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Sample records for andoh hideo ikeda

  1. HiDEOS release notes. HiDEOS control system

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    HIDEOS is a software package designed to be used for development of communicating tasks in an embedded systems application environment. The initial target for this development is the Motorola MVME162 board. The reason for this choice is because of the Industry Pack Bus available on the MVME162. The package contains a preemptive, multitasking kernel and an object oriented task model with message passing support. The board support is also object oriented with classes to easily manage the Industry Pack bus. HiDEOS comes with several drivers for serial, adc, and gpib Industry Packs. A VME backplane driver is included for communications with other processors along with an interface library for other software packages to communicate with HiDEOS. An important attribute of this package is the ability to run the MVME162 without an additional operating system, and communicate with other boards in a VME crate. The goal of HiDEOS is to make it simple to create communicating processes which run on a stand alone processor. The processes can be strictly algorithmic, such as running a high level communications protocol, or device drivers, where they communicate with a specific piece or hardware. In order to accomplish this goal, all HiDEOS tasks are created by deriving from a class which knows all about interprocess communications and operating system resources. The primary interprocess communication method is message passing; HiDEOS contains tools for defining messages to the system and base class methods for sending them from process to process. The HiDEOS build tree contains an easy to understand makefile structure for making HiDEOS executables. The tree imposes structure on the creation of messages and tasks, making it simple for the user to incorporate new programs into the system.

  2. Daisaku Ikeda and the Culture of Translation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gebert, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Although not functionally multilingual or a translator himself, Daisaku Ikeda has been deeply involved in translation processes, both as a reader and as someone who has produced texts for translation into various languages. This article examines two sources of influence shaping Ikeda's attitude toward translation culture: the flourishing culture…

  3. Daisaku Ikeda's Educational Philosophy in the Context of English Education Policy in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatano, Kazuma

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author considers Daisaku Ikeda's (1928-) educational philosophy in the context of English education policies in Japan. The author begins by explicating Ikeda's concepts of wisdom versus knowledge and "society for education" (e.g., Ikeda, 2000; Sadovnichy & Ikeda, 2002). He then suggests consideration of these concepts, if not…

  4. Eruptive History of Ikeda Caldera, Southern Kyushu, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inakura, H.; Naruo, H.; Okuno, M.; Kobayashi, T.; Tamura, T.

    2015-12-01

    Ikeda caldera is a small-scale caldera (about 4 km in diameter), located in the southern tip of the Satsuma Peninsula, southern Kyushu, Japan. The information on the onset of the caldera-forming eruption is gone due to the catastrophic eruption, but Ikeda caldera is a relatively small-scale eruption that the information before the eruption may have been conserved. We conducted a geological research to understand the eruptive history of Ikeda caldera, including a study of the processes leading to the catastrophic eruption. Pre-caldera activity began at about 20 cal kBP by Iwamoto ash and the effusion of Senta lava, which may have similar composition as the caldera-forming eruption. The caldera-forming eruption began at 6.4 cal kBP with a phreatic explosion that produced the Ikezaki tephra. The phreatic eruption was followed by Osagari scoria, Mizusako scoria and Ikeda pumice plinian eruption. During the climactic stage, Ikeda ignimbrite was erupted and reclaimed the coastal area at that time, and formed the ignimbrite plateau along the coast. Immediately after this event, four maars were formed to the southeast of the caldera. Yamagawa maar, which is the largest and is located at the southeastern end of the fissure vent, erupted pumiceous base surge (Yamagawa base surge), but other maars ejected small amount of accidental materials. During the late stage of the Ikeda eruption, phreatomagmatic eruption occurred at the bottom of the caldera floor, and erupted the Ikedako ash which covered a wide area. The Central lava dome was generated at the late stage of this eruption. After Ikedako ash deposition, secondary explosion of Ikeda ignimbrite occurred mainly along the coastal area, generating small-scale base surge deposits. About two thousand years after the caldera-forming eruption at 4.8 cal kBP, new magmatic activity began on the margin of the caldera rim, and generated Nabeshimadake lava dome.

  5. Lessons from Afar: A Review of www.daisakuikeda.org, Official Website of Daisaku Ikeda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arauz, Luis

    2012-01-01

    Daisaku Ikeda (1928- ) is a Buddhist leader, peace builder, school founder, and poet. His own biography and lifework provide a model for how one can transform adversity into alternative opportunities for some of the most disenfranchised students. Scrutinizing Ikeda's official website (www.daisakuikeda.org) reveals an extensive collection of his…

  6. Daisaku Ikeda and Value-Creative Dialogue: A New Current in Interculturalism and Educational Philosophy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goulah, Jason

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on Daisaku Ikeda's (1928- ) philosophy and practice of intercultural dialogue--what I call "value-creative dialogue"--as a new current in interculturalism and educational philosophy and theory. I use excerpts from Ikeda's writings to consider two aspects of his approach to dialogue. First, I locate his approach…

  7. Ikeda Research in China and Taiwan: Critical Analysis of the Chinese Language Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inukai, Nozomi

    2012-01-01

    This study is the first attempt to conduct a critical analysis of the research on Ikeda's educational philosophy published in mainland China and Taiwan. The study employed a combination of archival research and responses to an online questionnaire by professors and doctorate students studying Ikeda's educational philosophy. The study analyzed the…

  8. [The Formative Years of Modern Anesthesiology in Japan--A Dialogue between Hideo Yamamura and Akitomo Matsuki].

    PubMed

    Yamamura, Hideo; Matsuki, Akitomo

    2016-06-01

    In a dialogue with Akitomo Matsuki as the moderator, Hideo Yamamura, the first Professor of Anesthesiology in Japan at the University of Tokyo who had enormously contributed toward improving the standard of the specialty in Japan, gave detailed accounts of following topics: his training as a surgeon, Saklad's lectures in 1950, the establishment of a departmental anesthesia group, the conversion to anesthesiologist, studying in the United States, the foundation of the Japan Society of Anesthesiology, movements for the governmental approval of registered anesthesiologists and the qualification system of board certified anesthesiologists, international activities in holding the Second Asian Australasian Congress of Anaesthesiologists in 1966 and the Fifth World Congress of Anaesthesiologists in 1972, and the opening of pain clinics and the foundation of its society. Yamamura's accounts illustrate unknown episodes in the history of the formative period of modern anesthesiology in Japan.

  9. An observational study of the vertical transmission of Theileria orientalis (Ikeda) in a New Zealand pastoral dairy herd.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, K E; Gedye, K; McFadden, A M J; Pulford, D J; Pomroy, W E

    2016-03-15

    Although only recently recognised, Theileria orientalis (Ikeda) is now the most important infectious cause of anaemia in New Zealand cattle. The aim of this study was to test if vertical transmission of T. orientalis (Ikeda) from dam to calf across the placenta occurs in naturally infected New Zealand dairy cattle and to also test whether the infection status of the dam at calving affects the future susceptibility of its offspring to T. orientalis (Ikeda) infection. Dairy cows (n=97) and their calves were sampled at calving; and the calves again at 4 months of age. All samples were measured for haematocrit and screened for T. orientalis genotypes using a multiplex Buffeli, Chitose and Ikeda specific TaqMan assay. Ikeda positive samples were further tested by singleplex PCR in triplicate to calculate the Ikeda infection intensity as genomes/μl of blood from each infected animal. No T. orientalis (Ikeda) infected calves were born to either T. orientalis (Ikeda) infected or uninfected dams. There were 56/97 dams positive for T. orientalis (Ikeda) infection at calving and 79/90 calves positive for T. orientalis (Ikeda) infection at 4 months of age but no effect on calf susceptibility of dam infection status at calving. There was a significant negative effect of infection intensity on haematocrit after controlling for whether the infected animal was a dam or a 4 month old calf. Vertical trans-uterine transmission of T. orientalis (Ikeda) infection is unlikely in chronically infected dairy cows and thus not a factor in the epidemiology of T. orientalis (Ikeda) infection. PMID:26872929

  10. An observational study of the vertical transmission of Theileria orientalis (Ikeda) in a New Zealand pastoral dairy herd.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, K E; Gedye, K; McFadden, A M J; Pulford, D J; Pomroy, W E

    2016-03-15

    Although only recently recognised, Theileria orientalis (Ikeda) is now the most important infectious cause of anaemia in New Zealand cattle. The aim of this study was to test if vertical transmission of T. orientalis (Ikeda) from dam to calf across the placenta occurs in naturally infected New Zealand dairy cattle and to also test whether the infection status of the dam at calving affects the future susceptibility of its offspring to T. orientalis (Ikeda) infection. Dairy cows (n=97) and their calves were sampled at calving; and the calves again at 4 months of age. All samples were measured for haematocrit and screened for T. orientalis genotypes using a multiplex Buffeli, Chitose and Ikeda specific TaqMan assay. Ikeda positive samples were further tested by singleplex PCR in triplicate to calculate the Ikeda infection intensity as genomes/μl of blood from each infected animal. No T. orientalis (Ikeda) infected calves were born to either T. orientalis (Ikeda) infected or uninfected dams. There were 56/97 dams positive for T. orientalis (Ikeda) infection at calving and 79/90 calves positive for T. orientalis (Ikeda) infection at 4 months of age but no effect on calf susceptibility of dam infection status at calving. There was a significant negative effect of infection intensity on haematocrit after controlling for whether the infected animal was a dam or a 4 month old calf. Vertical trans-uterine transmission of T. orientalis (Ikeda) infection is unlikely in chronically infected dairy cows and thus not a factor in the epidemiology of T. orientalis (Ikeda) infection.

  11. Daisaku Ikeda's Philosophy of Soka Education in Practice: A Narrative Analysis of Culturally Specific Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagashima, Julie T.

    2012-01-01

    The author analyzes two teachers' narratives of their understanding and practice of Daisaku Ikeda's (1928-) philosophy of Soka (value-creating) education in relation to narratives of their experiences as students at the Soka schools he founded. These narratives both triangulate an implicit though culturally specific language used to articulate…

  12. The Japanese Emperor bestows Medal with Purple Ribbon on antioxidants and redox signaling editor Hideo Utsumi for contributions to redox biology.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Toshihiko; Ichikawa, Kazuhiro

    2012-03-01

    On November 15, 2011, the Japanese Emperor bestowed the Medal with Purple Ribbon on Professor Hideo Utsumi for contributions to redox biology. Professor Utsumi was awarded Ph.D. in Pharmaceutical Sciences from University of Tokyo in 1976, and started his professional career as Assistant Professor at Teikyo University. He visited Cologne University as fellow during 1978-1980. In 1982, he moved to Showa University as Associate Professor. In 1994, he moved to Kyushu University as Professor. During 2008-2010, he served as vice president of Kyushu University. From 2007 to now he serves as the Director of Innovation Center for Medical Redox Navigation. Beginning 2010 he serves as the Executive Director of the Center for Product Evaluation, Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency. Professor Utsumi was the first to develop in vivo electron spin resonance (ESR; also known as electron paramagnetic resonance) imaging system in Japan and commercialized it to promote redox research. Over 30 in vivo ESR systems are currently used in Japan today. A compact or high-resolution Overhauser-enhanced MRI system has been developed by his group and will be available next year. His translational research activities have uniquely covered instrumentation, organic synthesis, and disease model applications. He synthesized many redox-sensitive compounds, and collaborated with clinicians to understand mechanisms underlying disease systems caused by redox imbalance using his compounds as tools. Thus, Professor Hideo Utsumi contributed a novel technology to investigate in vivo redox status in disease models. This technology platform has immense potential for bedside application to humans.

  13. Ikeda-like chaos on a dynamically filtered supercontinuum light source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chembo, Yanne K.; Jacquot, Maxime; Dudley, John M.; Larger, Laurent

    2016-08-01

    We demonstrate temporal chaos in a color-selection mechanism from the visible spectrum of a supercontinuum light source. The color-selection mechanism is governed by an acousto-optoelectronic nonlinear delayed-feedback scheme modeled by an Ikeda-like equation. Initially motivated by the design of a broad audience live demonstrator in the framework of the International Year of Light 2015, the setup also provides a different experimental tool to investigate the dynamical complexity of delayed-feedback dynamics. Deterministic hyperchaos is analyzed here from the experimental time series. A projection method identifies the delay parameter, for which the chaotic strange attractor originally evolving in an infinite-dimensional phase space can be revealed in a two-dimensional subspace.

  14. DNA barcoding and morphological analyses revealed validity of Diadema clarki Ikeda, 1939 (Echinodermata, Echinoidea, Diadematidae).

    PubMed

    Chow, Seinen; Konishi, Kooichi; Mekuchi, Miyuki; Tamaki, Yasuji; Nohara, Kenji; Takagi, Motohiro; Niwa, Kentaro; Teramoto, Wataru; Manabe, Hisaya; Kurogi, Hiroaki; Suzuki, Shigenori; Ando, Daisuke; Tadao Jinbo; Kiyomoto, Masato; Hirose, Mamiko; Shimomura, Michitaka; Kurashima, Akira; Ishikawa, Tatsuya; Kiyomoto, Setuo

    2016-01-01

    A long-spined sea urchin Diadema-sp reported from Japanese waters was genetically distinct from all known Diadema species, but it remained undescribed. Extensive field surveys in Japan with molecular identification performed in the present study determined five phenotypes (I to V) in Diadema-sp according to the presence and/or shape of a white streak and blue iridophore lines in the naked space of the interambulacral area. All phenotypes were distinct from Diadema setosum (Leske, 1778) and Diadema savignyi (Audouin, 1829), of which a major type (I) corresponded to Diadema clarki Ikeda, 1939 that was questioned and synonymized with Diadema setosum by Mortensen (1940). The holotype of Diadema clarki has not been found, but three unlabeled dried tests of Diadema were found among Ikeda's original collection held in the Kitakyushu Museum of Natural History and Human History, Fukuoka, Japan. A short mtDNA COI fragment (ca. 350bp) was amplified from one of the tests, and the nucleotide sequence determined (275bp) was nearly identical with that of Diadema-sp. Arrangements of the primary tubercles on the coronal plates in Diadema-sp and the museum specimen also conformed with Diadema clarki, indicating that Diadema-sp is identical to Diadema clarki and a valid species. Narrow latitudinal distribution (31°N to 35°N) of Diadema clarki in Japan was observed, where it co-existed with abundant Diadema setosum and rare Diadema savignyi. No Diadema clarki was found in the southern islands in Japan, such as Satsunan Islands to Ryukyu Islands and Ogasawara Island, where Diadema setosum and Diadema savignyi were commonly observed. PMID:27199601

  15. DNA barcoding and morphological analyses revealed validity of Diadema clarki Ikeda, 1939 (Echinodermata, Echinoidea, Diadematidae).

    PubMed

    Chow, Seinen; Konishi, Kooichi; Mekuchi, Miyuki; Tamaki, Yasuji; Nohara, Kenji; Takagi, Motohiro; Niwa, Kentaro; Teramoto, Wataru; Manabe, Hisaya; Kurogi, Hiroaki; Suzuki, Shigenori; Ando, Daisuke; Tadao Jinbo; Kiyomoto, Masato; Hirose, Mamiko; Shimomura, Michitaka; Kurashima, Akira; Ishikawa, Tatsuya; Kiyomoto, Setuo

    2016-01-01

    A long-spined sea urchin Diadema-sp reported from Japanese waters was genetically distinct from all known Diadema species, but it remained undescribed. Extensive field surveys in Japan with molecular identification performed in the present study determined five phenotypes (I to V) in Diadema-sp according to the presence and/or shape of a white streak and blue iridophore lines in the naked space of the interambulacral area. All phenotypes were distinct from Diadema setosum (Leske, 1778) and Diadema savignyi (Audouin, 1829), of which a major type (I) corresponded to Diadema clarki Ikeda, 1939 that was questioned and synonymized with Diadema setosum by Mortensen (1940). The holotype of Diadema clarki has not been found, but three unlabeled dried tests of Diadema were found among Ikeda's original collection held in the Kitakyushu Museum of Natural History and Human History, Fukuoka, Japan. A short mtDNA COI fragment (ca. 350bp) was amplified from one of the tests, and the nucleotide sequence determined (275bp) was nearly identical with that of Diadema-sp. Arrangements of the primary tubercles on the coronal plates in Diadema-sp and the museum specimen also conformed with Diadema clarki, indicating that Diadema-sp is identical to Diadema clarki and a valid species. Narrow latitudinal distribution (31°N to 35°N) of Diadema clarki in Japan was observed, where it co-existed with abundant Diadema setosum and rare Diadema savignyi. No Diadema clarki was found in the southern islands in Japan, such as Satsunan Islands to Ryukyu Islands and Ogasawara Island, where Diadema setosum and Diadema savignyi were commonly observed.

  16. DNA barcoding and morphological analyses revealed validity of Diadema clarki Ikeda, 1939 (Echinodermata, Echinoidea, Diadematidae)

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Seinen; Konishi, Kooichi; Mekuchi, Miyuki; Tamaki, Yasuji; Nohara, Kenji; Takagi, Motohiro; Niwa, Kentaro; Teramoto, Wataru; Manabe, Hisaya; Kurogi, Hiroaki; Suzuki, Shigenori; Ando, Daisuke; Tadao Jinbo; Kiyomoto, Masato; Hirose, Mamiko; Shimomura, Michitaka; Kurashima, Akira; Ishikawa, Tatsuya; Kiyomoto, Setuo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A long-spined sea urchin Diadema-sp reported from Japanese waters was genetically distinct from all known Diadema species, but it remained undescribed. Extensive field surveys in Japan with molecular identification performed in the present study determined five phenotypes (I to V) in Diadema-sp according to the presence and/or shape of a white streak and blue iridophore lines in the naked space of the interambulacral area. All phenotypes were distinct from Diadema setosum (Leske, 1778) and Diadema savignyi (Audouin, 1829), of which a major type (I) corresponded to Diadema clarki Ikeda, 1939 that was questioned and synonymized with Diadema setosum by Mortensen (1940). The holotype of Diadema clarki has not been found, but three unlabeled dried tests of Diadema were found among Ikeda’s original collection held in the Kitakyushu Museum of Natural History and Human History, Fukuoka, Japan. A short mtDNA COI fragment (ca. 350bp) was amplified from one of the tests, and the nucleotide sequence determined (275bp) was nearly identical with that of Diadema-sp. Arrangements of the primary tubercles on the coronal plates in Diadema-sp and the museum specimen also conformed with Diadema clarki, indicating that Diadema-sp is identical to Diadema clarki and a valid species. Narrow latitudinal distribution (31°N to 35°N) of Diadema clarki in Japan was observed, where it co-existed with abundant Diadema setosum and rare Diadema savignyi. No Diadema clarki was found in the southern islands in Japan, such as Satsunan Islands to Ryukyu Islands and Ogasawara Island, where Diadema setosum and Diadema savignyi were commonly observed. PMID:27199601

  17. Orientia tsutsugamushi Strain Ikeda Ankyrin Repeat-Containing Proteins Recruit SCF1 Ubiquitin Ligase Machinery via Poxvirus-Like F-Box Motifs

    PubMed Central

    Beyer, Andrea R.; VieBrock, Lauren; Rodino, Kyle G.; Miller, Daniel P.; Tegels, Brittney K.; Marconi, Richard T.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT A rising theme among intracellular microbes is the delivery of ankyrin repeat-containing effectors (Anks) that interact with target proteins to co-opt host cell functions. Orientia tsutsugamushi, an obligate intracellular bacterium and the etiologic agent of scrub typhus, encodes one of the largest Ank repertoires of any sequenced microorganism. They have been previously identified as type 1 secretion system substrates. Here, in silico and manual sequence analyses revealed that a large proportion of O. tsutsugamushi strain Ikeda Anks bear a eukaryotic/poxvirus-like F-box motif, which is known to recruit host cell SCF1 ubiquitin ligase machinery. We assessed the Anks for the ability to serve as F-box proteins. Coimmunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that F-box-containing Anks interact with overexpressed and/or endogenous SCF1 components. When coexpressed with FLAG-Ank4_01 or FLAG-Ank9, a glutathione S-transferase (GST)-tagged version of the SCF1 component SKP1 localized to subcellular sites of FLAG-Ank accumulation. The abilities of recombinant Anks to interact and colocalize with SKP1 were F-box dependent. GST-SKP1 precipitated O. tsutsugamushi-derived Ank9 from infected host cells, verifying both that the pathogen expresses Ank9 during infection and the protein's capability to bind SKP1. Aligning O. tsutsugamushi, poxviral, and eukaryotic F-box sequences delineated three F-box residues that are highly conserved and likely to be functionally important. Substitution of these residues ablated the ability of GFP-Ank9 to interact with GST-SKP1. These results demonstrate that O. tsutsugamushi strain Ikeda Anks can co-opt host cell polyubiquitination machinery, provide the first evidence that an O. tsutsugamushi Ank does so during infection, and advance overall understanding of microbial F-box proteins. IMPORTANCE Ankyrin repeat-containing proteins (Anks) are important virulence factors of intracellular bacteria that mediate protein-protein interactions with

  18. Synchronization in coupled Ikeda delay systems. Experimental observations using Field Programmable Gate Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valli, D.; Muthuswamy, B.; Banerjee, S.; Ariffin, M. R. K.; Wahab, A. W. A.; Ganesan, K.; Subramaniam, C. K.; Kurths, J.

    2014-06-01

    In this work, we demonstrate the use of a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) as a physical platform for realizing chaotic delay differential equations (DDE). Moreover, using our platform, we also experimentally study the synchronization between two time delayed systems. We illustrate two different experimental approaches - one is hardware co-simulation (using a Digilent Atlys with a Xilinx Spartan-6 FPGA) and the other is analog output (using a Terasic DE2-115 with an Altera Cyclone IV E FPGA).

  19. Genomic Sequencing of Orientia tsutsugamushi Strain Karp, an Assembly Comparable to the Genome Size of the Strain Ikeda.

    PubMed

    Liao, Hsiao-Mei; Chao, Chien-Chung; Lei, Haiyan; Li, Bingjie; Tsai, Shien; Hung, Guo-Chiuan; Ching, Wei-Mei; Lo, Shyh-Ching

    2016-01-01

    Orientia tsutsugamushi, an intracellular bacterium, belongs to the family Rickettsiaceae This study presents the draft genome sequence of strain Karp, with 2.0 Mb as the size of the completed genome. This nearly finished draft genome sequence was annotated with the RAST server and the contents compared to those of the other strains. PMID:27540052

  20. Genomic Sequencing of Orientia tsutsugamushi Strain Karp, an Assembly Comparable to the Genome Size of the Strain Ikeda

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Hsiao-Mei; Chao, Chien-Chung; Lei, Haiyan; Li, Bingjie; Tsai, Shien; Hung, Guo-Chiuan

    2016-01-01

    Orientia tsutsugamushi, an intracellular bacterium, belongs to the family Rickettsiaceae. This study presents the draft genome sequence of strain Karp, with 2.0 Mb as the size of the completed genome. This nearly finished draft genome sequence was annotated with the RAST server and the contents compared to those of the other strains. PMID:27540052

  1. Genomic Sequencing of Orientia tsutsugamushi Strain Karp, an Assembly Comparable to the Genome Size of the Strain Ikeda.

    PubMed

    Liao, Hsiao-Mei; Chao, Chien-Chung; Lei, Haiyan; Li, Bingjie; Tsai, Shien; Hung, Guo-Chiuan; Ching, Wei-Mei; Lo, Shyh-Ching

    2016-08-18

    Orientia tsutsugamushi, an intracellular bacterium, belongs to the family Rickettsiaceae This study presents the draft genome sequence of strain Karp, with 2.0 Mb as the size of the completed genome. This nearly finished draft genome sequence was annotated with the RAST server and the contents compared to those of the other strains.

  2. Use of multiplexed tandem PCR to estimate the prevalence and intensity of Theileria orientalis infections in cattle.

    PubMed

    Perera, Piyumali K; Gasser, Robin B; Read, Elizabeth; Malmo, Jakob; Nguyen, Hanh; Nyein, Simon; Cheng, Allan; Jex, Aaron R; Rawlin, Grant; Spithill, Terence W; Jabbar, Abdul

    2015-06-01

    This study employed a semi-quantitative, multiplexed tandem PCR (MT-PCR) to assess the prevalence and infection intensity of four genotypes (buffeli, chitose, ikeda and type 5) of Theileria orientalis in cattle in Australia. Genomic DNA samples from blood samples (n=448) collected from 27 to 32 dairy cows from each of 15 dairy herds with a history of recent theileriosis outbreaks (Group 1), and from blood samples available from 24 cows with or without oriental theileriosis (Group 2) were tested using MT-PCR. Results revealed that all four genotypes were present in Group 1 cattle; genotype buffeli had the highest prevalence (80.5%), followed by genotypes ikeda (71.4%), chitose (38.6%) and type 5 (20.3%). Genotype ikeda had the highest average infection intensity in the cattle (relating to 55,277 DNA copies), followed by buffeli, chitose and type 5 (6354-51,648 copies). For Group 2, results indicated that genotype ikeda had a significantly higher average intensity of infection than buffeli in symptomatic cattle (P<0.001), and symptomatic cattle had a higher intensity of ikeda than asymptomatic cattle (P=0.004). Future studies should assess the utility of the present MT-PCR assay as a diagnostic and epidemiological tool in other parts of Australasia and the world.

  3. Temporal dynamics and subpopulation analysis of Theileria orientalis genotypes in cattle.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, C; Micallef, M; Alex, S M; Collins, D; Djordjevic, S P; Bogema, D R

    2015-06-01

    In Australia, outbreaks of clinical theileriosis caused by Theileria orientalis have been largely associated with the Ikeda genotype which can occur as a sole infection, or more commonly, as a mixture of genotypes. The most prevalent genotype, Chitose, frequently co-occurs with type Ikeda, however the role of this genotype in clinical disease has not been clearly established. Furthermore, the dynamics of individual genotypes in field infection of cattle have not been examined. In this study we developed quantitative PCR (qPCR) and genotyping methods to examine the role of the Chitose genotype in clinical disease and to investigate the temporal dynamics of T. orientalis Ikeda, Chitose and Buffeli genotypes in naïve animals introduced to a T. orientalis-endemic area. Analysis of the major piroplasm surface protein (MPSP) genes of Chitose isolates revealed the presence of two distinct phylogenetic clusters, Chitose A and Chitose B. A genotyping assay aimed at determining Chitose A/B allele frequency revealed that the Chitose A phylogenetic cluster is strongly associated with clinical disease but nearly always co-occurs with the Ikeda genotype. qPCR revealed that the Chitose genotype (particularly Chitose A), undergoes temporal switching in conjunction with the Ikeda genotype and contributes substantially to the overall parasite burden. The benign Buffeli genotype can also undergo temporal switching but levels of this genotype appear to remain low relative to the Ikeda and Chitose types. Interplay between vector and host immunological factors is presumed to be critical to the population dynamics observed in this study. Genotypic switching likely contributes to the persistence of T. orientalis in the host.

  4. Isochronal synchrony and bidirectional communication with delay-coupled nonlinear oscillators.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Brian B; Roy, Rajarshi

    2007-02-01

    We propose a basic mechanism for isochronal synchrony and communication with mutually delay-coupled chaotic systems. We show that two Ikeda ring oscillators, mutually coupled with a propagation delay, synchronize isochronally when both are symmetrically driven by a third Ikeda oscillator. This synchronous operation, unstable in the two delay-coupled oscillators alone, facilitates simultaneous, bidirectional communication of messages with chaotic carrier wave forms. This approach to combine both bidirectional and unidirectional coupling represents an application of generalized synchronization using a mediating drive signal for a spatially distributed and internally synchronized multicomponent system.

  5. Determination of the coupling architecture and parameters of elements in ensembles of time-delay systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sysoev, I. V.; Ponomarenko, V. I.; Prokhorov, M. D.

    2016-01-01

    A method for the reconstruction of the architecture, strength of couplings, and parameters of elements in ensembles of coupled time-delay systems from their time series is proposed. The effectiveness of the method is demonstrated on chaotic time series of the ensemble of diffusively coupled nonidentical Ikeda equations in the presence of noise.

  6. Cluster synchronization of starlike networks with normalized Laplacian coupling: master stability function approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuptsov, Pavel V.; Kuptsova, Anna V.

    2016-04-01

    A generalized model of star-like network is suggested that takes into account non-additive coupling and nonlinear transformation of coupling variables. For this model a method of analysis of synchronized cluster stability is developed. Using this method three star-like networks based on Ikeda, predator-prey and Hénon maps are studied.

  7. A Moral Cosmopolitan Perspective on Language Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obelleiro, Gonzalo

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, scholars have turned to cosmopolitanism as a framework for thinking through issues of language and citizenship. In this article, I present Daisaku Ikeda's philosophy of cosmopolitan education and compare it with others' in the extant literature. I examine, from a philosophical perspective, its roots in the Mahayana tradition of…

  8. Community-Based Research: Learning about Attitudes towards the Criminal Justice System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marche, Tammy A.; Briere, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    Research points to the pedagogical value of an engaged and community service-learning approach to developing understanding of course content (Astin, Vogelgesang, Ikeda, & Yee, 2000). To help students achieve a better understanding of how the discipline of psychology contributes to the discipline of law, some students in a second year…

  9. Extracting source parameters from beam monitors on a chopper spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Abernathy, Douglas L; Niedziela, Jennifer L; Stone, Matthew B

    2015-01-01

    The intensity distributions of beam monitors in direct-geometry time-of-flight neutron spectrometers provide important information about the instrument resolution. For short-pulse spallation neutron sources in particular, the asymmetry of the source pulse may be extracted and compared to Monte Carlo source simulations. An explicit formula using a Gaussian-convolved Ikeda-Carpenter distribution is given and compared to data from the ARCS instrument at the Spallation Neutron Source.

