Science.gov

Sample records for andrews branches estudo

  1. Interview with Deborah Andrews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Cynthia

    2005-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Deborah Andrews about her experiences during her editorship of "Business Communication Quarterly." From June 1997 to March 2005, Debby served as editor of the journal, encouraging all readers to ask important questions about their work: How should we define business communication? On which disciplines and…

  2. Andrew W. S. In

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nishimoto, Warren

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Andrew W. S. In, professor and dean in the University of Hawai'i's College of Education from 1951 to 1984. Born and raised in Honolulu, In attended Royal Elementary, Central Junior High, and McKinley High schools, graduating from McKinley in 1938. He then attended the University of Hawai'i Teachers College…

  3. Andrew: CMU's New Computing Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zabowski, Susan

    1986-01-01

    Reviews the progress and problems associated with the development of Carnegie Mellon University's new computing and communications system, "Andrew." Describes the accomplishments and capacities of the system and provides examples of the programs developed for "Andrew." (ML)

  4. Andrew integrated reservoir description

    SciTech Connect

    Todd, S.P.

    1996-12-31

    The Andrew field is an oil and gas accumulation in Palaeocene deep marine sands in the Central North Sea. It is currently being developed with mainly horizontal oil producers. Because of the field`s relatively small reserves (mean 118 mmbbls), the performance of each of the 10 or so horizontal wells is highly important. Reservoir description work at sanction time concentrated on supporting the case that the field could be developed commercially with the minimum number of wells. The present Integrated Reservoir Description (IRD) is focussed on delivering the next level of detail that will impact the understanding of the local reservoir architecture and dynamic performance of each well. Highlights of Andrew IRD Include: (1) Use of a Reservoir Uncertainty Statement (RUS) developed at sanction time to focus the descriptive effort of both asset, support and contract petrotechnical staff, (2) High resolution biostratigraphic correlation to support confident zonation of the reservoir, (3) Detailed sedimentological analysis of the core including the use of dipmeter to interpret channel/sheet architecture to provide new insights into reservoir heterogeneity; (4) Integrated petrographical and petrophysical investigation of the controls on Sw-Height and relative permeability of water; (5) Fluids description using oil geochemistry and Residual Salt Analysis Sr isotope studies. Andrew IRD has highlighted several important risks to well performance, including the influence of more heterolithic intervals on gas breakthrough and the controls on water coning exerted by suppressed water relative permeability in the transition zone.

  5. Andrew integrated reservoir description

    SciTech Connect

    Todd, S.P.

    1996-01-01

    The Andrew field is an oil and gas accumulation in Palaeocene deep marine sands in the Central North Sea. It is currently being developed with mainly horizontal oil producers. Because of the field's relatively small reserves (mean 118 mmbbls), the performance of each of the 10 or so horizontal wells is highly important. Reservoir description work at sanction time concentrated on supporting the case that the field could be developed commercially with the minimum number of wells. The present Integrated Reservoir Description (IRD) is focussed on delivering the next level of detail that will impact the understanding of the local reservoir architecture and dynamic performance of each well. Highlights of Andrew IRD Include: (1) Use of a Reservoir Uncertainty Statement (RUS) developed at sanction time to focus the descriptive effort of both asset, support and contract petrotechnical staff, (2) High resolution biostratigraphic correlation to support confident zonation of the reservoir, (3) Detailed sedimentological analysis of the core including the use of dipmeter to interpret channel/sheet architecture to provide new insights into reservoir heterogeneity; (4) Integrated petrographical and petrophysical investigation of the controls on Sw-Height and relative permeability of water; (5) Fluids description using oil geochemistry and Residual Salt Analysis Sr isotope studies. Andrew IRD has highlighted several important risks to well performance, including the influence of more heterolithic intervals on gas breakthrough and the controls on water coning exerted by suppressed water relative permeability in the transition zone.

  6. Faces of Marshall: Erika Andrews

    NASA Video Gallery

    Several Marshall employees were interviewed as part of Marshall's 50th Anniversary activities. Human Resources Specialist Erika Andrews tells how she came to work at NASA as a specialist in organiz...

  7. Benevolent Builder: Appraising Andrew Carnegie.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deitch, Joseph

    1984-01-01

    Discussion of Andrew Carnegie era in American public library history focuses on library buildings financed and built in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The building design which Carnegie developed, surviving Carnegie libraries in Philadelphia, procedures for obtaining a library, and comparison of architectural attractiveness of Carnegie libraries with…

  8. The McAndrews Leadership Lecture: Origins

    PubMed Central

    Hamm, Anthony W.; Burkhart, Lori A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This article describes the origins and rationale for the McAndrews Leadership Lecture and explains why the American Chiropractic Association honors George and Jerome McAndrews. Discussion George and Jerome McAndrews’ backgrounds demonstrate their leadership contributions to the chiropractic profession. Jerome McAndrews, a chiropractor, held substantial leadership roles in the chiropractic profession. George McAndrews, a lawyer, administered a permanent injunction forbidding the American Medical Association’s restraint of trade toward the chiropractic profession. Conclusion The American Chiropractic Association has established the McAndrews Leadership Lecture to honor their contributions to the chiropractic profession. PMID:26770176

  9. The Impeachment of Andrew Johnson. Web Lesson.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constitutional Rights Foundation, Los Angeles, CA.

    This lesson presents the historical background of Abraham Lincoln's selection of Andrew Johnson as his running mate in the election of 1864. The lesson considers the climate in the U.S. Congress after President Lincoln's assassination. The details of the impeachment and trial of President Andrew Johnson are given. The lesson presents three…

  10. Obituary: Andrew Stephen Wilson, 1947-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veilleux, Sylvain

    2009-01-01

    On 24 May 2008, Andrew Stephen Wilson passed away at the age of 61, in his home in Silver Spring, Maryland, from complications resulting from a painful spinal illness. Andrew was arguably one of the first truly multi-wavelength astronomers of his generation. His scientific work on active galactic nuclei [AGN] spanned the entire electromagnetic spectrum from the radio to the X-rays. Andrew was born in Doncaster, Yorkshire, England, on 26 March 1947. He was the younger of two brothers whose births were separated by the Second World War. His father, Norman, came from a relatively affluent family who were coal merchants. His mother, Mary, came from a less comfortable background, one of seven children, daughter of a skilled cabinet maker/French polisher, who went through a very hard time during the depression. As a teacher, she placed enormous value on hard work and education as a way of gaining advancement in life. When Andrew was four, the family moved to Skipton, a nice market town in the Yorkshire dales. Andrew went to a small village school until age eleven when he entered Ermysted's Grammar School. He was an enthusiastic soccer and cricket player. He never lost his enthusiasm for soccer and supported the local soccer team, Leeds United, for all his life. Andrew also followed the Yorkshire county cricket team. Andrew's interest in astronomy stemmed from the fact that at Ermysted's Grammar School someone donated a four-inch refracting telescope, so he and his friends used to go back in the evenings to investigate the rings of Saturn, the moons of Jupiter, and various nebulae. While an undergraduate at Cambridge, Andrew joined the astronomy club and ground an 8-inch mirror by hand as a part of a telescope that he set up in the backyard of his parents' house. Andrew spent hours observing with this telescope, and it was the wonder of the family. At Cambridge, Andrew obtained his bachelor's degree with first-class honors in 1969. During a short visit in London with his

  11. Cell scientist to watch - Andrew Holland.

    PubMed

    2017-02-01

    Andrew received his first degree in natural sciences from the University of Cambridge and a Masters degree from the University of Manchester, followed by a PhD with Stephen Taylor in Manchester. He then moved to California in 2007 with an EMBO long-term fellowship for his postdoctoral research with Don Cleveland at the Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research. In 2013, Andrew started his own lab as an Assistant Professor in the Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, having been named a Kimmel Scholar and a Pew-Stewart Scholar in 2014. Andrew's lab investigates the mechanisms controlling centrosome copy numbers during cell division and the links between centrosome amplification, genome instability and tumorigenesis.

  12. Congruences for the Andrews spt function

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Ken

    2011-01-01

    Ramanujan-type congruences for the Andrews spt(n) partition function have been found for prime moduli 5 ≤ ℓ ≤ 37 in the work of Andrews [Andrews GE, (2008) J Reine Angew Math 624:133–142] and Garvan [Garvan F, (2010) Int J Number Theory 6:1–29]. We exhibit unexpectedly simple congruences for all ℓ≥5. Confirming a conjecture of Garvan, we show that if ℓ≥5 is prime and , then (mod ℓ). This congruence gives (ℓ - 1)/2 arithmetic progressions modulo ℓ3 which support a mod ℓ congruence. This result follows from the surprising fact that the reduction of a certain mock theta function modulo ℓ, for every ℓ≥5, is an eigenform of the Hecke operator T(ℓ2). PMID:21177432

  13. Obituary: Andrew Lange (1957-2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamionkowski, Marc

    2011-12-01

    The worlds of physics and astrophysics were stunned to learn on 22 January 2010 that Andrew Lange, the Marvin L. Goldberger Professor of Physics at Caltech, had taken his own life the night before. He had succumbed to the severe depression that he had suffered from for many years, unbeknownst to even his closest colleagues. Lange will perhaps be best remembered as the co-leader of Boomerang, the balloon-borne experiment that provided the first high-angular-resolution map of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). And while this was certainly his most notable achievement, Andrew amassed a record of accomplishment as an instrumentalist, leader, mentor, and communicator that extended much further. Andrew was born in Urbana, Illinois on July 23, 1957, the son of an architect and a librarian, and raised primarily in Connecticut. His family and early friends remember him as a serious and extremely intelligent child and young man. Andrew Lange's lifelong interest in the CMB was nurtured as an undergraduate at Princeton University by David Wilkinson, and he recalled fondly a summer spent working with John Mather at Goddard Space Flight Center. Andrew Lange went to graduate school in physics at Berkeley where he worked in Paul Richards' group. Although his thesis project, the Berkeley-Nagoya rocket experiment, showed an anomalous sub-millimeter excess in the CMB spectrum that was shortly thereafter shown by a later flight of the same rocket and COBE-FIRAS to be incorrect, Lange's talents were recognized by the physics department at Berkeley who appointed him shortly after his PhD (1987) to their faculty. While on the Berkeley faculty, Andrew obtained early detections of the Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect, upper limits to small-angle CMB fluctuations, and important infrared constraints to the interstellar medium. He also led a pioneering instrument operating 300 mK detectors for a small infrared satellite experiment. This early work showed high ambition and daring, and it pioneered

  14. The human side of Hurricane Andrew

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, R.; Callander, R.C.

    1994-12-31

    This paper examines the long-term psychological effects of the nation`s worst natural disaster on the employees of the Turkey Point nuclear power plant. It also examines the efforts made by plant personnel and company volunteers to aid employees` families affected by the storm. Despite significant damage at the plant, unit 4 was returned to service 5 weeks after the August 24, 1992, hurricane. Unit 3 was returned to service on December 3, 1992. Unit 3 was originally scheduled to start a refueling outage the day Hurricane Andrew struck. While plant personnel are still recovering from Andrew`s impact, the plant`s performance has never been better. On May 26, 1993, the plant completed a record-breaking 46-day refueling outage - 7 days ahead of schedule and $3 million under budget. Turkey Point`s recovery, return to service, and superior performance would not have been possible without the efforts of hundreds of employees who put their personal tragedies aside and focused on the common goal of the plant`s operation. To help employees with rebuilding their lives, the plant launched extensive assistance programs. Although the plant returned to normal operation, plant personnel continue to struggle in a community whose infrastructure (homes, schools, stores, etc.) have been almost eliminated.

  15. Andrew shortens lifetime of Louisiana Barrier Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, Susan

    Because the Isles Dernieres, a series of four barrier islands off the coast of Louisiana, have one of the most rapidly eroding shorelines in the world, geologists at the U.S. Geological Survey and the Louisiana Geological Survey have been monitoring erosion activity over the last several years, said Jeff Williams of the USGS in Reston, Va. Hurricane Andrew, which struck the state on August 26, caused severe erosional damage to these islands that has shortened their lifetimes.Before Andrew struck, geologists projected that Raccoon Island would disappear below sea level by the year 2001 and that Whiskey Island would disappear by 2016. Now, due to the severe erosion from Hurricane Andrew, the scientists claim that the islands may disappear before the turn of the century, and the other islands in the Dernieres chain are expected to follow suit within 2 decades. Raccoon, Whiskey, Trinity, and East islands make up the Isles Dernieres, which existed as one island, known as the Isle Derniere, before an 1856 hurricane and subsequent erosion.

  16. 76 FR 48168 - Andrew K. Choi: Debarment Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Andrew K. Choi: Debarment Order AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing an order under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act) debarring Andrew K. Choi, M.D. for 4...

  17. Introduction of Dr. Andrew V Schally

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza-Valdés, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    I first met Dr. Andrew V Schally (PhD, MDhc (Multi), DSc, Distinguished Medical Research Scientist, U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs Professor of Pathology and Department of Medicine,
Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, Florida, USA) many years ago, probably around the beginning of the 1990's in one of his visits to Mexico City (Figure 1). He has many friends in my country since some of the investigations that led to the development of the LHRH agonists were made in a couple of Mexican hospitals in collaboration with some outstanding Mexican physicians that I will mention later. In that time, I was the head of the Department of Urology of the Mexican National Cancer Institute and our Director, Dr. Jaime de la Garza, invited him for a meeting. I was surprised by his humbleness, intelligence and easy going personality, in spite of being a Nobel Prize scientist. PMID:26112485

  18. Fred Plaut in conversation with Andrew Samuels. Interview by Andrew Samuels.

    PubMed

    Plaut, Fred

    2010-02-01

    This is a reprint of an interview of Fred Plaut (who died in June 2009) conducted by Andrew Samuels in mid-1988 and first published in April 1989 in the Journal, 34, 2, pp. 159-83. The interview covers Plaut's early life, his career, and historical observations of the development of the Society of Analytical Psychology from its beginnings, and of the wider community of Jungian analysis. Plaut reflects uninhibitedly on such topics as the role of leadership in analytical psychology, discussing the parts played by Michael Fordham in London and Hannes Dieckmann in Berlin. Plaut explains his thinking concerning individuation.

  19. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey L. D. Andrew, Photographer Nov. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey L. D. Andrew, Photographer Nov. 27, 1936 FRONT DOORWAY; INTERIOR VIEW - Kilpatrick House, Forrest Hills Road (moved from Greene Street), Augusta, Richmond County, GA

  20. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey L. D. Andrew, Photographer Nov. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey L. D. Andrew, Photographer Nov. 27, 1936 MANTEL IN RIGHT FRONT ROOM - Kilpatrick House, Forrest Hills Road (moved from Greene Street), Augusta, Richmond County, GA

  1. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey L. D. Andrew, Photographer Aug. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey L. D. Andrew, Photographer Aug. 2, 1936 DETAIL OF DOUBLE OPENING WITH IRON GRATING IN THIRD STORY REAR ROOM - Emerson & Holmes Building, 556 Mulberry Street, Macon, Bibb County, GA

  2. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey L. D. Andrew, Photographer Aug. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey L. D. Andrew, Photographer Aug. 2, 1936 PANELS AND VAULTED CEILING IN DRAWING ROOM, SECOND FLOOR - Emerson & Holmes Building, 556 Mulberry Street, Macon, Bibb County, GA

  3. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey L. D. Andrew, Photographer Enlarged ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey L. D. Andrew, Photographer Enlarged Photo From photo of Miss Edith Johnston, Savannah, Ga. 1936 VIEW OF FRONT AND RIGHT SIDE (Restoration 1936) - Wild Heron Plantation, Little Ogeechee River Vicinity, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  4. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey L. D. Andrew, Photographer Enlarged ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey L. D. Andrew, Photographer Enlarged Photo From Photo of Miss Edith Johnston's, Savannah, Ga. 1936 VIEW OF FRONT AND SIDE (Before Restoration, 1936). - Wild Heron Plantation, Little Ogeechee River Vicinity, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  5. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey L. D. Andrew, Photographer From ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey L. D. Andrew, Photographer From photograph furnished by Miss Edith D. Johnston, Savannah, Ga. Sept. 5, 1936 RED BRICK CHURCH (FORMER BUILDING 1811- 1837) - Christ Church (Episcopal), 28 Bull Street, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  6. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey L. D. Andrew, Photographer (Enlarged ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey L. D. Andrew, Photographer (Enlarged by) Aug. 6, 1936 Photographed by Harold Bush-Brown SIDE VIEW - Covered Bridge, Spanning Soap Creek, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  7. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey L. D. Andrew, Photographer Dec. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey L. D. Andrew, Photographer Dec. 30, 1936 VIEW FROM MORRISON'S CAF? (CORNER OF WHITAKER & CONGRESS) SHOWING S. FACADE - Gibbons Block, Congress, Saint Julian, Barnard, Whitaker Streets, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  8. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey L. D. Andrew, Photographer Dec. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey L. D. Andrew, Photographer Dec. 30, 1936 VIEW FROM CORNER OF WHITAKER AND ST JULIAN SHOWING NORTH FACADE - Gibbons Block, Congress, Saint Julian, Barnard, Whitaker Streets, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  9. 9. HISTORIC AMERICAN BUILDINGS SURVEY L. D. ANDREW PHOTOGRAPHER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. HISTORIC AMERICAN BUILDINGS SURVEY L. D. ANDREW - PHOTOGRAPHER SEPT. 7, 1936 BEAM, CORNICE, AND CEILING ORNAMENT IN FRONT HALL - Sorrel-Weed House, 6 West Harris Street, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  10. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey L. D. Andrew, Photographer Dec. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey L. D. Andrew, Photographer Dec. 30, 1936 CORNER OF WEST FRONT ROOM (SHOWING CORNICE AND WINDOW HEAD) - Wayne-Gordon House, 10 East Oglethorpe Avenue, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  11. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey L. D. Andrew, Photographer Dec. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey L. D. Andrew, Photographer Dec. 30, 1936 CENTRAL PORTION OF REAR (Showing backsteps, stoop & stairhall, window) - Wayne-Gordon House, 10 East Oglethorpe Avenue, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  12. 13. Circa 1880 view (from the north) across Andrew Hallidie ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Circa 1880 view (from the north) across Andrew Hallidie suspension bridge. Source: Searles Library, Nevada City, California. - Gault Bridge, Spanning Deer Creek at South Pine Street, Nevada City, Nevada County, CA

  13. Interview: Professor Andrew Feinberg speaks to Epigenomics.

    PubMed

    Feinberg, Andrew

    2009-10-01

    Andrew Feinberg studied mathematics and humanities at Yale University (CT, USA) in the Directed Studies honors program, and he received his BA (1973) and MD (1976) from the accelerated medical program at Johns Hopkins University (MD, USA), as well as an MPH from Johns Hopkins (1981). He performed a postdoctoral fellowship in developmental biology at the University of California, San Diego (UCSD, CA, USA), clinical training in medicine and medical genetics at the University of Pennsylvania (PA, USA) and genetics research with Bert Vogelstein at Johns Hopkins, discovering altered DNA methylation in human cancer. Dr Feinberg continued to perform seminal work in cancer epigenetics as a Howard Hughes investigator at the University of Michigan (MI, USA), discovering human imprinted genes and loss of imprinting in cancer, and the molecular basis of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. He returned to John Hopkins in 1994 as King Fahd Professor of Medicine, Molecular Biology & Genetics and Oncology, and he holds an Adjunct Professorship at the Karolinska Institute in Sweden. Dr Feinberg is Director of the Center for Epigenetics, a National Human Genome Research Institute-designated Center of Excellence in Genome Sciences. The Center is pioneering genome-scale tools in molecular, statistical and epidemiological epigenetics, and is applying them to the study of cancer, neuropsychiatric disease and aging. As part of the center, Dr Feinberg has organized a highly innovative program to bring gifted minority high-school students into genetics and genomics. Dr Feinberg has also invented a number of widely used molecular tools, including random priming. His honors include election to the American Society for Clinical Investigation, the Association of American Physicians, the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences, and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, as well as membership on the ISI most-cited authors list, a MERIT Award of the National Cancer Institute, a

  14. Appreciating Unity in Diversity: An Interview with Andrew Solomon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Dane L.

    2014-01-01

    The theme of the AMS 2014 Annual Conference is "Unity in Diversity," a concept that also describes the work of conference keynote speaker Andrew Solomon. Solomon is a writer and lecturer on psychology and politics; winner of the National Book Award; and an activist for LGBT [lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender] rights, mental health,…

  15. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey L. D. Andrew, Photographer Sept. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey L. D. Andrew, Photographer Sept. 5, 1936 Photograph from photograph furnished by Miss Edith D. Johnston, Savannah, GA. VIEW OF CHANCEL IN CHRIST CHURCH BEFORE DEMOLITION photo ABOUT 1870 - Christ Church (Episcopal), 28 Bull Street, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  16. 75 FR 32221 - Whirlpool Corporation, Evansville Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers from Andrews...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-07

    ... this certification to include leased workers from Andrews International, Inc. working on-site at the... Employment and Training Administration Whirlpool Corporation, Evansville Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers from Andrews International, Inc., Evansville, IN; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility...

  17. General Plan Environmental Assessment for Joint Base Andrews-Naval Air Facility, Washington, Maryland

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-01

    PROPOSED ACTION ................................. 1-1  1.1  INTRODUCTION ...1 April 2011 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY PURPOSE AND NEED FOR ACTION Introduction The 2010 Andrews General Plan Update documents the existing facilities... INTRODUCTION The General Plan Update for Joint Base Andrews-Naval Air Facility, Washington, Maryland (Andrews) describes the installation’s ability to

  18. A pioneer of tropical medicine worldwide: Andrew Balfour, of Khartoum

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This is an archival account of the career of Sir Andrew Balfour in Khartoum, Sudan during the period 1902 to 1913. As the first director of the Wellcome Tropical Research Laboratories in Khartoum during the period, Andrew Balfour was tasked with establishing the laboratories and at the same time he was engaged in founding the health services in Khartoum. Balfour worked in close collaboration and support from Henry Wellcome and Reginald Wingate, the Governor General of the Sudan. The energetic and meticulous sanitary work of Balfour had a remarkable impact, with Khartoum declared mosquito-free by 1910. Establishing a research base in the laboratories was met with many challenges but eventually Balfour managed to recruit a team of dedicated researchers and to produce well-circulated publications in tropical medicine. Balfour’s work in Khartoum later lead him to a distinguished career in tropical medicine. In 1923 he was appointed the first Director of London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. He was also elected President of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (1925–27). Sir Andrew Balfour, KCMG, CB, LL D (1873–1931) PMID:27493361

  19. A pioneer of tropical medicine worldwide: Andrew Balfour, of Khartoum.

    PubMed

    Adeel, Ahmed A A

    2013-01-01

    This is an archival account of the career of Sir Andrew Balfour in Khartoum, Sudan during the period 1902 to 1913. As the first director of the Wellcome Tropical Research Laboratories in Khartoum during the period, Andrew Balfour was tasked with establishing the laboratories and at the same time he was engaged in founding the health services in Khartoum. Balfour worked in close collaboration and support from Henry Wellcome and Reginald Wingate, the Governor General of the Sudan. The energetic and meticulous sanitary work of Balfour had a remarkable impact, with Khartoum declared mosquito-free by 1910. Establishing a research base in the laboratories was met with many challenges but eventually Balfour managed to recruit a team of dedicated researchers and to produce well-circulated publications in tropical medicine. Balfour's work in Khartoum later lead him to a distinguished career in tropical medicine. In 1923 he was appointed the first Director of London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. He was also elected President of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (1925-27). Sir Andrew Balfour, KCMG, CB, LL D (1873 -1931).

  20. Wind damage effects of Hurricane Andrew on mangrove communities along the southwest coast of Florida, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doyle, T.W.; Smith, T. J.; Robblee, M.B.

    1995-01-01

    On August 24, 1992, Hurricane Andrew downed and defoliated an extensive swath of mangrove trees across the lower Florida peninsula. Permanent field sites were established to assess the extent of forest damage and to monitor the rate and process of forest recovery. Canopy trees suffered the highest mortality particularly for sites within and immediately north of the storm's eyewall. The type and extent of site damage, windthrow, branch loss, and defoliation generally decreased exponentially with increasing distance from the storm track. Forest damage was greater for sites in the storm's right quadrant than in the left quadrant tor the same given distance from the storm center. Stand exposure, both horizontally and vertically, increased the susceptibility and probability of forest damage and accounted for much of the local variability. Slight species differences were found. Laguncularia racemosa exceeded Avicennia germinans and Rhizophora mangle in damage tendency under similar wind conditions. Azimuths of downed trees were strongly correlated with maximum wind speed and vector based on a hurricane simulation of the storm. Lateral branch loss and leaf defoliation on sites without windthrow damage indicated a degree of crown thinning and light penetration equivalent to treefall gaps under normally intact forest conditions. Mangrove species and forests are susceptible to catastrophic disturbance by hurricanes; the impacts of which are significant to changes in forest structure and function.

  1. ANDREWS MOUNTAIN, MAZOURKA, AND PAIUTE ROADLESS AREAS, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKee, Edwin H.; Schmauch, Steven W.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of a mineral survey, local areas near and within the Andrews Mountain, Mazourka, and Paiute Roadless Areas, California have probable and substantiated mineral-resource potential. The principal metallic mineral resources in these roadless areas are gold, copper, and silver with lead, zinc, and tungsten, as lesser resources. A zone of probable resource potential for talc, graphite, and marble is identified in the Mazourka Roadless Area. Metallic mineralization occurs mostly in vein deposits in silicic and carbonate metasedimentary rocks peripheral to Mesozoic plutons and locally in granitic rocks as well. There is little promise for the occurrence of fossil fuel resources in the roadless areas.

  2. Branching Morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Horowitz, Arie; Simons, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Tubular structures are a fundamental anatomical theme recurring in a wide range of animal species. In mammals, tubulogenesis underscores the development of several systems and organs, including the vascular system, the lungs, and the kidneys. All tubular systems are hierarchical, branching into segments of gradually diminishing diameter. There are only two cell types that form the lumen of tubular systems – either endothelial cells in the vascular system, or epithelial cells in all other organs. The most important feature in determining the morphology of the tubular systems is the frequency and geometry of branching. Hence, deciphering the molecular mechanisms underlying the sprouting of new branches from pre-existing ones is the key to understanding the formation of tubular systems. The morphological similarity between the various tubular systems is underscored by similarities between the signaling pathways which control their branching. A prominent feature common to these pathways is their duality – an agonist counterbalanced by an inhibitor. The formation of the tracheal system in Drosophila melanogaster is driven by fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and inhibited by Sprouty/Notch. In vertebrates, the analogous pathways are FGF and transforming growth factor β in epithelial tubular systems, or vascular endothelial growth factor and Notch in the vascular system. PMID:19179661

  3. 33 CFR 334.761 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas. 334.761 Section 334.761 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... REGULATIONS § 334.761 Naval Support Activity Panama City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas. (a) The areas—(1... in this section shall be enforced by the Commanding Officer, Naval Support Activity, Panama...

  4. A Meta-Analytic Review of the MacAndrew Alcoholism Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper-Hakim, Amy; Viswesvaran, Chockalingam

    2002-01-01

    Using meta analysis, examined the predictive validity of scores on the MacAndrew Alcoholism Scale (C. MacAndrew, 1965). Compared results for 161 studies with results for 63 studies using cut scores. Discusses why the use of continuous measures rather than cut scores is recommended. (SLD)

  5. The Implementation of IAS 16 and IAS 41 at Andrew Peller Limited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapointe-Antunes, Pascale; Moore, James

    2013-01-01

    This case asks students to play the role of Doug Grodeckie, Manager of Financial Reporting at Andrew Peller Limited (APL). Doug was asked to prepare a report analyzing Andrew Peller Limited's current tangible long-lived assets disclosures and making recommendations on how best to comply with International Accounting Standard (IAS) 16 Property,…

  6. 33 CFR 334.761 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas. 334.761 Section 334.761 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.761 Naval Support Activity Panama City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas. (a) The...

  7. Fault Branching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmowska, R.; Rice, J. R.; Poliakov, A. N.

    2001-12-01

    Theoretical stress analysis for a propagating shear rupture suggests that the propensity of the rupture path to branch is determined by rupture speed and by the preexisting stress state. See Poliakov, Dmowska and Rice (JGR, submitted April 2001, URL below). Deviatoric stresses near a mode II rupture tip are found to be much higher to both sides of the fault plane than directly ahead, when rupture speed becomes close to the Rayleigh speed. However, the actual pattern of predicted Coulomb failure on secondary faults is strongly dependent on the angle between the fault and the direction of maximum compression Smax in the pre-stress field. Steep Smax angles lead to more extensive failure on the extensional side, whereas shallow angles give comparable failure regions on both. Here we test such concepts against natural examples. For crustal thrust faults we may assume that Smax is horizontal. Thus nucleation on a steeply dipping plane, like the 53 ° dip for the 1971 San Fernando earthquake, is consistent with rupture path kinking to the extensional side, as inferred. Nucleation on a shallow dip, like for the 12 ° -18 ° of the 1985 Kettleman Hills event, should activate both sides, as seems consistent with aftershock patterns. Similarly, in a strike slip example, Smax is inferred to be at approximately 60 ° with the Johnson Valley fault where it branched to the extensional side onto the Landers-Kickapoo fault in the 1992 event, and this too is consistent. Further, geological examination of the activation of secondary fault features along the Johnson Valley fault and the Homestead Valley fault consistently shows that most activity occurs on the extensional side. Another strike-slip example is the Imperial Valley 1979 earthquake. The approximate Smax direction is north-south, at around 35 ° with the main fault, where it branched, on the extensional side, onto Brawley fault, again interpretable with the concepts developed.

  8. A transnational conference romance: Elsie Andrews, Hildegarde Kneeland, and the Pan-Pacific Women's Association.

    PubMed

    Laurie, Alison J

    2009-01-01

    Elsie Andrews, a feminist activist from New Zealand, met Dr. Hildegarde Kneeland, a progressive economist from the United States, at the 1934 Pan-Pacific Women's Association conference in Honolulu. Andrews wrote diaries of her attendance at conferences, and in these writes openly of her attraction and romantic feelings for Kneeland, despite her own long-term domestic partnership back in New Plymouth with Muriel Kirton. This article considers the role conference romances may have played for Andrews and others in encouraging their interest in women's organizations, in the context of literature on romantic friendships and lesbianism.

  9. Report: Results of Technical Network Vulnerability Assessment: EPA’s Andrew W. Breidenbach Environmental Research Center

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report #10-P-0210, September 7, 2010. Vulnerability testing of EPA’s Andrew W. Breidenbach Environmental Research Center network conducted in June 2010 identified Internet Protocol addresses with numerous high-risk and medium-risk vulnerabilities.

  10. ISS Update: RATS Principal Investigator Andrew Abercromby -- 08.29.12

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Brandi Dean talks to the Research And Technology Studies (RATS) Principal Investigator Andrew Abercromby in the Space Vehicle Mock-Up Facility at Johnson Space Center in...

  11. Andrew meets Rensch: sexual size dimorphism and the inverse of Rensch's rule in Andrew's toad (Bufo andrewsi).

    PubMed

    Liao, Wen Bo; Liu, Wen Chao; Merilä, Juha

    2015-02-01

    Variation in sexual size dimorphism (SSD) is a widespread phenomenon and is commonly attributed to variation in sex-specific patterns of selection. According to Rensch's rule, SSD increases with increasing body size when males are the larger sex, and decreases when females are the larger sex. Using data from 17 populations of Andrew's toad (Bufo andrewsi), we tested whether the patterns of SSD conform to Rensch's rule. Using field experiments, we also evaluated the hypothesis that sexual selection favours large male body size and that fecundity selection favours large female body size. The results revealed that the degree of SSD increased with increasing mean size in females, consistent with the inverse of Rensch's rule. Although experiments revealed evidence for a large-male mating advantage, selection for large male size was weak at best, and hence unlikely to be an important source of variation in SSD. However, fecundity selection favouring large females was evident, and likely to explain the observed inverse of Rensch's rule. After correcting male and female body size for age differences, the patterns of SSD remained the same, suggesting that the intra- and interpopulational variation in SSD is not driven by sex differences in age structure. Hence, these findings suggest that the strong fecundity selection favouring large females drives the evolution of female-biased SSD in B. andrewsi, providing an explanation for the inverse of Rensch's rule. As such, the study provides an important addition to the small body of literature that uses an intraspecific approach to demonstrate the inverse of Rensch's rule.

  12. The life of Andrew Boorde, c1490-1549.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Patricia E S

    2002-01-01

    Physician, traveller, writer and spy, Andrew Boorde was born c1490 and became a Carthusian monk after abandoning his medical studies at Oxford. Temperamentally unsuited to the life of a religious, after 20 years at the London Charterhouse he obtained a dispensation to travel to Europe to continue his medical studies. Returning to England he began to practise medicine, treating members of the nobility and, through a meeting with Thomas Cromwell which was to influence the rest of his life, he attended the King, Henry VIII. In 1534, after a second, more extensive, tour of Europe in which he visited many medical schools and universities seeking yet more medical knowledge, he returned to the London Charterhouse which was undergoing a brutal dissolution at the hands of Thomas Cromwell. Boorde reluctantly signed the Oath of Supremacy, an act which was to haunt him for the rest of his life. He was then used by Cromwell to travel abroad again but this time as a spy to gather intelligence for the King while continuing to study medicine. Boorde finally took his MD at the University of Montpellier and was incorporated in the same degree a year later at Oxford. He then gave expression to all he had learnt by writing his legacy, four books which were published in 1547. 'A Compendyous Regyment or a Dyetary of Health' was one of the earliest treatises on the cultivation of health composed in England and stressed the importance of sanitation together with a detailed examination of diet. The 'Brevyary of Health' listed diseases alphabetically together with remedies and treatment, blending sound medical advice with religion and superstition: its companion volume was 'The Principles of Astronomy'. But Boorde's 'Fyrst Boke of the Introduction of Knowledge' was his tour-de-force; it was a comprehensive encyclopaedia of all the European countries he had visited, illustrated by woodcuts. By 1547 Boorde was settled in England, probably Master of the Hospital of St Giles-in-the-Fields in

  13. The McAndrews Leadership Lecture: February 2015, by Dr Scott Haldeman. Challenges of the Past, Challenges of the Present

    PubMed Central

    Haldeman, Scott; McAndrews, George P.; Goertz, Christine; Sportelli, Louis; Hamm, Anthony W.; Johnson, Claire

    2015-01-01

    The McAndrews Leadership Lecture was developed by the American Chiropractic Association to honor the legacy of Jerome F. McAndrews, DC, and George P. McAndrews, JD, and their contributions to the chiropractic profession. This article is a transcription of the presentation made by Dr Scott Haldeman on February 28, 2015, in Washington, DC, at the National Chiropractic Leadership Conference. PMID:26770177

  14. Andrew's bridge system: an aesthetic and functional option for rehabilitation of compromised maxillary anterior dentition

    PubMed Central

    Tambe, Abhijit; Patil, Sanjayagouda B; Bhat, Sudhakara; Badadare, Mokshada M

    2014-01-01

    Summary A patient with several missing teeth in the anterior aesthetic region along with severe ridge defect poses a greater challenge for prosthodontic rehabilitation. In such cases treatment using fixed partial denture (FPD) may not be feasible because of the extent of edentulous span and the periodontal conditions of the abutment teeth. To present a case of multiple missing maxillary anterior teeth with class III ridge defect rehabilitated using FPD-removable partial denture. A 38-year-old female patient was successfully rehabilitated using Andrew's bridge system in the maxillary anterior region. The fixed-removable Andrew's bridge system provides a good prognosis if diagnosed and planned meticulously. PMID:25035444

  15. Analyzing after-action reports from Hurricanes Andrew and Katrina: repeated, modified, and newly created recommendations.

    PubMed

    Knox, Claire Connolly

    2013-01-01

    Thirteen years after Hurricane Andrew struck Homestead, FL, Hurricane Katrina devastated the Gulf Coast of Mississippi, Alabama, and southeastern Louisiana. Along with all its destruction, the term "catastrophic" was redefined. This article extends the literature on these hurricanes by providing a macrolevel analysis of The Governor's Disaster Planning and Response Review Committee Final Report from Hurricane Andrew and three federal after-action reports from Hurricane Katrina, as well as a cursory review of relevant literature. Results provide evidence that previous lessons have not been learned or institutionalized with many recommendations being repeated or modified. This article concludes with a discussion of these lessons, as well as new issues arising during Hurricane Katrina.

  16. Relationship of DUI recidivism to moral reasoning, sensation seeking, and MacAndrew alcoholism scores.

    PubMed

    Little, G L; Robinson, K D

    1989-12-01

    115 convicted male DUI offenders were treated with Moral Reconation Therapy during their incarceration. Postrelease recidivism status (arrests) was correlated with the pretest, posttest, and change scores on the MacAndrew Alcoholism Scale, Sensation Seeking Scale, Life-purpose scores, and Moral Reasoning scores. Analysis showed that recidivism correlated positively and significantly with the pretest scores on the MacAndrew scale and approached significance with both pre- and posttest scores on the Sensation Seeking Scale. Recidivism status correlated negatively and significantly with scores on the highest levels of moral reasoning (Scale 6 pretest and posttest and Principled Reasoning pretest).

  17. Capacities of template-type platforms in the Gulf of Mexico during hurricane Andrew

    SciTech Connect

    Bea, R.G.; Loch, K.J.; Young, P.L.

    1997-02-01

    This paper details results from nonlinear analyses of the ultimate limit state performance characteristics of four Gulf of Mexico (GOM) platforms subjected to intense loadings from hurricane Andrew. These four platforms were located to the east of the track of hurricane Andrew, and were thus in the most intense portion of the storm (Smith, 1993). The nonlinear analyses are able to replicate details of the observed behavior of the four structures. This replication is very dependent on realistic characterization of the performance characteristics of the pile foundations and on accurate information on the as is condition of the platforms before the storm.

  18. 33 CFR 334.760 - Naval Support Activity Panama City and Alligator Bayou, a tributary of St. Andrew Bay, Fla...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... City and Alligator Bayou, a tributary of St. Andrew Bay, Fla.; naval restricted area. 334.760 Section... Alligator Bayou, a tributary of St. Andrew Bay, Fla.; naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters within... the south side of the entrance to Alligator Bayou; thence directly across the entrance to a point...

  19. 33 CFR 334.760 - Naval Support Activity Panama City and Alligator Bayou, a tributary of St. Andrew Bay, Fla...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... City and Alligator Bayou, a tributary of St. Andrew Bay, Fla.; naval restricted area. 334.760 Section... Alligator Bayou, a tributary of St. Andrew Bay, Fla.; naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters within... the south side of the entrance to Alligator Bayou; thence directly across the entrance to a point...

  20. 33 CFR 334.760 - Naval Support Activity Panama City and Alligator Bayou, a tributary of St. Andrew Bay, Fla...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... City and Alligator Bayou, a tributary of St. Andrew Bay, Fla.; naval restricted area. 334.760 Section... Alligator Bayou, a tributary of St. Andrew Bay, Fla.; naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters within... the south side of the entrance to Alligator Bayou; thence directly across the entrance to a point...

  1. 33 CFR 334.760 - Naval Support Activity Panama City and Alligator Bayou, a tributary of St. Andrew Bay, Fla...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... City and Alligator Bayou, a tributary of St. Andrew Bay, Fla.; naval restricted area. 334.760 Section... Alligator Bayou, a tributary of St. Andrew Bay, Fla.; naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters within... the south side of the entrance to Alligator Bayou; thence directly across the entrance to a point...

  2. Traversing the Gap: Andrew Wright, John Hick and Critical Religious Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teece, Geoff

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses aspects of Andrew Wright's version of a liberal, critical religious education and his criticisms of some other views of modern religious education. This is attempted not by examining these "other views" as such but by concentrating on the work of John Hick. The reason for this is that Wright, like Cooling (in his…

  3. Crisis Intervention with Survivors of Natural Disaster: Lessons from Hurricane Andrew.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelby, Janine S.; Tredinnick, Michael G.

    1995-01-01

    Crisis intervention has typically been conceptualized as seeking a return of clients to a state of equilibrium. Personal work experience with Hurricane Andrew survivors has led to an appreciation of the importance of several considerations. Develops a proactive approach, attempting to recognize and extend clients' preexisting strengths. Offers…

  4. 75 FR 41895 - Whirlpool Corporation, Evansville Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Andrews...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

    ... Workers From Andrews International, Inc., M.H. Equipment, and Kenco Logistics Services, LLC, Evansville... that workers leased from MH Equipment and Kenco Logistics Services, LLC, were employed on-site at the... from MH Equipment and Kenco Logistics Services, LLC working on-site at the Evansville, Indiana...

  5. 77 FR 2968 - Pomperaug Hydro Project, Andrew Peklo III; Notice Establishing Deadline for Comments and Reply...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Pomperaug Hydro Project, Andrew Peklo III; Notice Establishing Deadline for Comments and Reply Comments On December 15, 2011, the Commission issued notice that Office of Energy Projects staff will hold a site visit...

  6. Because Everyone Has a Story to Tell: Interview with Andrew Wright

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floris, Flora Debora

    2016-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Andrew Wright, a widely recognized author, illustrator, storyteller, and teacher trainer. Wright has published many ELT books, authored six "Spellbinder" graded readers (1992-1994), and a collection of short stories. As a teacher trainer, Wright worked extensively with both teachers and students in…

  7. Astronauts Mario Runco, Jr. and Andrew S. W. Thomas, both mission specialists, pose for photo while

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    STS-77 ESC VIEW --- Astronauts Mario Runco, Jr. and Andrew S. W. Thomas, both mission specialists, pose for photo while in the mid-deck of the Earth-orbiting Space Shuttle Endeavour. The scene was recorded with an Electronic Still Camera (ESC).

  8. Astronaut Andrew M. Allen, mission commander, sets up systems for a television downlink on the

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    STS-75 ONBOARD VIEW --- Astronaut Andrew M. Allen, mission commander, sets up systems for a television downlink on the flight deck of the Space Shuttle Columbia. Allen was joined by four other astronauts and an international payload specialist for more than 16 days of research aboard Columbia. The photograph was taken with a 70mm handheld camera.

  9. 56. Aerial view looking west; Andrew McLean Company Textile Mill ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. Aerial view looking west; Andrew McLean Company Textile Mill at bottom, Dundee Canal at center, Botany Worsted Mills at top - Dundee Canal Industrial Historic District, Beginning at George Street in Passaic & extending north along Dundee Canal approximately 1.2 miles to Canal headgates opposite East Clifton Avenue in Clifton, Passaic, Passaic County, NJ

  10. 30. View looking north from Andrew McLean Company Textile Mill; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. View looking north from Andrew McLean Company Textile Mill; Dundee Canal at center, Botany Worsted Mills in background - Dundee Canal Industrial Historic District, Beginning at George Street in Passaic & extending north along Dundee Canal approximately 1.2 miles to Canal headgates opposite East Clifton Avenue in Clifton, Passaic, Passaic County, NJ

  11. 17. View looking north; Andrew McLean Company Textile Mill, Building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. View looking north; Andrew McLean Company Textile Mill, Building No. 1, at right, Botany Worsted Mills at left distance - Dundee Canal Industrial Historic District, Beginning at George Street in Passaic & extending north along Dundee Canal approximately 1.2 miles to Canal headgates opposite East Clifton Avenue in Clifton, Passaic, Passaic County, NJ

  12. 31. View looking north from Andrew McLean Company Textile Mill; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. View looking north from Andrew McLean Company Textile Mill; Dundee Canal at center, Botany Worsted Mills in background - Dundee Canal Industrial Historic District, Beginning at George Street in Passaic & extending north along Dundee Canal approximately 1.2 miles to Canal headgates opposite East Clifton Avenue in Clifton, Passaic, Passaic County, NJ

  13. 19. View of Andrew McLean Company Textile Mill looking south; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. View of Andrew McLean Company Textile Mill looking south; Building No. 2 at center, Botany Mills Lanolin Retrieval plant site in foreground - Dundee Canal Industrial Historic District, Beginning at George Street in Passaic & extending north along Dundee Canal approximately 1.2 miles to Canal headgates opposite East Clifton Avenue in Clifton, Passaic, Passaic County, NJ

  14. Amos Kendall's Role in the Election of Andrew Jackson as President of the United States, 1828.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowell, Bob

    Amos Kendall's place in journalism history rests largely on his service as a journalist turned government official in the two administrations of President Andrew Jackson. Historians have claimed that Kendall was an influential journalist of the "partisan press" era, but they have provided little documentation. That documentation has been…

  15. 22. View of Andrew McLean Company Textile Mill looking north; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. View of Andrew McLean Company Textile Mill looking north; Building No. 1 at left, Building No. 4 at right - Dundee Canal Industrial Historic District, Beginning at George Street in Passaic & extending north along Dundee Canal approximately 1.2 miles to Canal headgates opposite East Clifton Avenue in Clifton, Passaic, Passaic County, NJ

  16. 15. View of Andrew McLean Company Textile Mill looking northeast; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. View of Andrew McLean Company Textile Mill looking northeast; Building No. 1 at left, Building No. 6 at center - Dundee Canal Industrial Historic District, Beginning at George Street in Passaic & extending north along Dundee Canal approximately 1.2 miles to Canal headgates opposite East Clifton Avenue in Clifton, Passaic, Passaic County, NJ

  17. 14. View of Andrew McLean Company Textile Mill looking north; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. View of Andrew McLean Company Textile Mill looking north; Building No. 6 at right, Building No. 1 in background, gateposts in foreground - Dundee Canal Industrial Historic District, Beginning at George Street in Passaic & extending north along Dundee Canal approximately 1.2 miles to Canal headgates opposite East Clifton Avenue in Clifton, Passaic, Passaic County, NJ

  18. 20. View of Andrew McLean Company Textile Mill looking southeast; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. View of Andrew McLean Company Textile Mill looking southeast; Building No. 2 at left, Building No. 3 at right - Dundee Canal Industrial Historic District, Beginning at George Street in Passaic & extending north along Dundee Canal approximately 1.2 miles to Canal headgates opposite East Clifton Avenue in Clifton, Passaic, Passaic County, NJ

  19. 23. View of open firststory passageway of Andrew McLean Company ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. View of open first-story passageway of Andrew McLean Company Textile Mill Building No. 1, looking west - Dundee Canal Industrial Historic District, Beginning at George Street in Passaic & extending north along Dundee Canal approximately 1.2 miles to Canal headgates opposite East Clifton Avenue in Clifton, Passaic, Passaic County, NJ

  20. 16. View of Andrew McLean Company Textile Mill looking southeast; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. View of Andrew McLean Company Textile Mill looking southeast; Building No. 6 at center, roof of Building No. 1 at left - Dundee Canal Industrial Historic District, Beginning at George Street in Passaic & extending north along Dundee Canal approximately 1.2 miles to Canal headgates opposite East Clifton Avenue in Clifton, Passaic, Passaic County, NJ

  1. 18. View of Andrew McLean Company Textile Mill looking north; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. View of Andrew McLean Company Textile Mill looking north; Building No. 3 at center right, Building No. 2 at center distance, Dundee Canal at left - Dundee Canal Industrial Historic District, Beginning at George Street in Passaic & extending north along Dundee Canal approximately 1.2 miles to Canal headgates opposite East Clifton Avenue in Clifton, Passaic, Passaic County, NJ

  2. Impact of an extreme event on the sediment budget: Hurricane Andrew in the Louisiana barrier islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    List, Jeffrey H.; Hansen, Mark E.; Sallenger,, Asbury H.; Jaffe, Bruce E.; Edge, B.L

    1997-01-01

    This paper examines the influence of Hurricane Andrew on the sediment budget of an 80-kilometer section of the Louisiana barrier islands west of the modern Mississippi delta. Because long-term bathymetric change has been extensively studied in this area, excellent baseline data are available for evaluating the impact of Hurricane Andrew. Results show that despite the high intensity of the storm and a storm track optimally positioned to impact the study area, the storm did not have an overwhelming influence on the sediment budget when compared to the changes occurring over the previous 50 years. For the Louisiana barrier islands, a 50-year record appears to be adequate for averaging the long-term contributions of both major and minor storm events to the sediment budget.

