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Sample records for androctonus crassicauda olivier

  1. The roles of some scorpions, Hemiscorpius lepturus and Androctonus crassicauda, in a scorpionism focus in Ramhormorz, southwestern Iran.

    PubMed

    Mohseni, Alireza; Vazirianzadeh, Babak; Hossienzadeh, Mohsen; Salehcheh, Maryam; Moradi, Azra; Moravvej, Seyed Abbas

    2013-01-01

    Scorpion stings are a common and important health problem in Iran, particularly in south and southwestern Iran, including the province of Khuzestan. In the area of Khuzestan near the city of Ramhormoz, Hemiscorpius lepturus (Scorpionida: Hemiscorpioiidae) and Androctonus crassicauda (Buthidae) are present. Ramhormoz is in southwestern Iran and is one of the most important foci of the scorpion sting problem. The current study was carried out to gain both epidemiological and medical information about scorpion stings in and around the city of Ramhormoz. In total, 179 people who were admitted to the Emergency Department of Ramhormoz Imam Khomeini Hospital during 2008 and 2009 after being stung by scorpions were monitored. Epidemiological and medical parameters including sex of the victim; the part of the body stung; the month when stung; the biochemical parameters comprising blood sugar (BS), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and creatinine (CR); hematological parameters including white blood cells (WBC), count blood cells (CBC), red blood cells (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (HCT), platelet (PLT); and urine analysis including hemoglobinuria were recorded. The current study showed that most of the victims were stung by H. lepturus, while very few were stung by A. crassicaud, but in over half of the cases the species was not known. Stings were most common from May to Aguust. 73% of the victims were female. The limbs were the part of the body most likely to be stung. Hemogobinuria was very common in H. lepturus victims.

  2. Purification and cDNA cloning of a novel neurotoxic peptide (Acra3) from the scorpion Androctonus crassicauda.

    PubMed

    Caliskan, Figen; García, Blanca I; Coronas, Fredy I V; Restano-Cassulini, Rita; Korkmaz, Ferhan; Sahin, Yalcin; Corzo, Gerardo; Possani, Lourival D

    2012-09-01

    Androctonus crassicauda is one of the Southeastern Anatolian scorpions of Turkey with ethno-medical and toxicological importance. Two toxic peptides (Acra1 and Acra2) were isolated and characterized from the venom of this scorpion. In this communication, the isolation of an additional toxin (Acra3) by chromatographic separations (HPLC and TSK-gel sulfopropyl) and its chemical and functional characterization is reported. Acra3 is a 7620Da molecular weight peptide, with 66 amino acid residues crosslinked by four disulfide bridges. The gene coding for this peptide was cloned and sequenced. Acra3 is anticipated to undergo post-translational modifications at the C-terminal region, having an amidated serine as last residue. Injection of Acra3 induces severe neurotoxic events in mice, such as: excitability and convulsions, leading to the death of the animals within a few minutes after injection. Electrophysiological assays conducted with pure Acra3, using cells that specifically expressed sodium channels (Nav1.1-Nav1.6) showed no clear effect. The exact molecular target of Acra3 remained undiscovered, similar to three other scorpion peptides that clustered very closely in the phylogenetic tree included here. The exact target of these four peptides is not very clear.

  3. An in vitro comparative study upon the toxic properties of the venoms from Hemiscorpius lepturus, Androctonus crassicauda and Mesobuthus eupeus scorpions.

    PubMed

    Khodadadi, Ali; Pipelzadeh, Mohammad Hassan; Vazirianzadeh, Babak; Pipelzadeh, Mahsa; Sharifat, Mossa

    2012-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the toxic effects of the venoms from Hemiscorpius lepturus (H. lepturus), Androctonus crassicauda (A. crassicauda) and Mesobuthus eupeus (M. eupeus). For this purpose, three in vitro models were employed to compare the toxic effects of various concentrations of the venoms from these three scorpions, namely: hemolytic potential using human RBCs, phospholipase activity using Saubouraud's dextrose agar (SDA) supplemented with 2% egg yolk and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) enzyme releasing effect using K562 leukemia cell line. In addition, the neutralizing effectiveness of the antivenom against these toxic properties was assessed. The results showed that, unlike the venoms from A. crassicauda and M. eupeus, the venom from H. lepturus produced dose-dependent lysis of human RBCs and showed phospholipase activity. However, all the tested venoms showed variable degrees of LDH releasing properties. The venom from H. lepturus had highest and the venom from M. eupeus had the lowest LDH releasing effect. The antivenom effectively inhibited all the tested toxicities. In conclusion, these results suggest that the venoms from the studied scorpions have variable toxic properties, which may explain the underlying reason for the differences in their clinical manifestations. In addition, the antivenom was effective in neutralizing all the tested toxic effects.

  4. Olivier Chesneau's Work on Novae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millour, F.; Lagadec, E.

    2015-12-01

    Olivier Chesneau founded a brand new field of observational astrophysics with his attempts to resolve the novae expanding fireball from the very first days of the explosion. With the images he could get, he showed that novae do indeed explode in an aspherical way, leading to a change of paradigm for the physics of these yet-poorly understood catastrophic systems. He also set the stage for a new way of estimating novae distances, by directly measuring the sky-size of the fireball and comparing it with spectroscopic scales, taking into account the tremendous effects of the fireball geometry.

  5. Morphological and molecular observations on the status of Crassicauda magna, a parasite of the subcutaneous tissues of the pygmy sperm whale, with a re-evaluation of the systematic relationships of the genus Crassicauda.

    PubMed

    Jabbar, Abdul; Beveridge, Ian; Bryant, Malcolm S

    2015-03-01

    Members of the genus Crassicauda (Nematoda: Spirurida) are parasites of the body tissues of whales and dolphins. Owing to the large size of worms and difficulties in the recovery of entire nematodes from the tissues of hosts, limited information is available on morphological descriptions of both male and female worms. Furthermore, there are currently no available sequence data for this genus to assist with such identifications. This paper describes for the first time features of the anterior extremity and the male tail of Crassicauda magna, suggesting that Crassicauda duguyi may be a synonym of this species. In addition, molecular data are presented for the genus for the first time suggesting that the genus belongs within the superfamily Acuarioidea rather than within the Habronematoidea, in which it is currently placed.

  6. Olivier Chesneau's Work on Low Mass Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagadec, E.

    2015-12-01

    During his too short career, Olivier Chesneau pioneered the study of the circumstellar environments of low mass evolved stars using very high angular resolution techniques. He applied state of the art high angular resolution techniques, such as optical interferometry and adaptive optics imaging, to the the study of a variety of objects, from AGB stars to Planetary Nebulae, via e.g. Born Again stars, RCB stars and Novae. I present here an overview of this work and most important results by focusing on the paths he followed and key encounters he made to reach these results. Olivier liked to work in teams and was very strong at linking people with complementary expertises to whom he would communicate his enthusiasm and sharp ideas. His legacy will live on through the many people he inspired.

  7. Olivier Chesneau's Work on Massive Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millour, F.

    2015-12-01

    Olivier Chesneau challenged several fields of observational stellar astrophysics with bright ideas and an impressive amount of work to make them real in the span of his career, from his first paper on P Cygni in 2000, up to his last one on V838 Mon in 2014. He was using all the so-called high-angular resolution techniques since it helped his science to be made, namely study in details the inner structure of the environments around stars, be it small mass (AGBs), more massive (supergiant stars), or explosives (Novae). I will focus here on his work on massive stars.

  8. Verminous Arteritis Due to Crassicauda sp. in Cuvier's Beaked Whales (Ziphius Cavirostris).

    PubMed

    Díaz-Delgado, J; Fernández, A; Xuriach, A; Sierra, E; Bernaldo de Quirós, Y; Mompeo, B; Pérez, L; Andrada, M; Marigo, J; Catão-Dias, J L; Groch, K R; Edwards, J F; Arbelo, M

    2016-11-01

    The vascular system of Cuvier's beaked whales (CBW) (Ziphius cavirostris; family Ziphiidae), an extremely deep, prolonged-diving cetacean, is increasingly receiving anatomic and physiologic study due to possible anthropogenic interactions; however, vascular pathology rarely has been reported in this species. Thirteen CBW stranded in the Canary Islands from June 2008 to June 2014 were autopsied. A careful dissection of the thoracic and abdominal vasculature was performed on these animals. All had moderate to severe and extensive chronic fibrosing arteritis with aneurysms, hemorrhages, and thrombosis primarily involving the mesenteric and gastroepiploic arteries and the thoracic and abdominal aorta. Microscopically, the lesions varied from subacute subintimal hemorrhages and severe neutrophilic, eosinophilic, and histiocytic dissecting arteritis with intralesional nematode larvae to marked, chronic, fibrosing arteritis with thickening and distortion of the vascular wall with calcification and occasional cartilage metaplasia. In addition, adult nematodes in renal arteries and veins, renal parenchyma and/or ureter were identified morphologically as Crassicauda sp. Nucleic acid sequenced from renal nematodes from 2 animals yielded closest nucleotide identity to C. magna The pathogenesis is proposed to involve a host response to larval migration from the intestine to the kidney through the mesenteric arteries, abdominal aorta, and renal arteries. Severe consequences for such lesions are possible and could vary from reduced vascular compliance to chronic renal disease and predisposition to the development of disseminated intravascular coagulation and multiorgan failure. Severe chronic arteritis in CBW is associated with renal parasitism by Crassicauda spp.

  9. Deep intraspecific divergences in the medically relevant fat-tailed scorpions (Androctonus, Scorpiones).

    PubMed

    Coelho, P; Sousa, P; Harris, D J; van der Meijden, A

    2014-06-01

    The genus Androctonus, commonly known as fat-tailed scorpions, contains 22 species distributed from Togo and Mauritania in the west, North Africa, through the Middle East and to as far east as India. With 13 species, a substantial amount of this genus' diversity occurs in North Africa, which is a major hotspot of scorpion sting incidents. Androctonus are among the most medically relevant animals in North Africa. Since venom composition within species is known to vary regionally, the improvement of therapeutic management depends on a correct assessment of the existing regional specific and sub-specific variation. In this study, we assessed the phylogeographical patterns in six species of Androctonus scorpions from North Africa using mitochondrial DNA markers. We sequenced COX1, 12S, 16S and ND1 genes from 110 individuals. Despite lacking basal resolution in the tree, we found taxonomical and geographically coherent clades. We discovered deep intraspecific variation in the widespread Androctonus amoreuxi and Androctonus australis, which consisted of several well-supported clades. Genetic distances between some of these clades are as high as those found between species. North African A. australis have a deep split in Tunisia around the Chott el-Djerid salt-lake. A novel split between A. amoreuxi scorpions was found in Morocco. We also found deep divergences in Androctonus mauritanicus, corresponding to areas attributed to invalidated subspecies. In addition we uncovered a clade of specimens from coastal south Morocco, which could not be ascribed to any know species using morphological characters. Based on these findings we recommend a reassessment of venom potency and anti-venom efficacy between these deep intraspecific divergent clades.

  10. Screening of upregulated genes induced by high density in the vetch aphid Megoura crassicauda.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Asano; Ishikawa, Yuki; Okada, Yasukazu; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Miyakawa, Hitoshi; Koshikawa, Shigeyuki; Brisson, Jennifer A; Miura, Toru

    2012-03-01

    Aphids exhibit several polyphenisms in which discontinuous, alternative phenotypes are produced depending on environmental conditions. One representative example is the wing polyphenism, where winged and wingless females are produced through parthenogenesis. Previous work has shown that, in some aphid species, the density condition sensed by the mother aphid determines the developmental fate of embryos in her ovary, with high densities leading to winged progeny and low densities to wingless progeny. However, little is known about the molecular and physiological mechanisms underlying the wing polyphenism. To identify genes involved in the wing-morph determination in the vetch aphid, Megoura crassicauda, we compared maternal and embryonic transcripts between high- and low-density conditions using differential display, followed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Under the high-density condition, two genes (Uba1 and Naca) were found to be upregulated in maternal tissues without ovaries, while one gene (ClpP) was upregulated in ovaries containing embryos. Uba1 and Naca encode factors that function in protein modification or transcriptional/translational regulation, respectively. In addition to differential display, candidate gene approaches focusing on morphogenetic and endocrine genes, i.e., wg, dpp, ap, hh, InR, IRS, Foxo, EcR, and USP, were also carried out. We found that wg was upregulated in maternal tissues under the high-density condition. The identified genes from both approaches are candidates for further study of their involvement in the transduction of density signals in mother aphids and/or the initial process of wing differentiation in embryos.

  11. [Scorpion envenomation in Morocco: scorpions of the genus Androctonus, Buthus and Hottentota].

    PubMed

    Aboumaâd, B; Iba, N; Dersi, N

    2014-02-01

    Around the world and especially in summer, the scorpion envenomation is a real public health problem. In Morocco, its gravity is due to the diversity of genera of the Buthidae family whose their venom is potentially lethal, mainly the genus Androctonus, Buthus and Hottentota. The areas most affected by this problematic are the central and southern of Morocco. The lethality of scorpion's venom primarily affects children. It is rich in neurotoxic polypeptides that have targeted ion channel membrane Na(+), K(+) activated or not by Ca(++). The toxins polymorphism causes pathophysiological disorders. The diversity of symptomatic treatment in the absence of immunotherapy is due to variability in clinical pictures, which depends on the species involved and the patient at risk. The objective of this review is to highlight the magnitude of the scorpion envenomation by describing its epidemiological characteristics, elucidate the pathophysiological effects of the venom of the most dangerous scorpions in Morocco the genus Androctonus, Buthus and Hottentota, and their therapeutic treatment.

  12. Pathophysiological and neurobehavioral injuries in mice experimentally envenomed with Androctonus liouvillei (Pallary, 1928) scorpion venom.

    PubMed

    El Hidan, Moulay Abdelmonaim; Touloun, Oulaid; El Hiba, Omar; Boumezzough, Ali

    2016-01-01

    The genus Androctonus is represented by 7 scorpion species in Morocco. All studies conducted on the characterization of Androctonus species venom are limited to Androctonus mauritanicus. However, there is other species which arouses also interest of scientists due to their high toxicity. Thus, we chose to assess the toxic effect of Androctonus liouvillei venom by sublethal injection and the effects on some vital organs, by a histological and a biochemical tools. In addition, we aimed to characterize the neurobehavioral impairments, in Swiss mice, 3h, 6h and 12h following envenomation. The LD50 of A. liouvillei scorpion venom was found to be 0.29mg/kg by subcutaneous injection route. Venom administration induced glomerular destruction and disorganization in the Bowman's spac. Examination of lungs showed a remarkable focal rupture of the alveolar structure and intra-alveolar hemorrhage. Concurrently, there was a significant enhancement in the serum enzymes levels of AST, ALT, CPK and LDH, and a high level of glucose and creatinine. Proteinuria was also observed. Regarding the behavioral effects we noted a hypoactivity and anxiogenic-like effect, manifested by an increased time spent in the open arms in groups tested 30min and 12h after the injection. Concomitantly with an increased immobility time in the tail suspension test. The present finding show an obvious profound neuromodulatory effect of A. liouvillei venom manifested by an impaired neurobehavioral and physiological patterns in mice that may in part explain the toxic effect of the venom in human as one of the potent death agents.

  13. Pharmacognostic studies of insect gall of Quercus infectoria Olivier (Fagaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Savitri; Kaushik, Vasuki Srinivas; Eshwarappa, Ravi Shankara Birur; Subaramaihha, Sundara Rajan; Ramanna, Latha Muuaiah; Lakkappa, Dhananjaya Bhadrapura

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the detailed pharmacognostic profile of galls of Quercus infectoria Olivier (Q. infectoria olivier) (Fagaceae), an important medicinal plant used in the Indian system of medicine. Methods Samples of galls of Q. infectoria were studied by macroscopical, microscopical, physiochemical, phytochemical, fluorescence analysis and othjer methods for standardization as recommended by WHO. Results Macroscopically, the crude drug is globose with horny appearances on external surface (1.4-2.3 cm in length and 1-1.5 cm in diameter), with greyish-brown to brownish-black in colour externally and dark brown buff colored. Surface is smooth with numerous horny protuberances giving rough touch, and with unpleasant odour. Microscopically, a wide zone of radially elongated parenchyma cells between upper and lower epidermis were found. The vascular strands were present at all places and radially elongated sclerides touched the lower epidermis. In physico-chemical studies, the moisture, total ash, acid insoluble ash, alcohol soluble, water soluble, petroleum ether, chloroform extractive value and tannin content were found to be 2.790, 5.020, 0.110, 38.780, 41.210, 0.402, 1.590 and 49.200 percentage respectively. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of phenols, flavonoids, steroids, triterpenes, tannins, saponins and alkaloids. Conclusions The results of the present study serve as a valuable source of information and provide suitable standards for identification of this medicinally important plant drug material for future investigations and applications. PMID:24144128

  14. Mitochondrial 16S rDNA analysis of Tunisian androctonus species (Scorpions, Buthidae): phylogenetic approach.

    PubMed

    Ben Othmen, A; Said, K; Ben Alp, Z; Chatti, N; Ready, P D

    2006-01-01

    Tunisian Androctonus species, for long time discussed, were recognized on the basis of mitochondrial 16S rDNA sequences. Although the analysed nucleotide sequence is rather short (about 300 bp), the obtained phlogenetic trees revealed that A. amoreuxi and A. aeneas form two well-supported sister clades against A. australis haplotypes. Each specimen of the very rare species A. aeneas showed a specific haplotype, but together formed a well-defined clade. Some A. amoreuxi specimens highlighted unidirectional mitochondrial introgression from neighbouring A. australis population. Within A. australis, previously described, subspecies subdivision (A. a .hector and A. a. garzonii) was not supported.

  15. The genus Scaphidium Olivier in East China (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Scaphidiinae)

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Liang; Li, Li-Zhen; He, Wen-Jia

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A review of 21 species of Scaphidium Olivier from East China is presented, including 6 new species: S. jinmingi sp. n. (Zhejiang, Anhui, Chongqing), S. crypticum sp. n. (Zhejiang, Fujian, Jiangxi, Guangxi), S. varifasciatum sp. n. (Zhejiang, An’hui), S. robustum sp. n. (Fujian, Guizhou, Chongqing, Guangxi, Yunnan), S. connexum sp. n. (Zhejiang, Fujian, Guangxi), and S. bayibini sp. n. (An’hui). New province records for S. comes Löbl, S. grande Gestro, S. sauteri Miwa & Mitono, S. formosanum Pic, S. carinense Achard, S. sinense Pic, S. delatouchei Achard, S. biwenxuani He, Tang & Li, S. klapperichi Pic, S. stigmatinotum Löbl, S. wuyongxiangi He, Tang & Li, and S. direptum Tang & Li as well as some biological notes are reported. Habitus and diagnostic characters of all species are photographed and a key to Scaphidium species of East China is provided. PMID:24843266

  16. Precursors of Androctonus australis Scorpion Neurotoxins. Structures of Precursors, Processing Outcomes, and Expression of a Functional Recombinant Toxin II

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-24

    as well as others lethal to either insects or crustaceans (5,6). During the last 30 years, numerous works have focused on the purification and...DISCUSSION The range of Androctonus australis is North Africa. The venoms of animals collected in Chellala ( Algeria ) and Tozeur (Tunisia) have been

  17. A hemiterpene glucoside as a probing deterrent of the bean aphid, Megoura crassicauda, from a non-host vetch, Vicia hirsuta.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Naohiro; Mori, Naoki; Kuwahara, Yasumasa; Nishida, Ritsuo

    2006-03-01

    The bean aphid, Megoura crassicauda Mordvilko, feeds selectively on plants belonging to the genus Vicia (Fabaceae). However, it never infests the tiny vetch, V. hirsuta (L.) Gray. The aphid appeared to discriminate between host and non-host plants by tasting specific chemicals during penetration of its stylet into the plant tissues. The aphid, after being stimulated by specific probing stimulants, deposited characteristic proteinous stylet sheaths through a parafilm membrane, which has one side in contact with an extract solution of Vicia angustifolia. However, an addition of a V. hirsuta extract to the medium strongly inhibited the salivary sheath formation. A specific probing deterrent was isolated from a V. hirsuta extract by monitoring the inhibitory effect, and identified as (E)-2-methyl-2-butene-1,4-diol 4-O-beta-d-glucopyranoside. A mixture of the glycoside and the stimulatory V. angustifolia fraction in the same equivalency found in plants significantly decreased the probing activity in M. crassicauda. Since the stylet insertion process is a crucial step for the aphid's settlement on a plant, the glycoside seems to act as an effective chemical barrier for V. hirsuta.

  18. Antileishmanial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic activities of Quercus infectoria Olivier extract.

    PubMed

    Kheirandish, Farnaz; Delfan, Bahram; Mahmoudvand, Hossein; Moradi, Nasim; Ezatpour, Behrouz; Ebrahimzadeh, Farzad; Rashidipour, Marzieh

    2016-08-01

    Currently, there is no effective vaccine available, and chemotherapy is the main approach for treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). During recent decades, studies have demonstrated that a number of plant-derived compounds may act as new therapeutic tools against leishmaniasis. This study was evaluated the antileishmanial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic activities of Quercus infectoria Olivier (oak) extract. The total amount of phenolic and flavonoid compounds was measured in oak extract. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis was also performed to determine the amount of quercetin and gallic acid in this plant. This extract (0-80g/mL) was evaluated in vitro against promastigote and intracellular amastigote forms of Leishmania major (MRHO/IR/75/ER) using MTT assay and in a macro-phage model, respectively. Then oak extract was tested on CL in infected male BALB/c mice with L. major in order to evaluate the antileishmanial activity topically. Moreover, cytotoxicity effects of oak in murine macrophage cells were tested by MTT assay. Antioxidative activity of oak was also determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1,1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging test. The amount of phenolic and flavonoid compounds in the oak extract was 57.50 and 1.86%, respectively. The amount of quercetin and gallic acid in the oak extract was 0.0064 and 0.22%, respectively. The findings revealed that oak significantly (P<0.05) inhibited the growth rate of promastigote of (IC50 12.65μg/mL) and amastigotes (IC50 10.31μg/mL) as a dose-dependent response. In the in vivo assay, after 4 weeks of treatment, 91.6, 66.66, and 50% recovery was observed in the infected mice treated with 20, 10, and 5mg/kg of oak extract, respectively. After treatment of the infected mice with the concentration of 10 and 20mg/kg of oak, the mean diameter of lesions, parasite load and mean number of parasites was significantly (P<0.05) reduced. Selectivity index of greater than 10 for oak revealed that oak extract had

  19. Amino acid sequence of neurotoxin III of the scorpion Androctonus austrialis Hector.

    PubMed

    Kopeyan, C; Martinez, G; Rochat, H

    1979-03-01

    The amino acid sequence of neurotoxin III, purified from the venom of the North African scorpion Androctonus australis Hector, has been determined by Edman degradation using a liquid-phase sequencer. Carboxypeptidase A hydrolyses confirmed not only the sequence of the five last residues but also the presence of a free alpha-carboxylic group at the C-terminus. Edman degradation was conducted on one hand with the Quadrol [N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-hydroxypropyl)ethylene diamine] program and S-alkylated protein before or after coupling with sulfophenylisothiocynate (the first 34 residues were thus identified), on the other hand on tryptic and chymotryptic peptides with a dimethylbenzylamine program (residues 1--23 and 31--34 were confirmed, the positions of residues 35-64 were established). Neurotoxin III was found to belong to the same group of scorpion toxins active on mammals as neurotoxin I purified from the same venom (50 homologous positions exist in the two proteins).

  20. Androctonus australis hector venom contributes to the interaction between neuropeptides and mast cells in pulmonary hyperresponsiveness.

    PubMed

    Chaïr-Yousfi, Imène; Laraba-Djebari, Fatima; Hammoudi-Triki, Djelila

    2015-03-01

    Lung injury and respiratory distress syndrome are frequent symptoms observed in the most severe cases of scorpion envenomation. The uncontrolled transmigration of leukocyte cells into the lung interstitium and alveolar space and pulmonary edema may be the cause of death. Mast cells can release various inflammatory mediators known to be involved in the development of lung edema following scorpion venom injection. The present study was designed to determine the evidence of neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptor and the involvement of mast cell activation to induce pulmonary edema and to increase vascular permeability after Androctonus australis hector (Aah) venom administration. To this end, mast cells were depleted using compound 48/80 (C48/80). Furthermore, the involvement of tachykinin NK1 receptors expressed on mast cell membranes was elucidated by their blocking with an antagonist. On the other hand, the ability of Aah venom to increase vascular permeability and to induce edema was also assessed by measuring the amount of Evans blue dye (EBD) extravasation in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and in the lungs of mice. Pulmonary edema, as assessed by the levels of EBD extravasation, was completely inhibited in compound 48/80-treated animals. Depletion by stimuli non-immunological C48/80 component markedly reduced induced inflammatory response following the venom administration. The mast cells seem to play an important role in the development of lung injury and the increase of vascular permeability in mice following the subcutaneous administration of Aah scorpion venom through the NK1 receptor.

  1. Methodology for determining susceptibility of rough rice to Rhyzopertha dominica (L.) and Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Varieties of rough rice, Oryzae sativa (L)., were obtained from different sources in the south-central United States and evaluated for susceptibility to the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (Fab.), and the Angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier), in laboratory studies. Adult R. ...

  2. Clinical comparison of scorpion envenomation by Androctonus mauritanicus and Buthus occitanus in children.

    PubMed

    Aboumaâd, Bouchra; Lahssaini, Mohammed; Tiger, Abdelaziz; Benhassain, Sidi Mohammed

    2014-11-01

    The clinical results of scorpion stings by Androctonus mauritanicus (Am) and Buthus occitanus (Bo) (main sources of scorpionism in Morocco) were evaluated in this work. The objective was to compare the clinical manifestations of envenoming from these species by investigating possible correlations among symptoms/signs and laboratory abnormalities of envenomed patients. 41 children (25 males, 18 months - 11 years) were admitted at the Provincial Hospital of El Jadida-Morocco. Their minor (18 children) or severe (23 children) systemic signs such as pallor (48.8%), pulmonary edema (APE) (36.6%), convulsion (26.8%), coma (7.3%) were more frequent in children envenomed by Am than Bo, but angioedema (Quincke's edema) (4.9%) was particularly developed in the latter group. The laboratory blood abnormalities (hyperglycemia, high levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatinine, bilirubin, leukocytes, neutrophils, monocytes, platelets and low levels of lymphocytes and hemoglobin) were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in patients envenomed by Am than Bo, and in all population in comparison to control group. The correlation among these biological analyzes and clinical status showed that higher levels of LDH and value of leukocytes ≥19 × 10(3)/mm(3) were indices of cardiac dysfunction with APE. Pallor sign was correlated with a state of shock and/or low level of hemoglobin, associated or not to bilirubin increase. Fatalities (7.3%), presenting toxic myocarditis, had lowest count of lymphocytes (≤4.2%) in comparison to survivors. This is the first report on lymphopenia which may be useful for forecast the fatal outcome in scorpion envenomation.

  3. Toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic analyses of Androctonus australis hector venom in rats: Optimization of antivenom therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Hammoudi-Triki, D.; Lefort, J.; Rougeot, C.; Robbe-Vincent, A.; Bon, C.; Laraba-Djebari, F.; Choumet, V. . E-mail: vchoumet@pasteur.fr

    2007-02-01

    This paper reports the simultaneous determination of toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic properties of Androctonus australis hector venom, in the absence and presence of antivenom (F(ab'){sub 2} and Fab), in envenomed rats. After subcutaneous injection of the venom, toxins showed a complete absorption phase from the site of injection associated with a distribution into a large extravascular compartment. The injection of Fab and F(ab'){sub 2} induced the neutralization of venom antigens in the blood compartment, as well as the redistribution of venom components from the extravascular compartment to the blood compartment. Interestingly, F(ab'){sub 2} and Fab showed distinct efficiencies depending on their route of injection. F(ab'){sub 2} induced a faster venom neutralization and redistribution than Fab when injected intravenously. Fab was more effective than F(ab'){sub 2} by the intramuscular route. The hemodynamic effects of Aah venom were further investigated. Changes in mean arterial pressure and heart rate were observed in parallel with an upper airway obstruction. Fab was more effective than F(ab'){sub 2} for preventing early symptoms of envenomation, whatever their route of administration. Intraperitoneal injection of F(ab'){sub 2} and Fab was similar for the prevention of the delayed symptoms, even after a late administration. Fab was more effective than F(ab'){sub 2} in the inhibition of airway resistance, independent of the route and time of administration. These results show that the treatment for scorpion stings might be improved by the intravascular injection of a mixture of Fab and F(ab'){sub 2}. If antivenom cannot be administered intravenously, Fab might be an alternative as they are more effective than F(ab'){sub 2} when injected intramuscularly.

  4. Structure-function relationships in scorpion neurotoxins. Identification of the supperreactive lysine residue in toxin I of Androctonus australis Hector.

    PubMed

    Sampieri, F; Habersetzer-Rochat, C

    1978-07-21

    In a previous article (Habersetzer-Rochat, C. and Sampieri, R. (1976) Biochemistry 15, 2254--2261) it was demonstrated that the toxin I of the North African Scorpion Androctonus australis Hector was inactivated after reaction with iodoacetate; the toxicity loss in mice was correlated with the carboxymethylation of one superreactive residue. In the present work, alkylation of toxin I was performed with iodo[14C]-acetate. Hence, it was possible, after reduction, S-methylation and chymotryptic hydrolysis of this toxin, to isolate the peptide containing the labelled lysine residue. By automatic Edman degradation, this residue was identified as being the penultimate lysine at position 56 in the primary sequence. Comparison of three primary structures of scorpion neurotoxins and comparison in different kinds of activity seem to indicate that this lysine residue is mainly important for toxicity in mice.

  5. Characterization of Am IT, an anti-insect β-toxin isolated from the venom of scorpion Androctonus mauretanicus.

    PubMed

    Oukkache, Naoual; ElJaoudi, Rachid; Chgoury, Fatima; Rocha, Marisa Teixeira; Sabatier, Jean-Marc

    2015-06-25

    In the present study, a 'novel' toxin, called Am IT from the venom of scorpion Androctonus mauretanicus is isolated and characterized. A detailed analysis of the action of Am IT on insect axonal sodium currents is reported. Am IT was purified through gel filtration followed by C18 reversed-phase HPLC. Toxicity of Am IT in vivo was assessed on male German cockroach (Blattella germanica) larvae and C57/BL6 mice. Cross-reactivity of Am IT with two β-toxins was evidenced using (125)I-iodinated toxin-based radioimmunoassays with synaptosomal preparations from rat brain. The complete amino acid sequence of Am IT was finally determined by Edman sequencing. Am IT was observed to compete with AaH IT4 purified from the venom of scorpion Androctonus australis in binding assays. It was recognized by an antibody raised against a β-type toxin, which indicated some structural similarity with β-toxins (or related toxin family). The 'novel' toxin exhibited dual activity since it competed with anti-mammal toxins in binding assays as well as showed contracting activity to insect. The toxin competed with radio-labeled β-toxin Css IV by binding to Na(+) channels of rat brain synaptosomes. Analysis of toxin amino acid sequences showed that Am IT shares high structural identity (92%) with AaH IT4. In conclusion, Am IT not only reveals an anti-insect compound properties secreted by 'Old World' scorpions, paralyzing insect larvae by binding to Na(+) channels on larvae's nerve-cell membranes, but also exerts toxic activity in mice, which is similar to anti-mammal toxins from 'New World' scorpions (North and South Americas). Therefore, Am IT appears to be structurally and functionally similar to AaH IT4.

  6. Influence of Life Diet on the Biology and Demographic Parameters of Agistemus olivi Romeih, a Specific Predator of Eriophyid Pest Mites (Acari: Stigmaeidae and Eriophyidae).

    PubMed

    Momen, Faten Mamdouh

    2012-05-01

    The influence of various life diets on the biology and demographic parameters of the predatory mite, Agistemus olivi Romeih, was studied under laboratory conditions. A. olivi successfully developed and reproduced on all of the tested eriophyid mites. Feeding on Aceria mangiferae Sayed enhanced the development of A. olivi, resulted in the shortest mean generation time and was the most commensurate food for the ovipostion of the predator, as exhibited by the highest fecundity and net reproductive rate. Preying on Aculops lycopersici (Massee) gave the lowest fecundity and net reproductive rate; therefore, this prey was the least suitable for the oviposition of A. olivi. Preying on Aculus fockeui (Nalepa et Trouessart) and A. mangiferae produced higher intrinsic rates of increase and finite rates of increase for the predator in comparison to A. lycopersici, which showed the lowest value. These differences in response to various eriophyid pests should be considered for the production of healthy cultures of A. olivi.

  7. Anti-proliferative Effects of Androctonus amoreuxi Scorpion and Cerastes cerastes Snake Venoms on Human Prostate Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Akef, Hassan; Kotb, Nahla; Abo-Elmatty, Dina; Salem, Sayed

    2017-01-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of Androctonus amoreuxi scorpion venom, Cerastes cerastes snake venom and their mixture on prostate cancer cells (PC3). An MTT assay was used to determine the anti-proliferative effect of the venoms, while quantitative real time PCR was used to evaluate the expression of apoptosis-related genes (Bax and Bcl-2). Furthermore, colorimetric assays were used to measure the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and antioxidant enzymes. Our results show that the venoms significantly reduced PC3 cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. On the other hand, these venoms significantly decreased Bcl-2 gene expression. Additionally, C. cerastes venom significantly reduced Bax gene expression, while A. amoreuxi venom and a mixture of A. amoreuxi & C. cerastes venoms did not alter Bax expression. Consequently, these venoms significantly increased the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and the oxidative stress biomarker MDA. Furthermore, these venoms also increased the activity levels of the antioxidant enzymes, catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione-S-transferase. Overall, the venoms have cytotoxic and anti-proliferative effects on PC3 cells. PMID:28382285

  8. Effect of Androctonus bicolor scorpion venom on serum electrolytes in rats: A 24-h time-course study.

    PubMed

    Al-Asmari, A; Khan, H A; Manthiri, R A

    2016-03-01

    Black fat-tailed scorpion (Androctonus bicolor) belongs to the family Buthidae and is one of the most venomous scorpions in the world. The effects of A. bicolor venom on serum electrolytes were not known and therefore investigated in this study. Adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into seven groups with five animals in each group. One of the groups served as control and received vehicle only. The animals in the remaining groups received a single subcutaneous injection of crude A. bicolor venom (200 μg/kg bodyweight) and were killed at different time intervals including 30 min, 1 h, 2 h, 4 h, 8 h, and 24 h after venom injection. The results showed that scorpion venom caused significant increase in serum sodium levels within 30 min after injection which slightly subsided after 1 h and then persisted over 24 h. Serum potassium levels continued to significantly increase until 4 h and then slightly subsided. There were significant decreases in serum magnesium (Mg(+)) levels following scorpion venom injection, at all the time points during the course of study. Serum calcium levels were significantly increased during the entire course of study, whereas serum chloride was significantly decreased. In conclusion, A. bicolor envenomation in rats caused severe and persistent hypomagnesemia with accompanied hypernatremia, hyperkalemia, and hypercalcemia. It is important to measure serum Mg(+) levels in victims of scorpion envenomation, and patients with severe Mg(+) deficiency should be treated accordingly.

  9. First chemical synthesis of a scorpion alpha-toxin affecting sodium channels: the Aah I toxin of Androctonus australis hector.

    PubMed

    M'Barek, Sarrah; Fajloun, Ziad; Cestèle, Sandrine; Devaux, Christiane; Mansuelle, Pascal; Mosbah, Amor; Jouirou, Besma; Mantegazza, Massimo; Van Rietschoten, Jurphaas; El Ayeb, Mohamed; Rochat, Hervé; Sabatier, Jean-Marc; Sampieri, François

    2004-11-01

    Aah I is a 63-residue alpha-toxin isolated from the venom of the Buthidae scorpion Androctonus australis hector, which is considered to be the most dangerous species. We report here the first chemical synthesis of Aah I by the solid-phase method, using a Fmoc strategy. The synthetic toxin I (sAah I) was renatured in DMSO-Tris buffer, purified and subjected to thorough analysis and comparison with the natural toxin. The sAah I showed physico-chemical (CD spectrum, molecular mass, HPLC elution), biochemical (amino-acid composition, sequence), immunochemical and pharmacological properties similar to those of the natural toxin. The synthetic toxin was recognized by a conformation-dependent monoclonal anti-Aah I antibody, with an IC50 value close to that for the natural toxin. Following intracerebroventricular injection, the synthetic and the natural toxins were similarly lethal to mice. In voltage-clamp experiments, Na(v) 1.2 sodium channel inactivation was inhibited by the application of sAah I or of the natural toxin in a similar way. This work describes a simple protocol for the chemical synthesis of a scorpion alpha-toxin, making it possible to produce structural analogues in time.

  10. Fast K(+) currents from cerebellum granular cells are completely blocked by a peptide purified from Androctonus australis Garzoni scorpion venom.

    PubMed

    Pisciotta, M; Coronas, F I; Bloch, C; Prestipino, G; Possani, L D

    2000-09-29

    A novel peptide was purified from the venom of the scorpion Androctonus australis Garzoni (abbreviated Aa1, corresponding to the systematic number alpha KTX4.4). It contains 37 amino acid residues, has a molecular mass of 3850 Da, is closely packed by three disulfide bridges and a blocked N-terminal amino acid. This peptide selectively affects the K(+) currents recorded from cerebellum granular cells. Only the fast activating and inactivating current, with a kinetics similar to I(A)-type current, is completely blocked by the addition of low micromolar concentrations (K(i) value of 150 nM) of peptide Aa1 to the external side of the cell preparation. The blockade is partially reversible in our experimental conditions. Aa1 blocks the channels in both the open and the closed states. The blockage is test potential independent and is not affected by changes in the holding potential. The kinetics of the current are not affected by the addition of Aa1 to the preparation; it means that the block is a simple 'plugging mechanism', in which a single toxin molecule finds a specific receptor site in the external vestibule of the K(+) channel and thereby occludes the outer entry to the K(+) conducting pore.

  11. Scorpion (Androctonus bicolor) venom exhibits cytotoxicity and induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in breast and colorectal cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Al-Asmari, Abdulrahman K.; Riyasdeen, Anvarbatcha; Abbasmanthiri, Rajamohamed; Arshaduddin, Mohammed; Al-Harthi, Fahad Ali

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The defective apoptosis is believed to play a major role in the survival and proliferation of neoplastic cells. Hence, the induction of apoptosis in cancer cells is one of the targets for cancer treatment. Researchers are considering scorpion venom as a potent natural source for cancer treatment because it contains many bioactive compounds. The main objective of the current study is to evaluate the anticancer property of Androctonus bicolor scorpion venom on cancer cells. Materials and Methods: Scorpions were milked by electrical stimulation of telsons and lyophilized. The breast (MDA-MB-231) and colorectal (HCT-8) cancer cells were maintained in appropriate condition. The venom cytotoxicity was assessed by 3-(4,5-di-methylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide assay, and the cellular and nuclear changes were studied with propidium iodide and 4’,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole stain, respectively. The cell cycle arrest was examined using muse cell analyzer. Results: The A. bicolor venom exerted cytotoxic effects on MDA-MB-231 and HCT-8 cells in a dose- and duration-dependent manner and induced apoptotic cell death. The treatment with this venom arrests the cancer cells in G0/G1 phase of cell cycle. Conclusions: The venom selectively induces the rate of apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 and HCT-8 cells as reflected by morphological and cell cycle studies. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first scientific evidence demonstrating the induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest by A. bicolor scorpion venom. PMID:27721540

  12. Antennal sensilla of Eucryptorrhynchus chinensis (Olivier) and Eucryptorrhynchus brandti (Harold) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Yu, Qian-Qian; Liu, Zhen-Kai; Chen, Chong; Wen, Junbao

    2013-09-01

    Eucryptorrhynchus chinensis (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and E. brandti (Harold) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) are the two most important pests of tree-of-heaven, Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle and its variety Ailanthus altissima var. Qiantouchun in China. They are also considered potential biological control agents for tree-of-heaven in North America. In this study, the external morphologies and antennal sensilla of both species were examined using scanning electron microscopy to better understand their host-finding mechanisms. Eleven morphological sensilla types were recorded, that is, Böhm bristles, six types of sensilla chaetica (Sch. 1-6), two types of sensilla basiconica (Sb. 1-2), and two types of sensilla trichodea (St. 1-2). Sch. 5 were absent from the antennae of E. chinensis, while Sch. 2 were absent from the antennae of E. brandti. Abundant cuticular pores were present on the antennae of both species. Three types of sensilla on the antennae of E. chinensis that were not found in a previous study, and ten different types of sensilla on the antennae of E. brandti were identified for the first time. The possible functions of the sensilla types are discussed based on a comparison with previous studies. Four types of sensilla (Sb. 1, Sb. 2, St. 2, and Sch. 6) on the antennae of both species indicate chemoreception may play a significant role in host location.

  13. An adaptive view of caste differentiation in the neotropical wasp Polybia (Trichothorax) sericea Olivier (Hymenoptera: Vespidae).

    PubMed

    Desuó, I C; Souza-Galheico, C B; Shima, S N; Santos, G M M; Cruz, J D; Bichara Filho, C C; Dias, C T S

    2011-01-01

    The tribe Epiponini comprehends the swarm-founding Neotropical wasps, with several species endemic to Brazil, which are extremely important in studies of social evolution of wasps. The Epiponini diverge in several ways from the definitions of high eusociality, since caste syndromes range from species without morphological caste differentiation to those with complete caste dimorphism, and all species are polygynous. Frequently, indirect studies based on morphometry and physiology are the only solutions to collect data regarding the natural history and caste system in this tribe, since most species are extremely aggressive and build enveloped nests, usually in places of difficult access. We analyzed morphological parameters in seven colonies of the Epiponini species Polybia (Trichothorax) sericea Olivier in different phases of colonial development. Nine body variables were taken and females were classified according to their ovary development and spermathecal contents. The results showed that caste differences in this species are based on a contrast among variables: queens have larger mesosoma and abdomen, but are smaller in head width and wing length. These results suggest that morphological caste differentiation in this species is based mainly on body shape. We considered this combination of characters as being adaptive. We also showed that caste differences varied according to the colony cycle, with more conspicuous differences when queen number is reduced.

  14. Transcriptome analysis of Phoenix canariensis Chabaud in response to Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier attacks

    PubMed Central

    Giovino, Antonio; Bertolini, Edoardo; Fileccia, Veronica; Al Hassan, Mohamad; Labra, Massimo; Martinelli, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Red Palm Weevil (RPW, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier) threatens most palm species worldwide. Until now, no studies have analyzed the gene regulatory networks of Phoenix canariensis (Chabaud) in response to RPW attacks. The aim of this study was to fill this knowledge gap. Providing this basic knowledge is very important to improve its management. Results: A deep transcriptome analysis was performed on fully expanded leaves of healthy non-infested trees and attacked trees at two symptom stages (middle and late infestation). A total of 54 genes were significantly regulated during middle stage. Pathway enrichment analysis showed that phenylpropanoid-related pathways were induced at this stage. More than 3300 genes were affected during late stage of attacks. Higher transcript abundances were observed for lipid fatty acid metabolism (fatty acid and glycerolipids), tryptophan metabolism, phenylpropanoid metabolism. Key RPW-modulated genes involved in innate response mediated by hormone crosstalk were observed belonging to auxin, jasmonate and salicylic acid (SA) pathways. Among transcription factors, some WRKYs were clearly induced. qRT-PCR validation confirmed the upregulation of key genes chosen as validation of transcriptomic analysis. Conclusion: A subset of these genes may be further analyzed in future studies to confirm their specificity to be induced by RPW infestations. PMID:26528297

  15. Characterization of Amm VIII from Androctonus mauretanicus mauretanicus: a new scorpion toxin that discriminates between neuronal and skeletal sodium channels.

    PubMed Central

    Alami, Meriem; Vacher, Hélène; Bosmans, Frank; Devaux, Christiane; Rosso, Jean-Pierre; Bougis, Pierre E; Tytgat, Jan; Darbon, Hervé; Martin-Eauclaire, Marie-France

    2003-01-01

    The venom of the scorpion Androctonus mauretanicus mauretanicus was screened by use of a specific serum directed against AaH II, the scorpion alpha-toxin of reference, with the aim of identifying new analogues. This led to the isolation of Amm VIII (7382.57 Da), which gave a highly positive response in ELISA, but was totally devoid of toxicity when injected subcutaneously into mice. In voltage-clamp experiments with rat brain type II Na+ channel rNa(v)1.2 or rat skeletal muscle Na+ channel rNa(v)1.4, expressed in Xenopus oocytes, the EC50 values of the toxin-induced slowing of inactivation were: 29+/-5 and 416+/-14 nM respectively for AmmVIII and 2.6+/-0.3 nM and 2.2+/-0.2 nM, respectively, for AaH II interactions. Accordingly, Amm VIII clearly discriminates neuronal versus muscular Na+ channel. The Amm VIII cDNA was amplified from a venom gland cDNA library and its oligonucleotide sequence determined. It shows 87% sequence homology with AaH II, but carries an unusual extension at its C-terminal end, consisting of an additional Asp due to a point mutation in the cDNA penultimate codon. We hypothesized that this extra amino acid residue could induce steric hindrance and dramatically reduce recognition of the target by Amm VIII. We constructed a model of Amm VIII based on the X-ray structure of AaH II to clarify this point. Molecular modelling showed that this C-terminal extension does not lead to an overall conformational change in Amm VIII, but drastically modifies the charge repartition and, consequently, the electrostatic dipole moment of the molecule. At last, liquid-phase radioimmunassays with poly- and monoclonal anti-(AaH II) antibodies showed the loss of conformational epitopes between AaH II and Amm VIII. PMID:12911331

  16. Revisional studies on the Luciolinae fireflies of Asia (Coleoptera: Lampyridae): 1. The genus Pyrophanes Olivier with two new species. 2. Four new species of Pteroptyx Olivier and 3. A new genus Inflata Boontop, with redescription of Luciola indica (Motsch.) as Inflata indica comb. nov.

    PubMed

    Ballantyne, Lesley; Lambkin, Christine L; Boontop, Yuvarin; Jusoh, Wan F A

    2015-05-20

    The Luciolinae firefly genus Pyrophanes is redescribed and a key is provided for 7 species, viz. appendiculata Olivier, beccarii Olivier, quadrimaculata Olivier, semilimbata (Olivier) and similis Olivier, with Py. elongata Ballantyne sp. nov. and Py. similisimma Ballantyne sp. nov. described as new. Macropterous females associated for several species have 2 pairs of broad bursa plates. Following an enlarged phylogenetic analysis of morphological characters, an expanded generic description of Pteroptyx Olivier now accommodates four new species with metafemoral combs. Three of these have an entire light organ in ventrite 7 but are without the generic hallmark of deflexed elytral apices in the male. The first species of Pteroptyx to possess these features are Pt. sayangia Ballantyne sp. nov., Pt. galbina Jusoh sp. nov. and Pt. surabayia Ballantyne sp. nov. Based on a single unusual specimen Pt. gombakia Ballantyne sp. nov. is here described with deflexed elytral apices and bipartite light organ in ventrite 7, but with exceptional incurving lobes along the posterior margin of ventrite 7, which is a characteristic of Pyrophanes. The description of Luciola testacea Motschulsky is discussed and many morphological characters of its type specimen are correctly outlined. Its place as the type for Pteroptyx is addressed. Inflata gen. nov. Boontop is erected for specimens of Luciola indica Motschulsky as Inflata indica (Motsch.) comb. nov., and is described from males and reliably associated females. Discussion overviews the present situation regarding Luciolinae taxonomy of southeast Asian and the Australopacific regions.

  17. Wheat cultivars affecting life history and digestive amylolytic activity of Sitotroga cerealella Olivier (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    PubMed

    Borzoui, E; Naseri, B

    2016-08-01

    The life history and digestive α-amylase activity of the Angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella Olivier (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) were studied on six wheat cultivars (Arg, Bam, Nai 60, Pishtaz, Sepahan and Shanghai) at 25 ± 1°C, relative humidity of 65 ± 5% and a photoperiod of 16:8 (L:D) h. A delay in the developmental time of S. cerealella immature stages was detected when larvae were fed on cultivar Sepahan. The maximum survival rate of immature stages was seen on cultivar Bam (93.33 ± 2.10%), and the minimum rates were on cultivars Nai 60 (54.66 ± 2.49%) and Sepahan (49.33 ± 4.52%). The highest realized fecundity and fertility were recorded for females which came from larvae fed on cultivar Bam (93.30 ± 2.10 eggs/female and 91.90 ± 3.10%, respectively); and the lowest ones were observed for females which came from larvae fed on cultivar Sepahan (49.30 ± 4.50 eggs/female and 67.4 ± 11.1%, respectively). The heaviest male and female weights of S. cerealella were observed on cultivar Bam (2.97 ± 0.02 and 4.80 ± 0.01 mg, respectively). The highest amylolytic activity of the fourth instar was detected on cultivar Bam (0.89 ± 0.04 mg maltose min-1), which had the maximum mean hundred-wheat weight (5.92 ± 0.19 g). One α-amylase isozyme was detected in the midgut extracts from the fourth instar larvae fed on different wheat cultivars, and the highest intensity was found in larvae fed on cultivar Bam. Correlation analyses showed that very high correlations existed between the immature period, fecundity and fertility on one side and inhibition of α-amylase, soluble starch content and hundred-wheat weight on the other. According to the obtained results, cultivar Sepahan is an unfavorable host for the feeding and development of S. cerealella.

  18. First field collection of the Rough Sweetpotato Weevil, Blosyrus asellus(Olivier)(Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on Hawaii Island, with notes on detection methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rough sweetpotato weevil, Blosyrus asellus(Olivier)(Coleoptera: Curculionidae), was first detected in the state of Hawaii at a commercial Okinawan sweetpotato farm in Waipio, Oahu, on 14 November 2008. Reported here is, the first detection of this pest in sweetpotato fields on the island of Hawaii (...

  19. Studies on South-east Asian fireflies: Abscondita, a new genus with details of life history, flashing patterns and behaviour of Abs. chinensis (L.) and Abs. terminalis (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Lampyridae: Luciolinae).

    PubMed

    Ballantyne, Lesley; Fu, Xinhua; Lambkin, Christine; Jeng, Ming-Luen; Faust, Lynn; Wijekoon, M C D; Li, Daiqin; Zhu, Tengfui

    2013-01-01

    Abscondita, a new genus of fireflies from South-east Asia, is described from males and females of Abs. anceyi (Olivier 1883), Abs. cerata (Olivier 1911), Abs. chinensis (L. 1767), Abs. perplexa (Walker 1858), Abs. promelaena (Walker 1858) and Abs. terminalis (Olivier 1883), all transferred from Luciola Laporte. Both L. dubia Olivier 1903 and L. dejeani Gemminger 1870 are synonymised with Luciola perplexa (Walker), and L. aegrota Olivier 1891 and L. melaspis Bourgeois 1909 with L. promelaena Walker. Females are characterised by their bursa plates. Larvae are associated and described for Abs. anceyi (Olivier), Abs. chinensis (L.) and Abs. terminalis (Olivier). Taxonomic issues regarding the identification of species with very similar colouration of pale dorsum and black tipped elytra are addressed and in some cases resolved. A neotype for Luciola chinensis (L.) is erected and Luciola praeusta (Kiesenwetter 1874) is synonymised with L. chinensis (L.). Descriptions of life histories, biology and flashing patterns of populations of Abs. chinensis and Abs. terminalis from central China are included. A bs. terminalis is the first Asian firefly known to possess multiple flash trains where males are documented to display with repeating flash trains.

  20. Inhibition of human Kv3.1 current expressed in Xenopus oocytes by the toxic venom fraction of Androctonus australis hector.

    PubMed

    Cheikh, Amani; Benkhalifa, Rym; Landoulsi, Zied; Chatti, Imen; Ayeb, Mohamed El

    2014-11-01

    AahG50, the toxic fraction of Androctonus australis hector venom, was studied on human Kv3.1 channels activation, stably expressed in Xenopus oocytes using the two-electrode voltage clamp technique. AahG50 reduced Kv3.1 currents in a reversible concentration-dependent manner, with an IC50 value and a Hill coefficient of 40.4 ± 0.2 μg/ml and 1.3 ± 0.05, respectively. AahG50 inhibited IKv3.1 without modifying the current activation kinetics. The AahG50-induced inhibition of Kv3.1 channels was voltage-dependent, with a gradual increase at lower concentrations and over the voltage range of channels opening. However, at higher concentrations, the inhibition exhibited voltage dependence only in the first range of channels opening from -20 to +10 mV, but demonstrates a low degree of voltage-dependence when channels are fully activated. In the literature, toxins have previously been isolated from AahG50, KAaH1 and KAaH2 and were reported not to have any effect on IKv3.1. The present article's findings suggest that AahG50 may contain a peptidic component active on Kv3.1 channels, which inhibits IKv3.1 in a selective manner.

  1. Antimicrobial/cytolytic peptides from the venom of the North African scorpion, Androctonus amoreuxi: biochemical and functional characterization of natural peptides and a single site-substituted analog.

    PubMed

    Almaaytah, Ammar; Zhou, Mei; Wang, Lei; Chen, Tianbao; Walker, Brian; Shaw, Chris

    2012-06-01

    The venoms of scorpions are complex cocktails of polypeptide toxins that fall into two structural categories: those that contain cysteinyl residues with associated disulfide bridges and those that do not. As the majority of lethal toxins acting upon ion channels fall into the first category, most research has been focused there. Here we report the identification and structural characterization of two novel 18-mer antimicrobial peptides from the venom of the North African scorpion, Androctonus amoreuxi. Named AamAP1 and AamAP2, both peptides are C-terminally amidated and differ in primary structure at just two sites: Leu-->Pro at position 2 and Phe-->Ile at position 17. Synthetic replicates of both peptides exhibited a broad-spectrum of antimicrobial activity against a Gram-positive bacterium (Staphylococcus aureus), a Gram-negative bacterium (Escherichia coli) and a yeast (Candida albicans), at concentrations ranging between 20 μM and 150 μM. In this concentration range, both peptides produced significant degrees of hemolysis. A synthetic replicate of AamAP1 containing a single substitution (His-->Lys) at position 8, generated a peptide (AamAP-S1) with enhanced antimicrobial potency (3-5 μM) against the three test organisms and within this concentration range, hemolytic effects were negligible. In addition, this His-->Lys variant exhibited potent growth inhibitory activity (ID(50) 25-40 μm) against several human cancer cell lines and endothelial cells that was absent in both natural peptides. Natural bioactive peptide libraries, such as those that occur in scorpion venoms, thus constitute a unique source of novel lead compounds with drug development potential whose biological properties can be readily manipulated by simple synthetic chemical means.

  2. Enhancement of long-lasting immunoprotective effect against Androctonus australis hector envenomation using safe antigens: Comparative role of MF59 and Alum adjuvants.

    PubMed

    Nouri, Abdelmounaim; Laraba-Djebari, Fatima

    2015-10-26

    Envenomation is a public health problem in many regions of the world. The only available treatment is the serotherapy that has limited efficiency due to the delay of its administration. The goal of this study is to provide a new and more efficient alternative to this treatment. A comparative study of the effects of two adjuvants in their ability to enhance the efficiency of the detoxified and safe antigens to produce a long lasting immunoprotection is undertaken using Aluminum Hydroxide adjuvant (Alum) or the water-in-oil MF59 adjuvant mixed with Androctonus australis hector (Aah) detoxified venom, and compare their effects on the immune system. Immunization schedule was performed with two groups of rabbits, which were injected with attenuated venom and Alum or MF59 adjuvant preparations, once a month during three months. Blood samples were collected each week for cell count, evaluation of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and eosinoperoxydase (EPO) activities and antibody titer. After four months from the last immunization, rabbits were challenged with increased doses of native Aah venom. Results showed that MF59 effect was immediate in the first 24h post-immunization by activating the recruitment of lymphocytes, monocytes and neutrophils, while Alum adjuvant effect seems to be delayed, and appeared in the second week after immunization. An important cell infiltration was observed with Alum preparation, due to its specific local depot effect. However, immunized animals with MF59 preparation challenged with the native venom showed a protective effect against its toxicity until 6 LD50 compared to those immunized with Alum preparation which are only protected at 4 LD50. One week after challenge, only immunized animals with Alum preparation present an increase in cell infiltration, MPO and EPO activities. These results are correlated with the ability of MF59 adjuvant to induce a potent immunoprotective effect against Aah venom compared to Alum adjuvant.

