Science.gov

Sample records for andreeva bay shore

  1. Preparation for the Recovery of Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) at Andreeva Bay, North West Russia - 13309

    SciTech Connect

    Field, D.; McAtamney, N.

    2013-07-01

    Andreeva Bay is located near Murmansk in the Russian Federation close to the Norwegian border. The ex-naval site was used to de-fuel nuclear-powered submarines and icebreakers during the Cold War. Approximately 22,000 fuel assemblies remain in three Dry Storage Units (DSUs) which means that Andreeva Bay has one of the largest stockpiles of highly enriched spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in the world. The high contamination and deteriorating condition of the SNF canisters has made improvements to the management of the SNF a high priority for the international community for safety, security and environmental reasons. International Donors have, since 2002, provided support to projects at Andreeva concerned with improving the management of the SNF. This long-term programme of work has been coordinated between the International Donors and responsible bodies within the Russian Federation. Options for the safe and secure management of SNF at Andreeva Bay were considered in 2004 and developed by a number of Russian Institutes with international participation. This consisted of site investigations, surveys and studies to understand the technical challenges. A principal agreement was reached that the SNF would be removed from the site altogether and transported to Russia's reprocessing facility at Mayak in the Urals. The analytical studies provided the information necessary to develop the construction plan for the site. Following design and regulatory processes, stakeholders endorsed the technical solution in April 2007. This detailed the processes, facilities and equipment required to safely remove the SNF and identified other site services and support facilities required on the site. Implementation of this strategy is now well underway with the facilities in various states of construction. Physical works have been performed to address the most urgent tasks including weather protection over one of the DSUs, installation of shielding over the cells, provision of radiation

  2. 75 FR 34367 - Safety Zone; Shore Thing & Independence Day Fireworks, Chesapeake Bay, Norfolk, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Shore Thing & Independence Day Fireworks... Zone; Shore Thing & Independence Day Fireworks, Chesapeake Bay, Norfolk, VA. (a) Regulated Area. The... is establishing a temporary safety zone on the Chesapeake Bay in the vicinity of Ocean View...

  3. 75 FR 26155 - Safety Zone; Shore Thing & Independence Day Fireworks, Chesapeake Bay, Norfolk, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Shore Thing & Independence Day Fireworks...-0294 to read as follows: Sec. 165.T05-0294 Safety Zone; Shore Thing & Independence Day Fireworks... Coast Guard proposes establishing a temporary safety zone on the Chesapeake Bay in the vicinity of...

  4. 76 FR 27967 - Safety Zone; Shore Thing and Independence Day Fireworks, Chesapeake Bay, Norfolk, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Shore Thing and Independence Day Fireworks.... 2. Add Sec. 165.T05-0303 to read as follows: 165.T05-0303 Safety Zone; Shore Thing and Independence... Coast Guard proposes establishing a temporary safety zone on the Chesapeake Bay in the vicinity of...

  5. Understanding nutrients in the Chesapeake Bay watershed and implications for management and restoration: the Eastern Shore

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ator, Scott W.; Denver, Judith M.

    2015-03-12

    The Eastern Shore includes only a small part of the Chesapeake Bay watershed, but contributes disproportionately large loads of the excess nitrogen and phosphorus that have contributed to ecological and economic degradation of the bay in recent decades. Chesapeake Bay is the largest estuary in the United States and a vital ecological and economic resource. The bay and its tributaries have been degraded in recent decades by excessive nitrogen and phosphorus in the water column, however, which cause harmful algal blooms and decreased water clarity, submerged aquatic vegetation, and dissolved oxygen. The disproportionately large nitrogen and phosphorus yields from the Eastern Shore to Chesapeake Bay are attributable to human land-use practices as well as natural hydrogeologic and soil conditions. Applications of nitrogen and phosphorus compounds to the Eastern Shore from human activities are intensive. More than 90 percent of nitrogen and phosphorus reaching the land in the Eastern Shore is applied as part of inorganic fertilizers or manure, or (for nitrogen) fixed directly from the atmosphere in cropland. Also, hydrogeologic and soil conditions promote the movement of these compounds from application areas on the landscape to groundwater and (or) surface waters, and the proximity of much of the Eastern Shore to tidal waters limits opportunities for natural removal of these compounds in the landscape. The Eastern Shore only includes 7 percent of the Chesapeake Bay watershed, but receives nearly twice as much nitrogen and phosphorus applications (per area) as the remainder of the watershed and yields greater nitrogen and phosphorus, on average, to the bay. Nitrogen and phosphorus commonly occur in streams at concentrations that may adversely affect aquatic ecosystems and have increased in recent decades.

  6. 33 CFR 334.740 - North Shore Choctawhatchee Bay, Eglin Air Force Base, Fla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., Eglin Air Force Base, Fla. 334.740 Section 334.740 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS... Shore Choctawhatchee Bay, Eglin Air Force Base, Fla. (a) The area. The restricted area shall encompass... identification checks by U.S. Air Force patrol boats. During times of high security threats against Eglin...

  7. 33 CFR 334.740 - North Shore Choctawhatchee Bay, Eglin Air Force Base, Fla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., Eglin Air Force Base, Fla. 334.740 Section 334.740 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS... Shore Choctawhatchee Bay, Eglin Air Force Base, Fla. (a) The area. The restricted area shall encompass... identification checks by U.S. Air Force patrol boats. During times of high security threats against Eglin...

  8. 33 CFR 334.740 - North Shore Choctawhatchee Bay, Eglin Air Force Base, Fla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., Eglin Air Force Base, Fla. 334.740 Section 334.740 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS... Shore Choctawhatchee Bay, Eglin Air Force Base, Fla. (a) The area. The restricted area shall encompass... identification checks by U.S. Air Force patrol boats. During times of high security threats against Eglin...

  9. A preliminary evaluation of the occurrence and characteristics of cut-off ponds of the Maryland shores of the Chesapeake Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    Under the auspices of the Maryland Power Plant Siting Program, a preliminary investigation of occurrence and characteristics of cut-off ponds in the Maryland portion of the Chesapeake Bay was conducted. These small ponds occur commonly along the Bay shore. A sand berm separates the freshwaters of the ponds from the saline waters of the Bay; this berm is occasionally breached permitting interchange between ponds and Bay. A survey of aerial maps and photographs has revealed approximately 1800 ponds bordering the mid and upper Bay.

  10. Investigation of Wave Energy Converter Effects on Near-shore Wave Fields: Model Generation Validation and Evaluation - Kaneohe Bay HI.

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, Jesse D.; Chang, Grace; Jones, Craig

    2014-09-01

    The numerical model, SWAN (Simulating WAves Nearshore) , was used to simulate wave conditions in Kaneohe Bay, HI in order to determine the effects of wave energy converter ( WEC ) devices on the propagation of waves into shore. A nested SWAN model was validated then used to evaluate a range of initial wave conditions: significant wave heights (H s ) , peak periods (T p ) , and mean wave directions ( MWD) . Differences between wave height s in the presence and absence of WEC device s were assessed at locations in shore of the WEC array. The maximum decrease in wave height due to the WEC s was predicted to be approximately 6% at 5 m and 10 m water depths. Th is occurred for model initiation parameters of H s = 3 m (for 5 m water depth) or 4 m (10 m water depth) , T p = 10 s, and MWD = 330deg . Subsequently, bottom orbital velocities were found to decrease by about 6%.

  11. Hydrocarbon-bearing sandstone in the Upper Jurassic Naknek Formation on the south shore of Kamishak Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanley, Richard G.; Herriott, Trystan M.; Helmold, Kenneth P.; Gillis, Robert J.; Lillis, Paul G.

    2013-01-01

    The presence of an active petroleum system in Kamishak Bay is demonstrated by an outcrop of hydrocarbon-bearing sandstone in the Upper Jurassic Naknek Formation near the south shore of the bay (fig. 1). The outcrop is about 140 km southwest of Homer on a small, unnamed island near the mouth of the Douglas River (fig. 17). The existence of this outcrop was kindly reported to us by Les Magoon (U.S. Geological Survey, emeritus), who also provided a topographic map showing its exact position. The outcrop was mentioned very briefly in publications by Magoon and others (1975, p. 19) and by Lyle and Morehouse (1977, p. E-1), but to our knowledge there are no detailed descriptions of this outcrop or its hydrocarbons in the published scientific literature.

  12. Invasion of a rocky intertidal shore by the tunicate Pyura praeputialis in the Bay of Antofagasta, Chile.

    PubMed

    Castilla, Juan Carlos; Guiñez, Ricardo; Caro, Andrés U; Ortiz, Verónica

    2004-06-08

    Invasion by marine nonindigenous species (NIS) is a spread phenomenon. The tunicate Pyura praeputialis shows pronounced disjoint geographical distribution: along thousands of kilometers in wave-swept headlands on the southeastern coast of Australia, from where it appears to have originated, and exclusively along 60-70 km inside the Bay of Antofagasta, Chile. mtDNA sequences suggested that the species invaded this rocky shore recently. We used field manipulations and juvenile P. praeputialis transplant techniques to test hypotheses regarding the capacity of the tunicate to survive and grow at different sites and tidal heights inside and outside Antofagasta, and its competitive performance for primary space (inside the Bay) against the native mussel Perumytilus purpuratus. We conclude that survival and growth of P. praeputialis showed no significant differences among sites inside and outside the Bay, and suggest that the restrictive distribution of the species in Chile is caused by a specific oceanographic retention mechanism and/or its brief larval dispersal. We demonstrated that, inside the Bay, P. praeputialis outcompetes Perumytilus from the Mid-Low intertidal, constraining Perumytilus to the Upper Mid-Intertidal, modifying the local pattern of intertidal zonation. We show that predation on P. praeputialis juveniles by starfish and snails constitutes a regulatory mechanism for the setting of its low intertidal limit. Major ecological impacts caused by NIS invasions to rocky shores by aggressive primary space users may result in negative aspects, but also may contribute to biodiversity enhancement. We call attention to the need for increment manipulations and testing of ecological hypotheses regarding marine NIS.

  13. Invasion of a rocky intertidal shore by the tunicate Pyura praeputialis in the Bay of Antofagasta, Chile

    PubMed Central

    Castilla, Juan Carlos; Guiñez, Ricardo; Caro, Andrés U.; Ortiz, Verónica

    2004-01-01

    Invasion by marine nonindigenous species (NIS) is a spread phenomenon. The tunicate Pyura praeputialis shows pronounced disjoint geographical distribution: along thousands of kilometers in wave-swept headlands on the southeastern coast of Australia, from where it appears to have originated, and exclusively along 60–70 km inside the Bay of Antofagasta, Chile. mtDNA sequences suggested that the species invaded this rocky shore recently. We used field manipulations and juvenile P. praeputialis transplant techniques to test hypotheses regarding the capacity of the tunicate to survive and grow at different sites and tidal heights inside and outside Antofagasta, and its competitive performance for primary space (inside the Bay) against the native mussel Perumytilus purpuratus. We conclude that survival and growth of P. praeputialis showed no significant differences among sites inside and outside the Bay, and suggest that the restrictive distribution of the species in Chile is caused by a specific oceanographic retention mechanism and/or its brief larval dispersal. We demonstrated that, inside the Bay, P. praeputialis outcompetes Perumytilus from the Mid–Low intertidal, constraining Perumytilus to the Upper Mid-Intertidal, modifying the local pattern of intertidal zonation. We show that predation on P. praeputialis juveniles by starfish and snails constitutes a regulatory mechanism for the setting of its low intertidal limit. Major ecological impacts caused by NIS invasions to rocky shores by aggressive primary space users may result in negative aspects, but also may contribute to biodiversity enhancement. We call attention to the need for increment manipulations and testing of ecological hypotheses regarding marine NIS. PMID:15118086

  14. Gazetteer of hydrologic characteristics of streams in Massachusetts; coastal river basins of the North Shore and Massachusetts Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wandle, S.W.

    1984-01-01

    The coastal river basins of the North Shore and Boston Bay include streams draining the Parker River (60.4 square miles), Rowley River (9.9 square miles), Ipswich River (156 miles), Mystic River (66.0 square miles), Charles River (311 square miles), Neponset River (117 square miles), Weymouth Fore and Weymouth Back Rivers (about 63 square miles) and Weir River (about 20 square miles) basins. The study area in eastern and northeastern Massachusetts also includes the minor river basins draining into Massachusetts Bay, Ipswich Bay, or the Atlantic Ocean. Drainage areas using the latest available 1:24,000 scale topographic maps were computed for the first time for streams draining more than 3 square miles and were recomputed for data-collection sites. Streamflow characteristics at 15 gaging stations were calculated using a new data base with daily flow records through 1981. These characteristics include annual and monthly flow statistics, duration of daily flow values, and the annual 7-day mean low flow at the 2-year and 10-year recurrence intervals. Seven-day low-flow statistics are presented for 95 partial-record sites and the procedures used to determine the hydrologic characteristics of a basin are summarized. Basin characteristics representing 14 commonly used indices to estimate various streamflows are presented for 15 gaged streams. This gazetteer will aid in the planning and siting of water-resources related activities and will provide a common data base for governmental agencies and the engineering and planning communities. (USGS)

  15. Gazetteer of hydrologic characteristics of streams in Massachusetts; coastal river basins of the South Shore and Buzzards Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wandle, S.W.; Morgan, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    The coastal river basins include the minor river basins draining into Massachusetts Bay along the South Shore or into Buzzards Bay. The larger of these basins are the North, South, Jones, Wareham, Weweantic, Mattapoisett, Acushnet, and Slocums River basins. Drainage areas, using the latest available 1:24,000 scale topographic maps, were computed for data collection sites. Statistics on streamflow characteristics computed with a new data base are presented for six gaged streams. Daily-flow records through 1982 were used to compute annual and monthly flow statistics, duration of daily flow values, and the annual 7-day mean low flow at the 2-year and 10-year recurrence intervals. Seven-day low-flow statistics are presented for 49 partial-record sites and procedures used to determine the hydrologic characteristics of the basin are summarized. This gazetteer will aid in the planning and siting of water-resources related activities and will provide a common data base for governmental agencies and the engineering and planning communities. (USGS)

  16. Landsat-8 imagery to estimate clarity in near-shore coastal waters: Feasibility study - Chabahar Bay, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabiri, Keivan; Moradi, Masoud

    2016-08-01

    This study examined the advantages of incorporating the new band of Landsat-8 OLI imagery (band 1: Coastal/Aerosol, 435-451 nm) to a model for estimation of Secchi disk depth (SDD) values (as an indicator for transparency) in near-shore coastal waters using multispectral bands. In doing so, Chabahar Bay in the southern part of Iran (north of Gulf of Oman) was selected as the study area. Two approximately four-hour in-situ observations (including 48 and 56 field measured SDD values for each date respectively) were performed in the study area using Secchi disk; this was designed to start about two hours before and end about two hours after the time of satellite overpasses. Thereafter, a model was formed for estimation of SDD values based on the terms including all possible linear and mutual ratio values of Coastal/Aerosol (B1), Blue (B2), Green (B3), and Red bands (B4). In the first step, the correlation between reflectance/ratio reflectance values of these bands and Ln(SDD) values were calculated to indicate higher correlated bands/band ratios with the first field measured SDD values. Consequently, 17 combinations of highest correlated bands/band ratios were selected to estimate SDD values. In this regard, 32 points among the 48 field observations were selected to determine unknown coefficients of models using a multiple linear regression, and the rest 16 points were designated for accuracy assessment the results. Eventually, the measured SDD values in second field observations were utilized for validating the results. Final results demonstrated that combination of linear terms including B1, B2 and B3 bands and band ratio terms including ratio reflectance values of B4/B3, B3/B1, and B2/B1 has led to obtain the highest accuracy (R2=0.866 and RMSE=0.919, SVM feature weight=4.294). This was in agreement with the results obtained from the second observations. Finally, by applying the entire 104 field observed SDD values, the model in form of SDD=0.077exp(1.209RB1

  17. Storm erosion during the past 2000 years along the north shore of Delaware Bay, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikitina, Daria L.; Kemp, Andrew C.; Horton, Benjamin P.; Vane, Christopher H.; van de Plassche, Orson; Engelhart, Simon E.

    2014-03-01

    The recent impacts of tropical cyclones and severe storms on the U.S. Atlantic coast brought into focus the need for extended records of storm activity from different geomorphologic settings. Such reconstructions are typically developed from sites that experienced repeated overwash of sand into low-energy, depositional environments. However, salt-marsh sediment may also preserve a record of repeated erosion from tropical cyclones and storms. We describe late Holocene sediments beneath the Sea Breeze salt marsh (Delaware Bay, New Jersey) from more than 200 gouge cores positioned along seven transects. The stratigraphic record documents at least seven depositional sequences consisting of salt-marsh peat and mud couplets that represent dramatic changes in sedimentation regime. There are a number of processes that could produce these stratigraphic sequences against a background of rising relative sea level including: lateral migration of tidal creeks; tidal channel network and/or drainage ditch expansion; changes in sediment delivery rates; rapid relative sea-level change; tsunami; and formation of salt pans. The abrupt contacts between the salt-marsh peat and overlying intertidal mud suggest that erosion of the peat was followed by rapid infilling of accommodation space. Correlation of erosional surfaces across 2.5 km suggests a common mechanism and we propose that the erosion was caused by tropical cyclones and/or storms. We developed a chronology of repeated salt-marsh erosion and recovery using 137Cs, metal pollution (Pb concentration and stable isotopes), and radiocarbon data. Two recent episodes of salt-marsh erosion may correlate with historic tropical cyclones in AD 1903, and AD 1821/1788 that impacted the Atlantic coast of New Jersey, but the erosive nature of the Sea Breeze site hinders definitive correlation. Prehistoric erosional sequences correlate with overwash fans preserved in the regional sedimentary record. We estimated that it takes from several

  18. Observations of large-amplitude cross-shore internal bores near the shelf break, Santa Monica Bay, CA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Noble, M.A.; Xu, J. P.

    2003-01-01

    Two sets of moorings were deployed along a cross-shelf transect in central Santa Monica bay for four months in the winter of 1998-1999. Both sites had an array of instruments attached to tripods set on the seafloor to monitor currents over the entire water column, surface waves, near-bed temperature, water clarity and suspended sediment. A companion mooring had temperature sensors spaced approximately 10 m apart to measure temperature profiles between the surface and the seafloor. One array was deployed in 70 m of water at a site adjacent to the shelf break, just northwest of a major ocean outfall. The other was deployed on the mid shelf in 35 m of water approximately 6 km from the shelf break site. The subtidal currents in the region flowed parallel to the isobaths with fluctuating time scales around 10 days, a typical coastal-ocean pattern. However, during the falling phase of the barotropic spring tide, sets of large-amplitude, sheared cross-shore current pulses with a duration of 2-5 h were observed at the shelf break site. Currents in these pulses flowed exclusively offshore in a thin layer near the bed with amplitudes reaching 30-40 cm/s. Simultaneously, currents with amplitudes around 15-20 cm/s flowed exclusively onshore in the thicker layer between the offshore flow layer and the sea surface. The net offshore transport was about half the onshore transport. Near-surface isotherms were depressed 30-40 m. These pulses were likely internal bores generated by tidal currents. Bed stresses associated with these events exceeded 3 dynes/cm2. These amplitudes are large enough to resuspend and transport not only fine-grained material, but also medium to coarse sands from the shelf toward the slope. Consequently, the seafloor over the shelf break was swept clear of fine sediments. The data suggest that the internal bores dissipate and are reduced in amplitude as they propagate across this relatively narrow shelf. There is evidence that they reach the 35 m site, but

  19. Across-shore variability in plankton layering and abundance associated with physical forcing in Monterey Bay, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sevadjian, J. C.; McManus, M. A.; Ryan, J.; Greer, A. T.; Cowen, R. K.; Woodson, C. B.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to further our understanding of the role of the coastal physical oceanographic environment as a dynamic and constantly evolving habitat for plankton. Over a 3-week period in the summer of 2010, an array of moorings were deployed and shipboard and autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) surveys were conducted to investigate the association between physical processes and plankton distributions over the Monterey Bay, California inner shelf. Acoustic backscatter, chlorophyll-a fluorescence, and high-resolution zooplankton imagery data collected during the shipboard surveys were used to map the distributions of phytoplankton and zooplankton; and profiles of temperature, salinity, oxygen, and nitrate from the AUV characterized the physical and chemical environment. A synthesis of underway and moored time series data provided insight into the histories of water masses in the area, and facilitated tracking of internal wave groups as they propagated towards shore. A near-bottom intrusion of recently-upwelled water was found to be strongly influenced by the diurnal tide, resulting in daily across-shelf excursions past the mooring array at the 20-m isobath. Behind the leading edge of the intrusion, the water column was highly stratified in temperature, salinity, oxygen, and nitrate; and thin layers of phytoplankton and zooplankton persisted at the upper boundary of the intrusion. In ambient waters shoreward of the intrusion, stratification was weak; copepod, appendicularian, and gelatinous zooplankton abundances were relatively low; and phytoplankton and acoustic backscatter were broadly distributed throughout the lower half of the water column. The arrival of two shoreward-propagating internal wave groups observed during the shipboard survey corresponded with disparate responses in plankton distribution. In the wake of the first wave group, phytoplankton and zooplankton layers thinned or converged; in the wake of the second wave group, an eight

  20. Long-term cliff retreat and erosion hotspots along the central shores of the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, Laura J.; Griggs, Gary B.

    2002-01-01

    Quantification of cliff retreat rates for the southern half of Santa Cruz County, CA, USA, located within the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary, using the softcopy/geographic information system (GIS) methodology results in average cliff retreat rates of 7–15 cm/yr between 1953 and 1994. The coastal dunes at the southern end of Santa Cruz County migrate seaward and landward through time and display net accretion between 1953 and 1994, which is partially due to development. In addition, three critically eroding segments of coastline with high average erosion rates ranging from 20 to 63 cm/yr are identified as erosion ‘hotspots’. These locations include: Opal Cliffs, Depot Hill and Manresa. Although cliff retreat is episodic, spatially variable at the scale of meters, and the factors affecting cliff retreat vary along the Santa Cruz County coastline, there is a compensation between factors affecting retreat such that over the long-term the coastline maintains a relatively smooth configuration. The softcopy/GIS methodology significantly reduces errors inherent in the calculation of retreat rates in high-relief areas (e.g. erosion rates generated in this study are generally correct to within 10 cm) by removing errors due to relief displacement. Although the resulting root mean squared error for erosion rates is relatively small, simple projections of past erosion rates are inadequate to provide predictions of future cliff position. Improved predictions can be made for individual coastal segments by using a mean erosion rate and the standard deviation as guides to future cliff behavior in combination with an understanding of processes acting along the coastal segments in question. This methodology can be applied on any high-relief coast where retreat rates can be measured.

  1. [Microbiological and isotopic geochemical investigation of Lake Kislo-Sladkoe, a meromictic water body at the Kandalaksha Bay Shore (White Sea)].

    PubMed

    Savvichev, A S; Lunina, O N; Rusanov, I I; Zakharova, E E; Veslopolova, E F; Ivanov, M V

    2014-01-01

    Microbiological, biogeochemical, and isotopic geochemical investigation of Lake Kislo-Sladkoe (Polusolenoe in early publications) at the Kandalaksha Bay shore (White Sea) was carried out in September 2010. Lake Kislo-Sladkoe was formed in the mid-1900s out of a sea gulf due to a coastal heave. At the time of investigation, the surface layer was saturated with oxygen, while near-bottom water contained sulfide (up to 32 mg/L). Total number of microorganisms was high (12.3 x 10(6) cells/mL on average). Light CO2 fixation exhibited two pronounced peaks. In the oxic zone, the highest rates of photosynthesis were detected at 1.0 and 2.0 m. The second, more pronounced peak of light CO2 fixation was associated with activity of anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria in the anoxic layer at the depth of 2.9 m (413 μg C L(-1) day(-1)). Green-colored green sulfur bacteria (GSB) predominated in the upper anoxic layer (2.7-2.9 m), their numbers being as high as 1.12 x 10(4) cells/mL, while brown-colored GSB predominated in the lower horizons. The rates of both sulfate reduction and methanogenesis peaked in the 2.9 m horizon (1690 μg S L(-1) day(-1) and 2.9 μL CH4 L(-1) day(-1)). The isotopic composition of dissolved methane from the near-bottom water layer (δ13C (CH4) = -87.76 per thousand) was significantly lighter than in the upper horizons (δ13C (CH4) = -77.95 per thousand). The most isotopically heavy methane (δ13C (CH4) = -72.61 per thousand) was retrieved from the depth of 2.9 m. The rate of methane oxidation peaked in the same horizon. As a result of these reactions, organic matter (OM) carbon of the 2.9 m horizon became lighter (-36.36 per thousand), while carbonate carbon became heavier (-7.56 per thousand). Thus, our results demonstrated that Lake Kislo-Sladkoe is a stratified meromictic lake with active microbial cycles of carbon and sulfur. Suspended matter in the water column was mostly of autochthonous origin. Anoxygenic photosynthesis coupled to utilization of

  2. Shoring pumping station excavation

    SciTech Connect

    Glover, J.B.; Reardon, D.J. )

    1991-11-01

    The city of San Mateo, Calif., operates three 12- to 50-year old wastewater pumping stations on a 24-m (80-ft) wide lot located in a residential area near San Francisco Bay. Because the aging stations have difficulty pumping peak 2.19-m{sup 3}/s (50-mgd) wet-weather flows and have structural and maintenance problems, a new 2.62-m{sup 3}/s (60-mgd) station was proposed - the Dale Avenue Pumping Station - to replace the existing ones. To prevent potential damage to adjacent homes, the new station was originally conceived as a circular caisson type; however, a geotechnical investigation recommended against this type of structure because the stiff soils could make sinking the structure difficult. This prompted an investigation of possible shoring methods for the proposed structure. Several shoring systems were investigated, including steel sheeting, soldier beams and lagging, tieback systems, open excavation, and others; however, each had disadvantages that prevented its use. Because these conventional techniques were unacceptable, attention was turned to using deep soil mixing (DSM) to create a diaphragm wall around the area to be excavated before constructing the pumping station. Although this method has been used extensively in Japan since 1983, the Dale Avenue Pumping Station would be the technology's first US application. The technology's anticipated advantages were its impermeability, its fast and efficient installation that did not require tiebacks under existing homes, its adaptability to subsurface conditions ranging from soft ground to stiff clay to gravels, and its lack of pile-driving requirements that would cause high vibration levels during installation.

  3. Bay Mills' Bold Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Eric

    2011-01-01

    It's a long, long way from Bay Mills Community College, near the shores of frigid Lake Superior, to Detroit. But distance, time and demographics aside, the school and the city are united by Bay Mills' status as the nation's only tribally controlled college that authorizes quasi-public schools, known officially as public school academies. And it's…

  4. 33 CFR 110.224 - San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, Sacramento River, San Joaquin...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... maintained by a person who fluently speaks the English language. b. Each vessel using this anchorage may not... the west shore of San Francisco Bay and the following lines: Beginning on the shore southwest of Point...) Anchorage No. 5, Southampton Shoal. In San Francisco Bay at Southampton Shoal bounded by a line...

  5. 33 CFR 110.224 - San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, Sacramento River, San Joaquin...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... maintained by a person who fluently speaks the English language. b. Each vessel using this anchorage may not... the west shore of San Francisco Bay and the following lines: Beginning on the shore southwest of Point...) Anchorage No. 5, Southampton Shoal. In San Francisco Bay at Southampton Shoal bounded by a line...

  6. Near Shore Wave Processes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    to breaking waves described using the roller concept (Lippmann and Thornton, 1999), alongshore wind stress, cross-shore advection of mean momentum of...Lippmann and Thornton, 1999), and O[10] percent improvement by including the momentum mixing by the advection of the longshore current momentum by the mean...process modeling of breaking waves, momentum mixing due to the interaction of longshore and cross-shore vertical mean profiles, and bottom shear stress

  7. Use of remote sensing in shoreline and near shore management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capper, J. R.

    1972-01-01

    The legal aspects of resources management to regulate near-shore and shoreline area activities in the Chesapeake Bay are discussed. The need for information and acquisition in order to define the resources prior to developing legislation on resources management is explained. The steps which are followed in devising the regulatory legislation and enforcing its provisions are outlined.

  8. Life on Our Shore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Graham; Grassam, Matthew; Scott, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    St. Martin's Church of England Primary School in Scarborough, North Yorkshire, enjoys a unique location, being approximately 10 minutes walk from a rocky shore and a similar distance from the University of Hull (Scarborough Campus) and its Centre for Environmental and Marine Sciences. A grant provided by the Royal Society (under their Education…

  9. Maumee Bay State Park, Ohio. Shoreline Erosion Beach Restoration Study. Final Feasibility Report and Final Environmental Impact Statement. Interim to Western Lake Erie Shore Study. Volume 1. Main Report. Revised.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    field that prevents longshore transport of beach sand to the west. The four 450-foot long rubblemound groins would be spaced at 1,100 feet on centers...shoreline at Maumee Bay State Park should be considered. This option had previously been explored in the preliminary stage but had been dropped from...00N Benelopment n 1.133.000 0,154.000 ,110,000 5,085,000 6.23,000 , Economie Efficieney I (l) Not aseal Benfits - 6,703.500 t 6.69L.100 6.716.100

  10. SSRL Emergency Response Shore Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mah, Robert W.; Papasin, Richard; McIntosh, Dawn M.; Denham, Douglas; Jorgensen, Charles; Betts, Bradley J.; Del Mundo, Rommel

    2006-01-01

    The SSRL Emergency Response Shore Tool (wherein SSRL signifies Smart Systems Research Laboratory ) is a computer program within a system of communication and mobile-computing software and hardware being developed to increase the situational awareness of first responders at building collapses. This program is intended for use mainly in planning and constructing shores to stabilize partially collapsed structures. The program consists of client and server components, runs in the Windows operating system on commercial off-the-shelf portable computers, and can utilize such additional hardware as digital cameras and Global Positioning System devices. A first responder can enter directly, into a portable computer running this program, the dimensions of a required shore. The shore dimensions, plus an optional digital photograph of the shore site, can then be uploaded via a wireless network to a server. Once on the server, the shore report is time-stamped and made available on similarly equipped portable computers carried by other first responders, including shore wood cutters and an incident commander. The staff in a command center can use the shore reports and photographs to monitor progress and to consult with structural engineers to assess whether a building is in imminent danger of further collapse.

  11. 33 CFR 334.320 - Chesapeake Bay entrance; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.320 Chesapeake Bay entrance; naval restricted area. (a) The area. Beginning at a point on the south shore of Chesapeake Bay at...″, longitude 75°51′00″; thence to the shore at longitude 75°58′48″, and thence northwesterly and...

  12. 33 CFR 334.320 - Chesapeake Bay entrance; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.320 Chesapeake Bay entrance; naval restricted area. (a) The area. Beginning at a point on the south shore of Chesapeake Bay at...″, longitude 75°51′00″; thence to the shore at longitude 75°58′48″, and thence northwesterly and...

  13. [NO3-/NO2- inhibits sulfate-reducing activity of the enrichment culture of sulfate-reducing prokaryotes from an off-shore oil reservoir at Bohai Bay, China].

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong-Yu; Shi, Rong-Jiu; Zhang, Ying; Shi, Zhen-Guo; Zhang, Ying-Yue; Yu, Liang; Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Tan, Tao

    2014-08-01

    Long-term injection of sulfate-rich water into oil reservoirs stimulates the proliferation of sulfate-reducing prokaryotes (SRP) therein and results in production of a great amount of H2S, leading to souring in oil reservoirs and related environmental problems. In this study, we first, using modified API RP 38 medium, enriched SRP present in production water from a producing well at Bohai Bay, China, and then examined the inhibitory effects of nitrate or nitrite on sulfate reduction activity of the SRP. Results showed that the enriched SRP culture exhibited a high sulfate reduction activity as indicated by a sulfate-reducing rate of 10.4 mmol SO4(2-) x d(-1) x g(-1) dry cell. In presence of 0.4, 0.8, 1.8, and 4.2 mmol x L(-1) nitrate, sulfate reduction was inhibited for 5, 9, 20, and over 35 days, respectively. With the addition of 0.6, 0.9, 1.4, 2.6 and 4.6 mmol x L(-1) of nitrite, the inhibitory period lasted 3, 12, 22, and over 39 days, respectively. The SRP enrichment culture could dissimilatorily reduce nitrate to ammonium. When sulfate, nitrate and nitrite coexisted, nitrate or nitrite was preferentially used over sulfate as electron acceptor by the enriched SRP. This competitive use of electron acceptor and the strong inhibitory effect of nitrite possibly accounted for the suppression of nitrate and nitrite on the sulfate-reducing activity of the enriched SRP cultures from offshore oil reservoir at Bohai Bay.

  14. The Variety of Shore Birds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varza, Dennis

    1977-01-01

    The types of habitats that exist along the ocean shore and the various types of birds inhabiting them are detailed. Topics discussed include shorebird feeding habits and methods, nesting patterns, and seasonal migration. (BT)

  15. 14. LOOKING WEST INTO THE EAST PURSUIT PLANE BAY OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. LOOKING WEST INTO THE EAST PURSUIT PLANE BAY OF AR-9. LOW WALLED CREW SHELTER AT RIGHT. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base, Rammed Earth Aircraft Dispersal Revetments, Western Shore of Rogers Dry Lake, Boron, Kern County, CA

  16. 46 CFR 169.686 - Shore power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shore power. 169.686 Section 169.686 Shipping COAST... Gross Tons § 169.686 Shore power. If a shore power connection is provided it must meet the following requirements: (a) A shore power connection box or receptacle and a cable connecting this box or receptacle...

  17. 46 CFR 169.686 - Shore power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Shore power. 169.686 Section 169.686 Shipping COAST... Gross Tons § 169.686 Shore power. If a shore power connection is provided it must meet the following requirements: (a) A shore power connection box or receptacle and a cable connecting this box or receptacle...

  18. 46 CFR 169.686 - Shore power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Shore power. 169.686 Section 169.686 Shipping COAST... Gross Tons § 169.686 Shore power. If a shore power connection is provided it must meet the following requirements: (a) A shore power connection box or receptacle and a cable connecting this box or receptacle...

  19. 46 CFR 169.686 - Shore power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Shore power. 169.686 Section 169.686 Shipping COAST... Gross Tons § 169.686 Shore power. If a shore power connection is provided it must meet the following requirements: (a) A shore power connection box or receptacle and a cable connecting this box or receptacle...

  20. 46 CFR 169.686 - Shore power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Shore power. 169.686 Section 169.686 Shipping COAST... Gross Tons § 169.686 Shore power. If a shore power connection is provided it must meet the following requirements: (a) A shore power connection box or receptacle and a cable connecting this box or receptacle...

  1. 33 CFR 334.1150 - Monterey Bay, Calif.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and is approximately parallel to the shore. (ii) The danger zone is divided into a short range area...° true to the shore. (2) The regulations. The danger zone will be used for training in various phases of... DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1150 Monterey Bay, Calif. (a) Firing range,...

  2. Sea Searcher's Handbook: Activities from the Monterey Bay Aquarium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monterey Bay Aquarium Foundation, Monterey, CA.

    The activities in this book guide exploration of rocky shores, wetlands, sandy shores, kelp forests, the open sea and deep sea, and introduce students to a variety of topics and different approaches. This material is written by marine educators and was tested with over 70,000 children visiting the Monterey Bay Aquarium (California) each year. The…

  3. Investigation of Tidal Power, Cobscook Bay, Maine.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    algae are common along the shore and in the intertidal and subtidal areas of the bay. Brown algae are dominant in the rocky intertidal and subtidal plant...loss of mixing within the wate, column would affect the existing organisms. Nine species of marine mammals are common to the Gulf of Maine and the...to the present shore line. After the glacier had melted back somc distance from the coast, silt and clay were laid down over the previous sediments in

  4. Hurricane Frederic tidal floods of September 12-13, 1979, along the Gulf Coast, Gulf Shores quadrangle, Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, John C.; Bohman, Larry R.

    1980-01-01

    Shown on the Gulf Shores topographic map are floodmark elevations and approximate areas flooded by Hurricane Frederic tides of September 12-13, 1979, along the shores of the Gulf of Mexico, Oyster Bay, and the Bon Secour River, in Alabama. Most beachfront homes in the Gulf Shores area and most homes fronting on Little Lagoon in western Gulf Shores were either destroyed or heavily damaged. All beachfront motels were severly damaged. Damage to homes and other buildings in the Oyster Bay-Bon Secour area was not as great. Storm-tide frequency and records of annual maximum tides at Mobile, Ala., since 1772, are presented. Offshore winds reached about 160 miles per hour. A wind-velocity of about 145 miles per hour was recorded near Dauphin Island, Ala. (USGS)

  5. On Sandy Shores. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strang, Craig; And Others

    The activities in this guide (for grades 2-4) transport students to the sandy shore, one of the most fascinating ecosystems on the planet. At this ecological juncture a multiplicity of life forms find ways to survive, thrive, and interact with each other. Using a wide variety of learning formats, students explore and deepen their understanding of…

  6. Western Lake Erie Shore Study, Ohio. Reconnaissance Report (Stage 1) on Flood Protection and Shoreline Erosion Control,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    Representatives, United States, that the Board of Engineers for Rivers and Harbors is hereby requested to review the report, Lake Erie Shore Line from the...FFR and its recommendations is reviewed by the North Central Division of the Corps, the Board of Engineers for Rivers and Harbors, the Office of the...Erosion and Beach Restoration at Maumee Bay State Park, Ohio under the Western Lake Erie Shore study authorization. Approval to conduct this interim

  7. 46 CFR 183.390 - Shore power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 183.390 Shore power. A vessel with an electrical system operating at more than 50 volts, which is provided with a means to connect to shore...

  8. Bay-Ocean Coupling and the Proximal Fate of Water-Borne Material Exported from San Francisco Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Largier, J. L.

    2012-12-01

    The coupling between San Francisco Bay and the ocean is poorly known: how ocean waters intrude into bay and how bay waters flow out into the ocean. Here we address the outflow from the Bay with a view to describing the proximal fate of water-borne material in the coastal ocean, specifically finer particles and dissolved material. Flow trajectories longer than that in the tidal jet are thus the focus of this study - time scales of hours to days. We present data collected in both winter/runoff and spring/upwelling seasons that reflect the importance of tides and also the importance of wind, which introduces either northward or southward along-coast flow. Southward flow is offshore and typically this Bay effluent is removed from nearshore waters. In contrast, northward flow tends to remain attached to shore, and there is persistent presence of Bay waters in the surface layer up to Point Reyes, only occasionally separated from the coast by local upwelling within Drakes Bay. Perhaps most dramatic is outflow during winter storms, when wind is southerly and pushes water on shore in Drakes Bay as well as inducing an intense flow around Point Reyes, which turns cyclonically to reconnect with the shore in the vicinity of Bodega Bay before forming a wind-accelerated coast-attached current that looks very much like a coastal buoyancy current. This is the time when large volumes of low-salinity and high-load waters are exported from the Bay.

  9. 46 CFR 129.390 - Shore power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Shore power. 129.390 Section 129.390 Shipping COAST... Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.390 Shore power. Each vessel that has an electrical system operating at more than 50 volts and has provisions for receiving shore power must meet the requirements...

  10. 46 CFR 129.390 - Shore power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Shore power. 129.390 Section 129.390 Shipping COAST... Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.390 Shore power. Each vessel that has an electrical system operating at more than 50 volts and has provisions for receiving shore power must meet the requirements...

  11. 46 CFR 183.390 - Shore power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Shore power. 183.390 Section 183.390 Shipping COAST...) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 183.390 Shore power. A vessel with an electrical system operating at more than 50 volts, which is provided with a means to connect to shore...

  12. 46 CFR 183.390 - Shore power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Shore power. 183.390 Section 183.390 Shipping COAST...) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 183.390 Shore power. A vessel with an electrical system operating at more than 50 volts, which is provided with a means to connect to shore...

  13. 46 CFR 129.390 - Shore power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Shore power. 129.390 Section 129.390 Shipping COAST... Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.390 Shore power. Each vessel that has an electrical system operating at more than 50 volts and has provisions for receiving shore power must meet the requirements...

  14. 46 CFR 183.390 - Shore power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Shore power. 183.390 Section 183.390 Shipping COAST...) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 183.390 Shore power. A vessel with an electrical system operating at more than 50 volts, which is provided with a means to connect to shore...

  15. 46 CFR 183.390 - Shore power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 183.390 Shore power. A vessel with an electrical system operating at more than 50 volts, which is provided with a means to connect to shore power... that shore power and the vessel's power sources may not be operated simultaneously....

  16. Possible management of near shore nonlinear surging waves through bottom boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Abhik; Janaki, M. S.; Kundu, Anjan

    2017-03-01

    We propose an alternative way for managing near shore surging waves, including extreme waves like tsunamis, going beyond the conventional passive measures like the warning system. We study theoretically the possibility of influencing the nonlinear surface waves through a leakage boundary effect at the bottom. It has been found through analytic result, that the controlled leakage at the bottom might regulate the amplitude of the surface solitary waves. This could lead to a possible decay of the surging waves to reduce its hazardous effects near the shore. Our theoretical results are estimated by applying it to a real coastal bathymetry of the Bay of Bengal in India.

  17. 33 CFR 334.140 - Chesapeake Bay; U.S. Army Proving Ground Reservation, Aberdeen, Md.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Point; thence southeasterly along the low water mark on the shore of Chesapeake Bay to and across the north entrance of Spesutie Narrows to and thence along the low water mark on the north shore of Spesutie... approximately 1,400 yards; thence following a line parallel with and 1,000 yards from the low water mark on...

  18. Ship2Shore Marine Educators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewing, N. R.; Sen, G.; Doehler, S.

    2012-12-01

    The Ocean Networks Canada (ONC) Observatory, comprised of VENUS and NEPTUNE Canada (NC) cabled networks, supports transformative coastal to deep ocean research and enables real-time interactive experiments. Engaging students, educators and the public is critical to increasing the global awareness of our integral relationship with the ocean. One way to accomplish this is to encourage educators to incorporate marine science concepts into their lesson plans. ONC's new initiative, Ship2Shore Marine Educators (S2SME), enables educators to learn first hand about marine science and technology by going to sea on a maintenance/research cruise. While at sea Marine Educators (ME) participate in technology deployments, assist with water and core sampling, write daily blogs, produce short video updates, develop learning resources and conduct presentations to students on shore via video conferencing. MEs participating in the last NC cruise -"Wiring the Abyss 2012" - were fascinated with being a part of science in the real world. They had an experience of a lifetime and anticipate incorporating what they have learned into their lessons during the upcoming semester. Outreach between the MEs and ONC communication staff aboard the ship resulted in nearly 7,000 unique visitors to the "Wiring the Abyss 2012'' cruise website. Live ROPOS video feeds (~ 9,000 views), highlight videos (436 views/day), daily blogs (~1200 views) and stunning images (~391 views/day) were among the top rated pages. Visitors from 10 countries tuned in to "Wiring the Abyss 2012" and experienced the Pacific's deep sea! One of the best experiences for the MEs was connecting with students and teachers on shore via video conferencing. Roughly 300 students in BC and USA received a live connection from approximately 200km off the west coast. Students were most fascinated by a demo involving compressed Styrofoam cups, showing the intensity of pressure at the bottom of the sea. Successes: A positive working

  19. Spatial and seasonal patterns of ichthyoplankton assemblages in the Haizhou Bay and its adjacent waters of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zengguang; Ye, Zhenjiang; Wan, Rong

    2015-12-01

    Surveys were conducted in five voyages in Haizhou Bay and its adjacent coastal area from March to December 2011 during full moon spring tides. The ichthyoplankton assemblages and the environmental factors that affect their spatial and seasonal patterns were determined. Totally 35 and 12 fish egg and larvae taxa were identified, respectively. Over the past several decades, the egg and larval species composition has significantly changed in Haizhou Bay and its adjacent waters, most likely corresponding with the alteration of fishery resources, which are strongly affected by anthropogenic activities and climate change. The Bray-Curtis dissimilarity index identified four assemblages: near-shore bay assemblage, middle bay assemblage and two closely related assemblages (near-shore/middle bay assemblage and middle/edge of bay assemblage). The primary species of each assemblage principally reflected the spawning strategies of adult fish. The near-shore bay assemblage generally occurred in near-shore bay, with depths measuring <20 m, and the middle bay assemblage generally occurred in the middle of bay, with depths measuring 20 to 40 m. Spatial and seasonal variations in ichthyoplankton in each assemblage were determined by interactions between biological behavioral traits and oceanographic features, particularly the variation of local conditions within the constraint of a general reproductive strategy. The results of Spearman's rank correlation analysis indicated that both fish egg and larval abundance were positively correlated with depth, which is critical to the oceanographic features in Haizhou Bay.

  20. 46 CFR 120.390 - Shore power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shore power. 120.390 Section 120.390 Shipping COAST... PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 120.390 Shore power. A vessel with an electrical system operating at...

  1. 46 CFR 120.390 - Shore power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Shore power. 120.390 Section 120.390 Shipping COAST... PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 120.390 Shore power. A vessel with an electrical system operating at...

  2. 46 CFR 120.390 - Shore power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Shore power. 120.390 Section 120.390 Shipping COAST... PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 120.390 Shore power. A vessel with an electrical system operating at...

  3. 46 CFR 120.390 - Shore power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Shore power. 120.390 Section 120.390 Shipping COAST... PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 120.390 Shore power. A vessel with an electrical system operating at...

  4. 46 CFR 120.390 - Shore power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Shore power. 120.390 Section 120.390 Shipping COAST... PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 120.390 Shore power. A vessel with an electrical system operating at...

  5. 46 CFR 129.390 - Shore power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.390 Shore power. Each vessel that has an electrical system operating at more than 50 volts and has provisions for receiving shore power must meet the requirements of...'s switchboard simultaneously, except in cases where system devices permit safe momentary...

  6. 46 CFR 129.390 - Shore power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Shore power. 129.390 Section 129.390 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.390 Shore power. Each vessel that has an electrical...

  7. Shore height and differentials between macrobenthic assemblages in vegetated and unvegetated areas of an intertidal sandflat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, R. S. K.; Barnes, M. K. S.

    2012-06-01

    Intertidal macrobenthic faunal assemblages of a dual seagrass/callianassid-structured sandflat system were investigated in subtropical Moreton Bay, Queensland. Consistently across all 20 stations, the gastropod-dominated seagrass supported greater abundance (2.5×) and species richness (2×) than the amphipod-dominated sandflat. There was no evidence of along-shore or up-shore variation in the overall assemblage properties such as total abundance, species richness or diversity within either habitat type, except for variation in sandflat abundance between sites. But seagrass and sandflat assemblages both varied significantly in composition from site to site, and seagrass assemblage composition also varied with shore height. Shore height and site, however, only accounted for ≤41% of total variation. The two faunal assemblages showed a Bray-Curtis dissimilarity of 97.7% and within-habitat similarities of <20%. There was no consistency in distribution of greater diversity, dominance or evenness. No differential between any assemblage features in adjacent sandflat and seagrass samples changed with shore height, supporting hypotheses that such differentials are not maintained by predation. Macrofaunal species richness and diversity were closely coupled within sandflat stations but were uncoupled within seagrass ones, questioning the value of diversity as a comparative measure.

  8. Monazite in Atlantic shore-line features

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dryden, Lincoln; Miller, Glen A.

    1954-01-01

    This report is a survey of present and potential production of monazite from part of the Maryland-Florida section of the Atlantic Coastal Plain. The part of the Coastal Plain covered here is the outer (shore-ward) half. In this area, all the large heavy-mineral placers so far discovered occur in sand bodies that, by their shape, size, orientation, and lithology, appear to be ancient beaches, spits, bars, or dunes. Smaller placers have produced from recent shore-line features. The inner part of the Coastal Plain, to be treated in another report, is underlain generally by older rocks, ranging in age from Cretaceous to older Pleistocene. Only two large heavy-mineral placers are now in production at Trail Ridge, and near Jacksonville, both in Florida. Production is planned for the near future near Yulee, Fla.: in Folkston, Ga.: and at one or two localities in eastern North Carolina. Each of these three will produce monazite as a byproduct; the total new reserve for the three placers is about 33,000 tons of monazite. In large heavy-mineral placers of this type, monazite has not been found to run more than about 1 percent of total heavy minerals. In some large placers, notably Trail Ridge, it is almost or completely lacking. No reason for its sporadic occurrence has been found in this investigation. Two placers of potential economic value have been found by this project in Virginia, one west and one east of Chesapeake Bay. Neither is of promise for monazite production, but if they serve to open up exploration or production in the area, there is a chance for monazite as a byproduct from other placers. A discovery of considerable scientific interest has to do with the occurrence of two different suites of heavy minerals in the Coastal Plain, at least south of Virginia. One, an “older” suite, lacks epidote, hornblende, and garnet; this suite occurs in all older formations and in Pleistocene deposits lying above about 50 or 60 feet above sea level. The other,

  9. 33 CFR 334.1160 - San Pablo Bay, Calif.; target practice area, Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) The danger zone. A sector in San Pablo Bay adjacent to the westerly shore of Mare Island with a radius... Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED...

