction after controlling for certain socioeconomic and demographic variables using logistic regression. This study looks at data from the National Family Health Survey-III conducted from 2005 to 2006 in Uttar Pradesh, the most populous state of India. Findings reveal that 43% of women suffer from domestic violence in the society as a whole; however, if a couple makes joint decisions in household matters, the prevalence of domestic violence is observed to be 24% less. Education and occupation of women, standard of living, media exposure, and partner's alcoholic behaviors are also found to be possible predictors of domestic violence. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Earthquake swarm of Himachal Pradesh in northwest Himalaya and its seismotectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Rakesh; Prasath, R. Arun; Paul, Ajay; Kumar, Naresh

    2018-02-01

    On the 27th of August 2016, a seismic swarm activity consisting of 58 earthquakes (1.5 ≤ ML ≤ 4.4), which occurred in Rampur area of the Kullu-Rampur Tectonic window of Himachal Pradesh in Northwest Himalaya. The epicenters of these events are located at the northern front of the Berinag Thrust in its hanging wall. To better understand the seismotectonics of this region, we analyzed the spectral source parameters and source mechanism of this swam activity. Spectral analysis shows the low stress drop values (from 0.05 to 28.9 bars), suggesting that the upper crust has low strength to withstand accumulated strain energy in this region. The Moment Tensor solutions of 12 earthquakes (≥2.7ML) obtained by waveform inversion yield the shallow centroid depths between 5 and 10 km. All these events are of dominantly thrust fault mechanism having an average dip angle of ∼30°. The P-axes and the maximum horizontal compressive stresses are NE-SW oriented; the relative motion of the Indian Plate. The present study reveals that the swarm activity in the Himachal region of NW Himalaya is related to the out-of-sequence thrusting or the Lesser Himalayan Duplex system.

  20. Treatment practices in pulmonary tuberculosis by private sector physicians of Meerut, Uttar Pradesh.

    PubMed

    Yadav, A; Garg, S K; Chopra, H; Bajpai, S K; Bano, T; Jain, S; Kumar, A

    2012-01-01

    Majority of the qualified medical practitioners in the country are in the private sector and more than half of patients with tuberculosis (TB) seek treatment from them. The present study was conducted with the objective of assessing the treatment modalities in pulmonary tuberculosis by the private physicians in Meerut City, Uttar Pradesh, India. A cross-sectional study was carried out covering all the private physicians (graduates and postgraduates in Medicine and Chest Diseases) registered under the Indian Medical Association, Meerut Branch (n = 154). The physicians were interviewed by a pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire about the treatment modalities practiced by them. Only 43.5% private physicians had attended any Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP) training in the past five years. Only 33.1% of them were aware of the International Standards of Tuberculosis Care (ISTC). Fifty-three different regimens were used to treat the patients. Majority of physicians (76%) prescribed daily regimens while 24% administered both daily and intermittent treatment. None of the private physicians prescribed exclusive intermittent regimen. Eighty-seven different treatment regimens were used for the treatment of multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) with none of them prescribing standard treatment under RNTCP. As majority of private practitioners do not follow RNTCP guidelines for treating TB, there is an urgent need for their continued education in this area.

  1. "Tinni" Rice ( Oryza rufipogon Griff.) Production: An Integrated Sociocultural Agroecosystem in Eastern Uttar Pradesh of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Ranjay K.; Turner, Nancy J.; Pandey, C. B.

    2012-01-01

    This study reports how Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) and informal cultural institutions have conserved key varieties of the wildgrowing rice, ` tinni' (red rice, or brownbeard rice, Oriza rufipogon Griff.), within the Bhar community of eastern Uttar Pradesh, India. The study was conducted, using conventional and participatory methods, in 10 purposively selected Bhar villages. Two distinct varieties of tinni (` tinni patali' and ` tinni moti') with differing habitats and phenotypic characters were identified. Seven microecosystems (Kari, Badaila, Chammo, Karmol, Bhainsiki, Bhainsala and Khodailia) were found to support these varieties in differing proportions. Tinni rice can withstand more extreme weather conditions (the highest as well as lowest temperatures and rainfall regimes) than the `genetically improved' varieties of rice ( Oriza sativa L.) grown in the region. Both tinni varieties are important bioresources for the Bhar's subsistence livelihoods, and they use distinctive conservation approaches in their maintenance. Bhar women are the main custodians of tinni rice agrobiodiversity, conserving tinni through an institution called Sajha. Democratic decision-making at meetings organized by village elders determines the market price of the tinni varieties. Overall, the indigenous institutions and women's participation seem to have provided safeguards from excessive exploitation of tinni rice varieties. The maintenance of tinni through cultural knowledge and institutions serves as an example of the importance of locally maintained crop varieties in contributing to people's resilience and food security in times of rapid social and environmental change.

  2. Limnology and cyanobacterial diversity of high altitude lakes of Lahaul-Spiti in Himachal Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Y; Khattar, Jis; Singh, D P; Rahi, P; Gulati, A

    2014-09-01

    Limnological data of four high altitude lakes from the cold desert region of Himachal Pradesh, India, has been correlated with cyanobacterial diversity. Physico-chemical characteristics and nutrient contents of the studied lakes revealed that Sissu Lake is mesotrophic while Chandra Tal, Suraj Tal and Deepak Tal are ultra-oligotrophic. Based on morphology and 16S rRNA gene sequence, a total of 20 cyanobacterial species belonging to 11 genera were identified. Canonical correspondence analysis distinguished three groups of species with respect to their occurrence and nutrient/physical environment demand. The first group, which included Nostoc linckia, N. punctiforme, Nodularia sphaerocarpa, Geitlerinema acutissimum, Limnothrix redekii, Planktothrix agardhii and Plank. clathrata, was characteristic of water with high nutrient content and high temperature. The second group, including Gloeocapsopsis pleurocapsoides, Leptolyngbya antarctica, L. frigida, Pseudanabaena frigida and N. spongiaeforme, occurred in oligotrophic water with high pH and low temperature. The distribution of third group of Cyanobium parvum, Synechocystis pevalekii, L. benthonica, L. foveolarum, L. lurida, L. valderiana, Phormidium autumnale and P. chalybeum could not be associated with a particular environmental condition because of their presence in all sampling sites.

  3. Low use of contraceptives among rural women in Maitha, Uttar Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Saroha, Ekta; Altarac, Maja; Sibley, Lynn M

    2013-05-01

    Low contraceptive utilisation and high fertility in rural Uttar Pradesh (UP), India, is a major concern for the world's second most populous country. The association between reasons for low contraceptive utilisation and maternal factors has been inadequately researched. Data from the 'morbidity and performance assessment' study were analysed to explore reasons for low contraceptive utilisation and their association with maternal factors among 308 women in Maitha, rural UP, India. Chi-square, t-test, ANOVA, and logistic regression analyses were conducted. Majority (84.2%) of the rural women in Maitha, UP, India were not using any contraceptives. Upper caste, literate wives, and wives whose husbands were literate were more likely to use contraceptives. About one-third of the women did not want to use a contraceptive because they wanted another child. Large numbers (65.3%) of women wanted to use contraceptives but were unable to do so due to lack of knowledge (38.9%), fear of side-effects (15.5%), husband/family disapproval (15.5%), inconvenience (10.7%), and other reasons (19.1%). Maternal parity, wives' and husband's literacy were significantly associated with the reasons for low contraceptive utilisation (p < 0.05). Contraceptive utilisation can be Improved by taking into consideration such maternal characteristics. All state subsidised contraceptives should be more widely known, understood and made available.