  10. Monte Carlo Simulation of River Meander Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posner, A. J.; Duan, J. G.

    2010-12-01

    This study first compares the first order analytical solutions for flow field by Ikeda et. al. (1981) and Johanesson and Parker (1989b). Ikeda et. al.’s (1981) linear bank erosion model was implemented to predict the rate of bank erosion in which the bank erosion coefficient is treated as a stochastic variable that varies with physical properties of the bank (e.g. cohesiveness, stratigraphy, vegetation density). The developed model was used to predict the evolution of meandering planforms. Then, the modeling results were analyzed and compared to the observed data. Since the migration of meandering channel consists of downstream translation, lateral expansion, and downstream or upstream rotations. Several measures are formulated in order to determine which of the resulting planform is closest to the experimental measured one. Results from the deterministic model highly depend on the calibrated erosion coefficient. Since field measurements are always limited, the stochastic model yielded more realistic predictions of meandering planform evolutions. Due to the random nature of bank erosion coefficient, the meandering planform evolution is a stochastic process that can only be accurately predicted by a stochastic model. Quasi-2D Ikeda (1989) flow solution with Monte Carlo Simulation of Bank Erosion Coefficient.

  11. Suzaku follow-up of heavily obscured active galactic nuclei detected in Swift/BAT survey: NGC 1106, UGC 03752, and NGC 2788A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanimoto, Atsushi; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Kawamuro, Taiki; Ricci, Claudio

    2016-06-01

    We present the broad-band (0.5-100 keV) spectra of three heavily obscured active galactic nuclei (AGNs), NGC 1106, UGC 03752, and NGC 2788A, observed with Suzaku and the Swift/Burst Alert Telescope (BAT). The targets are selected from the Swift/BAT 70-month catalog on the basis of their high hardness ratio between above and below 10 keV, and their X-ray spectra are reported here for the first time. We apply three models: a conventional model utilizing an analytic reflection code, and two Monte Carlo based torus models with a doughnut-like geometry (MYTorus: Murphy & Yaqoob, 2009, MNRAS, 397, 1549) and with a nearly spherical geometry (Ikeda torus: Ikeda et al., 2009, ApJ, 692, 608). The three models can successfully reproduce the spectra, and the Ikeda torus model gives a better description than the MYTorus model in all targets. We identify NGC 1106 and NGC 2788A as Compton-thick AGNs. We point out that the common presence of unabsorbed reflection components below 7.1 keV in obscured AGNs, as observed from UGC 03752, is evidence for clumpy tori. This implies that detailed studies utilizing clumpy torus models are required to reach correct interpretation of the X-ray spectra of AGNs.

  12. Implementation of a model of bodily fluids regulation.

    PubMed

    Fontecave-Jallon, Julie; Thomas, S Randall

    2015-09-01

    The classic model of blood pressure regulation by Guyton et al. (Annu Rev Physiol 34:13-46, 1972a; Ann Biomed Eng 1:254-281, 1972b) set a new standard for quantitative exploration of physiological function and led to important new insights, some of which still remain the focus of debate, such as whether the kidney plays the primary role in the genesis of hypertension (Montani et al. in Exp Physiol 24:41-54, 2009a; Exp Physiol 94:382-388, 2009b; Osborn et al. in Exp Physiol 94:389-396, 2009a; Exp Physiol 94:388-389, 2009b). Key to the success of this model was the fact that the authors made the computer code (in FORTRAN) freely available and eventually provided a convivial user interface for exploration of model behavior on early microcomputers (Montani et al. in Int J Bio-med Comput 24:41-54, 1989). Ikeda et al. (Ann Biomed Eng 7:135-166, 1979) developed an offshoot of the Guyton model targeting especially the regulation of body fluids and acid-base balance; their model provides extended renal and respiratory functions and would be a good basis for further extensions. In the interest of providing a simple, useable version of Ikeda et al.'s model and to facilitate further such extensions, we present a practical implementation of the model of Ikeda et al. (Ann Biomed Eng 7:135-166, 1979), using the ODE solver Berkeley Madonna.

  13. Implementation of a model of bodily fluids regulation.

    PubMed

    Fontecave-Jallon, Julie; Thomas, S Randall

    2015-09-01

    The classic model of blood pressure regulation by Guyton et al. (Annu Rev Physiol 34:13-46, 1972a; Ann Biomed Eng 1:254-281, 1972b) set a new standard for quantitative exploration of physiological function and led to important new insights, some of which still remain the focus of debate, such as whether the kidney plays the primary role in the genesis of hypertension (Montani et al. in Exp Physiol 24:41-54, 2009a; Exp Physiol 94:382-388, 2009b; Osborn et al. in Exp Physiol 94:389-396, 2009a; Exp Physiol 94:388-389, 2009b). Key to the success of this model was the fact that the authors made the computer code (in FORTRAN) freely available and eventually provided a convivial user interface for exploration of model behavior on early microcomputers (Montani et al. in Int J Bio-med Comput 24:41-54, 1989). Ikeda et al. (Ann Biomed Eng 7:135-166, 1979) developed an offshoot of the Guyton model targeting especially the regulation of body fluids and acid-base balance; their model provides extended renal and respiratory functions and would be a good basis for further extensions. In the interest of providing a simple, useable version of Ikeda et al.'s model and to facilitate further such extensions, we present a practical implementation of the model of Ikeda et al. (Ann Biomed Eng 7:135-166, 1979), using the ODE solver Berkeley Madonna. PMID:25935135

  14. Discrimination and social anxiety disorder among African-Americans, Caribbean blacks, and non-Hispanic whites.

    PubMed

    Levine, Debra Siegel; Himle, Joseph A; Abelson, Jamie M; Matusko, Niki; Dhawan, Nikhil; Taylor, Robert Joseph

    2014-03-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between discrimination and social anxiety disorder (SAD) in a sample of African-Americans, Caribbean blacks, and non-Hispanic whites using the National Survey of American Life, the most comprehensive study of psychopathology among American blacks to date (N = 6082). Previous work has highlighted a strong association between discrimination and mental health symptoms (Keith, Lincoln, Taylor, and Jackson [Sex Roles 62:48-59, ]; Kessler, Mickelson, and Williams [J Health Soc Behav 40:208-230, 1999]; Soto, Dawson-Andoh, and BeLue [J Anxiety Disord 25:258-265, ]). However, few studies have examined the effects of particular types of discrimination on specific anxiety disorders or among different black subgroups. In this study, logistic regression analyses indicated that everyday but not major experiences of discrimination are associated with SAD for African-Americans, Caribbean blacks, and non-Hispanic whites. This study adds to the extant literature by demonstrating that specific types of discrimination may be uniquely associated with SAD for different ethnic/racial groups. PMID:24566508

  15. Discrimination and social anxiety disorder among African-Americans, Caribbean blacks, and non-Hispanic whites.

    PubMed

    Levine, Debra Siegel; Himle, Joseph A; Abelson, Jamie M; Matusko, Niki; Dhawan, Nikhil; Taylor, Robert Joseph

    2014-03-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between discrimination and social anxiety disorder (SAD) in a sample of African-Americans, Caribbean blacks, and non-Hispanic whites using the National Survey of American Life, the most comprehensive study of psychopathology among American blacks to date (N = 6082). Previous work has highlighted a strong association between discrimination and mental health symptoms (Keith, Lincoln, Taylor, and Jackson [Sex Roles 62:48-59, ]; Kessler, Mickelson, and Williams [J Health Soc Behav 40:208-230, 1999]; Soto, Dawson-Andoh, and BeLue [J Anxiety Disord 25:258-265, ]). However, few studies have examined the effects of particular types of discrimination on specific anxiety disorders or among different black subgroups. In this study, logistic regression analyses indicated that everyday but not major experiences of discrimination are associated with SAD for African-Americans, Caribbean blacks, and non-Hispanic whites. This study adds to the extant literature by demonstrating that specific types of discrimination may be uniquely associated with SAD for different ethnic/racial groups.

  16. Draft genome sequence of Halomonas sp. strain KM-1, a moderately halophilic bacterium that produces the bioplastic poly(3-hydroxybutyrate).

    PubMed

    Kawata, Yoshikazu; Kawasaki, Kazunori; Shigeri, Yasushi

    2012-05-01

    We report the draft genome sequence of Halomonas sp. strain KM-1, which was isolated in Ikeda City, Osaka, Japan, and which produces the bioplastic poly(3-hydroxybutyrate). The total length of the assembled genome is 4,992,811 bp, and 4,220 coding sequences were predicted within the genome. Genes encoding proteins that are involved in the production and depolymerization of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) were identified. The identification of these genes might be of use in the production of the bioplastic poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) and its monomer 3-hydroxybutyrate.

  17. Gamow-Teller 1{sup +} states in {sup 208}Bi

    SciTech Connect

    Babacan, T.; Salamov, D. I.; Kuecuekbursa, A.

    2005-03-01

    The properties of the Gamow-Teller (GT) 1{sup +} states in {sup 208}Bi have been investigated by using the Pyatov-Salamov method. The GT resonance (GTR) energy, the contribution of the GTR {beta} transition strength to the Ikeda sum rule, and the differential cross sections for the {sup 208}Pb(p,n){sup 208}Bi and {sup 208}Pb({sup 3}He,t){sup 208}Bi charge exchange reactions at different energies have been calculated. Our results show good agreement with experimental values.

  18. Comment on "Generalized projective synchronization in time-delayed systems: nonlinear observer approach" [Chaos 19, 013102 (2009); 20, 029902 (2010)].

    PubMed

    Theesar, S Jeeva Sathya; Balasubramaniam, P; Banerjee, Santo

    2012-09-01

    In Chaos 19, 013102 (2009), the author proposed generalized projective synchronization for time delay systems using nonlinear observer and obtained sufficient condition to ensure projective synchronization for modulated time varying delay. There are concerns with the obtained conditions as the result was applicable only to trivial case of time varying delay τ[over dot](1)(t)=dτ(1)(t)/dt<1. In this paper, we note the drawbacks of the proposed sufficient condition. The new improved sufficient condition for ensuring the projective synchronization of time varying delayed systems is presented. The proposed new criteria have been verified by adopting the Ikeda system.

  19. Draft genome sequence of Halomonas sp. strain KM-1, a moderately halophilic bacterium that produces the bioplastic poly(3-hydroxybutyrate).

    PubMed

    Kawata, Yoshikazu; Kawasaki, Kazunori; Shigeri, Yasushi

    2012-05-01

    We report the draft genome sequence of Halomonas sp. strain KM-1, which was isolated in Ikeda City, Osaka, Japan, and which produces the bioplastic poly(3-hydroxybutyrate). The total length of the assembled genome is 4,992,811 bp, and 4,220 coding sequences were predicted within the genome. Genes encoding proteins that are involved in the production and depolymerization of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) were identified. The identification of these genes might be of use in the production of the bioplastic poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) and its monomer 3-hydroxybutyrate. PMID:22535927

  20. Antioxidant Enzymes Regulate Reactive Oxygen Species during Pod Elongation in Pisum sativum and Brassica chinensis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Nan; Lin, Zhifang; Guan, Lanlan; Gaughan, Gerald; Lin, Guizhu

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has focused on the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cell wall loosening and cell extension in plant vegetative growth, but few studies have investigated ROS functions specifically in plant reproductive organs. In this study, ROS levels and antioxidant enzyme activities were assessed in Pisum sativum and Brassica chinensis pods at five developmental stages. In juvenile pods, the high levels of O2.− and.OH indicates that they had functions in cell wall loosening and cell elongation. In later developmental stages, high levels of.OH were also related to increases in cell wall thickness in lignified tissues. Throughout pod development, most of the O2.− was detected on plasma membranes of parenchyma cells and outer epidermis cells of the mesocarp, while most of the H2O2 was detected on plasma membranes of most cells throughout the mesocarp. This suggests that these sites are presumably the locations of ROS generation. The antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT) apparently contributed to ROS accumulation in pod wall tissues. Furthermore, specifically SOD and POD were found to be associated with pod growth through the regulation of ROS generation and transformation. Throughout pod development, O2.− decreases were associated with increased SOD activity, while changes in H2O2 accumulation were associated with changes in CAT and POD activities. Additionally, high POD activity may contribute to the generation of.OH in the early development of pods. It is concluded that the ROS are produced in different sites of plasma membranes with the regulation of antioxidant enzymes, and that substantial ROS generation and accumulation are evident in cell elongation and cell wall loosening in pod wall cells. PMID:24503564

  1. The role of hydroxyl radical as a messenger in Cr(VI)-induced p53 activation.

    PubMed

    Wang, S; Leonard, S S; Ye, J; Ding, M; Shi, X

    2000-09-01

    The present study investigates whether reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in p53 activation, and if they are, which species is responsible for the activation. Our hypothesis is that hydroxyl radical (.OH) functions as a messenger for the activation of this tumor suppressor protein. Human lung epithelial cells (A549) were used to test this hypothesis. Cr(VI) was employed as the source of ROS due to its ability to generate a whole spectrum of ROS inside the cell. Cr(VI) is able to activate p53 by increasing the protein levels and enhancing both the DNA binding activity and transactivation ability of the protein. Increased cellular levels of superoxide radicals (O(2)(-).), hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), and.OH radicals were detected on the addition of Cr(VI) to the cells. Superoxide dismutase, by enhancing the production of H(2)O(2) from O(2)(-). radicals, increased p53 activity. Catalase, an H(2)O(2) scavenger, eliminated.OH radical generation and inhibited p53 activation. Sodium formate and aspirin,.OH radical scavengers, also suppressed p53 activation. Deferoxamine, a metal chelator, inhibited p53 activation by chelating Cr(V) to make it incapable of generating radicals from H(2)O(2). NADPH, which accelerated the one-electron reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(V) and increased.OH radical generation, dramatically enhanced p53 activation. Thus.OH radical generated from Cr(VI) reduction in A549 cells is responsible for Cr(VI)-induced p53 activation.

  2. Simulating river meandering processes using stochastic bank erosion coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posner, Ari J.; Duan, Jennifer G.

    2012-08-01

    This study first compares the first order analytical solutions for flow field by Ikeda et. al. (1981) and Johanesson and Parker (1989b). Ikeda et. al.'s (1981) linear model of bank erosion was implemented to predict the rate of bank erosion in which the bank erosion coefficient is treated as a stochastic variable that varies with physical properties of the bank (e.g. cohesiveness, stratigraphy, vegetation density). The developed model was used to predict the evolution of meandering planforms. Then, the modeling results were analyzed and compared to the observed data. Because the migration of meandering channels consists of downstream translation, lateral expansion, and downstream or upstream rotations, several measures are formulated to determine which of the resulting planform is closest to the experimental measured one. Results from the deterministic model highly depend on the calibrated erosion coefficient. Because field measurements are always limited, the stochastic model yielded more realistic predictions of meandering planform evolutions. Because the coefficient of bank erosion is a random variable, the meandering planform evolution is a stochastic process that can only be accurately predicted by a stochastic model.

  3. Data on CUX1 isoforms in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis lung and systemic sclerosis skin tissue sections.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Tetsurou; Fragiadaki, Maria; Shi-Wen, Xu; Ponticos, Markella; Khan, Korsa; Denton, Christopher; Garcia, Patricia; Bou-Gharios, George; Yamakawa, Akio; Morimoto, Chikao; Abraham, David

    2016-09-01

    This data article contains complementary figures related to the research article entitled, "Transforming growth factor-β-induced CUX1 isoforms are associated with fibrosis in systemic sclerosis lung fibroblasts" (Ikeda et al. (2016) [2], http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrep.2016.06.022), which presents that TGF-β increased CUX1 binding in the proximal promoter and enhancer of the COL1A2 and regulated COL1. Further, in the scleroderma (SSc) lung and diffuse alveolar damage lung sections, CUX1 localized within the α- smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) positive cells (Fragiadaki et al., 2011) [1], "High doses of TGF-beta potently suppress type I collagen via the transcription factor CUX1" (Ikeda et al., 2016) [2]. Here we show that CUX1 isoforms are localized within α-smooth muscle actin-positive cells in SSc skin and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) lung tissue sections. In particular, at the granular and prickle cell layers in the SSc skin sections, CUX1 and α-SMA are co-localized. In addition, at the fibrotic loci in the IPF lung tissue sections, CUX1 localized within the α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) positive cells. PMID:27583344

  4. Molecular characterization of Theileria orientalis from cattle in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Gebrekidan, Hagos; Gasser, Robin B; Baneth, Gad; Yasur-Landau, Daniel; Nachum-Biala, Yaarit; Hailu, Asrat; Jabbar, Abdul

    2016-07-01

    This study reports the first molecular characterization of Theileria orientalis in local breeds of cattle in Ethiopia. A conventional PCR utilizing major piroplasm surface protein (MPSP) gene and an established multiplexed tandem PCR (MT-PCR) were used to characterize T. orientalis and to assess the infection intensity, respectively. Of 232 blood samples tested, T. orientalis DNA was detected in only 2.2% of samples using conventional PCR; two genotypes buffeli (1.3%; 3/232) and type 5 (0.9%; 2/232) of T. orientalis were detected. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the buffeli MPSP sequences from Ethiopia were closely related to those reported from Kenya, Sri Lanka and Myanmar, and type 5 sequences from Ethiopia grouped with those from Korea, Japan, Vietnam and Thailand. A higher number of samples (3.9%; 9/232) were test-positive by MT-PCR and four genotypes (buffeli, chitose, ikeda and type 5) of T. orientalis were detected. The average intensity of infections with genotypes buffeli (DNA copy numbers 11,056) and type 5 (7508) were significantly higher (P<0.0001) than the pathogenic genotype ikeda (61 DNA copies). This first insight into T. orientalis from cattle in Ethiopia using MPSP gene provides a basis for future studies of T. orientalis in various agroclimatic zones and of the impact of oriental theilerosis on cattle in this and other countries of Africa. PMID:27034193

  5. Unraveling a 70-year-old taxonomic puzzle: redefining the genus ikedosoma (annelida: echiura) on the basis of morphological and molecular analyses.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Masaatsu; Kon, Takeshi; Nishikawa, Teruaki

    2014-12-01

    After a long-standing taxonomic confusion, the echiurid genus Ikedosoma Bock, 1942 , endemic to Japan and surroundings, is redefined on the basis of morphological and molecular analyses of many new Japanese materials and some museum specimens. The re-examination of a syntype of I. elegans ( Ikeda, 1904 ), the type species of the genus, first revealed that its oblique muscle layer is continuous throughout and never fasciculate between longitudinal muscle bands, unlike those described in the definitions that have prevailed for ca. 70 years, making this genus indistinguishable from Listriolobus Spengel, 1912 . Two Japanese species of Ikedosoma, I. elegans and I. gogoshimense (Ikeda, 1904), which were thus redefined, had also been poorly defined in the past to the point of being nearly indistinguishable from each other, largely due to incomplete descriptions and poor collections. Molecular phylogenetic analyses using 18S and 28S ribosomal RNA, histone H3, and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) genes clearly confirmed the distinction between these two species, their monophyletic origin, and their distinction from L. sorbillans (Lampert, 1883). The genus Ikedosoma thus validated is morphologically distinguishable from Listriolobus by the absence of a rectal caecum. Ikedosoma elegans and I. gogoshimense also differ in the disposition of gonoduct pairs. The third known species, I. qingdaoense Li, Wang and Zhou, 1994 , from Qingdao, North China, lacks information on oblique muscle layers, which makes even its generic affiliation uncertain.

  6. Development and validation of a quantitative PCR assay using multiplexed hydrolysis probes for detection and quantification of Theileria orientalis isolates and differentiation of clinically relevant subtypes.

    PubMed

    Bogema, D R; Deutscher, A T; Fell, S; Collins, D; Eamens, G J; Jenkins, C

    2015-03-01

    Theileria orientalis is an emerging pathogen of cattle in Asia, Australia, and New Zealand. This organism is a vector-borne hemoprotozoan that causes clinical disease characterized by anemia, abortion, and death, as well as persistent subclinical infections. Molecular methods of diagnosis are preferred due to their sensitivity and utility in differentiating between pathogenic and apathogenic genotypes. Conventional PCR (cPCR) assays for T. orientalis detection and typing are laborious and do not provide an estimate of parasite load. Current real-time PCR assays cannot differentiate between clinically relevant and benign genotypes or are only semiquantitative without a defined clinical threshold. Here, we developed and validated a hydrolysis probe quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay which universally detects and quantifies T. orientalis and identifies the clinically associated Ikeda and Chitose genotypes (UIC assay). Comparison of the UIC assay results with previously validated universal and genotype-specific cPCR results demonstrated that qPCR detects and differentiates T. orientalis with high sensitivity and specificiy. Comparison of quantitative results based on percent parasitemia, determined via blood film analysis and packed cell volume (PCV) revealed significant positive and negative correlations, respectively. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated that blood samples from animals with clinical signs of disease contained statistically higher concentrations of T. orientalis DNA than animals with subclinical infections. We propose clinical thresholds to assist in classifying high-, moderate-, and low-level infections and describe how parasite load and the presence of the Ikeda and Chitose genotypes relate to disease.

  7. Assessment of sequence variability in a p23 gene region within and among three genotypes of the Theileria orientalis complex from south-eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Perera, Piyumali K; Gasser, Robin B; Jabbar, Abdul

    2015-03-01

    Oriental theileriosis is a tick-borne, protozoan disease of cattle caused by one or more genotypes of Theileria orientalis complex. In this study, we assessed sequence variability in a region of the 23kDa piroplasm membrane protein (p23) gene within and among three T. orientalis genotypes (designated buffeli, chitose and ikeda) in south-eastern Australia. Genomic DNA (n=100) was extracted from blood of infected cattle from various locations endemic for oriental theileriosis and tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-coupled mutation scanning (single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP)) and targeted sequencing analysis. Eight distinct sequences represented all DNA samples, and three genotypes were found: buffeli (n=3), chitose (3) and ikeda (2). Nucleotide pairwise comparisons among these eight sequences revealed considerably higher variability among the genotypes (6.6-11.7%) than within them (0-1.9%), indicating that the p23 gene region allows the accurate identification of T. orientalis genotypes. In the future, we will combine this gene with other molecular markers to study the genetic structure of T. orientalis populations in Australasia, which will pave the way to establish a highly sensitive and specific PCR-based assay for genotypic diagnosis of infection and for assessing levels of parasitaemia in cattle.

  8. Emergence of new types of Theileria orientalis in Australian cattle and possible cause of theileriosis outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Kamau, Joseph; de Vos, Albertus J; Playford, Matthew; Salim, Bashir; Kinyanjui, Peter; Sugimoto, Chihiro

    2011-02-21

    Theileria parasites cause a benign infection of cattle in parts of Australia where they are endemic, but have, in recent years, been suspected of being responsible for a number of outbreaks of disease in cattle near the coast of New South Wales. The objective of this study was to identify and characterize the species of Theileria in cattle on six farms in New South Wales where disease outbreaks have occurred, and compare with Theileria from three disease-free farms in Queensland that is endemic for Theileria. Special reference was made to sub-typing of T. orientalis by type-specific PCR and sequencing of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene, and sequence analysis of the gene encoding a polymorphic merozoite/piroplasm surface protein (MPSP) that may be under immune selection. Nucleotide sequencing of SSU rRNA and MPSP genes revealed the presence of four Theileria genotypes: T. orientalis (buffeli), T. orientalis (ikeda), T. orientalis (chitose) and T. orientalis type 4 (MPSP) or type C (SSU rRNA). The majority of animals showed mixed infections while a few showed single infection. When MPSP nucleotide sequences were translated into amino acids, base transition did not change amino acid composition of the protein product, suggesting possible silent polymorphism. The occurrence of ikeda and type 4 (type C) previously not reported to occur and silent mutation is thought to have enhanced parasite evasion of the host immune response causing the outbreak.

  9. Controlling Transition in Taylor-Couette Flow with Spatial Forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aboelkassem, Yasser; Staples, Anne

    2009-11-01

    The linear stability of the flow in the (narrow) annular gap between two infinitely long cylinders, driven by an axisymmetric sinusoidal perturbation to the radius of the inner cylinder in the axial direction is analyzed. A closed-form solution for the basic flow in the system is derived. Experiments and computational investigations of this system have given differing results. In the seminal experiment performed by Ikeda and Maxworthy (Phys. Rev. E, 1994), the perturbation was found to have no effect on the first stability boundary. In subsequent theoretical investigations, authors have concluded that circular flow cannot exist in the modified system, and that the basic flow is Taylor Vortex Flow. In this study, we find that while the perturbation seems to always be destabilizing, circular flow does indeed exist in the system, in agreement with experimental observations. For small to moderate forcing amplitudes, the critical Taylor number for the first transition is only reduced slightly, by an amount that depends on the forcing amplitude and wavelength. The reduction in the first critical Taylor number is speculated to lie within the margin of error in the experiments performed by Ikeda and Maxworthy.

  10. Testing the rebound peer review concept.

    PubMed

    Olson, Kenneth R

    2013-07-01

    This invited Editorial addresses the rescue of the article by Xue et al. "Hydrogen sulfide treatment promotes glucose uptake by increasing insulin receptor sensitivity and ameliorates kidney lesions in type 2 diabetes." The work was rejected by the standard peer review system and subsequently rescued via the Rebound Peer Review mechanism offered by Antioxidants and Redox Signaling (Antoxid Redox Signal 16: 293-296, 2012). The open reviewers rescuing the work were Jin-Song Bian, Samuel Dudley, Hideo Kimura, and Xian Wang. The initial article was reviewed by six reviewers who had valid concerns; they recommended extensive revision and additional experiments. In the subsequent two iterations, the authors nearly doubled the number of experiments and made substantial revisions. However, several reviewers were still not satisfied, and the authors requested the rebound pathway. The open reviewers, selected by the authors and experts in hydrogen sulfide biology, diabetes, and cardiovascular physiology, added a broad perspective to the review process. They acknowledged the anonymous reviewer's concerns, but felt that the merits of the study were sufficient to recommend acceptance. The open reviewers also identified several situations where the recommendations of the anonymous reviewers and the author's attempts to rectify them were moot, given the available methodology and present state of the field. From this perspective, the rebound track was a success; it rescued an article that otherwise would have been rejected and will stimulate further discussion and research in this area. Whether or not there are more efficient ways to accomplish, this remains to be determined. PMID:23425024

  11. Coming of Age With Quantum Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Christopher A.

    2011-01-01

    1. Letters to David Baker; 2. Letters to Howard Baker; 3. Letters to Howard Barnum; 4. Letters to Paul Benioff; 5. Letters to Charlie Bennett; 6. Letters to Herb Bernstein; 7. Letters to Doug Bilodeau; 8. Letters to Gilles Brassard; 9. Letters to Jeffrey Bub; 10. Letters to Carlton Caves; 11. Letters to Greg Comer; 12. Letters to Charles Enz; 13. Letters to Henry Folse; 14. Letters to Bob Griffiths; 15. Letters to Adrian Kent; 16. Letters to Rolf Landauer; 17. Letters to Hideo Mabuchi; 18. Letters to David Mermin; 19. Letters to David Meyer; 20. Letters to Jeff Nicholson; 21. Letters to Michael Nielsen; 22. Letters to Asher Peres; 23. Diary of a carefully worded paper: more letters to Asher Peres; 24. Letters to John Preskill; 25. Letters to Joseph Renes; 26. Letters to Mary Beth Ruskai; 27. Letters to Rüdiger Schack; 28. Letters to Robert Schumann; 29. Letters to Abner Shimony; 30. Letters to Jon Waskan; 31. Letters to Bill Wootters; 32. Letters to Anton Zeilinger; 33. Other letters; Index.

  12. ACTION OF CYCLOHEXIMIDE ON ZYGOSACCHAROMYCES SOJA

    PubMed Central

    Tsukada, Yoji; Sugimori, Tsunetake; Imai, Kazutami; Katagiri, Hideo

    1962-01-01

    Tsukada, Yoji (Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan), Tsunetake Sugimori, Kazutami Imai, and Hideo Katagiri. Action of cycloheximide on Zygosaccharomyces soja. J. Bacteriol. 83:70–75. 1962.—Cycloheximide is known to inhibit the growth of some species of Saccharomyces and other fungi. A new type of action of this antibiotic, with Zygosaccharomyces soja as the test organism, is described in this paper. Growth of Z. soja was completely inhibited under aerobic conditions by cycloheximide in concentrations of more than 5 μg per ml of culture solution. Continued shaking of the culture for more than 96 hr in the presence of an inhibitory amount of cycloheximide restored growth, accompanied by the excretion of riboflavin to the extent of 30 μg per ml of culture solution. In the cells recovering from cycloheximide inhibition, the type of glucose metabolism differed from that in the mother strain; a respiratory quotient of 4 with the mother strain fell to 1 in the progeny. Glucose metabolism (O2 uptake and CO2 evolution) by resting cells was investigated, and it was concluded that inhibition of glycolysis was not significant. This was verified by comparing various dehydrogenase activities in the cell-free extract. There were essentially no differences between riboflavin-forming and nonriboflavin-forming cells. The presence of the hexose monophosphate shunt was deduced from the fact that glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity was the strongest of the various dehydrogenase activities. PMID:13922890

  13. Nova in Scorpius (V1311 Sco = N Sco 2010 No. 2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waagen, Elizabeth O.