  3. In vitro adventitious shoot regeneration via indirect organogenesis from inflorescence explants and peroxidase involvement in morphogenesis of Populus euphratica Olivier.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yan; Gao, Ziyang; Gao, Shumin; Sun, Fangfang; Cheng, Pengjun; Li, Fenglan

    2012-12-01

    The inflorescences as explants for rapid propagation in vitro remained unknown in Populus euphratica Olivier. Here, we reported that multiple shoots were initiation from calli of both male and female inflorescences. The optimum medium for shoot induction from male inflorescences was lactose sulfite medium containing 1.0 mg L(-1) 6-benzylaminopurine (BA) and 0.5 mg L(-1) α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) or Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing 0.5 mg L(-1) BA and 0.2 mg L(-1) NAA. The optimum medium of shoot induction from female inflorescence calli was the MS medium containing 0.5 mg L(-1) BA and 0.2 mg L(-1) NAA. Rooting of regenerated shoots was obtained on 1/2 MS medium supplemented with 0.5∼1.0 mg L(-1) indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and the highest frequency rooting was on medium containing 0.5 mg L(-1) IBA. No shoots were obtained on medium without BA and NAA. Peroxidase (POD) activity was measured by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis during shoot induction and differentiation stages. The results showed that two bands of POD (2a and 2b) activity appeared lowest during the early 8 days at the dedifferentiation phase of leaves inducing calli, whereas POD 2a, 2b activity appeared to be increasing at the homeochronous dedifferentiation phase of inflorescence. Five most intensive bands, POD 1a, 1b, 1c, 2a, and ab, appeared in 8th and 28th days at the redifferentiation phase during shoot morphogenesis. These results demonstrated that the POD was involved in shoot morphogenesis from both leaf and inflorescence explants of Populus euphratica.

  4. Immunological characterization of a non-toxic peptide conferring protection against the toxic fraction (AahG50) of the Androctonus australis hector venom.

    PubMed

    Srairi-Abid, Najet; Kaabi, Hajer; Mlayah-Bellalouna, Saoussen; Mejri, Thouraya; Sampieri, François; El Ayeb, Mohamed

    2008-03-01

    KAaH1 and KAaH2 are non-toxic peptides, isolated from the venom of the Androctonus australis hector (Aah) scorpion. In a previous study, we showed these peptides to be the most abundant (approximately 10% each) in the toxic fraction (AahG50) of the Aah venom. KAaH1 and KAaH2 showed high sequence identities (approximately 60%) with birtoxin-like peptides, which likewise are the major peptidic components of Parabuthus transvaalicus scorpion venom. Here, we report the immunological characterization of KAaH1 and KAaH2. These peptides were found to be specifically recognized by polyclonal antibodies raised against AahII, the most toxic peptide of Aah venom, and represents the second antigenic group, including toxins from different scorpion species in the world. Moreover, KAaH1 partially inhibits AahII binding to its specific antibody, suggesting some common epitopes between these two peptides. The identification of possible key antigenic residues in KAaH1 was deduced from comparison of its 3-D model with the experimental structure of AahII. Two clusters of putative antigenically important residues were found at the exposed surface; one could be constituted of V3 and D53, the other of D10, T15 and Y16. Polyclonal antibodies raised against KAaH1 in mice were found to cross-react with both AahII and AahG50, and neutralizing 5LD(50)/ml of the toxic fraction. Mice vaccinated with KAaH1 were protected against a challenge of 2LD(50) of AahG50 fraction. All these data suggest that KAaH1 has clear advantages over the use of the whole or part of the venom. KAaH1 is not toxic and could produce sera-neutralizing scorpion toxins, not only from Aah venom, but also toxins of other venoms from Buthus, Leiurus, or Parabuthus scorpion species presenting antigenically related toxins.

  5. Five-grass pollen immunotherapy tablet: an update on the latest findings from clinical trials: an interview with Olivier de Beaumont.

    PubMed

    de Beaumont, Olivier; Wilkinson, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Interview by Jonathan Wilkinson (Managing Commissioning Editor, Future Science Group). Olivier de Beaumont became Doctor of Medicine at the University of Paris Descartes in 1993. In the same year, he also took a Master of Health Economics degree at Paris Dauphine University. He is also a Master of Business Administration, ESCP Paris, 1999. At Stallergenes, he has been serving as Vice President/Head of Corporate Clinical Development since 2005, responsible for the clinical development plan, clinical operations, biometry and pharmacovigilance. In 2011, he took the responsibility of Senior Vice President Global Medical Affairs responsible for medical information and education, medical communication and nonregistration clinical studies. In 2014 he became Senior Vice President Global Scientific and Medical Affairs. From 2002 to 2005 he led the European business development of the world's leading clinical research organization Quintiles, developing Phase I-IV clinical trial programs for pharmaceutical companies. Previous roles included: Chief Scientific Officer and cofounder of Direct Medica (2000-2002), product champion and lifecycle management at Aventis (1998-2000), medical affairs manager in oncology and respiratory diseases at corporate Rhone-Poulenc Rorer (1993-1998).

  6. Variation in Venoms of Polybia Paulista Von Ihering and Polybia Occidentalis Olivier (Hymenoptera: Vespidae), Assessed by the FTIR-PAS Technique.

    PubMed

    Mendonça, A; Paula, M C; Fernandes, W D; Andrade, L H C; Lima, S M; Antonialli-Junior, W F

    2017-02-01

    Wasps are able to synthesize toxic compounds known as venoms, which form a part of a mechanism to overcome prey and also to defend their colonies. Study of the compounds that constitute these substances is essential in order to understand how this defense mechanism evolved, since there is evidence that the venoms can vary both intra- and interspecifically. Some studies have used liquid and gas chromatography as a reliable technique to analyze these compounds. However, the use of Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy (FTIR-PAS) to analyze the variations in venom's chemical profile has been proposed recently. This study evaluated whether the FTIR-PAS technique is effective for assessing the role of environmental factors on intra- and interspecific differences in the venom of the wasps Polybia paulista Von Ihering and Polybia occidentalis Olivier by FTIR-PAS. The colonies were collected in three municipalities of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, in different types of environments. The results showed that the venoms of P. paulista and P. occidentalis differed significantly in profile. In addition, the intraspecific differences in the venom's chemical profile of P. paulista are related to the type of environment where they nested, regardless of the geographical distance between the nests. The FTIR-PAS technique proved to be reliable and effective to evaluate the variations in the venom's chemical profile in social wasps.

  7. Two-dimensional sup 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance study of AaH IT, an anti-insect toxin from the scorpion Androctonus australis Hector. Sequential resonance assignments and folding of the polypeptide chain

    SciTech Connect

    Darbon, H. ); Weber, C.; Braun, W. )

    1991-02-19

    Sequence-specific nuclear magnetic resonance assignments for the polypeptide backbone and for most of the amino acid side-chain protons, as well as the general folding of AaH IT, are described. AaH IT is a neurotoxin purified from the venom of the scorpion Androctonus australis Hector and is specifically active on the insect nervous system. The secondary structure and the hydrogen-bonding patterns in the regular secondary structure elements are deduced from nuclear Overhauser effects and the sequence locations of the slowly exchanging amide protons. The backbone folding is determined by distance geometry calculations with the DISMAN program. The regular secondary structure includes two and a half turns of {alpha}-helix running from residues 21 to 30 and a three-stranded antiparallel {beta}-sheet including peptides 3-5, 34-38, and 41-46. Two tight turns are present, one connecting the end of the {alpha}-helix to an external strand of the {beta}-sheet, i.e., turn 31-34, and another connecting this same strand to the central one, i.e., turn 38-41. The differences in the specificity of these related proteins, which are able to discriminate between mammalian and insect voltage-dependent sodium channels of excitable tissues, are most probably brought about by the position of the C-terminal peptide with regard to a hydrophobic surface common to all scorpion toxins examined thus far. Thus, the interaction of a given scorpion toxin with its receptor might well be governed by the presence of this solvent-exposed hydrophobic surface, whereas adjacent areas modulate the specificity of the interaction.

  8. Morphological differences between Stenocionops furcatus (Olivier, 1791) and S. coelatus (A. Milne-Edwards, 1878) (Crustacea, Decapoda, Brachyura, Majoidea).

    PubMed

    Colavite, Jessica; Santana, William; Tavares, Marcos

    2016-11-07

    Stenocionops furcatus (Olivier, 1791) and S. coelatus (A. Milne-Edwards, 1878) have been treated either as subspecies or as species in their own right, but never as each other's synonyms. Compared to S. coelatus, S. furcatus has been regarded as having smoother dorsal surface carapace, shorter rostral spines, straighter and less divergent rostrum. and smaller interorbital width. These morphological differences between the two species, however, can be attributed to changes over ontogeny and, therefore, cannot be used as distinguishing characters. Adults of S. coelatus and S. furcatus can, however, be safely separated from each other by the presence in S. coelatus of a strong crenation on the anterior margin of the male sterno-abdominal cavity, which is absent in S. furcatus. A lectotype for S. coelatus is designated. The synonymy between S. furcatus, Cancer cornudo Herbst, 1804, and Chorinus armatus Randall, 1839, is confirmed based on the holotypes of the latter two species.

  9. Book Review: Electrodynamics from Ampère to Einstein. Olivier Darrigol, Oxford University Press, Oxford and New York, 2000, xix+532 pp., UK £75, ISBN 0-19-850594-9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harman, P. M.

    The scope of Olivier Darrigol's impressive treatise arouses both surprise and admiration. Darrigol has already established his credentials and expertise on this subject with a series of very substantial articles published during the past decade. However, writing the history of an individual science, especially of a theme within a scientific discipline, is hardly currently popular practice amongst historians of science. Darrigol's ambitious enterprise follows the pattern set by E. T. Whittaker's still valuable History of the Theories of Aether and Electricity (its first volume originally published in 1910), rather than the local studies favoured by contemporary historians of science. To descend to the jocular, unsympathetic readers might observe Eduard Fraenkel's celebrated request in his Horace to shut the book and never open it again as it could only disappoint and distress them. But let me hasten to add that this is scarcely the recommended option for the serious student of the subject, for Darrigol's achievement matches Whittaker's of nearly a century ago, and does so in a wholly contemporary idiom. In its sophistication of analysis and detail of presentation, this treatise will surely become a standard resource for historians of science in the coming century. Darrigol offers a richly textured narrative, painstaking in its attention to detail and compelling in conceptual thrust, a work which will repay attention by historians and philosophers of physics.

  10. The Lesser of Two Weevils: Molecular-Genetics of Pest Palm Weevil Populations Confirm Rhynchophorus vulneratus (Panzer 1798) as a Valid Species Distinct from R. ferrugineus (Olivier 1790), and Reveal the Global Extent of Both

    PubMed Central

    Rugman-Jones, Paul F.; Hoddle, Christina D.; Hoddle, Mark S.; Stouthamer, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The red palm weevil (RPW) is a major pest of palms. It is native to southeast Asia and Melanesia, but in recent decades has vastly expanded its range as the result of multiple accidental anthropogenic introductions into the Middle East, Mediterranean Basin, Caribbean, and U.S.A. Currently regarded as a single species, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier), RPW displays remarkable color variation across its range, and consequently has a taxonomic history littered with new species descriptions and synonymization. We compared DNA sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene from RPW populations throughout the native and invaded ranges, to investigate the specific status and invasion history of this serious economic pest, and to identify possible common routes of entry. Analyses of COI haplotype data provide conclusive support, corroborated by sequences of additional nuclear gene regions, for the existence of at least two predominantly allopatric species. The true R. ferrugineus is native only to the northern and western parts of continental southeast Asia, Sri Lanka and the Philippines, and is responsible for almost all invasive populations worldwide. In contrast, the second species, which is currently synonymized under R. ferrugineus and should be resurrected under the name R. vulneratus (Panzer), has a more southern distribution across Indonesia, and is responsible for only one invasive population; that in California, U.S.A. The distribution of COI haplotypes is used to discuss the possible existence of further cryptic species, sources and routes of entry of different invasive populations, and the implications of our findings for current control methods. PMID:24143263

  11. The lesser of two weevils: molecular-genetics of pest palm weevil populations confirm Rhynchophorus vulneratus (Panzer 1798) as a valid species distinct from R. ferrugineus (Olivier 1790), and reveal the global extent of both.

    PubMed

    Rugman-Jones, Paul F; Hoddle, Christina D; Hoddle, Mark S; Stouthamer, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The red palm weevil (RPW) is a major pest of palms. It is native to southeast Asia and Melanesia, but in recent decades has vastly expanded its range as the result of multiple accidental anthropogenic introductions into the Middle East, Mediterranean Basin, Caribbean, and U.S.A. Currently regarded as a single species, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier), RPW displays remarkable color variation across its range, and consequently has a taxonomic history littered with new species descriptions and synonymization. We compared DNA sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene from RPW populations throughout the native and invaded ranges, to investigate the specific status and invasion history of this serious economic pest, and to identify possible common routes of entry. Analyses of COI haplotype data provide conclusive support, corroborated by sequences of additional nuclear gene regions, for the existence of at least two predominantly allopatric species. The true R. ferrugineus is native only to the northern and western parts of continental southeast Asia, Sri Lanka and the Philippines, and is responsible for almost all invasive populations worldwide. In contrast, the second species, which is currently synonymized under R. ferrugineus and should be resurrected under the name R. vulneratus (Panzer), has a more southern distribution across Indonesia, and is responsible for only one invasive population; that in California, U.S.A. The distribution of COI haplotypes is used to discuss the possible existence of further cryptic species, sources and routes of entry of different invasive populations, and the implications of our findings for current control methods.

  12. Elemental analysis of scorpion venoms

    PubMed Central

    Al-Asmari, AbdulRahman K; Kunnathodi, Faisal; Al Saadon, Khalid; Idris, Mohammed M

    2016-01-01

    Scorpion venom is a rich source of biomolecules, which can perturb physiological activity of the host on envenomation and may also have a therapeutic potential. Scorpion venoms produced by the columnar cells of venom gland are complex mixture of mucopolysaccharides, neurotoxic peptides and other components. This study was aimed at cataloguing the elemental composition of venoms obtained from medically important scorpions found in the Arabian peninsula. The global elemental composition of the crude venom obtained from Androctonus bicolor, Androctonus crassicauda and Leiurus quinquestriatus scorpions were estimated using ICP-MS analyzer. The study catalogued several chemical elements present in the scorpion venom using ICP-MS total quant analysis and quantitation of nine elements exclusively using appropriate standards. Fifteen chemical elements including sodium, potassium and calcium were found abundantly in the scorpion venom at PPM concentrations. Thirty six chemical elements of different mass ranges were detected in the venom at PPB level. Quantitative analysis of the venoms revealed copper to be the most abundant element in Androctonus sp. venom but at lower level in Leiurus quinquestriatus venom; whereas zinc and manganese was found at higher levels in Leiurus sp. venom but at lower level in Androctonus sp. venom. These data and the concentrations of other different elements present in the various venoms are likely to increase our understanding of the mechanisms of venom activity and their pharmacological potentials. PMID:27826410

  13. AaeAP1 and AaeAP2: novel antimicrobial peptides from the venom of the scorpion, Androctonus aeneas: structural characterisation, molecular cloning of biosynthetic precursor-encoding cDNAs and engineering of analogues with enhanced antimicrobial and anticancer activities.

    PubMed

    Du, Qiang; Hou, Xiaojuan; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Yingqi; Xi, Xinping; Wang, Hui; Zhou, Mei; Duan, Jinao; Wei, Minjie; Chen, Tianbao; Shaw, Chris

    2015-01-23

    The main functions of the abundant polypeptide toxins present in scorpion venoms are the debilitation of arthropod prey or defence against predators. These effects are achieved mainly through the blocking of an array of ion channel types within the membranes of excitable cells. However, while these ion channel-blocking toxins are tightly-folded by multiple disulphide bridges between cysteine residues, there are additional groups of peptides in the venoms that are devoid of cysteine residues. These non-disulphide bridged peptides are the subject of much research interest, and among these are peptides that exhibit antimicrobial activity. Here, we describe two novel non-disulphide-bridged antimicrobial peptides that are present in the venom of the North African scorpion, Androctonus aeneas. The cDNAs encoding the biosynthetic precursors of both peptides were cloned from a venom-derived cDNA library using 3'- and 5'-RACE strategies. Both translated precursors contained open-reading frames of 74 amino acid residues, each encoding one copy of a putative novel nonadecapeptide, whose primary structures were FLFSLIPSVIAGLVSAIRN and FLFSLIPSAIAGLVSAIRN, respectively. Both peptides were C-terminally amidated. Synthetic versions of each natural peptide displayed broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities, but were devoid of antiproliferative activity against human cancer cell lines. However, synthetic analogues of each peptide, engineered for enhanced cationicity and amphipathicity, exhibited increases in antimicrobial potency and acquired antiproliferative activity against a range of human cancer cell lines. These data clearly illustrate the potential that natural peptide templates provide towards the design of synthetic analogues for therapeutic exploitation.

  14. Teaching the Shakespearean Film: Olivier's "Henry V."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerlach, John

    For at least two kinds of literature instructors, classroom use of a film derived from a Shakespeare play is potentially promising: a Shakespeare course instructor can present one attempt to visualize the implications of the printed word, and a teacher of a course which compares film and literature has at least one respectable film adaptation of a…

  15. Introducing Compsobuthus matthiesseni (Birula, 1905) scorpion as one of the major stinging scorpions in Khuzestan, Iran.

    PubMed

    Dehghani, Ruhollah; Djadid, Navid Dinparast; Shahbazzadeh, Dellavar; Bigdelli, Shahlla

    2009-09-01

    Khuzestan province has the highest rate of scorpion sting in Iran. This is a study to identify these scorpions in Khuzestan. In this study 418 scorpions were kept in the ethyl alcohol 70%, each being studied by stereomicroscopy and diagnosis key separately. 120 (28.7%) Androctonus crassicauda, 104 (24.9%) Hemiscorpius lepturus, 91 (21.7%) Mesobuthus eupeus, 86 (20.65%) Compsobuthus matthiesseni, 14 (3.35%) Hottentotta saulcyi, 2 (0.5%) Orthochirus scrobiculosus and 1 (0.25%) Hottentotta schach were identified. H. lepturus is in the Hemiscorpiidae family and the rest are in Buthidae. C. matthiesseni is the most frequent and O. scrobiculosus is the least frequent newly identified scorpion. This study adds two new sting scorpions to the previous list of 8 identified scorpions in Iran.

  16. Scorpion sting in Iran: a review.

    PubMed

    Dehghani, Rouhullah; Fathi, Behrooz

    2012-10-01

    Among Middle Eastern countries, at least 52 species of scorpions, especially dangerous types, have been reported in Iran. This is more than any other country in the region. In addition, in Iran the recorded scorpion stings from 2001 to 2009 were more than 42,500 per year, of which, approximately 19.5 deaths have been reported each year, mostly in spring and summer. About 10 species are responsible for the reported envenoming which belong to the Buthidae family apart from Hemiscorpius lepturus which is a Hemiscorpiidae. The Buthidae family includes: Androctonus crassicauda, Mesobuthus eupeus, Odontobuthus doriae, Hottentotta saulcyi, Hottentotta schach, Compsobuthus matthiesseni, Orthochirus scrobiculosus, Apistobuthus pterygocercus and Olivierus caucasicus. A. crassicauda and H. lepturus are usually cited as the most dangerous species among Iranian scorpions. This article focuses on the main Iranian scorpions and their geographical distribution, especially those which are medically important and considered to be the more dangerous to human, and also attempts to demonstrate an accurate magnitude of scorpion stings in Iran.

  17. Faunistic Study and Biodiversity of Scorpions in Qeshm Island (Persian Gulf)

    PubMed Central

    Zarei, A; Rafinejad, J; Shemshad, K; Khaghani, R

    2009-01-01

    Background Scorpions are known as the most widespread poisonous creatures that cause casualties and death to human. They are distributed in tropical and subtropical areas. Among the sixteen Iranian Island in the Persian Gulf, Qeshm Island is the biggest and is located in the focus of the important internal and international commercial marinelines. Furthermore, thousands of tourists also visit the Island every year for its natural beauties and the siteseeings. The present research study was carried out during 1998–99 throughout Qeshm Island in order to know the species of scorpions, their abundance, the distribution and control strategy in order to reduce the scorpion stings and to safeguard the visitors as well as the local population. Methods: Collections were made randomly during the night. Samples were searched by black light and then collected by forceps. A total of 102 scorpions were captured. Results: The scorpions were identified as Buthotus jayakari numbered 42 specimens (41.17%) and B. leptochelys numbering only 7 specimens (6.86%) belonging to the family Buthidae. Androctonus crassicauda was collected in the most parts of the Island and considered as the dominant species. The sex ratio was 1:1.53 in favor of females. B. leptochelys was rare species and by far restricted in its distribution. Conclusion: Considering the high population of A. crassicauda and its wide distribution, it is regarded to be responsible for the majority of scorpion stings in Qeshm Island. PMID:22808372

  18. Study on Distribution of Scorpions to Provide Prevention and Interventions in Combating Scorpionism in Poldokhtar County, Lorestan Province, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Rastgar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Scorpions are arthropods of medical importance classified in the class Arachnida, inhabiting hot and dry environments. All scorpions have a venomous sting and several thousand people die each year from scorpion stings, but this mortality is due to the venom of about 25 species located in northern Africa, the Middle East, India, Mexico and parts of South America. Poldokhtar County belongs to one of the southern cities of Lorestan Province, providing suitable habitats for many different species of scorpions due to its specific climatic conditions. Aim To examine the fauna of scorpion and its distribution in the Poldokhtar County and to provide appropriate preventive and medical interventions in combating scorpionism. Materials and Methods This present study was a descriptive and analytical cross-sectional study. This study was conducted from April 2014 to November 2014 in regions of Poldokhtar County, Lorestan Province, and west of Iran. Cluster sampling methodology was employed in the sampling and scorpion collection procedure. Sampling was undertaken for an eight-month period, in villages and districts, namely, Myankuhe sharqi, Jayedar, Jelogir and Malavi within the county. The Chi-square test and the Fisher-exact test for homogeneity of proportions were used to compare quantitative variables. Results Totally, 393 specimens were captured entailing 193 (49.1%) males and 200 (50.9%) females. There were at least seven species of scorpions belonging to three families; BU= Buthidae, HE = Hemiscorpiidae, SCN = Scorpionidae in Poldokhtar. Out of 393 collected scorpions, seven species, Androctonus crassicauda, Hottentotta (Buthotus) saulcyi, Compsobuthus matthiesseni, Compsobuthus rugosulus, Orthochirus scrobiculosus, Scorpio maurus and Hemiscorpius lepturus were identified. The overall sex ratio of females to males was 1:1.03. Conclusion It is crucial to improve the knowledge of residents in this region regarding preventive methods towards scorpion stinging

  19. In vitro determination of the efficacy of scorpion venoms as anti-cancer agents against colorectal cancer cells: a nano-liposomal delivery approach

    PubMed Central

    Al-Asmari, Abdulrahman K; Ullah, Zabih; Al Balowi, Ali; Islam, Mozaffarul

    2017-01-01

    The use of liposomes in biological and medicinal sciences is a relatively new approach. The liposomal strategy greatly depends on the technological advancement in the formation of vesicles of various sizes and properties. In the current study, we encapsulated the venoms obtained from medically important scorpions such as Androctonus bicolor (AB), Androctonus crassicauda (AC), and Leiurus quinquestriatus (LQ). To begin with, our first and foremost aim was to prepare biocompatible and biodegradable nanovesicles. Additionally, we intended to enhance the anti-cancer potential of these encapsulated venoms. The liposomal venoms were prepared by rehydration and dehydration methods. Morphology, particle size, and size distribution of the liposomes were examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), and Zetasizer. We found that the prepared liposomes had a smooth surface and a spherical/ovoid shape and existed mainly as single unilamellar vesicles (SUVs). Furthermore, the liposomal formulation of all three venoms exhibited excellent stability and good encapsulation efficiency (EE). Additionally, the anti-cancer potential of the encapsulated venoms was also evaluated on a colorectal cancer cell line (HCT-8). The venom-loaded liposomes showed elevated anti-cancer properties such as low rate of cell survival, higher reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and enhancement in the number of apoptotic cells. In addition to this, cell cycle analysis revealed G0/G1 enrichment upon venom treatment. The effect of treatment was more pronounced when venom–liposome was used as compared to free venom on the HCT-8 cell line. Furthermore, we did not observe any interference of liposomal lipids used in these preparations on the progression of cancer cells. Considering these findings, we can conclude that the encapsulated scorpion venoms exhibit better efficacy and act more vigorously as an anti-cancer agent on the colorectal cancer cell line when

  20. In vitro determination of the efficacy of scorpion venoms as anti-cancer agents against colorectal cancer cells: a nano-liposomal delivery approach.

    PubMed

    Al-Asmari, Abdulrahman K; Ullah, Zabih; Al Balowi, Ali; Islam, Mozaffarul

    2017-01-01

    The use of liposomes in biological and medicinal sciences is a relatively new approach. The liposomal strategy greatly depends on the technological advancement in the formation of vesicles of various sizes and properties. In the current study, we encapsulated the venoms obtained from medically important scorpions such as Androctonus bicolor (AB), Androctonus crassicauda (AC), and Leiurus quinquestriatus (LQ). To begin with, our first and foremost aim was to prepare biocompatible and biodegradable nanovesicles. Additionally, we intended to enhance the anti-cancer potential of these encapsulated venoms. The liposomal venoms were prepared by rehydration and dehydration methods. Morphology, particle size, and size distribution of the liposomes were examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), and Zetasizer. We found that the prepared liposomes had a smooth surface and a spherical/ovoid shape and existed mainly as single unilamellar vesicles (SUVs). Furthermore, the liposomal formulation of all three venoms exhibited excellent stability and good encapsulation efficiency (EE). Additionally, the anti-cancer potential of the encapsulated venoms was also evaluated on a colorectal cancer cell line (HCT-8). The venom-loaded liposomes showed elevated anti-cancer properties such as low rate of cell survival, higher reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and enhancement in the number of apoptotic cells. In addition to this, cell cycle analysis revealed G0/G1 enrichment upon venom treatment. The effect of treatment was more pronounced when venom-liposome was used as compared to free venom on the HCT-8 cell line. Furthermore, we did not observe any interference of liposomal lipids used in these preparations on the progression of cancer cells. Considering these findings, we can conclude that the encapsulated scorpion venoms exhibit better efficacy and act more vigorously as an anti-cancer agent on the colorectal cancer cell line when

  1. Rapid colonization of new habitats in the Wadden Sea by the ovoviviparous Littorina saxatilis (Olivi)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelmsen, U.

    1998-09-01

    The intertidal periwinkle Littorina saxatilis completely lacks larval dispersal and adult vagility is low. Although this suggests a low dispersal rate, L. saxatilis is frequently found in recently established habitats “exotic” to the Wadden Sea. Populations occur on man-made structures like dikes, breakwater and groynes, some of which are not older than several years. Furthermore, L. saxatilis is found on marsh grass Spartina anglica, introduced to the Wadden Sea in the 1920s and 1930s, as well as on mats of green macroalgae, which have become an abundant feature on the tidal flats since the late 1970s. Seagrass beds are likely to be the original habitat of L. saxatilis in the Wadden Sea. Since seagrass populations have dramatically declined over the last decades, colonization of new habitat types enabled L. saxatilis to maintain its Wadden Sea populations despite a changing environment. Colonizers can reach new habitats by means of passive transport, especially by rafting on macrophytes and by aerial dispersal attached to birds. In thew Wadden Sea, the ovoviviparously reproducing L. saxatilis has demonstrated its ability to successfully found new populations with only a few individuals. No reduction of genetic variablility (founder effect) was observed in recently established populations.

  2. Susceptibility and Immune Defence Mechanisms of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) against Entomopathogenic Fungal Infections.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Abid; Rizwan-Ul-Haq, Muhammad; Al-Ayedh, Hassan; AlJabr, Ahmed Mohammed

    2016-09-09

    Insects infected with entomopathogenic fungi, experience physiological changes that influence their growth and immune defence. The potential of nine isolates of entomopathogenic fungi was evaluated after determining percent germination and relative conidial hydrophobicity. However, nutritional indices were evaluated after immersing eighth-instar Rhynchophorus ferrugineus larvae into each isolate suspension (1 × 10⁷ conidia/mL). The results showed that isolates B6884 and M9374 had 44.51% and 39.02% higher conidial hydrophobicity compared with isolate I03011 (least virulent). The results of nutritional index assays revealed a significant reduction in growth indices after infection with different isolates. Compared with control, B6884 and M9374 greatly decreased larval growth by reducing the efficacy of conversion of ingested food (36%-47%) and Efficacy of conversion of digested food (50%-63%). Furthermore, only isolate B6884 induced 100% mortality within 12 days. Compared with control, isolate I03011, possessing the lowest conidial hydrophobicity, only reduced 0.29% of the efficacy of conversion of ingested food (ECI) and 0.48% of the efficacy of conversion of digested food (ECD). Similarly, transcriptomic analysis of genes related to the Red palm weevil (RPW) immune response, including pathogen recognition receptors (C-type lectin and endo-beta-1,4-glucanse), signal modulator (Serine protease-like protein), signal transductors (Calmodulin-like protein and EF-hand domain containing protein) and effectors (C-type lysozyme, Cathepsin L., Defensin-like protein, Serine carboxypeptidase, and Thaumatin-like protein), was significantly increased in larval samples infected with B6884 and M9374. These results suggest that for an isolate to be virulent, conidial hydrophobicity and germination should also be considered during pathogen selection, as these factors could significantly impact host growth and immune defence mechanisms.

  3. Susceptibility and Immune Defence Mechanisms of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) against Entomopathogenic Fungal Infections

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Abid; Rizwan-ul-Haq, Muhammad; Al-Ayedh, Hassan; AlJabr, Ahmed Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Insects infected with entomopathogenic fungi, experience physiological changes that influence their growth and immune defence. The potential of nine isolates of entomopathogenic fungi was evaluated after determining percent germination and relative conidial hydrophobicity. However, nutritional indices were evaluated after immersing eighth-instar Rhynchophorus ferrugineus larvae into each isolate suspension (1 × 107 conidia/mL). The results showed that isolates B6884 and M9374 had 44.51% and 39.02% higher conidial hydrophobicity compared with isolate I03011 (least virulent). The results of nutritional index assays revealed a significant reduction in growth indices after infection with different isolates. Compared with control, B6884 and M9374 greatly decreased larval growth by reducing the efficacy of conversion of ingested food (36%–47%) and Efficacy of conversion of digested food (50%–63%). Furthermore, only isolate B6884 induced 100% mortality within 12 days. Compared with control, isolate I03011, possessing the lowest conidial hydrophobicity, only reduced 0.29% of the efficacy of conversion of ingested food (ECI) and 0.48% of the efficacy of conversion of digested food (ECD). Similarly, transcriptomic analysis of genes related to the Red palm weevil (RPW) immune response, including pathogen recognition receptors (C-type lectin and endo-beta-1,4-glucanse), signal modulator (Serine protease-like protein), signal transductors (Calmodulin-like protein and EF-hand domain containing protein) and effectors (C-type lysozyme, Cathepsin L., Defensin-like protein, Serine carboxypeptidase, and Thaumatin-like protein), was significantly increased in larval samples infected with B6884 and M9374. These results suggest that for an isolate to be virulent, conidial hydrophobicity and germination should also be considered during pathogen selection, as these factors could significantly impact host growth and immune defence mechanisms. PMID:27618036

  4. Comment on: `The quest for a consistent signal in ground and GRACE gravity time-series', by Michel Van Camp, Olivier de Viron, Laurent Metivier, Bruno Meurers and Olivier Francis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crossley, D. J.; Boy, J.-P.; Hinderer, J.; Jahr, T.; Weise, A.; Wziontek, H.; Abe, M.; Förste, C.

    2014-12-01

    The paper in question by Van Camp and co-authors [MVC] challenges previous work showing that ground gravity data arising from hydrology can provide a consistent signal for the comparison with satellite gravity data. The data sets used are similar to those used previously, that is, the gravity field as measured by the GRACE satellites versus ground-based data from superconducting gravimeters (SGs) over the same continental area, in this case Central Europe. One of the main impediments in this paper is the presentation that is frequently confusing and misleading as to what the data analysis really shows, for example, the irregular treatment of annual components that are first subtracted then reappear in the analysis. More importantly, we disagree on specific points. Two calculations are included in our comment to illustrate where we believe that the processing in [MVC] paper is deficient. The first deals with their erroneous treatment of the global hydrology using a truncated spherical harmonic approach which explains almost a factor 2 error in their computation of the loading. The second shows the effect of making the wrong assumption in the GRACE/hydrology/surface gravity comparison by inverting the whole of the hydrology loading for underground stations. We also challenge their claims that empirical orthogonal function techniques cannot be done in the presence of periodic components, and that SG data cannot be corrected for comparisons with GRACE data. The main conclusion of their paper, that there is little coherence between ground gravity stations and this invalidates GRACE comparisons, is therefore questionable. There is nothing in [MVC] that contradicts any of the previous papers that have shown clearly a strong relation between seasonal signals obtained from both ground gravity and GRACE satellite data.

  5. Heat production in Littorina saxatilis Olivi and Littorina neritoides L. (gastropoda: Prosobranchia) during an experimental exposure to air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kronberg, Inge

    1990-06-01

    The adaptation of littorinid molluscs to prolonged aerial exposure was investigated by the determination of heat production. Littorina saxatilis, inhabiting the upper eulittoral, reached a maximum metabolic activity during submersion (heat production: 3.26×10-3J s-1 (gadw)-1. On the first three days of desiccation, the heat production was continuously reduced to 40% of the submersed value. A prolonged aerial exposure was lethal for this species. In the supralittoral L. neritoides, three stages of energy metabolism could be observed: An intermediate heat production during submersion (1.97×10-3Js-1 (gadw)-1), an increased metabolism during the first hour of aerial exposure (heat production 204% of submersed value), and a minimal metabolism (39% of the submersed value and 19% of maximum value) during the following days and weeks of desiccation. Recovery depended on water salinity; L. saxatilis proved to be less euryhaline than L. neritoides. Thus, the metabolic adaptations correlate with the level of littoral habitat; inactivity combined with a drastically reduced energy consumption is a metabolically economic way to survive in periodically dry environments.

  6. [Combined effect of environmental temperature and trematodes on fatty acids composition of lipids of Littorina saxatilis (Olivi 1792) (Gastropoda, Prosobranchia)].

    PubMed

    Arakelova, E S; Chebotareva, M A; Zabelinskiĭ, S A

    2004-01-01

    An effect of environmental temperatures and invasion by helminthes larvae on fatty acids composition of digestive gland lipids of marine littoral gastropod Littorina saxatilis from White Sea and Barents Sea was investigated. We have compared gastropods from boreal and subarctic populations. It was found that gastropods from waters of lower temperature have increased omega3/omega6 fatty acids ratio. However, saturation index of individual membrane phospholipids was not affected. Also, content of eicosenoic acid (20:1) in individual phospholipids was not affected by temperature. Invasion increases the omega3/omega6 ratio of common lipids but not the omega3/omega6 ratio of common and individual phospholipids with the exception of phosphatidilcholine of cold water mollusks from Barents Sea that had this ratio doubled. In contrast to temperature, invasion affects the content of eicosenoic acid that was increased in the investigated organs. Adaptability of these effects is discussed regarding parasite-host system.

  7. Elevated female fecundity as a possible compensatory mechanism in response to trematode infestation in populations of Littorina saxatilis (Olivi).

    PubMed

    Granovitch, A I; Yagunova, E B; Maximovich, A N; Sokolova, I M

    2009-07-15

    Co-evolution between parasites and their hosts may lead to changes in the life-history traits of the host that promote sustainability of their populations despite parasite pressure. Such changes are expected to be especially pronounced in the host-parasite systems where parasites cause complete castration of their hosts. We have studied populations of the rough periwinkle, Littorina saxatilis, infested by castrating trematode species, in order to determine whether high infestation levels are associated with a compensatory increase in host fecundity. To test this hypothesis, we determined female fecundity in populations with trematode prevalence spanning from <1% to 30-75%, and followed long-term changes in female fecundity and trematode infestation in two heavily infested populations of L. saxatilis. The broad-scale geographic analysis of populations with different trematode burdens showed that fecundity of uninfected females is significantly higher in highly infested L. saxatilis populations than in those with low trematode burdens. This is also supported by a comparison of fecundity in two pairs of geographically adjacent populations with contrasting trematode levels, revealing higher fecundity of uninfected females in heavily infested populations. Higher fecundity could be explained by the larger size of uninfected females in some heavily infested populations but not in others. Long-term (15-20 years) intra-population analysis performed in two heavily infested L. saxatilis populations showed that female fecundity increased in parallel with a long-term increase in trematode prevalence from 20% to >75% in one population, but remained high and relatively stable in the second population, reflecting its consistently high trematode prevalence (40-65%). These data support the hypothesis that an increase in female fecundity may be a population compensation mechanism in response to heavy trematode infestation in L. saxatilis and suggest the possible involvement of both natural selection and fast (physiological) regulation mechanisms.

  8. Cellular effects of bacterial N-3-Oxo-dodecanoyl-L-Homoserine lactone on the sponge Suberites domuncula (Olivi, 1792): insights into an intimate inter-kingdom dialogue.

    PubMed

    Gardères, Johan; Henry, Joël; Bernay, Benoit; Ritter, Andrès; Zatylny-Gaudin, Céline; Wiens, Matthias; Müller, Werner E G; Le Pennec, Gaël

    2014-01-01

    Sponges and bacteria have lived together in complex consortia for 700 million years. As filter feeders, sponges prey on bacteria. Nevertheless, some bacteria are associated with sponges in symbiotic relationships. To enable this association, sponges and bacteria are likely to have developed molecular communication systems. These may include molecules such as N-acyl-L-homoserine lactones, produced by Gram-negative bacteria also within sponges. In this study, we examined the role of N-3-oxododecanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C12-HSL) on the expression of immune and apoptotic genes of the host sponge Suberites domuncula. This molecule seemed to inhibit the sponge innate immune system through a decrease of the expression of genes coding for proteins sensing the bacterial membrane: a Toll-Like Receptor and a Toll-like Receptor Associated Factor 6 and for an anti-bacterial perforin-like molecule. The expression of the pro-apoptotic caspase-like 3/7 gene decreased as well, whereas the level of mRNA of anti-apoptotic genes Bcl-2 Homolog Proteins did not change. Then, we demonstrated the differential expression of proteins in presence of this 3-oxo-C12-HSL using 3D sponge cell cultures. Proteins involved in the first steps of the endocytosis process were highlighted using the 2D electrophoresis protein separation and the MALDI-TOF/TOF protein characterization: α and β subunits of the lysosomal ATPase, a cognin, cofilins-related proteins and cytoskeleton proteins actin, α tubulin and α actinin. The genetic expression of some of these proteins was subsequently followed. We propose that the 3-oxo-C12-HSL may participate in the tolerance of the sponge apoptotic and immune systems towards the presence of bacteria. Besides, the sponge may sense the 3-oxo-C12-HSL as a molecular evidence of the bacterial presence and/or density in order to regulate the populations of symbiotic bacteria in the sponge. This study is the first report of a bacterial secreted molecule acting on sponge cells and regulating the symbiotic relationship.

  9. Efficacy of aggregation pheromone in trapping red palm weevil (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier) and rhinoceros beetle (Oryctes rhinoceros Linn.) from infested coconut palms.

    PubMed

    Chakravarthy, A K; Chandrashekharaiah, M; Kandakoor, Subhash B; Nagaraj, D N

    2014-05-01

    Red palm weevil and Rhinoceros beetle are the major pests inflicting severe damage to coconut palms. Due to ineffectiveness of the current management practices to control the two important pests on coconut, a study was conducted to know the attractiveness of red palm weevil and rhinoceros beetle to aggregation pheromone. Olfactometer studies indicated that the aggregation pheromone of red palm weevil and rhinoceros beetle attracted significantly more number of weevils (13.4 females and 7.6 male weevils) and beetles (6.5 male and 12.3 female beetles), respectively than control. Similarly, field studies found that both 750 and 1000 mg pheromone dosage lures of red palm weevil and rhinoceros beetle trapped significantly higher numbers of weevils (695.80 and 789 weevils, respectively) and beetles (98 and 108 beetles, respectively) in traps (P < 0.05), respectively. On an average (n = 6 field trials) 80-85% red palm weevil and 72-78% rhinoceros beetle population got trapped. Observations indicated activity of red palm weevil throughout the year and of rhinoceros beetle from September to March around Bangalore, South India. Pheromone traps for red palm weevil can be placed in fields from June to August and October to December and September to February for rhinoceros beetle. Population reductions of the two coleopteran pests by pheromone traps are compatible with mechanical and cultural management tools with cumulative effects.

  10. Susceptibility and possible resistance mechanisms in the palm species Phoenix dactylifera, Chamaerops humilis and Washingtonia filifera against Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier, 1790) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Cangelosi, B; Clematis, F; Curir, P; Monroy, F

    2016-06-01

    Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, known as the Red Palm Weevil (RPW), is reported as a pest of up to 40 palm species. However, the susceptibility degree and the defense mechanisms of these species against this weevil are still poorly known. In Europe, the RPW is a major pest of Phoenix canariensis while other palm species, including the congeneric Phoenix dactylifera, seem to be less suitable hosts for this insect. The aim of our study was to compare the defensive response of P. dactylifera, Chamaerops humilis and Washingtonia filifera against R. ferrugineus and try to define the mechanisms of resistance that characterize these species. Bioassays were carried out to evaluate the mortality induced on RPW larvae by extracts from the leaf rachis of the studied palm species. Tests at semi-field scale were also conducted, based either on forced palm infestation, with larvae of RPW, or on natural infestation, with adult females. Rachis extracts from C. humilis and W. filifera caused 100% larval mortality after 2 days of exposure, while extracts of P. dactylifera did not impair larval survival. Independently of the effect of the leaf extracts, the weevils were unable to naturally infest the three palm species, although larval survival was high after forced infestation of the plants. We concluded that the observed lack of infestation of P. dactylifera by RPW is due to factors other than antibiosis. In W. filifera and C. humilis, although the presence of antixenosis mechanisms cannot be excluded, resistance to R. ferrugineus seems to rely on the presence of antibiosis compounds.

  11. [The appreciation of the handicap in the brothers of the coast (1664-1675), according to Alexandre-Olivier Exmelin, surgeon of the privateers].

    PubMed

    Hamonet, Claude

    2007-01-01

    The reparation of corporeal damages, consequences of intentional or no intentional violence is a part of measurement of stability and progress in the human societies interested by a dignity life for the victims. Initiated by Hammourabi Code and continued by the Jews in the Bible, the reference was (now and still its) the amputed or impaired part of body (hand, arm, leg, eye...). For every part a fare in money was indicated or a rate in percentage. The Coast brothers translate in ecus or in slaves. This code indicates the originality of a society founded on violence, the robbery and murder with introduction of cooperative if not democratic modalities of functioning. The role of Bertrand d'Ogeron, governor of the Turtle Island was very beneficent.

  12. Cellular Effects of Bacterial N-3-Oxo-Dodecanoyl-L-Homoserine Lactone on the Sponge Suberites domuncula (Olivi, 1792): Insights into an Intimate Inter-Kingdom Dialogue

    PubMed Central

    Gardères, Johan; Henry, Joël; Bernay, Benoit; Ritter, Andrès; Zatylny-Gaudin, Céline; Wiens, Matthias; Müller, Werner E. G.; Le Pennec, Gaël

    2014-01-01

    Sponges and bacteria have lived together in complex consortia for 700 million years. As filter feeders, sponges prey on bacteria. Nevertheless, some bacteria are associated with sponges in symbiotic relationships. To enable this association, sponges and bacteria are likely to have developed molecular communication systems. These may include molecules such as N-acyl-L-homoserine lactones, produced by Gram-negative bacteria also within sponges. In this study, we examined the role of N-3-oxododecanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C12-HSL) on the expression of immune and apoptotic genes of the host sponge Suberites domuncula. This molecule seemed to inhibit the sponge innate immune system through a decrease of the expression of genes coding for proteins sensing the bacterial membrane: a Toll-Like Receptor and a Toll-like Receptor Associated Factor 6 and for an anti-bacterial perforin-like molecule. The expression of the pro-apoptotic caspase-like 3/7 gene decreased as well, whereas the level of mRNA of anti-apoptotic genes Bcl-2 Homolog Proteins did not change. Then, we demonstrated the differential expression of proteins in presence of this 3-oxo-C12-HSL using 3D sponge cell cultures. Proteins involved in the first steps of the endocytosis process were highlighted using the 2D electrophoresis protein separation and the MALDI-TOF/TOF protein characterization: α and β subunits of the lysosomal ATPase, a cognin, cofilins-related proteins and cytoskeleton proteins actin, α tubulin and α actinin. The genetic expression of some of these proteins was subsequently followed. We propose that the 3-oxo-C12-HSL may participate in the tolerance of the sponge apoptotic and immune systems towards the presence of bacteria. Besides, the sponge may sense the 3-oxo-C12-HSL as a molecular evidence of the bacterial presence and/or density in order to regulate the populations of symbiotic bacteria in the sponge. This study is the first report of a bacterial secreted molecule acting on sponge cells and regulating the symbiotic relationship. PMID:24858701

  13. Taxonomical and geographical occurrence of Libyans scorpions.

    PubMed

    Zourgui, L; Maammar, M; Emetris, R

    2008-01-01

    Nine different species of scorpions can be recognized from more than 5000 samples collected from different areas in Libya: Leiurus quinquestriatus, Androctonus bicolor, Androctonus australis, Androctonus amoreuxi, Buthacus leptochelys, Buthus occitanus, Buthacus arenicola, Orthochirus innesi and Scorpio maurus. The geographical occurrence showed that Leiurus quinquestriatus seems to be restricted to the Southern areas. On the contrary, Buthus occitanus was found in the costal regions. Other species such as Androctonus were widely spread in all regions. Buthacus Leptochelys, Orthochirus innesi and Scorpio maurus were found, in the East (Aujlah, Jalu), the South (Wadi-Atbah) and the Western cost of Libya respectively.

  14. [HELMINTHS OF THE COMMON ROACH (RUTILUS RUTILUS LINNAEUS, 1758) AND THE EUROPEAN PERCH (PERCA FLUVIALITIS LINNAEUS, 1758) IN THE LAKE TERKHIIN TSAGAAN (MONGOLIA)].

    PubMed

    Lebedeva, D I; Mendsaikhan, B; Chantuu, Kh; Jargalmaa, G

    2015-01-01

    The article provides data about helminthes of the common roach and the European perch in the Lake Terkhiin Tsagaan (Mongolia). Six parasite species were found. Data on the occurrence of the trematode species and larvae of Streptocara crassicauda are obtained for the first time. Species composition of Diplostomum spp. metacercariae parasitizing in fish eyes is updated.

  15. Systematics and phylogenetics of Indo-Pacific Luciolinae fireflies (Coleoptera: Lampyridae) and the description of new genera.

    PubMed

    Ballantyne, Lesly A; Lambkin, Christine L

    2013-01-01

    This revision completes a taxonomic survey of fireflies (Coleoptera: Lampyridae) in the area encompassed by Australia, the Republic of Palau, Federated States of Micronesia, Papua New Guinea, Indonesia (West Irian/Papua), Solomon Islands, New Caledonia, Vanuatu and Fiji. It finalises the taxonomic issues arising from the 1969–70 voyage of the scientific vessel Alpha Helix to New Guinea. The firefly fauna of this area is exclusively Luciolinae. The scope of the revision was extended to include all known Luciolinae genera and certain species from SE Asia, and a phylogenetic analysis of 436 morphological characters of males, females, and associated larvae includes 142 Luciolinae species (Ballantyne & Lambkin 2009, and Fu et al. 2012a). The phylogenetic analyses infer four major groups within the Luciolinae. The monotypic Missimia Ballantyne is sister to all remaining Luciolinae and forms a grade to Aquatica Fu etBallantyne. The large clade of Curtos Motschulsky, Photuroluciola Pic, Colophotia Motschulsky, Poluninius gen. nov., Pyrophanes Olivier, Pteroptyx s. str. Olivier, Medeopteryx gen. nov., Trisinuata gen. nov., and Australoluciola gen. nov.forms a grade to the clade of Luciola s. str. Laporte (including Bourgeoisia Olivier). The monotypic Emeia Fu et al.forms a grade with a clade of Luciola and Pygoluciola Wittmer, sister to a large clade of Convexa Ballantyne, Pacifica gen. nov., Magnalata Ballantyne, Lloydiella Ballantyne, Asymmetricata Ballantyne, Pygatyphella s. str. Ballantyne, Atyphella Olliff, Aquilonia Ballantyne, and Gilvainsula Ballantyne. Luciola is paraphyletic, found in up to six clades across the tree. Together with Luciola, Magnalata, Aquilonia, and Gilvainsula render Atyphella paraphyletic. The new genera described here are all monophyletic and supported in the phylogenetic analyses that also provide evidence for the inclusion of taxa within them. Twenty-three genera including five new ones, and ten new species, are recognised and keys are

  16. MedlinePlus: Articles about MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Technical Bulletin Education and Community Outreach Bowden VM, Wood FB, Warner DG, Olney CA, Olivier ER, Siegel ... PMC3519448/ . Olney C, Hansen L, Vickman A, Reibman S, Wood FB, Siegel E. Long-term outcomes of the ! ...

  17. Computing and Visualizing Reachable Volumes for Maneuvering Satellites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    Computing and Visualizing Reachable Volumes for Maneuvering Satellites Ming Jiang, Willem H. de Vries, Alexander J. Pertica , Scot S. Olivier...Handbook. Elsevier, 2004. 6. M. Jiang, M. Andereck, A. J. Pertica , and S. S. Olivier. A Scalable Visualization System for Improving Space Situational...Jiang, J. Leek, J. L. Levatin, S. Nikolaev, A. J. Pertica , D. W. Phillion, H. K. Springer, and W. H. de Vries. High-Performance Computer Modeling of

  18. Modeling Expert Control Knowledge.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-10

    PROTEAN system is described in detail in several publications of this laboratory [Lichiarge et al. and Brinkley et al. (KSL 86-28)]. Briefly, the...and Genetics. 25 pages. 2. KSL, 86-28 James Brinkley , Craig Cornelius, Russ Altman. Barbara Hayes-Roth, Olivier Lichtarge, Bruce Duncan, Bruce Buchanan...SL 86-51 Barbara Hayes-Roth, Bruce Buchanan, Olivier Lichtarge, k. Micheal Hewett, RuI’Ss Altman, Jlames Brinkley , Craig Cornelius, Bruce DunIcan. and

  19. Summary of the Conference "The Physics of Evolved Stars"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Marco, O.

    2015-12-01

    Olivier Chesneau was an astronomer of many talents. His expertise was on optical and infrared interferometry. Olivier*s tool of choice, the Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI), allowed him to see solutions to open questions in stellar astrophysics. These visions led to collaborations with experts in each of the fields where VLTI observations could be useful. As a result Olivier was a man in the middle of a phenomenal network of astronomers, collaborators and friends. I am fortunate to have been one of them. In this contribution I summarise the conference "Physics of Evolved Stars", held in Nice in June 2015 in memory of Olivier. The conference neatly showcased the science that Olivier had been involved with during his life and laid out the advancements that were made thanks in great part to him and to the collaborations he started. Without doubt his bubbly, happy personality, child-like in a way, made him the perfect connector bringing the technique, the questions and the experts in diverse fields together. Dear to all who worked with him, he was truly the little prince of Astronomy. We shall miss him every day.

  20. Evidence for existence of different Escherichia coli populations in karst aquifer depending on hydrological conditions and the use of watershed. Fabienne Petit1*, Mehdy Ratajczak1, Nicolas Massei 1, Olivier Clermont 2, Erick Denamur 2, Thierry Berthe1,. 1CNRS UMR 6143 M2C, Université de Rouen, FED SCALE 4116, 76821 Mont Saint Aignan 2 INSERM U722, Université Paris 7 Denis Diderot ,75018 Paris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabienne, P.; Mehdy, R.; Massei, N.; Clermont, O.; Denamur, E.; Berthe, T.

    2011-12-01

    Escherichia coli (E. coli) is a commensal bacterium of the gastro-intestinal tract of human and vertebrate animals, even if the aquatic environment could be considered as a secondary habitat. During turbids events consecutive to the rainfall, E.coli are released from manure and feces in karstic hydrosystem with different settling velocities, related to their association to particles. In water, survival of E. coli, was dependant to the grazing by protozoans and their ability to overcome environmental stress. In these conditions, viable but non culturable (VNC) population of E. coli, could be observed. The aim of this study was to investigate, in a small well characterized rural karstic watershed (i) the structure of E. coli population based on the survival ability, the distribution in four main phylo-groups (A, B1, B2, D), and the phenotypic characteristics, (ii) the fate and the distribution of viable non culturable E. coli according their settling velocities, from surface water to groundwater. For this purpose we combined microbiology and hydrology approaches, and solid phase cytometry (ChemScan°RDI) methodology was performed to numbered VNC E. coli. The distribution in the four main E. coli phylo-groups (A, B1, B2, D) shown that the E. coli population structure was modified not only by the hydrological conditions but also the use of the watershed (presence of cattle). Survival abilities of E. coli strains based on microcosm experiments, vary from 2 days to at least 14 days. Characterization of E. coli was performed by studying specific traits present in host-associated strains (virulence factors, antibiotic resistance) and those that could be involved in water persistence (growth temperature substrate range, biofilm formation and grazing by protozoa). Three major clusters of strains were defined by using a correspondence factor analysis. In water characterized by high level of fecal contamination a first cluster of E. coli strains was related to A and B2 phylo-group, presented a multiple-antibiotic-resistance profile, and had low survival abilities in water. In slightly contaminated water, E. coli strains were persistent in water, sensitive to antibiotics, and able to develop at low temperature (from 7°C to 20°C) and to degrade macromolecules. In the same karstic hydrosystem, whatever the hydrological conditions, a population of E. coli in VNC state was observed, even in dry period where VNC E. coli raised to 96% of the total viable E. coli population. The distribution of the E. coli VNC population according to their settling velocity varies along the transfer between the swallow hole to the spring. Thus rapid flow inside karstic aquifer supports the culturability of E. coli. In contrast, in during low-flow period with slow transport of contaminant, E. coli lose their culturability but could maintained inside in VNC state in such hydrosystem.

  1. Effects of atropine and propranolol on lung inflammation in experimental envenomation: comparison of two buthidae venoms

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous works had shown that scorpion venom induced neurotransmitter elevation and an inflammatory response associated with various anatomo-pathological modifications. The most dangerous scorpions species in Algeria responsible for these effects are Androctonus australis hector (Aah) and Androctonus amoreuxi (Aam). Results Comparison of the physiopathological effects induced by the two venoms showed differences in the kinetic of cytokine release and in lung injury. The lung edema was only observed in response to Aah venom and it was correlated with cell infiltration. In order to better understand the involved mechanism in inflammatory response, we used two antagonists, atropine (non-selective muscarinic antagonist) and propranolol (β adrenergic antagonist), which lead to a decrease of cell infiltration but has no effect on edema forming. Conclusion These results suggest another pathway in the development of lung injury following envenomation with Aam or Aah venom. PMID:23849182

  2. [Dangerous scorpions from Niger].