  4. Caste and maternal health care service use among rural Hindu women in Maitha, Uttar Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Saroha, Ekta; Altarac, Maja; Sibley, Lynn M

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the association between caste and maternal health care service use among rural Hindu women in India. We analyzed data from the Morbidity and Performance Assessment, a population-based cross-sectional study, for 482 Hindu women who were pregnant during January 1998 to January 1999 in Maitha, Uttar Pradesh, India. Maternal health care service use among both upper and lower caste women was very low. Upper caste women were almost three times more likely to use antenatal care (odds ratio [OR] = 2.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.40-5.30), tetanus toxoid (OR = 2.50; 95% CI, 1.48-4.21), and contraceptives (OR = 2.66; 95% CI, 1.28-5.54) and almost five times (OR = 4.77; 95% CI, 1.81-12.54) more likely to have a trained birth attendant compared to the lower caste women. Caste was a significant determinant of tetanus toxoid use and trained birth attendant even after adjusting for sociodemographic factors. Besides caste, maternal literacy was the one sociodemographic factor that was significantly associated with the use of all maternal health care services. Information dissemination and awareness generation can improve the use of subsidized maternal health care services among women of all caste groups.

  5. Feasibility of community neonatal death audits in rural Uttar Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Patel, Z; Kumar, V; Singh, P; Singh, V; Yadav, R; Baqui, A H; Santosham, M; Awasthi, S; Singh, J V; Darmstadt, G L

    2007-09-01

    Medical audit is a widely promoted strategy in hospitals, but experience within community settings is scant. Community neonatal death audit is a form of audit, which involves a systematic analysis of the quality of care provided in the home, danger sign recognition and care seeking decision making for neonatal illness. This research was conducted in Uttar Pradesh, India, to investigate the feasibility and cultural acceptability of community neonatal death audits. During November-December 2004, we conducted three in-depth interviews with family members of deceased neonates, and six focus group discussions with family and community members. Three approaches were evaluated: in-depth interview with the family before engaging them in an audit with the community; preliminary meeting to build rapport with the family and community before conducting an audit; and audit with the family and community in a single focus group. Approaches were interactive processes, involving the community, to identify avoidable factors in a particular death and discuss solutions. Carried out in a culturally sensitive and non-punitive manner, community neonatal death audit was found to be acceptable and feasible. All approaches provoked formal investigation by community members, and stimulated sharing of views, leading to the self-discovery that community perception was a cumulatively amplified effect of individual perceptions. Presence of an educated/experienced community member or health worker served as a catalyst. No one optimal approach was identified. Community neonatal audit is an acceptable approach that shows promise as an effective intervention for improving neonatal health outcomes.

  6. Mineral shock signatures in rocks from Dhala (Mohar) impact structure, Shivpuri district, Madhya Pradesh, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Madhuparna; Pandey, Pradeep; Kumar, Shailendra; Parihar, P. S.

    2017-12-01

    A concrete study combining optical microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffractometry, was carried out on subsurface samples of basement granite and melt breccia from Mohar (Dhala) impact structure, Shivpuri district, Madhya Pradesh, India. Optical microscopy reveals aberrations in the optical properties of quartz and feldspar in the form of planar deformation feature-like structures, lowered birefringence and mosaics in quartz, toasting, planar fractures and ladder texture in alkali feldspar and near-isotropism in bytownite. It also brings to light incidence of parisite, a radioactive rare mineral in shocked granite. Raman spectral pattern, peak positions, peak widths and multiplicity of peak groups of all minerals, suggest subtle structural/crystallographic deviations. XRD data further reveals minute deviations of unit cell parameters of quartz, alkali feldspar and plagioclase, with respect to standard α-quartz, high- and low albite and microcline. Reduced cell volumes in these minerals indicate compression due to pressure. The c0/a0 values indicate an inter-tetrahedral angle roughly between 120o and 144o, further pointing to a possible pressure maxima of around 12 GPa. The observed unit cell aberration of minerals may indicate an intermediate stage between crystalline and amorphous stages, thereby, signifying possible overprinting of decompression signatures over shock compression effects, from a shock recovery process.

  7. Some Surprising Introductory Physics Facts and Numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallmann, A. James

    2016-04-01

    In the entertainment world, people usually like, and find memorable, novels, short stories, and movies with surprise endings. This suggests that classroom teachers might want to present to their students examples of surprising facts associated with principles of physics. Possible benefits of finding surprising facts about principles of physics are opportunities to expand beyond traditional presentations—and, in some cases, to achieve a deeper and broader understanding of those principles. I believe, moreover, that some of the facts presented here may inspire physics teachers to produce some challenge problems for students.

  8. The effect of family sex composition on fertility desires and family planning behaviors in urban Uttar Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Calhoun, Lisa M; Nanda, Priya; Speizer, Ilene S; Jain, Meenakshi

    2013-09-11

    A cultural preference for sons has been well documented in India, resulting in skewed sex ratios, especially exhibited in northwest India. Previous research has shown that family sex composition is associated with family planning (FP) use and couples' desire for more children. This study examines family sex composition and fertility and FP behaviors in urban Uttar Pradesh, India; little work has examined these issues in urban settings where family sizes are smaller and FP use is common. Data for this analysis comes from a 2010 representative survey of married, non-pregnant fecund women aged 15-49 from six cities in Uttar Pradesh, India. Multivariate analyses are used to examine the association between family sex composition and fertility desires and FP use. The multivariate results indicate that family sex composition is associated with fertility desires and FP use. Women without living children and without at least one child of each sex are significantly less likely to want no more children and women with both sons and daughters but more sons are significantly more likely to want no more children as compared to women that have both sons and daughters but more daughters. Women with no living children and women with daughters but no sons are less likely to be modern FP users than nonusers whereas women with both sons and daughters but more sons are more likely to be modern FP users than nonusers as compared to women with both sons and daughters but more daughters. These findings confirm that family sex composition affects fertility behavior and also reveals that preference for sons persists in urban Uttar Pradesh. These results underscore the importance of programs and policies that work to enhance the value of girl children.

  9. The effect of family sex composition on fertility desires and family planning behaviors in urban Uttar Pradesh, India

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A cultural preference for sons has been well documented in India, resulting in skewed sex ratios, especially exhibited in northwest India. Previous research has shown that family sex composition is associated with family planning (FP) use and couples’ desire for more children. This study examines family sex composition and fertility and FP behaviors in urban Uttar Pradesh, India; little work has examined these issues in urban settings where family sizes are smaller and FP use is common. Methods Data for this analysis comes from a 2010 representative survey of married, non-pregnant fecund women aged 15–49 from six cities in Uttar Pradesh, India. Multivariate analyses are used to examine the association between family sex composition and fertility desires and FP use. Results The multivariate results indicate that family sex composition is associated with fertility desires and FP use. Women without living children and without at least one child of each sex are significantly less likely to want no more children and women with both sons and daughters but more sons are significantly more likely to want no more children as compared to women that have both sons and daughters but more daughters. Women with no living children and women with daughters but no sons are less likely to be modern FP users than nonusers whereas women with both sons and daughters but more sons are more likely to be modern FP users than nonusers as compared to women with both sons and daughters but more daughters. Conclusions These findings confirm that family sex composition affects fertility behavior and also reveals that preference for sons persists in urban Uttar Pradesh. These results underscore the importance of programs and policies that work to enhance the value of girl children. PMID:24025670

  10. 2003 Nevada transportation facts and figures

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2003-08-01

    Every two years NDOT produces a helpful and informative Fact Book to provide the Legislature and the public historical and current statistical information describing the department's operations and factors that drive Nevada's multimodal transportatio...

  11. 2005 Nevada transportation facts and figures

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2005-02-01

    Every two years NDOT produces a helpful and informative Fact Book to provide the Legislature and the public historical and current statistical information describing the department's operations and factors that drive Nevada's multimodal transportatio...