    2010-05-01

    Announcement is made of the independent discovery of N Sco 2010 No. 2 = V1311 Sco by four teams of observers: Koichi Nishiyama (Kurume, Japan) and Fujio Kabashima (Miyaki, Japan) on 2010 Apr. 25.788 UT at unfiltered CCD magnitude 8.6; Hideo Nishimura (Miyawaki, Kakegawa, Shizuoka-ken, Japan) on Apr. 25.763 UT at unfiltered CCD magnitude 8.3; Tadashi Kojima (Tsumagoi, Agatsuma-gun, Gunma-ken, Japan) on Apr. 25.738 UT at unfiltered CCD magnitude 8.8; and Yukio Sakurai (Mito, Ibaraki-ken, Japan) on Apr. 25.734 UT at unfiltered CCD magnitude 8.8. Low-resolution spectra taken by H. Koberger (Vilaflor, Tenerife) and W. Vollmann (Vienna, Austria) on Apr. 27.199, and by H. Maehara (Kwasan Observatory, Kyoto University, Japan) on Apr. 29.704 UT, confirm a classical nova. A low-resolution spectrum by K. Kinugasa, H. Takahashi, and O. Hashimoto (Gunma Astronomical Observatory, China) suggests a He/N nova in decline. Initially announced in CBET 2262 (D. W. E. Green, ed.) and AAVSO Special Notice #207 (Waagen), with additional information in CBET 2265 (Green) and IAU Circular 9142 (Green). Finder charts with sequence may be created using the AAVSO Variable Star Plotter (http://www.aavso.org/vsp). Observations should be submitted to the AAVSO International Database. See full Alert Notice for more details, observations, and links to images.

  14. UV light induced insulator-metal transition in ultra-thin ZnO/TiOx stacked layer grown by atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, D.; Misra, P.; Joshi, M. P.; Kukreja, L. M.

    2016-08-01

    In the present study, atomic layer deposition has been used to grow a series of Ti incorporated ZnO thin films by vertically stacking different numbers (n = 1-7) of ZnO/TiOx layers on (0001) sapphire substrates. The effects of defect states mediated chemisorption of O2 and/OH groups on the electrical properties of these films have been investigated by illuminating the samples under UV light inside a high vacuum optical cryostat. The ultra-thin film having one stacked layer (n = 1) did not show any change in its electrical resistance upon UV light exposure. On the contrary, marginal drop in the electrical resistivity was measured for the samples with n ≥ 3. Most surprisingly, the sample with n = 2 (thickness ˜ 12 nm) showed an insulator to metal transition upon UV light exposure. The temperature dependent electrical resistivity measurement on the as grown film (n = 2) showed insulating behaviour, i.e., diverging resistivity on extrapolation to T→ 0 K. However, upon UV light exposure, it transformed to a metallic state, i.e., finite resistivity at T → 0 K. Such an insulator-metal transition plausibly arises due to the de-trapping of conduction electrons from the surface defect sites which resulted in an upward shift of the Fermi level above the mobility edge. The low-temperature electron transport properties on the insulating film (n = 2) were investigated by a combined study of zero field electrical resistivity ρ(T) and magnetoresistance (MR) measurements. The observed negative MR was found to be in good agreement with the magnetic field induced suppression of quantum interference between forward-going paths of tunnelling electrons. Both ρ(T) and MR measurements provided strong evidence for the Efros-Shklovskii type variable range hopping conduction in the low-temperature (≤40 K) regime. Such studies on electron transport in ultra-thin n-type doped ZnO films are crucial to achieve optimum functionality with long term reliability of ZnO based transparent

  15. Bovine theileriosis--an emerging problem in south-eastern Australia?

    PubMed

    Islam, M Khyrul; Jabbar, Abdul; Campbell, Bronwyn E; Cantacessi, Cinzia; Gasser, Robin B

    2011-12-01

    Bovine theileriosis is an arthropod-borne disease caused by one or more haemoprotozoan parasites of the genus Theileria. Traditionally, Theileria infection in cattle in Australia was largely asymptomatic and recognized to be associated with Theileria buffeli, now assigned to the Theileria orientalis-group. There have been some recent outbreaks of theileriosis in dairy and beef cattle, mainly in subtropical climatic zone (New South Wales) of Australia. Here, we provide the first published evidence of an outbreak of bovine theileriosis in the south-eastern Australia (state of Victoria) linked to the ikeda and chitose genotypes of T. orientalis. Future investigations should focus sharply on the elucidating the epidemiology and ecology of Theileria in this region to subvert the possible impact on the cattle industry.

  16. Chaotic scattering in solitary wave interactions: a singular iterated-map description.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Roy H

    2008-06-01

    We derive a family of singular iterated maps--closely related to Poincare maps--that describe chaotic interactions between colliding solitary waves. The chaotic behavior of such solitary-wave collisions depends on the transfer of energy to a secondary mode of oscillation, often an internal mode of the pulse. This map allows us to go beyond previous analyses and to understand the interactions in the case when this mode is excited prior to the first collision. The map is derived using Melnikov integrals and matched asymptotic expansions and generalizes a "multipulse" Melnikov integral. It allows one to find not only multipulse heteroclinic orbits, but exotic periodic orbits. The maps exhibit singular behavior, including regions of infinite winding. These maps are shown to be singular versions of the conservative Ikeda map from laser physics and connections are made with problems from celestial mechanics and fluid mechanics. PMID:18601480

  17. Chaotic scattering in solitary wave interactions: a singular iterated-map description.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Roy H

    2008-06-01

    We derive a family of singular iterated maps--closely related to Poincare maps--that describe chaotic interactions between colliding solitary waves. The chaotic behavior of such solitary-wave collisions depends on the transfer of energy to a secondary mode of oscillation, often an internal mode of the pulse. This map allows us to go beyond previous analyses and to understand the interactions in the case when this mode is excited prior to the first collision. The map is derived using Melnikov integrals and matched asymptotic expansions and generalizes a "multipulse" Melnikov integral. It allows one to find not only multipulse heteroclinic orbits, but exotic periodic orbits. The maps exhibit singular behavior, including regions of infinite winding. These maps are shown to be singular versions of the conservative Ikeda map from laser physics and connections are made with problems from celestial mechanics and fluid mechanics.

  18. Chaotic scattering in solitary wave interactions: A singular iterated-map description

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, Roy H.

    2008-06-15

    We derive a family of singular iterated maps--closely related to Poincare maps--that describe chaotic interactions between colliding solitary waves. The chaotic behavior of such solitary-wave collisions depends on the transfer of energy to a secondary mode of oscillation, often an internal mode of the pulse. This map allows us to go beyond previous analyses and to understand the interactions in the case when this mode is excited prior to the first collision. The map is derived using Melnikov integrals and matched asymptotic expansions and generalizes a ''multipulse'' Melnikov integral. It allows one to find not only multipulse heteroclinic orbits, but exotic periodic orbits. The maps exhibit singular behavior, including regions of infinite winding. These maps are shown to be singular versions of the conservative Ikeda map from laser physics and connections are made with problems from celestial mechanics and fluid mechanics.

  19. Role of momentum transfer in the quenching of the Gamow-Teller strength

    SciTech Connect

    Marketin, T.; Martinez-Pinedo, G.; Paar, N.; Vretenar, D.

    2012-10-20

    A recent analysis of (p,n) and (n,p) reaction data from {sup 90}Zr was performed recently, where a significant amount of Gamow-Teller strength was found above the resonance, an energy region previously unreachable by experimental setups. The extracted strengths in the {beta}{sub -} and the {beta}{sub +} channel indicate that approximately 10% of the total strength necessary to satisfy the model independent Ikeda sum rule is missing. One possible source of this discrepancy is the treatment of the isovector spin monopole (IVSM) mode of excitation which has been found to occurr at high excitation energies. Employing the relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov (RHB) model and the protonneutron relativistic quasiparticle random phase approximation (pn-RQRPA) to calculate the nuclear response, we explore the contribution of the IVSM mode to the total L= 0 strength and apply our results to the available data.

  20. Generalized projective synchronization in time-delayed systems: nonlinear observer approach.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Dibakar

    2009-03-01

    In this paper, we consider the projective-anticipating, projective, and projective-lag synchronization in a unified coupled time-delay system via nonlinear observer design. A new sufficient condition for generalized projective synchronization is derived analytically with the help of Krasovskii-Lyapunov theory for constant and variable time-delay systems. The analytical treatment can give stable synchronization (anticipatory and lag) for a large class of time-delayed systems in which the response system's trajectory is forced to have an amplitude proportional to the drive system. The constant of proportionality is determined by the control law, not by the initial conditions. The proposed technique has been applied to synchronize Ikeda and prototype models by numerical simulation.

  1. Exact synchronization bound for coupled time-delay systems.

    PubMed

    Senthilkumar, D V; Pesquera, Luis; Banerjee, Santo; Ortín, Silvia; Kurths, J

    2013-04-01

    We obtain an exact bound for synchronization in coupled time-delay systems using the generalized Halanay inequality for the general case of time-dependent delay, coupling, and coefficients. Furthermore, we show that the same analysis is applicable to both uni- and bidirectionally coupled time-delay systems with an appropriate evolution equation for their synchronization manifold, which can also be defined for different types of synchronization. The exact synchronization bound assures an exponential stabilization of the synchronization manifold which is crucial for applications. The analytical synchronization bound is independent of the nature of the modulation and can be applied to any time-delay system satisfying a Lipschitz condition. The analytical results are corroborated numerically using the Ikeda system.

  2. Exact synchronization bound for coupled time-delay systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senthilkumar, D. V.; Pesquera, Luis; Banerjee, Santo; Ortín, Silvia; Kurths, J.

    2013-04-01

    We obtain an exact bound for synchronization in coupled time-delay systems using the generalized Halanay inequality for the general case of time-dependent delay, coupling, and coefficients. Furthermore, we show that the same analysis is applicable to both uni- and bidirectionally coupled time-delay systems with an appropriate evolution equation for their synchronization manifold, which can also be defined for different types of synchronization. The exact synchronization bound assures an exponential stabilization of the synchronization manifold which is crucial for applications. The analytical synchronization bound is independent of the nature of the modulation and can be applied to any time-delay system satisfying a Lipschitz condition. The analytical results are corroborated numerically using the Ikeda system.

  3. An adaptive way for improving noise reduction using local geometric projection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leontitsis, Alexandros; Bountis, Tassos; Pagge, Jenny

    2004-03-01

    We propose an adaptive way to improve noise reduction by local geometric projection. From the neighborhood of each candidate point in phase space, we identify the best subspace that the point will be orthogonally projected to. The signal subspace is formed by the most significant eigendirections of the neighborhood, while the less significant ones define the noise subspace. We provide a simple criterion to separate the most significant eigendirections from the less significant ones. This criterion is based on the maximum logarithmic difference between the neighborhood eigendirection lengths, and the assumption that there is at least one eigendirection that corresponds to the noise subspace. In this way, we take into account the special characteristics of each neighborhood and introduce a more successful noise reduction technique. Results are presented for a chaotic time series of the Hénon map and Ikeda map, as well as on the Nasdaq Composite index.

  4. New unidentate jumping spider genera (Araneae: Salticidae) from Australia.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Barry J

    2013-01-01

    The Australian fauna includes large numbers of undescribed, tiny, litter-living, jumping spiders. In this paper four monotypic new genera (Ananeon howardensis n. g. n. sp., Barraina anfracta n. g. n.sp., Frewena maculata n.g. n.s., and Pungalina weiri n.g, n.sp.) are described. Two species (Neon taylori n.sp. and Neon australis n. sp.) representing the two distinctive morphological patterns found in Australian species of this genus are also described. The former, similar in the morphology of the palp and genitalia to that found in many species from eastern Australia, is most similar in morphology to N. sumatranus Logunov 1998 from Indonesia and N. kovblyuki Logunov 2004 from the Crimea. The latter, and other similar species from South Australia and Western Australia, has palp morphology and fringing on L1 very similar to that seen in N. nojimai Ikeda 1995 from Japan. PMID:26106785

  5. On the relationship between intensity and resolution of pulsed-source back-scattering spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, R.A.

    1994-08-01

    In a recent paper on the high-resolution pulsed-source back-scattering spectrometer LAM-80ET, Ikeda et al. noted that the observed intensity I varies linearly with energy resolution {Delta}{epsilon}, on changing order of analyser reflection. This is apparently at variance with reactor folklore, which is based solely on phase-space arguments, in which it is assumed that I {proportional_to} {Delta}{epsilon}{sup 2}. We discuss this problem in terms of (a) resolution-volume arguments, (b) the energy dependence of source flux, (c) the appropriate jacobian for transformation from time-of-flight to energy scan, (d) a simple model for resolution of the spectrometer and (e) the wavelength variation of critical angle for the neutron guide. Making suitable simplifying approximations, we arrive at the form I {proportional_to} {Delta}{epsilon}{sup 4/3}.

  6. ["Infectious disease" theory during the Japanese Shogunate: an analysis of "Ichikawa Hashimoto-Hakuju-cho Dandoku-ron Ikken"].

    PubMed

    Kozai, Toyoko

    2009-12-01

    Dandoku-ron (Treatise on Eliminating Poisons), written at the beginning of the 19th century by Hakuju Hashimoto, a doctor from Kai (Yamanashi Prefecture), is said to be the first book written by a Japanese author who "treated infectious diseases by means of modern concepts." Hashimoto acquired the ideas for his "infectious disease" theory through his own observations and experience. These ideas, suggesting that tangible poisons--not epidemics or congenital eczema--caused diseases such as smallpox, measles, syphilis, and scabies, were fresh and original at the time. The originality that Hashimoto demonstrated in Dandokuron sometimes conflicted, however, with the theories of the Ikeda group of the Igakkan (Tokugawa Shogunate medical school). This paper details information related to this conflict and explores the politicization caused by the "infectious disease" theory during the Japanese Shogunate.

  7. Description of the 2ννββ decay within a fully renormalized proton-neutron quasiparticle random-phase approximation approach with a restored gauge symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raduta, C. M.; Raduta, A. A.

    2010-12-01

    A many-body Hamiltonian involving the mean field for a projected spherical single-particle basis, the pairing interactions for alike nucleons, and the dipole-dipole proton-neutron interactions in the particle-hole (ph) channel and the ph dipole pairing potential is treated by the projected gauge fully renormalized proton-neutron quasiparticle random phase approximation approach. The resulting wave functions and energies for the mother and daughter nuclei are used to calculate the 2νββ decay rate and the process half-life. For illustration, the formalism is applied for the decay 100Mo→100Ru. The calculated half-life is in agreement with the corresponding experimental data. The Ikeda sum rule is obeyed.

  8. Modelling of c-C2H4O Formation on Grain-Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Occhiogrosso, Angela; Viti, S.; Ward, M. D.; Price, S. D.

    2013-01-01

    Ethylene oxide (c-C2H4O) is a ring-shaped organic compound that may lead to the synthesis of amino acids and the early metabolic pathways in the interstellar medium (ISM) (Cleaves 2003; Miller & Schlesinger 1993). This molecule has been detected towards several high-mass star forming regions (Ikeda et al. 2001) but to date, its observational abundances cannot be reproduced by chemical models. We include new experimental results in the UCL_CHEM chemical model with the aim of reproducing the abundances of ethylene oxide across high-mass sources. In particular, we focused on the solid state reaction investigated by Ward & Price (2011). By comparing our theoretical column densities with those from the observations we found that the reaction between atomic oxygen and ethylene on grains is a viable route of formation for ethylene oxide (Occhiogrosso et al., accepted by MNRAS).

  9. Relationship between collective efficacy and contextual performance among university athletes in Japan.

    PubMed

    Hochii, Yasuyuki; Mizunoo, Motoki; Nakayama, Takahiro; Kanneko, Ikuyo; Kitamura, Kaoru

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship between collective efficacy and contextual performance among university athletes in Japan. We carried out 305 university athletes (201 males, 104 females) from 14 teams in various geographic areas in Japan. The average age of the participants was 19.91 years (SD = 1.01). The kinds of sports were soccer, basketball, baseball, volleyball, and so on. Then, using Collective Efficacy Questionnaire for Sports (CEQS; Sandra E. Short et al., 2005) and Contextual Performance Scale (Ikeda, and Furukawa, 2008), we examined the relationship between collective efficacy and Contextual performance. In conclusion, this study provided the following three remarks. 1) There are relationship between collective efficacy and contextual performance. 2) Contextual performance execution level improve collective efficacy. 3) It is important to always recommend contextual performance in own team to strengthen the collective efficacy more.

  10. River meander modeling and confronting uncertainty.

    SciTech Connect

    Posner, Ari J.

    2011-05-01

    This study examines the meandering phenomenon as it occurs in media throughout terrestrial, glacial, atmospheric, and aquatic environments. Analysis of the minimum energy principle, along with theories of Coriolis forces (and random walks to explain the meandering phenomenon) found that these theories apply at different temporal and spatial scales. Coriolis forces might induce topological changes resulting in meandering planforms. The minimum energy principle might explain how these forces combine to limit the sinuosity to depth and width ratios that are common throughout various media. The study then compares the first order analytical solutions for flow field by Ikeda, et al. (1981) and Johannesson and Parker (1989b). Ikeda's et al. linear bank erosion model was implemented to predict the rate of bank erosion in which the bank erosion coefficient is treated as a stochastic variable that varies with physical properties of the bank (e.g., cohesiveness, stratigraphy, or vegetation density). The developed model was used to predict the evolution of meandering planforms. Then, the modeling results were analyzed and compared to the observed data. Since the migration of a meandering channel consists of downstream translation, lateral expansion, and downstream or upstream rotations several measures are formulated in order to determine which of the resulting planforms is closest to the experimental measured one. Results from the deterministic model highly depend on the calibrated erosion coefficient. Since field measurements are always limited, the stochastic model yielded more realistic predictions of meandering planform evolutions. Due to the random nature of bank erosion coefficient, the meandering planform evolution is a stochastic process that can only be accurately predicted by a stochastic model.

  11. Semiquantitative Multiplexed Tandem PCR for Detection and Differentiation of Four Theileria orientalis Genotypes in Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Perera, Piyumali K.; Gasser, Robin B.; Firestone, Simon M.; Smith, Lee; Roeber, Florian

    2014-01-01

    Oriental theileriosis is an emerging, tick-borne disease of bovines in the Asia-Pacific region and is caused by one or more genotypes of the Theileria orientalis complex. This study aimed to establish and validate a multiplexed tandem PCR (MT-PCR) assay using three distinct markers (major piroplasm surface protein, 23-kDa piroplasm membrane protein, and the first internal transcribed spacer of nuclear DNA), for the simultaneous detection and semiquantification of four genotypes (Buffeli, Chitose, Ikeda, and type 5) of the T. orientalis complex. Analytical specificity, analytical sensitivity, and repeatability of the established MT-PCR assay were assessed in a series of experiments. Subsequently, the assay was evaluated using 200 genomic DNA samples collected from cattle from farms on which oriental theileriosis outbreaks had occurred, and 110 samples from a region where no outbreaks had been reported. The results showed the MT-PCR assay specifically and reproducibly detected the expected genotypes (i.e., genotypes Buffeli, Chitose, Ikeda, and type 5) of the T. orientalis complex, reliably differentiated them, and was able to detect as little as 1 fg of genomic DNA from each genotype. The diagnostic specificity and sensitivity of the MT-PCR were estimated at 94.0% and 98.8%, respectively. The MT-PCR assay established here is a practical and effective diagnostic tool for the four main genotypes of T. orientalis complex in Australia and should assist studies of the epidemiology and pathophysiology of oriental theileriosis in the Asia-Pacific region. PMID:25339402

  12. Air fractionation in plate-like inclusions within the EPICA-DML deep ice core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nedelcu, A.; Faria, S. H.; Kipfstuhl, S.; Schmidt, B.; Kuhs, W. F.

    2009-04-01

    On ice samples from the ice core recovered in the frame of the European Project for Ice Coring in Antarctica at the deep drilling site in Dronning Maud Land (75°00S; 00°04E) micro-Raman spectrochemical analysis was applied to typical relaxation features appearing after the extraction of an ice core. Essentially, these relaxation microinclusions are little planar polygonal cavities possessing hexagonal symmetry i.e. thin negative crystals lying on the basal plane of the hosting ice crystallite. Usually named plate-like inclusions, PLIs, they tend to change their aspect ratio becoming in general rounder, thicker or thinner depending on the equilibrium established between the structure-composition of the ice and the minute environmental temperature-pressure conditions around a specific PLI, but still preserving a very large aspect ratio (typically 20:1). Muguruma and others (1966) and Mae (1968) have reported studies on plate hexagonal voids, i.e. PLIs, produced (only) in tensile deformation tests of natural and artificial single ice crystals while the first report of PLIs in Antarctic ice cores was presented by Gow (1971). In spite of these early studies and the abundance of PLIs in stored ice core samples, extended investigations of these relaxation features are scarce. We present the results of the first successful study of the chemical composition of PLIs using microfocus Raman spectroscopy (Nedelcu and others, in press). We observe that the relaxation features contain mainly O2 and N2 in their interior, with N2/O2 ratios smaller than 3.7 (the nowadays atmospheric air N2/O2 ratio), indicating a general oxygen enrichment that is not so different from O2 enrichments reported in other investigations on polar ice samples (Nakahara and others, 1988, Ikeda and others, 1999). These results seem to lend support to the current hypothesis that O2 diffuses faster than N2 through the ice matrix (Ikeda-Fukazawa and others, 2001, 2005; Severinghaus and Battle, 2006). More

  13. Effect of flexible vegetation on localized erosion processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Termini, Donatella

    2013-04-01

    The knowledge of the hydraulic characteristics of flow over vegetation is very important to support the management of fluvial processes. The effects of vegetation on flow velocity are significant and of crucial importance for stabilizing sediments and reducing erosion along the channel. But, because of the temporal changing of roughness due to natural vegetative growth, the response of vegetation to the flow can change in time. Thus, vegetation has a complex effect on walls roughness and the study of the hydrodynamic conditions of flow is difficult. Many theoretical and experimental investigations have been performed in order to analyze both the mean flow and turbulence structure of open-channel flow (Nezu and Rodi 1986; Ghisalberti and Nepf, 2002). Recent experimental runs carried out in laboratory channels with flexible vegetation, realized by using artificial filaments (Kutija and Hong 1996; Ikeda and Kanazawa 1996), investigated some peculiar characteristics of flow turbulence structure and revealed the generation of periodic organized vortices whose center is located slightly above the top of the vegetation layer. Ghisalberti and Nepf (2002) confirmed the formation of such vortices, highlighting that, in the case of flexible vegetation, the vortex-driven oscillation of velocity drives coherent vegetation waving, producing a spatially and temporally variable drag force. In this paper, attention is paid to the influence of vegetation on the erosion processes both on the bed and on the channel banks. Experiments were carried out both in a straight channel and in a meandering channel, both constructed at the Department of Civil, Environmental, Aerospatial and of Materials (DICAM) - University of Palermo (Italy). The formation of turbulence structures inside the vegetated layer is verified, providing some insight into the mechanisms of sediment transport. Nezu, I. & Rodi, W. 1986. Open-channel flow measurements with a Laser Doppler Anemometer. Journal of Hydraulic

  14. Solar Success Story at Moanalua Terrace

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1999-03-01

    Solar systems prove to be the environmentally and economically sound choice for heating water in U.S. Navy housing at Moanalua Terrace in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. Hawaii is a perfect environment for solar water heating,'' according to Alan Ikeda, a Housing Management Specialist with the Pacific Naval Facility Engineering Command Housing Department in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. ''The sun shines most of the time, we don't have to worry about freezing, the state offers a 35% solar tax credit, and our local utility supports the purchase and installation of solar systems with generous rebates.'' The Hawaiian Electric Company's (HECO's) $1,500 per unit rebate for solar water heaters installed on new construction helped persuade the Navy to take advantage of Hawaii's solar resource and install solar water heaters on family housing units. At Moanalua Terrace, the Navy had demolished 752 units of family housing, which they are rebuilding in four phases. Designers decided to use the opportunity to give the solar systems a try. When the 100 homes in Phase I were built, money was not available for solar water heaters. However, Ikeda subsequently secured a $130,000 grant from the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) to retrofit the Phase I homes with solar systems. In retrofit applications, HECO rebates $800 per unit ($80,000 total) on approved equipment, and Pearl Harbor Family Housing will pay the difference of the estimated $340,000 total cost, or about $130,000. The 136 units built during Phase II of the Moanalua Terrace project included solar systems in their specifications, so the Navy was able to take advantage of the $1,500 per system HECO rebate for approved solar water heaters in new construction. The Navy chose direct (open-loop) active systems that circulate potable water through flat-plate collectors coated with a black chrome selective surface. Each system consists of a 4-foot by 8-foot (1.2-m by 2.4-m) collector made by American

  15. The precise measurement of the attenuation coefficients of various IR optical materials applicable to immersion grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaji, Sayumi; Sarugaku, Yuki; Ikeda, Yuji; Kobayashi, Naoto; Nakanishi, Kenshi; Kondo, Sohei; Yasui, Chikako; Kawakita, Hideyo

    2014-07-01

    Immersion grating is a next-generation diffraction grating which has the immersed the diffraction surface in an optical material with high refractive index of n > 2, and can provide higher spectral resolution than a classical reflective grating. Our group is developing various immersion gratings from the near- to mid-infrared region (Ikeda et al.1, 2, 3, 4, Sarugaku et al.5, and Sukegawa et al.6). The internal attenuation αatt of the candidate materials is especially very important to achieve the high efficiency immersion gratings used for astronomical applications. Nevertheless, because there are few available data as αatt < 0.01cm-1 in the infrared region, except for measurements of CVD-ZnSe, CVD-ZnS, and single-crystal Si in the short near-infrared region reported by Ikeda et al.7, we cannot select suitable materials as an immersion grating in an aimed wavelength range. Therefore, we measure the attenuation coefficients of CdTe, CdZnTe, Ge, Si, ZnSe, and ZnS that could be applicable to immersion gratings. We used an originally developed optical unit attached to a commercial FTIR which covers the wide wavelength range from 1.3μm to 28μm. This measurement system achieves the high accuracy of (triangle)αatt ~ 0.01cm-1. As a result, high-resistivity single-crystal CdZnTe, single-crystal Ge, single-crystal Si, CVD-ZnSe, and CVD-ZnS show αatt < 0.01cm-1 at the wavelength range of 5.5 - 19.0μm, 2.0 - 10.5μm, 1.3 - 5.4μm, 1.7 - 13.2μm, and 1.9 - 9.2μm, respectively. This indicates that these materials are good candidates for high efficiency immersion grating covering those wavelength ranges. We plan to make similar measurement under the cryogenic condition as T <= 10K for the infrared, especially mid-infrared applications.

  16. Characterization of Peptides from Capsicum annuum Hybrid Seeds with Inhibitory Activity Against α-Amylase, Serine Proteinases and Fungi.

    PubMed

    Vieira Bard, Gabriela C; Nascimento, Viviane V; Ribeiro, Suzanna F F; Rodrigues, Rosana; Perales, Jonas; Teixeira-Ferreira, André; Carvalho, André O; Fernandes, Katia Valevski S; Gomes, Valdirene M

    2015-04-01

    Over the last several years, the activity of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), isolated from plant species, against different microorganisms has been demonstrated. More recently, some of these AMPs have been described as potent inhibitors of α-amylases and serine proteinases from insects and mammals. The aim of this work was to obtain AMPs from protein extracts of a hybrid Capsicum (Ikeda × UENF 1381) seeds and to evaluate their microbial and enzyme inhibitory activities. Initially, proteins were extracted from the Capsicum hybrid seeds in buffer (sodium phosphate pH 5.4,) and precipitated with ammonium sulfate (90% saturated). Extract of hybrid seeds was subjected to size exclusion chromatography, and three fractions were obtained: S1, S2 and S3. The amino acid sequence, obtained by mass spectrometry, of the 6 kDa peptide from the S3 fraction, named HyPep, showed 100% identity with PSI-1.2, a serine protease inhibitor isolated from C. annuum seeds, however the bifunctionality of this inhibitor against two enzymes is being shown for the first time in this work. The S3 fraction showed the highest antifungal activity, inhibiting all the yeast strains tested, and it also exhibited inhibitory activity against human salivary and Callosobruchus maculatus α-amylases as well as serine proteinases.

  17. Resistin regulates the expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Yoshito; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki; Hama, Susumu; Kajimoto, Kazuaki; Kogure, Kentaro

    2014-05-30

    Resistin and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) are adipokines, which are secreted from adipocytes. Increased plasma resistin and PAI-1 levels aggravate metabolic syndrome through exacerbation of insulin resistance and induction of chronic inflammation. However, the relationship between resistin and PAI-1 gene expression remains unclear. Previously, we found that resistin regulates lipid metabolism via carbohydrate responsive element-binding protein (ChREBP) during adipocyte maturation (Ikeda et al., 2013) [6]. In this study, to clarify the relationship between expression of resistin and PAI-1, PAI-1 expression in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes was measured after transfection with anti-resistin siRNA. We found that PAI-1 gene expression and secreted PAI-1 protein were significantly decreased by resistin knockdown. Furthermore, phosphorylation of Akt, which can inhibit PAI-1 expression, was accelerated and the activity of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) was suppressed in resistin knockdown 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In addition, the expression of glucose transporter type 4, a ChREBP target gene, was reduced and was associated with inhibition of PP2A. The addition of culture medium collected from COS7 cells transfected with a resistin expression plasmid rescued the suppression of PAI-1 expression in resistin knockdown 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Our findings suggest that resistin regulates PAI-1 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes via Akt phosphorylation.