  3. 21. View of Andrew McLean Company Textile Mill looking west; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. View of Andrew McLean Company Textile Mill looking west; Building No. 4 at left, Building No. 1 at left center, Building No. 3 at center, Building No. 2 at right center, Building No. 5 at right - Dundee Canal Industrial Historic District, Beginning at George Street in Passaic & extending north along Dundee Canal approximately 1.2 miles to Canal headgates opposite East Clifton Avenue in Clifton, Passaic, Passaic County, NJ

  4. Environmental Assessment of the Privatization of Military Family Housing at Andrews Air Force Base, Maryland

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-01

    congressional legislation. b. Ensures that eligible military members and their families have access to quality, attractive , and affordable housing...average annual temperature at Andrews AFB is 56 degrees Fahrenheit (ºF), the mean annual precipitation is 42.5 inches, the mean average snowfall is...surface water turbidity, which can raise water temperature and impede photosynthetic processes. Sediment runoff into surface water bodies also

  5. Environmental Assessment of Communications Support Facilities Andrews Air Force Base, Maryland

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    Anacostia River on the west and the Patuxent River on the east. Land surface elevations on Andrews AFB vary from approximately 215 feet above mean sea...within three significantly diverse watersheds: the Potomac River , Anacostia River , and Patuxent River . These watersheds drain 2.3 17 square miles of...George’s County, while 132,000 acres drain to the Anacostia River (USA F 200 I). The majority of the base lies within the Potomac Ri ver Watershed

  6. Andrew Wyeth and N.C. Wyeth: a psychodynamic perspective on father and son.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Jon A

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between two extraordinary artists, father and son--N.C. Wyeth (1882-1945) and Andrew Wyeth (1917-2009)--and their art. N.C. Wyeth, the father, the most famous illustrator of his day, painted scenes full of drama and action, often of men engaged in violent life and death struggles. N.C. was unable to separate from his powerful mother and yearned for his iconic father. He thought himself an artistic failure and dedicated himself to raising his children to be geniuses. The youngest son, Andrew Wyeth, who lived a "secret life," painted scenes often characterized by pathos: bleak and barren landscapes, leaden skies, tire tracks, gray framed houses, desiccated fields, and circling buzzards. In the father-son relationship, we often seen three themes perpetuated developmentally: (1) the son's identification with the innermost conflicts of his father; (2) the yearning for the iconic father of his youth; and (3) a continuation and disavowal of his father's life. These themes are played out in the relationship between Andrew Wyeth and his father.

  7. 78 FR 6173 - Diana Del Grosso, Ray Smith, Joseph Hatch, Cheryl Hatch, Kathleen Kelley, Andrew Wilklund, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Diana Del Grosso, Ray Smith, Joseph Hatch, Cheryl Hatch, Kathleen... Smith, Joseph Hatch, Cheryl Hatch, Kathleen Kelley, Andrew Wilklund, and Richard Kosiba...

  8. Environmental Assessment of Modifications to Building 1535 and Demolition of 3306 at Andrews Air Force Base, Maryland

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-09-01

    100 feet except for moderately steep stream banks. Andrews AFB is located in a level plateau between the Anacostia River on the Andrews AFB, MD...surface water quality also because of the potential to introduce sediments and other contaminants into lakes, rivers , and streams. Storm water...watersheds are the Potomac River , Anacostia , and Patuxent. These watersheds drain 2,317 square miles of the east-central portion of the Chesapeake

  9. Melons are Branched Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurau, Razvan; Ryan, James P.

    2014-11-01

    Melonic graphs constitute the family of graphs arising at leading order in the 1/N expansion of tensor models. They were shown to lead to a continuum phase, reminiscent of branched polymers. We show here that they are in fact precisely branched polymers, that is, they possess Hausdorff dimension 2 and spectral dimension 4/3.

  10. Materials Test Branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Gail

    2012-01-01

    The Materials Test Branch resides at Marshall Space Flight Center's Materials and Processing laboratory and has a long history of supporting NASA programs from Mercury to the recently retired Space Shuttle. The Materials Test Branch supports its customers by supplying materials testing expertise in a wide range of applications. The Materials Test Branch is divided into three Teams, The Chemistry Team, The Tribology Team and the Mechanical Test Team. Our mission and goal is to provide world-class engineering excellence in materials testing with a special emphasis on customer service.

  11. Management of Oro-Nasal Fistula Using Andrew's Bridge: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Harish, P V; Bhojaraju, Nandakishore; Sowmya, G R; Gangaiah, Makam

    2014-09-01

    Oro-nasal fistula is the most common complication following the surgical closure of the cleft palate. Retention is the paramount factor in the successful prosthodontic habilitation of cleft palate patients. Various precision attachments have provided us with the opportunity to make the prosthesis fixed removable type; giving a double advantage to the patient i.e. comfort through fixed type and easy maintenance through removal type. This case report describes a case of oro-nasal fistula habilitated with an obturator attached to Andrew's bridge, which had good retention and esthetics.

  12. Cognition About the Creative Process – Interview With Dr Andrew P. Allen

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Andrew P.; Loughnane, Lynda

    2016-01-01

    What is the relationship between the creative process and cognition and perception? Lynda Loughnane, a master’s student in Art and Process in Crawford College of Art and Design, Cork, Ireland interviewed Dr Andrew P. Allen about the subject. Areas covered include mindfulness, Type 1 and Type 2 thinking, stage theories of creativity, engagement with the art process and the artwork, phenomenology and consciousness with and without self report. The interview was constructed to cover a wide range of subject matter, so as to gather as much information as possible in layman's language about the cognitive process in relation to creativity and interaction with art. PMID:27872674

  13. On Minkowskian branching structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wroński, Leszek; Placek, Tomasz

    In Belnap's [Branching space-time. Synthese, 92, 385-434. 'Postprint' archived at http://philsci-archive.pitt.edu/archive/00001003] theory of branching space-times (BST) Our World's possible histories are thought of as space-times, yet the theory has models in which histories do not resemble relativistic space-times or any other physical space-times. The aim of this paper is to define a certain class of BST models, called 'Minkowskian Branching Structures' (MBSs), in which histories are isomorphic to Minkowski space-time. By focusing on these models rather than on general BST models, we hope that one may be able to improve on earlier BST analyses of physical phenomena. Also, introducing MBSs sets the stage for recent discussions about whether or not branching is physically feasible.

  14. The Olive Branch Awards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harnack, William

    1984-01-01

    The first annual Olive Branch Awards, sponsored by the Writers' and Publishers Alliance and the Editors' Organizing Committee, were given to ten magazines, out of 60 that submitted entries. Winning entries are described briefly. (IM)

  15. Ecological evaluation of proposed dredged material from St. Andrew Bay, Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Mayhew, H.L.; Word, J.Q.; Kohn, N.P.; Pinza, M.R.; Karle, L.M.; Ward, J.A.

    1993-10-01

    The US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Mobile District, requested that the Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) conduct field sampling and chemical and biological testing to determine the suitability of potential dredged material for open ocean disposal. Sediment from St. Andrew Bay was chemically characterized and evaluated for biological toxicity and bioaccumulation of contaminants. The Tier III guidance for ocean disposal testing requires tests of water column effects (following dredged material disposal), deposited sediment toxicity, and bioaccumulation of contaminants from deposited sediment (dredged material). To meet these requirements, the MSL conducted suspended-particulate-phase (SPP) toxicity tests, solid-phase toxicity tests, and bioaccumulation testing on sediment representing potential dredged material from Panama City Harbor. Physical and chemical characterization of sediment to support toxicity and bioaccumulation results was also conducted on both the test and reference sediments. The MSL collected sediment samples from five sites in St. Andrew Bay and one reference site near Lands End Peninsula. The five test sediments and the reference sediment were analyzed for physical and chemical sediment characteristics, SPP chemical contaminants, solid-phase toxicity, SPP toxicity, and bioaccumulation of contaminants.

  16. Delayed tree mortality in the Atchafalaya Basin of Southern Louisiana following Hurricane Andrew

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keeland, B.D.; Gorham, L.E.

    2009-01-01

    Hurricanes can damage trees in forested wetlands, and the potential for mortality related to these storms exists due to the effects of tree damage over time. In August 1992, Hurricane Andrew passed through the forested wetlands of southern Louisiana with winds in excess of 225 kph. Although more than 78 of the basal area was destroyed in some areas, most trees greater than 2.5 cm dbh were alive and resprouting prolifically the following year (98.8). Survival of most tree species was similarly high two years after the hurricane, but mortality rates of some species increased dramatically. For example, Populus heterophylla (swamp cottonwood) mortality increased from 7.8 to 59.2 (n 76) and Salix interior (sandbar willow) mortality increased from 4.5 to 57.1 (n 21). Stem sprouts on many up-rooted hardwood trees of other species were still alive in 1998, 6 years after the hurricane. Due to the understory tree species composition, regeneration, and high levels of resprouting, there was little change in species composition or perhaps a slight shift toward more shade and flood tolerant species six years following the hurricane event. Triadica sebifera (Chinese tallow) was found on some of the sites heavily disturbed by Hurricane Andrew, and may proliferate at the expense of native tree species. ?? 2009 The Society of Wetland Scientists.

  17. Development of pile foundation bias factors using observed behavior of platforms during Hurricane Andrew

    SciTech Connect

    Aggarwal, R.K.; Litton, R.W.; Cornell, C.A.; Tang, W.H.; Chen, J.H.; Murff, J.D.

    1996-12-31

    The performance of more than 3,000 offshore platforms in the Gulf of Mexico was observed during the passage of Hurricane Andrew in August 1992. This event provided an opportunity to test the procedures used for platform analysis and design. A global bias was inferred for overall platform capacity and loads in the Andrew Joint Industry Project (JIP) Phase 1. It was predicted that the pile foundations of several platforms should have failed, but did not. These results indicated that the biases specific to foundation failure modes may be higher than those of jacket failure modes. The biases in predictions of foundation failure modes were therefore investigated further in this study. The work included capacity analysis and calibration of predictions with the observed behavior for 3 jacket platforms and 3 caissons using Bayesian updating. Bias factors for two foundation failure modes, lateral shear and overturning, were determined for each structure. Foundation capacity estimates using conventional methods were found to be conservatively biased overall.

  18. James Gregory, the University observatory and the early acquisition of scientific instruments at the University of St Andrews

    PubMed Central

    Rawson, Helen C.

    2015-01-01

    James Gregory, inventor of the reflecting telescope and Fellow of the Royal Society, was the first Regius Professor of Mathematics of the University of St Andrews, 1668–74. He attempted to establish in St Andrews what would, if completed, have been the first purpose-built observatory in the British Isles. He travelled to London in 1673 to purchase instruments for equipping the observatory and improving the teaching and study of natural philosophy and mathematics in the university, seeking the advice of John Flamsteed, later the first Astronomer Royal. This paper considers the observatory initiative and the early acquisition of instruments at the University of St Andrews, with reference to Gregory's correspondence, inventories made ca. 1699–ca. 1718 and extant instruments themselves, some of which predate Gregory's time. It examines the structure and fate of the university observatory, the legacy of Gregory's teaching and endeavours, and the meridian line laid down in 1748 in the University Library.

  19. Damage Tolerance Assessment Branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, James L.

    2013-01-01

    The Damage Tolerance Assessment Branch evaluates the ability of a structure to perform reliably throughout its service life in the presence of a defect, crack, or other form of damage. Such assessment is fundamental to the use of structural materials and requires an integral blend of materials engineering, fracture testing and analysis, and nondestructive evaluation. The vision of the Branch is to increase the safety of manned space flight by improving the fracture control and the associated nondestructive evaluation processes through development and application of standards, guidelines, advanced test and analytical methods. The Branch also strives to assist and solve non-aerospace related NDE and damage tolerance problems, providing consultation, prototyping and inspection services.

  20. Pen Branch delta expansion

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, E.A.; Christensen, E.J.; Mackey, H.E.; Sharitz, R.R.; Jensen, J.R.; Hodgson, M.E.

    1984-02-01

    Since 1954, cooling water discharges from K Reactor ({anti X} = 370 cfs {at} 59 C) to Pen Branch have altered vegetation and deposited sediment in the Savannah River Swamp forming the Pen Branch delta. Currently, the delta covers over 300 acres and continues to expand at a rate of about 16 acres/yr. Examination of delta expansion can provide important information on environmental impacts to wetlands exposed to elevated temperature and flow conditions. To assess the current status and predict future expansion of the Pen Branch delta, historic aerial photographs were analyzed using both basic photo interpretation and computer techniques to provide the following information: (1) past and current expansion rates; (2) location and changes of impacted areas; (3) total acreage presently affected. Delta acreage changes were then compared to historic reactor discharge temperature and flow data to see if expansion rate variations could be related to reactor operations.

  1. Radioiodinated branched carbohydrates

    DOEpatents

    Goodman, Mark M.; Knapp, Jr., Furn F.

    1989-01-01

    A radioiodinated branched carbohydrate for tissue imaging. Iodine-123 is stabilized in the compound by attaching it to a vinyl functional group that is on the carbohydrate. The compound exhibits good uptake and retention and is promising in the development of radiopharmaceuticals for brain, heart and tumor imaging.

  2. Front Range Branch Officers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Front Range Branch of AGU has installed officers for 1990: Ray Noble, National Center for Atmospheric Research, chair; Sherry Oaks, U.S. Geological Survey, chair-elect; Howard Garcia, NOAA, treasurer; Catharine Skokan, Colorado School of Mines, secretary. JoAnn Joselyn of NOAA is past chair. Members at large are Wallace Campbell, NOAA; William Neff, USGS; and Stephen Schneider, NCAR.

  3. Branching space-times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Placek, Tomasz; Müller, Thomas

    The five papers presented below have been selected from among the fourteen read at the European Science Foundation workshop Branching Space-Times (BST), held at the Jagiellonian University in Kraków, Poland, in October 2005. This event gathered for the first time leading researchers working on this subject.

  4. The post-disaster negative health legacy: pregnancy outcomes in Louisiana after Hurricane Andrew.

    PubMed

    Antipova, Anzhelika; Curtis, Andrew

    2015-10-01

    Disasters and displacement increasingly affect and challenge urban settings. How do pregnant women fare in the aftermath of a major disaster? This paper investigates the effect of pregnancies in disaster situations. The study tests a hypothesis that pregnant women residing in hurricane-prone areas suffer higher health risks. The setting is Louisiana in the Gulf Coast, United States, a state that continually experiences hurricane impacts. The time period for the analysis is three years following the landfall of Hurricane Andrew in 1992. We analysed low birth weight and preterm deliveries before and after landfall, as a whole and by race. Findings support an association between hazards and health of a community and indicate that pregnant women in the affected area, irrespective of race, are more likely to experience preterm deliveries compared to pre-event births. Results suggest there is a negative health legacy impact in Louisiana as a result of hurricane landfall.

  5. Business closure and relocation: a comparative analysis of the Loma Prieta earthquake and Hurricane Andrew.

    PubMed

    Wasileski, Gabriela; Rodríguez, Havidán; Diaz, Walter

    2011-01-01

    The occurrence of a number of large-scale disasters or catastrophes in recent years, including the Indian Ocean tsunami (2004), the Kashmir earthquake (2005), Hurricane Katrina (2005) and Hurricane Ike (2008), have raised our awareness regarding the devastating effects of disasters on human populations and the importance of developing mitigation and preparedness strategies to limit the consequences of such events. However, there is still a dearth of social science research focusing on the socio-economic impact of disasters on businesses in the United States. This paper contributes to this research literature by focusing on the impact of disasters on business closure and relocation through the use of multivariate logistic regression models, specifically focusing on the Loma Prieta earthquake (1989) and Hurricane Andrew (1992). Using a multivariate model, we examine how physical damage to the infrastructure, lifeline disruption and business characteristics, among others, impact business closure and relocation following major disasters.

  6. STS-89 M.S. Andrew Thomas, poses the day before launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    STS-89 Mission Specialist Andrew Thomas, Ph.D., poses at KSC's Launch Pad 39A wearing a miniature koala bear on the day before the scheduled launch of Space Shuttle Endeavour that will carry him up to the Russian Space Station Mir. Final preparations are under way toward liftoff on Jan. 22 on the eighth mission to dock with Mir. After docking, Dr. Thomas will transfer to the space station, succeeding David Wolf, M.D., who will return to Earth aboard Endeavour. Dr. Thomas, who was born and educated in South Australia, will live and work on Mir until June. STS-89 is scheduled for liftoff at 9:48 p.m. EST.

  7. Children's predisaster functioning as a predictor of posttraumatic stress following Hurricane Andrew.

    PubMed

    La Greca, A M; Silverman, W K; Wasserstein, S B

    1998-12-01

    This study examined (a) children's predisaster behavioral and academic functioning as a predictor of posttraumatic stress (PTS) following Hurricane Andrew and (b) whether children who were exposed to the disaster would display a worsening of prior functioning. Fifteen months before the disaster, 92 4th through 6th graders provided self-reports of anxiety; peers and teachers rated behavior problems (anxiety, inattention, and conduct) and academic skills. Measures were repeated 3 months postdisaster; children also reported PTS symptoms and hurricane-related experiences (i.e., exposure). PTS symptoms were again assessed 7 months postdisaster. At 3 months postdisaster, children's exposure to the disaster, as well as predisaster ratings of anxiety, inattention, and academic skills, predicted PTS symptoms. By 7 months, only exposure, African American ethnicity, and predisaster anxiety predicted PTS. Prior anxiety levels also worsened as a result of exposure to the disaster. The findings have implications for identifying and treating children at risk for stress reactions following a catastrophic disaster.

  8. 33 CFR 334.760 - Naval Support Activity Panama City and Alligator Bayou, a tributary of St. Andrew Bay, Fla...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... City and Alligator Bayou, a tributary of St. Andrew Bay, Fla.; naval restricted area. 334.760 Section... DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.760 Naval Support Activity Panama City and... permission from the Officer in Charge, Naval Support Activity Panama City, Panama City Beach, Florida, or...

  9. Religious Literacy or Spiritual Awareness? Comparative Critique of Andrew Wright's and David Hay's Approaches to Spiritual Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filipsone, Anta

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of a comparison of the educational approaches of Andrew Wright and David Hay this paper illustrates the persisting problem of dichotomising cognitive and trans-cognitive aspects of spiritual development and education. Even though both Wright and Hay speak of the same topic--spirituality and spiritual education--they define these terms…

  10. The Berrien County Math and Science Center at Andrews University: A University and Local High Schools Consortium Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkins, Gordon; Adkin, Sally

    1995-01-01

    Describes a program at Andrews University developed along with the Berrien County Intermediate School District that utilizes college faculty to provide instruction to talented and motivated high school students. Explains logistics (curriculum design, administrative arrangement, and financial aspects) of the program, challenges, and benefits.…

  11. Should Community College Be Free? Forum. "Education Next" Talks with Sara Goldrick-Rab and Andrew P. Kelly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldrick-Rab, Sara; Kelly, Andrew P.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, "Education Next" talks with Sara Goldrick-Rab and Andrew Kelly. President Obama's proposal for tuition-free community college, seems to have laid down a marker for the Democratic Party. Vermont senator Bernie Sanders is touting his plan for free four-year public college on the primary trail; Massachusetts senator…

  12. [The Andrew Heiskell Library for the Blind and Physically Handicapped.] A Library with a Difference. Projects and Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarkon, Joe; Fitzpatrick, Vicki, Ed.

    This publication describes the Andrew Heiskell Library for the Blind and Physically Handicapped, a regional library for the National Library Service (NLS) example of the creative use of physical space and innovative technology. The publication focuses on the materials-handling system designed for the new facility, including system design…

  13. Branching structure and strain hardening of branched metallocene polyethylenes

    SciTech Connect

    Torres, Enrique; Li, Si-Wan; Costeux, Stéphane; Dealy, John M.

    2015-09-15

    There have been a number of studies of a series of branched metallocene polyethylenes (BMPs) made in a solution, continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) polymerization. The materials studied vary in branching level in a systematic way, and the most highly branched members of the series exhibit mild strain hardening. An outstanding question is which types of branched molecules are responsible for strain hardening in extension. This question is explored here by use of polymerization and rheological models along with new data on the extensional flow behavior of the most highly branched members of the set. After reviewing all that is known about the effects of various branching structures in homogeneous polymers and comparing this with the structures predicted to be present in BMPs, it is concluded that in spite of their very low concentration, treelike molecules with branch-on-branch structure provide a large number of deeply buried inner segments that are essential for strain hardening in these polymers.

  14. Thermal Energy Conversion Branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bielozer, Matthew C.; Schreiber, Jeffrey, G.; Wilson, Scott D.

    2004-01-01

    The Thermal Energy Conversion Branch (5490) leads the way in designing, conducting, and implementing research for the newest thermal systems used in space applications at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Specifically some of the most advanced technologies developed in this branch can be broken down into four main areas: Dynamic Power Systems, Primary Solar Concentrators, Secondary Solar Concentrators, and Thermal Management. Work was performed in the Dynamic Power Systems area, specifically the Stirling Engine subdivision. Today, the main focus of the 5490 branch is free-piston Stirling cycle converters, Brayton cycle nuclear reactors, and heat rejection systems for long duration mission spacecraft. All space exploring devices need electricity to operate. In most space applications, heat energy from radioisotopes is converted to electrical power. The Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) already supplies electricity for missions such as the Cassini Spacecraft. The focus of today's Stirling research at GRC is aimed at creating an engine that can replace the RTG. The primary appeal of the Stirling engine is its high system efficiency. Because it is so efficient, the Stirling engine will significantly reduce the plutonium fuel mission requirements compared to the RTG. Stirling is also being considered for missions such as the lunar/Mars bases and rovers. This project has focused largely on Stirling Engines of all types, particularly the fluidyne liquid piston engine. The fluidyne was developed by Colin D. West. This engine uses the same concepts found in any type of Stirling engine, with the exception of missing mechanical components. All the working components are fluid. One goal was to develop and demonstrate a working Stirling Fluidyne Engine at the 2nd Annual International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference in Providence, Rhode Island.

  15. Combustion Branch Website Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Eric

    2004-01-01

    The NASA combustion branch is a leader in developing and applying combustion science to focused aerospace propulsion systems concepts. It is widely recognized for unique facilities, analytical tools, and personnel. In order to better communicate the outstanding research being done in this Branch to the public and other research organization, a more substantial website was desired. The objective of this project was to build an up-to-date site that reflects current research in a usable and attractive manner. In order to accomplish this, information was requested from all researchers in the Combustion branch, on their professional skills and on the current projects. This information was used to fill in the Personnel and Research sections of the website. A digital camera was used to photograph all personnel and these photographs were included in the personnel section as well. The design of the site was implemented using the latest web standards: xhtml and external css stylesheets. This implementation conforms to the guidelines recommended by the w3c. It also helps to ensure that the web site is accessible by disabled users, and complies with Section 508 Federal legislation (which mandates that all Federal websites be accessible). Graphics for the new site were generated using the gimp (www.gimp.org) an open-source graphics program similar to Adobe Photoshop. Also, all graphics on the site were of a reasonable size (less than 20k, most less than 2k) so that the page would load quickly. Technologies such as Macromedia Flash and Javascript were avoided, as these only function on some clients which have the proper software installed or enabled. The website was tested on different platforms with many different browsers to ensure there were no compatibility issues. The website was tested on windows with MS IE 6, MSIE 5 , Netscape 7, Mozilla and Opera. On a Mac, the site was tested with MS IE 5 , Netscape 7 and Safari.

  16. Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengle, Tom; Flores-Amaya, Felipe

    2000-01-01

    This report summarizes the major activities and accomplishments carried out by the Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch (FDAB), Code 572, in support of flight projects and technology development initiatives in fiscal year 2000. The report is intended to serve as a summary of the type of support carried out by the FDAB, as well as a concise reference of key accomplishments and mission experience derived from the various mission support roles. The primary focus of the FDAB is to provide expertise in the disciplines of flight dynamics, spacecraft trajectory, attitude analysis, and attitude determination and control. The FDAB currently provides support for missions and technology development projects involving NASA, government, university, and private industry.

  17. Strigolactone inhibition of shoot branching.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Roldan, Victoria; Fermas, Soraya; Brewer, Philip B; Puech-Pagès, Virginie; Dun, Elizabeth A; Pillot, Jean-Paul; Letisse, Fabien; Matusova, Radoslava; Danoun, Saida; Portais, Jean-Charles; Bouwmeester, Harro; Bécard, Guillaume; Beveridge, Christine A; Rameau, Catherine; Rochange, Soizic F

    2008-09-11

    A carotenoid-derived hormonal signal that inhibits shoot branching in plants has long escaped identification. Strigolactones are compounds thought to be derived from carotenoids and are known to trigger the germination of parasitic plant seeds and stimulate symbiotic fungi. Here we present evidence that carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 8 shoot branching mutants of pea are strigolactone deficient and that strigolactone application restores the wild-type branching phenotype to ccd8 mutants. Moreover, we show that other branching mutants previously characterized as lacking a response to the branching inhibition signal also lack strigolactone response, and are not deficient in strigolactones. These responses are conserved in Arabidopsis. In agreement with the expected properties of the hormonal signal, exogenous strigolactone can be transported in shoots and act at low concentrations. We suggest that endogenous strigolactones or related compounds inhibit shoot branching in plants. Furthermore, ccd8 mutants demonstrate the diverse effects of strigolactones in shoot branching, mycorrhizal symbiosis and parasitic weed interaction.

  18. Branching toughens fibrous networks.

    PubMed

    Koh, C T; Oyen, M L

    2012-08-01

    Fibrous collagenous networks are not only stiff but also tough, due to their complex microstructures. This stiff yet tough behavior is desirable for both medical and military applications but it is difficult to reproduce in engineering materials. While the nonlinear hyperelastic behavior of fibrous networks has been extensively studied, the understanding of toughness is still incomplete. Here, we identify a microstructure mimicking the branched bundles of a natural type I collagen network, in which partially cross-linked long fibers give rise to novel combinations of stiffness and toughness. Finite element analysis shows that the stiffness of fully cross-linked fibrous networks is amplified by increasing the fibril length and cross-link density. However, a trade-off of such stiff networks is reduced toughness. By having partially cross-linked networks with long fibrils, the networks have comparable stiffness and improved toughness as compared to the fully cross-linked networks. Further, the partially cross-linked networks avoid the formation of kinks, which cause fibril rupture during deformation. As a result, the branching allows the networks to have stiff yet tough behavior.

  19. Pen Branch Fault Program

    SciTech Connect

    Price, V.; Stieve, A.L.; Aadland, R.

    1990-09-28

    Evidence from subsurface mapping and seismic reflection surveys at Savannah River Site (SRS) suggests the presence of a fault which displaces Cretaceous through Tertiary (90--35 million years ago) sediments. This feature has been described and named the Pen Branch fault (PBF) in a recent Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) paper (DP-MS-88-219). Because the fault is located near operating nuclear facilities, public perception and federal regulations require a thorough investigation of the fault to determine whether any seismic hazard exists. A phased program with various elements has been established to investigate the PBF to address the Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulatory guidelines represented in 10 CFR 100 Appendix A. The objective of the PBF program is to fully characterize the nature of the PBF (ESS-SRL-89-395). This report briefly presents current understanding of the Pen Branch fault based on shallow drilling activities completed the fall of 1989 (PBF well series) and subsequent core analyses (SRL-ESS-90-145). The results are preliminary and ongoing: however, investigations indicate that the fault is not capable. In conjunction with the shallow drilling, other activities are planned or in progress. 7 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Genomewide scan for adaptive differentiation along altitudinal gradient in the Andrew's toad Bufo andrewsi.

    PubMed

    Guo, Baocheng; Lu, Di; Liao, Wen Bo; Merilä, Juha

    2016-08-01

    Recent studies of humans, dogs and rodents have started to discover the genetic underpinnings of high altitude adaptations, yet amphibians have received little attention in this respect. To identify possible signatures of adaptation to altitude, we performed a genome scan of 15 557 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) obtained with restriction site-associated DNA sequencing of pooled samples from 11 populations of Andrew's toad (Bufo andrewsi) from the edge of the Tibetan Plateau, spanning an altitudinal gradient from 1690 to 2768 m.a.s.l. We discovered significant geographic differentiation among all sites, with an average FST   = 0.023 across all SNPs. Apart from clear patterns of isolation by distance, we discovered numerous outlier SNPs showing strong associations with variation in altitude (1394 SNPs), average annual temperature (1859 SNPs) or both (1051 SNPs). Levels and patterns of genetic differentiation in these SNPs were consistent with the hypothesis that they have been subject to directional selection and reflect adaptation to altitudinal variation among the study sites. Genes with footprints of selection were significantly enriched in binding and metabolic processes. Several genes potentially related to high altitude adaptation were identified, although the identity and functional significance of most genomic targets of selection remain unknown. In general, the results provide genomic support for results of earlier common garden and low coverage genetic studies that have uncovered substantial adaptive differentiation along altitudinal and latitudinal gradients in amphibians.

  1. Storm-tide elevations produced by Hurricane Andrew along the southern Florida coasts, August 24, 1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murray, Mitchell H.

    1994-01-01

    On August 24, 1992, Hurricane Andrew crossed southern peninsular Florida. The combined effects of storm surge from the hurricane and astronomical tide, referred to as storm tide, caused flooding over a large part of southern Florida. Subsequent to the flooding, many high-water marks were identified, described, and surveyed along the south- eastern coast of Florida (Miami to Key Largo) and at selected areas along the southwestern coast of Florida (Flamingo to Goodland). Descriptions of these 336 high-water makrs are presented in tabular form in this report and their locations are plotted on nineteen 7.5-minute topographic quadrangle maps. For the southeastern coast, north-south profiles of the high-water makrs along the outher and inner barrier islands and the western shoreline of Biscayne Bay are presented. Average storm-tide elevations (relative to sea level) ranged from 4 to 6 feet in northern Biscayne Bay, were as much as 17 feet on the western shoreline near the center of the bay and ranged from 3 to 6 feet in southern Biscayne Bay and Barnes Sound. Storm-tide elevations along the southwestern coast ranged from 4 to 5 feet at Flamingo and 5 to 7 feet at Goodland in the Ten Thousand Islands area.

  2. Simulation of Water Balance and Forest Treatment Effects at the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest

    SciTech Connect

    Waichler, Scott R.; Wemple, Beverley C.; Wigmosta, Mark S.

    2005-10-30

    The watershed model DHSVM was applied to the small watersheds WS1,2,3 in H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest (HJA), Oregon and tested for skill in simulating observed forest treatment effects on streamflow. These watersheds in the rain-snow transition zone underwent road and clearcut treatments during 1959-66 and subsequent natural regeneration. DHSVM was applied with 10 m and 1 hr resolution to 1958-98, most of the period of record. Water balance for old-growth WS2 indicated that evapotranspiration and streamflow were unlikely to be the only loss terms, and groundwater recharge was included to account for about 12% of precipitation; this term was assumed zero in previous studies. After limited calibration, overall efficiency in simulating hourly streamflow exceeded 0.7, and mean annual error was less than 10%. Model skill decreased at the margins, with overprediction of low flows and underprediction of high flows. However, statistical analyses of simulated and observed peakflows yielded similar characterizations of treatment effects. Primary simulation weaknesses were snowpack accumulation, snowmelt under rain-on-snow conditions, and production of quickflow. This challenging test of DHSVM moved the model closer to a practical tool for forest management.

  3. Synthesis of branched polysaccharides with tunable degree of branching.

    PubMed

    Ciric, Jelena; Loos, Katja

    2013-03-01

    An in vitro enzyme-catalyzed tandem reaction using the enzymes phosphorylase b from rabbit muscle and Deinococcus geothermalis glycogen branching enzyme (Dg GBE) to obtain branched polyglucans with tunable degree of branching (2% ÷ 13%) is presented. The tunable degree of branching is obtained by varying the reaction conditions such as pH value, the choice of reducing agent and its concentration and reaction time. Linear amylose is formed by the phosphorylase-catalyzed propagation of glucose-1-phosphate while Dg GBE introduces branching points on the α-(1→6) position by relocating short oligosaccharide chains. Our results show that the best way to obtain different degrees of branching with this set of enzymes is by regulation of the reaction time.

  4. Methods and Technologies Branch (MTB)

    Cancer.gov

    The Methods and Technologies Branch focuses on methods to address epidemiologic data collection, study design and analysis, and to modify technological approaches to better understand cancer susceptibility.

  5. Branches in the Everett interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Arthur J.

    2014-05-01

    Hugh Everett III describes a quantum measurement as resulting in the "branching" of the quantum state of observer and measured system, with all possible measurement outcomes represented by the ensuing branches of the total quantum state. But Everett does not specify a general rule for decomposing a quantum state into branches, and commentators have long puzzled over how, and even whether, to regard Everett's notion of branching states as physically meaningful. It is common today to appeal to decoherence considerations as a way of giving physical content to the Everettian notion of branches, but these appeals to decoherence are often regarded as considerations foreign to Everett's own approach. This paper contends that this assessment is only half right: though he does not invoke environmental decoherence, Everett does appeal to decoherence considerations, broadly understood, in his treatment of measurement. Careful consideration of his idealized models of measurement, and of the significance he ascribes to the branching of states corresponding to definite measurement outcomes, reveals that his notion of branching refers to a special physical characteristic of elements of a particular decomposition, namely the absence of interference between these component states as a result of the particular dynamics governing the evolution of the system. Characterizations of branching that appeal to the results of modern decoherence theory should therefore be regarded as a natural development of Everett's own physically meaningful conception of branching.

  6. Low-Frequency Response Following the Passage of Hurricane Andrew on the Texas-Louisiana Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearce, S. M.; Smith, D. C.; Dimarco, S. F.

    2009-12-01

    During August 24th through 27th in 1992, Hurricane Andrew passed through the Gulf Of Mexico almost directly over several moorings on the easternmost Louisiana shelf portion of the Texas-Louisiana Shelf (LATEX) coastal ocean monitoring program. Examination of the current meter time-series showed the existence of fast moving, long shelf waves over the entire Texas-Louisiana shelf west of the storm passage for up to 12 days after direct forcing ceased. The LATEX program featured 31 moorings each with 3 current meters over the 10, 20, 50, and 200 meter isobaths in 5 cross sectional lines with additional coverage on the 200 meter isobath from the Louisiana-Mississippi River delta, to Corpus Christi, Texas. Additionally, several pressure records from LATEX and several NOAA historical coastal tide gauge data from Sabine Pass to Port Isabella, Texas were incorporated. Raw, 3-hour low pass filtered, and 40-hour low pass filtered versions of the current data were analyzed. The pressure data used were detided using a least squares fit, and the tidal records were detided using the NOAA predicted tides for that location. All data were analyzed using a wavelet analysis to determine the spectra over time. The analyzed data shows that the shelf response was largely dominated in the internal Kelvin wave mode. The wave propagated towards the west on the shelf at approximately 400 km/day. These results are contrasted and compared with wave modes predicted for coastal trapped wave solutions. The output of a coastal ocean model simulation using a forced wind field similar to the storm are also contrasted and compared with the observed data.

  7. Damage to unburied flowlines in the Gulf of Mexico during Hurricane Andrew

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, J.I.

    1995-12-31

    The US Minerals Management Service reported that 454 sub-sea pipelines were damaged during Hurricane Andrew. Previously, damage to pipelines and flowlines has been reported in a series of papers by Blumberg (1964). In the present paper a formulation of the hydrodynamic loads acting on a flowline which is lying on the seafloor in the presence of waves and currents is summarized. In general, the line dynamics can be represented by a fourth order differential equation with nonlinear forcing but a method is presented which assumes that the complete response can be broken down into distinct phases from ``early motion`` to ``taut line`` to ``yield and breaking``. The selection of appropriate force coefficients and boundary layer interactions is discussed. The initial stages of pipeline migration across the seafloor is shown to be followed by loading of the flowline once all of the ``slack`` is taken up. The loads are shown to be a function of the current orientation and the maximum tension is approximately proportional to the square of the distance between risers. Comparisons of predicted and observed damages confirm that ``effective`` boundary layer thicknesses at the seafloor and typical drag and lift coefficients which were selected based on available literature are consistent with observed flowline damage. The results of sidescan sonar mosaics of pipeline migrations and reported damage are consistent with the loads predicted by relatively simple hydrodynamic/structural models. The material presented in this paper permits the evaluation of the risk of damage to unburied flowlines using relatively simple tools. Guidelines to the assumptions of force coefficients and flowline responses are provided. 20 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Multi-stage impregnation of the lithospheric mantle at the Andrew Bain FZ (SWIR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paganelli, E.; Brunelli, D.; Bonatti, E.; Cipriani, A.; Ligi, M.

    2008-12-01

    The Southern ridge-transform intersection of Andrew Bain Fracture Zone (ABFZ) is interpreted as a "cold spot" in the mid-ocean ridge system being characterized by a negative thermal anomaly in the oceanic upper mantle. The negative thermal anomaly is associated to the cold-edge effect due to the great age contrast of the active ridge segments. During the oceanic expedition AB06-S23, in 2006, (organized by ISMAR-CNR, Bologna, Italy, and co-financed by PRNA, Italy) with the russian R/V N. Strakhov, several samples of abyssal peridotites have been collected. Textures and modal distribution of the samples have been investigated revealing a multistage impregnation history. Deep spinel-field impregnation assemblages (sp+cpx-ol) are followed by plagioclase-field patches and mineral trails (pl+cpx-ol) and late shallow gabbroic pockets and veins. The major elements mineral chemistry reveals compositional trends of low-P/T subsolidus partial- to-complete re-equilibration undergone by the upper mantle during the upwelling beneath the ridge. These samples have experienced variable degrees of melting and reacted with percolating melts of possible different composition. In particular, samples showing the lowest degrees of melting have interacted with MORB-like melts and pyroxenitic-derived melts in the spinel and plagioclase stability fields. The presence of these two kinds of melts might prove the presence of enriched portions scattered in a normal depleted mantle beneath ocean ridges. MELTS-based runs provide constraints to variable extents of pyroxenitic-derived melt interaction with the mantle source and crystallization at variable depth of the products of such an interaction. Supported by MIUR-PRIN Cofin project 2007

  9. Modeling branching in cereals.

    PubMed

    Evers, Jochem B; Vos, Jan

    2013-10-10

    Cereals and grasses adapt their structural development to environmental conditions and the resources available. The primary adaptive response is a variable degree of branching, called tillering in cereals. Especially for heterogeneous plant configurations the degree of tillering varies per plant. Functional-structural plant modeling (FSPM) is a modeling approach allowing simulation of the architectural development of individual plants, culminating in the emergent behavior at the canopy level. This paper introduces the principles of modeling tillering in FSPM, using (I) a probability approach, forcing the dynamics of tillering to correspond to measured probabilities. Such models are particularly suitable to evaluate the effect structural variables on system performance. (II) Dose-response curves, representing a measured or assumed response of tillering to an environmental cue. (III) Mechanistic approaches to tillering including control by carbohydrates, hormones, and nutrients. Tiller senescence is equally important for the structural development of cereals as tiller appearance. Little study has been made of tiller senescence, though similar concepts seem to apply as for tiller appearance.

  10. A Branch Meeting in Avon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Kathryn; Coles, Alf

    2011-01-01

    The Association of Teachers of Mathematics (ATM) exists for, and is run by, its members. Branch meetings are so much more than the "grass roots" of the association--it can be a powerhouse of inspiration and creativity. In this article, the authors provide commentaries on a recent branch meeting.

  11. A positive approach to branching.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Bart J; Drummond, Revel S M; Ledger, Susan E; Snowden, Kimberley C

    2010-04-01

    Plants regulate the development of branches in response to environmental and developmental signals in order to maximize reproductive success. A number of hormone signals are involved in the regulation of branching and both their production and transmission affect axillary meristem outgrowth. With the identification of strigolactones as root-derived branch inhibitors it seems likely that a biochemical pathway starting from a carotenoid and resulting in production of a strigolactone hormone is present in most plants. Our observation that loss of CCD7 or CCD8 also results in production of a promoter of branching from roots shows the branching pathway has multiple levels of control which allows a high degree of sensitivity to subtle differences in environmental and developmental signals.

  12. Evaluation of Hydraulically Significant Discontinuities in Dockum Group Mudrocks in Andrews County, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, R. M.; Kuszmaul, J. S.; Cao, S.; Powers, D. W.

    2013-12-01

    Triassic mudrocks of the Dockum Group (Cooper Canyon Formation) host four, below-grade landfills at the Waste Control Specialists (WSC) site in Andrews County, Texas, including: a hazardous waste landfill and three radioactive waste landfills. At the study site, the Dockum consists of mudrocks with sparse siltstone/sandstone interbeds that developed in a semi-arid environment from an ephemeral meandering fluvial system. Sedimentary studies reveal that the mudrocks are ancient floodplain vertisols (soils with swelling clays) and siltstone/sandstone interbeds are fluvial channel deposits that were frequently subaerially exposed. Rock discontinuities, including fractures and syndepositional slickensided surfaces, were mapped during the excavation of the WCS radioactive waste landfills along vertical faces prepared by the construction contractor. Face locations were selected to insure a sampled area with nearly complete vertical coverage for each landfill. Individual discontinuities were mapped and their strike, dip, length, roughness, curvature, staining, and evidence of displacement were described. In the three radioactive waste disposal landfills, over 1750 discontinuities across 35 excavated faces were mapped and described, where each face was nominally 8 to 10 ft tall and 50 to 100 ft long. Genetic units related to paleosol development were identified. On average, the orientation of the discontinuities was horizontal, and no other significant trends were observed. Mapping within the landfill excavations shows that most discontinuities within Dockum rocks are horizontal, concave upward, slickensided surfaces that developed in the depositional environment, as repeated wetting and drying cycles led to shrinking and swelling of floodplain vertisols. Fractures that showed staining (a possible indicator of past or present hydraulic activity) are rare, vertical to near-vertical, and occur mainly in, and adjacent to, mechanically stiff siltstone and sandstone interbeds

  13. Effect of Hurricane Andrew on the Turkey Point Nuclear Generating Station from August 20--30, 1992. [Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hebdon, F.J.

    1993-03-01

    On August 24, 1992, Hurricane Andrew, a Category 4 hurricane, struck the Turkey Point Electrical Generating Station with sustained winds of 145 mph (233 km/h). This is the report of the team that the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) jointly sponsored (1) to review the damage that the hurricane caused the nuclear units and the utility`s actions to prepare for the storm and recover from it, and (2) to compile lessons that might benefit other nuclear reactor facilities.

  14. A tale of two storms: Surges and sediment deposition from Hurricanes Andrew and Wilma in Florida’s southwest coast mangrove forests: Chapter 6G in Science and the storms-the USGS response to the hurricanes of 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Thomas J.; Anderson, Gordon H.; Tiling, Ginger

    2007-01-01

    Hurricanes can be very different from each other. Here we examine the impacts that two hurricanes, Andrew and Wilma, had in terms of storm surge and sediment deposition on the southwest coast of Florida. Although Wilma was the weaker storm, it had the greater impact. Wilma had the higher storm surge over a larger area and deposited more sediment than did Andrew. This effect was most likely due to the size of Wilma's eye, which was four times larger than that of Andrew.

  15. Fault branching and rupture directivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fliss, Sonia; Bhat, Harsha S.; Dmowska, Renata; Rice, James R.

    2005-06-01

    Could the directivity of a complex earthquake be inferred from the ruptured fault branches it created? Typically, branches develop in forward orientation, making acute angles relative to the propagation direction. Direct backward branching of the same style as the main rupture (e.g., both right lateral) is disallowed by the stress field at the rupture front. Here we propose another mechanism of backward branching. In that mechanism, rupture stops along one fault strand, radiates stress to a neighboring strand, nucleates there, and develops bilaterally, generating a backward branch. Such makes diagnosing directivity of a past earthquake difficult without detailed knowledge of the branching process. As a field example, in the Landers 1992 earthquake, rupture stopped at the northern end of the Kickapoo fault, jumped onto the Homestead Valley fault, and developed bilaterally there, NNW to continue the main rupture but also SSE for 4 km forming a backward branch. We develop theoretical principles underlying such rupture transitions, partly from elastostatic stress analysis, and then simulate the Landers example numerically using a two-dimensional elastodynamic boundary integral equation formulation incorporating slip-weakening rupture. This reproduces the proposed backward branching mechanism based on realistic if simplified fault geometries, prestress orientation corresponding to the region, standard lab friction values for peak strength, and fracture energies characteristic of the Landers event. We also show that the seismic S ratio controls the jumpable distance and that curving of a fault toward its compressional side, like locally along the southeastern Homestead Valley fault, induces near-tip increase of compressive normal stress that slows rupture propagation.

  16. Novel side branch ostial stent.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shao-Liang; Lv, Shu-Zheng; Kwan, Tak W

    2009-04-01

    Bifurcation lesions are technically challenging and plagued by a high incidence of restenosis, especially at the side branch orifice, which results in a more frequent need for revascularization during the follow-up period. This report discusses two clinical experiences with a novel side branch ostial stent, the BIGUARD stent, designed for the treatment of bifurcation lesions; procedural success with no in-hospital complications was observed in types IVb and Ia lesions.

  17. Mangroves, hurricanes, and lightning strikes: Assessment of Hurricane Andrew suggests an interaction across two differing scales of disturbance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Thomas J.; Robblee, Michael B.; Wanless, Harold R.; Doyle, Thomas W.