    PubMed

    Goyffon, M; Guette, C

    2005-11-01

    Two dangerous scorpion species are responsible for the severe human envenomations in Niger, Leiurus quinquestriatus (H. et E.), the most abundant, and Androctonus aeneas C.L. Koch, less frequent and described in a Sahel country for the first time. Up to now, A. aeneas was known in North Africa only. Its venom is highly toxic for humans, similar to those of the most dangerous species living in Africa, such as L. quinquestriatus and other species belonging to the genus Androctonus, A. australis (L.) and A. mauretanicus (Poc.), for the envenoming treatment of which specific antivenoms are prepared. Taking into account the absence of a specific antivenom for A. aeneas, the paraspecific neutralising effect of these antivenoms should be tested.

  3. Cloning, Characterization, and Expression of Animal Toxin Genes for Vaccine Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-04-27

    viper, Echis carnatus) (5 3,5 6) VI. MISCELLANEOUS TOXINS A. 1ONOPHORES 1. Alpha-latrotoxin (black widow spider, Latrodectus mactans ) (57) 2. Diamphotoxin...143,144), the cloth-of-gold cone snail (Conus textile) (146), the honey bee (Apis mellifera)(147,148), and the black widow spi- der ( Latrodectus ... mactans (150). With mRNA isolated from the telsons of Androctonus australis Hector a cDNA library was constructed by using the Okayama/Berg cloning

  4. The adventive genus Xantholinus Dejean (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Staphylininae in North America: new records and a synthesis of distributional data

    PubMed Central

    Brunke, Adam J.; Majka, Christopher G.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract New distributional and bionomic data are provided for species of the genus Xantholinus in North America. Xantholinus elegans (Olivier 1795) (= X. jarrigei Coiffait 1956)is recorded from North America for the first time, based on specimens collected in Ontario, Canada from 2007-2010. The armature of the internal sac of the aedeagus in situ is illustrated to aid in identification. Xantholinus linearis (Olivier 1795), known previously from the Maritime Provinces of Canada and the eastern United States, is newly recorded from Ontario. Xantholinus longiventris Heer 1839 is still only known from western North America. A key is provided to allow recognition of all three species. PMID:21594027

  5. Low-Intensity Conflict in the Third World

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-08-01

    program quickly started to pay 55 LOWINTENSITY CONFLICT dividends . Approximately 7,000 officers were trained by Moscow from 1954 to 1978, and the Soviet...Uni- versity of Ohio, Dept of History, 1985); Olivier Roy, "Le Double Code Afghan : Marxisme et Tribalisme," Revue Francaise de Science Politique 36

  6. Numerical Study of the Cerebro-Spinal Fluid (CSF) Dynamics Under Quasistatic Condition During a Cardiac Cycle

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-25

    THE CEREBRO -SPINAL FLUID (CSF) DYNAMICS UNDER QUASI- STATIC CONDITION DURING A CARDIAC CYCLE Loïc FIN, Reinhard GREBE, Olivier BALÉDENT, Ilana...from... to) - Title and Subtitle Numerical Study of the Cerebro -Spinal Fluid (CSF) Dynamics Under Quasistatic Condition During a Cardiac Cycle

  7. LightForce Photon-Pressure Collision Avoidance: Updated Efficiency Analysis Utilizing a Highly Parallel Simulation Approach

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    J.; Marshall, W.; Levit, C.; Smith, C.; Olivier, S.; Pertica . A.; De Vries, W.“LightForce: An Update on Orbital Collision Avoidance Using Photon...php?option=com_docman&task=doc_view&gid=775&Itemid=26 . 24. Nikolaev, S.; Phillion, D.; Springer, H.K.; de Vries,W.; Jiang,M.; Pertica , A.; Henderson

  8. Algal taxonomy forum: Algal Taxonomist, Let Serendipity Reign!

    PubMed

    Druehl, Louis

    2013-04-01

    The publication of a mini-review by Olivier De Clerck et al. in this issue of the Journal of Phycology presented an opportunity to open a dialogue on challenges faced by contemporary algal taxonomists. The Editorial Office solicited the following two additional contributions in response to De Clerck et al.'s paper; the responses were edited solely for clarity, space and format.

  9. Impact of temperature and relative humidity on life history parameters of adult Sitotroga cerealella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is a pest of stored corn, Zea mays L., and other grains throughout the world. S. cerealella are routinely exposed to temperatures below 20°C in regions of the U.S. where corn is grown, yet there are no data describi...

  10. Detection of Rhynchophorus palmarum (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and identification of associated nematodes in south Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study reports a survey conducted to find the South American palm weevil Rhynchophorus palmarum (L.) and the red palm weevil R. ferrugineus (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), two invasive species of palm trees. The study was performed in the Rio Grande Valley of south Texas and near the bor...

  11. Thinking about the Nature and Role of Authority in Democratic Education with Rousseau's "Emile"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michaud, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Educational authority is an issue in contemporary democracies. Surprisingly, little attention has been given to the problem of authority in Jean-Jacques Rousseau's "Emile" and his work has not been addressed in the contemporary debate on the issue of authority in democratic education. Olivier Michaud's goals are, first, to address both of these…

  12. Reflective Teaching and Self-Efficacy Beliefs: Exploring Relationships in the Context of Teaching EFL in Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babaei, Mehdi; Abednia, Arman

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on a study that explored the relationship between reflective teaching and teachers' self-efficacy beliefs. Two questionnaires, the English Language Teaching Reflection Inventory (Akbari, Behzadpoor, & Dadvand, 2010) and Teachers' Efficacy Beliefs System-Self (TEBS-Self) (Dellinger, Bobbett, Olivier, & Ellett, 2008),…

  13. Acoustic assessment of Beauveria bassiana (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) effects on Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae) larval activity and mortality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae), the red palm weevil, is an economically important palm tree pest in subtropical regions of the world. Previous studies have shown that R. ferrugineus can be infected and killed by the entomopathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana. Howev...

  14. Acoustic detection of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae) and Oryctes elegans (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in Phoenix dactylifera (Arecales: Arecacae) trees and offshoots in Saudi Arabian orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae) larvae are cryptic, internal-tissue feeding pests of palm trees that are difficult to detect until after they have caused severe economic damage; consequently, infestations may remain undetected until they are widespread in an orchard....

  15. Acoustic detectability of Rhynchophorus cruentatus (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The palmetto weevil, Rhynchophorus cruentatus Fabricius, native to Florida, attacks palm trees. Like its economically destructive relatives, R. ferrugineus (Olivier) and R. palmarum L., it feeds internally and often is not detected until irreparable damage occurs. Acoustic methods previously used su...

  16. Acoustical detection of early instar Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Canary Island date palm Phoenix canariensis (Arecales: Arecaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The red palm weevil (RPW), Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier), is of international concern due to destructive larval feeding within palm trees. Originating from tropical Asia, RPW has spread throughout the eastern hemisphere where it has become a significant economic pest to the ornamental and date...

  17. Evaluation of a single application of Neonicotnoid and multi-application contact insecticides for flatheaded borer management in field grown Acer rubrum L. cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two trials evaluated insecticides for flatheaded borer (Chrysobothris femorata [Olivier]) control and red maple (Acer rubrum L.) cultivar growth over a 4-year period. Soil-applied systemic insecticides (acephate, imidacloprid, clothianidin, dinotefuran, and thiamethoxam) and trunk-applied contact i...

  18. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (13th, Paris, France, July 9-13, 1989), Volume 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vergnaud, Gerard, Ed.; Rogalski, Janine, Ed.; Artique, Michele, Ed.

    This proceedings of the annual conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (PME) includes the following research papers: "A Model of Understanding Two-Digit Numeration and Computation" (H. Murray & A. Olivier); "The Computer Produces a Special Graphic Situation of Learning the Change of Coordinate System" (S.…

  19. Description of a new species of the genus Laelaspis Berlese (Acari, Mesostigmata, Laelapidae) from Iran

    PubMed Central

    Kazemi, Shahrooz; Mehrzad, Nazanin; Latifi, Malihe

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of the genus Laelaspis Berlese, Laelaspis elongatus sp. n. is described based on adult female and male specimens collected in association with Pheidole pallidula (Nylander) (Hym., Formicidae) in Ahwaz, Khuzestan Province, southwestern Iran, and also Acinopus (Acinopus) picipes (Olivier) (Col., Carabidae) in Bam, Kerman Province, southeastern Iran. PMID:26843834

  20. Classification of Na channel receptors specific for various scorpion toxins.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, K P; Watt, D D; Lazdunski, M

    1983-04-01

    1. The specific binding to rat brain synaptosomes of a radiolabelled derivative of toxin II from the scorpion Centruroides suffusus suffusus could be prevented by toxins III and IV, but not by toxin V or variants 1-3, from the venom of Centruroides sculpturatus. 2. The specific binding of a similar derivative of toxin II from Androctonus australis Hector was not affected by any of the toxins from Centruroides sculpturatus. 3. There is biochemical evidence for only two distinct classes of Na channel receptors specific for known scorpion toxins.

  1. Helminth parasites of the digestive tract of the oystercatcher, Haematopus ostralegus, in the Wadden Sea, The Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borgsteede, F. H. M.; Van den Broek, E.; Swennen, C.

    The digestive tracts of 90 oystercatchers (equal numbers of males and females and of juveniles, subadults and adults) wintering in the Dutch Wadden Sea were examined for helminth parasites. The nematodes Capillaria sp. (36.7%) and Streptocara crassicauda (7.8%) were found in the stomach. Unidentified cestodes (76.7%) and the trematodes Psilostomum brevicolle (42.2%), Notocotylus sp. (81.1%), and unidentified gymnophallids (100%) were found in the intestine and caeca. Two birds were infected with Gymnophallidae only, while all other birds contained additional helminth species. Compared with subadult and adult birds, the juveniles had significantly more infections with Capillaria sp. and cestodes. Moreover, the juveniles were infected with a greater variety of species. No further relation was found between the presence of helminths or worm numbers and age groups or sexes of birds.

  2. A first exploration of the venom of the Buthus occitanus scorpion found in southern France

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Eauclaire, Marie-France; Bosmans, Frank; Céard, Brigitte; Diochot, Sylvie; Bougis, Pierre E.

    2014-01-01

    Even though Buthus occitanus scorpions are found throughout the Mediterranean region, a lack of distinctive characteristics has hampered their classification into different subspecies. Yet, stings from this particular scorpion family are reported each year to result in pain followed by various toxic symptoms. In order to determine the toxicity origin of the rare French Buthus occitanus Amoreux scorpion, we collected several specimens and studied their venom composition using a nano ultra high performance liquid chromatography and matrix assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (nano UHPLC/MALDI-TOF-MS) automated workflow combined with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) approach. Moreover, we compared this dataset to that obtained from highly lethal Androctonus australis and Androctonus mauretanicus scorpions collected in North Africa. As a result, we found that the Buthus occitanus Amoreux venom is toxic to mice, an observation that is most likely caused by venom components that inhibit voltage-gated sodium channel inactivation. Moreover, we identified similarities in venom composition between Buthus occitanus scorpions living in the South of France and other Buthidae collected in Morocco and Algeria. As such, the results of this study should be taken into consideration when treating stings from the Buthus occitanus species living in the South of France. PMID:24418174

  3. A first exploration of the venom of the Buthus occitanus scorpion found in southern France.

    PubMed

    Martin-Eauclaire, Marie-France; Bosmans, Frank; Céard, Brigitte; Diochot, Sylvie; Bougis, Pierre E

    2014-03-01

    Even though Buthus occitanus scorpions are found throughout the Mediterranean region, a lack of distinctive characteristics has hampered their classification into different subspecies. Yet, stings from this particular scorpion family are reported each year to result in pain followed by various toxic symptoms. In order to determine the toxicity origin of the rare French B. occitanus Amoreux scorpion, we collected several specimens and studied their venom composition using a nano ultra high performance liquid chromatography and matrix assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (nano UHPLC/MALDI-TOF-MS) automated workflow combined with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) approach. Moreover, we compared this dataset to that obtained from highly lethal Androctonus australis and Androctonus mauretanicus scorpions collected in North Africa. As a result, we found that the B. occitanus Amoreux venom is toxic to mice, an observation that is most likely caused by venom components that inhibit voltage-gated sodium channel inactivation. Moreover, we identified similarities in venom composition between B. occitanus scorpions living in the South of France and other Buthidae collected in Morocco and Algeria. As such, the results of this study should be taken into consideration when treating stings from the B. occitanus species living in the South of France.

  4. Two types of scorpion receptor sites, one related to the activation, the other to the inactivation of the action potential sodium channel.

    PubMed

    Couraud, F; Jover, E; Dubois, J M; Rochat, H

    1982-01-01

    The action of the neurotoxin in Buthinae scorpion venoms (Androctonus, Buthus or Leiurus genera) has been extensively studied. These proteins induce a prolongation of the action potential of nerves and muscles by slowing down inactivation of the sodium channel. Their affinity for their receptor site depends on membrane potential. In the present report we describe a toxin from a Centrurinae scorpion, Centruroides suffusus, which binds rat brain synaptosomes at a receptor site distinct from the Buthinae scorpion site independently of voltage. We name Androctonus-like toxins, alpha-scorpion toxins (alpha-ScTX), and Centruroides-like toxins, beta-scorpion toxins (beta-ScTX). We further report that beta-ScTX induces repetitive firing in frog myelinated nerve fibres by producing an abnormal sodium permeability. The beta-toxin binds specifically to rat brain synaptosomes (Kd = 3 nM) and induces an inhibition of the uptake and a stimulation of the release of GABA at concentrations which are in good agreement with the Kd value. These effects are blocked by tetrodotoxin. The binding site of beta -ScTX is distinct from those of other neurotoxins acting on the sodium channel like tetrodotoxin, alpha-ScTX and veratridine. The alpha-ScTX/beta-ScTX binding site capacities decreases as development of rat brain synaptosomes progresses ; at day 7 after birth, it is 1.1. and at day 39, 0.3.

  5. [Use of medicinal plants against scorpionic and ophidian venoms].

    PubMed

    Memmi, A; Sansa, G; Rjeibi, I; El Ayeb, M; Srairi-Abid, N; Bellasfer, Z; Fekhih, A

    2007-01-01

    The scorpionic and ophidian envenomations are a serious public health problem in Tunisia especially in Southeastern regions. In these regions Artemisia campestris L is a plant well known which has a very important place in traditional medicine for its effectiveness against alleged venom of scorpions and snakes. In this work, we tested for the first time, the anti-venomous activity of Artemisia campestris L against the scorpion Androctonus australis garzonii and the viper Macrovipera lebetina venoms. Assays were conducted by fixing the dose of extract to3 mg/mouse while doses of venom are variable. The leaves of Artemisia campestris L were extracted by various organic solvents (Ether of oil, ethyl acetate, methanol and ethanol) and each extract was tested for its venom neutralizing capacity. For the ethanolic extract, a significant activity with respect to the venoms of scorpion Androctonus australis garzonii (Aag), was detected. Similarly, a significant neutralizing activity against the venom of a viper Macrovipera lebetina (Ml), was obtained with the dichloromethane extract. These results suggest the presence of two different type of chemical components in this plant: those neutralizing the venom of scorpion are soluble in ethanol whereas those neutralizing the venom of viper are soluble in dichloromethane.

  6. The Genus Criodion (Audinet-Serville, 1833) (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae): First Record for Panama

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, David Ezequiel; Marin, Margarita; Santos Murgas, Alonso

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The Cerambycidae are one of the largest beetle families. Cerambycid beetles are found on all continents, but the tropics are extremely rich in this species. The genus Criodion (Audinet-Serville, 1833) includes 13 species in the Neotropical Region, two of which occur in Central America. Panama has a high biodiversity, yet a small number of sites have been extensively studied. In this contribution, new distributional data are given for C. cinereum (Olivier, 1795) and C. tuberculatum Gahan, 1892. New information Two species of the genus Criodion (Audinet-Serville, 1833) are recorded for first time in Panama, Criodion cinereum (Olivier, 1795) and Criodion tuberculatum Gahan, 1892. Relevant details are presented for each species. PMID:27099560

  7. Cerambycid Beetle Species with Similar Pheromones are Segregated by Phenology and Minor Pheromone Components.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Robert F; Reagel, Peter F; Wong, Joseph C H; Meier, Linnea R; Silva, Weliton Dias; Mongold-Diers, Judith; Millar, Jocelyn G; Hanks, Lawrence M

    2015-05-01

    Recent research has shown that volatile sex and aggregation-sex pheromones of many species of cerambycid beetles are highly conserved, with sympatric and synchronic species that are closely related (i.e., congeners), and even more distantly related (different subfamilies), using the same or similar pheromones. Here, we investigated mechanisms by which cross attraction is averted among seven cerambycid species that are native to eastern North America and active as adults in spring: Anelaphus pumilus (Newman), Cyrtophorus verrucosus (Olivier), Euderces pini (Olivier), Neoclytus caprea (Say), and the congeners Phymatodes aereus (Newman), P. amoenus (Say), and P. varius (F.). Males of these species produce (R)-3-hydroxyhexan-2-one as their dominant or sole pheromone component. Our field bioassays support the hypothesis that cross attraction between species is averted or at least minimized by differences among species in seasonal phenology and circadian flight periods of adults, and/or by minor pheromone components that act as synergists for conspecifics and antagonists for heterospecifics.

  8. Development of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Biomarkers for Traumatic Brain Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    TBI, November 18, 2011, Detroit, Prof. Haacke Wayne State University, TBI Workshop, Mild TBI, November 18, 2011, Detroit, Prof. Kou. Henry Ford...Del Campo -Perez V, Alvarez-Garcıa E, Vara-Perez C, Andrade-Olivie MA. 2011. Model predicting survival/exitus after traumatic brain injury: biomarker...visualize blood products and improve tumor contrast in the study of brain masses. J Magn Reson Imaging 2006;24: 41–51. 4. Kohler R, Vargas MI, Masterson K

  9. Area Handbook Series: Afghanistan: A Country Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    Nevertheless, the invasion brings certain dividends . A generation of Soviet officers is gaining experience in guerrilla warfare and "ticket punches...modemite politique , published in 1085; a passable, though not elegant, English translation of Roy’s book appears in the Joint Publications Research...Universitaires de France, 1981. Roy, Olivier. "Afghanistan: Islam and Political Modernity" (L’Afghanistan: Islam modernitee politique ). Paris: May 1985

  10. A New Synonym and New Records of South-American Eumastacidae (Caelifera: Orthoptera: Eumastacoidea).

    PubMed

    Olivier, R S

    2017-04-01

    Temnomastax spielmanni Olivier, 2014 n. syn. is proposed as new synonym of Eumastacops nemorivaga Rehn & Rehn, 1942. New distribution records in Peru and Colombia are provided for the following four species: Eumastax nigrovittata Descamps, 1979; Paramastax nigra (Scudder, 1875); Pseudomastax nigroplagiata Descamps, 1970; and Pseudomastax personata (Bolívar, 1881). New information on the distribution of Paramastax flavovittata Descamps, 1973 and E. nemorivaga is added, resulting in the expansion of the geographic distribution. Photographs of all studied species are provided.

  11. International Workshop on Detection, Classification and Localization of Marine Mammals Using Passive Acoustics (4th). International Workshop on Density Estimation of Marine Mammals Using Passive Acoustics (1st)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-13

    Mars 55 Characterisation of sound subunits for humpback whale song analysis. F. Pace, P.R. White, O. Adam 56 Passive acoustic detection of Minke...International Monitoring System. Samaran Flore, Adam Olivier, Guinet Christophe 58 Detection of Minke whale sounds in the Stellwagen Bank National Marine...September 8.40 Characterisation of sound subunits for humpback whale song analysis. F. Pace, P.R. White, O. Adam 9.00 Passive acoustic detection of

  12. ML Partial Evaluation Using Set-Based Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-02-01

    Copenhagen, May 15-18, 1990. 7 [51 Charles Consel . Binding time analysis for higher order untyped functional languages. In Mitchell Wand, editor...Proceedings of the 1990 ACM Confer- ence on Lisp and Functional Programming, pages 264-272, Nice, Friace, June 1990. ACM Press. [61 Charles Consel . A tour of...Schism: A partial evaluation system for higher- order applicative languages. In Schmidt [ 171, pages 145-154. [71 Charles Consel and Olivier Danvy

  13. A vector supersymmetry killing IR divergences in non-commutative gauge theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaschke, D. N.

    2008-02-01

    This is a report on the joint work with François Gieres, Stefan Hohenegger, Olivier Piguet and Manfred Schweda. We consider a non-commutative U(1) gauge theory with an extension which was originally proposed by A. A. Slavnov [3, 4] in order to get rid of UV/IR mixing problems. Here we show, that the improved IR behaviour of this model is mainly due to the appearence of a linear vector supersymmetry.

  14. The Circumstellar Dust of "Born-Again" Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, A.; Gehrz, R. D.; Helton, L. A.; Woodward, C. E.

    2015-12-01

    We describe the evolution of the carbon dust shells around Very Late Thermal Pulse (VLTP) objects as seen at infrared wavelengths. This includes a 20-year overview of the evolution of the dust around Sakurai*s object (to which Olivier made a seminal contribution) and FG Sge. VLTPs may occur during the endpoint of as many as 25% of solar mass stars, and may therefore provide a glimpse of the possible fate of the Sun.

  15. Simulations Comparing the Sensitivity of the nlCWFS with the SHWFS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    Simulations Comparing the Sensitivity of the nlCWFS with the SHWFS Mala Mateen Air Force Research Laboratory, Kirtland AFB, NM, 87117 Olivier Guyon...potential optical designs for the nlCWFS. Over the next year a single design will be selected to integrate the nlCWFS with the AFRL /RDS Optics Division...ES) Air Force Research Laboratory, Kirtland AFB,NM,87117 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND

  16. Circumventing Therapeutic Resistance and the Emergence of Disseminated Breast Cancer Cells Through Non-Invasive Optical Imaging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    non- catalyzed conditons.43,44 Non- catalyzed ring-opening poly- merization of 3-CL must, however, be carried out $180 $C over several days, which is...Carbon Nanotubes by Chiral , Ionic, Semiconducting Polymers, P. Deria, C. D. Von Bargen, J.-H. Olivier, A. S. Kumbhar, J. G. Saven, and M. J. Therien...J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2013, 135, 16220−16234. 49) Fluence-Dependent Singlet Exciton Dynamics in Length-Sorted Chirality -Enriched Single-Wall Carbon

  17. The genetic and epigenetic landscape for CNS drug discovery targeting cross-diagnostic behavioral domains.

    PubMed

    de Mooij-van Malsen, Annetrude J G; Pjetri, Eneda; Kas, Martien J

    2015-04-15

    Animal studies play a central role in the identification and testing of novel drugs for CNS disorders. In his longstanding career, Berend Olivier has significantly contributed to CNS drug discovery by applying and supporting novel views and methodologies in the fields of behavioral neuroscience, pharmacology, and (epi-) genetics. Here we review and put forward some of these integrated approaches that have led to a productive collaboration and new insights into the genetic and epigenetic regulation of neurobehavioural traits related to psychiatric disorders.

  18. Negotiation in the Operational Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-06

    Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 1995) 167-214. 43 Geert Hofstede , Culture’s Consequences (Beverly Hills, CA: Sage, 1980) and E. H. Schein, Organizational Culture ...CA: Jossey-Bass, 2002. Faure, Guy-Olivier. “International Negotiation: The Cultural Dimension .” In International Negotiation: Analysis, Approaches...Decision-Making, Power Relationships, Culture , Iraq, Bosnia, Arms Control 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Unclassified / Releaseable 17. LIMITATION

  19. Antivenom Evaluation by Electrophysiological Analysis.

    PubMed

    Restano-Cassulini, Rita; Garcia, Walter; Paniagua-Solís, Jorge F; Possani, Lourival D

    2017-02-23

    Scorpion stings on humans are medically relevant because they may contain toxins that specifically target ion channels. During antivenom production, pharmaceutical companies must use a large number of experimental animals to ensure the antivenom's efficacy according to pharmacopeia methods. Here we present an electrophysiological alternative for the evaluation of horse antivenoms produced against two species of Moroccan scorpions: Buthus mardochei and Androctonus mauretanicus. Human sodium and potassium channels and acetylcholine nicotinic receptors were analyzed by standard patch-clamp techniques. The results showed that the antivenom is capable of reversing ion current disruption caused by the venom application. We propose the use of this in vitro technique for antivenom evaluation as an alternative to using a large number of live animals.

  20. Antivenom Evaluation by Electrophysiological Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Restano-Cassulini, Rita; Garcia, Walter; Paniagua-Solís, Jorge F.; Possani, Lourival D.

    2017-01-01

    Scorpion stings on humans are medically relevant because they may contain toxins that specifically target ion channels. During antivenom production, pharmaceutical companies must use a large number of experimental animals to ensure the antivenom’s efficacy according to pharmacopeia methods. Here we present an electrophysiological alternative for the evaluation of horse antivenoms produced against two species of Moroccan scorpions: Buthus mardochei and Androctonus mauretanicus. Human sodium and potassium channels and acetylcholine nicotinic receptors were analyzed by standard patch-clamp techniques. The results showed that the antivenom is capable of reversing ion current disruption caused by the venom application. We propose the use of this in vitro technique for antivenom evaluation as an alternative to using a large number of live animals. PMID:28241514

  1. Genetic engineering of fungal biocontrol agents to achieve greater efficacy against insect pests.

    PubMed

    St Leger, Raymond J; Wang, Chengshu

    2010-01-01

    Molecular biology methods have elucidated pathogenic processes in several fungal biocontrol agents including two of the most commonly applied entomopathogenic fungi, Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana. In this review, we describe how a combination of molecular techniques has: (1) identified and characterized genes involved in infection; (2) manipulated the genes of the pathogen to improve biocontrol performance; and (3) allowed expression of a neurotoxin from the scorpion Androctonus australis. The complete sequencing of four exemplar species of entomopathogenic fungi including B. bassiana and M. anisopliae will be completed in 2010. Coverage of these genomes will help determine the identity, origin, and evolution of traits needed for diverse lifestyles and host switching. Such knowledge combined with the precision and malleability of molecular techniques will allow design of multiple pathogens with different strategies to be used for different ecosystems and avoid the possibility of the host developing resistance.

  2. The scorpion toxin Bot IX is a potent member of the α-like family and has a unique N-terminal sequence extension.

    PubMed

    Martin-Eauclaire, Marie-France; Salvatierra, Juan; Bosmans, Frank; Bougis, Pierre E

    2016-09-01

    We report the detailed chemical, immunological and pharmacological characterization of the α-toxin Bot IX from the Moroccan scorpion Buthus occitanus tunetanus venom. Bot IX, which consists of 70 amino acids, is a highly atypical toxin. It carries a unique N-terminal sequence extension and is highly lethal in mice. Voltage clamp recordings on oocytes expressing rat Nav1.2 or insect BgNav1 reveal that, similar to other α-like toxins, Bot IX inhibits fast inactivation of both variants. Moreover, Bot IX belongs to the same structural/immunological group as the α-like toxin Bot I. Remarkably, radioiodinated Bot IX competes efficiently with the classical α-toxin AaH II from Androctonus australis, and displays one of the highest affinities for Nav channels.

  3. Wheat germ in vitro translation to produce one of the most toxic sodium channel specific toxins.

    PubMed

    Gad, Wael; Ben-Abderrazek, Rahma; Wahni, Khadija; Vertommen, Didier; Muyldermans, Serge; Bouhaouala-Zahar, Balkiss; Messens, Joris

    2014-07-29

    Envenoming following scorpion sting is a common emergency in many parts of the world. During scorpion envenoming, highly toxic small polypeptides of the venom diffuse rapidly within the victim causing serious medical problems. The exploration of toxin structure-function relationship would benefit from the generation of soluble recombinant scorpion toxins in Escherichia coli. We developed an in vitro wheat germ translation system for the expression of the highly toxic Aah (Androctonus australis hector)II protein that requires the proper formation of four disulphide bonds. Soluble, recombinant N-terminal GST (glutathione S-transferase)-tagged AahII toxin is obtained in this in vitro translation system. After proteolytic removal of the GST-tag, purified rAahII (recombinant AahII) toxin, which contains two extra amino acids at its N terminal relative to the native AahII, is highly toxic after i.c.v. (intracerebroventricular) injection in Swiss mice. An LD50 (median lethal dose)-value of 10 ng (or 1.33 pmol), close to that of the native toxin (LD50 of 3 ng) indicates that the wheat germ in vitro translation system produces properly folded and biological active rAahII. In addition, NbAahII10 (Androctonus australis hector nanobody 10), a camel single domain antibody fragment, raised against the native AahII toxin, recognizes its cognate conformational epitope on the recombinant toxin and neutralizes the toxicity of purified rAahII upon injection in mice.

  4. Pre-clinical studies of toxin-specific nanobodies: evidence of in vivo efficacy to prevent fatal disturbances provoked by scorpion envenoming.

    PubMed

    Hmila, Issam; Cosyns, Bernard; Tounsi, Hayfa; Roosens, Bram; Caveliers, Vicky; Abderrazek, Rahma Ben; Boubaker, Samir; Muyldermans, Serge; El Ayeb, Mohamed; Bouhaouala-Zahar, Balkiss; Lahoutte, Tony

    2012-10-15

    Scorpions represent a significant threat to humans and animals in various countries throughout the world. Recently, we introduced Nanobodies (Nbs) to combat more efficiently scorpion envenoming and demonstrated the performance of NbAahIF12 and NbAahII10 to neutralize scorpion toxins of Androctonus australis hector venom. A bispecific Nb construct (NbF12-10) comprising these two Nbs is far more protective than the classic Fab'(2) based therapy and is the most efficient antivenom therapy against scorpion sting in preclinical studies. Now we investigate the biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of (99m)Tc labeled Nbs by in vivo imaging in rodents and compared these data with those of the Fab'(2) product (PAS). The pharmacodynamics of the Nbs was investigated in rats by in vivo echocardiography and it is shown that NbF12-10 prevents effectively the hemodynamic disturbances induced by a lethal dose of venom. Moreover, even a late injection of NbF12-10 restores the heart rate and brings the blood pressure to baseline values. Histology confirms that NbF12-10 prevents lung and heart lesions of treated mice after envenoming. In conjunction, in this preclinical study, we provide proof of concept that NbF12-10 prevents effectively the fatal disturbances induced by Androctonus venom, and that the Nanobody based therapeutic has a potential to substitute the classic Fab'(2) based product as immunotherapeutic in scorpion envenoming. Further clinical study using larger cohorts of animals should be considered to confirm the full protecting potential of our NbF12-10.

  5. Wheat germ in vitro translation to produce one of the most toxic sodium channel specific toxins

    PubMed Central

    Gad, Wael; Ben-Abderrazek, Rahma; Wahni, Khadija; Vertommen, Didier; Muyldermans, Serge; Bouhaouala-Zahar, Balkiss; Messens, Joris

    2014-01-01

    Envenoming following scorpion sting is a common emergency in many parts of the world. During scorpion envenoming, highly toxic small polypeptides of the venom diffuse rapidly within the victim causing serious medical problems. The exploration of toxin structure-function relationship would benefit from the generation of soluble recombinant scorpion toxins in Escherichia coli. We developed an in vitro wheat germ translation system for the expression of the highly toxic Aah (Androctonus australis hector)II protein that requires the proper formation of four disulphide bonds. Soluble, recombinant N-terminal GST (glutathione S-transferase)-tagged AahII toxin is obtained in this in vitro translation system. After proteolytic removal of the GST-tag, purified rAahII (recombinant AahII) toxin, which contains two extra amino acids at its N terminal relative to the native AahII, is highly toxic after i.c.v. (intracerebroventricular) injection in Swiss mice. An LD50 (median lethal dose)-value of 10 ng (or 1.33 pmol), close to that of the native toxin (LD50 of 3 ng) indicates that the wheat germ in vitro translation system produces properly folded and biological active rAahII. In addition, NbAahII10 (Androctonus australis hector nanobody 10), a camel single domain antibody fragment, raised against the native AahII toxin, recognizes its cognate conformational epitope on the recombinant toxin and neutralizes the toxicity of purified rAahII upon injection in mice. PMID:24924257

  6. Surveillance of endoparasitic infections and the first report of Physaloptera sp. and Sarcocystis spp. in farm rodents and shrews in central Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Tung, Kwong-Chung; Hsiao, Fun-Chun; Yang, Cheng-Hsiung; Chou, Chi-Chung; Lee, Wei-Ming; Wang, Kai-Sung; Lai, Cheng-Hung

    2009-01-01

    A total of 95 rodents and shrews including 82 Rattus norvegicus, 7 Rattus rattus, and 6 Suncus murinus were trapped from different localities of Taichung, Taiwan. The overall prevalence of parasites was 93.7%. The infection rates for R. norvegicus, R. rattus, and S. murinus were 93.9%, 85.7%, and 100%, respectively. The rats were infected with four cestodes, Taenia taeniaeformis (48.4%), Hymenolepis diminuta (38.9%), Hymenolepis nana (5.3%), and Raillietina celebensis (45.3%); ten nematodes, Angiostrongylus cantonensis (16.8%), Capillaria hepatica (49.5%), Gongylonema neoplasticum (1.1%), Heterakis spumosa (35.8%), Nippostrongylus brasiliensis (57.9%), Physaloptera sp. (1.1%), Strongyloides ratti (81.1%), Syphacia muris (2.1%), Trichosomoides crassicauda (29.5%), and Trichurus sp. (1.1%), and one protozoan, Sarcocystis spp. (33.7%). Physaloptera sp. from S. murinus and Sarcocystis spp. from both R. norvegicus and R. rattus were reported for the first time in Taiwan. The importances of zoonotic species were discussed.

  7. Parasite biodiversity in Rattus spp caught in wet markets.

    PubMed

    Claveria, Florencia G; Causapin, Jeffrey; de Guzman, Maria Aneceta; Toledo, Ma Grace; Salibay, Cristina

    2005-01-01

    Rattus spp trapped in wet markets in Quiapo, Manila and Balayan, Batangas had ectoparasites, Echinolaelaps echidnius (mite), and Polyplax spinulosa (louse). The endoparasites identified were Hymenolepis diminuta; the acanthocephalan Moniliformis moniliformis; Taenia taeniaeformis strobilocercus larvae and Capillaria hepatica in liver; Trichosomoides crassicauda of the urinary bladder; Sarcocystis sp of muscle tissue; and two different species of stronglyloid-looking intestinal nematodes. Rats had 100% infection with C. hepatica and T. taeniaeformis, exhibiting high parasitemia. The co-existence of rats with diverse parasitic species is reflective of the host's capability to support parasites' behavioral, physiological, and developmental needs. Despite heavy infection with intestinal parasites, and marked hepatic tissue damage owing to severe capillariasis and strobilocercus larval infection, all rats appeared healthy and agile, suggestive of a well-established rat host-parasite relationship. In view of the diversity and zoonotic nature of rat parasites, and the impoverished conditions prevailing in communities where Rattus spp survive and proliferate, they can readily facilitate parasite transmission to humans and other susceptible animal hosts.

  8. A Systematic Health Assessment of Indian Ocean Bottlenose (Tursiops aduncus) and Indo-Pacific Humpback (Sousa plumbea) Dolphins Incidentally Caught in Shark Nets off the KwaZulu-Natal Coast, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Emily P.; de Wet, Morné; Thompson, Peter; Siebert, Ursula; Wohlsein, Peter; Plön, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Coastal dolphins are regarded as indicators of changes in coastal marine ecosystem health that could impact humans utilizing the marine environment for food or recreation. Necropsy and histology examinations were performed on 35 Indian Ocean bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) and five Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa plumbea) incidentally caught in shark nets off the KwaZulu-Natal coast, South Africa, between 2010 and 2012. Parasitic lesions included pneumonia (85%), abdominal and thoracic serositis (75%), gastroenteritis (70%), hepatitis (62%), and endometritis (42%). Parasitic species identified were Halocercus sp. (lung), Crassicauda sp. (skeletal muscle) and Xenobalanus globicipitis (skin). Additional findings included bronchiolar epithelial mineralisation (83%), splenic filamentous tags (45%), non-suppurative meningoencephalitis (39%), and myocardial fibrosis (26%). No immunohistochemically positive reaction was present in lesions suggestive of dolphin morbillivirus, Toxoplasma gondii and Brucella spp. The first confirmed cases of lobomycosis and sarcocystosis in South African dolphins were documented. Most lesions were mild, and all animals were considered to be in good nutritional condition, based on blubber thickness and muscle mass. Apparent temporal changes in parasitic disease prevalence may indicate a change in the host/parasite interface. This study provided valuable baseline information on conditions affecting coastal dolphin populations in South Africa and, to our knowledge, constitutes the first reported systematic health assessment in incidentally caught dolphins in the Southern Hemisphere. Further research on temporal disease trends as well as disease pathophysiology and anthropogenic factors affecting these populations is needed. PMID:25203143

  9. A systematic health assessment of indian ocean bottlenose (Tursiops aduncus) and indo-pacific humpback (Sousa plumbea) dolphins incidentally caught in shark nets off the KwaZulu-Natal Coast, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Lane, Emily P; de Wet, Morné; Thompson, Peter; Siebert, Ursula; Wohlsein, Peter; Plön, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Coastal dolphins are regarded as indicators of changes in coastal marine ecosystem health that could impact humans utilizing the marine environment for food or recreation. Necropsy and histology examinations were performed on 35 Indian Ocean bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) and five Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa plumbea) incidentally caught in shark nets off the KwaZulu-Natal coast, South Africa, between 2010 and 2012. Parasitic lesions included pneumonia (85%), abdominal and thoracic serositis (75%), gastroenteritis (70%), hepatitis (62%), and endometritis (42%). Parasitic species identified were Halocercus sp. (lung), Crassicauda sp. (skeletal muscle) and Xenobalanus globicipitis (skin). Additional findings included bronchiolar epithelial mineralisation (83%), splenic filamentous tags (45%), non-suppurative meningoencephalitis (39%), and myocardial fibrosis (26%). No immunohistochemically positive reaction was present in lesions suggestive of dolphin morbillivirus, Toxoplasma gondii and Brucella spp. The first confirmed cases of lobomycosis and sarcocystosis in South African dolphins were documented. Most lesions were mild, and all animals were considered to be in good nutritional condition, based on blubber thickness and muscle mass. Apparent temporal changes in parasitic disease prevalence may indicate a change in the host/parasite interface. This study provided valuable baseline information on conditions affecting coastal dolphin populations in South Africa and, to our knowledge, constitutes the first reported systematic health assessment in incidentally caught dolphins in the Southern Hemisphere. Further research on temporal disease trends as well as disease pathophysiology and anthropogenic factors affecting these populations is needed.

  10. Morbidity and mortality in stranded Cook Inlet beluga whales Delphinapterus leucas.

    PubMed

    Burek-Huntington, Kathleen A; Dushane, Jennifer L; Goertz, Caroline E C; Measures, Lena N; Romero, Carlos H; Raverty, Stephen A

    2015-05-11

    The endangered Cook Inlet (Alaska, USA) stock of beluga whales Delphinapterus leucas declined 47% between 1994 and 1998, from an estimated 653 whales to 347 whales, with a continued decline to approximately 312 in 2012. Between 1998 and 2013, 164 known dead strandings were reported by the National Marine Fisheries Service. Only 38 of these animals, or 23% of the known stranded carcasses, were necropsied. Carcasses were found between April and October. The majority of animals necropsied were adults (n=25), followed by juveniles (n=6), calves (n=3), and aborted fetuses (n=4). Eight of the 11 mature females were pregnant, post-partum, or lactating. Many (82%) of these belugas were in moderate to advanced autolysis, which hampered determination of a cause of death (COD). Each animal had a single primary COD assigned within a broad set of categories. The CODs were unknown (29%), trauma (18%), perinatal mortality (13%), mass stranding (13%), single stranding (11%), malnutrition (8%), or disease (8%). Other disease processes were coded as contributory or incidental to COD. Multiple animals had mild to moderate verminous pneumonia due to Stenurus arctomarinus, renal granulomas due to Crassicauda giliakiana, and ulcerative gastritis due to Anisakis sp. Each stranding affords a unique opportunity to obtain natural history data and evidence of human interactions, and, by long-term monitoring, to characterize pathologies of importance to individual and population health.

  11. Metazoan parasites of cetaceans off the northeastern coast of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Vitor Luz; Bevilaqua, Claudia Maria Leal; Iñiguez, Alena Mayo; Mathews-Cascon, Helena; Ribeiro, Felipe Bezerra; Pessoa, Lourdes Marina Bezerra; de Meirelles, Ana Carolina Oliveira; Borges, João Carlos Gomes; Marigo, Juliana; Soares, Laiza; de Lima Silva, Flávio José

    2010-10-11

    This study represents the first survey of the parasitic fauna of cetaceans off the northeastern coast of Brazil. Parasites were collected from 82 animals rescued from the states of Ceará to Bahia, including the archipelago of Fernando de Noronha. A total of 14 species of cetaceans were evaluated: Sotalia guianensis, Stenella sp., Stenella clymene, Stenella longirostris, Stenella coeruleoalba, Stenella frontalis, Megaptera novaeangliae, Peponocephala electra, Steno bredanensis, Kogia breviceps, Kogia sima, Globicephala macrorhynchus, Tursiops truncatus, Physeter macrocephalus and Lagenodelphis hosei. The parasites were fixed and preserved in 70% ethanol or alcohol-formalin-acetic acid solution (AFA), clarified in phenol and mounted on slides for morphological identification. In total, 11 species and 8 genera of endo- and ectoparasites were identified: Halocercus brasiliensis, Halocercus kleinenbergi, Stenurus globicephalae, Halocercus sp., Anisakis sp., Crassicauda sp. (Nematoda), Phyllobothrium delphini, Monorygma grimaldii, Scolex pleuronectis, Strobicephalus triangularis, Tetrabothrius forsteri, Tetrabothrius sp., Trigonocotyle sp., Diphyllobothrium sp. (Cestoda), Campula sp. (Trematoda), Bolbosoma sp. (Acanthocephala), Cyamus boopis, Syncyamus pseudorcae and Xenobalanus globicipitis (Crustacea). The identification of some species represented novel records for the country and increased the occurrence of some parasites to new hosts. The use of standardized methodologies for collecting and evaluating a larger number of animals is essential for a better understanding of host-parasite relationships in cetaceans and their use as biological indicators in the region.

  12. A review of the Cetoniinae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) from Argentina and adjacent countries: systematics and geographic distributions.

    PubMed

    Di Iorio, Osvaldo

    2013-01-01

    A total of 30 species of Gymnetini (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Cetoniinae) are known from Argentina: Allorhina corni-frons (Gory & Percheron, 1833); Blaesia atra Burmeister, 1842; Blaesia subrugosa Moser, 1905; Desicasta purpurascens Schoch, 1898, dubious record; Gymnetis bajula (Olivier, 1789); Gymnetis bonplandi Schaum, 1844, new country record; Gymnetis bouvieri Bourgoin, 1912; Gymnetis bruchi Moser, 1910, new status (= Aemilius wagneri Le Moult, 1939, new synonymy); Gymnetis carbo (Schürhoff, 1937); Gymnetis chalcipes Gory & Percheron, 1833; Gymnetis cordobana (Schürhoff, 1937), new status; Gymnetis flavomarginata Blanchard, 1847; Gymnetis goryi Janson, 1877, new status; Gym-netis hebraica (Drapiez, 1820), new country record; Gymnetis hepatica Di Iorio, new species; Gymnetis litigiosa Gory & Percheron, 1833, new status; Gymnetis pantherina Blanchard, 1842 (= Gymnetis meleagris Burmeister, 1842, = Paragym-netis rubrocincta Schürhoff, 1937, new synonymy), new country record; Gymnetis pudibunda Burmeister, 1866; Gymne-tis schistacea Burmeister, 1847, new status; Gymnetis undata (Olivier, 1789); Heterocotinis semiopaca (Moser, 1907); Hologymnetis sp. (= Gymnetis rubida, not Gory & Percheron, 1833); Hoplopyga albiventris (Gory & Percheron, 1833); Hoplopyga brasiliensis (Gory & Percheron, 1833); Hoplopyga liturata (Olivier, 1789); Hoplopygothrix atropurpurea (Schaum, 1841), new country record; Marmarina insculpta (Kirby, 1819), new status, new country record; Marmarina tigrina (Gory & Percheron, 1833), (= Maculinetis litorea Schürhoff, 1937, new synonymy); Neocorvicoana reticulata (Kirby, 1819); Neocorvicoana tricolor (Schürhoff, 1933). Marmarina argentina Moser, 1917 is considered a nomen du-bium until a redescription and illustration of the type specimen facilitates the proper identification of this species. The fol-lowing type specimens were examined: Blaesia atra Burmeister, 1842 (holotype); Gymnetis alauda Burmeister, 1842 (holotype, = G. pantherina); G

  13. NASA Shared Services Center breaks ground

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    NASA officials and elected leaders were on hand for the groundbreaking ceremony of the NASA Shared Services Center Feb. 24, 2006, on the grounds of Stennis Space Center. The NSSC provides agency centralized administrative processing, human resources, procurement and financial services. From left, Louisiana Economic Development Secretary Mike Olivier, Stennis Space Center Director Rick Gilbrech, Computer Sciences Corp. President Michael Laphen, NASA Deputy Administrator Shana Dale, Rep. Gene Taylor, Sen. Trent Lott, Mississippi Gov. Haley Barbour, NASA Administrator Mike Griffin and Shared Services Center Executive Director Arbuthnot use golden shovels to break ground at the site.

  14. Conceptual Commitments of AGI Systems: Editorial, Commentaries, and Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2013-06-01

    Editorial: Conceptual Commitments of AGI Systems Haris Dindo / James Marshall / Giovanni Pezzulo 23 General Problems of Unified Theories of Cognition, and Another Conceptual Commitment of LIDA Benjamin Angerer / Stefan Schneider 26 LIDA, Committed to Consciousness Antonio Chella 28 The Radical Interactionism Conceptual Commitment Olivier L. Georgeon / David W. Aha 31 Commitments of the Soar Cognitive Architecture John E. Laird 36 Conceptual Commitments of AGI Projects Pei Wang 39 Will (dis)Embodied LIDA Agents be Socially Interactive? Travis J. Wiltshire / Emilio J. C. Lobato / Florian G. Jentsch / Stephen M. Fiore 42 Author's Response to Commentaries Steve Strain / Stan Franklin 48

  15. Large carpenter bees in Argentina: systematics and notes on the biology of Xylocopa subgenus Neoxylocopa (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    PubMed

    Lucia, Mariano; Alvarez, Leopoldo J; Abrahamovich, Alberto H

    2014-01-15

    A systematic revision of the species of the genus Xylocopa subgenus Neoxylocopa in Argentina is provided. Seven species are included: X. atamisquensis Lucia & Abrahamovich, X. augusti Lepeletier, X. eximia Pérez, X. frontalis (Olivier), X. mendozana Enderlein, X. nigrocincta Smith and X. tacanensis Moure. The males of X. eximia and X. nigrocincta are described for the first time. Xylocopa jujuyensis Brèthes is a new junior synonym of X. nigrocincta. Photographs, occurrence maps, and identification keys for the species are presented. Information on the nest architecture and substratum preference are also given.

  16. Continuum and discrete initial-boundary value problems and the Einstein field equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiglio, Manuel; Sarbach, Olivier

    2012-03-01

    In this talk we outline some of the theory necessary to understand continuum and discrete initial-boundary value problems arising from hyperbolic partial differential equations, and discuss applications to numerical relativity. In particular, we present a well posed initial and initial-boundary value formulations for Einstein's equations, and discuss multi-domain high order finite difference techniques and spectral methods to discretize them. The talk is a very brief outline of the contents of an upcoming Living Review in Relativity, ``Continuum and discrete initial boundary value problems and the Einstein field equations,'' by Olivier Sarbach and Manuel Tiglio.

  17. Gauss and Markov quadrature formulae with nodes at zeros of eigenfunctions of a Sturm-Liouville problem, which are exact for entire functions of exponential type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbachev, D. V.; Ivanov, V. I.

    2015-08-01

    Gauss and Markov quadrature formulae with nodes at zeros of eigenfunctions of a Sturm-Liouville problem, which are exact for entire functions of exponential type, are established. They generalize quadrature formulae involving zeros of Bessel functions, which were first designed by Frappier and Olivier. Bessel quadratures correspond to the Fourier-Hankel integral transform. Some other examples, connected with the Jacobi integral transform, Fourier series in Jacobi orthogonal polynomials and the general Sturm-Liouville problem with regular weight are also given. Bibliography: 39 titles.

  18. Circumventing Therapeutic Resistance and the Emergence of Disseminated Breast Cancer Cells Through Non-Invasive Optical Imaging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    catalyst (tin octanoate, SnOct2). PEO-b-PCL diblock copolymers have been previously synthesized under a variety of catalyzed24,40–42 and non- catalyzed ...conditons.43,44 Non- catalyzed ring-opening poly- merization of 3-CL must, however, be carried out $180 $C over several days, which is cumbersome. Of the...by Chiral , Ionic, Semiconducting Polymers, P. Deria, C. D. Von Bargen, J.-H. Olivier, A. S. Kumbhar, J. G. Saven, and M. J. Therien, J. Am. Chem

  19. Design of a Computerised Flight Mill Device to Measure the Flight Potential of Different Insects.

    PubMed

    Martí-Campoy, Antonio; Ávalos, Juan Antonio; Soto, Antonia; Rodríguez-Ballester, Francisco; Martínez-Blay, Victoria; Malumbres, Manuel Pérez

    2016-04-07

    Several insect species pose a serious threat to different plant species, sometimes becoming a pest that produces significant damage to the landscape, biodiversity, and/or the economy. This is the case of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae), Semanotus laurasii Lucas (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), and Monochamus galloprovincialis Olivier (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), which have become serious threats to ornamental and productive trees all over the world such as palm trees, cypresses, and pines. Knowledge about their flight potential is very important for designing and applying measures targeted to reduce the negative effects from these pests. Studying the flight capability and behaviour of some insects is difficult due to their small size and the large area wherein they can fly, so we wondered how we could obtain information about their flight capabilities in a controlled environment. The answer came with the design of flight mills. Relevant data about the flight potential of these insects may be recorded and analysed by means of a flight mill. Once an insect is attached to the flight mill, it is able to fly in a circular direction without hitting walls or objects. By adding sensors to the flight mill, it is possible to record the number of revolutions and flight time. This paper presents a full description of a computer monitored flight mill. The description covers both the mechanical and the electronic parts in detail. The mill was designed to easily adapt to the anatomy of different insects and was successfully tested with individuals from three species R. ferrugineus, S. laurasii, and M. galloprovincialis.

  20. The Bostrichidae of the Maltese Islands (Coleoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Nardi, Gianluca; Mifsud, David

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Bostrichidae of the Maltese Islands are reviewed. Ten species are recorded with certainty from this Archipelago, of which 6 namely, Trogoxylon impressum (Comolli, 1837), Amphicerus bimaculatus (A.G. Olivier, 1790), Heterobostrychus aequalis (Waterhouse, 1884), Sinoxylon unidentatum (Fabricius, 1801), Xyloperthella picea (A.G. Olivier, 1790) and Apate monachus Fabricius, 1775 are recorded for the first time. Two of the mentioned species (Heterobostrychus aequalis and Sinoxylon unidentatum) are alien and recorded only on the basis of single captures and the possible establishment of these species is discussed. Earlier records of Scobicia pustulata (Fabricius, 1801) from Malta are incorrect and should be attributed to Scobicia chevrieri (A. Villa & J.B. Villa, 1835). A zoogeographical analysis and an updated checklist of the 12 species of Bostrichidae recorded from the Maltese Islands and neigbouring Sicilian islands (Pantelleria, Linosa and Lampedusa) are also provided. Rhizopertha dominica (Fabricius, 1792) form granulipennis Lesne in Beeson & Bhatia, 1937 from Uttarakhand (northern India) was overlooked by almost all subsequent authors. Its history is summarized and the following new synonymy is established: Rhizopertha dominica (Fabricius, 1792) form granulipennis Lesne in Beeson & Bhatia, 1937 = Rhyzopertha dominica (Fabricius, 1792), syn. n. Finally, records of Amphicerus bimaculatus from Azerbaijan, of Bostrichus capucinus (Linnaeus, 1758) from Jordan and Syria, of Scobicia chevrieri from Jordan and Italy, of Xyloperthella picea from Italy, and of Apate monachus from Corsica (France) and Italy, are also provided. PMID:25685033

  1. Planetary Nebulae: Reviews and Previews of a Rapidly Evolving Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balick, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Observational results from the ground and space in the past decade and covering the entire spectrum have jolted and energized research into the nature, the formation, and the evolution of planetary nebulae (PNs). The 101-level bubble structure of PNs turned out to be a pleasant but misleading fantasy as observations by HST and ALMA revealed basic details of their infancy. Some combination of close geriatric binary stars (the precusrors of SN Ia's) and magnetic fields dredged into the dusty winds appear to play vital roles in the ejection and collimation of AGB atmospheres. As a result, PNe and their antecedents, AGB stars and prePNs, are providing an array of new opportunities to study asymmetric wind formation, complex gas dynamics, CNO production rates in various galactic environments, and galaxy structure and evolution. I shall review the highlights of recent results, summarize their interpretations, and show some of the observational opportunities to monitor in the next decade, many of which couple strongly to research to related fields.This talk is dedicated to the career of Olivier Chesneau (1972-2014) who pioneered new high-resolution imaging methods that peered into the deep inner cores of nascent planetary nebulae. We remember Olivier as everyone's enthusiastic friend and colleague whose career ended in full stride.

  2. Response of the Woodborers Monochamus carolinensis and Monochamus titillator (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) to Known Cerambycid Pheromones in the Presence and Absence of the Host Plant Volatile α-Pinene

    PubMed Central

    Allison, Jeremy D.; McKenney, Jessica L.; Millar, Jocelyn G.; McElfresh, J. Steven; Mitchell, Robert F.; Hanks, Lawrence M.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, several attractant pheromones have been identified for cerambycid beetles, including 2-(undecyloxy)-ethanol (hereafter monochamol) for Monochamus galloprovincialis (Olivier), M. alternatus Hope, and M. scutellatus (Say). This study screened eight known cerambycid pheromones or their analogues (including monochamol) as potential attractants for M. carolinensis Olivier and M. titillator (F.), in the presence and absence of the host volatile α-pinene. Monochamol attracted M. carolinensis in the presence and absence of α-pinene, whereas M. titillator was only attracted to the combination of monochamol and α-pinene. (2R*,3R*)-2,3-Hexanediol also attracted both M. carolinensis and M. titillator, but only in the presence of α-pinene. Subsequent coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-electroantennogram detection analyses of extracts of volatiles collected from both sexes demonstrated that male M. carolinensis and M. titillator release monochamol, and that antennae of males and females of both species detect it. These results indicate that monochamol is a male-produced pheromone for both M. carolinensis and M. titillator. PMID:23321107

  3. Response of the woodborers Monochamus carolinensis and Monochamus titillator (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) to known cerambycid pheromones in the presence and absence of the host plant volatile α-pinene.

    PubMed

    Allison, Jeremy D; McKenney, Jessica L; Millar, Jocelyn G; Mcclfresh, J Steven; Mitchell, Robert F; Hanks, Lawrence M

    2012-12-01

    In recent years, several attractant pheromones have been identified for cerambycid beetles, including 2-(undecyloxy)-ethanol (hereafter monochamol) for Monochamus galloprovincialis (Olivier), M. alternatus Hope, and M. scutellatus (Say). This study screened eight known cerambycid pheromones or their analogues (including monochamol) as potential attractants for M. carolinensis Olivier and M. titillator (F.), in the presence and absence of the host volatile α-pinene. Monochamol attracted M. carolinensis in the presence and absence of α-pinene, whereas M. titillator was only attracted to the combination of monochamol and α-pinene. (2R*,3R*)-2,3-Hexanediol also attracted both M. carolinensis and M. titillator, but only in the presence of α-pinene. Subsequent coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-electroantennogram detection analyses of extracts of volatiles collected from both sexes demonstrated that male M. carolinensis and M. titillator release monochamol, and that antennae of males and females of both species detect it. These results indicate that monochamol is a male-produced pheromone for both M. carolinensis and M. titillator.

