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Sample records for andre sao paulo

  1. Sao Paulo Map Collections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, G. Robert

    1985-01-01

    Describes geographical, subject, and chronological aspects of 25 cartographic collections housed in university, public, special, state, and semi-state libraries in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Three size categories of map holdings (more than 10,000, 1,000-10,000, less than 1,000) are distinguished. A list of 27 Sao Paulo institutions housing map collections…

  2. Sao Paulo Map Collections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, G. Robert

    1985-01-01

    Describes geographical, subject, and chronological aspects of 25 cartographic collections housed in university, public, special, state, and semi-state libraries in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Three size categories of map holdings (more than 10,000, 1,000-10,000, less than 1,000) are distinguished. A list of 27 Sao Paulo institutions housing map collections…

  3. University of Sao Paulo

    SciTech Connect

    Acquadro, J.C.; Added, N.; Ferraretto, M.

    1995-08-01

    Argonne has agreed to assist the University of Sao Paulo (USP) in the construction of a small superconducting heavy-ion linac to serve as an energy booster for projectiles from their 8-MV tandem. This booster will be similar in many respects to the ANL booster linac built in the late 1970s. The ANL contribution to this project will be (1) to build (at USP expense) 14 split-ring niobium resonators and some of the associated rf electronics, (2) to provide technical information, and (3) to train USP staff members in several phases of superconducting-linac technology. Two Brazilian engineers worked at Argonne for one year, gaining experience in cryogenics and in superconducting-resonator technology. Another engineer worked on the new control system at ATLAS for two years, the first year supported by Sao Paulo and the second with direct ANL support. Sao Paulo personnel returned to ANL in 1993 for assembly and testing of the first batch of completed resonators. The fabrication of the resonators will be completed by early 1995 when the Sao Paulo personnel will come back for final assembly and testing. Fabrication of electronics modules at ANL is still in progress.

  4. The metropolitan area of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Hakkert, R; Gondo, C T

    1984-08-01

    This discussion of the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo, Brazil focuses on: administrative divisions; diversity and population growth; households, fertility, and mortality; migration; ethnicity, race, and religion; housing; transport; labor and income; and consumption. Currently, the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo, or Greater Sao Paula, is considered the 2nd largest urban agglomeration in Latin America after Mexico City. An estimated 9.5 million people live within the 583 square mile area of the central city. Another 5 million people live in 1 of the 36 other municipalities included in the metropolitan area which includes all 37 municipalities. Central city refers to the municipalities of Sao Paulo and Osasco. The city of Sao Paulo refers only to the municipality of Sao Paulo. The metropolitan area contains 3110 square miles in total and is still the smallest of the 11 administrative regions that comprise the State of Sao Paulo. The population, urban infrastructure, and economic activities are unevenly spread among the 37 municipalities. Greater Sao Paulo's population grew an average of 4.5 year during the 1970, down slightly from a peak of 5.9 year in the 1950s. The central city has a current growth rate of 3.7, a year, with the increase concentrated mainly in the southern and eastern districts that are removed from the city center and where land prices are still relatively low. Mortality plays a minor role in the population trends of Sao Paulo. Fertility is now slowly becoming the dominant factors in its natural increase. The average number of children a woman will bear is 3.3 in the metropolitan area and 3 in the city, low compared with the Brazilian national average of 4.2 children. According to a 1978 survey, 60% of the women use some form of birth control. The most common methods are oral contraceptives 27%, and sterilization, 15%. Despite declining fertility, the birthrate of the metropolitan area increased from 26 in 1970 to 30 in 1980 because of the changes

  5. Greater Sao Paulo Newer Library Automation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Dulce Didio

    1991-01-01

    This followup to a 1981 study presents descriptions of automated projects or activities in academic, public, and special libraries or information centers in the Greater Sao Paulo region that developed from 1981 through 1987. It is noted that an overall increase in the level of automation since 1981 has been observed. (four references) (Author/MAB)

  6. Greater Sao Paulo Newer Library Automation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Dulce Didio

    1991-01-01

    This followup to a 1981 study presents descriptions of automated projects or activities in academic, public, and special libraries or information centers in the Greater Sao Paulo region that developed from 1981 through 1987. It is noted that an overall increase in the level of automation since 1981 has been observed. (four references) (Author/MAB)

  7. Constructing a Public Popular Education in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Pia Lindquist

    1995-01-01

    Examines school reform implemented by Paulo Freire and the Workers' Party in Sao Paulo during 1989-92. Focuses on various institutional mechanisms created to support teachers' efforts to learn the skills necessary for realization of reform objectives. Appendices list reform objectives and outline phases and activities in a teacher-directed…

  8. Constructing a Public Popular Education in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Pia Lindquist

    1995-01-01

    Examines school reform implemented by Paulo Freire and the Workers' Party in Sao Paulo during 1989-92. Focuses on various institutional mechanisms created to support teachers' efforts to learn the skills necessary for realization of reform objectives. Appendices list reform objectives and outline phases and activities in a teacher-directed…

  9. Promoting the Earth Charter in Sao Paulo's Municipal Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inojosa, Rose Marie

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the process of widespread teacher training based on the Earth Charter in the municipal area of Sao Paulo, Brazil, South America. This effort diffused knowledge of the Earth Charter through 800 educators and by means of them, to one million children. This process was developed by the team from UMAPAZ--Open University of the…

  10. Automation in the Libraries of the City of Sao Paulo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, D. D.

    1983-01-01

    Twenty selected Sao Paulo, Brazil, librarians who were interviewed indicated that, in their opinion, the development of library automation in this city is hampered by poor resources and cooperation, lack of professional and technical automation expertise, communication, and other psychological, organizational, and human related factors.…

  11. Promoting the Earth Charter in Sao Paulo's Municipal Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inojosa, Rose Marie

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the process of widespread teacher training based on the Earth Charter in the municipal area of Sao Paulo, Brazil, South America. This effort diffused knowledge of the Earth Charter through 800 educators and by means of them, to one million children. This process was developed by the team from UMAPAZ--Open University of the…

  12. Biological effects of air pollution in Sao Paulo and Cubatao

    SciTech Connect

    Boehm, G.M.S.; Saldiva, P.H.; Pasqualucci, C.A.; Massad, E.; Martins M de, E.; Zin, W.A.; Cardoso, W.V.; Criado, P.M.; Komatsuzaki, M.; Sakae, R.S. )

    1989-08-01

    Rats were used as biological indicators of air quality in two heavily polluted Brazilian towns: Sao Paulo and Cubatao. They were exposed for 6 months to ambient air in areas where the pollution was known to be severe. The following parameters were studied and compared to those of control animals: respiratory mechanics, mucociliary transport, morphometry of respiratory epithelium and distal air spaces, and general morphological alterations. The results showed lesions of the distal and upper airways in rats exposed in Cubatao, whereas the animals from Sao Paulo showed only alterations of the upper airways but of greater intensity than those observed in the Cubatao group. There are both qualitative and quantitative differences in the pollutants of these places: in Sao Paulo automobile exhaust gases dominate and in Cubatao the pollution is due mainly to particulates of industrial sources. The correlation of the pathological findings with the pollutants is discussed and it is concluded that biological indicators are useful to monitor air pollutions which reached dangerous levels in Sao Paulo and Cubatao.

  13. Automation in the Libraries of the City of Sao Paulo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, D. D.

    1983-01-01

    Twenty selected Sao Paulo, Brazil, librarians who were interviewed indicated that, in their opinion, the development of library automation in this city is hampered by poor resources and cooperation, lack of professional and technical automation expertise, communication, and other psychological, organizational, and human related factors.…

  14. [Statistical considerations of isolated maxillofacial fractures in Sao Paulo].

    PubMed

    Crivello, O; Luz, J G; Lemos, J B; Rezende, J R

    1989-01-01

    Statistical analysis of 550 isolated maxillo-facial fractures is presented. Data obtained illustrated the important number of maxillo-facial fractures in Sao Paulo, the automobilistics accidents were responsible for most maxillo-facial trauma, the jaw and the malar were more predominant than the others structures and the conservative treatment was the most used one.

  15. Paulo Freire as Secretary of Education in the Municipality of Sao Paulo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Carlos Alberto

    1994-01-01

    Examines educational policy formation in Sao Paulo, 1989-92, under the leadership of Paulo Freire. Explores theoretical and policy controversies surrounding the diminishing role of the state in Latin America, the impact of social movements on educational policymaking, and the limits and possibilities of democratic-socialist perspectives in…

  16. Paulo Freire as Secretary of Education in the Municipality of Sao Paulo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Carlos Alberto

    1994-01-01

    Examines educational policy formation in Sao Paulo, 1989-92, under the leadership of Paulo Freire. Explores theoretical and policy controversies surrounding the diminishing role of the state in Latin America, the impact of social movements on educational policymaking, and the limits and possibilities of democratic-socialist perspectives in…

  17. Analysis of Deuteron-Nucleus Scattering Using Sao Paulo Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibraheem, Awad A.

    2016-12-01

    Deuteron elastic and inelastic scattering from 6Li, 12C, 16O, 24Mg, 32S, 50V, 58Ni, 70Ge, 90Zr, and 116Sn targets at different incident energies have been analyzed. Both Phenomenological Woods-Saxon and double-folding optical model potentials have been used. The folding calculations were based upon the Sao Paulo potential. A semi-microscopic representation has been proposed to study the effect of the dynamic polarization potential. Comparisons between our results and measured angular distributions of the differential cross sections showed a pronounced success of our theoretical predictions. The corresponding reaction cross sections have also been investigated.

  18. A Cooperative Project for Electrical Engineering Education at UNESP--Sao Paulo State University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akamatsu, Janio Itiro; Torres, Germano Lambert; Origa de Oliveira, Luiz C.; Loyolla, Waldomiro

    UNESP--Sao Paulo State University--is a successful experiment at the Multicampus University in Brazil, maintaining intense and diversified education activities in the most developed state of the Federation, the Sao Paulo State. The multicampus structure that consists of 15 university campuses and two advanced ones, distributed throughout the State…

  19. Medical genetics services in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Brunoni, Decio

    2004-01-01

    The city of Sao Paulo is located in the center of a metropolitan area with nearly 18 million inhabitants and 300,000 births/year. The currently existing medical genetics services are unable to meet the demand, due to their insufficient physical and personnel infrastructure. Institutions and experts in medical genetics could give short training and refresher courses to health professionals to enable them to work in the public health network. The city has a reasonably well developed health care network, represented by the Single Health System (Sistema Unico de Saude - SUS) and by the Family Health Program (Programa de Saude da Familia - PSF). The financial resources for such actions originate in the budget of the managing agencies of such systems. The limitations of genetic services provided to the population of the city could be overcome in a short period of time by developing programs within the public health care network. The city has institutions, professionals and financial resources to make this project feasible. To that end, the competent authorities of the Sao Paulo State and City Secretariats of Health should take managerial responsibility for the genetic services in the city. Copyright (c) 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Caesarean sections and maternal mortality in Sao Paulo.

    PubMed

    Kilsztajn, Samuel; Carmo, Manuela S N do; Machado, Luis C; Lopes, Erika S; Lima, Luciana Z

    2007-05-01

    To evaluate caesarean section in both public and private sectors; maternal mortality associated with mode of delivery in the public sector (Sistema Unico de Saude, SUS) in Sao Paulo State, Brazil. 610,630 births in both public and private sectors for 2003; 1,153,034 deliveries and 314 maternal deaths in the public sector for 2001-2003. The study estimated caesarean section rates and odds ratios for caesarean section in association with maternal characteristics in both public and private sectors; maternal mortality associated with mode of delivery in the public sector, adjusted for hypertension, other disorders, problems and complications, as well as maternal age. The caesarean section rate was 32.9% in the public sector, and 80.4% in the private sector. The odd ratio for caesarean section was 2.6 (95% CI: 2.6-2.7) for women with 12 or more years of education. The odd ratio for maternal mortality associated with caesarean section in the public sector was 3.3 (95% CI: 2.6-4.3). Sao Paulo presented high caesarean section rates. Caesarean section compared to vaginal delivery in the public sector presented higher risk for mortality even when adjusted for hypertension, other disorders, problems and complications, as well as maternal age.

  1. [Sanitary battles and scientific clashes: Emilio Ribas and yellow fever in Sao Paulo].

    PubMed

    Almeida, M

    Emilio Ribas, an administrative physician and sanitarian from Sao Paulo, was an advocate of the microbiological conception during the long period when he directed the Servico Sanitario de Sao Paulo (1898-1917). This article offers a brief analysis of his stance in the flight against yellow fever during the early 20th century, considered a highlight of his career. The scientists and professionals linked to this sanitary agency in Sao Paulo found themselves in a tense, unstable work environment, where experimental proof played an important role in corroborating new medical-sanitary conceptions and practices. The article takes a close look at the medical experiments on yellow fever directed by Emilio Ribas and conducted at Sao Paulo's Hospital de Isolamento in 1902-03. It examines these same studies in an effort to better understand how the significance of yellow fever was transformed and to explore its implications regarding the history of public health in Sao Paulo.

  2. The Sao Paulo Microtron: Equipment and Planned Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Martins, M. N.; Maidana, N. L.; Vanin, V. R.

    2007-10-26

    The Linear Accelerator Laboratory (LAL) of the Instituto de Fisica da Universidade de Sao Paulo (IFUSP) is building a two-stage racetrack microtron, which will generate continuous wave electron beams with energies up to 38 MeV. This paper describes the characteristics of the accelerator, and reports on the experimental equipment that will be available in order to pursue the photonuclear physics research program. Operation will begin with the first stage (5 MeV), and concentrate on NRF (Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence) measurements and radiation physics studies. Planned experiments for the second stage explore the cw character of the beam on coincidence experiments. A photon tagger has been already tested with radioactive sources and is ready to be installed. Gamma and neutron detector arrays are being developed for the detailed study of photoneutron reactions. Plans include the study of NRF and pygmy resonances, near the neutron binding energy.

  3. [Demographic discontinuities in Brazil and the state of Sao Paulo].

    PubMed

    Bercovich, A; Madeira, F

    1994-06-01

    "Given the importance of information on the population age structure when planning short, medium and long-term needs within the different social strata, this paper is a proposal to deepen...the study of changes in the population pyramids.... Based on the most recent methodologies a study of age discontinuities is carried out and a method of follow-up by cohorts is suggested, taking the 15-19 and 20-24 age groups as an example. The purpose is to show that, as a...cohort ascends in the age pyramid, new and different necessities arise and also different responses are demanded on the part of the social system." Data are for Brazil as a whole and for the state of Sao Paulo. (SUMMARY IN ENG) excerpt

  4. Concept and Use of Psychoactive Drugs Among University Students in the Sao Paulo Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zanini, Antonio C.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a medical-social questionnaire made by members of the Scientific Commission of the First International Congress of Drug Addiction Among University Students, Sao Paulo, Brazil, 1974. (Author)

  5. Concept and Use of Psychoactive Drugs Among University Students in the Sao Paulo Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zanini, Antonio C.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a medical-social questionnaire made by members of the Scientific Commission of the First International Congress of Drug Addiction Among University Students, Sao Paulo, Brazil, 1974. (Author)

  6. New aerosol particles formation in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vela, Angel; Andrade, Maria de Fatima; Ynoue, Rita

    2016-04-01

    The Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA), in the southeast region of Brazil, is considered a megalopolis comprised of Sao Paulo city and more 38 municipalities. The air pollutant emissions in the SPMA are related to the burning of the fuels: etanol, gasohol (gasoline with 25% ethanol) and diesel. According to CETESB (2013), the road vehicles contributed up to about 97, 87, and 80% of CO, VOCs and NOx emissions in 2012, respectively, being most of NOx associated to diesel combustion and most of CO and VOCs from gasohol and ethanol combustion. Studies conducted on ambient air pollution in the SPMA have shown that black carbon (BC) explains 21% of mass concentration of PM2.5 compared with 40% of organic carbon (OC), 20% of sulfates, and 12% of soil dust (Andrade et al., 2012). Most of the observed ambient PM2.5 mass concentration usually originates from precursors gases such as sulphur dioxide (SO2), ammonia (NH3), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and VOCs as well as through the physico-chemical processes such as the oxidation of low volatile hydrocarbons transferring to the condensed phase (McMurry et al., 2004). The Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry model (WRF-Chem; Grell et al. 2005), configured with three nested grid cells: 75, 15, and 3 km, is used as photochemical modeling to describe the physico-chemical processes leading to evolution of particles number and mass size distribution from a vehicular emission model developed by the IAG-USP laboratory of Atmospheric Processes and based on statistical information of vehicular activity. The spatial and temporal distributions of emissions in the finest grid cell are based on road density products compiled by the OpenStreetMap project and measurements performed inside tunnels in the SPMA, respectively. WRF-Chem simulation with coupled primary aerosol (dust and sea-salt) and biogenic emission modules and aerosol radiative effects turned on is conducted as the baseline simulation (Case_0) to evaluate the model

  7. Vehicular emissions of organic particulate matter in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyama, B. S.; Andrade, M. F.; Herckes, P.; Dusek, U.; Röckmann, T.; Holzinger, R.

    2015-12-01

    Vehicular emissions have a strong impact on air pollution in big cities. Many factors affect these emissions: type of vehicle, type of fuel, cruising velocity, and brake use. This study focused on emissions of organic compounds by Light (LDV) and Heavy (HDV) duty vehicle exhaust. The study was performed in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil, where vehicles run on different fuels: gasoline with 25 % ethanol (called gasohol), hydrated ethanol, and diesel (with 5 % of biodiesel). The vehicular emissions are an important source of pollutants and the principal contribution to fine particulate matter (smaller than 2.5 μm, PM2.5) in Sao Paulo. The experiments were performed in two tunnels: Janio Quadros (TJQ) where 99 % of the vehicles are LDV, and Rodoanel Mario Covas (TRA) where up to 30 % of the fleet was HDV. The PM2.5 samples were collected on quartz filters in May and July 2011 at TJQ and TRA, respectively, using two samplers operating in parallel. The samples were analyzed by Thermal-Desorption Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass-Spectrometry (TD-PTR-MS), and by Thermal-Optical Transmittance (TOT). The organic aerosol (OA) desorbed at TD-PTR-MS represented around 30 % of the OA estimated by the TOT method, mainly due to the different desorption temperatures, with a maximum of 870 and 350 °C for TOT and TD-PTR-MS, respectively. Average emission factors (EF) organic aerosol (OA) and organic carbon (OC) were calculated for HDV and LDV fleet. We found that HDV emitted more OA and OC than LDV, and that OC emissions represented 36 and 43 % of total PM2.5 emissions from LDV and HDV, respectively. More than 700 ions were identified by TD-PTR-MS and the EF profiles obtained from HDV and LDV exhibited distinct features. Nitrogen-containing compounds measured in the desorbed material up to 350 °C contributed around 20 % to the EF values for both types of vehicles, possibly associated with incomplete fuel burning. Additionally, 70 % of the organic compounds measured from the aerosol

  8. "Conscientizacao" through Graffiti Literacies in the Streets of a Sao Paulo Neighborhood: An Ecosocial Semiotic Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iddings, Ana Christina DaSilva; McCafferty, Steven G.; da Silva, Maria Lucia Teixeira

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we applied an ecosocial semiotic theoretical framework to the analysis of graffiti literacies in the Vila Madalena neighborhood of Sao Paulo, Brazil, to inquire about the nature and processes of "conscientizacao" (critical awareness) for adult street dwellers who had no or little ability to read and write (as traditionally…

  9. Contemporary Art at School: The Educational Sector at the Sao Paulo Biennial.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Almeida, Ana Cristina Pereira

    1989-01-01

    Describes how the Educational Sector of the Sao Paulo Biennial assists art teachers in introducing contemporary art into the schools. Outlines how students were observed viewing the exhibition and creating artworks. Describes how training programs and materials were provided to help the schools. (KM)

  10. The Social Distribution of Reports of Health-Related Concerns among Adolescents in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Moura, S. L.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the health-related concerns of adolescents living on streets as compared to poor and privileged adolescents living with their families in Sao Paulo, Brazil. The different groups of respondents were similar in terms of individuals' fear of disease and lack of concern about health in old age. AIDS and cancer were feared by…

  11. FAP Group Supervision: Reporting Educational Experiences at the University of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wielenska, Regina Christina; Oshiro, Claudia Kami Bastos

    2012-01-01

    The present article describes and analyzes educational experiences related to the teaching of FAP for psychology graduate students and psychiatry residents at the University of Sao Paulo. The first experience involved psychology graduate students and includes an example of the shaping process occurring within the supervisor-supervisee…

  12. "Conscientizacao" through Graffiti Literacies in the Streets of a Sao Paulo Neighborhood: An Ecosocial Semiotic Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iddings, Ana Christina DaSilva; McCafferty, Steven G.; da Silva, Maria Lucia Teixeira

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we applied an ecosocial semiotic theoretical framework to the analysis of graffiti literacies in the Vila Madalena neighborhood of Sao Paulo, Brazil, to inquire about the nature and processes of "conscientizacao" (critical awareness) for adult street dwellers who had no or little ability to read and write (as traditionally…

  13. The Social Distribution of Explanations of Health and Illness among Adolescents in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Moura, Sergio Luiz; Harpham, Trudy; Lyons, Michal

    2003-01-01

    Investigates explanations of health and illness among adolescents from three socio-economic backgrounds in Sao Paulo, Brazil. The findings showed that adolescents from different socio-economic conditions draw upon similar explanatory models to make sense of health and illness. The findings suggest a need for health professionals to be sensitive to…

  14. Reengineering Electrical Engineering Undergraduate Laboratories at Escola Politecnica, University of Sao Paulo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seabra, Antonio C.; Consonni, Denise

    Brazilian engineering schools are under a strict program to reengineer their courses with the financial support of the federal agencies. At the electronic engineering department at the University of Sao Paulo, this process started by modifying the Basic Electricity and Electronic Laboratories. This paper describes the new structure of these labs…

  15. The new structure of the gas industry in the State of Sao Paulo

    SciTech Connect

    Neto, J.A.J.

    1998-07-01

    The rapidly increasing availability of natural gas is leading to a significant increase in the importance of the gas industry in Brazil. This new era is already causing major changes in the existing gas distribution companies. Gas distribution concessions are a natural monopoly and the growth in demand for this energy source will require that these growing concessions are regulated. The south/south-east of Brazil is the center of the country's industrial base and the State of Sao Paulo is where most of the manufacturing activity is located. In addition, natural gas from Bolivia is scheduled to arrive in the State of Sao Paulo at the end of 1998. These two facts combined will mean major changes in the operations of manufacturing industry and in the gas supply business. Comparing the experience faced by other countries where a competitive environment in the gas industry has been introduced with privatization programs and the dismantlement of monopolies, this paper attempts to look into the future of the natural gas industry in the State of Sao Paulo in respect to the possible regulation that might be applicable, focusing on the new regulatory framework proposed to the gas industry sector and the perspectives for the introduction of the competition in gas industry in the State of Sao Paulo.

  16. The Social Distribution of Explanations of Health and Illness among Adolescents in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Moura, Sergio Luiz; Harpham, Trudy; Lyons, Michal

    2003-01-01

    Investigates explanations of health and illness among adolescents from three socio-economic backgrounds in Sao Paulo, Brazil. The findings showed that adolescents from different socio-economic conditions draw upon similar explanatory models to make sense of health and illness. The findings suggest a need for health professionals to be sensitive to…

  17. Contemporary Art at School: The Educational Sector at the Sao Paulo Biennial.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Almeida, Ana Cristina Pereira

    1989-01-01

    Describes how the Educational Sector of the Sao Paulo Biennial assists art teachers in introducing contemporary art into the schools. Outlines how students were observed viewing the exhibition and creating artworks. Describes how training programs and materials were provided to help the schools. (KM)

  18. The Social Distribution of Reports of Health-Related Concerns among Adolescents in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Moura, S. L.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the health-related concerns of adolescents living on streets as compared to poor and privileged adolescents living with their families in Sao Paulo, Brazil. The different groups of respondents were similar in terms of individuals' fear of disease and lack of concern about health in old age. AIDS and cancer were feared by…

  19. The contribution of bats to leptospirosis transmission in Sao Paulo City, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bessa, Thirsa Alvares Franco; Spichler, Anne; Chapola, Erica G Berardis; Husch, Alfred Christian; de Almeida, Marilene Fernandes; Sodré, Miriam Martos; Savani, Elisa S M Mouriz; Sacramento, Débora R Veiga; Vinetz, Joseph M

    2010-02-01

    The biodiversity of potential leptospiral reservoir hosts is lower in urban than in rural environments. Previous data indicate the potential for bats to act as carriers of Leptospira in regions such as the Amazon of South America and in Australia. Yet, little is known about the contribution of bats to leptospirosis in urban environments in South America. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that bats infected with Leptospira are sources of leptospirosis transmission to humans in São Paulo City, Brazil. Six of 343 bats caught in different districts within the city of Sao Paulo (182 insectivorous, 161 frugivorous or nectarivorous) were polymerase chain reaction (PCR) positive for pathogenic Leptospira; no seropositive bats were found. That few renal carriers of Leptospira were found in the city of Sao Paulo suggests that bats are not important in the transmission of leptospirosis to humans in this, and possibly other urban settings.

  20. Landscape risk factors for attacks of vampire bats on cattle in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Murilo Novaes; Monteiro, Antonio Miguel Vieira; Lewis, Nicola; Gonçalves, Celso Alberto; Filho, Vladimir de Souza Nogueira

    2010-02-01

    Vampire-bat (Desmodus rotundus) attacks on cattle are a major concern for cattle-raising area. Blood loss and paralytic rabies due to bat bites can impose severe losses on the livestock. We took four municipalities inside the Sao Joao da Boa Vista veterinary district (Sao Paulo, Brazil) as a study area and tested a set of landscape features for spatial correlation with distance to areas in which vampire-bat attacks on cattle were documented. Bat- and cattle-related data from the Sao Paulo State Rabies Control Program were used. Landscape data (first-order rivers and their tributaries, main roads, railways and urban areas) were obtained from official cartographic agencies; forest, sugarcane and pasture data were acquired from remote-sensing mappings. The study area was taken as a grid split into 178 cells. Each 4kmx4km cell was filled with bat, cattle and landscape data. Our analysis detected that grid cells that were closer to areas of bat attacks on cattle had higher cattle density and a greater percentage of the land committed to sugarcane cropping, and were close to forest fragments. These results shed light on the need for rethink the Rabies Control Program strategies for defining the surveillance of vampire-bat populations and rabies control in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

  1. Geologic mapping of the Bauru Group in Sao Paulo state by LANDSAT images. [Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Godoy, A. M.

    1983-01-01

    The occurrence of the Bauru Group in Sao Paulo State was studied, with emphasis on the western plateau. Regional geological mapping was carried out on a 1:250.000 scale with the help of MSS/LANDSAT images. The visual interpretation of images consisted basically of identifying different spectral characteristics of the geological units using channels 5 and 7. Complementary studies were made for treatment of data with an Interative Image (I-100) analyser in order to facilitate the extraction of information, particularly for areas where visual interpretation proved to be difficult. Regional characteristics provided by MSS/LANDSAT images, coupled with lithostratigraphic studies carried out in the areas of occurrence of Bauru Group sediments, enabled the homogenization of criteria for the subdivision of this group. A spatial distribution of the mapped units was obtained for the entire State of Sao Paulo and results were correlated with proposed stratigraphic divisions.

  2. Hospitalization flow in the public and private systems in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Juan Stuardo Yazlle; Monteiro, Rosane Aparecida; Moreira, Marizélia Leão

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the migration flows of demand for public and private hospital care among the health regions of the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. METHODS Study based on a database of hospitalizations in the public and private systems of the state of Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, in 2006. We analyzed data from 17 health regions of the state, considering people hospitalized in their own health region and those who migrated outwards (emigration) or came from other regions (immigration). The index of migration effectiveness of patients from both systems was estimated. The coverage (hospitalization coefficient) was analyzed in relation to the number of inpatient beds per population and the indexes of migration effectiveness. RESULTS The index of migration effectiveness applied to the hospital care demand flow allowed characterizing health regions with flow balance, with high emigration of public and private patients, and with high attraction of public and private patients. CONCLUSIONS There are differences in hospital care access and opportunities among health regions in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. PMID:26465661

  3. Hospitalization flow in the public and private systems in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Juan Stuardo Yazlle; Monteiro, Rosane Aparecida; Moreira, Marizélia Leão

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the migration flows of demand for public and private hospital care among the health regions of the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil.METHODS Study based on a database of hospitalizations in the public and private systems of the state of Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, in 2006. We analyzed data from 17 health regions of the state, considering people hospitalized in their own health region and those who migrated outwards (emigration) or came from other regions (immigration). The index of migration effectiveness of patients from both systems was estimated. The coverage (hospitalization coefficient) was analyzed in relation to the number of inpatient beds per population and the indexes of migration effectiveness.RESULTS The index of migration effectiveness applied to the hospital care demand flow allowed characterizing health regions with flow balance, with high emigration of public and private patients, and with high attraction of public and private patients.CONCLUSIONS There are differences in hospital care access and opportunities among health regions in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

  4. Sao Paulo Lightning Mapping Array (SP-LMA): Deployment, Operation and Initial Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blakeslee, R.; Bailey, J. C.; Carey, L. D.; Rudlosky, S.; Goodman, S. J.; Albrecht, R.; Morales, C. A.; Anseimo, E. M.; Pinto, O.

    2012-01-01

    An 8-10 station Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) network is being deployed in the vicinity of Sao Paulo to create the SP-LMA for total lightning measurements in association with the international CHUVA [Cloud processes of the main precipitation systems in Brazil: A contribution to cloud resolving modeling and to the GPM (Global Precipitation Measurement)] field campaign. Besides supporting CHUVA science/mission objectives and the Sao Luiz do Paraitinga intensive operation period (IOP) in November-December 2011, the SP-LMA will support the generation of unique proxy data for the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) and Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI), both sensors on the NOAA Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-R (GOES-R), presently under development and scheduled for a 2015 launch. The proxy data will be used to develop and validate operational algorithms so that they will be ready for use on "day1" following the launch of GOES-R. A preliminary survey of potential sites in the vicinity of Sao Paulo was conducted in December 2009 and January 2010, followed up by a detailed survey in July 2010, with initial network deployment scheduled for October 2010. However, due to a delay in the Sao Luiz do Paraitinga IOP, the SP-LMA will now be installed in July 2011 and operated for one year. Spacing between stations is on the order of 15-30 km, with the network "diameter" being on the order of 30-40 km, which provides good 3-D lightning mapping 150 km from the network center. Optionally, 1-3 additional stations may be deployed in the vicinity of Sao Jos dos Campos.

  5. Atlantic tropical forest mapping in the northern coastal zone of Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Simi, R. Jr.; Almeida, S.A.S.; Manso, A.P.

    1997-06-01

    The northern coastal zone of Sao Paulo State includes the cities of Ubatuba, Caraguatatuba, Sao Sebastiao and Ilha Bela. Large development projects, such as road and highway constructions and joint real estate exploration of susceptible coastal ecosystems have threatened the harmony and ecological stability of these ecosystems. Recently, the Atlantic tropical rain forest has been the most destructed ecosystem in the coastal zone in response to real estate investments in urban areas along the main roads. In the northern coastal zone of Sao Paulo State, 80% of the counties are included in the State Park of Serra do Mar. As tourism is a strong growing economical activity, as well as coastal production, it should be of interest to create a plan for sustainable development. The objective of this study is to map and characterize land use cover changes with emphasis on the Atlantic tropical rain forest degradation using Landsat TM images. Preliminary results for land use cover changes indicate that the Atlantic tropical rain forest was reduced by 6.1 % during the period of July 1992 and October 1995.

  6. Visceral leishmaniasis in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil: spatial and space-time analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cardim, Marisa Furtado Mozini; Guirado, Marluci Monteiro; Dibo, Margareth Regina; Chiaravalloti, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To perform both space and space-time evaluations of visceral leishmaniasis in humans in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. METHODS The population considered in the study comprised autochthonous cases of visceral leishmaniasis and deaths resulting from it in Sao Paulo, between 1999 and 2013. The analysis considered the western region of the state as its studied area. Thematic maps were created to show visceral leishmaniasis dissemination in humans in the municipality. Spatial analysis tools Kernel and Kernel ratio were used to respectively obtain the distribution of cases and deaths and the distribution of incidence and mortality. Scan statistics were used in order to identify spatial and space-time clusters of cases and deaths. RESULTS The visceral leishmaniasis cases in humans, during the studied period, were observed to occur in the western portion of Sao Paulo, and their territorial extension mainly followed the eastbound course of the Marechal Rondon highway. The incidences were characterized as two sequences of concentric ellipses of decreasing intensities. The first and more intense one was found to have its epicenter in the municipality of Castilho (where the Marechal Rondon highway crosses the border of the state of Mato Grosso do Sul) and the second one in Bauru. Mortality was found to have a similar behavior to incidence. The spatial and space-time clusters of cases were observed to coincide with the two areas of highest incidence. Both the space-time clusters identified, even without coinciding in time, were started three years after the human cases were detected and had the same duration, that is, six years. CONCLUSIONS The expansion of visceral leishmaniasis in Sao Paulo has been taking place in an eastbound direction, focusing on the role of highways, especially Marechal Rondon, in this process. The space-time analysis detected the disease occurred in cycles, in different spaces and time periods. These meetings, if considered, may

  7. Prevalence of Bluetongue virus serotype 4 in cattle in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Hellmeister de Campos Nogueira, Adriana; De Stefano, Eliana; de Souza Nunes Martins, Maira; Okuda, Liria Hiromi; Dos Santos Lima, Michele; da Silva Garcia, Thais; Heinz Hellwig, Otto; Alves de Lima, José Eduardo; Savini, Giovanni; Pituco, Edviges Maristela

    2016-09-30

    Bluetongue (BT) is considered endemic in several regions of Brazil. The State of Sao Paulo was divided into 7 cattle production regions (circuits) according the different systems of breeding, operational and logistical capacity of the state veterinary service. At least 1 animal from each property (a total of 1,716 farms) was tested by competitive ELISA for the presence of antibodies against BTV. Sero‑positive sera were subsequently also tested by virus neutralization tests (VNT) using serial dilutions from 1:10 (cutoff) up to 1:640 (in MEM). BTV‑4 neutralizing antibodies were detected in 86% (1,483/1,716) of the animals tested. These results show that BTV‑4 is endemic and widespread in the State of San Paulo and indirectly confirm that in the State there are favourable conditions for the multiplication of competent vectors. However, as no clinical signs have ever been reported in cattle in the region, BTV‑4 infection is likely to occur silently in the State of Sao Paulo.

  8. [Comparison between nutritional status of school children of low socioeconomic level from Santiago, Chile and Sao Paulo, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Amigo, H; Leone, C; Bustos, P; Gallo, P

    1995-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine and compare the anthropometric profiles of schoolchildren from low income household from Santiago, Chile and Sao Paulo, Brasil. A total of 1779 children from Santiago and 2210 from Sao Paulo were evaluated. Z-score distribution of the height/age (H/A), weight/age (W/A) and weight/height (W/H) indicators were utilized to assess the children. As a reference, the pattern recommended by WHO was used. The distribution of the H/A curves from both cities were deviated to the left. This deviation was more evident in Santiago. This situation points out the existence of a greater prevalence of growth retardation of the children from this city. In relation to the W/A indicator, both groups showed a similar distribution curves, Sao Paulo group however, had an increment of cases in the left extreme of the curve, under -2 . According to the W/H indicator the profile of both groups are different; one-Santiago-is deviated to the excess and Sao Paulo to the deficit. The differences observed in both groups of children studied indicated higher deficit of height, but lower current undernutrition in Santiago and increased wasting with conservated height in Sao Paulo. The observed situation suggests that the distinct patterns are consequences of socioeconomic factors at different stages of the growing process of the children and/or etnic differences of the population.

  9. Airport Choice in Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area: An Application of the Conditional Logit Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moreno, Marcelo Baena; Muller, Carlos

    2003-01-01

    Using the conditional LOGIT model, this paper addresses the airport choice in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area. In this region, Guarulhos International Airport (GRU) and Congonhas Airport (CGH) compete for passengers flying to several domestic destinations. The airport choice is believed to be a result of the tradeoff passengers perform considering airport access characteristics, airline level of service characteristics and passenger experience with the analyzed airports. It was found that access time to the airports better explain the airport choice than access distance, whereas direct flight frequencies gives better explanation to the airport choice than the indirect (connections and stops) and total (direct plus indirect) flight frequencies. Out of 15 tested variables, passenger experience with the analyzed airports was the variable that best explained the airport choice in the region. Model specifications considering 1, 2 or 3 variables were tested. The model specification most adjusted to the observed data considered access time, direct flight frequencies in the travel period (morning or afternoon peak) and passenger experience with the analyzed airports. The influence of these variables was therefore analyzed across market segments according to departure airport and flight duration criteria. The choice of GRU (located neighboring Sao Paulo city) is not well explained by the rationality of access time economy and the increase of the supply of direct flight frequencies, while the choice of CGH (located inside Sao Paulo city) is. Access time was found to be more important to passengers flying shorter distances while direct flight frequencies in the travel period were more significant to those flying longer distances. Keywords: Airport choice, Multiple airport region, Conditional LOGIT model, Access time, Flight frequencies, Passenger experience with the analyzed airports, Transportation planning

  10. Elevation of a cane-growing area of the state of Sao Paulo using LANDSAT data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Mendonca, F. J.; Lee, D. C. L.; Tardin, A. T.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.; Chen, S. C.; Lucht, L. A. M.; Moreira, M. A.; Delima, A. M.; Maia, F. C. S.

    1981-01-01

    Images at a scale of 1:250.000 were visually interpreted for identification and area estimates of sugar cane plantations in Sao Paulo. The basic criteria for crop identification were the spectral characteristics of channels 5 and 7 and their temporal variations observed from different LANDSAT passes. Using this technique, it was possible to map the sugar cane areas as well as the sugar cane already harvested. An area of 801,950 hectares was estimated within the study area. The confidence interval of correct classification ranged from 87.11% to 94.71%.

  11. Finding Aedes aegypti in a natural breeding site in an urban zone, Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Lima-Camara, Tamara Nunes; Urbinatti, Paulo Roberto; Chiaravalloti-Neto, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This is the description of how nine Aedes aegypti larvae were found in a natural breeding site in the Pinheiros neighborhood, city of Sao Paulo, SP, Southeastern Brazil. The record was conducted in December 2014, during an entomological surveillance program of dengue virus vectors, with an active search of potential breeding sites, either artificial or natural. Finding Ae. aegypti larvae in a tree hole shows this species’ ability to use both artificial and natural environments as breeding sites and habitats, which points towards the importance of maintaining continuous surveillance on this mosquito in all kinds of water-holding containers. PMID:26982959

  12. Quantifying impacts on air quality of vehicular emissions in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artaxo, Paulo; Ferreira de Brito, Joel; Godoy, José Marcus; Luiza Godoy, Maria; Junior, Djacinto

    2016-04-01

    Vehicular emissions in megacities such as Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro are increasingly becoming a global issue. The São Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA), located in Southeast of Brazil, is a megacity with a population of 18 million people, with 7 million cars and large-scale industrial emissions. Rio de Janeiro is also a large city with different meteorology than São Paulo. All cars in Brazil runs gasohol, with 23% ethanol in gasoline, and for the last 10 years, flex cars that can run on gasohol, ethanol or any mixture dominate the market. Overall ethanol accounts for about 30-40% of fuel burned in both cities. To improve the understanding of vehicular emission impacts on aerosol composition and life cycle in these two large megacities a source apportionment study, combining online and offline measurements, was performed. Aerosols were collected for one year to capture seasonal variability at 4 sites in each city, with inorganic and organic aerosol component being sampled. Organic and elemental carbon were measured using a Sunset Laboratory Dual Optics (transmission and reflectance) Carbon Analyzer and about 22 trace elements has been measured using polarized X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF). Aerosol mass and black carbon were also measured, as well as trace gases to help in aerosol source apportionment. In Sao Paulo, the average PM2.5 mass concentration obtained varied from 9.6 to 12.2 μg m-3 for the several sites, and similar concentrations were measured in Rio de Janeiro. At all sites, organic matter (OM) has dominated fine mode aerosol concentration with 42 to 60% of the aerosol mass. EC accounted for 21 to 31% of fine mode aerosol mass concentration. Sulfate accounted for 21 to 26% of PM2.5 for the sites. Aerosol source apportionment was done with receptor analysis and integration with online data such as PTR-MS, Aethalometers, Nephelometers and ACSM helped to apportion vehicular emissions. For the 8 sites operated in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, vehicular

  13. The Prince, the Captain and "The State": An Examination of the Mesquita Family Ownership of "O Estado de Sao Paulo" to 1969.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etsinger, Jean

    Julio Mesquita joined the staff of "O Estado de Sao Paulo" in 1885 and became a director in 1891, when he also began his first term as a deputy of the Sao Paulo state assembly. Until his death in 1927, Mesquita guided the newspaper's growth in all respects--editorial, political, technological, and economic. Julio de Mesquita Filho…

  14. Two Moments of School Architecture in Sao Paulo: Ramos de Azevedo and His Republican Pioneering Schools/Helio Duarte and the "Educational Agreement"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lima, Ana Gabriela Godinho

    2005-01-01

    There are two peculiar moments in the history of the "struggle for national education", which, specifically in the city of Sao Paulo, capital of the State of Sao Paulo, one of the major and richest cities in Brazil, produced very interesting results in school architecture. The first moment happened in the period called the "First…

  15. Two Moments of School Architecture in Sao Paulo: Ramos de Azevedo and His Republican Pioneering Schools/Helio Duarte and the "Educational Agreement"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lima, Ana Gabriela Godinho

    2005-01-01

    There are two peculiar moments in the history of the "struggle for national education", which, specifically in the city of Sao Paulo, capital of the State of Sao Paulo, one of the major and richest cities in Brazil, produced very interesting results in school architecture. The first moment happened in the period called the "First…

  16. Estimation of turbulence production by nocturnal low level jets in Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beu, Cassia M. L.; Marques, Márcia T. A.; Nakaema, Walter M.; Sakagami, Yoshiaki; Santos, Pedro A. A.; Moreira, A. C. de C. A.; Landulfo, Eduardo

    2016-10-01

    Two Doppler lidars were recently used to collect data from the planetary boundary layer (PBL) in Sao Paulo city (23°32'S, 46°38'W). The measurement campaign was carried out from December-2015 to February-2016, during the summer, which is the rainy season. Although Sao Paulo is the main city of a huge metropolitan region with more than 11 million of inhabitants and 7 millions of vehicles, according to the government agencies, the lack of PBL observational data is still a limitation for the atmospheric dispersion studies. Therefore, this work should contribute to the comprehension of PBL mechanisms and also for future atmospheric modeling studies. The data revealed that the nocturnal low-level jets (LLJs) frequently occurred along those 3 months, but its height is highly variable, from 100 m up to 650 m. It was also seen that the nocturnal LLJs can extend for several hours, right before the sunset until sunrise. This work aims to investigate the turbulence production by the nocturnal LLJs and its influence into the stable boundary layer (SBL).

  17. Evaluation of antisera used for detecting enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in Sao Paulo.

    PubMed Central

    Guth, B E; Trabulsi, L R

    1985-01-01

    The usefulness of antisera in detecting enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains in Sao Paulo was evaluated. Polyvalent antisera detected 49% of ETEC isolates and were more effective in identifying E. coli that produced heat-labile and heat-stable enterotoxins and in strains that produced only heat-stable enterotoxin. ETEC strains not detected by the antisera belonged to different serogroups not isolated in Sao Paulo before; 34% of these strains had undetermined O antigens, and most of them produced only heat-labile toxin. A variation of serogroups over time was especially observed among strains that produced heat-stable toxin. The importance of H-antigen determinations in the effectiveness of ETEC diagnosis by serological methods became evident, as non-ETEC strains were also detected by polyvalent antisera, but their serotypes were different from those of ETEC strains. Although antisera can be used to identify O:H types of ETEC strains with accuracy, serotyping cannot be recommended for routine diagnosis. However, such a procedure may be useful for studying outbreaks of ETEC diarrhea if the involved serotypes are already known. PMID:3908475

  18. Source apportionment of carbonaceous aerosol in Sao Paulo using 13C and 14C measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyama, Beatriz; Andrade, Maria de Fatima; Holzinger, Rupert; Röckmann, Thomas; Meijer, Harro A. J.; Dusek, Ulrike

    2016-04-01

    The Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo is affected by high aerosol concentrations, which contain a large fraction of organic material. Up to date, not much is known about the composition and origin of the organic aerosol in this city. We present the first source apportionment of the carbonaceous aerosol fraction in Sao Paulo, using stable (13C) and radioactive carbon isotopes (14C). 14C provides a clear-cut distinction between fossil sources, which contain no 14C, and contemporary sources such as biofuels, biomass burning, or biogenic sources, which contain a typical contemporary 14C/12C ratio. 13C can be used to distinguish C3 plants, such as maize and sugarcane, from C4 plants. This can help to identify a possible impact of sugarcane field burning in the rural areas of Sao Paulo State on the aerosol carbon in the city. In the first part of the study, we compare two tunnel studies: Tunnel 1 is frequented only by light duty vehicles, which run mainly on mixtures of gasoline with ethanol (gasohol, 25% ethanol and 85% gasoline) or hydrated ethanol (5% water and 95% ethanol). Tunnel 2 contains a significant fraction of heavy-duty diesel vehicles, and therefore the fraction of biofuels in the average fleet is lower. Comparison of 14C in organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC) shows that in both tunnels there is no significant contribution of biofuels to EC. Combusting ethanol-gasoline fuels in a vehicle engine does apparently not result in significant EC formation from ethanol. Biofuels contribute around 45% to OC in Tunnel 1 an only 20% in Tunnel 2, reflecting a strong impact of diesel vehicles in Tunnel 2. In the second part of the study we conduct a source apportionment of ambient aerosol carbon collected in a field study during winter (July-August) 2012. Ambient EC has two main sources, vehicular emissions and biomass burning. We estimate a contribution of vehicular sources to EC of roughly 90% during weekdays and 80% during weekends, using the 14C values measured in

  19. Sao Paulo Lightning Mapping Array (SP-LMA): Deployment and Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, J. C.; Carey, L. D.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Albrecht, R.; Morales, C. A.; Pinto, O., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    An 8-10 station Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) network is being deployed in the vicinity of Sao Paulo to create the SP-LMA for total lightning measurements in association with the international CHUVA [Cloud processes of tHe main precipitation systems in Brazil: A contribUtion to cloud resolVing modeling and to the GPM (GlobAl Precipitation Measurement)] field campaign. Besides supporting CHUVA science/mission objectives and the Sao Luz Paraitinga intensive operation period (IOP) in December 2011-January 2012, the SP-LMA will support the generation of unique proxy data for the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) and Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI), both sensors on the NOAA Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-R (GOES-R), presently under development and scheduled for a 2015 launch. The proxy data will be used to develop and validate operational algorithms so that they will be ready for use on "day1" following the launch of GOES-R. A preliminary survey of potential sites in the vicinity of Sao Paulo was conducted in December 2009 and January 2010, followed up by a detailed survey in July 2010, with initial network deployment scheduled for October 2010. However, due to a delay in the Sa Luz Paraitinga IOP, the SP-LMA will now be installed in July 2011 and operated for one year. Spacing between stations is on the order of 15-30 km, with the network "diameter" being on the order of 30-40 km, which provides good 3-D lightning mapping 150 km from the network center. Optionally, 1-3 additional stations may be deployed in the vicinity of Sa Jos dos Campos.

  20. Education, Training and Employment in Small-Scale Enterprises: Three Industries in Sao Paulo, Brazil. IIEP Research Report No. 63.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leite, Elenice M.; Caillods, Francoise

    Despite the prophecies forecasting their probable disappearance or annihilation, small-scale enterprises have persisted in the Brazilian industrial structure since 1950. To account for the survival of small firms in Brazil, specifically in the state of Sao Paulo, a study examined 100 small firms in three industrial sectors: clothing, mechanical…

  1. Body fat distribution in stunted compared with normal-height children from the shantytowns of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Objective: The objective of this study was to determine whether central fat distribution varies between children who were growth retarded as young children, compared to normal height children from the same impoverished communities of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Research methods and procedures: A prospectiv...

  2. Education, Training and Employment in Small-Scale Enterprises: Three Industries in Sao Paulo, Brazil. IIEP Research Report No. 63.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leite, Elenice M.; Caillods, Francoise

    Despite the prophecies forecasting their probable disappearance or annihilation, small-scale enterprises have persisted in the Brazilian industrial structure since 1950. To account for the survival of small firms in Brazil, specifically in the state of Sao Paulo, a study examined 100 small firms in three industrial sectors: clothing, mechanical…

  3. SURVEY OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS ASSOCIATED WITH AUTOMOTIVE EMISSIONS IN THE URBAN AIRSHED OF SAO PAULO, BRAZIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Metropolitan Region of Sao Paulo (MRSP), Brazil, is one of the largest metropolitan areas in the world (population 17 million, approx.) and relies heavily on alcohol-based fuels for automobiles. It is estimated that about 40% of the total volume of fuel is ethanol with som...

  4. SURVEY OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS ASSOCIATED WITH AUTOMOTIVE EMISSIONS IN THE URBAN AIRSHED OF SAO PAULO, BRAZIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Metropolitan Region of Sao Paulo (MRSP), Brazil, is one of the largest metropolitan areas in the world (population 17 million, approx.) and relies heavily on alcohol-based fuels for automobiles. It is estimated that about 40% of the total volume of fuel is ethanol with som...

  5. Urban land use of the Sao Paulo metropolitan area by automatic analysis of LANDSAT data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Niero, M.; Foresti, C.

    1983-01-01

    The separability of urban land use classes in the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo was studied by means of automatic analysis of MSS/LANDSAT digital data. The data were analyzed using the media K and MAXVER classification algorithms. The land use classes obtained were: CBD/vertical growth area, residential area, mixed area, industrial area, embankment area type 1, embankment area type 2, dense vegetation area and sparse vegetation area. The spectral analysis of representative samples of urban land use classes was done using the "Single Cell" analysis option. The classes CBD/vertical growth area, residential area and embankment area type 2 showed better spectral separability when compared to the other classes.

  6. The impact of antipsychotic polytherapy costs in the public health care in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Razzouk, Denise; Kayo, Monica; Sousa, Aglaé; Gregorio, Guilherme; Cogo-Moreira, Hugo; Cardoso, Andrea Alves; Mari, Jair de Jesus

    2015-01-01

    Guidelines for the treatment of psychoses recommend antipsychotic monotherapy. However, the rate of antipsychotic polytherapy has increased over the last decade, reaching up to 60% in some settings. Studies evaluating the costs and impact of antipsychotic polytherapy in the health system are scarce. To estimate the costs of antipsychotic polytherapy and its impact on public health costs in a sample of subjects with psychotic disorders living in residential facilities in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. A cross-sectional study that used a bottom-up approach for collecting costs data in a public health provider's perspective. Subjects with psychosis living in 20 fully-staffed residential facilities in the city of Sao Paulo were assessed for clinical and psychosocial profile, severity of symptoms, quality of life, use of health services and pharmacological treatment. The impact of polytherapy on total direct costs was evaluated. 147 subjects were included, 134 used antipsychotics regularly and 38% were in use of antipsychotic polytherapy. There were no significant differences in clinical and psychosocial characteristics between polytherapy and monotherapy groups. Four variables explained 30% of direct costs: the number of antipsychotics, location of the residential facility, time living in the facility and use of olanzapine. The costs of antipsychotics corresponded to 94.4% of the total psychotropic costs and to 49.5% of all health services use when excluding accommodation costs. Olanzapine costs corresponded to 51% of all psychotropic costs. Antipsychotic polytherapy is a huge economic burden to public health service, despite the lack of evidence supporting this practice. Great variations on antipsychotic costs explicit the need of establishing protocols for rational antipsychotic prescriptions and consequently optimising resource allocation. Cost-effectiveness studies are necessary to estimate the best value for money among antipsychotics, especially in low and middle

  7. Cost and benefits of a distribution automation system for the northeast area of Sao Paulo

    SciTech Connect

    Jardini, J.A.; Carvalho, J.C.M.

    1995-12-31

    An evaluation of the costs and the benefits of distribution automation was done for an area in the northeastern part of Sao Paulo State, Brazil. The results showed that the savings pay for the automation cost. The major gain relies on the substation supervision and staff reduction. CESP is one of the three utilities responsible for the distribution of electricity in Sao Paulo, a state crossed by the Capricornium Tropic in the southeast of Brazil. CESP generates power (9,3 GW), has transmission (20,000 km), bulk power supply to other utilities, and distributes power to six regions covering 120,000 km2 , where 1,300,000 customers are located. The main regional office is in a town called RIO CLARO, which economy is based on agro industries and manufacturers. RIO CLARO area represents 8% of CESP`s area, has 26% of customers, and is responsible for 37% of the income. In Brazil, the experience with DA is limited, and consists basically on prototypes installed in a few pilot areas, being one in CESP`s area. This prototype includes digital automation of three substations and feeders in GUARUJA, a seaside town. The system has been in operation since 1984 and has proved to be satisfactory. DA has not been given an adequate attention before, because: salaries in Brazil are low if compared to the developed countries; Brazilian computer market was protected up to 1992 meaning that only a few Brazilian manufacturers could offer automation products; foreign products were not available; there was shortage of investment even in the main equipments due to the course of the Brazilian economy. Recently, there has been access to foreign technology, there is a competitive market and offer of good products and maintenance services.

  8. The Impact of Antipsychotic Polytherapy Costs in the Public Health Care in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Razzouk, Denise; Kayo, Monica; Sousa, Aglaé; Gregorio, Guilherme; Cogo-Moreira, Hugo; Cardoso, Andrea Alves; Mari, Jair de Jesus

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Guidelines for the treatment of psychoses recommend antipsychotic monotherapy. However, the rate of antipsychotic polytherapy has increased over the last decade, reaching up to 60% in some settings. Studies evaluating the costs and impact of antipsychotic polytherapy in the health system are scarce. Objective To estimate the costs of antipsychotic polytherapy and its impact on public health costs in a sample of subjects with psychotic disorders living in residential facilities in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Method A cross-sectional study that used a bottom-up approach for collecting costs data in a public health provider´s perspective. Subjects with psychosis living in 20 fully-staffed residential facilities in the city of Sao Paulo were assessed for clinical and psychosocial profile, severity of symptoms, quality of life, use of health services and pharmacological treatment. The impact of polytherapy on total direct costs was evaluated. Results 147 subjects were included, 134 used antipsychotics regularly and 38% were in use of antipsychotic polytherapy. There were no significant differences in clinical and psychosocial characteristics between polytherapy and monotherapy groups. Four variables explained 30% of direct costs: the number of antipsychotics, location of the residential facility, time living in the facility and use of olanzapine. The costs of antipsychotics corresponded to 94.4% of the total psychotropic costs and to 49.5% of all health services use when excluding accommodation costs. Olanzapine costs corresponded to 51% of all psychotropic costs. Conclusion Antipsychotic polytherapy is a huge economic burden to public health service, despite the lack of evidence supporting this practice. Great variations on antipsychotic costs explicit the need of establishing protocols for rational antipsychotic prescriptions and consequently optimising resource allocation. Cost-effectiveness studies are necessary to estimate the best value for money

  9. Investigating environmental determinants of diet, physical activity, and overweight among adults in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Jaime, Patricia Constante; Duran, Ana Clara; Sarti, Flávia Mori; Lock, Karen

    2011-06-01

    There is worldwide recognition that the burden of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) and obesity-related health problems is rapidly increasing in low- and middle-income countries. Environmental determinants of obesity are likely to differ between countries, particularly in those undergoing rapid socioeconomic and nutrition transitions such as Brazil. This study aims to describe some built environment and local food environment variables and to explore their association with the overweight rate and diet and physical activity area-level aggregated indicators of adults living in the city of Sao Paulo, the largest city in Brazil. This formative study includes an ecological analysis of environmental factors associated with overweight across 31 submunicipalities of the city of Sao Paulo using statistical and spatial analyses. Average prevalence of overweight was 41.69% (95% confidence interval 38.74, 44.64), ranging from 27.14% to 60.75% across the submunicipalities. There was a wide geographical variation of both individual diet and physical activity, and indicators of food and built environments, favoring wealthier areas. After controlling for area socioeconomic status, there was a positive correlation between regular fruits and vegetables (FV) intake and density of FV specialized food markets (r = 0.497; p < 0.001), but no relationship between fast-food restaurant density and overweight prevalence was found. A negative association between overweight prevalence and density of parks and public sport facilities was seen (r = -0.527; p < 0.05). Understanding the relationship between local neighborhood environments and increasing rates of poor diet, physical activity, and obesity is essential in countries undergoing rapid economic and urban development, such as Brazil, in order to provide insights for policies to reduce increasing rates of NCDs and food access and health inequalities.

  10. Visceral leishmaniasis in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil: spatial and space-time analysis.

    PubMed

    Cardim, Marisa Furtado Mozini; Guirado, Marluci Monteiro; Dibo, Margareth Regina; Chiaravalloti, Francisco

    2016-08-11

    To perform both space and space-time evaluations of visceral leishmaniasis in humans in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The population considered in the study comprised autochthonous cases of visceral leishmaniasis and deaths resulting from it in Sao Paulo, between 1999 and 2013. The analysis considered the western region of the state as its studied area. Thematic maps were created to show visceral leishmaniasis dissemination in humans in the municipality. Spatial analysis tools Kernel and Kernel ratio were used to respectively obtain the distribution of cases and deaths and the distribution of incidence and mortality. Scan statistics were used in order to identify spatial and space-time clusters of cases and deaths. The visceral leishmaniasis cases in humans, during the studied period, were observed to occur in the western portion of Sao Paulo, and their territorial extension mainly followed the eastbound course of the Marechal Rondon highway. The incidences were characterized as two sequences of concentric ellipses of decreasing intensities. The first and more intense one was found to have its epicenter in the municipality of Castilho (where the Marechal Rondon highway crosses the border of the state of Mato Grosso do Sul) and the second one in Bauru. Mortality was found to have a similar behavior to incidence. The spatial and space-time clusters of cases were observed to coincide with the two areas of highest incidence. Both the space-time clusters identified, even without coinciding in time, were started three years after the human cases were detected and had the same duration, that is, six years. The expansion of visceral leishmaniasis in Sao Paulo has been taking place in an eastbound direction, focusing on the role of highways, especially Marechal Rondon, in this process. The space-time analysis detected the disease occurred in cycles, in different spaces and time periods. These meetings, if considered, may contribute to the adoption of actions that aim to

  11. Reconnaissance for uranium in the coal of Sao Paulo, Santa Catarina, and Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haynes, Donald D.; Pierson, Charles T.; White, Max G.

    1958-01-01

    Uranium-bearing coal and carbonaceous shale of the Rio Bonito formation of Pennsylvanian age have been found in the States of Sao Paulo, Santa Catarlna and Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The uranium oxide content of the samples collected in the State of Sao Paulo ranges from 0.001 percent to 0.082 percent. The samples collected in Santa Catarina averaged about 0.002 percent uranium oxide; those collected in Rio Grande do Sul, about 0.003 percent uranium oxide. Since the field and laboratory investigations are still in their initial stages, only raw data on the radioactivity and uranium content of Brazilian coals are given in this report.

  12. Indoor Particulate Matter in Houses of Elderly in the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segalin, B.; Goncalves, F. T.; Fornaro, A.

    2015-12-01

    Environmental Company of the State of Sao Paulo (CETESB), Brazil, is responsible for particulate matter measurements (PM) in the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo (MASP). However, there are few works with indoor measures for MASP. Therefore, the aim of this work is to investigate the PM in households in the MASP. The chosen households were there are aged people over 60 years old. The measurements were sampled during 24 hours using a Personal Cascade Impactor (SKC Cat No. 225-370), which the following aerodynamic diameters: 10.0 - 2.5 (A); 1.0 - 2.5 (B); 0.50 - 1.0 (C); 0.25 - 0.50 (D), and < 0.25 μm (E). Together the impactor, there is a Leland Legacy pump (SKC Cat No. 100-3002) with a flow of 9L/min. It was analyzed 56 households with average values of PM10 and PM2.5 of 30.7 and 23.4 μg/m3, respectively. On average, 76% of PM10 consists of PM2.5, percentage higher than the outdoor environment (60% - CETESB), and 43% of the PM2.5 consists of PM smaller than 0.25 μm. Among all households, there was no exceedance of thresholds national standards PM10 (120 μg/m3) and PM2.5 (60 μg/m3). However, 10.7% of residences exceeded the PM10 threshold of the World Health Organization (50 μg/m3) and 39.2% for PM2.5 (20 μg/m3). The cluster analysis grouped the measures in the houses in four profiles. In three of them were greater amount of mass in ultrafine particles (E), followed by coarse particles (A) with the minimum in C level. The maximum in E may be due to the high contribution vehicular and secondary aerosol outdoor environment. The secondary maximum in A may be due to particles ressuspension and also arising from outdoors. These three groups differ only by the amount of PM measured in the households; they represent high, medium and low PM concentrations. The fourth group has average concentrations, but it presents a different profile because its maximum is in the D rather than E. All data will be analyzed concerning the possible sources.

  13. Determinants of the use of health care services: multilevel analysis in the Metropolitan Region of Sao Paulo.

    PubMed

    Chiavegatto Filho, Alexandre Dias Porto; Wang, Yuan-Pang; Malik, Ana Maria; Takaoka, Julia; Viana, Maria Carmen; Andrade, Laura Helena

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the individual and contextual determinants of the use of health care services in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo. METHODS Data from the Sao Paulo Megacity study - the Brazilian version of the World Mental Health Survey multicenter study - were used. A total of 3,588 adults living in 69 neighborhoods in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, SP, Southeastern Brazil, including 38 municipalities and 31 neighboring districts, were selected using multistratified sampling of the non-institutionalized population. Multilevel Bayesian logistic models were adjusted to identify the individual and contextual determinants of the use of health care services in the past 12 months and presence of a regular physician for routine care. RESULTS The contextual characteristics of the place of residence (income inequality, violence, and median income) showed no significant correlation (p > 0.05) with the use of health care services or with the presence of a regular physician for routine care. The only exception was the negative correlation between living in areas with high income inequality and presence of a regular physician (OR: 0.77; 95%CI 0.60;0.99) after controlling for individual characteristics. The study revealed a strong and consistent correlation between individual characteristics (mainly education and possession of health insurance), use of health care services, and presence of a regular physician. Presence of chronic and mental illnesses was strongly correlated with the use of health care services in the past year (regardless of the individual characteristics) but not with the presence of a regular physician. CONCLUSIONS Individual characteristics including higher education and possession of health insurance were important determinants of the use of health care services in the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo. A better understanding of these determinants is essential for the development of public policies that promote equitable use of health care

  14. Determinants of the use of health care services: multilevel analysis in the Metropolitan Region of Sao Paulo

    PubMed Central

    Chiavegatto, Alexandre Dias Porto; Wang, Yuan-Pang; Malik, Ana Maria; Takaoka, Julia; Viana, Maria Carmen; Andrade, Laura Helena

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the individual and contextual determinants of the use of health care services in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo. METHODS Data from the Sao Paulo Megacity study – the Brazilian version of the World Mental Health Survey multicenter study – were used. A total of 3,588 adults living in 69 neighborhoods in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, SP, Southeastern Brazil, including 38 municipalities and 31 neighboring districts, were selected using multistratified sampling of the non-institutionalized population. Multilevel Bayesian logistic models were adjusted to identify the individual and contextual determinants of the use of health care services in the past 12 months and presence of a regular physician for routine care. RESULTS The contextual characteristics of the place of residence (income inequality, violence, and median income) showed no significant correlation (p > 0.05) with the use of health care services or with the presence of a regular physician for routine care. The only exception was the negative correlation between living in areas with high income inequality and presence of a regular physician (OR: 0.77; 95%CI 0.60;0.99) after controlling for individual characteristics. The study revealed a strong and consistent correlation between individual characteristics (mainly education and possession of health insurance), use of health care services, and presence of a regular physician. Presence of chronic and mental illnesses was strongly correlated with the use of health care services in the past year (regardless of the individual characteristics) but not with the presence of a regular physician. CONCLUSIONS Individual characteristics including higher education and possession of health insurance were important determinants of the use of health care services in the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo. A better understanding of these determinants is essential for the development of public policies that promote equitable use of health care

  15. Tiering strategic environmental assessment and project environmental impact assessment in highway planning in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, Luis E. Silva-Sanchez, Solange S.

    2008-10-15

    Constructing highways in dense urban areas is always a challenge. In Sao Paulo Metropolitan Region, heavy truck traffic contributes to clog streets and expressways alike. As part of the traffic neither originates nor head to the region, a peripheral highway has been proposed to reduce traffic problems. This project, called Rodoanel, is an expressway approximately 175 km long. The fact that the projected south and north sections would cross catchments that supply most of the metropolis water demand was strongly disputed and made the environmental permitting process particularly difficult. The agency in charge commissioned a strategic environmental assessment (SEA) of a revamped project, and called it the Rodoanel Programme. However, the SEA report failed to satisfactorily take account of significant strategic issues. Among these, the highway potential effect of inducing urban sprawl over water protection zones is the most critical issue, as it emerged later as a hurdle to project licensing. Conclusion is that, particularly where no agreed-upon framework for SEA exists, when vertical tiering with downstream project EIA is sought, then a careful scoping of strategic issues is more than necessary. If an agreement on 'what is strategic' is not reached and not recognized by influential stakeholders, then the unsettled conflicts will be transferred to project EIA. In such a context, SEA will have added another loop to the usually long road to project approval.

  16. The effects of Sao Paulo urban heat island on lightning activity: Decadal analysis (1999-2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourscheidt, Vandoir; Pinto, Osmar; Naccarato, Kleber P.

    2016-05-01

    Eleven years of lightning data from the Brazilian Integrated National Lightning Detection Network were used to analyze the effects of the urban heat island (UHI) of Sao Paulo on lightning activity, extending the investigation of previous works. Cloud-to-ground lightning data were analyzed in both spatial and temporal perspectives, using different approaches: flash density, flash rate, thunderstorm hours (TH), and the cell initiation technique (CIT), which aims to identify the onset of thunderstorms. Land surface temperature (LST) from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) was used to analyze the UHI evolution over the years. MODIS data were validated using ground stations, distributed within the urban area. Different time intervals (seasonal and intraday) were used in an attempt to separate local convective systems from synoptic-scale events. The results indicate significant effects of the UHI (using LST) on THs and CIT. The CIT showed a nearly ring pattern, especially during the afternoon (14:00-18:00 LT) of summer months, reinforcing temperature contrast as a condition for storm initiation. The results also suggest an amplification of the UHI effects on thunderstorm activity by local factors (sea and country breeze, synoptic events, and terrain). Higher flash rates were also observed throughout the urban region, which influences the lightning density. Temporal analysis indicates that minimum temperature and lightning activity increase in wintertime. In summary, the results agree with previous studies about the UHI and indicate its importance on lightning occurrence, especially by increasing the temperature contrast and the instability in these regions.

  17. Incidence of Leptospirosis infection in the East Zone of Sao Paulo City, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Leptospirosis is a zoonosis which is spread through contamined running water. This contaminations is seriously affected by the flooding which occurs in the area surrounding the Aricanduva river. The transmission of the disease results mainly from the contact of water with soil contaminated by the urine of infected animals. We aimed to conduct an epidemiological survey on Leptospirosis cases in Sao Paulo East Zone area. Method The analysis conducted in this study was based on data collected from the health authorities of that region close the Aricanduva river between 2007 and 2008 years, which give the rates of confirmed cases, mortality and death from human Leptospirosis. Other information concerned with the relationships among rainfall index, points of flooding and incidence of Leptospirosis. Results We observed a direct and important water contamination. Records of flooding points and dates of the reported cases in the region showed a direct relationship from which the period of higher rainfall also recorded an increase in cases. The annual record of the city and the region and rainfall regions also presented correlation. Conclusion The association between the indices of flooding and Leptospirosis cases indicates that preventive measures are necessary to avoid exposing the community. PMID:23672682

  18. The acoustics for speech of eight auditoriums in the city of Sao Paulo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bistafa, Sylvio R.

    2002-11-01

    Eight auditoriums with a proscenium type of stage, which usually operate as dramatic theaters in the city of Sao Paulo, were acoustically surveyed in terms of their adequacy to unassisted speech. Reverberation times, early decay times, and speech levels were measured in different positions, together with objective measures of speech intelligibility. The measurements revealed reverberation time values rather uniform throughout the rooms, whereas significant variations were found in the values of the other acoustical measures with position. The early decay time was found to be better correlated with the objective measures of speech intelligibility than the reverberation time. The results from the objective measurements of speech intelligibility revealed that the speech transmission index STI, and its simplified version RaSTI, are strongly correlated with the early-to-late sound ratio C50 (1 kHz). However, it was found that the criterion value of acceptability of the latter is more easily met than the former. The results from these measurements enable to understand how the characteristics of the architectural design determine the acoustical quality for speech. Measurements of ST1-Gade were made as an attempt to validate it as an objective measure of ''support'' for the actor. The preliminary diagnosing results with ray tracing simulations will also be presented.