  18. River meandering dynamics.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Boyd F; Smith, Duane H

    2002-04-01

    The Ikeda, Parker, and Sawai river meandering model is reexamined using a physical approach employing an explicit equation of motion. For periodic river shapes as seen from above, a cross-stream surface elevation gradient creates a velocity shear that is responsible for the decay of small-wavelength meander bends, whereas secondary currents in the plane perpendicular to the downstream direction are responsible for the growth of large-wavelength bends. A decay length D=H/2C(f) involving the river depth H and the friction coefficient C(f) sets the scale for meandering, giving the downstream distance required for the fluid velocity profile to recover from changes in the channel curvature. Using this length scale and a time scale T, we explicitly trace the observed length scale invariance to the equations of motion, and predict similar time and velocity scale invariances. A general time-dependent nonlinear modal analysis for periodic rivers reveals that modes higher than the third mode are needed to describe upstream migration of bend apexes just before oxbow cutoff, and are important to accurate calculations of the time and sinuosity at cutoff. PMID:12006009

  19. Nasal field loss in cats reared with convergent squint: behavioural studies.

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, H; Jacobson, S G

    1977-01-01

    1. The extent of the monocular visual field in cats reared with convergent squint in one eye was determined by a behavioural perimetry technique. 2. Significant reduction in the extent of the visual field was found in the squinting eyes. 3. The visual field defect is a graded one, located mainly in the nasal field, but in some cats extending into the temporal visual field. The defect includes a zone of absolute loss of response to stimuli at the extreme nasal field, adjacent areas of partial response and areas of 100% response in the periphery of the temporal field. 4. A direct relationship was found between the angle of horizontal deviation of the squinting eye and the amount of visual field loss: i.e. the larger the angle of squint, the greater the loss of nasal field. 5. It is suggested that the process leading to a loss in nasal visual field is independent of the loss of visual acuity in squinting cats, since the latter is not related to the angle of squint. 6. The significant loss in nasal visual field found by behavioural experiments in cats reared with a convergent squint thus correlates with comparable deficits found in the physiology and morphology of the lateral geniculate nucleus (Ikeda, Plant & Tremain, 1977), although the behaviourally determined loss of nasal field is greater than would be expected from the study of the response of the LGN neurones. PMID:903899

  20. Dynamics of microresonator frequency comb generation: models and stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansson, Tobias; Wabnitz, Stefan

    2016-06-01

    Microresonator frequency combs hold promise for enabling a new class of light sources that are simultaneously both broadband and coherent, and that could allow for a profusion of potential applications. In this article, we review various theoretical models for describing the temporal dynamics and formation of optical frequency combs. These models form the basis for performing numerical simulations that can be used in order to better understand the comb generation process, for example helping to identify the universal combcharacteristics and their different associated physical phenomena. Moreover, models allow for the study, design and optimization of comb properties prior to the fabrication of actual devices. We consider and derive theoretical formalisms based on the Ikeda map, the modal expansion approach, and the Lugiato-Lefever equation. We further discuss the generation of frequency combs in silicon resonators featuring multiphoton absorption and free-carrier effects. Additionally, we review comb stability properties and consider the role of modulational instability as well as of parametric instabilities due to the boundary conditions of the cavity. These instability mechanisms are the basis for comprehending the process of frequency comb formation, for identifying the different dynamical regimes and the associated dependence on the comb parameters. Finally, we also discuss the phenomena of continuous wave bi- and multistability and its relation to the observation of mode-locked cavity solitons.

  1. A new species of the snapping shrimp genus Alpheus (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea: Alpheidae) from Japan, associated with the innkeeper worm Ikedosoma elegans (Annelida: Echiura: Echiuridae).

    PubMed

    Komai, Tomoyuki

    2015-12-15

    A new species of the snapping shrimp genus Alpheus Fabricius, 1798, Alpheus ikedosoma, is described and illustrated on the basis of material from Boso Peninsula and Ariake Sea, Japan. All examined specimens were extracted with the help of a bait suction pump from burrows of innkeeper worm (Annelida: Echiura), constructed on easily accessible intertidal sand beaches or sand flats. The host worm from Boso Peninsula was identified as Ikedosoma elegans (Ikeda, 1904) (Echiuridae). The new species is tentatively referred to the A. brevirostris (Olivier, 1811) species group, but it is characteristic in having several unusual features for the group, such as the very short rostrum without dorsal ridge, the absence of adrostral grooves on the carapace, the strongly reduced dorsolateral spines on the telson, the unarmed antennal basicerite, the non-elongate, almost glabrous major chela, and the lack of movable spines or spinules on ventromesial margin of each cheliped merus. The new species represents the sixth species of Alpheus associated with echiuran burrows.

  2. Polymorphism analysis of Chinese Theileria sergenti using allele-specific polymerase chain reaction of the major piroplasm surface protein gene.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ai Hong; Guan, Gui Quan; Liu, Jun Long; Liu, Zhi Jie; Leblanc, Neil; Li, You Quan; Gao, Jin Liang; Ma, Mi Ling; Niu, Qing Li; Ren, Qiao Yun; Bai, Qi; Yin, Hong; Luo, Jian Xun

    2011-02-01

    Theileria sergenti is a tick-borne parasite found in many parts of the world. The major piroplasm surface protein (MPSP), a conserved protein in all Theileria species, has been used as a marker for epidemiological and phylogenetic studies of benign Theileria species. In this study, Chinese species of T. sergenti were characterized by allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequence analysis of the MPSP gene. Using universal or allele-specific primer sets for PCR amplification of the MPSP gene, 98 of 288 cattle blood samples, collected from 6 provinces in China, were found to be positive. Among the positive samples, only 3 allelic MPSP gene types (Chitose [C]-, Ikeda [I]-, and buffeli [B]-type) were successfully amplified. Moreover, the results revealed that the majority of the parasites sampled in this study were C- and I-type (prevalence of 84 and 69%, respectively), whereas the B-type was less common (prevalence of 36%). Co-infections with C-, I-, and B-type T. sergenti also were found. An additional known allele, Thai-type, was not detected. Phylogenetic analysis based on the MPSP gene sequences, including 3 standard stocks generated in the laboratory ( T. sergenti Wenchuan, T. sergenti Ningxian, and T. sergenti Liaoyang), revealed that the isolates of Chinese sergenti were comprised of at least 4 allelic MPSP gene types, i.e., C-, I-, B1-, and B2-type, and these parasites with 6 MPSP types 1-5 and 7 were present in China.

  3. Phylogenetic analysis of benign Theileria species based on major piroplasm surface protein (MPSP) genes from ticks of grazing cattle in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kang, Seung Won; Nguyen, Lien Thi Kim; Noh, Jin Hyeong; Reddy, Kondreddy Eswar; Kweon, Chang Hee; Choe, Se Eun

    2012-10-26

    Complete major piroplasm surface protein (MPSP) gene sequences of benign Theileria parasites were isolated from ticks of grazing cattle in Korea. A total of 556 tick samples were collected in five provinces: Chungbuk, Jeonbuk, Jeonnam, Gyeongbuk, and Jeju during 2010-2011. Fifteen samples from Chungbuk and Jeonnam were positive for the Theileria MPSP gene by PCR amplification using a specific primer set. A phylogenetic tree was constructed with the amplified gene sequences and 26 additional sequences published in GenBank. The benign Theileria parasites were classified into eight types, those isolated from Korean cattle ticks belonged to Types 1 (Ikeda), 2 (Chitose), 4, and 8. Types 2 and 4 were the most common types, with the rate of 40%, followed by Types 1 and 8 (with the rate of 13% and 7%, respectively). Nucleotide sequence identities of 23 theilerial MPSP sequences (15 MPSP gene sequences amplified and 8 sequences published) ranged from 67.3 to 99.8%. Multiple alignments of the deduced amino acid sequences also showed that each type was characterized by specific amino acids: 7 for Type 1, 9 for Type 2, 4 for Type 4, and 3 for Type 8.

  4. New Species of Madurella, Causative Agents of Black-Grain Mycetoma

    PubMed Central

    de Hoog, G. Sybren; van Diepeningen, Anne D.; Mahgoub, El-Sheikh

    2012-01-01

    A new species of nonsporulating fungus, isolated in a case of black-grain mycetoma in Sudan, is described as Madurella fahalii. The species is characterized by phenotypic and molecular criteria. Multigene phylogenies based on the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) internal transcribed spacer (ITS), the partial β-tubulin gene (BT2), and the RNA polymerase II subunit 2 gene (RPB2) indicate that M. fahalii is closely related to Madurella mycetomatis and M. pseudomycetomatis; the latter name is validated according to the rules of botanical nomenclature. Madurella ikedae was found to be synonymous with M. mycetomatis. An isolate from Indonesia was found to be different from all known species based on multilocus analysis and is described as Madurella tropicana. Madurella is nested within the order Sordariales, with Chaetomium as its nearest neighbor. Madurella fahalii has a relatively low optimum growth temperature (30°C) and is less susceptible to the azoles than other Madurella species, with voriconazole and posaconazole MICs of 1 μg/ml, a ketoconazole MIC of 2 μg/ml, and an itraconazole MIC of >16 μg/ml. Since eumycetoma is still treated only with azoles, correct species identification is important for the optimal choice of antifungal therapy. PMID:22205798

  5. Suzaku observations of two narrow-line radio galaxies (3C 403 and IC 5063)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tazaki, Fumie; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Terashima, Yuichi; Mushotzky, Richard F.

    2012-03-01

    We report the results of Suzaku broad band X-ray observations of the two narrow-line radio galaxies (NLRGs), 3C 403 and IC 5063. Combined with the Swift/BAT spectra averaged for 58 months, we are able to accurately constrain their spectral properties over the 0.5-200 keV band. The spectra from the nucleus are well represented with an absorbed cut-off power law, a mildly absorbed reflection component from cold matter with an iron-K emission line, and an unabsorbed soft component, which gives a firm upper limit for the scattered emission. The reflection strength normalized to the averaged BAT flux is R(≡Ω/2π)~0:6 in both targets, implying that their tori have a sufficiently large solid angle to produce the reprocessed emission. The numerical torus model with an opening angle of ~50 degrees by Ikeda et al. (2009, ApJ, 692, 608) well reproduces the observed spectra. We discuss the possibility that the amount of the normal gas responsible for Thomson scattering is systematically smaller in radio galaxies compared with Seyfert galaxies. This difference may be due to gas being expelled by jet activity. The details of this work are given in Tazaki et al. (2011, ApJ, 738, 70).

  6. Gamow-Teller transitions studied in the high-resolution Ni64(He3,t)Cu64 reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popescu, L.; Adachi, T.; Berg, G. P. A.; Brentano, P. Von; Frekers, D.; Frenne, D. De; Fujita, K.; Fujita, Y.; Grewe, E.-W.; Harakeh, M. N.; Hatanaka, K.; Jacobs, E.; Nakanishi, K.; Negret, A.; Sakemi, Y.; Shimbara, Y.; Shimizu, Y.; Tameshige, Y.; Tamii, A.; Uchida, M.; Wörtche, H. J.; Yosoi, M.

    2009-06-01

    To study the Gamow-Teller (GT) transitions to the pf-shell nucleus Cu64, the Ni64(He3,t)Cu64 experiment was performed at the Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP) Ring Cyclotron, Osaka, using a He3 beam of 140 MeV/nucleon. The outgoing tritons were momentum analyzed by the Grand Raiden spectrometer at 0°. A high energy resolution of 32 keV (full width at half-maximum) allowed the separation of individual levels in the excitation-energy region from 0 to 3.5 MeV. In addition to the ground state (gs), known to be a Jπ=1+ GT state, many low-lying states showed L=0 nature, suggesting that they are candidates for GT states. Because the GT strength B(GT) for the gs transition is known from the β-decay measurement, the strengths for the excited states could be determined using the proportionality between the B(GT) and the reaction cross section extrapolated to q=0 momentum transfer. At higher excitation energies, the level density becomes high and the so-called GT giant resonance dominates the spectrum. The lower and the upper limits of the strength contained in this energy region were estimated. Our results show that less than 55% of the strength predicted by the Ikeda sum rule is located in the excitation-energy region from 0 to 17 MeV.

  7. The umami taste: from discovery to clinical use.

    PubMed

    Stańska, Katarzyna; Krzeski, Antonii

    2016-06-30

    In the diversity of the flavor world only five basic tastes have been described. The newest one, umami, has been identified about one hundred years ago by Kikunae Ikeda but widely accepted just in the second half of the twentieth century by international scientific world. There are three umami substances: monosodium glutamate (MSG), inosine-5'-monophosphate (IMP), guanylo-5'-monophosphate (GMP). A real breakthrough in umami history concerned the finding about independent receptors for umami: T1R1 and T1R3 (taste receptors type 1 member 1 and member 3). The palatable, delicious taste of umami and its mechanism determined a lot of research studies on this highlight. Umami substances elicit salivary secretion, enhance appetite and increase food palatability. They are desirable to improve the quality of diet. Moreover, the association between umami substances and the suppression of obesity has been found. Studies suggest that umami is engaged in metabolism but also increases satiety and reduces the post-ingestive recovery of hunger. PMID:27387211

  8. A new species of the snapping shrimp genus Alpheus (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea: Alpheidae) from Japan, associated with the innkeeper worm Ikedosoma elegans (Annelida: Echiura: Echiuridae).

    PubMed

    Komai, Tomoyuki

    2015-01-01

    A new species of the snapping shrimp genus Alpheus Fabricius, 1798, Alpheus ikedosoma, is described and illustrated on the basis of material from Boso Peninsula and Ariake Sea, Japan. All examined specimens were extracted with the help of a bait suction pump from burrows of innkeeper worm (Annelida: Echiura), constructed on easily accessible intertidal sand beaches or sand flats. The host worm from Boso Peninsula was identified as Ikedosoma elegans (Ikeda, 1904) (Echiuridae). The new species is tentatively referred to the A. brevirostris (Olivier, 1811) species group, but it is characteristic in having several unusual features for the group, such as the very short rostrum without dorsal ridge, the absence of adrostral grooves on the carapace, the strongly reduced dorsolateral spines on the telson, the unarmed antennal basicerite, the non-elongate, almost glabrous major chela, and the lack of movable spines or spinules on ventromesial margin of each cheliped merus. The new species represents the sixth species of Alpheus associated with echiuran burrows. PMID:26701509

  9. Study of torus structure of low-luminosity active galactic nuclei with Suzaku

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamuro, T.

    2015-09-01

    We investigate the nature of the torus structure of eight low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (LLAGNs; NGC 1566, NGC 2655, NGC 3718, NGC 3998, NGC 4138, NGC 4941, NGC 5273 and NGC 5643) based on the broad band X-ray spectra (0.5-200 keV) obtained with Suzaku and Swift/BAT. Their X-ray luminosities are smaller than 1e 42 erg/s, while the Eddington ratios span a range from 1e-4 to 1e-2. No significant iron- Kalpha line is detected in the spectra of two LLAGNs with the lowest Eddington ratios (<3e-4) in our sample (NGC 3718 and NGC 3998), suggesting that their tori are little developed. The others show the iron-Kalpha equivalent widths larger than 100 eV. For these six LLAGNs, we utilize the Monte-Carlo based simulation code by Ikeda 09 to constrain the torus parameters by assuming a nearly spherical geometry. The torus solid- angles in three sources (NGC 2655, NGC 4138, and NGC 4941) are constrained to be Omega/2pi > 0.34, and the rest are found to have torus column-densities of logNrmH > 22.7. These results suggest that there are two types of LLAGNs, (1) those where the torus is very small and little mass accretion takes place, and (2) those where the torus is moderately developed and a sufficient amount of gas is supplied to the black hole.

  10. Nodal structure and quantum critical point beneath the superconducting dome of BaFe2(As1-xPx)2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuda, Yuji

    2012-02-01

    Among BaFe2As2 based materials , the isovalent pnictogen substituted system BaFe2(As1-xPx)2 appears to be the most suitable system to discuss many physical properties, because BaFe2(As1-xPx)2 can be grown with very clean and homogeneous, as evidenced by the quantum oscillations observed over a wide doping range even in the superconducting dome giving detailed knowledge on the electronic structure. We investigate the structure of the superconducting order parameter in BaFe2(As0.67P0.33)2 (Tc=31,) with line nodes by the angle-resolved thermal conductivity measurements in magnetic field. The experimental results are most consistent with the closed nodal loops located at the flat part of the electron Fermi surface with high Fermi velocity. The doping evolution of the penetration depth indicates that nodal loop is robust against P-doping. Moreover, the magnitude of the zero temperature penetration depth exhibits a sharp peak at x=0.3, indicating the presence of a quantum phase transition deep inside the superconducting dome.[4pt] This work has been done in collaboration with T. Shibauchi, K. Hashimoto, S. Kasahara, M. Yamashita, T. Terashima, H. Ikeda (Kyoto), A. Carrington (Bristol), K. Cho, R. Prozorov, M. Tanatar (Ames), A.B. Vorontsov (Montana) and I.Vekhter (Louisiana).

  11. Symmetry Breaking in the Hidden-Order Phase of URu2Si2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibauchi, Takasada

    2013-03-01

    In the heavy fermion compound URu2Si2, the hidden-order transition occurs at 17.5 K, whose nature has posed a long-standing mystery. A second-order phase transition is characterized by spontaneous symmetry breaking, and thus the nature of the hidden order cannot be determined without understanding which symmetry is being broken. Our magnetic torque measurements in small pure crystals reveal the emergence of an in-plane anisotropy of the magnetic susceptibility below the transition temperature, indicating the spontaneous breaking of four-fold rotational symmetry of the tetragonal URu2Si2. In addition, our recent observation of cyclotron resonance allows the full determination of the electron-mass structure of the main Fermi-surface sheets, which implies an anomalous in-plane mass anisotropy consistent with the rotational symmetry breaking. These results impose strong constraints on the symmetry of the hidden order parameter. This work has been done in collaboration with R. Okazaki, S. Tonegawa, K. Hashimoto, K. Ikada, Y. H. Lin, H. Shishido, H. J. Shi, Y. Haga, T. D. Matsuda, E. Yamamoto, Y. Onuki, H. Ikeda, and Y. Matsuda.

  12. Survey of benign Theileria parasites of cattle and buffaloes in Thailand using allele-specific polymerase chain reaction of major piroplasm surface protein gene.

    PubMed

    Sarataphan, Nopporn; Kakuda, Tsutomu; Chansiri, Kosum; Onuma, Misao

    2003-01-01

    During a year from 1999 to 2000, a total of 247 blood samples were collected from 214 cattle and 33 water buffaloes in 16 distinct geographical locations of Thailand and analyzed by allele-specific PCR amplification of major piroplasm surface protein (MPSP) genes of benign Theileria parasites. Four allelic MPSP gene types were determined namely C-type, I-type, B-type and Thai-type, which were originally designated from Japanese Theileria orientalis (Chitose, Ikeda), Australian T. buffeli (Warwick) and Thai T. sp. (Kamphaeng Saen), respectively. Only two allelic MPSP gene types were successively amplified from 204 (82.6%) blood samples. Among positive cases, 138 (67.6%) and 17 (8.3%) samples contained either Thai-type or C-type parasites, respectively, while 49 (24%) samples contained both types. However, nucleotide sequences of MPSP genes of Thai T. sp. amplified by C-type specific primers revealed higher (96.3%) similarity to Indonesian T. sp. rather than (87.8% similarity) to Japanese T. orientalis (Chitose) designated as C-type.

  13. Prototapirella ciliates from wild habituated Virunga mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) in Rwanda with the descriptions of two new species.

    PubMed

    Ito, Akira; Eckardt, Winnie; Stoinski, Tara S; Gillespie, Thomas R; Tokiwa, Toshihiro

    2016-06-01

    The morphology of Prototapirella fosseyi n. sp., P. rwanda n. sp. and P. gorillaeImai, Ikeda, Collet, and Bonhomme, 1991 in the Entodiniomorphida were described from the mountain gorillas, Gorilla beringei beringei, in Rwanda. The ciliates have a retractable adoral ciliary zone, four non-retractable ciliary tufts in four caudalia, and one broad skeletal plate beneath the body surface. P. rwanda has a dorsal lobe and ventral lobes in two rows whereas P. fosseyi has no lobes. These two new species have an elongated body, a flat tail flap leaning to the ventral, a macronucleus with a tapering anterior end, a round posterior end and a shallow depression on the dorsal side, a micronucleus lying near the anterior end of macronucleus, a thin left region of the skeletal plate, a distinct skeletal rod plate, and four contractile vacuoles. P. gorillae has some variations in the nuclei and the skeletal plate. The infraciliary bands of three Prototapirella species were the same as some Triplumaria species; a C-shaped adoral polybrachykinety, a slender perivestibular polybrachykinety, and paralabial kineties in their retractable adoral ciliary zone and short lateral polybrachykineties in their four caudalia. The perivestibular polybrachykinety is joined only to the right end of adoral polybrachykinety. PMID:27135148

  14. EDITORIAL: Focus on Quantum Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabitz, Herschel

    2009-10-01

    represent two-photon power spectra of arbitrarily and adaptively shaped broadband laser pulses M A Montgomery and N H Damrauer Accurate and efficient implementation of the von Neumann representation for laser pulses with discrete and finite spectra Frank Dimler, Susanne Fechner, Alexander Rodenberg, Tobias Brixner and David J Tannor Coherent strong-field control of multiple states by a single chirped femtosecond laser pulse M Krug, T Bayer, M Wollenhaupt, C Sarpe-Tudoran, T Baumert, S S Ivanov and N V Vitanov Quantum-state measurement of ionic Rydberg wavepackets X Zhang and R R Jones On the paradigm of coherent control: the phase-dependent light-matter interaction in the shaping window Tiago Buckup, Jurgen Hauer and Marcus Motzkus Use of the spatial phase of a focused laser beam to yield mechanistic information about photo-induced chemical reactions V J Barge, Z Hu and R J Gordon Coherent control of multiple vibrational excitations for optimal detection S D McGrane, R J Scharff, M Greenfield and D S Moore Mode selectivity with polarization shaping in the mid-IR David B Strasfeld, Chris T Middleton and Martin T Zanni Laser-guided relativistic quantum dynamics Chengpu Liu, Markus C Kohler, Karen Z Hatsagortsyan, Carsten Muller and Christoph H Keitel Continuous quantum error correction as classical hybrid control Hideo Mabuchi Quantum filter reduction for measurement-feedback control via unsupervised manifold learning Anne E B Nielsen, Asa S Hopkins and Hideo Mabuchi Control of the temporal profile of the local electromagnetic field near metallic nanostructures Ilya Grigorenko and Anatoly Efimov Laser-assisted molecular orientation in gaseous media: new possibilities and applications Dmitry V Zhdanov and Victor N Zadkov Optimization of laser field-free orientation of a state-selected NO molecular sample Arnaud Rouzee, Arjan Gijsbertsen, Omair Ghafur, Ofer M Shir, Thomas Back, Steven Stolte and Marc J J Vrakking Controlling the sense of molecular rotation Sharly Fleischer

  15. Experimental observation of the rule of flexible vegetation on erosion processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Termini, D.

    2012-04-01

    Vegetation altering hydrodynamic conditions of an open channel flow controls the exchanges of sediment, nutrients and contaminants. Thus, the knowledge of the hydraulic characteristics of flow over vegetation is very important to support the management of fluvial processes. But, the analysis of the hydrodynamic conditions is complex because vegetation is flexible in varying degrees and it oscillates in the flow changing position. Furthermore, because of temporal changing of roughness due to natural vegetative growth, the response of vegetation to the flow can change in time. Many theoretical and experimental investigations have been performed in order to analyze both the mean flow and turbulence structure of open-channel flow (Nezu and Rodi 1986; Lemmin and Rolland 1997; Shvidchenko and Pender 2001; Ghisalberti and Nepf, 2002). Recent experimental runs carried out in laboratory channels with flexible vegetation, realized by using artificial filaments (Kutija and Hong 1996; Ikeda and Kanazawa 1996), investigated some peculiar characteristics of flow turbulence structure and revealed the generation of periodic organized vortices whose center is located slightly above the top of the vegetation layer. On the other hand, recent experimental studies conducted by Termini and Sammartano (2012) in a mobile-bed laboratory channel, and in absence of vegetation, have demonstrated that the formation of coherent turbulence structures plays an important role in sediment transport and in scouring evolution. In particular, ejection and sweep events contribute significantly to erosion, deposition and sediment suspension. In this paper, in order to give a contribution to the understanding of the rule of vegetation on the analyzed erosion process, experimental results obtained in the same laboratory channel, but with bed covered by flexible vegetation, are presented. Attention is paid to interaction vegetation/erosion both along the vegetated-bed channel reach and downstream of it. In

  16. A 3.7 kb fragment of the mouse Scn10a gene promoter directs neural crest but not placodal lineage EGFP expression in a transgenic animal.

    PubMed

    Lu, Van B; Ikeda, Stephen R; Puhl, Henry L

    2015-05-20

    Under physiological conditions, the voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.8 is expressed almost exclusively in primary sensory neurons. The mechanism restricting Nav1.8 expression is not entirely clear, but we have previously described a 3.7 kb fragment of the Scn10a promoter capable of recapitulating the tissue-specific expression of Nav1.8 in transfected neurons and cell lines (Puhl and Ikeda, 2008). To validate these studies in vivo, a transgenic mouse encoding EGFP under the control of this putative sensory neuron specific promoter was generated and characterized in this study. Approximately 45% of dorsal root ganglion neurons of transgenic mice were EGFP-positive (mean diameter = 26.5 μm). The majority of EGFP-positive neurons bound isolectin B4, although a small percentage (∼10%) colabeled with markers of A-fiber neurons. EGFP expression correlated well with the presence of Nav1.8 transcript (95%), Nav1.8-immunoreactivity (70%), and TTX-R INa (100%), although not all Nav1.8-expressing neurons expressed EGFP. Several cranial sensory ganglia originating from neurogenic placodes, such as the nodose ganglion, failed to express EGFP, suggesting that additional regulatory elements dictate Scn10a expression in placodal-derived sensory neurons. EGFP was also detected in discrete brain regions of transgenic mice. Quantitative PCR and Nav1.8-immunoreactivity confirmed Nav1.8 expression in the amygdala, brainstem, globus pallidus, lateral and paraventricular hypothalamus, and olfactory tubercle. TTX-R INa recorded from EGFP-positive hypothalamic neurons demonstrate the usefulness of this transgenic line to study novel roles of Nav1.8 beyond sensory neurons. Overall, Scn10a-EGFP transgenic mice recapitulate the majority of the Nav1.8 expression pattern in neural crest-derived sensory neurons. PMID:25995484

  17. Biology, ecology and distribution of the tick, Haemaphysalis longicornis Neumann (Acari: Ixodidae) in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Heath, Acg

    2016-01-01

    Haemaphysalis longicornis is the only tick in New Zealand that infests livestock. Throughout its range H. longicornis is exposed to and exhibits tolerance to a wide range of environmental conditions, although it flourishes more in moist, warm-temperate environments. This review examines aspects of the biology, physiology and ecology of H. longicornis that determine its distribution and seasonal activity in New Zealand, based on laboratory and field studies. Examples are also drawn from studies outside New Zealand for comparative purposes, especially in the context of seasonal activity as seen in less temperate latitudes. The tick is able to withstand a wide range of temperature, from its developmental threshold of ∼12°C to nearly 40°C at its lethal limit, but its tolerance of dehydration is less wide, especially in the larva and adult, the former especially being the stage that largely determines suitable biotopes for the tick and its present distributional limits. The importance of H. longicornis to the New Zealand livestock industry has recently increased through the establishment and spread of Theileria orientalis Ikeda among dairy and beef cattle, although the tick has always posed production-limiting problems for cattle, deer and to a lesser extent, sheep. The tick's role as a vector of theileriosis and how aspects of the tick's biology affect the spread and maintenance of this disease are discussed. It is proposed that, of available wildlife hosts, the brown hare with its wide-ranging habits, is an important disseminator of ticks. Currently control of ticks is difficult partly because of their wide host range, overlapping activity periods of stadia, and also because the greater part of their annual cycle is spent on pasture. This means that acaricides alone do not satisfactorily reduce tick populations or provide comprehensive protection to stock, so integrated management combining pasture management with good husbandry and chemical prophylaxis is

  18. A 3.7 kb Fragment of the Mouse Scn10a Gene Promoter Directs Neural Crest But Not Placodal Lineage EGFP Expression in a Transgenic Animal

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Van B.; Ikeda, Stephen R.