  10. Numerical simulation of the thermal conditions in a sea bay water area used for water supply to nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Sokolov, A. S.

    2013-07-15

    Consideration is given to the numerical simulation of the thermal conditions in sea water areas used for both water supply to and dissipation of low-grade heat from a nuclear power plant on the shore of a sea bay.

  11. 15 CFR Appendix C to Subpart H of... - No-Anchoring Seagrass Protection Zones in Tomales Bay

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Gulf... approximately 3.94 hectares in the vicinity of Indian Beach along the western shore of Tomales Bay. The...

  12. The Fur Trade as an Environment for Education: Problems and Implications from Hudson Bay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Jennifer S. H.

    Fur trade settlements in North America were a fertile environment for cultural education. The fur trade became a network of closely linked social spheres in which individuals had to acquire competence in order to function and survive. The Hudson Bay Company's decision to plant permanent posts on the shores of the Hudson Bay put settlers and their…

  13. 33 CFR 334.320 - Chesapeake Bay entrance; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... restricted area. 334.320 Section 334.320 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.320 Chesapeake Bay entrance; naval restricted area. (a) The area. Beginning at a point on the south shore of Chesapeake Bay...

  14. 33 CFR 334.320 - Chesapeake Bay entrance; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... restricted area. 334.320 Section 334.320 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.320 Chesapeake Bay entrance; naval restricted area. (a) The area. Beginning at a point on the south shore of Chesapeake Bay...

  15. 33 CFR 334.800 - Corpus Christi Bay, Tex.; seaplane restricted area, U.S. Naval Air Station, Corpus Christi.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND... follows: Beginning at a point on the south shore of Corpus Christi Bay at the “North Gate” of the U.S...′41.6″ 97°15′33.3″ thence to a point on shore at latitude 27°40′44.9″ N.; thence along the shore...

  16. 33 CFR 334.800 - Corpus Christi Bay, Tex.; seaplane restricted area, U.S. Naval Air Station, Corpus Christi.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND... follows: Beginning at a point on the south shore of Corpus Christi Bay at the “North Gate” of the U.S...′41.6″ 97°15′33.3″ thence to a point on shore at latitude 27°40′44.9″ N.; thence along the shore...

  17. 33 CFR 334.1090 - San Francisco Bay in vicinity of the NSC Fuel Department, Point Molate restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND... restricted area. (a) The area. Bounded by the easterly shore of upper San Francisco Bay and the following lines: Beginning at a point on shore bearing 17° 800 yards, from “Tree” at Molate Point thence 270°,...

  18. 33 CFR 334.1090 - San Francisco Bay in vicinity of the NSC Fuel Department, Point Molate restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND... restricted area. (a) The area. Bounded by the easterly shore of upper San Francisco Bay and the following lines: Beginning at a point on shore bearing 17° 800 yards, from “Tree” at Molate Point thence 270°,...

  19. Along the Coast & Close to Shore.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NatureScope, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Considers the characteristics of beaches, rocky shores, coral reefs, and kelp forests. Discusses plants and animals that live in these habitats. Activities include life between the tides, reef buddies, sea forests, seaside adventure, and four copycat pages. (RT)

  20. Nelson River and Hudson Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Rivers that empty into large bodies of water can have a significant impact on the thawing of nearshore winter ice. This true-color Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image from May 18, 2001, shows the Nelson River emptying spring runoff from the Manitoba province to the south into the southwestern corner of Canada's Hudson Bay. The warmer waters from more southern latitudes hasten melting of ice near the shore, though some still remained, perhaps because in shallow coastal waters, the ice could have been anchored to the bottom. High volumes of sediment in the runoff turned the inflow brown, and the rim of the retreating ice has taken on a dirty appearance even far to the east of the river's entrance into the Bay. The sediment would have further hastened the melting of the ice because its darker color would have absorbed more solar radiation than cleaner, whiter ice. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  1. The Relationship Between Sea Breeze Forcing and HF Radar-Derived Surface Currents in Monterey Bay

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    counter clockwise GARP GEMPAK Analysis and Rendering Program GEMPAK General Meteorology Package HF high frequency MBARI Monterey Bay Aquarium Research...Ocean Dynamics Application Radar (CODAR), Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI), and a 915 MHz wind profiler along the Monterey Bay coast...weak land breeze. In Hendrickson and MacMahan’s study (2009) they pointed out that “[d]uring sea breeze cross-shore exchange of material seems to

  2. Biscayne bay: A bibliography of the marine environment

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, K.K.

    1993-04-01

    The history of Miami and Biscayne Bay are intimately related. In addition to food, industry, transportation and recreation, the Bay provides a constant source of aesthetic satisfaction for those who live and work along its shores. Information on the marine environment of Biscayne Bay includes pollution, monitoring, conservation and protection, coastal and resource management, artificial reefs, fishery assessments, park and marina construction, estuarine dynamics, and sampling. This bibliographic database containing over 1,700 entries was compiled using PROCITE software, produced by Personal Bibliographic Software, Inc.

  3. Prediction of cross-shore beach profile evolution using a diffusion type model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karunarathna, Harshinie; Horrillo-Caraballo, Jose M.; Reeve, Dominic E.

    2012-10-01

    A medium term morphodynamic prediction model for beach profiles, based on a 1-D diffusion formulation, is demonstrated here. The model combines an inverse methodology with a data-driven approach to derive unknown key parameters in the model governing equation. The field site used to demonstrate the model is Milford-on-Sea beach located within the Christchurch Bay beach system on the south coast of the UK, where historic measurements of cross-shore beach profile surveys and incident waves have been recorded over two decades. Despite the simplicity of the modelling approach, the model gives encouraging predictions of cross-shore beach profile changes at Milford-on-Sea. The predictive ability of the model is tested by forecasting measured beach changes on the basis of parameter calibrations performed on an independent set of measurements. Comparisons are also made against the results of a purely data-driven technique. In both cases the new method shows measureable improvements.

  4. 33 CFR 334.1160 - San Pablo Bay, Calif.; target practice area, Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS § 334.1160 San Pablo Bay, Calif.; target practice area, Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo. (a) The danger zone. A sector in San Pablo Bay adjacent to the westerly shore of Mare Island with a radius of 4,700 yards, centered at a point bearing 316° true, 3,605 yards, from Mare Island Strait Light...

  5. Chesapeake Bay Tidal Flooding Study. Appendix A. Problem Identification. Appendix B. Plan Formulation, Assessment and Evaluation. Appendix C. Recreation and Natural Resources.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-09-01

    area. Several varieties of duck and geese are common . Along with other shore and marsh birds, they make up the migratory and resident bird populations...COMMUNITIES STATE OF MARYLAND Anne Arundel County Caroline County St. Mary’s County *Arundel on the Bay Choptank Colton *Avalon Shores (Shady Side, *Denton...Piney Point Curtis Pt. to Horeshoe Pt. Federalsburg St. Clement Shores and West Shady Side) St. George Island Broadwater Cecil County Columbia Beach

  6. Migrant Farmworkers on Virginia's Eastern Shore.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia Advisory Committee to the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, Richmond.

    The living and working conditions of migrant farmworkers on the Eastern Shore of Virginia have been described as deplorable and possibly the worst in the nation. At the same time, growers in this region have complained of duplication, even triplication, of federal and state regulations designed to improve living and working conditions of these…

  7. Field Trip to a Rocky Shore.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine Univ., Orono. Cooperative Extension Service.

    Field trip activities designed for use on Maine's coast are provided, with brief definitions of the major physical zones to be found in this area. An introduction to the study of zonation of plants and animals living on the rocky shore is presented along with a list of the materials needed and the procedures to be followed when making a study of…

  8. 3. View northwest across East Shore Drive toward the Carr ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View northwest across East Shore Drive toward the Carr Family burial plot (Wanton Cemetery) at northeast corner of Nicholas Carr Farm - Nicholas Carr Farm, Bounded by North, Weeden, & East Shore Roads, Jamestown, Newport County, RI

  9. 33 CFR 334.110 - Delaware Bay off Cape Henlopen, Del.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334... the south shore of Delaware Bay at longitude 75°06′12″; thence to latitude 38°47′25″, longitude 75°06...′11″; thence to latitude 38°49′16″, longitude 74°59′35″; thence to a point on the shore at latitude...

  10. 33 CFR 334.110 - Delaware Bay off Cape Henlopen, Del.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334... the south shore of Delaware Bay at longitude 75°06′12″; thence to latitude 38°47′25″, longitude 75°06...′11″; thence to latitude 38°49′16″, longitude 74°59′35″; thence to a point on the shore at latitude...

  11. Removing shore protection structures to facilitate migration of landforms and habitats on the bayside of a barrier spit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordstrom, Karl F.; Jackson, Nancy L.

    2013-10-01

    Coastal landforms and habitats require space to reform in response to storm damage to increase the likelihood of long-term sustainability. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the potential for removing shore protection structures to allow natural shoreline processes to prevail as part of a strategy to adapt to sea level rise associated with climate change. The location of the study was Sandy Hook Spit, New Jersey, a site managed by the U.S. National Park Service (NPS). A field investigation was conducted to identify the structures that impede migration of landforms and habitats, the function of each structure in protecting resources, and the opportunities to facilitate landform migration by removing the structures or allowing them to deteriorate. Nineteen shore-parallel walls are present along the ocean and bay shore of a 10 km long portion of the spit. Most of the shore protection structures were built when the spit was formerly used by the US Army, and many bulkheads on the bay shore have deteriorated. Sediment will become available to the longshore transport system where protection structures are removed, contributing to spit growth at the ends of drift cells, possibly mimicking the spits that were more conspicuous on the bay shore prior to human alterations. Observations indicate that new habitat can be created by loss and re-creation in a different location by longshore extension, not just by landward migration. Allowing shore protection structures to deteriorate will leave human infrastructure in the landscape. Removing these structures is more costly but can result in a more rapid reversion to a natural system. The time horizon is critical in determining the social, political and economic feasibility of removing structures and the expectations for geomorphic and habitat change. The feasibility of protecting threatened buildings and roads will decrease in the future as sea level rises and the existing protection structures degrade or fall below new

  12. Local wind forcing of the Monterey Bay area inner shelf

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drake, P.T.; McManus, M.A.; Storlazzi, C.D.

    2005-01-01

    Wind forcing and the seasonal cycles of temperature and currents were investigated on the inner shelf of the Monterey Bay area of the California coast for 460 days, from June 2001 to September 2002. Temperature measurements spanned an approximate 100 km stretch of coastline from a bluff just north of Monterey Bay south to Point Sur. Inner shelf currents were measured at two sites near the bay's northern shore. Seasonal temperature variations were consistent with previous observations from the central California shelf. During the spring, summer and fall, a seasonal mean alongshore current was observed flowing northwestward in the northern bay, in direct opposition to a southeastward wind stress. A barotropic alongshore pressure gradient, potentially driving the northwestward flow, was needed to balance the alongshore momentum equation. With the exception of the winter season, vertical profiles of mean cross-shore currents were consistent with two-dimensional upwelling and existing observations from upwelling regions with poleward subsurface flow. At periods of 15-60 days, temperature fluctuations were coherent both throughout the domain and with the regional wind field. Remote wind forcing was minimal. During the spring upwelling season, alongshore currents and temperatures in the northern bay were most coherent with winds measured at a nearby land meteorological station. This wind site showed relatively low correlations to offshore buoy wind stations, indicating localized wind effects are important to the circulation along this stretch of Monterey Bay's inner shelf. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Are seaward pneumatophore fringes transitional between mangrove and lower-shore system compartments?

    PubMed

    Barnes, R S K

    2017-04-01

    Work in temperate New Zealand has concluded that seaward fringes of Avicennia pneumatophores (P) form an 'important ecological transitional environment' between seagrass (Z) and mangrove (M), supporting intermediate macrofaunal numbers and biodiversity (Alfaro, 2006). This study re-examined that hypothesis in subtropical Moreton Bay, Queensland, and investigated its dependence on the nature of the lower-shore habitat; i.e. whether seagrass or sandflat (S). Adjacent macrobenthic assemblages across 45 m deep Z:P:M and S:P:M interfaces were compared uni- and multivariately and via various assemblage metrics. Here, system compartment P was not intermediate. In Z:P:M interfaces it was essentially an extension of the lower-shore assemblage and supported peak biodiversity. In contrast, P in S:P:M interfaces was partly an extension of the upper-shore assemblage with unchanged biodiversity but minimum abundance. Several species spanned the whole interface zone, and assemblage structure and several metrics remained unchanged across it. These findings are discussed in relation to ecotones in general. Like other such zones the characteristics of pneumatophore-fringe ecotones are context dependent.

  14. Portable off shore well installation apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Grace, F.J.

    1983-02-15

    A portable off shore well installation apparatus, particularly for off shore wells, utilizing a pollution control curtain surrounding drilling equipment between the surface of the water and a well head, such curtain comprising a submerged anchor ring having secured to the top thereof an axially extendable water impermeable sleeve secured at its lower end to the top of the submerged anchor ring, a float ring secured to the upper end of the extendable sleeve, a plurality of longitudinally spaced buoyant rings attached at suitable intervals about the periphery of the sleeve to provide uniform axial extension of the sleeve, and a fillable retriever ring secured to the lower portion of the anchor ring to facilitate installation and removal of the curtain from the well site when the retriever ring is filled with a buoyant substance.

  15. Narragansett Bay

    EPA Science Inventory

    Narragansett Bay, situated on the eastern side of Rhode Island, comprises about 15% of the State’s total area. Ninety-five percent of the Bay’s surface area is in Rhode Island with the remainder in southeastern Massachusetts; 60% of the Bay’s watershed is in Massachusetts. At the...

  16. James Bay

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    article title:  First Light over James Bay     View Larger Image MISR "First light", 16:40 UTC, 24 February 2000 . This is the first image of Earth's ... the line of flight. At the top of the image, the dark-to-light transition captures the opening of the MISR cover. Progressing southward, ...

  17. Varnished Serpentinite on the Floor of San Francisco Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, B. R.; Kimbrough, D.

    2012-12-01

    Serpentinite clasts recovered from dredge hauls in San Francisco Bay during commercial sand mining operations are typically covered with a dark, shiny varnish. Such a varnish is not developed on clasts of the same material from the nearby ocean and bay shores. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis of a varnished pebble showed little significant difference in composition between the varnish and the interior of the pebble. The time of immersion in seawater required for the varnish to develop is not known, however, a simple experiment indicates that it may begin within approximately one year.

  18. Ship-Shore Packet Switched Communications System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-06-01

    AD-RU74 638 SHIP-SHORE PACKET SWITCHED COMMUNICATIONdS SYSTE(U) 1 JUN 86NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA R A BUDDENLERI UNLSSIFIED F/G 71...FORM 1473,84 MAR 83 APR edition may be used until exhausted SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE All other editions are obsolete l iI nl I r .. I I I...UNCLASSIFIED SECUMITV CLASSIICATIOs Or TMI# PAS g% "a s r 19. Abstract (cont’d) 3) HF communications are characterized by low capacity and high

  19. Cross-Shore Exchange on Natural Beaches

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    92   Figure 7.   Frequency distribution of uVLF measured during all 3HRLTs at ( top ) ADCPout and (bottom) ADCPin. Vertical gray...depth, d/h, measured at ( top row) ADCPout and(bottom row) ADCPin, bin-averaged as a function of (column 1) the maximum amplitude of significant VLF...Example of low-pass filtered ( top ) cross-shore velocity, uVLF, and (bottom) alongshore velocity, vVLF, as a function of relative-depth, d/h

  20. Galveston Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Handley, Lawrence R.; Spear, Kathryn A.; Eleonor Taylor,; Thatcher, Cindy

    2011-01-01

    The Galveston Bay estuary is located on the upper Texas Gulf coast (Lester and Gonzalez, 2002). It is composed of four major sub-bays—Galveston, Trinity, East, and West Bays. It is Texas’ largest estuary on the Gulf Coast with a total area of 155,399 hectares (384,000 acres) and 1,885 km (1,171 miles) of shoreline (Burgan and Engle, 2006). The volume of the bay has increased over the past 50 years due to subsidence, dredging, and sea level rise. Outside of ship channels, the maximum depth is only 3.7 m (12 ft), with the average depth ranging from 1.2 m (4 ft) to 2.4 m (8 ft)— even shallower in areas with widespread oyster reefs (Lester and Gonzalez, 2002). The tidal range is less than 0.9 m (3 ft), but water levels and circulation are highly influenced by wind. The estuary was formed in a drowned river delta, and its bayous were once channels of the Brazos and Trinity Rivers. Today, the watersheds surrounding the Trinity and San Jacinto Rivers, along with many other smaller bayous, feed into the bay. The entire Galveston Bay watershed is 85,470 km2 (33,000 miles2 ) large (Figure 1). Galveston Island, a 5,000 year old sand bar that lies at the western edge of the bay’s opening into the Gulf of Mexico, impedes the freshwater flow of the Trinity and San Jacinto Rivers into the Gulf, the majority of which comes from the Trinity. The Bolivar Peninsula lies at the eastern edge of the bay’s opening into the Gulf. Water flows into the Gulf at Bolivar Roads, 1 U.S. Geological Survey National Wetlands Research Center, 700 Cajundome Blvd., Lafayette, LA 70506 2 Harte Research Institute for Gulf of Mexico Studies, Texas A&M University - Corpus Christi, 6300 Ocean Drive, Unit 5869, Corpus Christi, Texas 78412 2 Galveston Pass, between Galveston Island and Bolivar Peninsula, and at San Luis Pass, between the western side of Galveston Island and Follets Island.

  1. Movements and bioenergetics of canvasbacks wintering in the upper Chesapeake Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howerter, D.W.

    1990-01-01

    The movement patterns, range areas and energetics of canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) wintering in the upper Chesapeake Bay, Maryland, were investigated. Eighty-seven juvenile female canvasbacks were radio-tracked between 30 December 1988 and 25 March 1989. Diurnal time and energy budgets were constructed for a time of day-season matrix for canvasbacks using riverine and main bay habitats. Canvasbacks were very active at night, making regular and often lengthy crepuscular movements (x = 11.7 km) from near shore habitats during the day to off shore habitats at night. Movement patterns were similar for birds using habitats on the eastern and western shores of the Bay. Canvasbacks had extensive home ranges averaging 14,286 ha, and used an average of 1.97 core areas. Sleeping was the predominant diurnal behavior. Telemetry indicated that canvasbacks actively fed at night. Canvasbacks spent more time in active behaviors (e.g. swimming, alert) on the eastern shore than on the western shore. Similarly, canvasbacks were more active during daytime hours at locations where artificial feeding occurred. Behavioral patterns were only weakly correlated with weather patterns. Canvasbacks appeared to reduce energy expenditure in mid-winter by reducing distances moved, reducing feeding activities and increasing the amount of time spent sleeping. This pattern was observed even though 1988-89 mid-winter weather conditions were very mild.

  2. Chesapeake Bay Study. Supplement A. Problem Identification. Supplement B. Public Involvement. Supplement C. The Chesapeake Bay Hydraulic Model.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-09-01

    which are located in the area are not considered to be major water users (i.e., chemicals, pulp and paper, metals, petroleum refining, and food and...concentrated on the Eastern Shore, in the Washington SMSA, and in Norfolk. The only major pulp and paper mill in the Bay Region is located at West Point...finishing, and packaging of light products to heavy manufacturing activities such as steel, pulp , or lumber milling, electric power generating, oil

  3. 33 CFR 334.780 - Pensacola Bay, Fla.; seaplane restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.780 Pensacola Bay...″; thence to latitude 30°20′11″; longitude 87°17′58″; and thence to 272° true to the shore. (b)...

  4. 33 CFR 165.507 - Security Zone; Chesapeake Bay, between Sandy Point and Kent Island, MD.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., between Sandy Point and Kent Island, MD. 165.507 Section 165.507 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Guard District § 165.507 Security Zone; Chesapeake Bay, between Sandy Point and Kent Island, MD. (a... to the eastern shore at Kent Island, Maryland. (c) Regulations. (1) All persons are required...

  5. 33 CFR 165.507 - Security Zone; Chesapeake Bay, between Sandy Point and Kent Island, MD.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., between Sandy Point and Kent Island, MD. 165.507 Section 165.507 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Guard District § 165.507 Security Zone; Chesapeake Bay, between Sandy Point and Kent Island, MD. (a... to the eastern shore at Kent Island, Maryland. (c) Regulations. (1) All persons are required...

  6. Lighting the Way: Keweenaw Bay Ojibwa Community College Serves as a Beacon Light for Tribal Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benton, Sherrole

    2015-01-01

    On the shores of Lake Superior, the Keweenaw Bay Indian Community (KBIC), a small cluster of Ojibwa (also known as Chippewa), keep their fires alive in the face of daunting pressures to let go of their ways. After the ravages of war, colonization, and territorial loss, KBIC continues to make a stand for their people and future generations. Their…

  7. Pesticide fate and transport from farm fields adjacent to the Jobos Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture is a primary land-use in the Jobos Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve (JBNERR) watershed located on Puerto Rico's southeast coast. Crop production in near-shore areas depends on pesticides for weed, disease and insect control. There are continuing concerns about their potential fo...

  8. Model for carbonate deposition in an Epicontinental Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Carney, C.; Smosna, R.

    1986-05-01

    By mapping the distribution of correlative sediments across the north-central region of the Appalachian basin, a paleogeographic model has been generated for part of the Mississippian period. During the Chesterian, the upper Greenbrier Limestone was deposited in an embayment that extended northward into parts of West Virginia, Ohio, Pennsylvanian, and Maryland. The bay, only a few hundred kilometers wide, was surrounded by lowlands to the west and north, and deltaic sediments shed from nearby highlands diluted the easternmost facies. In the bay, several different shallow-water carbonate environments are distinguished. Muddy skeletal sand was deposited in the central part, which was characterized by normal marine circulation and salinity. This open-bay facies supported a moderately diverse fauna of forams, brachiopods, and mollusks. From the central facies to the bay margins, water depth decreased, circulation became more restricted, and salinity was slightly higher. A restricted-bay facies developed closer to shore, with sediment consisting of pelletal mud and scattered skeletal grains. Diversity was lower, and the fauna was composed primarily of forams and ostracodes. A tidal mud flat surrounded the embayment on all three sides where partly to totally dolomitized mud containing cryptalgal structures formed. Oolite shoals, present on the eastern side of the bay near its mouth, mark areas where tidal currents were concentrated. Eventually, the epicontinental sea flooded the small enclosed bay, replacing the shallow-water facies with an open-marine facies. The new environment supported a highly diverse fauna including crinoids, brachiopods, mollusks, forams, and ostracods.

  9. Burrowing mayflies as indicators of ecosystem health: Status of populations in western Lake Erie, Saginaw Bay and Green Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edsall, T.A.; Bur, M.T.; Gorman, O.T.; Schaeffer, J.S.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and Environment Canada are supporting the development of indicators of ecosystem health that can be used to report on progress in restoring and maintaining the Great Lakes ecosystem, as called for in the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement between the United States and Canada. One indicator under development is based on burrowing mayflies (Hexagenia: Ephemeroptera: Ephemeridae). We sampled in western Lake Erie, Saginaw Bay (Lake Huron), and Green Bay (Lake Michigan) in spring 2001 at 117 stations covering about 1,870 km2 of lake bed, to determine the status of nymphal populations of Hexagenia, and to provide information that would further the technical development of an indicator of ecosystem health based on Hexagenia. In western Lake Erie, density and biomass of nymphs were generally highest on fine-grained substrate in offshore waters and were lower on coarser substrates in near shore waters. Nymphs were virtually absent from Saginaw Bay, where only one nymph was collected at 28 stations. Nymphs were collected at only 6 of 48 stations in Green Bay, and density and biomass were highest at the northern end of the bay. Polluted sediments are likely responsible for the absence or low density and biomass of nymphs observed on fine-grained substrates in western Lake Erie, Saginaw Bay, and Green Bay, all of which historically supported abundant populations.

  10. Cross-shore surfzone tracer dispersion in an alongshore current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, David B.; Feddersen, Falk; Guza, R. T.

    2010-10-01

    Cross-shore surfzone tracer dispersion in a wave driven alongshore current is examined over a range of wave and current conditions with 6 continuous dye releases, each roughly 1-2 hours in duration, at Huntington Beach, California. Fluorescent dye tracer released near the shoreline formed shore parallel plumes that were sampled on repeated cross-shore transects with a jet ski mounted fluorometer. Ensemble averaged cross-shore tracer concentration profiles are generally shoreline attached (maximum at or near the shoreline), with increasing cross-shore widths and decreasing peak values with downstream distance. More than a few 100 m from the source, tracer is often well mixed across the surfzone (i.e., saturated) with decreasing tracer concentrations farther seaward. For each release, cross-shore surfzone absolute diffusivities are estimated using a simple Fickian diffusion solution with a no-flux boundary at the shoreline, and range from 0.5-2.5 m2 s-1. Surfzone diffusivity scalings based on cross-shore bore dispersion, surfzone eddy mixing length, and undertow driven shear dispersion are examined. The mixing-length scaling has correlation r2 = 0.59 and the expected best-fit slope <1, indicating that horizontal rotational motions are important for cross-shore tracer dispersion in the surfzone.

  11. Looking northeast from shore along the length of Pier 22 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking northeast from shore along the length of Pier 22 with a view of rigging platforms and Shore Power Supply Electric Distribution Center (Building 734) in the distance - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Finger Piers 22 & 23, Railroad Avenue near Eighteenth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  12. LOOKING ESE AT PAIR OF LAKE SHORE & MICHIGAN SOUTHERN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LOOKING ESE AT PAIR OF LAKE SHORE & MICHIGAN SOUTHERN RAILWAY BRIDGES. SINGLE PITTSBURGH, FORT WAYNE & CHICAGO RAILWAY BRIDGE (HAER No. IL-156) AT RIGHT OF FRAME. - Lake Shore & Michigan Southern Railway, Bridge No. 6, Spanning Calumet River, east of Chicago Skyway (I-90), Chicago, Cook County, IL

  13. 33 CFR 127.1511 - International shore connection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false International shore connection... (CONTINUED) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED... International shore connection. Each marine transfer area for LHG that receives foreign flag vessels must...

  14. Environmental and Sanitary Conditions of Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro.

    PubMed

    Fistarol, Giovana O; Coutinho, Felipe H; Moreira, Ana Paula B; Venas, Tainá; Cánovas, Alba; de Paula, Sérgio E M; Coutinho, Ricardo; de Moura, Rodrigo L; Valentin, Jean Louis; Tenenbaum, Denise R; Paranhos, Rodolfo; do Valle, Rogério de A B; Vicente, Ana Carolina P; Amado Filho, Gilberto M; Pereira, Renato Crespo; Kruger, Ricardo; Rezende, Carlos E; Thompson, Cristiane C; Salomon, Paulo S; Thompson, Fabiano L

    2015-01-01

    Guanabara Bay is the second largest bay in the coast of Brazil, with an area of 384 km(2). In its surroundings live circa 16 million inhabitants, out of which 6 million live in Rio de Janeiro city, one of the largest cities of the country, and the host of the 2016 Olympic Games. Anthropogenic interference in Guanabara Bay area started early in the XVI century, but environmental impacts escalated from 1930, when this region underwent an industrialization process. Herein we present an overview of the current environmental and sanitary conditions of Guanabara Bay, a consequence of all these decades of impacts. We will focus on microbial communities, how they may affect higher trophic levels of the aquatic community and also human health. The anthropogenic impacts in the bay are flagged by heavy eutrophication and by the emergence of pathogenic microorganisms that are either carried by domestic and/or hospital waste (e.g., virus, KPC-producing bacteria, and fecal coliforms), or that proliferate in such conditions (e.g., vibrios). Antibiotic resistance genes are commonly found in metagenomes of Guanabara Bay planktonic microorganisms. Furthermore, eutrophication results in recurrent algal blooms, with signs of a shift toward flagellated, mixotrophic groups, including several potentially harmful species. A recent large-scale fish kill episode, and a long trend decrease in fish stocks also reflects the bay's degraded water quality. Although pollution of Guanabara Bay is not a recent problem, the hosting of the 2016 Olympic Games propelled the government to launch a series of plans to restore the bay's water quality. If all plans are fully implemented, the restoration of Guanabara Bay and its shores may be one of the best legacies of the Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro.

  15. Shore erosion as a sediment source to the tidal Potomac River, Maryland and Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Andrew J.

    1987-01-01

    estimated amount of silt and clay ranged from 0.153x10 6 to 0.226x10 6 metric tons per annum. Between 49 and 60 percent of the sediment was derived from the Virginia shore of the estuary; 14 to 18 percent was derived from the Maryland shore of the estuary; and 23 to 36 percent was derived from the shores of the tidal river and transition zone. The adjusted modern estimate of sediment eroded from the shoreline of the estuary is about 55 percent of the historical estimate. Sediment eroded from the shoreline accounted for about 6 to 9 percent of the estimated total suspended load for the tidal Potomac River during water years 1979 through 1981 and for about 11 to 18 percent of the suspended load delivered to the estuary during the same period. Annual suspended-sediment loads derived from upland source areas fluctuated by about an order of magnitude during the 3 years of record (1979-81); shore erosion may have been a more important component of the sediment budget during periods of low flow than during periods of higher discharges. Prior to massive land clearance during the historical period of intensive agriculture in the 18th and 19th centuries, annual sediment loads from upland sources probably were smaller than they are at present; under these circumstances shore erosion would have been an important component of the sediment budget. At current rates of sediment supply, relative sea-level rise, and shoreline recession, the landward parts of the tidal Potomac River are rapidly being filled by sediment. If these rates were to remain constant over time, and no sediment were to escape into Chesapeake Bay, the tidal river and transition zone would be filled within 600 years, and the total system would be filled in less than 4,000 years. Given a slower rate of sediment supply, comparable to the measured rate during the low-flow 1981 water year, the volume of the tidal Potomac River might remain relatively stable or even increase over time. Changes in rates

  16. Database Design for the Evaluation of On-shore and Off-Shore Storm Characteristics over East Central Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, Amy A.; Wilson, Jennifer G.; Brown, Robert G.

    2015-01-01

    Data from multiple sources is needed to investigate lightning characteristics over differing terrain (on-shore vs. off-shore) by comparing natural cloud-to-ground lightning behavior differences depending on the characteristics of attachment mediums. The KSC Lightning Research Database (KLRD) was created to reduce manual data entry time and aid research by combining information from various data sources into a single record for each unique lightning event of interest. The KLRD uses automatic data handling functions to import data from a lightning detection network and identify and record lighting events of interest. Additional automatic functions import data from the NASA Buoy 41009 (located approximately 20 miles off the coast) and the KSC Electric Field Mill network, then match these electric field mill values to the corresponding lightning events. The KLRD calculates distances between each lightning event and the various electric field mills, aids in identifying the location type for each stroke (i.e., on-shore vs. off-shore, etc.), provides statistics on the number of strokes per flash, and produces customizable reports for quick retrieval and logical display of data. Data from February 2014 to date covers 48 unique storm dates with 2295 flashes containing 5700 strokes, of which 2612 are off-shore and 1003 are on-shore. The number of strokes per flash ranges from 1 to 22. The ratio of single to subsequent stroke flashes is 1.29 for off-shore strokes and 2.19 for on-shore strokes.

  17. 77 FR 65542 - Eastern Shore Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-29

    ... October 12, 2012, Eastern Shore Natural Gas Company (Eastern Shore), 1110 Forrest Avenue, Dover, Delaware..., Vice-President, Eastern Shore Natural Gas Company, 1110 Forrest Avenue, Suite 201, Dover,...

  18. 75 FR 13524 - Eastern Shore Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-22

    .... Take notice that on March 5, 2010, Eastern Shore Natural Gas Company, (Eastern Shore), 1110 Forrest... to Glen DiEleuterio, Project Manager, Eastern Shore Natural Gas Company, 1110 Forrest Avenue,...

  19. Continuous resistivity profiling data from Northport Harbor and Manhasset Bay, Long Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cross, V.A.; Bratton, J.F.; Crusius, J.; Kroeger, K.D.; Worley, C.R.

    2012-01-01

    An investigation of coastal groundwater systems was performed along the North Shore of Long Island, New York, during May 2008 to constrain nutrient delivery to Northport Harbor and Manhasset Bay by delineating locations of likely groundwater discharge. The embayments are bounded by steep moraines and are underlain by thick, fine-grained sediments deposited in proglacial lakes during the last ice age. Beach sand and gravel overlie the glacial deposits along the coast. The continuous resistivity profiling (CRP) surveys that were conducted indicate the existence of low-salinity groundwater in shore-parallel bands, typically 25 to 50 meters wide, along the shorelines of both bays. Piezometer sampling and seepage meter deployments in intertidal and subtidal areas of the two bays confirmed the presence and discharge of brackish and low-salinity groundwater. The large tidal ranges (up to 3 meters) and the steep onshore topography and hydraulic gradients are important variables controlling coastal groundwater discharge in these areas.

  20. Association of bald eagle reproductive impairment with elevated organochlorine exposure in Green Bay, Lake Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Dykstra, C.R.; Meyer, M.W.; Best, D.A.; Bowerman, W.W. IV; Warnke, D.K.

    1995-12-31

    Bald eagles have recently recolonized the shores of the upper Great Lakes following near-extirpation in the DDT-era. However, bald eagles nesting along the shore of Green Bay, Lake Michigan, currently have reproductive rates which are much lower than those of eagles nesting in inland reference areas in the Great Lakes Basin. Productivity of Green Bay eagles averaged only 0.39 young per occupied territory (5-year average; 1990--1994), compared to 1.13 young per occupied territory in inland Wisconsin, and 0.90 young per occupied territory on the Lake Superior shore in Wisconsin. Eaglet plasma samples collected at reference nests in inland Wisconsin averaged 34 ppb total PCBs and 4 ppb p,p{prime}-DDE (geometric mean, n = 31). Eaglets on Green Bay had contaminant loads which were 7--19 times greater (253 ppb total PCBs and 74 ppb DDE, n = 6), while eaglets on Lake Superior had only 3--5x greater contaminant loads (114 ppb total PCBs and 21 ppb DDE, n = 31). Addled eggs collected in Green Bay nests from 1986--1992 averaged 35 ppm total PCBs and 10 ppm DDE, (n = 13 eggs in 8 nest-attempts), and those collected on the south shore of Lake Superior averaged 11 ppm total PCBs and 3 ppm DDE (n = 6, 1986--1993). Levels of contaminants in contemporary Green Bay eagle eggs exceed those levels associated with normal reproduction, and approach or exceed those levels associated with near-total reproductive failure, suggesting that organochlorine contaminants may impair reproduction in Green Bay eagles.

  1. 2005 hydrographic survey of south San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foxgrover, Amy C.; Jaffe, Bruce E.; Hovis, Gerald T.; Martin, Craig A.; Hubbard, James R.; Samant, Manoj R.; Sullivan, Steve M.

    2007-01-01

    An acoustic hydrographic survey of South San Francisco Bay (South Bay) was conducted in 2005. Over 20 million soundings were collected within an area of approximately 250 sq km (97 sq mi) of the bay extending south of Coyote Point on the west shore, to the San Leandro marina on the east, including Coyote Creek and Ravenswood, Alviso, Artesian, and Mud Sloughs. This is the first survey of this scale that has been conducted in South Bay since the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Ocean Service (NOS) last surveyed the region in the early 1980s. Data from this survey will provide insight to changes in bay floor topography from the 1980s to 2005 and will also serve as essential baseline data for tracking changes that will occur as restoration of the South San Francisco Bay salt ponds progress. This report provides documentation on how the survey was conducted, an assessment of accuracy of the data, and distributes the sounding data with Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) compliant metadata. Reports from NOS and Sea Surveyor, Inc., containing additional survey details are attached as appendices.

  2. Predictability of Vibrio cholerae in Chesapeake Bay

    PubMed Central

    Louis, Valérie R.; Russek-Cohen, Estelle; Choopun, Nipa; Rivera, Irma N. G.; Gangle, Brian; Jiang, Sunny C.; Rubin, Andrea; Patz, Jonathan A.; Huq, Anwar; Colwell, Rita R.

    2003-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae is autochthonous to natural waters and can pose a health risk when it is consumed via untreated water or contaminated shellfish. The correlation between the occurrence of V. cholerae in Chesapeake Bay and environmental factors was investigated over a 3-year period. Water and plankton samples were collected monthly from five shore sampling sites in northern Chesapeake Bay (January 1998 to February 2000) and from research cruise stations on a north-south transect (summers of 1999 and 2000). Enrichment was used to detect culturable V. cholerae, and 21.1% (n = 427) of the samples were positive. As determined by serology tests, the isolates, did not belong to serogroup O1 or O139 associated with cholera epidemics. A direct fluorescent-antibody assay was used to detect V. cholerae O1, and 23.8% (n = 412) of the samples were positive. V. cholerae was more frequently detected during the warmer months and in northern Chesapeake Bay, where the salinity is lower. Statistical models successfully predicted the presence of V. cholerae as a function of water temperature and salinity. Temperatures above 19°C and salinities between 2 and 14 ppt yielded at least a fourfold increase in the number of detectable V. cholerae. The results suggest that salinity variation in Chesapeake Bay or other parameters associated with Susquehanna River inflow contribute to the variability in the occurrence of V. cholerae and that salinity is a useful indicator. Under scenarios of global climate change, increased climate variability, accompanied by higher stream flow rates and warmer temperatures, could favor conditions that increase the occurrence of V. cholerae in Chesapeake Bay. PMID:12732548

  3. Living with shore protection structures: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordstrom, Karl F.

    2014-10-01

    Shore protection structures will continue to be built and maintained to protect coastal infrastructure. This review identifies factors influencing our ability to retain or restore natural features or construct artificial habitats on beaches and dunes in the presence of these structures. Protection structures are visual and physical intrusions into natural landscapes, and they alter natural processes and introduce exotic habitat. Impacts on landforms and habitats vary depending on the type of structure and its size, shape, orientation, type of materials used, age and state of repair. Changes will occur to any structure through time, and decisions must be made to supplement, rebuild, replace, or remove them or allow them to deteriorate. Decisions about removing protection structures are problematic because they might already have habitat value, and the effects of removal are as difficult to predict as the effects of their original emplacement. Creative alternatives to traditional structures can be applied to retain or enhance some of the natural values of landforms and habitats. This can occur by making structures smaller, placing them below ground or water level, selecting construction materials that enhance habitat, or using beach fill to overcome undesirable effects. Decisions are required on whether the enhancement of habitat by modifying traditional structures is actually desirable. Humans must now be considered intrinsic agents of landscape evolution, and decisions on how, when and where to place, modify or remove protection structures depend on numerous human inputs, requiring interventions that have an interdisciplinary perspective and are placed in a societal context.

  4. Urban Greening Bay Area

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information about the San Francisco Bay Water Quality Project (SFBWQP) Urban Greening Bay Area, a large-scale effort to re-envision urban landscapes to include green infrastructure (GI) making communities more livable and reducing stormwater runoff.

  5. Chesapeake Bay TMDL Document

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page provides the Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) report for the Chesapeake Bay. It includes the executive summary, main report, and appendices. The Chesapeake Bay TMDL was established by U.S. EPA Region 3 on December 29, 2010

  6. Chesapeake Bay TMDL

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In 2010 EPA established the Chesapeake Bay TMDL, a comprehensive pollution diet with accountability measures to restore clean water in the bay and local waters. It set limits for nutrients and sediment to meet water quality standards across the watershed

  7. Bottom sediments of Saginaw Bay, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Leonard E.

    1964-01-01

    Saginaw Bay is a southwest extension of Lake Huron on the east shore of the Southern Peninsula of Michigan. It is a shallow-water derivative of the Pleistocene Lake Saginaw. Sixty-one bottom samples were collected on a semigrid pattern and analyzed physically. Findings were treated statistically. Sediments range in size from large pebbles to clay. Medium- to fine-grained clear quartz sand is common to all parts of the bay. Currents and wave action are primarily responsible for both median diameter and sorting distribution patterns. Only a very general correlation can be established between depth and median diameter. Heavy minerals occur in abundance locally and show an affinity to shallow-water areas subject to prevailing currents. Shape also locally determines heavy mineral concentrations. Only general conclusions can be established from roundness and sphericity and acid-soluble content. Increased organic content is correlative with quiet water environments. The shallow-water, heterogeneous nature of Saginaw Bay is not conducive to the recognition of sedimentary criteria suitable for correlations in other than a local environment.

  8. 2. LOOKING NORTHNORTHWEST ACROSS FEDERAL CHANNEL FROM THE ALAMEDA SHORE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. LOOKING NORTH-NORTHWEST ACROSS FEDERAL CHANNEL FROM THE ALAMEDA SHORE, TO THE NORTH TRAINING WALL. (Panoramic view 2 of 2). - Oakland Harbor Training Walls, Mouth of Federal Channel to Inner Harbor, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  9. EAARL coastal topography--North Shore, Lake Pontchartrain, Louisiana, 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bonisteel-Cormier, J.M.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Fredericks, Xan; Wright, C.W.; Brock, J.C.; Nagle, D.B.; Vivekanandan, Saisudha; Barras, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    This DVD contains lidar-derived coastal topography GIS datasets of a portion of the north shore of Lake Pontchartrain, Louisiana. These datasets were acquired on February 28, March 1, and March 5, 2010.

  10. Medical problems in off-shore oil drilling in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Onuba, O

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the surgical and medical problems affecting off-shore oil drilling workers in the south-eastern Atlantic coastline of the Nigerian territorial waters; about 50-60 kilometers from land. There were a total of 1300 attendances at the off-shore clinic within 12 months, ie 3.6 daily for a workforce of 110, were successfully managed by 2 well-trained industrial staff nurses who were supervised by an experienced base doctor on-shore. Although, most of the patients were treated for minor medical and surgical conditions such as headaches, malaria, cuts and bruises, a few acute emergencies arose which had to be taken on-shore by helicopters, for subsequent management. Four accidental deaths occurred during the period, one of them was clearly preventable but there were no major disasters. This demonstrated the effectiveness and significant role which well-trained nurses can play in industrial health.

  11. 13. View looking E from Manhattan shore with Manhattan Bridge ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. View looking E from Manhattan shore with Manhattan Bridge in background. Jet Lowe, photographer, 1979. - Brooklyn Bridge, Spanning East River between Park Row, Manhattan and Sands Street, Brooklyn, New York County, NY

  12. 7. Level 7 conveyor area. Stub shoring under bin to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Level 7 conveyor area. Stub shoring under bin to apron feeder. - Kennecott Copper Corporation, Concentration Mill, On Copper River & Northwestern Railroad, Kennicott, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, AK

  13. 27 CFR 9.135 - Virginia's Eastern Shore.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (revised 1969). (3) Richmond VA.; MD., 1973. (c) Boundary. The Virginia's Eastern Shore viticultural area..., again following the coastline around Cherrystone Inlet on the Richmond, VA., U.S.G.S. map; (4)...

  14. 27 CFR 9.135 - Virginia's Eastern Shore.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (revised 1969). (3) Richmond VA.; MD., 1973. (c) Boundary. The Virginia's Eastern Shore viticultural area..., again following the coastline around Cherrystone Inlet on the Richmond, VA., U.S.G.S. map; (4)...

  15. 77 FR 39911 - The New York North Shore Helicopter Route

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-06

    ... and eastern shores of Long Island. Unlike helicopter traffic in urban areas, where the destination.../oaqps001/greenbk/ancl.html . In addition, the state of New York is within the Ozone Transport...

  16. Extension of the Morris-Shore transformation to multilevel ladders

    SciTech Connect

    Rangelov, A. A.; Vitanov, N. V.; Shore, B. W.

    2006-11-15

    We describe situations in which chains of N degenerate quantum energy levels, coupled by time-dependent external fields, can be replaced by independent sets of chains of length N, N-1,...,2 and sets of uncoupled single states. The transformation is a generalization of the two-level Morris-Shore transformation [J.R. Morris and B.W. Shore, Phys. Rev. A 27, 906 (1983)]. We illustrate the procedure with examples of three-level chains.

  17. Groundwater Management Along Lake Ontario's North Shore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holysh, S.; Gerber, R.; Doughty, M.

    2009-05-01

    A large stretch of the north shore of Lake Ontario is characterized by a till plain that slopes down from the Oak Ridges Moraine, a 160 km long ridge of sand, silt and gravel deposits oriented in an approximately east-west direction north of Lake Ontario. Since 2000, an ongoing collaborative, multi-faceted program has been underway to better characterize the groundwater flow system on the Lake's north shore. The program is a collaborative effort between Conservation Authorities (Ontario's watershed management bodies), and several large municipalities (City of Toronto, Regional Municipalities of Peel, York and Durham). The program has three main components: database, geology and groundwater flow modeling; each of which is being actively managed and updated. In Ontario, as in many jurisdictions in North America, water and environmental data has long been neglected. Studies that involve the measurement of hydrological parameters and the collection of useful data are commonly required for approval of land use change by provincial, regional and/or local government agencies. So although data is frequently collected (at a considerable cost), it has never been rigorously assembled into a comprehensive database that can be used for future reference. Rather, the data is collected by consultants, reported through various studies, and then simply lost in archived files. In a similar fashion, individuals at many government agencies have collected water related data that now reside in locations unknown and, thus, unavailable to others in the organization. With this in mind, a comprehensive digital database was assembled to establish the foundation for long term successful groundwater management. The data model design incorporates information required for groundwater modeling purposes, thus extending beyond that of traditional groundwater information. The key data sources include borehole geology, water levels, pumping rates, surface water flows, climate data and water quality

  18. Pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and polychlorinated biphenyls in transport in two atlantic coastal plain tributaries and loadings to Chesapeake Bay.

    PubMed

    Foster, Gregory D; Miller, Cherie V; Huff, Thomas B; Roberts, Eldon

    2003-07-01

    Concentrations of current-use pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and organochlorine (OC) insecticides were determined above the reach of tide in the Chesterville Branch and Nanticoke River on the eastern shore of Chesapeake Bay during base-flow and storm-flow hydrologic regimes to evaluate mass transport to Chesapeake Bay. The two rivers monitored showed relatively high concentrations of atrazine, simazine, alachlor, and metolachlor in comparison to previously investigated western shore tributaries, and reflected the predominant agricultural land use in the eastern shore watersheds. The four current use pesticides showed the greatest seasonal contribution to annual loadings to tidal waters of Chesapeake Bay from the two rivers, and the relative order of annual loadings for the other contaminant classes was PAHs > PCBs > OC insecticides. Annual loadings normalized to the landscape areas of selected Chesapeake Bay watersheds showed correlations to identifiable source areas, with the highest pesticide yields (g/km2/yr) occurring in eastern shore agricultural landscapes, and the highest PAH yields derived from urban regions.

  19. 33 CFR 334.1070 - San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area. 334.1070 Section 334.1070 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1070 San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island... Island, the north shore of Yerba Buena Island, and the connecting causeway, west of a line extending...

  20. 33 CFR 334.1070 - San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area. 334.1070 Section 334.1070 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1070 San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island... Island, the north shore of Yerba Buena Island, and the connecting causeway, west of a line extending...

  1. 33 CFR 334.1070 - San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area. 334.1070 Section 334.1070 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1070 San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island... Island, the north shore of Yerba Buena Island, and the connecting causeway, west of a line extending...

  2. 33 CFR 334.1070 - San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area. 334.1070 Section 334.1070 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1070 San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island... Island, the north shore of Yerba Buena Island, and the connecting causeway, west of a line extending...

  3. 33 CFR 334.1070 - San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area. 334.1070 Section 334.1070 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1070 San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island... Island, the north shore of Yerba Buena Island, and the connecting causeway, west of a line extending...

  4. Pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and polychlorinated biphenyls in transport in two Atlantic coastal plain tributaries and loadings to Chesapeake Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foster, G.D.; Miller, C.V.; Huff, T.B.; Roberts, E.

    2003-01-01

    Concentrations of current-use pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and organochlorine (OC) insecticides were determined above the reach of tide in the Chesterville Branch and Nanticoke River on the eastern shore of Chesapeake Bay during base-flow and storm-flow hydrologic regimes to evaluate mass transport to Chesapeake Bay. The two rivers monitored showed relatively high concentrations of atrazine, simazine, alachlor, and metolachlor in comparison to previously investigated western shore tributaries, and reflected the predominant agricultural land use in the eastern shore watersheds. The four current use pesticides showed the greatest seasonal contribution to annual loadings to tidal waters of Chesapeake Bay from the two rivers, and the relative order of annual loadings for the other contaminant classes was PAHs > PCBs > OC insecticides. Annual loadings normalized to the landscape areas of selected Chesapeake Bay watersheds showed correlations to identifiable source areas, with the highest pesticide yields (g/km2/yr) occurring in eastern shore agricultural landscapes, and the highest PAH yields derived from urban regions.