  12. Facts about Noroviruses on Cruise Ships

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cruise Tips for Healthy Cruising Related Resources Cruise Ship Inspection Scores & Information Inspection Scores Cruise Line Directory ... Variances About Inspections Facts About Noroviruses on Cruise Ships Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Noroviruses People ...

  13. Facts about Coarctation of the Aorta

    MedlinePlus

    ... Media Policy Makers Facts about Coarctation of the Aorta Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Click here ... narrower than usual. What is Coarctation of the Aorta? Coarctation of the aorta is a birth defect ...

  14. 2009 Nevada transportation facts and figures

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-01-01

    Every two years NDOT produces a helpful and informative Fact Book to provide the Legislature and the public historical and current statistical information describing the department's operations and factors that drive Nevada's multimodal transportatio...

  15. 04/02/2013 Fact Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Fact sheet describing a proposal to amend the Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program (GHGRP), including technical amendments, amendments related to global warming potentials (GWPs), and confidentiality determinations for new or revised data elements.

  16. 1999 Nevada transportation facts and figures

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1999-01-01

    Every two years NDOT produces a helpful and informative Fact Book to provide the Legislature and the public historical and current statistical information describing the department's operations and factors that drive Nevada's multimodal transportatio...

  17. Traffic safety facts 1999 : state traffic data

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2000-01-01

    This traffic safety fact sheet presents state traffic data in a figure showing 1999 Traffic Fatalities by State and Percent Change from 1998 and in 11 tables showing: (1) Traffic Fatalities and Fatality Rates, 1999; (2) Traffic Fatalities and Percent...

  18. Illinois crash facts and statistics, 2008

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2008-01-01

    The 2008 Illinois Crash Facts & Statistics includes : data that illustrate Illinois safety accomplishments and : provides information about key events in the history of : traffic-safety related legislation. Summaries of safety : belt usage, ...

  19. LED Outdoor Area Lighting Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    None

    This fact sheet reviews the major design and specification concerns for outdoor area lighting, and discusses the potential for LED luminaires to save energy while providing high quality lighting for outdoor areas.

  20. 2002 traffic crash facts annual report

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2002-01-01

    Driving is inherently dangerous. Further, driving is a function of three related, : but independent, elements: the driver, the vehicle and the roadway. As : reflected in these Traffic Crash Facts, most crashes are the result of : improper drivi...

  1. Passenger Travel Facts and Figures 2016

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2016-08-10

    Passenger Travel Facts and Figures 2016 is a snapshot of the characteristics and trends of personal travel in the United States; the network over which passenger travel takes place; and the related economic, safety, and environmental aspects of passe...

  2. Passenger Travel Facts and Figures 2014

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-12-17

    Passenger Travel Facts and Figures 2014 is a snapshot of the characteristics and trends of personal travel in the United States; the network over which passenger travel takes place; and the related economic, safety, and environmental implications. An...

  3. Passenger Travel Facts and Figures 2015

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2015-09-16

    Passenger Travel Facts and Figures 2015 is a snapshot of the characteristics and trends of personal travel in the United States; the network over which passenger travel takes place; and the related economic, safety, and environmental aspects of passe...

  4. Nanotechnology for Site Remediation: Fact Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This fact sheet presents a snapshot of nanotechnology and its current uses in remediation. It presents information to help site project managers understand the potential applications of this group of technologies at their sites.

  5. HealthLines: Facts About Fat

    MedlinePlus

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Health Lines Facts About Fat Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... Writer, NLM Scientists are learning more about our fat cells, and their findings could explain why some ...

  6. 08/24/2012 Fact Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Fact sheet describing the 2012 corrections and amendments to the Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule that affect electronics manufacturing, petroleum and natural gas systems, fluorinated gas production, and industrial waste landfills.

  7. Proctor Creek Boone Boulevard Fact Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This fact sheet provides an overview of the Proctor Creek watershed and community, green infrastructure, the Boone Boulevard Green Street Project Conceptual Design, and the added value and application of Health Impact Assessment (HIA) to the project.

  8. Fact sheet : efforts on climate change

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2008-03-01

    The Oregon Department of Transportation recognizes that the transportation sector in : Oregon generates significant greenhouse gases. In fact, transportation sources are responsible for over a third of emissions in the state roughly the same shar...

  9. Technical Fact Sheet – Polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This fact sheet provides a brief summary of polybrominated biphenyls (PBB), including physical and chemical properties; environmental and health impacts; existing federal and state guidelines; detection and treatment methods; and additional sources of info

  10. Computational Fact Checking from Knowledge Networks

    PubMed Central

    Ciampaglia, Giovanni Luca; Shiralkar, Prashant; Rocha, Luis M.; Bollen, Johan; Menczer, Filippo; Flammini, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Traditional fact checking by expert journalists cannot keep up with the enormous volume of information that is now generated online. Computational fact checking may significantly enhance our ability to evaluate the veracity of dubious information. Here we show that the complexities of human fact checking can be approximated quite well by finding the shortest path between concept nodes under properly defined semantic proximity metrics on knowledge graphs. Framed as a network problem this approach is feasible with efficient computational techniques. We evaluate this approach by examining tens of thousands of claims related to history, entertainment, geography, and biographical information using a public knowledge graph extracted from Wikipedia. Statements independently known to be true consistently receive higher support via our method than do false ones. These findings represent a significant step toward scalable computational fact-checking methods that may one day mitigate the spread of harmful misinformation. PMID:26083336

  11. Illinois crash facts and statistics, 1999

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1999-01-01

    This publication, Illinois Traffic Crash Facts : and Statistics for 1999, is designed to serve : your needs in researching and reviewing : motor vehicle crash involvement in Illinois. : Illinois continues to work to reduce traffic : deaths and ...

  12. Illinois crash facts and statistics, 2000

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2000-01-01

    This publication, Illinois Traffic Crash Facts : and Statistics for 2000, is designed to serve : your needs in researching and reviewing : motor vehicle crash involvement in Illinois. : Illinois continues to work to reduce traffic : deaths and ...

  13. 2007 Nevada transportation facts and figures

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2007-01-01

    Every two years NDOT produces a helpful and informative Fact Book to provide the Legislature and the public historical and current statistical information describing the department's operations and factors that drive Nevada's multimodal transportatio...

  14. Tuberculosis Facts - TB and HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    Tuberculosis (TB) Facts TB and HIV/AIDS What is TB? “TB” is short for a disease called tuberculosis. TB is spread through the air from one ... Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination

  15. Illinois crash facts and statistics, 2002

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2002-01-01

    This publication, Illinois Traffic Crash Facts : and Statistics for 2002, is designed to provide an : overview of motor vehicle crash experience in : Illinois. In addition to a plethora of crash data, the : publication includes key events in th...

  16. Illinois crash facts and statistics, 2001

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2001-01-01

    This publication, Illinois Traffic Crash Facts : and Statistics for 2001, is designed to provide an : overview of motor vehicle crash experience in : Illinois. In addition to a plethora of crash data, the : publication includes key events in th...

  17. Illinois crash facts and statistics, 2003

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2003-01-01

    This publication, Illinois Traffic Crash Facts : and Statistics for 2003, is designed to provide an : overview of motor vehicle crash experience in : Illinois. In addition to a plethora of crash data, the : publication includes key events in th...

  18. Illinois crash facts and statistics, 1998

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1998-01-01

    This publication, Illinois Traffic Crash Facts : and Statistics for 1998, is designed to serve : your needs in researching and reviewing : motor vehicle crash involvement in Illinois. : Illinois continues to work to reduce traffic : deaths and ...

  19. Illinois crash facts and statistics, 1997

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1997-01-01

    This publication, Illinois Traffic Crash Facts : and Statistics for 1997, is designed to serve : your needs in researching and reviewing : motor vehicle crash involvement in Illinois. : Illinois continues to work to reduce traffic : deaths and ...