    1994-01-01

    The track of Hurricane Andrew carried it across one of the most extensive mangrove for ests in the New World. Although it is well known that hurricanes affect mangrove forests, surprisingly little quantitative information exists concerning hurricane impact on forest structure, succession, species composition, and dynamics of mangrove-dependent fauna or on rates of eco-system recovery (see Craighead and Gilbert 1962, Roth 1992, Smith 1992, Smith and Duke 1987, Stoddart 1969).After Hurricane Andrew's passage across south Florida, we assessed the environmental damage to the natural resources of the Everglades and Biscayne National Parks. Quantitative data collected during subsequent field trips (October 1992 to July 1993) are also provided. We present measurements of initial tree mortality by species and size class, estimates of delayed (or continuing) tree mortality, and observations of geomorphological changes along the coast and in the forests that could influence the course of forest recovery. We discuss a potential interaction across two differing scales of disturbance within mangrove forest systems: hurricanes and lightning strikes.

  18. Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefko, George

    2003-01-01

    The 2002 annual report of the Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch reflects the majority of the work performed by the branch staff during the 2002 calendar year. Its purpose is to give a brief review of the branch s technical accomplishments. The Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch develops innovative computational tools, benchmark experimental data, and solutions to long-term barrier problems in the areas of propulsion aeroelasticity, active and passive damping, engine vibration control, rotor dynamics, magnetic suspension, structural mechanics, probabilistics, smart structures, engine system dynamics, and engine containment. Furthermore, the branch is developing a compact, nonpolluting, bearingless electric machine with electric power supplied by fuel cells for future "more electric" aircraft. An ultra-high-power-density machine that can generate projected power densities of 50 hp/lb or more, in comparison to conventional electric machines, which generate usually 0.2 hp/lb, is under development for application to electric drives for propulsive fans or propellers. In the future, propulsion and power systems will need to be lighter, to operate at higher temperatures, and to be more reliable in order to achieve higher performance and economic viability. The Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch is working to achieve these complex, challenging goals.

  19. Quantitative macroinvertebrate survey of Pen Branch and Indian Grave Branch

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-02-01

    A total of 80 species were collected at all sites on Pen Branch and Indian Grave Branch during the 28 day period for colonization of the multiplate artificial substrate samplers. The two upstream sites demonstrated the highest species richness. During the sampling interval a release of significant proportion entered Indian Grave Branch, affecting all downstream sites. This effect was most severe at sites 3, 4, and 7, apparently resulting in heavy scouring of the multiplate samplers. Nevertheless, much colonization did occur at sites 3 and 4, with hydropsychid caddisflies, blackflies and midges predominant. At sites 5 and 6 a greater degree of recovery was noted, due to the lessened scouring in the broad floodplain. These downstream sites had significant numbers of mayflies along with the numerous midges. Considered overall, colonization during the period since the K Reactor has ceased releasing thermal effluent into Pen Branch and Indian Grave Branch has been substantial, introducing a substantial proportion of the species known from other nearby streams. 29 tabs.

  20. Andrews AFB, Washington DC Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO) Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-10-15

    8217 . Obs. me" me. of Now $ Wilk ’rompateteh Ra.. "Io. 0 F 32 -67F _73_ &$POP 93 F TeToi P Itn ~ 0.. P .2.. _ ___.._____m ,~r, GL..BAL CLIMATOLOGY BRANCH U...m. of Homes wIui Tompem.... Rai. Nwe. 5380 69 4614.64 93 sft P 322 -F- 57p .-732P cup .-F-92P- T-1e U, Dy 161b 31408014 5586 60. 7.5 9301 93 W.. 1.1b...25 25 25 2912111/23 25 2 II 9 6 -’ 21 . . :J 1" 3 260 ( > / 19 a * - 8 18 221 Elamen (X) U r Ne. Obs. MAb Ne. of Now @ wim Tem twuo($11 v 32eNu.S0 P

  1. Fault Branching and Rupture Directivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmowska, R.; Rice, J. R.; Kame, N.

    2002-12-01

    Can the rupture directivity of past earthquakes be inferred from fault geometry? Nakata et al. [J. Geogr., 1998] propose to relate the observed surface branching of fault systems with directivity. Their work assumes that all branches are through acute angles in the direction of rupture propagation. However, in some observed cases rupture paths seem to branch through highly obtuse angles, as if to propagate ``backwards". Field examples of that are as follows: (1) Landers 1992. When crossing from the Johnson Valley to the Homestead Valley (HV) fault via the Kickapoo (Kp) fault, the rupture from Kp progressed not just forward onto the northern stretch of the HV fault, but also backwards, i.e., SSE along the HV [Sowers et al., 1994, Spotila and Sieh, 1995, Zachariasen and Sieh, 1995, Rockwell et al., 2000]. Measurements of surface slip along that backward branch, a prominent feature of 4 km length, show right-lateral slip, decreasing towards the SSE. (2) At a similar crossing from the HV to the Emerson (Em) fault, the rupture progressed backwards along different SSE splays of the Em fault [Zachariasen and Sieh, 1995]. (3). In crossing from the Em to Camp Rock (CR) fault, again, rupture went SSE on the CR fault. (4). Hector Mine 1999. The rupture originated on a buried fault without surface trace [Li et al., 2002; Hauksson et al., 2002] and progressed bilaterally south and north. In the south it met the Lavic Lake (LL) fault and progressed south on it, but also progressed backward, i.e. NNW, along the northern stretch of the LL fault. The angle between the buried fault and the northern LL fault is around -160o, and that NNW stretch extends around 15 km. The field examples with highly obtuse branch angles suggest that there may be no simple correlation between fault geometry and rupture directivity. We propose that an important distinction is whether those obtuse branches actually involved a rupture path which directly turned through the obtuse angle (while continuing

  2. 30 CFR 57.6403 - Branch circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Branch circuits. 57.6403 Section 57.6403... Blasting-Surface and Underground § 57.6403 Branch circuits. (a) If electric blasting includes the use of branch circuits, each branch shall be equipped with a safety switch or equivalent method to isolate...

  3. 30 CFR 56.6403 - Branch circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Branch circuits. 56.6403 Section 56.6403... Blasting § 56.6403 Branch circuits. (a) If electric blasting includes the use of branch circuits, each branch shall be equipped with a safety switch or equivalent method to isolate the circuits to be used....

  4. 17 CFR 166.4 - Branch offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Branch offices. 166.4 Section... RULES § 166.4 Branch offices. Each branch office of each Commission registrant must use the name of the.... The act, omission or failure of any person acting for the branch office, within the scope of...

  5. Double-branched vortex generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantwell, E. R.; Westphal, R. V.; Mehta, R. D.

    1985-01-01

    In order to assess the suitability of using a double branched vortex generator in parametric studies involving vortex interactions, an experimental study of the main vortex and secondary flows produced by a double branched vortex generator was conducted in a 20-by-40 cm indraft wind tunnel. Measurements of the cross flow velocities were made with a five hole pressure probe from which vorticity contours and vortex parameters were derived. The results showed that the optimum configuration consisted of chord extensions with the absence of a centerbody.

  6. Plant phenology patterns at three sites on the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, Oregon, 1987 to 2007.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, D. C.; Creel, C.; Downing, G.; Remillard, S.; O'Connell, K.

    2007-12-01

    Plant phenology data has been collected at three sites on the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, Oregon since the late 1970's. The sites were visited once every three weeks year-round. Current efforts to clean and archive this data are on-going. Here we present on a 20 year data set from 1987 to 2007. The three sites are located at Watersheds (WS) 10, 8, and 7/6, at an elevation of 466 m, 993 m, and 905/950 m respectively. Forests were old growth (WS 8) and regenerating clearcuts (WS 6, 10), or shelterwood clearcut with overstory removed in 1984 (WS 7) dominated by Douglas-fir, western hemlock, true firs, and western redcedar. One tree (Douglas-fir), two evergreen shrubs, three deciduous shrubs, and four herbs were followed for vegetative and flowering phenology, including bud swell, bud bread, leaf expansion, leaf color change, leaf fall, flower bud swell, blooming, petal loss, fruit formation, and seed dispersal. Weather stations are located at each site and tied into a network of stations in this LTER site. Physical factors such as snow depth, snow coverage, freeze-thaw activity, as well as lichen condition were also noted. We are asking two key questions regarding plant phenology patterns. 1. Has the growing season lengthened in the mountainous watershed of the HJ Andrews, and is this similar for a low elevation site (WS 10) versus a mid elevation site (WS 8, 7/6)? 2. Do snow-pack dynamics influence plant phenology more so than temperature (degree days)?

  7. 33 CFR 334.770 - Gulf of Mexico and St. Andrew Sound, south of East Bay, Fla., Tyndall Drone Launch Corridor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Sound, south of East Bay, Fla., Tyndall Drone Launch Corridor, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted.... Andrew Sound, south of East Bay, Fla., Tyndall Drone Launch Corridor, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla... referred to as the “Tyndall Drone Launch Corridor.” (b) The regulations. (1) Military usage of areas...

  8. 78 FR 76812 - In the Matter of: Andrew Vincent O'Donnell, Inmate Number-62355-019, USP Atlanta, U.S...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security In the Matter of: Andrew Vincent O'Donnell, Inmate Number--62355- 019, USP Atlanta, U.S. Penitentiary, P.O. Box 15060, Atlanta, GA 30315; Order Denying Export Privileges On August 1, 2011, in the U.S. District...

  9. 33 CFR 334.680 - Gulf of Mexico, southeast of St. Andrew Bay East Entrance, small-arms firing range, Tyndall Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... Andrew Bay East Entrance, small-arms firing range, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. 334.680 Section 334.680..., small-arms firing range, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. (a) The danger zones—(1) Area No. 1. The waters of... Officer, Tyndall Air Force Base, Florida, and such agencies as he may designate. (Sec. 7, 40 Stat....

  10. 33 CFR 334.680 - Gulf of Mexico, southeast of St. Andrew Bay East Entrance, small-arms firing range, Tyndall Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... Andrew Bay East Entrance, small-arms firing range, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. 334.680 Section 334.680..., small-arms firing range, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. (a) The danger zones—(1) Area No. 1. The waters of... Officer, Tyndall Air Force Base, Florida, and such agencies as he may designate. (Sec. 7, 40 Stat....

  11. 33 CFR 334.680 - Gulf of Mexico, southeast of St. Andrew Bay East Entrance, small-arms firing range, Tyndall Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... Andrew Bay East Entrance, small-arms firing range, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. 334.680 Section 334.680..., small-arms firing range, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. (a) The danger zones—(1) Area No. 1. The waters of... Officer, Tyndall Air Force Base, Florida, and such agencies as he may designate. (Sec. 7, 40 Stat....

  12. 33 CFR 334.770 - Gulf of Mexico and St. Andrew Sound, south of East Bay, Fla., Tyndall Drone Launch Corridor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Sound, south of East Bay, Fla., Tyndall Drone Launch Corridor, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted.... Andrew Sound, south of East Bay, Fla., Tyndall Drone Launch Corridor, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla.... Warnings will be broadcast by the Air Force on Channel 16 (156.80 MHz) and Channel 13 (27.115 MHz)...

  13. 33 CFR 334.770 - Gulf of Mexico and St. Andrew Sound, south of East Bay, Fla., Tyndall Drone Launch Corridor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Sound, south of East Bay, Fla., Tyndall Drone Launch Corridor, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted.... Andrew Sound, south of East Bay, Fla., Tyndall Drone Launch Corridor, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla.... Warnings will be broadcast by the Air Force on Channel 16 (156.80 MHz) and Channel 13 (27.115 MHz)...

  14. 33 CFR 334.680 - Gulf of Mexico, southeast of St. Andrew Bay East Entrance, small-arms firing range, Tyndall Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... Andrew Bay East Entrance, small-arms firing range, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. 334.680 Section 334.680..., small-arms firing range, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. (a) The danger zones—(1) Area No. 1. The waters of... Officer, Tyndall Air Force Base, Florida, and such agencies as he may designate. (Sec. 7, 40 Stat....

  15. 33 CFR 334.680 - Gulf of Mexico, southeast of St. Andrew Bay East Entrance, small-arms firing range, Tyndall Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... Andrew Bay East Entrance, small-arms firing range, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. 334.680 Section 334.680..., small-arms firing range, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. (a) The danger zones—(1) Area No. 1. The waters of... Officer, Tyndall Air Force Base, Florida, and such agencies as he may designate. (Sec. 7, 40 Stat....

  16. 33 CFR 334.770 - Gulf of Mexico and St. Andrew Sound, south of East Bay, Fla., Tyndall Drone Launch Corridor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Sound, south of East Bay, Fla., Tyndall Drone Launch Corridor, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted.... Andrew Sound, south of East Bay, Fla., Tyndall Drone Launch Corridor, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla.... Warnings will be broadcast by the Air Force on Channel 16 (156.80 MHz) and Channel 13 (27.115 MHz)...

  17. 33 CFR 334.770 - Gulf of Mexico and St. Andrew Sound, south of East Bay, Fla., Tyndall Drone Launch Corridor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Sound, south of East Bay, Fla., Tyndall Drone Launch Corridor, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted.... Andrew Sound, south of East Bay, Fla., Tyndall Drone Launch Corridor, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla.... Warnings will be broadcast by the Air Force on Channel 16 (156.80 MHz) and Channel 13 (27.115 MHz)...

  18. Legislative Branch Appropriations Act, 2010

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Wasserman Schultz, Debbie [D-FL-20

    2009-06-17

    10/01/2009 Became Public Law No: 111-68. (PDF) (All Actions) Notes: Division A is the Legislative Branch Appropriations Act, 2010. Division B is the Continuing Appropriations Resolution, 2010. Tracker: This bill has the status Became LawHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  19. Legislative Branch Appropriations Act, 2010

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Wasserman Schultz, Debbie [D-FL-20

    2009-06-17

    10/01/2009 Became Public Law No: 111-68. (TXT | PDF) (All Actions) Notes: Division A is the Legislative Branch Appropriations Act, 2010. Division B is the Continuing Appropriations Resolution, 2010. Tracker: This bill has the status Became LawHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  20. Branching of keratin intermediate filaments.

    PubMed

    Nafeey, Soufi; Martin, Ines; Felder, Tatiana; Walther, Paul; Felder, Edward

    2016-06-01

    Keratin intermediate filaments (IFs) are crucial to maintain mechanical stability in epithelial cells. Since little is known about the network architecture that provides this stiffness and especially about branching properties of filaments, we addressed this question with different electron microscopic (EM) methods. Using EM tomography of high pressure frozen keratinocytes, we investigated the course of several filaments in a branching of a filament bundle. Moreover we found several putative bifurcations in individual filaments. To verify our observation we also visualized the keratin network in detergent extracted keratinocytes with scanning EM. Here bifurcations of individual filaments could unambiguously be identified additionally to bundle branchings. Interestingly, identical filament bifurcations were also found in purified keratin 8/18 filaments expressed in Escherichia coli which were reassembled in vitro. This excludes that an accessory protein contributes to the branch formation. Measurements of the filament cross sectional areas showed various ratios between the three bifurcation arms. This demonstrates that intermediate filament furcation is very different from actin furcation where an entire new filament is attached to an existing filament. Instead, the architecture of intermediate filament bifurcations is less predetermined and hence consistent with the general concept of IF formation.

  1. NCI: DCTD: Biometric Research Branch

    Cancer.gov

    The Biometric Research Branch (BRB) is the statistical and biomathematical component of the Division of Cancer Treatment, Diagnosis and Centers (DCTDC). Its members provide statistical leadership for the national and international research programs of the division in developmental therapeutics, developmental diagnostics, diagnostic imaging and clinical trials.

  2. NCI: DCTD: Biometric Research Branch

    Cancer.gov

    The Biometric Research Branch (BRP) is the statistical and biomathematical component of the Division of Cancer Treatment, Diagnosis and Centers (DCTDC). Its members provide statistical leadership for the national and international research programs of the division in developmental therapeutics, developmental diagnostics, diagnostic imaging and clinical trials.

  3. Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB)

    Cancer.gov

    The Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB) focuses on the development, evaluation, and dissemination of high-quality risk factor metrics, methods, tools, technologies, and resources for use across the cancer research continuum, and the assessment of cancer-related risk factors in the population.

  4. 76 FR 13272 - Branch Offices

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision Branch Offices AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision (OTS), Treasury. ACTION... 1995, 44 U.S.C. 3507. The Office of Thrift Supervision within the Department of the Treasury...

  5. Multiple pathways regulate shoot branching

    PubMed Central

    Rameau, Catherine; Bertheloot, Jessica; Leduc, Nathalie; Andrieu, Bruno; Foucher, Fabrice; Sakr, Soulaiman

    2015-01-01

    Shoot branching patterns result from the spatio-temporal regulation of axillary bud outgrowth. Numerous endogenous, developmental and environmental factors are integrated at the bud and plant levels to determine numbers of growing shoots. Multiple pathways that converge to common integrators are most probably involved. We propose several pathways involving not only the classical hormones auxin, cytokinins and strigolactones, but also other signals with a strong influence on shoot branching such as gibberellins, sugars or molecular actors of plant phase transition. We also deal with recent findings about the molecular mechanisms and the pathway involved in the response to shade as an example of an environmental signal controlling branching. We propose the TEOSINTE BRANCHED1, CYCLOIDEA, PCF transcription factor TB1/BRC1 and the polar auxin transport stream in the stem as possible integrators of these pathways. We finally discuss how modeling can help to represent this highly dynamic system by articulating knowledges and hypothesis and calculating the phenotype properties they imply. PMID:25628627

  6. Cash efficiency for bank branches.

    PubMed

    Cabello, Julia García

    2013-01-01

    Bank liquidity management has become a major issue during the financial crisis as liquidity shortages have intensified and have put pressure on banks to diversity and improve their liquidity sources. While a significant strand of the literature concentrates on wholesale liquidity generation and on the alternative to deposit funding, the management of an inventory of cash holdings within the banks' branches is also a relevant issue as any significant improvement in cash management at the bank distribution channels may have a positive effect in reducing liquidity tensions. In this paper, we propose a simple programme of cash efficiency for the banks' branches, very easy to implement, which conform to a set of instructions to be imposed from the bank to their branches. This model proves to significantly reduce cash holdings at branches thereby providing efficiency improvements in liquidity management. The methodology we propose is based on the definition of some stochastic processes combined with renewal processes, which capture the random elements of the cash flow, before applying suitable optimization programmes to all the costs involved in cash movements. The classical issue of the Transaction Demand for the Cash and some aspects of Inventory Theory are also present. Mathematics Subject Classification (2000) C02, C60, E50.

  7. To branch or not to branch: Numerical modeling of dynamically branching faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dedontney, N. L.; Templeton Barrett, E. L.; Rice, J. R.; Dmowska, R.

    2009-12-01

    Branched fault geometries, and branched rupture paths, occur in strike-slip as well as dip-slip settings [e.g., Poliakov et al., JGR, 2002; Kame et al., JGR, 2003]. The Wenchuan earthquake illustrates such a branched geometry [Hubbard and Shaw, 2009] in a fold and thrust belt, and surface ruptures provide constraints on which faults were activated co-seismically. Additionally, a branched structure, the Central Basin Decollement [Shaw & Suppe, 1996], underlies the Los Angeles Basin. By simulating the dynamic rupture path selection, using explicit finite element methods here, we are able to estimate which faults should be activated under given conditions. Factors that influence coseismic branch activation have been extensively studied [Poliakov et al.; Kame et al.; Oglesby et al., 2003, 2004; Bhat et al., 2004, 2007]. The results show that the rupture velocity, pre-stress orientation and fault geometry influence rupture path selection. We show further that the ratio of σ1/σ3 (equivalently, the seismic S ratio) and the relative frictional fault strength also play a significant role in determining which faults are activated. Our methodology has recently included the use of a regularized friction routine [Ranjith & Rice, 2001; Cochard & Rice, 2000] which reduces the growth of numerical noise throughout the simulations. A difficulty arises in the treatment of surface interactions at the branch junction. When local opening does not occur there, slip on the branch fault must vanish at the junction, a constraint that we impose on the FE model. However, the FE contact routine used demands that slip always be constrained to zero on one or the other fault at such a junction, which is problematic when opening occurs. There is then no fundamental basis for constraining slip at the junction to zero on either fault, and the choice made affects the slip distributions and rupture path selection. Many analyses that we perform are elastic and the same material is used on both sides

  8. Branching processes in disease epidemics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Sarabjeet

    Branching processes have served as a model for chemical reactions, biological growth processes and contagion (of disease, information or fads). Through this connection, these seemingly different physical processes share some common universalities that can be elucidated by analyzing the underlying branching process. In this thesis, we focus on branching processes as a model for infectious diseases spreading between individuals belonging to different populations. The distinction between populations can arise from species separation (as in the case of diseases which jump across species) or spatial separation (as in the case of disease spreading between farms, cities, urban centers, etc). A prominent example of the former is zoonoses -- infectious diseases that spill from animals to humans -- whose specific examples include Nipah virus, monkeypox, HIV and avian influenza. A prominent example of the latter is infectious diseases of animals such as foot and mouth disease and bovine tuberculosis that spread between farms or cattle herds. Another example of the latter is infectious diseases of humans such as H1N1 that spread from one city to another through migration of infectious hosts. This thesis consists of three main chapters, an introduction and an appendix. The introduction gives a brief history of mathematics in modeling the spread of infectious diseases along with a detailed description of the most commonly used disease model -- the Susceptible-Infectious-Recovered (SIR) model. The introduction also describes how the stochastic formulation of the model reduces to a branching process in the limit of large population which is analyzed in detail. The second chapter describes a two species model of zoonoses with coupled SIR processes and proceeds into the calculation of statistics pertinent to cross species infection using multitype branching processes. The third chapter describes an SIR process driven by a Poisson process of infection spillovers. This is posed as a

  9. New branches of massive gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comelli, D.; Crisostomi, M.; Koyama, K.; Pilo, L.; Tasinato, G.

    2015-06-01

    The basic building block for Lorentz-invariant and ghost-free massive gravity is the square root of the combination g-1η , where g-1 is the inverse of the physical metric and η is a reference metric. Since the square root of a matrix is not uniquely defined, it is possible to have physically inequivalent potentials corresponding to different branches. We show that around the Minkowski background, the only perturbatively well-defined branch is the potential proposed by de Rham, Gabadadze and Tolley. On the other hand, if Lorentz symmetry is broken spontaneously, other potentials exist with a standard perturbative expansion. We show this explicitly building new Lorentz-invariant, ghost-free massive gravity potentials for theories that in the background preserve rotational invariance but break Lorentz boosts.

  10. Geodynamics Branch research report, 1982

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, W. D. (Editor); Cohen, S. C. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    The research program of the Geodynamics Branch is summarized. The research activities cover a broad spectrum of geoscience disciplines including space geodesy, geopotential field modeling, tectonophysics, and dynamic oceanography. The NASA programs which are supported by the work described include the Geodynamics and Ocean Programs, the Crustal Dynamics Project, the proposed Ocean Topography Experiment (TOPEX) and Geopotential Research Mission. The individual papers are grouped into chapters on Crustal Movements, Global Earth Dynamics, Gravity Field Model Development, Sea Surface Topography, and Advanced Studies.

  11. Horizontal-branch stellar evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sweigart, Allen V.

    1990-01-01

    The results of canonical theory for the evolution of horizontal-branch (HB) stars are examined. Particular attention is given to how an HB star maintains the appropriate composition distribution within the semiconvective zone and how this composition is affected by the finite time-dependence with which convective boundaries actually move. Newly developed models based on time-dependent overshooting are presented for both the core-helium-exhaustion and main HB phases.

  12. Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch of the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) from October 1, 1988, through September 30,l 1989. Six technical sections of the report cover these main areas of SERIs in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, and Laser Raman and Luminescence Spectroscopy. Sections have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  13. Walker Branch Watershed Ecosystems Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Walker Branch Watershed is located on the U. S. Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation near Oak Ridge, in Anderson County, Tennessee. The Walker Branch Watershed Project began in 1967 under sponsorship of the U. S. Atomic Energy Commission (now the U. S. Department of Energy). Initially, the project centered primarily on the geologic and hydrologic processes that control the amounts and chemistry of water moving through the watershed. Past projects have included: • U. S. Department of Energy funded studies of watershed hydrology and forest nutrient dynamics • National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration funded studies of forest micrometeorology • Studies of atmospheric deposition under the National Atmospheric Deposition Program • The International Biological Program Eastern Deciduous Forest Biome Project • National Science Foundation sponsored studies of trace element cycling and stream nutrient spiraling • Electric Power Research Institute funded studies of the effects of acidic deposition on canopy processes and soil chemistry. These projects have all contributed to a more complete understanding of how forest watersheds function and have provided insights into the solution of energy-related problems associated with air pollution, contaminant transport, and forest nutrient dynamics. This is one of a few sites in the world characterized by long-term, intensive environmental studies. The Walker Branch Watershed website at http://walkerbranch.ornl.gov/ provides maps, photographs, and data on climate, precipitation, atmospheric deposition, stream discharge and runoff, stream chemistry, and vegetation. [Taken from http://walkerbranch.ornl.gov/ABOUTAAA.HTM

  14. Managing occurrence branching in qualitative simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Tokuda, L.

    1996-12-31

    Qualitative simulators can produce common sense abstractions of complex behaviors given only partial knowledge about a system. One of the problems which limits the applicability of qualitative simulators is the intractable branching of successor states encountered with model of even modest size. Some branches may be unavoidable due to the complex nature of a system. Other branches may be accidental results of the model chosen. A common source of intractability is occurrence branching. Occurrence branching occurs when the state transitions of two variables are unordered with respect to each other. This paper extends the QSIM model to distinguish between interesting occurrence branching and uninteresting occurrence branching. A representation, algorithm, and simulator for efficiently handling uninteresting branching is presented.

  15. Guide to the Seattle Archives Branch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, Richard, Comp.

    The guide presents an overview of the textual and microfilmed records located at the Seattle Branch of the National Archives of the United States. Established in 1969, the Seattle Archives Branch is one of 11 branches which preserve and make available for research those U.S. Government records of permanent value created and maintained by Federal…

  16. Introduction of Branching Degrees of Octane Isomers.

    PubMed

    Perdih, Anton

    2016-01-01

    The concept of branching degrees is introduced. In the case of octane isomers it is derived from the values of a set of their physicochemical properties, calculating for each isomer the average of the normalized values and these averages are defined as branching degrees of octane isomers. The sequence of these branching degrees of octane isomers does not differ much from the »regular« one defined earlier. 2,2-Dimethylhexane appears to be less branched than 3,4-dimethylhexane and 3-ethyl, 2-methylpentane, whereas 2,3,4-trimethylpentane appears to be less branched than 3-ethyl, 3-methylpentane. While the increasing number of branches gives rise to increasing branching degrees, the peripheral position of branches and the separation between branches decreases the value of the branching degree. The central position of branches increases it. A bigger branch increases it more than a smaller one. The quantification of these structural features and their correlations with few indices is given as well.

  17. Structural dynamics branch research and accomplishments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Summaries are presented of fiscal year 1989 research highlights from the Structural Dynamics Branch at NASA Lewis Research Center. Highlights from the branch's major work areas include aeroelasticity, vibration control, dynamic systems, and computation structural methods. A listing of the fiscal year 1989 branch publications is given.

  18. Lessons learned from Hurricane Andrew: recommendations for care of the elderly in long-term care facilities.

    PubMed

    Silverman, M A; Weston, M; Llorente, M; Beber, C; Tam, R

    1995-06-01

    We report on the experience of a 500-bed, long-term care facility in Miami, Fla, which provides housing and nursing care units for patients--ranging from those who are independently ambulatory to those who are acutely ill and feeble--in preparing for, during, and in the immediate aftermath of Hurricane Andrew, which struck on August 24, 1992. The problems encountered included a massive influx of evacuated elderly to the facility, facility isolation, loss of electrical power, loss of running water, special dietary needs, and limited professional staffing due to personal property losses or loss of transportation. Overwhelmed county emergency medical services, limited access to hospitals and patient care, and difficulty in procuring supplies exacerbated the already complicated situation resulting from the storm. As a result of these catastrophic conditions, a number of challenges specific to the care of the elderly were identified. In conjunction with the Florida Department of Elder Affairs, we drafted a comprehensive blueprint that could serve as a disaster plan for other long-term care facilities facing a similar threat during the hurricane season.

  19. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 89-183-2101, Andrew Jackson Junior High School, Cross Lanes, West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, L.J.; Baron, S.

    1991-02-01

    In response to a request submitted by teachers and the principal of the Andrew Jackson Junior High School (SIC-8211) in Cross Lanes, West Virginia, an evaluation was undertaken of possible hazardous conditions at the site. The symptoms experienced by the teachers included numbness and tingling of the extremities, upper airway irritation, eye irritation, inability to concentrate, and comfort complaints of too hot and too cold. The single story school building was constructed as an open space classroom configuration. It was heated, cooled and ventilated by nine individual roof mounted air handling units with ducted air supply. The false ceiling space served as the return air duct to the system. During 1981 to 1983 this open space was converted to approximately 30 classroom areas by erecting walls. The heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems were modified only by adding a false ceiling return air plenum to accommodate the space conversion. The school had been treated for termite infestation by sub slab injection of chlordane (57749) and direct in room application of chlorpyrifos (2921882) (Dursban) and Diazinon (333415). Fluorescent light ballast burn outs over several years introduced Aroclor-1254 (11097691) into the building which was not effectively removed by the ventilation system. Several class rooms also registered too high for carbon-dioxide (124389) concentration, temperature and humidity levels. Recommendations were made to reduce the exposure potential to chlordane and Aroclor-1254, improve the ventilation of the classrooms, and improve the indoor air quality of the school.

  20. S-branch CARS applicability to thermometry

    SciTech Connect

    Akihama, K.; Asai, T. )

    1990-07-20

    The pressure and temperature dependence of background-free {ital S}-branch CARS spectra of N{sub 2} are investigated in the temperature range of 300--700 K for pressures of 1--20 atm. Collisional narrowing for {ital S}-branch CARS spectra is proved to be negligible. Individual {ital S}-branch lines are clearly resolved in the entire range, enabling unequivocal determination of temperatures by their peak ratios. Advantages and disadvantages of {ital S}-branch CARS thermometry are discussed on the basis of experimental results. The dual narrowband Stokes CARS technique is also discussed as a practical method of {ital S}-branch CARS thermometry.

  1. S-branch CARS applicability to thermometry.

    PubMed

    Akihama, K; Asai, T

    1990-07-20

    The pressure and temperature dependence of background-free S-branch CARS spectra of N(2) are investigated in the temperature range of 300-700 K for pressures of 1-20 atm. Collisional narrowing for S-branch CARS spectra is proved to be negligible. Individual S-branch lines are clearly resolved in the entire range, enabling unequivocal determination of temperatures by their peak ratios. Advantages and disadvantages of S-branch CARS thermometry are discussed on the basis of experimental results. The dual narrowband Stokes CARS technique is also discussed as a practical method of S-branch CARS thermometry.

  2. Environmental Assessment for the Expansion and Consolidation of the Base Exchange at Joint Base Andrews-Naval Air Facility Washington, Prince George’s County, Maryland

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    fine sand, silt, and clay of marine origin estimated to be up to 80 feet in thickness. Other Coastal Plain deposits underlie the Calvert Formation...that upland deposits of non-hydric soils are predominant within the swale and suggest that the existing wetland areas were more a result of the...Contracts (Andrews AFB 2009), the Asbestos Management Program Plan (AFDW 2008), and the Lead-based Paint Management Plan (AFDW 2009b), which collectively

  3. Evolutionary branching under slow directional evolution.

    PubMed

    Ito, Hiroshi C; Dieckmann, Ulf

    2014-11-07

    Evolutionary branching is the process by which ecological interactions induce evolutionary diversification. In asexual populations with sufficiently rare mutations, evolutionary branching occurs through trait-substitution sequences caused by the sequential invasion of successful mutants. A necessary and sufficient condition for evolutionary branching of univariate traits is the existence of a convergence stable trait value at which selection is locally disruptive. Real populations, however, undergo simultaneous evolution in multiple traits. Here we extend conditions for evolutionary branching to bivariate trait spaces in which the response to disruptive selection on one trait can be suppressed by directional selection on another trait. To obtain analytical results, we study trait-substitution sequences formed by invasions that possess maximum likelihood. By deriving a sufficient condition for evolutionary branching of bivariate traits along such maximum-likelihood-invasion paths (MLIPs), we demonstrate the existence of a threshold ratio specifying how much disruptive selection in one trait direction is needed to overcome the obstruction of evolutionary branching caused by directional selection in the other trait direction. Generalizing this finding, we show that evolutionary branching of bivariate traits can occur along evolutionary-branching lines on which residual directional selection is sufficiently weak. We then present numerical analyses showing that our generalized condition for evolutionary branching is a good indicator of branching likelihood even when trait-substitution sequences do not follow MLIPs and when mutations are not rare. Finally, we extend the derived conditions for evolutionary branching to multivariate trait spaces.

  4. Growth of branched actin networks against obstacles.

    PubMed Central

    Carlsson, A E

    2001-01-01

    A method for simulating the growth of branched actin networks against obstacles has been developed. The method is based on simple stochastic events, including addition or removal of monomers at filament ends, capping of filament ends, nucleation of branches from existing filaments, and detachment of branches; the network structure for several different models of the branching process has also been studied. The models differ with regard to their inclusion of effects such as preferred branch orientations, filament uncapping at the obstacle, and preferential branching at filament ends. The actin ultrastructure near the membrane in lamellipodia is reasonably well produced if preferential branching in the direction of the obstacle or barbed-end uncapping effects are included. Uncapping effects cause the structures to have a few very long filaments that are similar to those seen in pathogen-induced "actin tails." The dependence of the growth velocity, branch spacing, and network density on the rate parameters for the various processes is quite different among the branching models. An analytic theory of the growth velocity and branch spacing of the network is described. Experiments are suggested that could distinguish among some of the branching models. PMID:11566765

  5. Chiral methyl-branched pheromones.

    PubMed

    Ando, Tetsu; Yamakawa, Rei

    2015-07-01

    Insect pheromones are some of the most interesting natural products because they are utilized for interspecific communication between various insects, such as beetles, moths, ants, and cockroaches. A large number of compounds of many kinds have been identified as pheromone components, reflecting the diversity of insect species. While this review deals only with chiral methyl-branched pheromones, the chemical structures of more than one hundred non-terpene compounds have been determined by applying excellent analytical techniques. Furthermore, their stereoselective syntheses have been achieved by employing trustworthy chiral sources and ingenious enantioselective reactions. The information has been reviewed here not only to make them available for new research but also to understand the characteristic chemical structures of the chiral pheromones. Since biosynthetic studies are still limited, it might be meaningful to examine whether the structures, particularly the positions and configurations of the branched methyl groups, are correlated with the taxonomy of the pheromone producers and also with the function of the pheromones in communication systems.

  6. Recursive Branching Simulated Annealing Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolcar, Matthew; Smith, J. Scott; Aronstein, David

    2012-01-01

    This innovation is a variation of a simulated-annealing optimization algorithm that uses a recursive-branching structure to parallelize the search of a parameter space for the globally optimal solution to an objective. The algorithm has been demonstrated to be more effective at searching a parameter space than traditional simulated-annealing methods for a particular problem of interest, and it can readily be applied to a wide variety of optimization problems, including those with a parameter space having both discrete-value parameters (combinatorial) and continuous-variable parameters. It can take the place of a conventional simulated- annealing, Monte-Carlo, or random- walk algorithm. In a conventional simulated-annealing (SA) algorithm, a starting configuration is randomly selected within the parameter space. The algorithm randomly selects another configuration from the parameter space and evaluates the objective function for that configuration. If the objective function value is better than the previous value, the new configuration is adopted as the new point of interest in the parameter space. If the objective function value is worse than the previous value, the new configuration may be adopted, with a probability determined by a temperature parameter, used in analogy to annealing in metals. As the optimization continues, the region of the parameter space from which new configurations can be selected shrinks, and in conjunction with lowering the annealing temperature (and thus lowering the probability for adopting configurations in parameter space with worse objective functions), the algorithm can converge on the globally optimal configuration. The Recursive Branching Simulated Annealing (RBSA) algorithm shares some features with the SA algorithm, notably including the basic principles that a starting configuration is randomly selected from within the parameter space, the algorithm tests other configurations with the goal of finding the globally optimal

  7. Vegetation survey of PEN Branch wetlands

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    A survey was conducted of vegetation along Pen Branch Creek at Savannah River Site (SRS) in support of K-Reactor restart. Plants were identified to species by overstory, understory, shrub, and groundcover strata. Abundance was also characterized and richness and diversity calculated. Based on woody species basal area, the Pen Branch delta was the most impacted, followed by the sections between the reactor and the delta. Species richness for shrub and groundcover strata were also lowest in the delta. No endangered plant species were found. Three upland pine areas were also sampled. In support of K Reactor restart, this report summarizes a study of the wetland vegetation along Pen Branch. Reactor effluent enters Indian Grove Branch and then flows into Pen Branch and the Pen Branch Delta.

  8. Research program of the Geodynamics Branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, W. D. (Editor); Cohen, S. C. (Editor); Boccucci, B. S. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    This report is the Fourth Annual Summary of the Research Program of the Geodynamics Branch. The branch is located within the Laboratory for Terrestrial Physics of the Space and Earth Sciences Directorate of the Goddard Space Flight Center. The research activities of the branch staff cover a broad spectrum of geoscience disciplines including: tectonophysics, space geodesy, geopotential field modeling, and dynamic oceanography. The NASA programs which are supported by the work described in this document include the Geodynamics and Ocean Programs, the Crustal Dynamics Project and the proposed Ocean Topography Experiment (TOPEX). The reports highlight the investigations conducted by the Geodynamics Branch staff during calendar year 1985. The individual papers are grouped into chapters on Crustal Movements and Solid Earth Dynamics, Gravity Field Modeling and Sensing Techniques, and Sea Surface Topography. Further information on the activities of the branch or the particular research efforts described herein can be obtained through the branch office or from individual staff members.

  9. Combining living anionic polymerization with branching reactions in an iterative fashion to design branched polymers.

    PubMed

    Higashihara, Tomoya; Sugiyama, Kenji; Yoo, Hee-Soo; Hayashi, Mayumi; Hirao, Akira

    2010-06-16

    This paper reviews the precise synthesis of many-armed and multi-compositional star-branched polymers, exact graft (co)polymers, and structurally well-defined dendrimer-like star-branched polymers, which are synthetically difficult, by a commonly-featured iterative methodology combining living anionic polymerization with branched reactions to design branched polymers. The methodology basically involves only two synthetic steps; (a) preparation of a polymeric building block corresponding to each branched polymer and (b) connection of the resulting building unit to another unit. The synthetic steps were repeated in a stepwise fashion several times to successively synthesize a series of well-defined target branched polymers.

  10. Mechanical Components Branch Test Facilities and Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oswald, Fred B.

    2004-01-01

    The Mechanical Components Branch at NASA Glenn Research Center formulates, conducts, and manages research focused on propulsion systems for both present and advanced aeronautical and space vehicles. The branch is comprised of research teams that perform basic research in three areas: mechanical drives, aerospace seals, and space mechanisms. Each team has unique facilities for testing aerospace hardware and concepts. This report presents an overview of the Mechanical Components Branch test facilities.

  11. Toward improved branch prediction through data mining.

    SciTech Connect

    Hemmert, K. Scott; Johnson, D. Eric

    2009-09-01

    Data mining and machine learning techniques can be applied to computer system design to aid in optimizing design decisions, improving system runtime performance. Data mining techniques have been investigated in the context of branch prediction. Specifically, a comparison of traditional branch predictor performance has been made to data mining algorithms. Additionally, the possiblity of whether additional features available within the architectural state might serve to further improve branch prediction has been evaluated. Results show that data mining techniques indicate potential for improved branch prediction, especially when register file contents are included as a feature set.

  12. Branched silver nanowires as controllable plasmon routers.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yurui; Li, Zhipeng; Huang, Yingzhou; Zhang, Shunping; Nordlander, Peter; Halas, Naomi J; Xu, Hongxing

    2010-05-12

    Using polarization dependent scattering spectroscopy, we investigate plasmon propagation on branched silver nanowires. By controlling the polarization of the incident laser light, the wire plasmons can be routed into different wire branches and result in light emission from the corresponding wire ends. This routing behavior is found to be strongly dependent on the wavelength of light. Thus for certain incident polarizations, light of different wavelength will be routed into different branches. The branched nanowire can thus serve as a controllable router and multiplexer in integrated plasmonic circuits.

  13. Clinical and Translational Epidemiology Branch (CTEB)

    Cancer.gov

    The Clinical and Translational Epidemiology Branch focuses on factors that influence cancer progression, recurrence, survival, and other treatment outcomes, and factors associated with cancer development.

  14. Stochastic model for supersymmetric particle branching process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Chan, Aik Hui; Oh, Choo Hiap

    2017-01-01

    We develop a stochastic branching model to describe the jet evolution of supersymmetric (SUSY) particles. This model is a modified two-phase branching process, or more precisely, a two-phase simple birth process plus Poisson process. Both pure SUSY partons initiated jets and SUSY plus ordinary partons initiated jets scenarios are considered. The stochastic branching equations are established and the Multiplicity Distributions (MDs) are derived for these two scenarios. We also fit the distribution of the general case (SUSY plus ordinary partons initiated jets) with experimental data. The fitting shows the SUSY particles have not participated in branching at current collision energy yet.

  15. Asymptotics of Simple Branching Populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huillet, Thierry; Kłopotowski, Andrzej; Porzio, Anna

    1995-09-01

    In this paper we study a simple deterministic tree structure: an initial individual generates a finite number of offspring, each of which has given integer valued lifetime, iterating the same procedure when dying. Three asymptotic distributions of this asynchronous deterministic branching procedure are considered: the generation distribution, the ability of individuals to generate offspring and the age distribution. Thermodynamic formalism is then developped to reveal the multifractal nature of the mass splitting associated to our process. On considère l'itération d'une structure déterministe arborescente selon laquelle un ancêtre engendre un nombre fini de descendants dont la durée de vie (à valeurs entières) est donnée. Dans un premier temps on s'intéresse aux trois distributions asymptotiques suivantes : répartition des générations, aptitude à engendrer des descendants et répartition selon l'âge. Ensuite nous développons le formalisme thermodynamique pour mettre en évidence le caractère multifractal de la scission d'une masse unitaire associée à cette arborescence.

  16. Supplemental Environmental Assessment of the Ambulatory Care Center at Joint Base Andrews-Naval Air Facility Washington, Maryland

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    and MD Route 5 (Branch Avenue). The Patuxent River is approximately seven miles east of the base. The communities of Morningside, Woodyard, Clinton...Creek to the southeast. All of these streams ultimately flow into the Potomac or Patuxent Rivers (AAFB 2010). To manage on-base stormwater runoff...Patuxent River . The new ACC would reduce the area of impervious surfaces that could affect downstream water quality. Adherence to proper engineering

  17. Pacific Coastal Ecology Branch: Research Overview

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pacific Coastal Ecology Branch, Newport, Oregon is part of the Western Ecology Division of the National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory of the U.S. EPA. The Branch conducts research and provides scientific technical support to Headquarters and Regional O...

  18. An archetypal mechanism for branching organogenesis.

    PubMed

    Clément, Raphaël; Mauroy, Benjamin

    2014-02-01

    Branched structures are ubiquitous in nature, both in living and non-living systems. While the functional benefits of branching organogenesis are straightforward, the developmental mechanisms leading to the repeated branching of epithelia in surrounding mesoderm remain unclear. Both molecular and physical aspects of growth control seem to play a critical role in shape emergence and maintenance. On the molecular side, the existence of a gradient of growth-promoting ligand between epithelial tips and distal mesenchyme seems to be common to branched organs. On the physical side, the branching process seems to require a mechanism of real-time adaptation to local geometry, as suggested by the self-avoiding nature of branching events. In this paper, we investigate the outcomes of a general three-dimensional growth model, in which epithelial growth is implemented as a function of ligand income, while the mesenchyme is considered as a proliferating viscous medium. Our results suggest that the existence of a gradient of growth-promoting ligand between distal and proximal mesenchyme implies a growth instability of the epithelial sheet, resulting in spontaneous self-avoiding branching morphogenesis. While the general nature of the model prevents one from fitting the development of specific organs, it suggests that few ingredients are actually required to achieve branching organogenesis.

  19. On an Integral with Two Branch Points

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Oliveira, E. Capelas; Chiacchio, Ary O.

    2006-01-01

    The paper considers a class of real integrals performed by using a convenient integral in the complex plane. A complex integral containing a multi-valued function with two branch points is transformed into another integral containing a pole and a unique branch point. As a by-product we obtain a new class of integrals which can be calculated in a…

  20. Anaphora and Branching Direction in Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Grady, William; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This paper constitutes a response to Lust and Mazuka's (1989) defense of the Principal Branching parameter and their critique of O'Grady, Suzuki-Wei, and Cho's (1986) experiment, which purported to show that even children learning left-branching languages exhibit a preference for forward patterns of anaphora. (Contains 16 references.) (JL)

  1. Suppression of branches in Eucalyptus trees.

    PubMed

    Senthalir, P; Sharanya, S; Paramathma, M

    2004-06-01

    The effect of neem oil, which acts as a suckericide in tobacco, on branch suppression in Eucalyptus tereticornis was assessed to help maximize stem biomass. Lateral branches of selected trees were pruned, and neem oil solutions at concentrations of either 80%, 40%, 20%, 10%, or 0% (untreated control) were applied to leaf axils of the pruned branches. Regeneration of branches was suppressed, and the magnitude of suppression was proportional to the concentration of neem oil. Compared to the control, the percentage reduction in branching at 80% neem oil was 41.6%. When regenerated branches were repruned and neem oil applied at either 100%, 80%, or 0% (control), the regenerating ability of these branches was severely repressed by 78% at 100% neem oil relative to the control. Apical shoots were also topped and treated at either 100% or 0% (control) neem oil to identify the principal suppressive component in neem oil. The principal component azadirachtin was tested at 375, 750, 1500, 3125, 6250, 12 500, 25 000, 50 000, and 100 000 ppm and 0 ppm as the control. Reduction in the coppicing shoot was as high as 85%. Azadirachtin was responsible for the suppression. By pruning the lateral branches with neem oil, wasteful consumption of photosynthates can be precluded and the stem biomass maximized.