    2015-01-01

    Under physiological conditions, the voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.8 is expressed almost exclusively in primary sensory neurons. The mechanism restricting Nav1.8 expression is not entirely clear, but we have previously described a 3.7 kb fragment of the Scn10a promoter capable of recapitulating the tissue-specific expression of Nav1.8 in transfected neurons and cell lines (Puhl and Ikeda, 2008). To validate these studies in vivo, a transgenic mouse encoding EGFP under the control of this putative sensory neuron specific promoter was generated and characterized in this study. Approximately 45% of dorsal root ganglion neurons of transgenic mice were EGFP-positive (mean diameter = 26.5 μm). The majority of EGFP-positive neurons bound isolectin B4, although a small percentage (∼10%) colabeled with markers of A-fiber neurons. EGFP expression correlated well with the presence of Nav1.8 transcript (95%), Nav1.8-immunoreactivity (70%), and TTX-R INa (100%), although not all Nav1.8-expressing neurons expressed EGFP. Several cranial sensory ganglia originating from neurogenic placodes, such as the nodose ganglion, failed to express EGFP, suggesting that additional regulatory elements dictate Scn10a expression in placodal-derived sensory neurons. EGFP was also detected in discrete brain regions of transgenic mice. Quantitative PCR and Nav1.8-immunoreactivity confirmed Nav1.8 expression in the amygdala, brainstem, globus pallidus, lateral and paraventricular hypothalamus, and olfactory tubercle. TTX-R INa recorded from EGFP-positive hypothalamic neurons demonstrate the usefulness of this transgenic line to study novel roles of Nav1.8 beyond sensory neurons. Overall, Scn10a-EGFP transgenic mice recapitulate the majority of the Nav1.8 expression pattern in neural crest-derived sensory neurons. PMID:25995484

  19. Isolation of a novel Orientia species (O. chuto sp. nov.) from a patient infected in Dubai.

    PubMed

    Izzard, Leonard; Fuller, Andrew; Blacksell, Stuart D; Paris, Daniel H; Richards, Allen L; Aukkanit, Nuntipa; Nguyen, Chelsea; Jiang, Ju; Fenwick, Stan; Day, Nicholas P J; Graves, Stephen; Stenos, John

    2010-12-01

    In July 2006, an Australian tourist returning from Dubai, in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), developed acute scrub typhus. Her signs and symptoms included fever, myalgia, headache, rash, and eschar. Orientia tsutsugamushi serology demonstrated a 4-fold rise in antibody titers in paired serum collections (1:512 to 1:8,192), with the sera reacting strongest against the Gilliam strain antigen. An Orientia species was isolated by the in vitro culture of the patient's acute blood taken prior to antibiotic treatment. The gene sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene (rrs), partial 56-kDa gene, and the full open reading frame 47-kDa gene was performed, and comparisons of this new Orientia sp. isolate to previously characterized strains demonstrated significant sequence diversity. The closest homology to the rrs sequence of the new Orientia sp. isolate was with three strains of O. tsutsugamushi (Ikeda, Kato, and Karp), with a nucleotide sequence similarity of 98.5%. The closest homology to the 47-kDa gene sequence was with O. tsutsugamushi strain Gilliam, with a nucleotide similarity of 82.3%, while the closest homology to the 56-kDa gene sequence was with O. tsutsugamushi strain TA686, with a nucleotide similarity of 53.1%. The molecular divergence and geographically unique origin lead us to believe that this organism should be considered a novel species. Therefore, we have proposed the name "Orientia chuto," and the prototype strain of this species is strain Dubai, named after the location in which the patient was infected.

  20. Characterization of the diatomite binding domain in the ribosomal protein L2 from E. coli and functions as an affinity tag.

    PubMed

    Li, Junhua; Zhang, Yang; Yang, Yanjun

    2013-03-01

    The ribosomal protein L2, a constituent protein of the 50S large ribosomal subunit, can be used as Si-tag using silica particles for the immobilization and purification of recombinant proteins (Ikeda et al. (Protein Expr Purif 71:91-95, 2010); Taniguchi et al. (Biotechnol Bioeng 96:1023-1029, 2007)). We applied a diatomite powder, a sedimentary rock mainly composed with diatoms silica, as an affinity solid phase and small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) technology to release a target protein from the solid phase. The L2 (203-273) was the sufficient region for the adsorption of ribosomal protein L2 on diatomite. We comparatively analyzed the different adsorption properties of the two deleted proteins of L2 (L2 (1-60, 203-273) and L2 (203-273)) on diatomite. The time required to reach adsorption equilibrium of L2 (203-273) fusion protein on diatomite was shorter than that of L2 (1-60, 203-273) fusion protein. The maximum adsorption capacity of L2 (203-273) fusion protein was larger than that of L2 (1-60, 203-273) fusion protein. In order to study whether the L2 (203-273) can function as an affinity purification tag, SUMO was introduced as one specific protease cleavage site between the target protein and the purification tags. The L2 (203-273) and SUMO fusion protein purification method was tested using enhanced green fluorescent protein as a model protein; the result shows that the purification performance of this affinity purification method was good. The strong adsorption characteristic of L2 (203-273) on diatomite also provides a potential protein fusion tag for the immobilization of enzyme.

  1. Possible sources and sites of action of the nitric oxide involved in synaptic plasticity at spinal lamina I projection neurons.

    PubMed

    Ruscheweyh, R; Goralczyk, A; Wunderbaldinger, G; Schober, A; Sandkühler, J

    2006-08-25

    The synaptic long-term potentiation between primary afferent C-fibers and spinal lamina I projection neurons is a cellular model for hyperalgesia [Ikeda H, Heinke B, Ruscheweyh R, Sandkühler J (2003) Synaptic plasticity in spinal lamina I projection neurons that mediate hyperalgesia. Science 299:1237-1240]. In lamina I neurons with a projection to the periaqueductal gray, this long-term potentiation is dependent on nitric oxide. In the present study, we used immunohistochemistry to detect possible sources and sites of action of the nitric oxide necessary for the long-term potentiation at lamina I spino-periaqueductal gray neurons in rats. None of the three isoforms of the nitric oxide synthase was expressed in a significant number of lamina I spino-periaqueductal gray neurons or primary afferent C-fibers (as evaluated by staining of their cell bodies in the dorsal root ganglia). However, endothelial and inducible nitric oxide synthase were found throughout the spinal cord vasculature and neuronal nitric oxide synthase was present in a number of neurons in laminae II and III. The nitric oxide target soluble guanylyl cyclase was detected in most lamina I spino-periaqueductal gray neurons and in approximately 12% of the dorsal root ganglion neurons, all of them nociceptive as evaluated by coexpression of substance P. Synthesis of cyclic 3',5'-guanosine monophosphate upon stimulation by a nitric oxide donor confirmed the presence of active guanylyl cyclase in at least a portion of the spino-periaqueductal gray neuronal cell bodies. We therefore propose that nitric oxide generated in neighboring neurons or blood vessels acts on the spino-periaqueductal gray neuron and/or the primary afferent C-fiber to enable long-term potentiation. Lamina I spino-parabrachial neurons were stained for comparison and yielded similar results.

  2. Predicting the potential environmental suitability for Theileria orientalis transmission in New Zealand cattle using maximum entropy niche modelling.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, K E; Summers, S R; Heath, A C G; McFadden, A M J; Pulford, D J; Pomroy, W E

    2016-07-15

    The tick-borne haemoparasite Theileria orientalis is the most important infectious cause of anaemia in New Zealand cattle. Since 2012 a previously unrecorded type, T. orientalis type 2 (Ikeda), has been associated with disease outbreaks of anaemia, lethargy, jaundice and deaths on over 1000 New Zealand cattle farms, with most of the affected farms found in the upper North Island. The aim of this study was to model the relative environmental suitability for T. orientalis transmission throughout New Zealand, to predict the proportion of cattle farms potentially suitable for active T. orientalis infection by region, island and the whole of New Zealand and to estimate the average relative environmental suitability per farm by region, island and the whole of New Zealand. The relative environmental suitability for T. orientalis transmission was estimated using the Maxent (maximum entropy) modelling program. The Maxent model predicted that 99% of North Island cattle farms (n=36,257), 64% South Island cattle farms (n=15,542) and 89% of New Zealand cattle farms overall (n=51,799) could potentially be suitable for T. orientalis transmission. The average relative environmental suitability of T. orientalis transmission at the farm level was 0.34 in the North Island, 0.02 in the South Island and 0.24 overall. The study showed that the potential spatial distribution of T. orientalis environmental suitability was much greater than presumed in the early part of the Theileria associated bovine anaemia (TABA) epidemic. Maximum entropy offers a computer efficient method of modelling the probability of habitat suitability for an arthropod vectored disease. This model could help estimate the boundaries of the endemically stable and endemically unstable areas for T. orientalis transmission within New Zealand and be of considerable value in informing practitioner and farmer biosecurity decisions in these respective areas. PMID:27270395

  3. 150-kD oxygen-regulated protein is expressed in human atherosclerotic plaques and allows mononuclear phagocytes to withstand cellular stress on exposure to hypoxia and modified low density lipoprotein.

    PubMed Central

    Tsukamoto, Y; Kuwabara, K; Hirota, S; Ikeda, J; Stern, D; Yanagi, H; Matsumoto, M; Ogawa, S; Kitamura, Y

    1996-01-01

    The 150-kD oxygen-regulated protein (ORP150) was initially characterized based on its selective expression in astrocytes subjected to oxygen deprivation (Kuwabara, K., M. Matsumoto, J. Ikeda, O. Hori, S. Ogawa, Y. Maeda, K. Kitagawa, N. Imuta, K. Kinoshita, D.M. Stern, et al. 1996. J. Biol. Chem. 279:5025-5032). We have found that exposure of cultured human aortic smooth muscle cells and mononuclear phagocytes (MPs) to hypoxia (pO2 approximately 12-14 torr) induces ORP150 transcripts and production of the antigen, whereas incubation with either hydrogen peroxide, sodium arsenite, heat shock, or 2-deoxyglucose was without effect. Tissue extracts prepared from human atherosclerotic lesions demonstrated expression of ORP150 mRNA and antigen, vs lack of ORP150 in samples from nonatherosclerotic areas. In situ hybridization using ORP150 riboprobes showed the mRNA to be predominantly [correction of predominately] present in macrophages in in atherosclerotic plaques. Furthermore, autoantibody to ORP150 was demonstrated in the serum of patients with severe atherosclerosis, consistent with inducible in vivo expression of ORP150. Introduction of antisense oligonucleotide for ORP150 selectively diminished hypoxia-mediated induction of ORP150 antigen and reduced the viability of hypoxic MPs, especially in the presence of modified (oxidized/acetylated) LDL. In support of a role for ORP150 in the MPs' response to the microenvironment of an atheroma, the presence of oxidized LDL enhanced by approximately 10-fold ORP150 expression in hypoxic cultures. These data indicate that cells of the atherosclerotic vessel wall express ORP150 as part of a protective mechanism, potentially triggered by local hypoxia/hypoxemia and augmented by modified lipoproteins. The presence of antibody to ORP150 in sera of patients with severe atherosclerosis emphasizes the possibility that ORP150 may be a marker of vascular pathology. PMID:8878445

  4. Study of Swift/Bat Selected Low-luminosity Active Galactic Nuclei Observed with Suzaku

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamuro, Taiki; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Tazaki, Fumie; Terashima, Yuichi; Mushotzky, Richard

    2016-11-01

    We systematically analyze the broadband (0.5–200 keV) X-ray spectra of hard X-ray (>10 keV) selected local low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (LLAGNs) observed with Suzaku and Swift/BAT. The sample consists of 10 LLAGNs detected with Swift/BAT with intrinsic 14–195 keV luminosities smaller than 1042 erg s‑1 available in the Suzaku archive, covering a wide range of the Eddington ratio from 10‑5 to 10‑2. The overall spectra can be reproduced with an absorbed cut-off power law, often accompanied by reflection components from distant cold matter, and/or optically thin thermal emission from the host galaxy. In all of the objects, relativistic reflection components from the innermost disk are not required. Eight objects show a significant narrow iron-Kα emission line. Comparing their observed equivalent widths with the predictions from the Monte-Carlo-based torus model by Ikeda et al. (2009), we constrain the column density in the equatorial plane to be {log} {N}{{H}}{{eq}}\\gt 22.7, or the torus half-opening angle θ oa < 70°. We infer that the Eddington ratio (λ Edd) is a key parameter that determines the torus structure of LLAGNs: the torus becomes large at λ Edd ≳ 2 × 10‑4, whereas at lower accretion rates it is little developed. The luminosity correlation between the hard X-ray and mid-infrared (MIR) bands of the LLAGNs follows the same correlation as for more luminous AGNs. This implies that mechanisms other than AGN-heated dust are responsible for the MIR emission in low Eddington ratio LLAGNs.

  5. Mutation scanning-based analysis of Theileria orientalis populations in cattle following an outbreak.

    PubMed

    Cufos, Nadia; Jabbar, Abdul; de Carvalho, Luís M; Gasser, Robin B

    2012-07-01

    Bovine theileriosis is a tick-borne disease caused by one or more hemoprotozoan parasites of the genus Theileria. In the past, Theileria infection in cattle in Australia was largely asymptomatic and recognized to be associated with Theileria buffeli. However, outbreaks of theileriosis have occurred in beef and dairy cattle in subtropical climatic regions (New South Wales) of Australia. There is also one published report of a recent theileriosis outbreak in a beef farm near Seymour in the southeastern state of Victoria. In order to gain an improved insight into the genetic composition of Theileria populations following this outbreak, we undertook herein an integrated PCR-coupled mutation scanning-sequencing-phylogenetic analysis of sequence variation in part of the major piroplasm surface protein (MPSP) gene within and among samples from cattle involved in the outbreak. Theileria DNA was detected in 89.4% of 94 cattle in the Seymour farm; the genetic analysis showed that the ikeda and chitose genotypes representing the Theileria orientalis complex were detected in 75 and 4.8% of 84 infected cattle, respectively, and that mixed populations of these two genotypes were found in 20.2% of infected cattle. Given unpublished reports of a significant increase in the number of outbreaks in Victoria, future investigations should focus sharply on elucidating the epidemiology of Theileria to subvert the economic impact on the cattle industry in this state. Although used here to explore genetic variation within the T. orientalis complex in Australia, a mutation scanning-based approach has broad applicability to other species of Theileria in other countries.

  6. General circulation and thermal structure simulated by a Venus AGCM with a two-stream radiative code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Masaru; Ikeda, Kohei; Takahashi, Masaaki

    2016-10-01

    Atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) is expected to be a powerful tool for understanding Venus climate and atmospheric dynamics. At the present stage, however, the full-physics model is under development. Ikeda (2011) developed a two-stream radiative transfer code, which covers the solar to infrared radiative processes due to the gases and aerosol particles. The radiative code was applied to Venus AGCM (T21L52) at Atmosphere and Ocean Research Institute, Univ. Tokyo. We analyzed the results in a few Venus days simulation that was restarted after nudging zonal wind to a super-rotating state until the equilibrium. The simulated thermal structure has low-stability layer around 105 Pa at low latitudes, and the neutral stability extends from ˜105 Pa to the lower atmosphere at high latitudes. At the equatorial cloud top, the temperature lowers in the region between noon and evening terminator. For zonal and meridional winds, we can see difference between the zonal and day-side means. As was indicated in previous works, the day-side mean meridional wind speed mostly corresponds to the poleward component of the thermal tide and is much higher than the zonal mean. Toward understanding dynamical roles of waves in UV cloud tracking and brightness, we calculated the eddy heat and momentum fluxes averaged over the day-side hemisphere. The eddy heat and momentum fluxes are poleward in the poleward flank of the jet. In contrast, the fluxes are relatively weak and equatorward at low latitudes. The eddy momentum flux becomes equatorward in the dynamical situation that the simulated equatorial wind is weaker than the midlatitude jet. The sensitivity to the zonal flow used for the nudging will be also discussed in the model validation.

  7. A New Interstellar Cyclic Molecule, Ethylene Oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickens, J. E.; Irvine, W. M.; Ohishi, M.; Ikeda, M.; Ishikawa, S.; Nummelin, A.; Hjalmarson, A.

    1997-12-01

    Ethylene oxide (c-C2H4O) is only the fourth known ring molecule identified in the interstellar medium, detected in the Galactic Center cloud SgrB2(N) by Dickens et al. (1997). It is the higher energy isomer of both the more familiar interstellar species acetaldehyde (CH3CHO) and the as yet undetected molecule vinyl alcohol (CH2CHOH). Dickens et al. (1997) reported a c-C2H4O molecular column density about an order of magnitude less than that reported for CH3CHO in SgrB2(N). This is a factor of 200 larger than the predictions of the new standard gas phase chemistry model of Lee, Bettens, and Herbst (1996), suggesting that the formation of c-C2H4O may be related to molecular formation on interstellar grains. We present observations of the c-C2H4O to CH3CHO abundance ratio in 5 additional molecular clouds. The data were taken in October 1997 with the Swedish-European Submillimeter Telescope in Chile. The confirmation of ethylene oxide in molecular clouds provides an appealing scenario for the first link in the chain of reactions leading to the origin of life, since it has been suggested as a possible pathway to the formation of the related cyclic molecule oxiranecarbonitrile (c-C3H3NO; cf., Dickens et al. 1996), a precursor to the synthesis of sugar phosphates which comprise the backbone of our molecular genetic structure. References: Dickens, J.E., Irvine, W.M., Ohishi, M., Ikeda, M., Ishikawa, S., Nummelin, A., and Hjalmarson, A. 1997, Astrophys. J., 489 (in press). Dickens, J.E. et al. 1996, Orig. Life Evol. Biosphere, 26, 97. Lee, H.-H., Bettens, R.P.A., and Herbst, E. 1996, Astron. Astrophys. Supp., 119, 111.

  8. Age estimation using lower permanent first molars on a panoramic radiograph: A digital image analysis

    PubMed Central

    Talabani, Ranjdar M.; Baban, Mohammed T.; Mahmood, Mohammed A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: A study was carried out to analyze the efficacy and practical application for age estimation using digital panoramic radiograph to exploit image analysis to obtain metric measurement of morphological parameters of permanent mandibular first molar on Sulaimani population. Materials and Methods: In the present study a population of known age and sex was studied and subjected to digital panoramic radiographic examination. The correlation between the reduction of coronal pulp cavity and chronological age was examined in a sample of 96 individuals distributed into four age groups: 20-29 years (29 cases), 30-39 years (29 cases), 40-49 years (26 cases) and 50-59 years (12 cases). The height (mm) of the crown (CH = coronal height) and the height (mm) of coronal pulp cavity (CPCH = coronal pulp cavity height) of 96 of first molars from all subjects was measured. The tooth–coronal index (TCI) after Ikeda et al. was computed for each tooth and regressed on real age. Results: ANOVA was used to show the strength of relation between the age and TCI (P = 0.0000). The correlation coefficient (r2) was 0.49, which mean there is strong negative linear regression between age and TCI with the r2, regarding predicting age using TCI value, after the following equation calculated, Predicted age = 3.78 – (0.064 TCI) showed that there is no significant difference between real age and estimated age. Conclusion: There is a strong negative liner relationship between TCIs of mandibular first molars with chronological age of Sulaimani population, and age of individuals can therefore be estimated with a good degree of accuracy using regression equations. PMID:26005307

  9. Inversion of axial coordination in myoglobin to create a "proximal" ligand binding pocket.

    PubMed

    Uno, Tadayuki; Sakamoto, Rikiharu; Tomisugi, Yoshikazu; Ishikawa, Yoshinobu; Wilkinson, Anthony J

    2003-09-01

    A ligand binding pocket has been created on the proximal side of the heme in porcine myoglobin by site-directed mutagenesis. Our starting point was the H64V/V68H double mutant which has been shown to have bis-histidine (His68 and His93) heme coordination [Dou, Y., Admiraal, S. J., Ikeda-Saito, M., Krzywda, S., Wilkinson, A. J., Li, T., Olson, J. S., Prince, R. C., Pickering, I. J., George, G. N. (1995) J. Biol. Chem. 270, 15993-16001]. The replacement of the proximal His93 ligand by noncoordinating Ala (H64V/V68H/H93A) or Gly (H64V/V68H/H93G) residues resulted unexpectedly in a six-coordinate low-spin species in both ferric and ferrous states. To test the hypothesis that the sixth coordinating ligand in the triple mutants was the imidazole of His97, this residue was mutated to Phe, in the quadruple mutants, H64V/V68H/H93A/H97F and H64V/V68H/H93G/H97F. The ferric quadruple mutants show a clear water/hydroxide alkaline transition and high cyanide and CO affinities, characteristics similar to those of wild-type myoglobin. The nu(Fe-CO) and nu(C-O) stretching frequencies in the ferrous-CO state of the quadruple mutants indicate that the "proximal" ligand binding heme pocket is less polar than the distal pocket in the wild-type protein. Thus, we conclude that the proximal heme pocket in the quadruple mutants has a similar affinity for exogenous ligands to the distal pocket of wild-type myoglobin but that the two pockets have different polarities. The quadruple mutants open up new approaches for developing heme chemistry on the myoglobin scaffold.

  10. Silicification of pelitic schist in the Iwakuni-Yanai area of the Ryoke belt, southwest Japan: Origin of competent layers in the deep crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terabayashi, M.; Yamamoto, H.

    2003-12-01

    Bright-layer reflections have been imaged at about 15-20 km depth in fore-arc region of southwest Japan, and most of the epicenter distributes above the bright-layer (Ito, 1999). To understand the cause of a seismic bright-layer with the mechanism of large inland earthquake, we studied the low-P/T metamorphic rocks in the Ryoke belt, southwest Japan. The Ryoke belt in the Iwakuni-Yanai area is underlain by Jurassic accretionary complex and their metamorphosed equivalents. They were intruded by Cretaceous granitic rocks. Five metamorphic zones can be difined by mineral assemblages of pelitic rocks as a regional metamorphism before the intrusion; chlorite, chlorite-biotite, biotite, cordierite and sillimanite zones from north to south (Ikeda, 1993). Silicified rocks have been found in pelitic schist of the biotite zone and northernmost part of the cordierite zone. The pelitic schist is dark in color but silicification turned it to be pale gray or milky white. Silicified pelitic schist is mainly composed of fine-grained quartz and minor muscovite and biotite. The silicified pelitic schist forms layers or lenticular bodies several to fifty meters in thickness. The boundary between silicified rock layer and underlying pelitic schist is fairly distinct but that between the overlying pelitic schist is gradual. Quartz veins crossing high angles with schistosity were preferentially developed in the silicified rock layers, while schistosity-parallel quartz veins, which underwent plastic flow, were observed in the pelitic schist. En echelon quartz vein and fishnet-like quartz veins are characteristic of silicified rock layers. This mode of occurrence of quartz veins indicates competence of silicified rock layers relative to pelitic schist. Rock boundary with high competence contrast is probably a good reflector of seismic waves. Bright-layer reflections would arise from silicified rock layers if those are distributed in the deep crust to a considerable extent.

  11. New genotypes of Orientia tsutsugamushi isolated from humans in Eastern Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hui-Hua; Huang, I-Tsong; Lin, Chin-Hui; Chen, Tren-Yi; Chen, Li-Kuang

    2012-01-01

    Scrub typhus, an acute febrile illness, is caused by the obligate intracellular bacterium Orientia tsutsugamushi. In our study, O. tsutsugamushi was rapidly detected and typed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the 56-kDa type-specific antigen (TSA) gene. To investigate the genotypes of clinical variants of O. tsutsugamushi, we collected 3223 blood samples from eastern Taiwanese patients with suspected scrub typhus from 2002 to 2008. In total, 505 samples were found to be positive for scrub typhus infection by PCR, and bacteria were isolated from 282 of them. Four prototype genotype strains (Karp, Kato, Kawasaki and Gilliam) and eleven different Taiwanese genotype isolates (Taiwan-A, -B, -C, -D, -E, -G, -H, -J, -N, -O and -P) were identified by RPLF analysis. Taiwan-H, the major genotype in eastern Taiwan, exhibited prevalence and isolation rates of 47.3% (239/505) and 42.6% (120/282), respectively. We also assessed the genetic relatedness of the 56-kDa TSA gene among eight Taiwan-H isolates, thirteen other Taiwanese isolates and 104 DNA sequences deposited in the GenBank database using MEGA version 5.0 and PHYLIP version 3.66. We found that the Taiwan-H isolates formed into a new cluster, which was designated the Taiwan Gilliam-variant (TG-v) cluster to distinguish it from the Japanese Gilliam-variant (JG-v) cluster. According to Simplot analysis, TG-v is a new recombinant strain among Gilliam, Ikeda and Kato. Moreover, the Gilliam-Kawasaki cluster had the highest percentage of RFLP cases and was the most frequently isolated type in eastern Taiwan (50.1%, 253/505; 44.0%, 124/282). These findings shed light on the genetic evolution of O. tsutsugamushi into different strains and may be useful in vaccine development and epidemic disease control in the future.

  12. New genotypes of Orientia tsutsugamushi isolated from humans in Eastern Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hui-Hua; Huang, I-Tsong; Lin, Chin-Hui; Chen, Tren-Yi; Chen, Li-Kuang

    2012-01-01

    Scrub typhus, an acute febrile illness, is caused by the obligate intracellular bacterium Orientia tsutsugamushi. In our study, O. tsutsugamushi was rapidly detected and typed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the 56-kDa type-specific antigen (TSA) gene. To investigate the genotypes of clinical variants of O. tsutsugamushi, we collected 3223 blood samples from eastern Taiwanese patients with suspected scrub typhus from 2002 to 2008. In total, 505 samples were found to be positive for scrub typhus infection by PCR, and bacteria were isolated from 282 of them. Four prototype genotype strains (Karp, Kato, Kawasaki and Gilliam) and eleven different Taiwanese genotype isolates (Taiwan-A, -B, -C, -D, -E, -G, -H, -J, -N, -O and -P) were identified by RPLF analysis. Taiwan-H, the major genotype in eastern Taiwan, exhibited prevalence and isolation rates of 47.3% (239/505) and 42.6% (120/282), respectively. We also assessed the genetic relatedness of the 56-kDa TSA gene among eight Taiwan-H isolates, thirteen other Taiwanese isolates and 104 DNA sequences deposited in the GenBank database using MEGA version 5.0 and PHYLIP version 3.66. We found that the Taiwan-H isolates formed into a new cluster, which was designated the Taiwan Gilliam-variant (TG-v) cluster to distinguish it from the Japanese Gilliam-variant (JG-v) cluster. According to Simplot analysis, TG-v is a new recombinant strain among Gilliam, Ikeda and Kato. Moreover, the Gilliam-Kawasaki cluster had the highest percentage of RFLP cases and was the most frequently isolated type in eastern Taiwan (50.1%, 253/505; 44.0%, 124/282). These findings shed light on the genetic evolution of O. tsutsugamushi into different strains and may be useful in vaccine development and epidemic disease control in the future. PMID:23071693

  13. Effects of Acutely Intermittent Hypoxic Exposure on Running Economy and Physical Performance in Basketball Players.

    PubMed

    Kilding, Andrew E; Dobson, Bryan P; Ikeda, Erika

    2016-07-01

    Kilding, AE, Dobson, BP, and Ikeda, E. Effects of acutely intermittent hypoxic exposure on running economy and physical performance in basketball players. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 2033-2042, 2016-The aim of this study was to determine the effect of short duration intermittent hypoxic exposure (IHE) on physical performance in basketball players. Using a single-blind placebo-controlled group design, 14 trained basketball players were subjected to 15 days of passive short duration IHE (n = 7), or normoxic control (CON, n = 7), using a biofeedback nitrogen dilution device. A range of physiological, performance, and hematological variables were measured at baseline, and 10 days after IHE. After intervention, the IHE group, relative to the CON group, exhibited improvements in the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 (+4.8 ± 1.6%; effect size [ES]: 1.0 ± 0.4) and repeated high-intensity exercise test performance (-3.5 ± 1.6%; ES: -0.4 ± 0.2). Changes in hematological parameters were minimal, although soluble transferrin receptor increased after IHE (+9.2 ± 10.1%; ES: 0.3 ± 0.3). Running economy at 11 km·h (-9.0 ± 9.7%; ES: -0.7 ± 0.7) and 13 km·h was improved (-8.2 ± 6.9%; ES: -0.7 ± 0.5), but changes to V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak, HRpeak, and lactate were unclear. In summary, acutely IHE resulted in worthwhile changes in physical performance tests among competitive basketball players. However, physiological measures explaining the performance enhancement were in most part unclear.

  14. EDITORIAL: Fluctuations and noise in photonics and quantum optics: a special issue in memory of Hermann Haus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, Derek; Shapiro, Jeffrey H.; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa

    2004-08-01

    dedicated this Special Issue to him. The first item is an obituary reflecting on his life and work. The first technical paper in this issue represents Hermann’s last sole author publication; a special thanks is due to A P Flitney for organizing this manuscript into publishable form. We thank the members of the International Programme Committee, listed below, and all those who contributed to making the event such a success. At this point we take the opportunity to express our gratitude to both the authors and reviewers, for their unfailing efforts in preparing and ensuring the high quality of the papers in this Special Issue. International Programme Committee David A Cardimona Air Force Research Laboratory, USA Howard Carmichael University of Auckland, New Zealand Carlton M Caves University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, USA Peter D Drummond University of Queensland, St Lucia, Australia Paul J Edwards University of Canberra, Australia Luca Gammaitoni Università degli Studi di Perugia, Italy Brage Golding Michigan State University, East Lansing, USA Gabriela Gonzalez Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, USA Guangcan Guo University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, China Salman Habib Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM, USA Murray Hamilton University of Adelaide, Australia Bei-Lok Hu University of Maryland/College Park, USA Daniel K Johnstone Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, USA Franz X Kärtner Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, USA Prem Kumar Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, USA Zachary Lemnios DARPA, Arlington, VA, USA Gerd Leuchs Friedrich-Alexander Universität Erlangen--Nürnberg, Germany Hideo Mabuchi California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, USA Peter W Milonni Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM, USA Adrian C Ottewill University College Dublin, Ireland Martin B Plenio Imperial College, London, UK Rajeev J Ram Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, USA Farhan Rana Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge

  15. PREFACE: The Joint 16th Europhysics Conference on Atomic and Molecular Physics of Ionized Gases--5th International Conference on Reactive Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghi, N.