  4. Further studies on south eastern Asian Luciolinae: 1. Sclerotia Ballantyne,
    a new genus of fireflies with back swimming larvae 2. Triangulara Pimpasalee, a new genus from Thailand (Coleoptera: Lampyridae).

    PubMed

    Ballantyne, Lesley A; Lambkin, Christine L; Luan, Xin; Boontop, Yuvarin; Nak-Eiam, Sorasak; Pimpasalee, Suttisan; Silalom, Sommyot; Thancharoen, Anchana

    2016-09-23

    Sclerotia Ballantyne gen. nov. is established for seven species. Sclerotia aquatilis (Thancharoen, 2007), Scl. brahmina (Bourgeois, 1890), Scl. carinata (Gorham, 1880), Scl. flavida (Hope, 1845), Scl. seriata (Olivier, 1891), and Scl. substriata (Gorham, 1880) are transferred from Luciola Laporte. Sclerotia fui sp. nov. from China is described as new. Luciola cingulata Olivier, 1885 is synonymised with Luciola substriata Gorham. Luciola formosana Pic, 1916 is removed from synonymy with Luciola substriata and newly synonymised with Luciola flavida (Hope). Males are characterised by linear elytral punctation, a set of three sclerites surrounding the aedeagal sheath and a light organ in ventrite 7 with emarginated anterior margin. Associated females lack bursa plates. Larvae associated for three species are back swimmers, having heavily sclerotised exoskeleton and a metapneustic respiratory system. Males and associated females are keyed. Analysis of molecular evidence for Chinese populations of three species indicates monophyly of Sclerotia Ballantyne gen. nov. and distinct separation from other genera.Triangulara Pimpasalee gen. nov. is described from Tri. frontoflava Pimpasalee gen. et sp. nov. from Thailand. It is superficially similar to Sclerotia gen. nov. but larger, and specimens in collections appear to have been confused with the similarly coloured Scl. substriata (Gorham) comb. nov. Males differ in having an elongate triangular light organ in ventrite 7 and are without sclerites around the aedeagal sheath. Larvae are not reliably associated but may be aquatic.

  5. Pre-clinical studies of toxin-specific Nanobodies: Evidence of in vivo efficacy to prevent fatal disturbances provoked by scorpion envenoming

    SciTech Connect

    Hmila, Issam; Cosyns, Bernard; Tounsi, Hayfa; Roosens, Bram; Caveliers, Vicky; Abderrazek, Rahma Ben; Boubaker, Samir; Muyldermans, Serge; El Ayeb, Mohamed; Bouhaouala-Zahar, Balkiss; Lahoutte, Tony

    2012-10-15

    Scorpions represent a significant threat to humans and animals in various countries throughout the world. Recently, we introduced Nanobodies (Nbs) to combat more efficiently scorpion envenoming and demonstrated the performance of NbAahIF12 and NbAahII10 to neutralize scorpion toxins of Androctonus australis hector venom. A bispecific Nb construct (NbF12-10) comprising these two Nbs is far more protective than the classic Fab′{sub 2} based therapy and is the most efficient antivenom therapy against scorpion sting in preclinical studies. Now we investigate the biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of {sup 99m}Tc labeled Nbs by in vivo imaging in rodents and compared these data with those of the Fab′{sub 2} product (PAS). The pharmacodynamics of the Nbs was investigated in rats by in vivo echocardiography and it is shown that NbF12-10 prevents effectively the hemodynamic disturbances induced by a lethal dose of venom. Moreover, even a late injection of NbF12-10 restores the heart rate and brings the blood pressure to baseline values. Histology confirms that NbF12-10 prevents lung and heart lesions of treated mice after envenoming. In conjunction, in this preclinical study, we provide proof of concept that NbF12-10 prevents effectively the fatal disturbances induced by Androctonus venom, and that the Nanobody based therapeutic has a potential to substitute the classic Fab′{sub 2} based product as immunotherapeutic in scorpion envenoming. Further clinical study using larger cohorts of animals should be considered to confirm the full protecting potential of our NbF12-10. -- Highlights: ► Nanobody therapy prevents the hemodynamic disturbances induced by a lethal dose. ► Late injection of Nanobody restores hemodynamic parameters to baseline values. ► Nanobody therapy prevents lung and heart lesions of treated mice after envenoming. ► Labeled Nanobody and Fab’2 pharmacokinetics curves reach plateau in favour of Nanobody.

  6. Evaluation of the lethal potency of scorpion and snake venoms and comparison between intraperitoneal and intravenous injection routes.

    PubMed

    Oukkache, Naoual; El Jaoudi, Rachid; Ghalim, Noreddine; Chgoury, Fatima; Bouhaouala, Balkiss; Mdaghri, Naima El; Sabatier, Jean-Marc

    2014-06-12

    Scorpion stings and snake bites are major health hazards that lead to suffering of victims and high mortality. Thousands of injuries associated with such stings and bites of venomous animals occur every year worldwide. In North Africa, more than 100,000 scorpion stings and snake bites are reported annually. An appropriate determination of the 50% lethal doses (LD₅₀) of scorpion and snake venoms appears to be an important step to assess (and compare) venom toxic activity. Such LD₅₀ values are also commonly used to evaluate the neutralizing capacity of specific anti-venom batches. In the present work, we determined experimentally the LD₅₀ values of reference scorpion and snake venoms in Swiss mice, and evaluated the influence of two main venom injection routes (i.e., intraperitoneal (IP) versus intravenous (IV)). The analysis of experimental LD₅₀ values obtained with three collected scorpion venoms indicates that Androctonus mauretanicus (Am) is intrinsically more toxic than Androctonus australis hector (Aah) species, whereas the latter is more toxic than Buthus occitanus (Bo). Similar analysis of three representative snake venoms of the Viperidae family shows that Cerastes cerastes (Cc) is more toxic than either Bitis arietans (Ba) or Macrovipera lebetina (Ml) species. Interestingly, the venom of Elapidae cobra snake Naja haje (Nh) is far more toxic than viper venoms Cc, Ml and Ba, in agreement with the known severity of cobra-related envenomation. Also, our data showed that viper venoms are about three-times less toxic when injected IP as compared to IV, distinct from cobra venom Nh which exhibited a similar toxicity when injected IP or IV. Overall, this study clearly highlights the usefulness of procedure standardization, especially regarding the administration route, for evaluating the relative toxicity of individual animal venoms. It also evidenced a marked difference in lethal activity between venoms of cobra and vipers, which, apart from the

  7. Zoonotic helminths of urban brown rats (Rattus norvegicus) in the UK: neglected public health considerations?

    PubMed

    McGarry, J W; Higgins, A; White, N G; Pounder, K C; Hetzel, U

    2015-02-01

    Urban brown rats (Rattus norvegicus) carry microbial human pathogens but their role as reservoir hosts for helminths of public health importance is less well known. In this study, 42 brown rats trapped on Merseyside were subject to thorough combined helminthological and pathohistological post-mortem examination. Eggs of the rodent-borne zoonotic nematode Calodium hepaticum were initially detected in histological sections of the livers of 9.5% of rats, but overall diagnostic sensitivity increased to 16.6% when entire liver tissue was disrupted and the resulting filtrates were examined for released eggs. In their rat host, mainly trapped inside the dockland, infections with C. hepaticum were associated with a chronic multifocal pyogranulomatous hepatitis with intralesional eggs and peripheral fibrosis. Mean intensity of hepatic C. hepaticum egg infections was 1041 eggs. This is the first report of C. hepaticum in an urban brown rat population in the UK and provides original data for liver egg burdens in this abundant commensal rodent. The zoonotic cestode Rodentolepis nana had a prevalence of infection of 14.3%. Rodent-specific, non-zoonotic helminths found were the spiruroid Mastophorus muris (16.0%) in the stomach, the trichuroid Trichosomoides crassicauda in the urinary bladder (31.0%); the ascarid Heterakis spumosa was the commonest helminth of the large intestine (76.2%). Many millions of brown rats inhabit cities and rural areas of the UK, and the infective stages of the zoonotic worm species, particularly C. hepaticum, are likely to be widely distributed in the environment presenting a threat to public health.

  8. Transgenic plants expressing the AaIT/GNA fusion protein show increased resistance and toxicity to both chewing and sucking pests.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shu-Min; Li, Jie; Zhu, Jin-Qi; Wang, Xiao-Wei; Wang, Cheng-Shu; Liu, Shu-Sheng; Chen, Xue-Xin; Li, Sheng

    2016-04-01

    The adoption of pest-resistant transgenic plants to reduce yield losses and decrease pesticide use has been successful. To achieve the goal of controlling both chewing and sucking pests in a given transgenic plant, we generated transgenic tobacco, Arabidopsis, and rice plants expressing the fusion protein, AaIT/GNA, in which an insecticidal scorpion venom neurotoxin (Androctonus australis toxin, AaIT) is fused to snowdrop lectin (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin, GNA). Compared with transgenic tobacco and Arabidopsis plants expressing AaIT or GNA, transgenic plants expressing AaIT/GNA exhibited increased resistance and toxicity to one chewing pest, the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera. Transgenic tobacco and rice plants expressing AaIT/GNA showed increased resistance and toxicity to two sucking pests, the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, and the rice brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, respectively. Moreover, in the field, transgenic rice plants expressing AaIT/GNA exhibited a significant improvement in grain yield when infested with N. lugens. This study shows that expressing the AaIT/GNA fusion protein in transgenic plants can be a useful approach for controlling pests, particularly sucking pests which are not susceptible to the toxin in Bt crops.

  9. Erosion resistance of bionic functional surfaces inspired from desert scorpions.

    PubMed

    Zhiwu, Han; Junqiu, Zhang; Chao, Ge; Li, Wen; Ren, Luquan

    2012-02-07

    In this paper, a bionic method is presented to improve the erosion resistance of machine components. Desert scorpion (Androctonus australis) is a typical animal living in sandy deserts, and may face erosive action of blowing sand at a high speed. Based on the idea of bionics and biologic experimental techniques, the mechanisms of the sand erosion resistance of desert scorpion were investigated. Results showed that the desert scorpions used special microtextures such as bumps and grooves to construct the functional surfaces to achieve the erosion resistance. In order to understand the erosion resistance mechanisms of such functional surfaces, the combination of computational and experimental research were carried out in this paper. The Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method was applied to predict the erosion performance of the bionic functional surfaces. The result demonstrated that the microtextured surfaces exhibited better erosion resistance than the smooth surfaces. The further erosion tests indicated that the groove surfaces exhibited better erosion performance at 30° injection angle. In order to determine the effect of the groove dimensions on the erosion resistance, regression analysis of orthogonal multinomials was also performed under a certain erosion condition, and the regression equation between the erosion rate and groove distance, width, and height was established.

  10. Structure-function relationships of the major neurotoxin from the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus with a new sodium channel receptor site

    SciTech Connect

    Pennington, M.W.

    1988-01-01

    We have determined that ShN I, a 48-residue type 2 sea anemone toxin, delays the inactivation of the Na channel in lobster olfactory somas. The receptor for ShN I was identified in vesicle preparations of neuronal tissues from both crustaceans and mammals; however, the K{sub D} values for the former is more than 1,000 fold lower for the later. The binding of ({sup 125}I)-ShN I to this receptor was determined to be unaffected by Anemonia sulcata II, depolarization of the membrane, or veratridine. ShN I was unable to displace ({sup 125}I)-Androctonus austrialis Hector II, whereas unlabeled AaH II and As II displaced the labeled scorpion toxin from rat brain synaptosomes. This is the first characterization of a new Na channel receptor site which specifically binds type 2 anemone toxins. To study the interactions that specific amino acid residues of ShN I have with this receptor, we developed a strategy using solid phase peptide synthesis. Prior to the synthesis of analogs to ShN I, we assembled the native ShN I sequence and reoxidized the three intramolecular disulfide bonds. Chemical, physical, and pharmacological characterization of the purified synthetic ShN I showed it to be indistinguishable from the natural toxin.

  11. Use of antibodies specific to defined regions of scorpion. cap alpha. -toxin to study its interaction with its receptor site on the sodium channel

    SciTech Connect

    Ayeb, M.E.; Bahraoui, E.M.; Granier, C.; Rochat, H.

    1986-10-21

    Five antibody populations selected by immunoaffinity chromatography for the specificity toward various regions of toxin II of the scorpion Androctonus australis Hector were used to probe the interaction of this protein with its receptor site on the sodium channel. These studies indicate that two antigenic sites, one located around the disulfide bridge 12-63 and one encompassing residues 50-59, are involved in the molecular mechanisms of toxicity neutralization. Fab fragments specific to the region around disulfide bridge 12-63 inhibit binding of the /sup 125/I-labeled toxin to its receptor site. Also, these two antigenic regions are inaccessible to the antibodies when the toxin is bound to its receptor site. In contrast, the two other antigenic sites encompassing the only ..cap alpha..-helix region (residues 23-32) and a ..beta..-turn structure (residues 32-35) are accessible to the respective antibodies when the toxin is bound to its receptor. Together, these data support the recent proposal that a region made of residues that are conserved in the scorpion toxin family is involved in the binding of the toxin to the receptor.

  12. Cardiac involvement and its complications about three cases of severe scorpion envenomation.

    PubMed

    Aboumaâd, B; Tiger, A; Khattabi, A; Soulaymani, R; Lahssaini, M; Benhassain, S M; Iba, N

    2014-02-01

    For several decades, Morocco is confronted to medico-social problem of scorpion stings and envenomations. In 2009, epidemiological data established by the Poison Control Center recorded 29,816 stung patients, with an incidence of 1.1‰ and a fatality rate of 0.18%. The neurotoxins from scorpion venom are potent activators of the autonomic nervous system resulting a physiopathological disorder of vital systems. The most serious clinical manifestations are neurotoxic effects, pulmonary edema and cardiovascular distress. This present work reports the cases of three children (4 years and 6 months, 8 months and 15 days, 4 years), hospitalized in intensive care for an envenomation by Androctonus mauritanicus (the most fatal scorpion specie). The children presented cardiac dysfunction where pulmonary edema and state of shock were complications resultants. Two cases survived after supportive and symptomatic treatment based on dobutamine as primordial treatment in cardiovascular and pulmonary correction and other drugs. The third case died. The objective of this work was to detect the limit of the effectiveness of symptomatic treatment during a severe scorpion envenomation.

  13. Autoradiographic localization of voltage-dependent sodium channels on the mouse neuromuscular junction using /sup 125/I-alpha scorpion toxin. I. Preferential labeling of glial cells on the presynaptic side

    SciTech Connect

    Boudier, J.L.; Jover, E.; Cau, P.

    1988-05-01

    Alpha-scorpion toxins bind specifically to the voltage-sensitive sodium channel in excitable membranes, and binding is potential-dependent. The radioiodinated toxin II from the scorpion Androctonus australis Hector (alpha ScTx) was used to localize voltage-sensitive sodium channels on the presynaptic side of mouse neuromuscular junctions (NMJ) by autoradiography using both light and electron microscopy. Silver grain localization was analyzed by the cross-fire method. At the light-microscopic level, grain density over NMJ appeared 6-8x higher than over nonjunctional muscle membrane. The specificity of labeling was verified by competition/displacement with an excess of native alpha ScTx. Labeling was also inhibited by incubation in depolarizing conditions, showing its potential-dependence. At the electron-microscopic level, analysis showed that voltage-sensitive sodium channels labeled with alpha ScTx were almost exclusively localized on membranes, as expected. Due to washout after incubation, appreciable numbers of binding sites were not found on the postsynaptic membranes. However, on the presynaptic side, alpha ScTx-labeled voltage-sensitive sodium channels were localized on the membrane of non-myelin-forming Schwann cells covering NMJ. The axonal presynaptic membrane was not labeled. These results show that voltage-sensitive sodium channels are present on glial cells in vivo, as already demonstrated in vitro. It is proposed that these glial channels could be indirectly involved in the ionic homeostasis of the axonal environment.

  14. Study of severe scorpion envenoming following subcutaneous venom injection into dogs: Hemodynamic and concentration/effect analysis.

    PubMed

    Elatrous, Souheil; Ouanes-Besbes, Lamia; Ben Sik-Ali, Habiba; Hamouda, Zineb; BenAbdallah, Saoussen; Tilouche, Nejla; Jalloul, Faten; Fkih-Hassen, Mohamed; Dachraoui, Fahmi; Ouanes, Islem; Abroug, Fekri

    2015-09-15

    To evaluate the dose-effects of Androctonus australis hector (Aah) venom injected subcutaneously on hemodynamics and neurohormonal secretions, 10 anesthetized and ventilated mongrel dogs, were split in two groups (n = 5/group). Subcutaneous injection was done with either 0.2 mg/kg or 0.125 mg/kg of the purified G50 scorpion toxic fraction. Hemodynamic parameters using right heart catheter were recorded and plasma concentrations of catecholamine, troponin, and serum toxic fraction were measured sequentially from baseline to 120 min. We identified the dose of toxic fraction evoking characteristic hemodynamic perturbation of severe envenomation, the time-lapse to envenomation, and the associated plasma level. The injection of 0.125 mg/kg toxic fraction was not associated with significant variations in hemodynamic parameters, whereas the 0.2 mg/kg dose caused envenomation characterized by significant increase in plasma catecholamines, increased pulmonary artery occluded pressure, mean arterial pressure, and systemic vascular resistance (p < 0.05), in association with sustained decline in cardiac output (p < 0.001). Envenomation occurred by the 30th minute, and the corresponding concentration of toxic fraction was 1.14 ng/ml. The current experiment allowed the identification of the sub-lethal dose (0.2 mg/kg) of the toxic fraction of Aah administered by the subcutaneous route. Two parameters with potential clinical relevance were also uncovered: the time-lapse to envenomation and the corresponding concentration of toxic fraction.

  15. Differential effects of defined chemical modifications on antigenic and pharmacological activities of scorpion alpha and beta toxins.

    PubMed

    el Ayeb, M; Darbon, H; Bahraoui, E M; Vargas, O; Rochat, H

    1986-03-03

    Specific chemical modifications of scorpion alpha and beta toxins have been used to study the involvement of particular residues in both the pharmacological and the antigenic sites of these toxins. Modification by 1,2-cyclohexanedione of arginine-27 of a beta toxin, Centruroides suffusus suffusus toxin II, drastically decrease the antigenic activity without any influence on the pharmacological activity. Conversely, modification by the same reagent of arginine-2 of an alpha toxin, Androctonus australis Hector toxin III, led to a 100-times less pharmacologically potent derivative and did not induce a significant loss of antigenic activity. Excision of the N-terminal pentapeptide of another alpha toxin, Buthus occitanus mardochei toxin III, by pepsin digestion led to a non-toxic derivative retaining full antigenic activity. Thus, the N-terminal part of the conserved hydrophobic surface of the toxin is highly implicated in the pharmacological activity, whereas the region of arginine-27, located in the alpha helix situated on the back surface, opposite the conserved hydrophobic region, is fully implicated in the antigenic activity and is far from the pharmacological site. These results are good arguments in favor of the idea that in scorpion toxins the surfaces implicated in the pharmacological and the antigenic activities do not overlap. Since the antigenic sites are present in highly variable sequence the development of an efficient polyvalent serotherapy is questionable.

  16. Conformational flexibility of a scorpion toxin active on mammals and insects: a circular dichroism study.

    PubMed

    Loret, E P; Sampieri, F; Roussel, A; Granier, C; Rochat, H

    1990-01-01

    Three scorpion toxins have been analyzed by circular dichroism in water and in 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol (TFE) solutions. These toxins were chosen because they are representative of three kinds of pharmacological activities: (1) toxin AaH IT2, an antiinsect toxin purified from the venom of Androctonus australis Hector, which is able to bind to insect nervous system preparation, (2) toxin Css II, from the venom of Centruroides suffusus suffusus, which is a beta-type antimammal toxin capable of binding to mammal nervous system preparation, and (3) the toxin Ts VII from the venom of Tityus serrulatus, which is able to bind to both types of nervous systems. In order to minimize bias, CD data were analyzed by a predictive algorithm to assess secondary structure content. Among the three molecules, Ts VII presented the most unordered secondary structure in water, but it gained in ordered forms when solubilized in TFE. These results indicated that the Ts VII backbone is the most flexible, which might result in a more pronounced tendency for this toxin molecule to undergo conformational changes. This is consistent with the fact that it competes with both antiinsect and beta-type antimammal toxins for the binding to the sodium channel.

  17. Characterization of six toxins from the venom of the Moroccan scorpion Buthus occitanus mardochei.

    PubMed

    Vargas, O; Martin, M F; Rochat, H

    1987-02-02

    When the venom of the Moroccan scorpion Buthus occitanus mardochei was submitted to a combination of several chromatographic steps (including gel-filtration and ion-exchange chromatographies), seven proteins were obtained, six being lethal to mice. These proteins have been characterized by their chemical, immunological and toxic properties. The amino acid sequence (66 residues) of Bom III, the most noteworthy toxin of the venom as for its amino acid composition, is proposed following automatic sequencing of the reduced and S-methylated protein and of chymotryptic peptides. It was obvious that this sequence is somewhat different from those of toxins belonging to the same structural and immunological group (Bom III was found to be immunologically related to Buthus occitanus tunetanus toxins I and II which both share with it 56% of homology. Furthermore, Bom III was found to be unable to compete (as does Bot I) with toxin II of Androctonus australis Hector (an alpha-type toxin) for neurotoxin binding site 3 on the sodium channel of rat brain synaptosomes. Bom III was also unable to compete with toxin II of Centruroides suffusus suffusus (a beta-type toxin) to neurotoxin binding site 4 of the same channel.

  18. Chinese-scorpion (Buthus martensi Karsch) toxin BmK alphaIV, a novel modulator of sodium channels: from genomic organization to functional analysis.

    PubMed

    Chai, Zhi-Fang; Zhu, Mang-Mang; Bai, Zhan-Tao; Liu, Tong; Tan, Miao; Pang, Xue-Yan; Ji, Yong-Hua

    2006-11-01

    In the present study, BmK alphaIV, a novel modulator of sodium channels, was cloned from venomous glands of the Chinese scorpion (Buthus martensi Karsch) and expressed successfully in Escherichia coli. The BmK alphaIV gene is composed of two exons separated by a 503 bp intron. The mature polypeptide contains 66 amino acids. BmK alphaIV has potent toxicity in mice and cockroaches. Surface-plasmon-resonance analysis found that BmK alphaIV could bind to both rat cerebrocortical synaptosomes and cockroach neuronal membranes, and shared similar binding sites on sodium channels with classical AaH II (alpha-mammal neurotoxin from the scorpion Androctonus australis Hector), BmK AS (beta-like neurotoxin), BmK IT2 (the depressant insect-selective neurotoxin) and BmK abT (transitional neurotoxin), but not with BmK I (alpha-like neurotoxin). Two-electrode voltage clamp recordings on rNav1.2 channels expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes revealed that BmK alphaIV increased the peak amplitude and prolonged the inactivation phase of Na+ currents. The structural and pharmacological properties compared with those of other scorpion alpha-toxins suggests that BmK alphaIV represents a novel subgroup or functional hybrid of alpha-toxins and might be an evolutionary intermediate neurotoxin for alpha-toxins.

  19. First molecular phylogeny of scorpions of the family Buthidae from India.

    PubMed

    Suranse, Vivek; Sawant, Nitin S; Paripatyadar, Shruti V; Krutha, Keerthi; Paingankar, Mandar S; Padhye, Anand D; Bastawade, D B; Dahanukar, Neelesh

    2016-06-01

    Scorpions of the family Buthidae are widespread species in India. While studies are available on diversity and distribution of Indian buthid scorpions, no information is available on the phylogenetic relationships among the members of the family, within India and Asia in general. In the current study, we provide the first molecular phylogeny of buthid scorpions from central western India based on the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene. Our analysis confirms the current placement of the species, previously assigned to Mesobuthus in the genus Hottentotta. However, the analysis also suggests that the member of this genus from India form a monophyletic group distinct from the members of Hottentotta from Africa. Species of Lychas formed a monophyletic group. Although Orthochirus was nested within the larger clade of buthidae comprising genera such as Androctonus, Buthacus, Buthus and Odontobuthus, the exact phylogenetic placement will require more taxonomic sampling of the known genera of Buthidae. We also show that there is a substantial genetic variation among the populations of medically important scorpion species Hottentotta tamulus, and the genetic distance is linearly correlated with the geographical distance between the populations.

  20. General biochemical and immunological characteristics of the venom from Peruvian scorpion Hadruroides lunatus.

    PubMed

    Costal-Oliveira, F; Duarte, C G; Machado de Avila, R A; Melo, M M; Bordon, K C F; Arantes, E C; Paredes, N C; Tintaya, B; Bonilla, C; Bonilla, R E; Suarez, W S; Yarleque, A; Fernandez, J M; Kalapothakis, E; Chávez-Olórtegui, Carlos

    2012-10-01

    This communication describes the general biochemical properties and some immunological characteristics of the venom from the Peruvian scorpion Hadruroides lunatus, which is the most medically relevant species in Peru. The soluble venom of this scorpion is toxic to mice, the LD₅₀ determined was 0.1 mg/kg and 21.55 mg/kg when the venom was injected intracranial or intraperitoneally, respectively. The soluble venom displayed proteolytic, hyaluronidasic, phospholipasic and cardiotoxic activities. High performance liquid chromatography of the soluble venom resulted in the separation of 20 fractions. Two peptides with phospholipasic activity were isolated to homogeneity and their molecular masses determined by mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF). Anti-H. lunatus venom sera were produced in rabbits. Western blotting analysis showed that most of the protein content of this venom is immunogenic. H. lunatus anti-venom displayed consistent cross-reactivity with venom antigens from the new World-scorpions Tityus serrulatus and Centruroides sculpturatus venoms; however, a weaker reactivity was observed against the venom antigens from the old World-scorpion Androctonus australis Hector.

  1. On the identity of some weevil species described by Johann Christian Fabricius (1745-1808) in the Museum of Zoology of Copenhagen (Coleoptera, Cucujoidea, Curculionoidea, Tenebrionoidea).

    PubMed

    Alonso-Zarazaga, Miguel A

    2014-01-01

    The types of thirty-two nominal weevil species described by Johann Christian Fabricius are reviewed and lecto- and paralectotypes are designated for twenty-two of them. A neotype is designated for Curculiosticticus Fabricius, 1777. Protapionvaripes (Germar, 1817) is declared a nomen protectum over Curculioflavipes Fabricius, 1775. Based on a study of syntypes, Rhinomacercurculioides Fabricius, 1781 is confirmed as a member of Mycterus (Mycteridae), Bruchusundatus Fabricius, 1787 is tentatively transferred to Erotylidae, Curculiofulvirostris Fabricius, 1787 and Anthribusroboris Fabricius, 1798 are confirmed as members of Salpingus (Salpingidae), and Brachyceruscristatus Fabricius, 1798 is transferred to Tenebrionidae. Based on lectotype designation, Curculiocaninus Fabricius, 1792 is confirmed as a synonym of Sitonalineatus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Curculioinnocuus Fabricius, 1802 as a synonym of Cneorhinusbarcelonicus (Herbst, 1797). Bruchusrufipes Fabricius, 1792 is not considered an available species name, but a later use of Bruchusrufipes Olivier, 1790. Cossonusincisus Pascoe, 1885 is reinstated as valid from synonymy under Cossonusilligeri Champion, 1909 and Cossonusvulneratus Illiger, 1805 from synonymy under Cossonuscanaliculatus (Fabricius, 1792) (a primary homonym of Curculiocanaliculatus Olivier, 1791). Cossonuscanaliculatus Fabricius, 1802 is a secondary homonym of the former and is replaced with Cossonusincisus. Salpingusfulvirostris (Fabricius, 1787) is reinstated as valid from synonymy under Salpingusplanirostris (Fabricius, 1787), a primary homonym of Curculioplanirostris Piller & Mitterpacher, 1783. The following new combinations are proposed: Brachysomuserinaceus (Fabricius, 1802) (from Curculio), Bronchusferus (Gyllenhal, 1840) (from Hipporhinus), Bronchusglandifer (Fabricius, 1792) (from Curculio), Bronchusnivosus (Sparrman, 1785) (from Curculio), Bronchussparrmani (Gyllenhal, 1833) (from Hipporhinus), Coelocephalapionatrirostre (Fabricius, 1802

  2. Generic redescription, two new species, and a key to the species of the cicada genus Ariasa Distant, 1905 with the description of a new genus (Hemiptera: Cicadidae: Cicadinae: Fidicinini).

    PubMed

    Sanborn, Allen F

    2016-07-13

    The cicada genus Ariasa Distant, 1905 is redescribed.  Ariasa albimaculosa n. sp. is described from Colombia and A. bartletti n. sp. is described from Peru.  The current 14 species of Ariasa are listed along with their synonymies, known distribution of each species, and a key to the species is provided.  The first records of Ariasa bilaqueata (Uhler, 1903) for Peru and French Guiana are provided. Cracenpsaltria brasiliorum (Kirkaldy, 1909) rev. stat., n. comb. is determined to be the correct name for the taxon Cicada marginata Olivier, 1790 and the new genus Cracenpsaltria n. gen. is erected for the taxon.  The distribution of C. brasiliorum rev. stat., n. comb. is expanded to include Bolivia and Peru.

  3. Evaluation of the efficacy of an insecticidal paint based on chlorpyrifos and pyriproxyfen in a microencapsulated formulation against Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Llácer, E; Dembilio, O; Jacas, J A

    2010-04-01

    The weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is an important pest of palms. It has recently colonized the Mediterranean Basin where it is a serious problem on ornamental Phoenix canariensis (hort. ex Chabaud) palms. The efficacy of an insecticidal paint based on chlorpyrifos and pyriproxyfen in a microencapsulated formulation (Inesfly IGR FITO, Industrias Químicas Inesba S.L., Paiporta, Spain) against this weevil has been studied. Laboratory results proved that pyriproxyfen has no effect against R. ferrugineus when applied in this microencapsulated formulation. Semifield trials dismissed Inesfly IGR FITO as a curative insecticide but showed the potential of this product in the preventative control of R. ferrugineus in palms. One single application could prevent infestation for up to 6 mo with a mean efficacy of 83.3%.

  4. The orchid-bee fauna (Hymenoptera: Apidae) of a forest remnant in the southern portion of the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Santos Júnior, J E; Ferrari, R R; Nemésio, A

    2014-08-01

    The orchid-bee fauna of the region of Porto Velho, in the state of Rondônia, Brazil, close to the southernmost limits of the Amazon Basin, was surveyed for the first time using five different scents as baits to attract orchid-bee males. Five hundred and twenty-one males belonging to five genera and 29 species were collected with bait traps during 26 non-consecutive days from November, 2011 to January, 2012. Eulaema nigrita Lepeletier, 1841 and Eulaema meriana (Olivier, 1789) were the most common species in the region and, together, represented almost 50% of all collected bees. Although the observed richness conforms to similar inventories in the region, the diversity (H'= 2.43) found in the present study is one of the highest ever recorded for orchid bees in the Amazon Basin.

  5. Graphical method for profiling hob mill that generate cycloid worms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teodor, V.; Berbinschi, S.; Baroiu, N.; Oancea, N.

    2015-11-01

    The hob mill for generating ordered curls of cycloid surface with non involute profiles may be profiled based on the fundamental theorems of surface enveloping - Olivier - as surface reciprocally enveloping with point like contact. In this paper, is proposed a methodology based on a complementary theorem of the surface enveloping in a graphical expression developed in a graphical design environment - CATIA. The graphical method presented in this paper is developed in two stages: determining of the rack gear model based on the solid model of the surface to be generated, using an original algorithm, following this, based on 3D modelling is determined the solid model of the primary peripheral surface of the hob mill. An application for a cycloid worm is presented - a central screw of helical pumps. In order to prove the quality of method, the analytical and graphical solutions are comparatively presented.

  6. Diagnostics of reactive pulsed plasmas by UV and VUV absorption spectroscopy and by modulated beam Mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunge, Gilles

    2011-10-01

    Pulsed plasmas are promising for etching applications in the microelectronic industry. However, many new phenomena are involved when a high density discharge is pulsed. To better understand these processes it is necessary to probe the radicals' kinetics with a microsecond resolution. We have developed several diagnostics to reach this goal including broad band absorption spectroscopy with UV LEDs to detect small polyatomic radicals and with a deuterium VUV source to detect larger closed shell molecules and the modulated mass spectrometry to monitor atomic species. We will discuss the impact of the plasma pulsing frequency and duty cycle on the radical densities in Cl2 based plasmas, and the consequences on plasma processes. Work done in collaboration with Paul Bodart, Melisa Brihoum, Maxime Darnon, Erwin Pargon, Olivier Joubert, and Nader Sadeghi, CNRS/LTM.

  7. Hydrogen Lines in Mira Stars Through Interferometry and Polarimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabas, N.; Chiavassa, A.; Millour, F.; Wittkowski, M.

    2015-12-01

    Balmer lines in emission are the most prominent features in Mira stars spectra and have a strong potential as a proxy to study the lower atmosphere's dynamics. In Fabas et al. ([1]), we accumulated spectropolarimetric observations of Balmer lines in emission. As the shock is propagating outwards, linear polarization rate increases and the angle of this polarization evolves. Assuming that linear polarization arises from anisotropic scattering, it has the potential of telling us about the geometric structure of the shock as it propagates and the study of such atmospheric structures can typically be performed with interferometry. In 2012, AMBER data on the Mira star omicron Ceti were collected in which the Brackett γ line is studied. The data show signatures in the interferometric observables around this line. Olivier Chesneau was in the jury evaluating the PhD thesis of N. Fabas and he was seduced by the idea to study these shock waves with interferometry and use polarimetry as a complementary study.

  8. Transport in Old and New Thermoelectric Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, David

    2012-02-01

    There is increasing interest in thermoelectric materials motivated in part by recent progress and in part by the potential of these materials in various energy technologies. Thermoelectric performance is a multiply contra-indicated property of matter. For example, it requires (1) high thermopower and high electrical conductivity, (2) high electrical conductivity and low thermal conductivity and (3) low thermal conductivity and high melting point. The key is finding an optimal balance. In this talk, I discuss some of the issues involved in the context of recent results. These include the surprising doping dependence of the thermopower in PbTe and PbSe, and the interplay between acoustic and optical phonons in PbTe. The potential of some new materials is discussed. This work was done in collaboration with David Parker, Olivier Delaire and Mao-Hua Du.

  9. Solutions of the sDiff(2)Toda equation with SU(2) symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finley, Daniel; McIver, John K.

    2010-07-01

    We present the general solution to the Plebański equation for an \\bm{\\mathfrak{h}} space that admits Killing vectors for an entire SU(2) of symmetries, which is therefore also the general solution of the sDiff(2)Toda equation that allows these symmetries. Desiring these solutions as a bridge toward the future for yet more general solutions of the sDiff(2)Toda equation, we generalize the earlier work of Olivier, on the Atiyah-Hitchin metric, and re-formulate work of Babich and Korotkin, and Tod, on the Bianchi IX approach to a metric with an SU(2) of symmetries. We also give careful delineations of the conformal transformations required to ensure that a metric of Bianchi IX type has a zero Ricci tensor, so that it is a self-dual, vacuum solution of the complex-valued version of Einstein's equations, as appropriate for the original Plebański equation.

  10. Quantifying Quantumness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, Daniel; Giraud, Olivier; Braun, Peter A.

    2010-03-01

    We introduce and study a measure of ``quantumness'' of a quantum state based on its Hilbert-Schmidt distance from the set of classical states. ``Classical states'' were defined earlier as states for which a positive P-function exists, i.e. they are mixtures of coherent states [1]. We study invariance properties of the measure, upper bounds, and its relation to entanglement measures. We evaluate the quantumness of a number of physically interesting states and show that for any physical system in thermal equilibrium there is a finite critical temperature above which quantumness vanishes. We then use the measure for identifying the ``most quantum'' states. Such states are expected to be potentially most useful for quantum information theoretical applications. We find these states explicitly for low-dimensional spin-systems, and show that they possess beautiful, highly symmetric Majorana representations. [4pt] [1] Classicality of spin states, Olivier Giraud, Petr Braun, and Daniel Braun, Phys. Rev. A 78, 042112 (2008)

  11. Bait and habitat preferences, and temporal variability of social wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) attracted to vertebrate carrion.

    PubMed

    Moretti, Thiago de Carvalho; Giannotti, Edilberto; Thyssen, Patrícia Jacqueline; Solis, Daniel Russ; Godoy, Wesley Augusto Conde

    2011-09-01

    In addition to feeding on carrion tissues and fluids, social wasps can also prey on immature and adult carrion flies, thereby reducing their populations and retarding the decomposition process of carcasses. In this study, we report on the occurrence and behavior of social wasps attracted to vertebrate carrion. The collections were made monthly from September 2006 to October 2007 in three environments (rural, urban, and forest) in six municipalities of southeast Brazil, using baited bottle traps. We collected Agelaia pallipes (Olivier, 1791) (n = 143), Agelaia vicina (Saussure, 1854) (n = 106), Agelaia multipicta (Haliday, 1836) (n = 18), and Polybia paulista Ihering, 1896 (n = 3). The wasps were observed feeding directly on the baits and preying on adult insects collected in the traps. Bait and habitat associations, temporal variability of social wasps, and possible forensic implications of their actions are discussed.

  12. First and second line mechanisms of cadmium detoxification in the lichen photobiont Trebouxia impressa (Chlorophyta).

    PubMed

    Sanità di Toppi, L; Pawlik-Skowrońska, B; Vurro, E; Vattuone, Z; Kalinowska, R; Restivo, F M; Musetti, R; Skowroński, T

    2008-01-01

    "First line" defence mechanisms, such as phytochelatin biosynthesis, and "second line" mechanisms, such as stress protein induction, were investigated in cadmium-exposed cells of Trebouxia impressa Ahmadjian, a green microalgal species that is a common photobiont of the lichen Physcia adscendens (Fr.) H. Olivier. When T. impressa cells were exposed to 0, 9 and 18 microM Cd for 6, 18 and 48 h, glutathione and phytochelatins efficiently protected the cells against Cd damage. By contrast, the highest Cd concentration (36 microM) at the longest exposure-time (48 h) caused marked drops in glutathione and phytochelatin content, several types of ultrastructural damage, and decreases in cell density and total chlorophyll concentration. In this case, induction of stress proteins was observed, but only long after the induction of phytochelatins. Thus, stress proteins could represent a "second line" mechanism to counteract Cd stress, activated when there is a decline in the "first line" mechanism of Cd detoxification given by phytochelatins.

  13. Born Oppenheimer Molecular Dynamics calculation of the νO-H IR spectra for acetic acid cyclic dimers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Amine Benmalti, Mohamed; Krallafa, Abdelghani; Gaigeot, Marie-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Both ab initio molecular dynamics simulations based on the Born-Oppenheimer approach calculations and a quantum theoretical model are used in order to study the IR spectrum of the acetic acid dimer in the gas phase. The theoretical model is taking into account the strong anharmonic coupling, Davydov coupling, multiple Fermi resonances between the first harmonics of some bending modes and the first excited state of the symmetric combination of the two vO-H modes and the quantum direct and indirect relaxation. The IR spectra obtained from DFT-based molecular dynamics is compared with our theoretical lineshape and with experiment. Note that in a previous work we have shown that our approach reproduces satisfactorily the main futures of the IR experimental lineshapes of the acetic acid dimer [Mohamed el Amine Benmalti, Paul Blaise, H. T. Flakus, Olivier Henri-Rousseau, Chem Phys, 320(2006) 267-274.].

  14. The type specimen and generic placement of Tridactylus galla Saussure, 1895 (Orthoptera: Caelifera: Tridactylidae).

    PubMed

    Heads, Sam W; Hollier, John

    2016-11-15

    Tridactylus galla was described by Henri de Saussure (1895) on the basis of a single adult female collected during Vittorio Bottego's first expedition to the Horn of Africa in 1892 and 1893. The species appears in lists compiled by Fenizia (1896), Lucas (1898) and Kirby (1906), but aside from a brief mention by Günther (1995), is entirely overlooked by subsequent authors and is absent from Otte's (1997) catalogue. During the course of compiling an annotated catalogue of the Orthoptera described by Saussure (Hollier and Heads, 2012) we were able to relocate the type of Tridactylus galla in the collection of the Museo Civico di Storia Naturale "Giacomo Doria" in Genova, Italy. Our examination of the specimen confirmed Günther's (1995) assertion that its placement in Tridactylus Olivier, 1789 is erroneous, and the species is herein formally transferred to the genus Xya Latreille, 1809.

  15. The myth of virginity: the case of a Franco-Belgian serial killer.

    PubMed

    Leistedt, Samuël J-J; Linkowski, Paul; Bongaerts, Xavier

    2011-07-01

    This article provides an in-depth description of the case of Michel Fourniret (MF), a French serial killer who, with his wife Monique Olivier (MO), confessed to kidnapping, raping, and murdering at least nine girls during the 1980s and 1990s. Using information from writers, witnesses, trial experts, and regarding current forensic literature, we utilize this case to discuss sexual homicide from both the forensic and neuropsychiatric perspectives. Interview, psychometric, and forensic data from the trial were used to explain and shed light on MF's and MO's personalities and psychosexual proclivities. In the final section, we propose and discuss several theories and specific areas of potential exploration that, in light of the murder couple case story, may prove fruitful in the study of violent attachment and murder pacts.

  16. Thanks to Jan Hall from France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bréant, Christian

    Dear Jan, Many French researchers are very grateful to you for the time they spent and all they learned with you in Boulder, and of course, some of them were invited to give talks in your honour, but they were not able to attend the symposium on these dates. They asked me to tell you how much they do regret not being here to share with you this very special time. But I can tell you that all of us share all we heard today with respect to your generosity, kindness, etc. I am speaking of people like Jean-Marie Chartier, Christian Borde, Alain Brillet, Christophe Salomon, Christian Chardonnet, Raymond Felder, Olivier Pfister and many more who spent weeks or months from time to time in your world renowned laboratory…

  17. An account of the taxonomy and distribution of Syllidae (Annelida, Polychaetes) in the eastern Mediterranean, with notes on the genus Prosphaerosyllis San Martín, 1984 in the Mediterranean

    PubMed Central

    Faulwetter, Sarah; Chatzigeorgiou, Georgios; Galil, Bella S.; Arvanitidis, Christos

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The syllid fauna of three locations in Crete and Israel (eastern Mediterranean Sea) was studied, yielding 82 syllid species, many of which were found for the first time in the respective areas: Seventeen species were recorded for the first time on the Israeli coasts and 20 in Greek waters. Perkinsyllis augeneri (Hartmann-Schröder, 1979) and Prosphaerosyllis chauseyensis Olivier et al., 2011 are new records for the Mediterranean Sea. Detailed information is given on the morphology, ecology and distribution of the species recorded for the first time in the studied areas. In addition, an update on the distribution of the genus Prosphaerosyllis San Martín, 1984 in the Mediterranean is given and an identification key to the Mediterranean species is provided. PMID:22207817

  18. A synopsis of the genus Cypholoba Chaudoir (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Anthiini) known to occur in the Republic of South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Mawdsley, Jonathan R.; Erwin, Terry L.; Sithole, Hendrik; Mawdsley, Alice S.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Nearly one third of the described species of Cypholoba Chaudoir (Coleoptera: Carabidae) are known to inhabit the Republic of South Africa. A key and diagnostic notes are provided for their identification, as well as notes about way of life for some of the species based on observations in the Kruger National Park. Fifteen species and subspecies of the genus are recorded from the Republic of South Africa; adult specimens of each species and subspecies are illustrated and information about the distribution of each species in the Republic of South Africa is summarized and mapped: Cypholoba alstoni (Péringuey), Cypholoba alveolata (Brême), Cypholoba amatonga Péringuey, Cypholoba fritschi (Chaudoir), Cypholoba gracilis gracilis (Dejean), Cypholoba gracilis scrobiculata (Bertoloni), Cypholoba gracilis zuluana Basilewsky, Cypholoba graphipteroides graphipteroides (Guérin-Méneville), Cypholoba leucospilota semilaevis (Chaudoir), Cypholoba macilenta (Olivier), Cypholoba notata (Perroud), Cypholoba oberthueri seruana Strohmeyer, Cypholoba opulenta (Boheman), Cypholoba rutata (Péringuey), and Cypholoba tenuicollis aenigma (Dohrn). PMID:22539909

  19. Progeny production by Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and Oryzaephilus surinamensis (Coleoptera: Silvanidae) on maize previously infested by Sitotroga cerealella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    PubMed

    Weston, P A; Rattlingourd, P L

    2000-04-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to quantify the effects of infestation of maize by Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier) on progeny production by two common secondary colonizers of grain, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) and Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.). Adults of both secondary pest species were allowed to oviposit for 3 wk on intact kernels of 'DeKalb 689', mechanically split kernels, kernels that had been infested for 3 mo by S. cerealella, and kernels that had been infested for 6 mo. Progeny of both species reached highest numbers on 6-mo infested maize. Prior infestation for 6 mo by S. cerealella makes maize a more suitable medium for reproduction by T. castaneum and O. surinamensis, much more than can be accounted for by mere disruption of kernel integrity resulting from larval feeding. The results highlight the importance of limiting establishment by S. cerealella on maize in storage.

  20. Highlights of the 34th Annual Ralph E. Hopkins at Jackson Hole Seminars (JHS) on February 7-12, 2014, Jackson Hole, WY, USA.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Rodrigo Donalisio; Schulte, Mary Beth; Miano, Roberto; Gustafson, Diedra; Nogueira, Leticia; Kim, Fernando J

    2014-04-01

    The prestigious Jackson Hole Seminars (JHS) successfully gathered several world leaders in academic urology and urologists in private practice for a unique scientific experience in Wyoming, USA. Unfortunately, this year Dr. Ralph Hopkins' seat was empty but his spirit continue to be the driving force for the meeting's excellence and friendship. The JHS has pioneered the concept of a Critique Panel comprised of previous speakers that would discuss in depth the presentations of the faculty chosen by the scientific board of the JHS. The 2014 JHS featured Dr. Fernando J. Kim, the President of JHS, Dr. Robert Flanigan, the Program Chair, and the Critique Panel that included: Drs. Peter Albertsen, Arthur Burnett, Michael Coburn, Ann Gormley, and Marshal Stoller. The invited speakers were: Drs. Leonard Gomella (1st prize), Olivier Traxer (2nd prize), Jennifer Anger, Anthony Bella, Jim Hu, and Allen Morey. Some of the in depth discussions and topics are highlighted.

  1. Barcoding Chrysomelidae: a resource for taxonomy and biodiversity conservation in the Mediterranean Region

    PubMed Central

    Magoga, Giulia; Sassi, Davide; Daccordi, Mauro; Leonardi, Carlo; Mirzaei, Mostafa; Regalin, Renato; Lozzia, Giuseppe; Montagna, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Mediterranean Region is one of the world’s biodiversity hot-spots, which is also characterized by high level of endemism. Approximately 2100 species of leaf beetle (Coleoptera; Chrysomelidae) are known from this area, a number that increases year after year and represents 5/6% of the known species. These features, associated with the urgent need to develop a DNA-based species identification approach for a broad spectrum of leaf beetle species, prompted us to develop a database of nucleotide sequences, with a solid taxonomic background, for all the Chrysomelidae Latreille, 1802 sensu latu inhabiting the Mediterranean region. The Mediterranean Chrysomelidae Barcoding project, which has started in 2009, involves more than fifty entomologists and molecular biologists from different European countries. Numerous collecting campaigns have been organized during the first seven years of the project, which led to the collection of more than 5000 leaf beetle specimens. In addition, during these collecting campaigns two new allochthonous species for Europe, namely Ophraella communa LeSage, 1986 and Colasposoma dauricum Mannerheim, 1849, were intercepted and some species new to science were discovered (e.g., Pachybrachis sassii Montagna, 2011 and Pachybrachis holerorum Montagna et al., 2013). DNA was extracted from 1006 specimens (~13% of the species inhabiting the Mediterranean region) and a total of 910 cox1 gene sequences were obtained (PCR amplification efficiency of 93.8%). Here we report the list of the barcoded subfamilies, genera and the number of species for which cox1 gene sequences were obtained; the metadata associated with each specimen and a list of problematic species for which marker amplification failed. In addition, the nucleotide divergence within and between species and genera was estimated and values of intraspecific nucleotide divergence greater than the average have been discussed. Cryptocephalus quadripunctatus G. A. Olivier, 1808

  2. Design of a Computerised Flight Mill Device to Measure the Flight Potential of Different Insects

    PubMed Central

    Martí-Campoy, Antonio; Ávalos, Juan Antonio; Soto, Antonia; Rodríguez-Ballester, Francisco; Martínez-Blay, Victoria; Malumbres, Manuel Pérez

    2016-01-01

    Several insect species pose a serious threat to different plant species, sometimes becoming a pest that produces significant damage to the landscape, biodiversity, and/or the economy. This is the case of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae), Semanotus laurasii Lucas (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), and Monochamus galloprovincialis Olivier (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), which have become serious threats to ornamental and productive trees all over the world such as palm trees, cypresses, and pines. Knowledge about their flight potential is very important for designing and applying measures targeted to reduce the negative effects from these pests. Studying the flight capability and behaviour of some insects is difficult due to their small size and the large area wherein they can fly, so we wondered how we could obtain information about their flight capabilities in a controlled environment. The answer came with the design of flight mills. Relevant data about the flight potential of these insects may be recorded and analysed by means of a flight mill. Once an insect is attached to the flight mill, it is able to fly in a circular direction without hitting walls or objects. By adding sensors to the flight mill, it is possible to record the number of revolutions and flight time. This paper presents a full description of a computer monitored flight mill. The description covers both the mechanical and the electronic parts in detail. The mill was designed to easily adapt to the anatomy of different insects and was successfully tested with individuals from three species R. ferrugineus, S. laurasii, and M. galloprovincialis. PMID:27070600

  3. Characterizing the biological and biochemical profile of six different scorpion venoms from the Buthidae and Scorpionidae family.

    PubMed

    Estrada-Gómez, Sebastian; Gomez-Rave, Lyz; Vargas-Muñoz, Leidy Johana; van der Meijden, Arie

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize six different scorpion venoms using biological and biochemical methods, including a preliminary MS/MS and a post-translational modifications analysis. Despite the diversity of scorpion species of medical importance in Africa and Colombia, the venoms of these arachnids have been poorly studied in these two regions. We report the biochemical, electrophoretic, chromatographic profile, internal peptide sequences with a post-translational modification report, and a preliminary antitumor activity of five different scorpions of the Buthidae family, Androctonus amoreuxi, Babycurus jacksoni, Grosphus grandidieri, Hottentotta gentili and Tityus fuhrmanni, and one of the Scorpionidae family Pandinus imperator. No L-amino oxidase activity was detected in the evaluated venoms. Proteolytic activity using azocasein was detected only in G. grandidieri and P. imperator, indicating the possible presence of metalloproteinases in these two venoms. Proteolytic activity using NOBA was detected in all venoms indicating the possible presence of serine-proteinases. Phospholipase A2 activity was detected in the venoms of P. imperator, G. grandidieri, H. gentili and A. amoreuxi, with P. imperator venom being the most active. All venoms analyzed contained defensin-like proteins, alpha toxins, metalloproteinases, neuropeptides, DBP affecting ion channels, DBP with antimicrobial activity, among others. Venoms from P. imperator, G. grandidieri and T. fuhrmanni showed a dose-dependent cytotoxic activity over MCF-7 cells. Only two isolated RP-HPLC fractions from P. imperator and T. fuhrmanni showed cytotoxic activity over MCF-7. No cytotoxic activity was found in the venoms from A. amoreuxi, B. jacksoni, and H. gentili.

  4. Structural Insights into Antibody Sequestering and Neutralizing of Na+ Channel α-Type Modulator from Old World Scorpion Venom

    PubMed Central

    Fabrichny, Igor P.; Mondielli, Grégoire; Conrod, Sandrine; Martin-Eauclaire, Marie-France; Bourne, Yves; Marchot, Pascale

    2012-01-01

    The Old World scorpion Androctonus australis hector (Aah) produces one of the most lethal venoms for humans. Peptidic α-toxins AahI to AahIV are responsible for its potency, with AahII accounting for half of it. All four toxins are high affinity blockers of the fast inactivation phase of mammalian voltage-activated Na+ channels. However, the high antigenic polymorphism of α-toxins prevents production of a polyvalent neutralizing antiserum, whereas the determinants dictating their trapping by neutralizing antibodies remain elusive. From an anti-AahII mAb, we generated an antigen binding fragment (Fab) with high affinity and selectivity for AahII and solved a 2.3 Å-resolution crystal structure of the complex. Sequestering of the C-terminal region of the bound toxin within a groove formed by the Fab combining loops is associated with a toxin orientation and main and side chain conformations that dictate the AahII antigenic specificity and efficient neutralization. From an anti-AahI mAb, we also preformed and crystallized a high affinity AahI-Fab complex. The 1.6 Å-resolution structure solved revealed a Fab molecule devoid of a bound AahI and with combining loops involved in packing interactions, denoting expulsion of the bound antigen upon crystal formation. Comparative analysis of the groove-like combining site of the toxin-bound anti-AahII Fab and planar combining surface of the unbound anti-AahI Fab along with complementary data from a flexible docking approach suggests occurrence of distinctive trapping orientations for the two toxins relative to their respective Fab. This study provides complementary templates for designing new molecules aimed at capturing Aah α-toxins and suitable for immunotherapy. PMID:22371498

  5. Immunopathologic effects of scorpion venom on hepato-renal tissues: Involvement of lipid derived inflammatory mediators.

    PubMed

    Lamraoui, Amal; Adi-Bessalem, Sonia; Laraba-Djebari, Fatima

    2015-10-01

    Scorpion venoms are known to cause different inflammatory disorders through complex mechanisms in various tissues. In the study here, the involvement of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and cyclo-oxygenase (COX)-derived metabolites in hepatic and renal inflammation responses were examined. Mice were envenomed with Androctonus australis hector scorpion venom in the absence or presence of inhibitors that can interfere with lipid inflammatory mediator synthesis, i.e., dexamethasone (PLA2 inhibitor), indomethacin (non-selective COX-1/COX-2 inhibitor), or celecoxib (selective COX-2 inhibitor). The inflammatory response was assessed by evaluating vascular permeability changes, inflammatory cell infiltration, oxidative/nitrosative stress marker levels, and by histologic and functional analyses of the liver and kidney. Results revealed that the venom alone induced an inflammatory response in this tissues marked by increased microvascular permeability and inflammatory cell infiltration, increases in levels of nitric oxide and lipid peroxidation, and decreases in antioxidant defense. Moreover, significant alterations in the histological architecture of these organs were associated with increased serum levels of some metabolic enzymes, as well as urea and uric acid. Pre-treatment of mice with dexamethasone led to significant decreases of the inflammatory disorders in the hepatic parenchyma; celecoxib pre-treatment seemed to be more effective against renal inflammation. Indomethacin pre-treatment only slightly reduced the inflammatory disorders in the tissues. These results suggest that the induced inflammation response in liver was mediated mainly by PLA2 activation, while the renal inflammatory process was mediated by prostaglandin formation by COX-2. These findings provide additional insight toward the understanding of activated pathways and related mechanisms involved in scorpion envenoming syndrome.