  19. Enhancement of uranium 234 in springwaters of Aguas da Prata, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Bonotto, D.M. )

    1993-07-01

    In this study, the effect of combined chemical etch and leach processes on the generation of enhanced activity ratios (ARs) was investigated for mineral water samples from several spring of Aguas de Prata. Aguas de Prata is an important tourist site in Sao Paulo State, Brazil, located at the western edge of the Pocos de Caldas alkaline complex. Results show that active uranium dissolution is occurring in the springwaters. Enhanced Uranium 234/Uranium 238 activity ratios for dissolved U are explained in terms of combined chemical etch and leach processes responsible for the bulk dissolution of rock matrix rather than by alpha recoil effects. Several direct correlations support the effectiveness of etch/leach mechanisms, for example, between AR and total dissolved solids, ionic strength, carbon dioxide partial pressure, traditional index of base exchange, and new index of base exchange. A higher AR value is found to be directly related to a higher value of dissolution rate and a higher value of Radon 222 content is found to be related to a higher value of specific surface area. These relationships explain a good inverse logarithmic correlation between AR and Radon 22 content of the studied waters.

  20. Flood hazards analysis based on changes of hydrodynamic processes in fluvial systems of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simas, Iury; Rodrigues, Cleide

    2016-04-01

    The metropolis of Sao Paulo, with its 7940 Km² and over 20 million inhabitants, is increasingly being consolidated with disregard for the dynamics of its fluvial systems and natural limitations imposed by fluvial terraces, floodplains and slopes. Events such as floods and flash floods became particularly persistent mainly in socially and environmentally vulnerable areas. The Aricanduva River basin was selected as the ideal area for the development of the flood hazard analysis since it presents the main geological and geomorphological features found in the urban site. According to studies carried out by Anthropic Geomorphology approach in São Paulo, to study this phenomenon is necessary to take into account the original hydromorphological systems and its functional conditions, as well as in which dimensions the Anthropic factor changes the balance between the main variables of surface processes. Considering those principles, an alternative model of geographical data was proposed and enabled to identify the role of different driving forces in terms of spatial conditioning of certain flood events. Spatial relationships between different variables, such as anthropogenic and original morphology, were analyzed for that purpose in addition to climate data. The surface hydrodynamic tendency spatial model conceived for this study takes as key variables: 1- The land use present at the observed date combined with the predominant lithological group, represented by a value ranging 0-100, based on indexes of the National Soil Conservation Service (NSCS-USA) and the Hydraulic Technology Center Foundation (FCTH-Brazil) to determine the resulting balance of runoff/infiltration. 2- The original slope, applying thresholds from which it's possible to determine greater tendency for runoff (in percents). 3- The minimal features of relief, combining the curvature of surface in plant and profile. Those three key variables were combined in a Geographic Information System in a series of

  1. The Impact of Epidemic Violence on the Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Wagner Silva; Mari, Jair de Jesus; Quintana, Maria Inês; Dewey, Michael E.; Evans-Lacko, Sara; Vilete, Liliane Maria Pereira; Figueira, Ivan; Bressan, Rodrigo Affonseca; de Mello, Marcelo Feijó; Prince, Martin; Ferri, Cleusa P.; Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire; Andreoli, Sérgio Baxter

    2013-01-01

    Background Violence and other traumatic events, as well as psychiatric disorders are frequent in developing countries, but there are few population studies to show the actual impact of traumatic events in the psychiatric morbidity in low and middle-income countries (LMIC). Aims To study the relationship between traumatic events and prevalence of mental disorders in São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Methods Cross-sectional survey carried out in 2007–2008 with a probabilistic representative sample of 15- to 75-year-old residents in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Results The sample comprised 3744 interviews. Nearly 90% of participants faced lifetime traumatic events. Lifetime prevalence of any disorders was 44% in Sao Paulo and 42.1% in Rio de Janeiro. One-year estimates were 32.5% and 31.2%. One-year prevalence of traumatic events was higher in Rio de Janeiro than Sao Paulo (35.1 vs. 21.7; p<0.001). Participants from Rio de Janeiro were less likely to have alcohol dependence (OR = 0.55; p = 0.027), depression (OR = 0.6; p = 0.006) generalized anxiety (OR = 0.59; p = 0.021) and post-traumatic stress disorder (OR = 0.62; p = 0.027). Traumatic events correlated with all diagnoses – e.g. assaultive violence with alcohol dependence (OR = 5.7; p<0.001) and with depression (OR = 1.7; p = 0.001). Conclusion Our findings show that psychiatric disorders and traumatic events, especially violence, are extremely common in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, supporting the idea that neuropsychiatric disorders and external causes have become a major public health priority, as they are amongst the leading causes of burden of disease in low and middle-income countries. The comparison between the two cities regarding patterns of violence and psychiatric morbidity suggests that environmental factors may buffer the negative impacts of traumatic events. Identifying such factors

  2. Decreased fertility in mice exposed to environmental air pollution in the city of Sao Paulo.

    PubMed

    Mohallem, Soraya Vecci; de Araújo Lobo, Débora Jã; Pesquero, Célia Regina; Assunção, João Vicente; de Andre, Paulo Afonso; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Dolhnikoff, Marisa

    2005-06-01

    It has largely been shown that air pollution can affect human health. Effects on human fertility have been shown mainly in males by a decrease in semen quality. Few studies have focused on the environmental effects on female fertility. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effects of air pollution in the city of Sao Paulo on mouse female fertility. Four groups of female Balb/c mice were placed in two chambers 10 days (newborn) or 10 weeks (adults) after birth. Mice were maintained in the chambers 24 h a day, 7 days a week, for 4 months. The first chamber received air that had passed through an air filter (clean chamber) and the second received ambient air (polluted chamber). We measured PM10 and NO2 inside both chambers. Mice belonging to the adult groups were bred to male mice after living for 3 months inside the chambers. The newborn groups mated after reaching reproductive age (12 weeks). After 19 days of pregnancy the numbers of live-born pups, reabsorptions, fetal deaths, corpora lutea, and implantation failures were determined. PM10 and NO2 concentrations in the clean chamber were 50% and 77.5% lower than in the polluted chamber, respectively. Differences in fertility parameters between groups were observed only in animals exposed to air pollution at an early age (10 days after birth). We observed a higher number of live-born pups per animal in the clean chamber than per animal from the polluted chamber (median=6.0 and 4.0, respectively; P=0.037). There was a higher incidence of implantation failures in the polluted group than in the clean group (median=3.5 and 2.0, respectively; P=0.048). There were no significant differences in the other reproductive parameters between groups. These results support the concept that female reproductive health represents a target of air pollutants.

  3. [Nutritional status, iron, copper, and zinc in school children of shantytowns of Sao Paulo].

    PubMed

    Santos, Elisabete B; Amancio, Olga M S; Oliva, Carlos A G

    2007-01-01

    To assess the anthropometry, body composition and iron, copper and zinc nutritional status, according to gender, of institutionalized children and adolescents living in two shantytowns in the city of Sao Paulo. A cross sectional study using weight, height, arm circumference, skinfolds, electrical bioimpedance, Z scores for the relationships: height to age, body mass index, middle-upper arm circumference, muscle area of the arm and fat area of the arm was carried out; the body fat and lean mass percentages were analyzed according to the formulas proposed by Siri and Slaughter. Hemoglobin, hematocrit, serum iron ferritin, copper and zinc were determined. Body weight, middle-upper arm circumference, triceps and subescapular skinfolds, electric resistance, Z scores of the arm area, muscle area of the arm, and body fat percentage of girls were higher in relation to boys. Low stature was found in 8% of the girls and in 5.6% of the boys, without differences according to gender. There was a lower prevalence of malnutrition (2% of the girls and 5.6% of the boys), than of overweight and obesity (30% and 11.2%, respectively). Anemia was observed in 24.4% and iron deficiency in 10.5% of the schoolchildren with or without anemia. Values were below the lower limit of the reference standard for serum copper and zinc, respectively, for 3 and 7 individuals. In the studied population, institutionalized and of low social economic level, a process of nutritional transition and high prevalence of anemia takes place which does not result from an interaction of iron, copper and zinc.

  4. Chemical-mineralogical characterization of C and D waste recycled aggregates from Sao Paulo, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Angulo, S.C. Ulsen, C. John, V.M. Kahn, H. Cincotto, M.A.

    2009-02-15

    This study presents a methodology for the characterization of construction and demolition (C and D) waste recycled aggregates based on a combination of analytical techniques (X-ray fluorescence (XRF), soluble ions, semi-quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA-DTG) and hydrochloric acid (HCl) selective dissolution). These combined analytical techniques allow for the estimation of the amount of cement paste, its most important hydrated and carbonated phases, as well as the amount of clay and micas. Details of the methodology are presented here and the results of three representative C and D samples taken from the Sao Paulo region in Brazil are discussed. Chemical compositions of mixed C and D aggregate samples have mostly been influenced by particle size rather than the visual classification of C and D into red or grey and geographical origin. The amount of measured soluble salts in C and D aggregates (0.15-25.4 mm) is lower than the usual limits for mortar and concrete production. The content of porous cement paste in the C and D aggregates is around 19.3% (w/w). However, this content is significantly lower than the 43% detected for the C and D powders (<0.15 mm). The clay content of the powders was also high, potentially resulting from soil intermixed with the C and D waste, as well as poorly burnt red ceramic. Since only about 50% of the measured CaO is combined with CO{sub 2}, the powders have potential use as raw materials for the cement industry.

  5. [Yellow fever: reemerging in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2009].

    PubMed

    Mascheretti, Melissa; Tengan, Ciléa H; Sato, Helena Keiko; Suzuki, Akemi; de Souza, Renato Pereira; Maeda, Marina; Brasil, Roosecelis; Pereira, Mariza; Tubaki, Rosa Maria; Wanderley, Dalva M V; Fortaleza, Carlos Magno Castelo Branco; Ribeiro, Ana Freitas

    2013-10-01

    To describe the investigation of a sylvatic yellow fever outbreak in the state of Sao Paulo and the main control measures undertaken. This is a descriptive study of a sylvatic yellow fever outbreak in the Southwestern region of the state from February to April 2009. Suspected and confirmed cases in humans and in non-human primates were evaluated. Entomological investigation in sylvatic environment involved capture at ground level and in the tree canopy to identify species and detect natural infections. Control measures were performed in urban areas to control Aedes aegypti . Vaccination was directed at residents living in areas with confirmed viral circulation and also at nearby cities according to national recommendation. Twenty-eight human cases were confirmed (39.3% case fatality rate) in rural areas of Sarutaiá, Piraju, Tejupá, Avaré and Buri. The deaths of 56 non-human primates were also reported, 91.4% were Allouatta sp. Epizootics was confirmed in two non-human primates in the cities of Itapetininga and Buri. A total of 1,782 mosquitoes were collected, including Haemagogus leucocelaenus , Hg. janthinomys/capricornii , and Sabethes chloropterus, Sa. purpureus and Sa. undosus . Yellow fever virus was isolated from a group of Hg. Leucocelaenus from Buri. Vaccination was carried out in 49 cities, with a total of 1,018,705 doses. Nine serious post-vaccination adverse events were reported. The cases occurred between February and April 2009 in areas with no recorded yellow fever virus circulation in over 60 years. The outbreak region occurred outside the original recommended vaccination area with a high percentage of susceptible population. The fast adoption of control measures interrupted the human transmission within a month and the confirmation of viral circulation in humans, monkeys and mosquitoes. The results allowed the identification of new areas of viral circulation but further studies are required to clarify the dynamics of the spread of this disease.

  6. Pesticide exposure and cancer among rural workers from Bariri, Sao Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Brito Sá Stoppelli, Illona Maria; Crestana, Sílvio

    2005-07-01

    This article reports an environmental health study on risk identification. It discusses risk factors linked to rural work and pesticide contact in a restricted geographic area and shows the necessity of improving rural workers' health in the central part of Sao Paulo State. The municipality of Bariri, which is the case studied in this research, typifies this agriculturally based region. The study focuses on environmental problems engendered by modern agriculture that may have human-health repercussions such as cancer, as indicated by hard statistical association on an extended cause-effect time scale. For specific cases, the research used a database containing records of Amaral Carvalho Hospital, located in the city of Jau and a highly respected regional reference unit for over 85 years as one of the best in the Brazilian public health system for treating cancer. Statistics for age and gender were analyzed; relative risk was calculated for a group of cases registered from 2000 to 2002, as well as for a randomly selected control group from the same hospital. A map indicating the residences of cases (68) and non-cases (60) was made by geoprocessing techniques. For the period of time and the group studied, the authors concluded that the cancers of the skin and digestive system were the most prevalent. Bariri presented 24 cases representing all cancer types for each group of 10,000 citizens. The study indicated an almost two times higher probability of cancer development among rural workers, with a calculated relative risk between those exposed (agriculture workers) and the non-exposed (other occupations) of 1.6. No patterns of geographical distribution of cancer in that time period were recorded among rural workers of Bariri. However, the higher number of positive occurrences in the southwestern outskirts of the city indicated an area that must be prioritized in distributing environmental health information and conducting preventive education campaigns.

  7. Evaluating the reforested area for the municipality of Buri by automatic analysis of LANDSAT imagery. [Sao Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Lee, D. C. L.; Filho, R. H.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.

    1979-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The class of reforestation (Pinus, Eucalyptus, Araucaria) was defined using iterative image analysis (1-100) and LANDSAT MSS data. Estimates of class area by 1-100 were compared with data supplied by the forestry institute in Sao Paulo. LANDSAT channels 4 and 5 served to differentiate the Pinus, Eucalyptus, and Araucaria from the other trees. Channels 6 and 7 gave best results for differentiating between the classes. A good representative spectral response was obtained for Auraucaria on these two channels. The small relative differences obtained were +4.24% for Araucaria, -7.51% for Pinus, and -32.07% for Eucalyptus.

  8. Sickle cell disease in a Brazilian population from Sao Paulo: a study of the beta s haplotypes.

    PubMed

    Goncalves, M S; Nechtman, J F; Figueiredo, M S; Kerbauy, J; Arruda, V R; Sonati, M F; Saad, S O; Costa, F F; Stoming, T A

    1994-01-01

    In this study we have determined the frequency of beta S haplotypes in a Brazilian sickle cell disease population from Sao Paulo, Brazil, by analyzing sequence variations in the immediate 5' flanking and second intervening sequence (IVSII) regions of the gamma globin genes. This association between sequence differences and beta s haplotype backgrounds was determined by screening genomic DNA samples using dot blot analysis of polymerase chain reaction products. We studied 148 beta s chromosomes, and found that haplotype 20 (CAR or Bantu) significantly predominated in this population. This is in agreement with the findings of the historical Portuguese Atlantic slave trade from Africa to South America.

  9. [Polarization reversal in the development of Brazilian metropolises? An analysis based on demographic indicators, using the example of Sao Paulo].

    PubMed

    Bahr, J; Wehrhahn, R

    1995-01-01

    "Using the example of Sao Paulo, this paper addresses itself to the question of how far the decrease in growth rates one observes in large Brazilian metropolises can be interpreted as a process of polarization reversal. The analysis is carried out on the basis of demographic data from small area units, which include the results from the most recent 1991 census. Although it had already been possible in the 1970s to discern first indications of such a process setting in, in the decade 1981-91 indicators of population growth and migration balances agree in pointing to a polarization reversal." (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  10. The influence of the ENSO over Thunderstorm days in Sao Paulo urban area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gin, R. B.; Beneti, C.; Jusevicius, M.

    2013-05-01

    There is a lot of literature about the influence of the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) over South America. However little is known about the influence of the ENSO over the Thunderstorm days (Td). This paper presents a study about the influence of the ENSO over the Thunderstorm days, in an urban area of Sao Paulo, in the period from 2002 to 2012. The annual and monthly distribution of Thunderstorm days was obtained by METAR data (METeorological Aerodrome Report), available from Congonhas Airport, and the distribution of the SOI and ENSO was obtained from NCEP-NCAR and CPTEC-INPE, respectively. The El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) refers to variations in the temperature of the surface of the tropical eastern Pacific Ocean. The warm oceanic phase is defined as El Niño while the cold oceanic phase is defined as La Niña. The typical El Niño and La Niña influence in the precipitation and in the temperature regime over southern Brazil. The warm phases of ENSO, El Niño events, tend to intensify the subtropical jet stream over southern Brazil contributing to the enhanced of precipitation and SACZ events in this area. Otherwise, the cold phase of ENSO, La Niña events, contribute to drier conditions where the storms recorded in this area are produced by convection local, predominantly. The Southern Oscillations Index (SOI) is defined as the monthly fluctuation in the air pressure difference between Tahiti and Darwin. Positive fluctuation of the SOI were identified as La Nina events and negative fluctuation of SOI as El Nino events. The monthly distribution of SOI and Td showed coincidence between the period of maximum SOI and the period of maximum Td. The period of maximum SOI and TD were recorded on from October to April, defined as warm seasons. Four El Nino events and two La Nina events were recorded from 2002 to 2012. In this period did not observed a high activity of Td to El Nino events. The higher peaks of Td occurred in La Nina events confirming the high

  11. Ethnicity and Cutaneous Melanoma in the City of Sao Paulo, Brazil: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Luiz, Olinda C.; Gianini, Reinaldo José; Gonçalves, Fernanda T.; Francisco, Guilherme; Festa-Neto, Cyro; Sanches, José Antonio; Gattas, Gilka J. F.; Chammas, Roger; Eluf-Neto, José

    2012-01-01

    Background Over the last century the incidence of cutaneous melanoma has increased worldwide, a trend that has also been observed in Brazil. The identified risk factors for melanoma include the pattern of sun exposure, family history, and certain phenotypic features. In addition, the incidence of melanoma might be influenced by ethnicity. Like many countries, Brazil has high immigration rates and consequently a heterogenous population. However, Brazil is unique among such countries in that the ethnic heterogeneity of its population is primarily attributable to admixture. This study aimed to evaluate the contribution of European ethnicity to the risk of cutaneous melanoma in Brazil. Methodology/Principal Findings We carried out a hospital-based case-control study in the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo, Brazil. We evaluated 424 hospitalized patients (202 melanoma patients and 222 control patients) regarding phenotypic features, sun exposure, and number of grandparents born in Europe. Through multivariate logistic regression analysis, we found the following variables to be independently associated with melanoma: grandparents born in Europe—Spain (OR = 3.01, 95% CI: 1.03–8.77), Italy (OR = 3.47, 95% CI: 1.41–8.57), a Germanic/Slavic country (OR = 3.06, 95% CI: 1.05–8.93), or ≥2 European countries (OR = 2.82, 95% CI: 1.06–7.47); eye color—light brown (OR = 1.99, 95% CI: 1.14–3.84) and green/blue (OR = 4.62; 95% CI 2.22–9.58); pigmented lesion removal (OR = 3.78; 95% CI: 2.21–6.49); no lifetime sunscreen use (OR = 3.08; 95% CI: 1.03–9.22); and lifetime severe sunburn (OR = 1.81; 95% CI: 1.03–3.19). Conclusions Our results indicate that European ancestry is a risk factor for cutaneous melanoma. Such risk appears to be related not only to skin type, eye color, and tanning capacity but also to others specific characteristics of European populations introduced in the New World by European immigrants. PMID:22558444

  12. Assessment of medical waste management at a primary health-care center in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Moreira, A.M.M.; Guenther, W.M.R.

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Assessment of medical waste management at health-care center before/after intervention. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Qualitative and quantitative results of medical waste management plan are presented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adjustments to comply with regulation were adopted and reduction of waste was observed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method applied could be useful for similar establishments. - Abstract: According to the Brazilian law, implementation of a Medical Waste Management Plan (MWMP) in health-care units is mandatory, but as far as we know evaluation of such implementation has not taken place yet. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the improvements deriving from the implementation of a MWMP in a Primary Health-care Center (PHC) located in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The method proposed for evaluation compares the first situation prevailing at this PHC with the situation 1 year after implementation of the MWMP, thus allowing verification of the evolution of the PHC performance. For prior and post-diagnosis, the method was based on: (1) application of a tool (check list) which considered all legal requirements in force; (2) quantification of solid waste subdivided into three categories: infectious waste and sharp devices, recyclable materials and non-recyclable waste; and (3) identification of non-conformity practices. Lack of knowledge on the pertinent legislation by health workers has contributed to non-conformity instances. The legal requirements in force in Brazil today gave origin to a tool (check list) which was utilized in the management of medical waste at the health-care unit studied. This tool resulted into an adequate and simple instrument, required a low investment, allowed collecting data to feed indicators and also conquered the participation of the unit whole staff. Several non-conformities identified in the first diagnosis could be corrected by the instrument utilized

  13. Limitations and drawbacks of using Preliminary Environmental Reports (PERs) as an input to Environmental Licensing in Sao Paulo State: A case study on natural gas pipeline routing

    SciTech Connect

    Kirchhoff, Denis . E-mail: dkirchho@fes.uwaterloo.ca; Montano, Marcelo . E-mail: minduim@sc.usp.br; Ranieri, Victor Eduardo Lima . E-mail: vranieri@sc.usp.br; Dutra de Oliveira, Isabel Silva . E-mail: beldutra@sc.usp.br; Doberstein, Brent . E-mail: bdoberst@fes.uwaterloo.ca; Pereira de Souza, Marcelo . E-mail: mps@sc.usp.br

    2007-05-15

    This article discusses the limitations and implications to environmental management issues posed by the Environmental Licensing approach adopted in Sao Paulo State. In Brazil, Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is an essential precondition to the Environmental Licensing of activities and, in fact, it has been the most important and required tool for the licensing of projects. However, in 1994 the State of Sao Paulo implemented a simplified instrument called a 'Preliminary Environmental Report' in order to make the environmental licensing process faster. Since then, the Preliminary Environmental Report (PER) has had the role of indicating whether an EIA needs to be elaborated upon or not. The positives and negatives regarding technical, institutional and legal aspects related to the use of Preliminary Environmental Reports (rather than EIA) are discussed using the case study of a high-pressure natural gas pipeline between the cities of Sao Carlos and Porto Ferreira in the State of Sao Paulo. The main conclusion is that the Environmental Licensing process in Sao Paulo should not use PERs as the sole input to decision making about proposed activities, since the PER approach does not guarantee that the proposed activity is environmentally suitable, does not address locational issues or comparison of alternatives, and risk assessment issues are not considered in the earliest stages of assessment.

  14. [Amphetamine use by truck drivers on highways of Sao Paulo State: a risk for the occurrence of traffic accidents?].

    PubMed

    Takitane, Juliana; de Oliveira, Lucio Garcia; Endo, Ligia Góes; de Oliveira, Keziah Cristina Barbosa Gruber; Muñoz, Daniel Romero; Yonamine, Mauricio; Leyton, Vilma

    2013-05-01

    The use of amphetamines in Brazil is common among truck drivers, which may be an important factor in the occurrence of traffic accidents. This article seeks to estimate the prevalence of amphetamine use among truck drivers. Drivers (N = 134) were stopped on two different highways in Sao Paulo state and they were asked to answer a questionnaire and provide a urine sample for toxicological analysis. All data were analyzed on Stata 8.0. All participants were males with low levels of schooling, whose mean age was 40.8 years. The presence of amphetamines was detected in 10.8% of all urine samples collected, being commonly justified in order to make truck drivers able to maintain their state of awareness. Amphetamine use was detected among truck drivers on Sao Paulo highways. The problem is that when the stimulant effects wear off, sleepiness due to sleep deprivation reduces concentration and good driver performance, making drivers vulnerable to traffic accidents and the related effects.

  15. [Evolution of the relative prices of food groups between 1939 and 2010 in the city of Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil].

    PubMed

    Yuba, Tania Yuka; Sarti, Flavia Mori; Campino, Antonio Carlos Coelho; Carmo, Heron Carlos Esvael do

    2013-06-01

    To analyze the evolution of relative prices of food groups and its influence on public healthy eating policies. Data from the municipality of Sao Paulo between 1939 and 2010 were analyzed based on calculating index numbers. Data from the Economic Researches Foundation Institute price database and weight structures (1939 to 1988) and from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (1989 to 2010) were used to. The price database was organized, its consistency tested and prices were deflated using the consumer price index. Relative prices were calculated and associated to food categories and groups, according to the food pyramid guide adapted for the Brazilian population. The price indices for each group were calculated according to Laspeyres modified formula. The general food price index was compared with the indices for each food group and respective category: fresh food, processed food, beverages, meat, legumes, milk and eggs, cereals and root vegetables and eating out. Price indices for fat, oil, spices, sugars and sweets and processed food showed relative price reduction. Fresh food, such as fruit and vegetables, showed an increase in relative prices. Other food groups, such as cereals, flour and pasta, meat, milk and egg, showed a steadier long term trend in relative prices. The evolution of relative prices of food in the city of Sao Paulo demonstrates a negative trend towards healthy eating at household level in the long run.

  16. Evaluation on the effectiveness of actions for controlling infestation by rodents in Campo Limpo region, Sao Paulo Municipality, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Masi, Eduardo; Vilaça, Pedro José; Razzolini, Maria Tereza Pepe

    2009-08-01

    Rodents are responsible for the transmission of more than 60 diseases both to human beings and to domestic animals. The increase in rodent infestation in a given area brings several health problems to the nearby population. Thus, when infestation increases, it is time to take intervention measures. Although many countries have implemented programs aimed at controlling rodent infestation, literature on studies evaluating the effectiveness of intervention measures in urban areas is scarce. Aimed at contributing to the understanding of rodents' population dynamics in urban areas, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the control methods proposed by "Programa de Vigilancia e Controle de Roedores do Municipio de Sao Paulo" (Program for Rodents Surveillance and Control in Sao Paulo Municipality), conducted on Jardim Comercial District. As a first step, a survey to assess infestation rates was conducted in 1529 dwellings located in the area studied. After that, a chemical control upon rodents was accomplished in every dwelling infested. One week and six months after completion of control measures, a new evaluation on infestation rates was carried out, in order to verify the effectiveness of the procedures taken and to estimate the re-infestation capacity. Initial infestation rate was 40.0%, and the final infestation rate, 14.4%. Therefore, the effectiveness of the control methods utilized was 63.8%. It can thus be concluded that the control methods applied were quite effective.

  17. Airline Choice for Domestic Flights in Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area: An Application of the Conditional Logit Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moreno, Marcelo Baena

    2006-01-01

    Using the conditional (multinomial) LOGIT model, this paper addresses airline choice in the S o Paulo Metropolitan Area. There are two airports in this region, where two, three or even four airlines compete for passengers flying to an array of domestic destinations. The airline choice is believed to be a result of the tradeoff passengers face among flight cost, flight frequency and airline performance. It was found that the lowest fare better explains airline choice than the highest fare, whereas direct flight frequencies give better explanation to airline choice than indirect (connections and stops) and total (direct plus indirect) ones. Out of 15 variables tested, the lowest fare was the variable that best explained airline choice. However, its signal was counterintuitive (positive) possibly because the cheapest airline was offering few flights, so passengers overwhelmingly failed to choose the cheapest airline. The model specification most adjusted to the data considered the lowest fare, direct flight frequency in the travel day and period (morning or afternoon peak) and airline age. Passengers departing from S o Paulo-Guarulhos International Airport (GRU) airport make their airline choice in terms of cost whereas those from Sao Paulo-Congonhas Airport (CGH) airport do not. Finally, senior passengers place more importance on airline age than junior passengers.

  18. Master Planning in Brazilian Higher Education: Expanding the 3-Year Public College System in the State of Sao Paulo. Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.10.10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedrosa, Renato H. L.

    2010-01-01

    Until recently, Higher education (HE) in Brazil had been, identified with colleges and universities running traditional academic undergraduate programs, with expected graduation time of 4 years or more. The universities in the state of Sao Paulo are at the top of international rankings among Brazilian HEIs, accounting for about half of all indexed…

  19. The Preparation for the Equivalence Examinations, First and Second Levels in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil: Traditional Means and Educational Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gatti, Bernardete A.

    1988-01-01

    Yearly in Sao Paulo (Brazil), official external examinations allow students outside the regular school system to obtain a certificate of education equivalent to grade 8 or 11. A television program that prepares candidates for the examinations and other forms of preparation are compared, using data collected for three years. (TJH)

  20. Social Support Network for the Elderly Attending the Open University Program for Senior Citizens at the School of Arts, Sciences and Humanities, University of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domingues, Marisa Accioly; Ordonez, Tiago Nascimento; Lima-Silva, Thais Bento; Torres, Maria Juliana; de Barros, Thabata Cruz; Cachioni, Meire

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the social support network of older adults enrolled in the Open University for Senior Citizens at the School of Arts, Sciences and Humanities, University of Sao Paulo. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample of 117 elderly or older adults, mostly female (78%), married (53%), retired (82%), and aged on average…

  1. Alternatives for the Training of Skilled Industrial Labor in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Program of Studies in Non-Formal Education, Supplementary Series. Paper No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukomski, Michael

    The study deals with the development of skilled industrial manpower in Sao Paulo, Brazil, and with the Federal government's SENAI (Service Nacional de Aprendizagem Industrial) industrial apprenticeship and trainign program. An analysis of six variables among lathe setter-operators showed that: present work situations among the operators varied…

  2. Social Support Network for the Elderly Attending the Open University Program for Senior Citizens at the School of Arts, Sciences and Humanities, University of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domingues, Marisa Accioly; Ordonez, Tiago Nascimento; Lima-Silva, Thais Bento; Torres, Maria Juliana; de Barros, Thabata Cruz; Cachioni, Meire

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the social support network of older adults enrolled in the Open University for Senior Citizens at the School of Arts, Sciences and Humanities, University of Sao Paulo. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample of 117 elderly or older adults, mostly female (78%), married (53%), retired (82%), and aged on average…

  3. The Preparation for the Equivalence Examinations, First and Second Levels in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil: Traditional Means and Educational Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gatti, Bernardete A.

    1988-01-01

    Yearly in Sao Paulo (Brazil), official external examinations allow students outside the regular school system to obtain a certificate of education equivalent to grade 8 or 11. A television program that prepares candidates for the examinations and other forms of preparation are compared, using data collected for three years. (TJH)

  4. Numerical Study of the Wintertime Planetary Boundary Layer Development in the Urban Area of Sao Paulo - Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, F. N. D.; Soares, J.; Oliveira, A. P.; Miranda, R. M.; Chen, F.

    2015-12-01

    The gradual replacement of natural by built surfaces and the ongoing emission of particulate matter and other pollutants that happens in urban environments, besides degrading the environment, influence the local weather and climate patterns. Urban areas have different albedo, heat and hydraulic capacity and conductivity, roughness, emissivity, and transmissivity, when compared to naturally vegetated areas. This set of characteristics may change the surface energy budget, air temperature, humidity, atmospheric chemical composition, wind direction and velocity, and therefore the planetary boundary layer (PBL) development. The effects of urbanization on the PBL have been studied in many mid-latitude areas, however in the tropical or subtropical areas they are scarce. The MCITY Brazil project developed in 2 cities of Brazil, Sao Paulo (23°32' S) and Rio de Janeiro (latitude 22° 55' S), has provided the necessary data to properly investigate the effects of urbanization in these two cities. The project included a campaign of soundings launched every 3 hours for 10 consecutive days in August (Austral winter) from an airport at the north part of the city of Sao Paulo, that allowed the study of the PBL development, and also the measurements of the components of the energy budget equation by micrometeorological towers. Therefore, the goal of this work is to simulate the development of the PBL in the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo during winter, comparing its characteristics in urbanized and non urbanized sites, in order to assess the impact of urbanization on the development of the PBL in this area. The model used is the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) with a single layer urban canopy parameterization (SLUCM) and realistic anthropogenic heat diurnal evolution. Preliminary results showed that the model is able to reproduce the PBL development during the campaign, including the passage of a cold-frontal system. The urban PBL reaches greater heights during the day than

  5. Socio-Environmental and Hematological Profile of Landfill Residents (São Jorge Landfill–Sao Paulo, Brazil)

    PubMed Central

    Palmeira Wanderley, Vivianni; Affonso Fonseca, Fernando Luiz; Vala Quiaios, André; Nuno Domingues, José; Paixão, Susana; Figueiredo, João; Ferreira, Ana; de Almeida Pinto, Cleonice; da Silva, Odair Ramos; Alvarenga, Rogério; Machi Junior, Amaury; Luiz Savóia, Eriane Justo; Daminello Raimundo, Rodrigo

    2017-01-01

    We are experiencing an unprecedented urbanization process that, alongside physical, social and economic developments, has been having a significant impact on a population’s health. Due to the increase in pollution, violence and poverty, our modern cities no longer ensure a good quality of life so they become unhealthy environments. This study aims to assess the effect of social, environmental and economic factors on the hematologic profile of residents of Santo André’s landfill. In particular, we will assess the effect of social, economic, and environmental factors on current and potential disease markers obtained from hematological tests. The research method is the observational type, from a retrospective cohort, and by convenience sampling in Santo André in the Greater ABC (municipalities of Santo André, São Bernardo do Campo and São Caetano do Sul, southeast part of the Greater São Paulo Metropolitan Area, Brazil). The study determined a socio-environmental profile and the hematologic diseases screening related to a close location to the landfill. The disease manifests itself within a broad spectrum of symptoms that causes changes in blood count parameters. The objective of this work is to show that there is an association between social, environmental and economic factors and a variety of serious disease outcomes that may be detected from blood screening. A causal study of the effect of living near the landfill on these disease outcomes would be a very expensive and time-consuming study. This work we believe is sufficient for public health officials to consider policy and attempt remediation of the effects of living near a landfill. PMID:28085053

  6. Ozone modeling in an ethanol, gasoline and diesel fuels environment: The metropolitan area of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Andrade, M.F.; Miguel, A.H.; Seinfeld, J.H.

    1995-12-01

    Over the past several years, in the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo (MASP), ambient ozone concentrations have reached over five times the concentration considered protective of public health by the World Health Organization, with routine occurrence of levels that exceed Brazil`s 1 hour National Ambient Air Quality Standard (160 {mu}g/m{sup 3}). For the past 19 years, ethanol has been used both as fuel (E95) and as gasoline additive (E20G80) in light duty vehicles. This talk will discuss the results of the application of the CIT photochemical airshed model to the February 16-17, 1989 meteorological experiment carried out in the MASP. Simulated hourly ozone concentrations for the 1989 vehicular fleet included three cases: (1) the actual fleet (F.95, E20G80, and diesels), (2) a light duty fleet fueled with E95 only, and (3) entirely with gasoline.

  7. [Journal of the Nursing School of the University of Sao Paulo -- 36 years looking after the quality of nursing care].

    PubMed

    da Silva, Maria Júlia Paes; Angelo, Margareth; Castilho, Valéria; Egry, Emiko Yoshikawa; Rocha, Semiramis Melani Melo; Trzeniak, Piotr

    2004-03-01

    REEUSP has been a trimestrial journal since 1998, which publishes 11 to 13 articles per issue on different nursing subareas; most of them on teaching, health technology, adult health (in its different specialties), mental and psychiatric health. The article and research emphasis keeps on the hospital. For being linked to a teaching unit, it presents quality on its publishing; many times produced from thesis and dissertations. It faces the challenge of stimulating the publishing of authors from other institutions; for not becoming endogenous. On the last 10 years, it received and published articles from 18 Brazilian states and several country cities from Sao Paulo State. Its graphic design was also remodeled for 2003, allowing higher clearness and easiness for reading. It accepts exchange with other journals and it is indexed on many basis. It was gotten a C international classification by CAPES.

  8. Correlation of fungi and endotoxin with PM2.5 and meteorological parameters in atmosphere of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degobbi, Cristiane; Lopes, Fernanda D. T. Q. S.; Carvalho-Oliveira, Regiani; Muñoz, Julian Esteban; Saldiva, Paulo H. N.

    2011-04-01

    Particulate matter, especially PM2.5, is associated with increased morbidity and mortality from respiratory diseases. Studies that focus on the chemical composition of the material are frequent in the literature, but those that characterize the biological fraction are rare. The objectives of this study were to characterize samples collected in Sao Paulo, Brazil on the quantity of fungi and endotoxins associated with PM2.5, correlating with the mass of particulate matter, chemical composition and meteorological parameters. We did that by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and multiple linear regressions. The results have shown that fungi and endotoxins represent significant portion of PM2.5, reaching average concentrations of 772.23 spores μg -1 of PM2.5 (SD: 400.37) and 5.52 EU mg -1 of PM2.5 (SD: 4.51 EU mg -1), respectively. Hyaline basidiospores, Cladosporium and total spore counts were correlated to factor Ba/Ca/Fe/Zn/K/Si of PM2.5 ( p < 0.05). Genera Pen/Asp were correlated to the total mass of PM2.5 ( p < 0.05) and colorless ascospores were correlated to humidity ( p < 0.05). Endotoxin was positively correlated with the atmospheric temperature ( p < 0.05). This study has shown that bioaerosol is present in considerable amounts in PM2.5 in the atmosphere of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Some fungi were correlated with soil particle resuspension and mass of particulate matter. Therefore, the relative contribution of bioaerosol in PM2.5 should be considered in future studies aimed at evaluating the clinical impact of exposure to air pollution.

  9. The influence of atmospheric particles on the elemental content of vegetables in urban gardens of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Amato-Lourenco, Luís Fernando; Moreira, Tiana Carla Lopes; de Oliveira Souza, Vanessa Cristina; Barbosa, Fernando; Saiki, Mitiko; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Mauad, Thais

    2016-09-01

    Although urban horticulture provides multiple benefits to society, the extent to which these vegetables are contaminated by the absorption of chemical elements derived from atmospheric deposition is unclear. This study was designed to evaluate the influence of air pollution on leafy vegetables in community gardens of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Vegetable seedlings of Brassica oleracea var. acephala (collard greens) and Spinacia oleracea (spinach) obtained in a non-polluted rural area and growing in vessels containing standard uncontaminated soil were exposed for three consecutive periods of 30, 60 and 90 days in 10 community gardens in Sao Paulo and in one control site. The concentrations of 17 chemical elements (traffic-related elements and those essential to plant biology) were quantified by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Tillandsia usneoides L. specimens were used as air plant biomonitors. The concentrations of As, Cd, Cr and Pb found in vegetables were compared to the recommended values for consumption. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to cluster the elemental concentrations, and Generalized Linear Models (GLMs) were employed to evaluate the association of the factor scores from each PCA component with variables such as local weather, traffic burden and vertical barriers adjacent to the gardens. We found significant differences in the elemental concentrations of the vegetables in the different community gardens. These differences were related to the overall traffic burden, vertical obstacles and local weather. The Pb and Cd concentrations in both vegetables exceeded the limit values for consumption after 60 days of exposure. A strong correlation was observed between the concentration of traffic-related elements in vegetables and in Tillandsia usneoides L. An exposure response was observed between traffic burden and traffic-derived particles absorbed in the vegetables. Traffic-derived air pollution directly influences the absorption of

  10. Detection and distribution of rotavirus in raw sewage and creeks in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Mehnert, D.U.; Stewien, K.E. )

    1993-01-01

    Rotavirus invection is an important cause of hospitalization and mortality of infants and children in developing countries, especially where the water supply and sewage disposal systems are in precarious conditions. This report describes the detection, quantitation, and distribution of rotaviruses in domestic sewage and sewage polluted creeks in the city of San Paulo. 22 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  11. Physico-chemical properties of aerosols in Sao Paulo, Brazil and mechanisms of secondary organic aerosol formation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artaxo, Paulo; Ferreira de Brito, Joel; Varanda Rizzo, Luciana; Luiza Godoy, Maria; Godoy, Jose Marcus

    2013-04-01

    Megacities emissions are increasingly becoming a global issue, where emissions from the transportation sector play an increasingly important role. Sao Paulo is a megacity with a population of about 18 million people, 7 million cars and large-scale industrial emissions. As a result of the vehicular and industrial emissions, the air quality in Sao Paulo is bellow WMO standards for aerosol particles and ozone. Many uncertainties are found on gas- and particulate matter vehicular emission factors and their following atmospheric processes, e.g. secondary organic aerosol formation. Due to the uniqueness of the vehicular fuel in Brazil, largely based on ethanol use, such characterization currently holds further uncertainties. To improve the understanding of the role of this unique emission characteristics, we are running a source apportionment study in Sao Paulo focused on the mechanisms of organic aerosol formation. One of the goals of this study is a quantitative aerosol source apportionment focused on vehicular emissions, including ethanol and gasohol (both fuels used by light-duty vehicles). This study comprises four sampling sites with continuous measurements for one year, where trace elements and organic aerosol are being measured for PM2.5 and PM10 along with real-time NOx, O3, PM10 and CO measurements. Aerosol optical properties and size distribution are being measured on a rotation basis between sampling stations. Furthermore, a Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS) and an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) are used to measure in real time VOCs and aerosol composition, respectively. Trace elements were measured using XRF and OC/EC analysis was determined with a Sunset OC/EC instrument. A TSI Nephelometer with 3 wavelengths measure light scattering and a MAAP measure black carbon. Results show aerosol number concentrations ranging between 10,000 and 35,000 cm-3, mostly concentrated in the nucleation and Aitken modes, with a peak in size at 80

  12. Changes in the spatial distribution of O3, NO and CO in different vehicular emission scenarios in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiquetto, J. B.; Silva, M. E. S.; Ynoue, R.; Cabral-Miranda, W.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric pollution in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA) has been investigated using the WRF/Chem model version 3.2.1 in a 1X1 km emission grid. Based on a local emission inventory, a control simulation (CTRL) was performed for the period 28/01-02/02/2014, during a summer season characterized by intense solar radiation and temperature positive anomalies, which resulted in high pollutant concentration. Sensitivity tests were performed using different vehicular emission scenarios and CTRL. In scenario A), emissions were removed from a region which encompasses almost the entire urban area of the SPMA, only roads in the outskirts had regular emissions. Comparing scenario A) to CTRL, sharp decreases in CO, NO and NO2 were observed inside the SPMA. Ozone decreased slighlty during the day, probably due to the significant absence of precursor emissions which form ozone during the day in the presence of sunlight. On the other hand, ozone concentrations increased at night, influenced by the absence of ozone-consuming precursors inside the densely urbanized SPMA, in the absence of sunlight. In scenario B), we removed emissions from a smaller area, corresponding roughly to an expanded downtown area (where a few traffic restriction laws operate). The goal of this scenario was to observe possible impacts if more strict traffic restriction laws were implemented. In scenario C), emissions were decreased by 50% in the same area, in an attempt to characterize concentrations in an urban toll scenario. Results from scenarios B) and C) showed a decrease in NO, NO2 and CO, but less intense than in scenario A). On the other hand, a higher increase in ozone was detected both during the day and at night compared to the CTRL and scenario A). These results suggests that, along with lower concentrations of precursor gases and CO, higher ozone concentrations are likely to be expected in downtown Sao Paulo if more severe traffic restriction laws should be implemented. This is concerning

  13. Violence and post-traumatic stress disorder in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: the protocol for an epidemiological and genetic survey

    PubMed Central

    Andreoli, Sérgio Baxter; Ribeiro, Wagner Silva; Quintana, Maria Ines; Guindalini, Camila; Breen, Gerome; Blay, Sergio Luis; Coutinho, Evandro SF; Harpham, Trudy; Jorge, Miguel Roberto; Lara, Diogo Rizzato; Moriyama, Tais S; Quarantini, Lucas C; Gadelha, Ary; Vilete, Liliane Maria Pereira; Yeh, Mary SL; Prince, Martin; Figueira, Ivan; Bressan, Rodrigo A; Mello, Marcelo F; Dewey, Michael E; Ferri, Cleusa P; Mari, Jair de Jesus

    2009-01-01

    Background violence is a public health major concern, and it is associated with post-traumatic stress disorder and other psychiatric outcomes. Brazil is one of the most violent countries in the world, and has an extreme social inequality. Research on the association between violence and mental health may support public health policy and thus reduce the burden of disease attributable to violence. The main objectives of this project were: to study the association between violence and mental disorders in the Brazilian population; to estimate the prevalence rates of exposure to violence, post-traumatic stress disorder, common metal disorder, and alcohol hazardous use and dependence: and to identify contextual and individual factors, including genetic factors, associated with the outcomes. Methods/design one phase cross-sectional survey carried out in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A multistage probability to size sampling scheme was performed in order to select the participants (3000 and 1500 respectively). The cities were stratified according to homicide rates, and in Sao Paulo the three most violent strata were oversampled. The measurements included exposure to traumatic events, psychiatric diagnoses (CIDI 2.1), contextual (homicide rates and social indicators), and individual factors, such as demographics, social capital, resilience, help seeking behaviours. The interviews were carried between June/2007 February/2008, by a team of lay interviewers. The statistical analyses will be weight-adjusted in order to take account of the design effects. Standardization will be used in order to compare the results between the two centres. Whole genome association analysis will be performed on the 1 million SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) arrays, and additional association analysis will be performed on additional phenotypes. The Ethical Committee of the Federal University of Sao Paulo approved the study, and participants who matched diagnostic criteria have been

  14. Assessing the Health Benefits of Urban Air Pollution Reductions Associated with Climate Change Mitigation (2000-2020): Santiago, Sao Paulo, Mexico City, and New York City

    SciTech Connect

    2001-06-01

    To investigate the potential local health benefits of adopting greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation policies, developed scenarios of GHG mitigation for Mexico City, Mexico; Santiago, Chile; Sao Paulo, Brazil; and New York, New York, USA using air pollution health impact factors appropriate to each city. These findings illustrated that GHG mitigation can provide considerable local air pollution-related public health benefits to countries that choose to abate GHG emissions by reducing fossil fuel combustion.

  15. The effect of Sao Paulo's smoke-free legislation on carbon monoxide concentration in hospitality venues and their workers.

    PubMed

    Issa, Jaqueline S; Abe, Tania M O; Pereira, Alexandre C; Megid, Maria Cristina; Shimabukuro, Cristina E; Valentin, Luis Sergio O; Ferreira, Marizete M da C; Nobre, Moacyr R C; Lancarotte, Ines; Barretto, Antonio Carlos Pereira

    2011-03-01

    Studies have shown that there is no safe level of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure and there is a close link between SHS and the risk of coronary heart disease and stroke. Carbon monoxide (CO) is one of the most important components present in SHS. To evaluate the impact of the smoking ban law in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil, on the CO concentration in restaurants, bars, night clubs and similar venues and in their workers. In the present study we measured CO concentration in 585 hospitality venues. CO concentration was measured in different environments (indoor, semi-open and open areas) from visited venues, as well as, in the exhaled air from approximately 627 workers of such venues. Measurements were performed twice, before and 12 weeks after the law implementation. In addition, the quality of the air in the city during the same period of our study was verified. RESULTS The CO concentration pre-ban and pot-ban in hospitality venues was indoor area 4.57 (3.70) ppm vs 1.35 (1.66) ppm (p<0.0001); semi-open 3.79 (2.49) ppm vs 1.16 (1.14) ppm (p<0.0001); open area 3.31(2.2) ppm vs 1.31 (1.39) ppm (p<0.0001); smoking employees 15.78 (9.76) ppm vs 11.50 (7.53) ppm (p<0.0001) and non-smoking employees 6.88 (5.32) ppm vs 3.50 (2.21) ppm (p<0.0001). The average CO concentration measured in the city was lower than 1 ppm during both pre-ban and post-ban periods. São Paulo's smoking-free legislation reduced significantly the CO concentration in hospitality venues and in their workers, whether they smoke or not.

  16. Vehicular particulate matter emissions in road tunnels in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Ccoyllo, Odón R; Ynoue, Rita Y; Martins, Leila D; Astolfo, Rosana; Miranda, Regina M; Freitas, Edmilson D; Borges, Alessandro S; Fornaro, Adalgiza; Freitas, Helber; Moreira, Andréa; Andrade, Maria F

    2009-02-01

    In the metropolitan area of São Paulo, Brazil, ozone and particulate matter (PM) are the air pollutants that pose the greatest threat to air quality, since the PM and the ozone precursors (nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds) are the main source of air pollution from vehicular emissions. Vehicular emissions can be measured inside road tunnels, and those measurements can provide information about emission factors of in-use vehicles. Emission factors are used to estimate vehicular emissions and are described as the amount of species emitted per vehicle distance driven or per volume of fuel consumed. This study presents emission factor data for fine particles, coarse particles, inhalable particulate matter and black carbon, as well as size distribution data for inhalable particulate matter, as measured in March and May of 2004, respectively, in the Jânio Quadros and Maria Maluf road tunnels, both located in São Paulo. The Jânio Quadros tunnel carries mainly light-duty vehicles, whereas the Maria Maluf tunnel carries light-duty and heavy-duty vehicles. In the Jânio Quadros tunnel, the estimated light-duty vehicle emission factors for the trace elements copper and bromine were 261 and 220 microg km(-1), respectively, and 16, 197, 127 and 92 mg km(-1), respectively, for black carbon, inhalable particulate matter, coarse particles and fine particles. The mean contribution of heavy-duty vehicles to the emissions of black carbon, inhalable particulate matter, coarse particles and fine particles was, respectively 29, 4, 6 and 6 times higher than that of light-duty vehicles. The inhalable particulate matter emission factor for heavy-duty vehicles was 1.2 times higher than that found during dynamometer testing. In general, the particle emissions in São Paulo tunnels are higher than those found in other cities of the world.

  17. The Sao Paulo Lightning Mapping Array (SPLMA): Prospects to GOES-R GLM and CHUVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albrecht, Rachel I.; Carrey, Larry; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Bailey, Jeffrey C.; Goodman, Steven J.; Bruning, Eric C.; Koshak, William; Morales, Carlos A.; Machado, Luiz A. T.; Angelis, Carlos F.; hide

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the characteristics and prospects of a Lightning Mapping Array to be deployed at the city of S o Paulo (SPLMA). This LMA network will provide CHUVA campaign with total lightning, lightning channel mapping and detailed information on the locations of cloud charge regions for the thunderstorms investigated during one of its IOP. The real-time availability of LMA observations will also contribute to and support improved weather situational awareness and mission execution. For GOES-R program it will form the basis of generating unique and valuable proxy data sets for both GLM and ABI sensors in support of several on-going research investigations

  18. [Demonstration plan used in the study of human reproduction in the district of Sao Paulo. 1967].

    PubMed

    Silva, Eunice Pinho de Castro

    2006-10-01

    This work presents the sampling procedure used to select the sample got for a "Human Reproduction Study in the District of São Paulo" (Brazil), done by the Department of Applied Statistics of "Faculdade de Higiene e Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo". The procedure tried to solve the situation which resulted from the limitation in cost, time and lack of a frame that could be used in order to get a probability sample in the fixed term of time and with the fixed cost. It consisted in a two stage sampling with dwelling-units as primary units and women as secondary units. At the first stage, it was used stratified sampling in which sub-districts were taken as strata. In order to select primary units, there was a selection of points ("starting points") on the maps of subdistricts by a procedure that was similar to that one called "square grid" but differed from this in several aspects. There were fixed rules to establish a correspondence between each selected "starting point" and a set of three dwelling units where at least one woman of the target population lived. In the selected dwelling units where more than one woman of target population lived, there was a sub-sampling in order to select one of them. In this selection each woman living in the dwelling unit had equal probability of selection. Several "no-answer" cases and correspondent instructions to be followed by the interviewers are presented too.

  19. An Analysis of Delay and Travel Times at Sao Paulo International Airport (AISP/GRU): Planning Based on Simulation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santana, Erico Soriano Martins; Mueller, Carlos

    2003-01-01

    The occurrence of flight delays in Brazil, mostly verified at the ground (airfield), is responsible for serious disruptions at the airport level but also for the unchaining of problems in all the airport system, affecting also the airspace. The present study develops an analysis of delay and travel times at Sao Paulo International Airport/ Guarulhos (AISP/GRU) airfield based on simulation model. Different airport physical and operational scenarios had been analyzed by means of simulation. SIMMOD Plus 4.0, the computational tool developed to represent aircraft operation in the airspace and airside of airports, was used to perform these analysis. The study was mainly focused on aircraft operations on ground, at the airport runway, taxi-lanes and aprons. The visualization of the operations with increasing demand facilitated the analyses. The results generated in this work certify the viability of the methodology, they also indicated the solutions capable to solve the delay problem by travel time analysis, thus diminishing the costs for users mainly airport authority. It also indicated alternatives for airport operations, assisting the decision-making process and in the appropriate timing of the proposed changes in the existing infrastructure.

  20. Using Cluster Analysis and ICP-MS to Identify Groups of Ecstasy Tablets in Sao Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Maione, Camila; de Oliveira Souza, Vanessa Cristina; Togni, Loraine Rezende; da Costa, José Luiz; Campiglia, Andres Dobal; Barbosa, Fernando; Barbosa, Rommel Melgaço

    2017-02-15

    The variations found in the elemental composition in ecstasy samples result in spectral profiles with useful information for data analysis, and cluster analysis of these profiles can help uncover different categories of the drug. We provide a cluster analysis of ecstasy tablets based on their elemental composition. Twenty-five elements were determined by ICP-MS in tablets apprehended by Sao Paulo's State Police, Brazil. We employ the K-means clustering algorithm along with C4.5 decision tree to help us interpret the clustering results. We found a better number of two clusters within the data, which can refer to the approximated number of sources of the drug which supply the cities of seizures. The C4.5 model was capable of differentiating the ecstasy samples from the two clusters with high prediction accuracy using the leave-one-out cross-validation. The model used only Nd, Ni, and Pb concentration values in the classification of the samples. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  1. Neighborhood socioeconomic characteristics and differences in the availability of healthy food stores and restaurants in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Duran, Ana Clara; Diez Roux, Ana V; Latorre, Maria do Rosario D O; Jaime, Patricia Constante

    2013-09-01

    Differential access to healthy foods has been hypothesized to contribute to health disparities, but evidence from low and middle-income countries is still scarce. This study examines whether the access of healthy foods varies across store types and neighborhoods of different socioeconomic statuses (SES) in a large Brazilian city. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010-2011 across 52 census tracts. Healthy food access was measured by a comprehensive in-store data collection, summarized into two indexes developed for retail food stores (HFSI) and restaurants (HMRI). Descriptive analyses and multilevel models were used to examine associations of store type and neighborhood SES with healthy food access. Fast food restaurants were more likely to be located in low SES neighborhoods whereas supermarkets and full service restaurants were more likely to be found in higher SES neighborhoods. Multilevel analyses showed that both store type and neighborhood SES were independently associated with in-store food measures. We found differences in the availability of healthy food stores and restaurants in Sao Paulo city favoring middle and high SES neighborhoods.

  2. Neighborhood socioeconomic characteristics and differences in the availability of healthy food stores and restaurants in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Duran, Ana Clara; Diez Roux, Ana V; do Rosario DO Latorre, Maria; Jaime, Patricia C

    2013-01-01

    Differential access to healthy foods has been hypothesized to contribute to health disparities, but evidence from low and middle-income countries is still scarce. This study examines whether the access of healthy foods varies across store types and neighborhoods of different socioeconomic statuses (SES) in a large Brazilian city. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010–2011 across 52 census tracts. Healthy food access was measured by a comprehensive in-store data collection, summarized into two indexes developed for retail food stores (HFSI) and restaurants (HMRI). Descriptive analyses and multilevel models were used to examine associations of store type and neighborhood SES with healthy food access. Fast food restaurants were more likely to be located in low SES neighborhoods whereas supermarkets and full service restaurants were more likely to be found in higher SES neighborhoods. Multilevel analyses showed that both store type and neighborhood SES were independently associated with in-store food measures. We found differences in the availability of healthy food stores and restaurants in Sao Paulo city favoring middle and high SES neighborhoods. PMID:23747923

  3. Economic analysis of vaccination to control bovine brucellosis in the States of Sao Paulo and Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alves, A J S; Rocha, F; Amaku, M; Ferreira, F; Telles, E O; Grisi Filho, J H H; Ferreira Neto, J S; Zylbersztajn, D; Dias, R A

    2015-03-01

    Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease that causes important economic losses in Brazil, and the country has therefore established a national program for its control and eradication. Using data generated in the last national brucellosis survey, we conducted an economic analysis in two Brazilian States with different brucellosis status, Mato Grosso (with high prevalence) and Sao Paulo (with low prevalence). The economic analysis was based on the calculation of the additional benefits and costs of controlling bovine brucellosis through the vaccination of heifers aged between 3 and 8 months with S19 vaccine, considering maximal and minimal impacts of the disease. The analysis showed that vaccinating 90% of the replacement heifers aged 3-8 months of age offers the best economic performance in a vaccination program against bovine brucellosis if compared to vaccination rates of 70% and 80%. Moreover, regions with higher prevalences of bovine brucellosis would experience significant economic advantages when implementing a vaccination strategy to control the disease. This economic analysis will allow decision makers to plan more economically effective vaccination programs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of chronic exposure to air pollution from Sao Paulo city on coronary of Swiss mice, from birth to adulthood.

    PubMed

    Akinaga, Lícia Mioko Yoshizaki; Lichtenfels, Ana Julia; Carvalho-Oliveira, Regiani; Caldini, Elia Garcia; Dolhnikoff, Marisa; Silva, Luiz Fernando Ferraz; Bueno, Heloisa Maria De Siqueira; Pereira, Luiz Alberto Amador; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Garcia, Maria Lúcia Bueno

    2009-04-01

    To explore the hypothesis that air pollution promotes cardiovascular changes, Swiss mice were continuously exposed, since birth, in two open-top chambers (filtered and nonfiltered for airborne particles Sao Paulo, twenty-four hours per day for four months. Fine particle (PM(2.5)) concentration was determined gravimetrically; hearts were analyzed by morphometry. There was a reduction of the PM(2.5) inside the filtered chamber (filtered = 8.61+/-0.79 microg/m(3), nonfiltered = 18.05+/-1.25 microg/m(3), p < .001). Coronary arteries showed no evidence of luminal narrowing in the exposed group but presented higher collagen content in the adventitia of LV large-sized and RV midsized vessels (p = .001) and elastic fibers in both tunicae adventitia and intima-media of almost all sized arterioles from both ventricles (p = .03 and p = .001, respectively). We concluded that chronic exposure to urban air since birth induces mild but significant vascular structural alterations in normal individuals, presented as coronary arteriolar fibrosis and elastosis. These results might contribute to altered vascular response and ischemic events in the adulthood.

  5. [The teaching of physical examination in undergraduate nursing schools in the city of Sao Paulo].

    PubMed

    Sousa, V D; Barros, A L

    1998-07-01

    The present study is an exploratory survey attempting to get the point of view of the faculty of subjects considered responsible by teaching physical examination in the nursing undergraduate schools of São Paulo city that were selected for this study. The goals were: to detect the situation of teaching of propaedeutics basis; to identify factors that make them difficult; and to identify the recommendations of the faculty for the improvement of teaching and its implementation. The population studied was formed by 39 faculty of the subjects considered responsible by teaching physical examination. Results show us there is not a specific subject to teach physical examination, although it is taught mainly in Fundamental Nursing; faculty are not entirely prepared to teach physical examination. To improve teaching of physical examination, the faculty suggest enhancing their knowledge and skills as well as to create a specific subject to teach physical examination with sufficient hours according to the content.

  6. Nitro-PAH compounds in the atmosphere of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mabilia, R.; Cecinato, A.; Tomasi Scianò, M. C.; Vasconcellos, P.; Carvalho, L.; Mathos, L.; Franco, L.

    2003-04-01

    Nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (nitro-PAH) are the chemical class with potent mutagenic compounds. These species are emitted from a wide range of combustion sources. Some compounds can be formed photo chemically via reactions of their parents PAH with OH or NO_3 radicals (in the presence of NO_2) in the gas phase as well as N_2O_5 or HNO_3 when parent PAH is associated with aerosols. In the tropics, an important source of particulate PAH and nitro-PAH is biomass burning used for clearings in forest and for making easier the harvesting of sugar cane. Brazil owns 25% of global sugar cane and is the major producer in the world. This burning produces soot, which remains for along time in the air and can cause respiratory diseases. This study was conducted in 3 cities in São Paulo State during sugar cane burning episodes. Back trajectories were calculated by University of São Paulo Trajectory Model for determination of air parcel trajectories over the sites. Atmospheric samples were collected on quartz fiber filters for 24 hours in high-volume sampler during one week. A Soxhlet apparatus filled with methylene chloride was used for extracting the filters. This residue was submitted to HPLC separation and the 3 obtained fractions (n-alkanes, PAH and nitro-PAH) were analyzed by both gas chromatography/flame ionization and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry detection. The isomers 2-, 3-, 8-nitrofluoranthene and 2-nitropyrene were identified and results show large differences between the sites. 2-nitropyrene/2-nitrofluoranthene ratios were calculated indicating the daytime reactions promoted by OH radicals.

  7. Comparative analysis of severe pediatric and adult leptospirosis in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Spichler, Anne; Athanazio, Daniel A; Vilaça, Pedro; Seguro, Antonio; Vinetz, Joseph; Leake, John A D

    2012-02-01

    Although leptospirosis may be fatal in childhood, the experience of many clinicians working in disease-endemic areas is that classic Weil's disease and death are less common among pediatric patients. The aim of the study was to ascertain disease spectrum and outcome differences in severe pediatric and adult leptospirosis in a large at-risk population. Epidemiologic, clinical, and laboratory data were obtained on hospitalized cases from São Paulo during 2004-2006. A total of 42 case-patients < 18 years of age and 328 case-patients ≥ 18 years of age were tested during the study. Compared with children, adults had higher rates of jaundice (P = 0.01), elevated serum bilirubin levels (P < 0.01), oliguria (P = 0.02), and elevated creatinine levels (P = 0.01) but not for thrombocytopenia or pulmonary involvement. The overall case-fatality rate was 27% (adult) versus 5% (pediatric) (P < 0.01). Severe pediatric leptospirosis may be less likely to show all classic features of Weil's disease and may be less fatal than in adults.

  8. A quantitative risk assessment model for Vibrio parahaemolyticus in raw oysters in Sao Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sobrinho, Paulo de S Costa; Destro, Maria T; Franco, Bernadette D G M; Landgraf, Mariza

    2014-06-16

    A risk assessment of Vibrio parahaemolyticus associated with raw oysters produced and consumed in São Paulo State was developed. The model was built according to the United States Food and Drug Administration framework for risk assessment. The outcome of the exposure assessment estimated the prevalence and density of pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus in raw oysters from harvest to consumption. The result of the exposure step was combined with a Beta-Poisson dose-response model to estimate the probability of illness. The model predicted that the average risks per serving of raw oysters were 4.7×10(-4), 6.0×10(-4), 4.7×10(-4) and 3.1×10(-4) for spring, summer, fall and winter, respectively. Sensitivity analyses indicated that the most influential variables on the risk of illness were the total density of V. parahaemolyticus at harvest, transport temperature, relative prevalence of pathogenic strains and storage time at retail. Only storage time under refrigeration at retail showed negative correlation with the risk of illness.

  9. Intimate partner violence among undergraduate students of two universities of the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Flake, Tania Aldrighi; Barros, Claudia; Schraiber, Lilia B; Menezes, Paulo Rossi

    2013-12-01

    The prevalence of violence in intimate relationships, suffered or perpetrated, was estimated among undergraduate students, be it physical, psychological and sexual, describing the overlap between them. This is an original study and there is scarce literature on this matter in Brazil. Men and women were investigated and some issues on gender violence were discussed. The study is part of the multicenter survey "International Study of Violence in Dating - IDVS" conducted in 2002 - 2003, using its standardized instrument. A total of 362 students, from two universities in the state of São Paulo, one public and one private, answered the self-reported questionnaire, being 37% male and 63% female, mean age of 20 years old. Suffered and perpetrated intimate partner violence during life was examined. Among all interviewees, 75.9% suffered and 76.4% perpetrated some kind of violence throughout life. Psychological violence was the most prevalent type, followed by sexual violence, both suffered and perpetrated. The great superposition between suffered and perpetrated violence (83.9%) reflects the reciprocity of aggression, with no observed difference between men and women. The results of this study are consistent with previous literature on dating violence, which shows high prevalence of suffered and perpetrated violence, besides reciprocity for both men and women. Intervention actions at this stage of intimate relationships may potentially impact on subsequent marital partnership situations.

  10. The contribution of vehicular emission to the atmospheric concentrations of carbon compounds in the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, M.; Fornaro, A.; Miranda, R.; Ynoue, R. Y.; Freitas, E. D.; LAPAt-Laboratorio de Analise dos Processos Atmosfericos

    2013-05-01

    It is recognized that megacities have regional and global effects on climate, and that aerosols and Green House Gases (GHG) constitute the principal tracer of those effects. Such is the case in the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo (MASP), one of the largest mega-cities in the world. MASP has a population of almost 20 million inhabitants. The main source of air pollution is the transport sector. In this region, there are approximately 6.5 million passenger cars and commercial vehicles: 85% light duty, 3% heavy-duty diesel vehicles (diesel + 3% bio-diesel) and 12% motorcycles. Of the light duty vehicle, approximately 55% burn a mixture (v/v) of 78% gasoline with 22% ethanol (referred to as gasohol), 4% use hydrated ethanol (95% ethanol + 5% water), 38% flexible fuel vehicles capable of burning both gasohol as hydrated ethanol, and 2% use diesel. In average 50% of the fuel used in MASP is ethanol what brings the necessity of more studies to understand the formation of photochemical oxidants and secondary particles. According to the São Paulo State Environmental Protection Agency, 97% of carbon monoxide (CO), 85% of hydrocarbons (HC), 82% of nitrogen oxides (NOx), 36% of sulfur dioxide emitted, and 36% of all inhalable particulate matter (PM10) are emitted by the vehicular fleet. Concerning particles, 75% of the Fine Particle Concentration is related to the burning of fuel, mainly diesel. The fine particles are composed of Organic Carbon (40%), Black Carbon (30%), ions (15%) and metals. It is known that the soot is warming the climate and is important to the radiative balance. Another important driver to the radiative balance, the CO2 is mainly emitted by the transport sector, which is responsible for 57% of its emission. A comprehensive project under development has the objective of determine the role of MASP as the source of gaseous and particle compounds to the atmosphere of the region and in a mesoscale perspective. The project with funding from the São Paulo

  11. [Cancer mortality among electricity utility workers in a the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Mattos, I E; Koifman, S

    1996-12-01

    A number of epidemiologic studies have observed an association between exposure to 50-60 Hz electromagnetic fields and the development of specific types of cancer. In Brazil, a preliminary report from a study of electricity facility workers in Rio de Janeiro (RJ) has mentioned relatively similar results. An exploratory analysis of death certificates obtained from a sample of electricity workers in S. Paulo was made. Data was analysed by using the Proportional Mortality Ratio (PMR) and the Proportional Cancer Mortality Ratio (PCMR). A slightly elevated all-sites cancer mortality was observed among these workers (PMR 1.11; 95% CI 0.91-1.35). Site specific analysis has shown a statistically significant higher mortality of laryngeal cancer (PCMR 2.04; 95% CI 1.05-4.20). An excess of deaths was also seen for cancers of the buccal cavity/pharynx, prostate, bladder, brain and Hodgkin's disease, although the results lacked statistical significance. When analysed by categories of estimated exposure to magnetic fields, an excess of deaths from bladder cancer (PCMR 4.17; 95% CI 1.35-9.72), neoplasms of the brain (PCMR 7.7; 95% CI 1.02-9.65) and Hodgkin's disease (PCMR 5.55; 95% CI 1.14-16.21) was observed in the group with probably higher exposure to EMF. A comparison of cancer mortality between these workers and petrochemical employees has shown a higher PCMR for larynx tumours (PCMR 3.51; 95% CI 3.02-15.51) and bladder cancer (PCMR 7.53; 95% CI 3.02-15.51). For brain tumours, however, a PCMR of 0.74 (95% CI 0.27-1.61) was noted. Although restrictions related to sample size in the study and the lack of information about known confounders must be considered, the results of this study do not fully disagree with others previously mentioned in the literature.