    2003-11-01

    Sugai, and `High pressure non-equilibrium plasmas and their applications', organized by Professors J-P Boeuf and H Fujiyama, and a total of 10 invited talks were given. The 337 contributed papers were presented in four poster sessions. The abstracts of all oral and poster contributions were published in two volumes of the proceedings of the conference. I would like to thank the members of the ISC of ICRP and ESCAMPIG, and particularly their respective chairs, Professors Hideo Sugai and Gerrit Kroesen, as well as the members of the Local Organizing Committee for their indispensable contributions for the success of this joint meeting. Thanks are also due to the sponsors of the conference, particularly JSAP, UJF, CNRS and the City of Grenoble. We are particularly grateful to the Editor-in-Chief of {\\it Plasma Sources Science and Technology}, Professor Noah Hershkowitz, for the opportunity to publish the invited papers in this special issue, and so bring the joint ESCAMPIG 16th--ICRP 5th meeting to a wider audience.

  16. Sterylglucoside Catabolism in Cryptococcus neoformans with Endoglycoceramidase-related Protein 2 (EGCrP2), the First Steryl-β-glucosidase Identified in Fungi*

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Takashi; Ito, Tomoharu; Goda, Hatsumi M.; Ishibashi, Yohei; Miyamoto, Tomofumi; Ikeda, Kazutaka; Taguchi, Ryo; Okino, Nozomu; Ito, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Cryptococcosis is an infectious disease caused by pathogenic fungi, such as Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii. The ceramide structure (methyl-d18:2/h18:0) of C. neoformans glucosylceramide (GlcCer) is characteristic and strongly related to its pathogenicity. We recently identified endoglycoceramidase-related protein 1 (EGCrP1) as a glucocerebrosidase in C. neoformans and showed that it was involved in the quality control of GlcCer by eliminating immature GlcCer during the synthesis of GlcCer (Ishibashi, Y., Ikeda, K., Sakaguchi, K., Okino, N., Taguchi, R., and Ito, M. (2012) Quality control of fungus-specific glucosylceramide in Cryptococcus neoformans by endoglycoceramidase-related protein 1 (EGCrP1). J. Biol. Chem. 287, 368–381). We herein identified and characterized EGCrP2, a homologue of EGCrP1, as the enzyme responsible for sterylglucoside catabolism in C. neoformans. In contrast to EGCrP1, which is specific to GlcCer, EGCrP2 hydrolyzed various β-glucosides, including GlcCer, cholesteryl-β-glucoside, ergosteryl-β-glucoside, sitosteryl-β-glucoside, and para-nitrophenyl-β-glucoside, but not α-glucosides or β-galactosides, under acidic conditions. Disruption of the EGCrP2 gene (egcrp2) resulted in the accumulation of a glycolipid, the structure of which was determined following purification to ergosteryl-3β-glucoside, a major sterylglucoside in fungi, by mass spectrometric and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance analyses. This glycolipid accumulated in vacuoles and EGCrP2 was detected in vacuole-enriched fraction. These results indicated that EGCrP2 was involved in the catabolism of ergosteryl-β-glucoside in the vacuoles of C. neoformans. Distinct growth arrest, a dysfunction in cell budding, and an abnormal vacuole morphology were detected in the egcrp2-disrupted mutants, suggesting that EGCrP2 may be a promising target for anti-cryptococcal drugs. EGCrP2, classified into glycohydrolase family 5, is the first steryl

  17. Metabolic engineering of an ATP-neutral Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway in Corynebacterium glutamicum: growth restoration by an adaptive point mutation in NADH dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Komati Reddy, Gajendar; Lindner, Steffen N; Wendisch, Volker F

    2015-03-01

    Corynebacterium glutamicum uses the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway of glycolysis and gains 2 mol of ATP per mol of glucose by substrate-level phosphorylation (SLP). To engineer glycolysis without net ATP formation by SLP, endogenous phosphorylating NAD-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) was replaced by nonphosphorylating NADP-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GapN) from Clostridium acetobutylicum, which irreversibly converts glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (GAP) to 3-phosphoglycerate (3-PG) without generating ATP. As shown recently (S. Takeno, R. Murata, R. Kobayashi, S. Mitsuhashi, and M. Ikeda, Appl Environ Microbiol 76:7154-7160, 2010, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.01464-10), this ATP-neutral, NADPH-generating glycolytic pathway did not allow for the growth of Corynebacterium glutamicum with glucose as the sole carbon source unless hitherto unknown suppressor mutations occurred; however, these mutations were not disclosed. In the present study, a suppressor mutation was identified, and it was shown that heterologous expression of udhA encoding soluble transhydrogenase from Escherichia coli partly restored growth, suggesting that growth was inhibited by NADPH accumulation. Moreover, genome sequence analysis of second-site suppressor mutants that were able to grow faster with glucose revealed a single point mutation in the gene of non-proton-pumping NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (NDH-II) leading to the amino acid change D213G, which was shared by these suppressor mutants. Since related NDH-II enzymes accepting NADPH as the substrate possess asparagine or glutamine residues at this position, D213G, D213N, and D213Q variants of C. glutamicum NDH-II were constructed and were shown to oxidize NADPH in addition to NADH. Taking these findings together, ATP-neutral glycolysis by the replacement of endogenous NAD-dependent GAPDH with NADP-dependent GapN became possible via oxidation of NADPH formed in this pathway by mutant NADPH

  18. SIMILARITY BETWEEN THE C{sup 18}O (J = 1-0) CORE MASS FUNCTION AND THE INITIAL MASS FUNCTION (IMF) IN THE S140 REGION

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeda, Norio; Kitamura, Yoshimi

    2011-05-10

    We present the results of C{sup 18}O(J = 1-0) mapping observations of a 20' x 18' area in the Lynds 1204 molecular cloud associated with the Sharpless 2-140 (S140) H II region. The C{sup 18}O cube ({alpha}-{delta}-v{sub LSR}) data show that there are three clumps of sizes {approx}1 pc in the region. Two of these have peculiar redshifted velocity components at their edges, which can be interpreted as the results of the interaction between the cloud and the Cepheus Bubble. From the C{sup 18}O cube data, clumpfind identified 123 C{sup 18}O cores, which have mean radius, velocity width in FWHM, and LTE mass of 0.36 {+-} 0.07 pc, 0.37 {+-} 0.09 km s{sup -1}, and 41 {+-} 29 M{sub sun}, respectively. Considering the uncertainty in the C{sup 18}O abundance, all the cores in S140 are most likely to be gravitationally bound. We derived a C{sup 18}O core mass function (CMF), which shows a power-law-like behavior above a turnover at 30 M{sub sun}. The best-fit power-law index of -2.1 {+-} 0.2 is quite consistent with that of the initial mass function (IMF) and the C{sup 18}O CMF in the OMC-1 region as found by Ikeda and Kitamura. Kramer et al. estimated the power-law index of -1.65 in S140 from the C{sup 18}O(J = 2-1) data, which is inconsistent with this study. The C{sup 18}O(J = 2-1) data are spatially limited to the central part of the cloud and are likely to be biased toward high-mass cores, leading to the flatter CMF. Consequently, this study and our previous study strongly support that the power-law form of the IMF has already been determined at the density of {approx}< 10{sup 3}-10{sup 4} cm{sup -3}, traced by the C{sup 18}O(J = 1-0) line.

  19. Multiscale plant wakes, turbulence and non linear scaling flexible effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vila, Teresa; Redondo, Jose M.; Velasco, David

    2010-05-01

    We present velocity ADV measurements and flow visualization of the turbulent wakes behind plant arrays, as these are often fractal in nature, we compare the multifractal spectra and the turbulence structure behind the wakes. Both statistical measures allowing to calculate integral lengthscales and their profiles modified by the plant cannopies [1,2] as well as intermittency and spectral behaviour are also measured [3,4]. We distinguish several momentum transfer mechanisms between the cannopy and the flow, an internal one where lateral turbulent tensions are dominant, and another one just above the plant average height dominated by vertical Reynolds stresses. Visualization of flow over individual plant models show the role of coherent vortices triggered by plant elasticity. The deformation rate of the plants and their Youngs modulus may be correlated with overal plant drag and geometry. This is modified strongly in fractal canopies. Large turbulent integral scales are linked to rugosity and the scaling of the waves.[5,6] Pearlescence experiments where local shear is visualized and numerical simulations of Fractal grids are compared following [7]. [1] Nepf,H.M. Drag, turbulence and diffusion in flow through emergent vegetation. Water Resources Res. 35(2)(1999) [2] Ben Mahjoub,O., Redondo J.M. and Babiano A. Jour.Structure functions in complex flows. Flow Turbulence and Combustion 59, 299-313. [3] El-Hakim, O. Salama, M. Velocity distribution inside and above branched flexible roughness. ASCE Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, Vol. 118, No 6, (November/December 1992) 914-927. [4] Finnigan,J. Turbulence in plant canopies. Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 2000 , Vol. 32: 519-571. [5] Ikeda, S., Kanazawa, M. Three- dimensional organized vortices above flexible water plants. ASCE Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, Vol. 122, No 11, (1996) 634-640. [6] Velasco, D.,Bateman A.,Redondo J.M and Medina V. An open channel flow experimental and theorical study of resistance and

  20. Three-dimensional Numerical Simulation of Venus' Cloud-level Convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiyama, K. I.; Nakajima, K.; Odaka, M.; Imamura, T.; Hayashi, Y. Y.; Ishiwatari, M.; Kawabata, T.

    2015-12-01

    Although some observational evidences have suggested the occurrence of convection in the lower part of Venus' cloud layer, its structure remains to be clarified. To date, a few numerical studies have examined the structure of convective motion (Baker et al., 1998, 2000; Imamura et al., 2014), but the model they utilized is two-dimensional. Here we report on the results of our numerical calculations performed in order to investigate possible three-dimensional structure of the convection. We use a convection resolving model developed by Sugiyama et al. (2009), which is used in the simulations of the atmospheric convection of Jupiter (Sugiyama et al., 2011,2014) and Mars (Yamashita et al., submitted). We perform two experiments. The first one, which we call Ext.B, is based on Baker et al. (1998). A constant turbulent mixing coefficient is used in the whole domain, and a constant thermal flux is given at the upper and lower boundaries as a substitute for infrared heating. The second one, which we call Exp.I, is based on Imamura et al. (2014). The sub-grid turbulence process is implemented by Klemp and Wilhelmson (1989), and an infrared heating profile obtained in a radiative-convective equilibrium calculation (Ikeda, 2011) is used. In both experiments, the averaged solar heating profile is used. The spatial resolution is 200 m in the horizontal direction and 125 m in the vertical direction. The domain covers 128km x 128km horizontally and altitudes from 40 km to 60 km. Obtained structures of convection moderately differ in the two experiments. Although the depth of convection layer is almost the same, the horizontal cell size of Exp.B is larger than that of Exp.I; the cell sizes in Exp.B and Exp.I are about 40 km and 25 km, respectively. The vertical motion in Exp.B is asymmetric; updrafts are widespread and weak (~3m/s), whereas downdrafts are narrow and strong (~10m/s). On the other hand, the vertical motion in Exp.I is nearly symmetric and weaker (~2m/s) compared

  1. Suzaku View of the Swift/BAT Active Galactic Nuclei. V. Torus Structure of Two Luminous Radio-Loud Active Galactic Nuclei (3C 206 and PKS 0707-35)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tazaki, Fumie; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Terashima, Yuichi; Mushotzky, Richard F.; Tombesi, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    We present the results from broadband X-ray spectral analysis of 3C 206 and PKS 0707-35 with Suzaku and Swift/BAT, two of the most luminous unobscured and obscured radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with hard X-ray luminosities of 10(sup 45.5) erg per second and 10(sup 44.9) erg per second (14-195 keV), respectively. Based on the radio core luminosity, we estimate that the X-ray spectrum of 3C 206 contains a significant (60% in the 14-195 keV band) contribution from the jet, while it is negligible in PKS 0707-35.We can successfully model the spectra with the jet component (for 3C 206), the transmitted emission, and two reflection components from the torus and the accretion disk. The reflection strengths from the torus are found to be R(sub torus)(=Omega/2pi) = 0.29 +/- 0.18 and 0.41 +/- 0.18 for 3C 206 and PKS 0707-35, respectively, which are smaller than those in typical Seyfert galaxies. Utilizing the torus model by Ikeda et al., we quantify the relation between the half-opening angle of a torus (theta(sub oa)) and the equivalent width of an iron-K line. The observed equivalent width of 3C 206, less than 71 eV, constrains the column density in the equatorial plane to N(sup eq)(sub H) lesst han 10(sup 23) per square centimeter, or the half-opening angle to theta(sub oa) greater than 80 deg. if N(sup eq)(sub H) = 10(sup 24) per square centimeter is assumed. That of PKS 0707-35, 72 +/- 36 eV, is consistent with N(sup eq)(sub H) 10(sup 23) per square centimeter. Our results suggest that the tori in luminous radio-loud AGNs are only poorly developed. The trend is similar to that seen in radio-quiet AGNs, implying that the torus structure is not different between AGNs with jets and without jets.

  2. Computer simulations of channel meandering and the formation of point bars: Linking channel dynamics to the preserved stratigraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, T.; Covault, J. A.; Pyrcz, M.; Sullivan, M.

    2012-12-01

    Meandering rivers are probably one of the most recognizable geomorphic features on earth. As they meander across alluvial and delta plains, channels migrate laterally and develop point bars, splays, levees and other geomorphic and sedimentary features that compose substantial portions of the fill within many sedimentary basins. These basins can include hydrocarbon producing fields. Therefore, a good understanding of the processes of meandering channels and their associated deposits is critical for exploiting these reservoirs in the subsurface. In the past couple of decades, significant progress has been made in our understanding of the morphodynamics of channel meandering. Basic fluid dynamics and sediment transport (Ikeda and Parker, 1981; Howard, 1992) has shown that many characteristic features of meandering rivers, such as the meandering wavelength, growth rate and downstream migration rate, can be predicted quantitatively. As a result, a number of variations and improvement of the theory have emerged (e.g., Blondeaux and Seminara, 1985; Parker and Andrews, 1985, 1986; and Sun et al., 2001a, b).The main improvements include the recognition of so called "bar-bend" interactions, where the development of bars on the channel bed and their interactions with the channel bend is recognized as a primary cause for meandering channels to develop greater complexity than the classic goose-neck meander bend shapes, such as compound bend. Recently, Sun and others have shown that the spatial patterns of width variations in meandering channels can be explained by an extrinsic periodic flow variations coupled with the intrinsic bend instability dynamics. In contrast to the significant improvement of our understanding of channel meandering, little work has been done to link the geomorphic features of meandering channels to the geometry and heterogeneity of the deposits they form and ultimately preserves. A computer simulation model based on the work of Sun and others (1996, 2001

  3. Improved correlation between carotid and coronary atherosclerosis SYNTAX score using automated ultrasound carotid bulb plaque IMT measurement.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Nobutaka; Gupta, Ajay; Dey, Nilanjan; Bose, Soumyo; Shafique, Shoaib; Arak, Tadashi; Godia, Elisa Cuadrado; Saba, Luca; Laird, John R; Nicolaides, Andrew; Suri, Jasjit S

    2015-05-01

    Described here is a detailed novel pilot study on whether the SYNTAX (Synergy between percutaneous coronary intervention with TAXUS and cardiac surgery) score, a measure of coronary artery disease complexity, could be better predicted with carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) measures using automated IMT all along the common carotid and bulb plaque compared with manual IMT determined by sonographers. Three hundred seventy consecutive patients who underwent carotid ultrasound and coronary angiography were analyzed. SYNTAX score was determined from coronary angiograms by two experienced interventional cardiologists. Unlike most methods of cIMT measurement commonly used by sonographers, our method involves a computerized automated cIMT measurement all along the carotid artery that includes the bulb region and the region proximal to the bulb (under the class of AtheroEdge systems from AtheroPoint, Roseville, CA, USA). In this study, the correlation between automated cIMT that includes bulb plaque and SYNTAX score was found to be 0.467 (p < 0.0001), compared with 0.391 (p < 0.0001) for the correlation between the sonographer's IMT reading and SYNTAX score. The correlation between the automated cIMT and the sonographer's IMT was 0.882. When compared against the radiologist's manual tracings, automated cIMT system performance had a lumen-intima error of 0.007818 ± 0.0071 mm, media-adventitia error of 0.0179 ± 0.0125 mm and automated cIMT error of 0.0099 ± 0.00988 mm. The precision of automated cIMT against the manual radiologist's reading was 98.86%. This current automated algorithm revealed a significantly stronger correlation between cIMT and coronary SYNTAX score as compared with the sonographer's cIMT measurements with multiple cardiovascular risk factors. We benchmarked our correlation between the automated cIMT that includes bulb plaque and SYNTAX score against a previously published (Ikeda et al. 2013) AtheroEdgeLink (AtheroPoint) correlation between the

  4. The Rule Of Maximum Gross Bedform-Normal Transport: Constraining Aeolian Bedform Morphology And Formative Wind Regime Using Solely Orbital Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenton, L. K.

    2012-12-01

    Although the formative wind regime and bedform morphology of several dune fields have been determined through extensive field work, nearly all planetary and many terrestrial dune fields are located in remote regions for which the only existing morphological data are spacecraft images. In the absence of other forms of data (e.g., anemometry, migration patterns), what can be determined about the sand-transporting winds that built these dune fields? We demonstrate that the rule of maximum gross bedform-normal transport (MGBNT) of Rubin and Hunter (1987) and Rubin and Ikeda (1990) can be applied in many remote situations to constrain both the potential wind regime and bedform type. By determining two formative wind directions from nearby unidirectional features (e.g., yardangs, wind streaks), the relative strengths of dune-building winds can be constrained by comparison of MGBNT to bedform orientation. In cases where only one formative wind direction can be identified, a second wind may be partially determined by "inverse-MGBNT" analysis. In these instances, a second wind may be identified from those that combine with a known (or assumed) sand-transporting wind to produce observed dune crestline orientations. We first demonstrate this method in a terrestrial setting where the bedform type and wind regime is well constrained, following with an example in Ganges Chasma on Mars. If the initial assumptions regarding likely sand-transporting wind directions are robust, then this technique proves to be reliable; in many locations on Mars and Titan it can be used as a constraint for atmospheric modeling. a) Linear or oblique dunes in a portion of the largest dune field in Ganges Chasma on Mars. b) Histogram of dune crestline orientations from a). c) Maximum gross bedform-normal transport analysis constraining the transport ratio of two likely sand-transporting winds. A southwesterly wind (black) combines with an east-southeasterly wind (black) with a transport ratio between 1

  5. A backwards-in-time Lagrangian framework for extraction of meander bend dynamics: use in meander classification, process diagnostics, and model comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwenk, J.; Lanzoni, S.; Foufoula-Georgiou, E.

    2013-12-01

    Physically based river meander migration models have grown in popularity and complexity since the pioneering work of Ikeda, Parker, and Saswe in 1981. Numerical meander models have proven valuable for understanding river meander dynamics by providing highly resolved temporal and spatial series of physiographic and morphodynamic properties that are difficult or impossible to observe from real meandering rivers. Analyses of such model outputs typically focus on either reachwide (e.g. sinuosity) or pointwise (e.g. local migration rates) measures. We propose here a framework that bridges the gap between holistic and reductionist approaches to river meandering. This research introduces a new method for identifying and tracking individual meanders ('atoms') from cutoff to inception. An atom is a river reach that evolves in time and eventually intersects itself to become an oxbow lake. Typically individual meander extractions use inflection points to demarcate meander end-points, but automated inflection detection is susceptible to spurious flexes along the centerline. We propose a different approach based on tracking cutoff nodes backwards in time thereby avoiding detection problems and making an atom's dynamics easily accessible. A classification scheme is developed that separates extracted atoms into three types of increasing complexity. Type I atoms are simple, single-loop meander bends; type II atoms contain complex, single-loop bends; and type III atoms consist of compound or multiple meanders. The distinct dynamic behavior of each atom type is explored through individual and ensemble dynamics, e.g. average growth rate, average migration rate, or statistics of local curvature series. Analyses reveal new insights that relate process and form and explore the effect of local versus non-local influences on meander growth. The utilized river migration model represents the most basic physical processes that drive river migration--i.e., channel cutoff and channel migration

  6. Stopped-flow kinetic studies of sphere-to-rod transitions of sodium alkyl sulfate micelles induced by hydrotropic salt.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingyan; Ge, Zhishen; Jiang, Xiaoze; Hassan, P A; Liu, Shiyong

    2007-12-15

    The kinetics and mechanism of sphere-to-rod transitions of sodium alkyl sulfate micelles induced by hydrotropic salt, p-toluidine hydrochloride (PTHC), were investigated by stopped-flow with light scattering detection. Spherical sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles transform into short ellipsoidal shapes at low salt concentrations ([PTHC]/[SDS], chi(PTHC)=0.3 and 0.4). Upon stopped-flow mixing aqueous solutions of spherical SDS micelles with PTHC, the scattered light intensity gradually increases with time. Single exponential fitting of the dynamic traces leads to characteristic relaxation time, tau(g), for the growth process from spherical to ellipsoidal micelles, and it increases with increasing SDS concentrations. This suggests that ellipsoidal micelles might be produced by successive insertion of unimers into spherical micelles, similar to the case of formation of spherical micelles as suggested by Aniansson-Wall (A-W) theory. At chi(PTHC) > or = 0.5, rod-like micelles with much higher axial ratio form. The scattered light intensity exhibits an initially abrupt increase and then levels off. The dynamic curves can be well fitted with single exponential functions, and the obtained tau(g) decreases with increasing SDS concentration. Thus, the growth from spherical to rod-like micelles might proceed via fusion of spherical micelles, in agreement with mechanism proposed by Ikeda et al. At chi(PTHC)=0.3 and 0.6, the apparent activation energies obtained from temperature dependent kinetic studies for the micellar growth are 40.4 and 3.6 kJ/mol, respectively. The large differences between activation energies for the growth from spherical to ellipsoidal micelles at low chi(PTHC) and the sphere-to-rod transition at high chi(PTHC) further indicate that they should follow different mechanisms. Moreover, the sphere-to-rod transition kinetics of sodium alkyl sulfate with varying hydrophobic chain lengths (n=10, 12, 14, and 16) are also studied. The longer the carbon chain

  7. Stopped-flow kinetic studies of sphere-to-rod transitions of sodium alkyl sulfate micelles induced by hydrotropic salt.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingyan; Ge, Zhishen; Jiang, Xiaoze; Hassan, P A; Liu, Shiyong

    2007-12-15

    The kinetics and mechanism of sphere-to-rod transitions of sodium alkyl sulfate micelles induced by hydrotropic salt, p-toluidine hydrochloride (PTHC), were investigated by stopped-flow with light scattering detection. Spherical sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles transform into short ellipsoidal shapes at low salt concentrations ([PTHC]/[SDS], chi(PTHC)=0.3 and 0.4). Upon stopped-flow mixing aqueous solutions of spherical SDS micelles with PTHC, the scattered light intensity gradually increases with time. Single exponential fitting of the dynamic traces leads to characteristic relaxation time, tau(g), for the growth process from spherical to ellipsoidal micelles, and it increases with increasing SDS concentrations. This suggests that ellipsoidal micelles might be produced by successive insertion of unimers into spherical micelles, similar to the case of formation of spherical micelles as suggested by Aniansson-Wall (A-W) theory. At chi(PTHC) > or = 0.5, rod-like micelles with much higher axial ratio form. The scattered light intensity exhibits an initially abrupt increase and then levels off. The dynamic curves can be well fitted with single exponential functions, and the obtained tau(g) decreases with increasing SDS concentration. Thus, the growth from spherical to rod-like micelles might proceed via fusion of spherical micelles, in agreement with mechanism proposed by Ikeda et al. At chi(PTHC)=0.3 and 0.6, the apparent activation energies obtained from temperature dependent kinetic studies for the micellar growth are 40.4 and 3.6 kJ/mol, respectively. The large differences between activation energies for the growth from spherical to ellipsoidal micelles at low chi(PTHC) and the sphere-to-rod transition at high chi(PTHC) further indicate that they should follow different mechanisms. Moreover, the sphere-to-rod transition kinetics of sodium alkyl sulfate with varying hydrophobic chain lengths (n=10, 12, 14, and 16) are also studied. The longer the carbon chain

  8. Advances in the evaluation of wind-induced undercatch using CFD-based simulations of snow gauge performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colli, Matteo; Lanza, Luca; Rasmussen, Roy; Thériault, Julie

    2016-04-01

    Hydrometeorol., 17(1), pages 231-243. Colli, M., Lanza, L.G., Rasmussen, R.M. and J.M. Thèriault (2016b). The collection efficiency of shielded and unshielded precipitation gauges. Part II: modelling particle trajectories. J. of Hydrometeorol., 17(1), 245-255. Thériault, J. M., R. Rasmussen, K. Ikeda, and S. Landolt, (2012). Dependence of snow gauge collection efficiency on snowflake characteristics. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 51, 745-762.

  9. Thz Spectroscopy of 13C Isotopic Species of a "weed": Acetaldehyde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margulès, L.; Motiyenko, R. A.; Guillemin, J.-C.

    2011-06-01

    Our studies of the isotopic species of 13C and D isotopologues of methyl formate (HCOOCH_3), have allowed the detection of more than 600 lines in Orion. This confirms that many observed U-lines are coming from isotopic species of one of the most abundant molecules in space. Since its first detection in 1976 in SgrB2 and in Orion A, acetaldehyde (CH_3CHO) was detected in many other numerous objects. If its deuterated species (CD_3CHO and CH_3CDO) have been previously studied in the millimeterwave range, the data concerning the 13C species are limited to few lines measured in 1957 up to 40 GHz. In this context we decided to study the 13C species of acetaldehyde. Acetaldehyde molecule displays a large amplitude motion: the hindered rotation of the methyl group with respect to the rest of the molecule. The analysis is performed with the Rho Axis Method. Recent versions of the codes include high orders term in order to reproduce the observed frequencies for large quantum numbers values as J-values as high as 70a,b,. Measurements and analysis of the rotational spectra of 13C isotopic species are in progress in Lille with a solid-state submillimetre-wave spectrometer (50-950 GHz), the first results will be presented. This work is supported by the contract ANR-08-BLAN-0054 and by the Programme National de Physico-Chimie du Milieu Interstellaire (PCMI-CNRS). Carvajal, M.; Margulès, L.; Tercero, B.; et al.A&A 500, (2009) 1109 Margulès, L.; Huet, T. R.; Demaison J.; et al.,ApJ 714, (2010) 1120. Ikeda, M.; Ohishi, M.; Nummelin, A.; et al., ApJ, 560, (2001) 792 Kleiner, I.; Lopez, J.-C.; Blanco, S.; et al.J. Mol. Spectrosc. 197, (1999) 275 Elkeurti M.; Coudert, L. H.; Medvedev, I. R.; et al.J. Mol. Spectrosc. 263, (2010) 145 Kilb, R.W.; Lin, C.C.; and Wilson, E.B.J. Chem. Phys. 26, (1957) 1695 Kleiner, I. J. Mol. Spectrosc. 260, (2010) 1 Ilyushin, V.V.; Kryvda, A; and Alekseev, E;J. Mol. Spectrosc. 255, (2009) 32

  10. SUZAKU VIEW OF THE SWIFT/BAT ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI. V. TORUS STRUCTURE OF TWO LUMINOUS RADIO-LOUD ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI (3C 206 AND PKS 0707-35)

    SciTech Connect

    Tazaki, Fumie; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Terashima, Yuichi; Mushotzky, Richard F.; Tombesi, Francesco

    2013-07-20

    We present the results from broadband X-ray spectral analysis of 3C 206 and PKS 0707-35 with Suzaku and Swift/BAT, two of the most luminous unobscured and obscured radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with hard X-ray luminosities of 10{sup 45.5} erg s{sup -1} and 10{sup 44.9} erg s{sup -1} (14-195 keV), respectively. Based on the radio core luminosity, we estimate that the X-ray spectrum of 3C 206 contains a significant ({approx}60% in the 14-195 keV band) contribution from the jet, while it is negligible in PKS 0707-35. We can successfully model the spectra with the jet component (for 3C 206), the transmitted emission, and two reflection components from the torus and the accretion disk. The reflection strengths from the torus are found to be R{sub torus}({identical_to} {Omega}/2{pi}) = 0.29 {+-} 0.18 and 0.41 {+-} 0.18 for 3C 206 and PKS 0707-35, respectively, which are smaller than those in typical Seyfert galaxies. Utilizing the torus model by Ikeda et al., we quantify the relation between the half-opening angle of a torus ({theta}{sub oa}) and the equivalent width of an iron-K line. The observed equivalent width of 3C 206, < 71 eV, constrains the column density in the equatorial plane to N{sub H}{sup eq} <10{sup 23} cm{sup -2}, or the half-opening angle to {theta}{sub oa} > 80 Degree-Sign if N{sub H}{sup eq} =10{sup 24} cm{sup -2} is assumed. That of PKS 0707-35, 72 {+-} 36 eV, is consistent with N{sub H}{sup eq} {approx}10{sup 23} cm{sup -2}. Our results suggest that the tori in luminous radio-loud AGNs are only poorly developed. The trend is similar to that seen in radio-quiet AGNs, implying that the torus structure is not different between AGNs with jets and without jets.

  11. [Health examination in future at the era of low tuberculosis incidence--from contacts examination toward active epidemiological studies].