  6. Charybdotoxin blocks voltage-gated K+ channels in human and murine T lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    A variety of scorpion venoms and purified toxins were tested for effects on ion channels in human T lymphocytes, a human T leukemia cell line (Jurkat), and murine thymocytes, using the whole-cell patch-clamp method. Nanomolar concentrations of charbdotoxin (CTX), a purified peptide component of Leiurus quinquestriatus venom known to block Ca2+- activated K+ channels from muscle, blocked "type n" voltage-gated K+ channels in human T lymphoid cells. The Na+ channels occasionally expressed in these cells were unaffected by the toxin. From the time course of development and removal of K+ channel block we determined the rates of CTX binding and unbinding. CTX blocks K+ channels in Jurkat cells with a Kd value between 0.5 and 1.5 nM. Of the three types of voltage-gated K+ channels present in murine thymocytes, types n and n' are blocked by CTX at nanomolar concentrations. The third variety of K+ channels, "type l," is unaffected by CTX. Noxiustoxin (NTX), a purified toxin from Centruroides noxius known to block Ca2+-activated K+ channels, also blocked type n K+ channels with a high degree of potency (Kd = 0.2 nM). In addition, several types of crude scorpion venoms from the genera Androctonus, Buthus, Centruroides, and Pandinus blocked type n channels. We conclude that CTX and NTX are not specific for Ca2+ activated K+ channels and that purified scorpion toxins will provide useful probes of voltage-gated K+ channels in T lymphocytes. The existence of high-affinity sites for scorpion toxin binding may help to classify structurally related K+ channels and provide a useful tool for their biochemical purification. PMID:2475579

  7. Domain 2 of Drosophila para voltage-gated sodium channel confers insect properties to a rat brain channel.

    PubMed

    Shichor, Iris; Zlotkin, Eliahu; Ilan, Nitza; Chikashvili, Dodo; Stuhmer, Walter; Gordon, Dalia; Lotan, Ilana

    2002-06-01

    The ability of the excitatory anti-insect-selective scorpion toxin AahIT (Androctonus australis hector) to exclusively bind to and modify the insect voltage-gated sodium channel (NaCh) makes it a unique tool to unravel the structural differences between mammalian and insect channels, a prerequisite in the design of selective pesticides. To localize the insect NaCh domain that binds AahIT, we constructed a chimeric channel composed of rat brain NaCh alpha-subunit (rBIIA) in which domain-2 (D2) was replaced by that of Drosophila Para (paralytic temperature-sensitive). The choice of D2 was dictated by the similarity between AahIT and scorpion beta-toxins pertaining to both their binding and action and the essential role of D2 in the beta-toxins binding site on mammalian channels. Expression of the chimera rBIIA-ParaD2 in Xenopus oocytes gave rise to voltage-gated and TTX-sensitive NaChs that, like rBIIA, were sensitive to scorpion alpha-toxins and regulated by the auxiliary subunit beta(1) but not by the insect TipE. Notably, like Drosophila Para/TipE, but unlike rBIIA/beta(1), the chimera gained sensitivity to AahIT, indicating that the phyletic selectivity of AahIT is conferred by the insect NaCh D2. Furthermore, the chimera acquired additional insect channel properties; its activation was shifted to more positive potentials, and the effect of alpha-toxins was potentiated. Our results highlight the key role of D2 in the selective recognition of anti-insect excitatory toxins and in the modulation of NaCh gating. We also provide a methodological approach to the study of ion channels that are difficult to express in model expression systems.

  8. On the identity of some weevil species described by Johann Christian Fabricius (1745–1808) in the Museum of Zoology of Copenhagen (Coleoptera, Cucujoidea, Curculionoidea, Tenebrionoidea)

    PubMed Central

    Alonso-Zarazaga, Miguel A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The types of thirty-two nominal weevil species described by Johann Christian Fabricius are reviewed and lecto- and paralectotypes are designated for twenty-two of them. A neotype is designated for Curculio sticticus Fabricius, 1777. Protapion varipes (Germar, 1817) is declared a nomen protectum over Curculio flavipes Fabricius, 1775. Based on a study of syntypes, Rhinomacer curculioides Fabricius, 1781 is confirmed as a member of Mycterus (Mycteridae), Bruchus undatus Fabricius, 1787 is tentatively transferred to Erotylidae, Curculio fulvirostris Fabricius, 1787 and Anthribus roboris Fabricius, 1798 are confirmed as members of Salpingus (Salpingidae), and Brachycerus cristatus Fabricius, 1798 is transferred to Tenebrionidae. Based on lectotype designation, Curculio caninus Fabricius, 1792 is confirmed as a synonym of Sitona lineatus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Curculio innocuus Fabricius, 1802 as a synonym of Cneorhinus barcelonicus (Herbst, 1797). Bruchus rufipes Fabricius, 1792 is not considered an available species name, but a later use of Bruchus rufipes Olivier, 1790. Cossonus incisus Pascoe, 1885 is reinstated as valid from synonymy under Cossonus illigeri Champion, 1909 and Cossonus vulneratus Illiger, 1805 from synonymy under Cossonus canaliculatus (Fabricius, 1792) (a primary homonym of Curculio canaliculatus Olivier, 1791). Cossonus canaliculatus Fabricius, 1802 is a secondary homonym of the former and is replaced with Cossonus incisus. Salpingus fulvirostris (Fabricius, 1787) is reinstated as valid from synonymy under Salpingus planirostris (Fabricius, 1787), a primary homonym of Curculio planirostris Piller & Mitterpacher, 1783. The following new combinations are proposed: Brachysomus erinaceus (Fabricius, 1802) (from Curculio), Bronchus ferus (Gyllenhal, 1840) (from Hipporhinus), Bronchus glandifer (Fabricius, 1792) (from Curculio), Bronchus nivosus (Sparrman, 1785) (from Curculio), Bronchus sparrmani (Gyllenhal, 1833) (from Hipporhinus

  9. MEETING: Chlamydomonas Annotation Jamboree - October 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Grossman, Arthur R

    2007-04-13

    Shotgun sequencing of the nuclear genome of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Chlamydomonas throughout) was performed at an approximate 10X coverage by JGI. Roughly half of the genome is now contained on 26 scaffolds, all of which are at least 1.6 Mb, and the coverage of the genome is ~95%. There are now over 200,000 cDNA sequence reads that we have generated as part of the Chlamydomonas genome project (Grossman, 2003; Shrager et al., 2003; Grossman et al. 2007; Merchant et al., 2007); other sequences have also been generated by the Kasuza sequence group (Asamizu et al., 1999; Asamizu et al., 2000) or individual laboratories that have focused on specific genes. Shrager et al. (2003) placed the reads into distinct contigs (an assemblage of reads with overlapping nucleotide sequences), and contigs that group together as part of the same genes have been designated ACEs (assembly of contigs generated from EST information). All of the reads have also been mapped to the Chlamydomonas nuclear genome and the cDNAs and their corresponding genomic sequences have been reassembled, and the resulting assemblage is called an ACEG (an Assembly of contiguous EST sequences supported by genomic sequence) (Jain et al., 2007). Most of the unique genes or ACEGs are also represented by gene models that have been generated by the Joint Genome Institute (JGI, Walnut Creek, CA). These gene models have been placed onto the DNA scaffolds and are presented as a track on the Chlamydomonas genome browser associated with the genome portal (http://genome.jgi-psf.org/Chlre3/Chlre3.home.html). Ultimately, the meeting grant awarded by DOE has helped enormously in the development of an annotation pipeline (a set of guidelines used in the annotation of genes) and resulted in high quality annotation of over 4,000 genes; the annotators were from both Europe and the USA. Some of the people who led the annotation initiative were Arthur Grossman, Olivier Vallon, and Sabeeha Merchant (with many individual

  10. PREFACE: Nanosafe 2012: International Conferences on Safe Production and Use of Nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tardif, François

    2013-04-01

    , FR) Co-chair: Georgios KATALAGARIANAKIS (EC, BE) Mélanie AUFFAN (CEREGE, FR) Jorge BOCZKOWSKI (INSERM, FR) Jean-Yves BOTTERO (CEREGE, FR) Jacques BOUILLARD (INERIS, FR) Derk BROUWER (TNO, NL) Marie CARRIERE (CEA, FR) Claude EMOND (U. MONTREAL, CA) Cassandra ENGEMAN (UCSB, USA) Eric GAFFET (CNRS, FR) François GENSDARMES (IRSN, FR) Alexei GRINBAUM (CEA, FR) Antje GROBE (U.STUTTGART, DE) Peter HOET (KUL, BE) Eric QUEMENEUR (CEA, FR) Olivier LE BIHAN (INERIS, FR) Robert MUIR (NANEUM, UK) Tinh NGUYEN (NIST, USA) Bernd NOWACK (EMPA, CH) Günter OBERDÖRSTER (U. ROCHESTER, USA) David PUI (U. MINNESOTA, USA) Michael RIEDIKER (IST, CH) Yves SAMSON (CEA, FR) Ken TAKEDA (U. TOKYO, JP) Olivier WITSCHGER (INRS, FR) The PDF contains a list of sponsor logos, the conference programme and planning documents.

  11. Sex discrimination from the acetabulum in a twentieth-century skeletal sample from France using digital photogrammetry.

    PubMed

    Macaluso, P J

    2011-02-01

    Digital photogrammetric methods were used to collect diameter, area, and perimeter data of the acetabulum for a twentieth-century skeletal sample from France (Georges Olivier Collection, Musée de l'Homme, Paris) consisting of 46 males and 36 females. The measurements were then subjected to both discriminant function and logistic regression analyses in order to develop osteometric standards for sex assessment. Univariate discriminant functions and logistic regression equations yielded overall correct classification accuracy rates for both the left and the right acetabula ranging from 84.1% to 89.6%. The multivariate models developed in this study did not provide increased accuracy over those using only a single variable. Classification sex bias ratios ranged between 1.1% and 7.3% for the majority of models. The results of this study, therefore, demonstrate that metric analysis of acetabular size provides a highly accurate, and easily replicable, method of discriminating sex in this documented skeletal collection. The results further suggest that the addition of area and perimeter data derived from digital images may provide a more effective method of sex assessment than that offered by traditional linear measurements alone.

  12. Quark Matter 2011 (QM11) Quark Matter 2011 (QM11)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-12-01

    International Advisory Committee Antinori, FedericoPaic, Guy Braun-Munzinger, PeterPajares, Carlos Cifarelli, LuisaPeitzmann, Thomas Erazmus, BarbaraRedlich, Krzysztof Eskola, KariRiccati, Lodovico Gaardhøje, Jens JørgenRoland, Gunther Gale, CharlesRoy, Christelle Gelis, FrancoisSchukraft, Jürgen Giubellino, PaoloSinha, Bikash Greiner, CarstenSrivastava, Dinesh Gyulassy, MiklosStachel, Johanna Harris, JohnSteinberg, Peter Hatsuda, TetsuoStroth, Joachim Heinz, UlrichSugitate, Toru Jacak, BarbaraTserruya, Itzhak Karsch, FrithjofVelkovska, Julia Kharzeev, DimaWang, Enke Kodama, TakeshiWang, Xin, Nian Lévai, PéterWessels, Johannes Manko, VladislavXu, Nu Müller, BerndtZajc, William Ollitrault, Jean-Yves Organizing Committee Arleo, FrancoisDupieux, Pascal Bastid, NicoleFurget, Christophe Bourgeois, Marie-LaureGranier de Cassagnac, Raphael Bregant, MarcoGuernane, Rachid Carminati, FedericoHervet, Carnita Castillo, JavierKuhn, Christian Cheynis, BrigitteOlivier, Nathalie Conesa, DelValle, Zaida Connor, MichelleRenshall, Lucy Crochet, PhilippeSuire, Christophe Delagrange, HuguesTihinen, Ulla Program Committee Schutz, Yves (Chair)Baldisseri, Alberto Wiedemann, Urs (co-Chair)Safarik, Karel Aurenche, Patrick

  13. Micro-spatial distribution of two sibling periwinkle species across the intertidal indicates hybrdization.

    PubMed

    Granovitch, Andrei I; Maximovich, Alexei N; Avanesyan, Alina V; Starunova, Zinaida I; Mikhailova, Natalia A

    2013-09-01

    Populations of periwinkles Littorina saxatilis (Olivi 1792) and L. arcana Hannaford Ellis, 1978 are well suited for microevolutionary studies, being at the same time closely related and intraspecifically diverse. The divergence between these two sibling species, sympatric over large parts of their distribution areas, is small, the only morphological difference being the pallial gland complex structure in females. Molecular identification is possible with the use of a RAPD nuclear marker (cloned A2.8 DNA fragment) typical for L. arcana. However, in some individuals from sympatric populations molecular and morphological criteria suggest conflicting species affiliation, which may be explained either by hybridization or by shared ancestral polymorphism. We tested the hybridization hypotheses examining the micro-spatial distribution of these two species across the intertidal zone in two distant sites at the Barents Sea. We found that (a) the frequency of putative hybrids in sympatric populations was proportional to the frequency of L. arcana; (b) L. saxatilis bearing A2.8 DNA fragment were almost absent in the lower part of the intertidal zone, where L. arcana was absent too; (c) there was a close positive correlation between the distribution of potential parent molluscs and putative hybrids. Moreover, logistic regression models showed a good agreement between the distribution of putative hybrid frequencies and that of parental species frequencies. All our observations taken together support the hypothesis of hybridization between L. saxatilis and L. arcana. Elucidating the mechanisms that support the species status of these sympatric populations is necessary.

  14. Molecular phylogeny and biotechnological potential of bacterial endophytes associated with Malpighia emarginata.

    PubMed

    Specian, V; Costa, A T; Felber, A C; Polonio, J C; Azevedo, J L; Pamphile, J A

    2016-04-27

    Acerola (Malpighia emarginata) is a shrub native to tropical and subtropical climates, which has great commercial interest due to the high vitamin C content of its fruit. However, there are no reports of the endophytic community of this plant species. The aim of this study was to verify the genetic diversity of the leaf endophytic bacterial community of two varieties (Olivier & Waldy Cati 30) of acerola, and to evaluate their biotechnological ability by assessing their in vitro control of pathogenic fungi and the enzymatic production of cellulase, xylanase, amylase, pectinase, protease, lipase, esterase, and chitinase. In total, 157 endophytic bacteria were isolated from the leaves of two varieties of the plant at 28° and 37°C. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed the molecular identification of 58 bacteria, 39.65% of which were identified at the species level. For the first time, the genus Aureimonas was highlighted as an endophytic bacterium. Furthermore, 12.82% of the isolates inhibited the growth of all phytopathogens evaluated and at least one of the above-mentioned enzymes was produced by 64.70% of the endophytes, demonstrating that M. emarginata isolates have potential use in biotechnological studies.

  15. Morphology of salivary gland and distribution of dopamine and serotonin on red palm weevil (RPW), Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidayah, A. S. Nurul; Wahida, O. Nurul; Shafinaz, M. N. Norefrina; Idris, A. G.

    2013-11-01

    The Red Palm Weevil (RPW), Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier, 1790) is insect pest to plants of the family Palmaceae. No study has been reported on the digestive mechanism of Red Palm Weevil (RPW). Salivary glands are responsible in the feeding regulation of insect while serotonin and dopamine play a significant role in the regulation of this gland. It is great to see the morphology of the salivary gland and how dopamine and serotonin possibly play their role in this gland. Two variation of RPW, striped and spotted RPW were chosen. The morphology of the gland of both RPW variants examined by using light microscopy was found to be a tubular type. Immunohistochemical analysis conducted showed that serotonin and dopamine in both variations did not innervate the glands suggesting they are not act as neurotransmitter. However, it can be detected on few areas within the glands. This suggests that serotonin and dopamine may act as a hormone because there is no evidence on the nerve fibers. The role of these biogenic amines in the salivary gland of RPW needs further investigation. Hopefully the data would help in understanding the mechanism of salivary glands control by biogenic amines in RPW specifically and insects with sucking mouthpart generally.

  16. Abundance and Diversity of Soil Arthropods in the Olive Grove Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Maria Fátima; Pereira, José Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Arthropods are part of important functional groups in soil food webs. Recognizing these arthropods and understanding their function in the ecosystem as well as when they are active is essential to understanding their roles. In the present work, the abundance and diversity of soil arthropods is examined in olive groves in the northeast region of Portugal during the spring. Five classes of arthropods were found: Chilopoda, Malacostraca, Entognatha, Insecta, and Arachnida. Captures were numerically dominated by Collembola within Entognatha, representing 70.9% of total captures. Arachnida and Insecta classes represented about 20.4 and 9.0%, respectively. Among the predatory arthropods, the most representative groups were Araneae and Opiliones from Arachnida, and Formicidae, Carabidae, and Staphylinidae from Insecta. From the Formicidae family, Tetramorium semilaeve (Andre 1883), Tapinoma nigerrimum (Nylander 1856), and Crematogaster scutellaris (Olivier 1792) were the most representative ant species. Arthropods demonstrated preference during the day, with 74% of the total individuals recovered in this period, although richness and similarity were analogous during the day and night. PMID:22943295

  17. A second order kinetic approach for modeling solute retention and transport in soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selim, H. M.; Amacher, M. C.

    1988-12-01

    We present a second-order kinetic approach for the description of solute retention during transport in soils. The basis for this approach is that it accounts for the sites on the soil matrix which are accessible for retention of the reactive solutes in solution. This approach was incorporated with the fully kinetic two-site model where the difference between the characteristics of the two types of sites is based on the rate of kinetic retention reactions. We also assume that the retention mechanisms are site-specific, e.g., the sorbed phase on type 1 sites may be characteristically different in their energy of reaction and/or the solute species from that on type 2 sites. The second-order two-site (SOTS) model was capable of describing the kinetic retention behavior of Cr(VI) batch data for Olivier, Windsor, and Cecil soils. Using independently measured parameters, the SOTS model was successful in predicting experimental Cr breakthrough curves (BTC's). The proposed second-order approach was also extended to the diffusion controlled mobile-immobile or two-region (SOMIM) model. The use of estimated parameters (e.g., the mobile water fraction and mass transfer coefficients) for the SOMIM model did not provide improved predictions of Cr BTC's in comparison to the SOTS model. The failure of the mobile-immobile model was attributed to the lack of nonequilibrium conditions for the two regions in these soils.

  18. Density and structure of Saissetia oleae (Hemiptera: Coccidae) populations on citrus and olives: relative importance of the two annual generations.

    PubMed

    Tena, Alejandro; Soto, Antonia; Vercher, Rosa; Garcia-Marí, Ferran

    2007-08-01

    Saissetia oleae (Olivier) (Hemiptera: Coccidae) populations were studied and compared in citrus (Citrus spp.) and olive (Olea europaea L.) groves to determine the number of generations, crawler emergence periods and changes in population density during the year. Ten citrus and four olive groves were sampled regularly between March 2003 and December 2005 in eastern Spain, covering an area of 10,000 km2. Each sample consisted of 16 branches and 64 leaves. Saissetia oleae populations presented a similar trend in both crops during the three years of study. Populations peaked in July, when crawlers emerged after the egg-laying period, and decreased during several months due to mortality of first instars in summer. A second crawler emergence period, with lower numbers and more variability from year to year, occurred between October and March. Populations did not increase during this period, probably because most eggs and crawlers perished during the winter and also because females that gave rise to this fall-winter generation were half as big and fecund as spring females. No differences were found between the size of mature females that had developed on citrus and on olives during the spring. Considering this population pattern, the best seasonal period to apply pesticides to control S. oleae would be at the end of July, when populations are synchronous, all crawlers have already emerged, and first instars predominate.

  19. Glacial history of the North Atlantic marine snail, Littorina saxatilis, inferred from distribution of mitochondrial DNA lineages.

    PubMed

    Panova, Marina; Blakeslee, April M H; Miller, A Whitman; Mäkinen, Tuuli; Ruiz, Gregory M; Johannesson, Kerstin; André, Carl

    2011-03-11

    The North Atlantic intertidal gastropod, Littorina saxatilis (Olivi, 1792), exhibits extreme morphological variation between and within geographic regions and has become a model for studies of local adaptation; yet a comprehensive analysis of the species' phylogeography is lacking. Here, we examine phylogeographic patterns of the species' populations in the North Atlantic and one remote Mediterranean population using sequence variation in a fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (607 bp). We found that, as opposed to many other rocky intertidal species, L. saxatilis has likely had a long and continuous history in the Northwest Atlantic, including survival during the last glacial maximum (LGM), possibly in two refugia. In the Northeast Atlantic, several areas likely harboured refugial populations that recolonized different parts of this region after glacial retreat, resulting in strong population structure. However, the outlying monomorphic Venetian population is likely a recent anthropogenic introduction from northern Europe and not a remnant of an earlier wider distribution in the Mediterranean Sea. Overall, our detailed phylogeography of L. saxatilis adds an important piece to the understanding of Pleistocene history in North Atlantic marine biota as well as being the first study to describe the species' evolutionary history in its natural range. The latter contribution is noteworthy because the snail has recently become an important model species for understanding evolutionary processes of speciation; thus our work provides integral information for such endeavours.

  20. Piperidinyl amides with insecticidal activity from the maritime plant Otanthus maritimus.

    PubMed

    Christodoulopoulou, Lito; Tsoukatou, Maria; Tziveleka, Leto A; Vagias, Constantinos; Petrakis, Panos V; Roussis, Vassilios

    2005-03-09

    Two new piperidine amides, N-[(2E,4E,8Z)-tetradecatrienoyl]piperidine (1) and N-[(2E,4E,8Z,11Z)-tetradecatetrenoyl]piperidine (2), along with the known metabolites N-[(2E,4E)-tetradecadienoyl]piperidine (3), N-isobutyl-(2E,4E,)-tetradecadienamide (4), N-isobutyl-(2E,4E,8Z)-tetradecatrienamide (5), N-isobutyl-(2E,4E,8Z,11Z)-tetradecatetraenamide (6), sesamine (7), pinoresinol (8), and espeletone (9), were isolated from the dichloromethane/methanol extracts of the plant Otanthus maritimus Hoffman & Link collected from coastal areas in Greece. Pinoresinol (8) and espeletone (9) are reported for the first time as metabolites of O. maritimus. The structures of the new natural products were elucidated by interpretation of their NMR and high-resolution mass spectral measurements. The insecticidal properties of the crude extracts, essential oil, and isolated metabolites 1-9 were evaluated on Crematogaster scutellaris (Olivier) ants and Reticulitermes balkanensis (Clement) termites, showing significant levels of activity.

  1. Characteristics of the tensile mechanical properties of fresh and dry forewings of beetles.

    PubMed

    Tuo, Wanyong; Chen, Jinxiang; Wu, Zhishen; Xie, Juan; Wang, Yong

    2016-08-01

    Based on a tensile experiment and observations by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), this study demonstrated the characteristics of the tensile mechanical properties of the fresh and dry forewings of two types of beetles. The results revealed obvious differences in the tensile fracture morphologies and characteristics of the tensile mechanical properties of fresh and dry forewings of Cybister tripunctatus Olivier and Allomyrina dichotoma. For fresh forewings of these two types of beetles, a viscous, flow-like, polymer matrix plastic deformation was observed on the fracture surfaces, with soft morphologies and many fibers being pulled out, whereas on the dry forewings, the tensile fracture surfaces were straightforward, and there were no features resembling those found on the fresh forewings. The fresh forewings exhibited a greater fracture strain than the dry forewings, which was caused by the relative slippage of hydroxyl inter-chain bonds due to the presence of water in the fibers and proteins in the fresh forewings. Our study is the first to demonstrate the phenomenon of sudden stress drops caused by the fracturing of the lower skin because the lower skin fractured before the forewings of A. dichotoma reached their ultimate tensile strength. We also investigated the reasons underlying this phenomenon. This research provides a much better understanding of the mechanical properties of beetle forewings and facilitates the correct selection of study objects for biomimetic materials and development of the corresponding applications.

  2. One Approach to the Synthesis, Design and Manufacture of Hyperboloid Gear Sets With Face Mating Gears. Part 1: Basic Theoretical and Cad Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abadjiev, Valentin; Abadjieva, Emilia

    2016-06-01

    Hyperboloid gear drives with face mating gears are used to transform rotations between shafts with non-parallel and non-intersecting axes. A special case of these transmissions are Spiroid and Helicon gear drives. The classical gear drives of this type are the Archimedean ones. The objective of this study are hyperboloid gear drives with face meshing, when the pinion possesses threads of conic convolute, Archimedean and involute types, or the pinion has threads of cylindrical convolute, Archimedean and involute types. For simplicity, all three types transmis- sions with face mating gears and a conic pinion are titled Spiroid and all three types transmissions with face mating gears and a cylindrical pinion are titled Helicon. Principles of the mathematical modelling of tooth contact synthesis are discussed in this study. The presented research shows that the synthesis is realized by application of two mathematical models: pitch contact point and mesh region models. Two approaches for synthesis of the gear drives in accordance with Olivier's principles are illustrated. The algorithms and computer programs for optimization synthesis and design of the studied hyperboloid gear drives are presented.

  3. Nutritional and antinutritional composition of the five species of aquatic edible insects consumed in Manipur, India.

    PubMed

    Shantibala, T; Lokeshwari, R K; Debaraj, H

    2014-01-26

    The people living in Manipur have a distinct identity, culture, and food habits. They have a prototype culture of eating insects. In our study, the nutritive contents of five potentially-edible aquatic insects, Lethocerus indicus (Lepeletier and Serville) (Hemiptera: Belostomatidae), Laccotrephes maculatus (F.) (Nepidae), Hydrophilus olivaceous (F.) (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae), Cybister tripunctatus (Olivier), and Crocothemis servilia (Drury) (Odonata: Libellulidae), were analyzed to inform consumers about the nutritional quality of the insects and the suggested quantity of their intake. A good amount of protein content and high gross energy was recorded among the insects. The results showed high levels of sodium, calcium, and magnesium present in the insects, indicating that they are a good source of minerals. Antinutritional properties of these insects were below 0.52%, which is a non-toxic level. Aquatic insects, such as C. tripunctatus, also possesses strong antioxidant activity (110 µg/mL). Therefore, these insects can play a major role in food security, health, and environment management. It is essential to cultivate edible insects to maintain their population sustainability.

  4. On automatic bioacoustic detection of pests: the cases of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus and Sitophilus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Potamitis, Ilyas; Ganchev, Todor; Kontodimas, Dimitris

    2009-08-01

    The present work reports research efforts toward development and evaluation of a unified framework for automatic bioacoustic recognition of specific insect pests. Our approach is based on capturing and automatically recognizing the acoustic emission resulting from typical behaviors, e.g., locomotion and feeding, of the target pests. After acquisition the signals are amplified, filtered, parameterized, and classified by advanced machine learning methods on a portable computer. Specifically, we investigate an advanced signal parameterization scheme that relies on variable size signal segmentation. The feature vector computed for each segment of the signal is composed of the dominant harmonic, which carry information about the periodicity of the signal, and the cepstral coefficients, which carry information about the relative distribution of energy among the different spectral sub-bands. This parameterization offers a reliable representation of both the acoustic emissions of the pests of interest and the interferences from the environment. We illustrate the practical significance of our methodology on two specific cases: 1) a devastating pest for palm plantations, namely, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier and 2) a pest that attacks warehouse stored rice (Oryza sativa L.), the rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (both Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Dryophorinae). These pests are known in many countries around the world and contribute for significant economical loss. The proposed approach led to detection results in real field trials, reaching 99.1% on real-field recordings of R. ferrugineus and 100% for S. oryzae.

  5. Identification of pheromone synergists for Rhynchophorus ferrugineus trapping systems from Phoenix canariensis palm volatiles.

    PubMed

    Vacas, Sandra; Abad-Payá, María; Primo, Jaime; Navarro-Llopis, Vicente

    2014-07-02

    Trapping systems for the red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier, rely on the use of natural plant odor sources to boost the attractiveness of the aggregation pheromone. The identification of the key odorants involved in attraction is essential in the development of a synthetic pheromone synergist to replace the nonstandardized use of plant material in traps. Canary Islands date palms (Phoenix canariensis) have become preferred hosts for R. ferrugineus in Europe; thus, the volatile profile of different P. canariensis plant materials, including healthy and infested tissues, is investigated in the present work by means of solid phase microextraction (SPME-GC-MS), aimed to identify pheromone synergists. The electroantennography (EAG) response of the compounds identified was recorded, as well as the preliminary field response of several EAG-active compounds. The so-called "palm esters" (ethyl acetate, ethyl propionate, ethyl butyrate, and propyl butyrate) elicit the strongest EAG responses but performed poorly in the field. Mixtures of esters and alcohols give evidence of better performance, but release rates need further optimization.

  6. Standard metabolic rate is associated with gestation duration, but not clutch size, in speckled cockroaches Nauphoeta cinerea

    PubMed Central

    Schimpf, Natalie G.; Matthews, Philip G. D.; White, Craig R.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Metabolic rate varies significantly between individuals, and these differences persist even when the wide range of biotic and abiotic factors that influence metabolism are accounted for. It is important to understand the life history implications of variation in metabolic rate, but they remain poorly characterised despite a growing body of work examining relationships between metabolism and a range of traits. In the present study we used laboratory-bred families (one sire to three dams) of Nauphoeta cinerea (Olivier) (speckled cockroaches) to examine the relationship between standard metabolic rate (SMR) and reproductive performance (number of offspring and gestation duration). We show that SMR is negatively associated with female gestation duration. Age at mating is negatively associated with gestation duration for females, and mass is negatively associated with the average gestation duration of the females a male was mated with. In addition to the results in the current literature, the results from the present study suggest that the association between metabolism and life history is more complex than simple relationships between metabolism and various fitness traits. Future work should consider longitudinal, ontogenetic as well as selective and quantitative genetic breeding approaches to fully examine the associations between metabolism and fitness. PMID:23259052

  7. Transcriptomic Analysis of Eucryptorrhynchus chinensis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Using 454 Pyrosequencing Technology

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhen-Kai; Wen, Jun-Bao

    2016-01-01

    Eucryptorrhynchus chinensis Olivier (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is one of the most important pests of Ailanthus altissima; however, so far, no studies on the genome or transcriptome of E. chinensis have been reported. Using the Roche 454 FLX Titanium platform, an RNA pool obtained from E. chinensis eggs, larva, pupae, and adults was sequenced and assembled de novo to achieve maximum diversity of sampled transcripts. We obtained 1,441,137 (∼518 Mb) raw reads with an average length of 360 bp. After trimming, 89% qualified reads were produced and assembled into 35,509 isotigs with an average length of 440 bp, N50 of 1,048 bp, and 111,643 singletons. We generated 87,894 unigenes following a cluster analysis of the isotigs and singletons, and then functionally annotated the unigenes with gene descriptions. We obtained 23,363 GO assignments, and 12,724 unigenes were assigned to KOG. Based on these annotations, 294 biochemical pathways involved in growth, reproduction, and stress or immune responses were predicted. A total of 659,026 single nucleotide variants and 6,112 simple sequence repeats were detected. Our data provide comprehensive information on the sequence and possible functions of E. chinensis transcripts. PMID:27620556

  8. Labview Implementation of Image Processing and Phasing Control for the SIBOA Segmented Mirror Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Partridge, James D.

    2002-01-01

    'NASA is preparing to launch the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST). This telescope will be larger than the Hubble Space Telescope, be launched on an Atlas missile rather than the Space Shuttle, have a segmented primary mirror, and be placed in a higher orbit. All these differences pose significant challenges.' This effort addresses the challenge of implementing an algorithm for aligning the segments of the primary mirror during the initial deployment that was designed by Philip Olivier and members of SOMTC (Space Optics Manufacturing Technology Center). The implementation was to be performed on the SIBOA (Systematic Image Based Optical Alignment) test bed. Unfortunately, hardware/software aspect concerning SIBOA and an extended time period for algorithm development prevented testing before the end of the study period. Properties of the digital camera were studied and understood, resulting in the current ability of selecting optimal settings regarding saturation. The study was successful in manually capturing several images of two stacked segments with various relative phases. These images can be used to calibrate the algorithm for future implementation. Currently the system is ready for testing.

  9. Pattern cladistics and the 'realism-antirealism debate' in the philosophy of biology.

    PubMed

    Vergara-Silva, Francisco

    2009-06-01

    Despite the amount of work that has been produced on the subject over the years, the 'transformation of cladistics' is still a misunderstood episode in the history of comparative biology. Here, I analyze two outstanding, highly contrasting historiographic accounts on the matter, under the perspective of an influential dichotomy in the philosophy of science: the opposition between Scientific Realism and Empiricism. Placing special emphasis on the notion of 'causal grounding' of morphological characters (sensu Olivier Rieppel) in modern developmental biology's (mechanistic) theories, I arrive at the conclusion that a 'new transformation of cladistics' is philosophically plausible. This 'reformed' understanding of 'pattern cladistics' entails retaining the interpretation of cladograms as 'schemes of synapomorphies', but in association to construing cladogram nodes as 'developmental-genetic taxic homologies', instead of 'standard Darwinian ancestors'. The reinterpretation of pattern cladistics presented here additionally proposes to take Bas Van Fraassen's 'constructive empiricism' as a philosophical stance that could properly support such analysis of developmental-genetic data for systematic purposes. The latter suggestion is justified through a reappraisal of previous ideas developed by prominent pattern cladists (mainly, Colin Patterson), which concerned a scientifically efficient 'observable/non-observable distinction' linked to the conceptual pair 'ontogeny and phylogeny'. Finally, I argue that a robust articulation of Antirealist alternatives in systematics may provide a rational basis for its disciplinary separation from evolutionary biology, as well as for a critical reconsideration of the proper role of certain Scientific Realist positions, currently popular in comparative biology.

  10. Density and Distribution of Xylocopa Nests (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in Caatinga Areas in the Surroundings of Passion Fruit Crops.

    PubMed

    Martins, C F; de Siqueira, K M M; Kiill, L H P; Sá, I I S; Aguiar, C M L

    2014-08-01

    Due to their importance as pollinators of many plant species, this study aimed to know the nest density, spatial distribution, and nesting substrates used by Xylocopa species in the Caatinga, a xerophilous vegetation of Northeastern Brazil. Three areas of Caatinga in the surroundings of passion fruit crops were sampled. The bee species found in these areas were Xylocopa grisescens Lepeletier and Xylocopa frontalis (Olivier). All nests were in Commiphora leptophloeos (Burseraceae) trees (n = 113). Phytosociological analysis showed that this tree species presented the highest absolute density (212.5 individuals/ha) and index of importance value (52.7). The distribution pattern of the C. leptophloeos was aggregated. The nests were located in dead and dried branches with an average diameter of 5.3 ± 2.0 cm (n = 43). The mean number of nests/tree was 3.1 ± 2.8 (n = 113). The less disturbed area showed 6.7 nests/ha and 4.2 nests/tree. In the disturbed areas, 0.9 nests/ha and 2.4 to 2.7 nests/tree were observed. The availability of substrate for nesting in the studied areas and its importance as a limiting factor for nesting are discussed.

  11. Biological responses of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to Steinernema carpocapsae (Nematoda: Steinernematidae).

    PubMed

    Manachini, Barbara; Schillaci, Domenico; Arizza, Vincenzo

    2013-08-01

    Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier 1790) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is becoming a serious problem in Mediterranean areas where it is well-adapted, and now is present even in the United States (California). The infestations are primarily in urban areas where chemical control is not advisable and million of Euros are spent to control it. The effects of the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae (Nematoda: Steinernematidae) on mortality, growth, as well as the immune activity of R. ferrugineus larvae, were investigated. R. ferrugineus mortality exhibited a positive trend with the dosage and duration of exposure to S. carpocapsae. The median lethal dose and median lethal time, important to optimize the treatments, were calculated. S. carpocapsae also had a detrimental effect on R. ferrugineus weight. In vivo and in vitro effects of S. carpocapsae on the phagocytic responses of R. ferrugineus hemocytes also were recorded. S. carpocapsae was not encapsulated by R.ferrugineus hemocytes. After 24 h, the number of hemocytes recorded in treated larvae was reduced. To investigate the defensive abilities of R. ferrugineus humoral and cellular immune systems, specifically against the bacterium Xenorhabdus nematophila (Enterobacteraceae), the minimum inhibitory concentration that inhibits bacterial growth was measured. This is the first time that this technique is applied to entomopathogenic bacteria.

  12. The first parasitic copepod from a scaphopod mollusc host.

    PubMed

    Boxshall, Geoffrey Allan; O'Reilly, Myles

    2015-02-01

    A new genus and species of parasitic copepod, Gadilicola daviesi n. g., n. sp., is described based on material found on two different scaphopod host species collected in deep water (2,900-2,910 m) in the Rockall Trough, North East Atlantic. The copepods inhabit the posterior mantle cavity of their scaphopod hosts, Polyschides olivi (Sacchi) and Pulsellum lofotense (M. Sars). Both sexes are described. The female body comprises an unsegmented prosomal trunk and a 2-segmented urosome and is more modified than that of the smaller male which comprises a 4-segmented prosome and 3-segmented urosome. The pattern of sexual dimorphism of the appendages is characteristic of the poecilostomatoid families within the order Cyclopoida. The form of the antenna with the major claws on the second endopodal segment and with the third segment reduced and displaced laterally, is shared with the informal Teredicola-group of genera, but it lacks the distinctive, derived form of mandible shared by these genera. The new genus is treated as the type of a new monotypic family, the Gadilicolidae.

  13. CRAC channels, calcium, and cancer in light of the driver and passenger concept.

    PubMed

    Hoth, Markus

    2016-06-01

    Advances in next-generation sequencing allow very comprehensive analyses of large numbers of cancer genomes leading to an increasingly better characterization and classification of cancers. Comparing genomic data predicts candidate genes driving development, growth, or metastasis of cancer. Cancer driver genes are defined as genes whose mutations are causally implicated in oncogenesis whereas passenger mutations are defined as not being oncogenic. Currently, a list of several hundred cancer driver mutations is discussed including prominent members like TP53, BRAF, NRAS, or NF1. According to the vast literature on Ca(2+) and cancer, Ca(2+) signals and the underlying Ca(2+) channels and transporters certainly influence the development, growth, and metastasis of many cancers. In this review, I focus on the calcium release-activated calcium (CRAC) channel genes STIM and Orai and their role for cancer development, growth, and metastasis. STIM and Orai genes are being discussed in the context of current cancer concepts with a focus on the driver-passenger hypothesis. One result of this discussion is the hypothesis that a driver analysis of Ca(2+) homeostasis-related genes should not be carried out by looking at isolated genes. Rather a pool of “Ca(2+) genes” might be considered to act as one potential cancer driver. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Calcium and Cell Fate. Guest Editors: Jacques Haiech, Claus Heizmann, Joachim Krebs, Thierry Capiod and Olivier Mignen.

  14. Software for detection and correction of inhomogeneities in time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanek, Petr

    2010-05-01

    During the last decade, software package consisting of AnClim, ProClimDB and LoadData software for processing climatological data has been created. This software offers complex solution in processing climatological time series, starting from loading data from a central database (e.g. Oracle, software LoadData), through data duality control and homogenization to time series analysis, extreme values evaluation and model outputs verification (ProClimDB and AnClim software). In recent years tools for correction of inhomogeneites in daily data was introduced. Partly methods already programmed in R (e.g. by Christine Gruber, ZAMG) like HOM of Paul Della-Marta and SPLIDHOM method of Olivier Mestre or own methods are available, some of them being able to apply multi-element approach (using e.g. weather types). Available methods can be easily compared and evaluated (both for inhomogeneity detection or correction in this case). Comparison of the available correction methods is also current task of ongoing COST action ESO601 (www. homogenisation.org). Further methods, if available under R, can be easily linked with the software and then the whole processing can benefit from user-friendly environment in which all the most commonly used functions for data handling and climatological processing are available (read more at www.climahom.eu).

  15. Dipolar Effects in an Ultracold Gas of LiCs Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weidemueller, Matthias

    2011-05-01

    Recently, there has been important progress in the investigation of ultracold polar molecules in the absolute ground state, thus opening intriguing perspectives for strongly correlated quantum systems under the influence of long-range dipolar forces. We have studied the formation of LiCs molecules via photoassociation (PA) in a double-species magneto-optical trap. The LiCs dimer is a particularly promising candidate for observing dipolar effects, as it possesses the largest dipole moment of all alkali dimers (5.5 Debye in the ground state). Ultracold LiCs molecules in the absolute rovibrational ground state are formed by a single photo-association step. The dipole moment of ground state levels is determined by Stark spectroscopy and was found to be in excellent agreement with the theoretical predictions. Vibrational redistribution due to spontaneous emission and blackbody radiation is observed and compared a rate-equation model.In collaboration with Johannes Deiglmayr, Marc Repp, University of Heidelberg; Roland Wester, University of Innsbruck; and Olivier Dulieu, Laboratoire Aime Cotton. Work was supported by DFG and ESF in the framework of the Eurocores EuroQUAM as well as the Heidelberg Center for Quantum Dynamics.

  16. On the history of the quantum. Introduction to the HQ2 special issue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dongen, Jeroen; Dieks, Dennis; Uffink, Jos; Kox, A. J.

    The historiography of quantum theory exhibits a period of intense activity that started in the 1960s, with the Archives for the History of Quantum Physics project, and continued with the work of scholars like Max Jammer, Martin J. Klein, John Heilbron, Paul Forman and Thomas Kuhn. At the end of the 1970s, however, interest of historians seems to have shifted away, even if there have been notable exceptions, such as the multi-volume work by Jagdish Mehra and Helmut Rechenberg, and monographs like those of Olivier Darrigol and Mara Beller. Perhaps this development has had to do with a diminishing number of scholars possessing the necessary technical skills in physics together with historical sensitivity. Moreover, many historians of physics in this period have focused their interest on another subject, namely the development of the theory of relativity. Stimulated by the start of the Einstein Papers Project, and initiated by pioneers such as John Stachel and John Norton around 1980, very soon a dedicated group of scholars devoted time and energy to analyzing the genesis and development of general relativity, and other aspects of Einstein's science.

  17. Comparison of correction methods of inhomogeneities in daily data on example of Central European temperature and precipitation series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanek, P.; Gruber, Ch.; Zahradnicek, P.

    2009-04-01

    Prior any data analysis, data quality control and homogenization have to be undertaken to get rid of erroneous values in time series. In this work we focused especially on comparison of methods for daily data inhomogeneities correction. Two basic approaches for inhomogeneity adjustments were adopted and compared: (i) "delta" method - adjustment of monthly series and projection of estimated smoothed monthly adjustments into annual variation of daily adjustments and (ii) "variable" correction of daily values according to the corresponding percentiles. "Variable" correction methods were investigated more deeply and their results were mutually compared. The methods used were HOM of Paul Della-Marta, SPLIDHOM of Olivier Mestre and a new method of Petr Stepanek. For the calculation, the software ProClimDB has been combined with R software scripts containing HOM and SPLIDHOM and the different methodological approaches were applied to daily data of various meteorological elements measured in the area of the Czech Republic. The tool is open and freely available. Series were processed by means of the developed ProClimDB and AnClim software (www.climahom.eu).

  18. Cluster Dynamical Mean Field Methods and the Momentum-selective Mott transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gull, Emanuel

    2011-03-01

    Innovations in methodology and computational power have enabled cluster dynamical mean field calculations of the Hubbard model with interaction strengths and band structures representative of high temperature copper oxide superconductors, for clusters large enough that the thermodyamic limit behavior may be determined. We present the methods and show how extrapolations to the thermodynamic limit work in practice. We show that the Hubbard model with next-nearest neighbor hopping at intermediate interaction strength captures much of the exotic behavior characteristic of the high temperature superconductors. An important feature of the results is a pseudogap for hole doping but not for electron doping. The pseudogap regime is characterized by a gap for momenta near Brillouin zone face and gapless behavior near the zone diagonal. for dopings outside of the pseudogap regime we find scattering rates which vary around the fermi surface in a way consistent with recent transport measurements. Using the maximum entropy method we calculate spectra, self-energies, and response functions for Raman spectroscopy and optical conductivities, finding results also in good agreement with experiment. Olivier Parcollet, Philipp Werner, Nan Lin, Michel Ferrero, Antoine Georges, Andrew J. Millis; NSF-DMR-0705847.

  19. Organic Semiconductors: A Molecular Picture of the Charge-Transport and Energy-Transport Processes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brédas, Jean-Luc

    2007-03-01

    Conjugated organic oligomer and polymer materials are being increasingly considered for their incorporation as the active semiconductor elements in devices such as photo-voltaic cells, light-emitting diodes, or field-effects transistors. In the operation of these devices, electron-transfer and energy-transfer processes play a key role, for instance in the form of charge transport (in the bulk or across interfaces), energy transport, charge separation, or charge recombination [1]. Here, we provide a theoretical description of electron-transfer phenomena based on electron-transfer theory, which allows us to provide a molecular, chemically-oriented understanding. In this presentation, we focus on the parameters that impact the mobility of charge carriers [2], that is the electronic coupling within chains and between adjacent chains and the reorganization energy of the chains upon ionization. Materials under study include conjugated oligomers such as oligoacenes, oligothiophene-acenes, oligothiophenes, and oligothienacenes. [1] J.L. Br'edas, D. Beljonne, V. Coropceanu, and J. Cornil, ``Charge-Transfer and Energy-Transfer Processes in pi-Conjugated Oligomers and Polymers'', Chemical Reviews, 104, 4971-5004 (2004). [2] V. Coropceanu, J. Cornil, D.A. da Silva Filho, Y. Olivier, R. Silbey, and J.L. Br'edas, ``Charge Transport in Organic Semiconductors'', Chemical Reviews, 107, xxx (2007).

  20. Comparison of correction methods for inhomogeneities in daily time series on example of Central European datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanek, P.; Zahradnicek, P.,

    2010-09-01

    Prior any data analysis, data quality control and homogenization have to be undertaken to get rid of erroneous values in time series. In this work we focused especially on comparison of methods for daily data inhomogeneities correction. Two basic approaches for inhomogeneity adjustments were adopted and compared: (i) "delta" method - adjustment of monthly series and projection of estimated smoothed monthly adjustments into annual variation of daily adjustments and (ii) "variable" correction of daily values according to the corresponding percentiles. "Variable" correction methods emerged only in recent years. Their results were investigated in this work more deeply and they were mutually compared. Among the analyzed methods belong HOM of Paul Della-Marta, SPLIDHOM method of Olivier Mestre and own methods (DAP). We applied multi-element approach (using e.g. weather types) as well and investigated if it can improve the models. Comparison of the available correction methods is also current task of the ongoing COST action ESO601 (www. homogenisation.org). Performance of the available correction methods (on daily scale) is shown on example of Central European series of various meteorological elements (air temperature, precipitation, relative humidity, sunshine duration). Comparisons among the methods as well as its various modifications (parameters settings) were investigated. For the task, ProClimDB software has been used (read more at www.climahom.eu).

  1. High Sensitivity Gravity Measurements in the Adverse Environment of Oil Wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfutzner, Harold

    2014-03-01

    Bulk density is a primary measurement within oil and gas reservoirs and is the basis of most reserves calculations by oil companies. The measurement is performed with a gamma-ray source and two scintillation gamma-ray detectors from within newly drilled exploration and production wells. This nuclear density measurement, while very precise is also very shallow and is therefore susceptible to errors due to any alteration of the formation and fluids in the vicinity of the borehole caused by the drilling process. Measuring acceleration due to gravity along a well provides a direct measure of bulk density with a very large depth of investigation that makes it practically immune to errors from near-borehole effects. Advances in gravity sensors and associated mechanics and electronics provide an opportunity for routine borehole gravity measurements with comparable density precision to the nuclear density measurement and with sufficient ruggedness to survive the rough handling and high temperatures experienced in oil well logging. We will describe a borehole gravity meter and its use under very realistic conditions in an oil well in Saudi Arabia. The density measurements will be presented. Alberto Marsala (2), Paul Wanjau (1), Olivier Moyal (1), and Justin Mlcak (1); (1) Schlumberger, (2) Saudi Aramco.

  2. On the Numerical Solution of the Elliptic Monge—Ampère Equation in Dimension Two: A Least-Squares Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dean, Edward J.; Glowinski, Roland

    During his outstanding career, Olivier Pironneau has addressed the solution of a large variety of problems from the Natural Sciences, Engineering and Finance to name a few, an evidence of his activity being the many articles and books he has written. It is the opinion of these authors, and former collaborators of O. Pironneau (cf. [DGP91]), that this chapter is well-suited to a volume honoring him. Indeed, the two pillars of the solution methodology that we are going to describe are: (1) a nonlinear least squares formulation in an appropriate Hilbert space, and (2) a mixed finite element approximation, reminiscent of the one used in [DGP91] and [GP79] for solving the Stokes and Navier-Stokes equations in their stream function-vorticity formulation; the contributions of O. Pironneau on the two above topics are well-known world wide. Last but not least, we will show that the solution method discussed here can be viewed as a solution method for a non-standard variant of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, an area where O. Pironneau has many outstanding and celebrated contributions (cf. [Pir89], for example).

  3. A Global Assessment of Wolf-Rayet Binaries in the Magellanic Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moffat, A. F. J.

    2008-08-01

    In the Galaxy, comprehensive empirical studies of advanced massive-star evolution via Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars have been hampered by huge disparities in apparent brightness and interstellar extinction, and by uncertainties in the distances. These problems all but disappear in the Magellanic Clouds (MCs), where one can also systematically probe the effects of lower initial metallicity (Z). Over two decades ago I began, partly involving Virpi Niemela, a vast optical spectroscopic program to examine all of the (then about 100) known MC WR stars for binarity and use them to extract information on general properties of WR stars. Now in 2006 the last step of this project is being wrapped up by the third doctoral student [Olivier Schnurr working on the WNL stars, after Peter Bartzakos (WC) in 1998 and Cédric Foellmi (WNE) in 2002] to embark on this project, now including the 144 known MC WR stars, as defined by the catalogues of Breysacher et al. for the LMC and Massey et al. for the SMC. Here we will summarize the highlights of this work. These include (1) a normal binary WR frequency in both MCs as in the Galaxy, (2) the increased presence of H in WNE stars, even binaries, as one goes to lower Z, (3) colliding winds, and (4) very massive WNLha stars. I will end with some suggestions for future work.

  4. Second-order modeling of arsenite transport in soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hua; Magdi Selim, H.

    2011-11-01

    Rate limited processes including kinetic adsorption-desorption can greatly impact the fate and behavior of toxic arsenic compounds in heterogeneous soils. In this study, miscible displacement column experiments were carried out to investigate the extent of reactivity during transport of arsenite in soils. Arsenite breakthrough curves (BTCs) of Olivier and Windsor soils exhibited strong retardation with diffusive effluent fronts followed by slow release or tailing during leaching. Such behavior is indicative of the dominance of kinetic retention reactions for arsenite transport in the soil columns. Sharp decrease or increase in arsenite concentration in response to flow interruptions (stop-flow) further verified that non-equilibrium conditions are dominant. After some 40-60 pore volumes of continued leaching, 30-70% of the applied arsenite was retained by the soil in the columns. Furthermore, continued arsenite slow release for months was evident by the high levels of residual arsenite concentrations observed during leaching. In contrast, arsenite transport in a reference sand material exhibited no retention where complete mass recovery in the effluent solution was attained. A second-order model (SOM) which accounts for equilibrium, reversible, and irreversible retention mechanisms was utilized to describe arsenite transport results from the soil columns. Based on inverse and predictive modeling results, the SOM model successfully depicted arsenite BTCs from several soil columns. Based on inverse and predictive modeling results, a second-order model which accounts for kinetic reversible and irreversible reactions is recommended for describing arsenite transport in soils.

  5. Glacial History of the North Atlantic Marine Snail, Littorina saxatilis, Inferred from Distribution of Mitochondrial DNA Lineages

    PubMed Central

    Panova, Marina; Blakeslee, April M. H.; Miller, A. Whitman; Mäkinen, Tuuli; Ruiz, Gregory M.; Johannesson, Kerstin; André, Carl

    2011-01-01

    The North Atlantic intertidal gastropod, Littorina saxatilis (Olivi, 1792), exhibits extreme morphological variation between and within geographic regions and has become a model for studies of local adaptation; yet a comprehensive analysis of the species' phylogeography is lacking. Here, we examine phylogeographic patterns of the species' populations in the North Atlantic and one remote Mediterranean population using sequence variation in a fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (607 bp). We found that, as opposed to many other rocky intertidal species, L. saxatilis has likely had a long and continuous history in the Northwest Atlantic, including survival during the last glacial maximum (LGM), possibly in two refugia. In the Northeast Atlantic, several areas likely harboured refugial populations that recolonized different parts of this region after glacial retreat, resulting in strong population structure. However, the outlying monomorphic Venetian population is likely a recent anthropogenic introduction from northern Europe and not a remnant of an earlier wider distribution in the Mediterranean Sea. Overall, our detailed phylogeography of L. saxatilis adds an important piece to the understanding of Pleistocene history in North Atlantic marine biota as well as being the first study to describe the species' evolutionary history in its natural range. The latter contribution is noteworthy because the snail has recently become an important model species for understanding evolutionary processes of speciation; thus our work provides integral information for such endeavours. PMID:21412417

  6. Comparative susceptibilities of different life stages of the red palm weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) treated by entomopathogenic nematodes.

    PubMed

    Atwa, Atwa A; Hegazi, Esmat M

    2014-08-01

    The red palm weevil, Rhynocophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) has become the most important pest of the date palm trees in the world. It has been reported in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia since 1987 and in Egypt since 1992. Studies were conducted to compare preferences among red palm weevil life stages for infection by 12 entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs), under no choice and five stage choice experiments, and curative trials by some of EPNs isolates. All EPN isolates proved to be pathogenic for the first instars of red palm weevil larvae. Some of the test EPNs exhibited a preference for larvae over pupae, and a lesser degree of preference for adults. In contrast some strains showed no preference for any stage. The local Egyptian isolates of EPNs were most efficient nematodes against red palm weevil than foreign strains. Field assessments using trunk injection resulted in a substantial decline in the population of red palm weevil after two successive applications within 3 wk. Efficacies ranging 48-88% were achieved in the curative assay resulting in a significant increase in palm survival compared with the untreated control. In conclusion, there is a great potential for the use of EPNs, in particular the Steinernema sp. (EGG4), against the red palm weevil when injected in the date palm.

  7. Plasticity in Vegetative Growth over Contrasted Growing Sites of an F1 Olive Tree Progeny during Its Juvenile Phase

    PubMed Central

    Ben Sadok, Inès; Martinez, Sebastien; Moutier, Nathalie; Garcia, Gilbert; Leon, Lorenzo; Belaj, Angelina; De La Rosa, Raúl; Khadari, Bouchaib; Costes, Evelyne

    2015-01-01

    Climatic changes impact fruit tree growth and severely limit their production. Investigating the tree ability to cope with environmental variations is thus necessary to adapt breeding and management strategies in order to ensure sustainable production. In this study, we assessed the genetic parameters and genotype by environment interaction (GxE) during the early tree growth. One hundred and twenty olive seedlings derived from the cross ‘Olivière’ x ‘Arbequina’ were examined across two sites with contrasted environments, accounting for ontogenetic trends over three years. Models including the year of growth, branching order, environment, genotype effects, and their interactions were built with variance function and covariance structure of residuals when necessary. After selection of a model, broad sense heritabilities were estimated. Despite strong environmental effect on most traits, no GxE was found. Moreover, the internal structure of traits co-variation was similar in both sites. Ontogenetic growth variation, related to (i) the overall tree form and (ii) the growth and branching habit at growth unit scale, was not altered by the environment. Finally, a moderate to strong genetic control was identified for traits at the whole tree scale and at internode scale. Among all studied traits, the maximal internode length exhibited the highest heritability (H2 = 0.74). Considering the determinant role of this trait in tree architecture and its stability across environments, this study consolidates its relevance for breeding. PMID:26062090

  8. Insects associated with Jatropha curcas Linn. (Euphorbiaceae) in west Niger.

    PubMed

    Habou, Zakari Abdoul; Adam, Toudou; Haubruge, Eric; Mergeai, Guy; Verheggen, François J

    2014-01-01

    Jatropha curcas has been introduced into Niger since 2004 by International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT). This plant is cultivated for its oil, which can be used as a Biofuel. Through direct and indirect insect collection methods, an inventory of the insect associated with J. curcas has been conducted in Western Niger during two rainy seasons (from June to October) in 2010 and 2011. We have identified insects belonging to the following families: Acrididae (Oedaleus senegalensis Krauss, Oedaleus nigeriensis Uvarov, Heteracris leani Uvarov, Catantops stramineus Walker, Parga cyanoptera Uvarov, and Acanthacris ruficornis citrina Audinet-Serville), Pyrgomorphidae (Poekilocerus bufonius hieroglyphicus Klug), Cetoniidae (Pachnoda interrupta Olivier, Pachnoda marginata aurantia Herbst, Pachnoda sinuata Heinrich and McClain, and Rhabdotis sobrina Gory and Percheron), Meloidae (Decapotoma lunata Pallas), Pentatomidae (Agonoscelis versicoloratus Dallas, Nezara viridula Linn, and Antestia sp. Kirkaldy), Coreidae (Leptoglossus membranaceus Fabricius and Cletus trigonus Thunberg), and Scutelleridae (Calidea panaethiopica Kirkaldy). Origin and potential impact on J. curcas of all these insect species are presented and discussed. The lower insect's diversity indexes are observed in 2010 and 2011 for Niamey, Saga, and Gaya because of semi-arid character of the Sahelian area.