  12. Subclinical hyperthyroidism and dementia: the Sao Paulo Ageing & Health Study (SPAH)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Several epidemiologic studies have shown a possible association between thyroid function and cognitive decline. Our aim was to evaluate the association of subclinical hyperthyroidism and dementia in a population sample of older people Methods A cross-sectional study - São Paulo Ageing & Health Study (SPAH) - in a population sample of low-income elderly people ≥ 65 years-old to evaluate presence of subclinical thyroid disease as a risk factor for dementia. Thyroid function was assessed using thyrotropic hormone and free-thyroxine as well as routine use of thyroid hormones or antithyroid medications. Cases of dementia were assessed using a harmonized one-phase dementia diagnostic procedure by the "10/66 Dementia Research Group" including Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Logistic regression models were used to test a possible association between subclinical hyperthyroidism and dementia. Results and discussion Prevalence of dementia and of subclinical hyperthyroidism were respectively of 4.4% and 3.0%. After age adjustment, we found an association of subclinical hyperthyroidism and any type of dementia and vascular dementia (Odds Ratio, 4.1, 95% Confidence Interval [95% CI] 1.3-13.1, and 5.3 95% CI, 1.1-26.4; respectively). Analyzing data by gender, we found an association of subclinical hyperthyroidism with dementia and Alzheimer's disease only for men (OR, 8.0; 95% CI, 1.5-43.4; OR, 12.4; 95% CI, 1.2-128.4; respectively). No women with subclinical hypothyroidism presented Alzheimer's disease in the sample. Conclusion The results suggest a consistent association among people with subclinical hyperthyroidism and dementia. PMID:20515500

  13. Assessment of land use in protected areas of the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iori, P.; da Silva, R. B.; Dias Junior, M. S.; Paz González, A.

    2012-04-01

    It is of universal knowledge that the soil, a basic natural resource, is renewable only if conserved or used correctly(Primavesi, 2002). It is salient for Araújo et al. (2007) that the establishment of index of soil quality is an important tool in the functions of control, supervision and monitoring of areas for environmental protection. The objective of this study was to compare the quality of the soil by means of a comparative diagram in different soil uses in permanent preservation areas (APP). The study was conducted in areas near the Ribeira de Iguape river in the city of Registro - São Paulo - Brazil, belonging to the Atlantic Forest domain, a Haplic Cambisol. The following uses of the soil had been evaluated: a) banana culture (CBAN) without agricultural traffic of machines; b) degraded pasture (PDEG) with extensive system predominantly Brachiaria decumbens L. c) use silvopastoral (MPIs), consisted in a kills with a traffic free for the animals, and d) native vegetation (MNAT), proposed in this study as a reference area.The following physical indicators were analyzed: bulk density (BD), total soil porosity (TP), macroporosity (Ma), microporosity (Mi), water dispersible clay (ADA), flocculation index (FI), preconsolidation pressure (PP), soil shear strength (SS), soil resistance to penetration (RP). To construct the comparative diagram the values for each attribute of the soil in each land use were related to the values of the native forest. It was feasible to use the comparative model in the qualitative evaluation of soil use, allowing separate environments under different uses. According to the comparative diagram of banana culture is the use that most negatively impacts the physical and mechanical soil due to the smaller size of the lower polygon.

  14. Disability life expectancy for the elderly, city of Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2000: gender and educational differences.

    PubMed

    Camargos, Mirela Castro Santos; Machado, Carla Jorge; do Nascimento Rodrigues, Roberto

    2007-05-01

    There is evidence that 'health life expectancy' (expected number of years to be lived in health) differs by socioeconomic status. Time spent in health or disability plays a critical role in the use of health care services. The objective of this study was to estimate 'disability life expectancy' by age, gender and education attainment for the elderly of the city of São Paulo, Brazil, in the year 2000. Data came from the SABE database, population censuses and mortality statistics (SEADE Foundation). Life expectancy with disability was calculated using Sullivan's method on the basis of the current probability of death and prevalence of disability by educational level. The prevalence of disability increased with age, for both sexes and both levels of educational attainment studied. Men showed a lower prevalence of disability, in general, and persons with lower educational attainment showed a higher prevalence of disability. Regarding life expectancy, women could expect to live longer than men, with and without disability. For both sexes, the percentage of life expectancy lived with disability decreased with increasing educational attainment. With increasing educational attainment, the sex differences in the percentage of remaining years to be lived with disability increased for most ages. Finally, the percentage of remaining years to be lived with disability increased with age for males and females, except for males with high educational attainment between the ages 70-75 and 75-80. The results may serve as a guide for public policies in the country, since health problems faced by older persons, such as disability, are the result of a number of past experiences during their life-times, such as health care, housing conditions, hygiene practices and education. Education influences health behaviours and is related, to some extent, to all these factors. Therefore, improvements in education for the disadvantaged may improve health.

  15. Socioeconomic inequalities in dental health services in Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2003-2008.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Camila Nascimento; Beenackers, Mariëlle A; Goldbaum, Moisés; de Azevedo Barros, Marilisa Berti; Gianini, Reinaldo José; Cesar, Chester Luiz Galvão; Mackenbach, Johan P

    2016-12-07

    Access to, and use of, dental health services in Brazil have improved since 2003. The increase of private health care plans and the implementation of the "Smiling Brazil" Program, the largest public oral health care program in the world, could have influenced this increase in access. However, we do not yet know if inequalities in the use of dental health services persist after the improvement in access. The aims of this study are to analyze socioeconomic differences for dental health service use between 2003 and 2008 in São Paulo and to examine changes in these associations since the implementation of the Smiling Brazil program in 2003. Data was obtained via two household health surveys (ISA-Capital 2003 and ISA-Capital 2008) which investigated living conditions, lifestyle, health status and use of health care services. Logistic regression was used to analyze associations between socioeconomic factors and dental services use. Additionally, trends from 2003 to 2008 regarding socioeconomic characteristics and dental health service use were explored. Overall, dental health service use increased between 2003 and 2008 and was at both time points more common among those who had higher income, better education, better housing conditions, private health care plans and were Caucasian. Inequalities in use of dental health care did not decrease over time. Among the reasons for not seeking dental care, not having teeth and financial difficulty were more common in lower socioeconomic groups, while thinking it was unnecessary was more common in higher socioeconomic groups. The Brazilian oral health policy is still in a period of expansion and seems to have contributed slightly to increased dental health service use, but has not influenced socioeconomic inequalities in the use of these services. Acquiring deeper knowledge about inequalities in dental health service use will contribute to better understanding of potential barriers to reducing them.

  16. Emission of CO2 by the transport sector and the impact on the atmospheric concentration in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, M. D. F.; Kitazato, C.; Perez-Martinez, P.; Nogueira, T.

    2014-12-01

    The Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (MASP) is impacted by the emission of 7 million vehicles, being 85% light-duty vehicles (LDV), 3% heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDV)s, and 12% motorcycles. About 55% of LDVs burn a mixture of 78% gasoline and 22% ethanol (gasohol), 4% use hydrous ethanol (95% ethanol and 5% water), 38% are flex-fuel vehicles that are capable of burning both gasohol and hydrous ethanol and 3% use diesel (diesel + 5% bio-diesel). The owners of the flex-fuel vehicles decide to use ethanol or gasohol depending on the market price of the fuel. Many environmental programs were implemented to reduce the emissions by the LDV and HDV traffic; the contribution from the industrial sector has been decreasing as the industries have moved away from MASP, due to the high taxes applied to the productive sector. Due to the large contribution of the transport sector to CO2, its contribution is important in a regional scale. The total emission is estimated in 15327 million tons per year of CO2eq (60% by LDV, 38% HDV and 2% motorcycles). Measurements of CO2 performed with a Picarro monitor based on WS-CRDS (wavelength-scanned cavity ringdown spectroscopy) for the years 2012-2013 were performed. The sampling site was on the University of Sao Paulo campus (22o34´S, 46o44´W), situated in the west area of the city, surrounded by important traffic roads. The average data showed two peaks, one in the morning and the other in the afternoon, both associated with the traffic. Correlation analysis was performed between the concentrations and the number of vehicles, as a proxy for the temporal variation of the CO2 emission. The highest concentration was 430 ppm at 8:00am, associated to the morning peak hour of vehicles and the stable condition of the atmosphere. The average concentration was 406 ±12 ppm, considering all measured data. According to official inventories from the Environmental Agency (CETESB), the emission of CO2 has increased 39% from 1990 to 2008, associated

  17. Amphetamine, cocaine and cannabinoids use among truck drivers on the roads in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Leyton, V; Sinagawa, D M; Oliveira, K C B G; Schmitz, W; Andreuccetti, G; De Martinis, B S; Yonamine, M; Munoz, D R

    2012-02-10

    Drugs are important risk factors for traffic accidents. In Brazil, truck drivers report using amphetamines to maintain their extensive work schedule and stay awake. These drugs can be obtained without prescription easily on Brazilian roads. The use of these stimulants can result in health problems and can be associated with traffic accidents. There are Brazilian studies that show that drivers use drugs. However, these studies are questionnaire-based and do not always reflect real-life situations. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the prevalence of drug use by truck drivers on the roads of Sao Paulo State, Brazil, during 2009. Drivers of large trucks were randomly stopped by police officers on the interstate roads during morning hours. After being informed of the goals of the study, the drivers gave written informed consent before providing a urine sample. In addition, a questionnaire concerning sociodemographic characteristics and health information was administered. Urine samples were screened for amphetamines, cocaine, and cannabinoids by immunoassay and the confirmation was performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Of the 488 drivers stopped, 456 (93.4%) provided urine samples, and 9.3% of them (n=42) tested positive for drugs. Amphetamines were the most commonly found (n=26) drug, representing 61.9% of the positive samples. Ten cases tested positive for cocaine (23.8%), and five for cannabinoids (11.9%). All drivers were male with a mean age of 40 ± 10.8 years, and 29.3% of them reported some health problem (diabetes, high blood pressure and/or stress). A high incidence of truck drivers who tested positive for drug use was found, among other reported health problems. Thus, there is an evident need to promote a healthier lifestyle among professional drivers and a need for preventive measures aimed at controlling the use of drugs by truck drivers in Brazil.

  18. [Effects of the PROALCOOL program on migratory behavior in the state of Sao Paulo: the case of Ribeirao Preto].

    PubMed

    1983-01-01

    Sao Paulo, particularly in the region of Ribeiros Preto.

  19. Social determinants of health and the Brazilian Family Health Care Program in the city of Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dowbor, Tatiana Pluciennik; Westphal, Márcia Faria

    2013-08-01

    To analyze the current status of the interventions related to social determinants of health conducted in the context of the brazilian family health program. A case study using a mixed method approach based on a sequential explanatory strategy with 171 unit managers in the Family Health Care Program in the municipality of Sao Paulo, SP, Southeastern Brazil, in 2005/2006. Self-administered questionnaires were applied and semi-structured interviews and focus groups were conducted with a purposive sample of professionals involved in initiatives related to social determinants of health. Quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, multiple correspondence analysis, cluster analysis and correlation tests. Qualitative data were analyzed through content analysis and the creation of thematic categories. Despite the concentration of activities directed at disease care, the Family Health Care Program carries out various activities related to the social determination of health, encompassing the entire spectrum of health promotion approaches (biological, behavioral, psychological, social and structural) and all major social determinants of health described in the literature. There was a significant difference related to the scope of the determinants being worked on in the units according to the area of the city. The description of the activities revealed the fragility of the initiatives and a disconnection with the organizational structure of the Family Health Care Program. The quantity and variety of initiatives related to social determinants of health attests to the program's potential to deal with the social determination of health. On the other hand, the fluidity of objectives and the 'out of the ordinary/extraordinary' characterization of the described initiatives raises concern about its sustainability as an integral part of the program's current operational model.

  20. Analysis of astronomy knowledge of the students in the Federal Institute Sao Paulo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moraes, A. C.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2014-08-01

    Este trabalho é parte integrante da pesquisa de mestrado acadêmico em ensino de ciências. Nele, busca-se apresentar os resultados da pesquisa realizada entre os 106 alunos do curso superior de tecnologia em automação industrial do Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia de São Paulo campus Cubatão, divididos em cinco turmas, duas no período matutino e três no período noturno. A análise dos resultados deste pré questionárioconstatou a falta de conhecimento básico dos discentes, sobre assuntos relacionados à astronomia, o que pode ser atribuído ao ineficiente processo de aprendizado pelo qual eles passaram tanto no ensino médio como no ensino fundamental, em escolas municipais, estaduais e particulares onde estudaram. No ensino de astronomia, têm-se diagnosticado constantemente diversas dificuldades conceituais tanto por parte de alunos como de professores de todas as áreas e níveis de ensino e poucos de fato a compreendem (ALBRECHT; VOELZKE, 2010). Demonstra-se as duas etapas concluídas do trabalho. A primeira etapa indica a análise dos conhecimentos prévios sobre conceitos astronômicos, através do questionário com 25 perguntas. A fim de corrigir as falhas constatadas, experimentalmente ministrou-se, externo ao conteúdo programático, um curso básico em astronomia, com diferentes estratégias de ensino, tais como, utilização de aulas expositivas dialogadas, recursos audiovisuais e palestras, para corrigir as dificuldades diagnosticadas. Essas estratégias de ensino se comprovaram adequadas às necessidades dos alunos e os conceitos foram finalmente compreendidos. Ao término do curso, completado o interstício de 120 dias, para caracterizar que houve a aprendizagem significativa, realizou-se uma nova pesquisa, quando, exatamente os mesmos 106 alunos responderam as mesmas 25 questões aplicadas na primeira etapa. Constata-se na segunda etapa, após análise, que em todas as questões, houve maior compreensão dos assuntos

  1. Professor Ernst Bresslau, founder of the Zoology Departments at the Universities of Cologne and Sao Paulo: lessons to learn from his life history.

    PubMed

    Pflüger, Hans-Joachim

    2017-06-01

    In this article, the life history of the founding father of the departments of Zoology at the Universities of Cologne and Sao Paulo, Prof. Ernst Bresslau, is described on occasion of the establishing of the "Ernst Bresslau Guest Professorship" at the University of Cologne. His main scientific achievements are discussed, in particular his research on the evolutionary origin of the mammary apparatus, in addition to his broad interest in biological topics. Among the many technical advancements that he introduced was the micro slow-motion camera developed together with the Zeiss Company which allowed to film ciliary beats at high speeds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Correlation between Environmental Factors and Prevalence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Oysters Harvested in the Southern Coastal Area of Sao Paulo State, Brazil▿

    PubMed Central

    Sobrinho, Paulo de Souza Costa; Destro, Maria T.; Franco, Bernadette D. G. M.; Landgraf, Mariza

    2010-01-01

    The presence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in 123 oyster samples collected from an estuary on the southern coast of Sao Paulo state, Brazil, was investigated. Of the 123 samples, 99.2% were positive with densities ranging from <3 to 105 most probable number (MPN)/g. Densities correlated significantly with water temperature (r = 0.48; P < 0.001) but not with salinity (r = −0.09; P = 0.34). The effect of harvest site on counts was not significant (P > 0.05). These data provide information for the assessment of exposure of V. parahaemolyticus in oysters at harvest. PMID:20023076

  3. Air Quality Impairment Associated to Local and Regional Pollutants Sources in the Megacity of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, M.

    2007-05-01

    The Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo (MASP), with more than 19 million inhabitants in 2006, about 2000 major industrial facilities, and more than 7 million vehicles based on diesel, gasoline, and ethanol, has 8051 km2. MASP is one of the biggest urban agglomerate in the world. Associated to its dimension many important problems appear and among them the bad air quality is one of the most important due to the human health effects. MASP is the richest area in Brazil representing 17% of Brazilian GNP in 2000. Not only the high pollutants concentration but also the accentuated modification of the land use in the area resulted in bad quality of life characterized by local and regional climate modification, as for instance the light rain suppression and the increase of the heavier rain. In MASP the air pollution has worsened due to the cumulative effects of population growth, industrialization and increased vehicle use. Currently there are about 7.2 million passenger and commercial vehicles: 93.5% light- duty and 6.5% heavy-duty diesel vehicles. Of the light-duty vehicles, approximately 76.3% burn a mixture of 78-80% (v/v) gasoline and 22% ethanol (referred to as gasohol), and 17.2% use hydrated ethanol (95% ethanol + 5% water), these data were obtained from the Sao Paulo Environmental Protection Agency. Over the past several years, ambient ozone concentrations in the MASP have reached levels of more than five times that considered protective of public health by the World Health Organization. In the wintertime, ozone levels routinely exceed the 160 ug/m3 hourly Brazilian National Ambient Air-Quality Standard. About 90% of the O3 precursors in the MASP atmosphere are emitted by the vehicle fleet. According to the official state EI of HC (hydrocarbons) emissions from mobile sources, 22% are from gasohol-powered vehicles, 15% from diesel-powered vehicles, 6% from ethanol-powered vehicles and 5% from motorcycles. In addition, a significant contribution to HC emissions comes

  4. Cost of production of live attenuated dengue vaccines: a case study of the Instituto Butantan, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, R T; Francis, D P; Frazatti-Gallina, N M; Precioso, A R; Raw, I; Watler, P; Whitehead, P; Whitehead, S S

    2012-07-06

    A vaccine to prevent dengue disease is urgently needed. Fortunately, a few tetravalent candidate vaccines are in the later stages of development and show promise. But, if the cost of these candidates is too high, their beneficial potential will not be realized. The price of a vaccine is one of the most important factors affecting its ultimate application in developing countries. In recent years, new vaccines such as those for human papilloma virus and pneumococcal disease (conjugate vaccine) have been introduced with prices in developed countries exceeding $50 per dose. These prices are above the level affordable by developing countries. In contrast, other vaccines such as those against Japanese encephalitis (SA14-14-2 strain vaccine) and meningitis type A have prices in developing countries below one dollar per dose, and it is expected that their introduction and use will proceed more rapidly. Because dengue disease is caused by four related viruses, vaccines must be able to protect against all four. Although there are several live attenuated dengue vaccine candidates under clinical evaluation, there remains uncertainty about the cost of production of these tetravalent vaccines, and this uncertainty is an impediment to rapid progress in planning for the introduction and distribution of dengue vaccines once they are licensed. We have undertaken a detailed economic analysis, using standard industrial methodologies and applying generally accepted accounting practices, of the cost of production of a live attenuated vaccine, originally developed at the US National Institutes of Health (National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases), to be produced at the Instituto Butantan in Sao Paulo, Brazil. We determined direct costs of materials, direct costs of personnel and labor, indirect costs, and depreciation. These were analyzed assuming a steady-state production of 60 million doses per year. Although this study does not seek to compute the price of the final

  5. A preliminary assessment of metal bioaccumulation in the blue crab, Callinectes danae S., from the Sao Vicente Channel, Sao Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bordon, Isabella C A C; Sarkis, Jorge E S; Tomás, Acácio R G; Souza, Marcelo R; Scalco, Allan; Lima, Mariana; Hortellani, Marcos A

    2012-04-01

    The concentrations of metals in tissues of Callinectes danae were evaluated, aiming to determine the bioaccumulation process of this species. Gills presented the highest mean concentrations for most metals, except for Hg (Sao Vicente Channel is included) would be important to confirm if this pattern of bioaccumulation can be extended to the population of C. danae of this estuary.

  6. [Current status of air pollution in Sao Paulo, Brazil: effects and problems associated with the introduction of ethanol-fueled motor vehicles].

    PubMed

    Kabuto, M; Tsugane, S; Hamada, G S

    1990-05-01

    Recently suggestions have been advanced that alternative fuels including ethanol, methanol or methane instead of so called "fossil fuels" may help improve the current conditions of air pollution. According to results of general survey in Sao Paulo, since their introduction in 1978, ethanol-fueled cars have increased their share to almost 50% of all light vehicles in 1983. The current status of air pollution in Sao Paulo metropolitan area (SPMA) is described in relation to the use of such alternative fuel. The average concentrations in air of SO2 and lead have been decreasing drastically during the period of 1982-88, whereas non-methane hydrocarbon, NO2 and O3 levels have been increasing to attain the worst levels in the world as indicated in Fig. 2. The use of ethanol-fuel, which contains less sulphate and lead, is thought to have contributed more or less to the above reductions of SO2 and lead in the air. However, the pollutants that have increased may derive mainly from diesel and gasoline exhausts of heavy vehicles. The general state of air pollutions appears not to have been improved, suggesting the difficulty in resolving air pollution issues. On the other hand, a current problem specific to ethanol-fuel is the aldehydes or other carcinogenic components in exhaust. Peak formaldehyde concentration, for example, have been reported to have reached 159 ppb in SPMA, which may be one of the highest levels shown in ambient air.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. A report from the 4th biennial conference of the international society of bipolar disorder (March 17-20, 2010 - Sao Paulo, Brazil).

    PubMed

    Rabasseda, X

    2010-06-01

    Bipolar disorder has a significant prevalence in the overall population, and carries considerable functional impairment for sufferers as well as a very negative impact on their relatives and caregivers. These facts were widely accepted by attendees to this year's biannual conference of the International Society for Bipolar Disorder, as was the concept that, although less apparent due to the lack of overt mania, type II bipolar disorder is not a mild form of the disease, but an even worse condition with severe depressive episodes that carry a high risk for suicide. And suicide is, in fact, among the most fearful threats of bipolar disorder. Sao Paulo, and this year's ISBD meeting, offered an opportunity for discussing treatments for patients suffering from manic, depressive and mixed states associated with bipolar disorder, and this report will review and summarize findings directly related to pharmacotherapy for the disease.

  8. Prevalence of equine Piroplasmosis and its association with tick infestation in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Serum samples were collected from 582 horses from 40 stud farms in the State of São Paulo and tick (Acari: Ixodidae) infestations were evaluated on them. Serum samples were subjected to the complement fixation test (CFT) and a competitive inhibition ELISA (cELISA) for Babesia caballi and Theileria e...

  9. [AIDS among the Japanese-Brazilian residents of the Sao Paulo municipality: size and profile of the studied group].

    PubMed

    Shima, H; Afuso, D S; Nichiata, L Y

    1998-12-01

    The study aimed to know the spread of AIDS epidemic among Japanese and their descendents, living on São Paulo Municipality. The authors dimension the total number of cases, since the beginning of the epidemic till july, 1994 and characterized the profile of the group in terms of sex, age, school degree, civil status, sexual option, occupation, exposed category and mean survival.

  10. Propensity score matching approach to test the association of income inequality and mortality in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Chiavegatto Filho, Alexandre Dias Porto; Kawachi, Ichiro; Gotlieb, Sabina Léa Davidson

    2012-01-01

    Support for the adverse effect of high income inequality on population health has come from studies that focus on larger areas, such as the US states, while studies at smaller geographical areas (eg, neighbourhoods) have found mixed results. We used propensity score matching to examine the relationship between income inequality and mortality rates across 96 neighbourhoods (distritos) of the municipality of São Paulo, Brazil. Prior to matching, higher income inequality distritos (Gini ≥ 0.25) had slightly lower overall mortality rates (2.23 per 10,000, 95% CI -23.92 to 19.46) compared to lower income inequality areas (Gini <0.25). After propensity score matching, higher inequality was associated with a statistically significant higher mortality rate (41.58 per 10,000, 95% CI 8.85 to 73.3). In São Paulo, the more egalitarian communities are among some of the poorest, with the worst health profiles. Propensity score matching was used to avoid inappropriate comparisons between the health status of unequal (but wealthy) neighbourhoods versus equal (but poor) neighbourhoods. Our methods suggest that, with proper accounting of heterogeneity between areas, income inequality is associated with worse population health in São Paulo.

  11. Impact of vehicular emissions on the formation of fine particles in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area: a numerical study with the WRF-Chem model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vara-Vela, A.; Andrade, M. F.; Kumar, P.; Ynoue, R. Y.; Muñoz, A. G.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this work is to evaluate the impact of vehicular emissions on the formation of fine particles (PM2.5; ≤ 2.5 µm in diameter) in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA) in Brazil, where ethanol is used intensively as a fuel in road vehicles. The Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model, which simulates feedbacks between meteorological variables and chemical species, is used as a photochemical modelling tool to describe the physico-chemical processes leading to the evolution of number and mass size distribution of particles through gas-to-particle conversion. A vehicular emission model based on statistical information of vehicular activity is applied to simulate vehicular emissions over the studied area. The simulation has been performed for a 1-month period (7 August-6 September 2012) to cover the availability of experimental data from the NUANCE-SPS (Narrowing the Uncertainties on Aerosol and Climate Changes in Sao Paulo State) project that aims to characterize emissions of atmospheric aerosols in the SPMA. The availability of experimental measurements of atmospheric aerosols and the application of the WRF-Chem model made it possible to represent some of the most important properties of fine particles in the SPMA such as the mass size distribution and chemical composition, besides allowing us to evaluate its formation potential through the gas-to-particle conversion processes. Results show that the emission of primary gases, mostly from vehicles, led to a production of secondary particles between 20 and 30 % in relation to the total mass concentration of PM2.5 in the downtown SPMA. Each of PM2.5 and primary natural aerosol (dust and sea salt) contributed with 40-50 % of the total PM10 (i.e. those ≤ 10 µm in diameter) concentration. Over 40 % of the formation of fine particles, by mass, was due to the emission of hydrocarbons, mainly aromatics. Furthermore, an increase in the number of small particles impaired the

  12. [Professionalization of nursing aides at the State of Sao Paulo: a study of supply/demand regarding training].

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Lavínia Santos de Souza; Lampe, Glória Nicoladelli; Martins, Cleide Lavieri; Miyashiro, Sueli Yuriko

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to verify the problem of nursing aides professionalization and to analyze the offer of courses and demand regarding technical level capacitation at the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Data were obtained through the analysis of documents on professional capacitation in the area in the 1990s. Authors identified a scenario of conceptual and political changes regarding the professionalization and the existence of a great number of aides being professionalized. They also verified a tendency to increase the offer of courses and the demand regarding the capacitation and specialization at the technical level.

  13. Status of Aceria guerreronis Keifer (Acari: Eriophyidae) as a pest of coconut in the state of Sao Paulo, southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, D C; de Moraes, G J; Dias, C T S

    2012-08-01

    The coconut mite, Aceria guerreronis Keifer, is one of the main pests of coconut palms (Cocos nucifera) in northeastern Brazil. The objective of this study was to evaluate the levels of the coconut mite and other mites on coconut palms in the state of São Paulo and to estimate the possible role of predatory mites in the control of this pest. The effect of cultivated genotypes and sampling dates on the mite populations was also estimated. We sampled attached fruits, leaflets, inflorescences, and fallen fruits. The coconut mite was the main phytophagous mite found on attached and fallen fruits, with average densities of 110.0 and 20.5 mites per fruit, respectively. The prevalent predatory mites on attached and fallen fruits were Proctolaelaps bulbosus Moraes, Reis & Gondim Jr. and Proctolaelaps bickleyi (Bram), both Melicharidae. On leaflets, the tenuipalpids Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijsks) and Tenuipalpus coyacus De Leon and the tetranychid Oligonychus modestus (Banks) were the predominant phytophagous mites. On both leaflets and inflorescences, the predominant predatory mites belonged to the Phytoseiidae. Neoseiulus baraki (Athias-Henriot) and Neoseiulus paspalivorus (De Leon), predators widely associated with the coconut mite in northeastern Brazil and several other countries, were not found. The low densities of the coconut mite in São Paulo could be related to prevailing climatic conditions, scarcity of coconut plantations (hampering the dispersion of the coconut mite between fields), and to the fact that some of the genotypes cultivated in the region are unfavorable for its development.

  14. Quality of life and physical activity associated to lower prevalence of depression in community-dwelling elderly subjects from Sao Paulo.

    PubMed

    Barcelos-Ferreira, Ricardo; Nakano, Eduardo Yoshio; Steffens, David C; Bottino, Cassio M C

    2013-09-05

    Studies investigating major depression and associated factors in older people from developing countries are scarce. Cross-sectional study of a community-based sample of 1563 elderly subjects aged 60 years or older from Sao Paulo, Brazil. The frequency of major depression (MD) and the relationship with sociodemographic factors, cognitive and functional impairment (CFI), clinically significant depressive symptoms (CSDS) and clinical diseases were analyzed. A brief instrument for screening of depressive symptoms in elderly people, the Mini Mental State Examination, the Fuld Object Memory Evaluation, the Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly, the Bayer Activities of Daily Living Scale, the Cambridge Mental Disorders of the Elderly Examination, and a sociodemographic and clinical questionnaire were applied to the subjects. Major depression was diagnosed in 60 patients (3.8%). A higher odds ratio of MD was associated with female gender, being widowed, previous depressive episode, hypertension, use of psychotropic medication, (CFI), and alcohol use. A lower odds ratio of depression diagnosis was associated with physical activity and going to cinema. The cross-sectional design of the study; our sample was restricted only to community residents, excluding persons in hospitals or nursing homes. Our study shows significant association between depression and potentially modifiable factors, reinforcing the benefit of probable preventive measures, to incentive healthy lifestyle, leisure activities and the practice of physical exercise, as well as the diagnosis and treatment of CSDS, especially in primary care. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. [Microbiological study of dental clinic air at the University Hospital of the University of Sao Paulo Dental School].

    PubMed

    Prado, M C; de Campos, A C; Tommasi, D; dos Santos, M A

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the environmental microbiote and to verify its occurrence in different areas. During 3 months, from April to June 1986, several air samples of working areas of the Dental Clinic of Faculdade de Odontologia da Universidade de São Paulo were analised. The study consisted of 10 exposures in strategically selected points during 10 minutes each, blood-agar plates and Sabouraud-agar plates. It was done the identification in genera and in some cases at species, according to the conventional methods. The plates were incubated, and the colonies isolated and identified. It was done the statistical analysis (Z test) and it was observed bigger incidence of bacteria than fungi and more diversity of the fungi than bacteria. From the Odontological health point of view, the isolated microorganisms (ubiquitous in the air) do not reveal patogenicity however the determinants of the local hygiene.

  16. Does income inequality get under the skin? A multilevel analysis of depression, anxiety and mental disorders in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Chiavegatto Filho, Alexandre Dias Porto; Kawachi, Ichiro; Wang, Yuan Pang; Viana, Maria Carmen; Andrade, Laura Helena Silveira Guerra

    2013-11-01

    Test the original income inequality theory, by analysing its association with depression, anxiety and any mental disorders. We analysed a sample of 3542 individuals aged 18 years and older selected through a stratified, multistage area probability sample of households from the São Paulo Metropolitan Area. Mental disorder symptoms were assessed using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) criteria. Bayesian multilevel logistic models were performed. Living in areas with medium and high-income inequality was statistically associated with increased risk of depression, relative to low-inequality areas (OR 1.76; 95% CI 1.21 to 2.55, and 1.53; 95% CI 1.07 to 2.19, respectively). The same was not true for anxiety (OR 1.25; 95% CI 0.90 to 1.73, and OR 1.07; 95% CI 0.79 to 1.46). In the case of any mental disorder, results were mixed. In general, our findings were consistent with the income inequality theory, that is, people living in places with higher income inequality had an overall higher odd of mental disorders, albeit not always statistically significant. The fact that depression, but not anxiety, was statistically significant could indicate a pathway by which inequality influences health.

  17. Sao Paulo Lightning Mapping Array (SP-LMA): Network Assessment and Analyses for Intercomparison Studies and GOES-R Proxy Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, J. C.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Carey, L. D.; Goodman, S. J.; Rudlosky, S. D.; Albrecht, R.; Morales, C. A.; Anselmo, E. M.; Neves, J. R.; Buechler, D. E.

    2014-01-01

    A 12 station Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) network was deployed during October 2011 in the vicinity of Sao Paulo, Brazil (SP-LMA) to contribute total lightning measurements to an international field campaign [CHUVA - Cloud processes of tHe main precipitation systems in Brazil: A contribUtion to cloud resolVing modeling and to the GPM (GlobAl Precipitation Measurement)]. The SP-LMA was operational from November 2011 through March 2012 during the Vale do Paraiba campaign. Sensor spacing was on the order of 15-30 km, with a network diameter on the order of 40-50km. The SP-LMA provides good 3-D lightning mapping out to 150 km from the network center, with 2-D coverage considerably farther. In addition to supporting CHUVA science/mission objectives, the SP-LMA is supporting the generation of unique proxy data for the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) and Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI), on NOAA's Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-R (GOES-R: scheduled for a 2015 launch). These proxy data will be used to develop and validate operational algorithms so that they will be ready to use on "day1" following the GOES-R launch. As the CHUVA Vale do Paraiba campaign opportunity was formulated, a broad community-based interest developed for a comprehensive Lightning Location System (LLS) intercomparison and assessment study, leading to the participation and/or deployment of eight other ground-based networks and the space-based Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS). The SP-LMA data is being intercompared with lightning observations from other deployed lightning networks to advance our understanding of the capabilities/contributions of each of these networks toward GLM proxy and validation activities. This paper addresses the network assessment including noise reduction criteria, detection efficiency estimates, and statistical and climatological (both temporal and spatially) analyses for intercomparison studies and GOES-R proxy activities.

  18. Urbanization and Access Inequality to Collective Consumption Goods & Services related to Sanitation & Solid Waste in the cities of Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roig, C. D. A.; Feitosa, F. D. F.; Monteiro, A. M. V.

    2016-12-01

    Cities are mainly a product of collective consumption and there is a pressing need to expand and deepen the discussion about the quality of access to collective goods and services in the urban world: the availability of electricity and potable water and its interrelation with the lack of solid waste management and wastewater treatment leading to pollution of water sources.This study attempts to measure urban stratification through access conditions to collective goods in the metropolitan regions of Sao Paulo State (SPS) by contributing with a research method that incorporates collective consumption as a core component of the population-environment relationship. The use of spatial analysis allows the examination of the structure and distribution of accessibility to sanitation services and basic urban infrastructure.The water stress situation in SPS is dramatic. The average water loss within these distribution systems is 34,3% and a 39% average sewage treatment rate of all wastewater generated. The SPS also imports 60,6% of electricity from other states that use mostly hydroelectric power which imposes greater pressure on the country's water resources. The energy and water crisis has harmed a number of essential rights related mostly to resource access and service continuity as suburban residents of poor municipalities are the ones most affected by disruptions.SPS is the most populous state of Brazil and this region of study is responsible for 75% of total State population with 83% of State GDP. There has been a major increase in water use conflicts such as power generation, urban water supply (including the Rio de Janeiro water demand) and the dilution of urban sewage and solid waste disposal. These collective consumption access problems demonstrate the urgent need for better integrated metropolitan management of natural resources and the urban commons.

  19. Assessing the infection risk of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in public drinking water delivered by surface water systems in Sao Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sato, Maria Ines Z; Galvani, Ana Tereza; Padula, Jose Antonio; Nardocci, Adelaide Cassia; Lauretto, Marcelo de Souza; Razzolini, Maria Tereza Pepe; Hachich, Elayse Maria

    2013-01-01

    A survey of Giardia and Cryptosporidium was conducted in surface water used as drinking water sources by public water systems in four densely urbanized regions of Sao Paulo State, Brazil. A Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment, based on protozoa concentrations, was performed to estimate the probability of protozoa infection associated with drinking water ingestion. A total of 206 source water samples were analyzed over a 24 month period using the USEPA Method 1623. The risk of infection was estimated using an exponential dose response model, children and adults exposure and a gamma distribution for (oo)cyst concentrations with three scenarios for treating censored data. Giardia was detected in 102 of the samples, and 19 of them were also positive for Cryptosporidium, with maximum concentrations of 97.0 cysts/L and 6.0 oocysts/L, respectively. Risk distributions were similar for the three scenarios. In the four regions, the estimated risk of Giardia infection per year, for adults and children, ranged from 0.29% to 2.47% and from 0.08% to 0.70%, respectively. Cryptosporidium risk infection varied from 0.15% to 0.29% for adults and from 0.04% to 0.08% for children. In both cases, the calculated risk surpassed the risk of infection of 10(-4) (1:10,000) defined as tolerable by USEPA for a yearly exposure. The probability of Giardia infection was very close to the rates of acute diarrheic disease for adults (1% to 3%) but lower for children (2% to 7%). The daily consumption of drinking water was an important contributing factor for these differences. The Microbiological Risk Assessment carried out in this study provides an indication of infection risks by Giardia and Cryptosporidium in the population served by these source waters. Strategies for source water protection and performance targets for the water treatment should be established to achieve the required level of public health risk.

  20. Application of remote sensing to the photogeologic mapping of the region of the Itatiaia alkaline complex. M.S. Thesis; [Minas Gerais, Rio De Janeiro, Sao Paulo, and Itatiaia, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Rodrigues, J. E.

    1981-01-01

    Remote sensing methods applied to geologically complex areas, through interaction of ground truth and information obtained from multispectral LANDSAT images and radar mosaics were evaluated. The test area covers parts of Minos Gerais, Rio De Janeiro and Sao Paulo states and contains the alkaline complex of Itatiaia and surrounding Precambrian terrains. Geological and structural mapping was satisfactory; however, lithological varieties which form the massif's could not be identified. Photogeological lineaments were mapped, some of which represent the boundaries of stratigraphic units. Automatic processing was used to classify sedimentary areas, which includes the talus deposits of the alkaline massifs.

  1. Occurrence of 226Ra in Ground Waters From a Granitic Aquifer at the City of Itatiba, Eastern Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, R. N.; Lucas, F. D.; Brenha Ribeiro, F.

    2007-05-01

    Among the naturally occurring radionuclides, 226Ra play an important role in establishing the ground water radioactivity level. In this work, it is presented the 226Ra activity concentration measured in ground water drawn from a granitic fractured aquifer at the Ribeira Folded Belt, eastern Sao Paulo State, Brazil. The ground water samples were collected twice in the same well in June, 2nd and July 6th, 2005. After discarding about fifteen minutes of continuous well pumping, ground waters samples are collected in 50 L polyethylene containers, previously conditioned with nitric acid, 0.03 mol/L. The water temperature, pH and Eh are measured at the sampling site. The water samples were preserved by addition of 2.0 mL of concentrated nitric acid to lower its pH to less than 2. In laboratory, three 20 L aliquots were selected for independent radiochemical processing. Radium is precipitated from water samples in the form of barium-radium sulfate. The barium-radium precipitate is filtered and dried over the filter paper. The radium containing filter is then sealed with an adhesive plastic film and hermetically closed in a rigid polystyrene sample holder. The sample is left at rest for at least 40 days to allow the short lived daughters (222Rn, 214Pb and 214Bi) reach secular radioactive equilibrium with 226Ra. The radium activity is then indirectly measured by gamma-ray spectrometry through the full absorption peaks from the 214Pb and 214Bi. The gamma-ray spectrometry activity measurements are made by comparison with 226Ra standards. These standards were prepared by the radium precipitation from secondary standard solutions obtained by dilution of a (19.52 +/- 0.72) Bq/g 226Ra solution. The precipitate standards were prepared following the procedure adopted for the ground water samples. The observed 226Ra activity concentration were (43 +/- 2) mBq/L and (46 +/- 3) mBq/L, for the first and second water sampling campaigns, respectively.

  2. Validation of the emission inventory in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area of Brazil, based on ambient concentrations ratios of CO, NMOG and NO x and on a photochemical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivanco, Marta G.; Andrade, Maria de Fátima

    In recent years, photochemical air pollution has become a significant problem in the São Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA). For some air pollutants, especially ozone and particulate matter, concentrations in excess of national air quality standards have been registered. According to data published by the State Environmental Agency (CETESB), approximately 90% of ozone precursors are emitted into the atmosphere by the vehicle fleet [CETESB, 2000. Relatório de Qualidade do ar do Estado de Sao Paulo, 1999; CETESB, 2002. Relatório de Qualidade do ar do Estado de Sao Paulo, 2004]. The estimation of precursor emissions speciation is a rather complex task. Estimating spatial and temporal variation of vehicle emissions is the greatest source of uncertainty. As in other locales, data regarding motor vehicle emissions are scarce. Due to the considerable discrepancies in emission inventories reported in various regions of the world, we evaluated the official emission inventories of non-methane organic gas (NMOG) and nitrogen oxides (NO x) using an observation-based approach. Ratios of NO x/carbon monoxide (CO) and NMOG/CO were calculated from ambient measurements taken in the early morning (0700-0800) during July and August of 1999. This top-down approach assumes that early morning ambient concentrations of CO, NO x and NMOG are dominated by motor vehicle emissions, and that the photochemical process has not substantially affected the concentrations. Based on these ratios and on the assumption that official inventory of CO emissions is reasonably accurate, on-road motor vehicle emissions of NO x seem to be significantly overestimated and NMOG emissions slightly underestimated. An Eulerian photochemical model, using both the revised motor vehicle emission inventory and the original official emissions provided by CETESB, was applied to an episodic air pollution event in the SPMA (9-12 August 1999). Meteorology fields were obtained from the CALMET model. When the revised, rather

  3. Assessment of hygienic conditions of ground pepper (Piper nigrum L.) on the market in Sao Paulo City, by means of two methodologies for detecting the light filth

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pepper should to be collected, processed, and packed under optimum conditions to avoid the presence of foreign matter. The hygienic conditions of ground pepper marketted in São Paulo city were assessed in determining the presence of foreign matter by means of two extraction methodologies. This study...

  4. Vulnerability to heat-related mortality in Latin America: a case-crossover study in Sao Paulo, Brazil, Santiago, Chile and Mexico City, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Bell, Michelle L; O'Neill, Marie S; Ranjit, Nalini; Borja-Aburto, Victor H; Cifuentes, Luis A; Gouveia, Nelson C

    2008-08-01

    Factors affecting vulnerability to heat-related mortality are not well understood. Identifying susceptible populations is of particular importance given anticipated rising temperatures from climatic change. We investigated heat-related mortality for three Latin American cities (Mexico City, Mexico; São Paulo, Brazil; Santiago, Chile) using a case-crossover approach for 754 291 deaths from 1998 to 2002. We considered lagged exposures, confounding by air pollution, cause of death and susceptibilities by educational attainment, age and sex. Same and previous day apparent temperature were most strongly associated with mortality risk. Effect estimates remained positive though lowered after adjustment for ozone or PM(10). Susceptibility increased with age in all cities. The increase in mortality risk for those >or=65 comparing the 95th and 75th percentiles of same-day apparent temperature was 2.69% (95% CI: -2.06 to 7.88%) for Santiago, 6.51% (95% CI: 3.57-9.52%) for São Paulo and 3.22% (95% CI: 0.93-5.57%) for Mexico City. Patterns of vulnerability by education and sex differed across communities. Effect estimates were higher for women than men in Mexico City, and higher for men elsewhere, although results by sex were not appreciably different for any city. In São Paulo, those with less education were more susceptible, whereas no distinct patterns by education were observed in the other cities. Elevated temperatures are associated with mortality risk in these Latin American cities, with the strongest associations in São Paulo, the hottest city. The elderly are an important population for targeted prevention measures, but vulnerability by sex and education differed by city.

  5. Effects of body mass index, abdominal obesity, and type 2 diabetes on mortality in community-dwelling elderly in Sao Paulo, Brazil: analysis of prospective data from the SABE study.

    PubMed

    Suemoto, Claudia K; Lebrao, Maria Lucia; Duarte, Yeda A; Danaei, Goodarz

    2015-04-01

    The majority of studies on the effects of adiposity on mortality in the elderly have been conducted in developed countries with mixed results. We investigated the association between adiposity and mortality in a cohort of community-dwelling elderly in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, and type 2 diabetes were evaluated in 1,882 participants (mean age 71.0 ± 8.3 years old, 61% female). Mortality was confirmed by national vital statistics records during a maximum of 10 years of follow-up. Proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for mortality after adjusting for sociodemographics and comorbidities. In a subsample of 897 participants, the effects of changes in measures of adiposity on mortality were investigated during a median follow-up of 4.6 years. Having type-2 diabetes at baseline was associated with increased mortality (HR = 1.44, 95% CI: 1.17-1.77), with a higher HR among men. When compared with normal weight participants (BMI = 20-<25kg/m(2)), overweight and obesity were not associated with mortality (overweight: HR = 0.84 [0.70, 1.02]; obesity: HR = 0.82 [0.64, 1.06]), whereas participants with low-normal weight (BMI = 18.5<20 kg/m(2)) had increased risk of death (HR = 1.51 [1.08-2.10]). Higher waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio were not associated with increased mortality. Weight gain was protective against mortality in all BMI categories, except in obese participants, and weight loss increased the risk of death in all BMI categories by 42-63%. In community-dwelling elderly in Sao Paulo, overweight and obesity were not associated with a higher risk of death, and weight gain seemed to reduce mortality, except in the obese. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Assessing the rabies control and surveillance systems in Brazil: an experience of measures toward bats after the halt of massive vaccination of dogs and cats in Campinas, Sao Paulo.

    PubMed

    De Lucca, Tosca; Rodrigues, Ricardo Conde Alves; Castagna, Claudio; Presotto, Douglas; De Nadai, Diego Vinicius; Fagre, Anna; Braga, Guilherme Basseto; Guilloux, Aline Gil Alves; e Alves, Ana Júlia Silva; Martins, Camila Marinelli; Amaku, Marcos; Ferreira, Fernando; Dias, Ricardo Augusto

    2013-08-01

    Bats are less vulnerable to forest fragmentation than any other mammal, and for that reason, some species can disperse to peri-urban or urban areas. Insectivorous bats are abundant in urban areas due to the density of artificial roosts and insects attracted by city lights. Inter-species transmission of the rabies virus between bats can occur, and this is the most probable mechanism of virus circulation in bat populations. Bats can also transmit the rabies virus to other mammal species, like dogs and cats. With the halt of dog and cat vaccination campaigns in 2010, the importance of rabies surveillance in bats has increased in Brazil. A cross-sectional study performed in Campinas, Sao Paulo State, using data from the passive surveillance system for bats showed that rabies-positive bats from the families Molossidae, Phyllostomidae and Vespertilionidae were found in a peri-urban area. In these areas, dog and cat emergency vaccination (vaccination blockage) was recommended after the halt of the massive vaccination campaign in 2010. This control strategy was able to increase the proportion of vaccinated animals around a critical value of 50% and even with a higher probability of infectious contact between bats and dogs or cats in the vaccination blockage areas, no dog or cat rabies case was observed, evidencing the importance of the implementation of strategic rabies control measures in this new epidemiological scenario.

  7. On-road emissions of carbonyls from vehicles powered by biofuel blends in traffic tunnels in the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nogueira, Thiago; Souza, Kely Ferreira de; Fornaro, Adalgiza; Andrade, Maria de Fatima; Carvalho, Lilian Rothschild Franco de

    2015-05-01

    On-road emissions of carbonyls from the current vehicle fleet of Brazil were determined in two experimental campaigns, conducted in traffic tunnels located in the Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (MASP), in southeastern Brazil. Among carbonyl species, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were the most abundant in all sampling periods. In Brazil, heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) run on a blend of 95% regular diesel/5% biodiesel from soy, whereas light-duty vehicles (LDVs) run on gasohol (75-80% gasoline/20-25% ethanol) or hydrous ethanol. We found that HDVs showed the highest overall carbonyl emissions, although LDVs were responsible for high emissions of acetaldehyde. In comparison with LDVs in California, which are powered by 90% gasoline/10% ethanol, LDVs in Brazil were found to emit 352% and 263% more formaldehyde and acetaldehyde.

  8. Sao Paulo Lightning Mapping Array (SP-LMA): Network Assessment and Analyses for Intercomparison Studies and GOES-R Proxy Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blakeslee, R. J.; Bailey, J. C.; Carey, L. D.; Goodman, S. J.; Rudlosky, S. D.; Albrecht, R.; Morales, C. A.; Anselmo, E. M.; Neves, J. R.

    2013-01-01

    A 12 station Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) network was deployed during October 2011in the vicinity of São Paulo, Brazil (SP-LMA) to contribute total lightning measurements to an international field campaign [CHUVA - Cloud processes of tHe main precipitation systems in Brazil: A contribUtion to cloud resolVing modeling and to the GPM (GlobAl Precipitation Measurement)]. The SP-LMA was operational from November 2011 through March 2012. Sensor spacing was on the order of 15-30 km, with a network diameter on the order of 40-50km. The SP-LMA provides good 3-D lightning mapping out to150 km from the network center, with 2-D coverage considerably farther. In addition to supporting CHUVA science/mission objectives, the SP-LMA is supporting the generation of unique proxy data for the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) and Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI), on NOAA's Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-R (GOES-R: scheduled for a 2015 launch). These proxy data will be used to develop and validate operational algorithms so that they will be ready to use on "day1" following the GOES-R launch. The SP-LMA data also will be intercompared with lightning observations from other deployed lightning networks to advance our understanding of the capabilities/contributions of each of these networks toward GLM proxy and validation activities. This paper addresses the network assessment and analyses for intercomparison studies and GOES-R proxy activities

  9. Cross-sectoral assessment of public policies in health and the environment: Scenario of the municipalities in the state of Sao Paulo.

    PubMed

    Dantas, Marina Kolland; Oliveira, Lilian Ribeiro de; Ferolla, Luna Marquez; Paschoalotto, Marco Antônio Catussi; Lopes, José Eduardo Ferreira; Passador, João Luiz; Passador, Claudia Souza

    2017-12-01

    From the identification of the current and rising demand for integrated solutions by government players, especially at the stage of evaluation of public policies, this paper carried out an cross-sectoral outcome assessment of local government cost-effectiveness in the fields of health and environment. The analysis is based on the amount of resources allocated by each of the 645 municipalities in the state of São Paulo, to each field, involving consolidated evaluation indicators (IDSUS and IAA, respectively). This study required the prior distribution of municipalities in clusters within homogeneous groups previously proposed in IDSUS calculation methodology. The results suggest that the addressed areas are intimately connected, indicating that larger (and better) environmental investments can produce promising outcomes toward health performance. Therefore, there is a demand for integrated public policies in the context of environmental health. Also, there is the indication that the resource management and the proper allocation thereof may be more relevant than the total amount spent; and that lower cost-effectiveness values do not necessarily demonstrate high scores in the assessed performance indicators. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison of atmospheric instability indices derived from radiosonde observations and precipitation values measured with a weather radar and a rain gauge network in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, Mauro; Martin, Inacio; Shkevov, Rumen; Gusev, Anatoly; De Abreu, Alessandro

    2016-07-01

    Radio soundings are carried out daily in more than 800 stations throughout the world. The data collected in the soundings are used in many meteorological applications such as numerical weather prediction and climate models. Despite the relatively large number of sounding stations, they are unevenly distributed over the globe. It is generally assumed that the desired distance between stations is 300 km. In this study, we performed a comparison of 20 soundings of two stations located 85 km apart (State of São Paulo, Brazil; 23.511811° S, 46.637528° W, and 23.212578° S, 45.866581° W) to determine whether there is a concordance between atmospheric instability indices derived from the data collected by soundings at the these different locations. Additionally, precipitation data obtained by a meteorological radar and a rain gauge network during the same period as the soundings are compared to the stability indices to establish a correlation between precipitation values and these indices.

  11. A cross-sectional study of sociodemographic factors and their influence on quality of life in medical students at Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Serinolli, Mario Ivo; Novaretti, Marcia Cristina Zago

    2017-01-01

    Various sociodemographic factors can affect the quality of life of medical students and interfere in their ability to study. A deeper understanding of these factors may facilitate improvements in learning and retention of medical students. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 405 medical students, representing 65.3% of the total student body (years 1-6), at a private medical school in São Paulo, Brazil. Among the entire study group, 177 students (43.7%) were male, and 228 (56.3%) were female. The mean age was 23.55 years (SD = 3.98 years, range: 18-40). The World Health Organization Quality of Life-Biomedical Research and Education Facility (WHOQOL-BREF) scale was used to evaluate the following sociodemographic factors: age, sex, academic year, daily traveling time, housing conditions, smoking, weight, height, participant's and his/her parents' education background, students who had a degree or not and religious beliefs. The reliability of the WHOQOL-BREF was evaluated using Cronbach's analysis, and the association of sociodemographic factors with quality of life was examined using multivariate regression analysis. Quality of life was significantly higher in medical students with religious beliefs (β 0.14 for psychological domain; β 0.11 for environmental domain) when compared with that in those with no religious beliefs. BMI was negative associated with QOL in medical students (β -0.11 for physical domain; β -18.9 for the psychological domain). In both male and female students, longer daily traveling time was negative related to QOL (β -0.11 for environmental domain). Having at least one parent who was a doctor was associated with a better quality of life (β 0.17 for environmental domain). Male students presented with significantly higher mean scores for three of the four domains evaluated (β 0.20 for physical domain; β 0.25 for psychological domain; β 0.14 for social domain). This study has provided novel insights into the effects of sociodemographic

  12. Vehicular emission factors and chemical profile of Particulate Matter measured in two road tunnels in the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nogueira, T.; Miranda, R. M.; Dominutti, P. A.; Hetem, I. G.; Fornaro, A.; Andrade, M.

    2013-12-01

    The main source of air pollution in the Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (MASP), Brazil, is vehicle exhaust. In this study, trace-element concentrations inside and outside of two traffic tunnels in the MASP are shown. The experiments were conducted in May and July 2011, respectively, in the Jânio Quadros (JQT) and Rodoanel (RAT) road tunnels, both located in MASP. The JQT carries mainly light-duty vehicles (LDV), whereas the RAT carries LDVs and heavy-duty vehicles (HDV). Hourly carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide were measured during the sampling campaign. Particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM2.5-10) samples were collected 6-h (daytime) and 12-h (overnight), employing gravimetric analysis to quantify PM mass concentration; reflectance to quantify black carbon (BC) concentrations and X-ray fluorescence to characterize elemental composition. Mean concentrations for PM2.5 and BC inside the JQT were 41(×11), and 19(×9) μg/m3, respectively. In the RAT mean concentrations were 175(×61), and 140(×78) μg/m3, for PM2.5 and BC, respectively. Emission Factors (EFs) for PM2.5, PM2.5-10, BC and trace metal (Na to Pb) from mobile sources operating under real-world conditions were determined using these traffic tunnels in the MASP as experimental set-up. LDV emission factors were 45 × 18 mg/km, 39 × 17 mg/km, 306 × 121 μg/km, 108 × 46 μg/km, 742 × 453 μg/km, 624 × 261 μg/km, and 33 × 15 μg/km, for PM2.5, BC, Na, P, S, Cu, and Pb, respectively. HDV emission factors were 326 × 119 mg/km, 231 × 98 mg/km, 446 × 218 μg/km, 384 × 143 μg/km, 4618 × 1878 μg/km, 44 × 18 μg/km, and 46 × 20 μg/km, for PM2.5, BC, Na, P, S, Cu, and Pb, respectively. In general, the mean contribution of HDVs to the emissions of fine particles was from 1.4 to 7.3 times higher than that of LDVs. In addition, the data show a significant reduction in the EFs values when compared with data obtained in the last campaign held in the MASP in 2004. The reduction

  13. Major Andre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henisch, B. A.; Henisch, H. K.

    1976-01-01

    If most Revolutionary era people seem two-dimensional their lives simpler to understand than ours, it may be only that history, with the benefit of hindsight, clarifies. Examines a profile of Major John Andre, the British liaison officer in Benedict Arnold's plan to surrender West Point, as both hero and villain to show the complexity of early…

  14. Vulnerabilities in snakebites in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Bertolozzi, Maria Rita; Scatena, Camila Morato da Conceição; França, Francisco Oscar de Siqueira

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe elements of vulnerability of victims of snakebite. METHODS This qualitative, descriptive, cross-sectional study had, as theoretical framework, the concept of vulnerability in individual, social, and programmatic dimensions. We interviewed 21 patients admitted into a hospital specialized in the care of accidents caused by venomous animals. The interviews were analyzed according to a discourse analysis technique. RESULTS Patients were mainly young men, living in remote countryside areas, where health services frequently have limited resources. We found social and individual conditions of vulnerability, such as precarious schooling, low professional qualification, housing without access to piped water, no sewage treated, and no regular garbage collection, and lack of knowledge on this health problem. Regarding the programmatic dimension, we found limited accessibility to the health services that could affect the prognosis and the frequency of sequelae and deaths. CONCLUSIONS Considering such vulnerabilities evoke the need to improve the program for control the Accidents by Venomous Animals and the training of health workers, we highlight the potential use of the concept of vulnerability, which may amplify the understanding and the recommendations for the practice and education related to snakebites. PMID:26603351

  15. Population Growth and Policies in Mega-Cities. Sao Paulo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations New York, NY. Dept. of Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis.

    This document is one in a series of studies that focus on the population policies and plans of a number of mega-cities in developing countries. The object of the series is to examine the formulation, implementation, and evaluation of the population policies of mega-cities from a broad perspective, emphasizing the reciprocal links between…

  16. Reactivity of San Andres dolomite

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, M.S. )

    1991-05-01

    The San Andres formation is routinely stimulated with acid. Although numerous acidizing simulators are available to aid in treatment optimization, existing reactivity data were generated with quarried rock rather than formation samples. This paper presents reactivity data for five San Andres dolomite samples. These data can be used in most fracture-acidizing-design simulators to allow more accurate simulation of the acidizing process.

  17. [The arrival of the plague in São Paulo in 1899].

    PubMed

    do Nascimento, Dilene Raimundo

    2011-01-01

    In October 1899, the bubonic plague arrived in Brazil through the port of Santos. A city of intensive port activity, Santos was the gateway for a plague epidemic that devastated several cities in Brazil in the early 20th century and prompted joint action by several states to fight it. More importantly, given the difficulties and delays in importing anti-plague serum from Europe, it led to the creation of the Butantan Institute in Sao Paulo (in 1899) and the Municipal Serotherapeutic Institute in Rio de Janeiro (in 1900), which developed and standardized anti-plague serum and vaccines according to the particular conditions of the country. Until then, public health efforts had been isolated and had not reached the whole country. Oswaldo Cruz, newly arrived after three years of specialization at the Pasteur Institute in Paris, worked with scientists Adolfo Lutz and Vital Brazil on identifying the plague in Santos. This article analyzes the arrival of the bubonic plague epidemic in the state of Sao Paulo and the public health measures taken to combat the disease and provide patient care in the early part of the 20th century. The primary sources for this analysis were the São Paulo newspapers, especially O Estado de Sao Paulo, and reports from the Ministry of Justice and the President of the State of Sao Paulo.

  18. "Sedentary" Homeless Children in S. Paulo, Brazil: Their Houses, Their Families, Their Lifestyles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabinovich, Elaine Pedreira

    This study examined the lifestyle of children from a sedentary grouping of 20 homeless families living under a viaduct in Sao Paulo, Brazil. The study particularly focused on issues related to this lifestyle, including dimensions of housing and cultural variations in housing related to child development and child rearing. The lifestyle of the…

  19. The SAO {AXAF} Simulation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jerius, D.; Freeman, M.; Gaetz, T.; Hughes, J. P.; Podgorski, W.

    As part of our efforts to support the AXAF program, the SAO AXAF Mission Support Team has developed a software suite to simulate the AXAF telescope. The software traces the fate of photons through the telescope, from the X-ray source through apertures, baffles, the telescope optics, and finally to the photons' ultimate interactions with the focal plane detectors. We model relevant physical processes, including geometrical reflection, scattering due to surface microroughness, distortions of the optics due to the mirror mounts, attenuation through baffles, etc. The software is composed of programs and scripts, each specialized to a given task, which communicate through UNIX pipes. Software tasks are centered about functional components of the telescope (e.g., apertures, mirrors, detectors) and provide a comfortable and flexible paradigm for performing simulations. The use of separate programs and the UNIX pipe facility allows great flexibility in building different configurations of the telescope and distilling diagnostics from the photon stream through the telescope. We are able to transparently use symmetric multi-processing (e.g., SPARCStation 10s and SGI Challenges) and can easily use sequential multi-processing (via workstation clusters). Some of the tasks are amenable to parallel processing and have been implemented using the MPI standard.

  20. Entrepreneurship in Nursing: overview of companies in the State of São Paulo.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Andréia de Carvalho; Dal Ben, Luiza Watanabe; Sanna, Maria Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to identify and characterize nursing companies managed by entrepreneur nurses registered at the Commercial Registry of São Paulo by 2011. It's a descriptive, exploratory study, whose data collection, made throughout January 2012, was carried out on the Commercial Registry of Sao Paulo website. This non-governmental body has the function of registering the opening of companies and supervising their trade situation. This study allowed us to identify that the entrepreneur nurse is a growing reality through the identification of 196 companies opened by these professionals. Afterwards, it was analyzed their time of functioning, the main economic activity of the company, capital value, percentage of nurse partners and the distribution of companies by region of Sao Paulo State.

  1. LibKiSAO: a Java library for Querying KiSAO.

    PubMed

    Zhukova, Anna; Adams, Richard; Laibe, Camille; Le Novère, Nicolas

    2012-09-24

    The Kinetic Simulation Algorithm Ontology (KiSAO) supplies information about existing algorithms available for the simulation of Systems Biology models, their characteristics, parameters and inter-relationships. KiSAO enables the unambiguous identification of algorithms from simulation descriptions. Information about analogous methods having similar characteristics and about algorithm parameters incorporated into KiSAO is desirable for simulation tools. To retrieve this information programmatically an application programming interface (API) for KiSAO is needed. We developed libKiSAO, a Java library to enable querying of the KiSA Ontology. It implements methods to retrieve information about simulation algorithms stored in KiSAO, their characteristics and parameters, and methods to query the algorithm hierarchy and search for similar algorithms providing comparable results for the same simulation set-up. Using libKiSAO, simulation tools can make logical inferences based on this knowledge and choose the most appropriate algorithm to perform a simulation. LibKiSAO also enables simulation tools to handle a wider range of simulation descriptions by determining which of the available methods are similar and can be used instead of the one indicated in the simulation description if that one is not implemented. LibKiSAO enables Java applications to easily access information about simulation algorithms, their characteristics and parameters stored in the OWL-encoded Kinetic Simulation Algorithm Ontology. LibKiSAO can be used by simulation description editors and simulation tools to improve reproducibility of computational simulation tasks and facilitate model re-use.

  2. Network and Data Bank at SAO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitkovskij, V.

    1997-03-01

    This paper gives an outline of the main principles and architecture for networking, telecommunication and data access at the Special Astrophysical Observatory (SAO). Its second goal is to give a view of the state and trends of computing, networking and data archiving. A combined satellite/microwave/fiberoptic link is the basis of the network. The microwave and fiberoptic (in future) links are used for the SAO local loops (three LANs). The satellite link (64 K) connects the SAOnet with Internet via DESY (Germany) and MSU (Russia). The basic TCP/IP services, consisting of file transfer (FTP), e-mail and terminal access (including TELNET and X-Windows) are available everywhere on the network. Telecommunication services enable SAO scientists and their partners to exchange data rapidly and to pursue successfully collaborative projects.

  3. HD-SAO-DM cross index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagy, T. A.; Mead, J.

    1978-01-01

    A table of correspondence SAO-HD-DM-GC was prepared by Morin (1973). The machine-readable version of this cross identification was obtained from the Centre de Donnees Stellaires (Strasbourg, France). The table was sorted at the Goddard Space Flight Center by HD number and all blank HD number records were removed to produce the HD-SAO-DM table presented. There were 258997 entries in the original table; there are 180411 entries after removing the blank HD records. The Boss General Catalogue (GC) numbers were retained on the machine-readable version after the sort.

  4. Bioluminescent Mycena species from São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Desjardin, Dennis E; Capelari, Marina; Stevani, Cassius

    2007-01-01

    Six species of bioluminescent agarics are described and illustrated from a single site in primary Atlantic Forest habitat in the Parque Estadual Turistico do Alto Ribeira, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. These include two new taxa of Mycena, viz. M. asterina and M. lucentipes. Luminescence in Mycena fera, M. singeri and M. discobasis is reported for the first time. In addition an undeterminable luminescent Mycena species is described and additional specimens of Gerronema viridilucens are documented. An accounting of known bioluminescent species of Mycena and a discussion of why they luminesce are presented.

  5. Agriculture, Rio Sao Francisco, Brazil, South America

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1988-10-03

    The large field patterns in this view of the Rio Sao Francisco basin, Brazil, South America, (11.5S, 43.5W) indicate a commercial agriculture venture; family subsistence farms are much smaller and laid out in different patterns. Land clearing in Brazil has increased at an alarming rate in recent years and preliminary estimates suggest a 25 to 30% increase in deforestation since 1984. The long term impact on the ecological processes are still unknown.

  6. Agriculture, Rio Sao Francisco, Brazil, South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The large field patterns in this view of the Rio Sao Francisco basin, Brazil, South America, (11.5S, 43.5W) indicate a commercial agriculture venture; family subsistence farms are much smaller and laid out in different patterns. Land clearing in Brazil has increased at an alarming rate in recent years and preliminary estimates suggest a 25 to 30% increase in deforestation since 1984. The long term impact on the ecological processes are still unknown.

  7. First description of necrosis in leaves and pseudo-bulbs of Oncidium orchids caused by Burkholderia gladioli in São Paulo State, Brazil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A necrosis of orchid leaves and pseudobulbs was observed in a commercial orchid nursery in Mogi das Cruzes, Sao Paulo, Brazil. The symptoms were water-soaked, brown lesions that can develop into large areas of necrosis that extend throughout the entire plant, ultimately causing death. Bacteria were...

  8. Radar image of Rio Sao Francisco, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This radar image acquired by SRTM shows an area south of the Sao Francisco River in Brazil. The area is predominantly scrub forest. Areas such as these are difficult to map by traditional methods because of frequent cloud cover and local inaccessibility. Image brightness differences in this image are caused by differences in vegetation type and density. Tributaries of the Sao Francisco are visible in the upper right. The Sao Francisco River is a major source of water for irrigation and hydroelectric power. Mapping such regions will allow scientists to better understand the relationships between flooding cycles, forestation and human influences on ecosystems.

    This radar image was obtained by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission as part of its mission to map the Earth's topography. The image was acquired by just one of SRTM's two antennas, and consequently does not show topographic data but only the strength of the radar signal reflected from the ground. This signal, known as radar backscatter, provides insight into the nature of the surface, including its roughness, vegetation cover, and urbanization.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

  9. Radar image of Rio Sao Francisco, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This radar image acquired by SRTM shows an area south of the Sao Francisco River in Brazil. The area is predominantly scrub forest. Areas such as these are difficult to map by traditional methods because of frequent cloud cover and local inaccessibility. Image brightness differences in this image are caused by differences in vegetation type and density. Tributaries of the Sao Francisco are visible in the upper right. The Sao Francisco River is a major source of water for irrigation and hydroelectric power. Mapping such regions will allow scientists to better understand the relationships between flooding cycles, forestation and human influences on ecosystems.

    This radar image was obtained by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission as part of its mission to map the Earth's topography. The image was acquired by just one of SRTM's two antennas, and consequently does not show topographic data but only the strength of the radar signal reflected from the ground. This signal, known as radar backscatter, provides insight into the nature of the surface, including its roughness, vegetation cover, and urbanization.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

  10. André Guinier (1911-2000)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comes, R.

    2002-07-01

    André Guinier died on 3 July 2000, he was a pioneer of crystallography of crystalline imperfections and their influence on physical properties of materials. He leaves an active research school in a variety of domains. André Guinier, décédé le 3 juillet 2000, a été l'un des pionniers de la cristallographie des imperfections cristallines et de leurs influences sur les propriétés physiques des matériaux. Il laisse derrière lui une école vivante de recherche dans des domaines très variés.

  11. Exposure to MTV's Global HIV Prevention Campaign in Kathmandu, Nepal; Sao Paulo, Brazil; and Dakar, Senegal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geary, Cynthia Waszak; Burke, Holly McClain; Castelnau, Laure; Neupane, Shailes; Sall, Yacine Ba; Wong, Emily

    2007-01-01

    In 2002 MTV aired a global media campaign, "Staying Alive," to promote HIV prevention among 16- to 25-year-olds. Skeptics believed that a global MTV campaign would reach only a small group of elite young people. MTV increased access to its campaign, however, by making all materials "rights free" to third-party (non-MTV)…

  12. The University of SAO Paulo 2.4 Meter Millimetric Antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepine, J. R. D.; Raffaelli, J. C.