    PubMed

    Maeda, Hideo; Shirai, Chika

    2013-03-01

    test in Tokyo: Hideo MAEDA (Bureau of Social Welfare and Public Health, Tokyo Metropolitan Government). 2. Contact investigation of a tuberculosis outbreak: Kenichi MIYAMOTO (Takaido Community Health Center). We have experienced a TB outbreak in integrated junior and senior high school in Tokyo. Index patient was a student with persistent respiratory symptoms for six months before diagnosis of sputum smear-positive TB. Public health center started contact investigation immediately. QFT-positive rates were high in close contacts, especially in classmates. Additionally, a student outside of contact investigation was diagnosed as TB and considered to be infected from the first patient by VNTR analysis. Therefore, public health center expanded QFT-tests to all students and teachers in this school. Finally, 9 students and 2 teachers in this school were diagnosed as sputum smear-negative TB by contact investigation. 3. Utilization of molecular epidemiological procedure in contact investigation in Kyoto City: Masahiro ITO (Public Health Center of Kyoto City) Molecular epidemiological procedure using VNTR analysis has been used for contact investigation of tuberculosis since January 2011 in Kyoto City. One hundred forty four strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from patients with tuberculosis were investigated and 130 strains were fully analyzed. Fourteen clusters were found and the number of strains included in the cluster was ranged from two to 11. Epidemiological relationship between patients in one cluster was found, however, significant relationship in another clusters was not demonstrated. It was suggested that VNTR analysis is useful for molecular epidemiological analysis of tuberculosis. 4. The population based molecular epidemiological studies and QFT test in a contact examination: Riyo FUJIYAMA, Keisuke MATSUBAYASHI, Setsuko MIZUSHIRI, Junko HIGUCHIL Chika SHIRAI, Yuko KATAGAMI, Mieko CHIHARA, Akihiro IJICHI (Kobe City Public Health Center), Kentaro ARIKAWA, Noriko

  12. EDITORIAL: Fluctuations and noise in photonics and quantum optics: a special issue in memory of Hermann Haus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, Derek; Shapiro, Jeffrey H.; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa

    2004-08-01

    dedicated this Special Issue to him. The first item is an obituary reflecting on his life and work. The first technical paper in this issue represents Hermann’s last sole author publication; a special thanks is due to A P Flitney for organizing this manuscript into publishable form. We thank the members of the International Programme Committee, listed below, and all those who contributed to making the event such a success. At this point we take the opportunity to express our gratitude to both the authors and reviewers, for their unfailing efforts in preparing and ensuring the high quality of the papers in this Special Issue. International Programme Committee David A Cardimona Air Force Research Laboratory, USA Howard Carmichael University of Auckland, New Zealand Carlton M Caves University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, USA Peter D Drummond University of Queensland, St Lucia, Australia Paul J Edwards University of Canberra, Australia Luca Gammaitoni Università degli Studi di Perugia, Italy Brage Golding Michigan State University, East Lansing, USA Gabriela Gonzalez Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, USA Guangcan Guo University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, China Salman Habib Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM, USA Murray Hamilton University of Adelaide, Australia Bei-Lok Hu University of Maryland/College Park, USA Daniel K Johnstone Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, USA Franz X Kärtner Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, USA Prem Kumar Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, USA Zachary Lemnios DARPA, Arlington, VA, USA Gerd Leuchs Friedrich-Alexander Universität Erlangen--Nürnberg, Germany Hideo Mabuchi California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, USA Peter W Milonni Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM, USA Adrian C Ottewill University College Dublin, Ireland Martin B Plenio Imperial College, London, UK Rajeev J Ram Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, USA Farhan Rana Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge

  13. Static Stress Field on a Branched Fault System: The 1891 Nobi, Japan, Earthquake (M8.0)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikumo, T.; Fukuyama, E.

    2004-12-01

    faults (Aochi et al., 2000, GRL). Since slip on the b-c segment drops down to about 2 m from 6.5 m (Matsuda, 1974) near the possible junction (c), slip on the c-e segment for the buried fault would be of the order of 1.5 - 1.8 m. The static stress drop was calculated at the center of each fault segment, referring to Chinnery (1969). We also estimate the principal stresses and their directions working in this fault zone from two-dimensional analysis. If we consider the stress change before and after the earthquake rupture for the two fault segments (b-c) and (c-d), numerical calculations show that the maximum principal stress direction lies between 105o and 109o and the stress change ranges between 7.7 and 12.4MPa, respectively. The direction of the maximum compressive stress is in good agreement with the direction of tectonic stress over this region, which has been inferred from recent GPS observations, but slightly deviated from the direction estimated from hydraulic fracturing stress measurements (Ikeda et al., 2002), which might include the co-seismic and post-seismic stress changes due to the earthquake. Based on the static parameters estimated above, we calculate spontaneous dynamic rupture propagation under various conditions (Fukuyama and Mikumo, 2004, AGU Fall Meeting).

  14. Focused Ultrasound and Lithotripsy.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Teiichiro; Yoshizawa, Shin; Koizumi, Norihiro; Mitsuishi, Mamoru; Matsumoto, Yoichiro

    2016-01-01

    Shock wave lithotripsy has generally been a first choice for kidney stone removal. The shock wave lithotripter uses an order of microsecond pulse durations and up to a 100 MPa pressure spike triggered at approximately 0.5-2 Hz to fragment kidney stones through mechanical mechanisms. One important mechanism is cavitation. We proposed an alternative type of lithotripsy method that maximizes cavitation activity to disintegrate kidney stones using high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). Here we outline the method according to the previously published literature (Matsumoto et al., Dynamics of bubble cloud in focused ultrasound. Proceedings of the second international symposium on therapeutic ultrasound, pp 290-299, 2002; Ikeda et al., Ultrasound Med Biol 32:1383-1397, 2006; Yoshizawa et al., Med Biol Eng Comput 47:851-860, 2009; Koizumi et al., A control framework for the non-invasive ultrasound the ragnostic system. Proceedings of 2009 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robotics and Systems (IROS), pp 4511-4516, 2009; Koizumi et al., IEEE Trans Robot 25:522-538, 2009). Cavitation activity is highly unpredictable; thus, a precise control system is needed. The proposed method comprises three steps of control in kidney stone treatment. The first step is control of localized high pressure fluctuation on the stone. The second step is monitoring of cavitation activity and giving feedback on the optimized ultrasound conditions. The third step is stone tracking and precise ultrasound focusing on the stone. For the high pressure control we designed a two-frequency wave (cavitation control (C-C) waveform); a high frequency ultrasound pulse (1-4 MHz) to create a cavitation cloud, and a low frequency trailing pulse (0.5 MHz) following the high frequency pulse to force the cloud into collapse. High speed photography showed cavitation collapse on a kidney stone and shock wave emission from the cloud. We also conducted in-vitro erosion tests of model and natural

  15. Biomass and estimated production properties of size-fractionated zooplankton in the Yellow Sea, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Yuanzi; Sun, Song; Zhang, Fang; Wang, Minxiao; Li, Chaolun; Yang, Bo

    2012-06-01

    The size-fractionated zooplankton biomass, taxonomic composition, and production calculated by formulas basing on Ikeda-Motoda's physiological methods were studied on the basis of samples taken from six cruises in the Yellow Sea. Zooplankton was size-fractionated using sieves into ~ 2 mm, 1-2 mm, 0.5-1 mm, 0.25-0.5 mm and 0.16-0.25 mm groups. The results showed that the average zooplankton biomass was 84.03 mg DM m- 3 in May, followed in order by September, June, March, August and December with 42.34, 38.36, 32.37, 27.17 and 21.83 mg DM m- 3, respectively. The contribution of ~ 2 mm, 1-2 mm, 0.5-1 mm, 0.25-0.5 mm and 0.16-0.25 mm groups to the total biomass was in the range of 15.2-27.4%, 13.2-29.4%, 14.7-18.2%, 15.8-22.6% and 16.3-34.2%, respectively, during the investigating period. The biomass of all size groups was all highest in May, and except that the biomass of 0.16-0.25 mm group was lowest in August, the biomass of other size groups was lowest in December. The dominant zooplankton species (or taxa) in each group were similar between six cruises. The estimated zooplankton production was highest in May with 1.97 mg C m- 3 d- 1, and was lowest in December with 0.51 mg C m- 3 d- 1, and was in the range of 0.67-1.44 mg C m- 3 d- 1 in other investigating months. The estimated annual zooplankton production was 0.37 g C m- 3 y- 1. The two smallest groups aggregately comprised 59-84% of the net-zooplankton production in the Yellow Sea. The geographical distribution of size-fractionated zooplankton biomass and production was significantly affected by the complex physical features of the Yellow Sea. When the Yellow Sea Cold Bottom Water appeared from June to September, the biomass and production of zooplankton larger than 1 mm were higher inside the cold water mass area than outside it, while the zooplankton smaller than 1 mm showed contrary results. The higher biomass and production of all zooplankton groups occurred in the southern part of the study area in

  16. PREFACE: 7th International Conference on Applications of Physics in Financial Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takayasu, M.; Watanabe, T.; Ikeda, Y.; Takayasu, H.

    2010-04-01

    become interested in such datasets, conducting empirical investigations about various aspects of economic activities. Specifically, they have searched for regularities and 'laws' akin to the ones in natural science, successfully producing fascinating results, as shown in the papers contained in this volume. Each paper submitted for publication in this volume has gone through the refereeing process, and has been revised on the basis of comments and discussion at the conference as well as comments from the anonymous referees. Finally, 19 papers were accepted for publication. The editors are very grateful to the colleagues involved in the refereeing process for their rapid and careful reviewing of the papers. We thank Takayuki Mizuno, Koji Sakai, Hiwon Yoon and Hiroki Matsui for their support for the conference. We appreciate the administrative assistance provided by Yayoi Hatano of Hitotsubashi University, and Masahiko Ozaki, Masato Yamada and Tomoko Kase of RIETI. We are most grateful to the authors for their contributions, as well as to the participants, all of whom made this conference stimulating and enjoyable. Misako Takayasu Tokyo Institute of Technology, Japan Tsutomu Watanabe Hitotsubashi University, Japan RIETI, Japan Yuichi Ikeda Hitachi Research Laboratory, Hitachi Ltd, Japan Hideki Takayasu Sony Computer Science Laboratories, Inc, Japan

  17. Magma mixing and mingling processes inferred from the ejecta in the Shinmoedake 2011 eruption: Its implications for the transient behavior of eruption styles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshide, T.; Toramaru, A.; Miyamoto, T.; Iriyama, Y.; Ikehata, K.; Matsushima, T.

    2012-04-01

    (Ishibashi and Ikeda, 2005) to rims of two pyroxenes from white pumices. From the temperature, rim composition of phenocrystic plagioclase and matrix bulk composition of white pumices, ca. 5 wt% H2O in melt (at 1-2 kbar) was estimated (Lange et al., 2009). This value is higher than the H2O solubility in rhyolitic melt at 3 km depth and comparable to that at 6 km depth (Newman & Lowenstern, 2002). This suggests that dacitic magma has migrated upward from more than 6 km depth. On the other hand, the time during elemental diffusion between dacitic magma and mixed magma is estimated to be a few days from the line traverse of glass composition across the white-gray boundary in a pumice grain. This suggests that the mingling between dacitic magma and mixed magma occurred only a few days before the sub-plinian eruption on 26th Jan.

  18. Focused Ultrasound and Lithotripsy.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Teiichiro; Yoshizawa, Shin; Koizumi, Norihiro; Mitsuishi, Mamoru; Matsumoto, Yoichiro

    2016-01-01

    Shock wave lithotripsy has generally been a first choice for kidney stone removal. The shock wave lithotripter uses an order of microsecond pulse durations and up to a 100 MPa pressure spike triggered at approximately 0.5-2 Hz to fragment kidney stones through mechanical mechanisms. One important mechanism is cavitation. We proposed an alternative type of lithotripsy method that maximizes cavitation activity to disintegrate kidney stones using high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). Here we outline the method according to the previously published literature (Matsumoto et al., Dynamics of bubble cloud in focused ultrasound. Proceedings of the second international symposium on therapeutic ultrasound, pp 290-299, 2002; Ikeda et al., Ultrasound Med Biol 32:1383-1397, 2006; Yoshizawa et al., Med Biol Eng Comput 47:851-860, 2009; Koizumi et al., A control framework for the non-invasive ultrasound the ragnostic system. Proceedings of 2009 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robotics and Systems (IROS), pp 4511-4516, 2009; Koizumi et al., IEEE Trans Robot 25:522-538, 2009). Cavitation activity is highly unpredictable; thus, a precise control system is needed. The proposed method comprises three steps of control in kidney stone treatment. The first step is control of localized high pressure fluctuation on the stone. The second step is monitoring of cavitation activity and giving feedback on the optimized ultrasound conditions. The third step is stone tracking and precise ultrasound focusing on the stone. For the high pressure control we designed a two-frequency wave (cavitation control (C-C) waveform); a high frequency ultrasound pulse (1-4 MHz) to create a cavitation cloud, and a low frequency trailing pulse (0.5 MHz) following the high frequency pulse to force the cloud into collapse. High speed photography showed cavitation collapse on a kidney stone and shock wave emission from the cloud. We also conducted in-vitro erosion tests of model and natural

  19. Quantum Chaos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casati, Giulio; Chirikov, Boris

    2006-11-01

    Preface; Acknowledgments; Introduction: 1. The legacy of chaos in quantum mechanics G. Casati and B. V. Chirikov; Part I. Classical Chaos and Quantum Localization: 2. Stochastic behaviour of a quantum pendulum under a periodic perturbation G. Casati, B. V. Chirikov, F. M. Izrailev and J. Ford; 3. Quantum dynamics of a nonintegrable system D. R. Grempel, R. E. Prange and S. E. Fishman; 4. Excitation of molecular rotation by periodic microwave pulses. A testing ground for Anderson localization R. Blümel, S. Fishman and U. Smilansky; 5. Localization of diffusive excitation in multi-level systems D. K. Shepelyansky; 6. Classical and quantum chaos for a kicked top F. Haake, M. Kus and R. Scharf; 7. Self-similarity in quantum dynamics L. E. Reichl and L. Haoming; 8. Time irreversibility of classically chaotic quantum dynamics K. Ikeda; 9. Effect of noise on time-dependent quantum chaos E. Ott, T. M. Antonsen Jr and J. D. Hanson; 10. Dynamical localization, dissipation and noise R. F. Graham; 11. Maximum entropy models and quantum transmission in disordered systems J.-L. Pichard and M. Sanquer; 12. Solid state 'atoms' in intense oscillating fields M. S. Sherwin; Part II. Atoms in Strong Fields: 13. Localization of classically chaotic diffusion for hydrogen atoms in microwave fields J. E. Bayfield, G. Casati, I. Guarneri and D. W. Sokol; 14. Inhibition of quantum transport due to 'scars' of unstable periodic orbits R. V. Jensen, M. M. Sanders, M. Saraceno and B. Sundaram; 15. Rubidium Rydberg atoms in strong fields G. Benson, G. Raithel and H. Walther; 16. Diamagnetic Rydberg atom: confrontation of calculated and observed spectra C.-H. Iu, G. R. Welch, M. M. Kash, D. Kleppner, D. Delande and J. C. Gay; 17. Semiclassical approximation for the quantum states of a hydrogen atom in a magnetic field near the ionization limit M. Y. Kuchiev and O. P. Sushkov; 18. The semiclassical helium atom D. Wintgen, K. Richter and G. Tanner; 19. Stretched helium: a model for quantum chaos

  20. Quantum Chaos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casati, Giulio; Chirikov, Boris

    1995-04-01

    Preface; Acknowledgments; Introduction: 1. The legacy of chaos in quantum mechanics G. Casati and B. V. Chirikov; Part I. Classical Chaos and Quantum Localization: 2. Stochastic behaviour of a quantum pendulum under a periodic perturbation G. Casati, B. V. Chirikov, F. M. Izrailev and J. Ford; 3. Quantum dynamics of a nonintegrable system D. R. Grempel, R. E. Prange and S. E. Fishman; 4. Excitation of molecular rotation by periodic microwave pulses. A testing ground for Anderson localization R. Blümel, S. Fishman and U. Smilansky; 5. Localization of diffusive excitation in multi-level systems D. K. Shepelyansky; 6. Classical and quantum chaos for a kicked top F. Haake, M. Kus and R. Scharf; 7. Self-similarity in quantum dynamics L. E. Reichl and L. Haoming; 8. Time irreversibility of classically chaotic quantum dynamics K. Ikeda; 9. Effect of noise on time-dependent quantum chaos E. Ott, T. M. Antonsen Jr and J. D. Hanson; 10. Dynamical localization, dissipation and noise R. F. Graham; 11. Maximum entropy models and quantum transmission in disordered systems J.-L. Pichard and M. Sanquer; 12. Solid state 'atoms' in intense oscillating fields M. S. Sherwin; Part II. Atoms in Strong Fields: 13. Localization of classically chaotic diffusion for hydrogen atoms in microwave fields J. E. Bayfield, G. Casati, I. Guarneri and D. W. Sokol; 14. Inhibition of quantum transport due to 'scars' of unstable periodic orbits R. V. Jensen, M. M. Sanders, M. Saraceno and B. Sundaram; 15. Rubidium Rydberg atoms in strong fields G. Benson, G. Raithel and H. Walther; 16. Diamagnetic Rydberg atom: confrontation of calculated and observed spectra C.-H. Iu, G. R. Welch, M. M. Kash, D. Kleppner, D. Delande and J. C. Gay; 17. Semiclassical approximation for the quantum states of a hydrogen atom in a magnetic field near the ionization limit M. Y. Kuchiev and O. P. Sushkov; 18. The semiclassical helium atom D. Wintgen, K. Richter and G. Tanner; 19. Stretched helium: a model for quantum chaos

  1. Geological Structure of the Itoigawa - Shizuoka Tectonic Line, Northern Fossa Magna, Central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H.; Iwasaki, T.

    2009-12-01

    Geological structure of two different natures is recognized in the Northern Fossa Magna (NFM). NFM is situated near the zone where the central Japan Island bent geographically and a graben zone formed between the North Alps and the Kanto highland. NFM is characterized by thick Neogene deposits and with active tilting of the crustal blocks and active folding bloc. At the present the sedimentary basin is the Saigawa hill due to the active faulting and folding in the Fossa Magna. Active fault system of Itoigawa-Shizuoka Tectonic Line (ISTL) is an eastward - dip of reverse fault which strikes N-S along the western margin of the NFM. The vertical displacement rate of ISTL is estimated to be maximum 9 mm/yr from the offset amount and the formation age of flexure scarp which appeared in the fluvial terrace [ex. Ikeda et al., (2002)]. Besides, the last event and the reccurrence interval are presumed to be about about 1,500 years aga and 2,000 years, respectively [Okumura (2001)]. In addition the western margin fault of the Nagano basin (NBF) strikes NNE-SSW along the east edge of NFM. The NBF is an eastward-dip of reverse fault, and the Zenkoji earthquake (M7.4) in 1847 was occurred. The purpose of present study is to discuss the geometry of ISTL and geological process of NFM based on the geomorphological and geological survey using the geological dip and strike already obtained at the more than 1,500 data points. Based on these geological data, the geological structure provinceis divided into two types those are a tilt block and a folding belt at west and east sides, respectively. The Western tilting block and an Eastern folding belt trend NS strike and NNE-SSW strike, respectively. As a result of the geomorphic decipherment in alignment with ISTL using the air photograph, flexure scarp of east side upheaval is formed in the fluvial terrace side and it is difficult for the terrace riser which crosses flexure scarp and a valley to observe lateral offset. The tilt block,

  2. Fayalitic olivine in CV3 chondrite matrix and dark inclusions: A nebular origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisberg, Michael K.; Prinz, Martin

    1998-09-01

    Fayalitic olivine (Fa>32) is the major component of the matrices and Dark Inclusions (DI) of CV3 and other unequilibrated chondrites. It occurs most commonly as rims, veins and halos in and around chondrule silicates in the Allende-type (CV3OxA) chondrites and to a much lesser extent in the reduced (CV3R) and Bali-type (CV3OxB) chondrites. The olivines have distinctive platy, tabular and lath- or irregular-shaped crystals, with the ratio the two types varying widely. In CV3OxB chondrites, matrix fayalitic olivines range up to Fa99.9, whereas in the other CV3 chondrites the range is much smaller. The platy and tabular anisotropic forms of the fayalitic olivines strongly suggest growth from a vapor and the nature of occurrences suggests that CV3 matrices are unequilibrated mixtures of nebular materials. We argue that the parent body hydration/dehydration model has numerous inconsistencies that make this hypothesis highly unlikely. These include: (1) There is no direct evidence linking fayalitic olivine to precursor phyllosilicates. (2) Dehydration of phyllosilicates cannot explain the wide range of morphologies of the fayalitic olivines. (3) Fayalitic olivine clearly predates the formation of the hydrous phases in CV3 chondrites and is one of the phases that breaks down to form phyllosilicates (Keller et al., 1994). (4) The unequilibrated nature of the matrix, including fine scale zoning in 10=B5-sized fayalitic olivine crystals, would not survive the parent body metamorphism required in the dehydration model. (5) A DI in the Ningqiang chondrite contains fayalitic olivine rimmed by glassy and microcrystalline material (Zolensky et al., 1997), which probably formed by radiation damage. This indicates that the fayalitic olivine was exposed to solar radiation in a nebular setting. (6) Some Allende chondrules contain unaltered primary, anhydrous glassy mesostasis in contact with the host matrix (e.g., Ikeda and Kimura, 1995). Chondrule mesostases would not have survived

  3. Amphibole in Martian Meteorites: Composition and Implication for Volatile Content of Parental Magma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, K. B.; Sonzogni, Y.; Treiman, A. H.

    2013-12-01

    uncertainty to OH estimations based on microprobe analyses [6, 11, 12]. Shock effects on the reactions that control OH- and O2- content also complicate water content estimation from measured amphibole compositions, particularly in meteorites [13]. The amphiboles in both meteorites have low fluorine and chlorine abundances (F < 0.4 wt.%, Cl < 0.03 wt.%) suggesting a high OH- proportion in the O(3) sites. Calculation from stoichiometry implies 1.6-1.8 wt.% H2O in the amphiboles. These estimates will aid in determining the volatile content of the melts from which the amphiboles crystallized, and ultimately the volatile content of the martian mantle. Future work will seek to model the crystallization of these meteorites in order to better constrain the volatile contents of the parental magmas. [1] Floran et al. (1978) GCA, 42, 1213-1229. [2] Johnson and Rutherford (1989) Geology, 17(9), 837-841. [3] Treiman et al. (2007) J. Geophys. Res. 112, E04002. [4] Treiman (1983) Meteoritics, 18, 409. [5] Treiman (1985) Meteoritics, 20, 229-243. [6] Watson et al. (1994) Science, 265, 86-90. [7] Hale et al. (1999) GCA, 63(9), 1459-1470. [8] Treiman (1997) MAPS, 32, A129-A130. [9] Treiman (1998) MAPS, 33, A156. [10] Ikeda (2005) Ant. Met. Res. 18, 409. [11] Popp et al. (1995) Am. Min. 80, 534-548. [12] Popp et al. (1995) Am. Min. 80, 1347-1350. [13] Minitti et al. (2008) EAPS, 266(1-2), 46-60.

  4. Opening Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, T.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, it is my great honor and pleasure to present an opening address of the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3). On the behalf of the organizing committee, I certainly welcome all your visits to KGU Kannai Media Center belonging to Kanto Gakuin University, and stay in Yokohama. In particular, to whom come from abroad more than 17 countries, I would appreciate your participations after long long trips from your homeland to Yokohama. The first international workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics", called SOTANCP, was held in Strasbourg, France, in 2008, and the second one was held in Brussels, Belgium, in 2010. Then the third workshop is now held in Yokohama. In this period, we had the traditional 10th cluster conference in Debrecen, Hungary, in 2012. Thus we have the traditional cluster conference and SOTANCP, one after another, every two years. This obviously shows our field of nuclear cluster physics is very active and flourishing. It is for the first time in about 10 years to hold the international workshop on nuclear cluster physics in Japan, because the last cluster conference held in Japan was in Nara in 2003, about 10 years ago. The president in Nara conference was Prof. K. Ikeda, and the chairpersons were Prof. H. Horiuchi and Prof. I. Tanihata. I think, quite a lot of persons in this room had participated at the Nara conference. Since then, about ten years passed. So, this workshop has profound significance for our Japanese colleagues. The subjects of this workshop are to discuss "the state of the art in nuclear cluster physics" and also discuss the prospect of this field. In a couple of years, we saw significant progresses of this field both in theory and in experiment, which have brought better and new understandings on the clustering aspects in stable and unstable nuclei. I think, the concept of clustering has been more important than ever. This is true also in the

  5. Earthquake Recurrence along the Kuril Trench: A New View from Paleoseismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satake, K.; Nanayama, F.

    2003-12-01

    Paleoseismological data along the Pacific coast of eastern Hokkaido indicate that unusual earthquakes have repeated at about 500 year interval with the most recent event in the 17th century. Along the Kuril trench, interplate earthquakes with rupture length of 100-200 km occurred in 1952 (Mw 8.1) and 1973 (Mw 7.8), as well as 1843 (M 8.0) and 1894 (M 7.9), which have been considered characteristics of this subduction zone. We review paleoseismological data, examine coastal deformation and tsunami inundation from fault models, and propose a model of earthquake recurrence in the Kuril subduction zone. Pleistocene marine terraces on the Pacific coast show slight net uplift, at an average of 0.1-0.4 mm/yr in the past several hundred thousand years, whereas tide-gauge data show gradual subsidence of 8-9 mm/yr since 1900. Infrequent unusual event (Armageddon) has been inferred (Ikeda, 1996) to resolve this conflict. Holocene stratigraphic and microfossil studies have indicated sea-level changes in the last 3 ka (e.g., Sawai, 2001). Each event is marked by an abrupt upward change from brackish bay deposits to freshwater peat. The youngest change has been dated in the 17th century with an estimated uplift amount of 0.5-1m (Atwater et al., 2003). Such evidence has been found along the 100 km long coast and recurred up to seven times in the last 2.5 ka (Kelsey et al., 2002). Extensive tsunami deposits indicate large prehistoric tsunamis (Nanayama et al., 2003). At Kiritappu, for instance, sand sheets extend 3 km inland, much further than historic tsunamis. Ten sheets of tsunami deposits indicate recurrence of such unusual tsunami with an average recurrence interval of about 500 years. The most recent event occurred in the 17th century. Historic documents in Honshu rules out unusual tsunamis that would cause damage along the Sanriku coast. Tsunami damage from the 1611 and 1677 earthquakes, both along the Japan trench, have been documented along the Sanriku coast. We modeled

  6. Superquakes and Supercycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldfinger, C.; Ikeda, Y.; Yeats, R. S.

    2011-12-01

    The recent Mw=9 superquake off Tohoku Japan, and the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman superquake have humbled many in earthquake research. Neither region was thought capable of earthquakes of magnitudes exceeding Mw~8.4 based on historical records and theories based on short instrumental records. In NE Japan, horizontal shortening is ~5-7 mm/yr. based on faulting and regional uplift data. On the Pacific coast, high rates of subsidence from tide gauges, and geodetic observations revealed E-W contraction at several tens of mm/yr. Only a fraction (< 10%) of plate convergence is inelastic. The elastic rate is ~ an order of magnitude greater than the geologic rate, and is comparable to convergence at the Trench. These data strongly suggested that the strain must be released periodically in earthquakes stronger than those in the historical record (Ikeda, 2003). The Jogan tsunami of 869 is a likely equivalent to the 2011 earthquake, and had two predecessors at ~ 1000 year intervals (Minoura et al., 2001; Shishikura et al., 2007). A related example is the Haiyuan fault, China, the source of an earthquake in 1920 with a rupture length of 237 km. Paleoseismic trenching divided the 1920 rupture into three segments and dated surface-rupturing earthquakes in the past 6000 yrs. Some earthquakes ruptured one segment, some ruptured two, but only one (6100-6200 yrs BP) ruptured all three segments and was a likely duplicate of 1920 (Ran et al. 1997). Prior to trenching, there was a tendency to regard the 1920 earthquake as the characteristic earthquake, when the majority of the paleoseismic examples were much smaller. The two largest events had much greater net slip (5.6 and 7.0 m respectively for ~6150 BP and AD 1920) than the intervening events which averaged 1.5-2 m. In Cascadia, a 10ka paleoseismic record includes evidence of segmented ruptures, clustering, and several outsized events. Goldfinger et al. (2011) compared the mass of correlated turbidite deposits along strike, and found strong

  7. A Simple Model for the Vertical Crustal Movement Associated with the Earthquake Cycle Along the Pacific Coast of Northeast Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagiya, T.

    2013-12-01

    Before the 2011 M9.0 Tohoku-oki earthquake, rapid subsidence more than 5mm/yr has been observed along the Pacific coast of the Tohoku area by leveling, tide gauges, and GPS (Kato, 1979, Kato and Tsumura, 1979, El-Fiky and Kato, 1999). On the other hand, Stage 5e (~125 ka) marine terraces are widely recognized along the same area, implying the area is uplifting in a long-term. Ikeda (1999) hypothesized that these deformation signals reflect accumulation of elastic strain at the plate interface and there is a possibility of a giant earthquake causing a coastal uplift. However, the coastal area subsided as large as 1m during the 2011 main shock. Though we observe significant postseismic uplift, it is not certain if the preseismic as well as coseismic subsidence will be recovered. We construct a simple model of earthquake deformation cycle to interpret the vertical movement along the Pacific coast of northeast Japan. The model consists of a 40 km thick elastic lithosphere overlying a Maxwell viscoelastic asthenospher with a viscosity of 10^19 Pa s. Plate boundary is modeled as two rectangular faults located in the lithosphere and connected each other. As for the kinematic conditions of these faults, we represent the temporal evolution of fault slip as a sum of the steady term and the perturbation term following Savage and Prescott (1978). The first steady term corresponds to the long-term plate subduction, which contributes to long-term geomorphic evolution such as the marine terraces (Hashimoto et al., 2004). The second perturbation term represent earthquake cycle effects. We evaluate this effect under assumptions that earthquake occurrence is perfectly periodic, plate interface is fully coupled during interseismic periods, and the slip deficit is fully released by earthquakes. If the earthquake recurrence interval is shorter than the relaxation time of the structure, interseismic movement is in the opposite direction to the coseismic ones and changes almost linearly

  8. High-resolution correlation of the late Triassic (Raetian) to the early Jurassic (Toarcian) between Pelagic sequence of Panthalassa and terrestrial sequence of Pangea using Milankovitch cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, M.; Tada, R.; Sakuma, H.