  9. Mercury adsorption-desorption and transport in soils.

    PubMed

    Liao, Lixia; Selim, H M; Delaune, R D

    2009-01-01

    Kinetic sorption and column miscible displacement transport experiments were performed to quantify the extent of retention/release and the mobility of mercury in different soils. Results indicated that adsorption of mercury was rapid and highly nonlinear with sorption capacities having the following sequence: Sharkey clay > Olivier loam > Windsor sand. Mercury adsorption by all soils was strongly irreversible where the amounts released or desorbed were often less than 1% of that applied. Moreover, the removal of soil organic matter resulted in a decrease of mercury adsorption in all soils. Adsorption was described with limited success using a nonlinear (Freundlich) model. Results from the transport experiments indicated that the mobility of mercury was highly retarded, with extremely low concentrations of mercury in column effluents. Furthermore, mercury breakthrough curves exhibited erratic patterns with ill-distinguished peaks. Therefore, mercury is best regarded as strongly retained and highly "immobile" in the soils investigated. This is most likely due to highly stable complex formation (irreversible forms) and strong binding to high-affinity sites. In a column packed with reference sand material, a symmetric breakthrough curve was obtained where the recovery of mercury in the leachate was only 17.3% of that applied. Mercury retention by the reference sand was likely due to adsorption by quartz and metal-oxides.

  10. Synaesthesia, the arts and creativity: a neurological connection.

    PubMed

    Mulvenna, Catherine M

    2007-01-01

    For over 100 years the link between synaesthesia and the arts has attracted controversy. This has been spurred by the production of auditory, literary and visual art by famous individuals who report experiences synonymous with the neurological condition. Impressive protagonists in this discussion include Arthur Rimbaud, Charles Baudelaire, Vasily Kandinsky, Vladimir Nabokov, Alexander Scriabin, Olivier Messiaen and David Hockney. Interdisciplinary debates have concerned whether synaesthesia can actively contribute to an artist's ability, whether it is a driving force or a mere idiosyncratic quirk and whether, fundamentally, it is a distinct idiopathic condition or an unusual metaphorical description of normal perception. Recent psychological and neuroscientific evidence offers a new level to the debate. Coherent patterns of a neural basis of synaesthesia have been confirmed with high spatial resolution brain imaging techniques and the link with the arts is transpiring to be more than superficial or coincidental. Moreover, the neural distinction of the synaesthete brain may prove to be a window into a neural basis of creative cognition, and therefore conducive to the expression of creativity in various media.

  11. International Congress on Transposable Elements (ICTE) 2012 in Saint Malo and the sea of TE stories.

    PubMed

    Ainouche, Abdelkader; Bétermier, Mireille; Chandler, Mick; Cordaux, Richard; Cristofari, Gaël; Deragon, Jean-Marc; Lesage, Pascale; Panaud, Olivier; Quesneville, Hadi; Vaury, Chantal; Vieira, Cristina; Vitte, Clémentine

    2012-10-30

    An international conference on Transposable Elements (TEs) was held 21-24 April 2012 in Saint Malo, France. Organized by the French Transposition Community (GDR Elements Génétiques Mobiles et Génomes, CNRS) and the French Society of Genetics (SFG), the conference's goal was to bring together researchers from around the world who study transposition in diverse organisms using multiple experimental approaches. The meeting drew more than 217 attendees and most contributed through poster presentations (117), invited talks and short talks selected from poster abstracts (48 in total). The talks were organized into four scientific sessions, focused on: impact of TEs on genomes, control of transposition, evolution of TEs and mechanisms of transposition. Here, we present highlights from the talks given during the platform sessions. The conference was sponsored by Alliance pour les sciences de la vie et de la santé (Aviesan), Centre national de la recherche scientifique (CNRS), Institut national de la santé et de la recherche médicale (INSERM), Institut de recherche pour le développement (IRD), Institut national de la recherche agronomique (INRA), Université de Perpignan, Université de Rennes 1, Région Bretagne and Mobile DNA. CHAIR OF THE ORGANIZATION COMMITTEE: Jean-Marc Deragon ORGANIZERS: Abdelkader Ainouche, Mireille Bétermier, Mick Chandler, Richard Cordaux, Gaël Cristofari, Jean-Marc Deragon, Pascale Lesage, Didier Mazel, Olivier Panaud, Hadi Quesneville, Chantal Vaury, Cristina Vieira and Clémentine Vitte.

  12. Acoustic Detection of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae) and Oryctes elegans (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in Phoenix dactylifera (Arecales: Arecacae) Trees and Offshoots in Saudi Arabian Orchards.

    PubMed

    Mankin, R W; Al-Ayedh, H Y; Aldryhim, Y; Rohde, B

    2016-04-01

    Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae) larvae are cryptic, internal tissue-feeding pests of palm trees that are difficult to detect; consequently, infestations may remain hidden until they are widespread in an orchard. Infested trees and propagable offshoots that develop from axillary buds on the trunk frequently are transported inadvertently to previously uninfested areas. Acoustic methods can be used for scouting and early detection of R. ferrugineus, but until now have not been tested on multiple trees and offshoots in commercial date palm orchard environments. For this report, the acoustic detectability of R. ferrugineus was assessed in Saudi Arabian date palm orchards in the presence of commonly occurring wind, bird noise, machinery noise, and nontarget insects. Signal analyses were developed to detect R. ferrugineus and another insect pest, Oryctes elegans Prell (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), frequently co-occurring in the orchards, and discriminate both from background noise. In addition, it was possible to distinguish R. ferrugineus from O. elegans in offshoots by differences in the temporal patterns of their sound impulses. As has been observed often with other insect pests, populations of the two species appeared clumped rather than uniform or random. The results are discussed in relation to development of automated methods that could assist orchard managers in quickly identifying infested trees and offshoots so that R. ferrugineus infestations can be targeted and the likelihood of transferring infested offshoots to uninfested areas can be reduced.

  13. Investigation of a novel image segmentation method dedicated to forest fire applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudz, S.; Chetehouna, K.; Hafiane, A.; Laurent, H.; Séro-Guillaume, O.

    2013-07-01

    To face fire it is crucial to understand its behaviour in order to maximize fighting means. To achieve this task, the development of a metrological tool is necessary for estimating both geometrical and physical parameters involved in forest fire modelling. A key parameter is to estimate fire positions accurately. In this paper an image processing tool especially dedicated to an accurate extraction of fire from an image is presented. In this work, the clustering on several colour spaces is investigated and it appears that the blue chrominance Cb from the YCbCr colour space is the most appropriate. As a consequence, a new segmentation algorithm dedicated to forest fire applications has been built using first an optimized k-means clustering in the Cb-channel and then some properties of fire pixels in the RGB colour space. Next, the performance of the proposed method is evaluated using three supervised evaluation criteria and then compared to other existing segmentation algorithms in the literature. Finally a conclusion is drawn, assessing the good behaviour of the developed algorithm. This paper is dedicated to the memory of Dr Olivier Séro-Guillaume (1950-2013), CNRS Research Director.

  14. Abundance and diversity of soil arthropods in the olive grove ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Maria Fátima; Pereira, José Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Arthropods are part of important functional groups in soil food webs. Recognizing these arthropods and understanding their function in the ecosystem as well as when they are active is essential to understanding their roles. In the present work, the abundance and diversity of soil arthropods is examined in olive groves in the northeast region of Portugal during the spring. Five classes of arthropods were found: Chilopoda, Malacostraca, Entognatha, Insecta, and Arachnida. Captures were numerically dominated by Collembola within Entognatha, representing 70.9% of total captures. Arachnida and Insecta classes represented about 20.4 and 9.0%, respectively. Among the predatory arthropods, the most representative groups were Araneae and Opiliones from Arachnida, and Formicidae, Carabidae, and Staphylinidae from Insecta. From the Formicidae family, Tetramorium semilaeve (Andre 1883), Tapinoma nigerrimum (Nylander 1856), and Crematogaster scutellaris (Olivier 1792) were the most representative ant species. Arthropods demonstrated preference during the day, with 74% of the total individuals recovered in this period, although richness and similarity were analogous during the day and night.

  15. A preliminary checklist of the ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) of Andorra

    PubMed Central

    Bernadou, Abel; Fourcassié, Vincent; Espadaler, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Within the last decade, checklists of the ant fauna of several European countries have been published or updated. Nevertheless, no ant checklists have hitherto been published for the principality of Andorra, a small landlocked country located in the eastern part of the Pyrenees. This work presents a critical list of the ant species of Andorra based on a review of the literature and on the biological material we collected during several field campaigns conducted in Andorra since the year 2005. Seventy-five species belonging to 21 genera of Formicidae were recorded. Nine species were recorded for the first time in Andorra: Aphaenogaster gibbosa (Latreille, 1798), Camponotus lateralis (Olivier, 1792), Camponotus piceus (Leach, 1825), Formica exsecta Nylander, 1846, Lasius piliferus Seifert, 1992, Tapinoma madeirense Forel, 1895, Temnothorax lichtensteini (Bondroit, 1918), Temnothorax niger (Forel, 1894), Temnothorax nigriceps (Mayr, 1855). The most speciose genera were Formica Linnaeus, 1758 and Temnothorax Forel, 1890 with 14 and 12 species, respectively. The ant fauna of Andorra is mostly dominated by Central European species (some are typical cold climate specialists); however species belonging to the Mediterranean ant fauna were also found. This can be explained by the particular geographic situation of Andorra which is characterized by a high mountain Mediterranean climate. PMID:23794821

  16. IRAM 30 m Large Scale Survey of 12CO(2-1) and 13CO(2-1) Emission in the Orion Molecular Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berné, O.; Marcelino, N.; Cernicharo, J.

    2014-11-01

    Using the IRAM 30 m telescope, we have surveyed a 1 × 0.°8 part of the Orion molecular cloud in the 12CO and 13CO (2-1) lines with a maximal spatial resolution of ~11'' and spectral resolution of ~0.4 km s-1. The cloud appears filamentary, clumpy, and with a complex kinematical structure. We derive an estimated mass of the cloud of 7700 M ⊙ (half of which is found in regions with visual extinctions AV below ~10) and a dynamical age for the nebula of the order of 0.2 Myr. The energy balance suggests that magnetic fields play an important role in supporting the cloud, at large and small scales. According to our analysis, the turbulent kinetic energy in the molecular gas due to outflows is comparable to turbulent kinetic energy resulting from the interaction of the cloud with the H II region. This latter feedback appears negative, i.e., the triggering of star formation by the H II region is inefficient in Orion. The reduced data as well as additional products such as the column density map are made available online (http://userpages.irap.omp.eu/~oberne/Olivier_Berne/Data).

  17. Large-Scale, Exhaustive Lattice-Based Structural Auditing of SNOMED CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guo-Qiang

    One criterion for the well-formedness of ontologies is that their hierarchical structure form a lattice. Formal Concept Analysis (FCA) has been used as a technique for assessing the quality of ontologies, but is not scalable to large ontologies such as SNOMED CT. We developed a methodology called Lattice-based Structural Auditing (LaSA), for auditing biomedical ontologies, implemented through automated SPARQL queries, in order to exhaustively identify all non-lattice pairs in SNOMED CT. The percentage of non-lattice pairs ranges from 0 to 1.66 among the 19 SNOMED CT hierarchies. Preliminary manual inspection of a limited portion of the 518K non-lattice pairs, among over 34 million candidate pairs, revealed inconsistent use of precoordination in SNOMED CT, but also a number of false positives. Our results are consistent with those based on FCA, with the advantage that the LaSA computational pipeline is scalable and applicable to ontological systems consisting mostly of taxonomic links. This work is based on collaboration with Olivier Bodenreider from the National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, USA.

  18. [Pollinators of Bertholletia excelsa (Lecythidales: Lecythidaceae): interactions with stingless bees (Apidae: Meliponini) and trophic niche].

    PubMed

    Santos, Charles F; Absy, Maria L

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the foraging behavior and interactions of Xylocopa frontalis Olivier (Apidae: Xylocopini) and Eulaema mocsaryi (Friese) (Apidae: Euglossini) in the presence of stingless bees (Apidae: Meliponini) in flowers of Bertholletia excelsa, the Brazilian nut. The palynological load carried by both species was also examined. This study was conducted in the farm Aruanã, Itacoatiara/ Amazonas state, Brazil, during the flowering peak of B. excelsa. The visitation by the main pollinators X. frontalis and E. mocsaryi were influenced by the presence and activities of stingless bees in the flowers of B. excelsa. Meliponini bees did not have any effect on the visits and collection of floral resources by X. frontalis, while negatively affecting the number of visits by E. mocsaryi. The stingless bees presented a variety of strategies to get access to pollen grains of B. excelsa, grouped into two categories: opportunism -Frieseomelitta trichocerata Moure, Tetragona goettei (Friese), and Tetragona kaieteurensis (Schwarz), and stealing -Trigona branneri Cockerell, Trigona fuscipennis Friese, and Trigona guianae Cockerell. The palynological analysis from X. frontalis showed that the bee collected pollen in a few species of plants, but mainly on B. excelsa. The pollen grains of B. excelsa were poorly represented in the pollen shipments of E. mocsaryi, due to its large trophic niche in the locality.

  19. Bark beetle pheromones and pine volatiles: attractant kairomone lure blend for longhorn beetles (Cerambycidae) in pine stands of the southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Miller, Daniel R; Asaro, Chris; Crowe, Christopher M; Duerr, Donald A

    2011-08-01

    In 2006, we examined the flight responses of 43 species of longhorn beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) to multiple-funnel traps baited with binary lure blends of (1) ipsenol + ipsdienol, (2) ethanol + alpha-pinene, and a quaternary lure blend of (3) ipsenol + ipsdienol + ethanol + alpha-pinene in the southeastern United States. In addition, we monitored responses of Buprestidae, Elateridae, and Curculionidae commonly associated with pine longhorn beetles. Field trials were conducted in mature pine (Pinus pp.) stands in Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, and Virginia. The following species preferred traps baited with the quaternary blend over those baited with ethanol + alpha-pinene: Acanthocinus nodosus (F.), Acanthocinus obsoletus (Olivier), Astylopsis arcuata (LeConte), Astylopsis sexguttata (Say), Monochamus scutellatus (Say), Monochamus titillator (F.) complex, Rhagium inquisitor (L.) (Cerambycidae), Buprestis consularis Gory, Buprestis lineata F. (Buprestidae), Ips avulsus (Eichhoff), Ips calligraphus (Germar), Ips grandicollis (Eichhoff), Orthotomicus caelatus (Eichhoff), and Gnathotrichus materiarus (Fitch) (Curculionidae). The addition ofipsenol and ipsdienol had no effect on catches of 17 other species of bark and wood boring beetles in traps baited with ethanol and a-pinene. Ethanol + alpha-pinene interrupted the attraction of Ips avulsus, I. grandicollis, and Pityophthorus Eichhoff spp. (but not I. calligraphus) (Curculionidae) to traps baited with ipsenol + ipsdienol. Our results support the use of traps baited with a quaternary blend of ipsenol + ipsdienol + ethanol + alpha-pinene for common saproxylic beetles in pine forests of the southeastern United States.

  20. Ionizing irradiation of adults of Angoumois grain moth (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) and Indianmeal moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) to prevent reproduction, and implications for a generic irradiation treatment for insects.

    PubMed

    Hallman, Guy J; Phillips, Thomas W

    2008-08-01

    Ionizing irradiation is used as a phytosanitary treatment against quarantine pests. A generic treatment of 400 Gy has been approved for commodities entering the United States against all insects except pupae and adults of Lepidoptera because some literature citations indicate that a few insects, namely, the Angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), and the Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), are not completely controlled at that dose. Radiotolerance in insects increases as the insects develop, so the minimum absorbed dose to prevent F1 egg hatch for these two species when irradiated as adults was examined. Also, because hypoxia is known to increase radiotolerance in insects, Angoumois grain moth radiotolerance was tested in a hypoxic atmosphere. A dose range of 336-388 Gy prevented F1 egg hatch from a total of 22,083 adult Indianmeal moths. Dose ranges of 443-505 and 590-674 Gy, respectively, prevented F1 egg hatch from a total of 15,264 and 13,677 adult Angoumois grain moths irradiated in ambient and hypoxic atmospheres. A generic dose of 600 Gy for all insects in ambient atmospheres might be efficacious, although many fresh commodities may not tolerate it when applied on a commercial scale.

  1. Positive polarotaxis in a mayfly that never leaves the water surface: polarotactic water detection in Palingenia longicauda (Ephemeroptera)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriska, György; Bernáth, Balázs; Horváth, Gábor

    2007-02-01

    Tisza mayflies, Palingenia longicauda (Olivier 1791), swarm exclusively over the river Tisza (from which the name of the mayfly was derived). This river is bordered by a high vertical wall of trees and bushes, which hinder P. longicauda to move away horizontally from the water. During swarming, Tisza mayflies fly immediately above the river in such a way that their cerci touch the water frequently or sweep its surface. This continuous close connection with water and the vertical wall of the shore and riparian vegetation result in that Tisza mayflies never leave the water surface; consequently, they need not search for water. Several Ephemeroptera species move away far from water and return to it guided by the horizontal polarization of water-reflected light. To reveal whether also P. longicauda is or is not polarotactic, we performed a field experiment during the very short swarming period of Tisza mayflies. We show here that also P. longicauda has positive polarotaxis, which, however, can be observed only under unnatural conditions, when the animals are displaced from the water and then released above artificial test surfaces. P. longicauda is the first species in which polarotactic water detection is demonstrated albeit it never leaves the water surface, and thus, a polarotactic water detection seems unnecessary for it. The polarotactic behaviour of Tisza mayflies explains the earlier observation that these insects swarm above wet asphalt roads running next to river Tisza.

  2. Diversity in bee (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) and social wasp (Hymenoptera: Vespidae, Polistinae) community in "campos rupestres", Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Silva-Pereira, Vivane; Santos, Gilberto M M

    2006-01-01

    Hymenoptera such as bees and social wasps are regular floral visitors in "campos rupestres" vegetation. A community of bees and social wasps was studied during floral visitation in an area of "campos rupestres", at Chapada Diamantina, BA, Brazil, from September 2001 to April 2002. The community was described in relation to diversity, evenness, and dominance rank, considering the individuals abundance (H' = 2.14/ J' = 0.55) and biomass (H' = 2.34/ J' = 0.60). Thirty nine bee (588 individuals/ 15.742 g) and 11 social wasp species (52 individuals/ 2.156 g) were collected, being the first report of social wasps for the Brazilian "campos rupestres". The main species regarding number of individuals were Trigona spinipes (Fabricius), Apis mellifera L., Frieseomelitta francoi (Moure), and Bombus brevivillus Franklin. About 48% of the species were represented by a single individual. There was an inversion in the dominance rank when the species biomass was considered. B. brevivillus, A. mellifera, T spinipes, and other species represented by 15 individuals or less, such as the social wasps Synoeca cyanea (Olivier), Polistes canadensis (L.) and Myschocyttarus drewseni (Saussure), and the bees Eufriesea nigrohirta (Friese), Xylocopa grisescens Lepeletier and Megachile (Pseudocentron) sp.l were the predominant species. The use of biomass in diversity analysis permitted to detect differences in the relative contribution of species in hierarchy dominance. The comparison between bee faunas from different areas indicates a large similarity of the sampled fauna in Palmeiras (Bahia State) with neighboring ecosystems, although with low values of similarity.

  3. Comparative water relations of adult and juvenile tortoise beetles: differences among sympatric species.

    PubMed

    Hull-Sanders, Helen M; Appel, Arthur G; Eubanks, Micky D

    2003-08-01

    Relative abundance of two sympatric tortoise beetles varies between drought and 'wet' years. Differing abilities to conserve water may influence beetle survival in changing environments. Cuticular permeability (CP), percentage of total body water (%TBW), rate of water loss and percentage of body lipid content were determined for five juvenile stages and female and male adults of two sympatric species of chrysomelid beetles, the golden tortoise beetle, Charidotella bicolor (F.) and the mottled tortoise beetle, Deloyala guttata (Olivier). There were significant differences in %TBW and lipid content among juvenile stages. Second instars had the greatest difference in CP (37.98 and 11.13 microgcm(-2)h(-1)mmHg(-1) for golden and mottled tortoise beetles, respectively). Mottled tortoise beetles had lower CP and greater %TBW compared with golden tortoise beetles, suggesting that they can conserve a greater amount of water and may tolerate drier environmental conditions. This study suggests that juvenile response to environmental water stress may differentially affect the survival of early instars and thus affect the relative abundance of adult beetles in the field. This is supported by the low relative abundance of golden tortoise beetle larvae in a drought year and the higher abundance in two 'wet' years.

  4. [Trichogramma species (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) parasitoids of Lepidopteran eggs in Lara State, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Morales, José; Vásquez, Carlos; Pérez B, Nieves L; Valera, Neicy; Ríos, Yolmar; Arrieche, Norayda; Querino, Ranyse B

    2007-01-01

    This work was conducted to determine the occurrence of Trichogramma wasp species in Lara State, Venezuela. Lepidopteran egg samples collected from various crop leaves were observed daily under laboratory conditions for emergence of Trichogramma species adult wasps. Trichogramma were also obtained from traps containing eggs from the hosts Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) and Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). In the laboratory, specimens of Trichogramma species were mounted on microscope slides to show male genitalia and other morphological characters used for its identification. Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman y Platner emerged from S. frugiperda eggs collected in a cornfield at La Palomera, Humocaro Alto and at El Parchal, Humocaro Bajo, Municipio Morán. T. atopovirilia also emerged from S. frugiperda eggs collected in a cornfield at Sabana Grande and from S. cerealella eggs used as traps in a pepper culture at Tintinal, Municipio Andrés Eloy Blanco. T. exiguum Pinto y Platner emerged from S. frugiperda eggs used as traps or collected in cornfield at Totumito and at La Palomera, Humocaro Alto. T. pretiosum Riley emerged from Phthorimaea operculella Zeller eggs collected on stored potatoes at Monte Carmelo, Sanare. The identification of Trichogramma species in Lara State would be useful in the development of biological control programs for lepidopteran pests.

  5. Involvement of aquaporin channels in water extrusion from biosilica during maturation of sponge siliceous spicules.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaohong; Müller, Werner E G

    2015-08-01

    Aquaporins are a family of small, pore-forming, integral cell membrane proteins. This ancient protein family functions as water channels and is found in all kingdoms (including archaea, eubacteria, fungi, plants, and animals). We discovered that in sponges aquaporin plays a novel role during the maturation of spicules, their skeletal elements. Spicules are synthesized enzymatically via silicatein following a polycondensation reaction. During this process, a 1:1 stoichiometric release of water per one Si-O-Si bond formed is produced. The product of silicatein, biosilica, is a fluffy, soft material that must be hardened in order to function as a solid rod. Using the model of the demosponge species Suberites domuncula Olivi, 1792, which expresses aquaporin, cDNA was cloned and the protein was heterologously expressed. The sponge aquaporin is grouped with the type 8 aquaporins. The function of the sponge aquaporin can be blocked by Mn-sulfate (MnSO4) and mercury chloride (HgCl2). Microscopic and functional studies suggest that aquaporin is involved in removal of the reaction water at the site where siliceous spicules are formed. Another molecule that is likely to be involved in biosilica maturation is the mucin/nidogen-like polypeptide. cDNA has also been cloned from S. domuncula. Experimental studies suggest that water extrusion/suctioning from biosilica after enzymatic synthesis during spicule formation involves both aquaporin-mediated water channeling and "polymerization-induced phase separation" facilitated by the mucin/nidogen-like polypeptide.

  6. Nutritional and Antinutritional Composition of the Five Species of Aquatic Edible Insects Consumed in Manipur, India

    PubMed Central

    Shantibala, T.; Lokeshwari, R. K.; Debaraj, H.

    2014-01-01

    The people living in Manipur have a distinct identity, culture, and food habits. They have a prototype culture of eating insects. In our study, the nutritive contents of five potentially-edible aquatic insects, Lethocerus indicus (Lepeletier and Serville) (Hemiptera: Belostomatidae), Laccotrephes maculatus (F.) (Nepidae), Hydrophilus olivaceous (F.) (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae), Cybister tripunctatus (Olivier), and Crocothemis servilia (Drury) (Odonata: Libellulidae), were analyzed to inform consumers about the nutritional quality of the insects and the suggested quantity of their intake. A good amount of protein content and high gross energy was recorded among the insects. The results showed high levels of sodium, calcium, and magnesium present in the insects, indicating that they are a good source of minerals. Antinutritional properties of these insects were below 0.52%, which is a non-toxic level. Aquatic insects, such as C. tripunctatus, also possesses strong antioxidant activity (110 µg/mL). Therefore, these insects can play a major role in food security, health, and environment management. It is essential to cultivate edible insects to maintain their population sustainability. PMID:25373161

  7. The New World whirligig beetles of the genus Dineutus Macleay, 1825 (Coleoptera, Gyrinidae, Gyrininae, Dineutini).

    PubMed

    Gustafson, Grey T; Miller, Kelly B

    2015-01-01

    All New World members of the whirligig beetle genus Dineutus Macleay, 1825 are treated. The New World Dineutus are found to be composed of 18 species and 6 subspecies: one species, Dineutusmexicanus Ochs, 1925, stat. n. is elevated from subspecies to species rank, and the subspecies Dineutuscarolinusmutchleri Ochs, 1925, syn. n. is synonymized here with the typical form. Lectotypes are designated for Dineutusdiscolor Aubé, 1838, Dineutesmetallicus Aubé, 1838, Dineutussolitarius Aubé, 1838, Dineutesanalis Régimbart, 1883, and Gyrinuslongimanus Olivier, 1795. Each taxonomic unit is provided with a taxonomic history, type locality, diagnosis, distribution, habitat information, and a discussion section. The aedeagus and male mesotarsal claws are illustrated, and dorsal and ventral habitus images of both sexes, for each species and subspecies are provided. General distribution maps are provided for all taxonimc units. A key to the genera of New World Gyrinidae, as well as all the New World Dineutus species is provided. General Dineutus anatomy as well as a clarification of homology and anatomical terms is included.

  8. The New World whirligig beetles of the genus Dineutus Macleay, 1825 (Coleoptera, Gyrinidae, Gyrininae, Dineutini)

    PubMed Central

    Gustafson, Grey T.; Miller, Kelly B.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract All New World members of the whirligig beetle genus Dineutus Macleay, 1825 are treated. The New World Dineutus are found to be composed of 18 species and 6 subspecies: one species, Dineutus mexicanus Ochs, 1925, stat. n. is elevated from subspecies to species rank, and the subspecies Dineutus carolinus mutchleri Ochs, 1925, syn. n. is synonymized here with the typical form. Lectotypes are designated for Dineutus discolor Aubé, 1838, Dineutes metallicus Aubé, 1838, Dineutus solitarius Aubé, 1838, Dineutes analis Régimbart, 1883, and Gyrinus longimanus Olivier, 1795. Each taxonomic unit is provided with a taxonomic history, type locality, diagnosis, distribution, habitat information, and a discussion section. The aedeagus and male mesotarsal claws are illustrated, and dorsal and ventral habitus images of both sexes, for each species and subspecies are provided. General distribution maps are provided for all taxonimc units. A key to the genera of New World Gyrinidae, as well as all the New World Dineutus species is provided. General Dineutus anatomy as well as a clarification of homology and anatomical terms is included. PMID:25685002

  9. Species history masks the effects of human-induced range loss--unexpected genetic diversity in the endangered giant mayfly Palingenia longicauda.

    PubMed

    Bálint, Miklós; Málnás, Kristóf; Nowak, Carsten; Geismar, Jutta; Váncsa, Eva; Polyák, László; Lengyel, Szabolcs; Haase, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Freshwater biodiversity has declined dramatically in Europe in recent decades. Because of massive habitat pollution and morphological degradation of water bodies, many once widespread species persist in small fractions of their original range. These range contractions are generally believed to be accompanied by loss of intraspecific genetic diversity, due to the reduction of effective population sizes and the extinction of regional genetic lineages. We aimed to assess the loss of genetic diversity and its significance for future potential reintroduction of the long-tailed mayfly Palingenia longicauda (Olivier), which experienced approximately 98% range loss during the past century. Analysis of 936 bp of mitochondrial DNA of 245 extant specimens across the current range revealed a surprisingly large number of haplotypes (87), and a high level of haplotype diversity (Hd = 0.875). In contrast, historic specimens (6) from the lost range (Rhine catchment) were not differentiated from the extant Rába population (F(ST) = 0.02, p = 0.61), despite considerable geographic distance separating the two rivers. These observations can be explained by an overlap of the current with the historic (Pleistocene) refugia of the species. Most likely, the massive recent range loss mainly affected the range which was occupied by rapid post-glacial dispersal. We conclude that massive range losses do not necessarily coincide with genetic impoverishment and that a species' history must be considered when estimating loss of genetic diversity. The assessment of spatial genetic structures and prior phylogeographic information seems essential to conserve once widespread species.

  10. Synergism of turpentine and ethanol as attractants for certain pine-infesting beetles (Coleoptera)

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, T.W.; Wilkening, A.J.; Atkinson, T.H.; Nation, J.L.; Wilkinson, R.C.; Foltz, J.L.

    1988-06-01

    Responses of seven species of pine-infesting beetles to traps baited with either turpentine, ethanol, turpentine and ethanol released from separate dispensers, or a 1:1 solution of turpentine and ethanol released from one dispenser were assessed in three field experiments. The weevil species, Pachylobius picivorus (Germar), and the cerambycid pine sawyer, Monochamus carolinenis (Olivier), were attracted to turpentine and were unaffected by the addition of ethanol. The ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus affinis Eichhoff, responded to ethanol alone but was not attracted to turpentine, nor did the presence of turpentine significantly affects its response to ethanol. The remaining four species) hylobius pales, M. titillator, Dendroctonus terebrans and x. pubescens) displayed responses to turpentine that were enhanced by the addition of ethanol, but in different ways according to the method of deployment. Reasons for increased responses by some species to a solution of turpentine and ethanol over the two released separately are not clear; they may lie in different dosages of evaporation rates of volatiles in the field. Laboratory analyses of trapped headspace volatiles from dispensers containing only turpentine and those containing a solution of turpentine and ethanol revealed no differences in the amounts of four principal monoterpene hydrocarbons (..cap alpha..-pinene, camphene, ..beta..-pinene, and limonene) released over time.

  11. Alien molluscan species established along the Italian shores: an update, with discussions on some Mediterranean “alien species” categories

    PubMed Central

    Crocetta, Fabio; Macali, Armando; Furfaro, Giulia; Cooke, Samantha; Guido Villani; Valdés, Ángel

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The state of knowledge of the alien marine Mollusca in Italy is reviewed and updated. Littorina saxatilis (Olivi, 1792), Polycera hedgpethi Er. Marcus, 1964 and Haminoea japonica Pilsbry, 1895are here considered as established on the basis of published and unpublished data, and recent records of the latter considerably expand its known Mediterranean range to the Tyrrhenian Sea. COI sequences obtained indicate that a comprehensive survey of additional European localities is needed to elucidate the dispersal pathways of Haminoea japonica.Recent records and interpretation of several molluscan taxa as alien are discussed both in light of new Mediterranean (published and unpublished) records and of four categories previously excluded from alien species lists. Within this framework, ten taxa are no longer considered as alien species, or their records from Italy are refuted. Furthermore, Trochocochlea castriotae Bellini, 1903 is considered a new synonym for Gibbula albida (Gmelin, 1791). Data provided here leave unchanged as 35 the number of alien molluscan taxa recorded from Italy as well as the percentage of the most plausible vectors of introduction, but raise to 22 the number of established species along the Italian shores during the 2005–2010 period, and backdate to 1792 the first introduction of an alien molluscan species (Littorina saxatilis) to the Italian shores. PMID:23794825

  12. Transient Networks and Dense Colloidal Suspensions: From Viscous Flow to Elastic Instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchaud, Elisabeth

    2013-03-01

    In order to analyze the mechanical response of viscoelastic materials in highly non-linear regimes, we have designed a new kind of Hele-Shaw cell where both viscous liquids and soft elastic solids can be tested at a controlled loading rate. We first consider model Maxwell liquids - characterized by a single relaxation time - with the project of benchmarking the response of complex, glassy systems. We use several solutions of microemulsions connected by telechelic polymers. We show that these materials undergo instability in a broad range of loading rates. At low rates, this instability is shown to be of the viscous Saffman-Taylor type. At high rates, we observe a purely elastic bulk instability discovered recently in the context of soft elastomers. A microfluidic version of our cell makes it possible to study the response of colloidal suspensions. We use more or less concentrated PNIPA aqueous solutions for which temperature controls the volume fraction. Observations are interpreted in the light of our understanding of their viscoelastic properties. This work was done in collaboration with Maxime Lefranc, Baudouin Saintyves, Olivier Dauchot and Serge Mora. It was funded by ANR, France.

  13. Further contributions to the longhorn beetle (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae) fauna of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Reginald P.; Alderson, Chantelle A.; Webster, Vincent L.; CoryC. Hughes; Sweeney, Jon D.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Sixteen species of Cerambycidae are newly recorded for New Brunswick, Canada; Arhopalus obsoletus (Randall), Atimia confusa confusa (Say), Callidium frigidum Casey, Phymatodes amoenus (Say), Phymatodes testaceus (Linnaeus), Neoclytus mucronatus mucronatus (Fabricius), Xylotrechus aceris Fisher, Xylotrechus sagittatus sagittatus (Germar), Tylonotus bimaculatus Haldeman, Lepturges angulatus (LeConte), Lepturges symmetricus (Haldeman), Urgleptes querci (Fitch), Oplosia nubila (LeConte), Eupogonius subarmatus (LeConte), Monochamus carolinensis (Olivier), and Pogonocherus parvulus LeConte. Urgleptes signatus (LeConte) and Urgleptes querci are newly recorded from Nova Scotia. All but two specimens were collected in 12-funnel Lindgren traps. Xylotrechus aceris, Tylonotus bimaculatus, Lepturges angulatus, Lepturges symmetricus, Urgleptes signatus (NS), and Pogonocherus parvulus were detected exclusively in traps deployed in the forest canopy, and most individuals of Oplosia nubila and Monochamus carolinensis were captured in canopy traps. Arhopalus obsoletus, Atimia confusa confusa, Callidium frigidum, Phymatodes testaceus, and Xylotrechus sagittatus sagittatus were captured almost exclusively in traps near (1 m above) the forest floor. These results highlight the importance of sampling both the understory and upper canopy when using traps for surveying diversity of Cerambycidae. PMID:26865818

  14. Pine Sawyers (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) Attracted to α-Pinene, Monochamol, and Ipsenol in North America.

    PubMed

    Miller, D R; Allison, J D; Crowe, C M; Dickinson, D M; Eglitis, A; Hofstetter, R W; Munson, A S; Poland, T M; Reid, L S; Steed, B E; Sweeney, J D

    2016-04-22

    Detection tools are needed for Monochamus species (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) because they are known to introduce pine wilt disease by vectoring nematodes in Asia, Europe, and North America. In 2012-2014, we examined the effects of the semiochemicals monochamol and ipsenol on the flight responses of the sawyer beetles Monochamus carolinensis (Olivier), Monochamus clamator (LeConte), Monochamus mutator LeConte, Monochamus notatus (Drury), Monochamus obtusus Casey, Monochamus scutellatus (Say), and Monochamus titillator (F.) complex (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) to traps baited with α-pinene. Experiments were set in pine forests in New Brunswick and Ontario (Canada), and Arizona, Georgia, Michigan, Montana, Oregon, South Carolina, Utah, and Washington (United States). In brief, 40 traps were placed in 10 blocks of 4 traps per block per location. Traps were baited with: 1) α-pinene; 2) α-pinene + monochamol; 3) α-pinene + ipsenol; and 4) α-pinene + monochamol + ipsenol. Monochamol increased catches of six species and one species complex of Monochamus with an additive effect of ipsenol for five species and one species complex. There was no evidence of synergy between monochamol and ipsenol on beetle catches. Monochamol had no effect on catches of other Cerambycidae or on any associated species of bark beetles, weevils, or bark beetle predators. We present a robust data set suggesting that the combination of α-pinene, ipsenol, and monochamol may be a useful lure for detecting Monochamus species.

  15. First come, first serve: "sit and wait" behavior in dung beetles at the source of primate dung.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Jennifer; Nole, Inés; Palminteri, Susanne; Ratcliffe, Brett

    2008-01-01

    Dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae) compete intensively for dung resources, and most species forage in the understory. Here, we describe the unique behavior of one dung beetle species, Canthon aff. quadriguttatus (Olivier), associated with two species of monkeys from Peru. We observed this beetle species on the genital and anal regions of the brown titi monkey, Callicebus brunneus (Wagner), and subsequently falling with dung as the monkeys defecated. The same association was also observed with the bald-faced saki monkey, Pithecia irrorata irrorata (Gray). Using the ' sit and wait' at the source behavior, C. quadriguttus may arrive first at the dung resource, possibly out-competing other dung beetle species. This paper is the first report of this behavior for C. aff. quadriguttatus on the brown titi monkey and bald-faced saki monkey from southeastern, Amazonian Peru. We discuss this behavior in the context of competition and resource partitioning, and also speculate as to why C. aff. quadriguttatus has been found on both monkey species.

  16. Foundation pattern, productivity and colony success of the paper wasp, Polistes versicolor.

    PubMed

    Alves de Oliveira, Simone; Monteiro de Castro, Mariana; Prezoto, Fábio

    2010-01-01

    Polistes versicolor (Olivier) (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) colonies are easily found in anthropic environments; however there is little information available on biological, ecological and behavioral interactions of this species under these environmental conditions. The objective of this work was to characterize the foundation pattern, the productivity, and the success of colonies of P. versicolor in anthropic environments. From August 2003 to December 2004, several colonies were studied in the municipal district of Juiz de Fora, Southeastern Brazil. It was possible to determine that before the beginning of nest construction the foundress accomplishes recognition flights in the selected area, and later begins the construction of the peduncle and the first cell. As soon as new cells are built, the hexagonal outlines appear and the peduncle is reinforced. Foundation of nests on gypsum plaster was significantly larger (p < 0.0001; chi2 test) in relation to the other types of substrate, revealing the synantropism of the species. On average, the P. versicolor nest presents 244.2 ± 89.5 (100-493) cells and a medium production of 171.67 ± 109.94 (37-660) adults. Cells that produced six individuals were verified. Usually, new colonies were founded by an association of females, responsible for the success of 51.5%. Although these results enlarge knowledge on the foundation pattern of P. versicolor in anthropic environments, other aspects of the foundation process require further investigation.

  17. Foreword

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aime, C.; Soummer, R.

    very short explanation of how the reports are ordered is given here. The Journées of 2003 started with the delocalized lectures (delocalized means here “not in Paris”!) of the Collège de France, of Antoine Labeyrie who wrote a report on Removal of coronagraphy residues with an adaptive hologram. Three invited seminars follow: Olivier Guyon (Pupil remapping techniques), Daniel Rouan (Ultra-nulling interferometers), and Kjetil Dohlen (Phase masks in astronomy). An illustration from Daniel Rouan's talk on the properties of Prouhet-Thué-Morse series was also selected for the cover figure of this edition. These papers are followed by the courses and communications given during the 4 days of the school, in a slightly different order of their presentation. The first two days were on atmospheric turbulence and adaptive optics for coronagraphy, and also coronagraphic space projects. Steve Ridgway gives a general introduction to the problem (Astronomy with high contrast imaging). This is followed by a presentation on Fourier and Statistical Optics: Shaped and Apodized apertures (Claude Aime), The effect of a coronagraph on the statistics of adaptive optics pinned speckles (Claude Aime and Rémi Soummer). A general introduction to the problem of atmospheric turbulence is made by Julien Borgnino. A presentation of the Concordia site with emphasis on its advantages for high contrast imaging is given by Eric Fossat. Several presentations relative to numerical simulations of Adaptive Optics and coronagraphy follow: Marcel Carbillet (AO for very high contrast imaging), Lyu Abe and Anthony Boccaletti share two presentations on Numerical simulations for coronagraphy. These presentations are followed by reports on experiments: Sandrine Thomas (SAM-the SOAR adaptive module), Pierre Baudoz (Cryogenic IR test of the 4QPM coronagraph), Anthony Boccaletti (Coronagraphy with JWST in the thermal IR). Pierre Bourget (Hg-Mask Coronagraph) ends this part with a coronagraph using a mercury

  18. [Transgenic wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) with increased resistance to the storage pest obtained by Agrobacterium tumefaciens--mediated].

    PubMed

    Bi, Rui-Ming; Jia, Hai-Yan; Feng, De-Shun; Wang, Hong-Gang

    2006-05-01

    The transgenic wheat of improved resistance to the storage pest was production. We have introduced the cowpea trypsin inhibitor gene (CpTI) into cultured embryonic callus cells of immature embryos of wheat elite line by Agrobacterium-mediated method. Independent plantlets were obtained from the kanamycin-resistant calli after screening. PCR and real time PCR analysis, PCR-Southern and Southern blot hybridization indicated that there were 3 transgenic plants viz. transformed- I, II and III (T- I, T-II and T-III). The transformation frequencies were obviously affected by Agrobacterium concentration, the infection duration and transformation treatment. The segregations of CpTI in the transgenic wheat progenies were not easily to be elucidated, and some transgenic wheat lines (T- I and T-III) showed Mendelian segregations. The determinations of insect resistance to the stored grain insect of wheat viz. the grain moth (Sitotroga cerealella Olivier) indicated that the 3 transgenic wheat progeny seeds moth-resistance was improved significantly. The seed moth-eaten ratio of T- I, T-II, T-III and nontransformed control was 19.8%, 21.9%, 32.9% and 58.3% respectively. 3 transgenic wheat T1 PCR-positive plants revealed that the 3 transgenic lines had excellent agronomic traits. They supplied good germplasm resource of insect-resistance for wheat genetic improvement.

  19. Pheromone-based mating and aggregation in the sorghum chafer, Pachnoda interrupta.

    PubMed

    Bengtsson, Jonas M; Prabhakar Chinta, Satya; Wolde-Hawariat, Yitbarek; Negash, Merid; Seyoum, Emiru; Hansson, Bill S; Schlyter, Fredrik; Schulz, Stefan; Hillbur, Ylva

    2010-07-01

    Adults of the sorghum chafer, Pachnoda interrupta Olivier (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Cetoniinae), form aggregations during the mating period in July, but also in October. The beetles aggregate on food sources, e.g., Acacia spp. trees or sorghum with ripe seeds, to feed and mate. During the mating season, field trapping experiments with live beetles as bait demonstrated attraction of males to unmated females, but not to mated females or males, indicating the presence of a female-emitted sex pheromone. Unmated females combined with banana (food source) attracted significantly more males and females than did unmated females alone. Other combinations of beetles with banana were not more attractive than banana alone. Thus, aggregation behavior appears to be guided by a combination of pheromone and host volatiles. Females and males were extracted with hexane during the mating period, and the extracts were compared by using GC-MS. In a field trapping experiment, 19 compounds found only in females were tested, both singly and in a mixture. Traps baited with one of the female-associated compounds, phenylacetaldehyde, caught significantly more beetles than any other treatment. However, the sex ratio of beetles caught in these traps did not differ from that of control traps, and it is possible that other components may be involved in the sex pheromone signal. Furthermore, traps baited with a mixture of all 19 compounds attracted significantly fewer beetles than did phenylacetaldehyde alone.

  20. The Early Stages of Groundwater-fed River Bifurcation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, R.; Seybold, H. F.; Gibbins, G.; Rothman, D.

    2014-12-01

    Recent work shows, both theoretically and empirically, that river networks fed by subsurface flow bifurcate on average at an angle of 2π/5 [1]. However, the network's existence within a complex natural framework obscures the emergence of this pattern. Fortunately, this ambiguity betrays the presence of processes that have had some effect on the channels during the network's long history. In particular, we concern ourselves with the signature of the third dimension - the topographic relief - on the early stages of channel bifurcation. While, on average, channels grow in a direction dictated by the shape of the groundwater table, we hypothesize that the valley relief plays a crucial role in determining the opening angle and its relaxation to 2π/5 in this regime. A network-wide averaging of several thousand channel bifurcations driven by subsurface flow on the Florida Panhandle reveals that rivers on average branch initially at an angle wider than 2π/5, yet quickly relax to 2π/5 after a few meters. We hypothesize that this initial wide growth direction is governed by the shape of the topography. As these channels form independent valleys, the Laplacian field prevails, yielding an emergent 2π/5 branching angle. Our results therefore suggest that the path-selection of incipient channels fed by subsurface flow is coupled both to the local topography and the surrounding groundwater field. 1. Devauchelle, Olivier, et al. "Ramification of stream networks." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 109.51 (2012): 20832-20836.

  1. Mitochondrial DNA Variation Among Populations of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) From Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Yasin, Muhammad; Rugman-Jones, Paul F; Wakil, Waqas; Stouthamer, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The Red Palm Weevil (RPW) Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) is a voracious pest of palm species. In recent decades its range has expanded greatly, particularly impacting the date palm industry in the Middle East. This has led to conjecture regarding the origins of invasive RPW populations. For example, in parts of the Middle East, RPW is commonly referred to as the "Pakistani weevil" in the belief that it originated there. We sought evidence to support or refute this belief. First reports of RPW in Pakistan were from the Punjab region in 1918, but it is unknown whether it is native or invasive there. We estimated genetic variation across five populations of RPW from two provinces of Pakistan, using sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene. Four haplotypes were detected; two (H1 and H5) were abundant, accounting for 88% of specimens across the sampled populations, and were previously known from the Middle East. The remaining haplotypes (H51 and H52) were newly detected (in global terms) and there was no geographic overlap in their distribution within Pakistan. Levels of haplotype diversity were much lower than those previously recorded in accepted parts of the native range of RPW, suggesting that the weevil may be invasive in Pakistan. The affinity of Pakistani haplotypes to those reported from India (and the geographical proximity of the two countries), make the latter a likely "native" source. With regards the validity of the name "Pakistani weevil", we found little genetic evidence to justify it.

  2. Ipsenol, Ipsdienol, Ethanol, and α-Pinene: Trap Lure Blend for Cerambycidae and Buprestidae (Coleoptera) in Pine Forests of Eastern North America.

    PubMed

    Miller, D R; Crowe, C M; Dodds, K J; Galligan, L D; de Groot, P; Hoebeke, E R; Mayfield, A E; Poland, T M; Raffa, K F; Sweeney, J D

    2015-08-01

    In 2007-2008, we examined the flight responses of wood-boring beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae and Buprestidae) to multiple-funnel traps baited with the pine volatiles, ethanol, and α-pinene [85% (-)], and the bark beetle pheromones, racemic ipsenol and racemic ipsdienol. Experiments were conducted in mature pine stands in Canada (Ontario and New Brunswick) and the United States (Arkansas, Florida, Michigan, New Hampshire, North Carolina, Ohio, Tennessee, and Wisconsin). At each location, traps were deployed in 10 replicate blocks of four traps per block. The trap treatments were: 1) blank control; 2) ipsenol and ipsdienol; 3) ethanol and α-pinene; and 4) a quaternary blend of ipsenol, ipsdienol, ethanol, and α-pinene. Traps baited with the quaternary blend caught the greatest numbers of Acanthocinus nodosus (F.), Acanthocinus obsoletus (Olivier), Acmaeops proteus (Kirby), Astylopsis sexguttata (Say), Rhagium inquisitor (L.) (Cerambycidae), and Buprestis lineata (F.) (Buprestidae). Traps baited with ethanol and α-pinene caught the greatest numbers of Arhopalus rusticus (LeConte), Asemum striatum (L.), Tetropium spp., Xylotrechus sagittatus (Germar) (Cerambycidae), and Buprestis maculipennis Gory (Buprestidae) with minimal interruption by ipsenol and ipsdienol. Our results suggest that multiple-funnel traps baited with the quaternary lure blend of ipsenol, ipsdienol, ethanol, and α-pinene are effective for trapping various species of wood-boring beetles in pine forests of eastern North America, and may have utility in detection programs for adventive species in North America and overseas.

  3. North American Species of Cerambycid Beetles in the Genus Neoclytus Share a Common Hydroxyhexanone-Hexanediol Pheromone Structural Motif.

    PubMed

    Ray, Ann M; Millar, Jocelyn G; Moreira, Jardel A; McElfresh, J Steven; Mitchell, Robert F; Barbour, James D; Hanks, Lawrence M

    2015-08-01

    Many species of cerambycid beetles in the subfamily Cerambycinae are known to use male-produced pheromones composed of one or a few components such as 3-hydroxyalkan-2-ones and the related 2,3-alkanediols. Here, we show that this pheromone structure is characteristic of the cerambycine genus Neoclytus Thomson, based on laboratory and field studies of 10 species and subspecies. Males of seven taxa produced pheromones composed of (R)-3-hydroxyhexan-2-one as a single component, and the synthetic pheromone attracted adults of both sexes in field bioassays, including the eastern North American taxa Neoclytus caprea (Say), Neoclytus mucronatus mucronatus (F.), and Neoclytus scutellaris (Olivier), and the western taxa Neoclytus conjunctus (LeConte), Neoclytus irroratus (LeConte), and Neoclytus modestus modestus Fall. Males of the eastern Neoclytus acuminatus acuminatus (F.) and the western Neoclytus tenuiscriptus Fall produced (2S,3S)-2,3-hexanediol as their dominant or sole pheromone component. Preliminary data also revealed that males of the western Neoclytus balteatus LeConte produced a blend of (R)-3-hydroxyhexan-2-one and (2S,3S)-2,3-hexanediol but also (2S,3S)-2,3-octanediol as a minor component. The fact that the hydroxyketone-hexanediol structural motif is consistent among these North American species provides further evidence of the high degree of conservation of pheromone structures among species in the subfamily Cerambycinae.

  4. A new species of the snapping shrimp genus Alpheus (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea: Alpheidae) from Japan, associated with the innkeeper worm Ikedosoma elegans (Annelida: Echiura: Echiuridae).

    PubMed

    Komai, Tomoyuki

    2015-12-15

    A new species of the snapping shrimp genus Alpheus Fabricius, 1798, Alpheus ikedosoma, is described and illustrated on the basis of material from Boso Peninsula and Ariake Sea, Japan. All examined specimens were extracted with the help of a bait suction pump from burrows of innkeeper worm (Annelida: Echiura), constructed on easily accessible intertidal sand beaches or sand flats. The host worm from Boso Peninsula was identified as Ikedosoma elegans (Ikeda, 1904) (Echiuridae). The new species is tentatively referred to the A. brevirostris (Olivier, 1811) species group, but it is characteristic in having several unusual features for the group, such as the very short rostrum without dorsal ridge, the absence of adrostral grooves on the carapace, the strongly reduced dorsolateral spines on the telson, the unarmed antennal basicerite, the non-elongate, almost glabrous major chela, and the lack of movable spines or spinules on ventromesial margin of each cheliped merus. The new species represents the sixth species of Alpheus associated with echiuran burrows.

  5. The genera in the second catalogue (1833–1836) of Dejean’s Coleoptera collection

    PubMed Central

    Bousquet, Yves; Bouchard, Patrice

    2013-01-01

    Abstract All genus-group names listed in the second edition of the catalogue (1833-1836) of Dejean’s beetle collection are recorded. For each new genus-group name the originally included available species are listed and for generic names with at least one available species, the type species and the current status are given. Names available prior to the publication of Dejean’s second catalogue (1833-1836) are listed in an appendix. The following new synonymies are proposed: Cyclonotum Dejean, 1833 (= Dactylosternum Wollaston, 1854) [Hydrophilidae], Hyporhiza Dejean, 1833 (= Rhinaspis Perty, 1830) [Scarabaeidae], Aethales Dejean, 1834 (= Epitragus Latreille, 1802) [Tenebrionidae], Arctylus Dejean, 1834 (= Praocis Eschscholtz, 1829) [Tenebrionidae], Euphron Dejean, 1834 (= Derosphaerus Thomson, 1858) [Tenebrionidae], Hipomelus Dejean, 1834 (= Trachynotus Latreille, 1828) [Tenebrionidae], Pezodontus Dejean, 1834 (= Odontopezus Alluaud, 1889) [Tenebrionidae], Zygocera Dejean, 1835 (= Disternopsis Breuning, 1939) [Cerambycidae], and Physonota Chevrolat, 1836 (= Anacassis Spaeth, 1913) [Chrysomelidae]. Heterogaster pilicornis Dejean, 1835 [Cerambycidae] and Labidomera trimaculata Chevrolat, 1836 [Chrysomelidae] are placed for the first time in synonymy with Anisogaster flavicans Deyrolle, 1862 and Chrysomela clivicollis Kirby, 1837 respectively. Type species of the following genus-group taxa are proposed: Sphaeromorphus Dejean, 1833 (Sphaeromorphus humeralis Erichson, 1843) [Scarabaeidae], Adelphus Dejean, 1834 (Helops marginatus Fabricius, 1792) [Tenebrionidae], Cyrtoderes Dejean, 1834 (Tenebrio cristatus DeGeer, 1778) [Tenebrionidae], Selenepistoma Dejean, 1834 (Opatrum acutum Wiedemann, 1823) [Tenebrionidae], Charactus Dejean, 1833 (Lycus limbatus Fabricius, 1801) [Lycidae], Corynomalus Chevrolat, 1836 (Eumorphus limbatus Olivier, 1808) [Endomychidae], Hebecerus Dejean, 1835 (Acanthocinus marginicollis Boisduval, 1835) [Cerambycidae], Pterostenus Dejean, 1835

  6. Synchrotron-based redox behavior of chromium during weathering of ultramafic rocks in New-Caledonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juillot, Dr.; Fandeur, Dr.; Fritsch, Dr.; Morin, Dr.; Olivi, Dr.; Webb, Dr.; Hazemann, Dr.; Ambrosi, Dr.; Brown, Jr., Dr.

    2009-04-01

    experiments. This complex sorption/oxidation/desorption/re-sorption pathway suggests that, in lateritic regoliths, the enhancement of the mobility of Cr possibly induced by its oxidation after sorption on Mn(III,IV)-oxides could be significantly limited by sorption of Cr(VI) onto surrounding Fe(III)-oxyhydroxides. This work has been supported by the French ANR-ECCO program. References Fandeur D., Juillot F., Morin G., Olivi L., Cognigni A., Webb S., Ambrosi J.P., Fritsch E. and Brown Jr. G.E. (2009a). XANES evidence for oxidation of Cr(III) to Cr(VI) by Mn-oxides in a lateritic regolith developed on serpentinized ultramafic rocks in New Caledonia. Environmental Science and Technology, submitted. Fandeur D., Juillot F., Morin G., Webb S., Hazemann J.L., Proux O., Olivi L., Cognigni A., Ambrosi J.P., Fritsch E., Guyot F. and Brown Jr G.E. (2009b). Crystal-chemistry of Cr and Mn and specific behavior of Cr(VI) after oxidation by Mn-oxides along a lateritic regolith from New Caledonia. Geochimica Cosmochimica Acta, submitted. Oze, C.; Bird, D. K.; Fendorf, S. Genesis of hexavalent chromium from natural sources in soil and groundwater. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 2007, 104, 6544-6549.

  7. Diversity and ecology survey of mosquitoes potential vectors in Belgian equestrian farms: A threat prevention of mosquito-borne equine arboviruses.