    1990-11-01

    ABSTRACT: We present the main characteristics of the radiotelescope of 2.4 m of IAG-USP, designed for observations of molecular lines of the interstellar medium. The radiotelescope is equipped with a room temperature receiver for the frequencies range 100-115 GHz and with a bank of 50 filters with 300 KHz resolution for spectral analysis. oit : INSTRUNENTS - RADIO TELESCOPES

  13. Exposure to MTV's Global HIV Prevention Campaign in Kathmandu, Nepal; Sao Paulo, Brazil; and Dakar, Senegal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geary, Cynthia Waszak; Burke, Holly McClain; Castelnau, Laure; Neupane, Shailes; Sall, Yacine Ba; Wong, Emily

    2007-01-01

    In 2002 MTV aired a global media campaign, "Staying Alive," to promote HIV prevention among 16- to 25-year-olds. Skeptics believed that a global MTV campaign would reach only a small group of elite young people. MTV increased access to its campaign, however, by making all materials "rights free" to third-party (non-MTV)…

  14. 38 Drug Induced Anaphylaxis in a University Hospital in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Aun, Marcelo Vivolo; Rodrigues, Adriana Teixeira; Ribeiro, Marisa Rosimeire; Garro, Laila Sabino; Castro-Coelho, Ana Príscia; Tanno, Luciana Kase; Chiaverini Ensina, Luis Felipe; Kalil, Jorge; Motta, Antonio Abilio; Giavina-Bianchi, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Background Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are common in clinical practice, most of them presented only with mucocutaneous symptoms. Drug induced anaphylaxis is rare, but it is responsible for most deaths due to ADRs. The aim of this study was to evaluate drug induced anaphylaxis treated in an Allergy Outpatient Clinic of a University Hospital. Methods Retrospective analysis of medical records from patients who seek assistance because of ADR. We looked for clinical criteria for diagnosing anaphylaxis, as recommended in WAO Guidelines. Criteria were classified in numbers 1 to 3:1) Acute onset of an illness (minutes to several hours) with involvement of the skin-mucosal tissue and respiratory and/or cardiovascular compromise; 2) Two or more of the following that occur rapidly after exposure to a likely allergen: involvement of skin-mucosal tissue, respiratory, cardiovascular and/or gastrointestinal compromise; 3) Reduced blood pressure after exposure to known allergen for that patient. We analyzed patients gender and age, drugs involved in reactions and administration of epinephrin. Results We studied 806 patients with history of ADR, of whom 123 (15.3%) presented clinical criteria of anaphylaxis (mean age 39.0 year old, female 101). The first clinical criteria was found in 60.2% and the second one in 38.2%. Epinephrin was injected in only 42 patients (34.1%). Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) were most commonly suspected culprit drugs involved in anaphylactic reactions, with 59 patients (47.9%), followed by 40 patients with perioperative anaphylaxis (32.5%), 6 cases due to local anesthetics (4.9%) and 4 to antibiotics (3.2%). Between perioperative anaphylaxis, latex was involved in 10 reactions and neuromuscular blocking agents in 3. Conclusions We found a high prevalence of anaphylaxis, probably because patients with severe ADRs tend to be followed in university hospitals. Nevertheless, anaphylaxis is underdiagnosed in emergency departments, as we observed less than 35% of patients with drug induced anaphylaxis were treated with epinephrin. NSAIDs are still the most common drugs involved in ADRs in Brazil, including severe reactions, as anaphylaxis. In our country, latex still is an important agent incriminated in perioperative anaphylaxis, but anaphylaxis due to antibiotics are less common than in other countries.

  15. Brevipalpus phoenicis (group species B) on Citrus spp. and Coffea arabica, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Some mite species of the genus Brevipalpus are considered pests of economic importance for several agricultural crops such as citrus and coffee. They are associated with the transmission of viruses [e.g.:citrus leprosis virus (CiLV), coffee ringspot virus (CoRSV)]. Recent studies indicate that the ...

  16. Assessment of nurses' knowledge about magnetic resonance imaging in a university hospital in Sao Paulo.

    PubMed

    Lima, Marcos Souza; Shigueoka, David Carlos; Salvador, Maria Elisabete; da Silva Canteras, Lígia Mara; Carmagnani, Maria Isabel Sampaio; Ajzen, Sérgio Aron

    2012-12-01

    The aims of this descriptive study were to determine the academic profile of nurses in a university hospital, assess their level of knowledge about magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and verify whether this knowledge was acquired during their undergraduate or graduate education. Ninety randomly selected nurses working in inpatient wards and outpatient units of a university hospital participated in the study. Data were collected through a questionnaire completed by the participants between August and October 2009. Most nurses were females who have received specialized education. The participants had a limited knowledge about MRI, which was restricted to the procedures to prepare patients for MRI examination and MRI contraindications. Most of the nurses acquired information about MRI during the professional practice. The majority of nurses showed interest to know more about the MRI examination, especially regarding the exam environment, conditions and contraindications, in order to prevent accidents.

  17. Artificial and natural radioactivity in edible mushrooms from Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Castro, L P; Maihara, V A; Silva, P S C; Figueira, R C L

    2012-11-01

    Environmental biomonitoring has demonstrated that organisms such as crustaceans, fish and mushrooms are useful to evaluate and monitor both ecosystem contamination and quality. Particularly, some mushroom species have a high capacity to retain radionuclides and some toxic elements from the soil and the air. The potential of mushrooms to accumulate radionuclides in their fruit-bodies has been well documented. However, there are no studies that determine natural and artificial radionuclide composition in edible mushrooms, in Brazil. Artificial ((137)Cs) and natural radioactivity ((40)K, (22)(6)Ra, (2)(28)Ra) were determined in 17 mushroom samples from 3 commercialized edible mushroom species. The edible mushrooms collected were Agaricus sp., Pleurotus sp. and Lentinula sp. species. The activity measurements were carried out by gamma spectrometry. The levels of (137)Cs varied from 1.45 ± 0.04 to 10.6 ± 0.3 Bq kg(-1), (40)K levels varied from 461 ± 2 to 1535 ± 10 Bq kg(-1), (2)(26)Ra levels varied from 14 ± 3 to 66 ± 12 Bq kg(-1) and (228)Ra levels varied from 6.2 ± 0.2 to 54.2 ± 1.7 Bq kg(-1). (137)Cs levels in Brazilian mushrooms are in accordance with the radioactive fallout in the Southern Hemisphere. The artificial and natural activities determined in this study were found to be below the maximum permissible levels as established by national legislation. Thus, these mushroom species can be normally consumed by the population without any apparent risks to human health. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Ten years of a multidisciplinary diabetic foot team approach in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Batista, Fábio; Augusto Magalhães, Antonio; Gamba, Mônica; Nery, Caio; Cardoso, Cristina

    2010-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus can cause devastating foot problems including loss of protective sensation with subsequent ulcerations and amputations. The natural history and pathophysiology of diabetic foot ulcers is best understood and managed by a multiprofessional team approach. The main factors for prevention and treatment of these devastating diabetic foot conditions are shown, with special attention to education of the patient. This approach decreases the morbidity of the disease, besides its economical and social feasibility. PMID:22396805

  19. Operative strategies of HLB's scouts of a citrus property within the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Glaucia Helena; Menegon, Nilton Luiz

    2012-01-01

    This research aimed to study the activity of the HLB's scouts, workers whose function is to identify symptomatic plants, in order to understand the physical constraints, cognitive and organizational involved in accomplishing the task, characterizing the operative approach used to identify diseased plants, and to elucidate what aspects hinder the identification of symptoms. The method adopted for the research was the Ergonomic Analysis of Work--EAW [6]. The results, after validation with the operators and management, allowed understanding the complex relationships between the physical, cognitive and organizational aspects present on activity. Major difficulties were observed mainly in relation to the disposal of the scouts on the platforms and in relation to working hours, at the beginning and end of the journey. Important findings have highlighted strategies, unknown by the organization, used by scouts to locate candidates' trees to the fine analysis of investigation of symptoms. In conclusion, the analysis enable to understand the constraints and find technical and organizational solutions to the survey work on citrus groves as well as it showed signs and symptoms not investigated yet or rarely considered by researchers involved on searches aimed at increasing the ability to diagnose the disease in the field.

  20. Geological map of parts of the state of Sao Paulo based on LANDSAT images. [Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejususparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Amaral, G.; Liu, C. C.; Filho, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Interpretation of LANDSAT images revealed the subdivision of the Bauru formation into three distinct lithofacies. Delineation of structural features yielded new information on paleoenvironmental reconstitution and hydrogeology. Structural features and photogeological units were revealed in the precambrian basement at the eastern portion of the state.

  1. Effects of human trampling on a rocky shore fauna on the Sao Paulo coast, southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, M N; Rosso, S

    2009-11-01

    Increased tourist activity in coastal regions demands management strategies to reduce impacts on rocky shores. The highly populated coastal areas in southeastern Brazil are an example of degradation caused by development of industry and tourism. Among different shore impacts, trampling has been intensively studied, and may represent a significant source of stress for intertidal fauna. A randomised blocks design was applied to experimentally study the effects of two different trampling intensities on richness, diversity, density and biomass of the rocky shore fauna of Obuseiro beach, Guarujá, southeastern Brazil. Blocks were distributed in two portions of the intertidal zone, dominated respectively by Chthamalus bisinuatus (Cirripedia) and Isognomon bicolor (Bivalvia). Blocks were trampled over three months, simulating the vacation period in Brazil and were monitored for the following nine months. Results indicate that Chthamalus bisinuatus is vulnerable to trampling impacts. Richness, diversity and turn-over index tended to be higher in trampled plots four months after trampling ceased. In general, results agree with previous trampling studies, suggesting that even low intensities of trampling may cause some impact on intertidal communities. Management strategies should include isolation of sensitive areas, construction of boardwalks, visitor education and monitoring programmes. In Brazil, additional data obtained from experimental studies are necessary in order to achieve a better understanding of trampling impacts on rocky shore communities.

  2. Lead exposure in pregnant women and their newborns in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Troster, E.J.; Schvartsman, S. )

    1988-06-01

    Blood lead concentrations of a group of mothers and their newborns were studied. The results showed a correlation between maternal and newborn levels. It is suggested that biochemical alterations may be present in some of the mothers and in a smaller proportion of the newborns. In addition, a comparison of the lead levels in blood with those in the environment was made.

  3. Presented at the International Nuclear Physics Conference, Sao Paulo, Brazil, 20-26 August 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Schramm, D.N.

    1989-12-01

    Nuclear physics has provided one of two critical observational tests of all Big Bang cosmology, namely Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. Furthermore, this same nuclear physics input enables a prediction to be made about one of the most fundamental physics questions of all, the number of elementary particle families. The standard Big Bang Nucleosynthesis arguments are reviewed. The primordial He abundance is inferred from He-C and He-N and He-O correlations. The strengthened Li constraint as well as D-2 plus He-3 are used to limit the baryon density. This limit is the key argument behind the need for non-baryonic dark matter. The allowed number of neutrino families, N(nu), is delineated using the new neutron lifetime value of tau(n) = 890 + or - 4s (tau(1/2) = 10.3 min). The formal statistical result is N(nu) = 2.6 + or - 0.3 (1 sigma), providing a reasonable fit (1.3 sigma) to three families but making a fourth light (m(nu) less than or equal to 10 MeV) neutrino family exceedly unlikely (approx. greater than 4.7 sigma). It is also shown that uncertainties induced by postulating a first-order quark-baryon phase transition do not seriously affect the conclusions.

  4. The use of LANDSAT data to monitor the urban growth of Sao Paulo Metropolitan area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Niero, M.; Lombardo, M. A.; Foresti, C.

    1982-01-01

    Urban growth from 1977 to 1979 of the region between Billings and the Guarapiranga reservoir was mapped and the problematic urban areas identified using several LANDSAT products. Visual and automatic interpretation techniques were applied to the data. Computer compatible tapes of LANDSAT multispectral scanner data were analyzed through the maximum likelihood Gaussian algorithm. The feasibility of monitoring fast urban growth by remote sensing techniques for efficient urban planning and control is demonstrated.

  5. [Characteristics of intra-metropolitan mobility in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil, 1970-1980].

    PubMed

    Cunha, J M

    1992-01-01

    "Based on the 1980 census, the study attempts to provide a general overview of [intra-metropolitan migration in Brazil], using information regarding previous place of residence--data included for the first time in a Brazilian census--, which helps to establish the internal, intermunicipal, migratory flow. The article also presents certain aspects related to volume, direction and reasons for these movements as well as some of the characteristics of influencing factors." (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  6. The Paulo Freire Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freire, Ana Maria Araujo, Ed.; Macedo, Donaldo, Ed.

    This book analyzes the work of Paulo Freire and discusses Freire's work with adult literacy education and educational improvement. The book is divided into eight major sections, each containing one or more chapters or sections discussing Freire's works, as follows: Section 1, "Pedagogy of the Oppressed," includes "The Fear of…

  7. Shaded Relief of Rio Sao Francisco, Brazil

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-02-14

    This topographic image acquired by SRTM shows an area south of the Sao Francisco River in Brazil. The scrub forest terrain shows relief of about 400 meters (1300 feet). Areas such as these are difficult to map by traditional methods because of frequent cloud cover and local inaccessibility. This region has little topographic relief, but even subtle changes in topography have far-reaching effects on regional ecosystems. The image covers an area of 57 km x 79 km and represents one quarter of the 225 km SRTM swath. Colors range from dark blue at water level to white and brown at hill tops. The terrain features that are clearly visible in this image include tributaries of the Sao Francisco, the dark-blue branch-like features visible from top right to bottom left, and on the left edge of the image, and hills rising up from the valley floor. The San Francisco River is a major source of water for irrigation and hydroelectric power. Mapping such regions will allow scientists to better understand the relationships between flooding cycles, forestation and human influences on ecosystems. This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Shaded relief maps are commonly used in applications such as geologic mapping and land use planning. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA02700

  8. PT symmetric Aubry-Andre model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuce, C.

    2014-06-01

    PT symmetric Aubry-Andre model describes an array of N coupled optical waveguides with position-dependent gain and loss. We show that the reality of the spectrum depends sensitively on the degree of quasi-periodicity for small number of lattice sites. We obtain the Hofstadter butterfly spectrum and discuss the existence of the phase transition from extended to localized states. We show that rapidly changing periodical gain/loss materials almost conserve the total intensity.

  9. Shaded Relief of Rio Sao Francisco, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This topographic image acquired by SRTM shows an area south of the Sao Francisco River in Brazil. The scrub forest terrain shows relief of about 400 meters (1300 feet). Areas such as these are difficult to map by traditional methods because of frequent cloud cover and local inaccessibility. This region has little topographic relief, but even subtle changes in topography have far-reaching effects on regional ecosystems. The image covers an area of 57 km x 79 km and represents one quarter of the 225 km SRTM swath. Colors range from dark blue at water level to white and brown at hill tops. The terrain features that are clearly visible in this image include tributaries of the Sao Francisco, the dark-blue branch-like features visible from top right to bottom left, and on the left edge of the image, and hills rising up from the valley floor. The San Francisco River is a major source of water for irrigation and hydroelectric power. Mapping such regions will allow scientists to better understand the relationships between flooding cycles, forestation and human influences on ecosystems.

    This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Shaded relief maps are commonly used in applications such as geologic mapping and land use planning.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter

  10. Shaded Relief of Rio Sao Francisco, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This topographic image acquired by SRTM shows an area south of the Sao Francisco River in Brazil. The scrub forest terrain shows relief of about 400 meters (1300 feet). Areas such as these are difficult to map by traditional methods because of frequent cloud cover and local inaccessibility. This region has little topographic relief, but even subtle changes in topography have far-reaching effects on regional ecosystems. The image covers an area of 57 km x 79 km and represents one quarter of the 225 km SRTM swath. Colors range from dark blue at water level to white and brown at hill tops. The terrain features that are clearly visible in this image include tributaries of the Sao Francisco, the dark-blue branch-like features visible from top right to bottom left, and on the left edge of the image, and hills rising up from the valley floor. The San Francisco River is a major source of water for irrigation and hydroelectric power. Mapping such regions will allow scientists to better understand the relationships between flooding cycles, forestation and human influences on ecosystems.

    This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Shaded relief maps are commonly used in applications such as geologic mapping and land use planning.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter

  11. Otomi de San Andres Cuexcontitlan, Estado de Mexico (Otomi of San Andres Cuexcontitlan, State of Mexico).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lastra, Yolanda

    This document is one of 17 volumes on indigenous Mexican languages and is the result of a project undertaken by the Archivo de Lenguas Indigenas de Mexico. This volume contains information on Otomi, an indigenous language of Mexico spoken in San Andres Cuexcontitlan, in the state of Mexico. The objective of collecting such a representative…

  12. The recent revival of breast-feeding in the city of São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, C A; Zũniga, H P; Benicio, M H; Rea, M F; Tudisco, E S; Sigulem, D M

    1987-01-01

    A random sampling of children under age five in Sao Paulo, Brazil, 1984/85, disclosed the median duration of breast-feeding to be 3.5 months and the duration of exclusive breast-feeding, 2.0 months. A comparison of these figures with those of a similar survey carried out in the same city in 1973/74 revealed a substantial increase in both the frequency and duration of breast-feeding. The trend was evident in all socioeconomic strata but most marked among women from higher income and educational levels. PMID:3605475

  13. [Health levels in San Andres Cholula].

    PubMed

    Alvarez Martinez, A; Corro Fernandez, G; Balmaceda, M

    1991-12-01

    In matters of health and curing, the community of San Andres Cholula in Puebla, Mexico, demonstrates a syncretism similar to religious syncretism. Perspectives on illness and health consistent with the traditional medical practices of curanderos coexist with modern medical practices. Curanderos and physicians often treat the same patients. A curandero's powers are viewed as a special gift transmitted by God or the saints during a dream. The curandero effects a cure not only through knowledge of the medicinal plants, rites, and ceremonies, but by understanding the context of the patient. The Western medical concept of disease emphasizes a biological model and technological control, to the detriment of mental, behavioral, and social factors and determinants. The traditional medical concept stresses the relationship of the individual to the social and ecological environment. Improvements in life expectancy in the developing countries in recent years have been attributed to improved levels of living or to importation of vaccination programs, antibiotics, and similar technologies from the developed countries. The vital register of San Andres Cholula records many deaths whose cause cannot be easily interpreted according to the World Health Organization International Classification of Diseases. It is clear, however, that the root cause of many deaths is malnutrition. The proportion of deaths caused by infectious diseases has declined in Mexico since 1940, but Puebla is still included among the states with the highest incidence. There are great regional and rural-urban mortality differentials in Mexico. In the past 50 years, the infant mortality rate has declined from 250 to 40/1000 live births in San Andres Cholula, more as a result of vaccination campaigns than of improved levels of living. 89% of children have been vaccinated, but the population still lives in about the same state of material comfort as it has for generations except that most households have televisions

  14. SAO HMC photodetector/event timer engineering model test report

    SciTech Connect

    1994-10-05

    The test unit is a custom photodetector/event timer, PET, built for the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, SAO, by Los Alamos which records elapsed time in 10 ps steps. The 1 Kg, 12 cm diameter PET unit uses 10 watts of electrical power and was tested to SAO`s specified flight conditions. The event timer has two inputs -- a reference clock oscillator input and a stop signal. Like a stop watch with split timing capability, the event timer records the instant a stop signal arrives. At that sample instant, the number of elapsed clock cycles are stored and the sample instant position between two reference clock edges is interpolated and stored. Then that stored data can be shifted serially to an external computer. The photodetector part of the PET responds to an optical input and provides the electrical output signal to the event timer specifying the sample instant. This test report discusses the event timer test results. Test equipment is shown for most of the operational tests. The relay rack contains test pursers and clocks. The environmental chamber controls temperature. The computer reads and records the serial data from the PET. Reported testing topics include: Pulse shapes to be used as test inputs, test results obtained using the electrical source`s input, optical test results which are the best simulation of specified operational conditions, heat sink operation in vacuum. Vibration tests performed to SAO`s specification.

  15. Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) star catalog (Sao staff 1966, edition ADC 1989): Documentation for the machine-readable version

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roman, Nancy G.; Warren, Wayne H., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    An updated, corrected, and extended machine readable version of the catalog is described. Published and unpublished errors discovered in the previous version were corrected, and multiple star and supplemental BD identifications were added to stars where more than one SAO entry has the same Durchmusterung number. Henry Draper Extension (HDE) numbers were added for stars found in both volumes of the extension. Data for duplicate SAO entries (those referring to the same star) were flagged. J2000 positions in usual units and in radians were added.

  16. Satellite Movie Shows Andres Weaken to a Tropical Storm

    NASA Image and Video Library

    This animation of imagery from NOAA's GOES-West satellite from June 1 to 3 shows Hurricane Andres eye disappear and weaken to a tropical storm in the Eastern Pacific Ocean, south of Baja California...

  17. SAO During the Whipple Years: The Origins of Project Celescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devorkin, David

    2005-01-01

    In 1955, the moribund Astrophysical Observatory of the Smithsonian Institution closed its doors on the south lawn of the Smithsonian Castle. Vestiges of its 60-year old legacy of monitoring solar radiation were transferred to Cambridge under a new name, the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, and became housed within the Harvard College Observatory complex under the direction of Fred Whipple. Whipple, restarting the SAO almost from scratch, worked within the Smithsonian's ancient tradition of maintaining a world-wide network of solar observation stations by morphing it into a similar network of satellite tracking facilities for the IGY, quickly and quietly phasing out the solar work. Under the SAO name, however, Whipple did much more, vastly expanding his interests in meteor research and hyperballistic studies, deftly orchestrated to parallel his tracking facility empire which in time included aeroballistic studies, atomic time standards, and other associated technological and scientific campaigns. He also made sure SAO played a prominent role in NASA's emerging `observatory class' series of scientific satellites and used it to create a theoretical astrophysics unit. It is this last activity that we will introduce here, showing how Project Celescope fitted into Whipple's plan for SAO, and how it contributed to make the combined Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics the largest astronomical organization on the planet by the 1970s.

  18. Prelimary Photoelectric Light Curve for DHK29=SAO 70629

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, Daniel H.; Gunn, Jerry B.; Lamb, Charles F.; Sullivan, Philip

    The newly discovered eclipsing binary star DHK 29 = SAO 70629 has been observed photoelectrically from October 1992 to October 1993. With the light curve coverage 75% complete, it is apparent that the initial 1.9-day period reported in IB VS 3815 is the half-period. Three times of primary minima have been determined. New light elements are given.

  19. Medical awareness concerning primary immunodeficiency diseases in the city of São Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Dantas, Ellen de Oliveira; Aranda, Carolina Sanchez; Nobre, Fernanda Aimée; Fahl, Kristine; Mazzucchelli, Juliana Themudo Lessa; Felix, Erika; Nero, Dora Lisa Friedlander-Del; Nudelman, Victor; Sano, Flavio; Condino-Neto, Antonio; Damasceno, Elaine; Costa-Carvalho, Beatriz Tavares

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate medical knowledge of primary immunodeficiency in the city of Sao Paulo (SP). Methods: A 14-item questionnaire about primary immunodeficiency was applied to physicians who worked at general hospitals. One of the questions presented 25 clinical situations that could be associated or not with primary immunodeficiency, and the percentage of appropriate answers generated a knowledge indicator. Results: Seven hundred and forty-six participated in the study, among them 215 pediatricians (28.8%), 244 surgeons (32.7%), and 287 clinicians (38.5%). About 70% of the physicians responded that they had learned about primary immunodeficiency in graduate school or in residency training. Treatment of patients that use antibiotics frequently was reported by 75% dos physicians, but only 34.1% had already investigated a patient and 77.8% said they did not know the ten warning signs for primary immunodeficiency. The knowledge indicator obtained showed a mean of 45.72% (±17.87). Only 26.6% if the pediatricians and 6.6% of clinicians and surgeons showed a knowledge indicator of at least 67% (equivalent to an appropriate answer in two thirds of the clinical situations). Conclusion: There is a deficit in medical knowledge of primary immunodeficiency in the city of Sao Paulo, even among pediatricians, despite having greater contact with the theme over the last few years. The improvement of information on primary immunodeficiency in the medical community is an important step towards the diagnosis and treatment process of these diseases. PMID:24488388

  20. [Epidemiologic aspects of the dialysis treatment in Grande São Paulo. Comissão Regional de Nefrologia da Secretaria da Saúde de São Paulo and Centro de Informática da Escola Paulista de Medicina].

    PubMed

    Sesso, R; Anção, M S; Madeira, S A

    1994-01-01

    Epidemiological data about the treatment of patients with end-stage renal disease in the Great Sao Paulo, Brazil, are presented. Patients on dialysis in the city of Sao Paulo and surroundings, distributed in 15 Regional Offices of Health (ERSAs), during 1991, were studied. Data were collected by the Secretary of Health of the State of Sao Paulo. There was an increase of 18.6% in the number of alive patients on dialysis from January 1 to December 31 (n = 2,425 to 2,875). Patients were treated in 40 dialysis centers, of which 24 were located in the ERSAs 1, 2 and 3. Depending on the ERSA, a percentage of patients varying from 37% to 88% did not live in the same region where they received treatment. At the end of the year, 79% of the patients were on hemodialysis, 15% on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and 6% on intermittent peritoneal dialysis. The diagnoses more frequently reported of primary disease were non-determined, glomerulonephritis, hypertension and diabetes (36%, 27%, 17% and 8%, respectively). New cases (1,483) initiated dialysis during the year, corresponding to an incidence rate of 83 patients per million population (pmp). The prevalence of patients on dialysis was 148 pmp. The annual fatality rate was 17.2% (range in the ERSAs: 12.0-3.5). The actuarial one year survival for the patients who started treatment in 1991 was 80.2%. 246 patients received transplantation, corresponding to 14 patients pmp. Dialysis treatment provided in the Great Sao Paulo is satisfactory.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Prevalence and severity of wheezing in the first year of life in the city of Santo André, Brazil☆

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Isabel Cristina C.; Wandalsen, Neusa Falbo

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence and the severity of wheezing in the first year of life for infants who live in Santo André, São Paulo, Brazil. Methods: Cross sectional study with the administration of the Estudio Internacional de Sibilancias en Lactantes (EISL), which is a standardized and validated written questionnaire applied to parents and/or guardians of infants aged 12-24 months treated at primary health units, vaccination centers, day care centers, or kindergartens. The questionnaire consisted of questions regarding demographic characteristics, presence of wheezing, respiratory infections, and risk factors. Results were analyzed using the SPSS for Windows, 20.0 (SPSS Inc. - Chicago, Il, United States). Logistic regression was applied to verify variables associated to recurrent wheezing. Results: Among the 1,028 infants studied, 48.5% had one or more episodes of wheezing during the first 12 months of life (wheezing once), and 23.9% had three or more episodes (recurrent wheezing). Nocturnal symptoms, severe breathing difficulty, and visits to the emergency room were observed in 67.3%, 42.4%, and 60.7% of infants, respectively. Among the studied infants, 19.4% were hospitalized, and 11.0% had a medical diagnosis of asthma in the first year of life. Use of β2-agonists, inhaled corticosteroids, oral corticosteroids, and leukotriene receptor antagonists were observed in 88.8%, 21.0%, 54.9%, and 3.2% of children with wheezing, respectively. Use of oral corticosteroids, perception of breathlessness by parents, diagnosis of asthma, pneumonia, and hospitalization for pneumonia were more frequent among infants with recurrent wheezing (p<0.001). Conclusions: In the city of Santo André, approximately half of infants had at least one episode of wheezing in the first year of life, and almost 25% had recurrent wheezing. Wheezing disorders in Santo André have early onset and high morbidity. PMID:25479844

  2. Establishment and characterization of a new highly metastatic human osteosarcoma cell line derived from Saos2

    PubMed Central

    Du, Lin; Fan, Qiming; Tu, Bing; Yan, Wei; Tang, Tingting

    2014-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignancy of bone in adolescents and young adults. There is a shortage of tumorigenic and highly metastatic human osteosarcoma cell lines that can be used for metastasis study. Here we establish and characterize a highly metastatic human osteosarcoma cell line that is derived from Saos2 cell line based on bioluminescence. The occasional pulmonary metastatic cells developed from Saos2 were isolated, harvested, characterized and named Saos2-l. The parental Saos2 and Saos2-l cells were further characterized both in vitro and in vivo. Results showed that Saos2-l cells demonstrated increased cell adhesion, migration and invasion compared to the parental Saos2 cells. Conversely, Saos2-l cells grew at a slightly slower rate than that of the parental cells. When injected into nude mice, Saos2-l cells had a greater increase in developing pulmonary metastases compared to the parental Saos2 cells. Further transcriptional profiling analysis revealed that some gene expression were up-regulated or down-regulated in the highly metastatic Saos2-l cells, indicating possible influencing factors of metastasis. Thus, we have established and characterized a highly metastatic human osteosarcoma cell line that should serve as a valuable tool for future investigations on the pathogenesis, metastasis and potential treatments of human osteosarcoma. PMID:25031706

  3. [Prevalence and severity of wheezing in the first year of life in the city of Santo André, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Isabel Cristina C; Wandalsen, Neusa Falbo

    2014-09-01

    To determine the prevalence and the severity of wheezing in the first year of life for infants who live in Santo André, São Paulo, Brazil. Cross sectional study with the administration of the Estudio Internacional de Sibilancias en Lactantes (EISL), which is a standardized and validated written questionnaire applied to parents and/or guardians of infants aged 12-24 months treated at primary health units, vaccination centers, day care centers, or kindergartens. The questionnaire consisted of questions regarding demographic characteristics, presence of wheezing, respiratory infections, and risk factors. Results were analyzed using the SPSS for Windows, 20.0 (SPSS Inc. - Chicago, Il, United States). Logistic regression was applied to verify variables associated to recurrent wheezing. Among the 1,028 infants studied, 48.5% had one or more episodes of wheezing during the first 12 months of life (wheezing once), and 23.9% had three or more episodes (recurrent wheezing). Nocturnal symptoms, severe breathing difficulty, and visits to the emergency room were observed in 67.3%, 42.4%, and 60.7% of infants, respectively. Among the studied infants, 19.4% were hospitalized, and 11.0% had a medical diagnosis of asthma in the first year of life. Use of β2-agonists, inhaled corticosteroids, oral corticosteroids, and leukotriene receptor antagonists were observed in 88.8%, 21.0%, 54.9%, and 3.2% of children with wheezing, respectively. Use of oral corticosteroids, perception of breathlessness by parents, diagnosis of asthma, pneumonia, and hospitalization for pneumonia were more frequent among infants with recurrent wheezing (p<0.001). In the city of Santo André, approximately half of infants had at least one episode of wheezing in the first year of life, and almost 25% had recurrent wheezing. Wheezing disorders in Santo André have early onset and high morbidity. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  4. Agricultural and Ranching area, Rio Sao Francisco, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This agricultural and Ranching area, Rio Sao Francisco, Brazil (13.0S, 43.5W) has been under study for several years. See scene STS-31-92-045 for comparison. This area has many small single family subsistence farms, large square and rectangular commercial farms and pastures for livestock grazing. Over the several years of observation, the number and size of farms has increased and center-pivot, swing-arm irrigation systems have been installed.

  5. André Danjon et l'informatique.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arsac, J.

    There is not any paper by André Danjon about computer science. The only way to know his ideas about it is through his action. At the end of the fifties, several scientists in astronomy and astrophysics had been convinced that a computer would be of great help in their research works. André Danjon immediatly agreed that it was a good idea. He greatly supported them in the process of having a computer bought by the Meudon Observatory. A computing center was started there in 1959. As soon as 1957, André Danjon had initiated a French association for computing, the "association française de calcul". This association provoked a world meeting of associations for information processing in Paris in 1959, where the IFIPS has been created.

  6. Bird richness and composition in a Cerrado fragment in the State of São Paulo.

    PubMed

    Manica, L T; Telles, M; Dias, M M

    2010-05-01

    Bird species richness is an important measure for monitoring biodiversity changes. We analysed avifauna richness and composition in a 472 ha protected cerrado fragment and surroundings at Fazenda Canchim (RL-CPPSE), São Carlos, in the State of São Paulo (SP). We carried out 95.1 hours of observation (22 visits) at irregular intervals from May 2004 to December 2006. Qualitative surveys were done walking through tracks inside the fragment and on the roads at its edge. We recorded 160 species, six of which were endemic to Cerrado domain, 22 migratory, seven threatened within the State of São Paulo, and two globally threatened. We found 28 species in the cerradão, 110 in the cerrado sensu stricto, 13 in the gallery forest, 26 in the reservoir border, 26 in pasturelands and sugar cane monoculture and 55 in an anthropic area. Most of the species had low frequency of occurrence in all vegetation forms. Insectivores were the major trophic category (46.9%), which is typical in tropical regions, and it is also related to resource availability. Omnivores followed with 19.4%, granivores with 8.8% and frugivores with 7.5%. We conclude that, despite its size and conservation status, our study area has a remarkable bird community and must be considered as a priority conservation area to preserve bird species in Sao Paulo State.

  7. Paulo Freire, Literacy Through Conscientization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, John W., Ed.

    1974-01-01

    The topic of this review concerning international literacy is the Brazilian educator Paulo Freire and his theories and methods for teaching illiterates to read by teaching them fewer than 20 three syllable words, reflective of their social condition, such as "Shanty-town" and "wages" ("favela" and "salario"…

  8. 78 FR 21344 - In the Matter of: Andro Telemi, a/k/a Andre Telimi, a/k/a Andre Telemi; 8868 Bluffdale Drive, La...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-10

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security In the Matter of: Andro Telemi, a/k/a Andre Telimi, a/k/a Andre Telemi..., in the U.S. District Court, Northern District of Illinois, Andro Telemi, a/k/a Andre Telimi, a/k/a... under home confinement, 500 hours of community service, a fine of $10,000 and a $100 assessment. Telemi...

  9. Assimilation Studies Off Cape Sao Vicente (southern Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitorino, J.; Monteiro, M.

    In April 2001 the Portuguese Navy conducted a naval exercise (Swordfish 2001) in the area off Cape Sao Vicente, in the southwest tip of Portugal. The operational environ- mental assessment (OEA) component of this exercise, conducted by Instituto Hidro- grafico, intended to provide forecasts of the oceanographic conditions to the naval forces. A program of observations, which included CTD casts to maximum depth of 2500m and AXBTs casts to maximum depth 1000m, was conducted in the area be- tween 35zN and 39zN and from 7zW to 12.5zW. Forecasts of the oceanographic con- ditions were produced using the Harvard Ocean Prediction System (HOPS) with as- similation of the hydrographic data. The period covered by the exercise was character- ized by predominant southerly winds, forcing upwelling conditions along the western Portuguese coast. These conditions promote the development of a large cold upwelling filament that extended a few hundreds of kilometers southwards Cape Sao Vicente. In this communication we present several results obtained for the period between 18 to 28 April 2001, marked by an event of two days of inversion of the upwelling favor- able. The numerical runs were obtained using two nested domains, one covering the global area of observations and the second one covering the shelf and slope area off Cape Sao Vicente. Double-sigma coordinates were used in both domains, with a total of 20 sigma levels. The surface forcing used the wind fields generated by ALADIN- Portugal, a limited area model (12.7-km grid resolution) nested on a global model (ARPEGE).

  10. Modeling the QBO and SAO Driven by Gravity Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayr, H. G.; Mengel, J. G.; Chan, K. L.; Porter, H. S.

    1999-01-01

    Hines' Doppler spread parameterization (DSP) for small scale gravity waves (GW) is applied in a global scale numerical spectral model (NSM) to describe the semi-annual and quasi-biennial oscillations (SAO and QBO) as well as the long term interannual variations that are driven by wave mean flow interactions. This model has been successful in simulating the salient features observed near the equator at altitudes above 20 km, including the QBO extension into the upper mesosphere inferred from UARS measurements. The model has now been extended to describe also the mean zonal and meridional circulations of the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere that affect the equatorial QBO and its global scale extension. This is accomplished in part through tuning of the GW parameterization, and preliminary results lead to the following conclusions: (1) To reproduce the upwelling at equatorial latitudes associated with the Brewer/Dobson circulation that in part is modulated in the model by the vertical component of the Coriolis force, the eddy diffusivity in the lower stratosphere had to be enhanced and the related GW spectrum modified to bring it in closer agreement with the form recommended for the DSP. (2) To compensate for the required increase in the diffusivity, the observed QBO requires a larger GW source that is closer to the middle of the range recommended for the DSP. (3) Through global scale momentum redistribution, the above developments are conducive to extending the QBO and SAO oscillations to higher latitudes. Multi-year interannual oscillations are generated through wave filtering by the solar driven annual oscillation in the zonal circulation. (4) In a 3D version of the model, wave momentum is absorbed and dissipated by tides and planetary waves. Thus, a somewhat larger GW source is required to generate realistic amplitudes for the QBO and SAO.

  11. Metals in sediments of San Andres lagoon, Tamaulipas, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Vazquez, F.G.; Aguilera, L.G. ); Sharma, V.K. )

    1994-03-01

    Heavy metal pollution in water is generally associated with industrial and municipal discharges into rivers, estuaries and lagoons. Once metals are in the water column, they may be taken up by organisms, deposited in the sediments or remain for some period in the water itself. The deposition rate in sediments depends on, among other factors, metal concentration in surface sediments. The concentrations of heavy metals in sediments of coastal, estuarine and lagoon environments have been determined by many workers. For the past several years, we have been interested in determining trace and heavy metal concentrations in the lagoons in Mexico to establish the levels of metal pollution. The work reported here is the completion of our ongoing study in San Andres lagoon. San Andres lagoon is located north of two industrial ports, Tampico and Altamira. In this industrial zone, the basins of the Panuco and Tamesi Rivers are localized and have industrial effluent throughout the year. All these activities and the input of the Tigre River, which runs through an agricultural and cattle-raising region, may affect the biogeochemistry of the San Andres lagoon. In the present work, we report concentrations of Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Zn and Pb in sediments of San Andres lagoon. The measurements were made in different seasons; Rain-84 (August-September 1984); North (October-December 1984); Dry (April 1985); and Rain-85 (April-June 1985). 13 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  12. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey, John Andre, November 15, 1777, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey, John Andre, November 15, 1777, Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, California, See Catalog of Graphic Material #44, PHOTOCOPY OF 'MUD ISLAND WITH THE OPERATIONS FOR REDUCING IT'. - Fort Mifflin, Mud Island, Marine & Penrose Ferry Roads, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  13. "Octagon Magic": Andre Norton and Revitalizing the Girls' Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dressel, Janice Hartwick; Molson, Francis J.

    1996-01-01

    Argues that Andre Norton's "Octagon Magic" is neither a conventional girls' book, nor a witch tale, nor a time fantasy but rather a unique coming-of-age story best understood within the context of theorists such as Carol Gilligan, Mary Belenk, and Jean Baker Miller. (TB)

  14. "Octagon Magic": Andre Norton and Revitalizing the Girls' Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dressel, Janice Hartwick; Molson, Francis J.

    1996-01-01

    Argues that Andre Norton's "Octagon Magic" is neither a conventional girls' book, nor a witch tale, nor a time fantasy but rather a unique coming-of-age story best understood within the context of theorists such as Carol Gilligan, Mary Belenk, and Jean Baker Miller. (TB)

  15. [András Jósa, the physician].

    PubMed

    Jakó, János

    2010-01-01

    András Jósa was the most important and renowned physician in county Szabolcs (Hungary) in the 19th-20th centuries. Author outlines his biography and analyses his medical activity. Present article is based on a memorial lecture given at the meeting of the Hungarian Society for the History of Medicine in Budapest 24th September 2009.

  16. Agricultural and Ranching area, Rio Sao Francisco, Brazil

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1990-12-10

    STS035-73-082 (2-10 Dec 1990) --- This agricultural and ranching area, Rio Sao Francisco, Brazil (13.0S, 43.5W) has been under study for several years. See scene STS-31-92-045 for comparison. This area has many small single family subsistence farms, large square and rectangular commercial farms and pastures for livestock grazing. Over the several years of observation, the number and size of farms has increased and center-pivot, swing-arm irrigation systems have been installed.

  17. The young active star SAO 51891 (V383 Lacertae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biazzo, K.; Frasca, A.; Marilli, E.; Covino, E.; Alcalã, J. M.; Ćakirli, Ö.; Klutsch, A.; Meyer, M. R.

    2009-05-01

    Aims: The aim of this work is to investigate the surface inhomogeneities of a young, late-type star, SAO 51891, at different atmospheric levels, from the photosphere to the upper chromosphere, analyzing contemporaneous optical high-resolution spectra and broad-band photometry. Methods: The full spectral range of FOCES@CAHA (R ≃ 40 000) is used to perform the spectral classification and to determine the rotational and radial velocities. The lithium abundance is measured to obtain an age estimate. The {BVRIJHK}s photometric bands are used to construct the spectral energy distribution (SED). The variations in the observed BV fluxes and effective temperature are used to infer the presence of photospheric spots and observe their behavior over time. The chromospheric activity is studied applying the spectral subtraction technique to Hα, Ca ii H & K, Hɛ, and Ca ii IRT lines. Results: We find SAO 51891 to be a young K0-1V star with a lithium abundance close to the Pleiades upper envelope, confirming its youth ( 100 Myr), which is also inferred from its kinematical membership of the Local Association. No infrared excess is detected from analysis of its SED, limiting the amount of remaining circumstellar dust. We detect a rotational modulation of the luminosity, effective temperature, Ca ii H & K, Hɛ, and Ca ii IRT total fluxes. A simple spot model with two main active regions, about 240 K cooler than the surrounding photosphere, fits the observed light and temperature curves very well. The small-amplitude radial velocity variations are also well reproduced by our spot model. The anti-correlation of light curves and chromospheric diagnostics indicates chromospheric plages spatially associated with the spots. The largest modulation amplitude is observed for the Hɛ flux suggesting that this line is very sensitive to the presence of chromospheric plages. Conclusions: SAO 51891 is a young active star, lacking significant amounts of circumstellar dust or any evidence of low

  18. Geothermal resources of Sao Miguel Island, Azores, Portugal

    SciTech Connect

    Duffield, W.A.; Muffler, L.J.P.

    1984-01-01

    Geothermal studies were carried out on the island of Sao Miguel, Azores to characterize the nature of the resource, to estimate its magnitude, and to identify target areas toward which exploration and developmental drilling might be directed. The main geothermal resource areas are Furnas, Agua de Pau, and Sete Cidades, three Quaternary silicic volcanic centers characterized by summit calderas beneath which magmatic heat sources provide thermal energy to overlying hydrothermal convection systems. For each of the systems, the studies have defined the size of the system, the subsurface temperature, the thermodynamic state of fluid in the system, the chemical composition of the fluid, and permeable parts of the system. 8 figs. (ACR)

  19. Sex Trade Involvement in Sao Paulo, Brazil and Toronto, Canada: Narratives of Social Exclusion and Fragmented Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Sean A.; Liborio, Renata Maria Coimbra

    2011-01-01

    An extensive international literature has been developed regarding the risk trajectories of sex trade-involved children and youth. This literature has not, however, substantially incorporated the narratives of youths regarding their experiences. In this article, the contemporary literature on child and youth sex trade-involvement is reviewed and…

  20. Improving the Quality of School Facilities through Building Performance Assessment: Educational Reform and School Building Quality in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ornstein, Sheila Walbe; Moreira, Nanci Saraiva; Ono, Rosaria; Limongi Franca, Ana J. G.; Nogueira, Roselene A. M. F.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The paper describes the purpose of and strategies for conducting post-occupancy evaluations (POEs) as a method for assessing school building performance. Set within the larger context of global efforts to develop and apply common indicators of school building quality, the authors describe research conducted within the newest generation of…

  1. 77 FR 51759 - U.S. Medical Mission to Brazil; Sao Paulo, Brazil, May 21-24, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-27

    ... and devices; Dental equipment and products; Radiological and diagnostic imaging equipment; and..., particularly for advanced medical equipment, disposables, diagnostic devices, implants and components...

  2. Mapping aboveground carbon stocks using LiDAR data in Eucalyptus spp. plantations in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Treesearch

    Carlos Alberto Silva; Carine Klauberg; Samuel de Padua Chaves e Carvalho; Andrew T. Hudak; e Luiz Carlos Estraviz. Rodriguez

    2014-01-01

    Fast growing plantation forests provide a low-cost means to sequester carbon for greenhouse gas abatement. The aim of this study was to evaluate airborne LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) to predict aboveground carbon (AGC) stocks in Eucalyptus spp. plantations. Biometric parameters (tree height (Ht) and diameter at breast height (DBH)) were collected from...

  3. Mavale project: Sensor techniques applied to macrozoning of the Paraiba Valley and littoral north of the State of Sao Paulo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1991-04-01

    This project was designed with two basic objectives in mind. The first is to support the Consortium for Integrated Development of the Paraiba Valley and the Northern Littoral (CODIVAP) for preparation of regulatory guidelines for use of the regional lands. The second is to place at the disposal of the country's technical/scientific community a regional planning method based on the use of Remote Orbital Sensor data. This project involved studies on the following areas: maps - geological, pedological, geomorphological, ground cover, land use, urban area and urban expansion in the last decade, areas favorable for replenishment and concentration of ground water; compartmentation of the region into sub-basins and study of the relationships of land use to surface water quality; generation of a map indicating the suitability of land for civil engineering and urban expansion projects and projects subject to geological risk; preparation of a map showing suitability for agricultural use of the land; and social/economic/demographic analysis. The region of the study encompasses 40 municipalities and portions of 4 others, in an overall region of 18.111 sq. km. Imagery from MSS/Landsat, TM/Landsat, and HRV/SPOT was interpreted, exploring the multispectral, multitemporal, synoptic characteristics as well as the detail (compatible with spatial resolutions of the sensor systems). As a function of the objectives of the different thematic studies involved in the environmental and physical diagnostics, images were interpreted visually or processed digitally in alternate scales of 1:250,000, 1:100,000, or 1:50,000. These studies were complemented with pre-existing bibliographical and cartographic information, and the final mapping products are presented to the scale of 1:250,000, compatible with decisions at the regional level. Thematic studies relative to the physical/territorial, and social/economical reality were integrated in the search for holistic understanding of the region and its problems relative to land use and occupation. The macrozoning proposal directed at reorganizing human activities in the regional territory was generated from technical discussions of the body of researchers involved in the project and representatives of the municipalities which comprise the region of the study.

  4. ELEVATED LEVELS OF MULTIPLE CYTOCHROME P450 FORMS IN TILAPIA FROM BILLINGS RESERVOIR-SAO PAULO, BRAZIL. (R827102)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) levels in tissues of fish inhabiting polluted areas have been used extensively in biomonitoring studies in Europe and North America. However, little information is available about the extent of CYP1A expression in fish from South American waters, nor on ...

  5. Brazil: Implications of Technological Change for Skills Training in Sao Paulo Industries. Training Discussion Paper No. 47.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Assis, Marisa

    The Brazilian economy is led by the industrial sector, which accounts for 34 percent of production and employs 25 percent of the economically active population. The labor force formally employed in industry consists mainly of relatively young males with little schooling. A large number of institutions both in the regular education system and…

  6. Brazil: Implications of Technological Change for Skills Training in Sao Paulo Industries. Training Discussion Paper No. 47.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Assis, Marisa

    The Brazilian economy is led by the industrial sector, which accounts for 34 percent of production and employs 25 percent of the economically active population. The labor force formally employed in industry consists mainly of relatively young males with little schooling. A large number of institutions both in the regular education system and…

  7. ELEVATED LEVELS OF MULTIPLE CYTOCHROME P450 FORMS IN TILAPIA FROM BILLINGS RESERVOIR-SAO PAULO, BRAZIL. (R827102)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) levels in tissues of fish inhabiting polluted areas have been used extensively in biomonitoring studies in Europe and North America. However, little information is available about the extent of CYP1A expression in fish from South American waters, nor on ...

  8. Sex Trade Involvement in Sao Paulo, Brazil and Toronto, Canada: Narratives of Social Exclusion and Fragmented Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Sean A.; Liborio, Renata Maria Coimbra

    2011-01-01

    An extensive international literature has been developed regarding the risk trajectories of sex trade-involved children and youth. This literature has not, however, substantially incorporated the narratives of youths regarding their experiences. In this article, the contemporary literature on child and youth sex trade-involvement is reviewed and…

  9. Use of LANDSAT data for automatic classification and area estimation of sugarcane plantation in Sao Paulo state, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Mendonca, F. J.

    1980-01-01

    Ten segments of the size 20 x 10 km were aerially photographed and used as training areas for automatic classifications. The study areas was covered by four LANDSAT paths: 235, 236, 237, and 238. The percentages of overall correct classification for these paths range from 79.56 percent for path 238 to 95.59 percent for path 237.

  10. [Mental health and interdisciplinary work: the experience in "Candido Ferreira", in Campinas, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Queiroz, Marcos de Souza; Delamuta, Leny Aparecida

    2011-08-01

    This article analyses the process on the psychiatric reform, with a focus on the interdisciplinary work developed by the health professionals from the health service "Dr. Candido Ferreira"in Campinas, Brazil. This is a philanthropic institution which contributes significantly to public mental health network in this city. Even though the service is integrated to the Unified Heath System (SUS), it presents a financial, administrative and managerial independence, which allows implementing some therapeutic experiences and managerial innovations. More specifically, this article focuses on the process of decision making by the interdisciplinary team, involving diagnosis and therapeutic process. Other themes, related to the organization of the service in the process of dehospitalization, are considered, such as the transfer of patients into residences outside the institution, the maintenance of these units, the management of the workshops in the institution which allows a financial income for the patient, and the beginning of the institution as a three years residence in Psychiatry. The methodological approach of the research is essentially qualitative, drawing from interviews and participant observation, related the professionals from this service.

  11. Lead concentration in blood samples of humans and animals near an industrial waste dump in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Kuno, R; Fernicola, N A; Roquetti-Humayta, M H; de Campos, A E; Filha, M T

    1999-08-01

    Blood lead was determined in 7 adults, 2 children, 1 bull, 11 cows, and 3 calves living on agricultural land near an industrial waste site. An unexposed human control group was composed of 2 adults and 2 children. Mean blood lead from the exposed group was 4.6 micrograms/dl for adults, 5.1 micrograms/dl for children, 1.3 micrograms/dl for the bull, 1.2 micrograms/dl for cows, and 1.8 micrograms/dl for calves. Unexposed adults had 4.1 micrograms/dl and children had 3.7 micrograms/dl lead blood. The blood lead content did not suggest a health hazard from lead for either humans or animals.

  12. Risk of Giardia infection for drinking water and bathing in a peri-urban area in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Razzolini, Maria Tereza Pepe; Weir, Mark H; Matte, Maria Helena; Matte, Glavur Rogerio; Fernandes, Licia Natal; Rose, Joan B

    2011-06-01

    A high incidence of waterborne diseases is observed worldwide and in order to address contamination problems prior to an outbreak, quantitative microbial risk assessment is a useful tool for estimating the risk of infection. The objective of this paper was to assess the probability of Giardia infection from consuming water from shallow wells in a peri-urban area. Giardia has been described as an important waterborne pathogen and reported in several water sources, including ground waters. Sixteen water samples were collected and examined according to the US EPA (1623, 2005). A Monte Carlo method was used to address the potential risk as described by the exponential dose response model. Giardia cysts occurred in 62.5% of the samples (<0.1-36.1 cysts/l). A median risk of 10⁻¹ for the population was estimated and the adult ingestion was the highest risk driver. This study illustrates the vulnerability of shallow well water supply systems in peri-urban areas.

  13. Molecular and parasitological survey of Hepatozoon canis (Apicomplexa: Hepatozoidae) in dogs from rural area of Sao Paulo state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rubini, Adriano Stefani; dos Santos Paduan, Karina; Von Ah Lopes, Viviane; O'Dwyer, Lucia Helena

    2008-04-01

    Hepatozoon canis is a protozoan that infects dogs and is transmitted by the ingestion of the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Two distinct species of Hepatozoon genus can infect dogs, H. canis and H. americanum. Routine tests to detect the disease are based on direct examination of gametocytes on Giemsa-stained blood smears. The objectives of this study were the investigation of infection prevalence in rural area dogs, the comparison of diagnostics by blood smear examination and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the association of infection with tick infestation. Blood smears, collected by puncture of the cephalic vein and ear margin capillary bed from 150 dogs, were examined. This technique detected 17 positive animals (11.3%), with 14 (9.3%) in peripheral blood and seven (4.7%) in cephalic vein blood. PCR tests detected 80 (53.3%) positive animals. R. sanguineus and Amblyomma spp. were found in 36 of the dogs (24%), in equal proportions. The identified species for Amblyomma genus were A. cajennense and A. ovale. Data analysis showed that PCR was much more sensitive when compared to blood smear examination. Hepatozoon species was previously identified as closely related to H. canis.

  14. Occurrence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in wild rodents and marsupials from the Atlantic forest, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite that infects a large spectrum of warm-blooded animals, including humans. Small mammals and rodents play an important role in the epidemiology of T. gondii because they are sources of infection for domestic and feral cats. Serum samples from 151 rodents and 4...

  15. Improving the Quality of School Facilities through Building Performance Assessment: Educational Reform and School Building Quality in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ornstein, Sheila Walbe; Moreira, Nanci Saraiva; Ono, Rosaria; Limongi Franca, Ana J. G.; Nogueira, Roselene A. M. F.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The paper describes the purpose of and strategies for conducting post-occupancy evaluations (POEs) as a method for assessing school building performance. Set within the larger context of global efforts to develop and apply common indicators of school building quality, the authors describe research conducted within the newest generation of…

  16. Smad7 mediates inhibition of Saos2 osteosarcoma cell differentiation by NF{kappa}B

    SciTech Connect

    Eliseev, Roman A. . E-mail: Roman_Eliseev@urmc.rochester.edu; Schwarz, Edward M.; Zuscik, Michael J.; O'Keefe, Regis J.; Drissi, Hicham; Rosier, Randy N.

    2006-01-01

    The transcription factor NF{kappa}B is constitutively activated in various tumor cells where it promotes proliferation and represses apoptosis. The bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) delay cell proliferation and promote differentiation and apoptosis of bone cells through activation of Smad downstream effectors and via Smad-independent mechanisms. Thus, NF{kappa}B and BMP pathways play opposing roles in regulating osteoblastic cell fate. Here, we show that in osteosarcoma Saos2 osteoblasts, NF{kappa}B regulates the activity of the BMP/Smad signaling. Inhibition of NF{kappa}B by overexpression of mI{kappa}B leads to the induction of osteoblast differentiation. Saos2 cells overexpressing mI{kappa}B (Saos2-mI{kappa}B) exhibit higher expression of osteoblast phenotypic genes such as alkaline phosphatase, Runx2 and osteocalcin and are more responsive to BMP2 in comparison to wild-type cells (Saos2-wt) or empty vector infected controls (Saos2-EV). Furthermore, BMP-2 signaling and Smad phosphorylation are significantly increased in Saos2-mI{kappa}B cells in comparison to Saos2-EV cells. Inhibition of NF{kappa}B signaling in Saos2-mI{kappa}B cells is associated with decreased expression of the BMP signaling inhibitor Smad7. While gain of Smad7 function in Saos2-mI{kappa}B cells results in inhibition of BMP signaling, anti-sense knockdown of Smad7 in Saos2-EV cells leads to upregulation of BMP signaling. We therefore conclude that in osteosarcoma Saos2 cells, NF{kappa}B represses BMP/Smad signaling and BMP2-induced differentiation through Smad7.

  17. The role of partnerships in promoting physical activity: the experience of Agita São Paulo.

    PubMed

    Matsudo, Victor

    2012-01-01

    around the outpatients clinic, as well as the establishment of a fitness room in the basic unit of health; and Sorocaba, a city of 600,000 inhabitants, that after 4 years of the program of building walk and bike pathways, and parks, found a decrease in hospitalization of 50% by stroke, and 57% of diabetes type 2. A recent paper has shown that sedendarism has declined relatively about 70% from 2002 to 2008 in the State of Sao Paulo, and World Bank has reported that Agita represents a saving of 310 million US dollars per year in the health sector of Sao Paulo. All this scenario strongly suggests that the social issue in the developing countries facilitates the success of strategic partnerships. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. GiSAO.db: a database for ageing research.

    PubMed

    Hofer, Edith; Laschober, Gerhard T; Hackl, Matthias; Thallinger, Gerhard G; Lepperdinger, Günter; Grillari, Johannes; Jansen-Dürr, Pidder; Trajanoski, Zlatko

    2011-05-24

    Age-related gene expression patterns of Homo sapiens as well as of model organisms such as Mus musculus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster are a basis for understanding the genetic mechanisms of ageing. For an effective analysis and interpretation of expression profiles it is necessary to store and manage huge amounts of data in an organized way, so that these data can be accessed and processed easily. GiSAO.db (Genes involved in senescence, apoptosis and oxidative stress database) is a web-based database system for storing and retrieving ageing-related experimental data. Expression data of genes and miRNAs, annotation data like gene identifiers and GO terms, orthologs data and data of follow-up experiments are stored in the database. A user-friendly web application provides access to the stored data. KEGG pathways were incorporated and links to external databases augment the information in GiSAO.db. Search functions facilitate retrieval of data which can also be exported for further processing. We have developed a centralized database that is very well suited for the management of data for ageing research. The database can be accessed at https://gisao.genome.tugraz.at and all the stored data can be viewed with a guest account.

  19. Acne vulgaris: prevalence and clinical forms in adolescents from São Paulo, Brazil*

    PubMed Central

    Bagatin, Ediléia; Timpano, Denise Lourenço; Guadanhim, Lilia Ramos dos Santos; Nogueira, Vanessa Mussupapo Andraus; Terzian, Luiz Roberto; Steiner, Denise; Florez, Mercedes

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Acne is a common disease in adolescents, but there are no epidemiological data for acne in Brazil. OBJECTIVES To estimate the prevalence and degree of acne in adolescents from Sao Paulo and study socio-demographic factors, family history and lifestyle, associated with the disease. METHODS Cross-sectional study with 452 adolescents aged between 10 and 17 (mean=13.3 years), students from elementary and high school, examined by 3 independent evaluators. RESULTS 62.4% were female, 85.8% white and 6.4% were aged 14. The prevalence was 96.0% and increased with age - all students over 14 had acne. The most prevalent form of acne was comedonal (61.1%), followed by mild (30.6%) and moderate (7.6%) papular-pustular, which affected mostly the face (97.5%). About half of the adolescents reported family history for acne in mother or father, and 20.6% reported previous treatment for acne. There was a higher chance of presenting non-comedonal acne with increased age (p<0.001). DISCUSSION The prevalence of acne in adolescents varies widely due to the clinical features and diagnostic methods used. Adolescents whose brothers/sisters had acne (OR=1.7-p=0.027) and those over 13 (OR=8.3-p<0.001), were more likely to have non-comedonal acne. CONCLUSION This study showed high prevalence of acne in adolescents from Sao Paulo, predominantly the comedonal form on the face, with a higher chance of presenting non-comedonal acne with increased age. PMID:24937816

  20. The establishment and characterization of adriamycin-resistant cell lines derived from Saos-2.

    PubMed

    Niu, Bao-Hua; Wang, Jian-Jun; Xi, Yan; Ji, Xin-Ying

    2010-06-01

    The aim was to establish and characterize adriamycin (ADM)-resistant cell lines. Two cell lines, named Saos-2/ADM1 and Saos-2/ADM4, resistant to ADM, were established after 167 days. The resistance indices of methotrexate for the Saos-2/ADM1 and Saos-2/ADM4 cell lines to ADM were 49.8 and 74.6 times higher, respectively, than that of Saos-2. The two cells lines had resistance to MTX, IFO, EPI, THP, and PTX, while the cells were found to remain sensitive to cisplatin. Disordered and coenocytic structure were observed via microscopy. This is the first report on ADM-resistant cells based on clinical peak doses in serum. MDR1 and MRP genes are involved in the resistance of cell lines to ADM, which are invaluable tools to study the resistance of anticancer drugs and to find the means to revert the resistance.

  1. Ecological parameters of the (S)-9-methylgermacrene-B population of the Lutzomyia longipalpis complex in a visceral leishmaniasis area in São Paulo state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Galvis-Ovallos, Fredy; Casanova, Claudio; Sevá, Anaiá da Paixão; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi

    2017-05-30

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an important public health challenge in Brazil because of the high number of human and canine cases reported annually. Leishmania infantum is the etiological agent of VL and Lutzomyia longipalpis is its main vector. However, evidence suggests that this taxon constitutes a species complex. In Sao Paulo state, there are two populations of Lu. longipalpis, each secreting distinct pheromones, (S)-9-methylgermacrene-B and Cembrene 1; both have been associated with different patterns of VL transmission. The aim of the present study was to investigate the temporal distribution and natural infection of the (S)-9-methylgermacrene-B population of the Lu. longipalpis complex in a highly VL endemic area of Sao Paulo state to obtain information that may contribute to the surveillance of this zoonosis and to the planning of preventive and control measures. The study was carried out in Panorama municipality, Sao Paulo State. Captures were made during 24 months in seven domiciles. The relation between sand fly abundance and climatic variables, temperature and humidity, was analyzed and natural infection by Leishmania spp. in sand fly females was investigated by nested PCR. A total of 4120 sand flies, with predominance of Lu. longipalpis (97.2%) were captured. The highest averages of sand flies/night/trap occurred in the rainy season (November-March) and a positive, significant correlation between sand fly abundance and the temperature and humidity 20 days before the capture days was found. Leishmania infantum DNA was detected in three out of 250 pools of females analyzed, giving an estimated minimum infection rate of 1.2%. The identification of the climatic association between the high abundance of the vector in this highly endemic VL focus constitutes a fundamental point for evaluating future vector and dog control measures and this information increases the data of VL foci in Sao Paulo state that could contribute to the public health authorities

  2. [Andres Bello and the origins of the University of Chile].

    PubMed

    Costa-Casaretto, C

    1992-01-01

    During colonial times the Royal University of San Felipe was founded in 1738. The first plan for medical studies was outlined in 1779. During the Independence, the National Institute created in 1813 took over higher education. The first Course of Medicine was dictated there in 1833. The University of San Felipe was replaced by the University of Chile in 1842. Andrés Bello, its first Rector, developed the constituting laws of the University.

  3. An explicit André-Oort type result for

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulin, Roland

    2015-07-01

    Using class field theory we prove an explicit result of Andr\\'e-Oort type for $\\mathbb{P}^1(\\mathbb{C}) \\times \\mathbb{G}_m(\\mathbb{C})$. In this variation the special points of $\\mathbb{P}^1(\\mathbb{C})$ are the singular moduli, while the special points of $\\mathbb{G}_m(\\mathbb{C})$ are defined to be the roots of unity.

  4. Properties of QBO and SAO Generated by Gravity Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayr, H. G.; Mengel, J. G.; Reddy, C. A.; Chan, K. L.; Porter, H. S.

    1999-01-01

    We present an extension for the 2D (zonal mean) version of our Numerical Spectral Mode (NSM) that incorporates Hines' Doppler spread parameterization (DSP) for small scale gravity waves (GW). This model is applied to describe the seasonal variations and the semi-annual and quasi-biennial oscillations (SAO and QBO). Our earlier model reproduced the salient features of the mean zonal circulation in the middle atmosphere, including the QBO extension into the upper mesosphere inferred from UARS measurements. In the present model we incorporate also tropospheric heating to reproduce the upwelling at equatorial latitudes associated with the Brewer-Dobson circulation that affects significantly the dynamics of the stratosphere as Dunkerton had pointed out. Upward vertical winds increase the period of the QBO observed from the ground. To compensate for that, one needs to increase the eddy diffusivity and the GW momentum flux, bringing the latter closer to values recommended in the DSP. The QBO period in the model is 30 months (mo), which is conducive to synchronize this oscillation with the seasonal cycle of solar forcing. Multi-year interannual oscillations are generated through wave filtering by the solar driven annual oscillation in the zonal circulation. Quadratic non-linearities generate interseasonal variations to produce a complicated pattern of variability associated with the QBO. The computed temperature amplitudes for the SAO and QBO are in substantial agreement with observations at equatorial and extratropical latitudes. At high latitudes, however, the observed QBO amplitudes are significantly larger, which may be a signature of propagating planetary waves not included in the present model. The assumption of hydrostatic equilibrium not being imposed, we find that the effects from the vertical Coriolis force associated with the equatorial oscillations are large for the vertical winds and significant for the temperature variations even outside the tropics but are

  5. Use of passive diffusion sampling method for defining NO2 concentrations gradient in São Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Agnes Soares; Cardoso, Maria Regina; Meliefste, Kees; Brunekreef, Bert

    2006-01-01

    Background Air pollution in São Paulo is constantly being measured by the State of Sao Paulo Environmental Agency, however there is no information on the variation between places with different traffic densities. This study was intended to identify a gradient of exposure to traffic-related air pollution within different areas in São Paulo to provide information for future epidemiological studies. Methods We measured NO2 using Palmes' diffusion tubes in 36 sites on streets chosen to be representative of different road types and traffic densities in São Paulo in two one-week periods (July and August 2000). In each study period, two tubes were installed in each site, and two additional tubes were installed in 10 control sites. Results Average NO2 concentrations were related to traffic density, observed on the spot, to number of vehicles counted, and to traffic density strata defined by the city Traffic Engineering Company (CET). Average NO2concentrations were 63μg/m3 and 49μg/m3 in the first and second periods, respectively. Dividing the sites by the observed traffic density, we found: heavy traffic (n = 17): 64μg/m3 (95% CI: 59μg/m3 – 68μg/m3); local traffic (n = 16): 48μg/m3 (95% CI: 44μg/m3 – 52μg/m3) (p < 0.001). Conclusion The differences in NO2 levels between heavy and local traffic sites are large enough to suggest the use of a more refined classification of exposure in epidemiological studies in the city. Number of vehicles counted, traffic density observed on the spot and traffic density strata defined by the CET might be used as a proxy for traffic exposure in São Paulo when more accurate measurements are not available. PMID:16772044

  6. [Prenatal care, low birth weight and prematurity in São Paulo State, Brazil, 2000].

    PubMed

    Kilsztajn, Samuel; Rossbach, Anacláudia; do Carmo, Manuela Santos Nunes; Sugahara, Gustavo Toshiaki Lopes

    2003-06-01

    The historical evolution of infant mortality rate and neonatal mortality according to birth weight and term of delivery in the state of S o Paulo are presented to assess the role of the number of prenatal visits and others factors for determining mortality. Based on data available from the Seade Institute of Vital Statistics, four variables (maternal age, marital status, education, and childbirth order) were analyzed and divided into two categories according to the relative risk of low birth weight and/or preterm prevalence. Sixteen specific groups were created from crossing the four variables into two categories. Low birth weight and/or preterm prevalence per number of prenatal visits and the relative risk were calculated for all sixteen groups. For all sixteen groups, the higher the number of prenatal visits the lower the prevalence of low birth weight and/or prematurity. Additionally, there was an overall reduction of the difference of low birth weight and/or preterm prevalence among the 16 groups from 14% to 4% with an increase from 0-3 to 7 visits or more. Due to the current infant mortality composition in the state of Sao Paulo, increasing the number of prenatal visits and accessibility of women at risk would probably lead to a reduction in intrauterine growth retardation, prematurity, low birth weight and deaths associated to conditions originated in the perinatal period.

  7. The SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System: A Gateway to the Planetary Sciences Literature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henneken, E. A.; Accomazzi, A.; Grant, C. S.; Kurtz, M. J.; Thompson, D.; Bohlen, E.; Murray, S. S.

    2009-03-01

    The SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) provides various free services for finding, accessing, and managing bibliographic data, including a basic search form, the myADS notification service, and private libraries, plus access to scanned published articles.

  8. Seismic Tomography of Central Sao Miguel, Azores Islands (Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almendros, J.; Zandomeneghi, D.; Saccorotti, G.; Barclay, A.; Ibáñez, J. M.

    2005-12-01

    The Azores Archipelago consists of nine volcanic islands, located at about 38° N and 28°W, in the triple junction of the American, Eurasian and African plates. The largest island is Sao Miguel. It has rift zones mainly trending NW-SE and E-W; calderas, as Fogo and Furnas, at the intersection of these tectonic lineaments; and thermal springs and fumaroles distributed along these fault systems. Furnas, Sete Cidades and Fogo are the most active volcanic complexes: central volcanoes with a dominantly trachytic production. Furnas is the youngest and consists of a steep-sided caldera structure formed during several collapses. The most important thermal features lie on an E-W lineament which cuts the Furnas caldera complex. The Fogo volcanic edifice is built over an older submarine lava basement and composed by lava flows, domes and pyroclastic flows deposits, with the summit truncated by a caldera.Thermal manifestations are associated with a NW-SE fault system and consist mainly of fumarolic activity. São Miguel was selected as a site for a seismic experiment in a European Union-sponsored project with the aim of quantifying the seismicity of various quiescent volcanoes in inhabited areas.The 3D distribution of P- and S-wave velocities is derived for central São Miguel, by traveltime tomography. We use P- and S-wave arrival times of 289 local earthquakes by a network of 23 seismometers. The model has good resolution in the shallowest 5 km. There are several Vp anomalies, referred to a composite picture of geologic deposits, volcanic structures and tectonic features. Furnas caldera has a shallow, low Vp value probably marking volcaniclastic sediments. A negative Vp anomaly is associated with the geothermal field of Ribeira Grande. Another low Vp area is related to the highly fractured NW-SE tectonic lineament connecting two geothermal areas in central São Miguel. Conversely, high velocity zones mark a central seismogenetic zone at 4-5 km of depth and the Altiprado

  9. Observations of gravity waves from satellite and implications for the wave driving of the SAO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ern, Manfred; Preusse, Peter; Riese, Martin

    2015-04-01

    The dynamics at low latitudes in the stratosphere and lower mesosphere is governed by an interplay of the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) and the semiannual oscillation (SAO) of the zonal wind. It is known that tropical dynamics has significant influence on the atmosphere over a large range of altitudes and latitudes. For example, QBO and SAO effects are seen in the MLT region, and there is a significant influence of the QBO on surface weather and climate in the Northern Hemisphere during winter. Still, global models have large difficulties in simulating a realistic QBO and SAO. One main uncertainty is the wave driving of these oscillations, in particular the driving by gravity waves (GWs). We derive GW temperature variances, GW momentum fluxes and potential GW drag from over three years of High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS) satellite data in the stratopause region. These observations are compared with the SAO driving due to planetary waves, as well as the zonal wind tendencies, both determined from the ECMWF ERA-Interim (ERAI) reanalysis. HIRDLS satellite observations and ERAI support the general assumption that, due to selective filtering of the GW spectrum by the QBO in the stratosphere, GWs mainly contribute to the SAO momentum budget during SAO eastward wind shear. However, during SAO westward wind shear the GW contribution is usually smaller, and the wave driving is dominated by planetary waves, probably of extratropical origin. Still, we find indications in both satellite observations and ERAI that sometimes GW drag is important also during SAO westward wind shear.