    2009-12-01

    Milankovitch forcing is one of the main drivers of cyclic climate changes, and cyclicities of Milankovitch cycles recorded in sedimentary rhythms would give a clue to establish the astronomically calibrated age model. Bedded cherts consist of rhythmical alternations of a chert bed and a shale bed, which are considered to have been formed as a result of cyclic changes in accumulation rate of biogenic SiO2 under extremely slow and continuous accumulation of pelagic clay. Although Milankovitch cycle origin of bedded chert was suggested by several arthors (e.g. Hori et al., 1993), such an origin has been still unproved. Ikeda et al. (2008) demonstrated the Milankovitch cycle origin of the middle Triassic bedded chert based on the similarities in the hierarchy of dominant cyclicities and the nature of amplitude modulation between Milankovitch cycles and the chert bed thickness cycles. However, because the errors of age determinations in the middle Triassic bedded chert are too large, we could not orbitally tune the bedded chert sequence to the astronomical time scale. In this study, we extend our research to the upper Triassic (Raetian) to lower Jurassic (Toarcian) bedded chert sequence and demonstrate its Milankovitch cycle origin. The Triassic/Jurassic (T/J) boundary was recognized as a radiolarian faunal turnover (Carter & Hori, 2005). Because the astronomically calibrated cyclostratigraphy was already established using the upper Triassic (Carnian) to lower Jurassic (Hettangian) lacustrine sequences of Pangea including the T/J boundary horizon (e.g. Olsen & Kent, 1999; Whiteside et al., 2007), we could compare our bedded chert sequence with them. We conducted geologic survey at Katsuyama section (e.g. Carter & Hori, 2005), in Inuyama area, central Japan. The average duration of ca. 20 ky for a chert-shale couplet based on radiolarian biostratigraphy is consistent with the assumption that a chert-shale couplet represents a precession cycle. Spectral analysis of bed

  9. A Comparison of Ellipse-Fitting Techniques for Two and Three-Dimensional Strain Analysis, and Their Implementation in an Integrated Computer Program Designed for Field-Based Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollmer, F. W.

    2010-12-01

    A new computer program, EllipseFit 2, was developed to implement computational and graphical techniques for two and three-dimensional geological finite strain analysis. The program includes an integrated set of routines to derive three-dimensional strain from oriented digital photographs, with a graphical interface suitable for field-based structural studies. The intuitive interface and multi-platform deployment make it useful for structural geology teaching laboratories as well (the program is free). Images of oriented sections are digitized using center-point, five-point ellipse, or n-point polygon moment-equivalent ellipse fitting. The latter allows strain calculation from irregular polygons with sub-pixel accuracy (Steger, 1996; Mulchrone and Choudhury, 2004). Graphical strain ellipse techniques include center-to-center methods (Fry, 1979; Erslev, 1988; Erslev and Ge, 1990), with manual and automatic n-point ellipse-fitting. Graphical displays include axial length graphs, Rf/Φ graphs (Dunnet, 1969), logarithmic and hyperbolic polar graphs (Elliott, 1970; Wheeler, 1984) with automatic contouring, and strain maps. Best-fit ellipse calculations include harmonic and circular means, and eigenvalue (Shimamoto and Ikeda, 1976) and mean radial length (Mulchrone et al., 2003) shape-matrix calculations. Shape-matrix error analysis is done analytically (Mulchrone, 2005) and using bootstrap techniques (Efron, 1979). The initial data set can be unstrained to check variation in the calculated pre-strain fabric. Fitting of ellipse-section data to a best-fit ellipsoid (b*) is done using the shape-matrix technique of Shan (2008). Error analysis is done by calculating the section ellipses of b*, and comparing the misfits between calculated and observed section ellipses. Graphical displays of ellipsoid data include axial-ratio (Flinn, 1962) and octahedral strain magnitude (Hossack, 1968) graphs. Calculations were done to test and compare computational techniques. For two

  10. EDITORIAL: Focus on Iron-Based Superconductors FOCUS ON IRON-BASED SUPERCONDUCTORS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosono, Hideo; Ren, Zhi-An

    2009-02-01

    Elastic theory for the vortex-lattice melting in iron-based high-Tc superconductors Q-H Chen, Q-M Nie, J-P Lv and T-C Au Yeung Electronic properties of LaO1-xFxFeAs in the normal state probed by NMR/NQR H-J Grafe, G Lang, F Hammerath, D Paar, K Manthey, K Koch, H Rosner, N J Curro, G Behr, J Werner, N Leps, R Klingeler, H-H Klauss, F J Litterst and B Büchner AFe2As2 (A = Ca, Sr, Ba, Eu) and SrFe2-xTMxAs2 (TM = Mn, Co, Ni): crystal structure, charge doping, magnetism and superconductivity Deepa Kasinathan, Alim Ormeci, Katrin Koch, Ulrich Burkhardt, Walter Schnelle, Andreas Leithe-Jasper and Helge Rosner Impurity states in a family of antiferromagnetic iron arsenides Qiang Han and Z D Wang Coherence-incoherence crossover in the normal state of iron oxypnictides and importance of Hund's rule coupling K Haule and G Kotliar Electronic structure of heavily electron-doped BaFe1.7Co0.3As2 studied by angle-resolved photoemission Y Sekiba, T Sato, K Nakayama, K Terashima, P Richard, J H Bowen, H Ding, Y-M Xu, L J Li, G H Cao, Z-A Xu and T Takahashi Absorption and photoemission spectroscopy of rare-earth oxypnictides T Kroll, F Roth, A Koitzsch, R Kraus, D R Batchelor, J Werner, G Behr, B Büchner and M Knupfer Superconductivity in LnFePO (Ln = La, Pr and Nd) single crystals R E Baumbach, J J Hamlin, L Shu, D A Zocco, N M Crisosto and M B Maple Unconventional pairing originating from disconnected Fermi surfaces in the iron-based superconductor Kazuhiko Kuroki, Seiichiro Onari, Ryotaro Arita, Hidetomo Usui, Yukio Tanaka, Hiroshi Kontani and Hideo Aoki Near-degeneracy of several pairing channels in multiorbital models for the Fe pnictides S Graser, T A Maier, P J Hirschfeld and D J Scalapino Investigation of superconducting gap structure in TbFeAsO0.9F0.1 using point contact Andreev reflection K A Yates, K Morrison, J A Rodgers, G B S Penny, J-W G Bos, J P Attfield and L F Cohen Competition of magnetism and superconductivity in underdoped (Ba1-xKx)Fe2As2 Marianne Rotter, Marcus

  11. PREFACE: Domain wall dynamics in nanostructures Domain wall dynamics in nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrows, C. H.; Meier, G.

    2012-01-01

    spin-transfer torque threshold current density in coupled vortex domain wallsS Lepadatu, A P Mihai, J S Claydon, F Maccherozzi, S S Dhesi, C J Kinane, S Langridge and C H Marrows Large RF susceptibility of transverse domain wallsO Rousseau, S Petit-Watelot and M Viret Expansion and relaxation of magnetic mirror domains in a Pt/Co/Pt/Co/Pt multilayer with antiferromagnetic interlayer couplingP J Metaxas, R L Stamps, J-P Jamet, J Ferré, V Baltz and B Rodmacq Current-induced domain wall motion and magnetization dynamics in CoFeB/Cu/Co nanostripesV Uhlíř, J Vogel, N Rougemaille, O Fruchart, Z Ishaque, V Cros, J Camarero, J C Cezar, F Sirotti and S Pizzini Roles of the magnetic field and electric current in thermally activated domain wall motion in a submicrometer magnetic strip with perpendicular magnetic anisotropySatoru Emori and Geoffrey S D Beach Electrical domain morphologies in compositionally graded ferroelectric filmsM B Okatan, A L Roytburd, V Nagarajan and S P Alpay Domain-wall pinning by local control of anisotropy in Pt/Co/Pt strips J H Franken, M Hoeijmakers, R Lavrijsen and H J M Swagten Experimental detection of domain wall propagation above the Walker field Kouta Kondou, Norikazu Ohshima, Daichi Chiba, Shinya Kasai, Kensuke Kobayashi and Teruo Ono Enhanced functionality in magnonics by domain walls and inhomogeneous spin configurationsG Duerr, R Huber and D Grundler Domain wall motion in perpendicular anisotropy nanowires with edge roughness Maximilian Albert, Matteo Franchin, Thomas Fischbacher, Guido Meier and Hans Fangohr Determination of the spin torque non-adiabaticity in perpendicularly magnetized nanowiresJ Heinen, D Hinzke, O Boulle, G Malinowski, H J M Swagten, B Koopmans, C Ulysse, G Faini, B Ocker, J Wrona and M Kläui Domain wall dynamics driven by spin transfer torque and the spin-orbit field Masamitsu Hayashi, Yoshinobu Nakatani, Shunsuke Fukami, Michihiko Yamanouchi, Seiji Mitani and Hideo Ohno Dynamic propagation and nucleation in domain

  12. PREFACE: The Sixth International Conference on Gravitation & Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Date, Ghanashyam; Souradeep, Tarun

    2008-07-01

    (Chennai), RRI (Bangalore), SINP (Kolkata) and IUCAA. The conference banquet was sponsored by Hewlett-Packard and the reception dinner was sponsored by the Bank of Baroda. We thank them all. It is a pleasure to thank Professor Naresh Dadhich, Director, IUCAA, members of the IAGRG council, members of the SOC and members of the LOC for their pivotal role in the organization of the conference, and the speakers, the participants, and the IUCAA staff for their efforts which made the sixth ICGC a very successful meeting. Ghanashyam Date Institute for Mathematical Science, Chennai Tarun Souradeep Inter-University Centre for Astronomy & Astrophysics, Pune Scientific Organizing Committee Ghanashyam Date (Chairman, SOC, IMSc, India) Abhay Ashtekar (Pennsylvania State Univ., US) Bhuvnesh Jain (Univ. of Pennsylvania, US) Carlo Rovelli (CPT, Marseille, France) Clifford M. Will (Washington Univ., US) Gabriela Gonza'lez (Lousiana State Univ., US) Hideo Kodama (Kyoto Univ. Japan) John Ellis (CERN, Switzerland) Luc Blanchet (IAP, France) Madhavan Varadarajan (RRI, India) Masaru Shibata (Univ. of Tokyo, Japan) Narayan Banerjee (Jadavpur Univ. India) Parthasarathi Mitra (SINP, India) Rajesh Gopakumar (HRI, India) Sanjeev Dhurandhar (IUCAA, India) Somnath Bharadwaj (IITKGP, India) Subhendra Mohanty (PRL, India) Subir Sarkar (Univ. of Oxford, UK) Tarun Souradeep (IUCAA, India) T. P. Singh (TIFR, India) Local Organizing Committee Tarun Souradeep (Chairman, LOC) Biswajit Pandey Gaurang Mahajan Manjiri Mahabal Maulik Parikh Minu Joy Moumita Aich Niranjan Abhyankar Nirupama Bawdekar Ratna Rao Saugata Chatterjee Savita Dalvi Sharanya Sur Snehlata Shankar Subharthi Ray Sudhanshu Barway Tuhin Ghosh Plenary Speakers and Talks The Plenary Talks are available at http://meghnad.iucaa.ernet.in/~icgc07/ Gary Hinshaw Status of WMAP Data Andrew Jaffe The Future of CMB Studies Subir Sarkar Cosmology beyond the Standard Model HongSheng Zhao Dark Matter and Dark Energy: Puzzles and an Alternative Solution

  13. Combustion and Plasma Synthesis of High-Temperature Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munir, Z. A.; Holt, J. B.

    1997-04-01

    KEYNOTE ADDRESS. Self-Propagating High-Temperature Synthesis: Twenty Years of Search and Findings (A. Merzhanov). SOLID-STATE COMBUSTION SYNTHESIS. Recent Progress in Combustion Synthesis of High-Performance Materials in Japan (M. Koizumi & Y. Miyamoto). Modeling and Numerical Computation of a Nonsteady SHS Process (A. Bayliss & B. Matkowsky). New Models of Quasiperiodic Burning in Combustion Synthesis (S. Margolis, et al.). Modeling of SHS Operations (V. Hlavacek, et al.). Combustion Theory for Sandwiches of Alloyable Materials (R. Armstrong & M. Koszykowski). Observations on the Combustion Reaction Between Thin Foils of Ni and Al (U. Anselmi-Tamburini & Z. Munir). Combustion Synthesis of Intermetallic Compounds (Y. Kaieda, et al.). Combustion Synthesis of Nickel Aluminides (B. Rabin, et al.). Self-Propagating High-Temperature Synthesis of NiTi Intermetallics (H. Yi & J. Moore). Shock-Induced Chemical Synthesis of Intermetallic Compounds (S. Work, et al.). Advanced Ceramics Via SHS (T. DeAngelis & D. Weiss). In-Situ Formation of SiC and SiC-C Blocked Solids by Self-Combustion Synthesis (S. Ikeda, et al.). Powder Purity and Morphology Effects in Combustion-Synthesis Reactions (L. Kecskes, et al.). Simultaneous Synthesis and Densification of Ceramic Components Under Gas Pressure by SHS (Y. Miyamoto & M. Koizumi). The Use of Self-Propagating High-Temperature Synthesis of High-Density Titanium Diboride (P. Zavitsanos, et al.). Metal--Ceramic Composite Pipes Produced by a Centrifugal-Thermit Process (O. Odawara). Simultaneous Combustion Synthesis and Densification of AIN (S. Dunmead, et al.). Fabrication of a Functionally Gradient Material by Using a Self-Propagating Reaction Process (N. Sata, et al.). Combustion Synthesis of Oxide-Carbide Composites (L. Wang, et al.). Heterogeneous Reaction Mechanisms in the Si-C System Under Conditions of Solid Combustion (R. Pampuch, et al.). Experimental Modeling of Particle-Particle Interactions During SHS of TiB2 -Al2O3 (K. Logan

  14. Secondary Mineralization of Components in CV3 Chondrites: Nebular and Asteroidal Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, E. R. D.; Krot, A. N.; Zolensky, M. E.

    1995-09-01

    vaporization after >1000-fold dust/gas enrichment [11]. Fe-rich olivine will not condense until most Mg has condensed into forsterite [11]. The steep compositional gradients between adjacent fayalite and forsterite limit the duration of fayalite condensation to a period of several hours [2]. There are several inconsistencies in this late-stage evaporation-condensation model. Fayalitic rims occur inside chondrules and formed by alteration, not by condensation. Forsterite and enstatite grains that supposedly condensed from the nebula are absent on chondrule rims and in chondrites. Magnetite, Ni-rich metal and sulfides are present inside matrix olivine, inconsistent with equilibrium calculations. I-Xe data suggest that sodalite formation in Allende lasted for about 10 Myr, which is inconsistent with a nebular origin [12]. Asteroidal alteration is favored for magnetite [3] and required for most phyllosilicates [4]. Asteroidal formation of fayalite [13] was rejected [2], partly because hydrous minerals are absent in Allende. We suggest that Allende-like CV3 chondrites may have formed in an asteroid by aqueous alteration and dehydration; see Krot et al. [this volume] for details. Higher Na and K concentrations in oxidized CV3 chondrites are not inconsistent with asteroidal alteration, as CM2 chondrites show similar heterogeneities. Acknowledgments: This work was supported by NASA grants NAGW-3281 (K. Keil) and 152-11-40-23 (M.E.Z.). References: [1] Peck J. A. and Wood J. A. (1987) GCA, 51, 1503-1510. [2] Hua X. et al. (1988) GCA, 52, 1389-1408. [3] Blum J. D. et al. (1989) GCA, 53, 543-556. [4] Keller L. P. et al. (1994) GCA, 58, 5589-5598. [5] Hashimoto A. and Grosman L. (1987) GCA, 51, 1685-1704. [6] Kimura M. and Ikeda Y. (1992) Proc. Symp. Antarc. Meteorites, 17, 31-33. [7] Peck J. A. (1983) LPS XIV, 373-374. [8] McSween H. Y. (1977) GCA, 41, 1777-1790. [9] Weinbruch S. et al. (1993) GCA, 57, 2649-2661. [10] Palme et al. (1991) Meteoritics, 25, 383. [11] Palme H. and Fegley B

  15. Post-fire changes in sediment transport connectivity from pedon to watershed scale. The Navalón wildfire in Eastern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Bodí, Merche B.; González, Óscar; Mataix Solera, Jorge; Doerr, Stefan Helmut

    2015-04-01

    ., Sheridan, G. J., Smith, H. G., Lane, P. N. J. (2012). Surface runoff and erosion after prescribed burning and the effect of different fire regimes in forests and shrublands: a review. International Journal of Wildland Fire, 21(7), 857-872. Cerdà, A., Lasanta, A. 2005. Long-term erosional responses after fire in the Central Spanish Pyrenees: 1. Water and sediment yield. Catena, 60, 59-80. Doerr, S., Cerdà, A. 2005. Fire effects on soil system functioning: new insights and future challenges International Journal of Wildland Fire Preface. International Journal of Wildland Fire 14(4) 339-342 Guénon, R., Vennetier, M., Dupuy, N., Roussos, S., Pailler, A., Gros, R. 2013. Trends in recovery of Mediterranean soil chemical properties and microbial activities after infrequent and frequent wildfires. Land Degradation & Development, 24: 115- 128. DOI 10.1002/ldr.1109 Kaiho, K., Yatsu, S., Oba, M., Gorjan, P., Casier, J. G., Ikeda, M. (2013). A forest fire and soil erosion event during the Late Devonian mass extinction. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 392, 272-280. Lasanta, A., Cerdà, A. 2005. Long-term erosional responses after fire in the Central Spanish Pyrenees: 2. Solute release. Catena, 60, 80-101. Pérez-Cabello, F., Cerdà, A., de la Riva, J., Echeverría, M.T., García-Martín, A., Ibarra, P., Lasanta, T., Montorio, R., Palacios, V. 2012. Micro-scale post-fire surface cover changes monitored using high spatial resolution photography in a semiarid environment: A useful tool in the study of post-fire soil erosion processes, Journal of Arid Environments, 76: 88-96. 10.1016/j.jaridenv.2011.08.007 Prats, S.A., Malvar, M.C., Simões-Vieira, D.C., MacDonald, L., Keizer, J.J. 2015. Effectiveness of hydro- mulching to reduce runoff and erosion in a recently burnt pine plantation in central Portugal. Land Degradation & Development, DOI: 10.1002/ldr.2236.

  16. PREFACE: Tenth International Conference on Topics in Astroparticle and Underground Physics (TAUP2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Kunio; Suzuki, Atsuto; Mitsui, Tadao

    2008-07-01

    The tenth meeting of the TAUP Workshop Series, TAUP 2007, was organized by the Research Center for Neutrino Science, Tohoku University. In TAUP 2007 all the various aspects of Astroparticle Physics have been covered, from Cosmology and Dark Constituents, to Gravitational Waves, to Neutrino Physics and Astrophysics, to High Energy Astrophysics, to Cosmic Rays and Gamma-Rays Astronomy. New and important scientific results were presented and debated in the plenary review talks and in a very large number of contributions in topical parallel sessions. As editors of these proceedings, we hope that this volume, which contains most of the talks and contributions presented at TAUP 2007, will provide a detailed state-of-the-art account of the various facets of Astroparticle Physics. We thank all the invited speakers, conveners, and contributors who made this possible. Full coverage of the transparencies presented at the conference can be found on the website http://www.awa.tohoku.ac.jp/taup2007. The TAUP 2007 Organizing Committee thanks IUPAP/PaNAGIC, Sendai Tourism and Convention Bureau, COE program: Exploring New Science by Bridging Particle-Matter Hierarchy, SEIKO EG&G, and REPIC corporation for sponsoring the Conference, and Sendai Civic Auditorium, where the meeting was held, for their hospitality. We wish to thank Alessandro Bottino, Junpei Shirai, Fumihiko Suekane, David Sinclair, Takaaki Kajita, Takeo Moroi, Masaki Mori, Masahiro Kawasaki, Yoshihito Gando, Sei Yoshida, Kyoko Tamae, Sanshiro Enomoto, Alexandre Kozlov, Yasuhiro Kishimoto, Itaru Shimizu, Kengo Nakamura, Haruo Ikeda, and Kyo Nakajima for their invaluable contribution in the scientific shaping of the conference and in the preparation of the present volume. The Organizing Committee is grateful to the members of the International Advisory Committee and of the TAUP Steering Committee for assistance and advice on the scientific program. Very special thanks are due to Ms Rika Bizen, Mr Fujio Miura, Ms Akemi

  17. [Studies on the intradermal reactions with the fractions of Ascaris lumbricoides

    PubMed

    Lee, Chan Wook

    1967-06-01

    INTRODUCTION : The studies on allergic reaction with the substances of Ascaris lumbricoides have long been studied by various worers; Conventry(1929), Campbell(1936), Sakei(1949), Miyakawa(1950), Ikeda(1952), Matsumoto and Imawari(1952), Morishita and Kobayashi(1953, 1954), Komiyayama(1954) and Yammoto(1956). Campbell(1936) and some other workers reported that the polysaccharides from ascaris produced the stronger intrademal reactions than protein fraction, though Yamamoto(1954) and others found the reverse results. On the other hand, Hosotani(1954) reported that the crude antigen or mixed antigen with polysaccharide and protein fraction of the ascaris produced the strongest skin reaction than with the other single fraction. As are shown in above reports, the intensity of the allergic reaction with the substances from ascaris is still remained under dipute. The reason might be due to the difference of the method of preparation, technique and evaluation. The aim of the present study is to elucidate the intensity of allergic reactivity fo protein and polysaccharide fration and mixed substance of two fractions and crude antigen of Ascaris lumbricoides. MATERIALS AND METHODS : A Intrdermal Test 1. Human Experiment. The intradermal test was performed on several groups of people. A: Ascaris lumbricoides egg positive cases among adult ages. B: Ascaris lumbricoides egg negative cases but who bad doubtful symptom. C: Ascaris lumbricoides egg negative cases but who had past history of ascaris infection. D: Ascaris lumbricoides egg negative cases and aged 3-8 months old. 2. Animal Experiment: Same breeds of 6 dogs were raised i cages of laboratory for 6 months, During the period, special attention was paid to keep them in parasite free conditon. The body weight was 10kg in average. B. Antigens. The adults worms of Ascaris lumbricoides, which were obtained during laparotomy, were first washed with sterilized saline solution. Each ascaris was placed in 50ml of saline solution

  18. Physics of Unstable Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoa, Dao Tien; Egelhof, Peter; Gales, Sydney; Giai, Nguyen Van; Motobayashi, Tohru

    2008-04-01

    ]C([symbol], n)[symbol]O by the transfer reaction [symbol]C([symbol]Li, t)[symbol]O / F. Hammache et al. -- SPIRAL2 at GANIL: a world of leading ISOL facility for the physics of exotic nuclei / S. Gales -- Magnetic properties of light neutron-rich nuclei and shell evolution / T. Suzuki, T. Otsuka -- Multiple scattering effects in elastic and quasi free proton scattering from halo nuclei / R. Crespo et al. -- The dipole response of neutron halos and skins / T. Aumann -- Giant and pygmy resonances within axially-symmetric-deformed QRPA with the Gogny force / S. Péru, H. Goutte -- Soft K[symbol] = O+ modes unique to deformed neutron-rich unstable nuclei / K. Yoshida et al. -- Synthesis, decay properties, and identification of superheavy nuclei produced in [symbol]Ca-induced reactions / Yu. Ts. Oganessian et al. -- Highlights of the Brazilian RIB facility and its first results and hindrance of fusion cross section induced by [symbol]He / P. R. S. Gomes et al. -- Search for long fission times of super-heavy elements with Z = 114 / M. Morjean et al. -- Microscopic dynamics of shape coexistence phenomena around [symbol]Se and [symbol]Kr / N. Hinohara et al. -- [symbol]-cluster states and 4[symbol]-particle condensation in [symbol]O / Y. Funaki et al. -- Evolution of the N = 28 shell closure far from stability / O. Sorlin et al. -- Continuum QRPA approach and the surface di-neutron modes in nuclei near the neutron drip-line / M. Matsuo et al. -- Deformed relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov model for exotic nuclei / S. G. Zhou et al. -- Two- and three-body correlations in three-body resonances and continuum states / K. Katō, K. Ikeda -- Pion- and Rho-Meson effects in relativistic Hartree-Fock and RPA / N. V. Giai et al. -- Study of the structure of neutron rich nuclei by using [symbol]-delayed neutron and gamma emission method / Y. Ye et al. -- Production of secondary radioactive [symbol] Na beam for the study of [symbol]Na([symbol], p)[symbol]Mg stellar reaction / D. N. Binh et al

  19. EDITORIAL: Cluster issue on Heusler compounds and devices Cluster issue on Heusler compounds and devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felser, Claudia; Hillebrands, Burkard

    2009-04-01

    ] Sakuraba Y, Hattori M, Oogane M, Ando Y, Kato H, Sakuma A, Miyazaki T and Kubota H 2006 Appl. Phys. Lett. 88 192508 [11] Inomata K, Okamura S, Miyazaki A, Kikuchi M, Tezuka N, Wojcik M and Jedryka E 2006 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 39 816 [12] Fecher G H and Felser C 2007 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 40 1582 [13] Tezuka N, Ikeda N, Miyazaki A, Sugimoto S, Kikuchi M and Inomata K 2006 Appl. Phys. Lett. 89 112514 [14] Kallmayer M, Schneider H, Jakob G, Elmers H J, Balke B and Cramm S 2007 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 40 1552 [15] Cinchetti M, Wüstenberg J P, Sánchez Albaneda M, Steeb F, Conca A, Jourdan M and Aeschlimann M 2007 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 40 1544 [16] Fecher G H, Balke B, Ouardi S, Felser C, Schonhense G, Ikenaga E, Kim J J, Ueda S and Kobayashi K 2007 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 40 1576 [17] Chioncel L, Sakuraba Y, Arrigoni E, Katsnelson M I, Oogane M, Ando Y, Miyazaki T, Burzo E and Lichtenstein A I 2008 Phys. Rev. Lett. 100 086402 [18] Hamrle J, Blomeier S, Gaier O, Hillebrands B, Schneider H, Jakob G, Postava K and Felser C 2007 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 40 1563 [19] Furubayashi T, Kodama K, Sukegawa H, Takahashi Y K, Inomata K and Hono K 2008 Appl. Phys. Lett. 93 122507 [20] Balke B, Fecher G H, Winterlik J and Felser C 2007 Appl. Phys. Lett. 90 152504 [21] Wurmehl S, Kandpal H C, Fecher G H and Felser C 2006 J. Phys.: Cond. Mat. 18 6171 [22] Entel P, Bucheinikov V D, Khovailo V V, Zayak A T, Adeagbo W A, Gruner M E, Herper H C and Wassermann E F 2006 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 39 865

  20. EDITORIAL: New materials with high spin polarization: half-metallic Heusler compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felser, Claudia; Hillebrands, Burkard

    2007-03-01

    resolution measurements of the valence band close to the Fermi energy indicate the existence of the gap in the minority states for all investigated Co2Fe1 - xMnxSi compounds. Other Co2 Heusler compounds are also possible candidates for magneto-electronic devices. Miura et al [21] have found that the disorder between Co and Y atoms correlates with the total valence electron charges around Y atom and have predicted that Ti-based compounds are better than Cr-, Mn- and Fe-based compounds in preventing the atomic disorder between Co and Y atoms. Kandpal et al have therefore investigated the electronic structure and disordering effects in Co2TiSn using local probes, 119Sn Mössbauer spectroscopy and 59Co nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. They found that the sample possesses up to 10% of antisite (Co/Ti) disordering, a disorder that does not destroy the half-metallic character of this material. We hope that this Cluster of papers will help to stimulate and push forward the research of materials with high spin polarization. References [1] Sakuraba Y, Hattori M, Oogane M, Ando Y, Kato H, Sakuma A, Miyazaki T and Kubota H 2006 Giant tunneling magnetoresistance in Co2MnSi/Al-O/Co2MnSi magnetic tunnel junctions Appl. Phys. Lett. 88 192508 [2] S Wurmehl, Fecher G H, Kandpal H C, Ksenofontov V, Felser C, and Lin H-J 2006 Investigation of Co2FeSi: the Heusler compound with highest Curie temperature and magnetic moment Appl. Phys. Lett. 88 032503 [3] Tezuka N, Ikeda N, Sugimoto S and Inomata K 2006 175% TMR at room temperature and high thermal stability using Co2FeAl0.5Si0.5 full-Heusler alloy electrodes Appl. Phys. Lett. 89 252508 [4] Block T, Felser C, Jakob G, Ensling J, Mühling B, Gütlich P, Cava R J 2003 Large negative magnetoresistance effects in Co2Cr0.6Fe0.4Al J. Solid State Chem. 176 646 [5] Marukame T, Ishikawa T, Matsuda K I, Uemura T and Yamamoto M 2006 High tunnel magnetoresistance in fully epitaxial magnetic tunnel junctions with a full-Heusler alloy Co2Cr0.6Fe0.4Al