    PubMed

    Boukraa, Slimane; de La Grandiere, Maria A; Bawin, Thomas; Raharimalala, Fara N; Zimmer, Jean-Yves; Haubruge, Eric; Thiry, Etienne; Francis, Frédéric

    2016-02-01

    Emergence of West Nile Virus was recently recorded in several European countries, which can lead to severe health problems in horse populations. Europe is also at risk of introduction of mosquito-borne equine alphavirus from Americas. Prevention of these arboviruses requires a clear understanding of transmission cycles, especially their vectors. To characterize mosquito fauna, their ecology and identify potential vectors of equine arboviruses in Belgium, entomological surveys of six equestrian farms located in the Wolloon Region were conducted during 2011-2012. The harvest of mosquitoes was based on larval sampling (272 samples from 111 breeding sites) and monthly adults trapping (CO2-baited traps, Mosquito Magnet Liberty Plus). Among 51,493 larvae and 319 adult mosquitoes collected, morphological identification showed the presence of 11 species: Anopheles claviger (Meigen), An. maculipennis s.l. (Meigen), An. plumbeus (Stephens), Culex hortensis (Ficalbi), Cx. territans (Walker), Cx. pipiens s.l. L., Cx. torrentium (Martini), Coquillettidia richiardii (Ficalbi), Culiseta annulata (Schrank), Aedes cantans (Meigen), Ae. geniculatus (Olivier). Molecular identification of Cx. pipiens species complex allowed the detection of three molecular forms, Pipiens (92.3%), Molestus (4.6%) and Hybrid (3.1%). Larvae of Cx. pipiens sl and Cx. torrentium were omnipresent and the most abundant species. Water troughs, ponds and slurry (liquid manure) were the most favorable breeding sites of mosquito larvae. Based upon behavior and ecology of the identified mosquito species, Studied Belgian equestrian farms seem to provide a suitable environment and breeding sites for the proliferation of potential vectors of arboviruses and those being a real nuisance problem for horses and neighboring inhabitants.

  8. Mitochondrial DNA Variation Among Populations of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) From Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Yasin, Muhammad; Rugman-Jones, Paul F.; Wakil, Waqas; Stouthamer, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The Red Palm Weevil (RPW) Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) is a voracious pest of palm species. In recent decades its range has expanded greatly, particularly impacting the date palm industry in the Middle East. This has led to conjecture regarding the origins of invasive RPW populations. For example, in parts of the Middle East, RPW is commonly referred to as the “Pakistani weevil” in the belief that it originated there. We sought evidence to support or refute this belief. First reports of RPW in Pakistan were from the Punjab region in 1918, but it is unknown whether it is native or invasive there. We estimated genetic variation across five populations of RPW from two provinces of Pakistan, using sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene. Four haplotypes were detected; two (H1 and H5) were abundant, accounting for 88% of specimens across the sampled populations, and were previously known from the Middle East. The remaining haplotypes (H51 and H52) were newly detected (in global terms) and there was no geographic overlap in their distribution within Pakistan. Levels of haplotype diversity were much lower than those previously recorded in accepted parts of the native range of RPW, suggesting that the weevil may be invasive in Pakistan. The affinity of Pakistani haplotypes to those reported from India (and the geographical proximity of the two countries), make the latter a likely “native” source. With regards the validity of the name “Pakistani weevil”, we found little genetic evidence to justify it. PMID:27651423

  9. Estimated HCFC-22 emissions for 1990-2050 in China and the increasing contribution to global emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhifang; Bie, Pengju; Wang, Ziyuan; Zhang, Zhaoyang; Jiang, Hanyu; Xu, Weiguang; Zhang, Jianbo; Hu, Jianxin

    2016-05-01

    Chlorodifluoromethane (CHClF2, HCFC-22) is a widely used refrigerant and foaming agent that is not only an ozone-depleting substance (ozone depletion potential (ODP), 0.04) but also a greenhouse gas (global warming potential (GWP), 1780). A comprehensive historical emission inventory for 1990-2014 was produced using a bottom-up method, and a projection through to 2050 was made for China. The results demonstrated that historical emissions increased sharply from 0.2 Gg/yr in 1990 to 127.2 Gg/yr in 2014. Room air-conditioners (RACs), industrial and commercial refrigeration (ICR), and extruded polystyrene (XPS) were three primary emission sources, and accounted for an average of 95.4% of the total emissions over the period studied. The percentage of global HCFC-22 emissions originating from China significantly increased from 0.1% in 1990 to 31.6% in 2012, with an average growth rate of 1.4% per year. Under the Montreal Protocol phasing-out (MPPO) scenario, future emissions were expected to reach a peak of 133.5 Gg/yr in 2016 and then continuously decline to 10.2 Gg/yr in 2050. The accumulative reduction for 2015-2050 would be 5533.8 Gg (equivalent to 221.4 CFC-11-eq Gg and 9850.1 CO2-eq Tg), which is approximately equivalent to the total CO2 emission for China in 2012 (9900 Tg) (Olivier et al., 2013), compared with the no Montreal Protocol scenario (NMP). Under the MPPO scenario, two cases were analyzed to explore the future emission ranges in China. A comparison between the two cases implied that the choice of emission reduction policy will have a considerable impact on HCFC-22 emissions.

  10. The pain of pain: challenges of animal behavior models.

    PubMed

    Barrett, James E

    2015-04-15

    Berend Olivier has had a long-standing interest in the utility of animal models for a wide variety of therapeutic indications. His work has spanned multiple types of models, blending ethological, or species typical and naturalistic behaviors, along with methodologies based on learned behavior. He has consistently done so, from an analytical as well as predictive perspective, and has made multiple contributions while working in both the pharmaceutical industry and within an academic institution. Although focused primarily on psychiatric disorders, Berend has conducted research in the area of pain in humans and in animals, demonstrating an expansive appreciation for the breadth, scope and significance of the science and applications of the discipline of pharmacology to these diverse areas. This review focuses on the use of animal models in pain research from the perspective of the long-standing deficiencies in the development of therapeutics in this area and from a preclinical perspective where the translational weaknesses have been quite problematic. The challenges confronting animal models of pain, however, are not unique to this area of research, as they cut across several therapeutic areas. Despite the deficiencies, failures and concerns, existing animal models of pain continue to be of widespread use and are essential to progress in pain research as well as in other areas. Although not focusing on specific animal models of pain, this paper seeks to examine general issues facing the use of these models. It does so by exploring alternative approaches which capture recent developments, which build upon principles and concepts we have learned from Berend's contributions, and which provide the prospect of helping to address the absence of novel therapeutics in this area.

  11. The calcium-sensing receptor and the hallmarks of cancer.

    PubMed

    Tennakoon, Samawansha; Aggarwal, Abhishek; Kállay, Enikö

    2016-06-01

    The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) plays a pivotal role in systemic calcium metabolism by regulating parathyroid hormone secretion and urinary calcium excretion. The CaSR is ubiquitously expressed, implying a wide range of functions regulated by this receptor. Abnormal CaSR function affects the development of both calciotropic disorders such as hyperparathyroidism, and non-calciotropic disorders such as cardiovascular disease and cancer, which are the leading causes of mortality worldwide. The CaSR is able to bind a plethora of ligands; it interacts with multiple G protein subtypes, and regulates highly divergent downstream signalling pathways, depending on the cellular context. The CaSR is a key regulator for such diverse processes as hormone secretion, gene expression, inflammation, proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Due to this pleiotropy, the CaSR is able to regulate cell fate and is implicated in the development of many types of benign or malignant tumours of the breast, prostate, parathyroid, and colon. In cancer, the CaSR appears to have paradoxical roles, and depending on the tissue involved, it is able to prevent or promote tumour growth. In tissues like the parathyroid or colon, the CaSR inhibits proliferation and induces terminal differentiation of the cells. Therefore, loss of the receptor, as seen in colorectal or parathyroid tumours, confers malignant potential, suggestive of a tumour suppressor role. In contrast, in prostate and breast tumours the expression of the CaSR is increased and it seems that it favours metastasis to the bone, acting as an oncogene. Deciphering the molecular mechanism driving the CaSR in the different tissues could lead to development of new allosteric drug compounds that selectively target the CaSR and have therapeutic potential for cancer. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Calcium and Cell Fate. Guest Editors: Jacques Haiech, Claus Heizmann, Joachim Krebs, Thierry Capiod and Olivier Mignen.

  12. Potential Distribution Predicted for Rhynchophorus ferrugineus in China under Different Climate Warming Scenarios.

    PubMed

    Ge, Xuezhen; He, Shanyong; Wang, Tao; Yan, Wei; Zong, Shixiang

    2015-01-01

    As the primary pest of palm trees, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) has caused serious harm to palms since it first invaded China. The present study used CLIMEX 1.1 to predict the potential distribution of R. ferrugineus in China according to both current climate data (1981-2010) and future climate warming estimates based on simulated climate data for the 2020s (2011-2040) provided by the Tyndall Center for Climate Change Research (TYN SC 2.0). Additionally, the Ecoclimatic Index (EI) values calculated for different climatic conditions (current and future, as simulated by the B2 scenario) were compared. Areas with a suitable climate for R. ferrugineus distribution were located primarily in central China according to the current climate data, with the northern boundary of the distribution reaching to 40.1°N and including Tibet, north Sichuan, central Shaanxi, south Shanxi, and east Hebei. There was little difference in the potential distribution predicted by the four emission scenarios according to future climate warming estimates. The primary prediction under future climate warming models was that, compared with the current climate model, the number of highly favorable habitats would increase significantly and expand into northern China, whereas the number of both favorable and marginally favorable habitats would decrease. Contrast analysis of EI values suggested that climate change and the density of site distribution were the main effectors of the changes in EI values. These results will help to improve control measures, prevent the spread of this pest, and revise the targeted quarantine areas.

  13. Suitability of five species of stored-product insects as hosts for development and reproduction of the parasitoid Anisopteromalus calandrae (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    PubMed

    Ghimire, Mukti N; Phillips, Thomas W

    2007-10-01

    We investigated the ability of two populations of Anisopteromalus calandrae (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), to parasitize and develop on late instars of five different stored-product insects that typically complete their development inside seeds of grain or legume species or other dry commodity. The host species were the cigarette beetle, Lasioderma serricorne (F.); cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.); rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.); lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.); and Angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier). Experiments were conducted in the laboratory in a no-choice design by using petri dishes (15 by 100 mm) as experimental arenas with 20 host larvae. A. calandrae females from populations originating in Georgia (GA) and Oklahoma (OK) were introduced singly into experimental arenas and allowed to sting and oviposit for 24 h. Parasitism by the OK population was greater than that for the GA population across all hosts. However, no or very low parasitism was found on Angoumois grain moth for either population in this experiment. The highest number of parasitoid progeny was recorded on cowpea weevil (15.9) followed by rice weevil (11.5) and cigarette beetle (10.8) for the OK population. A similar trend was observed in the GA population. The highest proportion of female progeny was produced on cowpea weevil (73.0%) by the OK population. Conversely, a higher proportion of female progeny was produced on rice weevil (64.6%) by the GA population than produced by the OK population. Parasitoid adults were significantly larger and heavier when they developed on cowpea weevil irrespective of parasitoid population. The possible application of these results for biological control of stored-product insects is discussed.

  14. The Influence of Biogenic Emissions on Tropospheric Composition over Africa during 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, J. E.; Scheele, R.; van Velthoven, P. F. J.; Cammas, J.-P.; Galy-Lacaux, C.; Thouret, V.

    2009-04-01

    Biogenic emissions of NO and Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOC's) play an important role in determining the oxidizing capacity of the troposphere near tropical regions which have sparse populations. Here we use a 3D global CTM (TM4) for the purpose of examining the effect of using a recent climatology of biogenic emissions from the ORCHIDEE model (Lathiére et al, 2006) on the distribution and concentrations of trace gas species over equatorial Africa during the AMMA measurement year of 2006. We compare the results against simulations which adopt an older biogenic inventory compiled during the POET project (Granier et al, 2005). Sensitivity studies are conducted to determine the effect of both NO emitted from soils and BVOC's emitted from vegetation (namely the cumulative effect of CO, HCHO, ethanol, acetic acid, acetone and CH3CHO) on tropospheric ozone, NOx and the nitrogen reservoir species PAN and HNO3. Comparisons with a host of measurements have been performed to assess the impact on model performance. Finally an analysis of the tropical O3 budget is performed to quantify differences introduced for the oxidizing capacity of the tropical troposphere. Granier, C., Guether, A., Lamarque, J. F., Mieville, A., Muller, J.F., Olivier, J., Orlando, J., Peters, J., Petron, G., Tyndall, G., amd Wallens, S., POET - a database of surface emissions of ozone precursors, available at: http://www.aero.jussieu.fr/project/ACCENT/POET.php, 2005. Lathiére, J., Hauglustaine, D. A., Friend, A. D., De Noblet-Ducoudré, N., Viovy, N., and Folberth, G. A., Impact of climate variability and land use changes on global biogenic volatile organic compound emissions, Atms. Chem. Phys., 6, 2129-2146, 2006.

  15. Causes of Rapid Carrion Beetle (Coleoptera: Silphidae) Death in Flooded Pitfall Traps, Response to Soil Flooding, Immersion Tolerance, and Swimming Behavior.

    PubMed

    Cavallaro, Michael C; Barnhart, M Christopher; Hoback, W Wyatt

    2017-01-24

    Terrestrial insects in water can often delay or escape drowning by floating and swimming. However, we observed that flooding of pitfall traps baited with rotting carrion results in high overnight mortality of captured beetles and reasoned that this risk may be enhanced by microbial respiration. By assessing carrion beetle (Coleoptera: Silphidae) response to flooding, tolerance to immersion, and swimming behavior, we offer insights to this cause of death and beetle behavioral physiology. Response of buried Nicrophorus orbicollis Say to soil flooding resulted in beetles moving to the soil surface. The lethal time to 50% mortality (LT50 (immersion); mean ± 95% CI) for Nicrophorus investigator Zetterstedt, Nicrophorus marginatus F., Necrodes surinamensis F., and Thanatophilus lapponicus Herbst was 14.8 ± 2.3, 9.0 ± 3.3, 3.2 ± 1.1, and 12.1 ± 2.5 h, respectively. Swimming behavior and survival time of N. investigator was tested using yeast:sucrose (Y:S) solutions to create a eutrophic, severely hypoxic aqueous environment. LT50 (swimming) for N. investigator was 7.5 ± 1.4, 6.0 ± 1.7, and 4.2 ± 1.2 h for the low, medium, and high Y:S solutions, respectively, and >24.0 h in control treatments. Nicrophorus investigator survived nearly twice as long when completely immersed in deoxygenated water, as might occur in flooded burrows, than when swimming on the surface. We document for the first time, the rapid induction of hypoxic coma and death for a terrestrial insect from enhanced microbial activity and CO2 production of an aqueous environment, as well as suggestions on trapping protocols related to the federally endangered Nicrophorus americanus Olivier.

  16. Analysis of an oasis microclimate in China's hyperarid zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Qi; Macuo, Zhuo; Haiyang, Xi

    2009-09-01

    The microclimate of a desert oasis in China’s hyperarid zone was monitored, analysed and compared to that of nearby forested lands. Factors associated with differences in photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) between clear, cloudy and dust storm days are discussed. Desert oases were shown to fulfill ecological functions such as altering solar radiation, adjusting near-ground and land surface temperatures, reducing temperature differences, lowering wind velocity, and increasing soil and atmospheric humidity. Total solar radiation within the oasis was roughly half that above the forest canopy. During the growing season, air temperatures in Populus euphratica Olivier and Tamarix ramosissima Ledeb. woodlands were, on average, 1.62 and 0.83°C lower, respectively, than that in surrounding woodlands. The greater the forest cover, the greater was the difference in temperature. Air temperature was higher at the upper storey than that at the lower storey of the community, i.e., air temperature increased with increasing height above the soil surface. During the growing season, relative humidity was higher in woodlands than in surrounding areas: relative humidity in P. euphratica and T. ramosissima woodlands were, on average, 8.5 and 4.2% higher, respectively, than that in the surrounding area. Mean wind velocity in the P. euphratica forest land was 0.33 m/s, 2.31 m/s lower than that in the surrounding area. On dust storm days PAR and total radiation, Q, were significantly lower than that on cloudy or clear days. Their ratio, η Q = PAR/ Q, was larger and much more variable on dust storm days than that on clear or cloudy days.

  17. New Approach of Beauveria bassiana to Control the Red Palm Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) by Trapping Technique.

    PubMed

    Hajjar, M J; Ajlan, A M; Al-Ahmad, M H

    2015-04-01

    This work is the first study to investigate the efficacy of the commercial formulation of Beauveria bassiana (Broadband) to control adults of red palm weevil (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier)). This fungus could be applied as one of the biological tactics in controlling red palm weevil. Bioassay experiments for medium lethal concentrate and medium time to cause death of 50% of red palm weevil adults were carried out. The result showed that the LC50 of B. bassiana (Broadband) was 2.19×10(7) and 2.76×10(6) spores/ml at 9 and 23 d of treatment, respectively. The LT50 was 13.95 and 4.15 d for concentration of 1×10(7) and 1×10(8) spores/ml, respectively, whereas 1×10(9) spores/ml caused 100% mortality after 24 h. Additionally, a red palm weevil pheromone trap was designed to attract the adults to be contaminated with spores of Broadband, which was applied to the sackcloth fabric that coated the internal surfaces of the bucket trap. The mating behavior was studied to determine direct and indirect infection of the spores from male to female and vice versa. The results showed a high efficacy of Broadband suspension at 1×10(9) spores/ml; 40 ml of suspension at this concentration treated to cloth in a trap caused death of contaminated adults with B. bassiana spores directly and indirectly. The 100% mortality was obtained even after 13 d of traps treatment with 40 ml of the suspension at 1×10(9) spores/ml.

  18. THE DEVELOPMENT OF A 1990 GLOBAL INVENTORY FOR SO(X) AND NO(X) ON A 1(DEGREE) X 1(DEGREE) LATITUDE-LONGITUDE GRID.

    SciTech Connect

    VAN HEYST,B.J.

    1999-10-01

    Sulfur and nitrogen oxides emitted to the atmosphere have been linked to the acidification of water bodies and soils and perturbations in the earth's radiation balance. In order to model the global transport and transformation of SO{sub x} and NO{sub x}, detailed spatial and temporal emission inventories are required. Benkovitz et al. (1996) published the development of an inventory of 1985 global emissions of SO{sub x} and NO{sub x} from anthropogenic sources. The inventory was gridded to a 1{degree} x 1{degree} latitude-longitude grid and has served as input to several global modeling studies. There is now a need to provide modelers with an update of this inventory to a more recent year, with a split of the emissions into elevated and low level sources. This paper describes the development of a 1990 update of the SO{sub x} and NO{sub x} global inventories that also includes a breakdown of sources into 17 sector groups. The inventory development starts with a gridded global default EDGAR inventory (Olivier et al, 1996). In countries where more detailed national inventories are available, these are used to replace the emissions for those countries in the global default. The gridded emissions are distributed into two height levels (0-100m and >100m) based on the final plume heights that are estimated to be typical for the various sectors considered. The sources of data as well as some of the methodologies employed to compile and develop the 1990 global inventory for SO{sub x} and NO{sub x} are discussed. The results reported should be considered to be interim since the work is still in progress and additional data sets are expected to become available.

  19. Recent European Research into the Dynamics of Snow Avalanches: The SATSIE Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keylock, C. J.

    2006-12-01

    This paper will provide an overview of some of the results from a recently completed European research project (SATSIE). Experiments were undertaken at a full-scale avalanche release facility (Ryggfonn in Norway), a snow chute (Col du Lac Blanc in France) and flow chutes in Bristol and Cambridge, U.K. and Pavia, Italy. In addition, collaboration with colleagues in Switzerland has made it possible to compare observed powder snow avalanches to theoretical analyses and laboratory experiments undertaken during the project. During the project we were unfortunately not able to get data from our buried, upward-looking FMCW radar. However, results from the load cells, geophones and the pulsed Doppler radar were obtained and an attempt has been made to compare these data to the granular flow experiments. In particular, results for the interaction between the flows and obstacles are being used to enhance the design of snow avalanche dams and other protective structures. We obtained data from Swiss avalanches using the air pressure sensor and a dipole approximation has been used to explain the observed pressure fluctuations. These results have also been compared to laboratory experiments. The snow chute experiments have been used to determine an effective friction coefficient and to observe the velocity profile, which for rounded grains appears to conform to that observed in granular flow experiments. These results have been incorporated into numerical code and have led to a proposed new entrainment criterion for flowing snow based on the scaling laws originally proposed by Olivier Pouliquen. The granular flow experiments have been used to compare the interaction between obstacles and granular flows to that observed with fluids as well as derived from hydraulic theory. In addition, experiments have been undertaken that have provided some qualitative insight into the nature of the entrainment of an underlying substrate.

  20. Long Secondary Periods in variable red giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholls, C. P.; Wood, P. R.; Cioni, M.-R. L.; Soszyński, I.

    2009-11-01

    We present a study of a sample of Large Magellanic Cloud red giants exhibiting Long Secondary Periods (LSPs). We use radial velocities obtained from VLT spectral observations and MACHO and OGLE light curves to examine properties of the stars and to evaluate models for the cause of LSPs. This sample is much larger than the combined previous studies of Hinkle et al. and Wood, Olivier & Kawaler. Binary and pulsation models have enjoyed much support in recent years. Assuming stellar pulsation, we calculate from the velocity curves that the typical fractional radius change over an LSP cycle is greater than 30 per cent. This should lead to large changes in Teff that are not observed. Also, the small light amplitude of these stars seems inconsistent with the radius amplitude. We conclude that pulsation is not a likely explanation for the LSPs. The main alternative, physical movement of the star - binary motion - also has severe problems. If the velocity variations are due to binary motion, the distribution of the angle of periastron in our large sample of stars has a probability of 1.4 × 10-3 that it comes from randomly aligned binary orbits. In addition, we calculate a typical companion mass of 0.09Msolar. Less than 1 per cent of low-mass main-sequence stars have companions near this mass (0.06-0.12Msolar) whereas ~25-50 per cent of low-mass red giants end up with LSPs. We are unable to find a suitable model for the LSPs and conclude by listing their known properties.

  1. Low temperature Ti-Si-C thin film deposition by ion beam assisted methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Twardowska, Agnieszka; Rajchel, Boguslaw; Jaworska, Lucyna

    2010-11-01

    Thin, multiphase Ti-Si-C coatings were formed by IBSD or by IBAD methods on AISI 316L steel substrates in room temperature, using single Ti3SiC2 target. In those methods the TiXSiCY coatings were formed from the flux of energetic atoms and ions obtained by ion sputtering of the Ti3SiC2 compound sample. As sputtering beam the beam of Ar+ ions at energy of 15keV was applied. In the IBAD method the dynamically formed coatings were additionally bombarded by beam of Ar+ ions at energy of 15keV. The ion beams parameters were obtained by using Monte Carlo computer simulations. The morphology (SEM, TEM), chemical (EDS/EDX) and phase composition (XRD) examinations of formed coatings were provided as well as confocal Raman microspectroscopy. Analyzed coatings were relatively thin (150nm-1μm), flat and dense. XRD analysis indicated in amorphous TiSi, the traces of Ti5Si3 and other phases from Ti-Si-C system (TiSi, TiSi2,Ti3SiC2). For chemical bonds investigation, the laser beam with length of 532nm was used. Those analyses were performed in the low (LR) or in high (HR) resolution modes in room temperature and in 4000C. In the HR mode the spectral resolution was close to 2 cm-1. In Raman spectra peaks at: 152cm-1, 216cm-1, 278cm-1, 311 cm-1, 608cm-1, 691cm-1 were recorded. Nanoindentation tests were done on coated and uncoated substrates with diamond, Berkovich-type indenter. Vickers hardness HIT and reduced elastic modulus EIT were calculated using Olivier& Pharr method. HIT for coated substrates was in the range 2.7 to 5.3 GPa, EIT was 160 GPa.

  2. PREFACE: Theory of Fusion Plasmas, 13th Joint Varenna-Lausanne International Workshop (2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garbet, Xavier; Sauter, Olivier

    2012-12-01

    The 2012 joint Varenna-Lausanne international workshop on the theory of fusion plasmas has been very fruitful. A broad variety of topics were addressed, as usual covering turbulence, MHD, edge physic, RF wave heating and a taste of astrophysics. Moreover the scope of the meeting was extended this year to include the physics of materials and diagnostics for burning plasmas. This evolution reflects the complexity of problems at hand in fusion, in particular in the context of ITER construction. Long-standing problems without immediate consequences have sometimes become an urgent matter in that context. One may quote for instance the choice of plasma facing components or the design of control systems. Another characteristic of the meeting is the interplay between various domains of plasma physics. For instance MHD modes are now currently investigated with gyrokinetic codes, kinetic effects are more and more included in MHD stability analysis, and turbulence is now accounted for in wave propagation problems. This is the proof of cross-fertilization and it is certainly a healthy sign in our community. Finally introducing some novelty in the programme does not prevent us from respecting the traditions of the meeting. As usual a good deal of the presentations were dedicated to numerical simulations. Combining advanced numerical techniques with elaborated analytical theory is certainly a trademark of the Varenna-Lausanne conference, which was respected again this year. The quality and size of the scientific production is illustrated by the 26 papers which appear in the present volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series, all refereed. We would also like to mention another set of 20 papers to be published in Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion. We hope the readers will enjoy this special issue of JPCS and the one to come in PPCF. Xavier Garbet and Olivier Sauter October 26, 2012

  3. Predicting the thermodynamic properties of gold nanoparticles using different force fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Yongjin

    The objective of this research was to learn how to predict the thermodynamic properties of gold nanoparticles using computational tools. The lowest energy structures of gold nanoparticles of various sizes were determined and thermodynamic properties such as the free energy (F), internal energy (U), entropy (S), and specific heat (Cv) of the gold nanoparticles were investigated using a fully-atomistic Monte Carlo simulation method that utilizes a modified Wang-Landau algorithm. Eight well-known force fields for metallic systems were employed to model gold nanoparticles: the Lennard-Jones potential (LJ), the Lennard-Jones potential with Heinz's parameterization (LJH), the Gupta potential, the Sutton-Chen potential (SC), the Sutton-Chen potential with Pawluk's parameterization for small clusters (SCP), the Quantum Sutton-Chen potential (Q-SC), the Embedded Atom Method (EAM) by Cai and Ye, and the empirical potential for gold proposed by Olivier and coworkers (POT). Subsequently, we explored the accuracy of each force field in the description of the thermodynamic behavior of gold nanoparticles. The thermodynamic properties of gold nanoparticles were computed from the Density of States which was obtained as a result of the Monte Carlo simulation. Afterwards, the melting point of gold nanoparticles was determined from the behavior of the calculated thermodynamic properties and was compared with theory, experimental observations and other simulation results. The force fields employed predicted melting points of gold nanoparticles over a wide range of temperatures. A thorough comparison with the available experimental observations showed that the Quantum Sutton-Chen potential (Q-SC) correctly described the melting behavior of gold nanoparticles with sizes smaller than 1.3 nanometers.

  4. Eleutherine americana: a candidate for the control of Campylobacter species.

    PubMed

    Sirirak, T; Voravuthikunchai, S P

    2011-04-01

    The antibacterial activity of ethanolic extracts of selected Thai medicinal plants (Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Aiton) Hassk., Quercus infectoria G. Olivier, and Eleutherine americana Merr.) against Campylobacter spp. was investigated. Sixty-five Campylobacter, including 39 isolates from humans and 26 isolates from chicken samples, were tested. Reference Campylobacter spp. that are commonly encountered in gastroenteritis were included. The ethanolic extract of E. americana demonstrated good antibacterial activity against all the tested isolates. Inhibition zones ranged from 10 to 37 mm. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the extract against Campylobacter isolates from humans and chicken samples ranged from 31.25 to 500 μg/mL and 62.50 to 1,000 μg/mL, respectively. The minimum bactericidal concentration ranged from 31.25 to 1,000 μg/mL for isolates from humans and 125 to 1,000 μg/mL from chicken isolates. The bactericidal activity of the ethanolic extracts of E. americana against important Campylobacter spp., including Campylobacter coli MUMT 18630, Campylobacter fetus ATCC 27374, Campylobacter jejuni ATCC 81176, Campylobacter lari ATCC 43675, and Campylobacter upsaliensis DMST 19055, were assessed at MIC, 2 MIC, and 4 MIC by counting viable cells after various time intervals. At 4 MIC, the level of the tested isolates decreased by 2 to 5 log-fold within 8 h. The ethanolic extract of E. americana demonstrated antibacterial activity against all Campylobacter spp. from both human and chicken isolates. Further investigation of this plant species may provide an alternative medicine for Campylobacter infection and an effective food additive to prevent the infection.

  5. A potential species-specific molecular marker suggests interspecific hybridization between sibling species Littorina arcana and L. saxatilis (Mollusca, Caenogastropoda) in natural populations.

    PubMed

    Mikhailova, Natalia A; Gracheva, Yulia A; Backeljau, Thierry; Granovitch, Andrey I

    2009-12-01

    Three sister species of rough periwinkles, viz. Littorina saxatilis (Olivi 1792), L. arcana (Hannaford Ellis 1978) and L. compressa (Jeffreys 1865) from the Barents Sea (Russia), the White Sea (Russia) and the Norwegian Sea (Norway) were studied. The identification of two sibling species L. saxatilis and L. arcana is often difficult as both species have extremely similar shell morphology and reproductive systems. Only mature females can be unambiguously distinguished, with a jelly gland present in female L. arcana, but which is replaced by a brood pouch containing developing embryos in L. saxatilis. No clear-cut diagnostic features have been found to discriminate between males or juveniles of the two species. The very first diagnostic DNA marker (DNA fragment A2.8, 271 bp length) for L. arcana and L. saxatilis separation was developed. The marker was derived from apparently species-specific L. arcana DNA fragments obtained via Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. This fragment was cloned and sequenced, whereupon specific primers were designed and the amplification was surveyed in a large number of morphologically well-identified females of both species. Subsequently, the specific DNA marker was used for the identification of male L. arcana and partners in copulating pairs. In this way, we obtained evidence of possible interspecific hybridization between the sibling species L. arcana and L. saxatilis living in sympatry in natural populations: the presence of A2.8 fragment in 12% of morphologically well identified L. saxatilis females and its absence in 14% of morphologically well identified L. arcana females. The A2.8 fragment never amplified in L. saxatilis from sites without L. arcana. The A2.8 fragment did not amplify in L. compressa, not even in microsympatric populations, and we did not observe interspecific copulations between L. arcana and L. compressa.

  6. Potential Distribution Predicted for Rhynchophorus ferrugineus in China under Different Climate Warming Scenarios

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Xuezhen; He, Shanyong; Wang, Tao; Yan, Wei; Zong, Shixiang

    2015-01-01

    As the primary pest of palm trees, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) has caused serious harm to palms since it first invaded China. The present study used CLIMEX 1.1 to predict the potential distribution of R. ferrugineus in China according to both current climate data (1981–2010) and future climate warming estimates based on simulated climate data for the 2020s (2011–2040) provided by the Tyndall Center for Climate Change Research (TYN SC 2.0). Additionally, the Ecoclimatic Index (EI) values calculated for different climatic conditions (current and future, as simulated by the B2 scenario) were compared. Areas with a suitable climate for R. ferrugineus distribution were located primarily in central China according to the current climate data, with the northern boundary of the distribution reaching to 40.1°N and including Tibet, north Sichuan, central Shaanxi, south Shanxi, and east Hebei. There was little difference in the potential distribution predicted by the four emission scenarios according to future climate warming estimates. The primary prediction under future climate warming models was that, compared with the current climate model, the number of highly favorable habitats would increase significantly and expand into northern China, whereas the number of both favorable and marginally favorable habitats would decrease. Contrast analysis of EI values suggested that climate change and the density of site distribution were the main effectors of the changes in EI values. These results will help to improve control measures, prevent the spread of this pest, and revise the targeted quarantine areas. PMID:26496438

  7. Colonization of disturbed trees by the southern pine bark beetle guild (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Flamm, R.O.; Pulley, P.E.; Coulson, R.N. )

    1993-02-01

    The southern pine bark beetle guild [Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann, D. terebrans (Olivier), Ips calligraphus (Germar), I. grandicollis (Eichhoff), and I. avulsus (Eichhoff)] uses disturbed hosts as habitat for establishment of within-tree populations. The process of colonization of disturbed hosts was examined. Using a procedure designed to emulate effects of a lightning strike, pines were severely disturbed. Response was characterized by measuring beetle populations that (1) arrived at the trees and (2) successfully attacked the trees. Establishment of within-tree populations was characterized by measuring length of egg gallery excavated by attacking adults. The time delay between arrival and attack for D. frontalis and I. calligraphus was also calculated. Attack densities of both species became asymptotic as arrival increased. The percentage of arriving beetles that attacked ranged from 9 to 41 for D. frontalis and from 8 to 59 for I. calligraphus. Numbers of beetles that arrived at the tree but did not attack ranged from 2.7 to 50.2 beetles per dm[sup 2] for D. frontalis and from 0.2 to 10.0 beetles per dm[sup 2] for I. calligraphus. Most D. frontalis and I. calligraphus attacked on the day they arrived. The delay between arrival and attack was longer for I. calligraphus than the D. frontalis. Egg gallery excavated by D. frontalis increased throughout the study. Eventually, the Ips species were excluded from the lower half of the hole. The low attack densities observed in this study illustrate the significance of disturbed trees in providing refuges for enzootic levels of bark beetles. The aggregation behavior of beetle populations colonizing disturbed hosts supported the contention that these trees serve as foci for initiation of infestations. Furthermore, in disturbed pines, small numbers of beetles were capable of overcoming host defense systems.

  8. Peeking through the trapdoor: Historical biogeography of the Aegean endemic spider Cyrtocarenum Ausserer, 1871 with an estimation of mtDNA substitution rates for Mygalomorphae.

    PubMed

    Kornilios, P; Thanou, E; Kapli, P; Parmakelis, A; Chatzaki, M

    2016-05-01

    The Aegean region, located in the Eastern Mediterranean, is an area of rich biodiversity and endemism. Its position, geographical configuration and complex geological history have shaped the diversification history of many animal taxa. Mygalomorph spiders have drawn the attention of researchers, as excellent model systems for phylogeographical investigations. However, phylogeographic studies of spiders in the Aegean region are scarce. In this study, we focused on the phylogeography of the endemic ctenizid trap-door spider Cyrtocarenum Ausserer, 1871. The genus includes two morphologically described species: C. grajum (C.L. Koch, 1836) and C. cunicularium (Olivier, 1811). We sampled 60 specimens from the distributions of both species and analyzed four mitochondrial and two nuclear markers. Cyrtocarenum served as an example to demonstrate the importance of natural history traits in the inference of phylogeographic scenarios. The mtDNA substitution rates inferred for the genus are profoundly higher compared to araneomorph spiders and other arthropods, which seems tightly associated with their biology. We evaluate published mtDNA substitution rates followed in the literature for mygalomorph spiders and discuss potential pitfalls. Following gene tree (maximum likelihood, Bayesian inference) and species tree approaches ((*)BEAST), we reconstructed a time-calibrated phylogeny of the genus. These results, combined with a biogeographical ancestral-area analysis, helped build a biogeographic scenario that describes how the major palaeogeographic and palaeoclimatic events of the Aegean may have affected the distribution of Cyrtocarenum lineages. The diversification of the genus seems to have begun in the Middle Miocene in the present west Aegean area, while major phylogenetic events occurred at the Miocene-Pliocene boundary for C. cunicularium, probably related to the Messinian Salinity Crisis. Our results also demonstrate the clear molecular distinction of the two

  9. QTL Mapping of Flowering and Fruiting Traits in Olive

    PubMed Central

    Sadok, Inès Ben; Celton, Jean-Marc; Essalouh, Laila; El Aabidine, Amal Zine; Garcia, Gilbert; Martinez, Sebastien; Grati-Kamoun, Naziha; Rebai, Ahmed; Costes, Evelyne; Khadari, Bouchaib

    2013-01-01

    One of the challenge fruit growers are facing is to balance between tree production and vegetative growth from year to year. To investigate the existence of genetic determinism for reproductive behaviour in olive tree, we studied an olive segregating population derived from a cross between ‘Olivière’ and ‘Arbequina’ cultivars. Our strategy was based on (i) an annual assessment of individual trees yield, and (ii) a decomposition of adult growth units at the crown periphery into quantitative variables related to both flowering and fruiting process in relation to their growth and branching. Genetic models, including the year, genotype effects and their interactions, were built with variance function and correlation structure of residuals when necessary. Among the progeny, trees were either ‘ON’ or ‘OFF’ for a given year and patterns of regular vs. irregular bearing were revealed. Genotype effect was significant on yield but not for flowering traits at growth unit (GU) scale, whereas the interaction between genotype and year was significant for both traits. A strong genetic effect was found for all fruiting traits without interaction with the year. Based on the new constructed genetic map, QTLs with small effects were detected, revealing multigenic control of the studied traits. Many were associated to alleles from ‘Arbequina’. Genetic correlations were found between Yield and Fruit set at GU scale suggesting a common genetic control, even though QTL co-localisations were in spe`cific years only. Most QTL were associated to flowering traits in specific years, even though reproductive traits at GU scale did not capture the bearing status of the trees in a given year. Results were also interpreted with respect to ontogenetic changes of growth and branching, and an alternative sampling strategy was proposed for capturing tree fruiting behaviour. Regular bearing progenies were identified and could constitute innovative material for selection programs

  10. Preface: International Reference Ionosphere - Progress in Ionospheric Modelling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilitza Dieter; Reinisch, Bodo

    2010-01-01

    The international reference ionosphere (lRI) is the internationally recommended empirical model for the specification of ionospheric parameters supported by the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) and the International Union of Radio Science (URSI) and recognized by the International Standardization Organization (ISO). IRI is being continually improved by a team of international experts as new data become available and better models are being developed. This issue chronicles the latest phase of model updates as reported during two IRI-related meetings. The first was a special session during the Scientific Assembly of the Committee of Space Research (COSPAR) in Montreal, Canada in July 2008 and the second was an IRI Task Force Activity at the US Air Force Academy in Colorado Springs in May 2009. This work led to several improvements and additions of the model which will be included in the next version, IRI-201O. The issue is divided into three sections focusing on the improvements made in the topside ionosphere, the F-peak, and the lower ionosphere, respectively. This issue would not have been possible without the reviewing efforts of many individuals. Each paper was reviewed by two referees. We thankfully acknowledge the contribution to this issue made by the following reviewers: Jacob Adeniyi, David Altadill, Eduardo Araujo, Feza Arikan, Dieter Bilitza, Jilijana Cander, Bela Fejer, Tamara Gulyaeva, Manuel Hermindez-Pajares, Ivan Kutiev, John MacDougal, Leo McNamara, Bruno Nava, Olivier Obrou, Elijah Oyeyemi, Vadym Paznukhov, Bodo Reinisch, John Retterer, Phil Richards, Gary Sales, J.H. Sastri, Ludger Scherliess, Iwona Stanislavska, Stamir Stankov, Shin-Yi Su, Manlian Zhang, Y ongliang Zhang, and Irina Zakharenkova. We are grateful to Peggy Ann Shea for her final review and guidance as the editor-in-chief for special issues of Advances in Space Research. We thank the authors for their timely submission and their quick response to the reviewer comments and humbly

  11. Acute and population level toxicity of imidacloprid and fenpyroximate on an important egg parasitoid, Trichogramma cacoeciae (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae).

    PubMed

    Saber, Moosa

    2011-08-01

    One focus of integrated pest management (IPM) is the use of biological and chemical control in an optimal way. The availability of selective pesticides is important as is information about both lethal and sublethal effects of pesticides on biocontrol agents. Acute and sublethal effects of imidacloprid and fenpyroximate exposure were studied on adult stage of egg parasitoid Trichogramma cacoeciae Marchal and the emergence rate and life table parameters were determined. The adult wasps were exposed to field recommended concentration (FRC) of the pesticides on glass plates. Field rates of imidacloprid and fenpyroximate caused 100 and 32% adult mortality, respectively. Based on concentration-response experiments, the LC(50) values of imidacloprid and fenpyroximate were 6.25 and 1,949 ppm, respectively. The effect of imidacloprid and fenpyroximate on larvae, prepupae and pupae of the parasitoid was tested by exposing parasitized eggs of Sitotroga cerealella Olivier or Cydia pomonella L. to the FRC. Imidacloprid and fenpyroximate reduced adult emergence by 10.7 and 29%, respectively, when S. cerealella eggs were used as the host and 10.9 and 24.9%, respectively, when C. pomonella eggs were used as the host. Population parameters of emerged adults from treated pre-imaginal stages by FRC of the pesticides were also studied. The parameters were longevity and progeny production of emergent adults and also intrinsic rate of increase (r ( m )), generation time (T) and doubling time (DT). Longevity and progeny production of the emergent adults was not affected by pesticide exposure in comparison to the control. In addition, none of population parameters such as r ( m ), T and DT were affected by pesticide exposure. The intrinsic rate of increase for the control, fenpyroximate and imidacloprid exposed populations were 0.388, 0.374, and 0.372 female offspring per female per day, respectively. Overall, results of this study suggest a relative compatibility between fenpyroximate

  12. Climate change, nutrition and immunity: Effects of elevated CO2 and temperature on the immune function of an insect herbivore.

    PubMed

    Gherlenda, Andrew N; Haigh, Anthony M; Moore, Ben D; Johnson, Scott N; Riegler, Markus

    2016-02-01

    Balanced nutrition is fundamental to health and immunity. For herbivorous insects, nutrient-compositional shifts in host plants due to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations and temperature may compromise this balance. Therefore, understanding their immune responses to such shifts is vital if we are to predict the outcomes of climate change for plant-herbivore-parasitoid and pathogen interactions. We tested the immune response of Paropsis atomaria Olivier (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) feeding on Eucalyptus tereticornis Sm. seedlings exposed to elevated CO2 (640 μmol mol(-1); CE) and temperature (ambient plus 4 °C; TE). Larvae were immune-challenged with a nylon monofilament in order to simulate parasitoid or pathogen attack without other effects of actual parasitism or pathology. The cellular (in vivo melanisation) and humoral (in vitro phenoloxidase PO activity) immune responses were assessed, and linked to changes in leaf chemistry. CE reduced foliar nitrogen (N) concentrations and increased C:N ratios and concentrations of total phenolics. The humoral response was reduced at CE. PO activity and haemolymph protein concentrations decreased at CE, while haemolymph protein concentrations were positively correlated with foliar N concentrations. However, the cellular response increased at CE and this was not correlated with any foliar traits. Immune parameters were not impacted by TE. Our study revealed that opposite cellular and humoral immune responses occurred as a result of plant-mediated effects at CE. In contrast, elevated temperatures within the tested range had minimal impact on immune responses. These complex interactions may alter the outcomes of parasitoid and pathogen attack in future climates.

  13. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-11-01

    A year has passed since Raymond left us, but for many of us it seems like it was yesterday. Indeed, since his departure last July, not a week or even a day has gone by without his former collaborators, students, colleagues having a thought for him. Some initiatives have already been taken in order to celebrate Raymond's memory. The special day for Raymond organized at CERN last December was an opportunity to celebrate this exceptional man. In Annecy, with the implication of CERN and Marseille and thanks to a spontaneous and generous gift of Raymond's wife Marie-Françoise and their children Olivier and Thierry, the opening of a special room containing a huge collection of scientific books of Raymond is almost completed. It is in the same spirit that the present editors decided to dedicate a special issue of Nuclear Physics in memory of Raymond. In the following pages, some important problems Raymond was interested in are presented, discussed and sometimes solved. The diversity of topics in this issue reflects well the extent of Raymond's interests in Physics and Mathematics. Raymond was not only a gifted man for the so-called theoretical sciences, mathematics and physics, but he was also passionate about arts, music, drawing and of course literature, just as he was a leader always ready to bring his help and share his deep knowledge in physics and mathematics with others. Many people were deeply touched by Paul Sorba's tribute during Raymond's funeral. This is why we asked Paul to translate his speech, originally given in French, which seemed to us a perfect Prolegomena for this special volume of Nuclear Physics. The volume "Mathematical Foundations of Quantum Field Theory" is organized as follows:

  14. Effect of aerosol surface lubricants on the abundance and richness of selected forest insects captured in multiple-funnel and panel traps.

    PubMed

    Allison, Jeremy D; Johnson, C Wood; Meeker, James R; Strom, Brian L; Butler, Sarah M

    2011-08-01

    Survey and detection programs for native and exotic forest insects frequently rely on traps baited with odorants, which mediate the orientation of target taxa (e.g., the southern pine beetle, Dendroctonusfrontalis Zimmermann) toward a resource (e.g., host material, mates). The influence of trap design on the capture efficiency of baited traps has received far less empirical attention than odorants, despite concerns that intercept traps currently used operationally have poor capture efficiencies for some target taxa (e.g., large woodborers). Several studies have recently demonstrated that treating traps with a surface lubricant to make them "slippery" can increase their capture efficiency; however, previously tested products can be expensive and their application time-consuming. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of alternate, easier to apply aerosol lubricants on trap capture efficiency of selected forest insects. Aerosol formulations of Teflon and silicone lubricants increased both panel and multiple-funnel trap capture efficiencies. Multiple-funnel traps treated with either aerosol lubricant captured significantly more Monochamus spp. and Acanthocinus obsoletus (Olivier) than untreated traps. Similarly, treated panel traps captured significantly more Xylotrechus sagittatus (Germar), Ips calligraphus (Germar), Pissodes nemorensis (Germar), Monochamus spp., A. obsoletus, Thanasimus dubius (F.), and Ibalia leucospoides (Hochenwarth) than untreated traps. This study demonstrates that treating multiple-funnel and panel traps with an aerosol dry film lubricant can increase their capture efficiencies for large woodborers (e.g., Cerambycidae) as well as bark beetles, a weevil, a woodwasp parasitoid and a bark beetle natural enemy (Coleoptera: Cleridae).

  15. International Congress on Transposable Elements (ICTE) 2012 in Saint Malo and the sea of TE stories

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    An international conference on Transposable Elements (TEs) was held 21–24 April 2012 in Saint Malo, France. Organized by the French Transposition Community (GDR Elements Génétiques Mobiles et Génomes, CNRS) and the French Society of Genetics (SFG), the conference’s goal was to bring together researchers from around the world who study transposition in diverse organisms using multiple experimental approaches. The meeting drew more than 217 attendees and most contributed through poster presentations (117), invited talks and short talks selected from poster abstracts (48 in total). The talks were organized into four scientific sessions, focused on: impact of TEs on genomes, control of transposition, evolution of TEs and mechanisms of transposition. Here, we present highlights from the talks given during the platform sessions. The conference was sponsored by Alliance pour les sciences de la vie et de la santé (Aviesan), Centre national de la recherche scientifique (CNRS), Institut national de la santé et de la recherche médicale (INSERM), Institut de recherche pour le développement (IRD), Institut national de la recherche agronomique (INRA), Université de Perpignan, Université de Rennes 1, Région Bretagne and Mobile DNA. Chair of the organization committee Jean-Marc Deragon Organizers Abdelkader Ainouche, Mireille Bétermier, Mick Chandler, Richard Cordaux, Gaël Cristofari, Jean-Marc Deragon, Pascale Lesage, Didier Mazel, Olivier Panaud, Hadi Quesneville, Chantal Vaury, Cristina Vieira and Clémentine Vitte PMID:23110759

  16. Calcium signaling orchestrates glioblastoma development: Facts and conjunctures.

    PubMed

    Leclerc, Catherine; Haeich, Jacques; Aulestia, Francisco J; Kilhoffer, Marie-Claude; Miller, Andrew L; Néant, Isabelle; Webb, Sarah E; Schaeffer, Etienne; Junier, Marie-Pierre; Chneiweiss, Hervé; Moreau, Marc

    2016-06-01

    While it is a relatively rare disease, glioblastoma multiform (GBM) is one of the more deadly adult cancers. Following current interventions, the tumor is never eliminated whatever the treatment performed; whether it is radiotherapy, chemotherapy, or surgery. One hypothesis to explain this poor outcome is the "cancer stem cell" hypothesis. This concept proposes that a minority of cells within the tumor mass share many of the properties of adult neural stem cells and it is these that are responsible for the growth of the tumor and its resistance to existing therapies. Accumulating evidence suggests that Ca(2+) might also be an important positive regulator of tumorigenesis in GBM, in processes involving quiescence, maintenance, proliferation, or migration. Glioblastoma tumors are generally thought to develop by co-opting pathways that are involved in the formation of an organ. We propose that the cells initiating the tumor, and subsequently the cells of the tumor mass, must hijack the different checkpoints that evolution has selected in order to prevent the pathological development of an organ. In this article, two main points are discussed. (i) The first is the establishment of a so-called "cellular society," which is required to create a favorable microenvironment. (ii) The second is that GBM can be considered to be an organism, which fights to survive and develop. Since GBM evolves in a limited space, its only chance of development is to overcome the evolutionary checkpoints. For example, the deregulation of the normal Ca(2+) signaling elements contributes to the progression of the disease. Thus, by manipulating the Ca(2+) signaling, the GBM cells might not be killed, but might be reprogrammed toward a new fate that is either easy to cure or that has no aberrant functioning. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Calcium and Cell Fate. Guest Editors: Jacques Haiech, Claus Heizmann, Joachim Krebs, Thierry Capiod and Olivier Mignen.

  17. Reproductive Patterns of Xylotrechus arvicola (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), an Emerging Pest of Grape-Vines, under Laboratory Conditions.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-González, Álvaro; Peláez, Horacio J; González-López, Óscar; Mayo, Sara; Casquero, Pedro A

    2016-03-25

    Xylotrechus arvicola(Olivier) is an emerging pest in vineyards (Vitis vinifera) in the Iberian Peninsula. Its reproductive biology has been studied in the laboratory in order to develop pest-control measures. Obtained results show that the oviposition period is significantly longer in wild females (16.6 ± 2.9 d) than in laboratory females (9.7 ± 1.3 d), but there are no significant differences in the egg-hatching periods between the wild and the laboratory females. Fecundity is significantly higher in laboratory females (93.9 ± 12.1 eggs per female) than in wild females (56.8 ± 9.2 eggs per female). On the other hand, viability (percentage of viable eggs per female) is significantly higher in wild females (53.7 ± 6.6%) than in laboratory females (22.9 ± 3.6%). Wild females lay fewer eggs over a longer period, while laboratory females concentrate on laying in the first 6 d.X. arvicolafemales (wild and laboratory) lay the highest number of eggs on the sixth day. The fecundity and viability of eggs are extended over a longer period in wild females than in laboratory females. SoX. arvicolais a species in which larvae feed directly affects reproductive patterns. These results suggest that, when larvae feed directly from the natural host, the fecundity period and the viability of eggs increase. So the selection of a host plant could be influenced by the composition of the wood. This behavior of the species can also help to advance knowledge of the biology and ecology of this pest, to be applied in integrated control.

  18. A preliminary study on the insect fauna of Al-Baha Province, Saudi Arabia, with descriptions of two new species

    PubMed Central

    El-Hawagry, Magdi S.; Khalil, Mohammed W.; Sharaf, Mostafa R.; Hassan H. Fadl; Aldawood, Abdulrahman S.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A preliminary study was carried out on the insect fauna of Al-Baha Province, south-western part of Saudi Arabia. A total number of 582 species and subspecies (few identified only to the genus level) belonging to 129 families and representing 17 orders were recorded. Two of these species are described as new, namely: Monomorium sarawatensis Sharaf & Aldawood, sp. n. [Formicidae, Hymenoptera] and Anthrax alruqibi El-Hawagry sp. n. [Bombyliidae, Diptera]. Another eight species are recorded for the first time in Saudi Arabia, namely: Xiphoceriana arabica (Uvarov, 1922) [Pamphagidae, Orthoptera], Pyrgomorpha conica (Olivier, 1791) [Pyrgomorphidae, Orthoptera], Catopsilia florella (Fabricius, 1775) [Pieridae, Lepidoptera], Anthrax chionanthrax (Bezzi, 1926) [Bombyliidae, Diptera], Spogostylum near tripunctatum Pallas in Wiedemann, 1818 [Bombyliidae, Diptera], Cononedys dichromatopa (Bezzi, 1925) [Bombyliidae, Diptera], Mydas sp. [Mydidae, Diptera], and Hippobosca equina Linnaeus, 1758 [Hippoboscidae, Diptera]. Al-Baha Province is divided by huge and steep Rocky Mountains into two main sectors, a lowland coastal plain at the west, known as “Tihama”, and a mountainous area with an elevation of 1500 to 2450 m above sea level at the east, known as “Al-Sarat or Al-Sarah” which form a part of Al-Sarawat Mountains range. Insect species richness in the two sectors (Tihama and Al-Sarah) was compared, and the results showed that each of the two sectors of Al-Baha Province has a unique insect community. The study generally concluded that the insect faunal composition in Al-Baha Province has an Afrotropical flavor, with the Afrotropical elements predominant, and a closer affiliation to the Afrotropical region than to the Palearctic region or the Eremic zone. Consequently, we tend to agree with those biogeographers who consider that parts of the Arabian Peninsula, including Al-Baha Province, should be included in the Afrotropical region rather than in the Palaearctic

  19. Comparison of three trap types for monitoring insect populations in stored grains.

    PubMed

    Weston, P A; Barney, R J

    1998-12-01

    Three trap types--probe, cone, and sticky--were used to monitor insect populations infesting shelled maize, Zea mays L., housed in galvanized steel storage bins. Sticky traps were suspended in the headspace 1 m above the grain mass, probe traps were inserted into the grain near the top and bottom of the grain mass, and cone traps were positioned at the surface of the grain mass. Although there was some overlap, each trap type was rather specific in the range of insect species trapped. Probe traps positioned near the grain surface trapped mostly Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.), Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), and Cynaeus angustus (LeConte); whereas those positioned near the bottom of the grain mass trapped mostly Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky. Cone traps caught mostly Typhaea stercorea (L.), Cryptolestes spp., and Ahasverus advena Waltl. Sticky traps caught primarily stored-product moths [Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) and Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier)] and A. advena. In addition to catching pest species, cone traps also caught hemipteran predators and hymenopteran parasitoids, and sticky traps caught large numbers of parasitoids. Although probe traps caught smaller numbers of several pest species than cone traps, these traps generally detected the presence of these species at the same time as cone traps, in addition to trapping other species that were not detected at all in cone traps. Therefore, a combination of sticky traps in the grain bin headspace and probe traps positioned just below the grain surface is probably most efficient for monitoring the presence of pest and beneficial insect species in grain storage. If pests cannot be eliminated from the space beneath the false floor of a grain bin, probe traps set at the bottom of the grain mass should provide the best early warning of infestation by species colonizing a grain mass by this route.

  20. PREFACE: The 15th International Couette-Taylor Worskhop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutabazi, Innocent; Crumeyrolle, Olivier

    2008-07-01

    Research and the University Association of Mechanics have provided some support. Innocent Mutabazi and Olivier Crumeyrolle Proceedings editors Le Havre, France 15 July 2008

  1. CELL WALL VARIABILITY IN THE GREEN SEAWEED CODIUM VERMILARA (BRYOPSIDALES CHLOROPHYTA) FROM THE ARGENTINE COAST(1).

    PubMed

    Fernández, Paula V; Ciancia, Marina; Estevez, José Manuel

    2011-08-01

    Cell wall chemistry in the coencocytic green seaweed Codium vermilara (Olivi) Delle Chiaje (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta) is well understood. These cell walls are composed of major amounts of neutral β-(1→4)-D-mannans (Mn), sulfated polysaccharides (SPs), which include pyranosic arabinan sulfates (ArpS), pyruvylated galactan sulfates (pGaS), and mannan sulfates (MnS); also minor amounts of O-glycoproteins are present. In this study, cell wall samples of C. vermilara were investigated with regard to their monosaccharide composition and infrared spectra (using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy coupled to principal component [FTIR-PC] analysis). Samples from three different populations of C. vermilara from the Argentine coast showed: (i) an important variation in the relative arabinan content, which increases from north to south, and (ii) a measurable degree of cell wall variability in the sulfate distribution between the different sulfated polysaccharides, independent of the amount of each polysaccharide present and of total sulfate content. When cell wall composition was analyzed over three consecutive years in a single geographic location, the quantity of Mn and overall sulfate content on SPs remained constant, whereas the pGaS:ArpS molar ratio changed over the time. Besides, similar cell wall composition was found between actively growing and resting zones of the thallus, suggesting that cell wall composition is independent of growth stage and development. Overall, these results suggest that C. vermilara has developed a mechanism to adjust the total level of cell wall sulfation by modulating the ArpS:pGaS:MnS molar ratio and also by adjusting the sulfation level in each type of polymer, whereas nonsulfated Mn, as the main structural polysaccharide, did not change over the time or growing stage.