  5. Comments on recent canvasback habitat trends and threats on Chesapeake Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, M.C.

    1976-01-01

    During the last 22 years, the North American winter population of canvasbacks has fluctuated from 481,000 in 1955 to 179,000 in 1972. The Chesapeake Bay population has averaged 33 percent of the North American population and 64 percent of the Atlantic Flyway population. In Maryland, significant annual fluctuations have been recorded between the eastern and western shore of Chesapeake Bay. In 1968, 11 percent of the Bay canvasbacks were on the western shore, whereas in 1971, 87 percent of the birds wintered in this area. This increase in 1971 is believed to be in response to large populations of small Rangia cuneata clams. I n recent years, mortality of small clams and reduced spawning have resulted in a larger size class for Rangia making them less desirable as a waterfowl food. Canvasback populations in 1975 and 1976 were more dispersed in Chesapeake Bay when the predominant food of canvasbacks was Macoma balthica. In the last 5 years, the number of canvasbacks wintering in Chesapeake Bay has declined slightly, while the North American and Atlantic Flyway populations have increased. Increases have been noted in New Jersey and North Carolina. This trend may indicate that the quality of canvasback habitat in Chesapeake Bay is declining at a faster rate than other areas along the Atlantic coast.

  6. 33 CFR 334.110 - Delaware Bay off Cape Henlopen, Del.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the south shore of Delaware Bay at longitude 75°06′12″; thence to latitude 38°47′25″, longitude 75°06′20″; thence to latitude 38°47′48″, longitude 75°06′00″; thence to latitude 38°50′43″, longitude 75°02′11″; thence to latitude 38°49′16″, longitude 74°59′35″; thence to a point on the shore at latitude...

  7. 76 FR 28972 - Eastern Shore Natural Gas Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ...\\ under Eastern Shore's maximum FT Zone One and Zone Two Tariff Rates on file with the Commission. Eastern... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Eastern Shore Natural Gas Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on April 28, 2011, Eastern Shore Natural Gas Company (Eastern Shore),...

  8. Environmental and Sanitary Conditions of Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro

    PubMed Central

    Fistarol, Giovana O.; Coutinho, Felipe H.; Moreira, Ana Paula B.; Venas, Tainá; Cánovas, Alba; de Paula, Sérgio E. M.; Coutinho, Ricardo; de Moura, Rodrigo L.; Valentin, Jean Louis; Tenenbaum, Denise R.; Paranhos, Rodolfo; do Valle, Rogério de A. B.; Vicente, Ana Carolina P.; Amado Filho, Gilberto M.; Pereira, Renato Crespo; Kruger, Ricardo; Rezende, Carlos E.; Thompson, Cristiane C.; Salomon, Paulo S.; Thompson, Fabiano L.

    2015-01-01

    Guanabara Bay is the second largest bay in the coast of Brazil, with an area of 384 km2. In its surroundings live circa 16 million inhabitants, out of which 6 million live in Rio de Janeiro city, one of the largest cities of the country, and the host of the 2016 Olympic Games. Anthropogenic interference in Guanabara Bay area started early in the XVI century, but environmental impacts escalated from 1930, when this region underwent an industrialization process. Herein we present an overview of the current environmental and sanitary conditions of Guanabara Bay, a consequence of all these decades of impacts. We will focus on microbial communities, how they may affect higher trophic levels of the aquatic community and also human health. The anthropogenic impacts in the bay are flagged by heavy eutrophication and by the emergence of pathogenic microorganisms that are either carried by domestic and/or hospital waste (e.g., virus, KPC-producing bacteria, and fecal coliforms), or that proliferate in such conditions (e.g., vibrios). Antibiotic resistance genes are commonly found in metagenomes of Guanabara Bay planktonic microorganisms. Furthermore, eutrophication results in recurrent algal blooms, with signs of a shift toward flagellated, mixotrophic groups, including several potentially harmful species. A recent large-scale fish kill episode, and a long trend decrease in fish stocks also reflects the bay’s degraded water quality. Although pollution of Guanabara Bay is not a recent problem, the hosting of the 2016 Olympic Games propelled the government to launch a series of plans to restore the bay’s water quality. If all plans are fully implemented, the restoration of Guanabara Bay and its shores may be one of the best legacies of the Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro. PMID:26635734

  9. Continuous resistivity profiling data from Great South Bay, Long Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cross, V.A.; Bratton, J.F.; Kroeger, K.D.; Crusius, John; Worley, C.R.

    2013-01-01

    An investigation of submarine aquifers adjacent to the Fire Island National Seashore and Long Island, New York was conducted to assess the importance of submarine groundwater discharge as a potential nonpoint source of nitrogen delivery to Great South Bay. Over 200 kilometers of continuous resistivity profiling data were collected to image the fresh-saline groundwater interface in sediments beneath the bay. In addition, groundwater sampling was performed at sites (1) along the north shore of Great South Bay, particularly in Patchogue Bay, that were representative of the developed Long Island shoreline, and (2) at sites on and adjacent to Fire Island, a 50-kilometer-long barrier island on the south side of Great South Bay. Other field activities included sediment coring, stationary electrical resistivity profiling, and surveys of in situ pore water conductivity. Results of continuous resistivity profiling surveys are described in this report. The onshore and offshore shallow hydrostratigraphy of the Great South Bay shorelines, particularly the presence and nature of submarine confining units, appears to exert primary control on the dimensions and chemistry of the submarine groundwater flow and discharge zones. Sediment coring has shown that the confining units commonly consist of drowned and buried peat layers likely deposited in salt marshes. Low-salinity groundwater extends from 10 to 100 meters offshore along much of the north and south shores of Great South Bay based on continuous resistivity profiling data, especially off the mouths of tidal creeks and beneath shallow flats to the north of Fire Island adjacent to modern salt marshes. Human modifications of much of the shoreline and nearshore areas along the north shore of the bay, including filling of salt marshes, construction of bulkheads and piers, and dredging of navigation channels, has substantially altered the natural hydrogeology of the bay's shorelines by truncating confining units and increasing

  10. Mitigation of Shore Damage Attributed to the Federal Navigation Structures at Hammond Bay Harbor.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-11-01

    arkansara calamint sweet gale S. 7 ths oacidenta7lis but tonbush ’,d’.’W eah .c zyoulata leather leaf rL,, ’roenlandicum Labrador tea ’,noviilfa 7ongifol...ia reed grass A,.;mop£oqo n aop{2rIus little bluestem .’uu~ t~ar~i~a sand cherry ,1 ,m’"sia a’Uata tall wormwood :.i o hispiz hairy goldenrod f lten:i

  11. 76 FR 38300 - Safety Zone; Shore Thing and Independence Day Fireworks, Chesapeake Bay, Norfolk, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-30

    ... operated and are not dominant in their fields, and governmental jurisdictions with populations of less than..., design, or operation; test methods; sampling procedures; and related management systems practices) that... water or environment. This zone is designed to protect mariners and spectators from the...

  12. Studies on Anthropogenic Impact on Water Quality in Hilo (Hawaii) Bay and Mapping the Study Stations Using Geospatial Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartier, A. J.; Williams, M. S.; Adolf, J.; Sriharan, S.

    2015-12-01

    Hilo Bay has uncharacteristically brown waters compared to other waters found in Hawai'i. The majority of the freshwater entering Hilo Bay is from storm and surface water runoff. The anthropogenic impact on water quality at Hilo Bay is due to sediment entrance, cesspools (Bacteria), and invasive species (Albizia). This poster presentation will focus on the water quality and phytoplankton collected on a weekly basis at a buoy positioned one meter from the shore of Hilo Bay, preserving the phytoplankton intact, concentrating and dehydrating the sample with ethanol, and viewing the phytoplankton with a scanning electron microscope (Hitachi S-3400NII). The GPS (Global Positioning System) points were collected at the sampling stations. Three transects on three separate dates were performed in Hilo Bay with salinity, percent dissolved oxygen, turbidity, secchi depth, temperature, and chlorophyll fluorescence data collected at each sampling station. A consistent trend observed in all transects was as distance from the river increased turbidity decreased and salinity increased. The GPS data on June 30, 2015 showed a major correlation between stations and their distance from shore. There is a decrease in the turbidity but not the temperature for these stations. The GPS points collected on July 7, 2015 at thirteen stations starting with station one being at the shore to the water, showed that the salinity concentration fluctuate noticeably at the first 6 stations. As we proceed further away from the shore, the salinity concentration increases from stations seven through thirteen. The water temperature shows little variation throughout the thirteen stations. The turbidity level was high at the shore and shows a noticeable drop at station thirteen.

  13. Wastewater effluent dispersal in Southern California Bays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchiyama, Yusuke; Idica, Eileen Y.; McWilliams, James C.; Stolzenbach, Keith D.

    2014-03-01

    The dispersal and dilution of urban wastewater effluents from offshore, subsurface outfalls is simulated with a comprehensive circulation model with downscaling in nested grid configurations for San Pedro and Santa Monica Bays in Southern California during Fall of 2006. The circulation is comprised of mean persistent currents, mesoscale and submesoscale eddies, and tides. Effluent volume inflow rates at Huntington Beach and Hyperion are specified, and both their present outfall locations and alternative nearshore diversion sites are assessed. The effluent tracer concentration fields are highly intermittent mainly due to eddy currents, and their probability distribution functions have long tails of high concentration. The dilution rate is controlled by submesoscale stirring and straining in tracer filaments. The dominant dispersal pattern is alongshore in both directions, approximately along isobaths, over distances of more than 10 km before dilution takes over. The current outfall locations mostly keep the effluent below the surface and away from the shore, as intended, but the nearshore diversions do not.

  14. Mixed sediment beach processes: Kachemak Bay, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruggiero, P.; Adams, P.N.; Warrick, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Mixed sediment beaches are morphologically distinct from and more complex than either sand or gravel only beaches. Three digital imaging techniques are employed to quantify surficial grain size and bedload sediment transport rates along the mixed sediment beaches of Kachemak Bay, Alaska. Applying digital imaging procedures originally developed for quickly and efficiently quantifying grain sizes of sand to coarse sediment classes gives promising results. Hundreds of grain size estimates lead to a quantitative characterization of the region's sediment at a significant reduction in cost and time as compared to traditional techniques. Both the sand and coarse fractions on this megatidal beach mobilize into self-organized bedforms that migrate alongshore with a seasonally reflecting the temporal pattern of the alongshore component of wave power. In contrast, the gravel bedforms also migrate in the cross-shore without significant seasonally suggesting that swash asymmetry is sufficient to mobilize the gravel even during low energy summer conditions. ?? 2007 ASCE.

  15. A history of intertidal flat area in south San Francisco Bay, California: 1858 to 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaffe, Bruce; Foxgrover, Amy

    2006-01-01

    A key question in salt pond restoration in South San Francisco Bay is whether sediment sinks created by opening ponds will result in the loss of intertidal flats. Analyses of a series of bathymetric surveys of South San Francisco Bay made from 1858 to 2005 reveal changes in intertidal flat area in both space and time that can be used to better understand the pre-restoration system. This analysis also documents baseline conditions of intertidal flats that may be altered by restoration efforts. From 1858 to 2005, intertidal flat area decreased by about 25% from 69.2 +6.4/-7.6 km2 to 51.2 +4.8/-5.8 km2. Intertidal flats in the north tended to decrease in area during the period of this study whereas those south of Dumbarton Bridge were either stable or increased in area. From 1983 to 2005, intertidal flats south of Dumbarton Bridge increased from 17.6 +1.7/-2.5 km2 to 24.2 +1.0/-1.8 km2. Intertidal flats along the east shore of the bay tended to be more erosional and decreased in area while those along the west shore of the bay did not significantly change in area. Loss of intertidal flats occurred intermittently along the eastern shore of the bay north of the Dumbarton Bridge. There was little or no loss from 1931 to 1956 and from 1983 to 2005. Predictions of future change in intertidal flat area that do not account for this spatial and temporal variability are not likely to be accurate. The causes of the spatial and temporal variability in intertidal flat area in South San Francisco Bay are not fully understood, but appear related to energy available to erode sediments, sediment redistribution from north to south in the bay, and sediment available to deposit on the flats. Improved understanding of sediment input to South San Francisco Bay, especially from Central Bay, how it is likely to change in the future, the redistribution of sediment within the bay, and ultimately its effect on intertidal flat area would aid in the management of restoration of South San

  16. Ground-water concerns for the Eastern Shore, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richardson, D.L.

    1993-01-01

    The Eastern Shore of Virginia is a peninsula that is surrounded on three sides by salty water and has no major fresh surface-water sources; groundwater provides the sole freshwater supply. Beginning in about 1965, increases in groundwater withdrawals for agricultural, commercial, urban, and industrial uses have caused water-level declines and have created cone-like depressions in the water-level surface around major pumping centers near the Towns of Accomac, Cape Charles, Cheriton, Chincoteague, Exmore, and Hallwood, Virginia. Increased water withdrawals could adversely affect the supply of fresh groundwater on the Eastern Shore. In 1992, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality and the counties of Accomack and Northampton, completed a comprehensive study of the groundwater resources of the Eastern Shore. This report highlights the major results of that study. (USGS)

  17. Spatial And Temporal Variation In The Dissolved Trace Element Chemistry Of Chesapeake Bay Surface Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorval, E.; Hannigan, R.; Jones, C.

    2001-12-01

    Surface waters were collected from sea grass beds around the Chesapeake Bay of Virginia as well as from the mouths of the York, James, Potomac and Rappahannock rivers and Tangier and Smith islands. These sea grass beds represent the nursery habitats for a variety of sport fish including Spotted Sea Trout and Weakfish. Trace element ratios of fish otoliths record the unique chemistries of bodies of water in which the fish live. The data presented here represent the initial results of a "ground-truthing" investigation of the relationships between the water and otolith chemistry. Waters were collected bi-monthly (July through September) from 30 sites around the western and eastern shore of Chesapeake Bay including major tributaries and Tangier and Smith islands. Water was collected using trace metal clean procedures including filtration through a 0.45 uM filter and acidification in the field to pH < 2 with ultra-pure nitric acid. Dissolved trace element composition was measured by sector field ICP-MS. The trace element chemistry of samples show both spatial and temporal variation. Using discriminant analysis it is not possible to statistically classify samples to the respective zones (western shore, eastern shore or islands) but it is possible to separate samples from the Tangier and Smith island sites from the eastern and western shore sites. Elements that allow this classification include Ce and Th, which are found in higher concentration in the samples from the island sites than in the eastern and western shore samples. These relationships follow the trends observed in pH and dissolved oxygen likely related to a restricted flow regime between the islands and the eastern shore. Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca ratios are unique for the sea grass beds along the western shore and allow the distinction of beds located between the York and Rappahannock rivers from those between the Rappahannock and Potomac rivers. Sr and Ba concentrations are variable between sites along the eastern

  18. Chesapeake Bay study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Love, W. J.

    1972-01-01

    The objectives and scope of the Chesapeake Bay study are discussed. The physical, chemical, biological, political, and social phenomena of concern to the Chesapeake Bay area are included in the study. The construction of a model of the bay which will provide a means of accurately studying the interaction of the ecological factors is described. The application of the study by management organizations for development, enhancement, conservation, preservation, and restoration of the resources is examined.

  19. Baltimore Harbor and Channels Deepening Study; Chesapeake Bay Hydraulic Model Investigation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-02-01

    neap-spring salinity vari- ability. Stations within the Patapsco River (Plates 78-90), and the Magothy River station (MA-I-1, Plate 74), immediately...to-base salinity variations are found at upper bay stations above the constriction at range CB-4. Only Magothy River sta MA-l, and sta CB-7-1 have...Across the bay at the western shore Magothy River sta MA-I-I (Plate 74) no appreciable plan-to-base salinity differences are found, although during

  20. Long-term variations of water quality in the Inner Murchison Bay, Lake Victoria.

    PubMed

    Akurut, Mary; Niwagaba, Charles B; Willems, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    The water quality in the Inner Murchison Bay (IMB) located in Uganda on the northern shores of Lake Victoria is affected by a complex mixture of processes and driving factors including pollution, river inflows, lake water levels, wetland management and flora and fauna populations. This study attempts to explain long-term variations of the IMB water quality and to provide a plausible water quality model. Because intermittent monitoring around the Bay hinders accurate determination of pollution, concentrations at the extreme northern shores (hotspots) are considered indicative of the pollutant loading into the bay. Delft3D-Flow was applied to study the Bay hydrodynamics and coupled with the Delwaq module to investigate water quality processes related to oxygen: organic and nutrient components i.e. dissolved oxygen (DO), biological oxygen demand (BOD) and ammonium (NH4(+)). It is found that the IMB water quality deteriorated exponentially in the period 2001-2014 due to increased pollution and the high residence time of water. The worst water quality was in 2010 when diffuse pollution intensified due to the lining of more drainage channels within Kampala City in addition to the declining wetland effect. The water quality towards the Outer Murchison Bay (OMB) deteriorated over time with dilution accounting for 40-60% of pollutant reduction. Although the effect of lake level variations is negligible compared to pollution into the IMB, increased lake levels after 2011 improved DO levels and mixing and hence BOD levels in the IMB.

  1. Reservoir shore development in long range terrestrial laser scanning monitoring.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaczmarek, Halina

    2016-04-01

    Shore zones of reservoirs are in most cases very active, getting transformed as a result of coastal processes and mass movements initiated on the slopes surrounding the reservoir. From the point of view of the users of water reservoirs shore recession strongly undesirable as it causes destruction to infrastructure and buildings located in the immediate vicinity of the reservoir. For this reason, reservoir shores require continuous geodetic monitoring. Fast and accurate geodetic measurements covering shore sections several kilometers long, often in poorly accessible areas, are available using long range terrestrial laser scanning (TLS). The possibilities of using long range terrestrial laser scanning are shown on the example of the reservoir Jeziorsko on the Warta River (Central Poland). This reservoir, created in the years 1986-1992, is a typical retention reservoir, the annual fluctuations of which reach 5 m. Depending on the water level its surface area ranges from 42.3 to 19.6 km2. The width of the reservoir is 2.5 km. The total shore length of the reservoir, developed in Quaternary till and sand-till sediments, is 44.3 km, including 30.1 km of the unreinforced shore. Out of the unreinforced shore 27% is subject to coastal erosion. The cliff heights vary from a few cm to 12.5 meters, and the current rate of the cliff recession ranges from 0 to 1.12 m/y. The study used a terrestrial long range laser scanner Riegl VZ-4000 of a range of up to 4000 m. It enabled conducting the measurements of the cliff recession from the opposite shore of the reservoir, with an angular resolution of 0.002°, which gives about 50 measurement points per 1 m2. The measurements were carried out in the years 2014-2015, twice a year, in early spring before high water level, and in late autumn at a dropping water level. This allowed the separation of the impact of coastal processes and frost weathering on the cliff recession and their quantitative determination. The size and nature of

  2. Tampa Bay: Chapter N

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Handley, Larry; Spear, Kathryn; Cross, Lindsay; Baumstark, René; Moyer, Ryan; Thatcher, Cindy

    2013-01-01

    Tampa Bay is Florida’s largest open-water estuary and encompasses an area of approximately 1036 km2 (400 mi2) (Burgan and Engle, 2006; TBNEP, 2006). The Bay’s watershed drains 5,698 km2 (2,200 mi2) of land and includes freshwater from the Hillsborough River to the north east, the Alafia and Little Manatee rivers to the east, and the Manatee River to the south (Figure 1). Freshwater inflow also enters the bay from the Lake Tarpon Canal, from small tidal tributaries, and from watershed runoff. Outflow travels from the upper bay segments (Hillsborough Bay and Old Tampa Bay) into Middle and Lower Tampa Bay. Southwestern portions of the water shed flow through Boca Ciega Bay into the Intracoastal Waterway and through the Southwest Channel and Passage Key Inlet into the Gulf of Mexico. The average depth in most of Tampa Bay is only 3.4 m (11 ft); however, 129 km (80 mi) of shipping channels with a maximum depth of 13.1 m (43 ft) have been dredged over time and are regularly maintained. These channels help to support the three ports within the bay, as well as commercial and recreational boat traffic.

  3. 33 CFR 165.130 - Sandy Hook Bay, New Jersey-security zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Hook Bay, New Jersey—security zone. (a) Naval Ammunition Depot Piers. The navigable waters within the following boundaries are a security zone: A line beginning on the shore at 40°25′55.6″ N, 074°04′31.4″ W...-security zone. 165.130 Section 165.130 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF...

  4. Heavy-mineral variability in bottom sediments of the lower Chesapeake Bay, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Firek, F.; Shideler, G.L.; Fleischer, P.

    1977-01-01

    Heavy minerals in bottom-sediment samples of the lower Chesapeake Bay show distribution patterns and interrelationships that denote characteristic mineral suites associated with defined geographic provinces. The Baymouth province has a garnet-hornblende-pyroxene suite, which is largely attributed to the influx of littoral and shelf sediments; the Eastern Shore province has a similar suite, derived largely from coastal erosion of the Eastern Shore peninsula. The Northern and Combined River provinces have a zircon-tourmaline-staurolite assemblage, which reflects derivation from an Appalachian Piedmont-Atlantic Coastal Plain sourceland. The Western Shore province is associated with a zircon-epidote-staurolite assemblage, apparently derived jointly from tributary influx and coastal erosion of the western shore. Factor analysis identified two major factors that account for 63% of the total variation in the relative amounts of the seven most common heavy minerals. The dominant factor (44%) is based on a zircon-hornblende-staurolite-pyroxene relationship, which indicates that mineral stability, as influenced by sediment maturity, is a major contributing factor. The second factor (19%) based on a tourmaline-epidote-staurolite-garnet relationship indicates that provenance is another major cause of heavy-mineral variability within the lower bay. ?? 1977.

  5. Community structure of soft sediment pool fishes in Moreton Bay, Australia.

    PubMed

    Chargulaf, C A; Townsend, K A; Tibbetts, I R

    2011-02-01

    A survey of soft sediment tide pools was conducted to assess the occupation and assemblage of fishes on three different intertidal shores in Moreton Bay, Australia, between January and December 2009. Tide-pool volume ranged from 0· 30 to 29· 75 l and varied significantly between months and sites. A total of 1364 individuals representing 15 species and nine families of fishes were observed. At Dunwich, fish assemblages were dominated by the sand goby Favonigobius lentiginosus (89%) and whiting, Sillago spp. (10%). At Manly, the gobies Favonigobius exquisitus (37%), Pseudogobius sp. (31%) and the blenny Omobranchus punctatus (19%) dominated the shores while at Godwin Beach, F. lentiginosus (15%), F. exquisitus (45%) and Sillago spp. (25%) were the most abundant species. The mean ±s.e. density of fishes ranged from 0· 29 ± 0· 13 to 5· 04 ± 1· 74 fishes l(-1) and abundance of fish correlated with pool volume. Juveniles (75%) dominated assemblages suggesting that soft sediment pools may act as nurseries. The persistent and recurrent fish assemblages found in soft sediment tide pools in Moreton Bay suggest that these shores are behaving more like a tropical than a temperate climate shore, as there was no significant difference of fish abundances between seasons.

  6. The Role of Galveston Bay Meteorology in Ozone Concentrations in Houston, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen-Gammon, J. W.; Tobin, J.

    2007-12-01

    Galveston Bay is a body of water approximately 50 km by 30 km that opens into the Gulf of Mexico. The head of Galveston Bay is adjacent to the Houston Ship Channel, where large industrial emitters of ozone precursors are located. We consider the role of coastal circulations and mixing suppression over Galveston Bay in the location and magnitude of peak 8-h ozone values at monitors within the Houston-Galveston-Brazoria nonattainment area. Galveston Bay is found to have a salutary effect on ozone concentrations under most circumstances. Aside from boats and ships, Galveston Bay is free of ozone precursor emissions, and the onset of the sea breeze along Galveston Bay usually causes an immediate drop in ozone levels. The situation changes dramatically when the morning wind direction is from the northwest, allowing ozone precursors emitted during the night or early morning that are distributed in a shallow atmospheric layer to be carried over Galveston Bay. In morning and early afternoon, mixing is suppressed over Galveston Bay, and precursor concentrations remain high in the absence of ventilation. If winds are strong, high ozone concentrations are generally observed along the far shore of Galveston Bay. If winds are weak, a sea breeze will develop along Galveston Bay, and high levels of ozone will be carried back onshore in the vicinity of the Ship Channel. The coastal oscillation (a regular rotation of the wind vector driving by coastal heating contrasts near 30 N) can lead to wind reversals and high values of ozone by itself. We investigate peak ozone concentrations under a variety of wind conditions to infer whether the ozone concentrations are, on balance, higher due to the net effect of meteorological processes associated with Galveston Bay.

  7. Safety off-shore drilling and pumping platform

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, B.H.

    1983-07-26

    A safety off-shore drilling, pumping and storage platform for oilwells is provided, wherein the structure has a first funnel like structure which floats near the ocean floor connected by a long tube to a second floating funnel platform which floats on the surface of the water.

  8. Navy Logistics Over the Shore: A Capability Worth Retaining

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-04-01

    Logistics Over the Shore: Do We Need It? National University Press, 1982. Brabham, James A. "Operational Logistics: Defining the Art of the Possible...1993, 27-32. Maritime Prepositioning Force 2010 and Beyond http:// ismo -www1.mqg.usmc.mil/concepts/mpf.htm McClendon, F. O., Jr., “Doctors and

  9. 27 CFR 9.135 - Virginia's Eastern Shore.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... “Virginia's Eastern Shore.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the “Virginia's Eastern Shore” viticultural area are 3 U.S.G.S. Quadrangle (1:250,000 Series) maps. They are... Greenbackville on the Salisbury, MD., U.S.G.S. map; (2) From the beginning point, the boundary follows...

  10. View from shore showing the Tshaped configuration of the Gasoline ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View from shore showing the T-shaped configuration of the Gasoline Wharf. Note the large cleats on the curbs of the top section of the wharf - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Gasoline Wharf, Offshore, near the intersection of Hornet Avenue & Curtis Street, Ford Island, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  11. Detail section extending from shore. Note the paired support pilings, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail section extending from shore. Note the paired support pilings, concrete curbs with rectangular openings for drainage, and large-diameter metal pipe suspended under the deck. USS MISSOURI in background - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Gasoline Wharf, Offshore, near the intersection of Hornet Avenue & Curtis Street, Ford Island, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  12. 27 CFR 9.79 - Lake Michigan Shore.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Lake Michigan Shore. 9.79 Section 9.79 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.79...

  13. Near shore-wetland fish movements in the Great Lakes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Linkages of Great Lakes coastal wetlands and near shore habitats are under-explored, yet 90 species of fish are known to utilize wetlands for spawning and/or nursery habitat. The duration and frequency of wetland use for pelagic species with mobile adult stages is also poorly un...

  14. Modeling cover Crop Effectiveness on Maryland's Eastern Shore

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cover cropping has become a widely used conservation practice on Maryland’s Eastern shore. It is one of the main practices funded by the Maryland Department of Agriculture’s (MDA) Maryland Agricultural Water Quality Cost Share (MACS) program. The major benefits of this practice include reduction of ...

  15. 33 CFR 127.611 - International shore connection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false International shore connection... (CONTINUED) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Firefighting § 127.611...

  16. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHWEST, OF SILVER LAKE WEST SHORE WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHWEST, OF SILVER LAKE WEST SHORE WITH RUINS OF SILVER LAKE MINE AT BOTTOM CENTER. NOTE CONTINUITY OF GEOLOGICAL FORMATIONS WHERE BOTTOM OF LAKE CAN BE SEEN. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

  17. 1. Full SW side of dock as viewed from shore ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Full SW side of dock as viewed from shore at the Oil/Creosote Unloading Dock. This view formed a panorama with photo WA-131-H-5, which shows the Oil/Creosote Unloading Dock. - Pacific Creosoting Plant, West Dock, 5350 Creosote Place, Northeast, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  18. An Evaluation of Shore-Based Radio Direction Finding.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-09-01

    Systems Center (TSC). The evaluation consisted of the following three phases: (1) A preliminary survey to identify and classify available direction...This report describes an evaluation of Radio Direction Finding (RDF) techniques for shore-based position location performed by the Transportation

  19. 3. EAST SIDE. MAIN BASE IS VISIBLE ON FAR SHORE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. EAST SIDE. MAIN BASE IS VISIBLE ON FAR SHORE OF ROGERS DRY LAKE AT EXTREME UPPER LEFT. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Shop Building for Test Stand 1-5, Test Area 1-115, northwest end of Saturn Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  20. CASCO BAY PLAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Casco Bay lies at the heart of Maine's most populated area. The health of its waters, wetlands, and wildlife depend in large part on the activities of the quarter-million residents who live in its watershed. Less than 30 years ago, portions of Casco Bay were off-limits to recr...

  1. An investigation of recent storm histories using Ground Penetrating Radar at Bay-Bay Spit, Bicol, Central Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Switzer, Adam D.; Pile, Jeremy; Soria, Janneli Lea A.; Siringan, Fernando; Daag, Arturo; Brill, Dominik

    2016-04-01

    The Philippine archipelago lies in the path of seasonal tropical cyclones, and much of the coast is prone to periodic inundation and overwash during storm surges. On example is typhoon Durian a category 3 storm that made landfall on the 30th November 2006, in Bicol province, on the east central Philippine coast. Satellite imagery from May 2007 reveal that Durian breached a sandy spit that runs southeast from the mouth of the Quinale River at Bay-Bay village towards Tabaco City. The imagery also showed that, although the breach site showed signs of partial recovery, geomorphological evidence of the inundation event associated with typhoon Durian still remains. In 2012 we mapped the geomorphological features of Durian. In June 2013 we returned to conduct Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) surveys on the Bay-Bay spit to investigate potential subsurface evidence of previous storm events. The GPR surveys comprised five, 1.5 km, longshore profiles and 12 cross-shore profiles, of 50 m - 200 m in length. The GPR system used for this study was a Sensors and Software Noggin with 100 Mhz antennas. Near surface velocities were determine using Hyperbolae matching in order to estimate depth. Topographic and positional data were collected using a dGPS system. After minimal processing depth of penetration during the survey varied from 2 - 8 m. The cross-shore GPR profiles reveal at least two erosional events prior to 2006 typhoon Durian, with approximately 10 m of recovery and progradation between each erosion surface. The GPR profiles that captured the erosional features were revisited in September 2013 for trial pitting, stratigraphic description, and sediment sampling. Sediment cores were taken horizontally from the trench walls and vertically from the trench bases to date sediments using Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL), which eventually could constrain the timing of the erosional surfaces.

  2. Building Models with Bayes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, Gus; Nelson, Lance J.; Reese, Shane

    2011-10-01

    The whole of modern Bayesian statistical methods is founded on the simple idea of Bayes rule, stated by the Reverend Thomas Bayes, and presented in 1763. Bayes rule is merely a simple statement of conditional probablility but can be used to make strong inferences. However, the application of Bayes rule to all but the simplest problems requires significant computation. As a result, Baysian-based approaches have been largely impractical until high-speed computing became inexpensive in the recent in the last 20 years or so. We discuss the general idea behind Bayes rule, how to use it to build physical models, and illustrate the approach for a simple case of lattice gas models.

  3. ELEVATION, LOOKING SOUTH FROM 95th STREET DRAWBRIDGE, WITH LAKE SHORE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ELEVATION, LOOKING SOUTH FROM 95th STREET DRAWBRIDGE, WITH LAKE SHORE & MICHIGAN SOUTHERN RAILWAY BRIDGES IN RAISED POSITION. - Lake Shore & Michigan Southern Railway, Bridge No. 6, Spanning Calumet River, east of Chicago Skyway (I-90), Chicago, Cook County, IL

  4. 75 FR 8329 - Eastern Shore Natural Gas Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-24

    ... (Eastern Shore), 1110 Forrest Avenue, Dover, Delaware 19904, filed in Docket No. CP10-51-000, a prior..., Eastern Shore Natural Gas Company, 1110 Forrest Avenue, Dover, Delaware 19904, at (302) 734-6710,...

  5. Identifying Rhodamine Dye Plume Sources in Near-Shore Oceanic Environments by Integration of Chemical and Visual Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Yu; Kang, Xiaodong; Li, Yunyi; Li, Wei; Zhang, Aiqun; Yu, Jiangchen; Li, Yiping

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a strategy for identifying the source location of a chemical plume in near-shore oceanic environments where the plume is developed under the influence of turbulence, tides and waves. This strategy includes two modules: source declaration (or identification) and source verification embedded in a subsumption architecture. Algorithms for source identification are derived from the moth-inspired plume tracing strategies based on a chemical sensor. The in-water test missions, conducted in November 2002 at San Clemente Island (California, USA) in June 2003 in Duck (North Carolina, USA) and in October 2010 at Dalian Bay (China), successfully identified the source locations after autonomous underwater vehicles tracked the rhodamine dye plumes with a significant meander over 100 meters. The objective of the verification module is to verify the declared plume source using a visual sensor. Because images taken in near shore oceanic environments are very vague and colors in the images are not well-defined, we adopt a fuzzy color extractor to segment the color components and recognize the chemical plume and its source by measuring color similarity. The source verification module is tested by images taken during the CPT missions. PMID:23507823

  6. Identifying rhodamine dye plume sources in near-shore oceanic environments by integration of chemical and visual sensors.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yu; Kang, Xiaodong; Li, Yunyi; Li, Wei; Zhang, Aiqun; Yu, Jiangchen; Li, Yiping

    2013-03-18

    This article presents a strategy for identifying the source location of a chemical plume in near-shore oceanic environments where the plume is developed under the influence of turbulence, tides and waves. This strategy includes two modules: source declaration (or identification) and source verification embedded in a subsumption architecture. Algorithms for source identification are derived from the moth-inspired plume tracing strategies based on a chemical sensor. The in-water test missions, conducted in November 2002 at San Clemente Island (California, USA) in June 2003 in Duck (North Carolina, USA) and in October 2010 at Dalian Bay (China), successfully identified the source locations after autonomous underwater vehicles tracked the rhodamine dye plumes with a significant meander over 100 meters. The objective of the verification module is to verify the declared plume source using a visual sensor. Because images taken in near shore oceanic environments are very vague and colors in the images are not well-defined, we adopt a fuzzy color extractor to segment the color components and recognize the chemical plume and its source by measuring color similarity. The source verification module is tested by images taken during the CPT missions.

  7. Shelf sediment dispersal during the dry season, Princess Charlotte Bay, Great Barrier Reef, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahl, Lauren E.; Marsden, M. A. H.

    1987-10-01

    Princess Charlotte Bay, located on the northern Great Barrier Reef, is an environment of terrigenous and carbonate deposition. The dynamics on this shelf are controlled by the Great Barrier Reef at the edge of the shelf, and the mid-shelf, shore-normal reefs. This study examines the dynamics during the dry season, with six time-series records from instrumented tripod deployments and numerous hydrographic stations. The shallow nearshore waters and the estuaries prove to be the sites where most active sediment resuspension and transport takes place. Sediment resuspension is effected primarily by waves in the nearshore, and channeling of tidal currents in the estuaries. Bedload transport did not occur during this study, mainly because current velocities were too low. Suspended particulate matter (SPM) transport in the bay is governed by tides and winds. Strong tidal flow imparts a strong offshore component to the transport, and strong southeast winds impart an alongshore component that transports SPM out of the bay to the northwest. Rattlesnake Channel, east of Princess Charlotte Bay, is another route by which SPM leaves the bay. Flow through this channel is predominantly tidal, with ebb waters (leaving Princess Charlotte Bay) carrying higher SPM concentrations than flood waters. SPM flux in the nearshore was an order of magnitude higher than at offshore stations, with highest fluxes generally occurring at times of sustained southeast winds. Transect data show that SPM drops to average bay values in water 11 m deep, indicating most SPM is transported in nearshore waters.

  8. APPLICATION OF LINEAR PROGRAMMING TO FACILITY MAINTENANCE PROBLEMS IN THE NAVY SHORE ESTABLISHMENT.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    LINEAR PROGRAMMING ), (*NAVAL SHORE FACILITIES, MAINTENANCE), (*MAINTENANCE, COSTS, MATHEMATICAL MODELS, MANAGEMENT PLANNING AND CONTROL, MANPOWER, FEASIBILITY STUDIES, OPTIMIZATION, MANAGEMENT ENGINEERING.

  9. Enabling Data Sharing with the Shore Side Data System (SSDS): Lessons Learned and Future Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, K. J.; Bermudez, L.; Salamy, K.

    2005-12-01

    At the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI) we have experience in building data systems to meet scientific needs in oceanography. Many of these experiences involve system communication and data interoperability. Obviously there are many issues associated with 'systems of systems', and while this is a more tractable problem within the walls of an institute, when interoperating with external data systems, the difficulties grow rapidly. One example of a project within MBARI, the Shore-Side Data System (SSDS), has a service-oriented architecture which helped immensely in the connection of systems. The SSDS has served as a portion of the data management system for the Center for Integrated Marine Technologies (CIMT) Wind to Whales Program. Software connectivity was greatly enhanced by the service-oriented architecture of SSDS, but we still faced issues surrounding common vocabularies and ontologies that are necessary for true system interoperability. With the help of the Marine Metadata Initiative (MMI), some promising technologies are being developed to help SSDS bridge the gap between itself and other data systems. This will present the SSDS system and the portions of the architecture that have assisted in the connection of some production systems. It will also detail out where we are currently experiencing limitations and how projects like MMI are enabling interoperability with external data systems.

  10. Attitudes about recreation, environmental problems, and estuarine health along the New Jersey Shore, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Burger, J.

    1998-11-01

    Management of ecosystems has advanced by an improvement in understanding not only of how ecosystems function, but of how people perceive their functioning and what they consider to be environmental problems within those systems. Central to such management is understanding how people view estuaries. In this article the author explores the perceptions and attitudes of people about coastal recreation, environmental problems, and future land use along the New Jersey shore (USA) by interviewing people who attended a duck decoy and craft show on Barnegat Bay. The people who were interviewed engaged in more days of fishing than any other recreational activity and engaged in camping the least. There were significant differences in recreational rates as a function of gender and location of residence, with men hunting and fishing more than women and photographing less than women. Jet skis were perceived as the most severe environmental problem, with chemical pollution, junk, oil runoff and overfishing as second level problems. Birds were perceived as not an environmental problem at all. Fishing, hiking, preservation, and camping ranked as the highest preferred future land uses for the two sites examined (Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Naval Weapons Station Earle). The preferred future land uses for these two sites, which are not under consideration for land-use changes, were very similar to those of people living near the Department of Energy`s Savannah River Site in South Carolina, despite the media attention and considerations of nuclear storage.

  11. Community structure and biogeography of shore fishes in the Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalaf, Maroof A.; Kochzius, Marc

    2002-02-01

    Shore fish community structure off the Jordanian Red Sea coast was determined on fringing coral reefs and in a seagrass-dominated bay at 6 m and 12 m depths. A total of 198 fish species belonging to 121 genera and 43 families was recorded. Labridae and Pomacentridae dominated the ichthyofauna in terms of species richness and Pomacentridae were most abundant. Neither diversity nor species richness was correlated to depth. The abundance of fishes was higher at the deep reef slope, due to schooling planktivorous fishes. At 12 m depth abundance of fishes at the seagrass-dominated site was higher than on the coral reefs. Multivariate analysis demonstrated a strong influence on the fish assemblages by depth and benthic habitat. Fish species richness was positively correlated with hard substrate cover and habitat diversity. Abundance of corallivores was positively linked with live hard coral cover. The assemblages of fishes were different on the shallow reef slope, deep reef slope and seagrass meadows. An analysis of the fish fauna showed that the Gulf of Aqaba harbours a higher species richness than previously reported. The comparison with fish communities on other reefs around the Arabian Peninsula and Indian Ocean supported the recognition of an Arabian subprovince within the Indian Ocean. The affinity of the Arabian Gulf ichthyofauna to the Red Sea is not clear.

  12. Evaluating screening effects and Tusnami danger in bays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, V. V.; Simonov, K. V.; Garder, O. I.

    1985-06-01

    In selecting sites for new construction in the Kuril Islands it is important to evaluate the tsunami danger of the pertinent parts of the coastline. Recommendations for the Kuril Islands have been published, but they are only preliminary. An effort has now been made to improve them by formulatating a more adequate model of the source with defining of those peculiarities of the specific position of a bay which exert the most significant influence on formation of the maximum tsunami wave in the analyzed coastal zone. The analysis was based on observational data for the Kamchatka tsunami of 1952, which was catastrophic for the shores of Kamchatka and the Kuril Islands. The data used were for Pearl Harbor, Honolulu and Hilo. The processing method involved breakdown of the record into the signal at the source and the impulse function for penetration of the wave into a bay. it was found that the record can be represented in the form of the convolution of the source function common for all the records of one tsunami and the specific impulse function for the propagation path specific for each bay. It was found that the signal at the tsunami source is a periodic process with beats of great duration with a relatively narrow spectrum. The impulse function for the paths for closed bays contains a small number of oscillations and varies in characteristic times on the order of 1 to 1.5 hours. The characteristic time of tsunami filling of a bay is important to know for shielding the bay against a tsunami wave.

  13. 40 CFR 81.154 - Eastern Shore Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Regions § 81.154 Eastern Shore Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Eastern Shore Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Maryland) consists of the territorial area encompassed by the... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eastern Shore Intrastate Air...

  14. Excavating, Trenching, and Shoring Safety. Module SH-38. Safety and Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This student module on excavating, trenching, and shoring safety is one of 50 modules concerned with job safety and health. This module outlines the hazards of trenching and shoring and the procedures and equipment that should be employed to prevent cave-ins and other trenching and shoring accidents. Following the introduction, 10 objectives (each…

  15. 29 CFR Appendix D to Subpart P of... - Aluminum Hydraulic Shoring for Trenches

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aluminum Hydraulic Shoring for Trenches D Appendix D to.... 1926, Subpt. P, App. D Appendix D to Subpart P of Part 1926—Aluminum Hydraulic Shoring for Trenches (a) Scope. This appendix contains information that can be used when aluminum hydraulic shoring is...

  16. 29 CFR Appendix D to Subpart P of... - Aluminum Hydraulic Shoring for Trenches

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aluminum Hydraulic Shoring for Trenches D Appendix D to.... 1926, Subpt. P, App. D Appendix D to Subpart P of Part 1926—Aluminum Hydraulic Shoring for Trenches (a) Scope. This appendix contains information that can be used when aluminum hydraulic shoring is...

  17. 29 CFR Appendix D to Subpart P of... - Aluminum Hydraulic Shoring for Trenches

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aluminum Hydraulic Shoring for Trenches D Appendix D to.... 1926, Subpt. P, App. D Appendix D to Subpart P of Part 1926—Aluminum Hydraulic Shoring for Trenches (a) Scope. This appendix contains information that can be used when aluminum hydraulic shoring is...

  18. 29 CFR Appendix D to Subpart P of... - Aluminum Hydraulic Shoring for Trenches

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aluminum Hydraulic Shoring for Trenches D Appendix D to.... 1926, Subpt. P, App. D Appendix D to Subpart P of Part 1926—Aluminum Hydraulic Shoring for Trenches (a) Scope. This appendix contains information that can be used when aluminum hydraulic shoring is...

  19. 29 CFR Appendix D to Subpart P of... - Aluminum Hydraulic Shoring for Trenches

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aluminum Hydraulic Shoring for Trenches D Appendix D to.... 1926, Subpt. P, App. D Appendix D to Subpart P of Part 1926—Aluminum Hydraulic Shoring for Trenches (a) Scope. This appendix contains information that can be used when aluminum hydraulic shoring is...

  20. 76 FR 20659 - Eastern Shore Natural Gas Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Eastern Shore Natural Gas Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on April 1, 2011, Eastern Shore Natural Gas Company (Eastern Shore), 1110...

  1. 78 FR 39719 - Eastern Shore Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Eastern Shore Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application Take notice that on June 13, 2013, Eastern Shore Natural Gas Company (Eastern Shore) filed with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission an application under section 7(c) of the Natural Gas Act to construct, and operate...

  2. Fossils from bore holes on the Eastern Shore Peninsula, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Todd, Ruth; Gardner, Julia A.; Sohn, I.G.

    1955-01-01

    This report lists Foraminifera, Mollusca, and Ostracoda in five bore holes that penetrated a maximum of 445 feet of section in sediments of Pleistocene and Miocene age, and discusses the paleoecologic and stratigraphic significance of the fossils. It includes the contents of references 6, 16, and 18 of Virginia Division of Geology Mineral Resources Circular No. 2, dealing with the geology and groundwater resources of the Eastern Shore peninsula.

  3. Turboexpanders with pressurized magnetic bearings for off-shore applications

    SciTech Connect

    Agahi, R.R.; Ershaghi, B.; Baudelocque, L.

    1995-12-31

    There are two primary parameters that encourage the use of magnetic bearings in turbomachinery: oil-free process and space requirements. For cryogenic processes such as hydrogen purification and ethylene plants, oil free process is the primary objective. In the case of off-shore platforms for oil and gas production, the occupied space and weight are of prime concern. In off-shore operations, the process gas density is usually higher than in normal process plants because the gas is untreated and at high pressure. High density process gas generates more windage loss and may also cause excessive radial load to journal bearings. The bearing assembly design should be suitable for sour gas environments as well. Furthermore, the thrust bearing system should withstand process fluctuations which are more severe due to high pressure. In this paper, the authors explain their experience of designing a turboexpander-compressor with magnetic bearings for an off-shore oil production platform. They will present side load analysis and their solutions for heat dissipation and coping with process fluctuations.

  4. Development of San Leandro synform and neotectonics of the San Francisco Bay block, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marlow, M. S.; Jachens, R.C.; Hart, P.E.; Carlson, P.R.; Anima, R.J.; Childs, J. R.

    1999-01-01

    High-resolution, 24-channel seismic-reflection data show a stratified synform beneath south San Francisco Bay. These seismic-reflection data reveal an eastward-dipping bedrock surface that is about 40 m deep (subbottom) beneath the western south bay, and that reaches a maximum observed depth of 500-800 m (subbottom) below the eastern half of the south bay. An angular unconformity cuts both the synform and underlying bedrock. The age of the unconformity is unknown but may be Pleistocene, when these strata forming the synform were presumably exposed subaerially during lowered sea levels. The synformal strata, the unconformity, and some generally flat-lying and overlying strata are folded near the eastern shore of the bay. This folding may result from movement on the Hayward fault (fault interactions and localized strain partitioning) or from compressional deformation in the East Bay Hills related to NE-SW ('fault-normal') convergence between the Pacific and North American plates. In general, reflections from sediment overlying the unconformity are flat lying (except near the eastern shore of the bay), whereas reflections beneath the unconformity dip eastward. The overlying, flat sediment section fills a shallow basin that is coincident with an elliptical residual gravity low. This low appears to be related to the deeper sedimentary, synformal section based on the spatial correlation between the east-dipping reflections and the gravity anomaly. Projecting the east-dipping reflections to the center of the gravity low suggests that the total section of flat-lying and dipping reflections in the synform may exceed 1000 m. Modeling of the gravity low suggests a total low-density section, about 1.5 km thick, at the center of the synform relative to the surrounding bedrock of presumed Franciscan Complex.High-resolution, 24-channel seismic-reflection data show a stratified synform beneath south San Francisco Bay. These seismic-reflection data reveal an eastward

  5. Mineral composition of soils and bottom sediments in bays of Novaya Zemlya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krupskaya, V. V.; Miroshnikov, A. Yu.; Dorzhieva, O. V.; Zakusin, S. V.; Semenkov, I. N.; Usacheva, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    We have analyzed the specific features of the mineralogical composition of bottom sediments of Blagopoluchiya, Tsivol'ki, and Abrosimov bays and soils on Cape Zhelaniya and the coasts of Abrosimov and Stepovoi bays. The data were obtained during two scientific expeditions of the R/V Professor Shtokman in 2014 (cruise 128) and R/V Akademik Mstislav Keldysh in 2015 (cruise 63). These investigations revealed patterns in the transportation of terrigenous material in the coastal zone of the bays: a decrease in the share of nonclay minerals and an increase in that of clay minerals with distance from shore. The increase in kaolinite and smectite content in soil horizons is related to biochemical weathering, while illite is mainly formed as a result of physical weathering.