  2. Branching out Has So Much to Offer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Joe

    2012-01-01

    In 1989 there were thirty ATM branches nationally. In January 2012 there were just twelve ATM branches with another three "proposed". How can that happen? How did it happen? Maybe the most pertinent question is: Why did it happen? There is no single answer to the last question, but perhaps it was something to do with the changes that…

  3. Lung epithelial branching program antagonizes alveolar differentiation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Daniel R; Martinez Alanis, Denise; Miller, Rachel K; Ji, Hong; Akiyama, Haruhiko; McCrea, Pierre D; Chen, Jichao

    2013-11-05

    Mammalian organs, including the lung and kidney, often adopt a branched structure to achieve high efficiency and capacity of their physiological functions. Formation of a functional lung requires two developmental processes: branching morphogenesis, which builds a tree-like tubular network, and alveolar differentiation, which generates specialized epithelial cells for gas exchange. Much progress has been made to understand each of the two processes individually; however, it is not clear whether the two processes are coordinated and how they are deployed at the correct time and location. Here we show that an epithelial branching morphogenesis program antagonizes alveolar differentiation in the mouse lung. We find a negative correlation between branching morphogenesis and alveolar differentiation temporally, spatially, and evolutionarily. Gain-of-function experiments show that hyperactive small GTPase Kras expands the branching program and also suppresses molecular and cellular differentiation of alveolar cells. Loss-of-function experiments show that SRY-box containing gene 9 (Sox9) functions downstream of Fibroblast growth factor (Fgf)/Kras to promote branching and also suppresses premature initiation of alveolar differentiation. We thus propose that lung epithelial progenitors continuously balance between branching morphogenesis and alveolar differentiation, and such a balance is mediated by dual-function regulators, including Kras and Sox9. The resulting temporal delay of differentiation by the branching program may provide new insights to lung immaturity in preterm neonates and the increase in organ complexity during evolution.

  4. Polyphyly of true branching cyanobacteria (Stigonematales).

    PubMed

    Gugger, Muriel F; Hoffmann, Lucien

    2004-03-01

    Cyanobacteria with true branching are classified in Subsection V (formerly order Stigonematales) in the phylum CYANOBACTERIA: They exhibit a high degree of morphological complexity and are known from particular biotopes. Only a few stigonematalean morphotypes have been cultured, and therefore the high variability of morphotypes found in nature is under-represented in culture. Axenic cultures of Chlorogloeopsis and Fischerella sensu Rippka et al. were, to date, the only representatives of this Subsection in phylogenetic studies. The 16S rDNA sequence analysis data in this report confirm that heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria are a monophyletic group. However, unlike previous studies have suggested, these 16S rDNA data on new Stigonematales strains show that the true branching cyanobacteria are polyphyletic and can be separated into at least two major groups defined by their branching type, the first group being characterized by T-branching and the second group by Y-branching. Cyanobacteria with intercalary heterocysts and either no branching or false-branching also formed separate clusters. In consequence, our phylogenetic data do not correlate with the bacteriological and traditional classifications, which distinguish filamentous heterocystous cyanobacteria with or without true branching (Nostocales/Stigonematales).

  5. Phytochrome regulation of branching in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Finlayson, Scott A; Krishnareddy, Srirama R; Kebrom, Tesfamichael H; Casal, Jorge J

    2010-04-01

    The red light:far-red light ratio perceived by phytochromes controls plastic traits of plant architecture, including branching. Despite the significance of branching for plant fitness and productivity, there is little quantitative and mechanistic information concerning phytochrome control of branching responses in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Here, we show that in Arabidopsis, the negative effects of the phytochrome B mutation and of low red light:far-red light ratio on branching were largely due to reduced bud outgrowth capacity and an increased degree of correlative inhibition acting on the buds rather than due to a reduced number of leaves and buds available for branching. Phytochrome effects on the degree of correlative inhibition required functional BRANCHED1 (BRC1), BRC2, AXR1, MORE AXILLARY GROWTH2 (MAX2), and MAX4. The analysis of gene expression in selected buds indicated that BRC1 and BRC2 are part of different gene networks. The BRC1 network is linked to the growth capacity of specific buds, while the BRC2 network is associated with coordination of growth among branches. We conclude that the branching integrators BRC1 and BRC2 are necessary for responses to phytochrome, but they contribute differentially to these responses, likely acting through divergent pathways.

  6. Toward an understanding of fibrin branching structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fogelson, Aaron L.; Keener, James P.

    2010-05-01

    The blood clotting enzyme thrombin converts fibrinogen molecules into fibrin monomers which polymerize to form a fibrous three-dimensional gel. The concentration of thrombin affects the architecture of the resulting gel, in particular, a higher concentration of thrombin produces a gel with more branch points per unit volume and with shorter fiber segments between branch points. We propose a mechanism by which fibrin branching can occur and show that this mechanism can lead to dependence of the gel’s structure (at the time of gelation) on the rate at which monomer is supplied. A higher rate of monomer supply leads to a gel with a higher branch concentration and with shorter fiber segments between branch points. The origin of this dependence is explained.

  7. Using branching simulations in treatment fidelity plans.

    PubMed

    Kovach, Christine R; Rababa, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present a new approach to treatment fidelity using branching simulations. Branching simulations are case scenarios that require the user to generate a series of step-by-step decisions and actions. The user is given immediate feedback on the consequences of his or her decisions and actions. Branching simulations may be a particularly useful fidelity strategy for interventions that require clinical decision making represented in terms of a flow of critical thinking and action steps. Results of fidelity testing in the current study using branching simulations revealed that 15 (22%) of 67 interventionists scored below the study's a priori 80% criterion for full retraining and retesting. Thirty (45%) interventionists needed partial retraining in using specific components of the intervention. Potential threats to internal validity posed by inadequate or erroneous adherence to multicomponent intervention protocols can be decreased through treatment fidelity using branching simulations.

  8. Root branching: mechanisms, robustness, and plasticity.

    PubMed

    Dastidar, Mouli Ghosh; Jouannet, Virginie; Maizel, Alexis

    2012-01-01

    Plants are sessile organisms that must efficiently exploit their habitat for water and nutrients. The degree of root branching impacts the efficiency of water uptake, acquisition of nutrients, and anchorage. The root system of plants is a dynamic structure whose architecture is determined by modulation of primary root growth and root branching. This plasticity relies on the continuous integration of environmental inputs and endogenous developmental programs controlling root branching. This review focuses on the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of lateral root distribution, initiation, and organogenesis with the main focus on the root system of Arabidopsis thaliana. We also examine the mechanisms linking environmental changes to the developmental pathways controlling root branching. Recent progress that emphasizes the parallels to the formation of root branches in other species is discussed.

  9. Nomina nova in Platyhelminthes pro Macrorhynchus von Graff, 1882 (non [Gmelin, 1801]; non Dunker, 1843), and Leptocleidus Mueller, 1936 (non Andrews, 1922).

    PubMed

    Hornung, Jahn J

    2016-08-19

    Two genus-group names of flat-worms-Leptocleidus Mueller, 1936 and Macrorhynchus von Graff, 1882-are junior homonyms that are preoccupied by fossil diapsid reptile genera-Leptocleidus Andrews, 1922, and Macrorhynchus Dunker, 1843-and an extant teleost fish genus-Macrorhynchus [Gmelin, 1801] ex La Cépède, 1800. These are replaced by nomina nova (Pharyngodytes nom. nov.; Graffiellus nom. nov.). Macrorhynchus [Gmelin, 1801] is an objective senior synonym of Macrorhyncus Dumeríl, 1805 ex La Cépède, 1800 (syn. nov.), and a senior homonym of Macrorhynchus Dunker, 1843, and Macrorhynchus von Graff, 1882.

  10. Branch architecture, light interception and crown development in saplings of a plagiotropically branching tropical tree, Polyalthia jenkinsii (Annonaceae).

    PubMed

    Osada, Noriyuki; Takeda, Hiroshi

    2003-01-01

    To investigate crown development patterns, branch architecture, branch-level light interception, and leaf and branch dynamics were studied in saplings of a plagiotropically branching tree species, Polyalthia jenkinsii Hk. f. & Thoms. (Annonaceae) in a Malaysian rain forest. Lengths of branches and parts of the branches lacking leaves ('bare' branches) were smaller in upper branches than in lower branches within crowns, whereas lengths of 'leafy' parts and the number of leaves per branch were larger in intermediate than in upper and lower branches. Maximum diffuse light absorption (DLA) of individual leaves was not related to sapling height or branch position within crowns, whereas minimum DLA was lower in tall saplings. Accordingly, branch-level light interception was higher in intermediate than in upper and lower branches. The leaf production rate was higher and leaf loss rate was smaller in upper than in intermediate and lower branches. Moreover, the branch production rate of new first-order branches was larger in the upper crowns. Thus, leaf and branch dynamics do not correspond to branch-level light interception in the different canopy zones. As a result of architectural constraints, branches at different vertical positions experience predictable light microenvironments in plagiotropic species. Accordingly, this pattern of carbon allocation among branches might be particularly important for growth and crown development in plagiotropic species.

  11. Tillering and panicle branching genes in rice.

    PubMed

    Liang, Wei-hong; Shang, Fei; Lin, Qun-ting; Lou, Chen; Zhang, Jing

    2014-03-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the most important staple food crops in the world, and rice tillering and panicle branching are important traits determining grain yield. Since the gene MONOCULM 1 (MOC 1) was first characterized as a key regulator in controlling rice tillering and branching, great progress has been achieved in identifying important genes associated with grain yield, elucidating the genetic basis of yield-related traits. Some of these important genes were shown to be applicable for molecular breeding of high-yielding rice. This review focuses on recent advances, with emphasis on rice tillering and panicle branching genes, and their regulatory networks.

  12. Disassortativity of random critical branching trees.

    PubMed

    Kim, J S; Kahng, B; Kim, D

    2009-06-01

    Random critical branching trees (CBTs) are generated by the multiplicative branching process, where the branching number is determined stochastically, independent of the degree of their ancestor. Here we show analytically that despite this stochastic independence, there exists the degree-degree correlation (DDC) in the CBT and it is disassortative. Moreover, the skeletons of fractal networks, the maximum spanning trees formed by the edge betweenness centrality, behave similarly to the CBT in the DDC. This analytic solution and observation support the argument that the fractal scaling in complex networks originates from the disassortativity in the DDC.

  13. Applied Aeroscience and CFD Branch Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeBeau, Gerald J.; Kirk, Benjamin S.

    2014-01-01

    The principal mission of NASA Johnson Space Center is Human Spaceflight. In support of the mission the Applied Aeroscience and CFD Branch has several technical competencies that include aerodynamic characterization, aerothermodynamic heating, rarefied gas dynamics, and decelerator (parachute) systems.

  14. Sharing Fiscal Information: A Legislative Branch View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivlin, Alice M.

    1978-01-01

    Decisions regarding budget matters are complex; therefore, information sharing between the executive and legislative branches is helpful and necessary. Budget reforms have been initiated, but future trends indicate the need for flexibility and revision of information pathways. (MBR)

  15. FY 1990 Applied Sciences Branch annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Keyes, B.M.; Dippo, P.C.

    1991-11-01

    The Applied Sciences Branch actively supports the advancement of DOE/SERI goals for the development and implementation of the solar photovoltaic technology. The primary focus of the laboratories is to provide state-of-the-art analytical capabilities for materials and device characterization and fabrication. The branch houses a comprehensive facility which is capable of providing information on the full range of photovoltaic components. A major objective of the branch is to aggressively pursue collaborative research with other government laboratories, universities, and industrial firms for the advancement of photovoltaic technologies. Members of the branch disseminate research findings to the technical community in publications and presentations. This report contains information on surface and interface analysis, materials characterization, development, electro-optical characterization module testing and performance, surface interactions and FTIR spectroscopy.

  16. Code 672 observational science branch computer networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hancock, D. W.; Shirk, H. G.

    1988-01-01

    In general, networking increases productivity due to the speed of transmission, easy access to remote computers, ability to share files, and increased availability of peripherals. Two different networks within the Observational Science Branch are described in detail.

  17. Overview of the Advanced High Frequency Branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miranda, Felix A.

    2015-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the competencies, selected areas of research and technology development activities, and current external collaborative efforts of the NASA Glenn Research Center's Advanced High Frequency Branch.

  18. Residence times of branching diffusion processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumonteil, E.; Mazzolo, A.

    2016-07-01

    The residence time of a branching Brownian process is the amount of time that the mother particle and all its descendants spend inside a domain. Using the Feynman-Kac formalism, we derive the residence-time equation as well as the equations for its moments for a branching diffusion process with an arbitrary number of descendants. This general approach is illustrated with simple examples in free space and in confined geometries where explicit formulas for the moments are obtained within the long time limit. In particular, we study in detail the influence of the branching mechanism on those moments. The present approach can also be applied to investigate other additive functionals of branching Brownian process.

  19. Soils of Walker Branch Watershed

    SciTech Connect

    Lietzke, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    The soil survey of Walker Branch Watershed (WBW) utilized the most up-to-date knowledge of soils, geology, and geohydrology in building the soils data base needed to reinterpret past research and to begin new research in the watershed. The soils of WBW were also compared with soils mapped elsewhere along Chestnut Ridge on the Oak Ridge Reservation to (1) establish whether knowledge obtained elsewhere could be used within the watershed, (2) determine whether there were any soils restricted to the watershed, and (3) evaluate geologic formation lateral variability. Soils, surficial geology, and geomorphology were mapped at a scale of 1:1200 using a paper base map having 2-ft contour intervals. Most of the contours seemed to reasonably represent actual landform configurations, except for dense wooded areas. For example, the very large dolines or sinkholes were shown on the contour base map, but numerous smaller ones were not. In addition, small drainageways and gullies were often not shown. These often small but important features were located approximately as soil mapping progressed. WBW is underlain by dolostones of the Knox Group, but only a very small part of the surface area contains outcroppings of rock and most outcrops were located in the lower part. Soil mapping revealed the presence of both ancient alluvium and ancient colluvium deposits, not recognized in previous soil surveys, that have been preserved in high-elevation stable portions of present-day landforms. An erosional geomorphic process of topographic inversion requiring several millions of years within the Pleistocene is necessary to bring about the degree of inversion that is expressed in the watershed. Indeed, some of these ancient alluvial and colluvial remnants may date back into the Tertiary. Also evident in the watershed, and preserved in the broad, nearly level bottoms of dolines, are multiple deposits of silty material either devoid or nearly devoid of coarse fragments. Recent research

  20. Title Sheet, National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Northwestern Branch ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Title Sheet, National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Northwestern Branch - National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Northwestern Branch, 5000 West National Avenue, Milwaukee, Milwaukee County, WI

  1. Northwestern Branch of Mangala Vallis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 12 June 2002) The Science One of the many branches of the Mangala Vallis channel system is seen in this image. The water that likely carved the channels emerged from a huge graben or fracture almost 1000 km to the south. The THEMIS image shows where one of the channels exits the cratered highlands terrain onto the lowland plains. A bright scarp marks the transition between the two terrain types and demonstrates that in this location the highlands terrain is being eroded back. Note how the floor of the main channel appears to be at the same level as the lowland terrain, suggestive of a base level where erosion is no longer effective. Most of the steep slope faces in the image display darker slope streaks that are thought to be dust avalanche scars and indicate that a relatively thick mantle of dust is present in this region. Wind-sculpted ridges known as yardangs cover many of the surfaces throughout the area as shown by images from the Mars Global Surveyor mission. Most of them are at the limit of resolution in the THEMIS image but some are evident on the floor of the main channel at the point at which a smaller side channel enters. In this location they appear to extend right up to the base of the channel wall, giving the appearance that they are emerging from underneath the thick pile of material into which the channel is eroded. This suggests a geologic history in which a preexisting landscape of eroded yardangs was covered over by a thick pile of younger material that is now eroding back down to the original level. Alternatively, it is possible that the yardangs formed more recently at the abrupt transition between the channel floor and wall. More analysis is necessary to sort out the story. The Story This channel system is named 'Mangala,' the word for Mars in Sanskrit, a language of the Hindus of India that goes back more than 4,000 years, with written literature almost as long. Great epic tales have been written in this language, and Odyssey is

  2. Structure-Property Relationships for Branched Worm-Like Micelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaucage, Gregory; Rai, Durgesh

    2013-03-01

    Micellar solutions can display a wide range of phase structure as a function of counter ion content, surfactant concentration, and the presence of ternary components. Under some conditions, common to consumer products, extended cylindrical structures that display persistence and other chain features of polymers are produced. These worm-like micelles (WLMs) can form branched structures that dynamically change under shear and even in quiescent conditions. The rheology of these branched WLMs is strongly dependent on migration of the branch points, and the dynamics of branch formation and removal. Persistence and other polymer-based descriptions are also of importance. We have recently developed a scattering model for branched polyolefins and other topologically complex materials that can quantify the branching density, branch length, branch functionality and the hyperbranch (branch-on-branch) content of polymers. This work is being extended to study branching in WLMs in work coupled with Ron Larson at UMich to predict rheological properties.

  3. Technical activities of the configuration aeroelasticity branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Stanley R. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    A number of recent technical activities of the Configuration Aeroelasticity Branch of the NASA Langley Research Center are discussed in detail. The information on the research branch is compiled in twelve separate papers. The first of these topics is a summary of the purpose of the branch, including a full description of the branch and its associated projects and program efforts. The next ten papers cover specific projects and are as follows: Experimental transonic flutter characteristics of supersonic cruise configurations; Aeroelastic effects of spoiler surfaces mounted on a low aspect ratio rectangular wing; Planform curvature effects on flutter of 56 degree swept wing determined in Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT); An introduction to rotorcraft testing in TDT; Rotorcraft vibration reduction research at the TDT; A preliminary study to determine the effects of tip geometry on the flutter of aft swept wings; Aeroelastic models program; NACA 0012 pressure model and test plan; Investigation of the use of extension twist coupling in composite rotor blades; and Improved finite element methods for rotorcraft structures. The final paper describes the primary facility operation by the branch, the Langley TDT.

  4. Damping by branching: a bioinspiration from trees.

    PubMed

    Theckes, B; Langre, E de; Boutillon, X

    2011-12-01

    Man-made slender structures are known to be sensitive to high levels of vibration due to their flexibility which often cause irreversible damage. In nature, trees repeatedly endure large amplitudes of motion, mostly caused by strong climatic events, yet with minor or no damage in most cases. A new damping mechanism inspired by the architecture of trees is identified here and characterized in the simplest tree-like structure, a Y-shaped branched structure. Through analytical and numerical analyses of a simple two-degree-of-freedom model, branching is shown to be the key ingredient in this protective mechanism that we call damping-by-branching. It originates in the geometrical nonlinearities so that it is specifically efficient to damp out large amplitudes of motion. A more realistic model, using flexible beam approximation, shows that the mechanism is robust. Finally, two bioinspired architectures are analyzed, showing significant levels of damping achieved via branching with typically 30% of the energy being dissipated in one oscillation. This concept of damping-by-branching is of simple practical use in the design of very slender and flexible structures subjected to extreme dynamical loadings.

  5. The Future of Washington's Branch Campuses. HECB Report on Branch Campus Development Plans-HB 2707

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Higher Education Coordinating Board, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Washington's research university branch campuses were created in 1989 to increase opportunities for students in several regions of the state to complete their baccalaureate and graduate-level studies at public universities close to their homes. Currently, the University of Washington operates branch campuses in Bothell and Tacoma. The Bothell…

  6. Enrico Fermi Awards Ceremony for Dr. Allen J. Bard and Dr. Andrew Sessler, February 2014 (Presentations, including remarks by Energy Secretary, Dr. Ernest Moniz)

    SciTech Connect

    Moniz, Ernest

    2014-02-03

    The Fermi Award is a Presidential award and is one of the oldest and most prestigious science and technology honors bestowed by the U.S. Government. On February 3, 2014 it was conferred upon two exceptional scientists. The first to be recognized is Dr. Allen J. Bard, 'for international leadership in electrochemical science and technology, for advances in photoelectrochemistry and photocatalytic materials, processes, and devices, and for discovery and development of electrochemical methods including electrogenerated chemiluminescence and scanning electrochemical microscopy.' The other honoree is Dr. Andrew Sessler, 'for advancing accelerators as powerful tools of scientific discovery, for visionary direction of the research enterprise focused on challenges in energy and the environment, and for championing outreach and freedom of scientific inquiry worldwide.' Dr. Patricia Dehmer opened the ceremony, and Dr. Ernest Moniz presented the awards.

  7. Book Review: Maxwell's Demon 2: Entropy, classical and quantum information, computing. Harvey Leff and Andrew Rex (Eds.); Institute of Physics, Bristol, 2003, 500pp., US 55, ISBN 0750307595

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shenker, Orly R.

    2004-09-01

    In 1867, James Clerk Maxwell proposed a perpetuum mobile of the second kind, that is, a counter example for the Second Law of thermodynamics, which came to be known as "Maxwell's Demon." Unlike any other perpetual motion machine, this one escaped attempts by the best scientists and philosophers to show that the Second Law or its statistical mechanical counterparts are universal after all. "Maxwell's demon lives on. After more than 130 years of uncertain life and at least two pronouncements of death, this fanciful character seems more vibrant than ever." These words of Harvey Leff and Andrew Rex (1990), which open their introduction to Maxwell's Demon 2: Entropy, Classical and Quantum Information, Computing (hereafter MD2) are very true: the Demon is as challenging and as intriguing as ever, and forces us to think and rethink about the foundations of thermodynamics and of statistical mechanics.

  8. Enrico Fermi Awards Ceremony for Dr. Allen J. Bard and Dr. Andrew Sessler, February 2014 (Presentations, including remarks by Energy Secretary, Dr. Ernest Moniz)

    ScienceCinema

    Moniz, Ernest [U.S. Energy Secretary

    2016-07-12

    The Fermi Award is a Presidential award and is one of the oldest and most prestigious science and technology honors bestowed by the U.S. Government. On February 3, 2014 it was conferred upon two exceptional scientists. The first to be recognized is Dr. Allen J. Bard, 'for international leadership in electrochemical science and technology, for advances in photoelectrochemistry and photocatalytic materials, processes, and devices, and for discovery and development of electrochemical methods including electrogenerated chemiluminescence and scanning electrochemical microscopy.' The other honoree is Dr. Andrew Sessler, 'for advancing accelerators as powerful tools of scientific discovery, for visionary direction of the research enterprise focused on challenges in energy and the environment, and for championing outreach and freedom of scientific inquiry worldwide.' Dr. Patricia Dehmer opened the ceremony, and Dr. Ernest Moniz presented the awards.

  9. A survey of culturable aerobic and anaerobic marine bacteria in de novo biofilm formation on natural substrates in St. Andrews Bay, Scotland.

    PubMed

    Finnegan, Lucy; Garcia-Melgares, Manuel; Gmerek, Tomasz; Huddleston, W Ryan; Palmer, Alexander; Robertson, Andrew; Shapiro, Sarah; Unkles, Shiela E

    2011-10-01

    This study reports a novel study of marine biofilm formation comprising aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. Samples of quartz and feldspar, minerals commonly found on the earth, were suspended 5 m deep in the North Sea off the east coast of St. Andrews, Scotland for 5 weeks. The assemblage of organisms attached to these stones was cultivated under aerobic and anaerobic conditions in the laboratory. Bacteria isolated on Marine Agar 2216 were all Gram-negative and identified to genus level by sequencing the gene encoding 16S rRNA. Colwellia, Maribacter, Pseudoaltermonas and Shewanella were observed in aerobically-grown cultures while Vibrio was found to be present in both aerobic and anaerobic cultures. The obligate anaerobic bacterium Psychrilyobacter atlanticus, a recently defined genus, was identified as a close relative of isolates grown anaerobically. The results provide valuable information as to the main players that attach and form de novo biofilms on common minerals in sea water.

  10. Summary of the watershed-landscape analysis workshop: h. j. andrews experimental forest. Held in Blue River, Oregon on February 2-4, 1994. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Grant, G.; McCain, C.; Cissel, J.

    1994-08-01

    The document summarizes the results of the watershed and landscape analysis workshop held at the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest in February 1994. Five examples of watershed analyses conducted on public and private lands in the Pacific Northwest are described and critiqued, and future direction for watershed analysis on Federal lands is discussed.

  11. An Analysis and Comparison of Two Short Writings: "Inaugural Address at the University of St. Andrew's" by J.S. Mill and "The University of Utopia" by R.M. Hutchins, Based on Five Criteria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poirier, Jeannine M.

    Focusing on the concept of education for work vs. education for living, the author presents a comparative analysis of two works on liberal education, each of which was originally delivered orally to university students: "The Inaugural Address at the University of St. Andrew" by John Stuart Mill and "The University of Utopia" by…

  12. Building Virtual Spaces for Children in the Digital Branch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuBroy, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: A digital branch is just like a physical branch except that content is delivered digitally via the web. A digital branch has staff, a collection, a community, and a building. The purpose of this paper is to explore the concept of building individual spaces for different user groups, specifically children, within a digital branch.…

  13. Crack branching in carbon steel. Fracture mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syromyatnikova, A. S.; Alekseev, A. A.; Levin, A. I.; Lyglaev, A. V.

    2010-04-01

    The fracture surfaces of pressure vessels made of carbon steel that form during crack branching propagation are examined by fractography. Crack branching is found to occur at a crack velocity higher than a certain critical value V > V c . In this case, the material volume that is involved in fracture and depends on the elastoplastic properties of the material and the sample width has no time to dissipate the energy released upon crack motion via the damage mechanisms intrinsic in the material under given deformation conditions (in our case, via cracking according to intragranular cleavage).

  14. Nature of branching in disordered materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, Amit S.

    The phenomenon of structural branching is ubiquitous in a wide array of materials such as polymers, ceramic aggregates, networks and gels. These materials with structural branching are a unique class of disordered materials and often display complex architectures. Branching has a strong influence over the structure-property relationships of these materials. Despite the generic importance across a wide spectrum of materials, our physical understanding of the scientific nature of branching and the analytic description and quantification of branching is at an early stage, though many decades of effort have been made. For polymers, branching is conventionally characterized by hydrodynamic radius (size exclusion chromatography, SEC, rheology) or by counting branch sites (nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, NMR). SEC and rheology are, at best, qualitative; and quantitative characterization techniques like NMR and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) (for ceramic nanoparticulate aggregates) have limitations in providing routine quantification. Effective structure characterization, though an important step in understanding these materials, remains elusive. For ceramic aggregates, theoretical work has dominated and only a few publications on analytic studies exist to support theory. A new generic scaling model is proposed in Chapter I, which encompasses the critical structural features associated with these complex architectures. The central theme of this work is the application of this model to describe a variety of disordered structures like aggregated nano-particulates, long chain branched polymers like polyethylene, hyperbranched polymers, multi-arm star polymers, and cyclic macromolecules. The application of the proposed model to these materials results in a number of fundamental structural parameters, like the mass-fractal dimension, df, the minimum path dimension, dmin, connectivity dimension, c, and the mole fraction branch content, φbr. These dimensions

  15. Bayesian long branch attraction bias and corrections.

    PubMed

    Susko, Edward

    2015-03-01

    Previous work on the star-tree paradox has shown that Bayesian methods suffer from a long branch attraction bias. That work is extended to settings involving more taxa and partially resolved trees. The long branch attraction bias is confirmed to arise more broadly and an additional source of bias is found. A by-product of the analysis is methods that correct for biases toward particular topologies. The corrections can be easily calculated using existing Bayesian software. Posterior support for a set of two or more trees can thus be supplemented with corrected versions to cross-check or replace results. Simulations show the corrections to be highly effective.

  16. Branching model for vegetation. [polarimetric remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yueh, Simon H.; Kong, J. A.; Jao, Jen K.; Shin, Robert T.; Le Toan, Thuy

    1992-01-01

    In the present branching model for remote sensing of vegetation, the frequency and angular responses of a two-scale cylinder cluster are calculated to illustrate the importance of vegetation architecture. Attention is given to the implementation of a two-scale branching model for soybeans, where the relative location of soybean plants is described by a pair of distribution functions. Theoretical backscattering coefficients evaluated by means of hole-correction pair distribution are in agreement with extensive data collected from soybean fields. The hole-correction approximation is found to be the more realistic.

  17. Genetic interactions underlying tree branch orientation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Expanding our understanding of the molecular and genetic mechanisms behind branch orientation in trees both addresses a fundamental developmental phenomenon and can lead to significant impacts on tree crop agriculture and forestry. Using the p-nome (pooled genome) sequencing-based mapping approac...

  18. Academic Branch Libraries: Assessment and Collection Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poole, Julie

    2009-01-01

    An ongoing project at Mercer University's Regional Academic Center Libraries illustrates how utilizing established assessment guidelines, stakeholder input, and a clear understanding of audience and curriculum needs may all be used to optimize a collection. Academic branch libraries often have clear collection development limitations in terms of…

  19. Characterization of branch complexity by fractal analyses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alados, C.L.; Escos, J.; Emlen, J.M.; Freeman, D.C.

    1999-01-01

    The comparison between complexity in the sense of space occupancy (box-counting fractal dimension D(c) and information dimension D1) and heterogeneity in the sense of space distribution (average evenness index f and evenness variation coefficient J(cv)) were investigated in mathematical fractal objects and natural branch structures. In general, increased fractal dimension was paired with low heterogeneity. Comparisons between branch architecture in Anthyllis cytisoides under different slope exposure and grazing impact revealed that branches were more complex and more homogeneously distributed for plants on northern exposures than southern, while grazing had no impact during a wet year. Developmental instability was also investigated by the statistical noise of the allometric relation between internode length and node order. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that fractal dimension of branch structure can be used to analyze the structural organization of plants, especially if we consider not only fractal dimension but also shoot distribution within the canopy (lacunarity). These indexes together with developmental instability analyses are good indicators of growth responses to the environment.

  20. Detonation Structure Under Chain Branching Kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Z.; Bauwens, L.

    2006-07-01

    Hydrogen-oxygen chemistry is characterized by a chain branching mechanism that yields three explosion limits. While a detailed kinetic scheme appropriate for hydrogen-oxygen should produce correct results, in many circumstances, a simpler yet reasonably realistic model will be warranted. In particular, it is easier to develop a clear understanding of the reaction zone structure using a simpler model, that includes only the key mechanisms. To that effect, we consider a four-step chain branching scheme that exhibits an explosion behavior with three limits, which behaves at least qualitatively like hydrogen chemistry. We focus in particular on the structure of the initiation and chain branching zones, using a combination between numerical simulation and analysis. Numerical simulations using this chemical model show distinctive keystone figures in the flow field, close to observations in hydrogen-oxygen detonation experiments. The structure of the chain branching zone is resolved using a perturbation analysis, which clarifies the differences between explosion and no-explosion regions and allows for an evaluation of the induction length in the steady wave. The analysis assumes both high activation energy and a slow initiation. Three cases are identified, respectively, with pressure and temperature located within the explosion region, close to the explosion limit and within the no-explosion region. The induction length is shorter and the reaction rate is faster by several orders of magnitude in the explosion region.

  1. 12 CFR 741.11 - Foreign branching.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... (b) Contents of Application. The application must include a business plan, written approval by the...) Contents of Business Plan. The written business plan must address the following: (1) Analysis of market... regional director may revoke approval of the branch office for failure to follow the business plan in...

  2. 12 CFR 741.11 - Foreign branching.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... (b) Contents of Application. The application must include a business plan, written approval by the...) Contents of Business Plan. The written business plan must address the following: (1) Analysis of market... regional director may revoke approval of the branch office for failure to follow the business plan in...

  3. Branching instability in expanding bacterial colonies

    PubMed Central

    Giverso, Chiara; Verani, Marco; Ciarletta, Pasquale

    2015-01-01

    Self-organization in developing living organisms relies on the capability of cells to duplicate and perform a collective motion inside the surrounding environment. Chemical and mechanical interactions coordinate such a cooperative behaviour, driving the dynamical evolution of the macroscopic system. In this work, we perform an analytical and computational analysis to study pattern formation during the spreading of an initially circular bacterial colony on a Petri dish. The continuous mathematical model addresses the growth and the chemotactic migration of the living monolayer, together with the diffusion and consumption of nutrients in the agar. The governing equations contain four dimensionless parameters, accounting for the interplay among the chemotactic response, the bacteria–substrate interaction and the experimental geometry. The spreading colony is found to be always linearly unstable to perturbations of the interface, whereas branching instability arises in finite-element numerical simulations. The typical length scales of such fingers, which align in the radial direction and later undergo further branching, are controlled by the size parameters of the problem, whereas the emergence of branching is favoured if the diffusion is dominant on the chemotaxis. The model is able to predict the experimental morphologies, confirming that compact (resp. branched) patterns arise for fast (resp. slow) expanding colonies. Such results, while providing new insights into pattern selection in bacterial colonies, may finally have important applications for designing controlled patterns. PMID:25652464

  4. Flat, Branched and Split Electrospun Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koombhongse, Sureeporn; Reneker, Darrell H.

    2001-03-01

    The electrospinning process uses electrical force to overcome the force from surface tension. As the electric field increases, the surface of a droplet becomes nearly conical and a charged jet flows from the vertex. The charged jet moves along a straight line for some distance and then begins a spiraling path, which is triggered by a bending instability.[1] The charged jet solidifies as it dries and electrospun nanofibers are collected. The electrospinning process normally produces cylindrical fibers, but sometimes the fibers are flat, branched or split. Flat fibers were electrospun from polystyrene (PS) and poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (HEMA) solution. Flat fibers were formed by the collapse of a tube. Branched fibers of HEMA, PS and poly(vinylidene fluoride) were observed. The thinner branch was usually perpendicular to the axis of the primary jet. Branched fibers are formed by a smaller secondary jet ejected from the surface of the primary jet. The charged jet can split apart into two smaller jets to reduce the charge per unit surface area. Split fibers of HEMA, in which two smaller jets run parallel to the axis of the primary jet were observed. 1. D.H. Reneker, A.L. Yarin, H. Fong, and S. Koombhongse, J. Appl. Phys. 87, 4531 (2000).

  5. Tribology and Mechanical Components Branch Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handschuh, Robert F.

    2010-01-01

    An overview of NASA Glenn Research Center's Tribology & Mechanical Components Branch is provided. Work in space mechanisms, seals, oil-free turbomachinery, and mechanical components is presented. An overview of current research for these technology areas is contained in this overview.

  6. Multicomponent Synthesis of α-Branched Amides

    PubMed Central

    DeBenedetto, Mikkel V.; Green, Michael E.; Wan, Shuangyi; Park, Jung-Hyun; Floreancig, Paul E.

    2009-01-01

    α-Branched amides are prepared by multicomponent reactions in which nitriles undergo hydrozirconation to form metalloimines that react with acyl chlorides. The resulting acylimines react with a variety of π-nucleophiles in the presence of Lewis acids to form the desired amides. PMID:19152262

  7. Laughter-induced left bundle branch block.

    PubMed

    Chow, Grant V; Desai, Dipan; Spragg, David D; Zakaria, Sammy

    2012-10-01

    We present the case of a patient with ischemic heart disease and intermittent left bundle branch block, reproducibly induced by laughter. Following treatment of ischemia with successful deployment of a drug-eluting stent, no further episodes of inducible LBBB were seen. Transient ischemia, exacerbated by elevated intrathoracic pressure during laughter, may have contributed to onset of this phenomenon.

  8. Re-Envisioning New York's Branch Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giles, David; Estima, Jeanette; Francois, Noelle

    2014-01-01

    Nearly two years ago, the Center for an Urban Future published "Branches of Opportunity," a report documenting that New York City's public libraries have become more vital than ever, and are serving more New Yorkers in more ways than ever before. This new report provides an exhaustive analysis of the libraries' capital needs and offers a…

  9. The AFCRL Lunar amd Planetary Research Branch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Stephan D.

    2011-07-01

    The Lunar and Planetary research program led by Dr John (Jack) Salisbury in the 1960s at the United States Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories (AFCRL) investigated the surface characteristics of Solar System bodies. The Branch was one of the first groups to measure the infrared spectra of likely surface materials in the laboratory under appropriate vacuum and temperature conditions. The spectral atlases created from the results were then compared to photometric and spectral measurements obtained from ground- and balloon-based telescopes to infer the mineral compositions and physical conditions of the regoliths of the Moon, Mars and asteroids. Starting from scratch, the Branch initially sponsored observations of other groups while its in-house facilities were being constructed. The earliest contracted efforts include the spatially-resolved mapping of the Moon in the first half of the 1960s by Richard W. Shorthill and John W. Saari of the Boeing Scientific Research Laboratories in Seattle. This effort ultimately produced isophotal and isothermal contour maps of the Moon during a lunation and time-resolved thermal images of the eclipsed Moon. The Branch also sponsored probe rocket-based experiments flown by Riccardo Giacconi and his group at American Science and Engineering Inc. that produced the first observations of X-ray stars in 1962 and later the first interferometric measurement of the ozone and C02 emission in the upper atmosphere. The Branch also made early use of balloon-based measurements. This was a singular set of experiments, as these observations are among the very few mid-infrared astronomical measurements obtained from a balloon platform. Notable results of the AFCRL balloon flights were the mid-infrared spectra of the spatially-resolved Moon obtained with the University of Denver mid-infrared spectrometer on the Branch's balloon-borne 61-cm telescope during a 1968 flight. These observations remain among the best available. Salisbury also funded

  10. Electrical communication in branching arterial networks.

    PubMed

    Tran, Cam Ha T; Vigmond, Edward J; Goldman, Daniel; Plane, France; Welsh, Donald G

    2012-09-15

    Electrical communication and its role in blood flow regulation are built on an examination of charge movement in single, isolated vessels. How this process behaves in broader arterial networks remains unclear. This study examined the nature of electrical communication in arterial structures where vessel length and branching were varied. Analysis began with the deployment of an existing computational model expanded to form a variable range of vessel structures. Initial simulations revealed that focal endothelial stimulation generated electrical responses that conducted robustly along short unbranched vessels and to a lesser degree lengthened arteries or branching structures retaining a single branch point. These predictions matched functional observations from hamster mesenteric arteries and support the idea that an increased number of vascular cells attenuate conduction by augmenting electrical load. Expanding the virtual network to 31 branches revealed that electrical responses increasingly ascended from fifth- to first-order arteries when the number of stimulated distal vessels rose. This property enabled the vascular network to grade vasodilation and network perfusion as revealed through blood flow modeling. An elevation in endothelial-endothelial coupling resistance, akin to those in sepsis models, compromised this ascension of vasomotor/perfusion responses. A comparable change was not observed when the endothelium was focally disrupted to mimic disease states including atherosclerosis. In closing, this study highlights that vessel length and branching play a role in setting the conduction of electrical phenomenon along resistance arteries and within networks. It also emphasizes that modest changes in endothelial function can, under certain scenarios, impinge on network responsiveness and blood flow control.

  11. Tree branching: Leonardo da Vinci's rule versus biomechanical models.

    PubMed

    Minamino, Ryoko; Tateno, Masaki

    2014-01-01

    This study examined Leonardo da Vinci's rule (i.e., the sum of the cross-sectional area of all tree branches above a branching point at any height is equal to the cross-sectional area of the trunk or the branch immediately below the branching point) using simulations based on two biomechanical models: the uniform stress and elastic similarity models. Model calculations of the daughter/mother ratio (i.e., the ratio of the total cross-sectional area of the daughter branches to the cross-sectional area of the mother branch at the branching point) showed that both biomechanical models agreed with da Vinci's rule when the branching angles of daughter branches and the weights of lateral daughter branches were small; however, the models deviated from da Vinci's rule as the weights and/or the branching angles of lateral daughter branches increased. The calculated values of the two models were largely similar but differed in some ways. Field measurements of Fagus crenata and Abies homolepis also fit this trend, wherein models deviated from da Vinci's rule with increasing relative weights of lateral daughter branches. However, this deviation was small for a branching pattern in nature, where empirical measurements were taken under realistic measurement conditions; thus, da Vinci's rule did not critically contradict the biomechanical models in the case of real branching patterns, though the model calculations described the contradiction between da Vinci's rule and the biomechanical models. The field data for Fagus crenata fit the uniform stress model best, indicating that stress uniformity is the key constraint of branch morphology in Fagus crenata rather than elastic similarity or da Vinci's rule. On the other hand, mechanical constraints are not necessarily significant in the morphology of Abies homolepis branches, depending on the number of daughter branches. Rather, these branches were often in agreement with da Vinci's rule.

  12. Photoinduced Acrylate Polymerization: Unexpected Reduction in Chain Branching.

    PubMed

    Wenn, Benjamin; Reekmans, Gunter; Adriaensens, Peter; Junkers, Thomas

    2015-08-01

    The branching stemming from midchain radical formation in n-butyl acrylate polymerization is investigated via melt-state (13) C NMR measurements. The dependence of the degree of branching (DB) on the monomer conversion of the system is examined for photoinduced polymerizations, revealing a steady increase in branching with conversion. For polymerization at moderate light intensities, an increase in branching from 0.03% to 0.37% is observed for polymerizations at 60 °C, which is fivefold below the level of branching observed in thermally initiated polymerizations under otherwise identical reaction conditions. The reason for this overall reduction in branching remains momentarily unclear; yet, a strong dependence of branching on light intensity is observed. While polymerization under a 1 W LED lamp results at almost full monomer conversion in branching degrees of 0.22%, polymerization under a 400 W lamp yields 1.81% of chain branches.

  13. Clinical considerations of the glandular branch of the lacrimal artery.

    PubMed

    Kluckman, Matthew; Fan, Jerry; Balsiger, Heather; Scott, Gabriel; Gest, Thomas

    2015-10-01

    The lacrimal artery is classically described as a branch of the ophthalmic artery supplied by the internal carotid. In this study, 25 orbits were dissected to identify variations in glandular branching and to compare them to previously published accounts. The glandular branching patterns of the lacrimal artery fall into two categories, those that branch (56%) and those that do not branch (44%). We found the medial and lateral glandular branches to be equal in diameter with a divergence of 2.67-40.58 mm proximal to the gland parenchyma. The long glandular branches run alongside the superolateral aspect of the orbit. The lateral branch runs lateral to the lateral rectus muscle. The medial branch runs superomedial to the lateral rectus muscle and lateral to the superior rectus muscle. In relation to the lacrimal gland, the medial branch enters the superior aspect of the gland parenchyma and the lateral branch enters its inferior aspect. The average branch lengths were 17.88 mm (medial) and 13.51 mm (lateral) as measured with a Mitutoyo Absolute 1/100 mm caliper. We could not confirm the existence of a third branch supplying the lacrimal gland, as posited by other authors. The key finding in this study is that the lacrimal gland is predominantly supplied by two significant arterial branches, both of which must be identified during procedures involving the lateral orbit.

  14. Masquerading bundle branch block: a variety of right bundle branch block with left anterior fascicular block.

    PubMed

    Elizari, Marcelo V; Baranchuk, Adrian; Chiale, Pablo A

    2013-01-01

    The so-called 'masquerading' type of right bundle branch block is caused by the simultaneous presence of a high-degree left anterior fascicular block often accompanied with severe left ventricular enlargement and/or fibrotic block in the anterolateral wall of the left ventricle. These conditions tend to reorient the terminal electrical forces of the QRS complex towards the left and upwards, in such a way that the characteristic slurred S wave in lead I becomes smaller or even disappears. In many cases of standard masquerading right bundle branch block, a small Q wave in lead I is present due to the initial forces of the left anterior fascicular block, which are oriented rightwards and inferiorly. However, in some cases, the Q wave in lead I also vanishes, and the mimicking of a left bundle branch block becomes perfect in standard leads. This is commonly associated with an inferior myocardial infarction or severe inferior fibrosis in cardiomyopathies. The typical QRS changes of right bundle branch block may eventually be concealed even in the right precordial leads; under such circumstances, the ECG diagnosis may be mistaken and the right bundle branch block totally missed. The masquerading right bundle branch block carries a poor prognosis, since it always implies the presence of a severe underlying heart disease.

  15. Photovoltaic Program Branch annual report, FY 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Summers, K A

    1990-03-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Photovoltaic (PV) Program Branch of the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) from October 1, 1988, through September 30, 1989. The branch is responsible for managing the subcontracted portion of SERI's PV Advanced Research and Development Project. In fiscal year (FY) 1989, this included nearly 50 subcontracts, with a total annualized funding of approximately $13.1 million. Approximately two-thirds of the subcontracts were with universities, at a total funding of nearly $4 million. The six technical sections of the report cover the main areas of the subcontracted program: Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, Crystalline Silicon Materials Research, High-Efficiency Concepts, New Ideas, and University Participation. Technical summaries of each of the subcontracted programs provide a discussion of approaches, major accomplishments in FY 1989, and future research directions. Each report will be cataloged individually.

  16. Fort Collins Science Center Ecosystem Dynamics Branch

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Jim; Melcher, C.; Bowen, Z.

    2009-01-01

    Complex natural resource issues require understanding a web of interactions among ecosystem components that are (1) interdisciplinary, encompassing physical, chemical, and biological processes; (2) spatially complex, involving movements of animals, water, and airborne materials across a range of landscapes and jurisdictions; and (3) temporally complex, occurring over days, weeks, or years, sometimes involving response lags to alteration or exhibiting large natural variation. Scientists in the Ecosystem Dynamics Branch of the U.S. Geological Survey, Fort Collins Science Center, investigate a diversity of these complex natural resource questions at the landscape and systems levels. This Fact Sheet describes the work of the Ecosystems Dynamics Branch, which is focused on energy and land use, climate change and long-term integrated assessments, herbivore-ecosystem interactions, fire and post-fire restoration, and environmental flows and river restoration.

  17. Trapping of branched DNA in microfabricated structures.

    PubMed Central

    Volkmuth, W D; Duke, T; Austin, R H; Cox, E C

    1995-01-01

    We have observed electrostatic trapping of tribranched DNA molecules undergoing electrophoresis in a microfabricated pseudo-two-dimensional array of posts. Trapping occurs in a unique transport regimen in which the electrophoretic mobility is extremely sensitive to polymer topology. The arrest of branched polymers is explained by considering their center-of-mass motion; in certain conformations, owing to the constraints imposed by the obstacles a molecule cannot advance without the center of mass first moving a short distance backwards. The depth of the resulting local potential well can be much greater than the thermal energy so that escape of an immobilized molecule can be extremely slow. We summarize the expected behavior of the mobility as a function of field strength and topology and point out that the microfabricated arrays are highly suitable for detecting an extremely small number of branched molecules in a very large population of linear molecules. Images Fig. 2 PMID:7624337

  18. Cost Reporting at a Navy Branch Clinic

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-01

    focusing on fundamental cost ingredients . D. EVALUATING ACTIVITIES An activity is a process or workload pattern that can be quantified. Once the...Field [Group ISubgroup Activity Based Costing, James Brimson, Navy Branch Medical Clinic, Full Cost I I - Reporting, Fixed and Variable Costs 19...model, costs are disaggregated into fixed and variable components. Using the Brimson approach, the thesis further explores the application of activity

  19. Polyatomic ions, branching ratios and hot molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, J. Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    A discussion is given of the reason for the sharp fall-off observed in Dissociative Recombination (DR) cross sections above about 0.1 eV and of the need for accurate branching ratios being used in complex models of molecular ion chemistry. New measurements from TSR have shown that stored ions are not as cold as they were once thought to be and a new experiment facility is presented.