  20. Illinois crash facts and statistics, 2007

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2007-01-01

    The 2007 Illinois Crash Facts & Statistics includes : data that illustrate these accomplishments and also : provides information about key events in the history of : traffic safety-related legislation. Also included, are : summaries of motorcyc...

  1. More Cancer Types - SEER Cancer Stat Facts

    Cancer.gov

    Cancer Statistical Fact Sheets are summaries of common cancer types developed to provide an overview of frequently-requested cancer statistics including incidence, mortality, survival, stage, prevalence, and lifetime risk.

  2. Large truck and bus crash facts, 2010.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-09-01

    This annual edition of Large Truck and Bus Crash Facts contains descriptive statistics about fatal, injury, and : property damage only crashes involving large trucks and buses in 2010. Selected crash statistics on passenger : vehicles are also presen...

  3. Large truck and bus crash facts, 2007.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-03-01

    This annual edition of Large Truck and Bus Crash Facts contains descriptive statistics about fatal, injury, and : property damage only crashes involving large trucks and buses in 2007. Selected crash statistics on passenger : vehicles are also presen...

  4. Large truck and bus crash facts, 2011.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-10-01

    This annual edition of Large Truck and Bus Crash Facts contains descriptive statistics about fatal, injury, and : property damage only crashes involving large trucks and buses in 2011. Selected crash statistics on passenger : vehicles are also presen...

  5. Large truck and bus crash facts, 2013.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2015-04-01

    This annual edition of Large Truck and Bus Crash Facts contains descriptive statistics about fatal, injury, and property damage only crashes involving large trucks and buses in 2013. Selected crash statistics on passenger vehicles are also presented ...

  6. Large truck and bus crash facts, 2009.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-10-01

    This annual edition of Large Truck and Bus Crash Facts contains descriptive statistics about fatal, injury, and : property damage only crashes involving large trucks and buses in 2009. Selected crash statistics on passenger : vehicles are also presen...

  7. Large truck and bus crash facts, 2012.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-06-01

    This annual edition of Large Truck and Bus Crash Facts contains descriptive statistics about fatal, injury, and property damage only crashes involving large trucks and buses in 2012. Selected crash statistics on passenger vehicles are also presented ...

  8. El Paso Natural Gas Mines Fact Sheets

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    These fact sheets contain information about El Paso Natural Gas Mines and the Western Abandoned Uranium Mine Region, 19 abandoned uranium mine claims generally located along the Little Colorado River or Highway 89 near Cameron, AZ.

  9. Western Abandoned Uranium Mine Region Fact Sheets

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Fact sheets related to Western Abandoned Uranium Mine (AUM) Region, more than 100 abandoned uranium mine claims located along the Little Colorado River and Highway 89, ain the Cameron, Coalmine Canyon, Bodaway/Gap, and Leupp Chapters in Northern Arizona.

  10. 2001 Nevada transportation facts and figures

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2001-01-01

    Every two years NDOT produces a helpful and informative Fact Book to provide the Legislature and the public historical and current statistical information describing the department's operations and factors that drive Nevada's multimodal transportatio...

  11. Facts about Atrioventricular Septal Defect (AVSD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Living With Heart Defects Data & Statistics Tracking & Research Articles & Key Findings Free Materials Multimedia and Tools Links to Other Websites Information For… Media Policy Makers Facts about Atrioventricular Septal Defect (AVSD) ...

  12. Facts on Kids in South Dakota, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goebel, Pat, Ed.; Blad, Amy, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This Kids Count report consists of four issues in a series of fact sheets that examine specific indicators of the well-being of children in South Dakota. Issue one focuses on teens and motor vehicle crashes. The fact sheet notes that teen death rates from car crashes have been higher than the national rate for 4 of the 5 years between 1992-1996.…

  13. Scrub typhus in Uttarakhand & adjoining Uttar Pradesh: Seasonality, clinical presentations & predictors of mortality.

    PubMed

    Bhargava, Anurag; Kaushik, Reshma; Kaushik, Rajeev Mohan; Sharma, Anita; Ahmad, Sohaib; Dhar, Minakshi; Mittal, Garima; Khanduri, Sushant; Pant, Priyannk; Kakkar, Rajesh

    2016-12-01

    Scrub typhus is a re-emerging mite-borne rickettsiosis, which continues to be underdiagnosed, with lethal consequences. The present study was conducted to determine the seasonality, clinical presentation and predictors of mortality in patients with scrub typhus at a tertiary care teaching hospital in northern India. Scrub typhus was suspected in patients attending the hospital as per the standard case definition and serological evidence was obtained by performing an IgM ELISA. A total of 284 patients with scrub typhus from urban and rural areas were seen, predominantly from July to November. The most common clinical presentation was a bilateral community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), which resembled pneumonia due to atypical pathogens and often progressed to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). An acute undifferentiated febrile illness (AUFI) or a febrile illness associated with altered sensorium, aseptic meningitis, shock, abdominal pain, gastrointestinal bleeding or jaundice was also seen. Eschars were seen in 17 per cent of patients, and thrombocytopenia, transaminitis and azotaemia were frequent. There were 24 deaths (8.5%) caused predominantly by ARDS and multi-organ dysfunction. The mortality in patients with ARDS was high (37%). ARDS [odds ratio (OR)=38.29, 95% confidence interval (CI): 9.93, 147.71] and acute kidney injury (OR=8.30, 95% CI: 2.21, 31.21) were the major predictors of death. The present findings indicate that scrub typhus may be considered a cause of CAP, ARDS, AUFI or a febrile illness with multisystem involvement, in Uttarakhand and Uttar Pradesh, especially from July to November. Empiric therapy of CAP may include doxycycline or azithromycin to ensure coverage of underlying unsuspected scrub typhus.

  14. Aetiology of acute encephalitis syndrome in Uttar Pradesh, India from 2014 to 2016.

    PubMed

    Jain, Parul; Prakash, Shantanu; Khan, Danish N; Garg, Ravindra Kumar; Kumar, Rashmi; Bhagat, Amit; Ramakrishna, V; Jain, Amita

    2017-01-01

    It is imperative to know the aetiology of acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) for patient management and policy making. The present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of common aetiological agents of AES in Uttar Pradesh (UP) state of India. Serum and/or CSF samples were collected from AES patients admitted at Gandhi Memorial and Associated Hospital, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, a tertiary care centre, UP during 2014-16. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum samples from cases were tested for IgM antibodies against Japanese encephalitis virus (anti-JEV), and dengue virus (anti-DENV) by ELISA; and for enterovirus, herpes simplex virus (HSV) and varicella zoster virus (VZV) by real-time PCR. Serum samples of cases having sufficient CSF volume, were also tested for anti-scrub typhus IgM antibodies and for Neisseria meningitides, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae. JEV and DENV (8% each) were the most common identified aetiology from the 4092 enrolled patients. Enterovirus, HSV and VZV, each were detected in <1% AES cases. Co-positivity occurred in 48 cases. Scrub typhus (31.8%) was the most common aetiology detected. Haemophilus influenzae and S. pneumoniae were detected in 0.97 and 0.94% cases, respectively, however, N. meningitides was not detected in any of the cases. About 40% of the JEV/DENV positive AES cases were adults. The gap between the total number of AES cases and those with JEV/ DENV infection increased during monsoon and post-monsoon seasons. Scrub typhus, JEV and DENV are the main aetiological agents of AES in UP. DENV and JEV can no longer be considered paediatric diseases. The prevalence of non-JEV/DENV aetiology of AES increases in the monsoon and post-monsoon seasons.