  6. Predicted liquefaction of East Bay fills during a repeat of the 1906 San Francisco earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holzer, T.L.; Blair, J.L.; Noce, T.E.; Bennett, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    Predicted conditional probabilities of surface manifestations of liquefaction during a repeat of the 1906 San Francisco (M7.8) earthquake range from 0.54 to 0.79 in the area underlain by the sandy artificial fills along the eastern shore of San Francisco Bay near Oakland, California. Despite widespread liquefaction in 1906 of sandy fills in San Francisco, most of the East Bay fills were emplaced after 1906 without soil improvement to increase their liquefaction resistance. They have yet to be shaken strongly. Probabilities are based on the liquefaction potential index computed from 82 CPT soundings using median (50th percentile) estimates of PGA based on a ground-motion prediction equation. Shaking estimates consider both distance from the San Andreas Fault and local site conditions. The high probabilities indicate extensive and damaging liquefaction will occur in East Bay fills during the next M ??? 7.8 earthquake on the northern San Andreas Fault. ?? 2006, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  7. Numerical simulations of river discharges, nutrient flux and nutrient dispersal in Jakarta Bay, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    van der Wulp, Simon A; Damar, Ario; Ladwig, Norbert; Hesse, Karl-J

    2016-09-30

    The present application of numerical modelling techniques provides an overview of river discharges, nutrient flux and nutrient dispersal in Jakarta Bay. A hydrological model simulated river discharges with a total of 90 to 377m(3)s(-1) entering Jakarta Bay. Daily total nitrogen and total phosphorus loads ranged from 40 to 174tons and 14 to 60tons, respectively. Flow model results indicate that nutrient gradients are subject to turbulent mixing by tides and advective transport through circulation driven by wind, barotropic and baroclinic pressure gradients. The bulk of nutrient loads originate from the Citarum and Cisadane rivers flowing through predominantly rural areas. Despite lower nutrient loads, river discharges from the urban area of Jakarta exhibit the highest impact of nutrient concentrations in the near shore area of Jakarta Bay and show that nutrient concentrations were not only regulated by nutrient loads but were strongly regulated by initial river concentrations and local flow characteristics.

  8. The intertidal soft sediments and their macrofauna in the Greater Swansea Bay area (Worm's Head to Nash Point), South Wales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shackley, Susan E.

    1981-05-01

    The zonation and abundance of the infauna of 11 soft shores in the Greater Swansea Bay area are described in relation to sediment grain size composition and exposure to wave action. Faunal associations are more characteristic of a boreal sand community but with reduced species diversity. Exposure to wave action accounts, at least in part, for this reduced fauna but the combined effects of industrial and urban development in the Swansea Bay area cannot be ignored. This study provides a baseline for future work in a region subject to pollution, completing the infaunal species lists for the northern coastline of the Bristol Channel.

  9. Module bay with directed flow

    DOEpatents

    Torczynski, John R.

    2001-02-27

    A module bay requires less cleanroom airflow. A shaped gas inlet passage can allow cleanroom air into the module bay with flow velocity preferentially directed toward contaminant rich portions of a processing module in the module bay. Preferential gas flow direction can more efficiently purge contaminants from appropriate portions of the module bay, allowing a reduced cleanroom air flow rate for contaminant removal. A shelf extending from an air inlet slit in one wall of a module bay can direct air flowing therethrough toward contaminant-rich portions of the module bay, such as a junction between a lid and base of a processing module.

  10. 33 CFR 100.124 - Maggie Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York. 100.124 Section 100.124 Navigation and Navigable... NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.124 Maggie Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York... swimmer or safety craft on the swim event race course bounded by the following points: Starting Point...

  11. 75 FR 29891 - Special Local Regulation; Maggie Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ... South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The... Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim. This special local regulation is necessary to protect... Swim, Great South Bay, NY, in the Federal Register (74 FR 32428). We did not receive any comments...

  12. 33 CFR 100.124 - Maggie Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York. 100.124 Section 100.124 Navigation and Navigable... NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.124 Maggie Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York... swimmer or safety craft on the swim event race course bounded by the following points: Starting Point...

  13. Geology of the Monterey Bay region, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greene, H. Gary

    1977-01-01

    Geophysical data and sea floor samples collected from the continental shelf and slope between Ano Nuevo Point and Point Sur, California indicate that the Monterey Bay region has had a complex late Cenozoic tectonic history. Uplift and depression have produced a succession of regressive and transgressive sedimentary units, while contemporaneous right-slip along faults of the San Andreas system have offset major structural and lithologic elements. This deformation produced three regional and several local unconformities within upper Tertiary rocks and initiated development of a canyon system that today includes the Monterey, Ascension, Carmel, and other large submarine canyons. The Tertiary stratigraphy of the offshore Monterey Bay area is divided into two provinces by a major structural boundary, the north-trending Palo Colorado-San Gregorio fault zone. East of this zone in the offshore are four seismically distinct sequences that can be correlated with major sequences onshore. These sequences comprise (1) pre-Tertiary basement, and (2) middle Miocene, (3) upper Miocene to Pliocene, and (4) upper Pliocene to Holocene sedimentary intervals. Each of the latter three sequences is bounded by unconformities, as is its counterpart on land. Only Neogene sedimentary rocks are present offshore; Paleogene units, if originally present, have been removed completely by pre-middle Miocene erosion. An extensive erosional surface was cut during Zemorrian time into the late Mesozoic granitic basement rocks. Incised into this surface are the ancestral Monterey Canyon and an unnamed canyon. Marine sedimentary rocks of upper Miocene and Pliocene age overlie this unconformably and fill the unnamed canyon. Similar rocks also may have once filled Monterey Canyon. Near shore these strata are covered by terrestrial alluvial and eolian deposits, deltaic deposits, marine canyon fill, landslide and slump deposits, and unconsolidated sediments that range in age from upper Pliocene to Holocene

  14. Interferometric Sidescan Bathymetry, Sediment and Foraminiferal Analyses; a New Look at Tomales Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anima, Roberto J.; Chin, John L.; Finlayson, David P.; McGann, Mary; Wong, Florence L.

    2008-01-01

    The United States Geological Survey (USGS) in collaboration with Point Reyes National Sea Shore (PRNS), and the Tomales Bay Watershed Council [http://www.tomalesbaywatershed.org/] has completed a detailed bathymetric survey, and sediment and foraminiferal analyses of the floor of Tomales Bay, California. The study goals are to detail the submarine morphology, the sediment distribution, sedimentary features, and distribution of foraminifera to provide a framework for future studies. The USGS collected swath bathymetric data with a SEA SWATHplus interferometric sidescan sonar system (2004, 2005) and an echo sounder system (2006). The data were processed into continuous mosaic images that show bathymetric detail of the bay floor with 0.2-m vertical and 4.0-m horizontal resolution. Acoustic backscatter data from the 2004 and 2005 surveys were processed into 2-m resolution grids. In addition, 27 sediment samples were collected from various parts of the bay for grain size analyses and a comprehensive study of the distribution of foraminifera in Tomales Bay. The foraminiferal analysis determined that the invasive foraminifera Trochammina hadai from Japan was present in Tomales Bay. The project was conducted in response to a request from the National Park Service, and the Tomales Bay Watershed Council who voiced a need to look at the environmental impacts of human input to the surrounding watersheds that ultimately flow into the bay. The mapping, sediment, and foraminiferal data establish a baseline survey for future comparisons of possible geologic and anthropogenic changes that might occur due to changes in land use or development in the surrounding watershed. These data may also aid in determining the possible pathways of pollutants entering the bay from the surrounding watersheds.

  15. A budget of marine and terrigenous sediments, Hanalei Bay, Kauai, Hawaiian Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Calhoun, R.S.; Fletcher, C.H.; Harney, J.N.

    2002-01-01

    The sediment budget of Hanalei Bay on the north shore of Kauai was calculated using sedimentological and geophysical methods. The calculations of the budget subsequently allowed an interpretation of the Holocene history of the bay. The bay sediments are easily separated into marine (carbonate) and terrigenous (siliciclastic) grains. Surficial sediments are dominated by carbonate grains ( ??? 70%) of coralline algae, coral, and mollusc fragments as well as foraminifera, Halimeda, bryozoa, and echinoderm tests. However, siliciclastic grains (e.g. olivine, plagioclase, volcanic lithics) from the Hanalei River watershed draining shield volcanic highlands are the most common individual grain type ( ??? 27%) and form a zone of high concentration from the mouth of the Hanalei River into the center of the bay. Flooding in the bay by the post-glacial sea-level rise began soon after 11.7 kyears. The resulting marine environment caused the net deposition of 45.5 ?? 1.5 ?? 106 m3 of sediment in the bay and approximately 33.7 ?? 11.2 ?? 106 m3 of sediment on the Hanalei coastal plain. The total volume of carbonate sediment stored in the bay and coastal plain is greater than the volume likely to have been produced exclusively within the bay during the same time. Calculations indicate that approximately 2490 m3 year-1 have been imported into the bay or coastal plain and deposited since 11,700 years ago. The majority of this sediment influx is likely delivered from the east by the strong tradewind-driven littoral currents that characterize Kauai's north shore. Net carbonate sediment deposition in Hanalei Bay peaked at a rate of 15,500 m3 year-1 between 5000 and 3000 years ago (when sea level may have been 2 m above present) diminishing to 3890 m3 year-1 from 1000 years ago to the present. This influx is likely to have played a significant role in the mid to late Holocene progradation of the Hanalei shoreline. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A budget of marine and terrigenous sediments, Hanalei Bay, Kauai, Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calhoun, R. Scott; Fletcher, Charles H.; Harney, Jodi N.

    2002-06-01

    The sediment budget of Hanalei Bay on the north shore of Kauai was calculated using sedimentological and geophysical methods. The calculations of the budget subsequently allowed an interpretation of the Holocene history of the bay. The bay sediments are easily separated into marine (carbonate) and terrigenous (siliciclastic) grains. Surficial sediments are dominated by carbonate grains (˜70%) of coralline algae, coral, and mollusc fragments as well as foraminifera, Halimeda, bryozoa, and echinoderm tests. However, siliciclastic grains (e.g. olivine, plagioclase, volcanic lithics) from the Hanalei River watershed draining shield volcanic highlands are the most common individual grain type (˜27%) and form a zone of high concentration from the mouth of the Hanalei River into the center of the bay. Flooding in the bay by the post-glacial sea-level rise began soon after 11.7 kyears. The resulting marine environment caused the net deposition of 45.5±1.5×10 6 m 3 of sediment in the bay and approximately 33.7±11.2×10 6 m 3 of sediment on the Hanalei coastal plain. The total volume of carbonate sediment stored in the bay and coastal plain is greater than the volume likely to have been produced exclusively within the bay during the same time. Calculations indicate that approximately 2490 m 3 year -1 have been imported into the bay or coastal plain and deposited since 11,700 years ago. The majority of this sediment influx is likely delivered from the east by the strong tradewind-driven littoral currents that characterize Kauai's north shore. Net carbonate sediment deposition in Hanalei Bay peaked at a rate of 15,500 m 3 year -1 between 5000 and 3000 years ago (when sea level may have been 2 m above present) diminishing to 3890 m 3 year -1 from 1000 years ago to the present. This influx is likely to have played a significant role in the mid to late Holocene progradation of the Hanalei shoreline.

  17. Mobile Bay, Alabama area seen in Skylab 4 Earth Resources Experiment Package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A near vertical view of the Mobile Bay, Alabama area seen in this Skylab 4 Earth Resources Experiment Package S190-B (five-inch earth terrain camera) photograph taken from the Skylab space station in earth orbit. North of Mobile the Tombigbee and Alabama Rivers join to form the Mobile River. Detailed configuration of the individual stream channels and boundaries can be defined as the Mobile River flows into Mobile Bay and into the Gulf of Mexico. The Mobile River Valley with its numerous stream channels is a distinct light shade in contrast to the dark green shade of the adjacent areas. The red coloration of Mobile Bay reflects the sediment load carried into the bay by the rivers. The westerly movement of the shore currents at the mouth of Mobile Bay is shown by the contrasting light blue of the sediment-laden current the the blue of the Gulf. Agricultural areas east and west of Mobile Bay are characterized by a rectangular pattern in green to white shades. Color variations may reflect

  18. Holocene depositional history of a large glaciated estuary, Penobscot Bay, Maine

    SciTech Connect

    Knebel, H.J.

    1985-01-01

    Data from seismic-reflection profiles, sidescan-sonar images, and sediment samples reveal the Holocene depositional history of the large (1100 km/sup 2/) Penobscot Bay estuary of coastal Maine. Isostatic recovery of the crust caused the bay to emerge during the immediate postglacial period, and relative sea level stood at about -40 m sometime between 9000 and 11,000 years ago. During the postglacial low stand, the ancestral Penobscot River flowed across the subaerially exposed head of the bay and debouched into Middle Passage. Organic-matter-rich silty clays form the river were deposited in the glacially eroded lower reaches of Middle and West Passages behind a shallow bedrock sill at the mouth of the bay. East Passage was isolated from the rest of the system and received only small amounts of locally derived sediment. During the ensuing Holocene transgression, the locus of sedimentation shifted to the head of the bay. Here, fluvial sediments filled the ancestral channels of the Penobscot River as base level rose, and the migrating surf zone created a gently dipping erosional unconformity, marked by a thin, reworked lag deposit of coarse sand and gravel. As sea level continued to rise, a relatively thick layer (as much as 15 m) of silty clay was deposited at the head of West Passage. During and since the transgression, tidal currents and waves have eroded and reworked Holocene deposits along the shore, within restricted channels, around topographic highs, and over the shallow bay-mouth sill.

  19. Storm-driven sediment transport in Massachusetts Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warner, J.C.; Butman, B.; Dalyander, P.S.

    2008-01-01

    Massachusetts Bay is a semi-enclosed embayment in the western Gulf of Maine about 50 km wide and 100 km long. Bottom sediment resuspension is controlled predominately by storm-induced surface waves and transport by the tidal- and wind-driven circulation. Because the Bay is open to the northeast, winds from the northeast ('Northeasters') generate the largest surface waves and are thus the most effective in resuspending sediments. The three-dimensional oceanographic circulation model Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) is used to explore the resuspension, transport, and deposition of sediment caused by Northeasters. The model transports multiple sediment classes and tracks the evolution of a multilevel sediment bed. The surficial sediment characteristics of the bed are coupled to one of several bottom-boundary layer modules that calculate enhanced bottom roughness due to wave-current interaction. The wave field is calculated from the model Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN). Two idealized simulations were carried out to explore the effects of Northeasters on the transport and fate of sediments. In one simulation, an initially spatially uniform bed of mixed sediments exposed to a series of Northeasters evolved to a pattern similar to the existing surficial sediment distribution. A second set of simulations explored sediment-transport pathways caused by storms with winds from the northeast quadrant by simulating release of sediment at selected locations. Storms with winds from the north cause transport southward along the western shore of Massachusetts Bay, while storms with winds from the east and southeast drive northerly nearshore flow. The simulations show that Northeasters can effectively transport sediments from Boston Harbor and the area offshore of the harbor to the southeast into Cape Cod Bay and offshore into Stellwagen Basin. This transport pattern is consistent with Boston Harbor as the source of silver found in the surficial sediments of Cape Cod Bay and

  20. Sediment dispersal in modern and mid-Holocene basins: implications for shoreline progradation and sediment bypassing, Poverty Bay, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bever, A. J.; Harris, C. K.; McNinch, J.

    2006-12-01

    Poverty Bay is a small embayment located on the eastern shore of New Zealand's North Island. The modern Waipaoa River, a small mountainous river that drains highly erodible mudstone and siltstone, discharges ~15 million tons of sediment per year to Poverty Bay. Rates of bay infilling from fluvial sediment have varied since the maximum shoreline transgression, ~7000 kya. The evolving geometry of Poverty Bay has likely impacted sediment dispersal over these timescales, and thereby influenced the stratigraphic architecture, rates of shoreline progradation, and sediment supply to the continental shelf. This modeling study investigates sediment transport within both modern and paleo, ~7000 kya, Poverty Bays. The Regional Ocean Modeling System was used to examine sediment transport within modern and ~7000 kya Poverty Bay basin geometries. The numerical model includes hydrodynamics driven by winds and buoyancy, and sediment resuspension from energetic waves and currents. Strong winds and waves from the southeast were used, along with high Waipaoa freshwater and sediment discharge, consistent with storm conditions. Besides shedding light on short term transport mechanisms, these results are being incorporated into a stratigraphic model by Wolinsky and Swenson. The paleo basin geometry narrowed at the head of the bay, causing currents to converge and promoting near- field sediment deposition. Buoyancy and wind driven across-shelf currents in the modern bay transport sediment away from the river mouth. Sediment was deposited closer to the river mouth in the paleo than the modern bay, and the modern bay exported much more sediment to the continental shelf than predicted for the middle Holocene bay. Net across-shelf fluxes decreased from a maximum at the head of the bay to nearly zero at the mouth during the paleo run. The modern run, however, had net across-shelf fluxes still half the maximum at the bay mouth. Results from short term model runs indicated that, with similar

  1. Historical oyster reef connections to Chesapeake Bay - a framework for consideration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCormick-Ray, Jerry

    2005-07-01

    Lieutenant Francis Winslow's 1878 oyster survey data of the lower Chesapeake Bay provided the spatial context for considering connectivities of Crassostrea virginica to estuarine function and food web dynamics. Winslow measured the area, water depths, and in some cases bed thickness for 70 distinct oyster beds in the 368 km 2 Tangier-Pocomoke complex, and 12 beds in 35 km 2 of the James River oyster reef habitat. Individual beds showed great size variations, yet most were <2 km 2. Beds occupied variable water depths, but most occurred in 1-4 m depths near shore and 2-12 m depths along channels. Varied bed-top topography and elevation changes created complex structures and hydrologic corridors between shores and tributaries. This historical spatial data provide a framework for considering oyster beds in the context of modern research to suggest they formed resource patches in the seascape at the estuarine scale. It is suggested that beds at different locations are connected by hydrologic corridors, and they facilitate dispersion, migration, and recruitment. Also, oyster-reef habitat added topographic roughness and spatial heterogeneity that increase resource-use options important to an active and diverse estuarine community moving between shore and tributary systems, and between Bay waters and watershed systems.

  2. Chesapeake Bay Program Grant Guidance

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Grant Guidance and appendices for the Chesapeake Bay Program that describes how the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Region 3’s Chesapeake Bay Program Office (CBPO) administers grant and cooperative agreement funds.

  3. Anthropogenic currents and shoreline water quality in Avalon Bay, California.

    PubMed

    Ho, Lin C; Litton, Rachel M; Grant, Stanley B

    2011-03-15

    Shoreline concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and fecal indicator viruses (FIV) in Avalon Bay (Catalina Island, California) display a marked diurnal pattern (higher at night and lower during the day) previously attributed to the tidal flux of sewage-contaminated groundwater and the tidal washing of contaminated sediments, coupled with light and dark die-off of FIB and FIV (Boehm, et al., Environ. Sci. Technol. 2009, 43, 8046-8052). In this paper we document the existence of strong (peak velocities between 20 to 40 cm/s) transient currents in the nearshore waters of Avalon Bay that occur between 07:00 and 20:00 each day. These currents, which have a significant onshore component, are generated by anthropogenic activities in the Bay, including prop wash from local boat traffic and the docking practices of large passenger ferries. A budget analysis carried out on simultaneous measurements of FIB at two cross-shore locations indicates that anthropogenic currents contribute to the diurnal cycling of FIB concentrations along the shoreline, by transporting relatively unpolluted water from offshore toward the beach. The data and analysis presented in this paper support the idea that anthropogenic currents represent a significant, and previously overlooked, source of variability in shoreline water quality.

  4. Holocene transgressive stratigraphy and sediment dispersal, eastern shore, Nova Scotia

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, R.K.; Boyd, R.

    1985-02-01

    Coastal sedimentation along Nova Scotia's eastern shore is dominated by a rising sea level, restricted drumlin sediment supply, and inherited glacial topography. Evolution of barrier systems follows a 500-1000 year cyclic sequence of: (1) generation from marine erosion of glacial deposits, (2) transgression resulting from ongoing sea level rise and depletion of original sediment sources, and (3) landward removal following an estuarine retreat path to new sites of reconstruction. The dominant sediment transfer mechanism operating during this transgressive cycle is landward dispersal by tidal inlet, overwash, and eolian process. Vibrocore, surface sampling, marine geophysics, and underwater photography were used to investigate the potential for eastern shore coastal deposits to be incorporated into the shelf stratigraphic record. High-resolution seismic profiles from the inner continental shelf reveal a lower acoustic unit interpreted as Wisconsin glacial deposits. Overlying the lower unit is a discontinuous upper unit 1-2 m thick, which occupies topographic depressions and is composed of sand, silty sand, and a coarse gravel lag. Side-scan sonar and underwater photographs show large gravel ripples covering the upper acoustic unit in water up to 30 m deep. The upper acoustic unit is interpreted as the remnants of reworked coastal barriers, drumlins, and till. Transgressive sedimentation on the eastern shore of Nova Scotia, therefore, conforms to the concept of shoreface retreat. Coastal sediments here are poorly preserved, except in linear shelf valleys, because of a high-energy wavy climate and prior landward transfer into tidal deltas, washovers, and associated back-barriers deposits.

  5. Nutrient Subsidies to Hanalei Bay, Kauai, HI From Submarine Groundwater Discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knee, K.; Santoro, A.; Street, J.; Boehm, A.; Berg, C.; Paytan, A.

    2005-12-01

    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) has been shown to be a potentially important source of freshwater, nutrients, and pollutants to many coastal areas, including some locations in Hawaii. This study investigated the importance of SGD in Hanalei Bay, a northward-opening, half-moon shaped bay approximately 2 km in diameter, located on the northern shore of the island of Kauai. High fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) counts at Hanalei beaches sparked concern that nutrients and/or bacteria might be leaching into groundwater from septic systems and cesspools and making their way to the coastal ocean. Sampling was conducted in March and June 2005 at 3 local beaches, 3 streams, the Hanalei River, several groundwater pits, and the open bay. Radium was used as a groundwater tracer. Salinity, water temperature, nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, phosphate, silicate, total coliform, Enterococcus, and E. coli were measured. The ratio of 223Ra (half life = 11.4 days) to 224Ra (half life = 3.66 days) was relatively constant across samples from groundwater and the bay, indicating that the residence time of water in the bay was less than one day during the study period. Groundwater had lower concentrations of all FIB than the Hanalei River, the streams, or the bay, indicating that SGD was not contributing bacteria directly to the coastal zone over the course of this study. However, E. coli was detected at relative high levels in groundwater seaward of a cesspool, suggesting that during periods of high discharge, SGD could transport fecal bacteria to the bay. Concentrations of all nutrients were higher in groundwater than in Hanalei Bay, and nitrate concentrations were higher in groundwater than in the Hanalei River or the streams. Additionally, nitrate concentrations in groundwater and in Hanalei Bay were coupled with radium activities, suggesting a common source, most likely SGD. Mass balance calculations, based on residence times of 2 and 6 hours for the surf zone, indicate that the SGD

  6. The influence of bottom boundary layer hydrodynamics on sediment focusing in a contaminated bay.

    PubMed

    Graham, Neil D; Bouffard, Damien; Loizeau, Jean-Luc

    2016-12-01

    Understanding the dynamics and fate of particle bound contaminants is important for mitigating potential environmental, economic and health impacts linked to their presence. Vidy Bay, Lake Geneva (Switzerland), is contaminated due to the outfall and overflow from the wastewater treatment plant of the City of Lausanne. This study was designed to investigate the fate of particle-bound contaminants with the goal of providing a more complete picture of contaminant pathways within the bay and their potential spread to the main basin. This goal was achieved by investigating the sediment transport dynamics, using sediment traps and radionuclide tracers, and ascertaining how local bottom-boundary hydrodynamic conditions (temperature, turbidity, current velocity and direction) influence these dynamics. Results of the study indicated that sedimentation rates and lateral advections increased vertically with proximity to the lakebed and laterally with proximity to shore, indicating the presence of sediment focusing in the bay. Hydrodynamic measurements showed the persistent influence of a gyre within the bay, extending down to the lake bed, while just outside of the bay circulation was influenced by the seasonal patterns of the main basin. Calculated mean displacement distances in the bay indicated that suspended particles can travel ∼3 km per month, which is 1.7 times the width of the Vidy Bay gyre. This results in a residence time of approximately 21 days for suspended particles, which is much greater than previously modelled results. The calculated mobility Shield parameter never exceeded the threshold shear stress needed for resuspension in deeper parts of the bay. In such, increased lateral advections to the bay are not likely due to local resuspension but rather external particle sources, such as main basin or shallow, littoral resuspensions. These external sources coupled with an increased residence time and decreased current velocity within the bay are the

  7. Human health risk assessment for off-shore media at Portsmouth Naval Shipyard

    SciTech Connect

    Mahoney, E.

    1995-12-31

    A human health risk assessment for off-shore media was performed at the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard, Kittery, Maine. The purpose was to determine whether any potential human health risks could be posed by exposures to the estuary. Included in the study were the evaluations of potential risks existing from human exposures to surface water and sediment, as well as potential risks posed by ingestion of various species of fish and shellfish which are caught commercially and recreationally in the estuary. Three species were chosen for study. They were lobsters, mussels, and flounder. The USEPA prescribed protocols for performing human health risk assessments under CERCLA and RCRA were followed to estimate risks associated with ingestion of these species caught in the lower estuary, in the vicinity of the Shipyard. USEPA required the evaluation of two potential seafood ingestion scenarios recreational fishermen and subsistence fishermen. The results indicated that the USEPA risk target of 10{sup {minus}6} for carcinogens or the hazard index of one was exceeded in at least one species for the subsistence ingestion scenario for some inorganics and organic compounds. Based on these results, it was necessary to propose Media Protection Standards in the biota, which would represent the USEPA target risk level for carcinogens and noncarcinogens, as potential cleanup targets. In performing this task, a review of regional background levels for these chemicals found in biota throughout the Great Bay Estuarine System, at locations removed from the Shipyard, was performed. Also examined were regional Maine data from the NOAA Mussel Watch Program. Biota concentrations near the Shipyard were found to be within the range of biota concentrations for most of these chemicals throughout the region, suggesting possible multiple, non-point sources for the contaminants found in seafood throughout the region.

  8. Mobile Bay turbidity study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crozier, G. F.; Schroeder, W. W.

    1978-01-01

    The termination of studies carried on for almost three years in the Mobile Bay area and adjacent continental shelf are reported. The initial results concentrating on the shelf and lower bay were presented in the interim report. The continued scope of work was designed to attempt a refinement of the mathematical model, assess the effectiveness of optical measurement of suspended particulate material and disseminate the acquired information. The optical characteristics of particulate solutions are affected by density gradients within the medium, density of the suspended particles, particle size, particle shape, particle quality, albedo, and the angle of refracted light. Several of these are discussed in detail.

  9. Spatial Variability of Near Shore Turbidity At Lake Tahoe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McConnell, J.; Taylor, K.

    2001-12-01

    The turbidity of the near shore zone at Lake Tahoe has been mapped during different seasons. While the turbidity values are consistently low by comparison to most lakes, there are significant turbidity differences between different locations and seasons. Prior to the start of the 2001 spring runoff the turbidity values where low, except for around Tahoe Keys were large changes to the surface drainage patterns have an adverse influence on the lake. Early in the summer of 2001 high turbidity was observed off the community of South Lake Tahoe and there is a suggestion of a moderate turbidity plume moving along the South East shore. In late summer of 2000, high turbidity areas were noted offshore of areas with developed land. Identification of persistent high turbidity areas can help direct where restoration efforts will be most effective. Repeat turbidity surveys can help assess the effectiveness of restoration efforts. Analysis of the temporal and spatial patterns of turbidity can suggest the location of sources and transportation pathways of undesirable material that enters the lake.

  10. Modeling the role of weathering in shore platform development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trenhaile, Alan S.

    2008-02-01

    A mathematical, wave-erosional model was modified to study the additional effect of weathering by wetting and drying and salt weathering on the development of shore platforms in macro- to mesotidal environments. Model rates of downwearing by these processes, at different tidal elevations, were based on data obtained from a series of laboratory experiments on sandstones from eastern Canada. Backwearing by mechanical wave erosion was calculated using basic wave equations. There were several types of run which were designed to determine the effect of: weathering and the production of fine-grained sediment; the periodic accumulation of debris on weathering in the upper intertidal zone; and weathering in reducing rock resistance and facilitating wave quarrying. The results implied that, compared to mechanical wave erosion, the direct effect of weathering and fine-grained sediment production makes only a small contribution to the long-term development of shore platforms. The relationship between cliff-foot debris occurrence and platform development and morphology was inconsistent because of the negative feedback relationship between erosion rates, surface gradients, and rates of wave attenuation. The model suggested that weathering can play an important, indirect role in assisting wave quarrying of joint blocks and other rock fragments.

  11. A simple and inexpensive method for muddy shore profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Sayedur Rahman; Hossain, M. Shahadat; Sharifuzzaman, S. M.

    2014-11-01

    There are several well-established methods for obtaining beach profiles, and more accurate and precise high-tech methods are emerging. Traditional low-cost methods requiring minimal user skill or training are still popular among professionals, scientists, and coastal zone management practitioners. Simple methods are being developed with a primary focus on sand and gravel beaches. This paper describes a simple, low-cost, manual field method for measuring profiles of beaches, which is particularly suitable for muddy shores. The equipment is a type of flexible U-tube manometer that uses liquid columns in vertical tubes to measure differences in elevation; the supporting frame is constructed from wooden poles with base disks, which hold measuring scales and a PVC tube. The structure was trialed on a mudflat characterized by a 20-40-cm-thick surface layer of silt and clay, located at the Kutubdia Island, Bangladesh. The study results are discussed with notes on the method's applicability, advantages and limitations, and several optional modifications for different scenarios for routine profiling of muddy shores. The equipment can be used by one person or two people, and the accuracy of the method is comparable to those in other methods. The equipment can also be used on sandy or gravel beaches.

  12. Preliminary assessment of landslide-induced wave hazards, Tidal Inlet, Glacier Bay National Park, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wieczorek, Gerald F.; Jakob, Matthias; Motyka, Roman J.; Zirnheld, Sandra L.; Craw, Patricia

    2003-01-01

    A large potential rock avalanche above the northern shore of Tidal Inlet, Glacier Bay National Park, Alaska, was investigated to determine hazards and risks of landslide-induced waves to cruise ships and other park visitors. Field and photographic examination revealed that the 5 to 10 million cubic meter landslide moved between AD 1892 and 1919 after the retreat of Little Ice Age glaciers from Tidal Inlet by AD 1890. The timing of landslide movement and the glacial history suggest that glacial debuttressing caused weakening of the slope and that the landslide could have been triggered by large earthquakes of 1899-1900 in Yakutat Bay. Evidence of recent movement includes fresh scarps, back-rotated blocks, and smaller secondary landslide movements. However, until there is evidence of current movement, the mass is classified as a dormant rock slump. An earthquake on the nearby active Fairweather fault system could reactivate the landslide and trigger a massive rock slump and debris avalanche into Tidal Inlet. Preliminary analyses show that waves induced by such a landslide could travel at speeds of 45 to 50 m/s and reach heights up to 76 m with wave runups of 200 m on the opposite shore of Tidal Inlet. Such waves would not only threaten vessels in Tidal Inlet, but would also travel into the western arm of Glacier Bay endangering large cruise ships and their passengers.

  13. Chesapeake Bay Critters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackay-Atha, Lynne

    2005-01-01

    When students enter the author's classroom on the first day of school, they are greeted with live crabs scuttling around in large bins. The crabs are her way of grabbing students' attention and launching the unit on the Chesapeake Bay watershed. She chooses to start the year with this unit because, despite the fact that the Potomac River can be…

  14. Yaquina Bay Topobathy DEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S.EPA contracted with the U.S.ACE to obtain intertidal and subtidal bathymetric soundings of Yaquina Bay between Poole Slough and the South Beach Marina in 2002. These data were compiled with U.S.ACE subtidal soundings from 1999, 1998, 2000 and National Ocean Service soundi...

  15. On optimal Bayes detection

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, P. |

    1991-08-12

    The following is intended to be a short introduction to the design and analysis of a Bayes-optimal detector, and Middleton`s Locally Optimum Bayes Detector (LOBD). The relationship between these two detectors is clarified. There are three examples of varying complexity included to illustrate the design of these detectors. The final example illustrates the difficulty involved in choosing the bias function for the LOBD. For the examples, the corrupting noise is Gaussian. This allows for a relatively easy solution to the optimal and the LOBD structures. As will be shown, for Bayes detection, the threshold is determined by the costs associated with making a decision and the a priori probabilities of each hypothesis. The threshold of the test cannot be set by simulation. One will notice that the optimal Bayes detector and the LOBD look very much like the Neyman-Pearson optimal and locally optimal detectors respectively. In the latter cases though, the threshold is set by a constraint on the false alarm probability. Note that this allows the threshold to be set by simulation.

  16. On optimal Bayes detection

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, P. Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ . Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering)

    1991-08-12

    The following is intended to be a short introduction to the design and analysis of a Bayes-optimal detector, and Middleton's Locally Optimum Bayes Detector (LOBD). The relationship between these two detectors is clarified. There are three examples of varying complexity included to illustrate the design of these detectors. The final example illustrates the difficulty involved in choosing the bias function for the LOBD. For the examples, the corrupting noise is Gaussian. This allows for a relatively easy solution to the optimal and the LOBD structures. As will be shown, for Bayes detection, the threshold is determined by the costs associated with making a decision and the a priori probabilities of each hypothesis. The threshold of the test cannot be set by simulation. One will notice that the optimal Bayes detector and the LOBD look very much like the Neyman-Pearson optimal and locally optimal detectors respectively. In the latter cases though, the threshold is set by a constraint on the false alarm probability. Note that this allows the threshold to be set by simulation.

  17. Comparative study of the hydrochemical regime in the Gelendzhik and Golubaya Bays, northeastern Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostyleva, A.; Chasovnikov, V.; Chjoo, V.; Menshikova, N.; Kuprikova, N.

    2009-04-01

    The goal of this work was to study the hydrochemical regime in the coastal waters of the northeastern Black Sea. The observations were performed in influenced by significant anthropogenic stress Gelendzhik Bay and at the open coast region (Golubaya Bay). A sampling program has been initiated by the Southern Branch of Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, RAS, (SB SIO RAS) on a weekly basis at the shore line area of «Chernomorets» beach (Gelendzhik Bay) and from the head of pier in the Golubaya Bay. Studies were carried out during a period from January 2001 to December 2008. List of measured parameters includes following: temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, biological oxygen demand (BOD), pH, alkalinity, phosphate, organic phosphorus, silicates, nitrates, nitrites, ammonia, urea, organic nitrogen, oil products. The Gelendzhik bay in its different parts is characterized with strong variability of concentrations of hydrochemical parameters. Above all, it relates to complex structure caused by wind impact. Parts of the bay filled with nearshore and sea waters are legibly differ from each other. The bay itself is rather isolated from the open sea, and its liability to man's impact leads to forming of next features of its seasonal variability of physical-chemical state: • On the base of Si/P and Si/N ratios analysis it was shown that the Gelendzhik Bay waters are significantly enriched with nitrogen and phosphorus compounds. • Unlike the Golubaya bay, phosphates are always present in the water of the Gelendzhik Bay and development of photosynthesis is not limited with nutrients. It may lead to processes of intensive eutrophication. • The oxygen saturation in the Gelendzhik Bay periodically descend lower than 80% during the summer period. That means, that even the Bay's surface layer formally corresponds to the hypoxic conditions that testify to the degradation of the ecosystem there. The conclusions obtained during our studies testify that the pollution from

  18. Visitor impact on rocky shore communities of Qeshm Island, the Persian Gulf, Iran.

    PubMed

    Pour, Fatemeh Aghajan; Shokri, Mohammad Reza; Abtahi, Behrooz

    2013-02-01

    The influence of visitors on macroinvertebrates of rocky intertidal shores was investigated in southern coasts of the Qeshm Island, the Persian Gulf, Iran. Qeshm Island located at the Strait of Hormuz, with an area of 1,491 km(2), is the largest island in the region. This island consists of a number of important natural habitat types including creeks, mangroves, corals, and sandy, muddy, and rocky shores that accommodate diverse marine flora and fauna communities. Two rocky shores were selected at the touristic beaches being visited regularly, and further two control locations selected at pristine shores. Intertidal macroinvertebrates were collected from six microhabitats including rock platforms, cobbles, boulders, crevices, sea walls, and rock pools during two different periods representing high and low tourist seasons. Species richness, density, and assemblage structure in heavily visited shores were compared with that of control locations. Striped barnacles (Balanus amphitrite) were present on platforms of all locations, thus the changes in their size were used as the obvious contrast associated with visitor's impact. A total of 70 macroinvertebrate species from 11 phyla were recorded. Significant differences were detected in taxonomic richness, density, and assemblage structure of macroinvertebrates between heavily visited and pristine shores, suggesting that macroinvertebrates were adversely affected by visitors' impact at heavily visited shores. The test of changes in species richness, density, and assemblage structure from high to low seasons yielded mixed results. The significant changes in density and assemblage structure from high to low seasons were only observed in one heavily visited shore. A significant reduction in size of striped barnacles was observed only in one heavily visited shore. The opportunistic or fugitive species (e.g., small macroalgae and barnacles) were dominant macroinvertebrates on heavily visited shores indicating early succession

  19. Sediment deposition and erosion in south San Francisco Bay, California from 1956 to 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaffe, Bruce; Foxgrover, Amy

    2006-01-01

    Sediment deposition and erosion in South San Francisco Bay from 1956 to 2005 was studied by comparing bathymetric surveys made in 1956, 1983, and 2005. From 1956 to 1983, the region was erosional. In contrast, from 1983 to 2005, the region was depositional. Analysis of subregions defined by depth, morphology and location revealed similarities in behavior during both the erosional and depositional periods. During the entire period of the study, there was net erosion in the shallows (<1 m depth) on the eastern shore of the bay north of the Dumbarton Bridge and net deposition in the region south of Dumbarton Bridge. The rates, however, reflected the sediment regime of each time period. Erosional areas were less erosional during the period with net deposition and depositional zones were more depositional. The cause for the increase in deposition from 1983 to 2005 is unknown, but could be related to an increase in sediment supply from Central Bay. The patterns of deposition and erosion and the change in rates are consistent with an increase in sediment supply from the north, as would occur if the supply from Central Bay increased from 1956-1983 to 1983-2005. Additional research is needed to fully understand why South San Francisco Bay became depositional from 1983 to 2005 and to determine the implications of this change to the planned salt pond restoration in the region.

  20. Inorganic carbon cycling and biogeochemical processes in an Arctic inland sea (Hudson Bay)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burt, William J.; Thomas, Helmuth; Miller, Lisa A.; Granskog, Mats A.; Papakyriakou, Tim N.; Pengelly, Leah

    2016-08-01

    The distributions of carbonate system parameters in Hudson Bay, which not only receives nearly one-third of Canada's river discharge but is also subject to annual cycles of sea-ice formation and melt, indicate that the timing and magnitude of freshwater inputs play an important role in carbon biogeochemistry and acidification in this unique Arctic ecosystem. This study uses basin-wide measurements of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and total alkalinity (TA), as well as stable isotope tracers (δ18O and δ13CDIC), to provide a detailed assessment of carbon cycling processes within the bay. Surface distributions of carbonate parameters reveal the particular importance of freshwater inputs in the southern portion of the bay. Based on TA, we surmise that the deep waters in the Hudson Bay are largely of Pacific origin. Riverine TA end-members vary significantly both regionally and with small changes in near-surface depths, highlighting the importance of careful surface water sampling in highly stratified waters. In an along-shore transect, large increases in subsurface DIC are accompanied by equivalent decreases in δ13CDIC with no discernable change in TA, indicating a respiratory DIC production on the order of 100 µmol kg-1 DIC during deep water circulation around the bay.

  1. Wave attenuation in the shallows of San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lacy, Jessica R.; MacVean, Lissa J.

    2016-01-01

    Waves propagating over broad, gently-sloped shallows decrease in height due to frictional dissipation at the bed. We quantified wave-height evolution across 7 km of mudflat in San Pablo Bay (northern San Francisco Bay), an environment where tidal mixing prevents the formation of fluid mud. Wave height was measured along a cross shore transect (elevation range−2mto+0.45mMLLW) in winter 2011 and summer 2012. Wave height decreased more than 50% across the transect. The exponential decay coefficient λ was inversely related to depth squared (λ=6×10−4h−2). The physical roughness length scale kb, estimated from near-bed turbulence measurements, was 3.5×10−3 m in winter and 1.1×10−2 m in summer. Estimated wave friction factor fw determined from wave-height data suggests that bottom friction dominates dissipation at high Rew but not at low Rew. Predictions of near-shore wave height based on offshore wave height and a rough formulation for fw were quite accurate, with errors about half as great as those based on the smooth formulation for fw. Researchers often assume that the wave boundary layer is smooth for settings with fine-grained sediments. At this site, use of a smooth fw results in an underestimate of wave shear stress by a factor of 2 for typical waves and as much as 5 for more energetic waves. It also inadequately captures the effectiveness of the mudflats in protecting the shoreline through wave attenuation.

  2. Infections and Intoxications from the Ocean: Risks of the Shore.

    PubMed

    Clemence, Mark A; Guerrant, Richard L

    2015-12-01

    Marine and coastal regions provide a diverse range of foods and serve as recreation and leisure areas for large numbers of people in many parts of the world. However, they also serve as environments associated with numerous hazards. The number of cases of fish- and shellfish-related food poisonings in the United States has increased in recent years, accounting for over 600,000 illnesses, with 3,000 hospitalizations and 94 deaths annually. Human diseases due to pathogenic Vibrio species can result from both ingestion of contaminated shellfish and exposure of open wounds to contaminated seawater. A variety of infections may result from human interactions with marine life, including sharks, barracudas, and moray eels. This chapter covers some of the risks of the shore, including fish and shellfish intoxications, infections related to Vibrio species, and infections resulting from marine trauma.

  3. Ice-breaking off-shore drilling and production structure

    SciTech Connect

    Loire, R.

    1986-09-02

    An ice-breaking drilling and production structure is described for use with an off-shore vertically disposed well shaft and the like having one end extending downwardly toward a sea floor and having an opposite end extending upwardly to a point above sea level. The structure consists of: (a) a platform member having outer edges and a generally downwardly facing lower surface which slopes upwardly toward at least one outer edge thereof and adapted to be positioned on a shaft so that the sloping surface extends both above and below sea level; and (b) means for flexibly connecting the platform to a shaft in a manner which will allow the platform to lift and/or to tilt with respect to the shaft as ice moves under the sloping generally downwardly facing lower surface to transfer part of the weight of the platform to the ice and thereby break the same.

  4. Do we have the tools and the smarts to quantify near shore conditions in Lake Michigan?

    EPA Science Inventory

    The off-shore waters in Lake Michigan have been approaching the oligotrophic state, and the lake wide total phosphorus concentration has met the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement (GLWQA) target since the early 1980s. However, environmental concerns in the near shore, such as ex...

  5. 76 FR 21637 - Safety Zone; Ford Estate Wedding Fireworks, Lake St. Clair, Grosse Pointe Shores, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-18

    ... Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on Lake St. Clair, Grosse Pointe Shores, MI. This... Fireworks, Lake St. Clair, Grosse Pointe Shores, MI. (a) Location. The safety zone will encompass all U.S... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Ford Estate Wedding Fireworks, Lake...

  6. 33 CFR 203.49 - Rehabilitation of Hurricane and Shore Protection Projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Rehabilitation of Hurricane and...: The Corps Rehabilitation and Inspection Program § 203.49 Rehabilitation of Hurricane and Shore... authorized hurricane or shore protection structure damaged or destroyed by wind, wave, or water action of...

  7. 33 CFR 203.49 - Rehabilitation of Hurricane and Shore Protection Projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Rehabilitation of Hurricane and...: The Corps Rehabilitation and Inspection Program § 203.49 Rehabilitation of Hurricane and Shore... authorized hurricane or shore protection structure damaged or destroyed by wind, wave, or water action of...

  8. 33 CFR 203.49 - Rehabilitation of Hurricane and Shore Protection Projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Rehabilitation of Hurricane and...: The Corps Rehabilitation and Inspection Program § 203.49 Rehabilitation of Hurricane and Shore... authorized hurricane or shore protection structure damaged or destroyed by wind, wave, or water action of...

  9. 33 CFR 203.49 - Rehabilitation of Hurricane and Shore Protection Projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Rehabilitation of Hurricane and...: The Corps Rehabilitation and Inspection Program § 203.49 Rehabilitation of Hurricane and Shore... authorized hurricane or shore protection structure damaged or destroyed by wind, wave, or water action of...

  10. 33 CFR 203.49 - Rehabilitation of Hurricane and Shore Protection Projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rehabilitation of Hurricane and...: The Corps Rehabilitation and Inspection Program § 203.49 Rehabilitation of Hurricane and Shore... authorized hurricane or shore protection structure damaged or destroyed by wind, wave, or water action of...

  11. 29 CFR Appendix C to Subpart P of... - Timber Shoring for Trenches

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Timber Shoring for Trenches C Appendix C to Subpart P of..., App. C Appendix C to Subpart P of Part 1926—Timber Shoring for Trenches (a) Scope. This appendix... trenches that do not exceed 20 feet (6.1 m) in depth. This appendix must be used when design of...

  12. 29 CFR Appendix C to Subpart P of... - Timber Shoring for Trenches

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Timber Shoring for Trenches C Appendix C to Subpart P of..., App. C Appendix C to Subpart P of Part 1926—Timber Shoring for Trenches (a) Scope. This appendix... trenches that do not exceed 20 feet (6.1 m) in depth. This appendix must be used when design of...

  13. 29 CFR Appendix C to Subpart P of... - Timber Shoring for Trenches

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Timber Shoring for Trenches C Appendix C to Subpart P of..., App. C Appendix C to Subpart P of Part 1926—Timber Shoring for Trenches (a) Scope. This appendix... trenches that do not exceed 20 feet (6.1 m) in depth. This appendix must be used when design of...

  14. 29 CFR Appendix C to Subpart P of... - Timber Shoring for Trenches

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Timber Shoring for Trenches C Appendix C to Subpart P of..., App. C Appendix C to Subpart P of Part 1926—Timber Shoring for Trenches (a) Scope. This appendix... trenches that do not exceed 20 feet (6.1 m) in depth. This appendix must be used when design of...

  15. 29 CFR Appendix C to Subpart P of... - Timber Shoring for Trenches

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Timber Shoring for Trenches C Appendix C to Subpart P of..., App. C Appendix C to Subpart P of Part 1926—Timber Shoring for Trenches (a) Scope. This appendix... trenches that do not exceed 20 feet (6.1 m) in depth. This appendix must be used when design of...

  16. 76 FR 303 - Pipeline Safety: Safety of On-Shore Hazardous Liquid Pipelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ...: Safety of On-Shore Hazardous Liquid Pipelines AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety... Rulemaking (ANPRM) titled: ``Safety of On-Shore Hazardous Liquid Pipelines'' seeking comments on the need for changes to the regulations covering hazardous liquid onshore pipelines. PHMSA has received requests...

  17. Dioxin-like PCBs and PCDD/Fs in surface sediments near the shore of Winam Gulf, Lake Victoria.

    PubMed

    Omwoma, Solomon; Lalah, Joseph O; Virani, Munir; Schramm, Karl-Werner; Henkelmann, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    Winam Gulf of Lake Victoria is considered to be contaminated with toxic chemicals emanating from anthropogenic activities, especially near large industrial towns such as Kisumu. This has recently caused concerns about its water quality and impact on aquatic organisms and human beings. This study was justified by the need to generate baseline concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) in surface sediment from selected sites in the lake and determine the influence of activities on their concentrations and potential risks to fish-eating birds living near the lake. Surface sediments (<30cm) from three different fish landing beaches, located 200m from the shore of Winam Gulf of Lake Victoria near Kisumu city, Homa Bay and Mbita (control) towns, were analysed. The total mean concentrations (in pgg(-1)drywt) were found to range from 17.4-812 (Σdl-PCBs), 36.6-813 (ΣPCDDs) and 1.45-46.4 (ΣPCDFs). The calculated Toxic Equivalents (TEQWHO(2005)) ranged from 0.001-0.43 (Σdl-PCBs) and 0.09-31 (ΣPCDD/Fs). The fish landing beaches at Kisumu city were found to be contaminated with respect to dl-PCBs and dioxins, followed by Homa Bay and Mbita. The relatively high levels of octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (OCDD) and octachlorodibenzofuran (OCDF) influenced the TEQ and the ΣPCDFs/ΣPCDDs ratios indicated chemical processes as partial sources of the dioxins. The levels of contaminants obtained in this study showed potential exposure to aquatic organisms and fish eating birds through food chain transfer.