  20. Fabrication and characterization of branched carbon nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Malik, Sharali; Nemoto, Yoshihiro; Guo, Hongxuan; Ariga, Katsuhiko; Hill, Jonathan P

    2016-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have atomically smooth surfaces and tend not to form covalent bonds with composite matrix materials. Thus, it is the magnitude of the CNT/fiber interfacial strength that limits the amount of nanomechanical interlocking when using conventional CNTs to improve the structural behavior of composite materials through reinforcement. This arises from two well-known, long standing problems in this research field: (a) inhomogeneous dispersion of the filler, which can lead to aggregation and (b) insufficient reinforcement arising from bonding interactions between the filler and the matrix. These dispersion and reinforcement issues could be addressed by using branched multiwalled carbon nanotubes (b-MWCNTs) as it is known that branched fibers can greatly enhance interfacial bonding and dispersability. Therefore, the use of b-MWCNTs would lead to improved mechanical performance and, in the case of conductive composites, improved electrical performance if the CNT filler was better dispersed and connected. This will provide major benefits to the existing commercial application of CNT-reinforced composites in electrostatic discharge materials (ESD): There would be also potential usage for energy conversion, e.g., in supercapacitors, solar cells and Li-ion batteries. However, the limited availability of b-MWCNTs has, to date, restricted their use in such technological applications. Herein, we report an inexpensive and simple method to fabricate large amounts of branched-MWCNTs, which opens the door to a multitude of possible applications.

  1. Measurement of tau lepton branching fractions

    SciTech Connect

    Nicol, Neil Allen

    1993-09-30

    We present τ- lepton branching fraction measurements based on data from the TPC/Two-Gamma detector at PEP. Using a sample of τ- → vτK-π+π- events, we examine the resonance structure of the K-π+π- system and obtain the first measurements of branching fractions for τ- → vτK$-\\atop{1}$(1270) and τ- → vτK$-\\atop{1}$(1400). We also describe a complete set of branching fraction measurements in which all the decays of the τ- lepton are separated into classes defined by the identities of the charged particles and an estimate of the number of neutrals. This is the first such global measurement with decay classes defined by the four possible charged particle species, e, μ, π, and K.

  2. Fabrication and characterization of branched carbon nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    Nemoto, Yoshihiro; Guo, Hongxuan; Ariga, Katsuhiko; Hill, Jonathan P

    2016-01-01

    Summary Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have atomically smooth surfaces and tend not to form covalent bonds with composite matrix materials. Thus, it is the magnitude of the CNT/fiber interfacial strength that limits the amount of nanomechanical interlocking when using conventional CNTs to improve the structural behavior of composite materials through reinforcement. This arises from two well-known, long standing problems in this research field: (a) inhomogeneous dispersion of the filler, which can lead to aggregation and (b) insufficient reinforcement arising from bonding interactions between the filler and the matrix. These dispersion and reinforcement issues could be addressed by using branched multiwalled carbon nanotubes (b-MWCNTs) as it is known that branched fibers can greatly enhance interfacial bonding and dispersability. Therefore, the use of b-MWCNTs would lead to improved mechanical performance and, in the case of conductive composites, improved electrical performance if the CNT filler was better dispersed and connected. This will provide major benefits to the existing commercial application of CNT-reinforced composites in electrostatic discharge materials (ESD): There would be also potential usage for energy conversion, e.g., in supercapacitors, solar cells and Li-ion batteries. However, the limited availability of b-MWCNTs has, to date, restricted their use in such technological applications. Herein, we report an inexpensive and simple method to fabricate large amounts of branched-MWCNTs, which opens the door to a multitude of possible applications. PMID:27826499

  3. Overview of Glenn Mechanical Components Branch Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakrajsek, James

    2002-09-01

    Mr. James Zakrajsek, chief of the Mechanical Components Branch, gave an overview of research conducted by the branch. Branch members perform basic research on mechanical components and systems, including gears and bearings, turbine seals, structural and thermal barrier seals, and space mechanisms. The research is focused on propulsion systems for present and advanced aerospace vehicles. For rotorcraft and conventional aircraft, we conduct research to develop technology needed to enable the design of low noise, ultra safe geared drive systems. We develop and validate analytical models for gear crack propagation, gear dynamics and noise, gear diagnostics, bearing dynamics, and thermal analyses of gear systems using experimental data from various component test rigs. In seal research we develop and test advanced turbine seal concepts to increase efficiency and durability of turbine engines. We perform experimental and analytical research to develop advanced thermal barrier seals and structural seals for current and next generation space vehicles. Our space mechanisms research involves fundamental investigation of lubricants, materials, components and mechanisms for deep space and planetary environments.

  4. The root of branching river networks.

    PubMed

    Perron, J Taylor; Richardson, Paul W; Ferrier, Ken L; Lapôtre, Mathieu

    2012-12-06

    Branching river networks are one of the most widespread and recognizable features of Earth's landscapes and have also been discovered elsewhere in the Solar System. But the mechanisms that create these patterns and control their spatial scales are poorly understood. Theories based on probability or optimality have proven useful, but do not explain how river networks develop over time through erosion and sediment transport. Here we show that branching at the uppermost reaches of river networks is rooted in two coupled instabilities: first, valleys widen at the expense of their smaller neighbours, and second, side slopes of the widening valleys become susceptible to channel incision. Each instability occurs at a critical ratio of the characteristic timescales for soil transport and channel incision. Measurements from two field sites demonstrate that our theory correctly predicts the size of the smallest valleys with tributaries. We also show that the dominant control on the scale of landscape dissection in these sites is the strength of channel incision, which correlates with aridity and rock weakness, rather than the strength of soil transport. These results imply that the fine-scale structure of branching river networks is an organized signature of erosional mechanics, not a consequence of random topology.

  5. Auxin transport in the evolution of branching forms.

    PubMed

    Harrison, C Jill

    2016-11-24

    I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. Acknowledgements References SUMMARY: Branching is one of the most striking aspects of land plant architecture, affecting resource acquisition and yield. Polar auxin transport by PIN proteins is a primary determinant of flowering plant branching patterns regulating both branch initiation and branch outgrowth. Several lines of experimental evidence suggest that PIN-mediated polar auxin transport is a conserved regulator of branching in vascular plant sporophytes. However, the mechanisms of branching and auxin transport and relationships between the two are not well known outside the flowering plants, and the paradigm for PIN-regulated branching in flowering plants does not fit bryophyte gametophytes. The evidence reviewed here suggests that divergent auxin transport routes contributed to the diversification of branching forms in distinct land plant lineages.

  6. West Branch Pennsylvania Canal, Lock No. 34 Lock Keeper's House, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    West Branch Pennsylvania Canal, Lock No. 34 Lock Keeper's House, South of State Route 664 along North bank of West Branch of Susquehanna River, 2,000 feet East of Jay Street Bridge, Lock Haven, Clinton County, PA

  7. Hilbert Series and Mixed Branches of T [SU( N )] theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carta, Federico; Hayashi, Hirotaka

    2017-02-01

    We consider mixed branches of 3 d N = 4 T [SU( N )] theory. We compute the Hilbert series of the Coulomb branch part of the mixed branch from a restriction rule acting on the Hilbert series of the full Coulomb branch that will truncate the magnetic charge summation only to the subset of BPS dressed monopole operators that arise in the Coulomb branch sublocus where the mixed branch stems. This restriction can be understood directly from the type IIB brane picture by a relation between the magnetic charges of the monopoles and brane position moduli. We also apply the restriction rule to the Higgs branch part of a given mixed branch by exploiting 3d mirror symmetry. Both ccases show complete agreement with the results calculated by different methods.

  8. Detail view of bronze door. Note oak branches with acorns ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of bronze door. Note oak branches with acorns in the left panels and olive branches with olives in right. - Flanders Field American Cemetery & Memorial, Chapel, Wortegemseweg 117, Waregem, West Flanders (Belgium)

  9. An information-theoretic look at branch-prediction

    SciTech Connect

    Ponder, C.G. ); Shebanow, M.C. )

    1990-09-11

    Accurate branch-prediction is necessary to utilize deeply pipelined and Very Long Instruction-Word (VLIW) architectures. For a set of program traces we show the upper limits on branch predictability, and hence machine utilization, for important classes of branch-predictors using static (compiletime) and dynamic (runtime) program information. A set of optimal superpredictors'' is derived from these program traces. These optimal predictors compare favorably with other proposed methods of branch-prediction. 3 refs., 5 figs., 12 tabs.

  10. Principal component and Tucker3 analyses of high performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection fingerprints of crude extracts of Erythrina speciosa Andrews leaves.

    PubMed

    Soares, Patricia Kaori; Bruns, Roy Edward; Scarminio, Ieda Spacino

    2012-07-29

    Mixtures of ethanol, dichloromethane, hexane and acetone obtained according to a statistical design have been used to extract substances from Erythrina speciosa Andrew leaves for chromatographic fingerprinting. The plant extracts from each mixture were analyzed by HPLC-DAD providing UV-vis spectra for each chromatographic peak. These chromatograms and spectra for the design mixtures were then treated with principal component (PCA), Tucker3 and PARAFAC analyses. PCA indicated the existence of five different chromatographic fingerprints for the leave extracts depending on the solvent mixture composition. Different chromatographic peak areas were strongly correlated with the mixture proportions of acetone, dichloromethane and ethanol. Tucker3 and PARAFAC analyses were very useful for identifying simultaneous correlations between chromatographic peak areas, spectral band absorbances and solvent proportions. The acetone proportion was highly correlated with the area of the 3.69 min retention time peak and the spectral absorbances between 250 and 260 nm, consistent with the presence of natural polyphenols. The dichloromethane mixture proportion was strongly correlated with the 12.19 min chromatographic peak area and a single spectral absorbance at 201 nm. This spectral absorption is characteristic of the electronic structures of terpenes and alkaloids.

  11. 26 CFR 1.884-1 - Branch profits tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Branch profits tax. 1.884-1 Section 1.884-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Foreign Corporations § 1.884-1 Branch profits tax. (a) General rule. A foreign corporation shall be liable for a branch profits tax...

  12. 46 CFR 169.733 - Fire extinguishing branch lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire extinguishing branch lines. 169.733 Section 169.733... Vessel Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.733 Fire extinguishing branch lines. Each branch line valve of every fire extinguishing system must be plainly and permanently...

  13. Structural dynamics branch research and accomplishments for fiscal year 1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    This publication contains a collection of fiscal year 1987 research highlights from the Structural Dynamics Branch at NASA Lewis Research Center. Highlights from the branch's four major work areas, Aeroelasticity, Vibration Control, Dynamic Systems, and Computational Structural Methods, are included in the report as well as a complete listing of the FY87 branch publications.

  14. 40 CFR 721.3627 - Branched synthetic fatty acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Branched synthetic fatty acid. 721... Substances § 721.3627 Branched synthetic fatty acid. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a branched synthetic fatty...

  15. 40 CFR 721.3627 - Branched synthetic fatty acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Branched synthetic fatty acid. 721... Substances § 721.3627 Branched synthetic fatty acid. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a branched synthetic fatty...

  16. 40 CFR 721.3627 - Branched synthetic fatty acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Branched synthetic fatty acid. 721... Substances § 721.3627 Branched synthetic fatty acid. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a branched synthetic fatty...

  17. 46 CFR 169.690 - Lighting branch circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lighting branch circuits. 169.690 Section 169.690... Machinery and Electrical Electrical Installations on Vessels of 100 Gross Tons and Over § 169.690 Lighting branch circuits. Each lighting branch circuit must meet the requirements of § 111.75-5 of this...

  18. 46 CFR 111.75-5 - Lighting branch circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Lighting branch circuits. 111.75-5 Section 111.75-5...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Lighting Circuits and Protection § 111.75-5 Lighting branch circuits. (a) Loads. A lighting distribution panel must not supply branch circuits rated at over 30 amperes. (b) Connected...

  19. 46 CFR 111.75-5 - Lighting branch circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Lighting branch circuits. 111.75-5 Section 111.75-5...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Lighting Circuits and Protection § 111.75-5 Lighting branch circuits. (a) Loads. A lighting distribution panel must not supply branch circuits rated at over 30 amperes. (b) Connected...

  20. 46 CFR 169.690 - Lighting branch circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lighting branch circuits. 169.690 Section 169.690... Machinery and Electrical Electrical Installations on Vessels of 100 Gross Tons and Over § 169.690 Lighting branch circuits. Each lighting branch circuit must meet the requirements of § 111.75-5 of this...

  1. 46 CFR 169.690 - Lighting branch circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Lighting branch circuits. 169.690 Section 169.690... Machinery and Electrical Electrical Installations on Vessels of 100 Gross Tons and Over § 169.690 Lighting branch circuits. Each lighting branch circuit must meet the requirements of § 111.75-5 of this...

  2. 46 CFR 169.690 - Lighting branch circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Lighting branch circuits. 169.690 Section 169.690... Machinery and Electrical Electrical Installations on Vessels of 100 Gross Tons and Over § 169.690 Lighting branch circuits. Each lighting branch circuit must meet the requirements of § 111.75-5 of this...

  3. 46 CFR 169.690 - Lighting branch circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Lighting branch circuits. 169.690 Section 169.690... Machinery and Electrical Electrical Installations on Vessels of 100 Gross Tons and Over § 169.690 Lighting branch circuits. Each lighting branch circuit must meet the requirements of § 111.75-5 of this...

  4. 46 CFR 111.75-5 - Lighting branch circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lighting branch circuits. 111.75-5 Section 111.75-5...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Lighting Circuits and Protection § 111.75-5 Lighting branch circuits. (a) Loads. A lighting distribution panel must not supply branch circuits rated at over 30 amperes. (b) Connected...

  5. 46 CFR 111.75-5 - Lighting branch circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lighting branch circuits. 111.75-5 Section 111.75-5...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Lighting Circuits and Protection § 111.75-5 Lighting branch circuits. (a) Loads. A lighting distribution panel must not supply branch circuits rated at over 30 amperes. (b) Connected...

  6. 46 CFR 111.75-5 - Lighting branch circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Lighting branch circuits. 111.75-5 Section 111.75-5...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Lighting Circuits and Protection § 111.75-5 Lighting branch circuits. (a) Loads. A lighting distribution panel must not supply branch circuits rated at over 30 amperes. (b) Connected...

  7. 12 CFR 208.6 - Establishment and maintenance of branches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... processing under § 225.14(c) of Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.14(c)). (2) Expedited procedures. A completed... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Establishment and maintenance of branches. 208... maintenance of national bank branches (12 U.S.C. 36 and 1831u), except that approval of such branches shall...

  8. 12 CFR 208.6 - Establishment and maintenance of branches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... processing under § 225.14(c) of Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.14(c)). (2) Expedited procedures. A completed... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Establishment and maintenance of branches. 208... maintenance of national bank branches (12 U.S.C. 36 and 1831u), except that approval of such branches shall...

  9. 12 CFR 208.6 - Establishment and maintenance of branches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... processing under § 225.14(c) of Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.14(c)). (2) Expedited procedures. A completed... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Establishment and maintenance of branches. 208... maintenance of national bank branches (12 U.S.C. 36 and 1831u), except that approval of such branches shall...

  10. 12 CFR 208.6 - Establishment and maintenance of branches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... processing under § 225.14(c) of Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.14(c)). (2) Expedited procedures. A completed... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Establishment and maintenance of branches. 208... maintenance of national bank branches (12 U.S.C. 36 and 1831u), except that approval of such branches shall...

  11. Structural dynamics branch research and accomplishments to FY 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, Charles

    1992-01-01

    This publication contains a collection of fiscal year 1992 research highlights from the Structural Dynamics Branch at NASA LeRC. Highlights from the branch's major work areas--Aeroelasticity, Vibration Control, Dynamic Systems, and Computational Structural Methods are included in the report as well as a listing of the fiscal year 1992 branch publications.

  12. 40 CFR 721.10094 - Decene, branched and linear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Decene, branched and linear. 721.10094... Substances § 721.10094 Decene, branched and linear. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as decene, branched and linear (PMN P-03-272;...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10094 - Decene, branched and linear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Decene, branched and linear. 721.10094... Substances § 721.10094 Decene, branched and linear. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as decene, branched and linear (PMN P-03-272;...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10094 - Decene, branched and linear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Decene, branched and linear. 721.10094... Substances § 721.10094 Decene, branched and linear. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as decene, branched and linear (PMN P-03-272;...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10094 - Decene, branched and linear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Decene, branched and linear. 721.10094... Substances § 721.10094 Decene, branched and linear. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as decene, branched and linear (PMN P-03-272;...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10094 - Decene, branched and linear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Decene, branched and linear. 721.10094... Substances § 721.10094 Decene, branched and linear. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as decene, branched and linear (PMN P-03-272;...

  17. 30 CFR 57.12084 - Branch circuit disconnecting devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Branch circuit disconnecting devices. 57.12084... Electricity Underground Only § 57.12084 Branch circuit disconnecting devices. Disconnecting switches that can be opened safely under load shall be provided underground at all branch circuits extending...

  18. 20 CFR 422.5 - District offices and branch offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false District offices and branch offices. 422.5... and Functions of the Social Security Administration § 422.5 District offices and branch offices. There are over 700 social security district offices and branch offices located in the principal cities...

  19. Structural Dynamics Branch research and accomplishments for FY 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Presented here is a collection of FY 1990 research highlights from the Structural Dynamics Branch at the NASA Lewis Research Center. Highlights are from the branch's major work areas: aeroelasticity, vibration control, dynamic systems, and computational structural methods. A listing is given of FY 1990 branch publications.

  20. Dendrimers and methods of preparing same through proportionate branching

    DOEpatents

    Yu, Yihua; Yue, Xuyi

    2015-09-15

    The present invention provides for monodispersed dendrimers having a core, branches and periphery ends, wherein the number of branches increases exponentially from the core to the periphery end and the length of the branches increases exponentially from the periphery end to the core, thereby providing for attachment of chemical species at the periphery ends without exhibiting steric hindrance.

  1. 40 CFR 721.3627 - Branched synthetic fatty acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Branched synthetic fatty acid. 721... Substances § 721.3627 Branched synthetic fatty acid. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a branched synthetic fatty...

  2. Structural dynamics branch research and accomplishments for FY 1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Fiscal year 1988 research highlights from the Structural Dynamics Branch at NASA Lewis Research Center are described. Highlights from the branch's major work areas -- aeroelasticity, vibration control, dynamic systems, and computational structural methods -- are included as well as a complete listing of the FY 88 branch publications.

  3. 40 CFR 721.3627 - Branched synthetic fatty acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Branched synthetic fatty acid. 721... Substances § 721.3627 Branched synthetic fatty acid. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a branched synthetic fatty...

  4. Highly branched dextrin prepared from high-amylose maize starch using waxy rice branching enzyme (WRBE).

    PubMed

    Tian, Yaoqi; Chen, Huangli; Zhang, Xiwen; Zhan, Jinling; Jin, Zhengyu; Wang, Jinpeng

    2016-07-15

    Branching enzyme (BE, EC 2.4.1.18) was isolated from the developing waxy rice endosperm and used to prepare a highly branched dextrin based on high-amylose maize starch (HAMS) as a substrate. The molecular mass of the starch initially degraded quickly from 2.5 × 10(7) to 4.1 × 10(5)Da, and then stabilized, with a minimal increase during the BE treatment. The resultant branched dextrin had a narrow size distribution, with a mean molecular weight of 5.1 × 10(5)Da and a polydispersity index (PI) of 1.567. The results of high-performance anion exchange chromatography indicated that the degree of polymerization (DP) of the branched chains ranged from 3 to 27; approximately 75.26% of these chains were short (DP<10). These findings suggest that the isolated BE can cleave long chains into oligosaccharides, subsequently transferring oligosaccharides into highly branched dextrins with a narrow size distribution and short side chains.

  5. Environmental Assessment for the Construction and Operation of a Battalion Headquarters for the U.S. Army Priority Air Transport at Joint Base Andrews-Naval Air Facility Washington, Prince George’s County, Maryland

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-01

    Wastewater Program, and Toxics/Asbestos Program. To learn more about each program click here. Polution Prevention Pollution Prevention The Air Force...PRIORITY AIR TRANSPORT AT JOINT BASE ANDREWS-NAVAL AIR FACILITY W ASillNGTON, MARYLAND INTRODUCTION The attached environmental assessment (EA) examines...the potential impacts on the environment from the Proposed Action to construct and operate a battalion headquarters for the U.S. Army Priority Air

  6. Branching habit and the allocation of reproductive resources in conifers

    PubMed Central

    Leslie, Andrew B.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Correlated relationships between branch thickness, branch density, and twig and leaf size have been used extensively to study the evolution of plant canopy architecture, but fewer studies have explored the impact of these relationships on the allocation of reproductive resources. This study quantifies pollen cone production in conifers, which have similar basic reproductive biology but vary dramatically in branching habit, in order to test how differences in branch diameter influence pollen cone size and the density with which they are deployed in the canopy. Methods Measurements of canopy branch density, the number of cones per branch and cone size were used to estimate the amount of pollen cone tissues produced by 16 species in three major conifer clades. The number of pollen grains produced was also estimated using direct counts from individual pollen cones. Key Results The total amount of pollen cone tissues in the conifer canopy varied little among species and clades, although vegetative traits such as branch thickness, branch density and pollen cone size varied over several orders of magnitude. However, branching habit controls the way these tissues are deployed: taxa with small branches produce small pollen cones at a high density, while taxa with large branches produce large cones relatively sparsely. Conclusions Conifers appear to invest similar amounts of energy in pollen production independent of branching habit. However, similar associations between branch thickness, branch density and pollen cone size are seen across conifers, including members of living and extinct groups not directly studied here. This suggests that reproductive features relating to pollen cone size are in large part a function of the evolution of vegetative morphology and branching habit. PMID:22782240

  7. Geology of the Cane Branch and Helton Branch watershed areas, McCreary County, Kentucky

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lyons, Erwin J.

    1957-01-01

    Cane Branch and Helton Branch in McCreary County, Kentucky, are about 1.4 miles apart (fig. 1). Can Branch, which is about 2.1 miles long, emptied into Hughes Fork of Beaver Creek. Its watershed area of about 1.5 square miles lies largely in the Wiborf 7 1/2-minute quadrangle (SW/4 Cumberland Falls 15-minute quadrangle), but the downstream part of the area extends northward into the Hail 7 1/2-minute quadrangle (NW/4 Cumberland Falls 15-minute quadrangle). Helton Branch, which is about 1.1 miles long, has two tributaries and empties into Little Hurricane Fork of Beaver Creek. It drains an area of about 0.8 square mile of while about 0.5 square mile is in the Hail quadrangle and the remainder in the Wilborg quadrangle. The total relief in the Can Branch area is about 500 feet and in the Helton Branch area about 400 feet. Narrow, steep-sided to canyon-like valley and winding ridges, typical of the Pottsville escarpment region, are characteristic of both areas. Thick woods and dense undergrowth cover much of the two areas. Field mapping was done on U.S. Geological Survey 7 1/2-minute maps having a scale of 1:24,000 and a contour interval of 20 feet. Elevations of lithologic contacts were determined with a barometer and a hand level. Aerial photographs were used principally to trace the cliffs formed by sandstone and conglomerate ledges. Exposures, except for those of the cliff- and ledge-forming sandstone and conglomerates, are not abundant. The most complete stratigraphic sections (secs. 3 and 4, fig. 2) in the two areas are exposed in cuts of newly completed Forest Service roads, but the rick in the upper parts of the exposures is weathered. To supplement these sections, additional sections were measured in cuts along the railroad and main highways in nor near the watersheds.

  8. Annual report, Basic Sciences Branch, FY 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Basic Sciences Branch of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) from October 1, 1990, through September 30, 1991. Seven technical sections of the report cover these main areas of NREL's in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, Solid-State Spectroscopy, and Superconductivity. Each section explains the purpose and major accomplishments of the work in the context of the US Department of Energy's National Photovoltaic Research Program plans.

  9. Annual report, Basic Sciences Branch, FY 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Basic Sciences Branch of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) from October 1, 1990, through September 30, 1991. Seven technical sections of the report cover these main areas of NREL`s in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, Solid-State Spectroscopy, and Superconductivity. Each section explains the purpose and major accomplishments of the work in the context of the US Department of Energy`s National Photovoltaic Research Program plans.

  10. Branch target buffer design and optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perleberg, Chris H.; Smith, Alan J.

    1993-01-01

    Consideration is given to two major issues in the design of branch target buffers (BTBs), with the goal of achieving maximum performance for a given number of bits allocated to the BTB design. The first issue is BTB management; the second is what information to keep in the BTB. A number of solutions to these problems are reviewed, and various optimizations in the design of BTBs are discussed. Design target miss ratios for BTBs are developed, making it possible to estimate the performance of BTBs for real workloads.

  11. Annual report, Materials Science Branch, FY 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Padilla, S.

    1993-10-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Materials Science Branch of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) from October 1, 1991, through September 30, 1992. Six technical sections of the report cover these main areas of NREL`s in-house research: Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid State Theory, Solid State Spectroscopy, and Program Management. Each section explains the purpose and major accomplishments of the work in the context of the US Department of Energy`s National Photovoltaic Research Program plans.

  12. NASA Glenn Research Center Electrochemistry Branch Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.; Hoberecht, Mark; Reid, Concha

    2010-01-01

    This presentation covers an overview of NASA Glenn's history and heritage in the development of electrochemical systems for aerospace applications. Current programs related to batteries and fuel cells are addressed. Specific areas of focus are Li-ion batteries and Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel cells systems and their development for future Exploration missions. The presentation covers details of current component development efforts for high energy and ultra high energy Li-ion batteries and non-flow-through fuel cell stack and balance of plant development. Electrochemistry Branch capabilities and facilities are also addressed.

  13. Mechanism of branching in negative ionization fronts.

    PubMed

    Arrayás, Manuel; Fontelos, Marco A; Trueba, José L

    2005-10-14

    When a strong electric field is applied to nonconducting matter, narrow channels of plasma called streamers may form. Branchlike patterns of streamers have been observed in anode directed discharges. We explain a mechanism for branching as the result of a balance between the destabilizing effect of impact ionization and the stabilizing effect of electron diffusion on ionization fronts. The dispersion relation for transversal perturbation of a planar negative front is obtained analytically when the ratio D between the electron diffusion coefficient and the intensity of the externally imposed electric field is small. We estimate the spacing lambda between streamers and deduce a scaling law lambda approximately D(1/3).

  14. Strategy of Irrigation Branch in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeyliger, A.; Ermolaeva, O.

    2012-04-01

    At this moment, at the starting time of the program on restoration of a large irrigation in Russia till 2020, the scientific and technical community of irrigation branch does not have clear vision on how to promote a development of irrigated agriculture and without repeating of mistakes having a place in the past. In many respects absence of a vision is connected to serious backlog of a scientific and technical and informational and technological level of development of domestic irrigation branch from advanced one. Namely such level of development is necessary for the resolving of new problems in new conditions of managing, and also for adequate answers to new challenges from climate and degradation of ground & water resources, as well as a rigorous requirement from an environment. In such important situation for irrigation branch when it is necessary quickly generate a scientific and technical politics for the current decade for maintenance of translation of irrigated agriculture in the Russian Federation on a new highly effective level of development, in our opinion, it is required to carry out open discussion of needs and requirements as well as a research for a adequate solutions. From political point of view a framework organized in FP6 DESIRE 037046 project is an example of good practice that can serve as methodical approach how to organize and develop such processes. From technical point of view a technology of operational management of irrigation at large scale presents a prospective alternative to the current type of management based on planning. From point of view ICT operational management demands creation of a new platform for the professional environment of activity. This platform should allow to perceive processes in real time, at their partial predictability on signals of a straight line and a feedback, within the framework of variability of decision making scenarious, at high resolution and the big ex-awning of sensor controls and the gauges

  15. PLC signal attenuation in branched networks

    SciTech Connect

    Durbak, D.W.; Stewart, J.R. )

    1990-04-01

    The application of power line carrier (PLC) to utility transmission systems can provide a reliable means of communication over short and long distances. However, PLC performance is dependent upon an adequate signal-to-noise ratio at receivers. The calculation of path attenuation of signals on the transmission line can be complicated, especially in branched networks. The calculation method described here is based on the construction of an impedance matrix using multi-phase, long line pi-equivalents for transmission lines. The method can predict PLC attenuation for a variety of network topologies and is demonstrated for two cases.

  16. Branching dynamics of viral information spreading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iribarren, José Luis; Moro, Esteban

    2011-10-01

    Despite its importance for rumors or innovations propagation, peer-to-peer collaboration, social networking, or marketing, the dynamics of information spreading is not well understood. Since the diffusion depends on the heterogeneous patterns of human behavior and is driven by the participants’ decisions, its propagation dynamics shows surprising properties not explained by traditional epidemic or contagion models. Here we present a detailed analysis of our study of real viral marketing campaigns where tracking the propagation of a controlled message allowed us to analyze the structure and dynamics of a diffusion graph involving over 31 000 individuals. We found that information spreading displays a non-Markovian branching dynamics that can be modeled by a two-step Bellman-Harris branching process that generalizes the static models known in the literature and incorporates the high variability of human behavior. It explains accurately all the features of information propagation under the “tipping point” and can be used for prediction and management of viral information spreading processes.

  17. Branching dynamics of viral information spreading.

    PubMed

    Iribarren, José Luis; Moro, Esteban

    2011-10-01

    Despite its importance for rumors or innovations propagation, peer-to-peer collaboration, social networking, or marketing, the dynamics of information spreading is not well understood. Since the diffusion depends on the heterogeneous patterns of human behavior and is driven by the participants' decisions, its propagation dynamics shows surprising properties not explained by traditional epidemic or contagion models. Here we present a detailed analysis of our study of real viral marketing campaigns where tracking the propagation of a controlled message allowed us to analyze the structure and dynamics of a diffusion graph involving over 31,000 individuals. We found that information spreading displays a non-Markovian branching dynamics that can be modeled by a two-step Bellman-Harris branching process that generalizes the static models known in the literature and incorporates the high variability of human behavior. It explains accurately all the features of information propagation under the "tipping point" and can be used for prediction and management of viral information spreading processes.

  18. Actin filament curvature biases branching direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Evan; Risca, Viviana; Chaudhuri, Ovijit; Chia, Jia-Jun; Geissler, Phillip; Fletcher, Daniel

    2012-02-01

    Actin filaments are key components of the cellular machinery, vital for a wide range of processes ranging from cell motility to endocytosis. Actin filaments can branch, and essential in this process is a protein complex known as the Arp2/3 complex, which nucleate new ``daughter'' filaments from pre-existing ``mother'' filaments by attaching itself to the mother filament. Though much progress has been made in understanding the Arp2/3-actin junction, some very interesting questions remain. In particular, F-actin is a dynamic polymer that undergoes a wide range of fluctuations. Prior studies of the Arp2/3-actin junction provides a very static notion of Arp2/3 binding. The question we ask is how differently does the Arp2/3 complex interact with a straight filament compared to a bent filament? In this study, we used Monte Carlo simulations of a surface-tethered worm-like chain to explore possible mechanisms underlying the experimental observation that there exists preferential branch formation by the Arp2/3 complex on the convex face of a curved filament. We show that a fluctuation gating model in which Arp2/3 binding to the actin filament is dependent upon a rare high-local-curvature shape fluctuation of the filament is consistent with the experimental data.

  19. [Morphogenesis of proximal branch leaves in mosses].

    PubMed

    Ignatov, M S; Spirina, U N

    2012-01-01

    The formation of deeply dissected and compound leaves at the bases of branches, their homology between different groups of mosses, and probable factors responsible for their development are considered. Previous authors differ in the interpretation of such leaves and in most cases describe them as special morphological structures named pseudoparaphyllia. It is shown, however, that this term has been applied both to whole leaves and to separate leaf parts. Among the patterns of leaf formation deviating from the basic type, a special place belongs to the Hampeella variant, where deeply dissected and compound leaves are formed due to the delayed development of branch primordia. The families representing this variant occupy a basal position in the phylogenetic tree of pleurocarpous mosses. The Leucodon variant, where splitting of leaves into lobes is apparently explained by strong stem extension, is not specific for any definite phylogenetic group and manifests itself in different families. The Hypnum variant is also not associated with certain phylogenetic lineages, but it provides an example of more profound specialization.

  20. Fixman compensating potential for general branched molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Abhinandan; Kandel, Saugat; Wagner, Jeffrey; Larsen, Adrien; Vaidehi, Nagarajan

    2013-12-01

    The technique of constraining high frequency modes of molecular motion is an effective way to increase simulation time scale and improve conformational sampling in molecular dynamics simulations. However, it has been shown that constraints on higher frequency modes such as bond lengths and bond angles stiffen the molecular model, thereby introducing systematic biases in the statistical behavior of the simulations. Fixman proposed a compensating potential to remove such biases in the thermodynamic and kinetic properties calculated from dynamics simulations. Previous implementations of the Fixman potential have been limited to only short serial chain systems. In this paper, we present a spatial operator algebra based algorithm to calculate the Fixman potential and its gradient within constrained dynamics simulations for branched topology molecules of any size. Our numerical studies on molecules of increasing complexity validate our algorithm by demonstrating recovery of the dihedral angle probability distribution function for systems that range in complexity from serial chains to protein molecules. We observe that the Fixman compensating potential recovers the free energy surface of a serial chain polymer, thus annulling the biases caused by constraining the bond lengths and bond angles. The inclusion of Fixman potential entails only a modest increase in the computational cost in these simulations. We believe that this work represents the first instance where the Fixman potential has been used for general branched systems, and establishes the viability for its use in constrained dynamics simulations of proteins and other macromolecules.

  1. Fixman compensating potential for general branched molecules

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Abhinandan; Kandel, Saugat; Wagner, Jeffrey; Larsen, Adrien; Vaidehi, Nagarajan

    2013-01-01

    The technique of constraining high frequency modes of molecular motion is an effective way to increase simulation time scale and improve conformational sampling in molecular dynamics simulations. However, it has been shown that constraints on higher frequency modes such as bond lengths and bond angles stiffen the molecular model, thereby introducing systematic biases in the statistical behavior of the simulations. Fixman proposed a compensating potential to remove such biases in the thermodynamic and kinetic properties calculated from dynamics simulations. Previous implementations of the Fixman potential have been limited to only short serial chain systems. In this paper, we present a spatial operator algebra based algorithm to calculate the Fixman potential and its gradient within constrained dynamics simulations for branched topology molecules of any size. Our numerical studies on molecules of increasing complexity validate our algorithm by demonstrating recovery of the dihedral angle probability distribution function for systems that range in complexity from serial chains to protein molecules. We observe that the Fixman compensating potential recovers the free energy surface of a serial chain polymer, thus annulling the biases caused by constraining the bond lengths and bond angles. The inclusion of Fixman potential entails only a modest increase in the computational cost in these simulations. We believe that this work represents the first instance where the Fixman potential has been used for general branched systems, and establishes the viability for its use in constrained dynamics simulations of proteins and other macromolecules. PMID:24387353

  2. Faster Algorithms on Branch and Clique Decompositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodlaender, Hans L.; van Leeuwen, Erik Jan; van Rooij, Johan M. M.; Vatshelle, Martin

    We combine two techniques recently introduced to obtain faster dynamic programming algorithms for optimization problems on graph decompositions. The unification of generalized fast subset convolution and fast matrix multiplication yields significant improvements to the running time of previous algorithms for several optimization problems. As an example, we give an O^{*}(3^{ω/2k}) time algorithm for Minimum Dominating Set on graphs of branchwidth k, improving on the previous O *(4 k ) algorithm. Here ω is the exponent in the running time of the best matrix multiplication algorithm (currently ω< 2.376). For graphs of cliquewidth k, we improve from O *(8 k ) to O *(4 k ). We also obtain an algorithm for counting the number of perfect matchings of a graph, given a branch decomposition of width k, that runs in time O^{*}(2^{ω/2k}). Generalizing these approaches, we obtain faster algorithms for all so-called [ρ,σ]-domination problems on branch decompositions if ρ and σ are finite or cofinite. The algorithms presented in this paper either attain or are very close to natural lower bounds for these problems.

  3. Decibel: The Relational Dataset Branching System

    PubMed Central

    Maddox, Michael; Goehring, David; Elmore, Aaron J.; Madden, Samuel; Parameswaran, Aditya; Deshpande, Amol

    2017-01-01

    As scientific endeavors and data analysis become increasingly collaborative, there is a need for data management systems that natively support the versioning or branching of datasets to enable concurrent analysis, cleaning, integration, manipulation, or curation of data across teams of individuals. Common practice for sharing and collaborating on datasets involves creating or storing multiple copies of the dataset, one for each stage of analysis, with no provenance information tracking the relationships between these datasets. This results not only in wasted storage, but also makes it challenging to track and integrate modifications made by different users to the same dataset. In this paper, we introduce the Relational Dataset Branching System, Decibel, a new relational storage system with built-in version control designed to address these shortcomings. We present our initial design for Decibel and provide a thorough evaluation of three versioned storage engine designs that focus on efficient query processing with minimal storage overhead. We also develop an exhaustive benchmark to enable the rigorous testing of these and future versioned storage engine designs. PMID:28149668

  4. Modeling branching pore structures in membrane filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanaei, Pejman; Cummings, Linda J.

    2016-11-01

    Membrane filters are in widespread industrial use, and mathematical models to predict their efficacy are potentially very useful, as such models can suggest design modifications to improve filter performance and lifetime. Many models have been proposed to describe particle capture by membrane filters and the associated fluid dynamics, but most such models are based on a very simple structure in which the pores of the membrane are assumed to be simple circularly-cylindrical tubes spanning the depth of the membrane. Real membranes used in applications usually have much more complex geometry, with interconnected pores which may branch and bifurcate. Pores are also typically larger on the upstream side of the membrane than on the downstream side. We present an idealized mathematical model, in which a membrane consists of a series of bifurcating pores, which decrease in size as the membrane is traversed. Feed solution is forced through the membrane by applied pressure, and particles are removed from the feed either by sieving, or by particle adsorption within pores (which shrinks them). Thus the membrane's permeability decreases as the filtration progresses, ultimately falling to zero. We discuss how filtration efficiency depends on the characteristics of the branching structure. Partial support from NSF DMS 1261596 is gratefully acknowledged.

  5. Large branched self-assembled DNA complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tosch, Paul; Wälti, Christoph; Middelberg, Anton P. J.; Davies, A. Giles

    2007-04-01

    Many biological molecules have been demonstrated to self-assemble into complex structures and networks by using their very efficient and selective molecular recognition processes. The use of biological molecules as scaffolds for the construction of functional devices by self-assembling nanoscale complexes onto the scaffolds has recently attracted significant attention and many different applications in this field have emerged. In particular DNA, owing to its inherent sophisticated self-organization and molecular recognition properties, has served widely as a scaffold for various nanotechnological self-assembly applications, with metallic and semiconducting nanoparticles, proteins, macromolecular complexes, inter alia, being assembled onto designed DNA scaffolds. Such scaffolds may typically contain multiple branch-points and comprise a number of DNA molecules selfassembled into the desired configuration. Previously, several studies have used synthetic methods to produce the constituent DNA of the scaffolds, but this typically constrains the size of the complexes. For applications that require larger self-assembling DNA complexes, several tens of nanometers or more, other techniques need to be employed. In this article, we discuss a generic technique to generate large branched DNA macromolecular complexes.

  6. Fixman compensating potential for general branched molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Abhinandan; Kandel, Saugat; Wagner, Jeffrey; Larsen, Adrien; Vaidehi, Nagarajan

    2013-12-28

    The technique of constraining high frequency modes of molecular motion is an effective way to increase simulation time scale and improve conformational sampling in molecular dynamics simulations. However, it has been shown that constraints on higher frequency modes such as bond lengths and bond angles stiffen the molecular model, thereby introducing systematic biases in the statistical behavior of the simulations. Fixman proposed a compensating potential to remove such biases in the thermodynamic and kinetic properties calculated from dynamics simulations. Previous implementations of the Fixman potential have been limited to only short serial chain systems. In this paper, we present a spatial operator algebra based algorithm to calculate the Fixman potential and its gradient within constrained dynamics simulations for branched topology molecules of any size. Our numerical studies on molecules of increasing complexity validate our algorithm by demonstrating recovery of the dihedral angle probability distribution function for systems that range in complexity from serial chains to protein molecules. We observe that the Fixman compensating potential recovers the free energy surface of a serial chain polymer, thus annulling the biases caused by constraining the bond lengths and bond angles. The inclusion of Fixman potential entails only a modest increase in the computational cost in these simulations. We believe that this work represents the first instance where the Fixman potential has been used for general branched systems, and establishes the viability for its use in constrained dynamics simulations of proteins and other macromolecules.

  7. Fertilization Affects Branching Pattern in Norway Spruce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmroth, S.; Stenberg, P.; Smolander, H.

    2001-12-01

    The increase in stand productivity from fertilization can be attributed to an increase in photosynthetic capacity, and a faster accumulation of leaf area index (LAI). Differences in the steady-state LAI are likely to reflect differences in PAR interception and/or conversion efficiency at shoot and leaf level. Furthermore, shoots ability to export carbohydrates to developing buds could be the mechanism responsible for light dependent branching. Within-canopy distribution of PAR and leaf area form the core in process-based models that are used to assess impacts of changes in the environment on production and resource use efficiency of forest stands. However, feedback between structure and radiation environment is not often incorporated in the models. We studied the relationships between light availability, shoot structure and branching pattern in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) at a long-term fertilization experiment at Flakaliden research area in northern Sweden. Sampling of shoots was designed to cover the variation in canopy exposure within the live crown zone, where current shoots were still found. Canopy openness was used as a measure of the light availability at the shoot?s position. Our data showed that, at similar canopy openness, shoots of fertilized trees were longer and the number and total length of daughters were higher than in control trees. Fertilization increased the steady-state LAI and resulted in a deeper canopy, i.e. foliage is produced and survive at much lower light levels.

  8. Cravity modulation of the moss Tortula modica branching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khorkavtsiv, Yaroslava; Kit, Nadja

    Among various abiotic factors the sensor system of plants constantly perceives light and gravitation impulses and reacts on their action by photo- and gravitropisms. Tropisms play fundamental part in ontogenesis and determination of plant forms. Essentially important question is how light initiating phototropic bending modulates gravitropism. In contrast to flower plants, red light is phototropically active for mosses, and phytochromic system controls initiation of apical growth, branching and photomorphogenesis of mosses. The aim of this investigation was to analyse cell branching of protonemata Tortula modica Zander depending on the direction of light and gravitation vector. The influence of light and gravitation on the form of protonemal turf T. modica, branching and the angle of lateral branches relative to axis of mother cell growth has been investigated. As moss protonemata is not branched in the darkness, light is necessary for branching activation. Minimally low intensity of the red light (0.2 mmol (.) m (-2) ({) .}sec (-1) ) induced branching without visual display of phototropic growth. It has been established that unidirectional action of light and gravitation intensifies branching, and, on the contrary, perpendicularly oriented vectors of factors weaken branches formation. Besides, parallel oriented vectors initiated branching from both cell sides, but oppositely directed vectors initiated branching only from one side. Clinostate rotation the change of the vector gravity and causes uniform cell branching, hence, light and gravitation mutually influence the branching system form of the protonemata cell. It has been shown that the angle of lateral branches in darkness does not depend on the direction of light and gravitation action. After lighting the local growth of the cell wall took place mainly under the angle 90 (o) to the axes of mother cell growth. Then the angle gradually decreased and in 3-4 cell divisions the lateral branch grew under the angle

  9. Spatial distribution and compositional variation of APS minerals related to uranium deposits in the Kiggavik-Andrew Lake structural trend, Nunavut, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riegler, Thomas; Quirt, Dave; Beaufort, Daniel

    2016-02-01

    The Kiggavik-Andrew Lake structural trend consists of four mineralized zones, partially outcropping, lying 2 km south of the erosional contact with the unmetamorphosed sandstone and basal conglomerates of the Paleoproterozoic Thelon Formation. The mineralization is controlled by a major E-W fault system associated with illite and sudoite alteration halos developed in the Archean metagraywackes of the Woodburn Lake Group. Aluminum phosphate sulfate (APS) minerals from the alunite group crystallized in association with the clay minerals in the basement alteration halo as well as in the overlying sandstones, which underwent mostly diagenesis. APS minerals are Sr- and S-rich (svanbergite end-member) in the sedimentary cover overlying the unconformity, whereas they are light rare earth elements (LREE)-rich (florencite end-member) in the altered basement rocks below the unconformity. The geochemical signature of each group of APS minerals together with the petrography indicates three distinct generations of APS minerals related to the following: (1) paleoweathering of continental surfaces prior to the basin occurrence, (2) diagenetic processes during the burial history of the lower unit of the Thelon sandstones, and (3) hydrothermal alteration processes which accompanied the uranium deposition in the basement rocks and partially overlap the sedimentary-diagenetic mineral parageneses. In addition, the association of a first generation of APS minerals with both detrital cerium oxide and aluminum oxy-hydroxide highlights the fact that a part of the detrital material of the basal Thelon Formation originated from eroded paleolaterite (allochthonous regolith). The primary rare earth element (REE)-bearing minerals (e.g., monazite, REE carbonates, and allanite) of the host rocks were characterized to identify the potential sources of REE. The REE chemical composition highlights a local re-incorporation of the REE released from the alteration processes in the APS minerals of

  10. Computer Modeling of Hydrology, Weathering, and Isotopic Fractionation in Andrews Creek, Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado for Water Years 1992 through 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, R. M. T.; Parkhurst, D. L.; Mast, A.; Clow, D. W.

    2014-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Water, Energy, and Biogeochemical Model (WEBMOD) was used to simulate hydrology, weathering, and isotopic fractionation in the 1.7 square kilometer Andrews Creek alpine watershed. WEBMOD includes hydrologic modules derived from the USGS Precipitation Runoff Modeling System, the National Weather Service Hydro-17 snow model, and TOPMODEL. PHREEQC, a geochemical reaction model, is coupled with the hydrologic model to simulate the geochemical evolution of waters as they evaporate, mix, and react within the landscape. Major solute concentrations and δ18O were modeled over the period 1992-2012. Variations of chloride and inorganic nitrogen respond almost entirely to variations in atmospheric deposition and preferential elution of snowpack. Both evaporation and melting result in isotopic enrichment of heavy isotopes in the residual snowpack throughout the summer. Magnesium and potassium, derived mostly from weathering with some atmospheric inputs, vary seasonally with uptake during the growing season and release during the fall and winter. The weathering of granitic minerals—oligoclase, biotite, chlorite, pyrite, calcite, and formation of secondary minerals—kaolinite, goethite, gibbsite, and smectite-illite—were selected as primary reactions based on mole-balance modeling of basin outflows. The rates of these reactions were quantified by calibrating WEBMOD to match observed concentrations and loads. Exported annual loads of most weathering products are highly correlated with discharge, whereas silica loads are less correlated with discharge, suggesting a source that is more active during dry years and less active during wet years. Potential sources include net dissolution of kaolinite and smectite-illite or mineralization of colloids with high silica content. WEBMOD is a valuable tool for simulating water quality variations in response to climate change, acid mine drainage, acid rain, biological transformations, and other

  11. Additional chain-branching pathways in the low-temperature oxidation of branched alkanes

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Zhandong; Zhang, Lidong; Moshammer, Kai; ...