  10. Histological characterization of bone marrow in ectopic bone, induced by devitalized Saos-2 human osteosarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Nahar, Niru N; Tague, Sarah E; Wang, Jinxi; Danley, Marsha; Garimella, Rama; Anderson, H Clarke

    2013-01-01

    Devitalized Saos-2, cultured human osteosarcoma cells, or guanidinium-hydrochloride (GuHCl) extracts of these cells, induce ectopic bone and marrow formation when implanted subcutaneously in Nu/Nu mice. The aim of the present study was to characterize the bone marrow induced by Saos-2 cell extracts, specifically to determine which of the four major hematopoietic cell lineages: erythropoietic, granulopoietic, lymphopoietic and megakaryocytic, are induced by Saos-2 cell derivatives. Immunohistochemical localization of specific antigens was used to determine the presence of each major cell type (glycophorin A for erythropoietic, neutrophil elastase for granulopoietic, factor-VIII related antigen for megakaryocytes, and CD79a for B lymphocytes). Standard H & E stains confirmed the presence of normally organized apparently complete bone marrow within all newly induced bone at 3 weeks post-implantation of devitalized Saos-2 cells. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the presence of erythropoietic cells, granulopoietic cells, megakaryocytes and B lymphocytes in the ectopic marrow. Saos-2 cells (freeze-dried) or their extracts, implanted subcutaneously into Nu/Nu mice, can induce normal marrow that is host-derived, and contains all major hematopoietic cell lineages. Saos-2 induced marrow could potentially restore deficient marrow and promote bone repair.

  11. Histological characterization of bone marrow in ectopic bone, induced by devitalized Saos-2 human osteosarcoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Nahar, Niru N; Tague, Sarah E; Wang, Jinxi; Danley, Marsha; Garimella, Rama; Anderson, H Clarke

    2013-01-01

    Devitalized Saos-2, cultured human osteosarcoma cells, or guanidinium-hydrochloride (GuHCl) extracts of these cells, induce ectopic bone and marrow formation when implanted subcutaneously in Nu/Nu mice. The aim of the present study was to characterize the bone marrow induced by Saos-2 cell extracts, specifically to determine which of the four major hematopoietic cell lineages: erythropoietic, granulopoietic, lymphopoietic and megakaryocytic, are induced by Saos-2 cell derivatives. Methods: Immunohistochemical localization of specific antigens was used to determine the presence of each major cell type (glycophorin A for erythropoietic, neutrophil elastase for granulopoietic, factor-VIII related antigen for megakaryocytes, and CD79a for B lymphocytes). Results: Standard H & E stains confirmed the presence of normally organized apparently complete bone marrow within all newly induced bone at 3 weeks post-implantation of devitalized Saos-2 cells. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the presence of erythropoietic cells, granulopoietic cells, megakaryocytes and B lymphocytes in the ectopic marrow. Conclusion: Saos-2 cells (freeze-dried) or their extracts, implanted subcutaneously into Nu/Nu mice, can induce normal marrow that is host-derived, and contains all major hematopoietic cell lineages. Clinical Significance: Saos-2 induced marrow could potentially restore deficient marrow and promote bone repair. PMID:23386915

  12. Silencing of NUF2 inhibits proliferation of human osteosarcoma Saos-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Fu, H-L; Shao, L

    2016-01-01

    NUF2 (NUF2, Ndc80 kinetochore complex component), which is essential for kinetochore-microtubule attachment in mitosis, has emerged as a critical mediator of the cell cycle in multiple tumour occurrences. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the role of NUF2 in osteosarcoma, one of the most common primary bone tumours in children and young adults. Lentivirus-mediated short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) targeting NUF2 (Lv-shNUF2) was employed for evaluation in human osteosarcoma Saos-2 cells. After NUF2 silencing, the proliferation of Saos-2 cells was significantly inhibited, as determined by the MTT assay. The colony forming ability was also significantly decreased in Saos-2 cells infected with Lv-shNUF2. Flow cytometry revealed that downregulation of NUF2 in Saos-2 cells caused a remarkable accumulation of the cell population in the S phase. Furthermore, the expression levels of cell cycle regulators cyclin A and cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) were notably decreased, whereas those of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21Cip1 and p27Kip1, were increased in response to NUF2 knockdown in Saos-2 cells. Our findings suggest that NUF2 might modulate cell proliferation via cell cycle control in Saos-2 cells. Downregulation of NUF2 by shRNA might be a novel strategy for early treatment of osteosarcoma using molecular-targeting therapy.

  13. Implementing Technology for Science Classrooms in Sao Tome and Principe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jardim, Maria Dolores Rodrigues

    This qualitative bounded case study was designed to understand how technology integration in schools could be addressed in a first-wave country. The integration of educational technology in Sao Tome and Principe (STP), a first-wave agricultural civilization, can narrow the divide between STP and third-wave information age societies. The conceptual framework was based on theories of change, learning, and context. Toffler's wave theory described how societies changed while Fullan's change theory examined how the people might change. Roger's diffusion of innovations addressed how processes change. Bandura, Vygotsky, and Siemen provided the framework for the learning within the model of change. Finally, the context theories of Tessmer and Richey's instructional design, Lave and Wenger's situated learning, and Sticht's functional context theory were applied. Twenty five individuals from 5 schools, including teachers, school directors, key educational stakeholders, and the minister of education were involved in a pilot project to integrate technology into the science curriculum. The data were collected via interviews, reflective summaries, and confidential narratives. The resulting data were analyzed to find emerging patterns. The results of this analysis showed that a first-wave civilization can adopt a third-wave civilization's features in terms of technology integration, when there is the support of opinion leaders and most of the necessary contextual requirements are in place. The study contributes to social change by providing access to knowledge through technology integration, which empowers both teachers and students.

  14. G-protein Stimulatory α Subunit Is Involved in Osteogenic Activity in Osteoblastic Cell Line SaOS-2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yamazaki, Miwa; Suzuki, Akira; Ozono, Keiichi; Michigami, Toshimi

    2006-01-01

    In an attempt to study the roles of G-protein stimulatory subunit α (Gsα) in osteoblasts, we introduced an expression vector encoding Gsα into human osteoblastic cell line SaOS-2, and established the clones stably overexpressing Gsα (SaOS-2-Gsα). In SaOS-2-Gsα, the intracellular content of cyclic AMP (cAMP) was increased compared with the parental SaOS-2 cells. In addition, when treated with PTH[1-34], SaOS-2-Gsα exhibited more accumulation of intracellular cAMP compared with the parental cells, suggesting an increased responsiveness to PTH. We evaluated the proliferation rates of SaOS-2-Gsα and the parental SaOS-2 cells, and found that the proliferation was accelerated in SaOS-2-Gsα cells. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analyses exhibited the increased expression of Runx2, a transcription factor involved in osteoblast differentiation, in SaOS-2-Gsα cells. Finally, to examine the osteoblastic function in vivo, we inoculated SaOS-2-Gsα or parental SaOS-2 cells subcutaneously to immunocompromised nude mice. Although tumors in nude mice were not formed after inoculation of parental SaOS-2 cells, SaOS-2-Gsα cells proliferated in host animals leading to the formation of tumors with mineralized bone-like tissues. Taken together, these results suggest that the signals via Gsα play critical roles in the proliferation and osteogenic functions of osteoblasts. PMID:24790323

  15. G-protein Stimulatory α Subunit Is Involved in Osteogenic Activity in Osteoblastic Cell Line SaOS-2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Miwa; Suzuki, Akira; Ozono, Keiichi; Michigami, Toshimi

    2006-01-01

    In an attempt to study the roles of G-protein stimulatory subunit α (Gsα) in osteoblasts, we introduced an expression vector encoding Gsα into human osteoblastic cell line SaOS-2, and established the clones stably overexpressing Gsα (SaOS-2-Gsα). In SaOS-2-Gsα, the intracellular content of cyclic AMP (cAMP) was increased compared with the parental SaOS-2 cells. In addition, when treated with PTH[1-34], SaOS-2-Gsα exhibited more accumulation of intracellular cAMP compared with the parental cells, suggesting an increased responsiveness to PTH. We evaluated the proliferation rates of SaOS-2-Gsα and the parental SaOS-2 cells, and found that the proliferation was accelerated in SaOS-2-Gsα cells. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analyses exhibited the increased expression of Runx2, a transcription factor involved in osteoblast differentiation, in SaOS-2-Gsα cells. Finally, to examine the osteoblastic function in vivo, we inoculated SaOS-2-Gsα or parental SaOS-2 cells subcutaneously to immunocompromised nude mice. Although tumors in nude mice were not formed after inoculation of parental SaOS-2 cells, SaOS-2-Gsα cells proliferated in host animals leading to the formation of tumors with mineralized bone-like tissues. Taken together, these results suggest that the signals via Gsα play critical roles in the proliferation and osteogenic functions of osteoblasts.

  16. Redirecting Second Language Curricula: Paulo Freire's Contribution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford-Lange, Linda M.

    1981-01-01

    Describes philosophy of Paulo Freire as foundation for an existential/humanistic curriculum and explores practical and theoretical implications of this curriculum for second language teaching. Expands curriculum design principles into sample second language curriculum design principles. (Author/BK)

  17. [The University of São Paulo, School of Nursing and the Brazilian Nursing professional identity reconfiguration].

    PubMed

    Campos, Paulo Fernando de Souza; Oguisso, Taka

    2008-01-01

    This study intends to contribute for reflection around Brazilian nursing professional identity. For this purpose the subject was rescued from images built up on the knowledge related to identity, nursing professionalization and the blacks in Brazil. It is considered that representations of native inferiority, raised for blacks, have favored the exclusion of black women from the professional nursing education. Based on historical analysis and pertinent documentation, preserved at the Historical-Cultural Center for the Iberian-American Nursing, particularly the admittance forms, outcomes allow to state that the University of Sao Paulo, School of Nursing, has provided the inclusion of men and black women into the professional nursing, thus re-dimensioning the Brazilian Nursing identity.

  18. [Compliance with technical standards for radiological protection at radiation therapy services in São Paulo State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Eduardo, Maria Bernadete de Paula; Novaes, Hillegonda Maria Dutilh

    2004-01-01

    Radiation therapy services provide essential therapeutic procedures for cancer, one of the main causes of population morbidity and mortality. Despite their importance in the health system and their potential risks due to the use of ionizing radiation, there are few studies on such services. We evaluated compliance with technical standards for radiological protection in radiation therapy services in Sao Paulo State, Brazil. Forty-nine services were studied in 2000 through interviews with technical staff. Typologies of performance profiles focusing on structure and process variables were constructed and services compared. Important differences were observed in the services' positions in the health care system, level of complexity, and geographic distribution, with better average performance in structural conditions but very inadequate performance in patient protection, indicating the need for more effective health surveillance.

  19. Cost-effectiveness analysis of pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination from age 60 in São Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Neto, Joao Tonolio; de Araujo, Gabriela Tannus Branco; Gagliardi, Anna; Pinho, Amanda; Durand, Laure; Fonseca, Marcelo

    2011-10-01

    Vaccination of adults aged 60 years and older against Streptococcus pneumonia is not recommended in Brazil. The 23-valent polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine (PPV23) is only available for institutionalized persons or with underlying diseases despite the substantial medical and economic burden related to pneumococcal infections in adults over than 59 years. The study aimed at evaluating the cost effectiveness of implementing a large PPV program in this population. This analysis was performed using a static decision tree model. Demographic and epidemiological data were obtained from Brazilian official sources and international literature. Economic data were obtained from a study performed in 2007 in a public and a private hospital located in Sao Paulo. Vaccination was assumed to protect for 5 years with 60% effectiveness against bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia (BPP) and 21% effectiveness against non bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia (NBPP). Deterministic and sensitivity analyses were performed. The pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination saved 5,218 life year gained (LYG). The vaccination program was found to be cost effective in the social security and public health care perspectives with a mean incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of R$10,887 and R$8,281 per LYG respectively. Results were sensitive to the vaccine effectiveness against NBPP, the incidence and case-fatality rate of NBPP. From a societal perspective, PPV23 program for adults 60 and older was found to be cost-saving. Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination is clinically and economically favored over the present vaccination strategy, in which persons aged over 59 years in Sao Paulo, have not been vaccinated.

  20. Cost-effectiveness analysis of pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination from age 60 in São Paulo State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Neto, Joao Tonolio; Gagliardi, Anna; Pinho, Amanda; Durand, Laure; Fonseca, Marcelo

    2011-01-01

    Vaccination of adults aged 60 years and older against Streptococcus pneumonia is not recommended in Brazil. The 23-valent polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine (PPV23) is only available for institutionalized persons or with underlying diseases despite the substantial medical and economic burden related to pneumococcal infections in adults over than 59 years. The study aimed at evaluating the cost effectiveness of implementing a large PPV program in this population. This analysis was performed using a static decision tree model. Demographic and epidemiological data were obtained from Brazilian official sources and international literature. Economic data were obtained from a study performed in 2007 in a public and a private hospital located in Sao Paulo. Vaccination was assumed to protect for 5 years with 60% effectiveness against bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia (BPP) and 21% effectiveness against non bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia (NBPP). Deterministic and sensitivity analyses were performed. The pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination saved 5,218 life year gained (LYG). The vaccination program was found to be cost effective in the social security and public health care perspectives with a mean incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of R$10,887 and R$8,281 per LYG respectively. Results were sensitive to the vaccine effectiveness against NBPP, the incidence and case-fatality rate of NBPP. From a societal perspective, PPV23 program for adults 60 and older was found to be cost-saving. Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination is clinically and economically favored over the present vaccination strategy, in which persons aged over 59 years in Sao Paulo have not been vaccinated. PMID:21941088

  1. The effect of deproteinized bovine bone mineral on saos-2 cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Khojasteh, Arash; Ghahremani, Mohammad Hossein; Ostad, Seyed Nasser; Eslami, Mohammad; Motahhary, Pourya; Morad, Golnaz; Shidfar, Shireen

    2013-01-01

    Deproteinized bovine bone mineral (Bio-Oss) is a xenogenic bone substitute, widely used in maxillofacial bone regeneration. The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate its influence on the growth behavior of human osteosarcoma cell line, Saos-2 culture, and compare it with the physiologic dose of Dexamethasone, an inductive factor for osteoblasts. Human osteosarcoma cells, Saos-2, were cultured on Bio-Oss and their growth rate was compared to Saos-2 cultures treated with Dexamethasone 10(-7) M in contrast to cells cultivated in PBS, in the control group. Assessment of proliferation was performed after 24, 36, and 48 hours by counting cells using trypan blue exclusion method. Alkaline phosphatase was measured spectrophotometrically at 405 nm with paranitrophenol buffer. After 48 hours, the number of Saos-2 cells increased significantly when subcultured with Bio-Oss. Bio-Oss was more effective on the enhancement of proliferation of Saos-2 cells when compared to the physiologic dose of Dexamethasone (P<0.05). Alkaline phosphatase activity increased in cells grown on Bio-Oss and dexamethasone 10(-7) M in contrast to cells cultivated in PBS control group. The greatest level of activity was observed in the group containing Bio-Oss after 48 hour. The significant increase of cell proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity in cells cultured on Bio-Oss, compared to Dexamethasone-treated cells, suggests the important role of this bone substitute in promoting bone regeneration.

  2. Optical properties of rare earth doped strontium aluminate (SAO) phosphors: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kshatri, D. S.; Khare, A.

    2014-11-01

    After the first news on rare earth (RE) doped strontium aluminate (SAO) phosphors in late 1990s, researchers all over the world geared up to develop stable and efficient persistent phosphors. Scientists studied various features of long lasting phosphors (LLP) and tried to earmark appropriate mechanism. However, about two decades after the discovery of SrAl2O4: Eu2+, Dy3+, the number of persistent luminescent materials is not significant. In this review, we present an overview of the optical characteristics of RE doped SAO phosphors in terms of photoluminescence (PL), thermoluminescence (TL) and afterglow spectra. Also, we refresh the work undertaken to study diverse factors like dopant concentration, temperature, surface energy, role of activator, etc. Simultaneously, some of our important findings on SAO are reported and discussed in the end.

  3. Neurology and surrealism: André Breton and Joseph Babinski.

    PubMed

    Haan, Joost; Koehler, Peter J; Bogousslavsky, Julien

    2012-12-01

    Before he became the initiator of the surrealist movement, André Breton (1896-1966) studied medicine and worked as a student in several hospitals and as a stretcher bearer at the front during World War I. There he became interested in psychiatric diseases such as hysteria and psychosis, which later served as a source of inspiration for his surrealist writings and thoughts, in particular on automatic writing. Breton worked under Joseph Babinski at La Pitié, nearby La Salpêtrière, and became impressed by the 'sacred fever' of the famous neurologist. In this article, we describe the relationship between Breton and Babinski and try to trace back whether not only Breton's psychiatric, but also his neurological experiences, have influenced surrealism. We hypothesize that Breton left medicine in 1920 partly as a consequence of his stay with Babinski.

  4. What is Tetramorium semilaeve André, 1883? (Hymenoptera, Formicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Borowiec, Lech; Galkowski, Christophe; Salata, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Tetramorium semilaeve André, 1883 is redescribed based on the type series and new material from terra typica (Pyrénées-Orientales). Lectotype worker is designated. Detailed descriptions of gyne and male are given. A review of material from the Mediterranean area suggests that in the past the name Tetramorium semilaeve has been applied to more than one species and the true Tetramorium semilaeve is common only in the western part of the Mediterranean basin. The structure of the male genitalia is the most reliable set of characters allowing a proper distinction of species in Tetramorium semilaeve species group. All names attributed to the former name “semilaeve” are discussed. PMID:26257559

  5. Dense gaps in the interacting Aubry-André model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastropietro, Vieri

    2016-06-01

    We consider the interacting Aubry-André model describing fermions on a one-dimensional lattice with an incommensurate potential and a short-range many-body interaction. The single-particle spectrum has infinitely many gaps in the extended phase and at zero temperature is an insulator for almost all the chemical potentials. The many-body interaction has the effect that the gaps are strongly decreased or increased depending on the attractive or repulsive nature of the interaction, but even the smallest gaps remain open. The system is a band insulator for generic chemical potentials even in the presence of interaction, and a quantum phase transition is excluded at weak coupling.

  6. Musculoskeletal Pain as a Marker of Health Quality. Findings from the Epidemiological Sleep Study among the Adult Population of São Paulo City

    PubMed Central

    Palombini, Luciana; Godoy, Luciana M.

    2015-01-01

    Background We are witnessing the growth of urban populations, particularly in the developing world. São Paulo, the largest city in South America, continues to grow, and this growth is dramatically effecting the environment and human health. The aim of this study was to estimate the point prevalence of chronic pain in São Paulo city dwellers and to explore the influence of aspects related to urbanicity. Methods A two-stage cluster randomized sample included 1100 individuals of the city of Sao Paulo, representing the population proportionally in terms of gender, age and social classes in 2007. For this observational cross-sectional study, the household sample was interviewed using validated questionnaires for sociodemographic aspects, the Beck inventories for anxiety and depression, the WHOQoL-REF for quality of life, the Chalder Fatigue Scale. Musculoskeletal pain was defined as diffuse pain or pain located in the back, joints or limbs. Data regarding sleep complaints and polysomnography were obtained from the Epidemiologic Sleep Study conducted in São Paulo city in 2007. Results The prevalence estimate of chronic musculoskeletal pain was approximately 27%, with a female/male ratio of approximately 2.6/1. The predictors were being in the age-range of 30–39 years, low socioeconomic and schooling levels, obesity, sedentarism, fatigue, non-restorative sleep, daytime sleepiness, poor sleep quality, poor life quality, anxiety and depression symptoms. Psychological wellbeing was the main discriminator between responders with chronic musculoskeletal pain and the controls, followed by depression for the participants with poor psychological wellbeing, and fatigue, for the remaining ones. Insomnia syndrome was the third-level discriminator for those with fatigue, whereas sleep quality for those without fatigue. Conclusions Musculoskeletal pain was frequently reported by São Paulo city dwellers and its correlates with psychological and sleep aspects are suggestive of a

  7. Expedition 30 crew member and ESA astronaut Andre Kuipers training in SSTF

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-01

    DATE: 9-1-11 LOCATION: Bldg. 5south, SSTF SUBJECT: Expedition 30 crew member and ESA astronaut Andre Kuipers training in SSTF near Columbia module on laptops with trainer Michaela Benda. PHOTOGRAPHER: Lauren Harnett

  8. Genistein modulates the effects of parathyroid hormone in human osteoblastic SaOS-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Fang; Wong, Man-Sau

    2006-06-01

    Genistein and parathyroid hormone (PTH) are anabolic agents that stimulate bone formation through their direct actions in osteoblastic cells. In the present study, we aimed to determine whether genistein modulates the actions of PTH in human osteoblastic SaOS-2 cells in an oestrogen-depleted condition. The present results showed that genistein (10(-8) to 10(-6) m) induced alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and osteoprotegrin (OPG) expression in SaOS-2 cells in a dose-dependent manner. These effects could be completely abolished by co-treatment with oestrogen antagonist ICI 182780 (7alpha-[9-[(4,4,5,5,5-pentafluoropentyl)sulfonyl]nonyl]-estra-1,3,5(10)-triene-3,17beta-diol). Genistein (at 1 microM) could stimulate the mRNA expression of receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL). As OPG and RANKL are known to modulate osteoclastogenesis, the ability of genistein to modulate OPG and RANKL expression in SaOS-2 cells suggested that it might modulate osteoclastogenesis through its direct actions on osteoblastic cells. PTH (at 10 nM) stimulated ALP activity, induced RANKL mRNA expression and suppressed OPG mRNA expression in SaOS-2 cells, confirming its bi-directional effects on osteoblastic cells. Pre-treatment of SaOS-2 cells with genistein and oestrogen not only enhanced PTH-induced ALP activity, but also attenuated PTH up regulation of RANKL mRNA expression and PTH down regulation of OPG mRNA expression. Taken together, the present study provides the first evidence that genistein could modulate the actions of PTH in human osteoblastic SaOS-2 cells in an oestrogen-depleted condition.

  9. Crack use in São Paulo.

    PubMed

    Nappo, S A; Galduróz, J C; Noto, A R

    1996-04-01

    Documented crack use emerged in São Paulo, Brazil, from 1991 onward. Therefore, it is a recent behavior among drug users. The present work draws a profile of São Paulo crack users, employing an ethnographic approach. Twenty-five crack users were interviewed on selected social and demographic characteristics, on the drug itself and its consumption, and on the consequences of this use. Crack cocaine is harmful for the user, leading within a short period to a condition of dependence. The crack users reported ultimately lapsing into "marginality" due to social isolation, neglect of bodily needs, and breakdown of family ties and other relationships.

  10. Final Environmental Assessment for San Andres Water Line, Holloman Air Force Base, Otero County, New Mexico

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-16

    FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT SAN ANDRES PIPELINE REPAIR HOLLOMAN AIR FORCE BASE OTERO COUNTY, NEW MEXICO U.S. Air Force 49th Fighter Wing...Holloman Air Force Base, New Mexico April 16, 2007 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection...Final Environmental Assessment for San Andres Water Line, Holloman Air Force Base, Otero County, New Mexico 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  11. The Tropical Semiannual Oscillation (SAO) in Temperature and Ozone as Observed by the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, E.; Holton, J. R.; Fishbein, E. F.; Froidevaux, L.; Waters, J. W.

    1994-01-01

    The first two years of MLS temperature and ozone data are used to examine the tropical upper stratospheric SAO. Time series analysis revealed the strongest amplitudes of the SAO to occur near the equator at 2 mb for temperature and 5 mb for ozone, consistent with previous observations.

  12. Investigation of natural and anthropogenic hydrocarbon inputs in sediments using geochemical markers. II. Sao Sebastião, SP--Brazil.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Patricia Matheus; Bícego, Márcia Caruso

    2004-12-01

    The São Sebastião Channel, NE São Paulo State, Brazil, is an area of environmental interest of that state not only because of the tourism, but also because of the presence of the most important oil terminal of Brazil, the PETROBRAS Maritime Terminal (DTCS). Sediment samples were collected at 15 sites in the channel, extracted and analyzed by GC/FID and GC/MS for composition and levels of the following organic geochemical markers: aliphatic hydrocarbons (normal and isoprenoid alkanes), petroleum biomarkers, linear alkylbenzenes (LABs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The total concentrations varied from 0.04 to 8.53 micorg g(-1) for aliphatics, from 51.1 to 422.0 ng g(-1) for petroleum biomarkers, from 12.6 to 27.7 ng g(-1) for LABs and from 20.4 to 200.3 ng g(-1) for PAHs. The PETROBRAS Maritime Terminal (DTCS), Sao Sebastião Harbor and sewage outfalls along the area had clear influences on the geochemical marker concentrations, especially at locales in the central and north parts of the channel.

  13. Paulo Freire's Legacy for Adults Learning Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coben, Diana

    The death of Paulo Freire in May 1997 was a momentous event for educators everywhere, especially adult educators, and a sad one for those who knew and loved him. The author has been thinking and writing about Freire's work for many years, exploring his contribution to a radical politics of adult education. While Freire's work features strongly in…

  14. Paulo Freire and the Concept of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckett, Kelvin Stewart

    2013-01-01

    In this article, I argue that Paulo Freire's liberatory conception of education is interesting, challenging, even transforming because central to it are important aspects of education which other philosophers marginalise. I also argue that Freire's critics are right when they claim that he paid insufficient attention to another important aspect of…

  15. A Pedagogy of Hope after Paulo Freire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Grange, L.

    2011-01-01

    In my review of the articles published in this issue of "SAJHE" I use the notion of "after" in two senses: "in imitation of" and "following in time" (moving beyond) (Schad 2003, x). In the first instance I wish to assess the extent to which contributors have drawn on Paulo Freire's concept of a…

  16. The Critical Spirituality of Paulo Freire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Darrell

    2012-01-01

    Starting from the premise that Paulo Freire's capacity for hope in the face of personal struggle and exile issued from his spirituality, this paper examines Freire's spirituality through the lens of Michael Dantley's concept of critical spirituality. The concept of spirituality as discussed in the literature is explored, followed by an explication…

  17. Paulo Freire and the Concept of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckett, Kelvin Stewart

    2013-01-01

    In this article, I argue that Paulo Freire's liberatory conception of education is interesting, challenging, even transforming because central to it are important aspects of education which other philosophers marginalise. I also argue that Freire's critics are right when they claim that he paid insufficient attention to another important aspect of…

  18. The People Speak Their Word: Learning to Read and Write in Sao Tome and Principe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freire, Paulo

    1981-01-01

    Freire reflects on his role as consultant to the Adult Literacy Program in Sao Tome and Principe. Emphasizing the political aspects of pedagogy, he describes how adults learn to read and write, as well as to think critically and participate in national development. (SK)

  19. The diameter of 88 Thisbe from its occultation of SAO 187124

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millis, R. L.; Wasserman, L. H.; Franz, O. G.; White, N. M.; Bowell, E.; Klemola, A.; Elliott, R. C.; Smethells, W. G.; Price, P. M.; Mckay, C. P.

    1982-01-01

    The 7 October, 1981 occultation of SAO 187124 by 88 Thisbe was observed at twelve sites. The occultation observations, together with information about the asteroid's light curve, gives a mean diameter for Thisbe of 232 + or - 10 km. This value is 10 percent larger than the previously published radiometric diameter of Thisbe.

  20. The People Speak Their Word: Learning to Read and Write in Sao Tome and Principe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freire, Paulo

    1981-01-01

    Freire reflects on his role as consultant to the Adult Literacy Program in Sao Tome and Principe. Emphasizing the political aspects of pedagogy, he describes how adults learn to read and write, as well as to think critically and participate in national development. (SK)

  1. Tissue transglutaminase (TG2) activity regulates osteoblast differentiation and mineralization in the SAOS-2 cell line.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xiaoxue; Chen, Zhongqiang; Liu, Zhongjun; Song, Chunli

    2012-08-01

    Tissue transglutaminase (type II, TG2) has long been postulated to directly promote skeletal matrix calcification and play an important role in ossification. However, limited information is available on the expression, function and modulating mechanism of TG2 during osteoblast differentiation and mineralization. To address these issues, we cultured the well-established human osteosarcoma cell line SAOS-2 with osteo-inductive conditioned medium and set up three time points (culture days 4, 7, and 14) to represent different stages of SAOS-2 differentiation. Osteoblast markers, mineralization, as well as TG2 expression and activity, were then assayed in each stage. Furthermore, we inhibited TG activity with cystamine and then checked SAOS-2 differentiation and mineralization in each stage. The results showed that during the progression of osteoblast differentiation SAOS-2 cells presented significantly high levels of osteocalcin (OC) mRNA, bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) and collagen I, significantly high alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and the increased formation of calcified matrix. With the same tendency, TG2 expression and activity were up-regulated. Furthermore, inhibition of TG activity resulted in a significant decrease of OC, collagen I, and BMP-2 mRNA and of ALP activity and mineralization. This study demonstrated that TG2 is involved in osteoblast differentiation and may play a role in the initiation and regulation of the mineralization processes. Moreover, the modulating effects of TG2 on osteoblasts may be related to BMP-2.

  2. Inhibition of focal adhesion kinase induces apoptosis in human osteosarcoma SAOS-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jialiang; Zu, Jianing; Xu, Gongping; Zhao, Wei; Jinglong, Yan

    2014-02-01

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK), a non-receptor tyrosine kinase protein, acts as an early modulator of integrin signaling cascade, regulating basic cellular functions. In transformed cells, unopposed FAK signaling has been considered to promote tumor growth, progression, and metastasis. The aim of this study was to assess the role of focal adhesion kinase in human osteosarcoma SAOS-2 cells. SAOS-2 cells were transfected with PGPU6/GFP/shNC, and PGPU6/GFP/FAK-334 (shRNA-334), respectively. Expression of FAK was detected by real-time PCR and western blots. MTT assay was used to examine changes in cell proliferation. Cell apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry. The expression of caspase-3,-7,-9 was measured by Western blots. The expression of FAK in SAOS-2 cells significantly decreased in shRNA-334 group contrast to the control group (P < 0.01). Cells proliferation was inhibited by shRNA-334 and shRNA-334 + cisplatin, and the effects were clearly enhanced when cells treated with the anticancer agents. The level of cell apoptosis in shRNA-334 and shRNA-334 + cisplatin group was higher than in the control group (P < 0.01). The current data support evidence that down-regulation of FAK could induce SAOS-2 apoptosis through the caspase-dependent cell death pathway. Inhibition of the kinases may be important for therapies designed to enhance the apoptosis in osteosarcoma.

  3. Tissue transglutaminase (TG2) activity regulates osteoblast differentiation and mineralization in the SAOS-2 cell line

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Xiaoxue; Chen, Zhongqiang; Liu, Zhongjun; Song, Chunli

    2012-01-01

    Tissue transglutaminase (type II, TG2) has long been postulated to directly promote skeletal matrix calcification and play an important role in ossification. However, limited information is available on the expression, function and modulating mechanism of TG2 during osteoblast differentiation and mineralization. To address these issues, we cultured the well-established human osteosarcoma cell line SAOS-2 with osteo-inductive conditioned medium and set up three time points (culture days 4, 7, and 14) to represent different stages of SAOS-2 differentiation. Osteoblast markers, mineralization, as well as TG2 expression and activity, were then assayed in each stage. Furthermore, we inhibited TG activity with cystamine and then checked SAOS-2 differentiation and mineralization in each stage. The results showed that during the progression of osteoblast differentiation SAOS-2 cells presented significantly high levels of osteocalcin (OC) mRNA, bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) and collagen I, significantly high alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and the increased formation of calcified matrix. With the same tendency, TG2 expression and activity were up-regulated. Furthermore, inhibition of TG activity resulted in a significant decrease of OC, collagen I, and BMP-2 mRNA and of ALP activity and mineralization. This study demonstrated that TG2 is involved in osteoblast differentiation and may play a role in the initiation and regulation of the mineralization processes. Moreover, the modulating effects of TG2 on osteoblasts may be related to BMP-2. PMID:22527131

  4. A proteomic study on a human osteosarcoma cell line Saos-2 treated with diallyl trisulfide.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong Kui; Zhang, Xu Hua; Li, Jian Min; Sun, De Sheng; Yang, Qiang; Diao, Dong Mei

    2009-09-01

    Garlic is generally used as a therapeutic reagent against various diseases, and numerous studies have indicated that garlic and its derivatives can reduce the risk of various types of human cancer. Diallyl trisulfide (DATS), a major member of garlic derivatives, could inhibit the cell proliferation by triggering either cell cycle arrest or apoptosis in a variety of cancer cell lines as shown in many studies. However, whether DATS has the same effect on human osteosarcoma cells remains unknown. In this study, we have attempted to analyze the effects of DATS on cell proliferation, cell cycle, induction of apoptosis, global protein expression pattern in a human osteosarcoma cell line Saos-2 cells, and the potential molecular mechanisms of the action of DATS. Saos-2 cells, a human osteosarcoma cell line, were treated with or without 25, 50, and 100 micromol/l DATS for various time intervals. The cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, and apoptosis were examined in this study. Then, after treatment with or without 50 micromol/l DATS for 48 h, protein add pattern in Saos-2 cells were systematically studied using two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. DATS could inhibit the proliferation of Saos-2 cells in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. Moreover, the percentage of apoptotic cell and cell arrest in G0/G1 phase was also dose-dependent and time-dependent upon DATS treatment. A total of 27 unique proteins in Saos-2 cells, including 18 downregulated proteins and nine upregulated proteins, were detected with significant changes in their expression levels corresponding to DATS administration. Interestingly, almost half of these proteins (13 of 27) are related to either the cell cycle or apoptosis. DATS has the ability to suppress cell proliferation of Saos-2 cells by blocking cell cycle progression and inducing apoptosis in a dose and time-dependent manner. The proteomic results presented, therefore, provide additional support to the hypothesis

  5. Unusual Enterobacteriaceae: lactose-positive Salmonella typhimurium which is endemic in São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed Central

    Falcão, D P; Trabulsi, L R; Hickman, F W; Farmer, J J

    1975-01-01

    Since 1971 a lactose-positive (lac+) Salmonella typhimurium variety Copenhagen has been endemic in the city of Sao Paulo. The strain is a strong lactose fermenter and resembles Escherichia coli on primary plating media and in triple sugar iron agar. Although most isolates of the strain have uniform properties, some have slightly different antigens, antibiograms, phage types, or fermentation patterns. Most isolates have come from stools of infants under 1 year of age and are probably hospital acquired; however, other isolates are probably community acquired. Eighteen other lac+ Salmonella isolated in the United States were also studied. Most of these strains resembled E. coli on primary plates and triple sugar iron agar; thus their identification would pose a problem for most clinical laboratories. A simple procedure for detecting lac+ Salmonella mixed with lac+ E. coli consists of touching 12 colonies in succession with a straight wire and then inoculating a peptone iron agar tube. H2S production is apparent from lac+ Salmonella even if 11 E. coli and one Salmonella colony are picked. If a positive peptone iron agar tube is observed, then individual colonies are tested to rule out other strong H2S producers. The true incidence of lac+ Salmonella is unknown because they are not isolated and identified in most laboratories. Images PMID:1102562

  6. Epidemiological Evaluation of Notifications of Environmental Events in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Nery, Telma de Cassia dos Santos; Christensen, Rogerio Araujo; Pereira, Farida; Leite, Andre Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Increasing urbanization across the globe, combined with an increased use of chemicals in various regions, contributes to several environmental events that influence environmental health. Measures that identify environmental factors and events should be introduced to facilitate epidemiological investigations by health services. The Brazilian Ministry of Health published a new list of notifiable diseases on 25 January 2011 and introduced environmental events as a new category of notifiable occurrences. The Center for Epidemiologic Surveillance in State of Sao Paulo, Brazil, created an online notification system that highlights “environmental events”, such as exposure to chemical contaminants, drinking water with contaminants outside of the recommended range, contaminated air, and natural or anthropogenic disasters. This paper analyzed 300 notifications received between May 2011 and May 2012. It reports the number of notifications with event classifications and analyzes the events relating to accidents with chemical substances. This paper describes the characteristics of the accidents that involved chemical substances, methods used, types of substances, exposed population, and measures adopted. The online notification of environmental events increases the analysis of the main events associated with diseases related to environmental chemicals; thus, it facilitates the adoption of public policies to prevent environmental health problems. PMID:25050657

  7. [Municipal health council compositions in the state of São Paulo].

    PubMed

    Zambon, Vera Dib; Ogata, Márcia Niituma

    2011-08-01

    This article discusses the legal structure of the municipal Health Councils in a Health County in the state of Sao Paulo comprising six municipalities. This descriptive and exploratory study was based on documental research according to federal laws for the creation, organization, structure and routine work of the health councils. Results were presented and discussed in categories. The health councils were created in 1991, and four of them have changed their legal instruments, two of them have innovated in some procedures, such as election of the director, administration non-coincident with local majors, administrative structure and commissions. Some council regulations are in disagreement with local and federal laws, such as the deliberative character, parity representation of users, internal regiment, municipal staff in charge of council directory, and no guarantee of administrative and financial support for routine work. It can be concluded that it is necessary to improve and correct regulations to guarantee a suitable performance of health councils and also to improve the discussion about social participation in the nursing curriculum.

  8. [Prevalence and determinants of exclusive breastfeeding in the city of Serrana, São Paulo, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Queluz, Mariângela Carletti; Pereira, Maria José Bistafa; dos Santos, Claudia Benedita; Leite, Adriana Moraes; Ricco, Rubens Garcia

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this cross-sectional and quantitative study was to identify the prevalence and determinants of exclusive breastfeeding among infants less than six months of age in the city of Serrana, Sao Paulo, Brazil in 2009. A validated semi-structured questionnaire was administered to the guardians of the children less than six months of age who attended the second phase of a Brazilian vaccination campaign against polio. Univariate and multivariate analysis presented in odds ratios and confidence intervals was accomplished. Of the total of 275 infant participants, only 29.8% were exclusively breastfed. Univariate analysis revealed that mothers who work outside the home without maternity leave, mothers who did not work outside the home, adolescent mothers, and the use of pacifiers have a greater chance of interrupting exclusive breastfeeding. In the multivariate analysis, mothers who work outside the home without maternity leave are three times more likely to wean their children early. Results provide suggestions for the redirection and planning of interventions targeting breastfeeding.

  9. Documentation for the machine-readable version of the SAO-HD-GC-DM cross index version 1983

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roman, N. G.; Warren, W. H., Jr.; Schofield, N., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    An updated and extended machine readable version of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory star catalog (SAO) is described. A correction of all errors which were found since preparation of the original catalog which resulted from misidentifications and omissions of components in multiple star systems and missing Durchmusterung numbers (the common identifier) in the SAO Catalog are included and component identifications from the Index of Visual Double Stars (IDS) are appended to all multiple SAO entries with the same DM numbers, and lower case letter identifiers for supplemental BD stars are added. A total of 11,398 individual corrections and data additions is incorporated into the present version of the cross index.

  10. SAOS-2 osteosarcoma cells bind fibroblasts via ICAM-1 and this is increased by tumour necrosis factor-α.

    PubMed

    David, Manu S; Kelly, Elizabeth; Cheung, Ivan; Xaymardan, Munira; Moore, Malcolm A S; Zoellner, Hans

    2014-01-01

    We recently reported exchange of membrane and cytoplasmic markers between SAOS-2 osteosarcoma cells and human gingival fibroblasts (h-GF) without comparable exchange of nuclear markers, while similar h-GF exchange was seen for melanoma and ovarian carcinoma cells. This process of "cellular sipping" changes phenotype such that cells sharing markers of both SAOS-2 and h-GF have morphology intermediate to that of either cell population cultured alone, evidencing increased tumour cell diversity without genetic change. TNF-α increases cellular sipping between h-GF and SAOS-2, and we here study binding of SAOS-2 to TNF-α treated h-GF to determine if increased cellular sipping can be accounted for by cytokine stimulated SAOS-2 binding. More SAOS-2 bound h-GF pe-seeded wells than culture plastic alone (p<0.001), and this was increased by h-GF pre-treatment with TNF-α (p<0.001). TNF-α stimulated binding was dose dependent and maximal at 1.16 nM (p<0.05) with no activity below 0.006 nM. SAOS-2 binding to h-GF was independent of serum, while the lipopolysaccharide antagonist Polymyxin B did not affect results, and TNF-α activity was lost on boiling. h-GF binding of SAOS-2 started to increase after 30min TNF-α stimulation and was maximal by 1.5 hr pre-treatment (p<0.001). h-GF retained maximal binding up to 6 hrs after TNF-α stimulation, but this was lost by 18 hrs (p<0.001). FACS analysis demonstrated increased ICAM-1 consistent with the time course of SAOS-2 binding, while antibody against ICAM-1 inhibited SAOS-2 adhesion (p<0.04). Pre-treating SAOS-2 with TNF-α reduced h-GF binding to background levels (p<0.003), and this opposite effect to h-GF cytokine stimulation suggests that the history of cytokine exposure of malignant cells migrating across different microenvironments can influence subsequent interactions with fibroblasts. Since cytokine stimulated binding was comparable in magnitude to earlier reported TNF-α stimulated cellular sipping, we conclude that TNF

  11. SAOS-2 Osteosarcoma Cells Bind Fibroblasts via ICAM-1 and This Is Increased by Tumour Necrosis Factor-α

    PubMed Central

    David, Manu S.; Kelly, Elizabeth; Cheung, Ivan; Xaymardan, Munira; Moore, Malcolm A. S.; Zoellner, Hans

    2014-01-01

    We recently reported exchange of membrane and cytoplasmic markers between SAOS-2 osteosarcoma cells and human gingival fibroblasts (h-GF) without comparable exchange of nuclear markers, while similar h-GF exchange was seen for melanoma and ovarian carcinoma cells. This process of “cellular sipping” changes phenotype such that cells sharing markers of both SAOS-2 and h-GF have morphology intermediate to that of either cell population cultured alone, evidencing increased tumour cell diversity without genetic change. TNF-α increases cellular sipping between h-GF and SAOS-2, and we here study binding of SAOS-2 to TNF-α treated h-GF to determine if increased cellular sipping can be accounted for by cytokine stimulated SAOS-2 binding. More SAOS-2 bound h-GF pe-seeded wells than culture plastic alone (p<0.001), and this was increased by h-GF pre-treatment with TNF-α (p<0.001). TNF-α stimulated binding was dose dependent and maximal at 1.16nM (p<0.05) with no activity below 0.006 nM. SAOS-2 binding to h-GF was independent of serum, while the lipopolysaccharide antagonist Polymyxin B did not affect results, and TNF-α activity was lost on boiling. h-GF binding of SAOS-2 started to increase after 30min TNF-α stimulation and was maximal by 1.5hr pre-treatment (p<0.001). h-GF retained maximal binding up to 6hrs after TNF-α stimulation, but this was lost by 18hrs (p<0.001). FACS analysis demonstrated increased ICAM-1 consistent with the time course of SAOS-2 binding, while antibody against ICAM-1 inhibited SAOS-2 adhesion (p<0.04). Pre-treating SAOS-2 with TNF-α reduced h-GF binding to background levels (p<0.003), and this opposite effect to h-GF cytokine stimulation suggests that the history of cytokine exposure of malignant cells migrating across different microenvironments can influence subsequent interactions with fibroblasts. Since cytokine stimulated binding was comparable in magnitude to earlier reported TNF-α stimulated cellular sipping, we conclude that TNF

  12. Documentation for the machine-readable version of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory Star catalogue (SAO) version 1984

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roman, N. G.; Warren, W. H., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    An updated, corrected and extended machine readable version of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory star catalog (SAO) is described. Published and unpublished errors discovered in the previous version have been corrected, and multiple star and supplemental BD identifications added to stars where more than one SAO entry has the same Durchmusterung number. Henry Draper Extension (HDE) numbers have been added for stars found in both volumes of the extension. Data for duplicate SAO entries (those referring to the same star) have been blanked out, but the records themselves have been retained and flagged so that sequencing and record count are identical to the published catalog.

  13. Hydrogen peroxide overload increases adriamycin-induced apoptosis of SaOS(2)FM, a manganese superoxide dismutase-overexpressing human osteosarcoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yadi; Kuroda, Masahiro; Gao, Xian-Shu; Asaumi, Jun-Ichi; Shibuya, Kohichi; Kawasaki, Shoji; Akaki, Shiro; St Clair, Daret; Hiraki, Yoshio; Kanazawa, Susumu

    2005-05-01

    We previously developed a new microscopic observation system that enables time-lapse quantitative analysis of apoptosis and necrosis. With this system we quantitatively analyzed adriamycin (ADR)-induced cell death using manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD)- and wild-type p53-gene transfectants on SaOS(2), a p53-deficient human osteosarcoma cell line. A highly MnSOD-overexpressing cell line, SaOS(2)FM(H), acquired ADR-tolerance compared to the parent cell line SaOS(2). The ADR-tolerance of SaOS(2)FM(H) diminished by L-buthionine-[S,R]-sulfoximine (BSO), which did not change ADR-sensitivity of SaOS(2), to the similar ADR-sensitivity of SaOS(2). A wild-type p53-expressing cell line, SaOS(2)wtp53, significantly increased in ADR-sensitivity compared to SaOS(2). This ADR-sensitivity of SaOS(2)wtp53 was enhanced by BSO. When isosorbide 5-mononitrate was combined with BSO, isosorbide 5-mononitrate increased ADR sensitivity of a moderately MnSOD-overexpressing cell line, SaOS(2)FM(L), decreased that of SaOS(2) FM(H), and did not change those of SaOS(2) and SaOS(2)wtp53 compared to BSO alone. Time-lapse microscopic observations during ADR treatment for 24 h indicated that the most cells of each cell line underwent apoptosis, and a few cells (less than 11%) died by necrosis. When cells were treated with iso-concentration of ADR, apoptosis of SaOS(2)FM(H) was less than that of SaOS(2). BSO, which did not change ADR-sensitivity of SaOS(2), increased appearance rate of ADR-induced apoptosis, but not necrosis of MnSOD-overexpressing cell lines. When iso-survival dose of ADR, which reduced surviving fraction to 0.01, was given for each cell line, no difference was observed in appearance of either apoptosis or necrosis between SaOS(2) and MnSOD-overexpressing cell lines. On the other hands, appearance of both apoptosis and the following secondary necrosis of SaOS(2) wtp53 was significantly accelerated compared to those of SaOS(2). These findings indicate that hydrogen peroxide

  14. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - San Andres and Providencia (Fact Sheet); NREL(National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-03-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the Archipelago of San Andres, Providencia, and Santa Catalina (unpopulated), also known as San Andres and Providencia, which is equidistant between Costa Rica and Jamaica and 775 kilometers northwest of Colombia. The archipelago is part of Colombia, though Nicaragua has also laid claim to it.

  15. Registry of Hospital Das Clínicas of the University of São Paulo Medical School: First Official Solid Organ and Tissue Transplantation Report – 2008

    PubMed Central

    Azeka, Estela; Auler Júnior, José Otavio Costa; Fernandes, Paulo Manuel Pego; Nahas, Willian Carlos; Fiorelli, Alfredo Inácio; Tannuri, Uenis; Cristofani, Lílian Maria; Caiero, Marcelo Tadeu; Dulley, Frederico Luiz; de Oliveira Paggiaro, André; Bacchella, Telesforo

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to report a single center experience of organ and tissue transplantation INTRODUCTION: This is the first report of organ and tissue transplantation at the Hospital das Clínicas of the University of Sao Paulo Medical School. METHODS: We collected data from each type of organ transplantation from 2002 to 2007. The data collected were patient characteristics and actuarial survival Kaplan-Meier curves at 30 days, one year, and five years RESULTS: There were a total of 3,321 transplants at our institution and the 5-year survival curve ranged from 53% to 88%. CONCLUSION: This report shows that solid organ and tissue transplants are feasible within the institution and allow us to expect that the quality of transplantation will improve in the future. PMID:19219318

  16. Molecular characterization of van genes found in vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus spp. isolated from the Hospital das Clínicas, FMUSP, São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Caiaffa Filho, H H; Almeida, G D; Oliveira, G A; Sarahyba, L; Mamizuka, E M; Burattini, M N

    2003-06-01

    Vancomycin-resistant enterococci strains (VRE) is an important pathogen related with hospital infections in many countries, presenting limited or no therapeutic options for treating serious infections. VRE has presented some different genotypes been VanA and VanB considered to be the most important in hospital environments. In the present study the authors investigated the prevalence of van genes (A, B an C) among clinical isolates of VRE in a five month period at a large tertiary hospital in Sao Paulo, Brazil. The results showed the presence of vanA, but not vanB or vanC in all 43 strains of E. faecalis and five E. faecium studied. The results bring an important issue, due to the possibility of resistance spread of vanA genes, to be monitored and solved by the hospital infection control team and the microbiology and molecular biology laboratories at tertiary Hospitals.

  17. Evaporite geometries and diagenetic traps, lower San Andres, Northwest shelf, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, D.R. )

    1992-04-01

    An east-west-trending belt of lower San Andres oil fields extends 80 mi across southeastern New Mexico from the Pecos River near Roswell to the Texas-New Mexico border. These fields are along a porosity pinch-out zone where porous carbonates grade laterally into bedded anhydrite and halite. The lower San Andres traps are associated with pre-Tertiary structural or stratigraphic traps. Oil and water production relationships from these fields are not consistent with present-day structure. These fields have been commonly interpreted to be hydrodynamic traps created by the eastern flow of fresh surface water that enters the lower San Andres outcrops west of Pecos River. There is no evidence, however, that surface water has moved through the lower San Andres in this area. This conclusion is supported by the fact that formation-water resistivities are uniform throughout the producing trend, no significant dissolution of carbonates or evaporites has occurred, and there has been no increase in biogradation of oils adjacent to the lower San Andres outcrops. These fields actually are diagenetic traps created by porosity occlusion in the water column beneath the oil accumulations. Hydrocarbons originally were trapped in pre-Tertiary structural and structural-stratigraphic traps. Bedded evaporites were effective barriers to vertical and lateral hydrocarbon migration. Eastward tilting of the Northwest shelf during the Tertiary opened these traps, but the oil remained in these structurally unfavorable positions because of the diagenetic sealing. The gas-solution drive in these reservoirs is a result of this sealing. The sequence of events leading to diagenetic entrapment include (1) Triassic and Jurassic migration of hydrocarbons into broad, low-relief post-San Andres structural and structural-stratigraphic traps; (2) rapid occlusion of porosity in the water column beneath oil reservoirs, and (3) Tertiary tilt-out traps.

  18. Nucleus deformation of SaOs-2 cells on rhombic µ-pillars.

    PubMed

    Eichhorn, Melanie; Stannard, Cleo; Anselme, Karine; Rühe, Jürgen

    2015-02-01

    It has been previously shown that osteosarcoma (SaOs-2) cells respond to micropillared surfaces consisting of poly-L-lactic acid with strong deformation of the cell body and nucleus. Until now, cell nucleus deformation of SaOs-2 cells was only studied by exposing them to square shaped micropillars in an isotropic pattern. Here we report on experiments of the cell nucleus response of such cells to rhombic structures of different topographies generated from a rubbery polymer, namely poly(n-butyacrylate). It is observed that cells orientate themselves perpendicular to the long axis of the rhombi. While their spreading on the surface is not influenced by the opening angle of the structures, rhombic structures with sharper angles induce stronger deformation of the cells and accordingly more elongated nuclei.

  19. Radiocarbon dates for lava flows and pyroclastic deposits on Sao Miguel, Azores

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, R.B.; Rubin, M.

    1991-01-01

    We report 63 new radiocarbon analyses of samples from Sao Miguel, the largest island in the Azores archipelago. The samples are mainly carbonized tree roots and other plant material collected from beneath 20 mafic lava flows and spatter deposits and from within and beneath 42 trachytic pyroclastic flow, pyroclastic surge, mudflow, pumice-fall and lacustrine deposits and lava flows. One calcite date is reported. These dates establish ages for 48 previously undated lava flows and pyroclastic deposits, and revise three ages previously reported. These data are critical to deciphering the Holocene and late Pleistocene eruptive history of Sao Miguel and evaluating its potential volcanic hazards. Average dormant intervals during the past 3000 years are about 400 years for Sete Cidades volcano, 145 years for volcanic Zone 2, 1150 years for Agua de Pau volcano and 320 years for Furnas volcano. No known eruptions have occurred in volcanic Zone 4 during the past 3000 years. -from Authors

  20. SAO mission support software and data standards, version 1.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsieh, P.

    1993-01-01

    This document defines the software developed by the SAO AXAF Mission Support (MS) Program and defines standards for the software development process and control of data products generated by the software. The SAO MS is tasked to develop and use software to perform a variety of functions in support of the AXAF mission. Software is developed by software engineers and scientists, and commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) software is used either directly or customized through the use of scripts to implement analysis procedures. Software controls real-time laboratory instruments, performs data archiving, displays data, and generates model predictions. Much software is used in the analysis of data to generate data products that are required by the AXAF project, for example, on-orbit mirror performance predictions or detailed characterization of the mirror reflection performance with energy.

  1. Phenotypic instability of Saos-2 cells in long-term culture

    SciTech Connect

    Hausser, Heinz-Juergen . E-mail: heinz-juergen.hausser@medizin.uni-ulm.de; Brenner, Rolf E.

    2005-07-22

    The human osteosarcoma cell line Saos-2 is widely used as a model system for human osteoblastic cells, though its phenotypic stability has not been ascertained. We therefore propagated these cells over 100 passages and compared relevant phenotypic properties. In general, higher passage cells exhibited higher proliferation rates and lower specific alkaline phosphatase activities, though mineralization was significantly more pronounced in cultures of late passage cells. Whereas expression of most genes investigated did not vary profoundly, some genes exhibited remarkable differences. Decorin, for instance, that has been discussed as a regulator of proliferation and mineralization, is strongly expressed only in early passage cells, and two receptors for pleiotrophin and midkine exhibited an almost mutually exclusive expression pattern in early and late passage cells, respectively. Our observations indicate that special care is required when results obtained with Saos-2 cells with different culture history are to be compared.

  2. Collagen with simvastatin promotes cell metabolism in osteoblast-like SaOS-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Suthanthiran, Thanga Kumaran; Elavarasu, Sugumari; Naveen, Devisree; Nagarathinam, Umamaheswari; Arun, K V; Srinivasan, N

    2012-08-01

    Simvastatin (SMV) is one of the cholesterol-lowering pharmacological drugs. Recent studies demonstrate that it has a bone stimulatory effect. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of SMV along with collagen membrane on osteoblast-like SaOS-2 cells and also to standardize the dosage of SMV to be incorporated into the collagen membrane to achieve regeneration. SMV at doses of 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2 mg was incorporated into the collagen membrane and cell metabolism was assessed by (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) (MTT) assay for 24 h. SMV enhanced cell metabolism dose dependently at 24-h time and the maximum effect was obtained at a concentration of 1.5 mg of SMV. These results indicate that collagen with 1.5 mg SMV exhibits positive effect on cell metabolism of human osteoblast-like SaOS-2 cells.

  3. Initial analysis from a lidar observation campaign of sugar cane fires in the central and western portion of the São Paulo State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva Lopes, Fábio Juliano; Held, Gerhard; Nakaema, Walter M.; Rodrigues, Patricia F.; Bassan, Jose M.; Landulfo, Eduardo

    2011-11-01

    The central and western portion of the Sao Paulo State has large areas of sugar cane plantations, and due to the growing demand for biofuels, the production is increasing every year. During the harvest period some plantation areas are burnt a few hours before the manual cutting, causing significant quantities of biomass burning aerosol to be injected into the atmosphere. During August 2010, a field campaign has been carried out in Ourinhos, situated in the south-western region of Sao Paulo State. A 2-channel Raman Lidar system and two meteorological S-Band Doppler Radars are used to indentify and quantify the biomass burning plumes. In addiction, CALIPSO Satellite observations were used to compare the aerosol optical properties detected in that region with those retrieved by Raman Lidar system. Although the campaign yielded 30 days of measurements, this paper will be focusing only one case study, when aerosols released from nearby sugar cane fires were detected by the Lidar system during a CALIPSO overpass. The meteorological radar, installed in Bauru, approximately 110 km northeast from the experimental site, had recorded "echoes" (dense smoke comprising aerosols) from several fires occurring close to the Raman Lidar system, which also detected an intense load of aerosol in the atmosphere. HYSPLIT model forward trajectories presented a strong indication that both instruments have measured the same air masss parcels, corroborated with the Lidar Ratio values from the 532 nm elastic and 607 nm Raman N2 channel analyses and data retrieved from CALIPSO have indicated the predominance of aerosol from biomass burning sources.

  4. p27kip1 overexpression promotes paclitaxel-induced apoptosis in pRb-defective SaOs-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Gabellini, Chiara; Pucci, Bruna; Valdivieso, Paola; D'Andrilli, Giuseppina; Tafani, Marco; De Luca, Antonio; Masciullo, Valeria

    2006-08-15

    p27kip1 is a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor, which controls several cellular processes in strict collaboration with pRb. We evaluated the role of p27kip1 in paclitaxel-induced apoptosis in the pRb-defective SaOs-2 cells. Following 48 h of exposure of SaOs-2 cells to 100 nM paclitaxel, we observed an increase in p27kip1 expression caused by the decrease of the ubiquitin-proteasome activity. Such increase was not observed in SaOs-2 cells treated with the caspase inhibitors Z-VAD-FMK, suggesting that p27kip1 enhancement at 48 h is strictly related to apoptosis. Finally, we demonstrated that SaOs-2 cells transiently overexpressing the p27kip1 protein are more susceptible to paclitaxel-induced apoptosis than SaOs-2 cells transiently transfected with the empty vector. Indeed, after 48 h of paclitaxel treatment, 41.8% of SaOs-2 cells transiently transfected with a pcDNA3-p27kip1 construct were Annexin V-positive compared to 30.6% of SaOs-2 cells transfected with the empty vector (P < 0.05). In conclusion, we demonstrated that transfection of the pRb-defective SaOs-2 cells with the p27kip1 gene via plasmid increases their susceptibility to paclitaxel-induced apoptosis. The promoting effect of p27kip1 overexpression on apoptosis makes p27kip1 and proteasomal inhibitors interesting tools for therapy in patients with pRb-defective cancers. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Different titanium surfaces modulate the bone phenotype of SaOS-2 osteoblast-like cells.

    PubMed

    Postiglione, L; Di Domenico, G; Ramaglia, L; di Lauro, A E; Di Meglio, F; Montagnani, S

    2004-01-01

    Commercially pure titanium implants presenting a relatively smooth, machined surface or a roughened endosseous surface show a large percentage of clinical success. Surface properties of dental implants seem to affect bone cells response. Implant topography appears to modulate cell growth and differentiation of osteoblasts affecting the bone healing around the titanium implant. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of 1cm diameter and 1mm thick titanium disks on cellular morphology, adhesion and bone phenotypic expression of human osteoblast-like cells, SaOS-2. SaOS-2 cells were cultured on commercially 1 cm pure titanium disks with three different surface roughness: smooth (S), sandblasted (SB) and titanium plasma sprayed (TPS). Differences in the cellular morphology were found when they were grown on the three different surfaces. An uniform monolayer of cells recovered the S surface, while clusters of multilayered irregularly shaped cells were distributed on the rough SB and TPS surfaces. The adhesion of SaOS-2 cells, as measured after 3h of culture, was not affected by surface roughness. ECM components such as Collagen I (CoI), Fibronectin (FN), Vitronectin (VN) and Tenascin (TN) were secreted and organized only on the SB and TPS surfaces while they remained into the cytoplasm on the S surfaces. Osteopontin and BSP-II were largely detected on the SB and TPS surfaces, while only minimal production was observed on the S ones. These data show that titanium surface roughness affects bone differentiation of osteoblast like-cells, SaOS-2, indicating that surface properties may be able to modulate the osteoblast phenotype. These observations also suggest that the bone healing response around dental implants can be affected by surface topography.

  6. Osteogenic potential of biosilica on human osteoblast-like (SaOS-2) cells.

    PubMed

    Wiens, Matthias; Wang, Xiaohong; Schlossmacher, Ute; Lieberwirth, Ingo; Glasser, Gunnar; Ushijima, Hiroshi; Schröder, Heinz C; Müller, Werner E G

    2010-12-01

    Biosilica is a natural polymer, synthesized by the poriferan enzyme silicatein from monomeric silicate substrates. Biosilica stimulates mineralizing activity and gene expression of SaOS-2 cells. To study its effect on the formation of hydroxyapatite (HA), SaOS-2 cells were grown on different silicatein/biosilica-modified substrates (bone slices, Ca-P-coated coverslips, glass coverslips). Growth on these substrates induced the formation of HA nodules, organized in longitudinal arrays or spherical spots. Nodules of sizes above 1 μm were composed of irregularly arranged HA prism-like nanorods, formed by aggregates of three to eight SaOS-2 cells. Moreover, growth on silicatein/biosilica-modified substrates elicited increased [(3)H]dT incorporation into DNA, indicative of enhanced cell proliferation. Consequently, an in vitro-based bioassay was established to determine the ratio between [(3)H]dT incorporation and HA formation. This ratio was significantly higher for cells that grew on silicatein/biosilica-modified substrates than for cells on Ca-P-coated coverslips or plain glass slips. Hence, we propose that this ratio of in vitro-determined parameters reflects the osteogenic effect of different substrates on bone-forming cells. Finally, qRT-PCR analyses demonstrated that growth of SaOS-2 cells on a silicatein/biosilica matrix upregulated BMP2 (bone morphogenetic protein 2, inducer of bone formation) expression. In contrast, TRAP (tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, modulator of bone resorption) expression remained unaffected. We conclude that biosilica shows pronounced osteogenicity in vitro, qualifying this material for studies of bone replacement also in vivo.

  7. Response of osteoblast-like SAOS-2 cells to zirconia ceramics with different surface topographies.

    PubMed

    Hempel, Ute; Hefti, Thomas; Kalbacova, Marie; Wolf-Brandstetter, Cornelia; Dieter, Peter; Schlottig, Falko

    2010-02-01

    Zirconia is a suitable biomaterial for use in medicine (stomatology, orthopaedics) due to its good biocompatibility and outstanding mechanical properties. This study compares the effect of (i) zirconia to the widely used titanium and (ii) zirconia with two different surface topographies (sandblasted and sandblasted/etched) on the adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of SAOS-2 osteoblasts. SAOS-2 cells were cultured on either sandblasted or sandblasted/etched zirconia and compared with sandblasted/etched titanium. 2 and 24 h after plating, cell morphology was investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and fluorescence imaging. At 24 and 48 h, cell number-relevant parameters were determined. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and mineral accumulation were measured at days 8, 11, 15 and day 22 of culture, respectively. SEM and fluorescence images revealed a faster spreading as well as higher number of adherent cells after 24 h incubation on zirconia compared with titanium. Also, the cellular metabolic activity after 24 h and the proliferation rate after 48 h is higher with zirconia compared with titanium. Zirconia had a more pronounced effect compared with titanium on the differentiation of SAOS-2 cells: ALP activity, an early differentiation marker increased earlier and mineralization, a late differentiation marker was increased. Only minor differences were found between zirconia with two different surface topographies; etched zirconia promoted slightly greater the differentiation of SAOS-2 cells. These data indicate that zirconia mediates a pronounced stronger effect on the adhesion, proliferation and differentiation compared with titanium; and that topographical differences of zirconia have minor effects on osteoblast biology.

  8. Shedding light on the sea: André Morel's legacy to optical oceanography.

    PubMed

    Antoine, David; Babin, Marcel; Berthon, Jean-François; Bricaud, Annick; Gentili, Bernard; Loisel, Hubert; Maritorena, Stéphane; Stramski, Dariusz

    2014-01-01

    André Morel (1933-2012) was a prominent pioneer of modern optical oceanography, enabling significant advances in this field. Through his forward thinking and research over more than 40 years, he made key contributions that this field needed to grow and to reach its current status. This article first summarizes his career and then successively covers different aspects of optical oceanography where he made significant contributions, from fundamental work on optical properties of water and particles to global oceanographic applications using satellite ocean color observations. At the end, we share our views on André's legacy to our research field and scientific community.

  9. Shedding Light on the Sea: André Morel's Legacy to Optical Oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoine, David; Babin, Marcel; Berthon, Jean-François; Bricaud, Annick; Gentili, Bernard; Loisel, Hubert; Maritorena, Stéphane; Stramski, Dariusz

    2014-01-01

    André Morel (1933-2012) was a prominent pioneer of modern optical oceanography, enabling significant advances in this field. Through his forward thinking and research over more than 40 years, he made key contributions that this field needed to grow and to reach its current status. This article first summarizes his career and then successively covers different aspects of optical oceanography where he made significant contributions, from fundamental work on optical properties of water and particles to global oceanographic applications using satellite ocean color observations. At the end, we share our views on André's legacy to our research field and scientific community.

  10. Preliminary Goddard geopotential using optical tracking data and a comparison with SAO models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerch, F. J.; Wagner, C. A.; Putney, B. H.; Nickerson, K. G.

    1971-01-01

    A preliminary Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) geopotential and center of mass station coordinate solution was obtained from satellite orbital data using numerical integration theory. This geodetic solution is a prelude to a more general solution which will combine the 1971 International Satellite Geodesy Experiment (ISAGEX) laser data with the present data being employed. The present GSFC geopotential solution consists of the spherical harmonic coefficients through degree and order eight with higher order satellite resonant coefficients. The solution represents a first iteration result from 17 satellites with approximately 150 weekly orbital arcs containing some 40,000 optical observations. The GSFC preliminary result is compared with final results from the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) solutions including the 1969 SAO Standard Earth II solution. One aspect of interest for the comparison is that SAO uses an analytic theory for the orbital solution whereas GSFC uses a numerical integration theory. The comparison of geopotential results shows that good agreement exists in general but that there are some areas of minor differences.

  11. VizieR Online Data Catalog: SAO-HD-GC-DM Cross Index (ADC 1983) (Roman+ 1983)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roman, N. G.; Warren, W. H., Jr.; Schofield, N. J., Jr.

    1996-05-01

    The catalog is an updated, corrected, and extended version of a table of correspondences originally prepared by Morin (1973). The individual data corrections, additions, and changes included in the new version number 11398, with 8600 data records having at least one change. In addition to the correction of all errors found since preparation of the original catalog, most of which resulted from misidentifications and omissions of components in multiple-star systems and missing Durchmusterung numbers (the common identifier) in the SAO Catalog, component identifications from the Index Catalogue of Visual Double Stars (IDS) have been appended to all multiple SAO stars having the same DM numbers, and lowercase identifications for supplemental (footnoted) BD stars have been added. Stars deleted (duplicate entries) in the SAO Catalog have been appended with a "D" and their data removed, although the records have been kept (with SAO number only) in order not to change the number of SAO stars. The data include SAO number, HD number, HD multiplicity code, GC number, DM identification code (BD, CD, CP), and number. There are fewer objects than records because of the deleted entries appended with a "D" as described above (35 stars deleted). (1 data file).