  18. Bayes and the Law

    PubMed Central

    Fenton, Norman; Neil, Martin; Berger, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Although the last forty years has seen considerable growth in the use of statistics in legal proceedings, it is primarily classical statistical methods rather than Bayesian methods that have been used. Yet the Bayesian approach avoids many of the problems of classical statistics and is also well suited to a broader range of problems. This paper reviews the potential and actual use of Bayes in the law and explains the main reasons for its lack of impact on legal practice. These include misconceptions by the legal community about Bayes’ theorem, over-reliance on the use of the likelihood ratio and the lack of adoption of modern computational methods. We argue that Bayesian Networks (BNs), which automatically produce the necessary Bayesian calculations, provide an opportunity to address most concerns about using Bayes in the law. PMID:27398389

  19. Monitoring PAH contamination in the field (South west Iberian Peninsula): biomonitoring using fluorescence spectrophotometry and physiological assessments in the shore crab Carcinus maenas (L.) (Crustacea: Decapoda).

    PubMed

    Dissanayake, Awantha; Bamber, Shaw D

    2010-07-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous pollutants of the marine environment, arising predominantly from petrochemical contamination and pyrogenic sources. A biomarker of PAH exposure was employed in a field study (South West, Spain) in both captured (indigenous) and deployed (caged) shore crabs (Carcinus maenas) in the chronic PAH-exposed Bays of Algeciras and Gibraltar (from associated harbour and boating activity) compared to a relatively 'clean' site (Cadiz). Metabolite fluorescence was attributed to the following key priority PAH groups; naphthalenes (NAPs), pyrenes (PYRs) and benzo[a]pyrenes (BAPs). Temporal variability was assessed using deployed populations over an eight week period. Petrogenic and pyrogenic PAH contamination (as an indicator of the PAH type) was demonstrated using a ratio between FF(BAP + PYR)/FF(NAP). Physiological assessments from deployed crabs demonstrated both physiological and cellular alterations as shown by reduced heart rates (at rest) and increased cellular stress in crabs from the PAH contaminated sites.

  20. Nagoya, Ise Bay, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    This view of Nagoya, Ise Bay and nearby Kyoto, on the main island of Honshu, Japan (35.0N, 137.0E) combines in a single photo both the political, cultural and educational centers of early Japan as well as one of the main educational and business centers of modern Japan. Besides being a business, cultural and educational center, Nagoya is near the geographic center of the Japanese home islands.

  1. Hydrogeologic setting and ground water flow beneath a section of Indian River Bay, Delaware

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krantz, David E.; Manheim, Frank T.; Bratton, John F.; Phelan, Daniel J.

    2004-01-01

    The small bays along the Atlantic coast of the Delmarva Peninsula (Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia) are a valuable natural resource, and an asset for commerce and recreation. These coastal bays also are vulnerable to eutrophication from the input of excess nutrients derived from agriculture and other human activities in the watersheds. Ground water discharge may be an appreciable source of fresh water and a transport pathway for nutrients entering the bays. This paper presents results from an investigation of the physical properties of the surficial aquifer and the processes associated with ground water flow beneath Indian River Bay, Delaware. A key aspect of the project was the deployment of a new technology, streaming horizontal resistivity, to map the subsurface distribution of fresh and saline ground water beneath the bay. The resistivity profiles showed complex patterns of ground water flow, modes of mixing, and submarine ground water discharge. Cores, gamma and electromagnetic-induction logs, and in situ ground water samples collected during a coring operation in Indian River Bay verified the interpretation of the resistivity profiles. The shore-parallel resistivity lines show subsurface zones of fresh ground water alternating with zones dominated by the flow of salt water from the estuary down into the aquifer. Advective flow produces plumes of fresh ground water 400 to 600 m wide and 20 m thick that may extend more than 1 km beneath the estuary. Zones of dispersive mixing between fresh and saline ground water develop on the upper, lower, and lateral boundaries of the the plume. the plumes generally underlie small incised valleys that can be traced landward to stream draining the upland. The incised valleys are filled with 1 to 2 m of silt and peat that act as a semiconfining layer to restrict the downward flow of salt water from the estuary. Active circulation of both the fresh and saline ground water masses beneath the bay is inferred from the geophysical

  2. Revisiting the 1899 Earthquakes of Yakutat Bay, Alaska Using New and Existing Geophysical Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walton, M. A. L.; Gulick, S. P. S.; Haeussler, P. J.

    2015-12-01

    North of Yakutat Bay in southeastern Alaska, the subducting Yakutat Block intersects with the Fairweather transform fault system. A series of large earthquakes occurred in the region in September of 1899, including a Mw 8.2 event on 10 September that resulted in >14 m of coseismic uplift and a 6 m tsunami in Yakutat Bay. Despite recurrence risk of the 1899 or similar events in the region, the fault(s) that ruptured in 1899 remain unidentified. Previous efforts to map active Yakutat Bay faults carried out by Plafker and Thatcher (2008) used post-1899 bedrock uplift measurements to infer the location of potentially important structures, including the Esker Creek and Bancas Point thrusts. As measurement error was not assessed in their study, we revisit the uplift measurements by quantifying uncertainty due to glacial isostatic adjustment, tidal range, and specific benchmark methods. We also combine new seismic reflection data with existing topography, bathymetry, GPS, and satellite photo data to update the original fault map. Our reevaluation of uplift measurements suggests that primary slip and uplift during the 10 September earthquake was limited to northwest of Yakutat Bay. Additionally, a high-resolution seismic reflection survey we conducted in Yakutat Bay during August 2012 constrains faulting to on- or near-shore based on the absence of bay-crossing faults. Collectively, our results imply that predominantly strike-slip and transpressive horsetail-type faults are southeast of Yakutat Bay, with compressional structures related to Yakutat Block subduction/collision to the northwest. We interpret the 10 September 1899 event to be the result of complex rupture somewhere within the Yakutat subduction/collision system. Based on our updated map of coseismic uplift and fault structure, we favor a rupture model where primary slip occurred along the Esker Creek system locally with possible induced coseismic slip along the neighboring Boundary transpressive fault system.

  3. Bioinvasion in a Brazilian Bay: Filling Gaps in the Knowledge of Southwestern Atlantic Biota

    PubMed Central

    Ignacio, Barbara L.; Julio, Luciana M.; Junqueira, Andrea O. R.; Ferreira-Silva, Maria A. G.

    2010-01-01

    Background Biological invasions are a major cause of global species change. Nevertheless, knowledge about the distribution and ecology of introduced species is regionally biased, and many gaps in knowledge exist for most developing countries. Methodology/Principal Findings To study the zoobenthos on the hard substratum of the Ilha Grande Bay, a survey was conducted on both natural and artificial substrata at three depths and seven sites. The species recorded were classified as native, cryptogenic or introduced. Multivariate analyses were conducted to assess the prevalence of introduced species in these communities and to compare the distribution of species on natural and artificial substrata of this bay to identify possible discrepancies in habitat use. Of the 61 species, 25 were cryptogenic, 10 were introduced and 26 were native. Similar numbers of introduced species were found on both natural and artificial substrata, though the community composition was significantly different between them. We also compared the species composition of the Ilha Grande Bay survey to other inventories taken around the world. The highest similarities were found between the Ilha Grande Bay inventory and the Atlantic coastal region (Tampa Bay, USA and the Gulf of Mexico), American Samoa and Pearl Harbor (USA) inventories. Conclusions/Significance This study presents the first published comprehensive list of hard substratum sessile marine invertebrate species in a Brazilian bay. The high percentage of cryptogenic species reveals gaps in both zoological records and information on introduced species for the Brazilian coast. The introduced species successfully colonized different sites in the Ilha Grande Bay, including both natural and artificial substrata. In addition, we find that artificial structures may not be good surrogates for natural rocky shores and may represent an ecological threat. Comparisons with other inventories suggest a history of broad-scale invasion, though more

  4. Minimum Bayes risk image correlation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minter, T. C., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    In this paper, the problem of designing a matched filter for image correlation will be treated as a statistical pattern recognition problem. It is shown that, by minimizing a suitable criterion, a matched filter can be estimated which approximates the optimum Bayes discriminant function in a least-squares sense. It is well known that the use of the Bayes discriminant function in target classification minimizes the Bayes risk, which in turn directly minimizes the probability of a false fix. A fast Fourier implementation of the minimum Bayes risk correlation procedure is described.

  5. USGS Tampa Bay Pilot Study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yates, K.K.; Cronin, T. M.; Crane, M.; Hansen, M.; Nayeghandi, A.; Swarzenski, P.; Edgar, T.; Brooks, G.R.; Suthard, B.; Hine, A.; Locker, S.; Willard, D.A.; Hastings, D.; Flower, B.; Hollander, D.; Larson, R.A.; Smith, K.

    2007-01-01

    Providing a web-based digital information management system of information for scientists and the public, including a system that supports the work of those officials who must make decisions that affect the state of the bay. The Tampa Bay Study is in its sixth year and will continue through September 2007. This paper presents a non-inclusive summary of key findings associated with the six primary project components listed above. Component 4 (above) is described in detail in the following chapter 13. More information on the Tampa Bay Study is available from our on-line digital information system for the Tampa Bay Study at http://gulfsci.usgs.gov.

  6. Lake Ontario Shore Protection Study: Literature Review Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-07-01

    tended to favor sites south of the lakeshore region, which at that time was swampy and 3 thickly populated by rattlesnakes, bears, and wolves. The...Eastern Ontario Coumission, 1972. 3 . Kelleran, Ann. Old Fort Niagara. Buffalo Historical Society Adventures in Western New York History. Vol. 1, No. 1...Park p 12 180’ X X X X X " Warren’s pr 5 150’ X X 3 : 0 - Millen Bay Marina pr X Snug Harbor Marina pr X Scott Marina pr X Ponds Marina pr X 20 -q urn Is

  7. Tidal Energy System for On-Shore Power Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce, Allan J

    2012-06-26

    Addressing the urgent need to develop LCOE competitive renewable energy solutions for US energy security and to replace fossil-fuel generation with the associated benefits to environment impacts including a reduction in CO2 emissions, this Project focused on the advantages of using hydraulic energy transfer (HET) in large-scale Marine Hydrokinetic (MHK) systems for harvesting off-shore tidal energy in US waters. A recent DOE resource assessment, identifies water power resources have a potential to meet 15% of the US electric supply by 2030, with MHK technologies being a major component. The work covered a TRL-4 laboratory proof-in-concept demonstration plus modeling of a 15MW full scale system based on an approach patented by NASA-JPL, in which submerged high-ratio gearboxes and electrical generators in conventional MHK turbine systems are replaced by a submerged hydraulic radial pump coupled to on-shore hydraulic motors driving a generator. The advantages are; first, the mean-time-between-failure (MTBF), or maintenance, can be extended from approximately 1 to 5 years and second, the range of tidal flow speeds which can be efficiently harvested can be extended beyond that of a conventional submerged generator. The approach uses scalable, commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) components, facilitating scale-up and commercialization. All the objectives of the Project have been successfully met (1) A TRL4 system was designed, constructed and tested. It simulates a tidal energy turbine, with a 2-m diameter blade in up to a 2.9 m/sec flow. The system consists of a drive motor assembly providing appropriate torque and RPM, attached to a radial piston pump. The pump circulates pressurized, environmentally-friendly, HEES hydraulic fluid in a closed loop to an axial piston motor which drives an electrical generator, with a resistive load. The performance of the components, subsystems and system were evaluated during simulated tidal cycles. The pump is contained in a tank for

  8. Wind and tidal forcing of a buoyant plume, Mobile Bay, Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stumpf, R.P.; Gelfenbaum, G.; Pennock, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    AVHRR satellite imagery and in situ observations were combined to study the motion of a buoyant plume at the mouth of Mobile Bay, Alabama. The plume extended up to 30 km from shore, with a thickness of about 1 m. The inner plume, which was 3-8 m thick, moved between the Bay and inner shelf in response to tidal forcing. The tidal prism could be identified through the movement of plume waters between satellite images. The plume responded rapidly to alongshore wind, with sections of the plume moving at speeds of more than 70 cm s-1, about 11% of the wind speed. The plume moved predominantly in the direction of the wind with a weak Ekman drift. The enhanced speed of the plume relative to normal surface drift is probably due to the strong stratification in the plume, which limits the transfer of momentum into the underlying ambient waters. ?? 1993.

  9. Surficial and Groundwater Exchanges by Means of Landsat Thermal Data: The Eastern Laizhou Bay (China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Qianguo; Braga, Federica; Tosi, Luigi; Lou, Mingjing; Zaggia, Luca; Teatini, Pietro; Gao, Xuelu; Yu, Liangju; Wen, Xiaohu; Shi, Ping

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we observed Sea Surface Temperature (SST) anomalies in the Southern and Eastern Laizhou Bay, China, during summer and winter, by means of Landsat thermal data. The interpretation of these features, also considering the morpho-hydrogeologic setting of the areas, showed that SST anomalies are not related to long-shore circulation or river discharge and therefore may be associated to local potential submarine groundwater discharge (SGD). Moreover, in situ measurements of salinity and temperature in surficial waters support this hypothesis of SGD in the eastern Laizhou Bay. Our results suggest that the analysis of satellite thermal images can conveniently address hydrogeological field investigations permitting to map features, both localized and diffuse, such as gradients and anomalies associated to submarine groundwater seepage. Although the use of remote sensing cannot replace direct investigations, it proves to be an efficient tool for driving field activities, like samplings and geophysical surveys for detailed SGD investigations.

  10. An experimental study of the effect of different onshore cliff angles on near shore hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sim, S.; Xu, C.; Huang, Z.

    2013-12-01

    As a tsunami propagates towards the shore, they will shoal and then break. This will lead to an up rush of water. In scenarios where there are no distinct obstacles that affect the near shore coastal topography, this inundation process will not be halted and the water will travel to its farthest extent without any hindrance. As the water recedes, the return flow will be that of a shallow sheet flow. However, these expected hydrodynamic observations may not be recorded if there are significant alterations to the near shore topographical settings. In this study we investigated the effect of an onshore cliff on near shore hydrodynamics. A series of laboratory experiments were conducted in a wave flume to examine how different onshore cliff angles can affect the near shore hydrodynamics. Key parameters recorded were the run-up and inundation values. The recorded measurements showed that when the cliff angle is very steep, the flow depth in front of the cliff will be amplified significantly. This is evidenced by video recordings of the side profile of the wave flume. The video recording also showed a return plunging breaker wave which entrained air; this could imply that the near shore morphology could also be affected as sediment near shore can be entrained by this turbulence generated and then carried further offshore.

  11. Giant sand waves at the mouth of San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnard, P.L.; Hanes, D.M.; Rubin, D.M.; Kvitek, R.G.

    2006-01-01

    A field of giant sand waves, among the largest in the world, recently was mapped in high resolution for the first time during a multibeam survey in 2004 and 2005 through the strait of the Golden Gate at the mouth of San Francisco Bay in California (Figure la). This massive bed form field covers an area of approximately four square kilometers in water depths ranging from 30 to 106 meters, featuring more than 40 distinct sand waves with crests aligned approximately perpendicular to the dominant tidally generated cross-shore currents, with wavelengths and heights that measure up to 220 meters and 10 meters, respectively. Sand wave crests can be traced continuously for up to two kilometers across the mouth of this energetic tidal inlet, where depth-averaged tidal currents through the strait below the Golden Gate Bridge exceed 2.5 meters per second during peak ebb flows. Repeated surveys demonstrated that the sand waves are active and dynamic features that move in response to tidally generated currents. The complex temporal and spatial variations in wave and tidal current interactions in this region result in an astoundingly diverse array of bed form morphologies, scales, and orientations. Bed forms of approximately half the scale of those reported in this article previously were mapped inside San Francisco Bay during a multibeam survey in 1997 [Chin et al., 1997].

  12. On Measurements of the Tide at Churchill, Hudson Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Richard D.

    2016-01-01

    Since the late 1990s the semi-diurnal tide at Churchill, on the western shore of Hudson Bay, has been decreasing in amplitude, with M(sub 2) amplitudes falling from approximately 154 cm in 1998 to 146 cm in 2012 and 142 cm in 2014. There has been a corresponding small increase in phase lag. Mean low water, decreasing throughout most of the twentieth century, has levelled off. Although the tidal changes could reflect merely a malfunctioning tide gauge, the fact that there are no other measurements in the region and the possibility that the tide is revealing important environmental changes calls for serious investigation. Satellite altimeter measurements of the tide in Hudson Bay are complicated by the seasonal ice cover; at most locations less than 40% of satellite passes return valid ocean heights and even those can be impacted by errors from sea ice. Because the combined TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason-1, and Jason-2 time series is more than 23 years long, it is now possible to obtain sufficient data at crossover locations near Churchill to search for tidal changes. The satellites sense no changes in M(sub 2) that are comparable to the changes seen at the Churchill gauge. The changes appear to be localized to the harbour, or to the Churchill River, or to the gauge itself.

  13. Shoreline and coastal wetland variability along the west shore of Green Bay, Marinette and Oconto counties, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shideler, Gerald L.

    1994-01-01

    Coastal wetland ecosystems along the Great Lakes shorelines are extremely valuable natural resources. They provide numerous environmental and recreational benefits, and they serve as critical habitats for fish and wildlife populations. In general terms, wetlands can be defined as lands transitional between terrestrial and aquatic systems; they are characterized by periodic submergence or a water table at or near the surface and a predominance of hydric soils and hydrophytes. Changes in shoreline positions over time result in concomitant changes in the amount of adjacent coastal wetlands, frequently resulting in a permanent loss of these valuable resources. In the Great Lakes region, the main natural cause of shoreline changes are lake-level fluctuations that result from two interactive factors. One factor is the glacio-isostatic rebound of the lake basins, which has been occurring since the end of the late Wisconsin glaciation to the present. This crustal rebounding has slowly uplifted previous lake outlets, warped and tilted lake basins, and changed lake levels and shoreline positions. On the basis of historic lake-level gauge records, measured modern differential vertical uplift rates range from 0.26 ft/century in the southern part of the Great Lakes drainage basin to 1.74 ft/century in the northern part of the basin (Larsen, 1989). The second factor contributing to lake-level fluctuations is climate variability, which controls the amount of regional precipitation and evaporation, storm frequency, runoff, and resulting lake levels. Climate variability can occur over a wide spectrum of time scales; it can range from seasonal variations, to long-term trends of a few years or decades in duration, to trends lasting hundred of thousands of years. Climatic variations, in conjunction with glacio-isostatic rebound, have resulted in substantial temporal variability of the Great Lakes shorelines and associated wetland tracts during post-glacial times.

  14. Diurnal Sea Breeze-Driven Cross-Shore Exchange on the Inner Shelf in Central Monterey Bay

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    the predominant wind direction in the Northern Hemisphere, known as Ekman transport ( Ekman 1905, Sverdrup 1938, Csanady 1978, Lentz 1992, Dever...that moves offshore. During both upwelling and downwelling, full Ekman transport develops in the midshelf region because the strong stratification of...depth decreases, the alongshore surface stress becomes increasingly balanced by the bottom stress instead of the Coriolis force, reducing Ekman

  15. Restoring sediment to compensate for human-induced erosion of an estuarine shore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordstrom, Karl F.; Jackson, Nancy L.; Farrell, Eugene J.; Rafferty, Patricia; Tengwall, Charles

    2016-06-01

    Shoreline erosion is often exacerbated by reduction of sediment inputs because of interference with sediment transport by human structures. We evaluate use of sediment dredged from a navigation channel to establish a feeder beach adjacent to a bulkhead as a solution for addressing erosion of landforms and habitats on sandy estuarine shores. The objectives are to determine how beach volume, position and shape within and downdrift of the fill area change and whether the volumes supplied by dredging match sediment losses caused by human actions. The fill was placed along a 75 m length of shoreline adjacent to a marina in Great South Bay at Fire Island, New York, USA. Changes in beach shape and volume were determined from topographic surveys conducted before and after fill and at half year intervals for 18 months. The quantity of fill was 1747 m3. Maximum shoreline advance due to fill emplacement was 20.7 m. The maximum volume placed at any transect was 28.6 m3 m- 1 of shoreline length. Erosion of the fill occurred rapidly, with landward migration of a conspicuous scarp. The edge of the upland 18 months after the fill was placed was up to 4.6 m farther landward than prior to the fill. Movement of sediment alongshore downdrift of the fill occurred as wave-like pulses, extending the active foreshore bayward, causing accretion of the inner low tide terrace, burying saltmarsh peat outcrops on the foreshore and creating a higher and wider overwash platform over portions of the saltmarshes. Landforms downdrift of the fill area underwent successive stages including erosion (pre-nourishment), accretion, stability (with throughput of sediment) and then erosion. Beach nourishment compensates for human-induced sediment losses. The volume of sediment added from maintenance dredging can slow the rate of erosion but may not prevent long-term shoreline retreat. Restoration and maintenance of coastal landforms and habitats to specific target states at a given location is difficult

  16. Learning on the Big Bay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philp, Michael J.

    1978-01-01

    Anne Arundel Community College uses the Chesapeake Bay for a flexible ocean engineering technology program which includes mechanical, electrical, and environmental options for transfer and/or vocational students, and adult education programs covering such subjects as sailing, Bay history, boat building, scuba-diving, and marine biology. (RT)

  17. Terrigenous Sedimentation Patterns at Reefs Adjacent to the Guanica Bay Watershed, Southwest Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherman, C.; Whitall, D.

    2014-12-01

    Guanica Bay is an estuary on the southwest coast of Puerto Rico with numerous nearshore reefs located in adjacent coastal waters. As part of the multi-agency Guanica Bay Watershed Project, a study was undertaken to establish baseline levels of terrigenous sedimentation reaching reefs adjacent to the Guanica Bay watershed as well as establish spatial and temporal patterns in its delivery. To characterize and quantify sedimentation patterns, sediment traps were established at nine reef sites occurring along an ~ 14 km stretch of coastline centered on the outlet of the bay. Sites were located at shallow reefs within 2 km of the shore at depths of ~ 10 m. Two additional sites were located at the mouth of the Rio Loco where it empties into Guanica Bay and at the mouth of the bay where it opens into adjacent coastal waters. Traps were collected monthly from August 2009 through July 2012 to determine both the amount of sediment accumulation (mg cm-2 day-1) and its composition. Composition is expressed in terms of relative amounts of calcium carbonate (in situ production), organic material and terrigenous material. Average trap accumulation rates among the reef sites ranged from ~ 3 to 28 mg cm-2 day-1. Average percent terrigenous material within reef accumulation ranged from ~ 20% to 30%. While trap accumulation rates are highly variable on both spatial and temporal scales, the composition of sediments and relative amount of terrigenous material is fairly uniform. Similar temporal patterns in accumulation rates among the sites without corresponding changes in composition of sediments point to resuspension of bottom sediments by wave action as a primary driver of sedimentary dynamics at these reefs. Sites closest to Guanica Bay display the highest degree of terrigenous influence in terms of trap accumulation rates and percent terrigenous material, which is consistent with Guanica Bay serving as a local source of terrigenous material to coastal waters. However, the lack of

  18. Method for scale reduction in off-shore platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Ehlers, D.M.; Hopkins, D.N.

    1987-12-15

    A process for reducing scale formation wherein sea water, incompatible with connate water, is used as the flooding medium forming thereby a mixture with liquid hydrocarbonaceous fluids where the fluids are produced in off-shore platforms is described comprising: (a) producing the mixture of water and liquid hydrocarbonaceous fluids to the surface from the formation; (b) directing the mixture into a water/oil separator where the liquid hydrocarbonaceous fluids are substantially separated from the mixture and the remaining hydrocarbonaceous fluid is entrained in the form of oil droplets within the separated aqueous mixture; (c) removing the aqueous mixture with oil droplets therein from the water/oil separator and thereafter mixing the combination with additional sea water, or other aqueous solution having a similar concentration of sulfate ions, in a vessel containing a coalescing means which sea water upon contact with the connate water causes a precipitate to form thereby reducing the scale forming tendency of the water; and (d) collecting liquid hydrocarbons from step (b) and from the coalescing means, and disposing of the resultant water.

  19. Assembly of conductor guides for off-shore drilling platform

    SciTech Connect

    Campo, J. J.

    1985-12-31

    A conductor guide assembly for conductors of an off-shore well platform having a jacket with an interior pile for extending from a sea bed to above a water level which is over the sea bed. In accordance with one inventive feature, a first guide mechanism comprising a plurality of vertically spaced supports which hold the tubular conduits within the interior pile is assembled in a plurality of sections wherein the upper support of each section is provided with removable bolt-on units for supporting the first guide mechanism as successive sections are jointed thereto. In accordance with another inventive feature, a second guide mechanism comprises a pair of circular plates positioned to rotate within a lower deck opening and which are connected together and define a plurality of passages for receiving the plurality of conductors that extend in the interior pile. The connected plates are temporarily attached to the lower deck for transport so that the second guide mechanism can be detached and rotated to align the passages with the intended positions for the conductors whereafter the second guide mechanism is permanently attached to the lower deck. In accordance with another inventive feature, a third guide mechanism comprising a plurality of radially extending beams is supported on an upper deck. The second guide mechanism also has passages for access to the conductors and it too can be rotated into a position of alignment with the conductors and thereafter permanently fixed to the upper deck.

  20. Long-term observations of migrating shore-normal bars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gelfenbaum, Guy; Brooks, Gregg R.; ,

    1997-01-01

    A series of migrating shore-normal sandbars with wavelengths of 50-200 m and heights of 0.5-2 m have been identified off the northern tip of Anna Maria Island, a barrier island on the west-central Florida coast. Similar features have been described elsewhere since the 1930's and termed `transverse bars.' The transverse bars identified off Anna Maria Island are found for about 3 km along the coast and extend 4 km offshore. No cusps or any other associated beach expression is evident despite the fact that the bars come to within about 75 m of the beach. Historical aerial photographs from the early 1940's through the mid 1990's provide an excellent means of quantifying the migration of the bars for this time period. The historical photographs were orthorectified resulting in errors in geographic positions of 1-2 m. Analyses of the orthorectified photos clearly show movement or migration taking place in the bar field. In the forty year period from 1951 to 1991, the southern edge of the bar field moved 200-350 m to the south, with an average migration rate of 7.9 m/yr. A current-meter deployment suggests that southerly winds associated with the passage of cold fronts drives near-bed currents to the south that are strong enough to initiate sediment transport and cause the southerly migration of the transverse bars.

  1. Influence of habitat characteristics on shore-spawning kokanee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitlock, Steven L.; Quist, Michael; Dux, Andrew M.

    2014-01-01

    Sockeye Salmon Oncorhynchus nerka and kokanee (lacustrine Sockeye Salmon) commonly spawn in both lentic and lotic environments; however, the habitat requirements of shore spawners are virtually unknown relative to those of stream spawners. A laboratory experiment and an in situ incubation study were conducted to better understand the influence of habitat characteristics on the shoreline incubation success of kokanee. The laboratory experiment assessed kokanee intragravel survival, fry emergence, and fry condition in response to eight substrate treatments. The in situ study, conducted at three major shoreline spawning sites in Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho, evaluated the effect of depth, substrate composition, dissolved oxygen, shoreline slope, and groundwater on intragravel survival. Substrate size composition was generally a poor predictor of survival in both the laboratory experiment and in situ study; although, fry condition and counts of emerged fry in the laboratory were lowest for the substrate treatment that had the highest proportion of fine sediment. Results of the in situ study suggest that groundwater flow plays an important role in enhancing intragravel survival in habitats generally considered unsuitable for spawning.

  2. Lidar Measurements of On-Shore Wind Diffusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. M.; Michael, P.; Raynor, G.

    1973-01-01

    The concept to place electric power generating stations on the oceans off the coast of the United States has instilled new efforts in research for improved understanding of the diffusion properties of the atmosphere in the ocean-air interface. The Atomic Energy Commission has instigated a program by the Meteorology Group at Brookhaven National Laboratory to investigate the low level, on-shore wind systems that dominate many of the coastal regions. Analytical techniques and specialized instrumentation from previous studies at Brookhaven are being used in this new program. The Brookhaven Lidar system is used to measure some of the physical properties of the oil-fog plume originating from a portable smoke generator on a boat off the coast. The oil-fog plume is used as a tracer which can be observed, photographed and measured to determine the diffusive power of the atmosphere associated with the ocean-air interface and the discontinuities found in the ocean-land boundary. This paper will describe the program rather briefly and the oil-fog scattering measurements that have been made with the Lidar system.

  3. Mental health outcomes at the Jersey Shore after Hurricane Sandy.

    PubMed

    Boscarino, Joseph A; Hoffman, Stuart N; Kirchner, H Lester; Erlich, Porat M; Adams, Richard E; Figley, Charles R; Solhkhah, Ramon

    2013-01-01

    On October 29, 2012, Hurricane Sandy made landfall in the most densely populated region in the US. In New Jersey, thousands of families were made homeless and entire communities were destroyed in the worst disaster in the history of the state. The economic impact of Sandy was huge, comparable to Hurricane Katrina. The areas that sustained the most damage were the small- to medium-sized beach communities along New Jersey's Atlantic coastline. Six months following the hurricane, we conducted a random telephone survey of 200 adults residing in 18 beach communities located in Monmouth County. We found that 14.5% (95% CI = 9.9-20.2) of these residents screened positive for PTSD and 6.0% (95% CI = 3.1-10.2) met criteria for major depression. Altogether 13.5% (95% CI = 9.1-19.0) received mental health counseling and 20.5% (95% CI = 15.1-26.8) sought some type of mental health support in person or online, rates similar to those reported in New York after the World Trade Center disaster In multivariate analyses, the best predictors of mental health status and service use were having high hurricane exposure levels, having physical health limitations, and having environmental health concerns. Research is needed to assess the mental health status and service use of Jersey Shore residents over time, to evaluate environmental health concerns, and to better understand the storm's impact among those with physical health limitations.

  4. The Bayes Inference Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, K.M.; Cunningham, G.S.

    1996-04-01

    The authors are developing a computer application, called the Bayes Inference Engine, to provide the means to make inferences about models of physical reality within a Bayesian framework. The construction of complex nonlinear models is achieved by a fully object-oriented design. The models are represented by a data-flow diagram that may be manipulated by the analyst through a graphical programming environment. Maximum a posteriori solutions are achieved using a general, gradient-based optimization algorithm. The application incorporates a new technique of estimating and visualizing the uncertainties in specific aspects of the model.

  5. Rare earth element fingerprints in Korean coastal bay sediments: Association with provenance discrimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jeongwon; Woo, Han Jun; Jang, Seok; Jeong, Kap-Sik; Jung, Hoi-Soo; Hwang, Ha Gi; Lee, Jun-Ho; Cho, Jin Hyung

    2016-09-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs: La-Lu) in surface sediments collected from the mouth and middle tidal flats of Gomso Bay, South Korea, in August 2011 and May 2012 were analyzed to investigate the fine-grained sediment provenance. The upper continental crust (UCC)-normalized light REEs (LREEs: La to Nd) were more enriched than the middle REEs (MREEs: Sm to Dy) and heavy REEs (HREEs: Ho to Lu), resulting in large (La/Yb)UCC (1.9 ± 0.4) to (Gd/Yb)UCC (1.4 ± 0.2) ratios. The monthly (La/Yb)UCC values differed between the mouth and middle tidal flats due to deposition of fine-grained sediments that originated from distant rivers (the Geum and Yeongsan) and the Jujin Stream, located on the southern shore of the inner bay. We observed relative reductions in the (La/Yb)UCC value and REE content in the sediments from the mouth of the bay compared with those from Jujin Stream sediments. Confined to the middle tidal flat around the KH Line of Jujin Stream, the sediments, most enriched in LREEs but depleted in Eu, were distributed in August as strong Jujin Stream runs. Here, we suggest that an increase in LREE/HREE and decrease in MREE/LREE ratios can be used as a proxy to identify the Jujin Stream provenance in mixed riverine sediments and to trace Jujin Stream sediments within the Gomso Bay tidal flat, especially in the summer rainy season.

  6. Nitrogen Loading in Jamaica Bay, Long Island, New York: Predevelopment to 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benotti, Mark J.; Abbene, Irene; Terracciano, Stephen A.

    2007-01-01

    Nitrogen loading to Jamaica Bay, a highly urbanized estuary on the southern shore of western Long Island, New York, has increased from an estimated rate of 35.6 kilograms per day (kg/d) under predevelopment conditions (pre-1900), chiefly as nitrate plus nitrite from ground-water inflow, to an estimated 15,800 kilograms per day as total nitrogen in 2005. The principal point sources are wastewater-treatment plants, combined sewer overflow/stormwater discharge during heavy precipitation, and subway dewatering, which account for 92 percent of the current (2005) nitrogen load. The principal nonpoint sources are landfill leachate, ground-water flow, and atmospheric deposition, which account for 8 percent of the current nitrogen load. The largest single source of nitrogen to Jamaica Bay is wastewater-treatment plants, which account for 89 percent of the nitrogen load. The current and historic contributions of nitrogen from seawater are unknown, although at present, the ocean likely serves as a sink for nitrogen from Jamaica Bay. Currently, concentrations of nitrogen in surface water are high throughout Jamaica Bay, but some areas with relatively little mixing have concentrations that are five times higher than areas that are well mixed.

  7. Tampa Bay environmental atlas

    SciTech Connect

    Kunneke, J.T.; Palik, T.F.

    1984-12-01

    Biological and water resource data for Tampa Bay were compiled and mapped at a scale of 1:24,000. This atlas consists of (1) composited information overlain on 18 biological and 20 water resource base maps and (2) an accompanying map narrative. Subjects mapped on the water resource maps are contours of the mean middepth specific conductivity which can be converted to salinity; bathymetry, sediments, tidal currents, the freshwater/saltwater interface, dredge spoil disposal sites; locations of industrial and municipal point source discharges, tide stations, and water quality sampling stations. The point source discharge locations show permitted capacity and the water quality sampling stations show 5-year averages for chlorophyll, conductivity, turbidity, temperature, and total nitrogen. The subjects shown on the biological resource maps are clam and oyster beds, shellfish harvest areas, colonial bird nesting sites, manatee habitat, seagrass beds and artificial reefs. Spawning seasons, nursery habitats, and adult habitats are identified for major fish species. The atlas will provide useful information for coastal planning and management in Tampa Bay.

  8. 33 CFR 162.125 - Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay... Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc. (a) In the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal: (1) No vessel may...) Each vessel must keep to the center, except when meeting or overtaking another vessel. (b) In...

  9. 33 CFR 162.125 - Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay... Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc. (a) In the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal: (1) No vessel may...) Each vessel must keep to the center, except when meeting or overtaking another vessel. (b) In...

  10. 33 CFR 162.125 - Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay... Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc. (a) In the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal: (1) No vessel may...) Each vessel must keep to the center, except when meeting or overtaking another vessel. (b) In...

  11. 33 CFR 162.125 - Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay... Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc. (a) In the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal: (1) No vessel may...) Each vessel must keep to the center, except when meeting or overtaking another vessel. (b) In...

  12. 33 CFR 162.125 - Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay... Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc. (a) In the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal: (1) No vessel may...) Each vessel must keep to the center, except when meeting or overtaking another vessel. (b) In...

  13. Analysis of fish movements between Great Lakes coastal wetlands and near shore habitat via otolith microchemistry

    EPA Science Inventory

    Great Lakes coastal wetlands are unique habitats with physical connections with near shore environments. This facilitates the exchange of energy between habitats in a principle known as habitat coupling. Coupling can be facilitated by movements of consumers; however, wetland us...

  14. Cost/feasibility considerations for off-shore engineering/construction

    SciTech Connect

    Sturges, R.K.; Harrison, J.G. )

    1988-01-01

    Considerable construction activity is now occurring in areas of the world where in-country engineering/construction capability is limited. This limitation requires the use of off-shore capabilities in conjunction with local engineering contractors (LEC's) to satisfy local legal requirements for use of on-shore services. While LEC's can provide the advantage of relatively inexpensive labor, it also brings the challenge of managing an international team given the difference in productivity and cultures. Procurement of equipment worldwide also has advantages and disadvantages. Government regulations relative to equipment purchased off-shore can be complex. Shipping considerations are significant when the existing infrastructure is taken into account, particularly when modular construction techniques are utilized. Understanding the contractual and documentation required takes a major effort. This paper addresses the complexities of off-shore engineering/construction from a management and cost perspective.

  15. Ecology of a key ecosystem engineer on hard coastal infrastructure and natural rocky shores.

    PubMed

    Martins, Gustavo M; Neto, Ana I; Cacabelos, Eva

    2016-02-01

    The numbers of hard coastal artificial structures is increasing worldwide and there is now cumulative evidence that they support assemblages that are less diverse than natural shores. Here we investigated patterns of distribution and demography of the native barnacle Chthamalus stellatus on hard coastal structures and on natural rocky shores. Barnacles were 35% less abundant on hard structures regardless of substratum type (concrete or basalt). On a subset of sites we found that temporal population stability, growth and mortality were similar on natural rocky shores and hard structures. In contrast, barnacles were significantly larger and recruited more onto natural rocky shores. These results emphasise the important role of recruitment in determining the abundance of a key space occupier on hard coastal structures. Experimental work building on these results may generate insights that can be used as guidelines for the management of urbanised coastal areas.

  16. 77 FR 32624 - Eastern Shore Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-01

    .... William B. Zipf, Vice-President, Eastern Shore Natural Gas Company, 1110 Forrest Avenue, Suite 201, Dover... Forrest Avenue, Suite 201, Dover, Delaware, 19904, or by calling (302) 734-6710, ext. 6723 (telephone)...

  17. Blended Shore Education: Civic Engagement and Competencies in 21st-Century Doctoral Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strohschen, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    This chapter examines the implication of Blended Shore Education to doctoral program design and delivery as it synthesizes adult education principles of Freire and Stanage with findings of Strohschen's international action research on design and delivery practices.

  18. Lake Shore and Littoral Habitat Structure: Precision and biological Relevance of a Field Survey Method.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Until recently, lake physical habitat assessment has been an underemployed tool for assessing lake and reservoir ecological condition. We outline and evaluate a rapid field sampling and analytical approach for quantifying near-shore physical habitat. We quantified the repeatabil...

  19. Chesapeake Bay: Introduction to an Ecosystem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    The Chesapeake Bay is the largest estuary in the contiguous United States. The Bay and its tidal tributaries make up the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem. This document, which focuses of various aspects of this ecosystem, is divided into four major parts. The first part traces the geologic history of the Bay, describes the overall physical structure of…

  20. Bank recession and lakebed downcutting; response to changing water levels at Maumee Bay State Park, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fuller, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    The shore and nearshore area of Maumee Bay, at the western end of Lake Erie, was studied from 1981 to 1990 and this report documents the impact of water levels on bank recession and lakebed downcutting. The shore of Maumee Bay is composed of a low bank of sand-poor glacial lacustrine silt and clay. Three regimes of lake level occurred during this 9-year study. Each regime produced a different character and rate of erosion. During stable lake levels, erosion occurred as bank recession and as nearshore lakebed downcutting. During rising/high lake levels, bank recession continued, but lakebed downcutting slowed except at the new transgressed shoreline. During falling water levels, bank recession all but ceased, the former shoreline became emergent and lakebed downcutting resumed. Over the 9 years of this study, total bank recession averaged about 20 m and nearshore lakebed downcutting averaged about 50 cm. At lower lake levels the visual (from land) erosion ceased and lakebed downcutting became dominant, which continued to deepen the nearshore. Therefore, when higher lake levels return, waves in the deeper water will have an even greater impact on bank recession rates.

  1. Warm summer nights and the growth decline of shore pine in Southeast Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Patrick F.; Mulvey, Robin L.; Brownlee, Annalis H.; Barrett, Tara M.; Pattison, Robert R.

    2015-12-01

    Shore pine, which is a subspecies of lodgepole pine, was a widespread and dominant tree species in Southeast Alaska during the early Holocene. At present, the distribution of shore pine in Alaska is restricted to coastal bogs and fens, likely by competition with Sitka spruce and Western hemlock. Monitoring of permanent plots as part of the United States Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis program identified a recent loss of shore pine biomass in Southeast Alaska. The apparent loss of shore pine is concerning, because its presence adds a vertical dimension to coastal wetlands, which are the richest plant communities of the coastal temperate rainforest in Alaska. In this study, we examined the shore pine tree-ring record from a newly established plot network throughout Southeast Alaska and explored climate-growth relationships. We found a steep decline in shore pine growth from the early 1960s to the present. Random Forest regression revealed a strong correlation between the decline in shore pine growth and the rise in growing season diurnal minimum air temperature. Warm summer nights, cool daytime temperatures and a reduced diurnal temperature range are associated with greater cloud cover in Southeast Alaska. This suite of conditions could lead to unfavorable tree carbon budgets (reduced daytime photosynthesis and greater nighttime respiration) and/or favor infection by foliar pathogens, such as Dothistroma needle blight, which has recently caused widespread tree mortality on lodgepole pine plantations in British Columbia. Further field study that includes experimental manipulation (e.g., fungicide application) will be necessary to identify the proximal cause(s) of the growth decline. In the meantime, we anticipate continuation of the shore pine growth decline in Southeast Alaska.

  2. 29 CFR Appendix E to Subpart P of... - Alternatives to Timber Shoring

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alternatives to Timber Shoring E Appendix E to Subpart P of..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Excavations Pt. 1926, Subpt. P, App. E Appendix E to Subpart P of Part 1926—Alternatives to Timber Shoring EC30OC91.043 EC30OC91.044...

  3. Experiencing the changing climate on the shores of Lake Superior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akerlof, K.; Maibach, E.

    2011-12-01

    The Great Lakes of the United States - the largest freshwater system in the world - have been termed "the canary in the coal mine" of environmental change. To assess if and how residents of Alger County, Michigan are experiencing changes in climate on the shores of Lake Superior, during the summer of 2010 we conducted a representative household mail survey in collaboration with a national lakeshore and watershed partnership. A total of 765 adult residents (18 years or older) responded to the survey; a 57% survey completion rate. We content analyzed respondents' open-ended characterizations of how they have personally experienced global warming, and compared the results with land surface and storm data for the same geographic region to see whether public perceptions of local changes match trends in National Climatic Data Center data. Just over a quarter of residents (27%) indicated that they had personally experienced global warming. Those who had were most likely to say that they had experienced global warming locally (as opposed to in other locations of the country or globally), and most frequently cited changes in seasons, weather, lake levels, and animals or plant species. However, some local public perceptions appeared to conflict with weather records. For example, residents were more likely to say that they had been experiencing less snow in the winters, while NCDC data suggests the reverse is true. As climate changes differentially in regions across the United States, the public will in turn experience its physical impacts in distinct ways that are unique to each landscape. This may be counter-intuitive to a public that increasingly experiences the world, and issues such as climate change, through sources of information such as national news media that operate at much larger geographic scales. Understanding where these forms of cognitive dissonance may arise may assist researchers, educators, and communicators in furthering discourses with the public about

  4. Sea birds wintering off Maryland shores, 1972-73

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rowlett, R.A.

    1973-01-01

    During the winter of 1972-73, studies were conducted to determine the status and distribution of pelagic species of birds occurring at sea as far as 38 miles east of Ocean City, Md. The wintering off-shore avifauna was found to be impressively rich in variety of species and numbers of individuals. Sightings included Fulmar and Skua, both first sight records for Maryland. Large alcids, especially Razorbills, were observed in unprecedented numbers and on five of the seven trips undertaken. Thick-billed Murre was sighted once and Dovekie, once. A Pomarine Jaeger was a mid-winter first for Maryland. Black-legged Kittiwakes were sighted on all seven trips, with age ratios consistently averaging about three adults to one immature. Likewise, Gannets were observed on all seven trips, 7.5 adults to one immature. Iceland Gulls were seen twice and Black-headed Gulls on three trips. Evidence of a definite migration was noted on Nov. 19, as Gannets were observed flying south in a narrow band, four miles wide, five to nine miles east of Ocean City, and Black-legged Kittiwakes, likewise, were heading south in a steady stream no closer than 14 miles east of Ocean City. Data accumulated from December through March suggest most pelagics occurring in Maryland waters during this period were truly wintering and not transients. This report is concerned primarily with the true pelagics normally found well away from the sight of land and does not dwell on those 'sea birds' commonly seen in immediate coastal waters.

  5. Iron isotope fractionation in marine invertebrates in near shore environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emmanuel, S.; Schuessler, J. A.; Vinther, J.; Matthews, A.; von Blanckenburg, F.

    2014-04-01

    Chitons (Mollusca) are marine invertebrates that produce radula (teeth or rasping tongue) containing high concentrations of biomineralized magnetite and other iron bearing minerals. As Fe isotope signatures are influenced by redox processes and biological fractionation, Fe isotopes in chiton radula might be expected to provide an effective tracer of ambient oceanic conditions and biogeochemical cycling. Here, in a pilot study to measure Fe isotopes in marine invertebrates, we examine Fe isotopes in modern marine chiton radula collected from different locations in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans to assess the range of isotopic values, and to test whether or not the isotopic signatures reflect seawater values. Furthermore, by comparing two species that have very different feeding habits but collected from the same location, we infer a possible link between diet and Fe isotopic signatures. Values of δ56Fe (relative to IRMM-014) in chiton teeth range from -1.90 to 0.00‰ (±0.05‰ (2σ) uncertainty in δ56Fe), probably reflecting a combination of geographical control and biological fractionation processes. Comparison with published local surface seawater Fe isotope data shows a consistent negative offset of chiton teeth Fe isotope compositions relative to seawater. Strikingly, two different species from the same locality in the North Pacific (Puget Sound, Washington, USA) have distinct isotopic signatures. Tonicella lineata, which feeds on red algae, has a mean δ56Fe of -0.65 ± 0.26‰ (2σ, 3 specimens), while Mopalia muscosa, which feeds primarily on green algae, shows lighter isotopic values with a mean δ56Fe of -1.47 ± 0.98‰ (2σ, 5 specimens). Although chitons are not simple recorders of the ambient seawater Fe isotopic signature, these preliminary results suggest that Fe isotopes provide information concerning Fe biogeochemical cycling in near shore environments, and might be used to probe sources of Fe in the diets of different organisms.

  6. Predicting the Performance of Chain Saw Machines Based on Shore Scleroscope Hardness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tumac, Deniz

    2014-03-01

    Shore hardness has been used to estimate several physical and mechanical properties of rocks over the last few decades. However, the number of researches correlating Shore hardness with rock cutting performance is quite limited. Also, rather limited researches have been carried out on predicting the performance of chain saw machines. This study differs from the previous investigations in the way that Shore hardness values (SH1, SH2, and deformation coefficient) are used to determine the field performance of chain saw machines. The measured Shore hardness values are correlated with the physical and mechanical properties of natural stone samples, cutting parameters (normal force, cutting force, and specific energy) obtained from linear cutting tests in unrelieved cutting mode, and areal net cutting rate of chain saw machines. Two empirical models developed previously are improved for the prediction of the areal net cutting rate of chain saw machines. The first model is based on a revised chain saw penetration index, which uses SH1, machine weight, and useful arm cutting depth as predictors. The second model is based on the power consumed for only cutting the stone, arm thickness, and specific energy as a function of the deformation coefficient. While cutting force has a strong relationship with Shore hardness values, the normal force has a weak or moderate correlation. Uniaxial compressive strength, Cerchar abrasivity index, and density can also be predicted by Shore hardness values.

  7. Dynamics of Late Cretaceous rocky shores (Rosario Formation) from Baja California, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Lescinsky, H.L. ); Ledesma-Vazquez, J. ); Johnson, M.E. )

    1991-04-01

    Two rocky-shore deposits are described at localities of Late Cretaceous age in Baja California, Mexico. The main locality, at Las Minas, is characterized by a carbonate matrix containing clasts derived from an underlying andesite flow. Basal boulders give way up section to smaller cobbles and silt, indicating a transgression. The biotas from the sites include encrusting forms (coralline algae, bryozoans, serpulids, ostreids, spondylids), pholadid bivalve borings, and several nestling and mobile taxa. The well exposed boulder zone contains clusters of nestling pectinids preserved in growth position. This is the first such observation from an ancient rocky shore. Echinoids also lived within the relatively stable boulder interstices. Rocky-shore biotas of Late Cretaceous age from around the world contain many elements in common, including large encrusting oysters, spondylids, serpulids, rhynconellid brachiopods, and echinoids. Other groups common to rocky shores today are found at only some Cretaceous localities (e.g., barnacles, trochid and cerithiid gastropods, limpets, chitons). More archaic taxa, such as crinoids and large inarticulate brachiopods, are rarely represented at the known Cretaceous localities. Reconstructions of the biotas of ancient rocky shores offer a new avenue for the study of evolution on hard substrates. As the number and quality of described rocky-shore localities increases, it will be possible to put into a broader context evolutionary trends derived strictly from hard-grounds or other hard-substrate types.