  15. Men's attitudes on gender equality and their contraceptive use in Uttar Pradesh India.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Anurag; Nanda, Priya; Speizer, Ilene S; Calhoun, Lisa M; Zimmerman, Allison; Bhardwaj, Rochak

    2014-06-04

    Men play crucial role in contraceptive decision-making, particularly in highly gender-stratified populations. Past research examined men's attitudes toward fertility and contraception and the association with actual contraceptive practices. More research is needed on whether men's attitudes on gender equality are associated with contraceptive behaviors; this is the objective of this study. This study uses baseline data of the Measurement, Learning, and Evaluation (MLE) Project for the Urban Health Initiative in Uttar Pradesh, India. Data were collected from a representative sample of 6,431 currently married men in four cities of the state. Outcomes are current use of contraception and contraceptive method choice. Key independent variables are three gender measures: men's attitudes toward gender equality, gender sensitive decision making, and restrictions on wife's mobility. Multivariate analyses are used to identify the association between the gender measures and contraceptive use. Most men have high or moderate levels of gender sensitive decision-making, have low to moderate levels of restrictions on wife's mobility, and have moderate to high levels of gender equitable attitudes in all four cities. Gender sensitive decision making and equitable attitudes show significant positive association and restrictions on wife's mobility showed significant negative relationship with current contraceptive use. The study demonstrates that contraceptive programs need to engage men and address gender equitable attitudes; this can be done through peer outreach (interpersonal communication) or via mass media. Engaging men to be more gender equal may have an influence beyond contraceptive use in contexts where men play a crucial role in household decision-making.

  16. Assessment of morphometric characteristics of Chakrar watershed in Madhya Pradesh India using geospatial technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soni, Sandeep

    2017-09-01

    The quantitative analysis of the watershed is important for the quantification of the channel network and to understand its geo-hydrological behaviour. Assessment of drainage network and their relative parameters have been quantitatively carried out for the Chakrar watershed of Madhya Pradesh, India, to understand the prevailing geological variation, topographic information and structural setup of the watershed and their interrelationship. Remote Sensing and Geographical Information System (GIS) has been used for the delineation and calculation of the morphometric parameters of the watershed. The Chakrar watershed is sprawled over an area of 415 km2 with dendritic, parallel and trellis drainage pattern. It is sub-divided into nine sub-watersheds. The study area is designated as sixth-order basin and lower and middle order streams mostly dominate the basin with the drainage density value of 2.46 km/km2 which exhibits gentle to steep slope terrain, medium dense vegetation, and less permeable with medium precipitation. The mean bifurcation value of the basin is 4.16 and value of nine sub-watersheds varies from 2.83 to 4.44 which reveals drainage networks formed on homogeneous rocks when the influences of geologic structures on the stream network is negligible. Form factor, circularity ratio and elongation ratio indicate an elongated basin shape having less prone to flood, lower erosion and sediment transport capacities. The results from the morphometric assessment of the watershed are important in water resources evaluation and its management and for the selection of recharge structure in the area for future water management.

  17. Technical efficiency of public district hospitals in Madhya Pradesh, India: a data envelopment analysis.

    PubMed

    Jat, Tej Ram; Sebastian, Miguel San

    2013-09-24

    Scarcity of resources for healthcare is a well-acknowledged problem. In this context, efficient utilization of existing financial and human resources becomes crucial for strengthening the healthcare delivery. The assessment of efficiency of health facilities can guide decision makers in ensuring the optimum utilization of available resources. The objective of this study was to evaluate the technical efficiency (TE) of the public district hospitals in Madhya Pradesh, India, with special emphasis on maternal healthcare services, using data envelopment analysis (DEA). Data from 40 district hospitals from January to December 2010 were collected from the health management information system and other records of the department of health and family welfare of the state. DEA was performed with input orientation and variable returns to scale assumption. TE and scale efficiency scores of the district hospitals were 0.90 (SD = 0.14) and 0.88 (SD = 0.15), respectively. Of the total district hospitals in the study, 20 (50%) were technically efficient constituting the 'best practice frontier'. The other half were technically inefficient, with an average TE score of 0.79 (SD = 0.12) meaning that these hospitals could produce the same outputs by using 21% less inputs from current input levels. Twenty-six (65%) district hospitals were found to be scale inefficient, manifesting a mean score of 0.81 (SD = 0.16). Half of the district hospitals in the study were operating inefficiently. Decision makers and administrators in the state should identify the causes of the observed inefficiencies and take appropriate measures to increase efficiency of these hospitals.

  18. Faunal diversity during rainy season in reclaimed sodic land of Uttar Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Singh, S K; Srivastava, S P; Tandon, Pankaj; Azad, B S

    2009-07-01

    Faunal diversity is an indicator of soil amelioration. Estimating the population size or density of an animal species in an area is fundamental to understand its status and demography and to plan for its management and conservation. Considering this, faunal diversity in reclamed sodic land was monitored during rainy season 2000-01 at different locations of district viz., Aligarh, Etah, Fatehpur, Mainpuri and Raebareli in Uttar Pradesh. The Shannon-Weiner species diversity index (H) of different fauna complex of each location was compared with zero years (1995-1996) indexes (before reclamation). Insects diversity index, in reclaimed sodic soil, varied from 3.8178 (Fatehpur: Bariyampur) to 4.623 (Fatehpur: Katoghan), which was 3.028 in zero year at Katoghan in Fatehpur 'H' index of other-arthropods ranged widely from 0.9743 (Etah: Bawali) to 2.0674 (Mainpuri: Pundari). The species diversity index of molluscs registered as high as 1.8637 at Ladhauwa site in Aligarh, which exhibited identical with Saripur site of Raebareli. 'H' index of mammal resulted with the highest (2.19) at Pundari in district Mainpuri. The avifauna and amphibian's indices were recovered maximal at Saripur site of Raebareli and Bariyampur site of Fatehpur respectively. Our result revealed that various fauna enriched with soil reclamation, which is good indicator of restoration of land, primarily due to soil-arthropods and earthworms and its eventual improvement along with succeeding rice-wheat cropping system widespread over there. It clearly shows that soil fauna strongly affects the composition of natural vegetation and we suggest that this knowledge might improve the restoration and conservation of biodiversity.

  19. Evaluation of antimycobacterial, leishmanicidal and antibacterial activity of three medicinal orchids of Arunachal Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Bhatnagar, Manisha; Sarkar, Nandan; Gandharv, Nigam; Apang, Ona; Singh, Sarman; Ghosal, Sabari

    2017-08-01

    The ethnic population of Arunachal Pradesh uses a number of orchids as such, or in decoction for various ailments. Three untapped orchids namely, Rhynchostylis retusa, Tropidia curculioides and Satyrium nepalense, traditionally used in tuberculosis, asthma and cold stage of malaria in folk medicine, were selected for the present study. Dried material of each plant was divided into three parts. Solvent extraction and fractionation afforded altogether 30 extracts and fractions, which were evaluated against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (H37Rv and MDR strain) for antimycobacterial activity; promastigotes and amastigotes of Leishmania donovani for leishmanicidal activity and two gram positive and three gram negative clinical isolates for antibacterial activity. The most significant antimycobacterial activity was observed with n-hexane fraction of the flower of Satyrium nepalense with MIC of 15.7 μg/mL. The most promising leishmanicidal activity was observed with diethyl ether fraction of the roots of Rhynchostylis retusa with IC 50 values of 56.04 and 18.4 μg/mL against promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes respectively. Evaluation of antibacterial activity identified S. nepalense flower n-hexane and R. retusa roots diethyl ether as potential fractions with MIC values of ≤100 μg/mL against selected clinical isolates. This is the first report of the plants possessing antimycobacterial and leishmanicidal activity. The investigation resulted in identification of S. nepalense as the most promising plant, which possessed all three activities in significant proportion. This laboratory outcome could be translated to marketable pharmaceutical products and also to produce maximum benefits to the local of nearby area. Antimycobacterial and leishmanicidal activity of medicinal orchids.