    2015-12-31

    Chain-branching reactions represent a general motif in chemistry, encountered in atmospheric chemistry, combustion, polymerization, and photochemistry; the nature and amount of radicals generated by chain-branching are decisive for the reaction progress, its energy signature, and the time towards its completion. In this study, experimental evidence for two new types of chain-branching reactions is presented, based upon detection of highly oxidized multifunctional molecules (HOM) formed during the gas-phase low-temperature oxidation of a branched alkane under conditions relevant to combustion. The oxidation of 2,5-dimethylhexane (DMH) in a jet-stirred reactor (JSR) was studied using synchrotron vacuum ultra-violet photoionization molecular beam mass spectrometry (SVUV-PI-MBMS).more » Specifically, species with four and five oxygen atoms were probed, having molecular formulas of C8H14O4 (e.g., diketo-hydroperoxide/keto-hydroperoxy cyclic ether) and C8H16O5 (e.g., keto-dihydroperoxide/dihydroperoxy cyclic ether), respectively. The formation of C8H16O5 species involves alternative isomerization of OOQOOH radicals via intramolecular H-atom migration, followed by third O2 addition, intramolecular isomerization, and OH release; C8H14O4 species are proposed to result from subsequent reactions of C8H16O5 species. The mechanistic pathways involving these species are related to those proposed as a source of low-volatility highly oxygenated species in Earth's troposphere. At the higher temperatures relevant to auto-ignition, they can result in a net increase of hydroxyl radical production, so these are additional radical chain-branching pathways for ignition. Furthermore, the results presented herein extend the conceptual basis of reaction mechanisms used to predict the reaction behavior of ignition, and have implications on atmospheric gas-phase chemistry and the oxidative stability of organic substances.« less

  12. Differential conduction block in branches of a bifurcating axon.

    PubMed Central

    Grossman, Y; Parnas, I; Spira, M E

    1979-01-01

    1. Propagation of action potentials at high frequency was studied in a branching axon of the lobster by means of simultaneous intracellular recording both before and after the branch point. 2. Although the branching axon studied has a geometrical ratio close to one (perfect impedance matching) conduction across the branch point failed at stimulation frequencies above 30 Hz. 3. The block of conduction after high frequency stimulation occurred at the branch point per se. The parent axon and daughter branches continued to conduct action potentials. 4. Conduction block after high frequency stimulation appeared first in the thicker daughter branch and only later in the thin branch. 5. With high frequency stimulation there was a 10-15% reduction in amplitude of the action potential in the parent axon, a corresponding decrease in the rate of rise of the action potential, a 25-30% decrease in conduction velocity, marked increase in threshold and prolongation of the refractory period. In addition the membrane was depolarized by 1-3 mV. 6. Measurements of the membrane current using the patch clamp technique showed a large decrease in the phase of inward current associated with the action potential, before the branching point. 7. The small membrane depolarization seen after high frequency stimulation is not the sole cause of the conduction block. Imposed prolonged membrane depolarization (8 mV for 120 sec) was insufficient to produce conduction block. 8. In vivo chronic extracellular recordings from the main nerve bundle (which contains the parent axon) and the large daughter branch revealed that: (a) the duration and frequency of trains of action potentials along the axons exceeded those used in the isolated nerve experiments and (b) conduction failure in the large daughter branch could be induced in the whole animal by electrical stimulation of the main branch as in the isolated preparation. 9. Possible mechanisms underlying block of conduction after high frequency

  13. Differential conduction block in branches of a bifurcating axon.

    PubMed

    Grossman, Y; Parnas, I; Spira, M E

    1979-10-01

    1. Propagation of action potentials at high frequency was studied in a branching axon of the lobster by means of simultaneous intracellular recording both before and after the branch point. 2. Although the branching axon studied has a geometrical ratio close to one (perfect impedance matching) conduction across the branch point failed at stimulation frequencies above 30 Hz. 3. The block of conduction after high frequency stimulation occurred at the branch point per se. The parent axon and daughter branches continued to conduct action potentials. 4. Conduction block after high frequency stimulation appeared first in the thicker daughter branch and only later in the thin branch. 5. With high frequency stimulation there was a 10-15% reduction in amplitude of the action potential in the parent axon, a corresponding decrease in the rate of rise of the action potential, a 25-30% decrease in conduction velocity, marked increase in threshold and prolongation of the refractory period. In addition the membrane was depolarized by 1-3 mV. 6. Measurements of the membrane current using the patch clamp technique showed a large decrease in the phase of inward current associated with the action potential, before the branching point. 7. The small membrane depolarization seen after high frequency stimulation is not the sole cause of the conduction block. Imposed prolonged membrane depolarization (8 mV for 120 sec) was insufficient to produce conduction block. 8. In vivo chronic extracellular recordings from the main nerve bundle (which contains the parent axon) and the large daughter branch revealed that: (a) the duration and frequency of trains of action potentials along the axons exceeded those used in the isolated nerve experiments and (b) conduction failure in the large daughter branch could be induced in the whole animal by electrical stimulation of the main branch as in the isolated preparation. 9. Possible mechanisms underlying block of conduction after high frequency

  14. Nucleosynthesis in asymptotic giant branch stars

    SciTech Connect

    El Eid, Mounib F.

    2014-05-09

    The nucleosynthesis in asymptotic giant branch stars (briefly: AGB)is a challenging and fascinating subject in the theory of stellar evolution and important for observations as well. This is because about of half the heavy elements beyond iron are synthesized during thermal pulsation phases of these stars. Furthermore, the understanding of the production of the heavy elements and some light elements like carbon and fluorine represent a powerful tool to get more insight into the internal structure of these stars. The diversity of nuclear processing during the AGB phases may also motivate experimental activities in measuring important nuclear reactions. In this contribution, we emphasize several interesting feature of the nucleosynthesis in AGB stars which still needs further elaboration especially from theoretical point of view.

  15. New branch of solid-state physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panin, V. Ye.

    1987-10-01

    Research in solid-state physics branched out in a new direction, concerning highly excited states in crystals, upon publication of the article, Atom Vacancy States in Crystals. Perturbation theory and translational symmetry not being applicable here, new concepts had to be developed. Any distortion of the crystal structure must be treated not simply as a defect but as an allowed state genetically latent within the electron energy spectrum of a crystal. Five articles on the subject have been published: Highly Excited States in Crystals; Spectrum of Excited States and Vortical Mechanical Field in Deformed Crystal; Modification of Properties of Metals by High Power Ion Beams; Anomalous Hall Effect in Disordered Ferromagnetic Alloys of Transition Metals; and Restructurization of Atomic Condensed State Under Strong External Influencing Action. These articles are briefly discussed.

  16. Biocompatibility testing of branched and linear polyglycidol.

    PubMed

    Kainthan, Rajesh Kumar; Janzen, Johan; Levin, Elena; Devine, Dana V; Brooks, Donald E

    2006-03-01

    Polyglycidols are flexible hydrophilic polyethers that are potentially biocompatible polymers based on their similarities to the well-studied poly(ethyleneglycol). Polyglycidols can be prepared as branched or linear polymers by suitable synthetic methods. Biocompatibility testing of these polymers conducted in vitro as well as in vivo are reported here. The in vitro studies included hemocompatibility testing for effects on coagulation (PT and APTT), complement activation, red blood cell aggregation, and whole blood viscosity measurements. In vitro cytotoxicity experiments were also conducted. The results were compared with some of the common biocompatible polymers already in human use. Results from these studies show that polyglycidols are highly biocompatible. Hyperbranched polyglycidols were found to be well tolerated by mice even when injected in high doses.

  17. [Phenolic compounds in branches of Tamarix rasissima].

    PubMed

    Li, Juan; Li, Wei-Qi; Zheng, Ping; Wang, Rui; Yu, Jian-Qiang; Yang, Jian-Hong; Yao, Yao

    2014-06-01

    To study the chemical constituents of the branches of Tamarix rasissima, repeated silica gel column chromatography, Sephadex LH-20 chromatography and recrystallization were applied for chemical constituents isolation and purification. Ten phenolic compounds were isolated from the n-BuOH fraction and their structures were elucidated by physical properties and spectra analysis such as UV, ESI-MS and NMR as monodecarboxyellagic acid (1), ellagic acid (2), 3, 3'-di-O-methylellagic acid (3), 3, 3'-di-O-methylellagic acid-4-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (4), 3, 3'-di-O-methylellagic acid-4'-O-alpha-D-arabinfuranoside (5), ferulic acid (6), isoferulic acid (7), caffeic acid (8), 4-O-acetyl-caffeic acid (9), and 4-methyl-1, 2-benzenediol (10). All compounds except for isoferulic acid were isolated firstly from this plant except for isoferulic acid, and compounds 5, 9 and 10 were obtained from Tamarix genus for the first time.

  18. Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch 2005 Technical Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This report summarizes the major activities and accomplishments carried out by the Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch (FDAB), Code 595, in support of flight projects and technology development initiatives in Fiscal Year (FY) 2005. The report is intended to serve as a summary of the type of support carried out by the FDAB, as well as a concise reference of key accomplishments and mission experience derived from the various mission support roles. The primary focus of the FDAB is to provide expertise in the disciplines of flight dynamics including spacecraft navigation (autonomous and ground based); spacecraft trajectory design and maneuver planning; attitude analysis; attitude determination and sensor calibration; and attitude control subsystem (ACS) analysis and design. The FDAB currently provides support for missions and technology development projects involving NASA, other government agencies, academia, and private industry.

  19. Comparative Similarity in Branching Space-Times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Placek, Tomasz

    2010-12-01

    My aim in this paper is to investigate the notions of comparative similarity definable in the framework of branching space-times. A notion of this kind is required to give a rigorous Lewis-style semantics of space-time counterfactuals. In turn, the semantical analysis is needed to decide whether the recently proposed proofs of the non-locality of quantum mechanics are correct. From among the three notions of comparative similarity I select two which appear equally good as far as their intuitiveness and algebraic properties are concerned. However, the relations are not transitive, and thus cannot be used in the semantics proposed by Lewis (J. Philos. Log. 2:418-446, 1973), which requires transitivity. Yet they are adequate for the account of Lewis (J. Philos. Log. 10:217-234, 1981).

  20. Basic Sciences Branch annual report, FY 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Basic Sciences Branch of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) from October 1, 1989, through September 30, 1990. Six technical sections of the report cover these main areas of NREL`s in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, and Solid-State Spectroscopy. Each section of the report was written by the group leader principally in charge of the work. The task in each case was to explain the purpose and major accomplishments of the work in the context of the US Department of Energy`s National Photovoltaic Research Program plans.

  1. Decay branching ratios of excited 24Mg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munson, J. M.; Norman, E. B.; Burke, J. T.; Casperson, R. J.; Phair, L. W.; McCleskey, E.; McCleskey, M.; Lee, D.; Hughes, R. O.; Ota, S.; Czeszumska, A.; Chodash, P. A.; Saastamoinen, A. J.; Austin, R. A. E.; Spiridon, A. E.; Dag, M.; Chyzh, R.; Basunia, M. S.; Ressler, J. J.; Ross, T. J.

    2017-01-01

    The nuclear reactions 12C(12C,α )20Ne , 12C(12C,p )23Na , and 12C(12C,n )23Mg are the primary reactions in carbon burning, which occurs as part of several stellar processes. The Gamow window, which describes the energy range where most of these reactions take place, is typically around 1.5 MeV in the center-of-mass frame. Direct measurements of the cross sections at this energy are difficult due to the large Coulomb barrier present between the carbon nuclei; however, a successful surrogate measurement can provide the branching ratios between these reactions while avoiding the 12C+12C Coulomb barrier. An experiment was performed using inelastic scattering of 40 MeV α particles on 24Mg as a possible surrogate for the 12C+12C compound nucleus.

  2. Gauge Theories on the Coulomb Branch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, John H.

    We construct the world-volume action of a probe D3-brane in AdS5 × S5 with N units of flux. It has the field content, symmetries, and dualities of the U(1) factor of 𝒩 = 4 U(N + 1) super Yang-Mills theory, spontaneously broken to U(N) × U(1) by being on the Coulomb branch, with the massive fields integrated out. This motivates the conjecture that it is the exact effective action, called a highly effective action (HEA). We construct an SL(2, Z) multiplet of BPS soliton solutions of the D3-brane theory (the conjectured HEA) and show that they reproduce the electrically charged massive states that have been integrated out as well as magnetic monopoles and dyons. Their charges are uniformly spread on a spherical surface, called a soliton bubble, which is interpreted as a phase boundary.

  3. Basic Sciences Branch annual report, FY 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Basic Sciences Branch of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) from October 1, 1989, through September 30, 1990. Six technical sections of the report cover these main areas of NREL's in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, and Solid-State Spectroscopy. Each section of the report was written by the group leader principally in charge of the work. The task in each case was to explain the purpose and major accomplishments of the work in the context of the US Department of Energy's National Photovoltaic Research Program plans.

  4. Optimal Branching Asymmetry of Hydrodynamic Pulsatile Trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florens, Magali; Sapoval, Bernard; Filoche, Marcel

    2011-04-01

    Most of the studies on optimal transport are done for steady state regime conditions. Yet, there exists numerous examples in living systems where supply tree networks have to deliver products in a limited time due to the pulsatile character of the flow, as it is the case for mammalian respiration. We report here that introducing a systematic branching asymmetry allows the tree to reduce the average delivery time of the products. It simultaneously increases its robustness against the inevitable variability of sizes related to morphogenesis. We then apply this approach to the human tracheobronchial tree. We show that in this case all extremities are supplied with fresh air, provided that the asymmetry is smaller than a critical threshold which happens to match the asymmetry measured in the human lung. This could indicate that the structure is tuned at the maximum asymmetry level that allows the lung to feed all terminal units with fresh air.

  5. Rubidium-rich asymptotic giant branch stars.

    PubMed

    García-Hernández, D A; García-Lario, P; Plez, B; D'Antona, F; Manchado, A; Trigo-Rodríguez, J M

    2006-12-15

    A long-debated issue concerning the nucleosynthesis of neutron-rich elements in asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars is the identification of the neutron source. We report intermediate-mass (4 to 8 solar masses) AGB stars in our Galaxy that are rubidium-rich as a result of overproduction of the long-lived radioactive isotope (87)Rb, as predicted theoretically 40 years ago. This finding represents direct observational evidence that the (22)Ne(alpha,n)(25)Mg reaction must be the dominant neutron source in these stars. These stars challenge our understanding of the late stages of the evolution of intermediate-mass stars and would have promoted a highly variable Rb/Sr environment in the early solar nebula.

  6. Unquenched flavor on the Higgs branch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faedo, Antón F.; Mateos, David; Pantelidou, Christiana; Tarrıo, Javier

    2016-11-01

    We construct the gravity duals of the Higgs branches of three-dimensional (four-dimensional) super Yang-Mills theories coupled to N f quark flavors. The effect of the quarks on the color degrees of freedom is included, and corresponds on the gravity side to the backreaction of N f flavor D6-branes (D7-branes) on the background of N c color D2-branes (D3-branes). The Higgsing of the gauge group arises from the dissolution of some color branes inside the flavor branes. The dissolved color branes are represented by non-Abelian instantons whose backreaction is also included. The result is a cascading-like solution in which the effective number of color branes varies along the holographic direction. In the three-dimensional case the solution may include an arbitrary number of quasi-conformal (walking) regions.

  7. Nucleosynthesis in asymptotic giant branch stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Eid, Mounib F.

    2014-05-01

    The nucleosynthesis in asymptotic giant branch stars (briefly: AGB)is a challenging and fascinating subject in the theory of stellar evolution and important for observations as well. This is because about of half the heavy elements beyond iron are synthesized during thermal pulsation phases of these stars. Furthermore, the understanding of the production of the heavy elements and some light elements like carbon and fluorine represent a powerful tool to get more insight into the internal structure of these stars. The diversity of nuclear processing during the AGB phases may also motivate experimental activities in measuring important nuclear reactions. In this contribution, we emphasize several interesting feature of the nucleosynthesis in AGB stars which still needs further elaboration especially from theoretical point of view.

  8. Command and Data Handling Branch Internship

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billings, Rachel Mae

    2016-01-01

    Modular Integrated Stackable Layers (MISL) is a computer system designed for simple, fast, and cost effective flexible reconfiguration in space environments such as the ISS and Orion projects for various uses. Existing applications include wireless and wired communications, data acquisition and instrumentation, and camera systems, and potential applications include bus protocol converters and subsystem control. MISL is based on Texas Instruments (TI)' MSP430 16-bit ultra-low-power microcontroller device. The purpose of my project was to integrate the MISL system with a liquid crystal display (LCD) touchscreen. The LCD, manufactured by Crystalfontz and part number CFAF320240F-035T-TS, is a 320 by 240 RGB resistive color screen including an optional carrier board. The vast majority of the project was done with Altium Designer, a tool for printed circuit board (PCB) schematic capture, 3D design, and FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) development. The new PCB was to allow the LCD to directly stack to the rest of MISL. Research was done with datasheets for the TI microcontroller and touchscreen display in order to meet desired hardware specifications. Documentation on prior MISL projects was also utilized. The initial step was to create a schematic for the LCD, power bus, and data bus connections between components. A layout was then designed with the required physical dimensions, routed traces and vias, power and ground planes, layer stacks, and other specified design rules such as plane clearance and hole size. Multiple consultation sessions were held with Hester Yim, the technical discipline lead for the Command and Data Handling Branch, and Christy Herring, the lead PCB layout designer in the Electronic Design and Manufacturing Branch in order to ensure proper configuration. At the moment, the PCB is awaiting revision by the latter-mentioned branch. Afterwards, the board will begin to undergo the manufacturing and testing process. Throughout the internship at

  9. Arterial branching in various parts of the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Zamir, M; Brown, N

    1982-04-01

    Angiographic pictures of vascular beds in various parts of the cardiovascular system were analyzed to study the geometrical structure of arterial bifurcations. The sites of arterial bifurcations were enlarged individually, and measurements were made of the branching angles and branch diameters at each site. Results from various parts of the cardiovascular system of man, and some from rabbit and pig, were compared with each other. The measurements were also compared with "optimum" values of branching angles and branch diameters which have been predicted by various theoretical studies. In general the measurements were found to give support to the theoretical premise that branching angles and branch diameters in the cardiovascular system are dictated by certain optimality principles which aim to maximize the efficiency of the system in its fluid-conducting function. In some parts of the system, however, the measured angles and diameters were found to be decidedly lower than those predicted by theory.

  10. Automated branching pattern report generation for laparoscopic surgery assistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, Masahiro; Matsuzaki, Tetsuro; Hayashi, Yuichiro; Kitasaka, Takayuki; Misawa, Kazunari; Mori, Kensaku

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents a method for generating branching pattern reports of abdominal blood vessels for laparoscopic gastrectomy. In gastrectomy, it is very important to understand branching structure of abdominal arteries and veins, which feed and drain specific abdominal organs including the stomach, the liver and the pancreas. In the real clinical stage, a surgeon creates a diagnostic report of the patient anatomy. This report summarizes the branching patterns of the blood vessels related to the stomach. The surgeon decides actual operative procedure. This paper shows an automated method to generate a branching pattern report for abdominal blood vessels based on automated anatomical labeling. The report contains 3D rendering showing important blood vessels and descriptions of branching patterns of each vessel. We have applied this method for fifty cases of 3D abdominal CT scans and confirmed the proposed method can automatically generate branching pattern reports of abdominal arteries.

  11. Branching, Superdiffusion and Stress Relaxation in Surfactant Micelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sureshkumar, R.; Dhakal, S.; Syracuse University Team

    2016-11-01

    We investigate the mechanism of branch formation and its effects on the dynamics and rheology of a model cationic micellar fluid using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Branched structures are formed upon increasing counter ion density. A sharp decrease in the solution viscosity with increasing salinity has long been attributed to the sliding motion of micellar branches along the main chain. Simulations not only provide firm evidence of branch sliding in real time, but also show enhanced diffusion of surfactants by virtue of such motion. Insights into the mechanism of stress relaxation associated with branch sliding will be discussed. Specifically, an externally imposed stress damps out more quickly in a branched system compared to that in an unbranched one. NSF Grants 1049489, 1049454.

  12. Observing Holliday junction branch migration one step at a time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Taekjip

    2004-03-01

    During genetic recombination, two homologous DNA molecules undergo strand exchange to form a four-way DNA (Holliday) junction and the recognition and processing of this species by branch migration and junction resolving enzymes determine the outcome. We have used single molecule fluorescence techniques to study two intrinsic structural dynamics of the Holliday junction, stacking conformer transitions and spontaneous branch migration. Our studies show that the dynamics of branch migration, resolved with one base pair resolution, is determined by the stability of conformers which in turn depends on the local DNA sequences. Therefore, the energy landscape of Holliday junction branch migation is not uniform, but is rugged.

  13. Absolute measurement of hadronic branching fractions of the Ds+ meson.

    PubMed

    Alexander, J P; Berkelman, K; Cassel, D G; Duboscq, J E; Ehrlich, R; Fields, L; Gibbons, L; Gray, R; Gray, S W; Hartill, D L; Heltsley, B K; Hertz, D; Jones, C D; Kandaswamy, J; Kreinick, D L; Kuznetsov, V E; Mahlke-Krüger, H; Mohapatra, D; Onyisi, P U E; Patterson, J R; Peterson, D; Riley, D; Ryd, A; Sadoff, A J; Shi, X; Stroiney, S; Sun, W M; Wilksen, T; Athar, S B; Patel, R; Yelton, J; Rubin, P; Eisenstein, B I; Karliner, I; Mehrabyan, S; Lowrey, N; Selen, M; White, E J; Wiss, J; Mitchell, R E; Shepherd, M R; Besson, D; Pedlar, T K; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Gao, K Y; Hietala, J; Kubota, Y; Klein, T; Lang, B W; Poling, R; Scott, A W; Zweber, P; Dobbs, S; Metreveli, Z; Seth, K K; Tomaradze, A; Libby, J; Powell, A; Wilkinson, G; Ecklund, K M; Love, W; Savinov, V; Lopez, A; Mendez, H; Ramirez, J; Ge, J Y; Miller, D H; Sanghi, B; Shipsey, I P J; Xin, B; Adams, G S; Anderson, M; Cummings, J P; Danko, I; Hu, D; Moziak, B; Napolitano, J; He, Q; Insler, J; Muramatsu, H; Park, C S; Thorndike, E H; Yang, F; Artuso, M; Blusk, S; Khalil, S; Li, J; Mountain, R; Nisar, S; Randrianarivony, K; Sultana, N; Skwarnicki, T; Stone, S; Wang, J C; Zhang, L M; Bonvicini, G; Cinabro, D; Dubrovin, M; Lincoln, A; Rademacker, J; Asner, D M; Edwards, K W; Naik, P; Briere, R A; Ferguson, T; Tatishvili, G; Vogel, H; Watkins, M E; Rosner, J L

    2008-04-25

    The branching fractions of D(s)(+/-) meson decays serve to normalize many measurements of processes involving charm quarks. Using 298 pb(-1) of e(+)e(-) collisions recorded at a center of mass energy of 4.17 GeV, we determine absolute branching fractions for eight D(s)(+/-) decays with a double tag technique. In particular we determine the branching fraction B(D(s)(+)-->K(-)K(+}pi(+))=(5.50+/-0.23+/-0.16)%, where the uncertainties are statistical and systematic, respectively. We also provide partial branching fractions for kinematic subsets of the K(-)K(+)pi(+) decay mode.

  14. Size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) of branched polymers and polysaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Gaborieau, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    Branched polymers are among the most important polymers, ranging from polyolefins to polysaccharides. Branching plays a key role in the chain dynamics. It is thus very important for application properties such as mechanical and adhesive properties and digestibility. It also plays a key role in viscous properties, and thus in the mechanism of the separation of these polymers in size-exclusion chromatography (SEC). Critically reviewing the literature, particularly on SEC of polyolefins, polyacrylates and starch, we discuss common pitfalls but also highlight some unexplored possibilities to characterize branched polymers. The presence of a few long-chain branches has been shown to lead to a poor separation in SEC, as evidenced by multiple-detection SEC or multidimensional liquid chromatography. The local dispersity can be large in that case, and the accuracy of molecular weight determination achieved by current methods is poor, although hydrodynamic volume distributions offer alternatives. In contrast, highly branched polymers do not suffer from this extensive incomplete separation in terms of molecular weight. Figure Representation of (a) a linear polymer chain and various branched polymer structures with (b) longchain branches (amylose-like), (c) short-chain branches (amylopectin-like), (d) both short-chain and long-chain branches (polyacrylate- or polyethylene-like). PMID:20967430

  15. Measurements of the branching fractions of [Formula: see text] decays.

    PubMed

    Aaij, R; Abellan Beteta, C; Adametz, A; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amhis, Y; Anderlini, L; Anderson, J; Andreassen, R; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Baesso, C; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Beddow, J; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Benayoun, M; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blanks, C; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bobrov, A; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Burducea, I; Bursche, A; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carranza-Mejia, H; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chen, P; Chiapolini, N; Chrzaszcz, M; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; David, P N Y; De Bonis, I; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Silva, W; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Degaudenzi, H; Del Buono, L; Deplano, C; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Di Canto, A; Dickens, J; Dijkstra, H; Dogaru, M; Domingo Bonal, F; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elsasser, Ch; Elsby, D; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Fardell, G; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Fave, V; Ferguson, D; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furcas, S; Furfaro, E; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garofoli, J; Garosi, P; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gordon, H; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; Harrison, P F; Hartmann, T; He, J; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Hicks, E; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Hombach, C; Hopchev, P; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jans, E; Jansen, F; Jaton, P; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Jost, B; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Kenyon, I R; Kerzel, U; Ketel, T; Keune, A; Khanji, B; Kochebina, O; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J-P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leroy, O; Li, Y; Li Gioi, L; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; von Loeben, J; Lopes, J H; Lopez Asamar, E; Lopez-March, N; Lu, H; Luisier, J; Luo, H; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Malde, S; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Mangiafave, N; Marconi, U; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martin, L; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martins Tostes, D; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Matveev, M; Maurice, E; Mazurov, A; McCarthy, J; McNulty, R; Meadows, B; Meier, F; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Muster, B; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neufeld, N; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Niet, R; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Nisar, S; Nomerotski, A; Novoselov, A; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Pal, B K; Palano, A; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrick, G N; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perego, D L; Perez Trigo, E; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pessina, G; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Phan, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polci, F; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; Prisciandaro, J; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Qian, W; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Rauschmayr, N; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reid, M M; Dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Richards, A; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Perez, P; Rogers, G J; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Romero Vidal, A; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruiz, H; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salzmann, C; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Sannino, M; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schaack, P; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schleich, S; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M-H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shatalov, P; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Smith, M; Sobczak, K; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Soomro, F; Souza, D; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Subbiah, V K; Swientek, S; Syropoulos, V; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teklishyn, M; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Tonelli, D; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Urner, D; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Vesterinen, M; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; Voss, H; Waldi, R; Wallace, R; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wiechczynski, J; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wishahi, J; Witek, M; Wotton, S A; Wright, S; Wu, S; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, F; Xing, Z; Yang, Z; Young, R; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhong, L; Zvyagin, A

    The branching fractions of the decay [Formula: see text] for different intermediate states are measured using data, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.0 fb(-1), collected by the LHCb experiment. The total branching fraction, its charmless component [Formula: see text] and the branching fractions via the resonant [Formula: see text] states ηc (1S) and ψ(2S) relative to the decay via a J/ψ intermediate state are [Formula: see text] Upper limits on the B(+) branching fractions into the ηc (2S) meson and into the charmonium-like states X(3872) and X(3915) are also obtained.

  16. Effects of branch height on leaf gas exchange, branch hydraulic conductance and branch sap flux in open-grown ponderosa pine.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Robert M; Bond, Barbara J; Senock, Randy S; Ryan, Michael G

    2002-06-01

    Recent studies have shown that stomata respond to changes in hydraulic conductance of the flow path from soil to leaf. In open-grown tall trees, branches of different heights may have different hydraulic conductances because of differences in path length and growth. We determined if leaf gas exchange, branch sap flux, leaf specific hydraulic conductance, foliar carbon isotope composition (delta13C) and ratios of leaf area to sapwood area within branches were dependent on branch height (10 and 25 m) within the crowns of four open-grown ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.) trees. We found no difference in leaf gas exchange or leaf specific hydraulic conductance from soil to leaf between the upper and lower canopy of our study trees. Branch sap flux per unit leaf area and per unit sapwood area did not differ between the 10- and 25-m canopy positions; however, branch sap flux per unit sapwood area at the 25-m position had consistently lower values. Branches at the 25-m canopy position had lower leaf to sapwood area ratios (0.17 m2 cm-2) compared with branches at the 10-m position (0.27 m2 cm-2) (P = 0.03). Leaf specific conductance of branches in the upper crown did not differ from that in the lower crown. Other studies at our site indicate lower hydraulic conductance, sap flux, whole-tree canopy conductance and photosynthesis in old trees compared with young trees. This study suggests that height alone may not explain these differences.

  17. Branching and annihilating random walks: exact results at low branching rate.

    PubMed

    Benitez, Federico; Wschebor, Nicolás

    2013-05-01

    We present some exact results on the behavior of branching and annihilating random walks, both in the directed percolation and parity conserving universality classes. Contrary to usual perturbation theory, we perform an expansion in the branching rate around the nontrivial pure annihilation (PA) model, whose correlation and response function we compute exactly. With this, the nonuniversal threshold value for having a phase transition in the simplest system belonging to the directed percolation universality class is found to coincide with previous nonperturbative renormalization group (RG) approximate results. We also show that the parity conserving universality class has an unexpected RG fixed point structure, with a PA fixed point which is unstable in all dimensions of physical interest.

  18. Studying the R-branch and the Q-branch emission spectral lines of diatomic molecules using improved analytical formula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yonghong; Sun, Weiguo; Zhang, Yi; Fu, Jia; Fan, Qunchao; Li, Huidong; Feng, Hao

    2016-06-01

    The difference converging method (DCM) used to predict the R-branch and the Q-branch high-lying rotational lines for diatomic systems is improved in this study. The key analytical formulae of the DCM method are modified by adding a higher order spectral term Hυ, and adding a physical converging criterion to improve the accuracy of predictions. Applications of the improved DCM method to the R-branch of the TiF molecule and the Q-branch of the 193IrN molecule show that the accuracy of the R-branch and the Q-branch rotational lines is about one order of magnitude better than the results obtained using the previous formulae, which demonstrate the necessity of the added small term Hυ and the physical converging criterion. The DCM results are also shown to be better than the extrapolated rotational lines using the least-squares method.

  19. Interview with Andrew C. Kadak

    SciTech Connect

    Schabes, D.

    1996-01-01

    This article is an interview with the president and Chief Executive Officer of the Yankee Atomic Electric Company about a wide variety of aspects of the decommissioning of the Yankee Nuclear Power plant. Included are discussions of political aspects, decommissioning schedules, local impacts, technical issues of decommissioning, personnel management during decommissioning, etc.

  20. Spatial and Temporal Trends in the Carbon, Nitrogen, and Sulfur Isotopes of Stream DOM From 10 Watersheds at the HJ Andrews Experimental Forest.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frentress, J.; Kendall, C.; Lajtha, K.; Jones, J.

    2008-12-01

    In order to better understand sources of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in streams from the small to large watershed scales, we initiated a one-year investigation of the chemical and isotopic characteristics of DOM at the HJ Andrews Experimental Forest (HJA) in Blue River, OR. DOM is a biologically significant loss from these watersheds, but its sources (forest floor, mineral soil, riparian zones, stream biota) are debated. Traditional chemical characterizations of DOM like SUVA and FI have been useful in conceptualizing and modeling streamflow sources, however, an improved method for assessing DOM quality is needed to adequately differentiate DOM from sources within the watershed. The isotopic characterization of inorganic molecules like nitrate has provided insight to the role of subsurface and surface processes governing the production and transport of critical nutrients, and yet to date, little work has been done to examine the usefulness of isotopic characterization of organically bound nutrients. We apply the isotopic characterization approach to DOM in order to better understand DOM production, transformation, and transport to streams in a range of watershed sizes. Major questions addressed in this research are: 1) Where in the watershed does stream DOM come from? 2) How do DOM sources vary temporally? 3) How do physical attributes of the watershed mediate DOM quality? A relatively new solid-phase extraction technique using C-18 resin was used to isolate DOM in water samples from 10 watersheds, ranging in size from 10 to 6200 hectares, on 3-week intervals from May 2007 to June 2008. The modified technique allowed for small (1 Liter) sample sizes and short processing times to reduce the costs of analysis. The capacity of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur isotopic characterizations of DOM, as well as traditional methods like SUVA and C:N, to predict physical watershed attributes (i.e. mean residence time, soil depth, elevation, gradient) and land use history (timber

  1. Deep versus shallow melt stagnation in an ultra-slow / ultra-cold ridge segment: the Andrew Bain southern RTI (SWIR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paganelli, E.; Brunelli, D.; Seyler, M.; Bonatti, E.; Cipriani, A.; Ligi, M.

    2011-12-01

    The Andrew Bain Fracture Zone (ABFZ) represents one of the largest transform faults in the ridge system spanning 750 km in length with a characteristic lens-shape structure. The southern Ridge-Transform Intersection represents the deepest sector of the whole South West Indian Ridge system. During the Italian-Russian expedition S23-AB06, the seafloor in the Southern Ridge Transform Intersection (RTI) has been sampled recovering only ultramafic material in the majority of the dredging sites. The sampled spinel and plagioclase peridotites show hybrid textures, characterized either by deep spinel-field impregnation assemblages (sp+cpx±opx±ol) or by plagioclase-field equilibrated patches and mineral trails (pl+cpx±ol) marked by both crystallization of newly formed plagioclase-field equilibrated trails and formation of plagioclase coronas around spinel. The ones collected from ridge axis show also late gabbroic pockets and veins, variably enriched in clinopyroxene. Overall textures account for important melt percolation/stagnation events occurred in the plagioclase and spinel field. Major and trace element distribution in pyroxenes and spinels from spinel-bearing peridotites overall follow a general melting trend accompanied by a progressive re-equilibration to lower P/T facies at all scales. However, only few samples can be linked to near fractional melting, while the majority of them shows REE pattern and trace element concentrations that cannot be reproduced by fractional melting process. Open-system melting (OSM) better reproduces measured REE patterns. Modeling melting in an open system scenario requires high residual porosity to be accounted for along with generally enriched melts to influx the melting parcel at depth. Melting at high residual porosity suggests a near-batch regime in which enriched melts stagnate in the spinel field. Inhibition of melt segregation during melt/rock interaction asks for a permeability barrier to develop in the region where the

  2. Additional chain-branching pathways in the low-temperature oxidation of branched alkanes

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhandong; Zhang, Lidong; Moshammer, Kai; Popolan-Vaida, Denisia M.; Shankar, Vijai Shankar Bhavani; Lucassen, Arnas; Hemken, Christian; Taatjes, Craig A.; Leone, Stephen R.; Kohse-Hoinghaus, Katharina; Hansen, Nils; Dagaut, Philippe; Sarathy, S. Mani

    2015-12-31

    Chain-branching reactions represent a general motif in chemistry, encountered in atmospheric chemistry, combustion, polymerization, and photochemistry; the nature and amount of radicals generated by chain-branching are decisive for the reaction progress, its energy signature, and the time towards its completion. In this study, experimental evidence for two new types of chain-branching reactions is presented, based upon detection of highly oxidized multifunctional molecules (HOM) formed during the gas-phase low-temperature oxidation of a branched alkane under conditions relevant to combustion. The oxidation of 2,5-dimethylhexane (DMH) in a jet-stirred reactor (JSR) was studied using synchrotron vacuum ultra-violet photoionization molecular beam mass spectrometry (SVUV-PI-MBMS). Specifically, species with four and five oxygen atoms were probed, having molecular formulas of C8H14O4 (e.g., diketo-hydroperoxide/keto-hydroperoxy cyclic ether) and C8H16O5 (e.g., keto-dihydroperoxide/dihydroperoxy cyclic ether), respectively. The formation of C8H16O5 species involves alternative isomerization of OOQOOH radicals via intramolecular H-atom migration, followed by third O2 addition, intramolecular isomerization, and OH release; C8H14O4 species are proposed to result from subsequent reactions of C8H16O5 species. The mechanistic pathways involving these species are related to those proposed as a source of low-volatility highly oxygenated species in Earth's troposphere. At the higher temperatures relevant to auto-ignition, they can result in a net increase of hydroxyl radical production, so these are additional radical chain-branching pathways for ignition. Furthermore, the results presented herein extend the conceptual basis of reaction mechanisms used to predict the reaction behavior of ignition, and have

  3. Clinical Trials in Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Panakanti, Tandava Krishnan; Chhablani, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) is the second most common retinal vascular disorder. The management of macular edema has changed considerably over time. The laser is considered the gold standard treatment for over two decades. However, visual recovery with laser is usually slow and incomplete. The advent of intravitreal agents, specifically anti-vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF) have heralded a new era which promises rapid recovery of vision and quality of vision. Randomized clinical trials have reported optimal results with anti-VEGF agents (ranibizumab, bevacizumab, and aflibercept) compared to laser therapy or steroids. However, nearly 50% of the patients require repeat intravitreal anti-VEGF therapy up to 4 years after initiating therapy to sustain the visual gains. The adverse events (systemic and ocular) of these agents are minimal. Monotherapy with anti-VEGF agents have been found to provide better results than any combination with laser. This review article summarizes evidence from randomized controlled trials evaluating treatment options for the treatment of macular edema secondary to BRVO with a special focus on anti-VEGF therapy. PMID:26957837

  4. Specialization and evolutionary branching within migratory populations.

    PubMed

    Torney, Colin J; Levin, Simon A; Couzin, Iain D

    2010-11-23

    Understanding the mechanisms that drive specialization and speciation within initially homogeneous populations is a fundamental challenge for evolutionary theory. It is an issue of relevance for significant open questions in biology concerning the generation and maintenance of biodiversity, the origins of reciprocal cooperation, and the efficient division of labor in social or colonial organisms. Several mathematical frameworks have been developed to address this question and models based on evolutionary game theory or the adaptive dynamics of phenotypic mutation have demonstrated the emergence of polymorphic, specialized populations. Here we focus on a ubiquitous biological phenomenon, migration. Individuals in our model may evolve the capacity to detect and follow an environmental cue that indicates a preferred migration route. The strategy space is defined by the level of investment in acquiring personal information about this route or the alternative tendency to follow the direction choice of others. The result is a relation between the migratory process and a game theoretic dynamic that is generally applicable to situations where information may be considered a public good. Through the use of an approximation of social interactions, we demonstrate the emergence of a stable, polymorphic population consisting of an uninformed subpopulation that is dependent upon a specialized group of leaders. The branching process is classified using the techniques of adaptive dynamics.

  5. Solutions for transients in arbitrarily branching cables

    PubMed Central

    Major, Guy; Evans, Jonathan D.; Jack, J. Julian B.

    1993-01-01

    Analytical solutions are derived for arbitrarily branching passive neurone models with a soma and somatic shunt, for synaptic inputs and somatic voltage commands, for both perfect and imperfect somatic voltage clamp. The solutions are infinite exponential series. Perfect clamp decouples different dendritic trees at the soma: each exponential component exists only in one tree; its time constant is independent of stimulating and recording position within the tree; its amplitude is the product of a factor constant over that entire tree and factors dependent on stimulating and recording positions. Imperfect clamp to zero is mathematically equivalent to voltage recording with a shunt. As the series resistance increases, different dendritic trees become more strongly coupled. A number of interesting response symmetries are evident. The solutions reveal parameter dependencies, including an insensitivity of the early parts of the responses to specific membrane resistivity and somatic shunt, and an approximately linear dependence of the slower time constants on series resistance, for small series resistances. The solutions are illustrated using a “cartoon” representation of a CA1 pyramidal cell and a two-cylinder + soma model. PMID:8369449

  6. Synthesis of Biomimetic Branched Polymer Architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marciel, Amanda; Mai, Danielle; Schroeder, Charles

    2014-03-01

    Development of sequence-defined or structurally-precise polymers as high-performance materials is a major challenge in materials science. In this work, we report a facile synthesis platform to produce monodisperse and stereochemically precise nucleotidomimetic polymers. Based on a top-down approach, we are able to precisely incorporate a wide-variety of functional group modifications in a simple two-step process. First, we utilize the natural ability of DNA polymerase to enzymatically incorporate chemically-modified monomers (e.g., C5-dibenzocyclooctyl dUTP) in a template-directed fashion. Second, we employ copper-free click chemistry to integrate the desired chemical functionality at precise locations along the polymer chain. In this way, we produced a variety of branched DNA homopolymer architectures including 3-arm star, symmetric H, and block-brush. Overall, this synthetic strategy allows for the systematic variation of oligomer length, stoichiometry, concentration, and environmental conditions to rapidly explore nucleotidomimetic polymer phase behavior for materials discovery.

  7. Ventricular fiber optimization utilizing the branching structure.

    PubMed

    Washio, Takumi; Yoneda, Kazunori; Okada, Jun-Ichi; Kariya, Taro; Sugiura, Seiryo; Hisada, Toshiaki

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we propose an algorithm that optimizes the ventricular fiber structure of the human heart. A number of histological studies and diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging analyses have revealed that the myocardial fiber forms a right-handed helix at the endocardium. However, the fiber formation changes its orientation as a function of transmural depth, becoming a left-handed helix at the epicardium. To determine how nature can construct such a structure, which obtains surprising pumping performance, we introduce macroscopic modeling of the branching structure of cardiac myocytes in our finite element ventricular model and utilize this in an optimization process. We put a set of multidirectional fibers around a central fiber orientation at each point of the ventricle walls and simulate heartbeats by generating contraction forces along each of these directions. We examine two optimization processes using the workloads or impulses measured in these directions to update the central fiber orientation. Both processes improve the pumping performance towards an optimal value within several tens of heartbeats, starting from an almost-flat fiber orientation. However, compared with the workload optimization, the impulse optimization produces better agreement with experimental studies on transmural changes of fiber helix angle, streamline patterns of characteristic helical structures, and temporal changes in strain. Furthermore, the impulse optimization is robust under geometrical changes of the heart and tends to homogenize various mechanical factors such as the stretch and stretch rate along the fiber orientation, the contraction force, and energy consumption. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Early Asymptotic Giant Branch: Theory and Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frantsman, Ju.

    1995-08-01

    While on the asymptotic giant branch (AGB), a star passes through two evolutionary phases: an early stage (E-AGB), and thermally pulsing AGB (TP-AGB). The theory of two AGB stages was developed more than a decade ago but till now some authors do not take into account the E-AGB phase in spite of the fact that E-AGB phase lasts for some stars considerably longer than the TP-AGB phase. The typical outcomes of such ignoration are shown in the report (wrong conclusions about the evolution of Large Magellanic Cloud, the mistakes in the determination of the ages of Magellanic Cloud clusters). The results are obtained using the "population simultaion" technique. The origin of some types of chemically peculiar stars is investigated (S-stars, faint carbon stars, carbon stars bluer and somewhat brighter than in the mean N-Type stars in the Magellanic Clouds). A suggestion is proposed that these stars are on the E-AGB evolutionary stage. They develop chemical peculiarities in the process of mass transfer in close binaries. It was assumed that during the TP-AGB phase, the primary (more massive) component, when being the carbon star, transfered the carbon enriched material by Roche-lobe overflow to the secondary component, which becomes the star with carbon overabundance. During the subsequent evolution the former secondary (and now after mass transfer carbon enriched) component reaches the E-AGB phase. The results of calculations are discussed and compared with observations.

  9. Correlation functions of Coulomb branch operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerchkovitz, Efrat; Gomis, Jaume; Ishtiaque, Nafiz; Karasik, Avner; Komargodski, Zohar; Pufu, Silviu S.

    2017-01-01

    We consider the correlation functions of Coulomb branch operators in four-dimensional N = 2 Superconformal Field Theories (SCFTs) involving exactly one antichiral operator. These extremal correlators are the "minimal" non-holomorphic local observables in the theory. We show that they can be expressed in terms of certain determinants of derivatives of the four-sphere partition function of an appropriate deformation of the SCFT. This relation between the extremal correlators and the deformed four-sphere partition function is non-trivial due to the presence of conformal anomalies, which lead to operator mixing on the sphere. Evaluating the deformed four-sphere partition function using supersymmetric localization, we compute the extremal correlators explicitly in many interesting examples. Additionally, the representation of the extremal correlators mentioned above leads to a system of integrable differential equations. We compare our exact results with previous perturbative computations and with the four-dimensional tt ∗ equations. We also use our results to study some of the asymptotic properties of the perturbative series expansions we obtain in N = 2 SQCD.

  10. ERAMOSA controls lateral branching in snapdragon

    PubMed Central

    Mizzotti, Chiara; Galliani, Bianca M.; Dreni, Ludovico; Sommer, Hans; Bombarely, Aureliano; Masiero, Simona

    2017-01-01

    Plant forms display a wide variety of architectures, depending on the number of lateral branches, internode elongation and phyllotaxy. These are in turn determined by the number, the position and the fate of the Axillary Meristems (AMs). Mutants that affect AM determination during the vegetative phase have been isolated in several model plants. Among these genes, the GRAS transcription factor LATERAL SUPPRESSOR (Ls) plays a pivotal role in AM determination during the vegetative phase. Hereby we characterize the phylogenetic orthologue of Ls in Antirrhinum, ERAMOSA (ERA). Our data supported ERA control of AM formation during both the vegetative and the reproductive phase in snapdragon. A phylogenetic analysis combined with an analysis of the synteny of Ls in several species strongly supported the hypothesis that ERA is a phylogenetic orthologue of Ls, although it plays a broader role. During the reproductive phase ERA promotes the establishment of the stem niche at the bract axis but, after the reproductive transition, it is antagonized by the MADS box transcription factor SQUAMOSA (SQUA). Surprisingly double mutant era squa plants display a squa phenotype developing axillary meristems, which can eventually turn into inflorescences or flowers. PMID:28145519

  11. Scattering Function for Branched Wormlike Chains.

    PubMed

    Vogtt, Karsten; Beaucage, Gregory; Weaver, Michael; Jiang, Hanqiu

    2015-08-04

    Wormlike or threadlike structures with local cylindrical geometry are abundantly found in nature and technical products. A thorough structural characterization in the bulk for a whole ensemble, however, is difficult. The inherent semiordered nature of the tortuous large-scale structure and especially the quantification of branching renders an assessment difficult. In the present work we introduce a hybrid function expressing the scattering intensities for X-rays, neutrons, or light in the small-angle regime for this system. The function is termed "hybrid" because it employs terms from different approaches. The large-scale structure is described via a Guinier term as well as a concomitant power-law expression in momentum transfer q taken from the so-called unified function. The local cylindrical shape, however, is taken into account through a form factor for cylinders from rigid-body modeling. In principle, the latter form factor can be replaced by an expression for any other regular body so that the new hybrid function is a versatile tool for studying hierarchical structures assembled from uniform subunits. The appropriateness and capability of the new function for cylindrical structures is exemplified using the example of a wormlike micellar system.