  8. Bay of Fundy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    The highest tides on Earth occur in the Minas Basin, the eastern extremity of the Bay of Fundy, Nova Scotia, Canada, where the tide range can reach 16 meters when the various factors affecting the tides are in phase. The primary cause of the immense tides of Fundy is a resonance of the Bay of Fundy-Gulf of Maine system. The system is effectively bounded at this outer end by the edge of the continental shelf with its approximately 40:1 increase in depth. The system has a natural period of approximately 13 hours, which is close to the 12h25m period of the dominant lunar tide of the Atlantic Ocean. Like a father pushing his daughter on a swing, the gentle Atlantic tidal pulse pushes the waters of the Bay of Fundy-Gulf of Maine basin at nearly the optimum frequency to cause a large to-and-fro oscillation. The greatest slosh occurs at the head (northeast end) of the system. The high tide image (top) was acquired April 20, 2001, and the low tide image (bottom) was acquired September 30, 2002. The images cover an area of 16.5 by 21 km, and are centered near 64 degrees west longitude and 45.5 degrees north latitude.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active

  9. Sediment distribution and transport along a rocky, embayed coast: Monterey Peninsula and Carmel Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Storlazzi, C.D.; Field, M.E.

    2000-01-01

    Field measurements of beach morphology and sedimentology were made along the Monterey Peninsula and Carmel Bay, California, in the spring and summer of 1997. These data were combined with low-altitude aerial imagery, high-resolution bathymetry, and local geology to understand how coastal geomorphology, lithology, and tectonics influence the distribution and transport of littoral sediment in the nearshore and inner shelf along a rocky shoreline over the course of decades. Three primary modes of sediment distribution in the nearshore and on the inner shelf off the Monterey Peninsula and in Carmel Bay were observed. Along stretches of the study area that were exposed to the dominant wave direction, sediment has accumulated in shore-normal bathymetric lows interpreted to be paleo-stream channels. Where the coastline is oriented parallel to the dominant wave direction and streams channels trend perpendicular to the coast, sediment-filled paleo-stream channels occur in the nearshore as well, but here they are connected to one another by shore-parallel ribbons of sediment at depths between 2 and 6 m. Where the coastline is oriented parallel to the dominant wave direction and onshore stream channels are not present, only shore-parallel patches of sediment at depths greater than 15 m are present. We interpret the distribution and interaction or transport of littoral sediment between pocket beaches along this coastline to be primarily controlled by the northwest-trending structure of the region and the dominant oceanographic regime. Because of the structural barriers to littoral transport, peaks in wave energy appear to be the dominant factor controlling the timing and magnitude of sediment transport between pocket beaches, more so than along long linear coasts. Accordingly, the magnitude and timing of sediment transport is dictated by the episodic nature of storm activity. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V.

  10. Coastal Erosion along Monterey Bay.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-03-01

    RD-Al155 61@ COASTAL EROSION ALONG MONTEREY BAY(U) NAVAL1/ A8POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA A I SKLAVIDIS El AL. UNCLASSIFIED F/G 8/3 NmIIhllllllll...RESOLUTION TEST CHART NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California 0 to Lfl IC)I I ~JUN 2 71985 THESIS~ COASTAL EROSION ALONG MONTEREY BAY by Anastasios I...PERIOD COVERED Master’s thesis; COASTAL EROSION ALONG MONTEREY BAY March 1985 4. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBIER 7. AUTMOR(s) 6. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(a

  11. Missisquoi Bay Phosphorus Model Addendum

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This technical memorandum provides results of an extended load reduction simulation. The memorandum serves as an addendum to the main Missisquoi Bay Phosphorus Mass Balance Model report prepared for the Lake Champlain Basin Program by LimnoTech in 2012

  12. Eutrophication in the Chesapeake Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulanowicz, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    The advantages and limitations of using remote sensing to acquire fast reliable data on the nutrient problem in the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem are discussed. Pollution effects to phytoplankton blooms during late summer and early fall months are also considered.

  13. Keep Colon Cancer At Bay

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164231.html Keep Colon Cancer at Bay Colonoscopy best way to detect disease ... 22, 2017 WEDNESDAY, March 22, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Colon cancer can be treated and cured if it's diagnosed ...

  14. Recent results from Daya Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chua, Ming-chung

    2016-11-01

    Utilizing powerful nuclear reactors as antineutrino sources, high mountains to provide ample shielding from cosmic rays in the vicinity, and functionally identical detectors with large target volume for near-far relative measurement, the Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment has achieved unprecedented precision in measuring the neutrino mixing angle θ13 and the neutrino mass squared difference |Δm2ee|. I will report the latest Daya Bay results on neutrino oscillations and light sterile neutrino search.

  15. Nearshore shore-oblique bars, gravel outcrops, and their correlation to shoreline change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schupp, C.A.; McNinch, J.E.; List, J.H.

    2006-01-01

    This study demonstrates the physical concurrence of shore-oblique bars and gravel outcrops in the surf zone along the northern Outer Banks of North Carolina. These subaqueous features are spatially correlated with shoreline change at a range of temporal and spatial scales. Previous studies have noted the existence of beach-surf zone interactions, but in general, relationships between nearshore geological features and coastal change are poorly understood. These new findings should be considered when exploring coastal zone dynamics and developing predictive engineering models. The surf zone and nearshore region of the Outer Banks is predominantly planar and sandy, but there are several discrete regions with shore-oblique bars and interspersed gravel outcrops. These bar fields have relief up to 3??m, are several kilometers wide, and were relatively stationary over a 1.5??year survey period; however, the shoreward component of the bar field does exhibit change during this time frame. All gravel outcrops observed in the study region, a 40??km longshore length, were located adjacent to a shore-oblique bar, in a trough that had width and length similar to that of the associated bar. Seismic surveys show that the outcrops are part of a gravel stratum underlying the active surface sand layer. Cross-correlation analyses demonstrate high correlation of monthly and multi-decadal shoreline change rates with the adjacent surf-zone bathymetry and sediment distribution. Regionally, areas with shore-oblique bars and gravel outcrops are correlated with on-shore areas of high short-term shoreline variability and high long-term shoreline change rates. The major peaks in long-term shoreline erosion are onshore of shore-oblique bars, but not all areas with high rates of long-term shoreline change are associated with shore-oblique bars and troughs. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The effect of boulders on shore platform development and morphology in Galicia, north west Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Alberti, A.; Trenhaile, A. S.; Pires, A.; López-Bedoya, J.; Chaminé, H. I.; Gomes, A.

    2012-10-01

    This paper is concerned with the effect of sediment accumulation on shore platform development. Boulder accumulations are common on the granitic shore platforms of Galicia, northwestern Spain. Boulders are produced by erosion of shore platforms and of cliffs consisting of cold-climate deposits from the last glacial period. Measurements were made of the long axis length of more than 800 boulders, and additionally of the short and intermediate axes of 340 of these boulders, as well as of their orientation and gradient. There were two study areas. The boulders on the Barbanza Peninsula are generally a little smaller than those in southern Galicia with, respectively; mean long axis lengths of 0.98 and 1.14, and masses of 1.06 and 1.59 t. There are also some isolated, very coarse boulders and megaclasts in southern Galicia. The distribution and extent of the deposits and boulder imbrication and orientation testify to the high levels of wave energy produced by northwesterly and westerly storms in this region. Although the boulders, as well as the underlying shore platforms, were inherited, in part, from previous interglacial stages, some boulder detachment and movement is occurring today during storms, when significant deep water wave heights exceed 8 to 10 m. Despite some abrasion of the shore platforms, the primary effect of large boulder accumulations is protective. The role of sediment on shore platforms has been neglected, but this study suggests that because of arrested development under thick accumulations, platform gradient in areas with abundant sediment increases with the grain size of the material. The occurrence and type of sediment on shore platforms may therefore help to explain the distribution of sloping and subhorizontal platforms under different morphogenic and geological conditions.

  17. Intra-basinal water movements induced by faulting: The August 17, 1999, Golcuk (Izmit Bay) earthquake (M(W) = 7.4)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ozturk, H.; Koral, H.; Geist, E.L.

    2000-01-01

    A strong earthquake (M(w) = 7.4) occurred near the town of Golcuk, Izmit Bay, Western Turkey, at 00:01 GMT on August 17, 1999. Izmit Bay is a E-W trending pull-apart basin with a surface area of about 300 km2 along the North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAF), in the eastern extension of the Sea of Marmara. The earthquake was caused by a westerly movement of the Anatolian plate along NAF and was accompanied by isolated, chaotic water movements along the northern and southern shores of the bay. At localities along the shoreline a sudden drop in sea level, and a subsequent rise was prominent. The mode of observed sea-level movements rules out the occurrence of a basin-wide tsunami, sensu stricto. Instead, the water movements are attributed to localized sudden dip-slip movements of fault blocks in this pull-apart basin. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V.

  18. Chesapeake Bay Low Freshwater Inflow Study. Appendix B. Plan Formulation. Appendix C. Hydrology. Appendix D. Hydraulic Model Test.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-09-01

    estuaries. The circulation of small sub-estuaries (Gunpowder, Bush, Back, Magothy , Severn) do not follow the classic two-layered pattern exhibited in...The larger rivers on the Upper Western Shore include the Severn, Magothy , Patapsco, Middle, Back, Gunpowder and Bush Rivers. The flat, low discharge...01 17 4, 12 LC-02-01 22 4, 12, 21 Magothy River MA-0 1-01 21 L4, 12, 18 MA-02-01 18 4, 15 Mob jack Bay 1 1 MB-0l1-02 20 0, 20 MB-01-03 20 0, 20 MB- 03

  19. Temperature variability caused by internal tides in the coral reef ecosystem of Hanauma bay, Hawai'i

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Katharine A.; Rocheleau, Greg; Merrifield, Mark A.; Jaramillo, Sergio; Pawlak, Geno

    2016-03-01

    Hanauma Bay Nature Preserve is a shallow bay (<30 m depth) on the island of O'ahu, Hawai'i, offshore of which tidal flow over deep ridge topography (500-1000 m depth) is known to generate semidiurnal frequency internal tides. A field experiment was conducted during March to June 2009 to determine whether the deep internal tides propagate shoreward to influence variability in temperature and currents in the bay environment. Temperature observations in the bay exhibit a diurnal cycle that is strongest near the surface (upper 10 m) and is associated with solar heating. In early summer (May-June), as the upper mixed layer warms and a shallow seasonal thermocline develops, temperature fluctuations in deeper bay waters (>15 m depth) become dominated by large semidiurnal variations (up to 2.7 °C) that are attributed to the internal tide. These temperature drops caused by the internal tide occur consistently twice a day under summer stratification at depths as shallow as 15 m, while smaller temperature drops (up to 1.8 °C) occur occasionally at 5 m. Although semidiurnal band temperatures vary seasonally, semidiurnal band currents exhibit similar magnitudes in spring and summer. This suggests that the weak temperature fluctuations in spring are due to the bay residing entirely in the upper mixed layer at this time of year, while internal tide energy continues to influence currents. Observations made along a cross-shore/vertical transect at the center of the bay with an autonomous underwater vehicle highlight the structure of cold intrusions that fill a large portion of the bay as well as the relationship between temperature, salinity, chlorophyll, and backscatter. Near-bottom, advective heat flux estimates at the mouth of the bay indicate that the internal tide tends to advect cold water into the bay primarily on the northeast side of the bay entrance, with cold water outflow on the opposite side. The observations highlight the role of the internal tide along with

  20. Tsunami Inundation modeling for Tolaga Bay, Tokomaru Bay, Hicks Bay and Te Araroa communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barberopoulou, A.; Wang, X.; Power, W. L.

    2012-12-01

    We assess the tsunami hazard to four communities in Raukumara Peninsula (Northeastern region of North Island of New Zealand): Tokomaru Bay, Tolaga Bay, Hicks Bay and Te Araroa. Representative severe but realistic scenarios that could affect the Raukumara peninsula are earthquakes that rupture the interface between the Australian and Pacific plates, earthquakes that rupture faults within the overlying Australian plate or the subducting Pacific plate (location is not always well constrained). Earthquakes that rupture both the plate interface and simultaneously faults within the crust of the Australian plate are also a possibility. Tsunamis may also be caused by submarine landslides that occur near the edge of the continental shelf, but these are not considered here. For this study four scenario events were constructed, including a distant event from South America (offshore Peru), outer rise events and a thrust event in the Hikurangi region off the east coast of New Zealand. The sources are not exhaustive but representative of the types of significant events that could occur in the region and were either improved from earlier sources or derived from recent studies. Available high resolution LiDAR and RTK data were combined with topographic and LINZ data for the development of bathymetric/topographic grids. Our modelling results show that Tolaga Bay appears most vulnerable to tsunami inundation although Hicks Bay and Te Araroa are also significantly inundated in several of the scenarios. Tokomaru Bay is naturally well protected because the rapid change in elevation limits the range of inundation. The worst scenario for Tokomaru Bay was an earthquake in the Hikurangi subduction zone resulting in large flow depths, whereas for Tolaga Bay inundation is severe from most scenarios. Hicks Bay and Te Araroa get the most severe flooding from earthquakes in South America and on the Hikurangi subduction zone. Inundation extent is similar for Tolaga Bay during the Outer Rise and

  1. Geochemical survey of Levante Bay, Vulcano Island (Italy), a natural laboratory for the study of ocean acidification.

    PubMed

    Boatta, F; D'Alessandro, W; Gagliano, A L; Liotta, M; Milazzo, M; Rodolfo-Metalpa, R; Hall-Spencer, J M; Parello, F

    2013-08-30

    Shallow submarine gas vents in Levante Bay, Vulcano Island (Italy), emit around 3.6t CO2 per day providing a natural laboratory for the study of biogeochemical processes related to seabed CO2 leaks and ocean acidification. The main physico-chemical parameters (T, pH and Eh) were measured at more than 70 stations with 40 seawater samples were collected for chemical analyses. The main gas vent area had high concentrations of dissolved hydrothermal gases, low pH and negative redox values all of which returned to normal seawater values at distances of about 400m from the main vents. Much of the bay around the vents is corrosive to calcium carbonate; the north shore has a gradient in seawater carbonate chemistry that is well suited to studies of the effects of long-term increases in CO2 levels. This shoreline lacks toxic compounds (such as H2S) and has a gradient in carbonate saturation states.

  2. Global ship-shore satellite data transmission system for connecting digital data processors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muehldorf, E. I.; Hildre, P. C.; Hobart, R. L.

    This paper describes a global data transmission system, currently being implemented by the US Navy, for connecting ship-board data processors to shore stations. This system which uses the Defense Satellite Communication System (DSCS), serves the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Ocean regions. The transmissions from the ships are grouped in relatively narrowband adjacent channels which are processed by a single down-converter in the satellite ground facility. Transmissions from the shore are broadcast using a time-division multiplexing arrangement to preserve satellite repeater power. Special equipment, including the modem and the multiplexer, has been developed and tailored to the system's requirements. For on shore circuit extensions new standardized Navy equipment will be used. To verify the system design and develop operations procedures the system has been tested over an extended time period. As a result a robust system has been developed which, despite of its complexity, is expected to perform its task to an operational availability of 95 percent.

  3. The suppression of surfzone cross-shore mixing by alongshore currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spydell, Matthew S.

    2016-09-01

    Mixing by horizontal surfzone eddies is important to the cross-shore exchange of material through the surfzone. Surfzone cross-shore mixing for normally and obliquely incident waves, with very similar incident significant wave heights and directional spreads, is quantified using Boussinesq modeled drifter trajectories. For t < 100 s, surfzone cross-shore diffusivities K(t) are independent of incident wave angle θ¯ owing to similar eddy velocities U≈0.1 m s-1. For 600 < t < 10,000 s, K(t) is maximum for normally incident waves and decreases with incident wave angle. Thus, the mixing parameterization K∝ULE is not completely applicable to the surfzone, because U and LE do not change for these experiments. Reduced mixing for obliquely incident waves results from large eddies (wavelengths >200 m) propagating at a velocity C different than the mean current velocity V(x)—the same mechanism that reduces mixing for mesoscale eddies.

  4. 33 CFR 100.911 - Bay City Airshow, Bay City, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bay City Airshow, Bay City, MI. 100.911 Section 100.911 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.911 Bay City Airshow, Bay City, MI....

  5. 33 CFR 100.919 - International Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false International Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI. 100.919 Section 100.919 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI. (a) Regulated Area. A regulated area is established to include...

  6. 77 FR 2972 - Thunder Bay Power Company, Thunder Bay Power, LLC, et al.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-20

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Thunder Bay Power Company, Thunder Bay Power, LLC, et al.; Notice of Application for Transfer of Licenses, and Soliciting Comments and Motions To Intervene Thunder Bay Power Company Project No. 2404-095 Thunder Bay Power, LLC Midwest Hydro, Inc Project Nos. 2348-035,...

  7. 33 CFR 100.911 - Bay City Airshow, Bay City, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bay City Airshow, Bay City, MI. 100.911 Section 100.911 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.911 Bay City Airshow, Bay City, MI....

  8. 33 CFR 100.911 - Bay City Airshow, Bay City, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bay City Airshow, Bay City, MI. 100.911 Section 100.911 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.911 Bay City Airshow, Bay City, MI....

  9. 33 CFR 100.911 - Bay City Airshow, Bay City, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Bay City Airshow, Bay City, MI. 100.911 Section 100.911 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.911 Bay City Airshow, Bay City, MI....

  10. 33 CFR 100.911 - Bay City Airshow, Bay City, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bay City Airshow, Bay City, MI. 100.911 Section 100.911 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.911 Bay City Airshow, Bay City, MI....

  11. 77 FR 21890 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Sturgeon Bay, WI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-12

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 RIN 1625-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal... across the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, at miles 4.17 and 4.3, in Sturgeon Bay, Wisconsin. The establishment... drawbridge schedules for all three drawbridges over Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, including the two bridges...

  12. South Bay Salt Pond Mercury Studies Project

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information about the SFBWQP South Bay Salt Pond Mercury Studies Project, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  13. Clean Watersheds for a Clean Bay Project

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information about the SFBWQPClean Watersheds for a Clean Bay Project: Implementing the PCB TMDL, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  14. NASA Satellites Aid in Chesapeake Bay Recovery

    NASA Video Gallery

    By studying the landscape around the Chesapeake Bay, NASA spacecrafts are helping land managers figure out how to battle the harmful pollutants that have added to the destruction of the bay's once ...

  15. SF Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPAs grant program to protect and restore San Francisco Bay. The San Francisco Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund (SFBWQIF) has invested in 58 projects along with 70 partners contributing to restore wetlands, water quality, and reduce polluted runoff.,

  16. East Bay Municipal Utility District Settlement

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The East Bay Municipal Utility District and its seven member communities own and operate a separate sanitary sewer system, which serves approximately 650,000 customers on the eastern side of San Francisco Bay in California.

  17. Facility Layout Problems Using Bays: A Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davoudpour, Hamid; Jaafari, Amir Ardestani; Farahani, Leila Najafabadi

    2010-06-01

    Layout design is one of the most important activities done by industrial Engineers. Most of these problems have NP hard Complexity. In a basic layout design, each cell is represented by a rectilinear, but not necessarily convex polygon. The set of fully packed adjacent polygons is known as a block layout (Asef-Vaziri and Laporte 2007). Block layout is divided by slicing tree and bay layout. In bay layout, departments are located in vertical columns or horizontal rows, bays. Bay layout is used in real worlds especially in concepts such as semiconductor and aisles. There are several reviews in facility layout; however none of them focus on bay layout. The literature analysis given here is not limited to specific considerations about bay layout design. We present a state of art review for bay layout considering some issues such as the used objectives, the techniques of solving and the integration methods in bay.

  18. Seed Predation by the Shore Crab Carcinus maenas: A Positive Feedback Preventing Eelgrass Recovery?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing interest to restore the ecosystem services that eelgrass provides, after their continuous worldwide decline. Most attempts to restore eelgrass using seeds are challenged by very high seed losses and the reasons for these losses are not all clear. We assess the impact of predation on seed loss and eelgrass establishment, and explore methods to decrease seed loss during restoration in the Swedish northwest coast. In a laboratory study we identified three previously undescribed seed predators, the shore crab Carcinus maenas, the hermit crab Pagurus bernhardus and the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, of which shore crabs consumed 2–7 times more seeds than the other two species. The importance of shore crabs as seed predators was supported in field cage experiments where one enclosed crab caused 73% loss of seeds over a 1-week period on average (~ 21 seeds per day). Seedling establishment was significantly higher (14%) in cages that excluded predators over an 8-month period than in uncaged plots and cages that allowed predators but prevented seed-transport (0.5%), suggesting that seed predation constitutes a major source of seed loss in the study area. Burying the seeds 2 cm below the sediment surface prevented seed predation in the laboratory and decreased predation in the field, constituting a way to decrease seed loss during restoration. Shore crabs may act as a key feedback mechanism that prevent the return of eelgrass both by direct consumption of eelgrass seeds and as a predator of algal mesograzers, allowing algal mats to overgrow eelgrass beds. This shore crab feedback mechanism could become self-generating by promoting the growth of its own nursery habitat (algal mats) and by decreasing the nursery habitat (seagrass meadow) of its dominant predator (cod). This double feedback-loop is supported by a strong increase of shore crab abundance in the last decades and may partly explain the regime shift in vegetation observed

  19. Run-Up of Long Waves in Piecewise Sloping U-Shaped Bays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Dalton; Harris, Matthew; Hartle, Harrison; Nicolsky, Dmitry; Pelinovsky, Efim; Raz, Amir; Rybkin, Alexei

    2017-02-01

    We present an analytical study of the propagation and run-up of long waves in piecewise sloping, U-shaped bays using the cross-sectionally averaged shallow water equations. The nonlinear equations are transformed into a linear equation by utilizing the generalized Carrier-Greenspan transform (Rybkin et al. J Fluid Mech 748:416-432, 2014). The solution of the linear wave propagation is taken as the boundary condition at the toe of the last sloping segment, as in Synolakis (J Fluid Mech 185:523-545, 1987). We then consider a piecewise sloping bathymetry, and as in Kanoglu and Synolakis (J Fluid Mech 374:1-28, 1998), find the linear solution in the near shore region, which can be used as the boundary condition for the nonlinear problem. Our primary results are an analytical run-up law for narrow channels and breaking criteria for both monochromatic waves and solitary waves. The derived analytical solutions reduce to well-known solutions for parabolic bays and plane beaches. Our analytical predictions are verified in narrow bays via a comparison to direct numerical simulation of the 2-D shallow water equations.

  20. Paleoenvironmental assessment of recent environmental changes in Florida Bay, USA: a biomarker based study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xu, Y.; Holmes, C.W.; Jaffe, R.

    2007-01-01

    The extractable lipid compositions in four Florida Bay cores were determined in order to understand environmental changes over the last 160 years. The most significant environmental change was recorded by oscillations in the amplitude and frequency of biomarkers during the 20th century. Two seagrass molecular proxies (Paq and the C25/C27n-alkan-2-one ratio) reached a maximum post 1900, suggesting that abundant seagrass communities existed during the 20th century. A sharp drop in the Paq value from 0.65 to 0.48 in the central Bay at about 1987 seems to reflect seagrass die-off. The concentrations of microbial biomarkers (C20 HBIs, C25 HBIs and dinosterol) substantially increased after 1950 in the TC, BA and NB cores, reflecting an increase in algal (planktonic organism) primary productivity. However, the RB core presented the highest abundance of C25 HBIs and dinosterol during the period of 1880–1940, suggesting historically large inputs from diatoms and dinoflagellates. A substantial rise in abundance of taraxerol (a specific biomarker of mangroves) from 20 μg/g TOC in the 1830s to 279 μg/g TOC in the l980s is likely a result of increased mangrove primary productivity along the shore of the NE Bay. These changes are most likely the result of hydrological alterations in South Florida.

  1. Catchment clearing accelerates the infilling of a shallow subtropical bay in east coast Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coates-Marnane, Jack; Olley, Jon; Burton, Joanne; Sharma, Ashneel

    2016-06-01

    Understanding processes that govern the transport and distribution of terrestrial sediments to and within bays is critical for interpreting the drivers of long-term changes in these ecosystems. On the east coast of Australia increased soil erosion and sediment delivery following extensive land clearing in the contributing catchments, associated with European settlement, is highlighted as a key driver of the decline of numerous nearshore habitats including seagrass meadows and in-shore coral reefs. Here we use optical, radiocarbon and radionuclide dating to estimate mass accumulation rates and type of terrestrial sedimentation in central Moreton Bay during the Holocene. We compare the long-term rates of infilling within the central basin with the recent past and show a 3-9 fold increase in sediment accretion over the last 100 years compared to the long term (last ∼ 1500 to 3000 yrs) average. Infilling during the Holocene is not spatially uniform, with preferential deposition occurring within the now submerged palaeochannels of the Brisbane and Pine rivers. We suggest that modern turbidity regimes in Moreton Bay are the result of the compounded effect of both a historical increase in fine sediment supply and a rapid decline in the effective storage capacity of the basin.

  2. 3-D Lagrangian Measurements of Suspended Particles in San Francisco Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, R. M.; Tse, I.; Variano, E. A.

    2013-12-01

    San Francisco Bay often appears brown. Its high suspended sediment concentrations give it the potential to move and mix large amounts of sediments from one environment, such as an urban stormwater outflow, to another, such as a wetland undergoing restoration. These sediments can carry with them persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic chemicals such as PCBs, mercury, or emerging contaminants. To predict sediment fate, almost all physical models describe the transport of suspended sediment with the advection-diffusion equation, which requires knowledge of the water currents and the diffusivity of sediment. Methods for estimating diffusivity to use in the model are not typically satisfying, and there remain fundamental questions about the accuracy and applicability of the typical approximation methods. We have developed a new tool that measures 3D tracks of suspended sediment in-situ, from which we compute diffusivity directly. We present here the results of the first deployment, in San Francisco Bay near the Berkeley shore. This site has highly active sediment and is important for transfer of sediment-associated contaminants, and sediment diffusivity is sensitive to wind, waves, tides and turbulence. We investigate these relationships using our preliminary, proof-of-concept, data. It also provides the foundation for future investigations of the behavior of sediment diffusivity and particle trajectories in different environments and the underlying theory of solute diffusivity in real-world conditions. In addition, these data enable the analysis of whether sediment particles in San Francisco Bay exhibit the 'preferential clustering' observed for some inertial particles in turbulent flow.

  3. An Oscillating Jet in the Cape Cod Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulin, F. J.; Flierl, G. R.

    2004-05-01

    During the spring months, the Cape Cod Bay is a roaming ground for the North Atlantic right whale, perhaps the most endangered whale species in the world. The whales are observed to travel along the topographic steps that run parallel to the shore, eating plankton patches that form in the coastal water. In this region, off the coast of Provincetown, there is an oscillatory current with the same period as that of the ambient tides. The location of the current and its periodicity suggest that the topography and tides play fundamental roles in generating the jet. This current, depending on its velocity profile, may become unstable and generate vortices. It is likely that the local surface convergences and divergences in the tidal flows and vortices are related to the aggregation of the copepods (Calanus Finmarchicus), which are the right whale's primary food source. Understanding the dynamics of this jet is essential to predicting the spatial and temporal patterns of the codepods, which will in turn help us understand the likely locations and feeding history of the whales. In this talk we discuss results of the first phase of this study, that of the oscillatory jet in the Cape Cod Bay. This jet is rather complicated since it involves complex topography and coastlines, bottom and lateral friction, stratification and numerous other effects. Rather than study this system in fine detail, we investigate an idealized model that captures the essential features. In the context of this model, we first compute possible profiles for the oscillating jet. We then solve the linear stability problem to determine how the growth rates depend on the various parameters. Finally, and most importantly, we study the nonlinear problem to observe the time evolution of the instability process along with its equilibration. This provides some insight into how the instabilities are related to fluid transport across the shelf.

  4. Morphology and texture of modern sediments on the inner shelf of South Carolina's Long Bay from Little River Inlet to Winyah Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Denny, J.F.; Baldwin, W.E.; Schwab, W.C.; Gayes, P.T.; Morton, R.; Driscoll, N.W.

    2007-01-01

    High-resolution sea-floor mapping techniques, including sidecan-sonar, seismic-reflection, swath bathymetric systems, and bottom sampling, were used to map the geologic framework offshore of the northern South Carolina coast in order to provide a better understanding of the physical processes controlling coastal erosion and shoreline change. Four general sea floor environments were identified through analysis of sidescan-sonar, swath bathymetry, and surface sediment texture: inlet shoal complexes, shore-detached shoals, hardground, and mixed zones. Inlet shoal complexes generally lie offshore of modern inlet systems, with the exception of a shore-detached shoal lying offshore of Myrtle Beach. The shoals show 1 - 3 m in relief and comprise the largest accumulations of modern sediment within the inner shelf survey area. Surficial sediments within the shoal complexes are characterized by a low-backscatter, moderately sorted fine sand. Hardground areas are characterized by exposures of Cretaceous and Tertiary strata and Pleistocene channel-fill deposits. These areas display little to no bathymetric relief and are characterized by high-backscatter, coarser grained sand. Mixed zones show small-scale spatial variations in bathymetry, surface texture and backscatter. These areas are characterized by a thin layer of modern sediment ( Textural and geomorphic variations suggest a long-term net southerly flow within the study area. The general acoustic and textural character of the inner shelf within Long Bay suggests long-term erosion, reworking and continued modification of inner-shelf deposits by modern nearshore processes.

  5. Contaminant transport in Massachusetts Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butman, Bradford

    Construction of a new treatment plant and outfall to clean up Boston Harbor is currently one of the world's largest public works projects, costing about $4 billion. There is concern about the long-term impact of contaminants on Massachusetts Bay and adjacent Gulf of Maine because these areas are used extensively for transportation, recreation, fishing, and tourism, as well as waste disposal. Public concern also focuses on Stellwagen Bank, located on the eastern side of Massachusetts Bay, which is an important habitat for endangered whales. Contaminants reach Massachusetts Bay not only from Boston Harbor, but from other coastal communities on the Gulf of Maine, as well as from the atmosphere. Knowledge of the pathways, mechanisms, and rates at which pollutants are transported throughout these coastal environments is needed to address a wide range of management questions.

  6. 33 CFR 117.1101 - Sturgeon Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay. 117.1101 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Wisconsin § 117.1101 Sturgeon Bay. (a) The draw of the Michigan Street Bridge, mile 4.3 at Sturgeon Bay, shall open as follows: (1) From March 15 through...

  7. Chesapeake Bay plume dynamics from LANDSAT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munday, J. C., Jr.; Fedosh, M. S.

    1981-01-01

    LANDSAT images with enhancement and density slicing show that the Chesapeake Bay plume usually frequents the Virginia coast south of the Bay mouth. Southwestern (compared to northern) winds spread the plume easterly over a large area. Ebb tide images (compared to flood tide images) show a more dispersed plume. Flooding waters produce high turbidity levels over the shallow northern portion of the Bay mouth.

  8. BAY REGION ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY EXPERIMENT (BRACE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Tampa Bay Estuary Program (TBEP) was formed in 1991 to assist the community in developing a comprehensive plan to restore and protect Tampa Bay. The ecological indicator of the health of the Bay is the coverage of seagrasses, historically in decline, which are important to...

  9. Mobile Bay turbidity plume study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crozier, G. F.

    1976-01-01

    Laboratory and field transmissometer studies on the effect of suspended particulate material upon the appearance of water are reported. Quantitative correlations were developed between remotely sensed image density, optical sea truth data, and actual sediment load. Evaluation of satellite image sea truth data for an offshore plume projects contours of transmissivity for two different tidal phases. Data clearly demonstrate the speed of change and movement of the optical plume for water patterns associated with the mouth of Mobile bay in which relatively clear Gulf of Mexico water enters the bay on the eastern side. Data show that wind stress in excess of 15 knots has a marked impact in producing suspended sediment loads.

  10. Bayes factors and multimodel inference

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Link, W.A.; Barker, R.J.; Thomson, David L.; Cooch, Evan G.; Conroy, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Multimodel inference has two main themes: model selection, and model averaging. Model averaging is a means of making inference conditional on a model set, rather than on a selected model, allowing formal recognition of the uncertainty associated with model choice. The Bayesian paradigm provides a natural framework for model averaging, and provides a context for evaluation of the commonly used AIC weights. We review Bayesian multimodel inference, noting the importance of Bayes factors. Noting the sensitivity of Bayes factors to the choice of priors on parameters, we define and propose nonpreferential priors as offering a reasonable standard for objective multimodel inference.

  11. Carbon Biogeochemistry in Baffin Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Helmuth; Shadwick, Elizabeth H.; Dehairs, Frank; Gratton, Yves

    2013-04-01

    The Arctic Ocean and its carbon cycle are expected to be disproportionately sensitive to climatic change and, thus the Arctic is thought to be an area where such changes may most easily be detected. In particular the carbon cycle in polar ocean is vulnerable due to the relatively high Revelle factor and correspondingly weaker CO2 buffer capacity. The Arctic ocean is influenced by runoff and precipitation, sea ice formation and melting, and the inflow of saline waters from Bering and Fram Straits as well as the Barents Sea Shelf. Pacific water is recognizable as low(er) salinity water, with high concentrations of dissolved inorganic carbon, flowing from the Arctic Ocean to the North Atlantic via the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. In the Baffin Bay area, at the eastern entrance to the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, the water masses of three major oceans meet. Atlantic Ocean water traveling into Baffin Bay as the east Greenland current mixes with waters from the Arctic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean, which enter Baffin Bay via Nares Strait and various outflows of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, before the waters head southward along the western side of Baffin Bay, eventually feeding into the Labrador Current and the North Atlantic Ocean. Altered mixing ratios of these three water masses and freshwater in the Arctic Ocean have been recorded in recent decades. Any climatically driven alterations in the composition of waters leaving Baffin Bay may have implications for anthropogenic CO2 uptake and, hence, acidification, of the subpolar and temperate North Atlantic. We present carbon cycle, Barium and stable oxygen isotope composition data of sea water and related data from two east to west section across Baffin Bay at 75N and 76N as well as from shelf sections long the eastern and western shelves of Baffin Bay. We investigate water mass characteristics and mixing pattern of the above three major water masses in Baffin Bay. The data have been collected in the framework of two

  12. Bayes' postulate for trinomial trials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diniz, M. A.; Polpo, A.

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, we discuss Bayes' postulate and its interpretation. We extend the binomial trial method proposed by de Finetti [1] to trinomial trials, for which we argue that the consideration of equiprobability a priori for the possible outcomes of the trinomial trials implies that the parameter vector has Dirichlet(1,1) as prior. Based on this result, we agree with Stigler [2] in that the notion in Bayes' postulate stating "absolutely know nothing" is related to the possible outcomes of an experiment and not to "non-information" about the parameter.

  13. South San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dartnell, Peter; Gibbons, Helen

    2007-01-01

    View eastward. Elevations in mapped area color coded: purple (approx 15 m below sea level) to red-orange (approx 90 m above sea level). South San Francisco Bay is very shallow, with a mean water depth of 2.7 m (8.9 ft). Trapezoidal depression near San Mateo Bridge is where sediment has been extracted for use in cement production and as bay fill. Land from USGS digital orthophotographs (DOQs) overlaid on USGS digital elevation models (DEMs). Distance across bottom of image approx 11 km (7 mi); vertical exaggeration 1.5X.

  14. Giving perspective to cliff exposures with ground penetrating radar: Devonian lacustrine shore zone architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, Steven; Moreau, Julien; Archer, Stuart

    2015-04-01

    The orbitally-controlled cyclic lacustrine successions of the Middle Devonian in Northern Scotland contains repeated developments of shore zone sandstones. However, due to the cliff-forming nature of the succession and the attitude of the sections through these sandstones, interpretation of this facies has been problematic. To better understand the shore zone systems, we carried out very high resolution sedimentary logging and constructed photo-panels which were combined with high resolution GPR profiling (250 MHz). To ensure close ties between the sedimentary logs and the GPR data, the cliffs were accessed using rope access techniques while GPR grids were shot directly above. The profiles were shot mainly in the strike direction of what was thought to be the shore elongation every 5-10 m and every 20-30 m in the dip direction. Shore zone systems of 3 different sequences have been imaged for a total of 1155 m of GPR profile collected. This configuration has allowed 3D visualisation of the architecture of the shore zone systems and, in combination with detailed sedimentology, provided insights into the generation of the dynamic shore zone environments. The coastal cliffs of northern Scotland expose sedimentary cycles on average 16-m-thick which record deep lake, perennial lake and playa environments. The shore zone deposits reach 2 to 3.5 m in thickness. Loading and discrete channel forms are recognised in both the GPR data and sedimentary logs through the lower portion of the lake shore zone successions. Up-section the sandstone beds appear to become amalgamated forming subtle low angle accretionary bar complexes which although visible in outcrop, after careful investigation, can be fully visualised and examined in the GPR data. The 3D visualisation allowed mapping the architecture and distribution of the bars . The orientation of these features, recognised from the survey, is consistent with extensive palaeocurrent measurements from oscillation ripples. Further

  15. 33 CFR 110.78 - Sturgeon Bay, Sturgeon Bay, Wis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... Beginning at a point bearing 126°, 3,000 feet from the fixed green Sturgeon Bay Canal Leading Light mounted... extended; thence south 530 feet to a point 100 feet from the northern edge of the channel; thence southeasterly 2,350 feet along a line parallel to the northern edge of the channel to a point on the east...

  16. 33 CFR 110.78 - Sturgeon Bay, Sturgeon Bay, Wis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... Beginning at a point bearing 126°, 3,000 feet from the fixed green Sturgeon Bay Canal Leading Light mounted... extended; thence south 530 feet to a point 100 feet from the northern edge of the channel; thence southeasterly 2,350 feet along a line parallel to the northern edge of the channel to a point on the east...

  17. 33 CFR 110.78 - Sturgeon Bay, Sturgeon Bay, Wis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... Beginning at a point bearing 126°, 3,000 feet from the fixed green Sturgeon Bay Canal Leading Light mounted... extended; thence south 530 feet to a point 100 feet from the northern edge of the channel; thence southeasterly 2,350 feet along a line parallel to the northern edge of the channel to a point on the east...

  18. 33 CFR 110.78 - Sturgeon Bay, Sturgeon Bay, Wis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... Beginning at a point bearing 126°, 3,000 feet from the fixed green Sturgeon Bay Canal Leading Light mounted... extended; thence south 530 feet to a point 100 feet from the northern edge of the channel; thence southeasterly 2,350 feet along a line parallel to the northern edge of the channel to a point on the east...

  19. 33 CFR 110.78 - Sturgeon Bay, Sturgeon Bay, Wis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... Beginning at a point bearing 126°, 3,000 feet from the fixed green Sturgeon Bay Canal Leading Light mounted... extended; thence south 530 feet to a point 100 feet from the northern edge of the channel; thence southeasterly 2,350 feet along a line parallel to the northern edge of the channel to a point on the east...

  20. Have You Been to the Shore Before? A Marine Education Infusion Unit on Seashore and Aquarium Life. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butzow, John W.; And Others

    Classroom and field activities for fifth- through ninth-grade students comprise this teaching guide for the northern New England shore. Teacher background information contains an introduction to life at the shore and the animal classification of marine invertebrates. Activities stress two major concepts: (1) the diversity and complex interactions…

  1. 29 CFR 1919.50 - Eligibility for accreditation to certificate shore-based material handling devices covered by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... material handling devices covered by § 1917.50 of this chapter, safety and health regulations for marine... Shore-Based Equipment § 1919.50 Eligibility for accreditation to certificate shore-based material handling devices covered by § 1917.50 of this chapter, safety and health regulations for marine...

  2. Tarpum Bay, Bahamas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In this ASTER image the features that look like folded material are carbonate sand dunes in the shallow waters of Tarpum Bay, southwest of Eleuthera Island in the Bahamas. The sand making up the dunes comes from the erosion of limestone coral reefs, and has been shaped into dunes by ocean currents.

    This image was acquired on May 12, 2002 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long- term research effort to understand and protect our home planet. Through the study of Earth, NASA will help to provide sound science to policy and economic decision-makers so as to better life here, while developing the

  3. Depot fatty acid composition in immature green turtles (Chelonia mydas) residing at two near-shore foraging areas in the Hawaiian Islands.

    PubMed

    Seaborn, Gloria T; Katherine Moore, M; Balazs, George H

    2005-02-01

    The lipid content and fatty acid composition of depot fat were determined for 58 immature green turtles (Chelonia mydas) residing at two near-shore foraging areas, Ahu-O-Laka, located in Kaneohe Bay on Oahu, and Kiholo Bay located on the island of Hawaii. Benthic flora at Kiholo was limited to a single algal species but included algae and seagrass at Ahu-O-Laka. Turtle straight carapace length ranged from 38.6 to 59.2 cm, suggesting that the sample set included new recruits to up to 12-year residents. Fatty acid data were analyzed using principal components analysis (PCA). PC1 accounted for over 50% of the variance. Turtles were generally delineated along PC1 by the length of time on benthic foraging grounds, with high (>0.75) negative loadings for the fatty acids 22:6n-3, 7M7H, t16:1n-10, 15:0, and 17:0 associated with relatively new recruits (suggesting a pelagic dietary source for these fatty acids) and high positive loadings for 12:0 and 14:0 associated with long-term residents. PC2 separated turtles primarily by capture location, with high positive loadings for 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3 [the primary seagrass polyunsaturated fatty acids] associated with the Ahu-O-Laka turtles. Fatty acid profiles of turtles from both locations differed substantially from those of their benthic diets, suggesting considerable modification of dietary fatty acids and de novo biosynthesis.

  4. 33 CFR Appendix A to Part 155 - Specifications for Shore Connection

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Connection A Appendix A to Part 155 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND.... 155, App. A Appendix A to Part 155—Specifications for Shore Connection Item Description Dimension 1... equidistantly placed on a bolt circle of the above diameter, slotted to the flange periphery. The slot width...

  5. Beebe reaches 'summer friends'. Temporary residents of the Delaware shore are valued resource.

    PubMed

    Botvin, Judith D

    2003-01-01

    Nearly half the residents in the shore area surrounding Beebe Medical Center, Lewes, Del., live there part-time. This year, the Beebe Medical Foundation initiated a campaign to familiarize these "summer friends" with the hospital's services and its need for financial support. Marketers developed a package of gifts and specially-designed print materials for foundation members to distribute personally.

  6. 33 CFR 157.304 - Shore-based reception facility: standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Exemption From § 157.10a or § 157.10c § 157.304 Shore-based reception facility... of the vessel for which the exemption is being requested; and (b) The capacity to receive and store...

  7. 33 CFR 157.304 - Shore-based reception facility: standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Exemption From § 157.10a or § 157.10c § 157.304 Shore-based reception facility... of the vessel for which the exemption is being requested; and (b) The capacity to receive and store...

  8. 33 CFR 157.304 - Shore-based reception facility: standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Exemption From § 157.10a or § 157.10c § 157.304 Shore-based reception facility... of the vessel for which the exemption is being requested; and (b) The capacity to receive and store...

  9. 33 CFR 157.304 - Shore-based reception facility: standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Exemption From § 157.10a or § 157.10c § 157.304 Shore-based reception facility... of the vessel for which the exemption is being requested; and (b) The capacity to receive and store...

  10. 33 CFR 162.210 - Lake Tahoe, Calif.; restricted areas along south shore.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... § 162.210 Lake Tahoe, Calif.; restricted areas along south shore. (a) The areas—(1) Baldwin Beach, under...) Pope Beach, under the control of the Forest Service, Department of Agriculture. The waters of Lake... south 300 feet to the high waterline. (4) El Dorado County Beach. The waters of Lake Tahoe shoreward...

  11. 33 CFR 162.210 - Lake Tahoe, Calif.; restricted areas along south shore.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... § 162.210 Lake Tahoe, Calif.; restricted areas along south shore. (a) The areas—(1) Baldwin Beach, under...) Pope Beach, under the control of the Forest Service, Department of Agriculture. The waters of Lake... south 300 feet to the high waterline. (4) El Dorado County Beach. The waters of Lake Tahoe shoreward...

  12. 33 CFR 162.210 - Lake Tahoe, Calif.; restricted areas along south shore.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... § 162.210 Lake Tahoe, Calif.; restricted areas along south shore. (a) The areas—(1) Baldwin Beach, under...) Pope Beach, under the control of the Forest Service, Department of Agriculture. The waters of Lake... south 300 feet to the high waterline. (4) El Dorado County Beach. The waters of Lake Tahoe shoreward...

  13. 33 CFR 334.950 - Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, California; Navy shore bombardment areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Clemente... REGULATIONS § 334.950 Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, California; Navy shore bombardment areas. (a) The danger zones. (1) The waters of the Pacific Ocean within an area beginning at China Point...

  14. 33 CFR 334.950 - Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, California; Navy shore bombardment areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Clemente... REGULATIONS § 334.950 Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, California; Navy shore bombardment areas. (a) The danger zones. (1) The waters of the Pacific Ocean within an area beginning at China Point...

  15. 33 CFR 334.950 - Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, California; Navy shore bombardment areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Clemente... REGULATIONS § 334.950 Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, California; Navy shore bombardment areas. (a) The danger zones. (1) The waters of the Pacific Ocean within an area beginning at China Point...

  16. Research on Shore-Ship Photonic Link Performance for Two- Frequency-Band Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Yanqin; Cong, Bo

    2016-02-01

    Ka and Ku bands links for shore-ship communications suffer limited bandwidth and high loss. In this paper, photonics-based links are proposed and modeled. The principle of phase modulation (PM) is elaborated and analyzed. It is showed that PM can effectively suppress high-order inter-modulation distortion (IMD), reduce the insert loss and improve the reliability of the system.

  17. 29 CFR Appendix E to Subpart P of... - Alternatives to Timber Shoring

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alternatives to Timber Shoring E Appendix E to Subpart P of Part 1926 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Excavations Pt. 1926, Subpt....

  18. 29 CFR Appendix E to Subpart P of... - Alternatives to Timber Shoring

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alternatives to Timber Shoring E Appendix E to Subpart P of Part 1926 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Excavations Pt. 1926, Subpt....

  19. 29 CFR Appendix E to Subpart P of... - Alternatives to Timber Shoring

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alternatives to Timber Shoring E Appendix E to Subpart P of Part 1926 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Excavations Pt. 1926, Subpt....

  20. 29 CFR Appendix E to Subpart P of... - Alternatives to Timber Shoring

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alternatives to Timber Shoring E Appendix E to Subpart P of Part 1926 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Excavations Pt. 1926, Subpt....

  1. 33 CFR 162.210 - Lake Tahoe, Calif.; restricted areas along south shore.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lake Tahoe, Calif.; restricted... § 162.210 Lake Tahoe, Calif.; restricted areas along south shore. (a) The areas—(1) Baldwin Beach, under the control of the Forest Service, Department of Agriculture. The waters of Lake Tahoe shoreward of...

  2. Crabs in Labs: The Shore Crab (Carcinus maenas) as Teaching Material.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogarth, P. J.

    1983-01-01

    The shore crab (Carcinus maenas) is an excellent subject for school study, both in the field and the laboratory. It is easily collected and maintained and can be used for a wide range of investigations. Some background details are given and possible areas of investigation suggested. (Author)

  3. Shore Power for Vessels Calling at U.S. Ports: Benefits and Costs.

    PubMed

    Vaishnav, Parth; Fischbeck, Paul S; Morgan, M Granger; Corbett, James J

    2016-02-02

    When in port, ships burn marine diesel in on-board generators to produce electricity and are significant contributors to poor local and regional air quality. Supplying ships with grid electricity can reduce these emissions. We use two integrated assessment models to quantify the benefits of reducing the emissions of NOX, SO2, PM2.5, and CO2 that would occur if shore power were used. Using historical vessel call data, we identify combinations of vessels and berths at U.S. ports that could be switched to shore power to yield the largest gains for society. Our results indicate that, depending on the social costs of pollution assumed, an air quality benefit of $70-150 million per year could be achieved by retrofitting a quarter to two-thirds of all vessels that call at U.S. ports. Such a benefit could be produced at no net cost to society (health and environmental benefits would be balanced by the cost of ship and port retrofit) but would require many ships to be equipped to receive shore power, even if doing so would result in a private loss for the operator. Policy makers could produce a net societal gain by implementing incentives and mandates to encourage a shift toward shore power.

  4. 33 CFR 162.210 - Lake Tahoe, Calif.; restricted areas along south shore.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lake Tahoe, Calif.; restricted areas along south shore. 162.210 Section 162.210 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY INLAND WATERWAYS NAVIGATION...

  5. What happens to near-shore habitat when lake and reservoir water levels decline?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water management and drought can lead to increased fluctuation and declines in lake and reservoir water levels. These changes can affect near-shore physical habitat and the biotic assemblages that depend upon it. Structural complexity at the land-water interface of lakes promote...