  12. Occurrence of mycobacteria in bovine milk samples from both individual and collective bulk tanks at farms and informal markets in the southeast region of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mycobacterium spp. is one of the most important species of zoonotic pathogens that can be transmitted from cattle to humans. The presence of these opportunistic, pathogenic bacteria in bovine milk has emerged as a public-health concern, especially among individuals who consume raw milk and related dairy products. To address this concern, the Brazilian control and eradication program focusing on bovine tuberculosis, was established in 2001. However, bovine tuberculosis continues to afflict approximately 1,3 percent of the cattle in Brazil. In the present study, 300 samples of milk from bovine herds, obtained from both individual and collective bulk tanks and informal points of sale, were cultured on Löwenstein-Jensen and Stonebrink media. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based tests and restriction-enzyme pattern analysis were then performed on the colonies exhibiting phenotypes suggestive of Mycobacterium spp., which were characterized as acid-fast bacilli. Results Of the 300 bovine milk samples that were processed, 24 were positively identified as Mycobacterium spp. Molecular identification detected 15 unique mycobacterial species: Mycobacterium bovis, M. gordonae, M. fortuitum, M. intracellulare, M. flavescens, M. duvalii, M. haemophilum, M. immunogenum, M. lentiflavum, M. mucogenicum, M. novocastrense, M. parafortuitum, M. smegmatis, M. terrae and M. vaccae. The isolation of bacteria from the various locations occurred in the following proportions: 9 percent of the individual bulk-tank samples, 7 percent of the collective bulk-tank samples and 8 percent of the informal-trade samples. No statistically significant difference was observed between the presence of Mycobacterium spp. in the three types of samples collected, the milk production profiles, the presence of veterinary assistance and the reported concerns about bovine tuberculosis prevention in the herds. Conclusion The microbiological cultures associated with PCR-based identification tests are possible tools for the investigation of the presence of Mycobacterium spp. in milk samples. Using these methods, we found that the Brazilian population may be regularly exposed to mycobacteria by consuming raw bovine milk and related dairy products. These evidences reinforces the need to optimize quality programs of dairy products, to intensify the sanitary inspection of these products and the necessity of further studies on the presence of Mycobacterium spp. in milk and milk-based products. PMID:23618368

  13. Latent Tuberculosis Infection Diagnostic and Treatment Cascade among Contacts in Primary Health Care in a City of Sao Paulo State, Brazil: Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Diagnosis and treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is a tool for global TB control, especially in close contacts. But data is scarce in high burden countries, under field conditions, including data on the benefits of LTBI management. Objective To analyze the LTBI diagnosis and treatment cascade among contacts in primary health care (PHC) services in São José do Rio Preto—SP, Brazil. Methods Cross-sectional design, conducted with contacts of pulmonary TB patients followed in all PHC services. Data was collected from May to September 2014 in the Reporting System for TB cases (TBWEB) and Reporting System for Chemoprophylaxis. Medical records and treatment follow-up forms were reviewed and all the nurses responsible for TB in PHC services were interviewed. Results Among 336 contacts included, 267 (79.4%) were screened for TB or LTBI, according to the presence or not of respiratory symptoms. Among those contacts screened, 140 (52.4%) were symptomatic, 9 (3.4%) had TB disease, 106/221 (48%) had positive TST result, meeting the criteria for LTBI treatment, and 64/106 (60.4%) actually started it. Overall, among 267 screened, only 64 (24%) started LTBI treatment. The completion rates of treatment among the contacts who started it, those with positive TST result and those screened were 56.3% (36/64), 16.3% (36/221) and 13.5% (36/267), respectively. Nurses claimed that asymptomatic TB contacts pay no attention to preventive health care and do not seek medical care as they do not have symptoms of the disease. In reviewing the medical records, high proportions of contacts without evaluation, incomplete assessment, incorrect records of contraindication for LTBI treatment, lack of notes regarding the identification and evaluation of contacts were identified. Conclusions There is a need for better organization of the surveillance and investigation routine for contacts in PHC, considering the reorganization of the work process and the features of the local health system. PMID:27285720

  14. Aspects of a conceptual groundwater flow model of the Serra Geral basalt aquifer (Sao Paulo, Brazil) from physical and structural geology data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Amélia J.; Maldaner, Carlos H.; Negri, Francisco; Rouleau, Alain; Wahnfried, Ingo D.

    2016-08-01

    A preliminary conceptual model of groundwater flow was developed for the Serra Geral fractured basalt aquifer in order to assess the recharge to the underlying sandstone Guarani Aquifer System, one of the main aquifer systems in Brazil, which supplies water to millions of people. Detailed geological investigations included macroscopic description of the basalt flow units and the underlying sandstone. Petrographic and chemical analyzes were conducted on rock samples from outcrops and from five drilled boreholes. Detailed fracture surveys were accomplished at outcrops to characterize fracture sets and their potential to transmit water in the current tectonic context. Four basalt flows were identified in the Ribeirao Preto area and were named B1, B2, B3 and B4 (from oldest to youngest). The cooling process in flow B3 led to the generation of large sub-horizontal fractures at the contacts B2/B3 and B3-C/B3-E, which are the most transmissive structures. Groundwater flow in the basalt appears to be of the stratabound type because fractures, in general, do not propagate through the basalt vesicular layers, which behave as a regional hydraulic barrier for the vertical groundwater flow. However, it is proposed that the localized, continuous and closely spaced subvertical tectonic fractures, the only features that have the potential to crosscut the vesicular layers and the intertrappe sediments, can vertically connect the sub-horizontal transmissive fractures. Weathering and water seepage, observed in rock exposures, indicate that subvertical NE-trending fractures would be the most transmissive in the Ribeirao Preto area.

  15. Family Farmers and Major Retail Chains in the Brazilian Organic Sector: Assessing New Development Pathways. A Case Study in a Peri-Urban District of Sao Paulo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanc, Julien

    2009-01-01

    The expansion of the organic sector in Brazil is seen as a leverage for the social emancipation of the small family farmers. Next to the traditional alternatives circuits of organic food and farming, new powerful capitalistic actors, such as supermarket chains, are rapidly entering the Brazilian organic arena. Can family farming benefit from the…

  16. ASSESSMENT OF THE URBAN AIR POLLUTION BENEFITS OF GLOBAL WARMING MITIGATION: SANTIAGO, SAO PAULO, MEXICO CITY, AND NEW YORK CITY. (R827351)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  17. MUTAGENICITY AND DNA ADDUCT FORMATION OF PAH, NITRO-PAH, AND OXY-PAH FRACTIONS OF ATMOSPHERIC PARTICULATE MATTER FROM SAO PAULO, BRAZIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Summary
    What is the study?
    Near roadway and immediate roadway exposures to transportation emissions gave very similar results in the Salmonella mutagenicity assay and in an assay for DNA adducts indicating that near roadway genotoxicity is not altered significantly over...

  18. MUTAGENICITY AND DNA ADDUCT FORMATION OF PAH, NITRO-PAH, AND OXY-PAH FRACTIONS OF ATMOSPHERIC PARTICULATE MATTER FROM SAO PAULO, BRAZIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Summary
    What is the study?
    Near roadway and immediate roadway exposures to transportation emissions gave very similar results in the Salmonella mutagenicity assay and in an assay for DNA adducts indicating that near roadway genotoxicity is not altered significantly over...

  19. [Cyclosporin A: experience of the Renal Transplant Unit of the Clinical Hospital of the Medical College of the University of Sao Paulo].

    PubMed

    Ianhez, L E; Chocair, P R; Fonseca, J A; Azevedo, L S; de Paula, F J; David Neto, E; Romão Júnior, J E; Galvão, M M; de Castro, M C; Arap, S

    1991-01-01

    The authors report their experience using cyclosporine-A (CsA) in renal transplant patients. When compared with azathioprine/prednisone, CsA contributed significantly to a better graft and patient survival, either if used associated with prednisone of with azathioprine plus prednisone. CsA was also used in substitution to azathioprine in patients with hepatopathy attributed to azathioprine toxicity. The initial results are promising. The association of CsA and azathioprine with corticosteroids withdrawal was used as an attempt to allow normal growth in children. This seems to be the best choice of treatment for children. Careful monitoring of CsA blood levels avoids, or at least, minimizes nephrotoxicity. To achieve therapeutic CsA levels, patients with liver damage need lower, while children need higher oral CsA doses. To summarise: when CsA in carefully used, it is an excellent immunosuppressive drug.

  20. Child Psychiatry Takes to the Streets: A Developmental Partnership between a University Institute and Children and Adolescents from the Streets of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scivoletto, Sandra; da Silva, Thiago Fernando; Rosenheck, Robert Alan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: High levels of domestic violence, mental illness, and alienation from authorities are associated with high incidence of children/adolescents living on the streets in low and middle income countries. The Equilibrium Project (Programa Equilibrio) was created to facilitate social reintegration through a virtual partnership between an…

  1. Child psychiatry takes to the streets: a developmental partnership between a university institute and children and adolescents from the streets of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Scivoletto, Sandra; da Silva, Thiago Fernando; Rosenheck, Robert Alan

    2011-02-01

    High levels of domestic violence, mental illness, and alienation from authorities are associated with high incidence of children/adolescents living on the streets in low and middle income countries. The Equilibrium Project (Programa Equilíbrio) was created to facilitate social reintegration through a virtual partnership between an academic psychiatric institute and highly vulnerable children and adolescents living on the streets, in group shelter with supervision, and in other high risk situations. Descriptive presentation of qualitative data and analysis of preliminary empirical data collected over a 24-month period. Dialogue between academic professionals, street children, and city officials shaped The Equilibrium Project over the last 2 years. The program has progressively moved from a professional clinic setting to a community-based but protected activity center with recreational and professional services and an emphasis on linkage with social service agencies, city government and law enforcement officials in an academic research context. A total of 351 patients have been served of whom virtually all were neglected by their parents, 58.4% report physical or sexual abuse, 88.89% have been diagnosed with a psychiatric disorder, 40.4% drug use. After 2 years of operation, 63.5% (n=223) successfully completed or continue in treatment and 34.8% (n=122) were reunited with their families. Program development guided by consumer input led to a successful program offering professional services in a protected community setting that facilitates social reintegration by providing "go between" services integrating relationships between alienated consumers and formal psychiatric, pediatric, social service, and criminal justice systems. 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Misoprostol: pathways, mediation and social networks for access to abortion using medication in the context of illegality in the State of Sao Paulo].

    PubMed

    Arilha, Margareth Martha

    2012-07-01

    The scope of this article is to discuss the commercialization and use of misoprostol for abortion purposes in the illegal contexts that still persist in Brazil. The information presented was collected through case studies conducted with two young women who aborted using medication - one successfully and one unsuccessfully - and two adult women who have close ties with women who used misoprostol. The study confirms the hypothesis that the diffusion and expansion of the use of misoprostol outside the hospital context is associated with the decision of women who seek lower costs, lower risks to their health and privacy. It also permits examination of the interpretation that this increase in consumption is linked to the inclusion of the medication in a set of goods that are illegally traded in Brazil, in different ways and in different contexts. As a result, women are exposed to different degrees of vulnerability depending directly on the steps taken, types of mediation used and social networks they belong to. These are the ways in which women and men obtain access to the use of misoprostol for abortion, the outcome of which may be successful or not.

  3. Detection of Rickettsia rickettsii and Rickettsia sp. in blood clots in 24 patients from different municipalities of the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gehrke, Flávia Sousa; Mendes do Nascimento, Elvira Maria; Rodrigues de Souza, Eliana; Colombo, Silvia; Jacintho da Silva, Luiz; Schumaker, Teresinha Tizu Sato

    2006-10-01

    The authors detected Rickettsia genus organisms using shell vial and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)/sequencing analysis in blood clots in patients suspected of having Brazilian spotted fever (BSF). DNA was detected using PCR with three sets of primers to access the gltA, ompA, and ompB genes. Sequence analysis was carried out using an automatic sequencer with Bioedit software. Seventy-five percent of the culture samples were positive and all samples amplified rickettsial gene fragments. To date, 46% of the samples have been sequenced.

  4. Child Psychiatry Takes to the Streets: A Developmental Partnership between a University Institute and Children and Adolescents from the Streets of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scivoletto, Sandra; da Silva, Thiago Fernando; Rosenheck, Robert Alan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: High levels of domestic violence, mental illness, and alienation from authorities are associated with high incidence of children/adolescents living on the streets in low and middle income countries. The Equilibrium Project (Programa Equilibrio) was created to facilitate social reintegration through a virtual partnership between an…

  5. Family Farmers and Major Retail Chains in the Brazilian Organic Sector: Assessing New Development Pathways. A Case Study in a Peri-Urban District of Sao Paulo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanc, Julien

    2009-01-01

    The expansion of the organic sector in Brazil is seen as a leverage for the social emancipation of the small family farmers. Next to the traditional alternatives circuits of organic food and farming, new powerful capitalistic actors, such as supermarket chains, are rapidly entering the Brazilian organic arena. Can family farming benefit from the…

  6. A cost evaluation of peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis in the treatment of end-stage renal disease in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Abreu, Mirhelen Mendes; Walker, David R; Sesso, Ricardo C; Ferraz, Marcos B

    2013-01-01

    Conventional hemodialysis (HD) predominates over peritoneal dialysis (PD) around the world. Prospective and comparative studies comparing the costs of these modalities are scarce. In the present prospective assessment, we describe the resources used and total patient costs for both HD and PD. ♢ We assessed 249 patients on HD and 228 on PD. All patients were 18 years of age or older and on stable dialysis. The information was collected at three points over 1 year, using standard questionnaires. The sources for costs were the Brazilian public and private health care systems. Societal perspective was considered. ♢ Core trends and dispersions were measured. Regression models assessed the impact of modality on the average total cost per patient per year. ♢ Of the 249 HD patients and 228 PD dialysis patients, 189 (74%) and 160 (70%) respectively completed follow-up. The mean age for women was 55.8 years; for men, it was 59.8 years (p = 0.001). The average total cost per patient-year was US$28 570 for HD and US$27 158 for PD. By category, the costs consisted of direct medical-hospital costs (82.3% for HD, 86.5% for PD), direct nonmedical costs (5.3% for HD, 3.7% for PD), and indirect costs (12.4% for HD, 9.8% for PD). Overall costs were less for PD patients than for their HD counterparts (p = 0.025). ♢ Maintenance dialysis represented the most important source of costs for both modalities; loss of productivity incurred significant costs. Future studies should contemplate the social consequences arising from each modality.

  7. More than 1,000 kidney transplants in a single year by the "Hospital do Rim" Group in Sao Paulo - Brazil.

    PubMed

    Medina-Pestana, José O

    2010-01-01

    We describe the organization of a high-volume Brazilian kidney transplant program that performed 7,833 transplants in 12 years fulfilling government expectations without compromising the care of the patients. The annual number of kidney transplants increased from 428 in 1999 to 1,048 in 2010. In our Organ Procurement Organization (6.1 million inhabitants) brain death notifications increased from 196 to 468 in 2010 and 35% became actual donors. There are 5,011 patients on the waiting list and recipient selection is based on HLA matching. A significant proportion of the recipients is of black ethnicity and had been for long time on dialysis. Over 700 first appointments for living donation are done every year. After the transplant, the majority of patients are followed locally (200-250 appointments per day). The transplant outcome among living-donor recipients is comparable to large registries but inferior outcome have been observed among recipients of deceased donor organs, though consistent improvement has been seen in more recent years. We also discuss issues related to local regulations and solutions to improve efficiency and outcomes.

  8. Study project of intrusive rocks: States of Espirito Santo and Rio de Janeiro, south and east of Minas Gerais and southeast of the state of Sao Paulo. [Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Dossantos, A. R.; DOSANJOS; Barbos, M. P.; Veneziani, P.

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of mapping intrusive rocks in polycyclic and polymetamorphic areas using the logic method for photointerpretation of LANDSAT and radar imagery was investigated. The resolution, scale and spectral characteristics of the imagery were considered. Spectral characteristics of the intrusive rock units mapped using image 100 were investigated. It was determined that identification of acidic and basic intrusive bodies and determination of their relationships with principal structural directions using the logic method was feasible. Tectonic compartments were subdivided into units according to their predominant lithographic types, ignoring stratigraphy. The principal directions of various foliations, faults, megafolds, and fractural systems were defined. Delineation of the boundaries of intrusive bodies mapped using the spectral characteristics of Image 100 imagery ws determined to be more accurate than visual analysis. A 1:500,000 scale map of intrusions in the areas studied was generated.

  9. Remote Sensing techniques used to characterize soil erosion in southwestern Sao Paulo state. M.S. Thesis - 29 Sep. 1982; [Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Pinto, S. D. A. F.

    1983-01-01

    Within randomly sampled squares of a 1 km x 1 km grid, rill/gullies frequency, land cover/land use type and shape of the slopes were extracted from aerial photographs of the Ribeirao Anhumas drainage basin. Mean slope gradient, stream frequency and slope length were calculated on topographic maps. Ground truth data on fine sand/coarse sand ratio and vegetation cover densities were obtained. The MSS-LANDSAT-2 data (CCTs) were analyzed using single-cell, cluster synthesis and slicer algorithms. Graphical and statistical analyses of the data indicate that different slope gradients and land cover/land use types are the most significant factors related to the soil erosion process. The digital analysis of MSS data allowed the association among gray level classes and vegetation cover classes, which defined seven classes. These gray level classes and slope gradient classes were used to rank erosion risk.

  10. ASSESSMENT OF THE URBAN AIR POLLUTION BENEFITS OF GLOBAL WARMING MITIGATION: SANTIAGO, SAO PAULO, MEXICO CITY, AND NEW YORK CITY. (R827351)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  11. [Smallpox in São Paulo (SP, Brazil): history of admissions at the Institute of Infectious Diseases Emilio Ribas between 1898 and 1970].

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Ana Freitas; Pascalicchio, Francisco Vanin; da Silva, Pedro Antonio Vieira; Opromolla, Paula Araujo

    2011-02-01

    The objective of this article is to describe the admissions for smallpox at the Institute of Infectious Diseases Emilio Ribas, during the period from 1898 to 1970, showing the origin of the patients' residence in the metropolitan region of São Paulo. It is a descriptive study which used secondary data collected from the record books for admissions at the Institute during the period of 1898 to 1970. The hospital records were counted and grouped into periods of 10 years. The total amount of admissions were 11,393. From the total of 533 deaths, 251 of the patients were female, 280 male and two unknown. These patients resided in 139 different locations. The city of São Paulo contributed with 7915 or 69.5% of the total, followed by Santo André, Mogi das Cruzes, Guarulhos, São Caetano do Sul, Osasco and Suzano. It was seen 237 patients in transit. For 994 admissions the municipality of origin was ignored, despite indications in the records.

  12. Privilege, Poverty, and Power: Remembering Paulo Freire's Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Democracy & Education, 1999

    1999-01-01

    This special edition honors the life and work of Paulo Freire by recalling the impact he had and continues to have on educators and students. Articles in this issue are: (1) "Editor's Introduction" (Tom Wilson); (2) "Nita's Elegy to Paulo Freire (in Portuguese) 'Privilegio, Pobreza e Poder'" (Ana Maria Araujo "Nita"…

  13. André Latarjet (1877-1947). Anatomist and surgeon specialized in sports medicine.

    PubMed

    Romero-Reverón, Rafael A

    2014-01-01

    André Latarjet (1877-1947), physician and surgeon, outstanding professor of anatomy, made important contributions to the study of human anatomy. He was the disciple and successor of Dr. Leo Testut and continued the diffusion of his work. He was a member of the French Academy of Medicine and President of the International Federation of Sports Medicine.

  14. Creole-based Trilingual Education in the Caribbean Archipelago of San Andres, Providence and Santa Catalina.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morren, Ronald C.

    2002-01-01

    Depicts the impetus and drive behind the development of a primary trilingual education curriculum for the Western Caribbean Archipelago of San Andre, Providence, and Santa Catalina. Based on outcomes in other multilingual education projects, hypothesizes positive academic gains in all areas at a cost benefit to the national government. (Author/VWL)

  15. Who Is DeAndre? Tapping the Power of Popular Culture in Literacy Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gainer, Jesse

    2008-01-01

    Gainer talks about the importance of connecting students' background knowledge, experiences, and interests to curricular goals. He highlights the voice of DeAndre, an eighth-grade boy in special education classes, whose participation in an after-school club led to the creation of a video. According to Gainer, "[W]hen given the opportunity to…

  16. André Guinier (1911-2000): a physicist among crystallographers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravy, Sylvain

    2015-03-01

    This paper briefly retraces the career of André Guinier, awardee of the Gregori Aminoff prize in 1985, from his PhD thesis work on small angle scattering and the Guinier-Preston zone, to the study of disorder crystals and amorphous bodies, including his role in the French research system.

  17. Altered morphology, nuclear stability and adhesion of highly metastatic derivatives of osteoblast-like SAOS-2 osteosarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Muff, Roman; Nigg, Natalie; Gruber, Philipp; Walters, Denise; Born, Walter; Fuchs, Bruno

    2007-01-01

    Metastasis is the leading cause of death in patients with osteosarcoma (OS). High alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and resistance to chemotherapy are independent predictors of poor clinical outcome of osteosarcoma. Here, the osteoblastic phenotype, cell and nuclear morphology, cell adhesion and drug resistance of the SAOS-2 cell line and two in vivo selected highly metastatic derivatives, LM5 and LM7, were compared. ALP activity and deposition of mineralized extracellular matrix were the same in the parental SAOS-2 and the LM5 and LM7 cells, but parathyroid hormone (PTH)-stimulated cAMP accumulation was lost in the LM7 cells. The LM5 and LM7 cells were smaller than the parental SAOS-2 cells, and 10% of the LM7 cells had distorted nuclei. The adhesion of LM5 and LM7 cells was decreased when compared to SAOS-2 cells. The cytotoxic responses of the SAOS-2, LM5 and LM7 cells to Cisplatin, Doxorubicin and Etoposide were indistinguishable. The increased metastatic potential of LM5 and LM7 as compared to SAOS-2 cells is not associated with a substantial change of the osteoblastic phenotype or of the cytotoxic response to current chemotherapeutic drugs. The decrease in cell size and altered cell adhesion, reflecting cytoskeletal rearrangement, together with increased nuclear instability and partial dedifferentiation, as revealed by the loss of PTH responsiveness in LM7 cells, may account for the higher metastatic potential of the LM5 and LM7 sublines as compared to the parental SAOS-2 cells.

  18. [Evolution in access to fluoridated water in São Paulo State, Brazil, from the 1950s to the early 21st century].

    PubMed

    Alves, Renata Ximenez; Fernandes, Grasiele Fretta; Razzolini, Maria Tereza Pepe; Frazão, Paulo; Marques, Regina Auxiliadora de Amorim; Narvai, Paulo Capel

    2012-01-01

    Access to fluoridated water is a known protective factor against dental caries. In 1974, fluoridation of the public water supply became mandatory by law in Brazil, resulting in improved coverage, especially in more developed regions of the country. Coverage increased across the country as a priority under the national oral health policy. This article systematizes information on the implementation and expansion of fluoridation in Sao Paulo State from 1956 to 2009, using secondary data from technical reports, official documents, and the Information System for Surveillance of Water Quality for Human Consumption (SISAGUA). In 2009, fluoridation covered 546 of 645 counties in São Paulo State (84.7%), reaching 85.1% of the total population and 93.5% of the population with access to the public water supply. The results indicate that fluoridation has been consolidated as part of State health policy. However, the challenge remains to implement and maintain fluoridation in 99 counties, benefiting 6.2 million inhabitants that are still excluded from this service.

  19. Statistical Analysis Aiming at Predicting Respiratory Tract Disease Hospital Admissions from Environmental Variables in the City of São Paulo

    PubMed Central

    de Sousa Zanotti Stagliorio Coêlho, Micheline; Luiz Teixeira Gonçalves, Fabio; do Rosário Dias de Oliveira Latorre, Maria

    2010-01-01

    This study is aimed at creating a stochastic model, named Brazilian Climate and Health Model (BCHM), through Poisson regression, in order to predict the occurrence of hospital respiratory admissions (for children under thirteen years of age) as a function of air pollutants, meteorological variables, and thermal comfort indices (effective temperatures, ET). The data used in this study were obtained from the city of São Paulo, Brazil, between 1997 and 2000. The respiratory tract diseases were divided into three categories: URI (Upper Respiratory tract diseases), LRI (Lower Respiratory tract diseases), and IP (Influenza and Pneumonia). The overall results of URI, LRI, and IP show clear correlation with SO2 and CO, PM10 and O3, and PM10, respectively, and the ETw4 (Effective Temperature) for all the three disease groups. It is extremely important to warn the government of the most populated city in Brazil about the outcome of this study, providing it with valuable information in order to help it better manage its resources on behalf of the whole population of the city of Sao Paulo, especially those with low incomes. PMID:20706674

  20. Ambient concentrations and insights on organic and elemental carbon dynamics in São Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteiro dos Santos, Djacinto A.; Brito, Joel F.; Godoy, José Marcus; Artaxo, Paulo

    2016-11-01

    The São Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA) is a megacity with about 20 million people and about 8 million vehicles, most of which are fueled with a significant fraction of ethanol - making it a unique case worldwide. This study presents organic and elemental carbon measurements using thermal-optical analysis from quartz filters collected in four sampling sites within the SPMA. Overall Organic Carbon (OC) concentration was comparable at all sites, where Street Canyon had the highest concentration (3.37 μg m-3) and Park site the lowest (2.65 μg m-3). Elemental Carbon (EC), emitted as result of incomplete combustion, has been significantly higher at the Street Canyon site (6.11 μg m-3) in contrast to all other three sites, ranging from 2.25 μg m-3 (Downtown) to 1.50 μg m-3 (Park). For all sampling sites, the average OC:EC ratio are found on the lower bound (<2) of what is usually observed for other megacities, highlighting the significant contribution of EC in Sao Paulo. At the Street Canyon site, average OC:EC ratio was 0.56, to our knowledge the lowest value ever observed for any urban site. An approach for apportionment between primary and secondary organic carbon based on primary OC:EC ratio was evaluated. The secondary OC was estimated to be 30-40% of total OC concentrations throughout the various sampling sites. The organic carbon dynamics has been further studied using each of the thermally-derived organic carbon fractions. Each of these has been studied regarding their correlation with EC and the correlation between different sites. The analyses have identified that the OC3 and OC4, i.e., the carbon fraction which evolves from the filter at temperatures above 450 °C, presents a regional behavior, with high correlation among all sites. Conversely, OC1, the first fraction to evolve, has depicted a more local characteristic. Furthermore, the fraction of OC which becomes char during the temperature increase under inert atmosphere (the Pyrolytic Carbon-PC) has

  1. A psychosocial study of male-to-female transgendered and male hustler sex workers in São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Prado Cortez, Fernanda Cestaro; Boer, Douglas Pieter; Baltieri, Danilo Antonio

    2011-12-01

    This study examined sociodemographic variables, personality characteristics, and alcohol and drug misuse among male sex workers in the city of Santo André, São Paulo, Brazil. A total of 45 male-to-female transgender sex workers and 41 male hustlers were evaluated in face-to-face interviews at their place of work from 2008 to 2010. A "snowball" sampling procedure was used to access this hard-to-reach population. Male-to-female transgender sex workers reported fewer conventional job opportunities, fewer school problems, and higher harm avoidance and depression levels than male hustlers. Also, transgender sex workers reported earning more money through sex work and more frequently living in hostels with peers than their counterparts. As biological male sex workers are a heterogeneous population, attempts to classify them into distinctive groups should be further carried out as a way to better understand and identify their behavior, design effective health interventions, and consequently minimize the likelihood of unintended adverse outcomes. Our study showed that gender performance can be an important variable to be considered by researchers and policy makers when working with sex workers and developing HIV/AIDS prevention and public health programs, given that transgender and male sex workers not only display distinctive behavior and physical appearance but also reveal differences on specific psychological measures, such as personality traits and depression levels. We recommend that counselors working with this population strike a balance between facilitating self-disclosure and establishing more evidence-based directive interventions.

  2. A comparative proteomics study on matrix vesicles of osteoblast-like Saos-2 and U2-OS cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Liang; Cui, Yazhou; Luan, Jing; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Zhou, Xiaoying; Han, Jinxiang

    2013-05-01

    Matrix vesicles (MVs) play an important role in the initial stage of the process of bone mineralization, and are involved in multiple rare skeletal diseases with pathological mineralization or calcification. The aim of the study was to compare the proteomic profiling of osteoblast-like cells with and without mineralization ability (Saos-2 and U2-OS), and to identify novel mineralization-associated MV proteins. MVs were extracted using ExoQuick solution from mineralization-induced Saos-2 and U2-OS cells, and then were validated by transmission electron microscopy. A label-free quantitative proteomic method was used to compare the protein profiling of MVs from Saos-2 and U2-OS cells. Western-blots were used to confirm the expression of MVs proteins identified in proteomic studies. In our proteomic studies, we identified that 89 mineralization-related proteins were significantly up-regulated in Saos-2 MVs compared with U2-OS MVs. We further validated that two MVs proteins, protein kinase C α and ras-related protein Ral-A, were up-regulated in MVs of Saos-2 cells compared to those of U2-OS cells under mineralization-induction. Our findings suggest that protein kinase C α and ras-related protein Ral-A might be involved in bone mineralization as MVs components.

  3. [The effects of nanostructured titanium fabricated via surface plastic deformation on Saos-2 cell adherence, proliferation and differentiation].

    PubMed

    Wan, Peng-Bo; Chen, Wan-Tao; He, Jie; Zhang, Xiao-Nong; Zhou, Xiao-Jian

    2008-04-01

    To study the effects of nanostructured titanium fabricated via surface plastic deformation on Saos-2 cell adherence, proliferation and differentiation in vitro. Nanostructured titanium surfaces were prepared using plastic deformation and divided into three groups: group I (30 minutes, n=6), group II (60 minutes, n=6) and group III (90 minutes, n=6), according to the time of preparation. The untreated titanium was used as control group. Saos-2 cell line was cultured on different titanium surfaces. The features of titanium surface and the effects of nanostructured titanium surfaces on cell adherence, proliferation and shape were examined using fluorescence microscope, LSCM and MTT tests. RT-PCR was used to assess the alteration of BMP-4 gene expression. The data was analyzed for ANOVA with SAS6.0 software package. The results of SEM showed that plastic deformation for 60 and 90 minutes yielded nanostructured titanium surface. The nanostructured titanium surface significantly promoted Saos-2 cell adherence (P<0.05). Group II (60 minutes) had more extensive spreading on titanium surfaces than the control group. Group II (60 minutes) and group III (90 minutes) had significantly higher BMP-4 gene expression in Saos-2 cells than control group (P<0.05). The biological behavior of Saos-2 cells on nanostructured titanium surface fabricated via plastic deformation for 60 minutes is better than other groups. Surface plastic deformation may be a potential method to yield nanostructured surface of titanium.

  4. Large-scale Asymmetries in the Transitional Disks of SAO 206462 and SR 21

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, Laura M.; Isella, Andrea; Carpenter, John M.; Chandler, Claire J.

    2014-03-01

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations in the dust continuum (690 GHz, 0.45 mm) and 12CO J = 6-5 spectral line emission of the transitional disks surrounding the stars SAO 206462 and SR 21. These ALMA observations resolve the dust-depleted disk cavities and extended gaseous disks, revealing large-scale asymmetries in the dust emission of both disks. We modeled these disk structures with a ring and an azimuthal Gaussian, where the azimuthal Gaussian is motivated by the steady-state vortex solution from Lyra & Lin. Compared to recent observations of HD 142527, Oph IRS 48, and LkHα 330, these are low-contrast (lsim 2) asymmetries. Nevertheless, a ring alone is not a good fit, and the addition of a vortex prescription describes these data much better. The asymmetric component encompasses 15% and 28% of the total disk emission in SAO 206462 and SR 21, respectively, which corresponds to a lower limit of 2 M Jup of material within the asymmetry for both disks. Although the contrast in the dust asymmetry is low, we find that the turbulent velocity inside it must be large (~20% of the sound speed) in order to drive these azimuthally wide and radially narrow vortex-like structures. We obtain residuals from the ring and vortex fitting that are still significant, tracing non-axisymmetric emission in both disks. We compared these submillimeter observations with recently published H-band scattered light observations. For SR 21 the scattered light emission is distributed quite differently from the submillimeter continuum emission, while for SAO 206462 the submillimeter residuals are suggestive of spiral-like structure similar to the near-IR emission.

  5. LARGE-SCALE ASYMMETRIES IN THE TRANSITIONAL DISKS OF SAO 206462 AND SR 21

    SciTech Connect

    Pérez, Laura M.; Chandler, Claire J.; Isella, Andrea; Carpenter, John M.

    2014-03-01

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations in the dust continuum (690 GHz, 0.45 mm) and {sup 12}CO J = 6-5 spectral line emission of the transitional disks surrounding the stars SAO 206462 and SR 21. These ALMA observations resolve the dust-depleted disk cavities and extended gaseous disks, revealing large-scale asymmetries in the dust emission of both disks. We modeled these disk structures with a ring and an azimuthal Gaussian, where the azimuthal Gaussian is motivated by the steady-state vortex solution from Lyra and Lin. Compared to recent observations of HD 142527, Oph IRS 48, and LkHα 330, these are low-contrast (≲ 2) asymmetries. Nevertheless, a ring alone is not a good fit, and the addition of a vortex prescription describes these data much better. The asymmetric component encompasses 15% and 28% of the total disk emission in SAO 206462 and SR 21, respectively, which corresponds to a lower limit of 2 M {sub Jup} of material within the asymmetry for both disks. Although the contrast in the dust asymmetry is low, we find that the turbulent velocity inside it must be large (∼20% of the sound speed) in order to drive these azimuthally wide and radially narrow vortex-like structures. We obtain residuals from the ring and vortex fitting that are still significant, tracing non-axisymmetric emission in both disks. We compared these submillimeter observations with recently published H-band scattered light observations. For SR 21 the scattered light emission is distributed quite differently from the submillimeter continuum emission, while for SAO 206462 the submillimeter residuals are suggestive of spiral-like structure similar to the near-IR emission.

  6. Cytoprotective role of autophagy during paclitaxel-induced apoptosis in Saos-2 osteosarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyeon Jun; Lee, Seung Gee; Kim, Yoon-Jae; Park, Ji-Eun; Lee, Kyu Yeol; Yoo, Young Hyun; Kim, Jong-Min

    2013-06-01

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary malignant bone cancer in children and adolescents. Although paclitaxel (PCX) has been considered one of the most important cancer chemotherapeutic drugs, the current protocols for OS treatment do not incorporate this agent. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the induction of cell death in OS cells after exposure to PCX, to identify the cell death mechanism(s) activated by PCX and to investigate whether autophagy is associated with PCX-induced apoptosis. The results of the present study confirmed that exposure to low PCX concentrations can induce apoptotic cell death in Saos-2 cells; furthermore, caspase-3 activation, PARP degradation and XIAP downregulation were observed in combination with PCX-induced apoptosis. The potential involvement of mitochondrial events (intrinsic apoptotic pathway) in PCX-induced apoptosis in OS cells was verified by the alteration (depolarization) of mitochondrial membrane potential. In addition, pretreatment with 3-methyladenine (3-MA), a specific inhibitor of autophagy, significantly increased PCX-induced apoptotic cell death in Saos-2 cells. The augmentation of PCX-induced apoptosis by 3-MA was accompanied by increase in the cytochrome c release from the mitochondria, caspase-3 activity and XIAP downregulation, which suggests that inhibiting autophagy further stimulates the PCX-induced mitochondrion-related (intrinsic) apoptotic pathway by provoking caspase-3 activation. Thus, autophagy observed during PCX-induced apoptosis in Saos-2 OS cells represents the role of cytoprotection in cellular homeostatic processes. In conclusion, the results of this study revealed that PCX exposure effectively induces OS cell death by apoptosis associated with the mitochondrial-mediated caspase-dependent pathway. PCX can increase autophagic activity and suppressing autophagy enhances PCX-induced apoptosis in OS cells. Therefore, it is suggested that combination treatment involving low

  7. Cisplatin loaded PMMA: mechanical properties, surface analysis and effects on Saos-2 cell culture.

    PubMed

    Özben, Hakan; Eralp, Levent; Baysal, Gökhan; Cort, Ayşegül; Sarkalkan, Nazli; Özben, Tomris

    2013-01-01

    Despite wide resection and systemic chemotherapy, bone tumors may present with local recurrences, metastases and pathological fractures. Application of bone cement containing antineoplastic drug to fill the defect after resection of metastatic lesions and to support implants has been suggested to prevent local tumor growth and implant failures. In this study, we aimed to demonstrate the effects of the addition of cisplatin which is a widely used antineoplastic drug for osteosarcoma, on the mechanical properties of bone cement, and to evaluate the cytotoxic effects of eluted cisplatin on Saos-2 cell culture. Two cement samples were prepared by mixing 100 mg and 300 mg of cisplatin powder with 40 g cement powder. The bone cement of the control group did not contain cisplatin. Mechanical analyses included 4-point bending, compression and shear testing. For cytotoxicity analysis, samples were incubated in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's medium for 15 days. Mediums were applied to Saos-2 cell culture and cell viability was measured. Surface analyses were performed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The addition of cisplatin did not alter the mechanical properties of bone cement. It was observed that the eluted cisplatin had cytotoxic effects on Saos-2 cells. SEM analyses demonstrated cisplatin granules on the surface of cement samples. Cisplatin maintains its cytotoxic property when released from bone cement without compromising the mechanical stability. Application of cisplatin loaded bone cement may help local control of tumor growth. We believe that our study will shed light on to these new practices for the treatment of bone cancers and will encourage future studies.

  8. Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (SAO OMPS) formaldehyde retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González Abad, Gonzalo; Vasilkov, Alexander; Seftor, Colin; Liu, Xiong; Chance, Kelly

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents our new formaldehyde (H2CO) retrievals, obtained from spectra recorded by the nadir instrument of the Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS) flown on board NASA's Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SUOMI-NPP) satellite. Our algorithm is similar to the one currently in place for the production of NASA's Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) operational H2CO product. We are now able to produce a set of long-term data from two different instruments that share a similar concept and a similar retrieval approach. The ongoing overlap period between OMI and OMPS offers a perfect opportunity to study the consistency between both data sets. The different spatial and spectral resolution of the instruments is a source of discrepancy in the retrievals despite the similarity of the physic assumptions of the algorithm. We have concluded that the reduced spectral resolution of OMPS in comparison with OMI is not a significant obstacle in obtaining good-quality retrievals. Indeed, the improved signal-to-noise ratio of OMPS with respect to OMI helps to reduce the noise of the retrievals performed using OMPS spectra. However, the size of OMPS spatial pixels imposes a limitation in the capability to distinguish particular features of H2CO that are discernible with OMI. With root mean square (RMS) residuals ˜ 5 × 10-4 for individual pixels we estimate the detection limit to be about 7.5 × 1015 molecules cm-2. Total vertical column density (VCD) errors for individual pixels range between 40 % for pixels with high concentrations to 100 % or more for pixels with concentrations at or below the detection limit. We compare different OMI products (SAO OMI v3.0.2 and BIRA OMI v14) with our OMPS product using 1 year of data, between September 2012 and September 2013. The seasonality of the retrieved slant columns is captured similarly by all products but there are discrepancies in the values of the VCDs. The mean biases among the two OMI products and our OMPS product

  9. São Paulo urban heat islands have a higher incidence of dengue than other urban areas.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Ricardo Vieira; Albertini, Marcos Roberto; Costa-da-Silva, André Luis; Suesdek, Lincoln; Franceschi, Nathália Cristina Soares; Bastos, Nancy Marçal; Katz, Gizelda; Cardoso, Vivian Ailt; Castro, Bronislawa Ciotek; Capurro, Margareth Lara; Allegro, Vera Lúcia Anacleto Cardoso

    2015-01-01

    Urban heat islands are characterized by high land surface temperature, low humidity, and poor vegetation, and considered to favor the transmission of the mosquito-borne dengue fever that is transmitted by the Aedes aegypti mosquito. We analyzed the recorded dengue incidence in Sao Paulo city, Brazil, in 2010-2011, in terms of multiple environmental and socioeconomic variables. Geographical information systems, thermal remote sensing images, and census data were used to classify city areas according to land surface temperature, vegetation cover, population density, socioeconomic status, and housing standards. Of the 7415 dengue cases, a majority (93.1%) mapped to areas with land surface temperature >28°C. The dengue incidence rate (cases per 100,000 inhabitants) was low (3.2 cases) in high vegetation cover areas, but high (72.3 cases) in low vegetation cover areas where the land surface temperature was 29±2°C. Interestingly, a multiple cluster analysis phenogram showed more dengue cases clustered in areas of land surface temperature >32°C, than in areas characterized as low socioeconomic zones, high population density areas, or slum-like areas. In laboratory experiments, A. aegypti mosquito larval development, blood feeding, and oviposition associated positively with temperatures of 28-32°C, indicating these temperatures to be favorable for dengue transmission. Thus, among all the variables studied, dengue incidence was most affected by the temperature. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  10. [The bats and rabies in the Western region of the State of São Paulo, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Albas, Avelino; Souza, Edson Aroldo Novaes de; Picolo, Miléia Ricci; Favoretto, Silvana Regina; da Gama, Adriana Ruckert; Sodré, Miriam Martos

    2011-01-01

    The Polo da Alta Sorocabana Laboratory in Presidente Prudente, SP, in partnership with other research institutions, conducted studies related to bats from the western region of the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Thus, certain situations were investigated, including: a) isolation of the rabies virus from 2006 to 2008; b) identification of respective antigenic variants; and c) characterization of daytime shelters of Desmodus rotundus vampire bats. Samples for examination originated from nonhematophagous bats forwarded to the laboratory and subjected to direct fluorescent antibody test and mouse inoculation test. Positive samples were characterized by the monoclonal antibody test. Regarding the bats, they were identified and classified and mapping of their shelters was also performed. The laboratory received 1,113 nonhematophagous bats for rabies diagnosis, 11 (1%) of which were positives, and among the positive samples, 5 (45.5%) presented antigenic variant 3 (from the bat Desmodus rotundus) and 4 (36.5%) were compatible with samples derived from Brazilian insectivorous bats. Sixteen vampire bat shelters were investigated and observation confirmed the presence of another 3 species of nonhematophagous bats coexisting with them. The experiments showed that at least 3 antigenic variants of rabies virus are circulating in the region and that the cohabitation of vampire bats with nonhematophagous bats could be related to the dissemination of the rabies virus.

  11. [Governance and regulation in health: challenges for health management in Greater Metropolitan São Paulo, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Ibanhes, Lauro Cesar; Heimann, Luiza Sterman; Junqueira, Virginia; Boaretto, Roberta Cristina; Pessoto, Umberto Catarino; Cortizo, Carlos Tato; Castro, Iracema Ester do Nascimento; Rocha, Jucilene Leite da; Kayano, Jorge; Luiz, Olinda do Carmo; Barboza, Renato; Telesi, Emilio

    2007-03-01

    This paper discusses the relationship between the public and private sectors in the Unified National Health System (SUS), based on research whose objective was to identify governance strategies and mechanisms for public/private relations in the health sector, considering the search for equity in Greater Metropolitan Sao Paulo, Brazil. Governance was used as an analytical category, with health system regulation as the issue. Municipal and State health secretaries, members of health councils, and SUS staff were interviewed, and the empirical material was classified as: (a) regulatory mechanisms and instruments; (b) power loci; and (c) actors' positions concerning the SUS and its relationship to the private sector. Mechanisms and instruments have been created and used in the municipalities for regulation of their own services. Regulatory measures for the complementary and supplementary healthcare sector are practically nonexistent. There are numerous institutional power loci, seen more as places for submitting demands than as forums for negotiation. Despite some progress, governance appears to be more of a formal issue. Discussion is needed on the relationship between the public and private sectors and its regulation by municipalities in order to improve the health system.

  12. Lipid profile and cardiovascular risk factors among first-year Brazilian university students in São Paulo.

    PubMed

    Costa Silva Zemdegs, J; Barreto Corsi, L; De Castro Coelho, L; Duarte Pimentel, G; Toyomi Hirai, A; Sachs, A

    2011-01-01

    The surveillance of cardiovascular risk factors has been recommended worldwide. The current study is aimed to estimate the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among first-year students from a public university in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. A cross-sectional study of 56 first-year students, of both genders, was performed. Information about demographic characteristics, family history of chronic diseases, smoking, and physical activity was obtained by means of a standardised questionnaire. Anthropometrical parameters (BMI, waist circumference, body fat percentage), metabolic parameters (glycaemia, serum lipid profile), and dietary data (total energy intake, percentage of total energy from macronutrients, cholesterol and dietary fiber) were assessed. The risk of cardiovascular diseases was characterised by family history of cardiovascular diseases (44.6%), smoking (10.7%), physical inactivity (35.7%), borderline high total cholesterol and LDL-c levels (16.1% and 5.4, respectively), decreased HDL-c levels (8.9%), increased triglyceride levels (8.9%), and overweight and obesity (17.8% and 7.1%, respectively). The diet of the students was inadequate: it was high in fat and protein, and low in carbohydrate and dietary fibre. The prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in young adults draws attention to the need to adopt preventive plans in the university setting.

  13. Indoor and outdoor atmospheric fungal spores in the São Paulo metropolitan area (Brazil): species and numeric concentrations.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Fábio Luiz Teixeira; Bauer, Heidi; Cardoso, Maria Regina Alves; Pukinskas, Sandra; Matos, Dulcilena; Melhem, Márcia; Puxbaum, Hans

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the indoor and outdoor concentrations of fungal spores in the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo (MASP), collected at different sites in winter/spring and summer seasons. The techniques adopted included cultivation (samples collected with impactors) and microscopic enumeration (samples collected with impingers). The overall results showed total concentrations of fungal spores as high as 36,000 per cubic meter, with a large proportion of non culturable spores (around 91% of the total). Penicillium sp. and Aspergillus sp. were the dominant species both indoors and outdoors, in all seasons tested, occurring in more than 30% of homes at very high concentrations of culturable airborne fungi [colony forming units(CFU) m(-3)]. There was no significant difference between indoor and outdoor concentrations. The total fungal spore concentration found in winter was 19% higher than that in summer. Heat and humidity were the main factors affecting fungal growth; however, a non-linear response to these factors was found. Thus, temperatures below 16 degrees C and above 25 degrees C caused a reduction in the concentration (CFU m(-3)) of airborne fungi, which fits with MASP climatalogy. The same pattern was observed for humidity, although not as clearly as with temperature given the usual high relative humidity (above 70%) in the study area. These results are relevant for public health interventions that aim to reduce respiratory morbidity among susceptible populations.

  14. The influence of meteorological conditions on the behavior of pollutants concentrations in São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Ccoyllo, O R; de, FátimaAndradeM

    2002-01-01

    The observed behavior of pollution concentrations to the prevailing meteorological conditions has been studied for the period from June 13 to September 2, 1994, for the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo (MASP). The synoptic conditions, which prevailed during the period, have been identified. The behavior of these large-scale systems namely the relative positions, the nature and the types of the anticyclone or cold front (CF) has been investigated, and for each identified synoptic situation, trace elements concentrations have been determined. During the CF synoptic condition, the elements presented low concentrations associated with intense ventilation, precipitation and high relative humidity. It is seen that for both the synoptic conditions namely the South Atlantic Subtropical High and Polar High, high values of concentrations prevailed due to weak ventilation, low relative humidity and absence of precipitation. The micro and mesoscale meteorological conditions have also been studied for a day with low and a day with high concentration of particulate pollutants. Finally, applying receptor modeling to the fine aerosol mass concentration data set, five categories of emission sources in the MASP were identified: vehicles, garbage incineration, vegetation, suspend soil dust and burning of fuel oil.

  15. [Lethal effects of nanoliposome encapsulated cisplatin on Saos-2 cells and its distribution in nude mice bearing human].

    PubMed

    Wang, Guo Wen; Guo, Wei; Tang, Xiao Dong; Peng, Chang Liang; Zhao, Hui

    2009-10-18

    To investigate the killing effect of nanoliposome encapsulated cisplatin (NLE-CDDP) on human osteosarcoma cell line Saos-2 and explore the distribution of platinum (Pt) in tumor-bearing mice. Saos-2 cells were cultured at different concentrations of NLE-CDDP. MTT assay, inverted microscopic observation and flow cytometry assay(FCM)were used to observe the antiproliferative effect of NLE-CDDP on the human osteosarcoma cells. Antitumor effect of NLE-CDDP was determined using the xenografts models of human osteosarcoma cell Saos-2 in nude mice. The Pt concentration in the tissues of tumor-transplanted mice was determined by atomic spectrophotometer. When treated at different concentrations of NLE-CDDP for 24-96 hours, the survival rate of Saos-2 cells decreased significantly(P<0.05). At the same time point, the inhibitory effect of NLE-CDDP was stronger than that of CDDP;Degeneration and necrosis of Saos-2 cells increased; the apoptosis increased and the S phase reduced. This study demonstrated that NLE-CDDP had obvious anti-tumor activity. Within 1 hour of injection, in NLE-CDDP group plasma platinum concentration was 4.4-fold that in CDDP group; 2 hours later, platinum was not detected in the blood of CDDP group; 24 hours later, platinum still could be detected in NLE-CDDP group at 2.76 mumol/L. During the first hour after injection of NLE-CDDP, the platinum content of the kidney was 50% less than that of CDDP group. Platinum in NLE-CDDP group showed rapid higher accumulation in the liver, spleen and tumor compared with CDDP group, and within 24 hours platinum reached the peak concentration in the spleen. The antitumor efficacy of NLE-CDDP on Saos-2 tumor is higher than that CDDP alone, and its mechanism is delaying rapid clearance from circulation.

  16. Seasonality of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) on Terceira and Sao Jorge Islands, Azores, Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Pimentel, R.; Lopes, D.J.H.; Mexia, A.M.M.; Mumford, J.D.

    2017-01-01

    Population dynamics studies are very important for any area-wide control program as they provide detailed knowledge about the relationship of Medfly [Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann)] life cycle with host availability and abundance. The main goal of this study is to analyse seasonality of C. capitata in Terceira and Sao Jorge Islands (Azores archipelago) using field and laboratory data collected during (2010–2014) CABMEDMAC (MAC/3/A163) project. The results from Sao Jorge Island indicate significantly lower male/female ratio than on Terceira Island. This is an important finding specially regarding when stablishing the scenario parameters for a sterile insect technique application in each island. The population dynamics of C. capitata are generally linked with host fruit availability and abundance. However, on Terceira Island fruit infestation levels are not synchronized with the trap counts. For example, there was Medfly infestations in some fruits [e.g., Solanum mauritianum (Scop.)] while in the nearby traps there were no captures at the same time. From this perspective, it is important to denote the importance of wild invasive plants, on the population dynamics of C. capitata, as well important to consider the possibility of having different densities of traps according to the characteristics of each area in order to improve the network of traps surveillance’s sensitivity on Terceira Island. PMID:28082349

  17. Seasonality of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) on Terceira and Sao Jorge Islands, Azores, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Pimentel, R; Lopes, D J H; Mexia, A M M; Mumford, J D

    2017-01-01

    Population dynamics studies are very important for any area-wide control program as they provide detailed knowledge about the relationship of Medfly [Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann)] life cycle with host availability and abundance. The main goal of this study is to analyse seasonality of C. capitata in Terceira and Sao Jorge Islands (Azores archipelago) using field and laboratory data collected during (2010-2014) CABMEDMAC (MAC/3/A163) project. The results from Sao Jorge Island indicate significantly lower male/female ratio than on Terceira Island. This is an important finding specially regarding when stablishing the scenario parameters for a sterile insect technique application in each island. The population dynamics of C. capitata are generally linked with host fruit availability and abundance. However, on Terceira Island fruit infestation levels are not synchronized with the trap counts. For example, there was Medfly infestations in some fruits [e.g., Solanum mauritianum (Scop.)] while in the nearby traps there were no captures at the same time. From this perspective, it is important to denote the importance of wild invasive plants, on the population dynamics of C. capitata, as well important to consider the possibility of having different densities of traps according to the characteristics of each area in order to improve the network of traps surveillance's sensitivity on Terceira Island.

  18. Wavefront alignment research of segmented mirror synthetic aperture optical (SAO) system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Jian; An, Xiaoqiang; Tian, Hao

    2010-05-01

    Wavefront control technology and imaging experiment are introduced for a segmented mirror SAO system with deformable sub-mirrors. This system is a RC style with 300mm aperture, 4.5 F#, +/-0.4°FOV, 0.45~0.75μm wave band, and diffraction-limit design MTF. The primary mirror is composed by three sub-mirrors, with parabolic shape, and each deformable sub-mirror has 19 actuators to control and keep the surface shape, and 5 actuators to align sub-mirrors location in 5 degree of freedom. Interferometer is used to feed back and control exit wavefront error, and base on measurement and finite element analysis, location and quanitity of actuators are optimized, making the surface shape and misadjustment errors interact and compensate each other, and the synthetic system exit pupil wavefront error is controlled. The integrated exit pupil wavefront errors are gotten by ZYGO interferometer, and central FOV is 0.077λRMS, and edge FOV is 0.093λRMS. At the end, an imaging experiment is executed, and good results are obtained, which proves, the deformable sub-mirrors have the ability to meliorate alignment and the latter can retroact the former, and this relationship iterate make system exit pupil wavefront error convergence and improve segmented mirror SAO system imaging ability.

  19. Updated Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory Ozone Monitoring Instrument (SAO OMI) formaldehyde retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González Abad, G.; Liu, X.; Chance, K.; Wang, H.; Kurosu, T. P.; Suleiman, R.

    2015-01-01

    We present and discuss the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) formaldehyde (H2CO) retrieval algorithm for the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) which is the operational retrieval for NASA OMI H2CO. The version of the algorithm described here includes relevant changes with respect to the operational one, including differences in the reference spectra for H2CO, the fit of O2-O2 collisional complex, updates in the high-resolution solar reference spectrum, the use of a model reference sector over the remote Pacific Ocean to normalize the retrievals, an updated air mass factor (AMF) calculation scheme, and the inclusion of scattering weights and vertical H2CO profile in the level 2 products. The setup of the retrieval is discussed in detail. We compare the results of the updated retrieval with the results from the previous SAO H2CO retrieval. The improvement in the slant column fit increases the temporal stability of the retrieval and slightly reduces the noise. The change in the AMF calculation has increased the AMFs by 20%, mainly due to the consideration of the radiative cloud fraction. Typical values for retrieved vertical columns are between 4 × 1015 and 4 × 1016 molecules cm-2, with typical fitting uncertainties ranging between 45 and 100%. In high-concentration regions the errors are usually reduced to 30%. The detection limit is estimated at 1 × 1016 molecules cm-2.

  20. An Einstein Observatory SAO-based catalog of B-type stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grillo, F.; Sciortino, S.; Micela, G.; Vaiana, G. S.; Harnden, F. R., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    About 4000 X-ray images obtained with the Einstein Observatory are used to measure the 0.16-4.0 keV emission from 1545 B-type SAO stars falling in the about 10 percent of the sky surveyed with the IPC. Seventy-four detected X-ray sources with B-type stars are identified, and it is estimated that no more than 15 can be misidentified. Upper limits to the X-ray emission of the remaining stars are presented. In addition to summarizing the X-ray measurements and giving other relevant optical data, the present extensive catalog discusses the reduction process and analyzes selection effects associated with both SAO catalog completeness and IPC target selection procedures. It is concluded that X-ray emission, at the level of Lx not less than 10 exp 30 ergs/s, is quite common in B stars of early spectral types (B0-B3), regardless of luminosity class, but that emission, at the same level, becomes less common, or nonexistent, in later B-type stars.

  1. GABPβ2 expression during osteogenic differentiation from human osteoblast-like Saos-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaoyuan; Xiong, Jianjun; Wang, Tao; Zheng, Meirong; Wu, Ping; Wang, Xinping; Jiang, He; Yi, Benyi; Lang, Bin; Li, Weidong

    2014-01-01

    The E26 transformation-specific (ETS) family of transcription factors plays an important role in osteogenic differentiation. Whether GA-binding protein β2 (GABPβ2), a member of the ETS family, is involved in osteogenic differentiation has not been previously reported. In the present study, directed differentiation of human osteoblast-like Saos-2 cells was induced and validated by examining alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, presence of mineralized nodule and other phenotypic characteristics of the cells on days 0, 3, 6 and 9, thus establishing their osteogenic potential. Real-time PCR revealed that similarly to the bone-specific transcription factor Runx2, the expression of Gabpb2 in Saos-2 cells also peaked on day 3 and was significantly reduced on days 6 and 9. Immunocytochemical staining showed that changes in the immunoreactivity of GABPβ2 also exhibited a similar trend to that of Runx2. Initially, Runx2 was predominantly localized in the nuclei, while GABPβ2 was relatively diffuse. Both exhibited a significant increase in immunoreactivity on day 3, with presence in both the nuclei and cytoplasm. By day 6, both showed a significant decrease in immunoreactivity and were mainly localized in the nuclei. Therefore, we surmise that GABPβ2, as an ETS family member, may play a regulatory role in early osteoblastic differentiation and potentially act in synergy with Runx2.

  2. Application of echinoid sperm and embryo bioassays for the pollution assessment of Sao Sebastiao Channel, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Zamboni, A.J.; Nipper, M.G.

    1995-12-31

    The Sao Sebastiao Channel, located on the Southeastern Brazilian coast, encompasses the largest oil terminal in the country and is also a highly touristic area. Frequent oil spills are responsible for chronic contamination problems and sewage disposal in the waters of the channel is also common practice. the water and sediment quality in different sites along Sao Sebastiao Channel was evaluated quarterly throughout a year, by toxicity testing with sperm cells and embryos of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus. Water samples were collected from two depths (1 m below surface and 1 m above the bottom). Sediments, collected by a grab sampler, had their pore water extracted by centrifuging. It was then analyzed for toxicity. The results showed that the pore water from most sites impaired sperm viability and embryo development of the test organisms. Sediments were further characterized for particle size distribution, TOC, heavy metals and petroleum hydrocarbons content. They contained baseline concentrations of Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni and Fe, but the hydrocarbons levels were above the average for nearby coastal areas. The overlying water from the deeper layer was of better quality than the surface, but very fast changes were observed along time and space. This seems to be intimately associated with the predominant hydrodynamic and meteorological phenomena in that region. The results showed that these toxicity test methods can be applied in association with other forms of analysis, for the establishment of quality criteria for Brazilian coastal environments.

  3. High resolution spectroscopy of the high latitude rapidly evolving post-AGB star SAO 85766 (= IRAS 18062+2410)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parthasarathy, M.; García-Lario, P.; Sivarani, T.; Manchado, A.; Sanz Fernández de Córdoba, L.

    2000-05-01

    SAO 85766 (b = +20o) is an IRAS source with far-infrared colours similar to planetary nebulae. According to the HDE catalogue, its spectrum in 1940 was that of an A5 star. The UV fluxes and colours derived from data obtained by the TD1 satellite in 1972 also indicate that SAO 85766 was an A-type supergiant at that epoch. However, high resolution spectra of SAO 85766 obtained in 1993 in the wavelength interval 4350Ä to 8820Ä shows that now it is similar to that of an early B type post-AGB supergiant. In addition to the absorptions lines typical of a B1I type star, the spectrum of SAO 85766 is found to show numerous permitted and forbidden emission lines of several elements, typically observed in the spectra of young high density low excitation planetary nebulae. From an analysis of the absorption lines we have estimated Teff=22000+/-500 K, log g=3.0+/-0.5, xi t=15+/-2km s-1 and [M/H]=-0.6. Carbon is found to be strongly underabundant ([C/Fe] = -1.0), similarly to what has been observed in other high galactic latitude hot post-AGB stars. The underabundance of carbon and metals, high galactic latitude, high radial velocity (46 km s-1), the presence of planetary nebula type detached cold circumstellar dust shell and also the presence of low excitation nebular emission lines in the spectrum indicate that SAO 85766 is a low mass star in the post-AGB stage of evolution. The above mentioned characteristics and the variations observed in the spectrum of SAO 85766 suggest that it has rapidly evolved during the past 50 years and it is now in the early stages of the planetary nebula phase. The central star may just have become hot enough to photoionize the circumstellar envelope ejected during the previous AGB phase. >From an analysis of the nebular emission lines we find Te=10000+/- 500K and Ne=2.5 104 cm-3. The nebula also shows an abundance pattern similar to that of the central star. The rapid post-AGB evolution of SAO 85766 appears to be similar to that observed in the

  4. Andrés Laguna: a great medical humanist (1499-1559).

    PubMed

    Kousoulis, Antonis A; Karamanou, Marianna; Androutsos, George

    2011-01-01

    Andrés Laguna, a Spanish humanist physician of the 16th century, occupies an important position in the history of medicine. An illustrious and brilliant mind, pioneer of anatomy and urology, Laguna proved to be a true pacifist and humanitarian with his knowledge standards and his political eloquence. He deserves to be remembered today as the perfect example of the Renaissance men, a true Homo Universalis.

  5. Redescription and biological aspects of Hormathia alba (Andres, 1881), a luminescent sea anemone (Anthozoa, Actiniaria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tur, J. M.

    1993-06-01

    The sea anemone Hormathia alba (Andres, 1881) is redescribed and definitely established as distinct from H. coronata. Synonymy, external morphology, anatomy and cnidom are treated in detail. Aspects of its reproduction, ecology, distribution and distinctive characteristics are also reported. The species, largely mistaken throughout literature, is rather common on Mediterranean infralittoral soft bottoms. It has also been found in the SW of Ireland. This is the only known sea anemone with luminescence, a feature that has never been reported before.

  6. André Paillot (1885-1944): his work lives on.

    PubMed

    Jehle, Johannes A

    2009-07-01

    André Paillot (1885-1944) is one of the true founders of insect pathology. His applied and basic research culminated in the first identification granulovirus infection in caterpillars of the cabbage white, Pieris brassicae, and in the characterization of many other insect diseases. This paper reviews the life-time achievements of one of the most remarkable invertebrate pathologists in the first half of the last century.

  7. Fate of topological states in incommensurate generalized Aubry-André models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cestari, J. C. C.; Foerster, A.; Gusmão, M. A.

    2016-05-01

    We study one-dimensional optical lattices described by generalized Aubry-André models that include both commensurate and incommensurate modulations of the hopping amplitude. This brings together two interesting features of this class of systems: Anderson localization and the existence of topological edge states. We follow changes of the single-particle energy spectrum induced by variations of the system parameters, with focus on the survival of topological states in the localized regime.

  8. André B. Muller (25.9.1918-1.4.2006)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, R. M.

    2006-06-01

    With great sadness, we have learned about the death of André Muller on 1 April, at the age of 87. Living in retirement in his native Holland since 1983, he was one of ESOs true pioneers, an outstanding representative of the select group of European astronomers who succeeded in steering ESO through the difficult initial phases. André was close-ly associated with the entire process, from the first site monitoring programmes in South Africa to the subsequent search in Chile, the decision in favour of the La Silla site, as well as the management of ESOs early activities in Chile, includ-ing the construction of the headquarters and observatory and the installation of the first generation of ESO telescopes. Few persons, if any, have been so inti-mately connected to the setting-up of ESOs facilities and it would be impossible to list in detail all of the services André performed for the organisation with such great expertise and zeal during his long career.

  9. An Integrated Study of the Grayburg/San Andres Reservoir Foster and South Cowden fields,

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    GEOPHYSICAL OBJECTIVES: The goals of work done this quarter were to (1) refine the maps of seismic-derived porosity for the upper Grayburg for reapplication to the production model, (2) determine rock fabric and porosity patterns for the lower Grayburg and the upper San Andres, (3) relate any seismic-derived porosity characteristics, particularly seismic waveform attributes, to the historical production of oil allocated to lower Grayburg and San Andres zones, and (4) to test other geologic attributes for possible inter-relationships. GEOLOGIC OBJECTIVES: Continue the integrated geological/geophysical effort to develop a usable seismic velocity/log porosity transform for each Grayburg producing interval. The lower Grayburg and San Andres core were revisited to glean lithology and porosity information for the seismic inversion model. Update recent production and injection for each well in the study area. Add new production and injection wells to spreadsheet. Continue evaluation of effectiveness of recent completions, plug backs and injector conversions by monitoring oil production and produced water composition. ENGINEERING OBJECTIVES: To build the most accurate reservoir picture by continued integration of all data types available and utilize that model to optimize oil production. Monitoring and testing of new and worked-over wells continues to test the early production models. Methods to improve water quality are being evaluated using normal field management procedures.

  10. Depositional model for the San Andres Formation, Roberts unit, Wasson field, Yoakum County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Ginger, E.P. )

    1992-04-01

    The Permian San Andres reservoir at Roberts unit produces from approximately 250 ft of anhydritic dolostones. The reservoir interval, which is more than 500 ft below the top of the San Andres Formation, consists of fossiliferous and pelletal/peloidal dolowackestones and dolopackstones. They were deposited in a shallow-marine environment with local shoaling conditions. Toward the top of the reservoir, intertidal and supratidal deposits interfinger with the subtidal units and form the lateral and overlying seals. A sponge-bryozoan bank lithofacies is recognized within the subtidal deposits at Roberts unit. The banks consist of dolomitized mud-rich boundstones dominated by bryozoans, sponges, and crinoids. Interbedded fossiliferous dolowackestones, dolopackstones, and dolograinstones are common. The restricted nature of the San Andres in the western part of Roberts unit (i.e., shoreward of the banks) indicates that the banks baffled wave energy and inhibited current circulation on the platform, resulting in a mud-dominated, restricted lagoonal facies with very low faunal diversity. The sponge-bryozoan banks occur within a narrow belt across the central part of Roberts unit and continue into the adjacent Willard unit. Their distribution has a distinct northeast-soutwest trend that parallels the subjacent Abo shelf margin reef trend, suggesting that the Abo reef trend influenced subsequent bank development.

  11. Deposition, diagenesis, and porosity history of San Andres Formation, Shafter Lake Field, Andrews County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Glenn, S.E.; Jacka, A.D.

    1986-03-01

    In the Shafter Lake field area, the San Andres contains 14 depositional cycles, consisting of upward-shoaling progradational sequences of subtidal, intertidal, and supratidal deposits. The deposits can be correlated between the two cores located 2 mi apart along the depositional strike. Six of the cycles are capped by supratidal deposits and are essentially complete, whereas eight were subjected to erosional truncation, which generally excavated supratidal and intertidal deposits. Thus, the San Andres reflects a complex eustatic history. The San Andres consists entirely of dolostones, the diagenesis of which records the following multicyclic stages: (1) dolomitization; (2) emplacement of anhydrite as cement, replacement, or a combination of cement and replacement; (3) dissolution of anhydrite or its alteration by gypsum, hemihydrate, or calcite. Many intervals record at least two complete diagenetic cycles (six stages). Three types of primary porosity were formed initially: intergranular, intrabiotic, and fenestral voids. Secondary pore types include intercrystalline pores, biomolds, and fractures. Varieties of tertiary pores are anhydrite porphryoblast models and intracrystalline voids. A previously undescribed variety of intracrystalline porosity was observed. A medial area between the dolomite crystal core and the outer rim was dissolved to create a moat-like pore. The principal occluders of all pore types are dolomite and anhydrite cements. The best effective porosity zones are preserved in subtidal facies wherein intercrystalline and intracrystalline pores, biomolds, and anhydrite porphyroblast molds are interconnected.

  12. The role of diagenetic studies in flow-unit modeling: San Andres formation, Yoakum County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, S. )

    1994-03-01

    The Permian San Andres Formation represents one of the most prolific hydrocarbon-producing intervals of the Permian basin. Dolostone lithofacies intercalated with thin evaporites accommodate highly compartmentalized reservoirs resulting from complex depositional and diagenetic histories. This compartmentalization often facilitates the use of these reservoirs in flow-unit studies. Perhaps more important than the relationship of productive intervals to depositional facies is the degree to which diagenetic processes have influenced reservoir properties. Detailed petrographic evaluation of the reservoir in question, though often overlooked, should be an integral part of flow-unit studies. Once a diagenetic sequence is established, the information may be incorporated in to the facies model to better understand how to subdivide the reservoir. Such an investigation has been conducted on the San Andres Formation in Reeves field of southeastern Yoakum County, Texas. Here, multistage diagenetic overprints are superimposed on depositional facies that vary in degree of lateral extent, thereby complicating the geometries of individual productive zones within the reservoir. Analysis of the reservoir reveals that Reeves San Andres sediments were subjected to dominant diagenetic processes, including dolomitization and sulfate implacement, both of which are major factors in porosity preservation, and a variety of minor processes that have had little effect on reservoir quality. The recognition of diagenetic facies, and understanding of the processes that have created them, and identification of the implications of these processes on reservoir properties is a vital part of any flow-unit study.

  13. Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (SAO OMPS) formaldehyde retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González Abad, G.; Vasilkov, A.; Seftor, C.; Liu, X.; Chance, K.