  12. Artificial Intelligence Research Branch future plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Helen (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    This report contains information on the activities of the Artificial Intelligence Research Branch (FIA) at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) in 1992, as well as planned work in 1993. These activities span a range from basic scientific research through engineering development to fielded NASA applications, particularly those applications that are enabled by basic research carried out in FIA. Work is conducted in-house and through collaborative partners in academia and industry. All of our work has research themes with a dual commitment to technical excellence and applicability to NASA short, medium, and long-term problems. FIA acts as the Agency's lead organization for research aspects of artificial intelligence, working closely with a second research laboratory at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and AI applications groups throughout all NASA centers. This report is organized along three major research themes: (1) Planning and Scheduling: deciding on a sequence of actions to achieve a set of complex goals and determining when to execute those actions and how to allocate resources to carry them out; (2) Machine Learning: techniques for forming theories about natural and man-made phenomena; and for improving the problem-solving performance of computational systems over time; and (3) Research on the acquisition, representation, and utilization of knowledge in support of diagnosis design of engineered systems and analysis of actual systems.

  13. Radiolabeled dimethyl branched long chain fatty acid for heart imaging

    DOEpatents

    Knapp, Jr., Furn F.; Goodman, Mark M.; Kirsch, Gilbert

    1988-08-16

    A radiolabeled long chain fatty acid for heart imaging that has dimethyl branching at one of the carbons of the chain which inhibits the extent to which oxidation can occur. The closer to the carboxyl the branching is positioned, the more limited the oxidation, thereby resulting in prolonged retention of the radiolabeled compound in the heart.

  14. 47 CFR 32.6341 - Large private branch exchange expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... branch exchanges. Expenses associated with company internal use communication equipment shall be recorded... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Large private branch exchange expense. 32.6341 Section 32.6341 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER...

  15. 47 CFR 32.6341 - Large private branch exchange expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... branch exchanges. Expenses associated with company internal use communication equipment shall be recorded... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Large private branch exchange expense. 32.6341 Section 32.6341 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER...

  16. 47 CFR 32.6341 - Large private branch exchange expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... branch exchanges. Expenses associated with company internal use communication equipment shall be recorded... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Large private branch exchange expense. 32.6341 Section 32.6341 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER...

  17. 47 CFR 32.6341 - Large private branch exchange expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... branch exchanges. Expenses associated with company internal use communication equipment shall be recorded... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Large private branch exchange expense. 32.6341 Section 32.6341 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER...

  18. 47 CFR 32.6341 - Large private branch exchange expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... branch exchanges. Expenses associated with company internal use communication equipment shall be recorded... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Large private branch exchange expense. 32.6341 Section 32.6341 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER...

  19. 26 CFR 1.884-1 - Branch profits tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Branch profits tax. 1.884-1 Section 1.884-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Foreign Corporations § 1.884-1 Branch profits tax. (a) General rule. A foreign corporation shall be liable for a...

  20. Branched nanostructures and method of synthesizing the same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fonseca, Luis F. (Inventor); Resto, Oscar (Inventor); Sola, Francisco (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A branched nanostructure is synthesized. A porous material, with pores having a diameter of approximately 1 .mu.m or less, is placed in a vacuum. It is irradiated with an electron beam. This causes a trunk to grow from the porous material and further causes branches to grow from the trunk.

  1. Stochastic and deterministic causes of streamer branching in liquid dielectrics

    SciTech Connect

    Jadidian, Jouya; Zahn, Markus; Lavesson, Nils; Widlund, Ola; Borg, Karl

    2013-08-14

    Streamer branching in liquid dielectrics is driven by stochastic and deterministic factors. The presence of stochastic causes of streamer branching such as inhomogeneities inherited from noisy initial states, impurities, or charge carrier density fluctuations is inevitable in any dielectric. A fully three-dimensional streamer model presented in this paper indicates that deterministic origins of branching are intrinsic attributes of streamers, which in some cases make the branching inevitable depending on shape and velocity of the volume charge at the streamer frontier. Specifically, any given inhomogeneous perturbation can result in streamer branching if the volume charge layer at the original streamer head is relatively thin and slow enough. Furthermore, discrete nature of electrons at the leading edge of an ionization front always guarantees the existence of a non-zero inhomogeneous perturbation ahead of the streamer head propagating even in perfectly homogeneous dielectric. Based on the modeling results for streamers propagating in a liquid dielectric, a gauge on the streamer head geometry is introduced that determines whether the branching occurs under particular inhomogeneous circumstances. Estimated number, diameter, and velocity of the born branches agree qualitatively with experimental images of the streamer branching.

  2. Connecting to Community: Best Practices for Designing a Digital Branch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Nora J.; Pampaloni, Andrea M.

    2014-01-01

    In this article the authors provide an overview of the concept of a digital branch library and the manner in which it can be used to enhance academic library community engagement. As the front door to the branch, the library's Website is key to going beyond service provision toward sustaining relationships with faculty, students, staff, and…

  3. The International Branch Campus as Transnational Strategy in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Stephen; Huisman, Jeroen

    2012-01-01

    The international branch campus is a phenomenon on the rise, but we still have limited knowledge of the strategic choices underlying the start of these ventures. The objective of this paper is to shed light on the motivations and decisions of universities to engage (or not) with the establishment of international branch campuses. As a point of…

  4. Branched-linear polyion complexes at variable charge densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelescu, Daniel G.; Linse, Per

    2015-08-01

    Structural behavior of complexes formed by a charged and branched copolymer and an oppositely charged and linear polyion was examined by Monte Carlo simulations employing a coarse-grained bead-spring model. The fractional bead charge and the branching density were systematically varied; the former between 0e and 1e and the latter such that both the comb-polymer and the bottle-brush limits were included. The number of beads of the main chain of the branched copolymer and of the linear polyion was always kept constant and equal, and a single side-chain length was used. Our analysis involved characterization of the complex as well as investigation of size, shape, and flexibility of the charged moieties. An interplay between Coulomb interaction and side-chain repulsion governed the structure of the polyion complex. At strong Coulomb interaction, the complexes underwent a gradual transition from a globular structure at low branching density to an extended one at high branching density. As the electrostatic coupling was decreased, the transition was smoothened and shifted to lower branching density, and, eventually, a behavior similar to that found for neutral branched polymer was observed. Structural analogies and dissimilarities with uncharged branched polymers in poor solutions are discussed.

  5. 33 CFR 117.927 - Coosaw River (Whale Branch).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coosaw River (Whale Branch). 117.927 Section 117.927 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... (Whale Branch). The draw of the Seaboard System Railroad bridge, mile 5.3 at Seabrook, and the draw...

  6. 33 CFR 117.927 - Coosaw River (Whale Branch).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coosaw River (Whale Branch). 117.927 Section 117.927 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... (Whale Branch). The draw of the Seaboard System Railroad bridge, mile 5.3 at Seabrook, and the draw...

  7. 33 CFR 117.927 - Coosaw River (Whale Branch).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coosaw River (Whale Branch). 117.927 Section 117.927 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... (Whale Branch). The draw of the Seaboard System Railroad bridge, mile 5.3 at Seabrook, and the draw...

  8. 33 CFR 117.927 - Coosaw River (Whale Branch).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coosaw River (Whale Branch). 117.927 Section 117.927 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... (Whale Branch). The draw of the Seaboard System Railroad bridge, mile 5.3 at Seabrook, and the draw...

  9. Kinetics of formation and mean shape of branched polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandrowicz, Z.

    1985-04-01

    Branched polymers, the formation of which is controlled by a finite monomer supply or by termination, are studied with a Monte Carlo simulation. The radius-mass dependence of the two models (in dimension from 2 to 8) is unequal, showing that branched polymers in toto cannot be identified with ``animals.'' Study of the growth of mass with time helps to interpret the result.

  10. 26 CFR 1.884-1 - Branch profits tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Branch profits tax. 1.884-1 Section 1.884-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Foreign Corporations § 1.884-1 Branch profits tax. (a) General rule. A foreign corporation shall be liable for a...

  11. Branch Campus Leadership: Like Running a Three-Ring Circus?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillie Gossom, J.; Deckert Pelton, M.

    2011-01-01

    Members of National Association of Branch Campus Administrators (NABCA) have spent three years crafting a survey instrument for assessing the leadership abilities and skills of branch administrators. In pursuit of the goal to investigate four leadership dimensions: diagnosing, implementing, visioning, and entrepreneurial, a pilot survey was…

  12. Critical Branches and Lucky Loads in Control-Independence Architectures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malik, Kshitiz

    2009-01-01

    Branch mispredicts have a first-order impact on the performance of integer applications. Control Independence (CI) architectures aim to overlap the penalties of mispredicted branches with useful execution by spawning control-independent work as separate threads. Although control independent, such threads may consume register and memory values…

  13. 47 CFR 32.2341 - Large private branch exchanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... cost of installation, of multiple manual private branch exchanges and of dial system private branch... Account 2311, Station Apparatus.) (b) The cost of intrabuilding network cables including their associated..., Intrabuilding Network Cable. (c) The cost of outside plant, whether or not on private property, used...

  14. 47 CFR 32.2341 - Large private branch exchanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... cost of installation, of multiple manual private branch exchanges and of dial system private branch... Account 2311, Station Apparatus.) (b) The cost of intrabuilding network cables including their associated..., Intrabuilding Network Cable. (c) The cost of outside plant, whether or not on private property, used...

  15. 47 CFR 32.2341 - Large private branch exchanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... cost of installation, of multiple manual private branch exchanges and of dial system private branch... Account 2311, Station Apparatus.) (b) The cost of intrabuilding network cables including their associated..., Intrabuilding Network Cable. (c) The cost of outside plant, whether or not on private property, used...

  16. 47 CFR 32.2341 - Large private branch exchanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... cost of installation, of multiple manual private branch exchanges and of dial system private branch... Account 2311, Station Apparatus.) (b) The cost of intrabuilding network cables including their associated..., Intrabuilding Network Cable. (c) The cost of outside plant, whether or not on private property, used...

  17. 47 CFR 32.2341 - Large private branch exchanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... cost of installation, of multiple manual private branch exchanges and of dial system private branch... Account 2311, Station Apparatus.) (b) The cost of intrabuilding network cables including their associated..., Intrabuilding Network Cable. (c) The cost of outside plant, whether or not on private property, used...

  18. 26 CFR 1.884-1 - Branch profits tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Branch profits tax. 1.884-1 Section 1.884-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Foreign Corporations § 1.884-1 Branch profits tax. (a) General rule. A foreign corporation shall be liable for a...

  19. 26 CFR 1.884-1 - Branch profits tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Branch profits tax. 1.884-1 Section 1.884-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Foreign Corporations § 1.884-1 Branch profits tax. (a) General rule. A foreign corporation shall be liable for a...

  20. 49 CFR 192.155 - Welded branch connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Welded branch connections. 192.155 Section 192.155... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS... connections. Each welded branch connection made to pipe in the form of a single connection, or in a header...

  1. Why Students Choose the Branch Campus of a Large University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoyt, Jeff; Howell, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Fonseca and Bird (2007) ask an intriguing question that relates to university branch campuses: "What happened to all the people who thought online learning would drive traditional education out of the market? Just when "click" is supposed to be replacing "brick," branch campuses are proliferating around the country."…

  2. Mechanical Systems Technology Branch research summary, 1985 - 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krantz, Timothy L. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    A collection of significant accomplishments from the research of the Mechanical Systems Technology Branch at the NASA Lewis Research Center completed during the years 1985-1992 is included. The publication highlights and accomplishments made in bearing and gearing technology through in-house research, university grants, and industry contracted projects. The publication also includes a complete listing of branch publications for these years.

  3. 40 CFR 721.10217 - Branched and linear alcohols (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Branched and linear alcohols (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10217 Branched and linear alcohols (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... linear alcohols (PMN P-09-426) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10217 - Branched and linear alcohols (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Branched and linear alcohols (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10217 Branched and linear alcohols (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... linear alcohols (PMN P-09-426) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10217 - Branched and linear alcohols (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Branched and linear alcohols (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10217 Branched and linear alcohols (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... linear alcohols (PMN P-09-426) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10217 - Branched and linear alcohols (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Branched and linear alcohols (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10217 Branched and linear alcohols (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... linear alcohols (PMN P-09-426) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  7. Distribution of glucan-branching enzymes among prokaryotes.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Eiji; Suzuki, Ryuichiro

    2016-07-01

    Glucan-branching enzyme plays an essential role in the formation of branched polysaccharides, glycogen, and amylopectin. Only one type of branching enzyme, belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 13 (GH13), is found in eukaryotes, while two types of branching enzymes (GH13 and GH57) occur in prokaryotes (Bacteria and Archaea). Both of these types are the members of protein families containing the diverse specificities of amylolytic glycoside hydrolases. Although similarities are found in the catalytic mechanism between the two types of branching enzyme, they are highly distinct from each other in terms of amino acid sequence and tertiary structure. Branching enzymes are found in 29 out of 30 bacterial phyla and 1 out of 5 archaeal phyla, often along with glycogen synthase, suggesting the existence of α-glucan production and storage in a wide range of prokaryotes. Enormous variability is observed as to which type and how many copies of branching enzyme are present depending on the phylum and, in some cases, even among species of the same genus. Such a variation may have occurred through lateral transfer, duplication, and/or differential loss of genes coding for branching enzyme during the evolution of prokaryotes.

  8. Acoustic Resonance in Cylindrical Tubes with Side Branches

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-01

    branches and tubes that change diameter. 4. Musical Instrument Design A flute is essentially a hollow tube with a way at one end to modulate the...an integer (1,2,3,…). 12 Figure 5. Tube with no holes. The addition of a side branch effectively changes the length of the tube, so in a flute

  9. Morphometric studies of the muscular branch of the median nerve.

    PubMed Central

    Olave, E; Prates, J C; Gabrielli, C; Pardi, P

    1996-01-01

    The branch from the median nerve to the thenar muscles has a proximal and lateral (recurrent) course and is vulnerable to lesions that affect these muscles. Because of its anatomical-clinical importance, this branch was studied in 60 palmar regions from 30 cadavers of adult individuals of both sexes, aged between 23 and 77 y. It arose from the lateral branch of the median nerve in 83.3% of the cases. Its origin was distal to the flexor retinaculum in 48.3%, at the distal margin of the retinaculum in 31.6%, in the carpal tunnel in 18.3% and proximal to the retinaculum in 1.7%; it pierced the retinaculum in 15%. The point of recurrence of the branch was localised topographically to 34.6 +/- 3.6 mm from the distal wrist crease; the angle between its recurrent course and the longitudinal axis of the hand averaged 66.8 degrees. In 50% of the cases the muscular branch innervated abductor pollicis brevis (APB), opponens pollicis (OP) and the superficial head of flexor pollicis brevis (FPB), in 40% it supplied only APB and OP, and in 10% a short muscular branch gave rise to independent branches in the palm and which supplied APB, OP and the superficial head of FPB. The so called "accessory thenar branch' was found in 38.3%. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:8886966

  10. American Counseling Association Branch Journals: Viable, Scholarly Means for Publishing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGowan, A. Scott

    1994-01-01

    Outlines the efficacy of publishing research, theoretically based articles, and in-the-field articles in refereed, professional branch journals of American Counseling Association (ACA). Addresses means and ways of writing successfully for publication. Presents ACA branch journals as alternative means for publishing and to encourage professional…

  11. Sequencing and Branching: Implications for Theory and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKay, Carol Hanbery

    The theory behind curriculum branching (course options extending from the core curriculum) shows how such extensions can aid the writing curriculum by fruitfully integrating branching into the sequencing of writing courses. The theory first reminds educators of the complex mix of developmental factors and individual differences--of step-by-step…

  12. Comparison of Computer-Simulated Conventional and Branching Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Carrie W.

    As part of a continuing research program to improve screening of enlisted men, this study was undertaken to compare a variety of computer-simulated conventional and branching tests and to extend the theoretical analysis of branching techniques. The degree of coordination between test scores and underlying ability is used to compare conventional…

  13. Effect of levan's branching structure on antitumor activity.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Eun Ju; Yoo, Sang-Ho; Cha, Jaeho; Gyu Lee, Hyeon

    2004-06-01

    Levan produced from Microbacterium laevaniformans KCTC 9732 (M-levan) was isolated and treated with an inulinase to modify its branching structure. The chemical structures of levans were characterized, and the modified levans were applied on animal tumor cells to evaluate their antitumor activity. The GC-MS analysis indicated that beta-(2,1)-linked branches of M-levan were specifically hydrolyzed. As the ratio of applied inulinase to levan increased, the branching degree decreased proportionally. Sequential degrees of branching were obtained from 12.3 to 4.2%. Strong levan-induced inhibition of cell growth was detected on SNU-1 and HepG2 tumor cell lines. As the branching degree of M-levan reduced, antitumor activity on SNU-1 linearly decreased (r2=0.96). In HepG2, the antitumor activity rapidly dropped when the branching reached up to 9.3%, then slightly increased as the branching degree of M-levan further decreased. These results suggested that the branch structure would play a crucial role in levan's antitumor activity.

  14. AmeriFlux US-WBW Walker Branch Watershed

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, Tilden

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-WBW Walker Branch Watershed. Site Description - The stand is over 50 years old, having regenerated from agricultural land.This site is located near Oak Ridge, Tennessee near the Walker Branch Watershed.

  15. Preventing Death and Serious Injury from Falling Trees and Branches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookes, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    Of 128 outdoor education related deaths examined since 1960, 14 have been due to falling trees or branches. This article examines the grounds on which death or serious injury due to falling trees or branches can be regarded as an inherent risk in outdoor education, and the extent to which such incidents can be regarded as preventable. It compares…

  16. 33 CFR 117.927 - Coosaw River (Whale Branch).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coosaw River (Whale Branch). 117.927 Section 117.927 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... (Whale Branch). The draw of the Seaboard System Railroad bridge, mile 5.3 at Seabrook, and the draw...

  17. FY 1992 Measurements and Characterization Branch annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Dippo, P.C

    1993-03-01

    The Measurements and Characterization Branch actively supports the advancement of DOE/NREL goals for the development and implementation of the solar photovoltaic (PV) technology. The primary focus of the laboratories is to provide state-of-the-art analytical capabilities for materials and device characterization and fabrication. The branch houses a comprehensive facility that Is capable of providing information on the full range of PV components. A major objective of the branch is to aggressively pursue collaborative research with other government laboratories, universities, and industrial firms for the advancement of Pv technologies. Members of the branch disseminate research findings to the technical community in publications and presentations. The Measurements and Characterization Branch encompasses seven coordinated research groups, providing integrated research and development that covers all aspects of photovoltaic materials/devices characterization.

  18. Branched terthiophenes in organic electronics: from small molecules to polymers.

    PubMed

    Scheuble, Martin; Goll, Miriam; Ludwigs, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    A zoo of chemical structures is accessible when the branched unit 2,2':3',2″-terthiophene (3T) is included both in structurally well-defined small molecules and polymer-like architectures. The first part of this review article highlights literature on all-thiophene based branched oligomers including dendrimers as well as combinations of 3T-units with functional moieties for light-harvesting systems. Motivated by the perfectly branched macromolecular dendrimers both electropolymerization as well as chemical approaches are presented as methods for the preparation of branched polythiophenes with different branching densities. Structure-function relationships between the molecular architecture and optical and electronic properties are discussed throughout the article.

  19. Identifying Branched Metabolic Pathways by Merging Linear Metabolic Pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heath, Allison P.; Bennett, George N.; Kavraki, Lydia E.

    This paper presents a graph-based algorithm for identifying complex metabolic pathways in multi-genome scale metabolic data. These complex pathways are called branched pathways because they can arrive at a target compound through combinations of pathways that split compounds into smaller ones, work in parallel with many compounds, and join compounds into larger ones. While most previous work has focused on identifying linear metabolic pathways, branched metabolic pathways predominate in metabolic networks. Automatic identification of branched pathways has a number of important applications in areas that require deeper understanding of metabolism, such as metabolic engineering and drug target identification. Our algorithm utilizes explicit atom tracking to identify linear metabolic pathways and then merges them together into branched metabolic pathways. We provide results on two well-characterized metabolic pathways that demonstrate that this new merging approach can efficiently find biologically relevant branched metabolic pathways with complex structures.

  20. Water resources of Branch County, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Giroux, P.R.; Stoimenoff, L.E.; Nowlin, J.O.; Skinner, E.L.

    1966-01-01

    Branch County has abundant water resources throughout most of its area. Almost all the water used is supplied by wells that obtain water from glacial drift deposits and locally from fractures and sandy beds in the Coldwater Shale. Glacial drift in buried bedrock valleys may yield large quantities of water to wells. Well yields are generally adequate for domestic and farm supplies. Properly developed large-diameter wells tapping thick beds of sand and gravel of the glacial drift can yield up to several thousands of gallons per minute locally. The hundreds of lakes and the many perennial streams have great recreational value. They are also a large potential source of water for some supplies. For example, it is estimated that 88 billion gallons of water runs off in streams of the county in an average year, and the lakes o the county hold about 42billion gallons of water in storage.Problems of water supply to wells exist locally in some moraine and till areas of where the glacial drift is thin and the underlying bedrock yields only small quantities of water or none at all.Ground water is generally hard to very hard and often contains excessive iron. Salty water is mainly a problem in areas where bedrock is the chief source.Floods are not a serious problem largely because of the storage capacity of the lakes and the permeable materials in some stream basins. Based on measurements at eight stream sites the estimated amount of flow for 90 percent of the time ranges from 80,000 to 150,000 gallons per day per square mile of drainage area.A special study of low levels in land-locked Gilead Lake indicated that this lake is semiperched and mostly dependent upon the water table for tits levels.

  1. Flight Planning Branch Space Shuttle Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, Jennifer B.; Scott, Tracy A.; Hyde, Crystal M.

    2011-01-01

    Planning products and procedures that allow the mission flight control teams and the astronaut crews to plan, train and fly every Space Shuttle mission have been developed by the Flight Planning Branch at the NASA Johnson Space Center. As the Space Shuttle Program ends, lessons learned have been collected from each phase of the successful execution of these Shuttle missions. Specific examples of how roles and responsibilities of console positions that develop the crew and vehicle attitude timelines will be discussed, as well as techniques and methods used to solve complex spacecraft and instrument orientation problems. Additionally, the relationships and procedural hurdles experienced through international collaboration have molded operations. These facets will be explored and related to current and future operations with the International Space Station and future vehicles. Along with these important aspects, the evolution of technology and continual improvement of data transfer tools between the shuttle and ground team has also defined specific lessons used in the improving the control teams effectiveness. Methodologies to communicate and transmit messages, images, and files from Mission Control to the Orbiter evolved over several years. These lessons have been vital in shaping the effectiveness of safe and successful mission planning that have been applied to current mission planning work in addition to being incorporated into future space flight planning. The critical lessons from all aspects of previous plan, train, and fly phases of shuttle flight missions are not only documented in this paper, but are also discussed as how they pertain to changes in process and consideration for future space flight planning.

  2. Significance of branching for transfection: synthesis of highly branched degradable functional poly(dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) by vinyl oligomer combination.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Tianyu; Zhang, Hong; Newland, Ben; Aied, Ahmed; Zhou, Dezhong; Wang, Wenxin

    2014-06-10

    A series of degradable branched PDMAEMA copolymers were investigated with the linear PDMAEMA counterpart as gene-delivery vectors. The branched PDMAEMA copolymers were synthesized by controlled radical cross-linking copolymerization based on the "vinyl oligomer combination" approach. Efficient degradation properties were observed for all of the copolymers. The degree of branching was found to have a big impact on performance in transfection when tested on different cell types. The product with the highest degree of branching and highest degree of functionality had a superior transfection profile in terms of both transfection capability and the preservation of cell viability. These branched PDMAEMA copolymers show high potential for gene-delivery applications through a combination of the simplicity of their synthesis, their low toxicity, and their high performance.

  3. The effect of thermal pressurization on dynamic fault branching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urata, Yumi; Hok, Sébastien; Fukuyama, Eiichi; Madariaga, Raúl

    2014-02-01

    We numerically investigate the effect of thermal pressurization (TP) on fault branch behaviour during dynamic rupture propagation, a situation likely to occur during large earthquakes at subduction interfaces. We consider a 2-D mode II (in-plane) rupture in an infinite medium that propagates spontaneously along a planar main fault and encounters an intersection with a pre-existing branching fault. The fault system is subjected to uniform external stresses. We adopt the values used by Kame et al. We use the 2-D boundary integral equation method and the slip-weakening friction law with a Coulomb failure criterion, allowing the effective normal stress to vary as pore pressure changes due to TP. We reveal that TP can alter rupture propagation paths when the dip angle of the main fault is small. The rupture propagation paths depend on the branching angle when TP is not in effect on either of the faults, as described by Kame et al. However, the dynamic rupture processes are controlled more by TP than by the branching angle. When TP is in effect on the main fault only, the rupture propagates along the main fault. It propagates along the branch when TP is in effect on both faults. Finally, we considered the case where there is a free surface above the branch fault system. In this case, the rupture can propagate along both faults because of interaction between the free surface and the branch fault, in addition to TP on the main fault.

  4. The Relationship between auxin transport and maize branching.

    PubMed

    Gallavotti, Andrea; Yang, Yan; Schmidt, Robert J; Jackson, David

    2008-08-01

    Maize (Zea mays) plants make different types of vegetative or reproductive branches during development. Branches develop from axillary meristems produced on the flanks of the vegetative or inflorescence shoot apical meristem. Among these branches are the spikelets, short grass-specific structures, produced by determinate axillary spikelet-pair and spikelet meristems. We investigated the mechanism of branching in maize by making transgenic plants expressing a native expressed endogenous auxin efflux transporter (ZmPIN1a) fused to yellow fluorescent protein and a synthetic auxin-responsive promoter (DR5rev) driving red fluorescent protein. By imaging these plants, we found that all maize branching events during vegetative and reproductive development appear to be regulated by the creation of auxin response maxima through the activity of polar auxin transporters. We also found that the auxin transporter ZmPIN1a is functional, as it can rescue the polar auxin transport defects of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) pin1-3 mutant. Based on this and on the groundbreaking analysis in Arabidopsis and other species, we conclude that branching mechanisms are conserved and can, in addition, explain the formation of axillary meristems (spikelet-pair and spikelet meristems) that are unique to grasses. We also found that BARREN STALK1 is required for the creation of auxin response maxima at the flanks of the inflorescence meristem, suggesting a role in the initiation of polar auxin transport for axillary meristem formation. Based on our results, we propose a general model for branching during maize inflorescence development.

  5. Astrocyte-derived phosphatidic acid promotes dendritic branching.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yan-Bing; Gao, Weizhen; Zhang, Yongbo; Jia, Feng; Zhang, Hai-Long; Liu, Ying-Zi; Sun, Xue-Fang; Yin, Yuhua; Yin, Dong-Min

    2016-02-17

    Astrocytes play critical roles in neural circuit formation and function. Recent studies have revealed several secreted and contact-mediated signals from astrocytes which are essential for neurite outgrowth and synapse formation. However, the mechanisms underlying the regulation of dendritic branching by astrocytes remain elusive. Phospholipase D1 (PLD1), which catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine (PC) to generate phosphatidic acid (PA) and choline, has been implicated in the regulation of neurite outgrowth. Here we showed that knockdown of PLD1 selectively in astrocytes reduced dendritic branching of neurons in neuron-glia mixed culture. Further studies from sandwich-like cocultures and astrocyte conditioned medium suggested that astrocyte PLD1 regulated dendritic branching through secreted signals. We later demonstrated that PA was the key mediator for astrocyte PLD1 to regulate dendritic branching. Moreover, PA itself was sufficient to promote dendritic branching of neurons. Lastly, we showed that PA could activate protein kinase A (PKA) in neurons and promote dendritic branching through PKA signaling. Taken together, our results demonstrate that astrocyte PLD1 and its lipid product PA are essential regulators of dendritic branching in neurons. These results may provide new insight into mechanisms underlying how astrocytes regulate dendrite growth of neurons.

  6. Eight prehilar branches of the right renal artery

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Surekha D.; Ravindra, Swamy; Sirasanagandla, Srinivasa Rao; Aithal, Ashwini P.; Patil, Jyothsna; Kumar, Naveen

    2014-01-01

    Imaging technology with its advancement in the field of urology is the boon for the patients who require minimally invasive approaches for various kidney disorders. These approaches require a precise knowledge of the normal and variant anatomy of vessels at the hilum of the kidney. During routine dissections, a variation in the branching pattern of the right renal artery was noted in an adult male cadaver. The right renal artery divided into upper and lower divisions 6cm away from the hilum of the kidney. The upper division gave 4 branches, and the lower division gave two branches. These two branches further bifurcated and gave 2 branches each. Thus, there were 8 prehilar branches of renal artery. The multiple prehilar branches led to a congested atmosphere at the hilum of the kidney. This arterial congestion might result in hindering the blood flow at the renal hilum. Apart from this, it might cause difficulties in diagnostic and therapeutic invasive procedures. Knowledge of this variation is of importance to radiologists and urologists in particular. PMID:25276483

  7. Structural requirements of strigolactones for hyphal branching in AM fungi.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Kohki; Ogasawara, Shin; Ito, Seisuke; Hayashi, Hideo

    2010-07-01

    Strigolactones are a group of terpenoid lactones that act as a host-derived signal in the rhizosphere communication of plants with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and root parasitic weeds as well as an endogenous plant hormone regulating shoot branching in plants. Strigolactones induce hyphal branching in AM fungi at very low concentrations, suggesting a highly sensitive perception system for strigolactones present in AM fungi. However, little is known about the structural requirements of strigolactones for hyphal branching in AM fungi. Here, we tested a series of natural and synthetically modified strigolactones as well as non-strigolactone-type germination stimulants for hyphal branching-inducing activity in germinating spores of the AM fungus Gigaspora margarita. All tested compounds with a tricyclic lactone coupled to a methylbutenolide via an enol ether bond showed activity, but differed in the active concentration and in the branching pattern of hyphae. Truncation of the A- and AB-rings in the tricyclic ABC lactone of strigolactones resulted in a drastic reduction in hyphal branching activity. Although the connection of the C-ring in the tricyclic lactone to the methylbutenolide D-ring was shown to be essential for hyphal branching, the bridge structure in the C-D part was found not necessarily to be enol ether, being replaceable with either alkoxy or imino ethers. These structural requirements in AM fungi are very similar but not identical to those observed in root parasitic weeds, especially with respect to the enol ether bridge in the C-D part.

  8. An algorithm for efficient identification of branched metabolic pathways.

    PubMed

    Heath, Allison P; Bennett, George N; Kavraki, Lydia E

    2011-11-01

    This article presents a new graph-based algorithm for identifying branched metabolic pathways in multi-genome scale metabolic data. The term branched is used to refer to metabolic pathways between compounds that consist of multiple pathways that interact biochemically. A branched pathway may produce a target compound through a combination of linear pathways that split compounds into smaller ones, work in parallel with many compounds, and join compounds into larger ones. While branched metabolic pathways predominate in metabolic networks, most previous work has focused on identifying linear metabolic pathways. The ability to automatically identify branched pathways is important in applications that require a deeper understanding of metabolism, such as metabolic engineering and drug target identification. The algorithm presented in this article utilizes explicit atom tracking to identify linear metabolic pathways and then merges them together into branched metabolic pathways. We provide results on several well-characterized metabolic pathways that demonstrate that the new merging approach can efficiently find biologically relevant branched metabolic pathways.

  9. Characterization of the branching patterns of glycogen branching enzyme truncated on the N-terminus.

    PubMed

    Devillers, Claire H; Piper, Mary E; Ballicora, Miguel A; Preiss, Jack

    2003-10-01

    Truncation of 112 amino acids at the N-terminus (Nd(1-112)) changes the chain transfer pattern of the Escherichia coli glycogen branching enzyme (GBE) [Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 397 (2002) 279]. We investigated further the role of the N-terminus by engineering other truncated GBEs and analyzing the branching pattern by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography. The wild type GBE transfers mainly chains with a degree of polymerization (d.p.) of 8-14, the Nd(1-112) enzyme transfers a greater proportion of chains with higher d.p. 15-20, whereas the 63- and 83-amino acid deleted enzymes had an intermediate pattern of transferred chains (d.p. 10-20). These data showed that a progressive shortening of the N-terminus leads to a gradual increase in the length of the transferred chains, suggesting that the N-terminus provides a support for the glucan substrate during the processes of cleavage and transfer of the alpha-(1-4) glucan chains.

  10. Phenomenological picture of fluctuations in branching random walks.

    PubMed

    Mueller, A H; Munier, S

    2014-10-01

    We propose a picture of the fluctuations in branching random walks, which leads to predictions for the distribution of a random variable that characterizes the position of the bulk of the particles. We also interpret the 1/sqrt[t] correction to the average position of the rightmost particle of a branching random walk for large times t≫1, computed by Ebert and Van Saarloos, as fluctuations on top of the mean-field approximation of this process with a Brunet-Derrida cutoff at the tip that simulates discreteness. Our analytical formulas successfully compare to numerical simulations of a particular model of a branching random walk.

  11. Phenomenological picture of fluctuations in branching random walks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, A. H.; Munier, S.

    2014-10-01

    We propose a picture of the fluctuations in branching random walks, which leads to predictions for the distribution of a random variable that characterizes the position of the bulk of the particles. We also interpret the 1 /√{t } correction to the average position of the rightmost particle of a branching random walk for large times t ≫1 , computed by Ebert and Van Saarloos, as fluctuations on top of the mean-field approximation of this process with a Brunet-Derrida cutoff at the tip that simulates discreteness. Our analytical formulas successfully compare to numerical simulations of a particular model of a branching random walk.

  12. LETTER TO THE EDITOR: Quantum field theory and phylogenetic branching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarvis, P. D.; Bashford, J. D.

    2001-12-01

    A calculational framework is proposed for phylogenetics, using nonlocal quantum field theories in hypercubic geometry. Quadratic terms in the Hamiltonian give the underlying Markov dynamics, while higher degree terms represent branching events. The spatial dimension L is the number of leaves of the evolutionary tree under consideration. Momentum conservation modulo ←1 scattering corresponds to tree edge labelling using binary L-vectors. The bilocal quadratic term allows for momentum-dependent rate constants - only the tree or trees compatible with selected nonzero edge rates contribute to the branching probability distribution. Applications to models of evolutionary branching processes are discussed.

  13. Branch and Bound Methods for the Traveling Salesman Problem.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-03-01

    42 318 BRANCH AND ROUND METHODS FOR THE TRAVELING SALESMAN I PRO EM U) CARNEGIE-MELLON UNIV PITSBURGH PA MANAGEMENT SCIENCES RESEARCH GROUP E RU AS...fl 2.2 1 1 6 5 4 .6 MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TEST CHART NATIONAL BUREAU Of SIANARDS ) Qh A i . ’i ’V aBRANCH AND BOUND METHODS FOR THE TRAVELING ...06 20 126 a 77 W.P.#45-82-83 Management Science Research Report No. MSRR 488 BRANCH AND BOUND METHODS FOR THE TRAVELING SALESMAN PROBLEM by Egon Balas

  14. Business Systems Branch Abilities, Capabilities, and Services Web Page

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cortes-Pena, Aida Yoguely

    2009-01-01

    During the INSPIRE summer internship I acted as the Business Systems Branch Capability Owner for the Kennedy Web-based Initiative for Communicating Capabilities System (KWICC), with the responsibility of creating a portal that describes the services provided by this Branch. This project will help others achieve a clear view ofthe services that the Business System Branch provides to NASA and the Kennedy Space Center. After collecting the data through the interviews with subject matter experts and the literature in Business World and other web sites I identified discrepancies, made the necessary corrections to the sites and placed the information from the report into the KWICC web page.

  15. Expression of Escherichia coli branching enzyme in caryopses of transgenic rice results in amylopectin with an increased degree of branching.

    PubMed

    Kim, Won-Seok; Kim, Jukon; Krishnan, Hari B; Nahm, Baek Hie

    2005-03-01

    Physiochemical properties of starch are dependent on several factors including the relative abundance of amylose and amylopectin, and the degree of branching of amylopectin. Utilizing Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, a construct containing the coding region of branching enzyme of Escherichia coli, under transcriptional control of the rice (Oryza sativa L.) starch-branching enzyme promoter was introduced into rice cv. Nakdong. To enhance glgB expression, the first intron of rice starch-branching enzyme and the matrix attachment region (MAR) sequence from chicken lysozyme were included in the expression vector. Eleven independent transgenic rice plants were generated. Southern blot analysis indicated that the copy number of glgB integrated into transgenic rice varied from one to five. High-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of starch from transgenic lines revealed that amylopectin from transgenic lines exhibited greater branching than that of non-transgenic rice. The A/B1 ratio in amylopectin increased from 1.3 to 2.3 and the total branching ratio, A+B1/B-rest, increased from 6 to 12 in transgenic rice. The observed increase in the short-chain fractions with a degree of polymerization between 6 and 10 is expected to have a significant effect on retrogradation. Our study demonstrates that amylopectin branching can be altered in vivo, thus changing the physicochemical properties of starch.

  16. One-pot inimer promoted ROCP synthesis of branched copolyesters using α-hydroxy-γ-butyrolactone as the branching reagent.

    PubMed

    Hua, Geng; Franzén, Johan; Odelius, Karin

    2016-07-01

    An array of branched poly(ɛ-caprolactone)s was successfully synthesized using an one-pot inimer promoted ring-opening multibranching copolymerization (ROCP) reaction. The biorenewable, commercially available yet unexploited comonomer and initiator 2-hydroxy-γ-butyrolactone was chosen as the inimer to extend the use of 5-membered lactones to branched structures and simultaneously avoiding the typical tedious work involved in the inimer preparation. Reactions were carried out both in bulk and in solution using stannous octoate (Sn(Oct)2) as the catalyst. Polymerizations with inimer equivalents varying from 0.01 to 0.2 were conducted which resulted in polymers with a degree of branching ranging from 0.049 to 0.124. Detailed ROCP kinetics of different inimer systems were compared to illustrate the branch formation mechanism. The resulting polymer structures were confirmed by (1)H, (13)C, and 1H-13C HSQC NMR and SEC (RI detector and triple detectors). The thermal properties of polymers with different degree of branching were investigated by DSC, confirming the branch formation. Through this work, we have extended the current use of the non-homopolymerizable γ-butyrolactone to the branched polymers and thoroughly examined its behaviors in ROCP. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Polym. Sci., Part A: Polym. Chem. 2016, 54, 1908-1918.

  17. S316, GUARD TOWER INTERIOR. Naval Magazine Lualualei, Headquarters Branch, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    S316, GUARD TOWER INTERIOR. - Naval Magazine Lualualei, Headquarters Branch, Guard-Watch Tower Type, Off Dent Road & on Kolekole Road near north boundary of installation, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  18. Developmental morphology of branching flowers in Nymphaea prolifera.

    PubMed

    Grob, Valentin; Moline, Philip; Pfeifer, Evelin; Novelo, Alejandro R; Rutishauser, Rolf

    2006-11-01

    Nymphaea and Nuphar (Nymphaeaceae) share an extra-axillary mode of floral inception in the shoot apical meristem (SAM). Some leaf sites along the ontogenetic spiral are occupied by floral primordia lacking a subtending bract. This pattern of flower initiation in leaf sites is repeated inside branching flowers of Nymphaea prolifera (Central and South America). Instead of fertile flowers this species usually produces sterile tuberiferous flowers that act as vegetative propagules. N. prolifera changes the meristem identity from reproductive to vegetative or vice versa repeatedly. Each branching flower first produces some perianth-like leaves, then it switches back to the vegetative meristem identity of the SAM with the formation of foliage leaves and another set of branching flowers. This process is repeated up to three times giving rise to more than 100 vegetative propagules. The developmental morphology of the branching flowers of N. prolifera is described using both microtome sections and scanning electron microscopy.

  19. "Yugoslavia" Branch of the International Astronomical Institute "Isaac Newton"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrijević, Milan S.; Popović, Luka Č.; Simić, Zoran; Jovanović, Predrag; Milovanović, Nenad; Bon, Edi

    2005-10-01

    Isaac Newton Institute of Chile in Eastern Europe and Eurasia and its president and founder Gonzalo Alcaino Barros have been presented as well as the foundation and activities of its "Yugoslavia" branch.

  20. Grass architecture: genetic and environmental control of branching.

    PubMed

    Doust, Andrew N

    2007-02-01

    Variation in grass architecture profoundly affects light capture, competition, and reproductive success, and is responsive to environmental factors such as crowding and nutrient limitation. Recent work in both model and crop systems has uncovered many aspects of the genetic control of branching, including conservation of the MONOCULM1 and MORE AXILLARY BRANCHING/DECREASED APICAL DOMINANCE/RAMOSUS (MAX/DAD/RMS) genetic pathways among the grasses and the model dicot systems of tomato, Arabidopsis, Petunia and pea. Parallel studies on the effect of environment on branching have also begun to uncover links between environmental sensing through phytochrome pathways, and resultant changes in TEOSINTE BRANCHED1 expression, and meristem inhibition. Future work promises to integrate knowledge of phenotypic responses to environment with our understanding of the genetic and hormonal changes that underlie phenotypic change.

  1. Finite-size scaling of survival probability in branching processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Millan, Rosalba; Font-Clos, Francesc; Corral, Álvaro

    2015-04-01

    Branching processes pervade many models in statistical physics. We investigate the survival probability of a Galton-Watson branching process after a finite number of generations. We derive analytically the existence of finite-size scaling for the survival probability as a function of the control parameter and the maximum number of generations, obtaining the critical exponents as well as the exact scaling function, which is G (y ) =2 y ey /(ey-1 ) , with y the rescaled distance to the critical point. Our findings are valid for any branching process of the Galton-Watson type, independently of the distribution of the number of offspring, provided its variance is finite. This proves the universal behavior of the finite-size effects in branching processes, including the universality of the metric factors. The direct relation to mean-field percolation is also discussed.

  2. A generalized optimization principle for asymmetric branching in fluidic networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephenson, David; Lockerby, Duncan A.

    2016-07-01

    When applied to a branching network, Murray's law states that the optimal branching of vascular networks is achieved when the cube of the parent channel radius is equal to the sum of the cubes of the daughter channel radii. It is considered integral to understanding biological networks and for the biomimetic design of artificial fluidic systems. However, despite its ubiquity, we demonstrate that Murray's law is only optimal (i.e. maximizes flow conductance per unit volume) for symmetric branching, where the local optimization of each individual channel corresponds to the global optimum of the network as a whole. In this paper, we present a generalized law that is valid for asymmetric branching, for any cross-sectional shape, and for a range of fluidic models. We verify our analytical solutions with the numerical optimization of a bifurcating fluidic network for the examples of laminar, turbulent and non-Newtonian fluid flows.

  3. 19. VIEW OF SOUTHERN BRANCH OF HIGHLINE CANAL, LOOKING NORTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. VIEW OF SOUTHERN BRANCH OF HIGHLINE CANAL, LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM 56TH STREET, August 1989 - Highline Canal & Pumping Station, South side of Salt River between Tempe, Phoenix & Mesa, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  4. 20. VIEW OF SOUTHERN BRANCH OF HIGHLINE CANAL, LOOKING SOUTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. VIEW OF SOUTHERN BRANCH OF HIGHLINE CANAL, LOOKING SOUTHEAST FROM 56TH STREET, August 1989 - Highline Canal & Pumping Station, South side of Salt River between Tempe, Phoenix & Mesa, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  5. 17. VIEW OF SOUTHERN BRANCH OF HIGHLINE CANAL, LOOKING SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. VIEW OF SOUTHERN BRANCH OF HIGHLINE CANAL, LOOKING SOUTH FROM GROVE PARKWAY, August 1989 - Highline Canal & Pumping Station, South side of Salt River between Tempe, Phoenix & Mesa, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  6. 18. VIEW OF SOUTHERN BRANCH OF HIGHLINE CANAL, LOOKING SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. VIEW OF SOUTHERN BRANCH OF HIGHLINE CANAL, LOOKING SOUTH TOWARD ELLIOT ROAD, August 1989 - Highline Canal & Pumping Station, South side of Salt River between Tempe, Phoenix & Mesa, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  7. 10 CFR 110.41 - Executive Branch review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... export involving assistance to end uses related to isotope separation, chemical reprocessing, heavy water... isotope uranium-235, and those categories of exports approved in advance by the Executive Branch...

  8. 2. PLANK COVERED BRANCH FLUME ON THE SOUTH FORK OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. PLANK COVERED BRANCH FLUME ON THE SOUTH FORK OF THE TULE RIVER MIDDLE FORK AND CONCRETE DIVERSION DAM SPILLING WATER. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Tule River Hydroelectric Project, Water Conveyance System, Middle Fork Tule River, Springville, Tulare County, CA

  9. 27. Yards north of Branch Avenue Bridge. Providence, Providence Co., ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. Yards north of Branch Avenue Bridge. Providence, Providence Co., RI. Sec. 4116, mp 186.25. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between CT & MA state lines, Providence, Providence County, RI

  10. 28. Yards north of Branch Avenue Bridge. Providence, Providence Co., ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Yards north of Branch Avenue Bridge. Providence, Providence Co., RI. Sec. 4116, mp 186.25. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between CT & MA state lines, Providence, Providence County, RI

  11. Atomic temporal interval relations in branching time: calculation and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anger, Frank D.; Ladkin, Peter B.; Rodriguez, Rita V.

    1991-03-01

    A practical method of reasoning about intervals in a branching-time model which is dense, unbounded, future-branching, without rejoining branches is presented. The discussion is based on heuristic constraint- propagation techniques using the relation algebra of binary temporal relations among the intervals over the branching-time model. This technique has been applied with success to models of intervals over linear time by Allen and others, and is of cubic-time complexity. To extend it to branding-time models, it is necessary to calculate compositions of the relations; thus, the table of compositions for the 'atomic' relations is computed, enabling the rapid determination of the composition of arbitrary relations, expressed as disjunctions or unions of the atomic relations.

  12. Branching Out in Roots: Uncovering Form, Function, and Regulation1

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, Jonathan A.; Rasmussen, Amanda; Traini, Richard; Voß, Ute; Sturrock, Craig; Mooney, Sacha J.; Wells, Darren M.; Bennett, Malcolm J.