  6. Between tide and wave marks: a unifying model of physical zonation on littoral shores

    PubMed Central

    Bird, Christopher E.; Franklin, Erik C.; Smith, Celia M.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of tides on littoral marine habitats are so ubiquitous that shorelines are commonly described as ‘intertidal’, whereas waves are considered a secondary factor that simply modifies the intertidal habitat. However mean significant wave height exceeds tidal range at many locations worldwide. Here we construct a simple sinusoidal model of coastal water level based on both tidal range and wave height. From the patterns of emergence and submergence predicted by the model, we derive four vertical shoreline benchmarks which bracket up to three novel, spatially distinct, and physically defined zones. The (1) emergent tidal zone is characterized by tidally driven emergence in air; the (2) wave zone is characterized by constant (not periodic) wave wash; and the (3) submergent tidal zone is characterized by tidally driven submergence. The decoupling of tidally driven emergence and submergence made possible by wave action is a critical prediction of the model. On wave-dominated shores (wave height ≫ tidal range), all three zones are predicted to exist separately, but on tide-dominated shores (tidal range ≫ wave height) the wave zone is absent and the emergent and submergent tidal zones overlap substantially, forming the traditional “intertidal zone”. We conclude by incorporating time and space in the model to illustrate variability in the physical conditions and zonation on littoral shores. The wave:tide physical zonation model is a unifying framework that can facilitate our understanding of physical conditions on littoral shores whether tropical or temperate, marine or lentic. PMID:24109544

  7. 33 CFR Appendix A to Part 155 - Specifications for Shore Connection

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Connection A Appendix A to Part 155 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND.... 155, App. A Appendix A to Part 155—Specifications for Shore Connection Item Description Dimension 1... equidistantly placed on a bolt circle of the above diameter, slotted to the flange periphery. The slot width...

  8. 33 CFR Appendix A to Part 155 - Specifications for Shore Connection

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Connection A Appendix A to Part 155 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND.... 155, App. A Appendix A to Part 155—Specifications for Shore Connection Item Description Dimension 1... equidistantly placed on a bolt circle of the above diameter, slotted to the flange periphery. The slot width...

  9. Using Case Studies to Teach About Global Issues, The Sahel: The "Shore" of Disaster

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Susan J.

    1974-01-01

    Sahel is the Arabic word for "shore" and is applied to the Southern belt of the Sahara Desert now undergoing a severe drought. This article describes the lifestyle of a Tuareg herder as he and his family fight for survival. Discussion questions and possible solution to the problems are provided in the case study. (Author/DE)

  10. Sex-specific mediation of foraging in the shore crab, Carcinus maenas.

    PubMed

    Hayden, Dominic; Jennings, Alice; Müller, Carsten; Pascoe, David; Bublitz, Ralf; Webb, Heather; Breithaupt, Thomas; Watkins, Lloyd; Hardege, Jörg

    2007-08-01

    Experiments were conducted to investigate the sex-specific differences to feeding responses of the shore crab Carcinus maenas throughout the year. Results demonstrate that female shore crabs exhibit stronger feeding responses than males throughout the year with a significantly reduced feeding response in males during the summer months' reproductive season. We also studied the possible function(s) of the moulting hormone, 20-hydroxyecdysone (Crustecdysone) that has been described as a potential female-produced sex pheromone to initiate male reproductive behaviour in a number of crustaceans. We recently presented evidence that for shore crabs this is not the case and now show that the steroid is instead functioning as a sex-specific feeding deterrent protecting the moulting 'soft' female crabs. Whilst male shore crabs were deterred from prey (Mytilus edulis) and synthetic feeding stimulants glycine and taurine when these feeding stimulants were spiked with crustecdysone, intermoult female crabs were significantly less affected and rarely deterred from feeding. This sex specificity of the moulting hormone, in combination with the female sex pheromone, which has no anti-feeding properties, ensures that male crabs mate with soft-shelled, moulted females rather than engage in cannibalism, such as found frequently in cases when soft-shelled females are exposed to intermoult females.

  11. Lake shore and littoral habitat structure: a field survey method and its precision

    EPA Science Inventory

    Until recently, lake physical habitat assessment has been and underemployed tool for assessing lake and reservoir ecological condition. Herein, we outline and evaluate a rapid (2 persons: 1.5-3.5 h) field sampling and analytical approach for quantifying near-shore physical habit...

  12. 76 FR 28972 - Eastern Shore Natural Gas Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ... operation of new mainline facilities and a new delivery point measurement and regulating station from... new delivery point measurement and regulating station near the intersection of US 40 and Maryland 279... Tariff Rate on file with the Commission. Eastern Shore will recover its project costs entirely...

  13. The Relevance and Future of Joint Logistics Over the Shore (JLOTS) Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    Determining the most cost -effective mix of these various approaches will require careful analysis considering technology advancements and expected...40 CHAPTER 4: JOINT LOGISTICS OVER THE SHORE (JLOTS) ANALYSIS ............42 JLOTS...future that could entail forces flowing into an area without the benefit of deep-draft ports or adequate airfields. While the JOAC specifies a future

  14. 33 CFR 334.950 - Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, California; Navy shore bombardment areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Clemente... REGULATIONS § 334.950 Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, California; Navy shore bombardment areas. (a) The danger zones. (1) The waters of the Pacific Ocean within an area beginning at China Point...

  15. 33 CFR 334.950 - Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, California; Navy shore bombardment areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Clemente... REGULATIONS § 334.950 Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, California; Navy shore bombardment areas. (a) The danger zones. (1) The waters of the Pacific Ocean within an area beginning at China Point...

  16. 76 FR 13445 - North Shore Railroad Company-Operation Exemption-SEDA-COG Joint Rail Authority

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-11

    ... operating agreement between SEDA-COG and NSRR has recently been filed at the Board in Susquehanna Union R.R.-Control Exemption- N. Shore R.R., Nittany & Bald Eagle R.R., Shamokin Valley R.R., Juniata Valley R.R., Lycoming Valley R.R., and Union Cnty. Indus. R.R., FD 35343, Pet. for Exemption Ex.......

  17. A Navy Shore Activity Manpower Planning System for Civilians. Technical Report No. 24.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niehaus, R. J.; Sholtz, D.

    This report describes the U.S. Navy Shore Activity Manpower Planning System (SAMPS) advanced development research project. This effort is aimed at large-scale feasibility tests of manpower models for large Naval installations. These local planning systems are integrated with Navy-wide information systems on a data-communications network accessible…

  18. Effects of human trampling on a rocky shore fauna on the Sao Paulo coast, southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, M N; Rosso, S

    2009-11-01

    Increased tourist activity in coastal regions demands management strategies to reduce impacts on rocky shores. The highly populated coastal areas in southeastern Brazil are an example of degradation caused by development of industry and tourism. Among different shore impacts, trampling has been intensively studied, and may represent a significant source of stress for intertidal fauna. A randomised blocks design was applied to experimentally study the effects of two different trampling intensities on richness, diversity, density and biomass of the rocky shore fauna of Obuseiro beach, Guarujá, southeastern Brazil. Blocks were distributed in two portions of the intertidal zone, dominated respectively by Chthamalus bisinuatus (Cirripedia) and Isognomon bicolor (Bivalvia). Blocks were trampled over three months, simulating the vacation period in Brazil and were monitored for the following nine months. Results indicate that Chthamalus bisinuatus is vulnerable to trampling impacts. Richness, diversity and turn-over index tended to be higher in trampled plots four months after trampling ceased. In general, results agree with previous trampling studies, suggesting that even low intensities of trampling may cause some impact on intertidal communities. Management strategies should include isolation of sensitive areas, construction of boardwalks, visitor education and monitoring programmes. In Brazil, additional data obtained from experimental studies are necessary in order to achieve a better understanding of trampling impacts on rocky shore communities.

  19. Between tide and wave marks: a unifying model of physical zonation on littoral shores.

    PubMed

    Bird, Christopher E; Franklin, Erik C; Smith, Celia M; Toonen, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    The effects of tides on littoral marine habitats are so ubiquitous that shorelines are commonly described as 'intertidal', whereas waves are considered a secondary factor that simply modifies the intertidal habitat. However mean significant wave height exceeds tidal range at many locations worldwide. Here we construct a simple sinusoidal model of coastal water level based on both tidal range and wave height. From the patterns of emergence and submergence predicted by the model, we derive four vertical shoreline benchmarks which bracket up to three novel, spatially distinct, and physically defined zones. The (1) emergent tidal zone is characterized by tidally driven emergence in air; the (2) wave zone is characterized by constant (not periodic) wave wash; and the (3) submergent tidal zone is characterized by tidally driven submergence. The decoupling of tidally driven emergence and submergence made possible by wave action is a critical prediction of the model. On wave-dominated shores (wave height ≫ tidal range), all three zones are predicted to exist separately, but on tide-dominated shores (tidal range ≫ wave height) the wave zone is absent and the emergent and submergent tidal zones overlap substantially, forming the traditional "intertidal zone". We conclude by incorporating time and space in the model to illustrate variability in the physical conditions and zonation on littoral shores. The wave:tide physical zonation model is a unifying framework that can facilitate our understanding of physical conditions on littoral shores whether tropical or temperate, marine or lentic.

  20. South Shore High School, Project VIBES. O.E.E. Evalaution Report, 1982-1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puccio, Ignazio; Sica, Michael

    In 1982-83, Project VIBES provided instruction in English as a Second Language (ESL) and French language skills, as well as bilingual instruction in science, math, social studies, and hygiene, to approximately 100 limited-English-speaking students in grades 9-12 of South Shore High School in Brooklyn, New York. Seventy percent of the students were…

  1. Tampa Bay Ecosystem Services webpage

    EPA Science Inventory

    Public website describing research on the large-scale physical, chemical, and biological dynamics of coastal wetlands and estuaries, with emphasis on the Gulf of Mexico. Hyperlinks direct users to mapped ecosystem services of interest and value to Tampa Bay area residents, and i...

  2. Bayes' estimators of generalized entropies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holste, D.; Große, I.; Herzel, H.

    1998-03-01

    The order-q Tsallis 0305-4470/31/11/007/img5 and Rényi entropy 0305-4470/31/11/007/img6 receive broad applications in the statistical analysis of complex phenomena. A generic problem arises, however, when these entropies need to be estimated from observed data. The finite size of data sets can lead to serious systematic and statistical errors in numerical estimates. In this paper, we focus upon the problem of estimating generalized entropies from finite samples and derive the Bayes estimator of the order-q Tsallis entropy, including the order-1 (i.e. the Shannon) entropy, under the assumption of a uniform prior probability density. The Bayes estimator yields, in general, the smallest mean-quadratic deviation from the true parameter as compared with any other estimator. Exploiting the functional relationship between 0305-4470/31/11/007/img7 and 0305-4470/31/11/007/img8, we use the Bayes estimator of 0305-4470/31/11/007/img7 to estimate the Rényi entropy 0305-4470/31/11/007/img8. We compare these novel estimators with the frequency-count estimators for 0305-4470/31/11/007/img7 and 0305-4470/31/11/007/img8. We find by numerical simulations that the Bayes estimator reduces statistical errors of order-q entropy estimates for Bernoulli as well as for higher-order Markov processes derived from the complete genome of the prokaryote Haemophilus influenzae.

  3. Beach morphology and food web structure: comparison of an eroding and an accreting sandy shore in the North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menn, Iris

    2002-09-01

    Food web components and inorganic nutrients were studied on two sandy shores of the adjacent barrier islands of Sylt and Rømø in the North Sea, differing in morphodynamics. Implications of high and low wave energy on the food web structure were assessed. The Sylt shore represents a dynamic intermediate beach type, while the Rømø shore is morphologically stable and dissipative. On the steep-profiled, coarse-grained Sylt shore, strong hydrodynamics resulted in erosion and high fluxes of organic material through the beach, but prevented any storage of food sources. In contrast, the flat-profiled, fine-grained Rømø shore, with low wave energy and accretion, accumulated organic carbon from surf waters. At Sylt, oxic nutrient regeneration prevailed, while anoxic mineralization was more important at Rømø. Macrofauna on the Sylt shore was impoverished compared with the community at Rømø. Correspondingly, abundances of epibenthic predators such as shrimps, crabs, fish, and shorebirds were also lower at Sylt. Meiofauna was abundant on both shores, but differed in taxonomic composition. Several major taxa were represented in fairly equal proportions of individual numbers on the well-oxygenated Sylt shore, while nematodes strongly dominated the assemblage at Rømø. Thus, on cold-temperate, highly dynamic intermediate shores with high wave energy and subject to erosion, the "small food web" dominates. Organisms are agile and quickly exploit fresh organic material. Larger organisms and nematodes abound under stable, dissipative and accreting shore conditions, where some food materials may accumulate and zoomass builds up to support numerous visitors from higher trophic levels.

  4. Controls on the distribution of cosmogenic 10Be across shore platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurst, Martin D.; Rood, Dylan H.; Ellis, Michael A.

    2017-01-01

    Quantifying rates of erosion on cliffed coasts across a range of timescales is vital for understanding the drivers and processes of coastal change and for assessing risks posed by future cliff retreat. Historical records cover at best the last 150 years; cosmogenic isotopes, such as 10Be could allow us to look further into the past to assess coastal change on millennial timescales. Cosmogenic isotopes accumulate in situ near the Earth surface and have been used extensively to quantify erosion rates, burial dates and surface exposure ages in terrestrial landscapes over the last 3 decades. More recently, applications in rocky coast settings have quantified the timing of mass wasting events, determined long-term averaged rates of cliff retreat and revealed the exposure history of shore platforms. In this contribution, we develop and explore a numerical model for the accumulation of 10Be on eroding shore platforms. In a series of numerical experiments, we investigated the influence of topographic and water shielding, dynamic platform erosion processes, the presence and variation in beach cover, and heterogeneous distribution of erosion on the distribution of 10Be across shore platforms. Results demonstrate that, taking into account relative sea level change and tides, the concentration of 10Be is sensitive to rates of cliff retreat. Factors such as topographic shielding and beach cover act to reduce 10Be concentrations on the platform and may result in overestimation of cliff retreat rates if not accounted for. The shape of the distribution of 10Be across a shore platform can potentially reveal whether cliff retreat rates are declining or accelerating through time. Measurement of 10Be in shore platforms has great potential to allow us to quantify long-term rates of cliff retreat and platform erosion.

  5. Predictive Modelling to Identify Near-Shore, Fine-Scale Seabird Distributions during the Breeding Season.

    PubMed

    Warwick-Evans, Victoria C; Atkinson, Philip W; Robinson, Leonie A; Green, Jonathan A

    2016-01-01

    During the breeding season seabirds are constrained to coastal areas and are restricted in their movements, spending much of their time in near-shore waters either loafing or foraging. However, in using these areas they may be threatened by anthropogenic activities such as fishing, watersports and coastal developments including marine renewable energy installations. Although many studies describe large scale interactions between seabirds and the environment, the drivers behind near-shore, fine-scale distributions are not well understood. For example, Alderney is an important breeding ground for many species of seabird and has a diversity of human uses of the marine environment, thus providing an ideal location to investigate the near-shore fine-scale interactions between seabirds and the environment. We used vantage point observations of seabird distribution, collected during the 2013 breeding season in order to identify and quantify some of the environmental variables affecting the near-shore, fine-scale distribution of seabirds in Alderney's coastal waters. We validate the models with observation data collected in 2014 and show that water depth, distance to the intertidal zone, and distance to the nearest seabird nest are key predictors in the distribution of Alderney's seabirds. AUC values for each species suggest that these models perform well, although the model for shags performed better than those for auks and gulls. While further unexplained underlying localised variation in the environmental conditions will undoubtedly effect the fine-scale distribution of seabirds in near-shore waters we demonstrate the potential of this approach in marine planning and decision making.

  6. Predictive Modelling to Identify Near-Shore, Fine-Scale Seabird Distributions during the Breeding Season

    PubMed Central

    Warwick-Evans, Victoria C.; Atkinson, Philip W.; Robinson, Leonie A.; Green, Jonathan A.

    2016-01-01

    During the breeding season seabirds are constrained to coastal areas and are restricted in their movements, spending much of their time in near-shore waters either loafing or foraging. However, in using these areas they may be threatened by anthropogenic activities such as fishing, watersports and coastal developments including marine renewable energy installations. Although many studies describe large scale interactions between seabirds and the environment, the drivers behind near-shore, fine-scale distributions are not well understood. For example, Alderney is an important breeding ground for many species of seabird and has a diversity of human uses of the marine environment, thus providing an ideal location to investigate the near-shore fine-scale interactions between seabirds and the environment. We used vantage point observations of seabird distribution, collected during the 2013 breeding season in order to identify and quantify some of the environmental variables affecting the near-shore, fine-scale distribution of seabirds in Alderney’s coastal waters. We validate the models with observation data collected in 2014 and show that water depth, distance to the intertidal zone, and distance to the nearest seabird nest are key predictors in the distribution of Alderney’s seabirds. AUC values for each species suggest that these models perform well, although the model for shags performed better than those for auks and gulls. While further unexplained underlying localised variation in the environmental conditions will undoubtedly effect the fine-scale distribution of seabirds in near-shore waters we demonstrate the potential of this approach in marine planning and decision making. PMID:27031616

  7. Beach and reef-flat sediments along the south shore of Molokai, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Calhoun, R.S.; Field, M.E.; ,

    2000-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey's multi-disciplinary Coral Reef Project addressing the health and geological variability of coral reef systems, sediment components and their distribution along the fringing reef on the south shore of the Hawaiian island of Molokai are being examined. Particular interest is being paid to the types and origin of sediment found on the reef. The south shore of Molokai is sheltered by one of the largest fringing reefs in the US. At approximately 50 km in length, up to 1.5 km in width, and covered by 90% live coral in many locations, the reef seemingly should be able to provide ample sediment for large carbonate beaches. However, siliciclastic grains supplied by erosion of the basaltic uplands of Molokai are often the most conspicuous individual nearshore sediment type. Coralline algae and coral are the most common carbonate components of the beaches. On the nearshore reef-flat, chemically-altered carbonate grains, particularly coralline algae, are the most abundant component. Molluscs and Halimeda may be common in specific locations, but are usually minor components. Sediment calcium carbonate levels increase to the west from a minimum at Kamalo, and are high along the east shore of Molokai. However, these general island-scale trends may be overridden by local influences, such as protected stream mouths or high carbonate growth rates. Additionally, trends seen on the beach and nearshore environments may not reflect trends a few hundred meters offshore since shore normal trends are more pronounced than shore parallel ones.

  8. Bacterial growth efficiency in a partly eutrophicated bay of South China Sea: Implication for anthropogenic impacts and potential hypoxia events.

    PubMed

    Song, Xing-Yu; Liu, Hua-Xue; Zhong, Yu; Tan, Ye-Hui; Qin, Geng; Li, Kai-Zhi; Shen, Ping-Ping; Huang, Liang-Min; Wang, You-Shao

    2015-10-01

    Bacterial metabolism plays a dual role [bacterial production (BP) and bacterial respiration (BR)] in the aquatic ecosystem and potentially leads to hypoxia in the coastal eutrophic area. Bacterial growth efficiency (BGE) is an important index showing the contribution of bacterial metabolism to marine biological production and carbon budget in the pelagic ecosystem. In this study, the spatial and seasonal variety as well as diurnal variation dynamics of BGE and associated ecological characteristics were investigated in a partly eutrophicated subtropical bay (the Daya Bay) located in the northern South China Sea. Furthermore, the relationship between bacterial metabolism and potential hypoxia event was analyzed. The average BGE was 0.14 and 0.22 in summer and winter, respectively, which was lower than the mean value ever reported in other coastal and estuarine waters. The diurnal variations of BGE and BP were widely fluctuated in the Daya Bay, with approximately 3-8 fold variation of BP and 2-3 fold variation of BR in different seasons, suggesting the importance of short-term ecological dynamics on evaluating the long-term ecological processes in the coastal waters. BR was the predominant contributor to the bacterial carbon demand; however, the variation of BGE was controlled by BP in both seasons. BGE was always high in the near-shore waters with higher eutrophic level and more active BP and BR. The bacterial metabolism could deplete dissolved oxygen (DO) in the Daya bay within about 9 days when the water body was enclosed and photosynthesis was prohibited. Therefore, low DO concentration and potential hypoxia was more likely to be found in the near-shore waters of the Daya Bay in summer, since the water was stratified and enclosed with poor water exchange capacity in this area. While in winter, hypoxia seldom occurred due to vertical mixing throughout the water column. Further biological-physical coupling research is recommended to find out the detailed formation

  9. Spatial trends in tidal flat shape and associated environmental parameters in South San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bearman, J.A.; Friedrichs, Carl T.; Jaffe, B.E.; Foxgrover, A.C.

    2010-01-01

    Spatial trends in the shape of profiles of South San Francisco Bay (SSFB) tidal flats are examined using bathymetric and lidar data collected in 2004 and 2005. Eigenfunction analysis reveals a dominant mode of morphologic variability related to the degree of convexity or concavity in the cross-shore profileindicative of (i) depositional, tidally dominant or (ii) erosional, wave impacted conditions. Two contrasting areas of characteristic shapenorth or south of a constriction in estuary width located near the Dumbarton Bridgeare recognized. This pattern of increasing or decreasing convexity in the inner or outer estuary is correlated to spatial variability in external and internal environmental parameters, and observational results are found to be largely consistent with theoretical expectations. Tidal flat convexity in SSFB is observed to increase (in decreasing order of significance) in response to increased deposition, increased tidal range, decreased fetch length, decreased sediment grain size, and decreased tidal flat width. ?? 2010 Coastal Education and Research Foundation.

  10. Detection and identification of benthic communities and shoreline features in Biscayne Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolipinski, M. C.; Higer, A. L.

    1970-01-01

    Progress made in the development of a technique for identifying and delinating benthic and shoreline communities using multispectral imagery is described. Images were collected with a multispectral scanner system mounted in a C-47 aircraft. Concurrent with the overflight, ecological ground- and sea-truth information was collected at 19 sites in the bay and on the shore. Preliminary processing of the scanner imagery with a CDC 1604 digital computer provided the optimum channels for discernment among different underwater and coastal objects. Automatic mapping of the benthic plants by multiband imagery and the mapping of isotherms and hydrodynamic parameters by digital model can become an effective predictive ecological tool when coupled together. Using the two systems, it appears possible to predict conditions that could adversely affect the benthic communities. With the advent of the ERTS satellites and space platforms, imagery data could be obtained which, when used in conjunction with water-level and meteorological data, would provide for continuous ecological monitoring.

  11. The role of refinery flaring events and bay breezes on a high surface ozone episode during the Houston, Texas DISCOVER-AQ field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loughner, C.; Follette-Cook, M. B.; Fried, A.; Pickering, K. E.

    2015-12-01

    The highest observed surface ozone concentrations in the Houston metropolitan area in 2013 occurred on September 25, which coincided with the Texas DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality) field campaign. Surface ozone was elevated throughout the Houston metropolitan area with maximum 8-hour average ozone peaking along the western shore of Galveston Bay, reaching 124 ppbv, almost 50 ppbv above the current EPA standard of 75 ppbv. The NASA P-3B aircraft observed plumes from refinery flares west and northwest of Galveston Bay that were transported over the water. Continental air pollution from the north was transported into the Houston metropolitan area where it mixed with locally generated emissions. A bay breeze circulation formed causing pollutants that were transported out over the water in the morning to recirculate back inland where they mixed with freshly emitted pollution near the bay breeze convergence zone. The highest surface ozone concentrations were reported near the bay breeze front. This ozone episode will be presented using measurements made during the DISCOVER-AQ field campaign and a CMAQ model simulation with integrated source apportionment, which tracks the contribution of emissions source groups and regions on ozone concentrations.

  12. Observations and modelling of fast ice growth in the Tiksi Bay, Laptev Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogorodsky, Petr; Makshtas, Aleksandr; Grubiy, Andrey; Kustov, Vasiliy

    2016-04-01

    Fast ice is one of the main features of sea ice cover in the Laptev Sea. The formation of this immobile ice which occupies up to 30% of the sea area and significantly affects the intensity of air-sea energy exchange in the coastal zones had been investigated during winter 2014-2015 in the Tiksi Bay (Buor-Khaya Gulf). The temperature measurements within sea ice thickness and under-ice sea layer using GeoPrecision thermistor string of 10 sensors together with measurements of snow and ice thicknesses were carried out at the distance of 0.5 km from the shore at the 3.5 m water depth. According to measurements temperature variations qualitatively repeat air temperature variations and, damping with depth, approach to sea water freezing temperature. Vertical temperature distributions allow to recognize snow, ice and water layers by profile inclination in each layer. The temperature profiles within growing ice were quasi-linear, indicating permanence of heat flux inside ice. The linearity of temperature profiles increased during ice growth. For calculations of fast ice evolution one-dimensional thermodynamic model was used. Besides the empirical formulae, based on frost degree-days, developed in 1930th for the Tiksi Bay was applied. Numerical experiments were carried out with constant values of thermal properties of all media and 10 ppt water salinity, as initial condition. The daily average data from Hydrometeorological Observatory Tiksi, located approximately 1 km from the site of ice observations, were used as atmospheric forcing. For the examined area evolutions of ice cover thickness estimated from direct measurements, the thermodynamic model and the empirical formulae were almost identical. The result indicates stability of hydrological and meteorological conditions, determining fast ice growth in the Tiksi Bay during last 75 years. Model simulations showed that in shallow waters the growth of ice thickness is stabilized due to increase of sub-ice water layer

  13. 76 FR 54380 - Safety Zone; Suttons Bay Labor Day Fireworks, Suttons Bay, Grand Traverse Bay, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-01

    ... waters of Suttons Bay, in the vicinity of the Municipal Marina, within the arc of a circle with a 500ft... litigation, eliminate ambiguity, and reduce burden. Protection of Children We have analyzed this rule under Executive Order 13045, Protection of Children from Environmental Health Risks and Safety Risks. This rule...

  14. STS-90 payload bay door closure in OPF Bay 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The STS-90 Neurolab payload and two of the four Getaway Specials (GAS) await payload bay door closure in the orbiter Columbia today in Orbiter Processing Facility bay 3. Investigations during the Neurolab mission will focus on the effects of microgravity on the nervous system. The mission is a joint venture of six space agencies and seven U.S. research agencies. Investigator teams from nine countries will conduct 31 studies in the microgravity environment of space. Other agencies participating in this mission include six institutes of the National Institutes of Health, the National Science Foundation, and the Office of Naval Research, as well as the space agencies of Canada, France, Germany, and Japan, and the European Space Agency (ESA).

  15. STS-90 payload bay door closure in OPF Bay 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The STS-90 Neurolab payload and two of the four Getaway Specials (GAS) await payload bay door closure in the orbiter Columbia today in Orbiter Processing Facility bay 3. Investigations during the Neurolab mission will focus on the effects of microgravity on the nervous system. The GAS container on the left contains the COLLisions Into Dust Experiment, or COLLIDE, which will study low velocity collisions between space-borne particles in an attempt to better understand planetary ring dynamics. The STS-90 mission is a joint venture of six space agencies and seven U.S. research agencies. Agencies participating in this mission include six institutes of the National Institutes of Health, the National Science Foundation, and the Office of Naval Research, as well as the space agencies of Canada, France, Germany, and Japan, and the European Space Agency (ESA).

  16. Intertidal sand body migration along a megatidal coast, Kachemak Bay, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, P.N.; Ruggiero, P.; Schoch, G.C.; Gelfenbaum, G.

    2007-01-01

    Using a digital video-based Argus Beach Monitoring System (ABMS) on the north shore of Kachemak Bay in south central Alaska, we document the timing and magnitude of alongshore migration of intertidal sand bed forms over a cobble substrate during a 22-month observation period. Two separate sediment packages (sand bodies) of 1-2 m amplitude and ???200 m wavelength, consisting of well-sorted sand, were observed to travel along shore at annually averaged rates of 278 m/yr (0.76 m/d) and 250 m/ yr (0.68 m/d), respectively. Strong seasonality in migration rates was shown by the contrast of rapid winter and slow summer transport. Though set in a megatidal environment, data indicate that sand body migration is driven by eastward propagating wind waves as opposed to net westward directed tidal currents. Greatest weekly averaged rates of movement, exceeding 6 m/d, coincided with wave heights exceeding 2 m suggesting a correlation of wave height and sand body migration. Because Kachemak Bay is partially enclosed, waves responsible for sediment entrainment and transport are locally generated by winds that blow across lower Cook Inlet from the southwest, the direction of greatest fetch. Our estimates of sand body migration translate to a littoral transport rate between 4,400-6,300 m3/yr. Assuming an enclosed littoral cell, minimal riverine sediment contributions, and a sea cliff sedimentary fraction of 0.05, we estimate long-term local sea cliff retreat rates of 9-14 cm/yr. Applying a numerical model of wave energy dissipation to the temporally variable beach morphology suggests that sand bodies are responsible for enhancing wave energy dissipation by ???13% offering protection from sea cliff retreat. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.

  17. Evolution of Cross-Shore Profile Models for Sustainable Coastal Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, Nabil; El-Sayed, Mohamed

    2014-05-01

    Selection and evaluation of coastal structures are correlated with environmental wave and current parameters as well as cross shore profiles. The coupling between the environmental conditions and cross shore profiles necessitates the ability to predict reasonably the cross shore profiles. Results obtained from the validation of a cross-shore profile evolution model, Uniform Beach Sediment Transport-Time-Averaged Cross-Shore (UNIBEST-TC), were examined and further analyzed to reveal the reasons for the discrepancy between the model predictions of the field data at the surf zone of the Duck Beach in North Carolina, USA. The UNIBEST model was developed to predict the main cross shore parameters of wave height, direction, cross shore and long shore currents. However, the results of the model predictions are generally satisfactory for wave height and direction but not satisfactory for the remaining parameters. This research is focused on exploring the discrepancy between the model predictions and the field data of the Duck site, and conducting further analyses to recommend model refinements. The discrepancy is partially attributed due to the fact that the measured values, were taken close to the seabed, while the predicted values are the depth-averaged velocity. Further examination indicated that UNIBEST-TC model runs consider the RMS of the wave height spectrum with a constant gamma-value from the offshore wave spectrum at 8.0m depth. To confirm this argument, a Wavelet Analysis was applied to the time series of wave height and longshore current velocity parameters at the Duck site. The significant wave height ranged between 0.6m and 4.0m while the frequencies ranged between 0.08 to 0.2Hz at 8.0m water depth. Four cases corresponding to events of both high water level and low water level at Duck site were considered in this study. The results show that linear and non-linear interaction between wave height and long-shore current occur over the range of frequencies

  18. Marine predator surveys in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bodkin, James L.; Kloecker, Kimberly A.; Coletti, Heather A.; Esslinger, George G.; Monson, Daniel H.; Ballachey, Brenda E.

    2002-01-01

    Since 1999, vessel based surveys to estimate species composition, distribution and relative abundance of marine birds and mammals have been conducted along coastal and pelagic (offshore) transects in Glacier Bay, Alaska. Surveys have been conducted during winter (November-March) and summer (June). This annual report presents the results of those surveys conducted in March and June of 2001. Following completion of surveys in 2002 we will provide a final report of the results of all surveys conducted between 1999 and 2002. Glacier Bay supports diverse and abundant assemblages of marine birds and mammals. In 2001 we identified 58 species of bird, 7 species of marine mammal, and 6 species of terrestrial mammal on transects sampled during winter and summer. Of course all species are not equally abundant. Among all taxa, in both seasons, sea ducks were the numerically dominant group. In their roles as consumers and because of their generally large size, marine mammals are also likely important in the consumption of energy produced in the Glacier Bay ecosystem. Most common and abundant marine birds and mammals can be placed in either a fish based (e.g. alcids and pinnipeds), or a benthic invertebrate (e.g. sea ducks and sea otters) based food web. Distinct differences in the species composition and abundance of marine birds were observed between winter and summer surveys. Winter marine bird assemblages were dominated numerically (> 11,000; 65% of all birds) by a relatively few species of sea ducks (scoters, goldeneye, Bufflehead, Harlequin and Long-tailed ducks). The sea ducks were distributed almost exclusively along near shore habitats. The prevalence of sea ducks during the March surveys indicates the importance of Glacier Bay as a wintering area for this poorly understood group of animals that occupy a high trophic position in a principally benthic invertebrate (mussel and clam) food web. Marine mammal assemblages were generally consistent between seasons, although

  19. Preliminary description of a Miocene zone of structural complexity, Port Moller and Stepovak Bay quadrangles, Alaska: A section in The United States Geological Survey in Alaska: Accomplishments during 1983

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Frederic H.; Case, James E.; Detterman, Robert L.

    1985-01-01

    A zone of structural disruption and complexity along the Pacific coast margin of the Alaska Peninsula (fig. 41) may be related to the Alaska Peninsula and the Chugach terrane boundary. The best exposure of this zone is located on the east shore of Humpback Bay (figs. 42, 43; also Burk, 1965, pl. 8, fig. 4); other exposures are located on the east side of Ivanof Bay, the north and south sides of Lefthand Bay, and in other coastal localities in the area. In some places, such as on the Kupreanof Peninsula, it is not recognized. This zone may extend discontinuously for 110-160 km along the coast; the width of the zone varies from 0.5 to 1 km. Our current data and tentative interpretations are described here, pending completion of additional field research, laboratory, and office studies.

  20. Analysis of survey data on the chemistry of twenty-three streams in the Chesapeake Bay watershed: some implications of the impact of acid deposition. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Janicki, A.; Cummins, R.

    1983-12-01

    A survey of the chemistry of 23 streams within the Chesapeake Bay watershed was conducted in the spring of 1983 to determine whether a potential for changes in water chemistry due to atmospheric inputs of acidic materials exists in any of these streams. Sampling was conducted weekly through the months of March and April. Three streams were identified as being likely affected by acid inputs due to relatively high H(+) and SO4(-2) concentrations and low alkalinities: Stockett's Run, Lyons Creek, and Muddy Creek. Elevated dissolved aluminum concentrations were observed in some Eastern Shore streams and are likely related to the predominance of clay soils in their watersheds.

  1. Data on polychlorinated biphenyls, dieldrin, lead, and cadmium in Wisconsin and Upper Michigan tributaries to Green Bay, July 1987 through April 1988

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    House, L.B.

    1990-01-01

    Neither dieldrin nor cadmium was detected in any of the sampled tributaries. Detectable concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls and lead were found at only three sites. Polychorinated biphenyls (0.10 microgram per gram) and lead (10 milligrams per kilogram) were found in the bottom sediment of Duck Creek, a western-shore tributary near the city of Green Bay. Lead (10 milligrams per kilogram) also was found in the bottom sediment of the Suamico River near the mouth, about 5 miles north of Duck Creek. Lead (4 micrograms per liter) was detected in a spring-runoff sample from the Fishdam River, a tributary from upper Michigan.

  2. [Characteristics of Pahs pollution in sediments from Leizhou coastal marine area, Liusha Bay and Shenzhen Bay].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Li-Rong; Sun, Sheng-Li; Ke, Sheng

    2012-04-01

    Leizhou coastal marine area, Liusha Bay and Shenzhen Bay represented open coastal area and half-closed bay, respectively. This study discussed the differences of PAHs concentration levels, spatial distribution and sources in sediments from these three marine areas. The results showed that detected ratios of 15 PAHs were 100%, and major compounds were 3-ring and 4-ring PAHs, especialy Phe, Fla, Pry and Bbf; Sigma PAHs concentration was Leizhou < Shenzhen < Liusha. In spatial distribution, PAHs concentrations were the east < the south < the west in Leizhou; the inside > the outside, and the aquaculture > the non-aquaculture in Liusha Bay and Shenzhen Bay. It suggested that large-scale mariculture inside bay played an important role in PAHs pollution and might make it serious. Oil, fossil fuels and biomass burning were the dominant sources of PAHs in sediments from Leizhou coastal area, Liusha Bay and Shenzhen Bay.

  3. 75 FR 73121 - Bandon Marsh, Nestucca Bay, and Siletz Bay National Wildlife Refuges, Coos, Tillamook, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-29

    ..., Tillamook, and Lincoln Counties, OR; Comprehensive Conservation Plan and Environmental Assessment AGENCY... prepare a comprehensive conservation plan (CCP) for the Bandon Marsh, Nestucca Bay, and Siletz Bay... with sound principles of fish and wildlife management, conservation, legal mandates, and our...

  4. The Chesapeake Bay impact structure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powars, David S.; Edwards, Lucy E.; Gohn, Gregory S.; Horton, Jr., J. Wright

    2015-10-28

    About 35 million years ago, during late Eocene time, a 2-mile-wide asteroid or comet smashed into Earth in what is now the lower Chesapeake Bay in Virginia. The oceanic impact vaporized, melted, fractured, and (or) displaced the target rocks and sediments and sent billions of tons of water, sediments, and rocks into the air. Glassy particles of solidified melt rock rained down as far away as Texas and the Caribbean. Models suggest that even up to 50 miles away the velocity of the intensely hot air blast was greater than 1,500 miles per hour, and ground shaking was equivalent to an earthquake greater than magnitude 8.0 on the Richter scale. Large tsunamis affected most of the North Atlantic basin. The Chesapeake Bay impact structure is among the 20 largest known impact structures on Earth.

  5. Interactions Between the Cross-Shore Structure of Small Pelagic Fish Population, Offshore Industrial Fisheries and Near Shore Artisanal Fisheries: A Mathematical Approach.

    PubMed

    Mchich, Rachid; Brochier, Timothée; Auger, Pierre; Brehmer, Patrice

    2016-12-01

    This work presents a mathematical model describing the interactions between the cross-shore structure of small pelagic fish population an their exploitation by coastal and offshore fisheries. The complete model is a system of seven ODE's governing three stocks of small pelagic fish population moving and growing between three zones. Two types of fishing fleets are inter-acting with the fish population, industrial boats, constrained to offshore area, and artisanal boats, operating from the shore. Two time scales were considered and we use aggregation methods that allow us to reduce the dimension of the model and to obtain an aggregated model, which is a four dimension one. The analysis of the aggregated model is performed. We discuss the possible equilibriums and their meaning in terms of fishery management. An interesting equilibrium state can be obtained for which we can expect coexistence and a stable equilibrium state between fish stocks and fishing efforts. Some identification parameters are also given in the discussion part of the model.

  6. Bayes' theorem in paleopathological diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Byers, Steven N; Roberts, Charlotte A

    2003-05-01

    The utility of Bayes' theorem in paleopathological diagnoses is explored. Since this theorem has been used heavily by modern clinical medicine, its usefulness in that field is described first. Next, the mechanics of the theorem are discussed, along with methods for deriving the prior probabilities needed for its application. Following this, the sources of these prior probabilities and their accompanying problems in paleopathology are considered. Finally, an application using prehistoric rib lesions is presented to demonstrate the utility of this method to paleopathology.

  7. The sediment load and deposition by river discharge and their relation to organochlorine pesticides pollutants in the sediment bottom of Nha Trang Bay, Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Hoang Trung; Kunzmann, Andreas

    2015-06-01

    Based on previous results from the "River reef impact studies project that was carried out as a co-operation programme between ZMT (Germany) and NIO (Vietnam) from 2008-2012, the variation of sediment load and associated persistent organic pollutants were investigated in Nha Trang Bay. In northern parts of the bay, both suspended matter load and deposition rates are high during the rainy season (flood events). The total suspended matter (TSM) and particulate nitrogen (PN) concentration show variations both with season (dry and rainy seasons) and increasing distances from the coast: TSM ranged from 2.30 to 19.79 mgL-1; and PN concentration ranged from 0.006 to 0.055 mgL-1. High deposition rates occurred both near the shore and in mid-bay, ranging from 12.8 to 36.1 g m-2 d-1. In the southern section of the bay, sediment deposition was slightly lower, with little seasonal variation. The highest deposition rate was measured at the river estuarine site, amounting to 9.1 g m-2 d-1 (dry season) and 9.0 g m-2 d-1 (rainy season). Further, persistent organic pollutants (POP) concentrations in sediment samples and sediment cores clearly showed the presence of organo-chlorine pesticides (OCP pollutant). High accumulation levels of OCP components were found in almost all sediment samples of Nha Trang Bay. The DDT concentrations showed high levels in sediment located in the estuary at the northern part of the bay (ranged: 20.11µg kg-1 to 5.28µg kg-1), and in the southern part (B1) 3.76µg kg-1. This study provides essential data and information, which are needed to assess the long-term impacts of river input on the degradation of marine ecosystems in the coastal waters of Nha Trang Bay.

  8. Terra Nova Bay Polynya, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    In Terra Nova Bay, off the Scott Coast of Victoria Land, Antarctica, a large pocket of open water persists throughout most of the Southern Hemisphere winter, even while most of the rest of the Antarctic coastline is firmly embraced by the frozen Southern Ocean. This pocket of open water--a polynya--results from exceptionally strong winds that blow downslope from the Trans-Antarctic Mountains. These fierce katabatic winds drive the sea ice eastward. Since the dominant ice drift pattern in the area is northward, the Drygalski Ice Tongue prevents the bay from being re-populated with sea ice. This image of the Terra Nova Bay polynya was captured by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Aqua satellite on October 16, 2007. Sea ice sits over the Ross Sea like a cracked and crumbling windshield. Blue-tinged glaciers flow down from the Trans-Antarctic Mountains. Although glaciers can appear blue because of melt water, they can also get that tint when the wind scours and polishes the ice surface. Given the strength of the katabatic winds along this part of the Antarctic coast, it is likely that the blue color of these glaciers is a result of their having been swept clean of snow. The large image has a spatial resolution (level of detail) of 250 meters per pixel.

  9. Lithospheric architecture beneath Hudson Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porritt, Robert W.; Miller, Meghan S.; Darbyshire, Fiona A.

    2015-07-01

    Hudson Bay overlies some of the thickest Precambrian lithosphere on Earth, whose internal structures contain important clues to the earliest workings of plate formation. The terminal collision, the Trans-Hudson Orogen, brought together the Western Churchill craton to the northwest and the Superior craton to the southeast. These two Archean cratons along with the Paleo-Proterozoic Trans-Hudson internides, form the core of the North American craton. We use S to P converted wave imaging and absolute shear velocity information from a joint inversion of P to S receiver functions, new ambient noise derived phase velocities, and teleseismic phase velocities to investigate this region and determine both the thickness of the lithosphere and the presence of internal discontinuities. The lithosphere under central Hudson Bay approaches ˜350 km thick but is thinner (˜200-250 km) around the periphery of the Bay. Furthermore, the amplitude of the LAB conversion from the S receiver functions is unusually large for a craton, suggesting a large thermal contrast across the LAB, which we interpret as direct evidence of the thermal insulation effect of continents on the asthenosphere. Within the lithosphere, midlithospheric discontinuities, significantly shallower than the base of the lithosphere, are often imaged, suggesting the mechanisms that form these layers are common. Lacking time-history information, we infer that these discontinuities reflect reactivation of formation structures during deformation of the craton.

  10. Lithospheric Architecture Beneath Hudson Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porritt, R. W.; Miller, M. S.; Darbyshire, F. A.

    2015-12-01

    Hudson Bay overlies some of the thickest Precambrian lithosphere on Earth, whose internal structures contain important clues to the earliest workings of plate formation. The terminal collision, the Trans-Hudson Orogen, brought together the Western Churchill craton to the northwest and the Superior craton to the southeast. These two Archean cratons along with the Paleo-Proterozoic Trans-Hudson internides, form the core of the North American craton. We use S to P converted wave imaging and absolute shear velocity information from a joint inversion of P to S receiver functions, new ambient noise derived phase velocities, and teleseismic phase velocities to investigate this region and determine both the thickness of the lithosphere and the presence of internal discontinuities. The lithosphere under central Hudson Bay approaches 􏰂350 km thick but is thinner (􏰂200-250 km) around the periphery of the Bay. Furthermore, the amplitude of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) conversion from the S receiver functions is unusually large for a craton, suggesting a large thermal contrast across the LAB, which we interpret as direct evidence of the thermal insulation effect of continents on the asthenosphere. Within the lithosphere, midlithospheric discontinuities, significantly shallower than the base of the lithosphere, are often imaged, suggesting the mechanisms that form these layers are common. Lacking time-history information, we infer that these discontinuities reflect reactivation of formation structures during deformation of the craton.

  11. Linear dimension reduction and Bayes classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decell, H. P., Jr.; Odell, P. L.; Coberly, W. A.

    1978-01-01

    An explicit expression for a compression matrix T of smallest possible left dimension K consistent with preserving the n variate normal Bayes assignment of X to a given one of a finite number of populations and the K variate Bayes assignment of TX to that population was developed. The Bayes population assignment of X and TX were shown to be equivalent for a compression matrix T explicitly calculated as a function of the means and covariances of the given populations.

  12. San Francisco and Bay Area, CA, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Although clouds obscure part of the city of San Francisco and the mouth of the Bay (37.5N, 122.0W), many cultural and natural features in the immediate vicinity are obvious. The Bay Bridge which was damaged in the 1989 earthquake, Candlestick Park, San Mateo and Dumbarton Bridges as well as the various colored settling ponds rimming the south end of the Bay, the San Andreas and Calaveras faults and many of the major highways can be seen.

  13. Beach nourishment alternative assessment to constrain cross-shore and longshore sediment transport

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karasu, Servet; Work, Paul; Uzlu, Ergun; Kankal, Murat; Yuksek, Omer

    2016-01-01

    A combined field and laboratory investigation was conducted to assess five options for creation of a recreational beach on a steep, armored shoreline on the eastern Black Sea coast. All designs incorporated a beach nourishment project placed between two existing, shore-normal, rubble-mound groins. Alternatives included the placement of a nearshore berm, longshore extensions added to the existing groins, and shore-parallel breakwaters. Several alternatives are reviewed for quantifying the performance of each design, including assessment of the change in shoreline position and project volume retained between the groins. Dimensionless benefits and benefit-cost ratios are quantified, and recommendations made on how to select the best outcome from a benefit-to-cost standpoint when options including hard structures are incorporated into a beach nourishment project design.

  14. LANDSAT survey of near-shore ice conditions along the Arctic coast of Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stringer, W. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. On the basis of analysis of late winter 1973, 1974, and 1975 LANDSAT imagery of the Beaufort Sea coast of Alaska, the following conclusions regarding near-shore ice conditions were made: (1) by March, the seaward limit of contiguous ice is often beyond the 10 fathom contour. (2) During March, shearing can and does take place along a line roughly coincident with the 10 fathom contour. (3) Ice motions during these shearing events are not extremely great, generally on the order of 10 km. (4) Many large ice features have already been formed by late February. (5) Based on look-ahead at later LANDSAT imagery, it seems apparent that Beaufort Seas shore-fast ice was already formed by late February and may well be safe for exploratory activities from this data forward until the melt season.

  15. Software interface and data acquisition package for the LakeShore cryogenics vibrating sample magnetometer

    SciTech Connect

    O`Dell, B.H.

    1995-11-01

    A software package was developed to replace the software provided by LakeShore for their model 7300 vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). Several problems with the original software`s functionality caused this group to seek a new software package. The new software utilizes many features that were unsupported in the LakeShore software, including a more functional step mode, point averaging mode, vector moment measurements, and calibration for field offset. The developed software interfaces the VSM through a menu driven graphical user interface, and bypasses the VSM`s on board processor leaving control of the VSM up to the software. The source code for this software is readily available to any one. By having the source, the experimentalist has full control of data acquisition and can add routines specific to their experiment.

  16. RUSICA initial implementations: Simulation results of sandy shore evolution in Porto Cesareo, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calidonna, Claudia Roberta; Di Gregorio, Salvatore; Gullace, Francesco; Gullı, Daniel; Lupiano, Valeria

    2016-06-01

    Beach recession is spreading in Mediterranean by effects of climatic change. RUSICA is a Cellular Automata model, that is in developing phase for simulating such a complex phenomenon, considering its main mechanisms: loose particles (sand, gravel, silt, clay, etc.) mobilization, suspension, deposit and transport, triggered by waves and currents. A simplified version of the model was implemented and applied to data, related to the sandy shore of Torre Lapillo (Porto Cesareo, Italy), in August 2010, where shore evolution was monitored, even if data quality and quantity aren't ideal in order to feed RUSICA. Simulations of different scenarios of stormy sea in that area evidenced the adequate performance of the model in capturing the main emergent features of the phenomenon in despite of the simplified approach.