  20. Earned print media in advancing tobacco control in Himachal Pradesh, India: a descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Renu; Shewade, Hemant Deepak; Gopalan, Balasubramaniam; Badrel, Ramesh Kumar; Rana, Jugdeep Singh

    2017-01-01

    The Union-Bloomberg Initiative tobacco control projects were implemented in Himachal Pradesh (a hilly state in North India) from 2007 to 2014. The project focused on the establishment of an administrative framework; increasing the capacity of stakeholders; enforcement of legislation; coalition and networking with multiple stakeholders; awareness generation with focus on earned media and monitoring and evaluation with policy-focussed research. This study aimed to systematically analyse all earned print news items related to the projects. In this cross-sectional descriptive study, quantitative content analysis of earned print news items was carried out using predetermined codes related to areas of tobacco control policies. We also carried out a cost description of the hypothetical value of this earned media. The area of the news item in cm 2 was multiplied by the average rate of space for the paid news item in that particular newspaper. There were 6348 news items: the numbers steadily increased with time. Focus on Monitoring tobacco use, Protecting people from tobacco smoke, Offering help to quit, Warning about dangers of tobacco, Enforcing a ban on tobacco advertising and promotion, Raising tax on tobacco products was seen in 24, 17, 9, 23, 22 and 3% of news items, respectively. Press releases were highest at 44% and report by correspondents at 24%. Further, 55, 23 and 21% news items focused on smoking, smokeless and both forms of tobacco use, respectively. Sixty-six per cent and 34% news items, respectively, were focused on youth and women. The news items had a hypothetical value of US$1503 628.3, which was three times more than the funds spent on all project activities. In the absence of funding for paid media, the project strategically used earned media to promote tobacco control policies in the state.

  1. Earned print media in advancing tobacco control in Himachal Pradesh, India: a descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Renu; Shewade, Hemant Deepak; Gopalan, Balasubramaniam; Badrel, Ramesh Kumar; Rana, Jugdeep Singh

    2017-01-01

    Background The Union-Bloomberg Initiative tobacco control projects were implemented in Himachal Pradesh (a hilly state in North India) from 2007 to 2014. The project focused on the establishment of an administrative framework; increasing the capacity of stakeholders; enforcement of legislation; coalition and networking with multiple stakeholders; awareness generation with focus on earned media and monitoring and evaluation with policy-focussed research. This study aimed to systematically analyse all earned print news items related to the projects. Methods In this cross-sectional descriptive study, quantitative content analysis of earned print news items was carried out using predetermined codes related to areas of tobacco control policies. We also carried out a cost description of the hypothetical value of this earned media. The area of the news item in cm2 was multiplied by the average rate of space for the paid news item in that particular newspaper. Results There were 6348 news items: the numbers steadily increased with time. Focus on Monitoring tobacco use, Protecting people from tobacco smoke, Offering help to quit, Warning about dangers of tobacco, Enforcing a ban on tobacco advertising and promotion, Raising tax on tobacco products was seen in 24, 17, 9, 23, 22 and 3% of news items, respectively. Press releases were highest at 44% and report by correspondents at 24%. Further, 55, 23 and 21% news items focused on smoking, smokeless and both forms of tobacco use, respectively. Sixty-six per cent and 34% news items, respectively, were focused on youth and women. The news items had a hypothetical value of US$1503 628.3, which was three times more than the funds spent on all project activities. Conclusions In the absence of funding for paid media, the project strategically used earned media to promote tobacco control policies in the state. PMID:28589021

  2. Gender-Based Power and Couples' HIV Risk in Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand, North India

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Alpna; Bloom, Shelah S.; Suchindran, Chirayath; Curtis, Sian; Angeles, Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    Context Gender inequality is a long-recognized driver of the HIV epidemic. However, few studies have investigated the association between gender-based power and HIV risk in India, which has the world's third largest HIV epidemic. Methods Population-based data collected in 2003 from 3,385 couples residing in Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand, North India, were used to examine associations between gender-based power (wife's autonomy and husband's inequitable gender attitudes) and indicators of couples' HIV risk (whether the husband had had premarital sex with someone other than his eventual spouse, extramarital sex in the past year or STI symptoms in the past year). Structural equation modeling was used to create composite variables for the gender-based power measures and test their associations with HIV risk measures. Results Twenty-four percent of husbands had had premarital sex, 7% had had extramarital sex in the past year and 6% had had STI symptoms in the past year. Structural equation models indicated that wives who reported higher levels of autonomy were less likely than other wives to have husbands who had had extramarital sex in the past year (direct association) and STI symptoms in the past year (indirect association). Moreover, husbands who endorsed more inequitable gender attitudes were more likely than others to report having had premarital sex with someone other than their spouse, which in turn was associated with having had extramarital sex and STI symptoms in the past year. Conclusions If the associations identified in this study reflect a causal relationship between gender-based power and HIV risk behavior, then HIV prevention programs that successfully address inequitable gender roles may reduce HIV risks in North India. PMID:25565347

  3. Marital violence and women's reproductive health care in Uttar Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Sudha, S; Morrison, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Although the impact of marital violence on women's reproductive health is recognized globally, there is little research on how women's experience of and justification of marital violence in developing country settings is linked to sexually transmitted infection (STI) symptom reporting, and seeking care for the symptoms. This study analyzes data on 9,639 currently married women from India's 2006-2007 National Family Health Survey-3 from the Central/Northern Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. The likelihood of currently married women's reporting STIs or symptoms, and the likelihood of seeking care for these, are analyzed using multivariate logistic regression techniques. Currently married women's experience of physical, sexual, and emotional marital violence in the last 12 months was significantly associated with greater likelihood of reporting a STI or symptom (odds ratio [OR], 1.364 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.171-1.588] for physical violence; OR, 1.649 [95% CI, 1.323-2.054] for sexual violence; OR, 1.273 [95% CI, 1.117-1.450] for emotional violence). Experience of physical violence (OR, 0.728; 95% CI, 0.533-0.994) and acceptance of any justification for physical violence (OR, 0.590; 95% CI, 0.458-0.760) were significantly associated with decreased chance of seeking care, controlling for other factors. This study suggests that experiencing marital violence may have a negative impact on multiple aspects of women's reproductive health, including increased self-report of STI symptoms. Moreover, marital physical violence and accepting justification for such violence are associated with decreased chance of seeking care. Thus, policies and programs to promote reproductive health should incorporate decreasing gender-based violence, and overcoming underlying societal gender inequality. Copyright © 2011 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Groundwater quality in Ghaziabad district, Uttar Pradesh, India: Multivariate and health risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Chabukdhara, Mayuri; Gupta, Sanjay Kumar; Kotecha, Yatharth; Nema, Arvind K

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to assess the quality of groundwater and potential health risk due to ingestion of heavy metals in the peri-urban and urban-industrial clusters of Ghaziabad district, Uttar Pradesh, India. Furthermore, the study aimed to evaluate heavy metals sources and their pollution level using multivariate analysis and fuzzy comprehensive assessment (FCA), respectively. Multivariate analysis using principle component analysis (PCA) showed mixed origin for Pb, Cd, Zn, Fe, and Ni, natural source for Cu and Mn and anthropogenic source for Cr. Among all the metals, Pb, Cd, Fe and Ni were above the safe limits of Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) and World Health Organization (WHO) except Ni. Health risk in terms of hazard quotient (HQ) showed that the HQ values for children were higher than the safe level (HQ = 1) for Pb (2.4) and Cd (2.1) in pre-monsoon while in post-monsoon the value exceeded only for Pb (HQ = 1.23). The health risks of heavy metals for the adults were well within safe limits. The finding of this study indicates potential health risks to the children due to chronic exposure to contaminated groundwater in the region. Based on FCA, groundwater pollution could be categorized as quite high in the peri-urban region, and absolutely high in the urban region of Ghaziabad district. This study showed that different approaches are required for the integrated assessment of the groundwater pollution, and provides a scientific basis for the strategic future planning and comprehensive management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Correlates of opium use: retrospective analysis of a survey of tribal communities in Arunachal Pradesh, India