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents our new formaldehyde (H2CO) retrievals, obtained from spectra recorded by the nadir instrument of the Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS) flown on-board NASA's Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SUOMI-NPP) satellite. Our algorithm is similar to the one currently in place for the production of NASA's Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) operational H2CO product. We are now able to produce a consistent set of long term data from two different instruments that share a similar concept. The ongoing overlap period between OMI and OMPS offers a perfect opportunity to study the consistency between both data sets. The different spatial and spectral resolution of the instruments is a source of discrepancy in the retrievals despite the similarity of the physic assumptions of the algorithm. We have concluded that the reduced spectral resolution of OMPS in comparison with OMI is not a significant obstacle in obtaining good quality retrievals. Indeed, the improved signal to noise ratio (SNR) of OMPS with respect to OMI helps to reduce the noise of the retrievals performed using OMPS spectra. However, the size of OMPS spatial pixels imposes a limitation in the capability to distinguish particular features of H2CO that are discernible with OMI. With root mean square (RMS) residuals ~ 5 × 10-4 for individual pixels we estimate the detection limit to be about 7.5 × 1015 molecules cm-2. Total vertical column densities (VCD) errors for individual pixels range between 40 % for pixels with high concentrations to 100 % or more for pixels with concentrations at or below the detection limit. We compare different OMI products with our OMPS product using one year of data, between September 2012 and September 2013. The seasonality of the retrieved slant columns is captured similarly by all products but there are discrepancies in the values of the VCDs. The mean biases among the two OMI products and our OMPS product are 21 % between OMI SAO and OMPS SAO and 38

  14. SAO and Kelvin Waves in the EuroGRIPS GCMS and the UK Meteorological Offices Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amodei, M.; Pawson, S.; Scaife, A. A.; Lahoz, W.; Langematz, U.; Li, Ding Min; Simon, P.

    2000-01-01

    This work is an intercomparison of four tropospheric-stratospheric climate models, the Unified Model (UM) of the U.K. Meteorological Office (UKMO), the model of the Free University in Berlin (FUB). the ARPEGE-climat model of the National Center for Meteorological Research (CNRM), and the Extended UGAMP GCM (EUGCM) of the Center for Global Atmospheric Modelling (CGAM), against the UKMO analyses. This comparison has been made in the framework of the "GSM-Reality Intercomparison Project for SPARC" (GRIPS). SPARC (Stratospheric Processes and their Role in Climate) aims are to investigate the effects of the middle atmosphere on climate and the GRIPS purpose is to organized a comprehensive assessment of current Middle Atmosphere-Climate Models (MACMs). The models integrations were made without identical contraints e.g. boundary conditions, incoming solar radiation). All models are able to represent the dominant features of the extratropical circulation. In this paper, the structure of the tropical winds and the strengths of the Kelvin waves are examined. Explanations for the differences exhibited. between the models. as well as between models and analyses, are also proposed. In the analyses a rich spectrum of waves (eastward and westward) is present and contributes to drive the SAO (SemiAnnual Oscillation) and the QBO (Quasi-Biennal Oscillation). The amplitude of the Kelvin waves is close to the one observed in UARS (Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite) data. In agreement with observations, the Kelvin waves generated in the models propagate into the middle atmosphere as wave packets which underlines convective forcing origin. In most models, slow Kelvin waves propagate too high and are hence overestimated in the upper stratosphere and in the mesosphere, except for the UM which is more diffusive. These waves are not sufficient to force realistic westerlies of the QBO or SAO westerly phases. If the SAO is represented by all models only two of them are able to generate

  15. In vitro evaluation of peri-implantitis treatment modalities on Saos-2osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Toma, Selena; Lasserre, Jerome; Brecx, Michel C; Nyssen-Behets, Catherine

    2016-09-01

    Mechanical treatment of the implant surface through surgical approach is recommended to control peri-implantitis. Few conclusive data exist about the physical and chemical properties of treated titanium surfaces and their biocompatibility towards osteoblasts. This in vitro study aimed to evaluate four clinical procedures: plastic curette, air-abrasive device (Perio-Flow(®) ), titanium brush (Ti-Brush(®) ) and implantoplasty in terms of biocompatibility and osteogenic effect when cultured with Saos2. Titanium disks were treated with plastic curette, air-abrasive device (Perio-Flow(®) ), titanium brush (Ti-Brush(®) ) and implantoplasty. Their surface microtopography (SEM), chemical composition (EDX) and wettability were evaluated. After seeding with Saos-2, cell morphology (1 h, 24 h), viability (three and 6 days) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteoprotegerin (OPG) and osteocalcin (OCN) production (7 days) were analyzed. Control, plastic curette, Perio-Flow(®) and Ti-Brush(®) groups presented complex microstructures including craters and micropits, whereas the implantoplasty group appeared much smoother (SEM). Titanium, oxygen, aluminium and carbon were identified as the main components in all disks with a decrease in the percentage of oxygen, carbon and an increase in the percentage of titanium in the implantoplasty group (EDX). Implantoplasty disks were also significantly more hydrophilic than the other ones, whose surfaces appeared hydrophobic. Saos-2 showed no morphological difference at 1 h. At 24 h, they appeared round shaped in all groups, except the implantoplasty group where the cells appeared stretched and elongated. Viability was similar in all groups, but significantly higher in the Perio-Flow(®) than the control group at day six. ALP, OPG and OCN protein expression at 7 days was similar in all groups. Although implantoplasty was the only modality to modify the titanium surface morphology, composition and wettability, all treatment

  16. The complex of SAO RAS optical instruments as an instrument for studying transient sources in the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlasyuk, V. V.; Sokolov, V. V.

    2016-06-01

    The paper describes the optical telescopes of SAO RAS and available equipment suitable for studying transient sources. The first experience of investigation of one of the fist gamma-ray bursts (GRB 970508) dates back to 1997. The experience accumulated since then in studying transient sources is also described. Future prospects are outlined.

  17. Tumstatin induces apoptosis and stimulates phosphorylation of p65NF-κB in human osteoblastic osteosarcoma Saos-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Yin, Ruo-Feng; Teng, Jia-Song

    2016-06-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of tumstatin on inhibition of proliferation and induction of apoptosis in Saos-2 human osteosarcoma cells and to understand the mechanism involved. Inhibition of cell proliferation was analyzed by MTT assay and induction of apoptosis through nuclear fragmentation assay. Viability of Saos-2 cells was reduced to 19% on treatment with 25 µM concentration of tumstatin after 48 h. Presence of characteristic apoptotic nuclei, rounded cell shape and shrunken size were caused by tumstatin treatment at 25 µM concentration. The level of mRNA corresponding to PTEN, FasR and FasL was increased significantly in tumstatin treated Saos-2 cells compared to untreated control. Investigation of the mechanism revealed NF-κB activation by phosphorylation on serine 536. The activated NF-κB was translocated into the nucleus from the cytoplasm on treatment with tumstatin. Degradation of the IκBα by tumstatin was found to be much slower compared to that induced by treatment with TNF-α. Thus, tumstatin inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in Saos-2 cells through activation of NF-κB and its translocation to the nucleus. Therefore, tumstatin can play an important role in the treatment of osteosarcoma.

  18. Effects of Cissus quadrangularis on the proliferation, differentiation and matrix mineralization of human osteoblast like SaOS-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Muthusami, Sridhar; Senthilkumar, Krishnamoorthy; Vignesh, Chandragandan; Ilangovan, Ramachandran; Stanley, Jone; Selvamurugan, Nagarajan; Srinivasan, Narasimhan

    2011-04-01

    Osteoporosis is a public health problem which is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The repair of bone defect is still a big challenge for orthopedic surgeons. Traditional use of Cissus quadrangularis (C. quadrangularis) in the treatment of bone disorders has been documented. The present study was employed to delineate the effects of ethanolic extract of C. quadrangularis on the proliferation, differentiation and matrix mineralization of human osteoblast like SaOS-2 cells. Lactate dehydrogenase assayed in the conditioned medium of control and C. quadrangularis treated cells did not differ significantly indicating that ethanolic extract of C. quadrangularis is nontoxic to osteoblastic cells. [(3)H] Thymidine incorporation assay revealed that C. quadrangularis treatment has increased the DNA synthesis of human osteoblastic SaOS-2 cells indicating increased proliferation of these cells. The data on alizarin red and ALP staining revealed increased matrix mineralization of human osteoblast like SaOS-2 cells. The study also revealed that the anabolic actions of ethanolic extract of C. quadrangularis in human osteoblast like cells are mediated through increased mRNA and protein expression of Runx2, a key transcription factor involved in the regulation of bone matrix proteins. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed increased transcriptional activity of Runx2 on the promoter of osteocalcin after C. quadrangularis treatment. These results indicate positive regulation of C. quadrangularis on the proliferation, differentiation, and matrix mineralization of human osteoblast like SaOS-2 cells. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Validation of OMI Total Ozone Retrievals from the SAO Ozone Profile Algorithm and Three Operational Algorithms 3 with Brewer Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bak, Juseon; Kim, Jae H.; Liu, Xiong; Chance, Kelly

    2015-04-01

    The optimal estimation (OE) based ozone profile algorithm developed at Smithsonian 3 Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) is assessed as to its accuracy to extract total ozone amount from 4 Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) measurements through the validation using Brewer ground 5 based measurements between January 2005 and December 2008. We compare it against the quality of 6 three OMI operational ozone products, derived from NASA TOMS, KNMI DOAS, and KNMI OE 7 algorithms, respectively. The validation demonstrates that the SAO ozone profile algorithm generally 8 has the best total ozone retrieval performance compared to the three OMI operational ozone products. 9 The individual station comparisons show an agreement between SAO and Brewer within ± 1% except 10 at polar stations (~ -2 %), with a high correlation coefficient of ~ 0.99 at most stations. The KNMI OE 11 algorithm systematically overestimates the true total ozone value at all stations with a bias from 2 % 12 at low/mid latitude stations to 5 % at high latitude stations. On the other hand, TOMS/DOAS 13 algorithm underestimates total ozone by ~ -1.7 % on average. The standard deviations of differences 14 are ~ 1.8 % for SAO and TOMS while DOAS and KNMI show the standard deviation values of 2.2 15 and 2.5 %, respectively. The remarkable stability of SAO OE algorithm is found with no significant 16 dependency on algorithmic variables such as viewing geometries, cloud parameters, and time. In 17 comparison, the severe dependency on both solar and viewing zenith angles is found in KNMI OE 18 algorithm, which is characterized with a negative (positive) correlation with smaller (larger) solar 19 zenith angles and the strong cross-track dependent biases ranging from 4% at nadir and 1% at off-20 nadir positions. The dependence of DOAS and TOMS algorithms on the algorithmic variables is 21 marginal compared to KNMI OE algorithm, but distinct compared to SAO OE algorithm. Relative 22 differences between SAO/DOAS and

  20. Formacion de Formadores en Planeamiento y Administracion de la Education: Informe Final. Reunion Tecnica de la Red REPLAD, Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brasil, 9-13 de noviembre de 1987. (Educational Development of Professionals in Educational Planning and Administration: Final Report. Proceedings of the Meeting of the Major Project for Education (Sao Paulo, Brazil, November 9-13, 1987).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Santiago (Chile). Regional Office for Education in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    This final report provides a synthesis of conference presentations by representatives from institutions in 17 Latin American and the Caribbean nations. The material includes descriptions about institutions of higher education planning and developing of their respective schools of education, ministries of education, and national and regional…

  1. Formacion de Formadores en Planeamiento y Administracion de la Education: Informe Final. Reunion Tecnica de la Red REPLAD, Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brasil, 9-13 de noviembre de 1987. (Educational Development of Professionals in Educational Planning and Administration: Final Report. Proceedings of the Meeting of the Major Project for Education (Sao Paulo, Brazil, November 9-13, 1987).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Santiago (Chile). Regional Office for Education in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    This final report provides a synthesis of conference presentations by representatives from institutions in 17 Latin American and the Caribbean nations. The material includes descriptions about institutions of higher education planning and developing of their respective schools of education, ministries of education, and national and regional…

  2. SEISMIC STUDY OF THE AGUA DE PAU GEOTHERMAL PROSPECT, SAO MIGUEL, AZORES.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dawson, Phillip B.; Rodrigues da Silva, Antonio; Iyer, H.M.; Evans, John R.

    1985-01-01

    A 16 station array was operated over the 200 km**2 central portion of Sao Miguel utilizing 8 permanent Instituto Nacional de Meterologia e Geofisica stations and 8 USGS portable stations. Forty four local events with well constrained solutions and 15 regional events were located. In addition, hundreds of unlocatable seismic events were recorded. The most interesting seismic activity occurred in a swarm on September 6 and 7, 1983 when over 200 events were recorded in a 16 hour period. The seismic activity around Agua de Pau was centered on the east and northeast slopes of the volcano. The data suggest a boiling hydrothermal system beneath the Agua de Pau volcano, consistent with a variety of other data.

  3. SAO/NASA joint investigation of astronomical viewing quality at Mount Hopkins Observatory: 1969-1971

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearlman, M. R.; Bufton, J. L.; Hogan, D.; Kurtenbach, D.; Goodwin, K.

    1974-01-01

    Quantitative measurements of the astronomical seeing conditions have been made with a stellar-image monitor system at the Mt. Hopkins Observatory in Arizona. The results of this joint SAO-NASA experiment indicate that for a 15-cm-diameter telescope, image motion is typically 1 arcsec or less and that intensity fluctuations due to scintillation have a coefficient of irradiance variance of less than 0.12 on the average. Correlations between seeing quality and local meteorological conditions were investigated. Local temperature fluctuations and temperature gradients were found to be indicators of image-motion conditions, while high-altitude-wind conditions were shown to be somewhat correlated with scintillation-spectrum bandwidth. The theoretical basis for the relationship of atmospheric turbulence to optical effects is discussed in some detail, along with a description of the equipment used in the experiment. General site-testing comments and applications of the seeing-test results are also included.

  4. APPLICATION OF AUDIO-MAGNETOTELLURIC SURVEYS ON SAO MIGUEL ISLAND, AZORES PORTUGAL.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoover, Donald; Rodrigues Da Silva, A.; Pierce, Herbert A.; Amaral, Roberto

    1984-01-01

    Geothermal exploration and development has been under way on Sao Miguel Island, Azores since 1975. This work had been restricted to the Fogo volcano, one of three dormant silicic volcanic centers on the island. The USGS in 1982 and 1983 conducted reconnaissance natural-source audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) surveys of all three silicic centers to evaluate the potential for geothermal systems at each and to demonstrate the utility of the method in areas of difficult terrain. Results on Fogo showed a low resistivity trend extending from the present production area upslope to the caldera boundary. The upper part of this trend is the upwelling zone of a thermal plume which supplies the production area. Further exploration and drilling are now planned for this area.

  5. Supraphysiological Levels of Quercetin Glycosides are Required to Alter Mineralization in Saos2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nash, Leslie A.; Peters, Sandra J.; Sullivan, Philip J.; Ward, Wendy E.

    2016-01-01

    Flavonoid intake is positively correlated to bone mineral density (BMD) in women. Flavonoids such as quercetin exhibit strong anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activity that may be beneficial for bone health. Quercetin, previously shown to positively influence osteoblasts, is metabolized into glycosides including rutin and hyperoside. We compared the effects of these glycosides on mineralization in human osteoblast (Saos2) cells. Administration of rutin (≥25 µM) and hyperoside (≥5 µM) resulted in higher mineral content, determined using the alizarin red assay. This was accompanied by higher alkaline phosphatase activity with no cell toxicity. The expression of osteopontin, sclerostin, TNFα and IL6, known stimuli for decreasing osteoblast activity, were reduced with the addition of rutin or hyperoside. In summary, rutin and hyperoside require supraphysiological levels, when administered individually, to positively influence osteoblast activity. This information may be useful in developing nutraceuticals to support bone health. PMID:27136576

  6. Upgrading and performance of the SAO laser ranging system in Matera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maddox, J.; Pearlman, M.; Throp, J.; Wohn, J.

    1983-01-01

    The performance of the SAO lasers was improved considerably in terms of accuracy, range noise, data yield, and reliability. With the narrower laser pulse (2.5-3.0 nsec) and a new analog pulse processing system, the systematic range errors were reduced to 3-5 cm and range noise has been reduced to 5-15 cm on low satellites and 10-18 cm on Lageos. Pulse repetition rate was increased to 30 ppm and considerable improvement has been made in signal-to-noise ratio by using a 3 Angstrom interference filter and by reducing the range gate window down to 200-400 nsec. The first upgraded system was installed in Arequipa, Peru in the spring of 1982. The second upgraded system is now in operation in Matera, Italy. The third system is expected to be installed in Israel during 1984.

  7. Cissus quadrangularis augments IGF system components in human osteoblast like SaOS-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Muthusami, Sridhar; Ramachandran, Ilangovan; Krishnamoorthy, Senthilkumar; Govindan, Ramajayam; Narasimhan, Srinivasan

    2011-12-01

    Osteoporosis is a public health problem which is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Growth factors are produced locally in the bone and control cellular events such as induction of bone growth. Signaling through the Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I receptor (IGF-IR) by locally synthesized IGF - I or IGF-II in osteoblast is considered crucial for normal development and for bone remodeling. Traditional use of Cissus quadrangularis (C. quadrangularis) in the treatment of bone disorders have been documented, however its regulatory effects on IGF system components remain largely unknown. The present study is employed to delineate the effects of ethanolic extract of C. quadrangularis on the regulation of IGF system components in human osteoblast like SaOS-2 cells. RT-PCR analysis revealed an increase in the mRNA expression of IGF-I, IGF-II, IGF-IR in cells treated with C. quadrangularis when compared with control cells. The mRNA expression of IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) did not differ significantly between control and C. quadrangularis treated cells. Immunoradiometric analysis revealed increased levels of IGF-I, IGF-II and IGFBP-3 in the conditioned medium of C. quadrangularis treated cultures when compared with control. Western blotting analysis revealed increase in protein levels of IGF-IR in cells treated with C. quadrangularis. These results indicate positive regulation of C. quadrangularis on the IGF system components of human osteoblast like SaOS-2 cells. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. IS THE POST-AGB STAR SAO 40039 MILDLY HYDROGEN-DEFICIENT?

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, S. Sumangala; Pandey, Gajendra; Giridhar, Sunetra; Lambert, David L. E-mail: pandey@iiap.res.in E-mail: dll@astro.as.utexas.edu

    2011-08-10

    We have conducted an LTE abundance analysis for SAO 40039, a warm post-AGB star whose spectrum is known to show surprisingly strong He I lines for its effective temperature and has been suspected of being H-deficient and He-rich. High-resolution optical spectra are analyzed using a family of model atmospheres with different He/H ratios. Atmospheric parameters are estimated from the ionization equilibrium set by neutral and singly ionized species of Fe and Mg, the excitation of Fe I and Fe II lines, and the wings of the Paschen lines. On the assumption that the He I lines are of photospheric and not chromospheric origin, a He/H ratio of approximately unity is found by imposing the condition that the adopted He/H ratio of the model atmosphere must equal the ratio derived from the observed He I triplet lines at 5876, 4471, and 4713 A, and singlet lines at 4922 and 5015 A. Using the model with the best-fitting atmospheric parameters for this He/H ratio, SAO 40039 is confirmed to exhibit mild dust-gas depletion, i.e., the star has an atmosphere deficient in elements of high condensation temperature. The star appears to be moderately metal-deficient with [Fe/H] = -0.4 dex. But the star's intrinsic metallicity as estimated from Na, S, and Zn, elements of a low condensation temperature, is [Fe/H]{sub o} {approx_equal} -0.2 ([Fe/H]{sub o} refers to the star's intrinsic metallicity). The star is enriched in N and perhaps O as well, changes reflecting the star's AGB past and the event that led to He enrichment.

  9. Mineralization of bone-related SaOS-2 cells under physiological hypoxic conditions.

    PubMed

    Müller, Werner E G; Schröder, Heinz C; Tolba, Emad; Diehl-Seifert, Bärbel; Wang, Xiaohong

    2016-01-01

    Inorganic polyphosphate (polyP) is a physiological energy-rich polymer with multiple phosphoric anhydride bonds. In cells such as bone-forming osteoblasts, glycolysis is the main pathway generating metabolic energy in the form of ATP. In the present study, we show that, under hypoxic culture conditions, the growth/viability of osteoblast-like SaOS-2 cells is not impaired. The addition of polyP to those cells, administered as amorphous calcium polyP nanoparticles (aCa-polyP-NP; approximate size 100 nm), significantly increased the proliferation of the cells. In the presence of polyP, the cells produce significant levels of lactate, the end product of anaerobic glycolysis. Under those conditions, an eight-fold increase in the steady-state level of the membrane-associated carbonic anhydrase IX is found, as well as a six-fold induction of the hypoxia-inducible factor 1. Consequently, biomineral formation onto the SaOS-2 cells decreases under low oxygen tension. If the polyP nanoparticles are added to the cells, the degree of mineralization is enhanced. These changes had been measured also in human mesenchymal stem cells. The assumption that the bicarbonate, generated by the carbonic anhydrase in the presence of polyP under low oxygen, is deposited as a constituent of the bioseeds formed during initial hydroxyapatite formation is corroborated by the identification of carbon besides of calcium, oxygen and phosphorus in the initial biomineral deposit onto the cells using the sensitive technology of high-resolution energy dispersive spectrometry mapping. Based on these data, we conclude that polyP is required for the supply of metabolic energy during bone mineral formation under physiological, hypoxic conditions, acting as a 'metabolic fuel' for the cells to grow. © 2015 FEBS.

  10. The synergistic effect of SaOS-2 cell extract and other bone-inducing agents on human bone cell cultivation.

    PubMed

    Saif, Ashraf; Wende, Kristian; Lindequist, Ulrike

    2012-12-01

    Human osteosarcoma cell line SaOS-2 is an osteoblastic cell model that contains factors like bone morphogenetic proteins necessary for initiating bone formation. The cell line also expresses high levels of osteoinductive activity. In contrast to highly complicated and expensive ways to identify, purify, and separate specific bone-inducing agents from SaOS-2 cells, lysate can be used as an alternative to isolated bone-stimulating factors. Lysates of SaOS-2 stimulate the activity of the alkaline phosphatase of human osteoblastic cells HOS 58 in vitro. In other words, they probably possess osteoinductive activity. Different serial concentrations of substances like dexamethasone and insulin were tested with and without a lysate of SaOS-2 cells to assay their synergistic action. Results showed that a lysate of the SaOS-2 cell line acts as a synergistic agent and increases the osteoinductive activity of known bone-inducing agents. SaOS-2 cell lysate could be used in the future as a clinical agent to promote bone repair and possibly enhance osteointegration. Using SaOS-2 total cellular extract offers the possibility of lowering the effective dose of other bone-inducing agents.

  11. San Andres dolomite reservoir, Emma field, Andrews County, Texas: Depositional facies and diagenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Ruppel, S.C. )

    1987-02-01

    Although nearly 100% (19 million bbl of oil) of the estimated recoverable oil in the Emma San Andres reservoir has been produced, indications are that as much as 15 million bbl of recoverable, movable oil remains. Detailed study of facies and diagenesis in the reservoir reveals considerable lateral and vertical variability, which has important implications for recovery and injection efficiencies in the field. The upper San Andres Formation in the Emma field comprises a shallowing-upward sequence of pervasively dolomitized, shallow-water subtidal to supratidal carbonates that accumulated on a gently east-sloping ramp. The lowermost part of the reservoir interval is composed of laterally extensive fusulinid packstone deposited in an open-marine ramp setting. Abruptly overlying this facies is a sequence of interbedded fusulinid/algal grainstone, formed in a migrating sand-shoal complex, and burrowed, skeletal mudstone deposited on a restricted inner ramp. The grainstone is restricted to the western and central parts of the field. These deposits are overlain by pisolitic and cryptalgal mudstones and terrigenous siliciclastics of supratidal origin. Anydrite is abundant throughout the section. Porosity and permeability are facies controlled. Highest permeabilities are developed in shoal complex grainstone (100 md) and in fusulinid packstone (925-50 md). Lateral and vertical facies variations resulted in considerable reservoir heterogeneity. Trace-element and isotope data indicate that most of the San Andres dolomite and associated sulfate (anhydrite) precipitated from downward-moving, seawater-derived brines during shallow burial in the late Guadalupian. Subsequent anhydrite dissolution has locally enhanced original porosity.

  12. Depositional environments, diagenetic history, and porosity development, vacuum San Andres Field, Lea County, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, J.W. )

    1990-02-01

    The Permian San Andres Formation was deposited in environments ranging from supratidal to subtidal, protected shallow marine to open shallow marine. Pelletoid-skeletal packstone/wackestone and pelletoid-oolite-skeletal packstone/grainstone facies of the composite subtidal, marine environments were concentrated in the southern half of the field where grainstone deposition was linked to a paleotopographic high. Deposition in the northern half of the field was dominated by the pelletoid wackestone/mudstone facies of the supratidal, restricted shallow-marine environment. Porosity is mainly diagenetic in origin. San Andres rocks passed through the marine phreatic, the mixed phreatic, the meteoric phreatic, and the deeper subsurface diagenetic environments. Matrix dolomitization in the marine and mixed-phreatic environment produced intercrystalline porosity in all the facies. Leaching of nondolomitized grains in the mixed phreatic and meteoric-phreatic environments created large moldic pores. Diagenetic patterns follow structural and depositional trends so that suites of characteristic pore types exist for each facies. Individual pore types consist of moldic, intergranular, intragranular, vuggy, and intercrystalline categories. Intercrystalline pores are present nearly everywhere, and predicting the abundance of moldic pores is the largest variable in predicting porosity values for a given stratigraphic interval. Highest porosity exists in the southern half of the study area where grainier facies were deposited on a paleotopographic high, and grains were partly dolomitized and subsequently were removed by leaching, leaving behind a composite intercrystalline-moldic pore network. Total porosity values do not correspond with facies boundaries, so porosity mapping was accomplished by dividing the San Andres into 20-ft-thick slices and computer contouring total porosity greater than 6% in each slice.

  13. Localization and adiabatic pumping in a generalized Aubry-André-Harper model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fangli; Ghosh, Somnath; Chong, Y. D.

    2015-01-01

    A generalization of the Aubry-André-Harper (AAH) model is developed, containing a tunable phase shift between on-site and off-diagonal modulations. A localization transition can be induced by varying just this phase, keeping all other model parameters constant. The complete localization phase diagram is obtained. Unlike the original AAH model, the generalized model can exhibit a transition between topologically trivial band structures and topologically nontrivial band structures containing protected boundary states. These boundary states can be pumped across the system by adiabatic variations in the phase shift parameter. The model can also be used to demonstrate the phenomenon of adiabatic pumping breakdown due to localization.

  14. Borehole televiewer improves completion results in a permian basin San Andres reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Clerke, E.A.; Van Akkeren, T.J.

    1988-02-01

    The borehole televiewer (BHTV) is an acoustic logging tool that has a fine vertical resolution (1/3 in. (8.5 mm)) that is extremely useful for detecting bedding orientation, thin high-permeability zones, lithology changes, and zones of secondary or vuggy porosity. BHTV logs were acquired from 10 wells during the recent infill drilling of the North Hobbs (Grayburg/San Andres) Unit. These logs, when correlated with conventional logs and core data, have improved completion strategies, resulting in higher oil and lower water production in new infill wells.

  15. Localization of Interacting Fermions in the Aubry-André Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastropietro, Vieri

    2015-10-01

    We consider interacting electrons in a one-dimensional lattice with an incommensurate Aubry-André potential in the regime when the single-particle eigenstates are localized. We rigorously establish the persistence of ground state localization in the presence of weak many-body interaction, for almost all the chemical potentials. The proof uses a quantum many-body extension of methods adopted for the stability of tori of nearly integrable Hamiltonian systems and relies on number-theoretic properties of the potential incommensurate frequency.

  16. Dynamical signature of the edge state in the 1D Aubry-André model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, H. Z.; Yi, X. X.; Oh, C. H.

    2014-04-01

    Topological features have become an intensively studied subject in many fields of physics. As a witness of topological phase, the edge states are topologically protected and may be helpful in quantum information processing. In this paper, we define a measure to quantify the dynamical localization of the system and simulate the localization in the one-dimensional Aubry-André model. We find an interesting connection between the edge states and the dynamical localization of the system, this connection may be used as a signature of the edge state and topological phase.

  17. AND/R: Advanced neutron diffractometer/reflectometer for investigation of thin films and multilayers for the life sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Dura, Joseph A.; Pierce, Donald J.; Majkrzak, Charles F.; Maliszewskyj, Nicholas C.; McGillivray, Duncan J.; Loesche, Mathias; O'Donovan, Kevin V.; Mihailescu, Mihaela; Perez-Salas, Ursula; Worcester, David L.; White, Stephen H.

    2006-07-15

    An elastic neutron scattering instrument, the advanced neutron diffractometer/reflectometer (AND/R), has recently been commissioned at the National Institute of Standards and Technology Center for Neutron Research. The AND/R is the centerpiece of the Cold Neutrons for Biology and Technology partnership, which is dedicated to the structural characterization of thin films and multilayers of biological interest. The instrument is capable of measuring both specular and nonspecular reflectivity, as well as crystalline or semicrystalline diffraction at wave-vector transfers up to approximately 2.20 A{sup -1}. A detailed description of this flexible instrument and its performance characteristics in various operating modes are given.

  18. Modern foraminiferal facies in a subtropical estuarine channel, Bertioga, São Paulo, Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eichler, P.P.B.; Eichler, B.B.; De Miranda, L. B.; Rodrigues, A.R.

    2007-01-01

    Numerical analyses of modern foraminiferal abundance and environmental data from the Bertioga Channel (Sa??o Paulo, Brazil) reveal multiple biofacies within an overall paralic setting. Despite its fisheries, mariculture and attraction to tourists, the environmental state of Bertioga Channel remains poorly studied. The present investigation is an attempt to partly fill this gap; the parameters examined include depth, salinity, temperature, organic carbon, sulfur content and bottom sediment type. Muddy sediments with high organic carbon content derived from land drainage are found in the inner parts of the channel, whereas sandy sediment dominates the areas adjacent to the Atlantic Ocean. In the eastern entrance to the channel, sandy sediment contain species of Rotaliida from Facies 1 (including Elphidium discoidale, Elphidium poeyanum, Hanzawaia boueana, Pararotalia cananeiaensis and Nonionella atlantica), reflecting normal marine salinity. Sediments with high percentages of silt and clay in polyhaline and eurybaline environments of the eastern part and Itapanhau?? River contain Facies 2, which includes Ammonia beccarii and Pararotalia cananeiaensis. In the western entrance and central, western and eastern parts, where salinities vary from 18 to 30 psu and the sediments contain both low and high organic carbon, the foraminifera from Facies 3 are dominated by Quinqueloculina milletti, Arenoparrella mexicana, Pararotalia cananeiaensis, Ammonia beccarii, Buliminella elegantissima, Elphidium sp., Elphidium excavatum, Elphidium gunteri and Elphidium poeyanum. In mesohaline and polyhaline waters of the central part, the organic-carbon-rich silt and clay contain Facies 4, which includes Ammonia beccarii, Pararotalia cananeiaensis, Elphidium excavatum and Elphidium sp. Most of organic-carbon-enriched, silty-clay substrates that are subject to the highest fresh-water discharge and high bottom temperatures support two different assemblages: one of mostly Rotaliina and the

  19. Species determination within Staphylococcus genus by extended PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism of saoC gene.

    PubMed

    Bukowski, Michal; Polakowska, Klaudia; Ilczyszyn, Weronika M; Sitarska, Agnieszka; Nytko, Kinga; Kosecka, Maja; Miedzobrodzki, Jacek; Dubin, Adam; Wladyka, Benedykt

    2015-01-01

    Genetic methods based on PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) are widely used for microbial species determination. In this study, we present the application of saoC gene as an effective tool for species determination and within-species diversity analysis for Staphylococcus genus. The unique sequence diversity of saoC allows us to apply four restriction enzymes to obtain RFLP patterns, which appear highly distinctive even among closely related species as well as atypical isolates of environmental origin. Such patterns were successfully obtained for 26 species belonging to Staphylococcus genus. What is more, tracing polymorphisms detected by different restriction enzymes allowed for basic phylogeny analysis for Staphylococcus aureus, which is potentially applicable for other staphylococcal species. © FEMS 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Label-free quantification proteomics reveals novel calcium binding proteins in matrix vesicles isolated from mineralizing Saos-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaoying; Cui, Yazhou; Luan, Jing; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Genglin; Zhang, Xiumei; Han, Jinxiang

    2013-06-01

    Matrix vesicles (MVs) involved in the initiation of mineralization by deposition of hydroxyapatite (HA) in their lumen are released by the budding of mineralization-competent cells during skeletogenesis and bone development. To identify additional mineralization-related proteins, MVs were isolated from non-stimulated and stimulated Saos-2 cells in culture via an Exoquick™ approach and the corresponding proteomes were identified and quantified with label-free quantitative proteome technology. The isolated MVs were confirmed by electron microscopy, alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP), biomarkers, and mineral formation analyses. Label-free quantitative proteome analysis revealed that 19 calcium binding proteins (CaBPs), including Grp94, calnexin, calreticulin, calmodulin, and S100A4/A10, were up-regulated in MVs of Saos-2 cells upon stimulation of mineralization. This result provides new clues to study the mechanism of the initiation of MV-mediated mineralization.

  1. Inorganic polyphosphate triggers upregulation of interleukin 11 in human osteoblast-like SaOS-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Lui, Eric Lik-Hang; Ao, Carl Ka-Leong; Li, Lina; Khong, Mei-Li; Tanner, Julian Alexander

    2016-10-28

    Polyphosphate (polyP) is abundant in bone but its roles in signaling and control of gene expression remain unclear. Here, we investigate the effect of extracellular polyP on proliferation, migration, apoptosis, gene and protein expression in human osteoblast-like SaOS-2 cells. Extracellular polyP promoted SaOS-2 cell proliferation, increased rates of migration, inhibited apoptosis and stimulated the rapid phosphorylation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) directly through basic fibroblast growth factor receptor (bFGFR). cDNA microarray revealed that polyP induced significant upregulation of interleukin 11 (IL-11) at both RNA and protein levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The effect of São Paulo's smoke-free legislation on carbon monoxide concentration in hospitality venues and their workers

    PubMed Central

    Abe, Tania M O; Pereira, Alexandre C; Megid, Maria Cristina; Shimabukuro, Cristina E; Valentin, Luis Sergio O; da C Ferreira, Marizete M; Nobre, Moacyr R C; Lancarotte, Ines; Barretto, Antonio Carlos Pereira

    2010-01-01

    Background Studies have shown that there is no safe level of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure and there is a close link between SHS and the risk of coronary heart disease and stroke. Carbon monoxide (CO) is one of the most important components present in SHS. Objective To evaluate the impact of the smoking ban law in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil, on the CO concentration in restaurants, bars, night clubs and similar venues and in their workers. Methods In the present study we measured CO concentration in 585 hospitality venues. CO concentration was measured in different environments (indoor, semi-open and open areas) from visited venues, as well as, in the exhaled air from approximately 627 workers of such venues. Measurements were performed twice, before and 12 weeks after the law implementation. In addition, the quality of the air in the city during the same period of our study was verified. Results The CO concentration pre-ban and pot-ban in hospitality venues was indoor area 4.57 (3.70) ppm vs 1.35 (1.66) ppm (p<0.0001); semi-open 3.79 (2.49) ppm vs 1.16 (1.14) ppm (p<0.0001); open area 3.31(2.2) ppm vs 1.31 (1.39) ppm (p<0.0001); smoking employees 15.78 (9.76) ppm vs 11.50 (7.53) ppm (p<0.0001) and non-smoking employees 6.88 (5.32) ppm vs 3.50 (2.21) ppm (p<0.0001). The average CO concentration measured in the city was lower than 1 ppm during both pre-ban and post-ban periods. Conclusion São Paulo's smoking-free legislation reduced significantly the CO concentration in hospitality venues and in their workers, whether they smoke or not. PMID:21109684

  3. The Gene Ontology (GO) Cellular Component Ontology: integration with SAO (Subcellular Anatomy Ontology) and other recent developments

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Gene Ontology (GO) (http://www.geneontology.org/) contains a set of terms for describing the activity and actions of gene products across all kingdoms of life. Each of these activities is executed in a location within a cell or in the vicinity of a cell. In order to capture this context, the GO includes a sub-ontology called the Cellular Component (CC) ontology (GO-CCO). The primary use of this ontology is for GO annotation, but it has also been used for phenotype annotation, and for the annotation of images. Another ontology with similar scope to the GO-CCO is the Subcellular Anatomy Ontology (SAO), part of the Neuroscience Information Framework Standard (NIFSTD) suite of ontologies. The SAO also covers cell components, but in the domain of neuroscience. Description Recently, the GO-CCO was enriched in content and links to the Biological Process and Molecular Function branches of GO as well as to other ontologies. This was achieved in several ways. We carried out an amalgamation of SAO terms with GO-CCO ones; as a result, nearly 100 new neuroscience-related terms were added to the GO. The GO-CCO also contains relationships to GO Biological Process and Molecular Function terms, as well as connecting to external ontologies such as the Cell Ontology (CL). Terms representing protein complexes in the Protein Ontology (PRO) reference GO-CCO terms for their species-generic counterparts. GO-CCO terms can also be used to search a variety of databases. Conclusions In this publication we provide an overview of the GO-CCO, its overall design, and some recent extensions that make use of additional spatial information. One of the most recent developments of the GO-CCO was the merging in of the SAO, resulting in a single unified ontology designed to serve the needs of GO annotators as well as the specific needs of the neuroscience community. PMID:24093723

  4. The Gene Ontology (GO) Cellular Component Ontology: integration with SAO (Subcellular Anatomy Ontology) and other recent developments.

    PubMed

    Roncaglia, Paola; Martone, Maryann E; Hill, David P; Berardini, Tanya Z; Foulger, Rebecca E; Imam, Fahim T; Drabkin, Harold; Mungall, Christopher J; Lomax, Jane

    2013-10-07

    The Gene Ontology (GO) (http://www.geneontology.org/) contains a set of terms for describing the activity and actions of gene products across all kingdoms of life. Each of these activities is executed in a location within a cell or in the vicinity of a cell. In order to capture this context, the GO includes a sub-ontology called the Cellular Component (CC) ontology (GO-CCO). The primary use of this ontology is for GO annotation, but it has also been used for phenotype annotation, and for the annotation of images. Another ontology with similar scope to the GO-CCO is the Subcellular Anatomy Ontology (SAO), part of the Neuroscience Information Framework Standard (NIFSTD) suite of ontologies. The SAO also covers cell components, but in the domain of neuroscience. Recently, the GO-CCO was enriched in content and links to the Biological Process and Molecular Function branches of GO as well as to other ontologies. This was achieved in several ways. We carried out an amalgamation of SAO terms with GO-CCO ones; as a result, nearly 100 new neuroscience-related terms were added to the GO. The GO-CCO also contains relationships to GO Biological Process and Molecular Function terms, as well as connecting to external ontologies such as the Cell Ontology (CL). Terms representing protein complexes in the Protein Ontology (PRO) reference GO-CCO terms for their species-generic counterparts. GO-CCO terms can also be used to search a variety of databases. In this publication we provide an overview of the GO-CCO, its overall design, and some recent extensions that make use of additional spatial information. One of the most recent developments of the GO-CCO was the merging in of the SAO, resulting in a single unified ontology designed to serve the needs of GO annotators as well as the specific needs of the neuroscience community.

  5. Fluoride promotes viability and differentiation of osteoblast-like Saos-2 cells via BMP/Smads signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Huo, Liangliang; Liu, Kangkang; Pei, Junrui; Yang, Yanmei; Ye, Yan; Liu, Yang; Sun, Jing; Han, Hepeng; Xu, Weimin; Gao, Yanhui

    2013-10-01

    The BMP/Smad signaling pathway plays an important role in the viability and differentiation of osteoblast; however, it is not clear whether this pathway is involved in the fluoride-induced osteoblast differentiation. In this study, we investigated the role of BMP/Smad signaling pathway in fluoride-induced osteoblast-like Saos-2 cells differentiation. Cells were exposed to fluoride of different concentrations (0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, and 1.6 mM), and cell proliferation was determined using WST assays. The expression of osteoblast marker genes such as osteocalcin (BGP) and bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP) were detected by qRT-PCR. We found that fluoride enhanced the proliferation of Saos-2 cells in a dose-dependent manner and 0.2 mM of fluoride resulted in a higher expression of osteoblast marker genes. In addition, immunofluorescence analysis showed that the promotion effects of 0.2 mM of fluoride on Saos-2 cells differentiation were associated with the activation of the BMP/Smad pathway. Expression of phosphorylated Smad1/5(p-Smad1/5) was higher in cells exposed to 0.2 mM of fluoride. Plasmid expression vectors encoding the short hairpin RNA (shRNA) targeting Smad4 gene were used to block the BMP/Smad pathway, which resulted in a significantly reduced expression of BGP and BALP as well as their corresponding mRNA. The mRNA levels after transfection remained low even in the presence of fluoride. The present results reveal that BMP/Smad signaling pathway was altered during the period of osteogenesis, and that the activities of p-Smad1/5 were required for Saos-2 cells viability and differentiation induced by fluoride.

  6. RUNX2 regulates the effects of TNFalpha on proliferation and apoptosis in SaOs-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Olfa, Ghali; Christophe, Chauveau; Philippe, Lencel; Romain, Salomez; Khaled, Hani; Pierre, Hardouin; Odile, Broux; Jean-Christophe, Devedjian

    2010-04-01

    The runt-related transcriptional factor RUNX2 is an essential mediator of the osteoblast phenotype and plays a pivotal role in the process of osteoblast differentiation. The involvement of RUNX2 includes the regulation of genes that are important in committing cells to the osteoblast lineage. Increasing evidences are consistent with a requirement of RUNX2 for stringent control of osteoblast proliferation and recent data even suggested that RUNX2 might act as a proapoptotic factor. Among the cytokines described as modulators of osteoblast functions, TNFalpha affects both apoptosis and the differentiation rate from mesenchymal precursor cells of osteoblast. Thus we evaluated on the human osteosarcoma cell line SaOs-2 stably transfected with a RUNX2 dominant negative construct (DeltaRUNX2) the effects of serum and TNFalpha on proliferation and apoptosis. In this study we showed that SaOs-2 clones expressing high levels of DeltaRUNX2 presented a higher proliferation rate than clones transfected with an empty vector. This increase in cell growth was accompanied by a rise in cyclins A1, B1 and E1 expression and a decrease in the cyclin inhibitor p21. Moreover we observed that the expression of the RUNX2 transgene protected the SaOs-2 cells from the antiproliferative and the apoptotic effects induced by TNFalpha. This was accompanied by the inhibition of Bax and activation of Bcl2 expression. Experiments done on SaOs-2 cells transiently transfected with siRNA confirmed that RUNX2 represents a critical link between cell fate, proliferation and growth control. This study also suggested that RUNX2 might control osteoblastic growth depending on the differentiation stage of the cells by regulating expression of elements involved in hormones and cytokines sensitivity. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Relaxin promotes in vitro tumour growth, invasion and angiogenesis of human Saos-2 osteosarcoma cells by AKT/VEGF pathway.

    PubMed

    Ma, J-F; Von Kalle, M; Plautz, Q; -M Xu, F; Singh, L; Wang, L

    2013-05-01

    In the present study, we determine the role of relaxin on cellular growth, invasion and angiogenesis of osteosarcoma Saos-2 cells in vitro, and discuss the molecular mechanisms of this action. Saos-2 cells were transfected with Akt1/2 siRNA or VEGF siRNA for 24 hours then treated with 10-100 ng/mL recombinant human relaxin-2 (rh-RLN) for 48 h. MTT, matrigel and bone marrow-derived endothelial cells (BMDECs) was used for cell proliferation, invasion and angiogenesis assay. Western blot was used for relaxin-2, pAKT and VEGF protein assay. The results showed treatment with 10-100 ng/mL rh-RLN resulted in 18%, 48%, 107%, 212% increase in cell proliferation, respectively (vs control, *p < 0.05;**p < 0.01), the relative invasive cells was 1.4;1.9;2.6;4.8 (control was defined to 1) (vs control, #p < 0.01; ##p < 0.001) and the relative anglogenic branch points in Saos-2 cells was 1.04;1.36;1.69;2.10 (control was defined to 1.00) (vs control, *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01). Furthermore, treatment with rh-RLN exhibited a significant increase in the expression level of pAKT and VEGF proterin in dose-dependent manner. Saos-2 cells were transfected with AKT1/2 siRNA for 24 h. No significant increase of VEGF protein expression was shown after rh-RLN treatment. These results suggested that rh-RLN could promoted proliferation, invasion and angiogenesis by upregulation pAKT-dependent VEGF expression.

  8. A search for diffuse absorption bands in the spectra of two PPN candidate stars: HD 179821 and SAO 34504

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Začs, Laimons; Schmidt, Mirek R.; Szczerba, Ryszard

    1999-07-01

    High-resolution spectra and spectral-synthesis methods have been used to search for diffuse absorption bands in two protoplanetary nebulae candidate stars HD 179821 and SAO 34504. We have found strong evidence for eight diffuse bands (5780, 5797, 5850, 6196, 6270, 6614, 6660, 6699) in HD 179821. The mean value of the heliocentric velocity (V_solar) of these bands is -11.5kms^-1, which may be compared to V_solar ~= -11kms^-1 obtained for the Nai D12 interstellar component. A feature on the red wing of the diffuse interstellar band at 5780Å is likely to have a circumstellar origin. Its Doppler velocity is close to that for one of the Nai D12 absorption components. No significant interstellar absorption bands are detected in SAO 34504. However, we have found a number of unidentified absorption features. Those at 6196, 6597 and 5780Å may be diffuse circumstellar bands blueshifted with respect to the stellar velocity derived from the photospheric absorption lines, V_solar = -39.7kms^-1, in agreement with the expansion velocity of the circumstellar remnant derived from the radio observations, V_exp ~= 10kms^-1. The Nai D12 lines for SAO34504 consist of two absorption components at V_solar ~= -13 and -49kms^-1.

  9. Systematically organized nanopillar arrays reveal differences in adhesion and alignment properties of BMSC and Saos-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Özçelik, Hayriye; Padeste, Celestino; Hasirci, Vasif

    2014-07-01

    Polymeric test surfaces of P(L-D,L)LA and of a P(L-D,L)LA:PLGA blend decorated with 25 nanopillar covered fields, were used to investigate differences in growth of bone marrow stem cells (BMSC) and osteosarcoma cells (Saos-2). The fields were populated with pillars (ca. 900 nm tall, 200 nm×200 nm area) separated systematically from each other with 1-10 μm gaps. Saos-2 cells populated fields decorated with pillars 1 μm apart but they avoided pillar-free surfaces. In contrast, BMSCs avoided fields with interpillar distances <2 μm. Both BMSCs and Saos-2 cells aligned in the direction of the shorter distance when at least one of the interpillar distances was greater than 1.5 μm. Coating the P(L-D,L)LA surfaces with cell adhesive protein fibronectin enabled the BMSC to populate fields with high pillar density which they had avoided when uncoated. Decreasing the stiffness of the film surface by using a blend of (P(L-D,L)LA and PLGA) made them more acceptable for attachment by the BMSC cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The effect of surface processing of titanium implants on the behavior of human osteoblast-like Saos-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Klinger, Avigdor; Tadir, Anat; Halabi, Amal; Shapira, Lior

    2011-03-01

    The surface qualities of dental implants appear to modulate osteoblasts' growth and differentiation, affecting bone healing. During manufacturing of implants, the surface quality is affected by industrial processes. To examine the effect of manufacturing procedures on the growth and differentiation of human osteoblast-like cells, Saos-2. Saos-2 cells were cultured on titanium (Ti) disks. Cell growth was examined using the XTT assay, and cell differentiation was tested by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and osteocalcin secretion. The following variables were examined: roughening of the surface by sandblasting and acid-etching, aging of the acid used for etching, fluoride modification of the surface, and the type of the packaging material. An inverse relationship was noted between Saos-2 growth and ALP activity on the tested surfaces. Roughening of the surface tended to decrease cell proliferation and to increase differentiation. Immersion of up to 200 cycles in acid decreased proliferation and increased differentiation. Cells grown on fluoride-modified surfaces exhibited more ALP activity as compared to the unmodified surfaces. No difference was noted between the three packaging materials tested. The data suggests that industrial processes may affect the behavior of osteoblast-like cells around titanium implants and should be monitored carefully by bioassays. © 2010, Copyright the Authors. Journal Compilation © 2011, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. [Effects of total flavones of Chrysanthemum indicum on proliferation and apoptosis of human osteosarcoma Saos-2 cells].

    PubMed

    Wei, Qiang-qiang; Yin, Chang-chang; Zhou, Hu-yan; He, Ding-wen; Liang, Guang-sheng; Liu, Yu-liang; Yin, Ming

    2013-11-01

    To study the effects of total flavones of Chrysanthemum indicum on proliferation and apoptosis of human osteosarcoma Saos-2 cells and its mechanism. The effect of the total flavones of Chrysanthemum indicum on the proliferation of human osteosarcoma Saos-2 cells was detected by CCK assay, and the morphological changes of cells treated with total flavones of Chrysanthemum indicum were observed using contrast microscope. Flow cytomerty was performed to analyze the apoptotic rate of the cells, and the gene expression levels of Caspase-3, BCL-2, BAX were detected by RT-PCR. The total flavones of Chrysanthemum indicum suppressed the proliferation of osteosarcoma cells in a dose-and time-dependent manner. Under a microscope observation of cell morphology, the volume became smaller ,the number of internal particles was increased. Cell apoptosis rate was positively related to the drug concentration. After treated for 48 hours, Caspase-3 and BAX expression were up-regulated, BCL-2 and BCL-2/BAX were decreased. The total flavones of Chrysanthemum indicum can inhibit the proliferation of osteosarcoma cell line Saos-2 by inducing cell apoptosis,the mechanism of which might be related with reducing BCL-2/BAX and activating Caspase-3.

  12. Effect of low level laser therapy and zoledronate on the viability and ALP activity of Saos-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Bayram, Hilal; Kenar, Halime; Taşar, Ferda; Hasırcı, Vasıf

    2013-01-01

    A limited number of clinical studies indicate the supportive role of low level laser therapy (LLLT) on medical and/or surgical approaches carried out in treatment modalities for bisphosphonate related necrosis of jaws (BRONJ), the most common side effect of bisphosphonates used to inhibit bone resorption. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of LLLT on cell proliferation and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of human osteoblast-like cells (Saos-2) treated with different doses of zoledronate, the most potent bisphosphonate. Saos-2 cells were treated with different concentrations of zoledronate and were irradiated with diode laser (wavelength 808 nm, 10 s, 0.25 or 0.50 W). Cell numbers and ALP activity of the cells were determined. LLLT mildly increased the proliferation rate or ALP activity, while zoledronate reduced both. When applied together, LLLT lessened the detrimental effects of zoledronate and improved cell function and/or proliferation. Based on the results of this study, it was concluded that LLLT has biostimulative effects on Saos-2 cells, even after treatment with zoledronate. LLLT may serve as a useful supportive method for BRONJ treatment through enhancement of healing by osteoblasts. Copyright © 2012 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Water Soluble Components of 'Osteocare' Promote Cell Proliferation, Differentiation, and Matrix Mineralization in Human Osteoblast-Like SaOS-2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Varma, Sandeep R; Sharath Kumar, L M; Vidyashankar, Satyakumar; Patki, Pralhad Sadashiv

    2014-01-01

    Osteocare, a herbal formulation, has been found to be very effective in bone mineralization and support of the microstructure of bone tissue. The water-soluble components of Osteocare (WSCO) induced osteogenic activity in human osteoblast-like SaOS-2 cells. The addition of WSCO (100 μg/ml) to SaOS-2 cells was effective in increasing the cell proliferation by 41.49% and DNA content by 1.9-fold. WSCO increased matrix mineralization in SaOS-2 cells by increased alkaline phosphatase levels and calcium-rich deposits as observed by Alizarin red staining. WSCO markedly increased mRNA expression for osteopontin (OPN), osteocalcin (OCN), type I collagen (Col I) in SaOS-2 cells, and it down-regulated IL-6 mRNA levels in SaOS-2 cells. The present study showed that WSCO plays an important role in osteoblastic bone formation through enhanced activities of ALP, Col I, bone matrix proteins such as OPN and OCN, down-regulation of cytokines like IL-6, as well as promoting mineralization in SaOS-2 cells.

  14. Water Soluble Components of ‘Osteocare’ Promote Cell Proliferation, Differentiation, and Matrix Mineralization in Human Osteoblast-Like SaOS-2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Varma, Sandeep R.; Sharath Kumar, L. M.; Vidyashankar, Satyakumar; Patki, Pralhad Sadashiv

    2014-01-01

    Osteocare, a herbal formulation, has been found to be very effective in bone mineralization and support of the microstructure of bone tissue. The water-soluble components of Osteocare (WSCO) induced osteogenic activity in human osteoblast-like SaOS-2 cells. The addition of WSCO (100 μg/ml) to SaOS-2 cells was effective in increasing the cell proliferation by 41.49% and DNA content by 1.9-fold. WSCO increased matrix mineralization in SaOS-2 cells by increased alkaline phosphatase levels and calcium-rich deposits as observed by Alizarin red staining. WSCO markedly increased mRNA expression for osteopontin (OPN), osteocalcin (OCN), type I collagen (Col I) in SaOS-2 cells, and it down-regulated IL-6 mRNA levels in SaOS-2 cells. The present study showed that WSCO plays an important role in osteoblastic bone formation through enhanced activities of ALP, Col I, bone matrix proteins such as OPN and OCN, down-regulation of cytokines like IL-6, as well as promoting mineralization in SaOS-2 cells. PMID:24959407

  15. Human mesenchymal stem cells promote growth of osteosarcoma: involvement of interleukin-6 in the interaction between human mesenchymal stem cells and Saos-2.

    PubMed

    Bian, Zhen-Yu; Fan, Qi-Ming; Li, Gang; Xu, Wen-Ting; Tang, Ting-Ting

    2010-12-01

    Our previous study showed that exogenous human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) targeted established osteosarcoma and promoted its growth and pulmonary metastasis in vivo. As a follow-up, the present study aimed to investigate how hMSCs would interact with Saos-2 through autocrine/paracrine communication. The results showed that co-injection of hMSCs with Saos-2 into the proximal tibia of nude mice could promote tumor growth and progression. In vitro, the proliferation of Saos-2 and hMSCs was promoted by each other's conditioned medium, in which interleukin-6 (IL-6) played an important role. Osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs could be inhibited by conditioned medium of Saos-2, in which IL-6 was also involved. Furthermore, decreased IL-6 secretion by hMSCs during its osteogenesis and increased IL-6 secretion in response to conditioned medium of Saos-2 were observed. Based on these data, we suggest that there was a positive feedback loop of IL-6 in the interaction between hMSCs and Saos-2. © 2010 Japanese Cancer Association.

  16. Convenio "Andres Bello:" Informe Final [de la] Segunda Reunion de Ministros de Educacion de la Region Andina ("Andres Bello" Agreement: Final Report of the Second Meeting of the Andean Region Ministers of Education).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministros de Educacion de la Region Andina, Lima (Peru).

    This final report of the second meeting of the Andean Region Ministers of Education subscribing to the Andres Bello Agreement on education and culture contains a resume of the individual sessions and the proposals approved during that meeting. The proposals cover various educational problems and issues and begin with the Declaration of Lima which…

  17. Geologic description of the San Andres reservoir facies in the Mabee field

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, K.D. )

    1992-04-01

    The Mabee field is located in Andrews and Martin counties, Texas, approximately 16 mi northwest of Midland in the Permian basin. Production is from the upper Permian San Andres dolomite at an average depth of 4700 ft. The San Andres/Grayburg formations are the most prolific oil-producing formations in the Permian basin, with total production over 10 billion bbl, and an estimated additional 3.8 billion bbl to be recovered by conventional secondary and tertiary methods. The Mabee field has produced over 90 MMBO by primary and secondary methods since its discovery in 1943. A tertiary CO{sub 2} flood will be implemented in 1992. An essential prerequisite to a successful CO{sub 2} project is a detailed reservoir description and facies analysis. Examination of over 5000 ft of core established six major facies in an overall shallowing-upward sequence. The cap rock consists of dense anhydritic dolomites of the supratidal and oncolite facies. Production primarily is from the underlying dolomitized subtidal and ooid facies. Sandstones interfinger with the ooid facies, but are tightly cemented and act as barriers to fluid migration. The lower-most open-marine facies is below the oil/water contact for the field. Reservoir characterization improves the planning and operation of an enhanced recovery project.

  18. Microfossil evidence for pre-Columbian maize dispersals in the neotropics from San Andres, Tabasco, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Pohl, Mary E D; Piperno, Dolores R; Pope, Kevin O; Jones, John G

    2007-04-17

    The history of maize (Zea mays L.) is one of the most debated topics in New World archaeology. Molecular and genetic studies indicate that maize domestication took place in tropical southwest Mexico. Although archaeological evidence for the evolution of maize from its wild ancestor teosinte has yet to be found in that poorly studied region, other research combining paleoecology and archaeology is documenting the nature and timing of maize domestication and dispersals. Here we report a phytolith analysis of sediments from San Andrés, Tabasco, that confirms the spread of maize cultivation to the tropical Mexican Gulf Coast >7,000 years ago ( approximately 7,300 calendar years before present). We review the different methods used in sampling, identifying, and dating fossil maize remains and compare their strengths and weaknesses. Finally, we examine how San Andrés amplifies the present evidence for widespread maize dispersals into Central and South America. Multiple data sets from many sites indicate that maize was brought under cultivation and domesticated and had spread rapidly out of its domestication cradle in tropical southwest Mexico by the eighth millennium before the present.

  19. Spatial prediction of caves in San Andres Dolomite, Yates field, West Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Nosal, E.A.; Carlson, J.L.; Craig, D.H.

    1988-01-01

    Persistent speculations that caves played a key role in the high flow rates of many early wells in the Yates field (203 wells potentialed for more than 10,000 BOPD each, 26 wells for more than 80,000 BOPD each) has raised questions of why the caves exist, how many there are, and how to incorporate them into reservoir management practice. This paper describes the use of probability theory to answer these questions. Among the geologic factors that contributed to the remarkable early productivity of Yates are zones of karst in the upper San Andres Dolomite, the principle reservoir unit. Hundreds of infill wells drilled after unitization of the field in 1976 have provided ample data on cave numbers and patterns. These data indicate that karstification was produced by dynamic lenses of fresh water beneath a cluster of islands formed when lowering of Late Permian sea level exposed San Andres limestone to rainfall and dissolution. The seemingly random occurrences of caves can be fitted into a geologic framework of systematic karst processes to produce mappable petrophysical parameters. The most important of these predicts, in probabilistic terms, where the caves are located. The contribution of cave porosity to total reservoir porosity can also be estimated. This cave component of porosity can be displayed as a petrophysical log and manipulated in the same way as matrix porosity.

  20. A taxonomic revision of the genus Oxyopomyrmex André, 1881 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Salata, Sebastian; Borowiec, Lech

    2015-09-30

    Oxyopomyrmex André, 1881 is a small genus of myrmicine ants found in arid grasslands of the Mediterranean region. Here we provide a new taxonomic revision of the genus. Twelve species are recognized, including five new to science: O. laevibus sp. nov. (Greece: Crete), O. magnus sp. nov. (Spain), O. negevensis sp. nov. (Israel) O. polybotesi sp. nov. (Greece: Nisyros, W Turkey) and O. pygmalioni sp. nov. (Cyprus). Oxyopomyrmex santschii var. nigripes Santschi, 1907 and O. santschii var. nitidior Santschi, 1910 are raised to species level. The following new synonymies are proposed: O. krueperi Forel, 1911 = O. lagoi Menozzi, 1936 syn. nov.; O. nigripes Santschi, 1907 = O. sabulonis var. rugocciput Santschi, 1923 syn. nov. = O. emeryi var. brunnescens Santschi, 1929 syn. nov.; O. nitidior Santschi, 1910 = O. emeryi var. laticeps Santschi, 1915 syn. nov. = O. emeryi st. sabulonis Santschi, 1915 syn. nov.; O. saulcyi Emery, 1889 = O. santschii Forel, 1904 syn. nov. = O. santschii var. siciliana Karavaiev, 1912 syn. nov. = O. gaetulus Santschi, 1929 syn. nov. = O. saulcyi var. latinodis Santschi, 1939 syn. nov. A neotype for O. oculatus André, 1881 is designated. An identification key based on the gyne, male and worker caste is provided.

  1. Commentary: Paulo Freire and the Future of the Radical Tradition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allman, Paula; Wallis, John

    1997-01-01

    Assesses the contributions of Paulo Freire and considers whether his philosophy and approach can be applied in adult and community education today. Suggests that so-called radical education has not addressed epistemological questions, leaving the nature of knowledge unquestioned. (SK)

  2. The Meaning of Conscientizacao: The Goal of Paulo Freire's Pedagogy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, William A.

    Techniques for applying Brazilian adult educator and political organizer Paulo Freire's theory of "conscientizacao" are discussed. Freire's pedagogy is designed to liberate both oppressor and oppressed from the victimization of the oppressive system through "conscientizacao" or consciousness raising. The term refers to the developmental processes…

  3. Paulo Freire and His Contribution to Multiethnic Churches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gushiken, Kevin M.

    2012-01-01

    Paulo Freire's educational philosophy encourages conscientization in individuals as a means to overcoming oppression. This approach includes dialogue that leads to critical thinking and problem-posed learning that fosters self-discovery. This article applies this process to a multi-ethnic congregation as it nurtures ethnic equality. In addition,…

  4. Paulo Freire and His Contribution to Multiethnic Churches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gushiken, Kevin M.

    2012-01-01

    Paulo Freire's educational philosophy encourages conscientization in individuals as a means to overcoming oppression. This approach includes dialogue that leads to critical thinking and problem-posed learning that fosters self-discovery. This article applies this process to a multi-ethnic congregation as it nurtures ethnic equality. In addition,…

  5. The Meaning of Conscientizacao: The Goal of Paulo Freire's Pedagogy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, William A.

    Techniques for applying Brazilian adult educator and political organizer Paulo Freire's theory of "conscientizacao" are discussed. Freire's pedagogy is designed to liberate both oppressor and oppressed from the victimization of the oppressive system through "conscientizacao" or consciousness raising. The term refers to the developmental processes…

  6. Paulo Freire's Relevance to Online Instruction and Performance Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kash, Sheri; Dessinger, Joan Conway

    2010-01-01

    Paulo Freire argued that learning should be conversational, accessible, and centered on the experience of the participants. Freirean theory remains strong in adult education and has implications for human performance technology applications in such areas as online learning in terms of design, accessibility, and content, as well as performance…

  7. Power-Filled Lessons for Leadership Educators from Paulo Freire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaak, Paul

    2011-01-01

    This paper is designed to introduce readers to teacher-philosopher-practitioner, Paulo Freire and to illustrate the power of his educational ideals for the task of teaching leadership. Readers will encounter Freire, understand how one's definition of leadership needs to match one's approach to teaching leadership, review a proposed Freirean…

  8. Paulo Freire's Relevance to Online Instruction and Performance Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kash, Sheri; Dessinger, Joan Conway

    2010-01-01

    Paulo Freire argued that learning should be conversational, accessible, and centered on the experience of the participants. Freirean theory remains strong in adult education and has implications for human performance technology applications in such areas as online learning in terms of design, accessibility, and content, as well as performance…

  9. Prevalence and sociodemographic characteristics of women with induced abortion in a population sample of São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Souza, Milena Goulart; Fusco, Carmen L B; Andreoni, Solange A; de Souza e Silva, Rebeca

    2014-01-01

    This study aims at estimating the prevalence of women with induced abortion among women of childbearing age (15-49 years) who had any previous pregnancy, in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil, in the last quarter of 2008, and identifying the Sociodemographic Characteristics (SC) associated with it. A cross-sectional survey was carried out. The dependent variable was dichotomized as: no abortion and induced abortion. The independent variables were: age, paid work/activity, familial monthly income, schooling, marital status, contraceptive use and number of live births. Statistical analysis was performed using log-binomial regression models with approximation of Poisson to estimate the Prevalance Ratios (PR). Of all women with any previous pregnancy (n = 683), 4.5% (n = 31) reported induced abortion. The final multivariate model showed that having now between 40 and 44 years (PR = 2.76, p = 0.0043), being single (PR = 2.79, p = 0.0159), having 5 or more live births (PR = 3.97, p = 0.0013), current oral contraception or IUD use (PR = 2.70, p = 0.454) and using a "non effective" (or of low efficacy) contraceptive method (PR = 4.18, p = 0.0009) were sociodemographic characteristics associated with induced abortion in this population. Induced abortion seems to be used to limit fertility, more precisely after having reached the desired number of children. The inadequate use or non-use of effective contraceptive methods, and / or the use of contraceptives " non effective", exposed also the women to the risk of unintended pregnancies and, therefore, induced abortions. In addition, when faced with a pregnancy, single women were more likely to have an abortion than married women.

  10. Diesel emissions significantly influence composition and mutagenicity of ambient particles: a case study in São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Carvalho-Oliveira, R; Pozo, R M K; Lobo, D J A; Lichtenfels, A J F C; Martins-Junior, H A; Bustilho, J O W V; Saiki, M; Sato, I M; Saldiva, P H N

    2005-05-01

    In 2003, a bus strike paralyzed the fleet of buses in Sao Paulo, Brazil during 3 days, from 6 to 8 of April, the complete interruption of services being achieved on the 7th. We evaluated the effect of the absence of this source of pollution on the composition, mutagenicity, and toxicity of the fine particulate material collected during this period. Particles were sampled in glass fiber filters on days 7 and 15 of April of 2003 (strike and nonstrike days, respectively), using a high-volume sampler. Trace element determinations (As, Br, Co, Cl, Fe, La, Mn, Sb, Sc, and Th) of particulate material samples were carried out by neutron activation analysis. Sulfur determination was done by X-ray fluorescence analysis. The ratio between nonstrike/strike concentrations of hydrocarbons associated with automotive emissions (benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene, and xylenes; BTEX) was determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Mutagenesis of testing solutions was determined by means of the Tradescantia micronucleus assay in early tetrads of Tradescantia pallida. The inhibition of mitosis of the cells of the primary meristema of the root tips of Allium cepa was used as an index of the toxicity. Fine particle trace element contents were lower during the strike. The concentrations of sulfur and BTEX were 50% and 39.3% lower, respectively, on the strike day. A significant (P=0.038) reduction of micronuclei induced by fine particles sampled during the strike was observed. No effect of the strike on toxicity was detected. These results indicate that a program aiming to reduce emissions of the bus fleet in our town may impact positively the air quality by reducing the mutagenic potential of ambient particles.

  11. Lunar Occultation and Speckle Interferomerty of λ Aquarii with the SAO RAS 6-Meter Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyachenko, V.; Richichi, A.; Balega, Yu.; Beskakotov, A.; Maksimov, A.; Rastegaev, D.

    2017-06-01

    The results of lunar occultation (LO) and speckle-interferometric (SI) observations of M-giant λ Aqr made on the night of June 25-26, 2016 with the BTA are presented. We used our speckle camera based on EMCCD Andor iXon Ultra DU-897-CS0 to obtain a high-frequency (387.59 Hz) frame rate for LO observations. Filter 694/10 nm was used for LO observations. High frequency and high SNR allowed us to measure the angular diameter of λ Aqr. Adopting the uniform disk (UD) model, the preliminary result is 7.11±0.02 mas. During LO observations a faint component was detected, and we obtained SI observations of the pair. For these observations we used 550/20 and 694/10 nm filters. Measured separations between the components are 526±1 mas and 527 ±1 mas, respectively. The magnitude differences are 4.51±0.03 and 4.95±0.06. These results suggest that the secondary component is probably a main sequence star physically bound to λ Aqr. Our study shows the advantages of different high-resolution observational methods available with the speckle camera of the 6-m SAO telescope.

  12. Measurement of the Radial Velocity of Vega and SAO 104807 by high resolution spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosas, F.; Ordoñez, J.; Suarez, W.; Quijano, A.

    2017-07-01

    The radial velocity is the component of the velocity with which a celestial object approaches (blueshift) or go away (redshift) of the observer. The precise measurement of the redshift allowed to Humason and Hubble discover the expansion of the Universe. In 1998 two research teams simultaneously discovered that this expansion is accelerated, for that reason the hypothesis of the dark energy has been raised to explain the existing repulsion. The present work shows the measurement of the radial velocity of Vega and SAO104807 by high resolution spectrometry. Using the instruments of the Astronomical Observatory of the University of Nariño, located in the south of Colombia, was measured the displacement that the spectral lines of both celestial objects suffer due to the Doppler effect. The results obtained were quite close to those recorded in databases such as SIMBAD, according to the used equipment. The instruments used were: Celestron CGE Pro 1400 Telescope, Shelyak LHIRES III High Resolution Spectrometer and SBIG ST-8300 CCD Camera. The characteristics of the spectrometer are: Diffraction grating: 2400 lines/mm, Spectral dispersion (H alpha): 0:012 nm/pixel, Radial velocity resolution: 5 km/s.