    2014-01-01

    Root branching is critical for plants to secure anchorage and ensure the supply of water, minerals, and nutrients. To date, research on root branching has focused on lateral root development in young seedlings. However, many other programs of postembryonic root organogenesis exist in angiosperms. In cereal crops, the majority of the mature root system is composed of several classes of adventitious roots that include crown roots and brace roots. In this Update, we initially describe the diversity of postembryonic root forms. Next, we review recent advances in our understanding of the genes, signals, and mechanisms regulating lateral root and adventitious root branching in the plant models Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), maize (Zea mays), and rice (Oryza sativa). While many common signals, regulatory components, and mechanisms have been identified that control the initiation, morphogenesis, and emergence of new lateral and adventitious root organs, much more remains to be done. We conclude by discussing the challenges and opportunities facing root branching research. PMID:25136060

  13. A generalized optimization principle for asymmetric branching in fluidic networks

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, David

    2016-01-01

    When applied to a branching network, Murray’s law states that the optimal branching of vascular networks is achieved when the cube of the parent channel radius is equal to the sum of the cubes of the daughter channel radii. It is considered integral to understanding biological networks and for the biomimetic design of artificial fluidic systems. However, despite its ubiquity, we demonstrate that Murray’s law is only optimal (i.e. maximizes flow conductance per unit volume) for symmetric branching, where the local optimization of each individual channel corresponds to the global optimum of the network as a whole. In this paper, we present a generalized law that is valid for asymmetric branching, for any cross-sectional shape, and for a range of fluidic models. We verify our analytical solutions with the numerical optimization of a bifurcating fluidic network for the examples of laminar, turbulent and non-Newtonian fluid flows. PMID:27493583

  14. 18. SOUTH BRANCH, PRAIRIE CITY DITCH, RUNNING SOUTHWEST UNDER FENCE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. SOUTH BRANCH, PRAIRIE CITY DITCH, RUNNING SOUTHWEST UNDER FENCE, TOWARD US HWY. 50 IN DISTANCE. - Natomas Ditch System, Rhodes Ditch, West of Bidwell Street, north of U.S. Highway 50, Folsom, Sacramento County, CA

  15. Kodiak: An Implementation Framework for Branch and Bound Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Andrew P.; Munoz, Cesar A.; Narkawicz, Anthony J.; Markevicius, Mantas

    2015-01-01

    Recursive branch and bound algorithms are often used to refine and isolate solutions to several classes of global optimization problems. A rigorous computation framework for the solution of systems of equations and inequalities involving nonlinear real arithmetic over hyper-rectangular variable and parameter domains is presented. It is derived from a generic branch and bound algorithm that has been formally verified, and utilizes self-validating enclosure methods, namely interval arithmetic and, for polynomials and rational functions, Bernstein expansion. Since bounds computed by these enclosure methods are sound, this approach may be used reliably in software verification tools. Advantage is taken of the partial derivatives of the constraint functions involved in the system, firstly to reduce the branching factor by the use of bisection heuristics and secondly to permit the computation of bifurcation sets for systems of ordinary differential equations. The associated software development, Kodiak, is presented, along with examples of three different branch and bound problem types it implements.

  16. Inflorescence Architecture: The Transition from Branches to Flowers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The shapes of flowers and their organization into branching systems, called inflorescences, dictate much of plant diversity. Recent studies have identified key regulators in this diversity, revealing that the inflorescence architecture of Solanaceous species depends on sequential and temporal expres...

  17. Establishment report: Reforestation of the Pen Branch corridor and delta

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, E.A.; Dulohery, N.J.; Bunton, C.S.; Trettin, C.C.; McKee, W.H. Jr.

    1995-12-01

    This report documents the role of the USDA Forest Service in the reforestation of the Pen Branch floodplain and delta. The report focuses upon the reforestation activities and monitoring to characterize the sites.

  18. Collateral branching of long-distance cortical projections in monkey.

    PubMed

    Rockland, Kathleen S

    2013-12-15

    Collateralization of individual cortical axons is well documented for rodents but less so for monkeys, where double retrograde tracer experiments have tended to find only small numbers of neurons projecting to two different injection sites. Evidence from both double label and single axon studies, however, suggests that in specific projection systems the number of neurons with collateralized axons can be 10% or greater. These include feedback projections from temporal areas (but less so those from V4 and MT/V5). Single-axon analyses show that many parietal neurons branch to multiple targets. Except for giant Meynert cells in area V1, feedforward projections from early visual areas have only a small number of neurons with branching axons. Why only some neurons collateralize, what determines branch points and projection foci, and how this impacts network organization are largely unknown. Deciphering the branching code might offer new perspectives on space-time organization at the network level.

  19. Surgical access to separate branches of the cat vestibular nerve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radkevich, L. A.; Ayzikov, G. S.

    1981-01-01

    A posteroventral approach for access to separate branches of the cat vestibular nerve is presented which permits simultaneous surgical access to the ampullary and otolithic nerves. Surgical procedures are discussed.

  20. General view of National Cemetery at former Northwestern Branch of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of National Cemetery at former Northwestern Branch of the National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers. View looking southeast from intersection of American War Mothers and Juneau Avenues. - Wood National Cemetery, 5000 West National Avenue, Milwaukee, Milwaukee County, WI

  1. Perspective view from southwest Southern Branch of the National ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view from southwest - Southern Branch of the National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Building 13, Harris Avenue at its intersection of Black Avenue and Woodfin Street, Hampton, Hampton, VA

  2. Perspective view from northwest Southern Branch of the National ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view from northwest - Southern Branch of the National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Building 13, Harris Avenue at its intersection of Black Avenue and Woodfin Street, Hampton, Hampton, VA

  3. Elevation of south facade with scale Southern Branch of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Elevation of south facade with scale - Southern Branch of the National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Building 13, Harris Avenue at its intersection of Black Avenue and Woodfin Street, Hampton, Hampton, VA

  4. Perspective view from south Southern Branch of the National ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view from south - Southern Branch of the National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Building 13, Harris Avenue at its intersection of Black Avenue and Woodfin Street, Hampton, Hampton, VA

  5. Fractal branching pattern of the monopodial canine airway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ping M; Kraman, Steve S

    2004-06-01

    Unlike the human lung, monopodial canine airway branching follows an irregular dichotomized pattern with fractal features. We studied three canine airway molds and found a self-similarity feature from macro- to microscopic scales, which formed a fractal set up to seven scales in the airways. At each fractal scale, lateral branches evenly lined up along an approximately straight main trunk to form three to four two-dimensional structures, and each lateral branch was the monopodial main trunk of the next fractal scale. We defined this pattern as the fractal main lateral-branching pattern, which exhibited similar structures from macro- to microscopic scales, including lobes, sublobes, sub-sublobes, etc. We speculate that it, rather than a mother-daughter pattern, could better describe the actual asymmetrical architecture of the monopodial canine airway.

  6. Chemical constituents from branch of Fraxinus sieboldiana.

    PubMed

    Lin, Sheng; Zhang, Yan-ling; Liu, Ming-tao; Zi, Jia-chen; Gan, Mao-luo; Song, Wei-xia; Fan, Xiao-na; Wang, Xiao-na; Yang, Yong-chun; Shi, Jian-gong

    2015-07-01

    Using a combination of various chromatographic techniques including column chromatography over silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, macroporous adsorbent resin, and reversed-phase HPLC, 115 compounds including diterpenes, sesquiterpenes, treterpenes, coumarins, lignans, fatty acid derivatives, and simple aromatic derivatives were isolated from an ethanol extract of branch of Fraxinus sieboldiana (Oleaceaue), and their structures of the compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including 1 D, 2D NMR and MS techniques. Among them, 41 compounds were new. In previous reports, we have been described the isolation, structure elucidation, and bioactivities of the 41 new compounds and 22 known orii including 8 coumarins, 4 phenolic and 12 phenylethanoidal glycosides. As a consequence, we herein reported the isolation and structure elucidation of the remaining 50 known compounds including 8- hydroxy-12-oxoabieta-9(11),13-dien-20-oic 8, 20-lactone(1), 6beta-hydroxyfcrruginol(2),(+)-pisiferic acid(3), (+)-pisiferal(4),(+)-7-dehydroabiet6none(5), 1-oxomiltirone(6), subdigitatone(7), linarionoside B(8), (9S)-linarionoside B(9), (3R,9R)-3-hydroxy-7,8-dihydro-beta-ionol 9-O-beta-D-apiofuranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside(10), ursolic acid(11), betulinic acid(12), euscaphic acid(13), (+)-syringaresinol(14), (+)-fraxiresinol(15), (+)-1-hydroxysyringaresinol(16), pinoresinol(17), medioresinol(18), 8-acetoxypinoresinol(19), epipinoresinol(20), (-)-olivil(21), (+)-cyclo-olivil(22), 3,3'-dimethoxy-4,4',9-trihydroxy-7,9'-epoxylignan-7'-one(23),(+)-1-hydroxypinoresinol 4'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (24), (+)-1-hydroxypinoresinol 4"-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside(25),(+)-syringaresinol O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (26), liriodendrin (27), ehletianol D(28), icariside E5(29) (-)-(7R, 8R)-threo-1-C-syringylglycerol(30),(-)-(7R, 8S)-erythro-guaiacylglycerol (31),(-)-(7R, 8R)-threo-guaiacylglycerol(32), 3-(4-beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy-3-methoxy)-phenyl-2E-propenol(33),2,3-dihydroxy-l-(4-hydroxy-3

  7. Extracellular matrix and growth factors in branching morphogenesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardman, P.; Spooner, B. S.

    1993-01-01

    The unifying hypothesis of the NSCORT in gravitational biology postulates that the ECM and growth factors are key interrelated components of a macromolecular regulatory system. The ECM is known to be important in growth and branching morphogenesis of embryonic organs. Growth factors have been detected in the developing embryo, and often the pattern of localization is associated with areas undergoing epithelial-mesenchymal interactions. Causal relationships between these components may be of fundamental importance in control of branching morphogenesis.

  8. Branch retinal vein occlusion associated with quetiapine fumarate

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background To report a case of branch retinal vein occlusion in a young adult with bipolar mood disorder treated with quetiapine fumarate. Case Presentation A 29 years old gentleman who was taking quetiapine fumarate for 3 years for bipolar mood disorder, presented with sudden vision loss. He was found to have a superior temporal branch retinal vein occlusion associated with hypercholesterolemia. Conclusion Atypical antipsychotic drugs have metabolic side effects which require regular monitoring and prompt treatment. PMID:21867521

  9. Agriculture and Food Processes Branch program summary document

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-06-01

    The food industry, its energy consumption, and its energy conservation targets are discussed. Activities of the Agriculture and Food Processes Branch are described. Summaries of research, development, and demonstration programs of the Branch are given. The programs are categorized into the following: energy integrated farm systems; irrigation systems; crop drying systems; fertilizer; dairy and milk processing; meat processing; sugar processing; citrus processing; ethanol production; food processing efficiency systems; and food sterilization. Summaries are presented of 26 completed projects. (MCW)

  10. 30 CFR 75.1101-4 - Branch lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Branch lines. 75.1101-4 Section 75.1101-4 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1101-4 Branch lines. As a part of the deluge-type water spray system, two...

  11. Characterization of Convective Boiling in Branching Channel Heat Sinks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-06

    gas-liquid flows and compared with existing void fraction correlations and regime maps, respectively. Two methods for assessing void fraction were...basis, where regional is defined as a field of view within a single branch of the fractal-like branching heat sink. An epi-fluorescent U.PIV method ...was used to determine time-averaged local liquid phase velocities. The gas phase velocities in gas-liquid flows were determined using a tracking method

  12. Do Vascular Networks Branch Optimally or Randomly across Spatial Scales?

    PubMed Central

    Newberry, Mitchell G.; Savage, Van M.

    2016-01-01

    Modern models that derive allometric relationships between metabolic rate and body mass are based on the architectural design of the cardiovascular system and presume sibling vessels are symmetric in terms of radius, length, flow rate, and pressure. Here, we study the cardiovascular structure of the human head and torso and of a mouse lung based on three-dimensional images processed via our software Angicart. In contrast to modern allometric theories, we find systematic patterns of asymmetry in vascular branching, potentially explaining previously documented mismatches between predictions (power-law or concave curvature) and observed empirical data (convex curvature) for the allometric scaling of metabolic rate. To examine why these systematic asymmetries in vascular branching might arise, we construct a mathematical framework to derive predictions based on local, junction-level optimality principles that have been proposed to be favored in the course of natural selection and development. The two most commonly used principles are material-cost optimizations (construction materials or blood volume) and optimization of efficient flow via minimization of power loss. We show that material-cost optimization solutions match with distributions for asymmetric branching across the whole network but do not match well for individual junctions. Consequently, we also explore random branching that is constrained at scales that range from local (junction-level) to global (whole network). We find that material-cost optimizations are the strongest predictor of vascular branching in the human head and torso, whereas locally or intermediately constrained random branching is comparable to material-cost optimizations for the mouse lung. These differences could be attributable to developmentally-programmed local branching for larger vessels and constrained random branching for smaller vessels. PMID:27902691

  13. Side-Branching Statistics of Plant Root Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollen, N.; Malamud, B.

    2001-12-01

    Many studies exist that characterise plant root architecture by calculating the fractal dimension of the root network, but few studies quantify the branching characteristics of the root network. This paper examines the Tokunaga side-branching statistics for the root systems of four plants--Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris), Lucern (Medicago sativa), Common Wheat (Triticum aestivum) and White Clover (Trifolium michelianum)--and compares the resulting statistics to those calculated by similar means (by other authors) for the Kentucky and Powder River drainage basins and several Diffusion Limited Aggregation (DLA) models. The plant root networks studied all contained similar numbers of different order roots, but the side-branching statistics differed, offering one explanation for the differing visual appearance of the branching root networks. The White Clover plant had similar Tokunaga branching statistics to the drainage networks and DLA models. This may be due to the dichotomous root structure of the White Clover plant, which produces a network that is much more similar in appearance to the two drainage networks and DLA models than the other three plants, which had herringbone root. All of the root networks, drainage basins, and DLA models had branching networks that could be quantified well to very well by Tokunaga side-branching statistics. For many years, engineers have avoided implementation of stabilisation schemes involving vegetation, due to the inherent problems involved in the quantification of their dynamic and complex root structures. The use of Tokunaga statistics as a simplifying measure of root branching characteristics, may aid in this aspect, as well as others, such as the modelling of nutrient or water uptake.

  14. Curved branching crystals and differentiation in comb-layered rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lofgren, G. E.; Donaldson, C. H.

    1975-01-01

    An investigation is conducted concerning two common features of comb layered rocks. Attention is given to the curvature of oriented, elongate, branching crystals and the tendency to form highly differentiated layers. Crystallization studies of plagioclase show that some degree of supercooling is necessary to produce the skeletal, curved, and branching plagioclase crystal morphologies found in comb-layered rocks and that curved crystals can be grown without the presence of a directed stress.

  15. Density functional steric analysis of linear and branched alkanes.

    PubMed

    Ess, Daniel H; Liu, Shubin; De Proft, Frank

    2010-12-16

    Branched alkane hydrocarbons are thermodynamically more stable than straight-chain linear alkanes. This thermodynamic stability is also manifest in alkane bond separation energies. To understand the physical differences between branched and linear alkanes, we have utilized a novel density functional theory (DFT) definition of steric energy based on the Weizäcker kinetic energy. Using the M06-2X functional, the total DFT energy was partitioned into a steric energy term (E(s)[ρ]), an electrostatic energy term (E(e)[ρ]), and a fermionic quantum energy term (E(q)[ρ]). This analysis revealed that branched alkanes have less (destabilizing) DFT steric energy than linear alkanes. The lower steric energy of branched alkanes is mitigated by an equal and opposite quantum energy term that contains the Pauli component of the kinetic energy and exchange-correlation energy. Because the steric and quantum energy terms cancel, this leaves the electrostatic energy term that favors alkane branching. Electrostatic effects, combined with correlation energy, explains why branched alkanes are more stable than linear alkanes.

  16. Density Functional Steric Analysis of Linear and Branched Alkanes

    SciTech Connect

    Ess, Daniel H.; Liu, Shubin; De Proft, Frank

    2010-11-18

    Branched alkane hydrocarbons are thermodynamically more stable than straight-chain linear alkanes. This thermodynamic stability is also manifest in alkane bond separation energies. To understand the physical differences between branched and linear alkanes, we have utilized a novel density functional theory (DFT) definition of steric energy based on the Weizäcker kinetic energy. Using the M06-2X functional, the total DFT energy was partitioned into a steric energy term (Ee[[ρ]), an electrostatic energy term (Ee[ρ]), and a fermionic quantum energy term (Eq[[ρ]). This analysis revealed that branched alkanes have less (destabilizing) DFT steric energy than linear alkanes. The lower steric energy of branched alkanes is mitigated by an equal and opposite quantum energy term that contains the Pauli component of the kinetic energy and exchange-correlation energy. Because the steric and quantum energy terms cancel, this leaves the electrostatic energy term that favors alkane branching. Electrostatic effects, combined with correlation energy, explains why branched alkanes are more stable than linear alkanes.

  17. Branching geometry induced by lung self-regulated growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clément, Raphaël; Douady, Stéphane; Mauroy, Benjamin

    2012-12-01

    Branching morphogenesis is a widely spread phenomenon in nature. In organogenesis, it results from the inhomogeneous growth of the epithelial sheet, leading to its repeated branching into surrounding mesoderm. Lung morphogenesis is an emblematic example of tree-like organogenesis common to most mammals. The core signalling network is well identified, notably the Fgf10/Shh couple, required to initiate and maintain branching. In a previous study, we showed that the restriction by SHH of Fgf10 expression domain to distal mesenchyme spontaneously induces differential epithelial proliferation leading to branching. A simple Laplacian model qualitatively reproduced FGF10 dynamics in the mesenchyme and the spontaneous self-avoiding branching morphogenesis. However, early lung geometry has several striking features that remain to be addressed. In this paper, we investigate, through simulations and data analysis, if the FGF10-diffusion scenario accounts for the following aspects of lung morphology: size dispersion, asymmetry of branching events, and distal epithelium-mesothelium equilibrium. We report that they emerge spontaneously in the model, and that most of the underlying mechanisms can be understood as dynamical interactions between gradients and shape. This suggests that specific regulation may not be required for the emergence of these striking geometrical features.

  18. Cone size is related to branching architecture in conifers.

    PubMed

    Leslie, Andrew B; Beaulieu, Jeremy M; Crane, Peter R; Donoghue, Michael J

    2014-09-01

    The relationship between branch diameter and leaf size has been widely used to understand how vegetative resources are allocated in plants. Branching architecture influences reproductive allocation as well, but fewer studies have explored this relationship at broad phylogenetic or ecological scales. In this study, we tested whether pollen-producing and seed-producing cone size scales with branch diameter in conifers, a diverse and globally distributed lineage of nonflowering seed plants. Branch diameter and cone size were analyzed using multiple regression models and evolutionary models of trait evolution for a data set of 293 extant conifer species within an explicit phylogenetic framework. Branch diameter is a strong predictor of cone size across conifer species, particularly for pollen cones and dry seed cones. However, these relationships are complex in detail because leaf morphology and seed dispersal biology influence the specific ways in which they are expressed. The ubiquity and strength of these scaling relationships across conifers suggest that reproductive and vegetative morphologies are coupled in the group, and it is therefore difficult to disentangle the evolution of cone size from the evolution of branching architecture.

  19. Additional branches of celiac trunk and its clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Nayak, S R; Prabhu, Latha V; Krishnamurthy, A; Ganesh Kumar, C; Ramanathan, Lakshmi A; Acharya, Abhijith; Prasad Sinha, Abhishek

    2008-01-01

    The anatomical variations of the abdominal arteries are important due to its clinical significance. Various types of vascular anomalies are frequently found in human abdominal viscera, during cadaveric dissection and diagnostic radiological imaging. The present report describes a variation in the celiac trunk as found during routine dissection in a 59-year-old male cadaver. The celiac trunk (CT) was unusually lengthy and took origin from the left antero-lateral surface of the abdominal aorta. Altogether, there were five branches, including three classic branches of CT. The left phrenic artery (LPA) was the first branch of the CT. The remaining four branches were left gastric artery (LGA), splenic artery (SA), common hepatic artery (CHA) and gastroduodenal artery (GDA). There was an arterial loop between the posterior branches of the superior pancreatico-duodenal artery (SPDA), arising from the GDA, and the posterior branch of the inferior pancreatico-duodenal artery (IPDA), arising from the superior mesenteric artery (SMA). The arterial loop formed by the above arteries, supplied the head of the pancreas and duodeno-jejunal flexure. The embryological and clinical significance of above variations has been described.

  20. A histone octamer blocks branch migration of a Holliday junction.

    PubMed Central

    Grigoriev, M; Hsieh, P

    1997-01-01

    The Holliday junction is a key intermediate in genetic recombination. Here, we examine the effect of a nucleosome core on movement of the Holliday junction in vitro by spontaneous branch migration. Histone octamers consisting of H2A, H2B, H3, and H4 are reconstituted onto DNA duplexes containing an artificial nucleosome-positioning sequence consisting of a tandem array of an alternating AT-GC sequence motif. Characterization of the reconstituted branch migration substrates by micrococcal nuclease mapping and exonuclease III and hydroxyl radical footprinting reveal that 70% of the reconstituted octamers are positioned near the center of the substrate and the remaining 30% are located at the distal end, although in both cases some translational degeneracy is observed. Branch migration assays with the octamer-containing substrates reveal that the Holliday junction cannot migrate spontaneously through DNA organized into a nucleosomal core unless DNA-histone interactions are completely disrupted. Similar results are obtained with branch migration substrates containing an octamer positioned on a naturally occurring sequence derived from the yeast GLN3 locus. Digestion of Holliday junctions with T7 endonuclease I establishes that the junction is not trapped by the octamer but can branch migrate in regions free of histone octamers. Our findings suggest that migration of Holliday junctions during recombination and the recombinational repair of DNA damage requires proteins not only to accelerate the intrinsic rate of branch migration but also to facilitate the passage of the Holliday junction through a nucleosome. PMID:9372946

  1. Reproductive success and mortality rates of Ceriodaphnia dubia maintained in water from Upper Three Runs, Pen Branch, and Fourmile Branch

    SciTech Connect

    Specht, W.L.

    1994-12-01

    It is anticipated that the new SRS NPDES permit will require toxicity testing of at numerous outfalls and receiving streams, using the standard test species, Ceriodaphnia dubia. Because SRS surface waters differ markedly from the standard culture water that is used for Ceriodaphnia, studies were undertaken to determine if unimpacted SRS surface waters will support this species. Three SRS surface waters were evaluated; Upper Three Runs at Road 8-1, Pen Branch at Road B, and Fourmile Branch at Road F. Toxicity tests were performed monthly on each water source for eleven months. All three water sources exhibited varying degrees of toxicity to Ceriodaphnia, with Pen Branch being the least toxic and Fourmile Branch being the most toxic. These results indicate that if in-stream toxicity testing is required, it may not be possible to separate the naturally occurring toxic effects of the receiving water from possible toxic effects of SRS effluents.

  2. TCP transcription factor, BRANCH ANGLE DEFECTIVE 1 (BAD1), is required for normal tassel branch angle formation in maize

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Fang; Reinheimer, Renata; Durantini, Diego; Kellogg, Elizabeth A.; Schmidt, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    In grass inflorescences, a structure called the “pulvinus” is found between the inflorescence main stem and lateral branches. The size of the pulvinus affects the angle of the lateral branches that emerge from the main axis and therefore has a large impact on inflorescence architecture. Through EMS mutagenesis we have identified three complementation groups of recessive mutants in maize having defects in pulvinus formation. All mutants showed extremely acute tassel branch angles accompanied by a significant reduction in the size of the pulvinus compared with normal plants. Two of the complementation groups correspond to mutations in the previously identified genes, RAMOSA2 (RA2) and LIGULELESS1 (LG1). Mutants corresponding to a third group were cloned using mapped-based approaches and found to encode a new member of the plant-specific TCP (TEOSINTE BRANCHED1/CYCLOIDEA/PROLIFERATING CELL NUCLEAR ANTIGEN FACTOR) family of DNA-binding proteins, BRANCH ANGLE DEFECTIVE 1 (BAD1). BAD1 is expressed in the developing pulvinus as well as in other developing tissues, including the tassels and juvenile leaves. Both molecular and genetics studies show that RA2 is upstream of BAD1, whereas LG1 may function in a separate pathway. Our findings demonstrate that BAD1 is a TCP class II gene that functions to promote cell proliferation in a lateral organ, the pulvinus, and influences inflorescence architecture by impacting the angle of lateral branch emergence. PMID:22773815

  3. Partial branching enzyme treatment increases the low glycaemic property and α-1,6 branching ratio of maize starch.

    PubMed

    Li, Xingfeng; Miao, Ming; Jiang, Huan; Xue, Jiangchao; Jiang, Bo; Zhang, Tao; Gao, Yaqi; Jia, Yingmin

    2014-12-01

    Partial branching enzyme treatment was used to modulate the starch fine chain structure responsible for a high content of slowly digestible starch fraction. Normal maize starch modified using branching enzyme for 4h showed a maximum slowly digestible starch content of 23.90%. The branching enzyme hydrolysis decreased the amylose content from 32.8% to 12.8%. The molecular weight distribution of enzyme-treated starches showed a larger proportion of low molecular weight fractions appeared in the enzyme treated starch sample compare to native starch. The number of shorter chains (DP<13) increased from 18.71% to 28.23.1%, accompanied by a reduction of longer chains (DP>30) from 20.11% to 11.95%. (1)H NMR spectra showed an increase of α-1,6 branching ratio from 4.7% to 9.4% during enzyme treatment. The increase in the amount of shorter chains and more α-1,6 linkages likely contribute to their slow digestion property. These results suggest that starches treated with partial branching enzyme synthesis a novel branched structure with slowly digestible character.

  4. Branched-chain amino acid metabolon: interaction of glutamate dehydrogenase with the mitochondrial branched-chain aminotransferase (BCATm).

    PubMed

    Islam, Mohammad Mainul; Nautiyal, Manisha; Wynn, R Max; Mobley, James A; Chuang, David T; Hutson, Susan M

    2010-01-01

    The catabolic pathway for branched-chain amino acids includes deamination followed by oxidative decarboxylation of the deaminated product branched-chain alpha-keto acids, catalyzed by the mitochondrial branched-chain aminotransferase (BCATm) and branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase enzyme complex (BCKDC). We found that BCATm binds to the E1 decarboxylase of BCKDC, forming a metabolon that allows channeling of branched-chain alpha-keto acids from BCATm to E1. The protein complex also contains glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH1), 4-nitrophenylphosphatase domain and non-neuronal SNAP25-like protein homolog 1, pyruvate carboxylase, and BCKDC kinase. GDH1 binds to the pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate (PMP) form of BCATm (PMP-BCATm) but not to the pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-BCATm and other metabolon proteins. Leucine activates GDH1, and oxidative deamination of glutamate is increased further by addition of PMP-BCATm. Isoleucine and valine are not allosteric activators of GDH1, but in the presence of 5'-phosphate-BCATm, they convert BCATm to PMP-BCATm, stimulating GDH1 activity. Sensitivity to ADP activation of GDH1 was unaffected by PMP-BCATm; however, addition of a 3 or higher molar ratio of PMP-BCATm to GDH1 protected GDH1 from GTP inhibition by 50%. Kinetic results suggest that GDH1 facilitates regeneration of the form of BCATm that binds to E1 decarboxylase of the BCKDC, promotes metabolon formation, branched-chain amino acid oxidation, and cycling of nitrogen through glutamate.

  5. Stability of earthquake clustering models: criticality and branching ratios.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Jiancang; Werner, Maximilian J; Harte, David S

    2013-12-01

    We study the stability conditions of a class of branching processes prominent in the analysis and modeling of seismicity. This class includes the epidemic-type aftershock sequence (ETAS) model as a special case, but more generally comprises models in which the magnitude distribution of direct offspring depends on the magnitude of the progenitor, such as the branching aftershock sequence (BASS) model and another recently proposed branching model based on a dynamic scaling hypothesis. These stability conditions are closely related to the concepts of the criticality parameter and the branching ratio. The criticality parameter summarizes the asymptotic behavior of the population after sufficiently many generations, determined by the maximum eigenvalue of the transition equations. The branching ratio is defined by the proportion of triggered events in all the events. Based on the results for the generalized case, we show that the branching ratio of the ETAS model is identical to its criticality parameter because its magnitude density is separable from the full intensity. More generally, however, these two values differ and thus place separate conditions on model stability. As an illustration of the difference and of the importance of the stability conditions, we employ a version of the BASS model, reformulated to ensure the possibility of stationarity. In addition, we analyze the magnitude distributions of successive generations of the BASS model via analytical and numerical methods, and find that the compound density differs substantially from a Gutenberg-Richter distribution, unless the process is essentially subcritical (branching ratio less than 1) or the magnitude dependence between the parent event and the direct offspring is weak.

  6. Stability of earthquake clustering models: Criticality and branching ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Jiancang; Werner, Maximilian J.; Harte, David S.

    2013-12-01

    We study the stability conditions of a class of branching processes prominent in the analysis and modeling of seismicity. This class includes the epidemic-type aftershock sequence (ETAS) model as a special case, but more generally comprises models in which the magnitude distribution of direct offspring depends on the magnitude of the progenitor, such as the branching aftershock sequence (BASS) model and another recently proposed branching model based on a dynamic scaling hypothesis. These stability conditions are closely related to the concepts of the criticality parameter and the branching ratio. The criticality parameter summarizes the asymptotic behavior of the population after sufficiently many generations, determined by the maximum eigenvalue of the transition equations. The branching ratio is defined by the proportion of triggered events in all the events. Based on the results for the generalized case, we show that the branching ratio of the ETAS model is identical to its criticality parameter because its magnitude density is separable from the full intensity. More generally, however, these two values differ and thus place separate conditions on model stability. As an illustration of the difference and of the importance of the stability conditions, we employ a version of the BASS model, reformulated to ensure the possibility of stationarity. In addition, we analyze the magnitude distributions of successive generations of the BASS model via analytical and numerical methods, and find that the compound density differs substantially from a Gutenberg-Richter distribution, unless the process is essentially subcritical (branching ratio less than 1) or the magnitude dependence between the parent event and the direct offspring is weak.

  7. Structural Requirements of Strigolactones for Hyphal Branching in AM Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Akiyama, Kohki; Ogasawara, Shin; Ito, Seisuke; Hayashi, Hideo

    2010-01-01

    Strigolactones are a group of terpenoid lactones that act as a host-derived signal in the rhizosphere communication of plants with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and root parasitic weeds as well as an endogenous plant hormone regulating shoot branching in plants. Strigolactones induce hyphal branching in AM fungi at very low concentrations, suggesting a highly sensitive perception system for strigolactones present in AM fungi. However, little is known about the structural requirements of strigolactones for hyphal branching in AM fungi. Here, we tested a series of natural and synthetically modified strigolactones as well as non-strigolactone-type germination stimulants for hyphal branching-inducing activity in germinating spores of the AM fungus Gigaspora margarita. All tested compounds with a tricyclic lactone coupled to a methylbutenolide via an enol ether bond showed activity, but differed in the active concentration and in the branching pattern of hyphae. Truncation of the A- and AB-rings in the tricyclic ABC lactone of strigolactones resulted in a drastic reduction in hyphal branching activity. Although the connection of the C-ring in the tricyclic lactone to the methylbutenolide D-ring was shown to be essential for hyphal branching, the bridge structure in the C–D part was found not necessarily to be enol ether, being replaceable with either alkoxy or imino ethers. These structural requirements in AM fungi are very similar but not identical to those observed in root parasitic weeds, especially with respect to the enol ether bridge in the C–D part. PMID:20418334

  8. Physiology and Anatomy for Nurses and Healthcare Practitioners: A Homeostatic Approach - Third edition Clancy John McVicar Andrew J Physiology and Anatomy for Nurses and Healthcare Practitioners: A Homeostatic Approach - Third edition 768pp Hodder Arnold 9780340967591 0340967595 [Formula: see text].

    PubMed

    2010-02-10

    John Clancy and Andrew McVicar give a fascinating insight into the homeostatic mechanism for health. The content focuses on the body's adaptive responses in health and the maladaptive processes in ill-health. In turn, these processes are linked to the knowledge required by healthcare professionals in restoring health or enhancing the quality of life until death.

  9. Carbohydrate translocation and branch autonomy of Pinus ponderosa

    SciTech Connect

    Houpis, J.L.J.; Benes, S.E.

    1989-03-01

    We are testing the degree of mature branch autonomy in P. ponderosa using {sup 14}CO{sub 2}. Determination of the level of branch autonomy involves four elements that are based on pulsing one branchlet with {sup 14}CO{sub 2}: (1) determine if the canopy position of a branch in the canopy, of which one branchlet is pulsed with {sup 14}CO{sub 2}, affects the amount of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} found in other types of tissue (stems, needles, buds) located on the same branch; (2) determine if the position (apical or lateral) of a branchlet that is pulsed with {sup 14}CO{sub 2}, affects the amount of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} found in other tissue across different branchlets located on the same branch; (3) determine if the position of a branchlet in relation to the pulsed branchlet affect the amount of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} that is traced into the target branchlet; and (4) determine if the length of time between pulsing and sampling of trace tissue affects the detection of {sup 14}CO{sub 2}. 2 refs.

  10. FY 1991 Measurements and Characterization Branch annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Osterwald, C.R.; Dippo, P.C.

    1992-11-01

    The Measurements and Characterization Branch of the National Renewable Laboratory (NREL) provides comprehensive photovoltaic (PV) materials, devices, characterization, measurement, fabrication, modeling research, and support for the international PV research community, in the context of the US Department of Energy`s Photovoltaic Research Program goals. This report summarizes the progress of the Branch from 31 January 1991 through 31 January 1992. The eight technical sections present a succinct overview of the capabilities and accomplishments of each group in the Branch. The Branch is comprised of the following groups: Surface and interface Analysis; Materials Characterization; Device Development; Electro-optical Characterization; Advanced PV module Performance and Reliability Research; Cell Performance Characterization; Surface Interactions, Modification, and Stability; and FTIR Spectroscopic Research. The including measurements and tests of PV materials, cells, submodules, and modules. The report contains a comprehensive bibliography of 77 branch originated journal and conference publications, which were authored in collaboration with, or in support of, approximately 135 university, industrial, government, and in-house research groups.

  11. Functional Redundancy of Septin Homologs in Dendritic Branching

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Charlotte; Steinmann, Mayra; Zapiorkowska, Natalia A.; Ewers, Helge

    2017-01-01

    Septins are cytoskeletal GTPases present in nonpolar heteromeric complexes that assemble in a palindromic fashion from two to eight subunits. Mammalian septins function in several fundamental cellular processes at the membrane-cytoskeleton interface including dendritic branching in neurons. Sequence homology divides the 13 mammalian septin genes into four homology groups. Experimental findings suggest that septin function is redundant among septins from one homology group. This is best understood for the isoforms of the SEPT2 group, which form a homodimer at the center of septin complexes. In vitro, all SEPT2-group septins form recombinant hexameric complexes with two copies of SEPT6 and SEPT7. However, it remains unclear to what extent homologs septins can substitute for each other in specific cellular processes. Here, we use the experimental paradigm of dendritic branching in hippocampal rat neurons to ask, to what extent septins of the SEPT2-group are functionally redundant. Dendritic branching is significantly reduced when SEPT5 is downregulated. In neurons expressing SEPT5-shRNA, simultaneously expressed SEPT2-GFP, and SEPT4-GFP colocalize with SEPT7 at dendritic spine necks and rescue dendritic branching. In contrast, SEPT1-GFP is diffusely distributed in the cytoplasm in SEPT5 downregulated neurons and cannot rescue dendritic branching. Our findings provide a basis for the study of septin-specific functions in cells. PMID:28265560

  12. CryoEM structure of the spliceosome immediately after branching

    PubMed Central

    Galej, Wojciech P.; Wilkinson, Max E.; Fica, Sebastian M.; Oubridge, Chris; Newman, Andrew J.; Nagai, Kiyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Pre-mRNA splicing proceeds by two consecutive trans-esterification reactions via a lariat-intron intermediate. We present the 3.8Å cryoEM structure of the spliceosome immediately after lariat formation. The 5’-splice site is cleaved but remains close to the catalytic Mg2+ site in the U2/U6 snRNA triplex, and the 5’-phosphate of the intron nucleotide G(+1) is linked to the branch adenosine 2’OH. The 5’-exon is held between the Prp8 N-terminal and Linker domains, and base-pairs with U5 snRNA loop 1. Non-Watson-Crick interactions between the branch helix and 5’-splice site dock the branch adenosine into the active site, while intron nucleotides +3 to +6 base-pair with the U6 snRNA ACAGAGA sequence. Isy1 and the step one factors Yju2 and Cwc25 stabilise docking of the branch helix. The intron downstream of the branch site emerges between the Prp8 RT and Linker domains and extends towards Prp16 helicase, suggesting a plausible mechanism of remodelling before exon ligation. PMID:27459055

  13. [Revascularization with the branched graft in middle aortic syndrome].

    PubMed

    Urayama, H; Fujioka, S; Katada, S; Kawabe, K; Watanabe, Y; Iwa, T; Horimoto, T

    1989-01-01

    A case of middle aortic syndrome which was thought to be the thoracoabdominal type of Takayasu's disease was successfully treated with the branched graft bypass. Patient was a 23 year-old woman with hypertension and abdominal pain. The preoperative angiography revealed aortic stenosis from the celiac axis to the left renal artery. The operative procedures were as follows; patient was positioned in supine with her left shoulder and arm raised. Eighth intercostal thoracotomy and midline laparotomy was performed with the thoracoabdominal incision. The branched graft was made previously with woven Dacron (phi 18 mm) and three EPTFEs (phi 8mm). The woven Dacron of the graft was used for the bypass from the descending thoracic aorta to the infrarenal abdominal aorta, and the branched EPTFEs of the graft were used for the bypasses to the common hepatic artery, the superior mesenteric artery and the right renal artery in this order. The bypasses were placed along the anatomical courses in the retroperitoneal space. Postoperatively, the blood pressure dropped and the abdominal pain disappeared. The plasma renin activity decreased and the renal function improved. Two months after operation the bypasses were patent by the angiography and now six months after operation she has returned to her social life healthily. The approach to the aorta and its abdominal branches by thoracotomy and laparotomy and bypass with the three branched graft was useful for middle aortic syndrome.

  14. FY 1991 Measurements and Characterization Branch annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Osterwald, C.R.; Dippo, P.C.

    1992-11-01

    The Measurements and Characterization Branch of the National Renewable Laboratory (NREL) provides comprehensive photovoltaic (PV) materials, devices, characterization, measurement, fabrication, modeling research, and support for the international PV research community, in the context of the US Department of Energy's Photovoltaic Research Program goals. This report summarizes the progress of the Branch from 31 January 1991 through 31 January 1992. The eight technical sections present a succinct overview of the capabilities and accomplishments of each group in the Branch. The Branch is comprised of the following groups: Surface and interface Analysis; Materials Characterization; Device Development; Electro-optical Characterization; Advanced PV module Performance and Reliability Research; Cell Performance Characterization; Surface Interactions, Modification, and Stability; and FTIR Spectroscopic Research. The including measurements and tests of PV materials, cells, submodules, and modules. The report contains a comprehensive bibliography of 77 branch originated journal and conference publications, which were authored in collaboration with, or in support of, approximately 135 university, industrial, government, and in-house research groups.

  15. Plant sesquiterpenes induce hyphal branching in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Kohki; Matsuzaki, Ken-ichi; Hayashi, Hideo

    2005-06-09

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi form mutualistic, symbiotic associations with the roots of more than 80% of land plants. The fungi are incapable of completing their life cycle in the absence of a host root. Their spores can germinate and grow in the absence of a host, but their hyphal growth is very limited. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms that govern signalling and recognition between AM fungi and their host plants. In one of the first stages of host recognition, the hyphae of AM fungi show extensive branching in the vicinity of host roots before formation of the appressorium, the structure used to penetrate the plant root. Host roots are known to release signalling molecules that trigger hyphal branching, but these branching factors have not been isolated. Here we have isolated a branching factor from the root exudates of Lotus japonicus and used spectroscopic analysis and chemical synthesis to identify it as a strigolactone, 5-deoxy-strigol. Strigolactones are a group of sesquiterpene lactones, previously isolated as seed-germination stimulants for the parasitic weeds Striga and Orobanche. The natural strigolactones 5-deoxy-strigol, sorgolactone and strigol, and a synthetic analogue, GR24, induced extensive hyphal branching in germinating spores of the AM fungus Gigaspora margarita at very low concentrations.

  16. The structure of horizontal-branch models. I - The zero-age horizontal branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorman, Ben

    1992-01-01

    A detailed study of the structure of zero-age horizontal-branch (ZAHB) models is studied in order to show how the hydrostatic structure of these models changes with the input parameters and determines the H-R diagram location of a given model. The properties of composite polytropes on the homology-invariant (U,V)-plane are demonstrated. A variety of test models and sequences were constructed to elucidate the underlying factors that give rise to the wide variation in HB model properties with composition. The roles of the CNO elements as nuclear catalysts and of the envelope sources, as well as the envelope helium abundance are reexamined. It is found that, for stars of a fixed range of mass arriving on the HB, the stellar distribution is determined mainly by CNO for low metallicities (Fe/H of less than about -1), but mainly by opacity sources for high metallicities. The value of Fe/H where CNO ceases to dominate depends significantly on the adopted opacity and will decrease if and when opacity estimates are revised upward.

  17. Branch Width and Height Influence the Incorporation of Branches into Foraging Trails and Travel Speed in Leafcutter Ants Atta cephalotes (L.) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Freeman, B M; Chaves-Campos, J

    2016-06-01

    Fallen branches are often incorporated into Atta cephalotes (L.) foraging trails to optimize leaf tissue transport rates and economize trail maintenance. Recent studies in lowlands show laden A. cephalotes travel faster across fallen branches than on ground, but more slowly ascending or descending a branch. The latter is likely because (1) it is difficult to travel up or downhill and (2) bottlenecks occur when branches are narrower than preceding trail. Hence, both branch height and width should determine whether branches decrease net travel times, but no study has evaluated it yet. Laden A. cephalotes were timed in relation to branch width and height across segments preceding, accessing, across, and departing a fallen branch in the highlands of Costa Rica. Ants traveled faster on branches than on cleared segments of trunk-trail, but accelerated when ascending or descending the branch-likely because of the absence of bottlenecks during the day in the highlands. Branch size did not affect ant speed in observed branches; the majority of which (22/24) varied from 11 to 120 mm in both height and width (average 66 mm in both cases). To determine whether ants exclude branches outside this range, ants were offered the choice between branches within this range and branches that were taller/wider than 120 mm. Ants strongly preferred the former. Our results indicate that A. cephalotes can adjust their speed to compensate for the difficulty of traveling on branch slopes. More generally, branch size should be considered when studying ant foraging efficiency.

  18. Controlling the morphology of multi-branched gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Waqqar; Kooij, E. Stefan; van Silfhout, Arend; Poelsema, Bene

    2010-03-01

    We demonstrate a simple and versatile way to achieve high yield synthesis of shape- and size-controlled multi-branched gold nanoparticles (MBNPs). Control over the shape of the MBNPs was achieved by varying the ratio of gold to the mild reducing agent ascorbic acid, using a seed-mediated growth approach. Higher ascorbate concentrations resulted in the smoothing of branches, leading to the yield of relatively more isotropic particles. Furthermore, we found that using much higher silver concentrations in the growth solution resulted in the formation of rod-shaped micro-features together with MBNPs; we postulate them to be cetyltrimethyl ammonium silver bromide crystals. The as-prepared MBNPs show interesting tunable optical properties that are strongly influenced by the particle shape. The results are discussed in terms of plasmon coupling between the core and branches of the MBNPs.

  19. Inter-branch terahertz lasing in asymmetric intersubband polariton systems

    SciTech Connect

    De Liberato, Simone; Ciuti, Cristiano; Phillips, Chris C.

    2013-12-04

    In doped quantum wells embedded into semiconductor microcavities, the strong coupling between an intersubband transition in the conduction band and a cavity mode produces two branches of intersubband cavity polaritons, whose energy splitting is tunable and can be in the terahertz region. Electric dipole transitions between different cavity polariton branches, like transitions between dressed atomic states with the same excitation number, are strictly forbidden in centro-symmetric systems. We showed that, breaking the symmetry using asymmetric quantum wells, it is possible to have allowed dipolar transitions between different polaritonic branches, leading to the emission of terahertz photons. We developed a quantum field theory for such a system, and predict that high-efficiency, widely tunable terahertz lasing can be obtained.

  20. Measurement of prominent eta-decay branching fractions.

    PubMed

    Lopez, A; Mehrabyan, S; Mendez, H; Ramirez, J; Ge, J Y; Miller, D H; Sanghi, B; Shipsey, I P J; Xin, B; Adams, G S; Anderson, M; Cummings, J P; Danko, I; Hu, D; Moziak, B; Napolitano, J; He, Q; Insler, J; Muramatsu, H; Park, C S; Thorndike, E H; Yang, F; Artuso, M; Blusk, S; Khalil, S; Li, J; Menaa, N; Mountain, R; Nisar, S; Randrianarivony, K; Sia, R; Skwarnicki, T; Stone, S; Wang, J C; Bonvicini, G; Cinabro, D; Dubrovin, M; Lincoln, A; Asner, D M; Edwards, K W; Naik, P; Briere, R A; Ferguson, T; Tatishvili, G; Vogel, H; Watkins, M E; Rosner, J L; Adam, N E; Alexander, J P; Cassel, D G; Duboscq, J E; Ehrlich, R; Fields, L; Galik, R S; Gibbons, L; Gray, R; Gray, S W; Hartill, D L; Heltsley, B K; Hertz, D; Jones, C D; Kandaswamy, J; Kreinick, D L; Kuznetsov, V E; Mahlke-Krüger, H; Mohapatra, D; Onyisi, P U E; Patterson, J R; Peterson, D; Riley, D; Ryd, A; Sadoff, A J; Shi, X; Stroiney, S; Sun, W M; Wilksen, T; Athar, S B; Patel, R; Yelton, J; Rubin, P; Eisenstein, B I; Karliner, I; Lowrey, N; Selen, M; White, E J; Wiss, J; Mitchell, R E; Shepherd, M R; Besson, D; Pedlar, T K; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Gao, K Y; Hietala, J; Kubota, Y; Klein, T; Lang, B W; Poling, R; Scott, A W; Zweber, P; Dobbs, S; Metreveli, Z; Seth, K K; Tomaradze, A; Ernst, J; Ecklund, K M; Severini, H; Love, W; Savinov, V

    2007-09-21

    The decay psi(2S) --> etaJ/psi is used to measure, for the first time, all prominent eta-meson branching fractions with the same experiment in the same dataset, thereby providing a consistent treatment of systematics across branching fractions. We present results for eta decays to gamma gamma, pi(+)pi(-)pi(0), 3pi(0), pi(+)pi(-)gamma and e(+)e(-)gamma, accounting for 99.9% of all eta decays. The precision of several of the branching fractions and their ratios is improved. Two channels, pi(+)pi(-)gamma and e(+)e(-)gamma, show results that differ at the level of three standard deviations from those previously determined.