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Household survey data of Changlang district, Arunachal Pradesh, were used in the present study to assess the prevalence of opium use among different tribes, and to examine the association between sociodemographic factors and opium use. Methods A sample of 3421 individuals (1795 men and 1626 women) aged 15 years and older was analyzed using a multivariate logistic regression model to determine factors associated with opium use. Sociodemographic information such as age, education, occupation, religion, ethnicity and marital status were included in the analysis. Results The prevalence of opium use was significantly higher (10.6%) among men than among women (2.1%). It varied according to age, educational level, occupation, marital status and religion of the respondents. In both sexes, opium use was significantly higher among Singpho and Khamti tribes compared with other tribes. Multivariate logistic regression indicated that opium use was significantly associated with age, occupation, ethnicity, religion and marital status of the respondents of both sexes. Multivariate rate ratios (MRR) for opium use were significantly higher (4–6 times) among older age groups (≥35 years) and male respondents. In males, the MRR was also significantly higher in respondents of Buddhist and Indigenous religion, while in females, the MRR was significantly higher in Buddhists. Most of the female opium users had taken opium for more than 5 years and were introduced to it by their husbands after marriage. Use of other substances among opium users comprised mainly tobacco (76%) and alcohol (44%). Conclusions The study reveals the sociodemographic factors, such as age, sex, ethnicity, religion and occupation, which are associated with opium use. Such information is useful for institution of intervention measures to reduce opium use. PMID:23575143

  6. Men’s attitudes on gender equality and their contraceptive use in Uttar Pradesh India

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Men play crucial role in contraceptive decision-making, particularly in highly gender-stratified populations. Past research examined men’s attitudes toward fertility and contraception and the association with actual contraceptive practices. More research is needed on whether men’s attitudes on gender equality are associated with contraceptive behaviors; this is the objective of this study. Methods This study uses baseline data of the Measurement, Learning, and Evaluation (MLE) Project for the Urban Health Initiative in Uttar Pradesh, India. Data were collected from a representative sample of 6,431 currently married men in four cities of the state. Outcomes are current use of contraception and contraceptive method choice. Key independent variables are three gender measures: men’s attitudes toward gender equality, gender sensitive decision making, and restrictions on wife’s mobility. Multivariate analyses are used to identify the association between the gender measures and contraceptive use. Results Most men have high or moderate levels of gender sensitive decision-making, have low to moderate levels of restrictions on wife’s mobility, and have moderate to high levels of gender equitable attitudes in all four cities. Gender sensitive decision making and equitable attitudes show significant positive association and restrictions on wife’s mobility showed significant negative relationship with current contraceptive use. Conclusion The study demonstrates that contraceptive programs need to engage men and address gender equitable attitudes; this can be done through peer outreach (interpersonal communication) or via mass media. Engaging men to be more gender equal may have an influence beyond contraceptive use in contexts where men play a crucial role in household decision-making. PMID:24894376

  7. Timing and conditions of peak metamorphism and cooling across the Zimithang Thrust, Arunachal Pradesh, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, Clare J.; Singh, Athokpam K.; Roberts, Nick M. W.; Regis, Daniele; Halton, Alison M.; Singh, Rajkumar B.

    2014-07-01

    The Zimithang Thrust juxtaposes two lithotectonic units of the Greater Himalayan Sequence in Arunachal Pradesh, NE India. Monazite U-Pb, muscovite 40Ar/39Ar and thermobarometric data from rocks in the hanging and footwall constrain the timing and conditions of their juxtaposition across the structure, and their subsequent cooling. Monazite grains in biotite-sillimanite gneiss in the hanging wall yield LA-ICP-MS U-Pb ages of 16 ± 0.2 to 12.7 ± 0.4 Ma. A schistose gneiss within the high strain zone yields overlapping-to-younger monazite ages of 14.9 ± 0.3 to 11.5 ± 0.3 Ma. Garnet-staurolite-mica schists in the immediate footwall yield older monazite ages of 27.3 ± 0.6 to 17.1 ± 0.2 Ma. Temperature estimates from Ti-in-biotite and garnet-biotite thermometry suggest similar peak temperatures were achieved in the hanging and footwalls (~ 525-650 °C). Elevated temperatures of ~ 700 °C appear to have been reached in the high strain zone itself and in the footwall further from the thrust. Single grain fusion 40Ar/39Ar muscovite data from samples either side of the thrust yield ages of ~ 7 Ma, suggesting that movement along the thrust juxtaposed the two units by the time the closure temperature of Ar diffusion in muscovite had been reached. These data confirm previous suggestions that major orogen-parallel out-of-sequence structures disrupt the Greater Himalayan Sequence at different times during Himalayan evolution, and highlight an eastwards-younging trend in 40Ar/39Ar muscovite cooling ages at equivalent structural levels along Himalayan strike.

  8. Gender-based power and couples' HIV risk in Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand, north India.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Alpna; Bloom, Shelah S; Suchindran, Chirayath; Curtis, Siân; Angeles, Gustavo

    2014-12-01

    Gender inequality is a long-recognized driver of the HIV epidemic. However, few studies have investigated the association between gender-based power and HIV risk in India, which has the world's third largest HIV epidemic. Population-based data collected in 2003 from 3,385 couples residing in Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand, North India, were used to examine associations between gender-based power (wife's autonomy and husband's inequitable gender attitudes) and indicators of couples' HIV risk (whether the husband had had premarital sex with someone other than his eventual spouse, extramarital sex in the past year or STI symptoms in the past year). Structural equation modeling was used to create composite variables for the gender-based power measures and test their associations with HIV risk measures. Twenty-four percent of husbands had had premarital sex, 7% had had extramarital sex in the past year and 6% had had STI symptoms in the past year. Structural equation models indicated that wives who reported higher levels of autonomy were less likely than other wives to have husbands who had had extramarital sex in the past year (direct association) or STI symptoms in the past year (indirect association). Moreover, husbands who endorsed more inequitable gender attitudes were more likely than others to report having had premarital sex with someone other than their spouse, which in turn was associated with having had extramarital sex and STI symptoms in the past year. If the associations identified in this study reflect a causal relationship between gender-based power and HIV risk behavior, then HIV prevention programs that successfully address inequitable gender roles may reduce HIV risks in North India.

  9. The knowledge of "Facts for Life".

    PubMed

    Alper, Zuleyha; Ozdemir, Hakan; Bilgel, Nazan

    2005-07-01

    "Facts for Life" is an essential tool for saving the lives of children. In this study we wanted to evaluate the knowledge of "Facts for Life" among Turkish women. This is a cross-sectional field study. We used 25 indicator questions to evaluate the knowledge of women in the following main subjects: safe motherhood, childhood immunization, childhood diarrhoea, children's acute respiratory diseases, and household hygiene. We filled out printed questionnaires during face-to-face interviews. For each correct answer we gave 4 points, and the sum of the points was accepted as the knowledge score. Bursa metropolitan area in Turkey. Married women between 15-44 years of age. We selected 1000 of them from the household cards of the health centers that were located at the Bursa metropolitan area by using a random selection method. Mean knowledge score was 72.0 +/- 0.3. About 3/5 had moderate, 1/5 good + very good, and 1/5 bad knowledge scores. Childhood diarrhoea was better known than acute respiratory diseases. The very well known "Facts for Life" were those concerning food and household hygiene. Women's knowledge about "Facts for Life" was at a moderate level. The knowledge level of older women was better than the younger. Some false beliefs still existed. Knowledge about ARI and diarrhoeal diseases in childhood were the least known facts.