  13. A study on anticancer activity of Caulis Spatholobi extract on human osteosarcoma Saos-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bo; Liu, Jinlan; Chen, Jing; Zhu, Dongmei; Zhou, Huajiang; Wang, Ximing

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the anticancer activity of Chinese medicine Caulis Spatholobi extract on multicentric osteosarcoma cells. Ultraviolet spectrophotometry was used to determine the total flavonoid content in each sample; vanillin sulphuric acid assay was used to determine the condensed tannin content in each sample; and the varying degrees of inhibitory activities of ethanol, ethyl acetate and n-butanol extracts of Caulis Spatholobi on human osteosarcoma Saos-2 cells were studied. The results showed that the inhibitory activity of ethyl acetate extract was the highest among the four extracts. The condensed tannin contents of 1.2 mg/mL Caulis Spatholobi water extract, ethanol extract, ethyl acetate extract and petroleum ether extract were 26.23%, 48.36%, 70.18% and 40.51% respectively; and condensed tannin content of 1.5 mg/mL Caulis Spatholobi water extract, ethanol extract, ethyl acetate extract and petroleum ether extract were 4.15%, 5.81%, 8.76% and 7.30% respectively.

  14. The response of osteoblast-like SaOS-2 cells to modified titanium surfaces.

    PubMed

    Pivodova, Veronika; Frankova, Jana; Dolezel, Petr; Ulrichova, Jitka

    2013-01-01

    To study the effects of different chemically modified titanium surfaces on the proliferation, differentiation, adhesion, and apoptosis of osteoblast-like SaOS-2 cells. In this work, six different titanium materials were tested and compared to each other: (1) glazed; (2) unglazed; (3) unglazed and alkali-etched; (4) unglazed, sandblasted, acid- and alkali-etched; (5) unglazed and coated with zirconium nitride; and (6) unglazed, sandblasted, and acid-etched. The production of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), matrix metalloproteinase-2, and the expression of adhesion proteins (integrin α3β1, vinculin) were evaluated using ELISA. Finally, the apoptosis of cells was analyzed by flow cytometry. The most significant differences were found for unglazed sandblasted acid- and alkali-etched titanium discs compared with unglazed titanium discs. The production of TNF-α was decreased after 24 hours, as was the production of ALP after 72 hours. In contrast, the expression of integrin α3β1 was increased after 6 hours. None of the titanium discs showed an apoptotic effect on cells. This study has shown that physical surface treatments (such as surface roughness) play a more important role than chemical modifications. Generally, chemical modifications such as acid- and alkali-etching can affect the wettability of titanium surfaces, making a surface hydrophilic or hydrophobic according to the modification. The cell attachment is better on hydrophilic surfaces, while hydrophilic surfaces may slightly decrease the expression of ALP activity.

  15. Nicotine affects mineralized nodule formation by the human osteosarcoma cell line Saos-2.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hideki; Tanabe, Natsuko; Suzuki, Naoto; Shoji, Maiko; Torigoe, Hirotaka; Sugaya, Atsuto; Motohashi, Masafumi; Maeno, Masao

    2005-09-16

    Several in vitro and in vivo studies have indicated that tobacco smoking may be an important risk factor for the development and severity of inflammatory periodontal disease. In the present study, we examined the effect of nicotine on cell proliferation, alkaline phosphatase (ALPase) activity, mineralized nodule formation, and the expression of extracellular matrix proteins in the human osteosarcoma cell line Saos-2. The cells were cultured with Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum with 0, 10(-4) M, and 10(-3) M nicotine for up to 14 days. Mineralized nodule formation was examined by alizarin red staining, and the calcium content in mineralized nodules was determined using a calcium E-test kit. The expression of extracellular matrix proteins was estimated by determining the levels of their mRNAs using the real-time polymerase chain reaction. Mineralized nodule formation and calcium content in mineralized nodules were remarkably suppressed by nicotine on days 10 and 14 of culture, respectively. ALPase activity as well as type I collagen and osteopontin expression also decreased in the presence of nicotine after 5, 10, and 14 days of culture, respectively. By contrast, the amount of bone sialoprotein increased during 14 days of culture with nicotine. These results suggest that nicotine suppresses osteogenesis through a decrease in ALPase and type I collagen production by osteoblasts.

  16. Imaging polarimetry of distant comets at the 6-m BTA telescope of the SAO RAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, Oleksandra; Afanasiev, Viktor; Rosenbush, Vera; Kiselev, Nikolai

    2016-07-01

    Results of the recent polarimetric observations of distant comets C/2013 V4 (Catalina), C/2014 A4 (SONEAR), C/2010 S1 (LINEAR), C/2010 R1 (LINEAR), and 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1 are presented together with analysis of their photometry and spectroscopy. Observations were carried out at the 6-m telescope BTA of the SAO RAS with the multi-mode focal reducer SCORPIO-2 from 2011 to 2015. Comets were observed in the range of heliocentric distances from 4.2 to 7.0 AU and phase angles from 4.9 to 9.4 degrees. The maps of intensity and linear polarization over the coma are derived. The comets observed show a considerable activity at heliocentric distances far exceeding a zone of water sublimation. Molecular emissions were only detected in the spectra of comet 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1. The linear polarization of distant comets with a high level of activity is the first ever measured at the heliocentric distances larger than 5 AU. The degree of linear polarization (from -2 to -3.7%) for these comets is significantly higher (in absolute value) than the typical value of the whole coma polarization (about -1.5 %) at the minimum of negative polarization branch for close to the Sun comets.

  17. Adenosine Triphosphate stimulates differentiation and mineralization in human osteoblast-like Saos-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Cutarelli, Alessandro; Marini, Mario; Tancredi, Virginia; D'Arcangelo, Giovanna; Murdocca, Michela; Frank, Claudio; Tarantino, Umberto

    2016-05-01

    In the last years adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and subsequent purinergic system activation through P2 receptors were investigated highlighting their pivotal role in bone tissue biology. In osteoblasts ATP can regulate several activities like cell proliferation, cell death, cell differentiation and matrix mineralization. Since controversial results exist, in this study we analyzed the ATP effects on differentiation and mineralization in human osteoblast-like Saos-2 cells. We showed for the first time the altered functional activity of ATP receptors. Despite that, we found that ATP can reduce cell proliferation and stimulate osteogenic differentiation mainly in the early stages of in vitro maturation as evidenced by the enhanced expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) and Osteocalcin (OC) genes and by the increased ALP activity. Moreover, we found that ATP can affect mineralization in a biphasic manner, at low concentrations ATP always increases mineral deposition while at high concentrations it always reduces mineral deposition. In conclusion, we show the osteogenic effect of ATP on both early and late stage activities like differentiation and mineralization, for the first time in human osteoblastic cells. © 2016 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  18. The epidemiology and transmissibility of Zika virus in Girardot and San Andres island, Colombia, September 2015 to January 2016

    PubMed Central

    Rojas, DP; Dean, NE; Yang, Y; Kenah, E; Quintero, J; Tomasi, S; Ramirez, EL; Kelly, Y; Castro, C; Carrasquilla, G; Halloran, ME; Longini, IM

    2016-01-01

    Transmission of Zika virus (ZIKV) was first detected in Colombia in September 2015. As of April 2016, Colombia had reported over 65,000 cases of Zika virus disease (ZVD). We analysed daily surveillance data of ZVD cases reported to the health authorities of San Andres and Girardot, Colombia, between September 2015 and January 2016. ZVD was laboratory-confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in the serum of acute cases within five days of symptom onset. We use daily incidence data to estimate the basic reproductive number (R0) in each population. We identified 928 and 1,936 reported ZVD cases from San Andres and Girardot, respectively. The overall attack rate for reported ZVD was 12.13 cases per 1,000 residents of San Andres and 18.43 cases per 1,000 residents of Girardot. Attack rates were significantly higher in females in both municipalities (p < 0.001). Cases occurred in all age groups with highest rates in 20 to 49 year-olds. The estimated R0 for the Zika outbreak was 1.41 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.15–1.74) in San Andres and 4.61 (95% CI: 4.11–5.16) in Girardot. Transmission of ZIKV is ongoing in the Americas. The estimated R0 from Colombia supports the observed rapid spread. PMID:27452806

  19. The epidemiology and transmissibility of Zika virus in Girardot and San Andres island, Colombia, September 2015 to January 2016.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Diana Patricia; Dean, Natalie E; Yang, Yang; Kenah, Eben; Quintero, Juliana; Tomasi, Simon; Ramirez, Erika Lorena; Kelly, Yendi; Castro, Carolina; Carrasquilla, Gabriel; Halloran, M Elizabeth; Longini, Ira M

    2016-07-14

    Transmission of Zika virus (ZIKV) was first detected in Colombia in September 2015. As of April 2016, Colombia had reported over 65,000 cases of Zika virus disease (ZVD). We analysed daily surveillance data of ZVD cases reported to the health authorities of San Andres and Girardot, Colombia, between September 2015 and January 2016. ZVD was laboratory-confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in the serum of acute cases within five days of symptom onset. We use daily incidence data to estimate the basic reproductive number (R0) in each population. We identified 928 and 1,936 reported ZVD cases from San Andres and Girardot, respectively. The overall attack rate for reported ZVD was 12.13 cases per 1,000 residents of San Andres and 18.43 cases per 1,000 residents of Girardot. Attack rates were significantly higher in females in both municipalities (p < 0.001). Cases occurred in all age groups with highest rates in 20 to 49 year-olds. The estimated R0 for the Zika outbreak was 1.41 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.15-1.74) in San Andres and 4.61 (95% CI: 4.11-5.16) in Girardot. Transmission of ZIKV is ongoing in the Americas. The estimated R0 from Colombia supports the observed rapid spread.

  20. Effect of bioglass on growth and biomineralization of SaOS-2 cells in hydrogel after 3D cell bioprinting.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaohong; Tolba, Emad; Schröder, Heinz C; Neufurth, Meik; Feng, Qingling; Diehl-Seifert, Bärbel; Müller, Werner E G

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effect of bioglass (bioactive glass) on growth and mineralization of bone-related SaOS-2 cells, encapsulated into a printable and biodegradable alginate/gelatine hydrogel. The hydrogel was supplemented either with polyphosphate (polyP), administered as polyP • Ca2+-complex, or silica, or as biosilica that had been enzymatically prepared from ortho-silicate by silicatein. These hydrogels, together with SaOS-2 cells, were bioprinted to computer-designed scaffolds. The results revealed that bioglass (nano)particles, with a size of 55 nm and a molar ratio of SiO2 : CaO : P2O5 of 55 : 40 : 5, did not affect the growth of the encapsulated cells. If silica, biosilica, or polyP • Ca2+-complex is co-added to the cell-containing alginate/gelatin hydrogel the growth behavior of the cells is not changed. Addition of 5 mg/ml of bioglass particles to this hydrogel significantly enhanced the potency of the entrapped SaOS-2 cells to mineralize. If compared with the extent of the cells to form mineral deposits in the absence of bioglass, the cells exposed to bioglass together with 100 µmoles/L polyP • Ca2+-complex increased their mineralization activity from 2.1- to 3.9-fold, or with 50 µmoles/L silica from 1.8- to 2.9-fold, or with 50 µmoles/L biosilica from 2.7- to 4.8-fold or with the two components together (100 µmoles/L polyP • Ca2+-complex and 50 µmoles/L biosilica) from 4.1- to 6.8-fold. Element analysis by EDX spectrometry of the mineral nodules formed by SaOS-2 revealed an accumulation of O, P, Ca and C, indicating that the mineral deposits contain, besides Ca-phosphate also Ca-carbonate. The results show that bioglass added to alginate/gelatin hydrogel increases the proliferation and mineralization of bioprinted SaOS-2 cells. We conclude that the development of cell-containing scaffolds consisting of a bioprintable, solid and cell-compatible inner matrix surrounded by a printable hard and flexible outer matrix containing bioglass, provide

  1. Effect of Bioglass on Growth and Biomineralization of SaOS-2 Cells in Hydrogel after 3D Cell Bioprinting

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaohong; Tolba, Emad; Schröder, Heinz C.; Neufurth, Meik; Feng, Qingling; Diehl-Seifert, Bärbel; Müller, Werner E. G.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effect of bioglass (bioactive glass) on growth and mineralization of bone-related SaOS-2 cells, encapsulated into a printable and biodegradable alginate/gelatine hydrogel. The hydrogel was supplemented either with polyphosphate (polyP), administered as polyP•Ca2+-complex, or silica, or as biosilica that had been enzymatically prepared from ortho-silicate by silicatein. These hydrogels, together with SaOS-2 cells, were bioprinted to computer-designed scaffolds. The results revealed that bioglass (nano)particles, with a size of 55 nm and a molar ratio of SiO2∶CaO∶P2O5 of 55∶40∶5, did not affect the growth of the encapsulated cells. If silica, biosilica, or polyP•Ca2+-complex is co-added to the cell-containing alginate/gelatin hydrogel the growth behavior of the cells is not changed. Addition of 5 mg/ml of bioglass particles to this hydrogel significantly enhanced the potency of the entrapped SaOS-2 cells to mineralize. If compared with the extent of the cells to form mineral deposits in the absence of bioglass, the cells exposed to bioglass together with 100 µmoles/L polyP•Ca2+-complex increased their mineralization activity from 2.1- to 3.9-fold, or with 50 µmoles/L silica from 1.8- to 2.9-fold, or with 50 µmoles/L biosilica from 2.7- to 4.8-fold or with the two components together (100 µmoles/L polyP•Ca2+-complex and 50 µmoles/L biosilica) from 4.1- to 6.8-fold. Element analysis by EDX spectrometry of the mineral nodules formed by SaOS-2 revealed an accumulation of O, P, Ca and C, indicating that the mineral deposits contain, besides Ca-phosphate also Ca-carbonate. The results show that bioglass added to alginate/gelatin hydrogel increases the proliferation and mineralization of bioprinted SaOS-2 cells. We conclude that the development of cell-containing scaffolds consisting of a bioprintable, solid and cell-compatible inner matrix surrounded by a printable hard and flexible outer matrix containing bioglass, provide a

  2. Quantitative comparison of PTH1R in breast cancer MCF7 and osteosarcoma SaOS-2 cell lines.

    PubMed

    Alokail, Majed S; Peddie, Margaret J

    2008-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the classical parathyroid hormone/parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTH/PTHrP) receptors in MCF7 breast cancer cells with SaOS-2 osteosarcoma cell line. Quantitative binding showed that (125)I-PTHrP-1-34(Tyr) binds with a single binding site in both cells. However (125)I-PTHrP-1-34(Tyr) has higher affinity binding in MCF7 (K(D) = 1.88 +/- 0.08 nM) than in SaOS-2 cells (K(D) = 4.4 +/- 0.185 nM). The competitive binding using 3.3 nM (125)I-PTHrP-1-34(Tyr) with increasing amounts (0.33-33 nM) of unlabelled human PTHrP-1-34, PTHrP-7-34, PTHrP-1-86 His(5)-PTHrP-1-36, His(5)-Phe(23)-PTHrP-1-36 or PTH-1-34 revealed different displacements. In SaOS-2 the PTHrP-7-34 and PTHrP-1-86 caused similar displacement compared with 73% by PTH-1-34 and 70% by PTHrP-1-34. However, in MCF7, PTHrP-7-34, PTHrP-1-86 and PTH-1-34 displaced by 54%, 72% and 67%, respectively, compared to 87% by PTHrP-1-34. The His(5)-Phe(23)-PTHrP-1-36 caused an increase in the K(D) from 2.0 +/- 0.03 nM to 2.75 +/- 0.045 nM in MCF7 cells, but had no significant effect in SaOS-2 cells. The PTH/PTHrP receptor in both cell lines revealed a single 85 KDa band with different intensity. Our results suggest that the PTH/PTHrP receptor in MCF7 cells has higher binding affinity for PTHrP than PTH compared to the receptor in SaOS-2 cells. (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Comparing the burden of illness of haemophilia between resource-constrained and unconstrained countries: the São Paulo-Toronto Hemophilia Study.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, J D A; Blanchette, V; Ozelo, M C; Antunes, S V; Villaca, P R; Young, N L; Castro, D; Brandão, L R; Carcao, M; Abad, A; Feldman, B M

    2017-09-01

    Although the regular replacement of clotting factor concentrates (prophylaxis) has been well established as the standard of care for severe haemophilia, the high cost of factor concentrates has limited access to prophylaxis in countries with under-developed or developing economies. We studied the health gap that could be addressed by providing unlimited access to clotting factor concentrates with implementation of long-term prophylaxis initiated from an early age in life. We performed a cross-sectional study of a random, representative sample of boys with moderate and severe haemophilia at three haemophilia treatment centres in Sao Paulo, Brazil, and one centre in Toronto, Canada. Canadian subjects were more often treated with prophylaxis, and began treatment at an earlier age. Fewer Canadian subjects had bleeds within the preceding 6 months (19 vs. 34, P = 0.003). Canadian subjects had lower (better) Pettersson radiographic scores (1.5 vs. 6.0, P = 0.0016), lower (better) Hemophilia Joint Health Scores (5.5 vs. 10.5, P = 0.0038), higher (better) Activity Scale for Kids scores (96.6 vs. 92.0, P = 0.033), more time spent in vigorous activity, and higher (better) social participation scores. Our findings suggest that increasing access to clotting factor concentrates for young boys with severe haemophilia is a global imperative. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Influence of Topographic and Hydrographic Factors on the Spatial Distribution of Leptospirosis Disease in São Paulo County, Brazil: An Approach Using Geospatial Techniques and GIS Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, M. C.; Ferreira, M. F. M.

    2016-06-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonosis caused by Leptospira genus bacteria. Rodents, especially Rattus norvegicus, are the most frequent hosts of this microorganism in the cities. The human transmission occurs by contact with urine, blood or tissues of the rodent and contacting water or mud contaminated by rodent urine. Spatial patterns of concentration of leptospirosis are related to the multiple environmental and socioeconomic factors, like housing near flooding areas, domestic garbage disposal sites and high-density of peoples living in slums located near river channels. We used geospatial techniques and geographical information system (GIS) to analysing spatial relationship between the distribution of leptospirosis cases and distance from rivers, river density in the census sector and terrain slope factors, in Sao Paulo County, Brazil. To test this methodology we used a sample of 183 geocoded leptospirosis cases confirmed in 2007, ASTER GDEM2 data, hydrography and census sectors shapefiles. Our results showed that GIS and geospatial analysis techniques improved the mapping of the disease and permitted identify the spatial pattern of association between location of cases and spatial distribution of the environmental variables analyzed. This study showed also that leptospirosis cases might be more related to the census sectors located on higher river density areas and households situated at shorter distances from rivers. In the other hand, it was not possible to assert that slope terrain contributes significantly to the location of leptospirosis cases.

  5. Anti-citrullinated protein antibodies promote apoptosis of mature human Saos-2 osteoblasts via cell-surface binding to citrullinated heat shock protein 60.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ming-Chi; Yu, Chia-Li; Yu, Hui-Chun; Huang, Hsien-Bin; Koo, Malcolm; Lai, Ning-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    We hypothesized that anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPAs) react with osteoblast surface citrullinated proteins and affect cell function, leading to joint damage in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). First, we purified ACPAs by cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP)-conjugated affinity column chromatography. The cognate antigens of ACPAs on Saos-2 cells, a sarcoma osteogenic cell line generated from human osteoblasts, were probed by ACPAs, and the reactive bands were analyzed using proteomic analyses. We found that ACPAs bind to Saos-2 cell membrane, and several protein candidates, including HSP60, were identified. We then cloned and purified recombinant heat shock protein 60 (HSP60) and citrullinated HSP60 (citHSP60) and investigated the effect of ACPAs on Saos-2 cell. We confirmed that HSP60 obtained from Saos-2 cell membrane were citrullinated and reacted with ACPAs, which induces Saos-2 cells apoptosis via binding to surface-expressed citHSP60 through Toll-like receptor 4 signaling. ACPAs promoted interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 expression in Saos-2 cells. Finally, sera from patients with RA and healthy controls were examined for their titers of anti-HSP60 and anti-citHSP60 antibodies using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The radiographic change in patients with RA was evaluated using the Genant-modified Sharp scoring system. Patients with RA showed higher sera titers of anti-citHSP60, but not anti-HSP60, antibodies when compared with controls. In addition, the anti-citHSP60 level was positively associated with increased joint damage in patients with RA. In conclusion, Saos-2 cell apoptosis was mediated by ACPAs via binding to cell surface-expressed citHSP60 and the titer of anti-citHSP60 in patients with RA positively associated with joint damage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Validation of 10 years of SAO OMI Ozone Profiles with Ozonesonde and MLS Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, G.; Liu, X.; Chance, K.; Bhartia, P. K.

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the accuracy and long-term stability of the SAO OMI ozone profile product, we validate ~10 years of ozone profile product (Oct. 2004-Dec. 2014) against collocated ozonesonde and MLS data. Ozone profiles as well stratospheric, tropospheric, lower tropospheric ozone columns are compared with ozonesonde data for different latitude bands, and time periods (e.g., 2004-2008/2009-2014 for without/with row anomaly. The mean biases and their standard deviations are also assessed as a function of time to evaluate the long-term stability and bias trends. In the mid-latitude and tropical regions, OMI generally shows good agreement with ozonesonde observations. The mean ozone profile biases are generally within 6% with up to 30% standard deviations. The biases of stratospheric ozone columns (SOC) and tropospheric ozone columns (TOC) are -0.3%-2.2% and -0.2%-3%, while standard deviations are 3.9%-5.8% and 14.4%-16.0%, respectively. However, the retrievals during 2009-2014 show larger standard deviations and larger temporal variations; the standard deviations increase by ~5% in the troposphere and ~2% in the stratosphere. Retrieval biases at individual levels in the stratosphere and upper troposphere show statistically significant trends and different trends for 2004-2008 and 2009-2014 periods. The trends in integrated ozone partial columns are less significant due to cancellation from various layers, except for significant trend in tropical SOC. These results suggest the need to perform time dependent radiometric calibration to maintain the long-term stability of this product. Similarly, we are comparing the OMI stratospheric ozone profiles and SOC with collocated MLS data, and the results will be reported.

  7. Evolution models from the AGB to the PNe and the rapid evolution of SAO 244567

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawlor, Timothy M.; Sebzda, Steven; Peterson, Zach

    2015-08-01

    We present evolution calculations from the Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) to the Planetary Nebula (PNe) phase for models of mass 1 M⊙ over a range of metallicities from primordial, Z = 10-14, through near solar, Z = 0.02. Using our grid of models, we determine a central star mass dependence on initial metallicity. We also present a range of low masses for our low to very low metal models. The understanding of these objects is an important part of galactic evolution and the evolution of the composition of the universe over a broad range of red shits. For our low Z models, we find key differences in how they cross the HR diagram to the PNe phase, compared with models with higher initial Z. Some of our models experience the so called AGB Final Thermal Pulse (AFTP), which is a helium pulse that occurs while leaving the AGB and causes a rapid looping evolution while evolving between the AGB and PN phase. We use these models to make comparisons to the central star of the Stingray Nebula, SAO 244567. This object has been observed to be rapidly evolving (heating) over more than the last 50 years and is the central star of the youngest known planetary nebula. These two characteristics are similar to what is expected for AFTP models. It is a short lived phase that is related to, but different than, very late thermal pulse objects such as Sakurai’s Object, FG Sge, and V605 Aql. These objects experienced a similar thermal pulse, but later on the white dwarf cooling track.

  8. Saos-2 cell-mediated mineralization on collagen gels: Effect of densification and bioglass incorporation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Gengbo; Pastakia, Meet; Fenn, Michael B; Kishore, Vipuil

    2016-05-01

    Plastic compression is a collagen densification process that has been widely used for the development of mechanically robust collagen-based materials. Incorporation of bioglass within plastically compressed collagen gels has been shown to mimic the microstructural properties of native bone and enhance in vitro cell-mediated mineralization. The current study seeks to decouple the effects of collagen densification and bioglass incorporation to understand the interplay between collagen packing density and presence of bioglass on cell-mediated mineralization. Saos-2 cell-mediated mineralization was assessed as a measure of the osteoconductivity of four different collagen gels: (1) uncompressed collagen gel (UC), (2) bioglass incorporated uncompressed collagen gel (UC + BG), (3) plastically compressed collagen gel (PC), and (4) bioglass incorporated plastically compressed collagen gel (PC + BG). The results indicated that collagen densification enhanced mineralization as shown by SEM, increased alkaline phosphatase activity and produced significantly higher amounts of mineralized nodules on PC gels compared to UC gels. Further, the amount of nodule formation on PC gels was significantly higher compared to UC + BG gels indicating that increase in matrix stiffness due to collagen densification had a greater effect on cell-mediated mineralization compared to bioglass incorporation into loosely packed UC gels. Incorporation of bioglass into PC gels further enhanced mineralization as evidenced by significantly larger nodule size and higher amount of mineralization on PC + BG gels compared to PC gels. In conclusion, collagen densification via plastic compression improves the osteoconductivity of collagen gels. Further, incorporation of bioglass within PC gels has an additive effect and further enhances the osteoconductivity of collagen gels. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Modulatory Effects of a Nutraceutical Supplement on Saos-2 Cells Reveal Its Phlebotonic Activity.

    PubMed

    Ammendola, Sergio; Loreto, Mario Di; d'Abusco, Anna Scotto

    2017-01-01

    Herbal extract compositions are largely used to manage vein diseases. We prepared a new composition of herbs, named FLEBO OK™, that, when administered as a nutraceutical to patients affected by peripheral vascular diseases, was able to improve their health conditions. We analyzed the effects of this nutraceutical composition on in vitro cultured cells with the aim to obtain information about its mechanisms of action. A culture of human osteoblast cell line Saos-2 was stimulated with tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α or interleukin (IL)-1β to induce the expression of some chemokines and matrix metalloproteases (MMPs). This cell culture was then exposed to the prepared composition and the amount of expression of the genes coding for the monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1, IL-8, IL-1β, MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-9 proteins was measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The experiments were repeated exposing the cells to the same amount of the well-known micronized purified flavonoid fraction. Moreover, we describe the effects of the administration of nutraceutical composition to 20 patients affected by peripheral vascular diseases and 20 healthy individuals. The RT-PCR analyses showed that the new composition induces the expression of MMP-3 and MMP-9 and downregulates MMP-2 in cell cultures stimulated with IL-1β, whereas it induces the expression of IL-8 and represses the expression of IL-1β and MCP-1 in cell cultures stimulated with TNF-α. The induction of the expression of MMP-3 and the downregulation of MCP-1 might result in an antiplatelet activity that was not observed for the micronized purified flavonoid fraction. Interviewed patients reported an improvement in their conditions after 1 month of FLEBO OK treatment. These findings could provide a hypothesis for the high efficiency of the identified nutraceutical composition to management of peripheral vascular diseases.

  10. Phase transition in an Aubry-André system with a rapidly oscillating magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Tridev; Shashidhara, Rajath; Guha Sarkar, Tapomoy; Bandyopadhyay, Jayendra N.

    2016-11-01

    We investigate a variant of the Aubry-André-Harper (AAH) model corresponding to a bosonic optical lattice of ultracold atoms under an effective oscillatory magnetic field. In the limit of high-frequency oscillation, the system maybe approximated by an effective time-independent Hamiltonian. We have studied localization-delocalization transition exhibited by the effective Hamiltonian. The effective Hamiltonian is found to retain the tight-binding tridiagonal form in position space. In a striking contrast to the usual AAH model, this non-dual system shows an energy-dependent mobility edge—a feature which is usually reminiscent of Hamiltonians with beyond-nearest-neighbor hoppings in real space. Finally, we discuss possibilities of experimentally realizing this system in optical lattices.

  11. Microseismic monitoring as a tool for mapping fractures in the San Andres dolomite

    SciTech Connect

    Rutledge, J.T.; Fairbanks, T.D.; House, L.S.; Murphy, M.B.

    1991-12-31

    Microseismic monitoring shows promise of being a practical tool for mapping fractures in the San Andres dolomite in terms of rate of microearthquake occurrence and the areal coverage possible from a single downhole seismometer. Microearthquakes were detected during normal waterflood production but monitoring was not complete enough to correlate injection/production activity with microseismic event recurrence. Constant monitoring time capability with at least 3 downhole seismometers is needed to more accurately locate events, and to reliably characterize seismic recurrence in the field. In addition, modeling pressure variations in the reservoir may help explain the mechanisms that produces the microearthquakes. Data useful in modeling the pressure variations could be from tracer experiments, pressure interference tests and individual well production-injection volume. Understanding the mechanism of producing the microearthquakes should, in turn, allow the correlation of the microseismicity with fluid flow within the reservoir. 2 refs., 3 figs.

  12. [André Detoeuf (1884-1931): pharmacist, industrialist and chemist].

    PubMed

    Leclercq, Loïc

    2011-04-01

    During the transition between the 19th and 20th century, Auguste Béhal (1859-1941), a native of Lens (France, Pas-de-Calais), renewed organic chemistry teaching at the Paris School of Pharmacy by the introduction of atomic notation and pre-electronic mechanisms. This revolution primarily affects the future pharmacists. Thus, Béhal becomes the leader of a "School" of thought and directs the work of many students called "Béhaliens": Ernest Fourneau (1872-1949), Marc Tiffeneau (1873-1945), Marcel Sommelet (1877-1952), etc. Among these students, three are also from Lens: Amand Valeur (1870-1927), Raymond Delaby (1891-1958) and André Detoeuf (1884-1931). The latter, initially, will follow the footsteps of his older siblings (pharmacy studies, writing a thesis under the direction of Behal); however, despite having started a career in academia, he left his post for the industry (Etablissements Kuhlmann and Billault).

  13. The distant self: unexpressed homosexuality in Andre Gide's L'immoraliste.

    PubMed

    Mengay, D H

    1990-01-01

    The preponderance of literary critics have characterized Andre Gide's protagonist, Michel, in his L'immoraliste as a Nietzschean narcissist and have frequently seen his homosexuality pejoratively, as a function of a putatively immoral ideological persuasion. Such readings evince a certain homophobic reaction to the text on the part of critics, as well as an insensitivity to the real dynamic in the text--Michel's struggle to fight both his conservative Protestant and academic orientations in order to affirm and express his true sexual orientation. Viewed in the latter fashion, the text is seen as a truncated portion of a broader coming out process, one that must necessarily include turmoil, ambivalence and intense introspection. Thus, Michel is seen more as a victim of strict social circumscriptions than as the victimizer critics have traditionally cast him.

  14. [Foliage production of the mangrove from San Andrés Island, Colombian Caribbean coast].

    PubMed

    García-Hansen, Ingrid; Gaviria-Chiquazuque, Johanna F; Prada-Triana, Martha C; Alvarez-León, Ricardo

    2002-03-01

    Litter fall from a San Andres Island mangrove (12 degrees 32' N, 81 degrees 41' W, Colombian Caribbean coast), was collected monthly (1994-1995) with mesh baskets, keeping results separate for the three species (Rhizophora mangle, Avicennia germinans and Laguncularia racemosa), and taking a sample and a replica per case. Nine sampling sites were selected in two groups of woodlands: one in the inner side behind a sand-bar and the coast road (Mount Pleasant, Salt Creek, Sound Bay and Smith Channel) and a peripheral site, exposed to the waves (Bahía Hooker-Bahía Honda and El Cove). Productivity was greater for all species in the inner group, and higher in the rainy seasons. Rhizophora mangle was the only species contributing reproductive components throughout the year.

  15. Resonant extended states in driven quasiperiodic lattices: Aubry-Andre localization by design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales-Molina, L.; Doerner, E.; Danieli, C.; Flach, S.

    2014-10-01

    We consider a quasiperiodic Aubry-Andre (AA) model and add a weak time-space-periodic perturbation. The undriven AA model is chosen to be well in the localized regime. The driving term controls the effective number of propagation channels. For a spatial resonance which reduces the reciprocal space dynamics to an effective one-dimensional two-leg ladder, the ac perturbation resonantly couples certain groups of localized eigenstates of the undriven AA model and turns them into extended ones. Slight detuning of the spatial and temporal frequencies off resonance returns these states into localized ones. We analyze the details of the resonant extended eigenstates using Floquet representations. In particular, we find that their size grows linearly with the system size. Initial wave packets overlap with resonant extended eigenstates and lead to ballistic spreading.

  16. Microseismic monitoring as a tool for mapping fractures in the San Andres dolomite. [Microearthquakes

    SciTech Connect

    Rutledge, J.T.; Fairbanks, T.D.; House, L.S. ); Murphy, M.B. )

    1991-01-01

    Microseismic monitoring shows promise of being a practical tool for mapping fractures in the San Andres dolomite in terms of rate of microearthquake occurrence and the areal coverage possible from a single downhole seismometer. Microearthquakes were detected during normal waterflood production but monitoring was not complete enough to correlate injection/production activity with microseismic event recurrence. Constant monitoring time capability with at least 3 downhole seismometers is needed to more accurately locate events, and to reliably characterize seismic recurrence in the field. In addition, modeling pressure variations in the reservoir may help explain the mechanisms that produces the microearthquakes. Data useful in modeling the pressure variations could be from tracer experiments, pressure interference tests and individual well production-injection volume. Understanding the mechanism of producing the microearthquakes should, in turn, allow the correlation of the microseismicity with fluid flow within the reservoir. 2 refs., 3 figs.

  17. [Health education in Brazil: from Paulo Freire to today].

    PubMed

    Masselli, Maria Cecilia; Vieira, Carla Maria; Oliveira, Nayara L S; Smeke, Elizabeth L M

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the experience of Brazil in the area of health education integrated in popular education movements. More specifically, the paper discusses the link between health education and popular education, focusing in particular on the work of Paulo Freire. Anti-slavery movements, protest movements against social inequalities and the reconstruction of democracy after the end of the military dictatorship (1965-1984) provided fertile ground for a dynamic process of change--a process illustrated by the creation of the Unified Health System. These developments occurred in a context of social change and unrest. Since then, other actors and other forms of action have emerged, though creativity and popular empowerment remain central to the process of change. However, in popular education, nothing is set in stone and new issues have emerged, as Paulo Freire had predicted. The point is to recognize that popular education applied to health, or rather integrating health, is constantly changing and developing.

  18. HIV/AIDS counseling: analysis based on Paulo Freire.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Karla Corrêa Lima; Barroso, Maria Grasiela Teixeira

    2007-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate the strategies health professionals use in HIV/AIDS counseling. This study is a qualitative research, based on Paulo Freire's theory and practice. Bardin's content analysis was used as the analysis technique. For the studied group, the counseling is focused on cognition, although new concepts permeating this subject are emerging. The main difficulties in counseling are related to the clients and the institution. The main facility is related to the team, which according to the group has a good relationship. Counseling represents a moment of distress, especially because it brings up existential questions to the counselor. It can be inferred that counseling is a special moment, but it does not constitute an educational moment yet. To obtain this goal, a counseling methodology is proposed, based on Paulo Freire's principles and concepts.

  19. Inhibition of autophagy and enhancement of endoplasmic reticulum stress increase sensitivity of osteosarcoma Saos-2 cells to cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN55,212-2.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guodong; Bi, Haiyong; Gao, Ji; Lu, Xing; Zheng, Yanping

    2016-07-01

    WIN55,212-2, a cannabinoid receptor agonist, can activate cannabinoid receptors, which has proven anti-tumour effects in several tumour types. Studies showed that WIN can inhibit tumour cell proliferation and induce apoptosis in diverse cancers. However, the role and mechanism of WIN in osteosarcoma are still unclear. In this study, we examined the effect of WIN55,212-2 on osteosarcoma cell line Saos-2 in terms of cell viability and apoptosis. Meanwhile, we further explored the role of endoplasmic reticulum stress and autophagy in apoptosis induced by WIN55,212-2. Our results showed that the cell proliferation of Saos-2 was inhibited by WIN55,212-2 in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. WIN55,212-2-induced Saos-2 apoptosis through mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. Meanwhile, WIN55,212-2 can induce endoplasmic reticulum stress and autophagy in Saos-2 cells. Inhibition of autophagy and enhancement of endoplasmic reticulum stress increased apoptosis induced by WIN55,212-2 in Saos-2 cells. These findings indicated that WIN55,212-2 in combination with autophagic inhibitor or endoplasmic reticulum stress activator may shed new light on osteosarcoma treatment. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Induction of carbonic anhydrase in SaOS-2 cells, exposed to bicarbonate and consequences for calcium phosphate crystal formation.

    PubMed

    Müller, Werner E G; Schröder, Heinz C; Schlossmacher, Ute; Grebenjuk, Vlad A; Ushijima, Hiroshi; Wang, Xiaohong

    2013-11-01

    Ca-phosphate/hydroxyapatite crystals constitute the mineralic matrix of vertebrate bones, while Ca-carbonate dominates the inorganic matrix of otoliths. In addition, Ca-carbonate has been identified in lower percentage in apatite crystals. By using the human osteogenic SaOS-2 cells it could be shown that after exposure of the cells to Ca-bicarbonate in vitro, at concentrations between 1 and 10 mm, a significant increase of Ca-deposit formation results. The crystallite nodules formed on the surfaces of SaOS-2 cells become denser and larger in the presence of bicarbonate if simultaneously added together with the mineralization activation cocktail (β-glycerophosphate/ascorbic acid/dexamethasone). In parallel, with the increase of Ca-deposit formation, the expression of the carbonic anhydrase-II (CA-II) gene becomes upregulated. This effect, measured on transcriptional level is also substantiated by immunohistological studies. The stimulatory effect of bicarbonate on Ca-deposit formation is prevented if the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor acetazolamide is added to the cultures. Mapping the surface of the Ca-deposit producing SaOS-2 cells by scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis revealed an accumulation of the signals for the element carbon and, as expected, also for phosphorus. Finally, it is shown that ortho-phosphate and hydrolysis products of polyphosphate inhibit CA-II activity, suggesting a feedback regulatory system between the CA-driven Ca-carbonate deposition and a subsequent inactivation of this process by ortho-phosphate. Based on the presented data we suggest that Ca-carbonate deposits act as bioseeds for a downstream Ca-phosphate deposition process. We propose that activators for CA, especially for CA-II, might be beneficial for the treatment of bone deficiency diseases. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Binary star speckle measurements during 1992-1997 from the SAO 6-m and 1-m telescopes in Zelenchuk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balega, I. I.; Balega, Y. Y.; Maksimov, A. F.; Pluzhnik, E. A.; Shkhagosheva, Z. U.; Vasyuk, V. A.

    1999-12-01

    We present the results of speckle interferometric measurements of binary stars made with the television photon-counting camera at the 6-m Big Azimuthal Telescope (BTA) and 1-m telescope of the Special Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) between August 1992 and May 1997. The data contain 89 observations of 62 star systems on the large telescope and 21 on the smaller one. For the 6-m aperture 18 systems remained unresolved. The measured angular separation ranged from 39 mas, two times above the BTA diffraction limit, to 1593 mas.

  2. Downward Link of Solar Activity Variations Through Wave Driven Equatorial Oscillations (QBO and SAO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mengel, J. G.; Mayr, H. G.; Chan, K. L.; Porter, H. S.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Signatures of the 11-year solar activity/irradiance cycle are observed in the Quasi Biennial Oscillation (QBO) of the lower stratosphere. At these altitudes, the QBO is understood to be the result of "downward control" exerted by the wave mean flow interactions that drive the phenomenon. It is reasonable then to speculate that the QBO is a natural conduit to lower altitudes of solar activity variations in radiance (SAV). To test this hypothesis, we conducted experiments with a 2D version of our Numerical Spectral Model that incorporates Hines' Doppler Spread Parameterization for small-scale gravity waves (GW). To account for the SAV, we change the solar heating rate on a logarithmic scale from 0.1% at the surface to 1% at 50 kin to 10% at 100 km. With the same GW flux, we then conduct numerical experiments to evaluate the magnitude of the solar activity irradiance effect (SAE) on the zonal circulation at low latitudes. The numerical results obtained show that, under certain conditions, the SAE is significant in the zonal circulation and does extend to lower altitudes where the SAV is small. The differences in the wind velocities can be as large as 5 m/s at 20 kin. We carried out two numerical experiments with integrations over more than 20 years: 1) With the QBO period "tuned" to be 30 months, of academic interest but instructive, the seasonal cycle in the solar forcing [through the Semi-annual Oscillation (SAO)] acts as a strong pacemaker to produce a firm lock on the period and phase of the QBO. The SAE then shows up primarily as a distinct but relatively weak amplitude modulation. 2) With the QBO period between 30 and 34 (or less than 30, presumably) months, the seasonal phase lock is weak compared with (1). The SAV in the seasonal cycle then causes variations in the QBO period and phase, and this amplifies the SAE to produce relatively large variations in the wind field. We conclude that, under realistic conditions as in (2), the solar seasonal forcing, with

  3. Downward Link of Solar Activity Variations Through Wave Driven Equatorial Oscillations (QBO and SAO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mengel, J. G.; Mayr, H. G.; Chan, K. L.; Porter, H. S.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Signatures of the 11-year solar activity/irradiance cycle are observed in the Quasi Biennial Oscillation (QBO) of the lower stratosphere. At these altitudes, the QBO is understood to be the result of "downward control" exerted by the wave mean flow interactions that drive the phenomenon. It is reasonable then to speculate that the QBO is a natural conduit to lower altitudes of solar activity variations in radiance (SAV). To test this hypothesis, we conducted experiments with a 2D version of our Numerical Spectral Model that incorporates Hines' Doppler Spread Parameterization for small-scale gravity waves (GW). To account for the SAV, we change the solar heating rate on a logarithmic scale from 0.1% at the surface to 1% at 50 kin to 10% at 100 km. With the same GW flux, we then conduct numerical experiments to evaluate the magnitude of the solar activity irradiance effect (SAE) on the zonal circulation at low latitudes. The numerical results obtained show that, under certain conditions, the SAE is significant in the zonal circulation and does extend to lower altitudes where the SAV is small. The differences in the wind velocities can be as large as 5 m/s at 20 kin. We carried out two numerical experiments with integrations over more than 20 years: 1) With the QBO period "tuned" to be 30 months, of academic interest but instructive, the seasonal cycle in the solar forcing [through the Semi-annual Oscillation (SAO)] acts as a strong pacemaker to produce a firm lock on the period and phase of the QBO. The SAE then shows up primarily as a distinct but relatively weak amplitude modulation. 2) With the QBO period between 30 and 34 (or less than 30, presumably) months, the seasonal phase lock is weak compared with (1). The SAV in the seasonal cycle then causes variations in the QBO period and phase, and this amplifies the SAE to produce relatively large variations in the wind field. We conclude that, under realistic conditions as in (2), the solar seasonal forcing, with

  4. [Roles and mechanisms of E2F-1 and PAC1 in signaling oxidative stress-induced apoptosis of Saos-2 cells].

    PubMed

    Wu, Jing-jing; Fan, Hui-jie; Fan, Qing-xia; Zhang, Ming-zhi

    2012-05-08

    To explore the roles and mechanisms of E2F-1 and PAC1 in signaling apoptosis of Saos-2 cells under oxidative stress. siRNAs were used to construct the cell clones of expressing siE2F-1 and siPAC1. E2F-1/PAC1-mediated induction of apoptotic cell death in response to H2O2 were examined by trypan blue exclusion and the expression levels of related target factors detected by Western blot. The cell viabilities of Saos-2/siE2F-1 and Saos-2/siPAC1 increased markedly comparing with the control cells after the treatment of H2O2. And the expression level of p-ERK1/2 was higher than that of the control cells. The pathway of E2F-1/PAC1/MAPKase is a specific cascade for apoptotic signaling.

  5. Green tea polyphenols-induced apoptosis in human osteosarcoma SAOS-2 cells involves a caspase-dependent mechanism with downregulation of nuclear factor-{kappa}B

    SciTech Connect

    Bin Hafeez, Bilal; Ahmed, Salahuddin; Wang, Naizhen; Gupta, Sanjay; Zhang Ailin; Haqqi, Tariq M. . E-mail: txh5@case.edu

    2006-10-01

    Development of chemotherapy resistance and evasion from apoptosis in osteosarcoma, a primary malignant bone tumor, is often correlated with constitutive nuclear factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) activation. Here, we investigated the ability of a polyphenolic fraction of green tea (GTP) that has been shown to have antitumor effects on various malignant cell lines to inhibit growth and induce apoptosis in human osteosarcoma SAOS-2 cells. Treatment of SAOS-2 cells with GTP (20-60 {mu}g/ml) resulted in reduced cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis, which correlated with decreased nuclear DNA binding of NF-{kappa}B/p65 and lowering of NF-{kappa}B/p65 and p50 levels in the cytoplasm and nucleus. GTP treatment of cells reduced I{kappa}B-{alpha} phosphorylation but had no effect on its protein expression. Furthermore, GTP treatment resulted in the inhibition of IKK-{alpha} and IKK-{beta}, the upstream kinases that phosphorylate I{kappa}B-{alpha}. The increase in apoptosis in SAOS-2 cells was accompanied with decrease in the protein expression of Bcl-2 and concomitant increase in the levels of Bax. GTP treatment of SAOS-2 cells also resulted in significant activation of caspases as was evident by increased levels of cleaved caspase-3 and caspase-8 in these cells. Treatment of SAOS-2 cells with a specific caspase-3 inhibitor Ac-Asp-Glu-Val-Asp-CHO (Ac-DEVD-CHO) and general caspase inhibitor N-benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp (OMe)-fluoromethyl ketone (Z-VAD-FMK) rescued SAOS-2 cells from GTP-induced apoptosis. Taken together, these results indicate that GTP is a candidate therapeutic for osteosarcoma that mediates its antiproliferative and apoptotic effects via activation of caspases and inhibition of NF-{kappa}B.

  6. Green tea polyphenols-induced apoptosis in human osteosarcoma SAOS-2 cells involves a caspase-dependent mechanism with downregulation of nuclear factor-kappaB.

    PubMed

    Hafeez, Bilal Bin; Ahmed, Salahuddin; Wang, Naizhen; Gupta, Sanjay; Zhang, Ailin; Haqqi, Tariq M

    2006-10-01

    Development of chemotherapy resistance and evasion from apoptosis in osteosarcoma, a primary malignant bone tumor, is often correlated with constitutive nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation. Here, we investigated the ability of a polyphenolic fraction of green tea (GTP) that has been shown to have antitumor effects on various malignant cell lines to inhibit growth and induce apoptosis in human osteosarcoma SAOS-2 cells. Treatment of SAOS-2 cells with GTP (20-60 microg/ml) resulted in reduced cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis, which correlated with decreased nuclear DNA binding of NF-kappaB/p65 and lowering of NF-kappaB/p65 and p50 levels in the cytoplasm and nucleus. GTP treatment of cells reduced IkappaB-alpha phosphorylation but had no effect on its protein expression. Furthermore, GTP treatment resulted in the inhibition of IKK-alpha and IKK-beta, the upstream kinases that phosphorylate IkappaB-alpha. The increase in apoptosis in SAOS-2 cells was accompanied with decrease in the protein expression of Bcl-2 and concomitant increase in the levels of Bax. GTP treatment of SAOS-2 cells also resulted in significant activation of caspases as was evident by increased levels of cleaved caspase-3 and caspase-8 in these cells. Treatment of SAOS-2 cells with a specific caspase-3 inhibitor Ac-Asp-Glu-Val-Asp-CHO (Ac-DEVD-CHO) and general caspase inhibitor N-benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp (OMe)-fluoromethyl ketone (Z-VAD-FMK) rescued SAOS-2 cells from GTP-induced apoptosis. Taken together, these results indicate that GTP is a candidate therapeutic for osteosarcoma that mediates its antiproliferative and apoptotic effects via activation of caspases and inhibition of NF-kappaB.

  7. [Effect of C23 down-regulation on proliferation inhibition and apoptosis induced by cisplatin in human osteosarcoma SaOS-2 cells].

    PubMed

    Wu, Bei; Wang, Wanchun; Li, Zhihong

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the effect of C23 down-regulation on proliferation inhibition and apoptosis induced by cisplatin in human osteosarcoma SaOS-2 cells. SaOS-2 cells were randomly divided in to 5 groups: a control group, a DDP group, an S+DDP group, an AS+DDP group, and an R+DDP group. Cell growth suppression of each group was analyzed by MTT assay. RT-PCR and Western blot were used to detect the expression of C23, Bcl-2 and Bax mRNA and protein in each group. Morphologic character of apoptosis was evaluated by DAPI staining. The percentage of apoptotic cells was analyzed by flowcytometer assay. C23 antisense oligonucleotides remarkably inhibited the expression of C23 mRNA and protein in SaOS-2 cells (P<0.01). The proliferation of SaOS-2 cells was remarkably inhibited in the AS+DDP group compared with the DDP group (P<0.01). The expression of C23, Bcl-2 mRNA and protein was weaker and that of Bax mRNA and protein was stronger in the AS+DDP group compared with the DDP group (P<0.01). Cisplatin-mediated apoptosis neclei in SaOS-2 cells and the rate of apoptotic cells were higher in the AS+DDP group than those of the DDP group (P<0.01). Down-regulation of C23 can contribute to cisplatin-mediated proliferation inhibition and apoptosis in SaOS-2 cells.

  8. Sclerostin expression is induced by BMPs in human Saos-2 osteosarcoma cells but not via direct effects on the sclerostin gene promoter or ECR5 element.

    PubMed

    Yu, Longchuan; van der Valk, Marissa; Cao, Jin; Han, Chun-Ya E; Juan, Todd; Bass, Michael B; Deshpande, Chetan; Damore, Michael A; Stanton, Richard; Babij, Philip

    2011-12-01

    Sclerostin is a secreted inhibitor of Wnt signaling and plays an essential role in the regulation of bone mass. The expression of sclerostin is largely restricted to osteocytes although its mode of transcriptional regulation is not well understood. We observed regulated expression of sclerostin mRNA and protein that was directly correlated with the mineralization response in cultured human Saos-2 osteosarcoma cells and rat primary calvarial cells. Sclerostin mRNA and protein levels were increased following treatment of cells with BMP2, BMP4 and BMP7. Analysis of deletion mutants from the -7.4 kb upstream region of the human sclerostin promoter did not reveal any specific regions that were responsive to BMPs, Wnt3a, PTH, TGFβ1 or Activin A in Saos-2 cells. The downstream ECR5 element did not show enhancer activity in Saos-2 cells and also was not affected when Saos-2 cells were treated with BMPs or PTH. Genome-wide microarray analysis of Saos-2 cells treated with BMP2 showed significant changes in expression of several transcription factors with putative consensus DNA binding sites in the region of the sclerostin promoter. However, whereas most factors tested showed either a range of inhibitory activity (DLX family, MSX2, HEY1, SMAD6/7) or lack of activity on the sclerostin promoter including SMAD9, only MEF2B showed a positive effect on both the promoter and ECR5 element. These results suggest that the dramatic induction of sclerostin gene expression by BMPs in Saos-2 cells occurs indirectly and is associated with late stage differentiation of osteoblasts and the mineralization process. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. [Of the pharmacy of Marine to the industrial pharmacy: a precursor of nanomedicines, André Lancien (1885-1938)].

    PubMed

    Devaux, Guy

    2015-09-01

    After a biographic reminder on André Lancien, pharmacist of Marine, we describe her activities of research. The first ones concern the radium and the uranic by-products, but the main part concerns the development of a process of obtaining by electric way of stable colloidal solutions to very fine metallic or metalloïdic particles. These colloids were applied to the therapeutics in diverse domains, prefiguring before the term existed what we call now nanomedicine.

  10. Cadmium exposure activates the ERK signaling pathway leading to altered osteoblast gene expression and apoptotic death in Saos-2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Arbon, Kate S.; Christensen, Cody M.; Harvey, Wendy A.; Heggland, Sara J.

    2012-01-01

    Recent reports of cadmium in electronic waste and jewelry have increased public awareness regarding this toxic metal. Human exposure to cadmium is associated with the development of osteoporosis. We previously reported cadmium induces apoptosis in human tumor-derived Saos-2 osteoblasts. In this study, we examine the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) and protein kinase C (PKC) pathways in cadmium-induced apoptosis and altered osteoblast gene expression. Saos-2 osteoblasts were cultured in the presence or absence of 10 μM CdCl2 for 2–72 hours. We detected significant ERK activation in response to CdCl2 and pretreatment with the ERK inhibitor PD98059 attenuated cadmium-induced apoptosis. However, PKCα activation was not observed after exposure to CdCl2 and pretreatment with the PKC inhibitor, Calphostin C, was unable to rescue cells from cadmium-induced apoptosis. Gene expression studies were conducted using qPCR. Cells exposed to CdCl2 exhibited a significant decrease in the bone-forming genes osteopontin (OPN) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) mRNA. In contrast, SOST, whose protein product inhibits bone formation, significantly increased in response to CdCl2. Pretreatment with PD98059 had a recovery effect on cadmium-induced changes in gene expression. This research demonstrates cadmium can directly inhibit osteoblasts via ERK signaling pathway and identifies SOST as a target for cadmium-induced osteotoxicity. PMID:22019892

  11. Cadmium exposure activates the ERK signaling pathway leading to altered osteoblast gene expression and apoptotic death in Saos-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Arbon, Kate S; Christensen, Cody M; Harvey, Wendy A; Heggland, Sara J

    2012-02-01

    Recent reports of cadmium in electronic waste and jewelry have increased public awareness regarding this toxic metal. Human exposure to cadmium is associated with the development of osteoporosis. We previously reported cadmium induces apoptosis in human tumor-derived Saos-2 osteoblasts. In this study, we examine the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) and protein kinase C (PKC) pathways in cadmium-induced apoptosis and altered osteoblast gene expression. Saos-2 osteoblasts were cultured in the presence or absence of 10μM CdCl(2) for 2-72h. We detected significant ERK activation in response to CdCl(2) and pretreatment with the ERK inhibitor PD98059 attenuated cadmium-induced apoptosis. However, PKCα activation was not observed after exposure to CdCl(2) and pretreatment with the PKC inhibitor, Calphostin C, was unable to rescue cells from cadmium-induced apoptosis. Gene expression studies were conducted using qPCR. Cells exposed to CdCl(2) exhibited a significant decrease in the bone-forming genes osteopontin (OPN) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) mRNA. In contrast, SOST, whose protein product inhibits bone formation, significantly increased in response to CdCl(2). Pretreatment with PD98059 had a recovery effect on cadmium-induced changes in gene expression. This research demonstrates cadmium can directly inhibit osteoblasts via ERK signaling pathway and identifies SOST as a target for cadmium-induced osteotoxicity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Fibroblast growth factor-2 inhibits mineralization of osteoblast-like Saos-2 cells by inhibiting the functioning of matrix vesicles.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chao; Cui, Yazhou; Luan, Jing; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Liu, Zhenxing; Han, Jinxiang

    2014-02-01

    Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) inhibits osteoblast mineralization, but the mechanism by which it does so is not fully understood. Matrix vesicles (MVs) play an essential role in the initiation of mineralization, so the current study examined the effect of FGF2 on the functioning of MVs to investigate this mechanism. This study found that FGF2 significantly inhibited differentiation and mineralization of osteoblast-like Saos-2 cells, as indicated by down-regulation of mRNA expression of the osteogenic master regulator runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and collagen 1 alpha 1 (Colla1), and by decreasing the formation of bone nodules. MVs were isolated from Saos-2 cells cultured in osteogenic medium supplemented with and without FGF2 and their presence was verified using electron microscopy and Western blotting. FGF2 markedly reduced the ALP activity of and in vitro mineralization by MVs. These findings suggest that FGF2 inhibits osteoblast mineralization by limiting the capacity of MVs.

  13. MicroRNA-21 Inhibits the Apoptosis of Osteosarcoma Cell Line SAOS-2 via Targeting Caspase 8.

    PubMed

    Xu, Bin; Xia, Hehuan; Cao, Junming; Wang, Zhihong; Yang, Yipeng; Lin, Yongsheng

    2017-08-07

    Currently, multiple microRNAs (miRNAs) have been found to play vital roles in the pathogenesis of osteosarcoma. This study aimed to investigate the role of miR-21 in osteosarcoma. The level of miR-21 in 20 pairs of osteosarcoma and corresponding adjacent tissues was monitored by qPCR. Human osteosarcoma cell line SAOS-2 was transfected with either miR-21 mimic or miR-21 inhibitor, and then cell viability, survival, and apoptosis were measured by MTT, colony formation assay, and flow cytometry. A target of miR-21 was predicted by the microRNA.org database and verified in vitro by using luciferase reporter, qPCR, and Western blot analyses. Finally, cells were cotransfected with siRNA against caspase 8 and miR-21 inhibitor, and the apoptotic cell rate was determined again. Results showed that the mRNA level of miR-21 was highly expressed in osteosarcoma tissues compared with adjacent tissues. Overexpression of miR-21 improved cell viability and survival but suppressed apoptosis. Caspase 8 was a direct target of miR-21, and it was negatively regulated by miR-21. Moreover, miR-21 suppression attenuated caspase 8 silencing and induced the decrease in apoptosis. In conclusion, overexpression of miR-21 suppressed SAOS-2 cell apoptosis via directly targeting caspase 8.

  14. Interaction of human osteoblast-like Saos-2 cells with stainless steel coated by silicalite-1 films.

    PubMed

    Jirka, Ivan; Vandrovcová, Marta; Plšek, Jan; Bouša, Milan; Brabec, Libor; Dragounová, Helena; Bačáková, Lucie

    2017-07-01

    This paper investigates the interaction of human osteoblast-like Saos-2 cells with stainless steel covered by a film of densely inter-grown silicalite-1 crystals with defined outer and inner surfaces. The chemical composition of this film, labeled as SF(RT), was tuned by heat treatment at 300°C and 500°C (labeled as SF(300) and SF(500), respectively) and characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), water drop contact angle (WCA) measurements and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The number, the spreading area and the activity of alkaline phosphatase of human osteoblast-like Saos-2 cells in cultures on the silicalite-1 film were affected by the chemical composition of its outer surface and by its micro-porous structure. The number and the spreading area of the adhered osteoblast-like cells on day 1 was highest on the surface of SF(RT) relative to their adhesion and spreading on a glass cover slip due to the SF(RT) topology. However, SF(300) markedly supported cell growth during days 3 and 7 after seeding. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Sp1/Sp3 and DNA-methylation contribute to basal transcriptional activation of human podoplanin in MG63 versus Saos-2 osteoblastic cells

    PubMed Central

    Hantusch, Brigitte; Kalt, Romana; Krieger, Sigurd; Puri, Christina; Kerjaschki, Dontscho

    2007-01-01

    Background Podoplanin is a membrane mucin that, among a series of tissues, is expressed on late osteoblasts and osteocytes. Since recent findings have focussed on podoplanin's potential role as a tumour progression factor, we aimed at identifying regulatory elements conferring PDPN promoter activity. Here, we characterized the molecular mechanism controlling basal PDPN transcription in human osteoblast-like MG63 versus Saos-2 cells. Results We cloned and sequenced 2056 nucleotides from the 5'-flanking region of the PDPN gene and a computational search revealed that the TATA and CAAT box-lacking promoter possesses features of a growth-related gene, such as a GC-rich 5' region and the presence of multiple putative Sp1, AP-4 and NF-1 sites. Reporter gene assays demonstrated a functional promoter in MG63 cells exhibiting 30-fold more activity than in Saos-2 cells. In vitro DNase I footprinting revealed eight protected regions flanked by DNaseI hypersensitive sites within the region bp -728 to -39 present in MG63, but not in Saos-2 cells. Among these regions, mutation and supershift electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) identified four Sp1/Sp3 binding sites and two binding sites for yet unknown transcription factors. Deletion studies demonstrated the functional importance of two Sp1/Sp3 sites for PDPN promoter activity. Overexpression of Sp1 and Sp3 independently increased the stimulatory effect of the promoter and podoplanin mRNA levels in MG63 and Saos-2 cells. In SL2 cells, Sp3 functioned as a repressor, while Sp1 and Sp3 acted positively synergistic. Weak PDPN promoter activity of Saos-2 cells correlated with low Sp1/Sp3 nuclear levels, which was confirmed by Sp1/Sp3 chromatin immunoprecipitations in vivo. Moreover, methylation-sensitive Southern blot analyses and bisulfite sequencing detected strong methylation of CpG sites upstream of bp -464 in MG63 cells, but hypomethylation of these sites in Saos-2 cells. Concomitantly, treatment with the DNA

  16. Sp1/Sp3 and DNA-methylation contribute to basal transcriptional activation of human podoplanin in MG63 versus Saos-2 osteoblastic cells.

    PubMed

    Hantusch, Brigitte; Kalt, Romana; Krieger, Sigurd; Puri, Christina; Kerjaschki, Dontscho

    2007-03-07

    Podoplanin is a membrane mucin that, among a series of tissues, is expressed on late osteoblasts and osteocytes. Since recent findings have focussed on podoplanin's potential role as a tumour progression factor, we aimed at identifying regulatory elements conferring PDPN promoter activity. Here, we characterized the molecular mechanism controlling basal PDPN transcription in human osteoblast-like MG63 versus Saos-2 cells. We cloned and sequenced 2056 nucleotides from the 5'-flanking region of the PDPN gene and a computational search revealed that the TATA and CAAT box-lacking promoter possesses features of a growth-related gene, such as a GC-rich 5' region and the presence of multiple putative Sp1, AP-4 and NF-1 sites. Reporter gene assays demonstrated a functional promoter in MG63 cells exhibiting 30-fold more activity than in Saos-2 cells. In vitro DNase I footprinting revealed eight protected regions flanked by DNaseI hypersensitive sites within the region bp -728 to -39 present in MG63, but not in Saos-2 cells. Among these regions, mutation and supershift electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) identified four Sp1/Sp3 binding sites and two binding sites for yet unknown transcription factors. Deletion studies demonstrated the functional importance of two Sp1/Sp3 sites for PDPN promoter activity. Overexpression of Sp1 and Sp3 independently increased the stimulatory effect of the promoter and podoplanin mRNA levels in MG63 and Saos-2 cells. In SL2 cells, Sp3 functioned as a repressor, while Sp1 and Sp3 acted positively synergistic. Weak PDPN promoter activity of Saos-2 cells correlated with low Sp1/Sp3 nuclear levels, which was confirmed by Sp1/Sp3 chromatin immunoprecipitations in vivo. Moreover, methylation-sensitive Southern blot analyses and bisulfite sequencing detected strong methylation of CpG sites upstream of bp -464 in MG63 cells, but hypomethylation of these sites in Saos-2 cells. Concomitantly, treatment with the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5

  17. Pheromone chirality of asian palm weevils,Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Oliv.) andR. vulneratus (Panz.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Perez, A L; Hallett, R H; Gries, R; Gries, G; Cameron Oehlschlager, A; Borden, J H

    1996-02-01

    Production of 4-methyl-5-nonanol, and 4-methyl-5-nonanone by two sympatric Asian palm weevils,Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Oliv.) andR. vulneratus (Panz.) suggested that enantiospecificity of either compound could impart species specificity of pheromone communication. Weevil-produced, racemic 4-methyl-5-nonanol and 4-methyl-5-nonanone and their stereoselectively synthesized optical isomers were subjected to gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) and GC-mass spectrometry (MS) on a chiral Cyclodex-B column. Only theS,S stereoisomer of 4-methyl-5-nonanol was EAD active and was produced by bothR. ferrugineus andR. vulneratus. Production and EAD activity of (S)-4-methyl-5-nonanone exceeded that of its antipode in both weevils. In field experiments in Java. (4S, 5S)-4-methyl-5-nonanol and the stereoisomeric mixture were equally attractive. The 4R,5R stereoisomer was inactive. The corresponding ketone enantiomers neither enhanced nor reduced attraction to (4S,5S)-4-methyl-5-nonanol. Lack of apparent differences betweenR. ferrugineus andR. vulneratus pheromones suggests that synonomy of both weevils should be considered unless other pre- or postzygotic reproductive isolating mechanisms are disclosed in future studies.

  18. Validation of 10-year SAO OMI Ozone Profile (PROFOZ) product using ozonesonde observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Guanyu; Liu, Xiong; Chance, Kelly; Yang, Kai; Bhartia, Pawan K.; Cai, Zhaonan; Allaart, Marc; Ancellet, Gérard; Calpini, Bertrand; Coetzee, Gerrie J. R.; Cuevas-Agulló, Emilio; Cupeiro, Manuel; De Backer, Hugo; Dubey, Manvendra K.; Fuelberg, Henry E.; Fujiwara, Masatomo; Godin-Beekmann, Sophie; Hall, Tristan J.; Johnson, Bryan; Joseph, Everette; Kivi, Rigel; Kois, Bogumil; Komala, Ninong; König-Langlo, Gert; Laneve, Giovanni; Leblanc, Thierry; Marchand, Marion; Minschwaner, Kenneth R.; Morris, Gary; Newchurch, Michael J.; Ogino, Shin-Ya; Ohkawara, Nozomu; Piters, Ankie J. M.; Posny, Françoise; Querel, Richard; Scheele, Rinus; Schmidlin, Frank J.; Schnell, Russell C.; Schrems, Otto; Selkirk, Henry; Shiotani, Masato; Skrivánková, Pavla; Stübi, René; Taha, Ghassan; Tarasick, David W.; Thompson, Anne M.; Thouret, Valérie; Tully, Matthew B.; Van Malderen, Roeland; Vömel, Holger; von der Gathen, Peter; Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Yela, Margarita

    2017-07-01

    We validate the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) Ozone Profile (PROFOZ) product from October 2004 through December 2014 retrieved by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) algorithm against ozonesonde observations. We also evaluate the effects of OMI row anomaly (RA) on the retrieval by dividing the dataset into before and after the occurrence of serious OMI RA, i.e., pre-RA (2004-2008) and post-RA (2009-2014). The retrieval shows good agreement with ozonesondes in the tropics and midlatitudes and for pressure < ˜ 50 hPa in the high latitudes. It demonstrates clear improvement over the a priori down to the lower troposphere in the tropics and down to an average of ˜ 550 (300) hPa at middle (high) latitudes. In the tropics and midlatitudes, the profile mean biases (MBs) are less than 6 %, and the standard deviations (SDs) range from 5 to 10 % for pressure < ˜ 50 hPa to less than 18 % (27 %) in the tropics (midlatitudes) for pressure > ˜ 50 hPa after applying OMI averaging kernels to ozonesonde data. The MBs of the stratospheric ozone column (SOC, the ozone column from the tropopause pressure to the ozonesonde burst pressure) are within 2 % with SDs of < 5 % and the MBs of the tropospheric ozone column (TOC) are within 6 % with SDs of 15 %. In the high latitudes, the profile MBs are within 10 % with SDs of 5-15 % for pressure < ˜ 50 hPa but increase to 30 % with SDs as great as 40 % for pressure > ˜ 50 hPa. The SOC MBs increase up to 3 % with SDs as great as 6 % and the TOC SDs increase up to 30 %. The comparison generally degrades at larger solar zenith angles (SZA) due to weaker signals and additional sources of error, leading to worse performance at high latitudes and during the midlatitude winter. Agreement also degrades with increasing cloudiness for pressure > ˜ 100 hPa and varies with cross-track position, especially with large MBs and SDs at extreme off-nadir positions. In the tropics and midlatitudes, the post-RA comparison is considerably

  19. Medical education for social justice: Paulo Freire revisited.

    PubMed

    DasGupta, Sayantani; Fornari, Alice; Geer, Kamini; Hahn, Louisa; Kumar, Vanita; Lee, Hyun Joon; Rubin, Susan; Gold, Marji

    2006-01-01

    Although social justice is an integral component of medical professionalism, there is little discussion in medical education about how to teach it to future physicians. Using adult learning theory and the work of Brazilian educator Paulo Freire, medical educators can teach a socially-conscious professionalism through educational content and teaching strategies. Such teaching can model non-hierarchical relationships to learners, which can translate to their clinical interactions with patients. Freirian teaching can additionally foster professionalism in both teachers and learners by ensuring that they are involved citizens in their local, national and international communities.

  20. Methodological Issues in Meta-Analyzing Standard Deviations: Comment on Bond and DePaulo (2008)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pigott, Therese D.; Wu, Meng-Jia

    2008-01-01

    In this comment on C. F. Bond and B. M. DePaulo, the authors raise methodological concerns about the approach used to analyze the data. The authors suggest further refinement of the procedures used, and they compare the approach taken by Bond and DePaulo with standard methods for meta-analysis. (Contains 1 table and 2 figures.)