  17. Downwearing rates on shore platforms and rocky coast evolution- bioerosion contribute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moura, Delminda; Gabriel, Selma; Ramos Pereira, Ana; Neves, Mário; Trindade, Jorge; Gamito, Sofia; Santos, Rui; Mafalda Tavares, Ana; Berecibar, Estibaliz; Luísa Martins, Ana

    2010-05-01

    Carbonate rocks are extremely vulnerable to biochemical weathering and, consequently carbonate shores are morphologically complex. Living organisms on hard substrates develop specialized strategies to construct its domicile, to dislodge and to compete by space and food with other species. Those strategies include mechanical and chemical processes, among them, substrate boring, etching, cementation and dissolution (e.g.,Trudgill, 1988; Andrews and Williams, 2000; Bromley and Heinberg, 2006). Shore platforms represent available areas to be biocolonized and, the role of biochemical processes have been emphasizes as important mechanisms on platform genesis (e.g., Stephenson and Kirk, 2000). The current work aims to quantify the role of biological activity in carbonate rocky coast evolution at the centre Algarve (south Portugal). In this area, cliffs expose Miocene carbonate rocks composed by calcarenites and carbonate siltstones. Two coastal sectors with different exposure to waves were monitored: (i) Galé, a well exposed sector to dominant waves from SW and, (ii) Olhos de Água in a sheltered position exposing softer rocks than in Galé. Shore platforms survey and cross-shore topography profiles were done by using a Differential Global Position System (DGPS). Macroalgae and macrozoobenthos colonizing shore platform in both sites (Galé and Olhos de Água) were sampled and identified and, density and species richness was quantified. Three stations in Galé and two more in Olhos de Água where chosen to downwearing measurements. Each station was divided in two half portions: (i) control area, (ii) area to be monitored. In the later one, rock was maintained bared by monthly adding H2O2 to kill organisms. Downwearing rates on bare rock were measured by using a Transverse Microerosion Meter (TMEM) along sixteen months. The control area was measured at the begin of the experience and after sixteen months during which was naturally biocolonized. In addition, density of

  18. Design of the near shore seawater systems for an OTEC expanded test facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genens, L.; Stevens, H.

    1984-03-01

    The preparation of a design for expanded test facilities at the seacoast test facility site, Keahole Point, Hawaii is outlined, the design of the near shore/on shore seawater system is emphasized. The seawater systems consist of a warm water supply, a cold water supply, a mixed discharge, and a land based pumping station. Test facilities are planned that will utilize this thermal energy resource. This resource consists nominally of 1600 kg/s of cold water and 4200 kg/s of warm surface water, which will be used to support heat exchanger and system tests and, with a turbine added, could produce a net power for the validation of closed and open cycle models.

  19. The subtidal morphology of microtidal shore platforms and its implication for wave dynamics on rocky coasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, David M.

    2016-09-01

    The subtidal portions of shore platforms are important geomorphic features as they can modify deep-water wave energy before it impacts the intertidal platform edge. In this study an integrated marine and terrestrial aerial LiDAR dataset is used to analyse the morphology of the subtidal portion of shore platforms. Semi-horizontal intertidal platforms on an 85 km along stretch of microtidal, open-ocean, rocky coast in Victoria, Australia are investigated and described quantitatively. Three distinct types of subtidal morphology occur; (i) a steep cliff with a mean slope of 8-18°, (ii) a gently sloping ramp with a mean slope of < 3°, and (iii) a subtidal terrace/reef. It is inferred that the type of subtidal morphology present on a platform will determine the relative impact of marine and subaerial processes in the intertidal and supratidal zones.

  20. 78 FR 38580 - Special Local Regulation; Tall Ships Celebration Bay City, Bay City, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-27

    ... City, Bay City, MI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is... regulatory act for the celebration specific to Bay City, MI, the Coast Guard recently published a separate... various events throughout the Great Lakes this summer, to include the Tall Ships Celebration Bay...

  1. 78 FR 45061 - Safety Zone; Sister Bay Marina Fest Fireworks and Ski Show, Sister Bay, WI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Sister Bay Marina Fest Fireworks and Ski... intended to restrict vessels from a portion of Sister Bay due to a fireworks display and ski show. This... with the fireworks display and ski show in Sister Bay on August 31, 2013. DATES: This rule is...

  2. 77 FR 44140 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Sturgeon Bay, WI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-27

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 RIN 1625-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal... drawbridge operating schedule for the Maple-Oregon and Michigan Street Bridges across the Sturgeon Bay Ship... drawbridges over Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, including the two previously mentioned bridges as well as...

  3. 78 FR 46813 - Safety Zone; Evening on the Bay Fireworks; Sturgeon Bay, WI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Evening on the Bay Fireworks; Sturgeon Bay... of Sturgeon Bay due to a fireworks display. This temporary safety zone is necessary to protect the surrounding public and vessels from the hazards associated with the fireworks display. DATES: This rule...

  4. 76 FR 38020 - Safety Zone; Bay Point Fireworks, Bay Point Marina; Marblehead, OH

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Bay Point Fireworks, Bay Point Marina.... This Zone is intended to restrict vessels from portions of Lake Erie for the Bay Point Fireworks. This... fireworks displays. DATES: This regulation is effective from 10 p.m. on July 2, 2011 through 10:20 p.m....

  5. Real World: NASA and the Chesapeake Bay

    NASA Video Gallery

    Learn how NASA uses Earth observing satellites to monitor conditions in the Chesapeake Bay over time. Information about pollution, eutrophication, land cover and watershed runoff helps water manage...

  6. Role of remote sensing in Bay measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mugler, J. P., Jr.; Godfrey, J. P.; Hickman, G. D.; Hovis, W. G.; Pearson, A. O.; Weaver, K. N.

    1978-01-01

    Remote measurements of a number of surface or near surface parameters for baseline definition and specialized studies, remote measurements of episodic events, and remote measurements of the Bay lithosphere are considered in terms of characterizing and understanding the ecology of the Chesapeake Bay. Geologic processes and features best suited for information enhancement by remote sensing methods are identified. These include: (1) rates of sedimentation in the Bay; (2) rates of erosion of Bay shorelines; (3) spatial distribution and geometry of aquifers; (4) mapping of Karst terrain (sinkholes); and (5) mapping of fracture patterns. Recommendations for studying problem areas identified are given.

  7. Development of bank gullies on the shore zone of the Bratsk Reservoir (Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazaeva, Oksana; Pelinen, Vadim; Janicki, Grzegorz

    2014-06-01

    Erosional landforms of the gully type include among others V-shaped dissections in high shores of water bodies or steep slopes of large river valleys in various morphoclimatic zones (Drozdowski 1977; Gawrysiak 1994; Burkard, Kostaschuk 1997; Smolska 2007; Leyland, Darby 2008; Superson, Zagórski 2008; Repelewska-Pękalowa et al. 2013). Such erosional dissections, known as bank gullies, develop as a result of concentrated overland flow caused by intensive precipitation or snowmelt. They are usually ephemeral landforms reaching insignificant sizes in natural conditions. They can exceptionally develop during one event and as a result of increased rate of erosion caused by agricultural activities (Rodzik et. al. 2004, 2011; Rodzik, Terpiłowski 2005). An accelerated development of bank gullies is also observed in the zone of artificial dam reservoirs (Pecherkin 1969; Ovchinnikov et al. 1999). In the area of the Kamsk Reservoir, an increase in the volume of gullies developed in loess-like sediments is 2-3 times higher than shore degradation by abrasion processes (Pecherkin 1969). Gully erosion is also an important source of material deposited in the slope zone and in water bodies (Vandekerckhove et al. 2001; Poesen et al. 2003; Foster et al. 2007). The high number and various stages of development of bank gullies dissecting the southern shores of the Bratsk Reservoir encouraged undertaking studies on the rate of development and evolution of these landforms (Ovchinnikov et al. 1999; Mazaeva et al. 2006, 2014; Grobelska et al. 2007; Kaczmarek et al. 2012). High seasonal and annual water level fluctuations in dam reservoirs provide conditions for development of the described gully landforms substantially different than those occurring in the zone of marine shores, lakes, or river valleys. The primary objective of the study was the determination of the current conditions and the identification of factors responsible for the development of gullies in the coastal zone of the

  8. Long integral temperature Brillouin sensor for off- shore wind energy power supply lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quintela, M. A.; Ullán, A.; Quintela, A.; Galindez, C.; Perez-Herrera, R. A.; López-Amo, M.; Lopez-Higuera, J. M.

    2011-05-01

    A hybrid Erbium-Brillouin fiber laser sensor to measure the temperature along 22 km fiber is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. A multi-line laser oscillation is induced by the Brillouin gain of different concatenated transducer fiber sections placed in the ring cavity. Integral temperature measurements of each fiber section are obtained through each laser line. This sensor can be used to monitor the temperature of off-shore wind energy power cables.

  9. Remote influence of off-shore fish farm waste on Mediterranean seagrass (Posidonia oceanica) meadows.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, J M; Marco-Méndez, C; Sánchez-Lizaso, J L

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study was estimating the remote influence of waste dispersed from a large off-shore fish farm complex (6197 ton year(-1)) on the near-shore Posidonia oceanica meadow (26-27 m deep) located at a distance of 3 km. Measurements of isotopic nitrogen content in epiphytes and seagrass leaf tissues, epiphyte biomass, shoot size, herbivory pressure, shoot density and seagrass meadow cover, performed in this meadow (FA area) were compared with those obtained in an undisturbed control meadow (CA area) to evaluate: (1) the remote influence of waste and (2) the impact of such influence on seagrass condition. In addition, delta(15)N measurements in particulate organic matter of natural and anthropogenic origin were used in a single-isotope mixing model to elucidate the relative contributions of these sources to the isotopic N signal measured in epiphytes and leaf tissues. Total tissue N content was similar between meadow areas, but delta(15)N signatures were significantly higher in the FA area than in the CA area both in epiphytes and seagrass leaf tissues. Results from the mixing model, together with available information on local currents and previous studies, support the conclusion that the dispersion of farm wastes over large areas (spanning kilometres) are responsible for the elevated delta(15)N signatures found in the FA meadow area. Despite this, no changes in meadow structure were detected and only some changes at the level of seagrass community (epiphytes abundances and herbivores activity) could be interpreted at the light of nutrient-induced effects in the FA area. Results from this study indicate that concentrating aquaculture facilities in off-shore areas is a strategy not totally exempt of environmental risk on near-shore sensitive habitats such as seagrass meadows.

  10. Sediment Budget for the Indiana Shore from Michigan City Harbor to Burns Waterway Harbor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    Engineer District, Chicago 111 N Canal Suite 600 Chicago, IL 60606 ERDC/CHL TR-12-17 ii Abstract Net sediment transport in the littoral cell...being filled with sand. The shoreline shows some additional trapping east of the NIPSCO BGS outfall canal and minor loss between the cross-shore...at Waukegan, Great Lakes, Wilmette, and Chicago in Illinois and Indiana Harbor and Ship Canal in East Chicago, Indiana, almost totally interrupted

  11. The shore fishes of the Trindade-Martin Vaz insular complex: an update.

    PubMed

    Simon, T; Macieira, R M; Joyeux, J-C

    2013-06-01

    A compilation of historical and recent collections and observations of shore fishes yielded 154 recorded species for Trindade and 67 for Martin Vaz. Twelve taxa, mostly small cryptobenthic species with limited dispersal capabilities and low ecological amplitude, are endemic to this insular complex. In several cases, the seamounts of the Vitória-Trindade Chain appear to have acted as stepping stones between the mainland and islands in periods of low sea level.

  12. Investigations of Wind Shear Distribution on the Baltic Shore of Latvia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezrukovs, V.; Zacepins, A.; Bezrukovs, Vl.; Komashilovs, V.

    2016-06-01

    The paper presents a review of wind parameter measurement complexes and investigation methods used for potential wind energy evaluation. Based on results of long-term investigations of wind shear distribution regularities are shown up to 160 m height on the Baltic Sea shore. Distribution of potential wind energy in Latvia is shown as a map and table of average and average cubic wind speed values. Database of wind parameter measurements is available at a public website.

  13. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in San Francisco Bay.

    PubMed

    Davis, J A; Hetzel, F; Oram, J J; McKee, L J

    2007-09-01

    San Francisco Bay is facing a legacy of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) spread widely across the land surface of the watershed, mixed deep into the sediment of the Bay, and contaminating the Bay food web to a degree that poses health risks to humans and wildlife. In response to this persistent problem, water quality managers are establishing a PCB total maximum daily load (TMDL) and implementation plan to accelerate the recovery of the Bay from decades of PCB contamination. This article provides a review of progress made over the past 15 years in managing PCBs and understanding their sources, pathways, fate, and effects in the Bay, and highlights remaining information needs that should be addressed in the next 10 years. The phaseout of PCBs during the 1970s and the 1979 federal ban on sale and production led to gradual declines from the 1970s to the present. However, 25 years after the ban, PCB concentrations in some Bay sport fish today are still more than ten times higher than the threshold of concern for human health. Without further management action it appears that the general recovery of the Bay from PCB contamination will take many more decades. PCB concentrations in sport fish were, along with mercury, a primary cause of a consumption advisory for the Bay and the consequent classification of the Bay as an impaired water body. Several sources of information indicate that PCB concentrations in the Bay may also be high enough to adversely affect wildlife, including rare and endangered species. The greater than 90% reduction in food web contamination needed to meet the targets for protection of human health would likely also generally eliminate risks to wildlife. PCB contamination in the Bay is primarily associated with industrial areas along the shoreline and in local watersheds. Strong spatial gradients in PCB concentrations persist decades after the release of these chemicals to Bay Area waterways. Through the TMDL process, attention is being more sharply

  14. Validation of MODIS FLH and In Situ Chlorophyll a from Tampa Bay, Florida (USA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, Andrew; MorenoMadrinan, Max J.

    2012-01-01

    Satellite observation of phytoplankton concentration or chlorophyll-a (chla) is an important characteristic, critically integral to monitoring coastal water quality. However, the optical properties of estuarine and coastal waters are highly variable and complex and pose a great challenge for accurate analysis. Constituents such as suspended solids and dissolved organic matter and the overlapping and uncorrelated absorptions in the blue region of the spectrum renders the blue-green ratio algorithms for estimating chl-a inaccurate. Measurement of suninduced chlorophyll fluorescence, on the other hand, which utilizes the near infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum may, provide a better estimate of phytoplankton concentrations. While modelling and laboratory studies have illustrated both the utility and limitations of satellite algorithms based on the sun induced chlorophyll fluorescence signal, few have examined the empirical validity of these algorithms or compared their accuracy against bluegreen ratio algorithms . In an unprecedented analysis using a long term (2003-2011) in situ monitoring data set from Tampa Bay, Florida (USA), we assess the validity of the FLH product from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer against a suite of water quality parameters taken in a variety of conditions throughout this large optically complex estuarine system. . Overall, the results show a 106% increase in the validity of chla concentration estimation using FLH over the standard chla estimate from the blue-green OC3M algorithm. Additionally, a systematic analysis of sampling sites throughout the bay is undertaken to understand how the FLH product responds to varying conditions in the estuary and correlations are conducted to see how the relationships between satellite FLH and in situ chlorophyll-a change with depth, distance from shore, from structures like bridges, and nutrient concentrations and turbidity. Such analysis illustrates that the correlations between

  15. The role of macrobiota in structuring microbial communities along rocky shores

    SciTech Connect

    Pfister, Catherine A.; Gilbert, Jack A.; Gibbons, Sean M.

    2014-10-16

    Rocky shore microbial diversity presents an excellent system to test for microbial habitat specificity or generality, enabling us to decipher how common macrobiota shape microbial community structure. At two coastal locations in the northeast Pacific Ocean, we show that microbial composition was significantly different between inert surfaces, the biogenic surfaces that included rocky shore animals and an alga, and the water column plankton. While all sampled entities had a core of common OTUs, rare OTUs drove differences among biotic and abiotic substrates. For the mussel Mytilus californianus, the shell surface harbored greater alpha diversity compared to internal tissues of the gill and siphon. Strikingly, a 7-year experimental removal of this mussel from tidepools did not significantly alter the microbial community structure of microbes associated with inert surfaces when compared with unmanipulated tidepools. However, bacterial taxa associated with nitrate reduction had greater relative abundance with mussels present, suggesting an impact of increased animal-derived nitrogen on a subset of microbial metabolism. Because the presence of mussels did not affect the structure and diversity of the microbial community on adjacent inert substrates, microbes in this rocky shore environment may be predominantly affected through direct physical association with macrobiota.

  16. Habitat Discontinuities Separate Genetically Divergent Populations of a Rocky Shore Marine Fish

    PubMed Central

    Knutsen, Halvor; Jorde, Per Erik

    2016-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation has been suggested to be responsible for major genetic differentiations in a range of marine organisms. In this study, we combined genetic data and environmental information to unravel the relative role of geography and habitat heterogeneity on patterns of genetic population structure of corkwing wrasse (Symphodus melops), a rocky shore species at the northern limit of its distribution range in Scandinavia. Our results revealed a major genetic break separating populations inhabiting the western and southern coasts of Norway. This genetic break coincides with the longest stretch of sand in the whole study area, suggesting habitat fragmentation as a major driver of genetic differentiation of this obligate rocky shore benthic fish in Scandinavia. The complex fjords systems extending along the western coast of Norway appeared responsible for further regional genetic structuring. Our findings indicate that habitat discontinuities may lead to significant genetic fragmentation over short geographical distances, even for marine species with a pelagic larval phase, as for this rocky shore fish. PMID:27706178

  17. The role of macrobiota in structuring microbial communities along rocky shores

    DOE PAGES

    Pfister, Catherine A.; Gilbert, Jack A.; Gibbons, Sean M.

    2014-10-16

    Rocky shore microbial diversity presents an excellent system to test for microbial habitat specificity or generality, enabling us to decipher how common macrobiota shape microbial community structure. At two coastal locations in the northeast Pacific Ocean, we show that microbial composition was significantly different between inert surfaces, the biogenic surfaces that included rocky shore animals and an alga, and the water column plankton. While all sampled entities had a core of common OTUs, rare OTUs drove differences among biotic and abiotic substrates. For the mussel Mytilus californianus, the shell surface harbored greater alpha diversity compared to internal tissues of themore » gill and siphon. Strikingly, a 7-year experimental removal of this mussel from tidepools did not significantly alter the microbial community structure of microbes associated with inert surfaces when compared with unmanipulated tidepools. However, bacterial taxa associated with nitrate reduction had greater relative abundance with mussels present, suggesting an impact of increased animal-derived nitrogen on a subset of microbial metabolism. Because the presence of mussels did not affect the structure and diversity of the microbial community on adjacent inert substrates, microbes in this rocky shore environment may be predominantly affected through direct physical association with macrobiota.« less

  18. Notes on the Incorporation of Third World Women into Wage-Labor Through Immigration and Off-Shore Production.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sassen-Koob, Saskia

    1984-01-01

    Immigration and off-shore production have evolved into mechanisms for the massive incorporation of Third World women into wage-labor. There is a systemic relation between this globalization and feminization of wage labor. (KH)

  19. 1. Aerial view, looking northeast up Newark Bay, showing entire ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Aerial view, looking northeast up Newark Bay, showing entire island Charles Wisniewski, photographer, January 1985 - Shooters Island, Ships Graveyard, Newark Bay, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

  20. 33 CFR 165.1197 - Security Zones; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 100 yards of the Shell Terminal, Martinez, CA, and encompasses all waters in San Pablo Bay within a... the Amorco Pier, Martinez, CA, and encompasses all waters in the Carquinez Strait within a line..., Martinez, CA, and encompasses all waters in Suisun Bay within a line connecting the following...

  1. 33 CFR 165.1197 - Security Zones; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 100 yards of the Shell Terminal, Martinez, CA, and encompasses all waters in San Pablo Bay within a... the Amorco Pier, Martinez, CA, and encompasses all waters in the Carquinez Strait within a line..., Martinez, CA, and encompasses all waters in Suisun Bay within a line connecting the following...

  2. 33 CFR 165.1197 - Security Zones; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 100 yards of the Shell Terminal, Martinez, CA, and encompasses all waters in San Pablo Bay within a... the Amorco Pier, Martinez, CA, and encompasses all waters in the Carquinez Strait within a line..., Martinez, CA, and encompasses all waters in Suisun Bay within a line connecting the following...

  3. 33 CFR 165.1197 - Security Zones; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 100 yards of the Shell Terminal, Martinez, CA, and encompasses all waters in San Pablo Bay within a... the Amorco Pier, Martinez, CA, and encompasses all waters in the Carquinez Strait within a line..., Martinez, CA, and encompasses all waters in Suisun Bay within a line connecting the following...

  4. 33 CFR 165.1197 - Security Zones; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 100 yards of the Shell Terminal, Martinez, CA, and encompasses all waters in San Pablo Bay within a... the Amorco Pier, Martinez, CA, and encompasses all waters in the Carquinez Strait within a line..., Martinez, CA, and encompasses all waters in Suisun Bay within a line connecting the following...

  5. Shore Ice Ride-Up and Pile-Up Features. Part I. Alaska’s Beaufort Sea Coast,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-03-01

    shore- frequent west of Narwhal Island (Fig. B2). However, lines over a number of seasons, along which this may be due to the fact that fewer aerial...obser- Narwhal Island. vations cover tens of thousands of kilometers It appears from historicalreports (Kovacs and Sodhi of shoreline, suggesting an...stresses can be concentrated at ice/shore east of Narwhal Island and of Jeanette and Tapkaluk contact points, thereby increasing the local stress level

  6. New Approaches To Off-Shore Wind Energy Management Exploiting Satellite EO Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morelli, Marco; Masini, Andrea; Venafra, Sara; Potenza, Marco Alberto Carlo

    2013-12-01

    Wind as an energy resource has been increasingly in focus over the past decades, starting with the global oil crisis in the 1970s. The possibility of expanding wind power production to off-shore locations is attractive, especially in sites where wind levels tend to be higher and more constant. Off-shore high-potential sites for wind energy plants are currently being looked up by means of wind atlases, which are essentially based on NWP (Numerical Weather Prediction) archive data and that supply information with low spatial resolution and very low accuracy. Moreover, real-time monitoring of active off- shore wind plants is being carried out using in-situ installed anemometers, that are not very reliable (especially on long time periods) and that should be periodically substituted when malfunctions or damages occur. These activities could be greatly supported exploiting archived and near real-time satellite imagery, that could provide accurate, global coverage and high spatial resolution information about both averaged and near real-time off-shore windiness. In this work we present new methodologies aimed to support both planning and near-real-time monitoring of off-shore wind energy plants using satellite SAR(Synthetic Aperture Radar) imagery. Such methodologies are currently being developed in the scope of SATENERG, a research project funded by ASI (Italian Space Agency). SAR wind data are derived from radar backscattering using empirical geophysical model functions, thus achieving greater accuracy and greater resolution with respect to other wind measurement methods. In detail, we calculate wind speed from X-band and C- band satellite SAR data, such as Cosmo-SkyMed (XMOD2) and ERS and ENVISAT (CMOD4) respectively. Then, using also detailed models of each part of the wind plant, we are able to calculate the AC power yield expected behavior, which can be used to support either the design of potential plants (using historical series of satellite images) or the

  7. Reconstructing the rise of recent coastal anoxia; molybdenum in Chesapeake Bay sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adelson, J.M.; Helz, G.R.; Miller, C.V.

    2001-01-01

    Sporadic, direct observations over a 50 yr period inadequately characterize the history of seasonal hypoxia and anoxia in Chesapeake Bay, alarge estuary threatened by eutrophication. Here, we undertake a reconstruction of 20th century oxygen depletion in this estuary using Mo concentrations in 210Pb-dated sediments; Cu concentrations are used to control for anthropogenic influences. Cores from the central channel display mild Mo enrichments above crustal backgrounds (up to 5 ??g/g) and strong Cu enrichments (up to 35 ??g/g). Temporally, Cu enrichment (mostly anthropogenic) began earlier and stabilized in the last two thirds of the 20th century. In contrast, Mo enrichment has grown during the last two thirds of the century. Molybdenum enrichment is mostly hydrogenic, except in a section of the channel that receives additional Mo from erosion of Early Miocene shore deposits. Two geochemical mechanisms promote Mo enrichment: Manganese refluxing concentrates dissolved MoO24- at the sediment-water interface and sulfide substitution into MoO24- produces thiomolybdates, which can be fixed by particles. The Mo enrichment mechanisms operate primarily during periods when bottom waters are anoxic and thiomolybdate formation can occur near the sediment-water interface. This implies a temporal coupling between water-column anoxia and Mo fixation even though fixation occurs only within sediments. The Mo enrichment profiles suggest that Chesapeake Bay has experienced growing O2 depletion since the first half of the 20th century, but especially after 1960. Copyright ?? 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  8. Submarine fresh groundwater discharge into Laizhou Bay comparable to the Yellow River flux

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuejing; Li, Hailong; Jiao, Jiu Jimmy; Barry, D. A.; Li, Ling; Luo, Xin; Wang, Chaoyue; Wan, Li; Wang, Xusheng; Jiang, Xiaowei; Ma, Qian; Qu, Wenjing

    2015-01-01

    Near- and off-shore fresh groundwater resources become increasingly important with the social and economic development in coastal areas. Although large scale (hundreds of km) submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) to the ocean has been shown to be of the same magnitude order as river discharge, submarine fresh groundwater discharge (SFGD) with magnitude comparable to large river discharge is never reported. Here, we proposed a method coupling mass-balance models of water, salt and radium isotopes based on field data of 223Ra, 226Ra and salinity to estimate the SFGD, SGD. By applying the method in Laizhou Bay (a water area of ~6000 km2), we showed that the SFGD and SGD are 0.57 ~ 0.88 times and 7.35 ~ 8.57 times the annual Yellow River flux in August 2012, respectively. The estimate of SFGD ranges from 4.12 × 107 m3/d to 6.36 × 107 m3/d, while SGD ranges from 5.32 × 108 m3/d to 6.20 × 108 m3/d. The proportion of the Yellow River input into Laizhou Bay was less than 14% of the total in August 2012. Our method can be used to estimate SFGD in various coastal waters. PMID:25742712

  9. Hazard assessment of the Tidal Inlet landslide and potential subsequent tsunami, Glacier Bay National Park, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wieczorek, G.F.; Geist, E.L.; Motyka, R.J.; Jakob, M.

    2007-01-01

    An unstable rock slump, estimated at 5 to 10????????10 6 m3, lies perched above the northern shore of Tidal Inlet in Glacier Bay National Park, Alaska. This landslide mass has the potential to rapidly move into Tidal Inlet and generate large, long-period-impulse tsunami waves. Field and photographic examination revealed that the landslide moved between 1892 and 1919 after the retreat of the Little Ice Age glaciers from Tidal Inlet in 1890. Global positioning system measurements over a 2-year period show that the perched mass is presently moving at 3-4 cm annually indicating the landslide remains unstable. Numerical simulations of landslide-generated waves suggest that in the western arm of Glacier Bay, wave amplitudes would be greatest near the mouth of Tidal Inlet and slightly decrease with water depth according to Green's law. As a function of time, wave amplitude would be greatest within approximately 40 min of the landslide entering water, with significant wave activity continuing for potentially several hours. ?? 2007 Springer-Verlag.

  10. Submarine fresh groundwater discharge into Laizhou Bay comparable to the Yellow River flux.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuejing; Li, Hailong; Jiao, Jiu Jimmy; Barry, D A; Li, Ling; Luo, Xin; Wang, Chaoyue; Wan, Li; Wang, Xusheng; Jiang, Xiaowei; Ma, Qian; Qu, Wenjing

    2015-03-06

    Near- and off-shore fresh groundwater resources become increasingly important with the social and economic development in coastal areas. Although large scale (hundreds of km) submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) to the ocean has been shown to be of the same magnitude order as river discharge, submarine fresh groundwater discharge (SFGD) with magnitude comparable to large river discharge is never reported. Here, we proposed a method coupling mass-balance models of water, salt and radium isotopes based on field data of (223)Ra, (226)Ra and salinity to estimate the SFGD, SGD. By applying the method in Laizhou Bay (a water area of ~6000 km(2)), we showed that the SFGD and SGD are 0.57 ~ 0.88 times and 7.35 ~ 8.57 times the annual Yellow River flux in August 2012, respectively. The estimate of SFGD ranges from 4.12 × 10(7) m(3)/d to 6.36 × 10(7) m(3)/d, while SGD ranges from 5.32 × 10(8) m(3)/d to 6.20 × 10(8) m(3)/d. The proportion of the Yellow River input into Laizhou Bay was less than 14% of the total in August 2012. Our method can be used to estimate SFGD in various coastal waters.

  11. Geology of the Round Bay quadrangle, Anne Arundel County, Maryland, with a section on Dinoflagellate-acritarch palynology, and a section on Cretaceous pollen

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Minard, James Pierson; May, Fred E.; Christopher, Raymond A.

    1980-01-01

    Six Coastal Plain formations and one group crop out in the Round Bay quadrangle near the inner edge of the Atlantic Coastal Plain physiographic province. The quadrangle lies astride the Severn River, in Anne Arundel County, near Annapolis, Md. The seven stratigraphic units aggregate as much as 128 m in outcrop. In ascending order, the units are: the upper part of the Potomac Group and the Magothy, Matawan, and Severn Formations, all of Cretaceous age; the Brightseat and Aquia Formations of Paleocene age and the Calvert Formation of Miocene age. Quaternary deposits are thin and cover only small areas; they are all mapped under one unit. Several small, thin deposits of Tertiary alluvium are mapped separately. The largely unconsolidated Cretaceous and Tertiary formations consist chiefly of quartz, glauconite, clays, muscovite, chlorite, lignite, feldspar, and pyrite. Quaternary sediments are mostly locally derived sands, silts, and clays with some gravel and, in the finer sediments, considerable amounts of organic matter. The Cretaceous and Tertiary units strike generally northeast; the younger the formation, the more easterly it strikes. Dips are gentle, 3.6 to 15 m per kilometer toward the southeast, and decrease upward through the section. The Round Bay quadrangle is near the southern limit of several formations that thin progressively toward the southwest from New Jersey. Some pinch out between Betterton, on the eastern shore of Chesapeake Bay, and Round Bay, on the western shore, whereas others are present only as thin remnants 1-2 m thick. Resources of the quadrangle include abundant ground water, sand, and high land values near water.

  12. 76 FR 2085 - National Estuarine Research Reserve System; North Inlet-Winyah Bay, SC and San Francisco Bay, CA...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-12

    ... support of the Bay's growing population: Climate change, species interactions, water quality, and habitat...- Winyah Bay such as impacts from coastal and watershed development, climate events on coastal...

  13. The formation of Proval Bay as an episode in the development of the Baikal rift basin: A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shchetnikov, A. A.; Radziminovich, Ya. B.; Vologina, E. G.; Ufimtsev, G. F.

    2012-12-01

    This paper provides a cumulative review of important specific features in the formation and development of Proval Bay (Lake Baikal) as a large seismic dislocation element. This bay appeared during one of the largest historical earthquakes in Siberia (MLH 7.5) on January 12, 1862. As a result, more than 230 km2 of the shore was submerged. The paper considers the formation of Proval Bay in the context of analysis conducted on general morphological characteristics of the Baikal rift and in terms of the occurrence of the main elements in the mechanism of its neotectonic development. It is precisely these seismotectonic phenomena, associated with the subsidence of large tectonic blocks, which primarily cause the growth of Lake Baikal basin. In spite of the fact that the northwestern side of the rift has a more pronounced morphological structure, whose general elements are high and steep monolithic tectonic escarpments, major lithospheric extension and its associated extension of the rift, thinning and rearrangement of blocks in the upper lithosphere slab occur on the more gently sloping eastern side.

  14. Carbon production and export from Biscayne Bay, Florida. I. Temporal patterns in primary production, seston and zooplankton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roman, Michael R.; Reeve, M. R.; Froggatt, J. L.

    1983-07-01

    Five stations along a transect from the western shore of Biscayne Bay, Florida to the Florida Current were sampled monthly for one year. The variability and amount of seston particulate organic carbon, adenosine triphosphate, chlorophyll a, primary production and zooplankton decreased along the seaward transect. The greater inshore biomass and variability of seston were the result of the allochthonous input of detritus and inorganic nutrients via terrestrial runoff. Annual primary production in this subtropical coastal lagoon ranged from 13 to 46 g C m -2 yr -1. Chlorophyll a in the bay ranged from 1 to 3 mg chlorophyll a m -2. In contrast, chlorophyll a in the surface centimetre of the sediment ranged from 50 to 300 mg chlorophyll a m -2. In this clear, shallow (2 to 3 m), oligotrophic lagoon, over 90% of total primary production is by submerged macrophytes and benthic algae. The high zooplankton biomass in the bay is most likely sustained by macrophyte detritus and the resuspension of benthic diatoms by the high winds associated with summer squalls and winter cold fronts.

  15. Turning the tide: Saving the Chesapeake Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Horton, T.; Eichbaum, W.

    1991-07-01

    The Chesapeake Bay is one of the most productive and important ecosystems on earth, and as such is a model for other estuaries facing the demands of commerce, tourism, transportation, recreation, and other uses. This book presents a comprehensive look at two decades of efforts to save the bay, outlining which methods have worked and which have not.

  16. 33 CFR 117.735 - Newark Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Newark Bay. 117.735 Section 117.735 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.735 Newark Bay. The following...

  17. 33 CFR 117.735 - Newark Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Newark Bay. 117.735 Section 117.735 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.735 Newark Bay. The following...

  18. 33 CFR 117.735 - Newark Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Newark Bay. 117.735 Section 117.735 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.735 Newark Bay. The following...

  19. 33 CFR 117.735 - Newark Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Newark Bay. 117.735 Section 117.735 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.735 Newark Bay. The following...

  20. 33 CFR 117.1101 - Sturgeon Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay. 117.1101 Section 117.1101 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Wisconsin § 117.1101 Sturgeon Bay. (a) The draw of...

  1. 33 CFR 117.269 - Biscayne Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Biscayne Bay. 117.269 Section 117.269 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.269 Biscayne Bay. The Venetian Causeway...

  2. 33 CFR 117.269 - Biscayne Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Biscayne Bay. 117.269 Section 117.269 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.269 Biscayne Bay. The Venetian Causeway...

  3. 33 CFR 117.269 - Biscayne Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Biscayne Bay. 117.269 Section 117.269 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.269 Biscayne Bay. The Venetian Causeway...

  4. 33 CFR 117.269 - Biscayne Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Biscayne Bay. 117.269 Section 117.269 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.269 Biscayne Bay. The Venetian Causeway...

  5. 33 CFR 117.269 - Biscayne Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Biscayne Bay. 117.269 Section 117.269 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.269 Biscayne Bay. The Venetian Causeway...

  6. JUVENILE BAY SCALLOP (ARGOPECTEN IRRADIANS) HABITAT PREFERENCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Habitat quality and quantity are known to be important for maintaining populations of bay scallops (Argopecten irradians), but data linking habitat attributes to bay scallop populations are lacking. This information is essential to understand the role of habitat alteration in th...

  7. 33 CFR 117.1101 - Sturgeon Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay. 117.1101 Section 117.1101 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Wisconsin § 117.1101 Sturgeon Bay. (a) The draw of the Michigan Street Bridge, mile 4.3 at Sturgeon...

  8. 33 CFR 117.853 - Sandusky Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sandusky Bay. 117.853 Section 117.853 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Ohio § 117.853 Sandusky Bay. The draw of the Norfolk...

  9. 33 CFR 117.853 - Sandusky Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sandusky Bay. 117.853 Section 117.853 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Ohio § 117.853 Sandusky Bay. The draw of the Norfolk...

  10. Bristol Bay Assessment - Final Report (2014)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This is the final Bristol Bay assessment developed and peer reviewed by the Office of Research and Development in EPA. The purpose of this assessment is to provide a characterization of the biological and mineral resources of the Bristol Bay watershed.

  11. Bay Area Fatherhood Initiatives: Portraits and Possibilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadsden, Vivian L.; Rethemeyer, R. Karl

    In the past decade, the nature of fathers' involvement with their children and families has become an important topic, with government agencies and nonprofit groups developing programs to help men manage the challenges of fatherhood. This report presents the first set of findings from the Bay Area Fathering Indicators Data System (BAyFIDS)…

  12. SF Bay Delta TMDL Progress Assessment

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA assessed the progress 14 TMDLs in the SF Bay Delta Estuary (SF Bay Delta) to determine if the actions called for in the TMDL were being accomplished and water quality was improving. Status and water quality reports can be found here.

  13. Late Quaternary history of southern Chesapeake Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Colman, S.M.; Hobbs, C.H. III; Halka, J.P.

    1985-01-01

    More than 700 km of high-resolution, seismic-reflection profiles and sidescan-sonar images provide new information about the late Quaternary history of southern Chesapeake Bay. Sidescan-sonar images show that, excluding the nearshore zone, most of the bay bottom has a monotonously smooth surface, except that sand waves, ripples, and other bedforms occur in local areas affected by tidal currents. Seismic-reflection data show that the Quaternary stratigraphy of the southern part of the Bay is related primarily to the last cycle of sea-level change. The Quaternary section overlies an erosion surface cut deeply into gently seaward-dipping marine beds of Neogene age. Fluvial paleochannels, related to the last major low sea-level stand, are characterized by as much as 55 m of incision and by thin, irregular, terrace and channel-bottom deposits. Marine and estuarine deposits related to the Holocene transgression partially or fully bury the fluvial valleys and overlie the interfluves. A prominent feature of the Bay-mouth area is a wedge of sediment that has prograded into the Bay from the inner shelf. The common assumption--that the Chesapeake Bay is the drowned valley of the Pleistocene Susquehanna River--is only partially valid for the southern part of the Bay. The Bay mouth area, in general, is relatively young. The axial channel of the Bay is a modern tidal channel that is actively eroding Tertiary deposits and migrating toward the south and west; it is unrelated to older fluvial channels. Also, the positions of the modern axial channel and the last two fluvial paleochannels indicate long-term southward migration of the Bay mouth.

  14. Northern Monterey Bay upwelling shadow front: Observations of a coastally and surface-trapped buoyant plume

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodson, C.B.; Washburn, L.; Barth, J.A.; Hoover, D.J.; Kirincich, A.R.; McManus, M.A.; Ryan, J.P.; Tyburczy, J.

    2009-01-01

    During the upwelling season in central California, northwesterly winds along the coast produce a strong upwelling jet that originates at Point A??o Nuevo and flows southward across the mouth of Monterey Bay. A convergent front with a mean temperature change of 3.77 ?? 0.29??C develops between the warm interior waters and the cold offshore upwelling jet. To examine the forcing mechanisms driving the location and movement of the upwelling shadow front and its effects on biological communities in northern Monterey Bay, oceanographic conditions were monitored using cross-shelf mooring arrays, drifters, and hydrographic surveys along a 20 km stretch of coast extending northwestward from Santa Cruz, California, during the upwelling season of 2007 (May-September). The alongshore location of the upwelling shadow front at the northern edge of the bay was driven by: regional wind forcing, through an alongshore pressure gradient; buoyancy forces due to the temperature change across the front; and local wind forcing (the diurnal sea breeze). The upwelling shadow front behaved as a surface-trapped buoyant current, which is superimposed on a poleward barotropic current, moving up and down the coast up to several kilometers each day. We surmise that the front is advected poleward by a preexisting northward barotropic current of 0.10 m s-1 that arises due to an alongshore pressure gradient caused by focused upwelling at Point A??o Nuevo. The frontal circulation (onshore surface currents) breaks the typical two-dimensional wind-driven, cross-shelf circulation (offshore surface currents) and introduces another way for water, and the material it contains (e.g., pollutants, larvae), to go across the shelf toward shore.Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  15. Dynamics of sediment carbon stocks across intertidal wetland habitats of Moreton Bay, Australia.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Matthew A; Jesse, Amber; Hawke, Bruce; Baldock, Jeff; Tabet, Basam; Lockington, David; Lovelock, Catherine E

    2017-04-13

    Coastal wetlands are known for high carbon storage within their sediments, but our understanding of the variation in carbon storage among intertidal habitats, particularly over geomorphological settings and along elevation gradients, are limited. Here, we collected 352 cores from 18 sites across Moreton Bay, Australia. We assessed variation in sediment organic carbon (OC) stocks among different geomorphological settings (wetlands within riverine settings along with those with reduced riverine influence located on tide-dominated sand islands), across elevation gradients, with distance from shore and among habitat and vegetation types. We used mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy combined with analytical data and partial least squares regression to quantify the carbon content of ~ 2500 sediment samples and provide fine-scale spatial coverage of sediment OC stocks to 150 cm depth. We found sites in river deltas had larger OC stocks (175 - 504 Mg ha(-1) ) than those in Non-Riverine settings (44 - 271 Mg ha(-1) ). Variation in OC stocks among Non-Riverine sites was high in comparison to Riverine and Mixed geomorphic settings, with sites closer to riverine outflow from the east and south of Moreton Bay having higher stocks than those located on the sand islands in the north-west of the bay. Sediment OC stocks increased with elevation within Non-Riverine settings, but not in Riverine geomorphic settings. Sediment OC stocks did not differ between mangrove and saltmarsh habitats. OC stocks did, however, differ between dominant species across the research area and within geomorphic settings. At the landscape scale, the coastal wetlands of the South East Queensland catchments (17,792 ha) are comprised of approximately 4,100,000 - 5,200,000 Mg of sediment OC. Comparatively high variation in OC storage between Riverine and Non-Riverine geomorphic settings indicates that the availability of mineral sediments and terrestrial derived OC may exert a strong influence over OC storage

  16. White whale ( Delphinapterus leucas) distribution in Onega Bay of the White Sea in the summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrianov, V. V.; Bel'Kovich, V. M.; Lukin, L. R.

    2009-02-01

    Data on the white whale distribution in Onega Bay of the White Sea obtained during route and stationary observations in the summer of 2003-2006 are given. The presence of three regions of summer habitation of local “nonmigratory” white whale reproductive schools is confirmed. The minimum abundance of the “zhizhginskoe” (northeastern) school is 60 individuals, and the minimum abundance of the “myagostrovskoe” (western) is 50 individuals. The abundance of the best studied “southern” school is close to 120-130 individuals. One more region of white whale concentration (with an abundance of up to 40 individuals) (the eastern one; Cape Letniy Orlov-Cape Chesmenskiy) was found. The localization of single reproductive schools (RS) is due to a number of factors: the morphometry of the shores and bottom, the hydrological regime, and the character of the coastal tidal currents. The white whale distribution in the southern part of Onega Bay in the summer (June-July) is of discontinuous character with concentrations near cape Glubokiy and some other adjacent parts. The coefficient of the white whale attendance in the Cape Glubokiy area varied from 42.5 to 67.4% during the years of the studies (2003-2006). The character of the distribution, the direction of the relocations, and the animals’ behavior peculiarities indicate that the white whales of the southern part of Onega Bay of the White Sea form a rather stable school community of a few (5-6) locally distributed small family groups during the summer.

  17. The role of bay breezes and regional transport on a high surface ozone episode during the Houston, Texas DISCOVER-AQ field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loughner, C.; Follette-Cook, M. B.; Pickering, K. E.; Estes, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    The highest observed surface ozone concentrations in the Houston metropolitan area in 2013 occurred on September 25, which coincided with the Texas DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality) field campaign. Surface ozone was elevated throughout the Houston metropolitan area. Maximum 8-hour average ozone peaked along the western shore of Galveston Bay, reaching 124 ppbv, almost 50 ppbv above the current EPA standard of 75 ppbv, at La Porte Sylvan Beach. Continental air pollution from the north and northeast was transported into the Houston metropolitan area where it mixed with locally generated emissions. A bay breeze circulation formed causing pollutants that were transported out over the water in the morning to recirculate back inland where they mixed with freshly emitted pollution near the bay breeze convergence zone. The highest surface ozone concentrations were reported near the bay breeze front at La Porte Sylvan Beach. This ozone episode will be presented using measurements made during the DISCOVER-AQ field campaign and WRF and CMAQ model simulations.

  18. Migration of the Pee Dee River system inferred from ancestral paleochannels underlying the South Carolina Grand Strand and Long Bay inner shelf

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldwin, W.E.; Morton, R.A.; Putney, T.R.; Katuna, M.P.; Harris, M.S.; Gayes, P.T.; Driscoll, N.W.; Denny, J.F.; Schwab, W.C.

    2006-01-01

    Several generations of the ancestral Pee Dee River system have been mapped beneath the South Carolina Grand Strand coastline and adjacent Long Bay inner shelf. Deep boreholes onshore and high-resolution seismic-reflection data offshore allow for reconstruction of these paleochannels, which formed during glacial lowstands, when the Pee Dee River system incised subaerially exposed coastal-plain and continental-shelf strata. Paleochannel groups, representing different generations of the system, decrease in age to the southwest, where the modern Pee Dee River merges with several coastal-plain tributaries at Winyah Bay, the southern terminus of Long Bay. Positions of the successive generational groups record a regional, southwestward migration of the river system that may have initiated during the late Pliocene. The migration was primarily driven by barrier-island deposition, resulting from the interaction of fluvial and shoreline processes during eustatic highstands. Structurally driven, subsurface paleotopography associated with the Mid-Carolina Platform High has also indirectly assisted in forcing this migration. These results provide a better understanding of the evolution of the region and help explain the lack of mobile sediment on the Long Bay inner shelf. Migration of the river system caused a profound change in sediment supply during the late Pleistocene. The abundant fluvial source that once fed sand-rich barrier islands was cut off and replaced with a limited source, supplied by erosion and reworking of former coastal deposits exposed at the shore and on the inner shelf.

  19. Structure, age and origin of the bay-mouth shoal deposits, Chesapeake Bay, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colman, Steven M.; Berquist, C.R.; Hobbs, C. H.

    1988-01-01

    The mouth of Chesapeake Bay contains a distinctive shoal complex and related deposits that result from the complex interaction of three different processes: (1) progradation of a barrier spit at the southern end of the Delmarva Peninsula, (2) strong, reversing tidal currents that transport and rework sediment brought to the bay mouth from the north, and (3) landward (bayward) net non-tidal circulation and sediment transport. Together, these processes play a major role in changing the configuration of the estuary and filling it with sediment. The deposits at the mouth of the bay hold keys both to the evolution of the bay during the Holocene transgression and to the history of previous generations of the bay. The deposit associated with the shoals at the mouth of the bay, the bay-mouth sand, is a distinct stratigraphic unit composed mostly of uniform, gray, fine sand. The position and internal structure of the unit shows that it is related to near-present sea level, and thus is less than a few thousand years old. The processes affecting the upper surface of the deposit and the patterns of erosion and deposition at this surface are complex, but the geometry and structure of the deposit indicate that it is a coherent unit that is prograding bayward and tending to fill the estuary. The source of the bay-mouth sand is primarily outside the bay in the nearshore zone of the Delmarva Peninsula and on the inner continental shelf. The internal structure of the deposit, its surface morphology, its heavy-mineral composition, bottom-current studies, comparative bathymetry, and sediment budgets all suggest that sand is brought to the bay mouth by southerly longshore drift along the Delmarva Peninsula and then swept into the bay. In addition to building the southward- and bayward-prograding bay-mouth sand, these processes result in sand deposition tens of kilometers into the bay. ?? 1988.

  20. Anthropogenic effects on shoreface and shoreline changes: Input from a multi-method analysis, Agadir Bay, Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aouiche, Ismail; Daoudi, Lahcen; Anthony, Edward J.; Sedrati, Mouncef; Ziane, Elhassane; Harti, Abderrazak; Dussouillez, Philippe

    2016-02-01

    In many situations, the links between shoreline fluctuations and larger-scale coastal change embracing the shoreface are not always well understood. In particular, meso-scale (years to decades) sand exchanges between the shoreface and the shoreline, considered as important on many wave-dominated coasts, are rather poorly understood and difficult to identify. Coastal systems where sediment transport is perturbed by engineering interventions on the shoreline and shoreface commonly provide fine examples liable to throw light on these links. This is especially so where shoreface bathymetric datasets, which are generally lacking, are collected over time, enabling more or less fine resolution of the meso-scale coastal sediment budget. Agadir Bay and the city of Agadir together form one of the two most important economic development poles on the Atlantic coast of Morocco. Using a combined methodological approach based on wave-current modelling, bathymetric chart-differencing, determination of shoreline fluctuations, and beach topographic surveying, we highlight the close links between variations in the bed of the inner shoreface and the bay shoreline involving both cross-shore and longshore sand transport pathways, sediment budget variations and new sediment cell patterns. We show that the significant changes that have affected the bay shoreline and shoreface since 1978 clearly reflect anthropogenic impacts, notably blocking of alongshore sand transport by Agadir harbour, completed in 1988, and the foundations of which lie well beyond the depth of wave closure. Construction of the harbour has led to the creation of a rapidly accreting beach against an original portion of rocky shoreline updrift and to a net sand loss exceeding 145,000 m3/year between 1978 and 2012 over 8.5 km2of the bay shoreface downdrift. Shoreline retreat has been further exacerbated by sand extraction from aeolian dunes and by flattening of these dunes to make space for tourist infrastructure. Digital