  10. Ten years of negotiating rights around maternal health in Uttar Pradesh, India

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Preventable maternal mortality and morbidity have been globally recognized as human rights issues. Maternal mortality in India is among the highest in the world, and reflects inequity in access to healthcare: women from certain states as well as poorer women and less literate women appear to be significantly disadvantaged. The government of India has been attempting to improve maternal outcomes through a cash transfer within the National Rural Health Mission to encourage women to come to hospitals for childbirth. Methods This paper reviews documents of the last ten years describing the experiences of a Non-Governmental Organisation, SAHAYOG, in working with a civil society platform, the Healthwatch Forum, to develop ‘rights based’ strategies around maternal health. The paper builds an analysis using recent frameworks on accountability and gendered rights claiming to examine these experiences and draw out lessons regarding rights claiming strategies for poor women. Results The examination of documents over the last ten years indicates defined phases of development in the evolution of SAHAYOG’s understanding and of the shifts in strategy among SAHAYOG and its close allies, and responses by the state. The first three stages depict the deepening of SAHAYOG’s understanding of the manner in which poor and marginalized women negotiate their access to health care; the fourth stage explores a health system intervention and the challenges of working from within civil society in alliance with poor and marginalized women. Conclusion The findings from SAHAYOG’s experiences with poor Dalit women in Uttar Pradesh reveal the elements of social exclusion within the health system that prevent poor and marginalized women from accessing effective lifesaving care. Creating a voice for the most marginalised and carving space for its articulation impacts upon the institutions and actors that have a duty to meet the claims being made. However, given the accountability

  11. Ten years of negotiating rights around maternal health in Uttar Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Jashodhara

    2011-12-16

    Preventable maternal mortality and morbidity have been globally recognized as human rights issues. Maternal mortality in India is among the highest in the world, and reflects inequity in access to healthcare: women from certain states as well as poorer women and less literate women appear to be significantly disadvantaged. The government of India has been attempting to improve maternal outcomes through a cash transfer within the National Rural Health Mission to encourage women to come to hospitals for childbirth. This paper reviews documents of the last ten years describing the experiences of a Non-Governmental Organisation, SAHAYOG, in working with a civil society platform, the Healthwatch Forum, to develop 'rights based' strategies around maternal health. The paper builds an analysis using recent frameworks on accountability and gendered rights claiming to examine these experiences and draw out lessons regarding rights claiming strategies for poor women. The examination of documents over the last ten years indicates defined phases of development in the evolution of SAHAYOG's understanding and of the shifts in strategy among SAHAYOG and its close allies, and responses by the state. The first three stages depict the deepening of SAHAYOG's understanding of the manner in which poor and marginalized women negotiate their access to health care; the fourth stage explores a health system intervention and the challenges of working from within civil society in alliance with poor and marginalized women. The findings from SAHAYOG's experiences with poor Dalit women in Uttar Pradesh reveal the elements of social exclusion within the health system that prevent poor and marginalized women from accessing effective lifesaving care. Creating a voice for the most marginalised and carving space for its articulation impacts upon the institutions and actors that have a duty to meet the claims being made. However, given the accountability deficit, the analysis indicates the importance

  12. In-Situ Mass Balance Measurements and Morphology Study of Patsio Glacier, Himachal Pradesh, Western Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angchuk, T.; AL, R.; Mandal, A.; Soheb, M.; Bahuguna, I. M.; Singh, V.; Linda, A.

    2016-12-01

    The present ongoing study is oriented to do the detailed study of the Patsio glacier which is in the Bhaga Basin, Lahaul, Himachal Pradesh. Patsio glacier is a compound valley glacier survived by two prominent tributaries namely Eastern and Western. The two tributaries are facing opposite to each other. The Western tributary facing almost eastward shows higher melting as compared to Eastern tributary facing northwest. This is probably due to solar radiation and sunshine hour, as Western tributary receives high solar radiation and for longer duration. A series of supraglacial lakes which were connected to each other through supra channels were observed on the upper part of the ablation zone at an altitude range of 5100 m and 5300 m amsl. A dead ice covered with thick debris was observed below the current terminus. Despite the large variability of the mass balance in the different seasons Patsio glacier annual balance for the year 2012-2013 was found to be 0.04 ± 0.40 m w.e. the low values signifies that glacier has lost significant amount of mass in recent past and now it is near to the equilibrium state. Seasonal mass balance of Patsio glacier has shown wide range of variability in the mass balances. Patsio glacier receives most of the accumulation during the winter months and duration is long whereas, ablation season is short but quite significant. Monthly and daily variation has depicted that peak ablation months are July and August. The daily ablation in the month of August 2013 was found to be around 5 cm per day, probably due to air temperature. To have a clear picture of the meteorological parameters and its relation with glacier an AWS has set up on the Patsio glacier at an altitude of 5050 m amsl in June 2014. Seasonal mass balance gradients show that gradient was high during the early and late ablation seasons as compared to peak ablation season. The mass balance for the year 2010-2011 was slightly positive.

  13. TSCA Chemical Data Reporting Fact Sheet: Articles

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This fact sheet provides guidance on classifying articles under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) and determining the applicability of EPA’s articles exclusion policy for purposes of the Chemical Data Reporting (CDR) rule. The primary goal of this document is to help the regulated community comply with the requirements of the CDR rule.

  14. Theoretical Frameworks for Math Fact Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    Recent education statistics indicate persistent low math scores for our nation's students. This drop in math proficiency includes deficits in basic number sense and automaticity of math facts. The decrease has been recorded across all grade levels with the elementary levels showing the greatest loss (National Center for Education Statistics,…

  15. College Experience and Volunteering. Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcelo, Karlo Barrios

    2007-01-01

    College experience and volunteering are positively correlated. Measurable differences in civic activity exist between young people who attend college and young people who do not. This fact sheet explores volunteering as civic engagement among youth with college experience, ages 19-25, which was down for the second year in a row in 2006. The…

  16. State Child Care Fact Book 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blank, Helen; Wilkins, Amy

    This fact book presents findings of the Children's Defense Fund's fourth annual survey on child care funding and priorities, and consists of five sections which provide an overview of states' child care activities, information about specific policies, and contacts in each state who can provide more detailed information. Section 1 presents recent…

  17. Advanced Technological Education Survey 2009 Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wingate, Lori; Gullickson, Arlen

    2009-01-01

    This fact sheet summarizes data gathered in the 2009 survey of National Science Foundation (NSF) Advanced Technological Education (ATE) grant recipients. Conducted by The Evaluation Center at Western Michigan University, this was the tenth annual survey of ATE projects and centers. Included here are statistics about the program's grantees and…

  18. Advanced Technological Education Survey 2011 Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wingate, Lori; Westine, Carl; Gullickson, Arlen

    2011-01-01

    This fact sheet summarizes data gathered in the 2011 survey of National Science Foundation (NSF) Advanced Technological Education (ATE) grant recipients. Conducted by EvaluATE, the evaluation resource center for the ATE program located at The Evaluation Center at Western Michigan University, this was the twelfth annual survey of ATE projects and…

  19. Advanced Technological Education Survey 2010 Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wingate, Lori; Westine, Carl; Gullickson, Arlen

    2010-01-01

    This fact sheet summarizes data gathered in the 2010 survey of National Science Foundation (NSF) Advanced Technological Education (ATE) grant recipients. Conducted by EvaluATE, the evaluation resource center for the ATE program located at The Evaluation Center at Western Michigan University, this was the eleventh annual survey of ATE projects and…

  20. Pay Equity--A Fact Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Commission on Working Women, Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet addresses pay equity, that is, the goal of a fair wage-setting process that eliminates sex and race discrimination. It begins by setting forth the problem through statistics on men's and women's median annual earnings, the occupational categories represented by women workers, and median annual earnings by occupation. A glossary is…