  2. Attraction of southern pine engravers and associated bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) to ipsenol, ipsdienol, and lanierone in southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Miller, D R; Asaro, C; Berisford, C W

    2005-12-01

    We determined the response of the small southern pine engraver, Ips avulsus (Eichhoff); eastern fivespined ips, Ips grandicollis (Eichhoff); sixspined ips, Ips calligraphus (Germar); and pine engraver, Ips pini (Say) to the pheromones (+/-)-ipsenol, (+/-)-ipsdienol, and lanierone in the southeastern United States. Catches of I. avulsus and I. grandicollis to baited multiple-funnel traps were increased by (+/-)-ipsenol and (+/-)-ipsdienol in Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, and North Carolina. In all four localities, the highest numbers of I. avulsus were caught in traps baited with the combination of (+/-)-ipsenol, (+/-)-ipsdienol, and lanierone. In Florida, the highest numbers of I. grandicollis were captured in traps baited with the combination of (+/-)-ipsenol and (+/-)-ipsdienol (with or without lanierone). In the remaining three localities, the largest catches of I. grandicollis occurred in traps baited with (+/-)-ipsenol alone or the combination of (+/-)-ipsenol and (+/-)-ipsdienol (with or without lanierone). (+/-)-Ipsdienol was the only consistent attractant for I. calligraphus and I. pini. Attraction of I. pini in North Carolina to (+/-)-ipsdienol-baited traps was synergized by lanierone but interrupted with (+/-)-ipsenol. The interruptive effect of (+/-)-ipsenol on attraction of I. pini to (+/-)-ipsdienol was negated by lanierone. (+/-)-Ipsdienol was attractive to black turpentine beetle, Dendroctonus terebrans (Olivier), in Florida but not North Carolina, whereas (+/-)-ipsdienol was attractive to I. calligraphus in Louisiana, Georgia, and Florida. Both (+/-)-ipsenol and (+/-)-ipsdienol affected catches of Gnathotrichus materiarus (Fitch) in North Carolina. Trap catches of Hylurgops rugipennis pinifex (Fitch), Hylastes salebrosus Eichhoff, and Hylastes tenuis Eichhoff were unaffected by the pheromone treatments. The combination of (+/-)-ipsenol, (+/-)-ipsdienol, and lanierone may be a cost-effective general lure for I. avulsus, I. grandicollis, and I. pini.

  3. A rapid decision sampling plan for implementing area-wide management of the red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, in coconut plantations of India.

    PubMed

    Faleiro, J R; Ashok Kumar, J

    2008-01-01

    The red palm weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier (Curculionidae/Rhynchophoridae/Dryophthoridae) is a lethal pest of young coconut palms, Cocos nucifera L. (Arecales: Arecaceae), with a highly aggregated population distribution pattern. R. ferrugineus is managed in several coconut growing countries using area-wide pheromone based programmes that need a substantial commitment of funds over a period of time. Often, decisions to implement area-wide management of R. ferrugineus are based on pheromone trap captures in surveillance traps and or infestation reports. Implementing area-wide management of this pest on the basis of such data can be inaccurate, as it may either under or over estimate the pest intensity in the field. This study presents sampling plans for rapid and accurate classification of R. ferrugineus infestation in coconut plantations of India by inspecting palms to detect infestation in a sequence until a decision to either implement or not to initiate area-wide management of R. ferrugineus can be made. The sampling plans are based on a common aggregation index of 3.45, assumed action threshold values of either 1.0 (plan A) or 0.5 (plan B) per cent infested palms and a risk factor of making the wrong decision set at 0.05. Using plans A and B, if the cumulative number of infested palms in a young 1 hectare coconut plantation is zero out of 150 palms for both plans, then area-wide management is not required, while on the other hand, if the cumulative number of infested palms for the same area is 6 (plan A), or 5 (plan B), then area-wide management of R. ferrugineus is essential. The proposed sampling plans are efficient tools in decision making, particularly at very low and high levels of infestation and can also be used to assess the performance of R. ferrugineus IPM programmes that are in progress. These plans not only save time and money as only a small area needs to be sampled to arrive at a correct decision, but are also efficient in rating the

  4. Spatial and Temporal Analysis of Industrial Forest Clearcuts in the Conterminous United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, L. Z.; Boschetti, L.

    2015-12-01

    gross forest cover loss estimates. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 107, 9025-9026 van der Werf, G.R., Morton, D.C., DeFries, R.S., Olivier, J.G., Kasibhatla, P.S., Jackson, R.B., Collatz, G.J., & Randerson, J. (2009). CO2 emissions from forest loss. Nature Geoscience, 2, 737-738

  5. PREFACE: Joint Varenna-Lausanne International Workshop 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-11-01

    22 papers which appear in the present volume of Journal of Physics Conference Series - all peer reviewed. Let us mention another set of 19 papers to appear in Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion. We hope the reader will enjoy this special issue and will find ideas for new bright achievements. Xavier Garbet, Olivier Sauter October 23, 2014

  6. Karyotypes of some medium-sized Dytiscidae (Agabinae and Colymbetinae) (Coleoptera).

    PubMed

    Angus, Robert B; Clery, Molly J; Carter, Jodie C; Wenczek, Daniel E

    2013-01-01

    An account is given of the karyotypes of 29 species of medium sized Dytiscidae (Coleoptera). Of the 20 species of Agabus Leach, 1817, 18 have karyotypes comprising 21 pairs of autosomes and sex chromosomes which are either X0(♂) or XX (♀). These species are Agabus serricornis (Paykull, 1799), Agabus labiatus (Brahm, 1791), Agabus congener (Thunberg, 1794), Agabus lapponicus (Thomson, 1867), Agabus thomsoni (J. Sahlberg, 1871), Agabus confinis (Gyllenhal, 1808), Agabus sturmii (Gyllenhal, 1808), Agabus bipustulatus (Linnaeus, 1767), Agabus nevadensis Håkan Lindberg, 1939, Agabus wollastoni Sharp, 1882, Agabus melanarius Aubé, 1837, Agabus biguttatus (Olivier, 1795), Agabus binotatus Aubé, 1837, Agabus affinis (Paykull, 1798), Agabus unguicularis (Thomson, 1867), Agabus ramblae Millan & Ribera, 2001, Agabus conspersus (Marsham, 1802) and Agabus nebulosus (Forster, 1771). However two species, Agabus infuscatus Aubé, 1838 and Agabus adpressus Aubé, 1837, have developed a neo-XY system, with karyotypes comprising 21 pairs of autosomes and XY sex chromosomes (♂). No chromosomal differences have been detected between typical Agabus bipustulatus and Agabus bipustulatus var. solieri Aubé, 1837, nor have any been found between the three species of the Agabus bipustulatus complex (Agabus bipustulatus, Agabus nevadensis and Agabus wollastoni). The four species of Colymbetes Clairville, 1806, Colymbetes fuscus (Linnaeus, 1758), Colymbetes paykulli Erichson, 1837, Colymbetes piceus Klug, 1834 and Colymbetes striatus (Linnaeus, 1758) have karyotypes comprising 20 pairs of autosomes and sex chromosomes which are X0 (♂), XX (♀). Two of the species of Rhantus Dejean, 1833, Rhantus exsoletus (Forster, 1771) and Rhantus suturellus (Harris, 1828) have karyotypes comprising 20 pairs of autosomes and X0/XX sex chromosomes, but the other three species, Rhantus grapii (Gyllenhal, 1808), Rhantus frontalis (Marsham, 1802) and Rhantus suturalis (Macleay, 1825) have 22 pairs of

  7. Signature of magmatic processes in ground deformation signals from Phlegraean Fields (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagagli, Matteo; Montagna, Chiara Paola; Longo, Antonella; Papale, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    Ground deformation signals such as dilatometric and tiltmetric ones, are nowadays well studied from the vulcanological community all over the world. These signals can be used to retrieve information on volcanoes state and to study the magma dynamics in their plumbing system. We compared synthetic signals in the Very Long Period (VLP, 10-2 - 10-1 Hz) and Ultra Long Period (ULP, 10-4 - 10-2 Hz) bands obtained from the simulation of magma mixing in shallow reservoirs ([3],[4]) with real data obtained from the dilatometers and tiltmeters network situated in the Phlegraean Fields near Naples (Italy), in order to define and constrain the relationships between them. Analyses of data from the October 2006 seismic swarm in the area show that the frequency spectrum of the synthetics is remarkably similar to the transient present in the real signals. In depth studies with accurated techniques for spectral analysis (i.e wavelet transform) and application of this method to other time windows have identified in the bandwidth around 10-4Hz (between 1h30m and 2h45m) peaks that are fairly stable and independent from the processing carried out on the full-band signal. These peaks could be the signature of ongoing convection at depth. It is well known that re-injection of juvenile magmas can reactivate the eruption dynamics ([1],[2]), thus being able to define mixing markers and detect them in the ground deformation signals is a relevant topic in order to understand the dynamics of active and quiescent vulcanoes and to eventually improve early-warning methods for impending eruptions. [1] Arienzo, I. et al. (2010). "The feeding system of Agnano-Monte Spina eruption (Campi Flegrei, Italy): dragging the past into present activity and future scenarios". In: Chemical Geology 270.1, pp. 135-147. [2] Bachmann, Olivier and George Bergantz (2008). "The magma reservoirs that feed supereruptions". In: Elements 4.1, pp. 17-21. [3] Longo, Antonella et al. (2012). "Magma convection and mixing

  8. Angular correlation functions of X-ray point-like sources in the full exposure XMM-LSS field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elyiv, A.; Clerc, N.; Plionis, M.; Surdej, J.; Pierre, M.; Basilakos, S.; Chiappetti, L.; Gandhi, P.; Gosset, E.; Melnyk, O.; Pacaud, F.

    2012-01-01

    Aims: Our aim is to study the large-scale structure of different types of AGN using the medium-deep XMM-LSS survey. Methods: We measure the two-point angular correlation function of 5700 and 2500 X-ray point-like sources over the 11 sq. deg. XMM-LSS field in the soft (0.5-2 keV) and hard (2-10 keV) bands. For the conversion from the angular to the spatial correlation function we used the Limber integral equation and the luminosity-dependent density evolution model of the AGN X-ray luminosity function. Results: We have found significant angular correlations with the power-law parameters γ = 1.81 ± 0.02, θ0 = 1.3'' ± 0.2'' for the soft, and γ = 2.00 ± 0.04, θ0 = 7.3'' ± 1.0'' for the hard bands. The amplitude of the correlation function w(θ) is higher in the hard than in the soft band for fx ≲ 10-14 erg s-1 cm-2 and lower above this flux limit. We confirm that the clustering strength θ0 grows with the flux limit of the sample, a trend which is also present in the amplitude of the spatial correlation function, but only for the soft band. In the hard band, it remains almost constant with r0 ≃ 10h-1 Mpc, irrespective of the flux limit. Our analysis of AGN subsamples with different hardness ratios shows that the sources with a hard-spectrum are more clustered than soft-spectrum ones. This result may be a hint that the two main types of AGN populate different environments. Finally, we find that our clustering results correspond to an X-ray selected AGN bias factor of 2.5 for the soft band sources (at a median bar{z} ≃ 1.1) and 3.3 for the hard band sources (at a median bar{z} ≃ 1), which translates into a host dark matter halo mass of 1013h-1M⊙ and 1013.7h-1M⊙ for the soft and hard bands, respectively. This paper is dedicated to the memory of Olivier Garcet who has initiated the present work just before his sudden death.

  9. A Cosmic Baby-Boom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-09-01

    Large Population of Galaxies Found in the Young Universe with ESO's VLT The Universe was a more fertile place soon after it was formed than has previously been suspected. A team of French and Italian astronomers [1] made indeed the surprising discovery of a large and unknown population of distant galaxies observed when the Universe was only 10 to 30% its present age. ESO PR Photo 29a/05 ESO PR Photo 29a/05 New Population of Distant Galaxies [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 424 pix - 191k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 847 pix - 449k] [HiRes - JPEG: 2269 x 2402 pix - 2.0M] ESO PR Photo 29b/05 ESO PR Photo 29b/05 Average Spectra of Distant Galaxies [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 506 pix - 141k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 1012 pix - 320k] This breakthrough is based on observations made with the Visible Multi-Object Spectrograph (VIMOS) as part of the VIMOS VLT Deep Survey (VVDS). The VVDS started early 2002 on Melipal, one of the 8.2-m telescopes of ESO's Very Large Telescope Array [2]. In a total sample of about 8,000 galaxies selected only on the basis of their observed brightness in red light, almost 1,000 bright and vigorously star forming galaxies were discovered that were formed between 9 and 12 billion years ago (i.e. about 1,500 to 4,500 million years after the Big Bang). "To our surprise, says Olivier Le Fèvre, from the Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille (France) and co-leader of the VVDS project, "this is two to six times higher than had been found previously. These galaxies had been missed because previous surveys had selected objects in a much more restrictive manner than we did. And they did so to accommodate the much lower efficiency of the previous generation of instruments." While observations and models have consistently indicated that the Universe had not yet formed many stars in the first billion years of cosmic time, the discovery announced today by scientists calls for a significant change in this picture. The astronomers indeed find that stars formed two to three times

  10. Optical Properties of AC60 Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Michael C.

    1996-03-01

    The alkali intercalated fullerene system A_1C_60 (A=K, Rb, or Cs) undergoes a number of structural and electronic phase transitions. At elevated temperatures the structure is fcc, but when cooled below ~ 100 ^circC the structure becomes dependent on the sample's thermal treatment. Infrared and Raman spectroscopic investigations into the various resultant phases will be presented.^1,2 Upon slow cooling, the C_60 molecules form linear conducting polymers^3 which break the icosahedral symmetry of the pure fullerene and thus activate many previously silent vibrational modes. This phase is unexpectedly found to be stable in air.^4 At much lower temperatures (30-60K) a magnetic transition has been observed; we will present IR data obtained in this thermal region showing indications of a gap-like feature. If the samples are cooled very rapidly from high temperatures, an insulating phase is formed where even more symmetry breaking occurs. We argue that a dimerization of C_60, Rb_2(C_60)_2, is the likely structure in accord with the vibrational spectra,^2 and recent x-ray results. Both lower-symmetry phases of AC_60 can also be used to help identify the IR- and Raman-silent modes of unperturbed C_60. Work done at the State University of New York at Stony Brook in collaboration with Daniel Koller, Peter W. Stephens, Laszlo Mihaly (State University of New York at Stony Brook), C. Kendziora and A. Rosenberg (Naval Research Laboratory). Supported by NSF Grant DMR9202528. ^1Michael C. Martin, Daniel Koller, Xiaoqun Du, Peter W. Stephens and Laszlo Mihaly, Phys. Rev. B 49, 10 818 (1994). ^2Michael C. Martin, Daniel Koller, A. Rosenberg, C. Kendziora, and L. Mihaly, Phys. Rev. B 51, 3210 (1995). ^3P.W. Stephens, G. Bortel, G. Faigel, M. Tegze, A. Jánossy, S. Pekker, G. Oszlányi and L. Forro, Nature (London) 370, 636 (1994). ^4Daniel Koller, Michael C. Martin, Peter W. Stephens, Laszlo Mihaly, Sandor Pekker, Andras Jánossy, Olivier Chauvet and Laszlo Forro, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66

  11. O-GlcNAcylation stabilizes β-catenin through direct competition with phosphorylation at threonine 41

    PubMed Central

    Olivier-Van Stichelen, Stéphanie; Dehennaut, Vanessa; Buzy, Armelle; Zachayus, Jean-Luc; Guinez, Céline; Mir, Anne-Marie; El Yazidi-Belkoura, Ikram; Copin, Marie-Christine; Boureme, Didier; Loyaux, Denis; Ferrara, Pascual; Lefebvre, Tony

    2014-01-01

    Dysfunctions in Wnt signaling increase β-catenin stability and are associated with cancers, including colorectal cancer. In addition, β-catenin degradation is decreased by nutrient-dependent O-GlcNAcylation. Human colon tumors and colons from mice fed high-carbohydrate diets exhibited higher amounts of β-catenin and O-GlcNAc relative to healthy tissues and mice fed a standard diet, respectively. Administration of the O-GlcNAcase inhibitor thiamet G to mice also increased colonic expression of β-catenin. By ETD-MS/MS, we identified 4 O-GlcNAcylation sites at the N terminus of β-catenin (S23/T40/T41/T112). Furthermore, mutation of serine and threonine residues within the D box of β-catenin reduced O-GlcNAcylation by 75%. Interestingly, elevating O-GlcNAcylation in human colon cell lines drastically reduced phosphorylation at T41, a key residue of the D box responsible for β-catenin stability. Analyses of β-catenin O-GlcNAcylation mutants reinforced T41 as the most crucial residue that controls the β-catenin degradation rate. Finally, inhibiting O-GlcNAcylation decreased the β-catenin/α-catenin interaction necessary for mucosa integrity, whereas O-GlcNAcase silencing improved this interaction. These results suggest that O-GlcNAcylation regulates not only the stability of β-catenin, but also affects its localization at the level of adherens junctions. Accordingly, we propose that O-GlcNAcylation of β-catenin is a missing link between the glucose metabolism deregulation observed in metabolic disorders and the development of cancer.—Olivier-Van Stichelen, S., Dehennaut, V., Buzy, A., Zachayus, J.-L., Guinez, C., Mir, A.-M., El Yazidi-Belkoura, I., Copin, M.-C., Boureme, D., Loyaux, D., Ferrara, P., Lefebvre, T. O-GlcNAcylation stabilizes β-catenin through direct competition with phosphorylation at threonine 41. PMID:24744147

  12. 2012 Aspen Winter Conferences on High Energy and Astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, John; Olivier, Dore; Fox, Patrick; Furic, Ivan; Halkiadakis, Eva; Schmidt, Fabian; Senatore, Leonardo; Smith, Kendrick M; Whiteson, Daniel

    2012-05-01

    from other institutions and countries or due to incipient collaborations. In addition, Shamit Kachru of Stanford University gave a public lecture titled The Small (and Large) Scale Structure of Space-Time.There were 237 members of the general public in attendance. Before the lecture, 65 people attended the physics cafe to discuss the current topic with Matthew Kleban (New York University) and Chao-Lin Kuo (Stanford University). This workshop was organized by Olivier Dore (Jet Propulsion Lab), Fabian Schmidt (Caltech), Leonardo Senatore (Stanford University), and Kendrick Smith (Princeton University).

  13. Comparison of UPE and GPR systems for the survey of reinforced concrete structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derobert, Xavier; Villain, Géraldine; Joubert, Anaelle

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study is to compare two non-destructive techniques using sonic and radar pulses for the survey of reinforced concre structures. The first studied testing method is a Ultrasonic (US) Pulse-Echo (model M2502, from Acoustic Control Systems manufacturer) composed of an array of 12 S-wave transmitters and 12 receivers in one bloc. Their central frequency is equal to 55 kHz. As the averaged USvelocities in concrete tend to 1800-3000 m/s, the corresponding wavelengths tend to 3-5 cm. The Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) system has been performed with high frequency antennas above 1 GHz (1.5 and 2.6 GHz antennas), which lead to the same range of EM wavelengths than the US ones. Measurements have been performed on some thick reinforced concrete elements of structures, and then are compared in term of resolution, depth penetration and ease to use. One of the studied elements is a concrete beam (dimensions : 16 m long, 0.5 m width and 1 m high) designed in an European Projet (FP7_ISTIMES) and damaged by controled impacts of blocks of several tons dropped from few meters [1]. Therefore, the objective of this studyis to compare the two techniques, and for the last studied element to detect the major cracks and the spallings of the cover concrete which are visible from the opposite side. References: Malhotra V.M., Carino, N.J., CRC Handbook on Nondestructive Testing of Concrete, CRC Press LLC, , 1991, 343p. Taffe A., Wiggenhauser H., Validation for Thickness Measurement in Civil Engineering with Ultrasonic Echo, International Symposium NDT-CE, Saint-Louis, USA, 2006, pp506-512. Géraldine Villain, Anaëlle Luczak, Olivier Durand, Xavier Dérobert, Deepening of the measurement technique by Ultrasonic Pulse Echo UPE, Report, IFSTTAR, January 2011, 22p. Catapano I., Di Napoli R., Soldovieri F., Bavusi M., Loperte A., Dumoulin J. (2012), « Structural monitoring via microwave tomography-enhanced GPR : the Montagnole test site », J. Geophys. Eng., Vol. 9, pp. 100-107.

  14. Discovery of new angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors from medicinal plants to treat hypertension using an in vitro assay

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose of the study Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors plays a critical role in treating hypertension. The purpose of the present investigation was to evaluate ACE inhibition activity of 50 Iranian medicinal plants using an in vitro assay. Methods The ACE activity was evaluated by determining the hydrolysis rate of substrate, hippuryl-L-histidyl-L-leucine (HHL), using reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Total phenolic content and antioxidant activity were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method and DPPH radical scavenging assay respectively. Results Six extracts revealed > 50% ACE inhibition activity at 330 μg/ml concentration. They were Berberis integerrima Bunge. (Berberidaceae) (88.2 ± 1.7%), Crataegus microphylla C. Koch (Rosaceae) (80.9 ± 1.3%), Nymphaea alba L. (Nymphaeaceae) (66.3 ± 1.2%), Onopordon acanthium L. (Asteraceae) (80.2 ± 2.0%), Quercus infectoria G. Olivier. (Fagaceae) (93.9 ± 2.5%) and Rubus sp. (Rosaceae) (51.3 ± 1.0%). Q. infectoria possessed the highest total phenolic content with 7410 ± 101 mg gallic acid/100 g dry plant. Antioxidant activity of Q. infectoria (IC50 value 1.7 ± 0.03 μg/ml) was more than that of BHT (IC50 value of 10.3 ± 0.15 μg/ml) and Trolox (IC50 value of 3.2 ± 0.06 μg/ml) as the positive controls. Conclusions In this study, we introduced six medicinal plants with ACE inhibition activity. Despite the high ACE inhibition and antioxidant activity of Q. infectoria, due to its tannin content (tannins interfere in ACE activity), another plant, O. acanthium, which also had high ACE inhibition and antioxidant activity, but contained no tannin, could be utilized in further studies for isolation of active compounds. PMID:24359711

  15. What can we learn about ship emission inventories from measurements of air pollutants over the Mediterranean Sea?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marmer, E.; Dentener, F.; Aardenne, J. V.; Cavalli, F.; Vignati, E.; Velchev, K.; Hjorth, J.; Boersma, F.; Vinken, G.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Raes, F.

    2009-09-01

    Ship emission estimates diverge widely for all chemical compounds for several reasons: use of different methodologies (bottom-up or top-down), activity data and emission factors can easily result in a difference ranging from a factor of 1.5 to even an order of magnitude. Combining three sets of observational data - ozone and black carbon measurements sampled at three coastal sites and on board of a Mediterranean cruise ship, as well as satellite observations of atmospheric NO2 column concentration over the same area - we assess the accuracy of the three most commonly used ship emission inventories, EDGAR FT (Olivier et al., 2005), emissions described by Eyring et al. (2005) and emissions reported by EMEP (Vestreng et al., 2007). Our tool is a global atmospheric chemistry transport model which simulates the chemical state of the Mediterranean atmosphere applying different ship emission inventories. The simulated contributions of ships to air pollutant levels in the Mediterranean atmosphere are significant but strongly depend on the inventory applied. Close to the major shipping routes relative contributions vary from 10 to 50% for black carbon and from 2 to 12% for ozone in the surface layer, as well as from 5 to 20% for nitrogen dioxide atmospheric column burden. The relative contributions are still significant over the North African coast, but less so over the South European coast because densely populated regions with significant human activity contribute relatively more to air pollution than ships, even if these regions attract a lot of ship traffic. The observations poorly constrain the ship emission inventories in the Eastern Mediterranean where the influence of uncertain land based emissions, the model transport and wet deposition are at least as important as the signal from ships. In the Western Mediterranean, the regional EMEP emission inventory gives the best match with most measurements, followed by Eyring for NO2 and ozone and by EDGAR for black carbon

  16. What can we learn about ship emission inventories from measurements of air pollutants over the Mediterranean Sea?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marmer, E.; Dentener, F.; Aardenne, J. V.; Cavalli, F.; Vignati, E.; Velchev, K.; Hjorth, J.; Boersma, F.; Vinken, G.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Raes, F.

    2009-03-01

    Ship emission estimates diverge widely for all chemical compounds for several reasons: use of different methodologies (bottom-up or top-down), activity data and emission factors can easily result in a difference from a factor of 1.5 to two orders of magnitude. Despite these large discrepancies in existing ship emission inventories for air pollutants very little has been done to evaluate their consistency with atmospheric measurements at open sea. Combining three sets of observational data - ozone and black carbon measurements sampled at three coastal sites and on board of a Mediterranean cruise ship, as well as satellite observations of atmospheric NO2 column concentration over the same area - we assess the accuracy of the three most commonly used ship emission inventories, EDGAR FT (Olivier et al., 2005), emissions described by Eyring et al. (2005) and emissions reported by EMEP (Vestreng et al., 2007). Our tool is a global atmospheric chemistry transport model which simulates the chemical state of the Mediterranean atmosphere applying different ship emission inventories. The simulated contributions of ships to air pollutant levels in the Mediterranean atmosphere are significant but strongly depend on the inventory applied. Close to the major shipping routes relative contributions vary from 10 to 50% for black carbon and from 2 to 12% for ozone in the surface layer, as well as from 5 to 20% for nitrogen dioxide atmospheric column burden. The relative contributions are still significant over the North African coast, but less so over the South European coast. The observations poorly constrain the ship emission inventories in the Eastern Mediterranean where the influence of uncertain land based emissions, the model transport and wet deposition are at least as important as the signal from ships. In the Western Mediterranean, the regional EMEP emission inventory gives the best match with most measurements, followed by Eyring for NO2 and ozone and by EDGAR for black

  17. Geostability of Didymos, the target of the AIDA mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yun; Richardson, Derek C.; Barnouin, Olivier; Maurel, Clara; Michel, Patrick; Schwartz, Stephen R.; Ballouz, Ronald; Benner, Lance A. M.; Naidu, Shantanu P.

    2016-10-01

    , 27; [3] Olivier et al. 2015, DPS 47; [4] Schwartz et al. 2012, Granul. Matter 14, 363; [5] Zhang et al. 2016, in preparation.

  18. AnClim and ProClimDB software for data quality control and homogenization of time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanek, Petr

    2015-04-01

    During the last decade, a software package consisting of AnClim, ProClimDB and LoadData for processing (mainly climatological) data has been created. This software offers a complex solution for processing of climatological time series, starting from loading the data from a central database (e.g. Oracle, software LoadData), through data duality control and homogenization to time series analysis, extreme value evaluations and RCM outputs verification and correction (ProClimDB and AnClim software). The detection of inhomogeneities is carried out on a monthly scale through the application of AnClim, or newly by R functions called from ProClimDB, while quality control, the preparation of reference series and the correction of found breaks is carried out by the ProClimDB software. The software combines many statistical tests, types of reference series and time scales (monthly, seasonal and annual, daily and sub-daily ones). These can be used to create an "ensemble" of solutions, which may be more reliable than any single method. AnClim software is suitable for educational purposes: e.g. for students getting acquainted with methods used in climatology. Built-in graphical tools and comparison of various statistical tests help in better understanding of a given method. ProClimDB is, on the contrary, tool aimed for processing of large climatological datasets. Recently, functions from R may be used within the software making it more efficient in data processing and capable of easy inclusion of new methods (when available under R). An example of usage is easy comparison of methods for correction of inhomogeneities in daily data (HOM of Paul Della-Marta, SPLIDHOM method of Olivier Mestre, DAP - own method, QM of Xiaolan Wang and others). The software is available together with further information on www.climahom.eu . Acknowledgement: this work was partially funded by the project "Building up a multidisciplinary scientific team focused on drought" No. CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0248.

  19. Colloids and Nucleation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackerson, Bruce

    1997-01-01

    The objectives of the work funded under this grant were to develop a microphotographic technique and use it to monitor the nucleation and growth of crystals of hard colloidal spheres. Special attention is given to the possible need for microgravity studies in future experiments. A number of persons have been involved in this work. A masters student, Keith Davis, began the project and developed a sheet illumination apparatus and an image processing system for detection and analysis. His work on a segmentation program for image processing was sufficient for his master's research and has been published. A post doctoral student Bernie Olivier and a graduate student Yueming He, who originally suggested the sheet illumination, were funded by another source but along with Keith made photographic series of several samples (that had been made by Keith Davis). Data extraction has been done by Keith, Bernie, Yueming and two undergraduates employed on the grant. Results are published in Langmuir. These results describe the sheet lighting technique as one which illuminates not only the Bragg scattering crystal, but all the crystals. Thus, accurate crystal counts can be made for nucleation rate measurements. The strange crystal length scale reduction, observed in small angle light scattering (SALS) studies, following the initial nucleation and growth period, has been observed directly. The Bragg scattering (and dark) crystal size decreases in the crossover region. This could be an effect due to gravitational forces or due to over- compression of the crystal during growth. Direct observations indicate a complex morphology for the resulting hard sphere crystals. The crystal edges are fairly sharp but the crystals have a large degree of internal structure. This structure is a result of (unstable) growth and not aggregation. As yet unpublished work compares growth exponents data with data obtained by SALS. The nucleation rate density is determined over a broad volume fraction range

  20. The recent apple snails of Africa and Asia (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Ampullariidae: Afropomus, Forbesopomus, Lanistes, Pila, Saulea): a nomenclatural and type catalogue. The apple snails of the Americas: addenda and corrigenda.

    PubMed

    Cowie, Robert H

    2015-03-27

    earlier catalogue of the apple snails of the Americas are provided. No new names are proposed. Seven apparently new combinations are introduced, all with the genus Pila Preston: complicata Reeve, dira Reeve, major Germain (described as a variety of ovata Olivier), major Germain (described as a variety of speciosa Philippi), obvia Mabille, pallens Philippi, turbinoides Reeve.

  1. Biofilm development in a hotspot of mixing between shallow and deep groundwater in a fractured aquifer: field evidence from joint flow, chemical and microbiological characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochet, Olivier; Le Borgne, Tanguy; Pédrot, Mathieu; Labasque, Thierry; Lavenant, Nicolas; Petton, Christophe; Dufresne, Alexis; Ben Maamar, Sarah; Chatton, Eliot; De la Bernardie, Jérôme; Aquilina, Luc

    2015-04-01

    Biofilm development in a hotspot of mixing between shallow and deep groundwater in a fractured aquifer: field evidence from joint flow, chemical and microbiological characterization Olivier Bochet1, Tanguy Le Borgne1, Mathieu Pédrot1, Thierry Labasque1, Nicolas Lavenant1, Christophe Petton1, Alexis Dufresne2,Sarah Ben Maamar1-2, Eliot Chatton1, Jérôme de la Bernardie1, Luc Aquilina1 1: Géosciences Rennes, CNRS UMR 6118, Université de Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu bât 14B, Rennes, France 2: Ecobio, CNRS UMR 6553, Université de Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu, bât 14, Rennes, France Biofilms play a major role in controlling the fluxes and reactivity of chemical species transported in hydrological systems. Their development can have either positive impacts on groundwater quality (e.g. attenuation of contaminants under natural or stimulated conditions), or possible negative effects on subsurface operations (e.g. bio-clogging of geothermal dipoles or artificial recharge systems). Micro-organisms require both electron donors and electron acceptors for cellular growth, proliferation and maintenance of their metabolic functions. The mechanisms controlling these reactions derive from the interactions occurring at the micro-scale that depend on mineral compositions, the biota of subsurface environment, but also fluid mixing, which determines the local concentrations of nutriments, electron donors and electron acceptors. Hence, mixing zones between oxygen and nutriment rich shallow groundwater and mineralized deep groundwater are often considered as potential hotspots of microbial activity, although relatively few field data document flow distributions, transport properties, chemical gradients and micro-organisms distributions across these mixing interfaces. Here we investigate the origin of a localized biofilm development observed in the fractured granite aquifer at the Ploemeur observatory (H+ network hplus.ore.fr).This biofilm composed of ferro-oxidizing bacteria is

  2. The gut microbiota of larvae of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Oliver (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The red palm weevil (RPW) Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is one of the major pests of palms. The larvae bore into the palm trunk and feed on the palm tender tissues and sap, leading the host tree to death. The gut microbiota of insects plays a remarkable role in the host life and understanding the relationship dynamics between insects and their microbiota may improve the biological control of insect pests. The purpose of this study was to analyse the diversity of the gut microbiota of field-caught RPW larvae sampled in Sicily (Italy). Results The 16S rRNA gene-based Temporal Thermal Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (TTGE) of the gut microbiota of RPW field-trapped larvae revealed low bacterial diversity and stability of the community over seasons and among pools of larvae from different host trees. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene V3 region confirmed low complexity and assigned 98% of the 75,564 reads to only three phyla: Proteobacteria (64.7%) Bacteroidetes (23.6%) and Firmicutes (9.6%) and three main families [Enterobacteriaceae (61.5%), Porphyromonadaceae (22.1%) and Streptococcaceae (8.9%)]. More than half of the reads could be classified at the genus level and eight bacterial genera were detected in the larval RPW gut at an abundance ≥1%: Dysgonomonas (21.8%), Lactococcus (8.9%), Salmonella (6.8%), Enterobacter (3.8%), Budvicia (2.8%), Entomoplasma (1.4%), Bacteroides (1.3%) and Comamonas (1%). High abundance of Enterobacteriaceae was also detected by culturing under aerobic conditions. Unexpectedly, acetic acid bacteria (AAB), that are known to establish symbiotic associations with insects relying on sugar-based diets, were not detected. Conclusions The RPW gut microbiota is composed mainly of facultative and obligate anaerobic bacteria with a fermentative metabolism. These bacteria are supposedly responsible for palm tissue fermentation in the tunnels where RPW larvae thrive and might have a key role in the insect

  3. La luxation chronique du coude chez l'enfant: à propos de 20 cas

    PubMed Central

    Atarraf, Karima; Arroud, Mounir; Chater, Lamiae; Afifi, My Abderrahmane

    2014-01-01

    La luxation négligée du coude chez l'enfant est peu fréquente dans les pays industrialisés, elle n'est pas en revanche rare dans notre contexte. Nous rapportons une série de 20 cas, colligée au service d'Orthopédie Pédiatrique du CHU HASSAN II de Fès, sur une période de 4 ans. En effet, 14 malades étaient de sexe masculin, avec un âge moyen de 8,5 ans. Le mécanisme principal était la chute d'olivier. Le délai de consultation était très variable. 19 enfants ont été traités traditionnellement. La raideur constituait le motif principal de consultation. Avec une flexion inférieure à 70°. Un seul malade avait présenté un syndrome de Volkmann. La luxation était isolée et postéro-externe dans la majorité des cas. La voie d'abord médiane postérieure était adoptée chez tous nos malades. 15 patients ont bénéficié d'une arthrolyse avec arthrodèse provisoire. La rééducation était systématique. Le résultat a été bon avec une flexion à 90° et un secteur de mobilité supérieur à 60° chez 9 de nos malades sur un recul de 3 ans. En définitive, la luxation invétérée du coude est une pathologie du milieu rural; la facilité d'accès au soin reste la meilleure prévention. PMID:25574324

  4. From Quantum Moment to Ritual Moment: Notions of Time and the Development of Theological Models.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, David Clifton

    1995-01-01

    Discussion of models in theology has become a significant issue since the mid nineteen eighties. Whether in matters of soteriology, ecclesiology, missiology, or liturgy, many theologians have begun to examine the model structures of their specialties. Such an examination can serve as the foundation for scholarly contact with other disciplines, both in the humanities and the sciences, where the analysis of models is already well established. To date, there has been no broadly interdisciplinary inspection of such models and their points of commonality with theological disciplines. This dissertation investigates models (specifically, temporal models) in six different fields: cognitive psychology, hermeneutics, quantum and relativity physics, the philosophy of history and narrative, music, and ritual studies. Within these fields, specific attention is given to the role of symbol systems and metaphoric language, as well as to the phenomenology of temporal experience, in the formulation and development of models of time. The intention is to develop a prospectus for a theological model of time that is epistemologically sound, linguistically clear, and experientially grounded. In the area of cognitive psychology, the work of the biogenetic structuralist school, and that of Jean Piaget, are highlighted. The hermeneutic discussion focuses on the metaphoric studies of George Lakoff and Mark Johnson, as well as the writings of Hans Georg Gadamer. In the areas of quantum and relativity physics, the primary figures considered are Mary Hesse, Ian Barbour, Stephen Hawking, and P. C. W. Davies. History and narrative are approached through the metaphoric and historical analyses of Paul Ricoeur. The phenomenological and musicological issues of musical time are explored, with emphasis on the work of Susannne Langer, Henri Bergson, Jonathan Kramer, and Olivier Messiaen. Ritual notions of time are investigated in the works of Mircea Eliade, Victor Turner, Clifford Geertz, Pierre

  5. Behavior of major and trace elements upon weathering of peridotites in New Caledonia : A possible site on ultramafic rocks for the Critical Zone Exploration Network (CZEN) ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juillot, Farid; Fandeur, D.; Fritsch, E.; Morin, G.; Ambrosi, J. P.; Olivi, L.; Cognigni, A.; Hazemann, J. L.; Proux, O.; Webb, S.; Brown, G. E., Jr.

    2010-05-01

    ). However, these high concentration of potentially toxic elements can represent a serious hazard for the environmental quality of the Caledonian ecosystem which is a '' biodiversity hotspot' (Myers, 2000), which emphasize the strong need for characterizing the natural cycling of these elements upon weathering of ultramafic rocks. To reach this goal, we have studied the mineralogical distribution, crystal-chemistry and mass balance modelling of major (Si, Mg, Al, Fe, Mn) and trace elements (Ni, Cr and Co) in the freely-drained weathering profile developed in the serpentinized harzburgites of Mt Koniambo (West Coast of New Caledonia). Results show that both hydrothermal and meteoric processes contributed to the vertical differentiation of this freely drained weathering profiles in serpentinized ultramafic rocks. Finally, they also emphasize the importance of both redox reactions and interactions with Mn- and Fe-oxyhydroxydes (Fandeur et al., 2009a; 2009b) to explain the opposite behavior observed between very mobile Ni and almost immobile Cr (Fandeur et al., 2010). These results bring new insights on the geochemical behavior of trace elements upon weathering of ultramafic rocks under tropical conditions leading to the formation of supergene ore deposits. They also emphasize the interest of such a weathering site on ultramafic rocks under tropical climate to complemente the reference sites of the Critical Zone Exploration Network (CZEN). References Cluzel D., Aitchinson J.C. and Picard C. (2001) Tectonic accretion and underplating of mafic terranes in the Late Eocene intraoceanic fore-arc of New-Caledonia (Southwest Pacific): geodynamic implications. Tectonophysics, 340, 23-59. Coleman, R.G. (1977) Ophiolites: Ancient oceanic lithosphere?: Berlin, Germany, Springer-Verlag, 229p. Fandeur D., Juillot F., Morin G., Olivi L., Cognigni A., Fialin M., Coufignal F., Ambrosi J.P., Guyot F. and Fritsch E. (2009a). Synchrotron-based speciation of chromium in an Oxisol from New

  6. Comet 67P's Pitted Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-11-01

    High-resolution imagery of comet 67P ChuryumovGerasimenko has revealed that its surface is covered in active pits some measuring hundreds of meters both wide and deep! But what processes caused these pits to form?Pitted LandscapeESAs Rosetta mission arrived at comet 67P in August 2014. As the comet continued its journey around the Sun, Rosetta extensively documented 67Ps surface through high-resolution images taken with the on-board instrument NavCam. These images have revealed that active, circular depressions are a common feature on the comets surface.In an attempt to determine how these pits formed, an international team of scientists led by Olivier Mousis (Laboratory of Astrophysics of Marseille) has run a series of simulations of a region of the comet the Seth region that contains a 200-meter-deep pit. These simulations include the effects of various phase transitions, heat transfer through the matrix of ices and dust, and gas diffusion throughout the porous material.Escaping VolatilesAdditional examples of pitted areas on 67Ps northern-hemisphere surface include the Ash region and the Maat region (both imaged September 2014 by NavCam) [Mousis et al. 2015]Previous studies have already eliminated two potential formation mechanisms for the pits: impacts (the sizes of the pits werent right) and erosion due to sunlight (the pits dont have the right shape). Mousis and collaborators assume that the pits are instead caused by the depletion of volatile materials chemical compounds with low boiling points either via explosive outbursts at the comets surface, or via sinkholes opening from below the surface. But what process causes the volatiles to deplete when the comet heats?The authors simulations demonstrate that volatiles trapped beneath the comets surface either in icy structures called clathrates or within amorphous ice can be suddenly released as the comet warms up. The team shows that the release of volatiles from these two structures can create 200-meter

  7. The cicadas of Argentina with new records, a new genus and fifteen new species (Hemiptera: Cicadoidea: Cicadidae).

    PubMed

    Sanborn, Allen F; Heath, Maxine S

    2014-10-11

    within Guyalna bonaerensis (Berg, 1879). Derotettix proseni Torres, 1945 is determined to be a junior synonym of Derotettix wagneri Distant, 1905 syn. n. Dorisiana metcalfi nom. nov. pro Cicada viridis Olivier, 1790 nec Cicada viridis Linnaeus, 1758 is proposed. Tettigades lizeriana Delétang, 1919 is shown to be an invalid name for the purposes of zoological nomenclature. The first records for Argentina of Fidicinoides determinata (Walker, 1858), Fidicinoides vinula (Stål, 1854) comb. n., rev. stat., Prasinosoma fuembuenai Torres, 1963, Ariasa bilaqueata (Uhler, 1903), Ariasa colombiae (Distant, 1892), Carineta boliviana Distant, 1905, Carineta gemella Boulard, 1986, Calyria stigma (Walker, 1850), Selymbria pandora Distant, 1911, Taphura hastifera (Walker, 1858), Taphura misella (Stål, 1854), and Tettigades angularis Torres, 1958 are provided. Ten species are removed from the Argentine cicada fauna. The new records and new species represent a 36% increase in the known cicada fauna. Fifty-eight species (54%) and 10 genera (27%) are currently endemic to Argentina.

  8. MoMar-Demo at Lucky Strike. A near-real time multidisciplinary observatory of hydrothermal processes and ecosystems at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannat, M.; Sarradin, P.; Blandin, J.; Escartin, J.; Colaco, A.; MoMAR-Demo Scientific Party : Aron Michael, Aumont Virginie, Baillard Christian, Ballu Valérie, Barreyre Thibaut, Blandin Jérôme, Blin Alexandre, Boulart Cédric, Cannat Mathilde, Carval Thierry, Castillo Alain, Chavagnac Valérie, Coail Jean Yves, Colaço Ana, Corela Carlos, Courrier Christophe, Crawford Wayne, Cuvelier Daphné, Daniel Romuald, Dausse Denis, Escartin Javier, Fabrice Fontaine, Gabsi Taoufik, Gayet Nicolas, Guyader Gérard, Lallier François, Lecomte Benoit, Legrand Julien, Lino Silva, Miranda Miguel, Mitard Emmelyne, Pichavant Pascal, Pot Olivier, Reverdin Gilles, Rommevaux Céline, Sarradin Pierre Marie, Sarrazin Jozée, Tanguy Virginie, Villinger Heinrich, Zbinden Magali

    2011-12-01

    , pressure probes, tiltmeter, temperature probes in selected smokers, currentmeters and temperature probes in the water column), and colonization devices for time-integrated faunal studies. In this presentation we will outline the latest results of this prototype sub-sea multidisciplinary observatory system. The MoMAR-Demo Scientific Party : Aron Michael, Aumont Virginie, Baillard Christian, Ballu Valérie, Barreyre Thibaut, Blandin Jérôme, Blin Alexandre, Boulart Cédric, Cannat Mathilde, Carval Thierry, Castillo Alain, Chavagnac Valérie, Coail Jean Yves, Colaço Ana, Corela Carlos, Courrier Christophe, Crawford Wayne, Cuvelier Daphné, Daniel Romuald, Dausse Denis, Escartin Javier, Fabrice Fontaine, Gabsi Taoufik, Gayet Nicolas, Guyader Gérard, Lallier François, Lecomte Benoit, Legrand Julien, Lino Silva, Miranda Miguel, Mitard Emmelyne, Pichavant Pascal, Pot Olivier, Reverdin Gilles, Rommevaux Céline, Sarradin Pierre Marie, Sarrazin Jozée, Tanguy Virginie, Villinger Heinrich, Zbinden Magali

  9. The Frugal Cosmic Ant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-09-01

    Using ESO's Very Large Telescope Interferometer and its unique ability to see small details, astronomers have uncovered a flat, nearly edge-on disc of silicates in the heart of the magnificent Ant Nebula. The disc seems, however, too 'skinny' to explain how the nebula got its intriguing ant-like shape. ESO PR Photo 42/07 ESO PR Photo 42/07 A Disc in the Ant Nebula The Ant Nebula is one of the most striking planetary nebulae known. Planetary nebulae - whose name arises because most are spherical and looked like planets when they were first discovered through older, less powerful telescopes - are glowing structures of gas cast off by solar-like stars at the ends of their lives. The morphology of the Ant Nebula - a bright core, three nested pairs of bipolar lobes and a ring-like outflow - is so unique that it was nicknamed the 'Chamber of Horrors' of planetary nebulae in the late 1950s. But how can a spherical star produce such complex structures? The answer, many astronomers think, requires understanding of the discs surrounding the central star. By their nature, these discs bear witness to the phenomena that lead to the asymmetrical structures of planetary nebulae. "The challenge is to actually detect these discs," explains team leader Olivier Chesneau, from the Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur, France. "Most astronomical instruments do not have a sharp enough view to find, let alone study them. The Very Large Telescope Interferometer however, with its exceptionally high spatial resolution, is a powerful disc-hunter." The disc of the Ant Nebula, which cannot be detected with a single 8.2-m VLT Unit Telescope, was uncovered in the interferometric mode where two 8.2-m Unit Telescopes were used to combine light, through the MID-infrared Interferometric instrument (MIDI). The observations reveal a flat, nearly edge-on disc whose major axis is perpendicular to the axis of the bipolar lobes. The disc extends from about 9 times the mean distance between the Earth and the

  10. Cosmology with the WFIRST High Latitude Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dore, Olivier

    Cosmic acceleration is the most surprising cosmological discovery in many decades. Testing and distinguishing among possible explanations requires cosmological measurements of extremely high precision that probe the full history of cosmic expansion and structure growth. The WFIRST-AFTA mission, as described in the Science Definition Team (SDT) reports (Spergel 2013, 2015), has the ability to improve these measurements by 1-2 orders of magnitude compared to the current state of the art, while simultaneously extending their redshift grasp, greatly improving control of systematic effects, and taking a unified approach to multiple probes that provide complementary physical information and cross-checks of cosmological results. We have assembled a team with the expertise and commitment needed to address the stringent challenges of the WFIRST dark energy program through the Project's formulation phase. After careful consideration, we have elected to address investigations A (Galaxy Redshift Survey) and C (Weak Lensing and Cluster Growth) of the WFIRST SIT NRA with a unified team, because the two investigations are tightly linked at both the technical level and the theoretical modeling level. The imaging and spectroscopic elements of the High Latitude Survey (HLS) will be realized as an integrated observing program, and they jointly impose requirements on instrument and telescope performance, operations, and data transfer. The methods for simulating and interpreting weak lensing and galaxy clustering observations largely overlap, and many members of our team have expertise in both areas. The team PI, Olivier Dore, is a cosmologist with a broad expertise in cosmic microwave background and large scale structures. Yun Wang and Chris Hirata will serve as Lead Co-Investigators for topics A and C, respectively. Many members of our team have been involved with the design and requirements of a dark energy space mission for a decade or more, including the Co-Chair and three

  11. The Upsilon Pegasid Meteor Shower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Povenmire, H.

    1995-09-01

    ]. These events showed a confirmed shower at least 20 days in length. The radiant appears to be approximately 3 degrees in diameter. Computer modeling using the D-criterion developed by Southworth and Hawkins [8] indicate that it could be much larger [3]. It is likely an old shower that is still intact, not disrupted by planetary perturbations due to its high inclination. These meteors cross the Earth's orbit while approaching the Sun. They arrive at perihelion about September 16.0 at a perihelion distance of 0.19 AU, half that of Mercury's orbit. The Earth travels through this nearly vertically inclined stream in almost the shortest possible interval. A shower duration as noted indicates a diameter of approximately 0.6 AU. References: [1] Povenmire H. (1980) Fireballs, Meteors and Meteorites, J.S.B. Enterprises Indian Harbour Beach, Florida, 215 pp. [2] Ceplecha Z. (1982) S.E.A.N. Bulletin, 7, 13-14. [3] Kronk G. (1988) Meteor Showers; A Descriptive Catalog, Enslow, Hillside, New Jersey, 281 pp. [4] Olivier C. P. (1937) Astrophys. J., 46, 41-56. [5] Simakina E. G. (1967) Solar System Res., 1, 96-121. [6] Babadzhanov P.B. (1963) Smithson. Contrib. Astrophys., 7, 287-291. [7] McCroskey R. and Posen A. (1961) Smithson. Contrib. Astrophys., 4, 15-84. [8] Southworth R. B. and Hawkins G. S. (1963) Smithson. Contrib. Astrophys., 7, 261-285.

  12. Gastropoda-Bivalvia Fauna And Neogene-Quaternary Stratigraphy of the Southwest of Dardanelles (Çanakkale-NWAnatolia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapan, Sevinç; Kabasakal, Sinem

    2016-04-01

    Brusina, Pisidium amnicum (Müller), species have been determined from the mudstone, claystone, carbonated sandstone lithologies. These fauna are characteristic for the Dasic basin in Late Pliocene (Romanian). Also, Avimactra karabugasica (Andrussow), Avimactra ososkovi (Andrussow), Avimactra subcaspia (Andrussow), Avimactra venjukovi (Andrussow). Dreissena (Dreissena) polymorpha (Pallas), Dreissena rostriformis Deshayes species have been determined from the upper level of the section composed of carbonated sandstone lithology. These fauna are characteristic for the Caspic basin in the Late Pliocene (Aktschaglian). In the Treenean and Monastrian times, the marine fauna (Gibbula (Adriaria) albida (Gmelin), Gibbula (Tunulus) umblicaris (Linneaus), Hydrobia (Hydrobia) acuta (Draparnaud), Alvania (Alvania) reticulata (Montagu), Turritella (Turritella) tricarinata (Brocchi), Pirenella conica (Blainville), Bittium (Bittium) reticulatum (Da Costa), Thericium (Thericium) vulgatum (Brugiere), Radix (Radix) peregra (Müller) are belonging to the Gastropoda and Mytilaster lineatus (Gmelin in Linneaus), Ostrea edulis Linneaus, Ostrea lamellosa Linneaus, Paphia (Polititapes) senescens (Coc.), Timoclea ovata (Pennant), Corbula (Varicorbula) gibba (Olivi)) have been observed. In the Pontian, the Basin has been low salinity and semi-marine conditions. In the Lower Romanian, the Basin was developed as brackish water character feeding by fresh water. Late Lower Romanian=Lower Kujalnikien, Basin was became more brackish character by increasing salinity. During the Upper Kujalnikien=Upper Romanian, feeding by freshwater was increased. The youngest sequence of the basin is Treenean-Monastrian terraces sedimented by increasing sea level. These marine fauna indicate that there was a connection between Black Sea and Mediterranean in that time. Key words: Neogene, Gastropoda-Bivalvia, Romanian, Dasic, Caspic.

  13. A High Density Ground-Level Ozone Sensor Network in the Lower Fraser Valley, BC, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bart, M.; Ainslie, B.; Alavi, M.; Henshaw, G.; McKendry, I.; Reid, K.; Salmond, J. A.; Steyn, D.; Williams, D.

    2012-12-01

    quality using data from neighbouring sensors and nearby MetroVancouver reference ozone monitors is also described. 1. D.G. Steyn, J.W. Bottenheim, R.B. Thomson, Overview of tropospheric ozone in the Lower Fraser Valley, and the Pacific '93 field study, Atmospheric Environment, Volume 31, Issue 14, July 1997, Pages 2025-2035, 10.1016/S1352-2310(97)00018-6. 2. I.G. McKendry, D.G. Steyn, J. Lundgren, R.M. Hoff, W. Strapp, K. Anlauf, F. Froude, J.B. Martin, R.M. Banta, L.D. Olivier, Elevated ozone layers and vertical down-mixing over the Lower Fraser Valley, BC, Atmospheric Environment, Volume 31, Issue 14, July 1997, Pages 2135-2146, 10.1016/S1352-2310(96)00127-6. 3. B. Ainslie, C. Reuten, D.G. Steyn, Nhu D. Le, James V. Zidek, Application of an entropy-based Bayesian optimization technique to the redesign of an existing monitoring network for single air pollutants, Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 90, Issue 8, June 2009, Pages 2715-2729, 10.1016/j.jenvman.2009.02.016. 4. J.A. Salmond, I.G. McKendry, Secondary ozone maxima in a very stable nocturnal boundary layer: observations from the Lower Fraser Valley, BC, Atmospheric Environment, Volume 36, Issue 38, December 2002, Pages 5771-5782, 10.1016/S1352-2310(02)00698-2.

  14. BOOK REVIEW Analytical and Numerical Approaches to Mathematical Relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, John M.

    2007-08-01

    . This reviewer found the exposition much clearer than much of the phenomenological literature. Finally László Szabados gives a very systematic spacetime discussion of the group theoretical analysis of general relativity by Beig and Ó Murchadha, addressing the Poincaré structure and the centre-of-mass of asymptotically flat spacetimes. The third and final group is entitled 'numerical methods'. Beverly Berger summarizes her 'Living Review' on numerical approaches to spacetime singularities and includes more recent analytical results emphasizing the synergy between mathematical and numerical approaches. For numerical evolutions on a domain of compact spatial support boundary conditions will be needed and, as pointed out by this reviewer, for unconstrained evolutions it is essential that the boundary conditions ensure constraint conservation. This aspect is discussed in a clear elementary way by Simonetta Frittelli and Roberto Gómez. Dave Neilsen, Luis Lehner, Olivier Sarbach and Manuel Tiglio review algorithms adopted recently by the Louisiana group, particularly summation by parts and constraint monitoring with applications to bubble and black hole spacetimes. Finally Maria Babiuc, Béla Szilágyi and Jeffrey Winicour discuss the Pittsburgh group's approach with particular reference to harmonic gauge conditions. It is perhaps unfortunate for the editors of this work that published proceedings of more recent numerical relativity meetings exist already. However, as this reviewer has tried to indicate, this slim (but not inexpensive) volume contains a wealth of diverse, fascinating material which needs to be perused by research students and others new to this field. Many will wish to buy it, but even if you do not, make sure your institution's library purchases a copy!

  15. Deformable Mirror Materials Issue Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Rudd, R E

    2008-05-27

    It was a pleasure to speak with you and Dr. Olivier Guyon about your project to develop a coronagraph and in particular about materials science considerations in the development of the deformable mirror (DM) for the coronagraph. The coronagraph application will demand more of a DM than previous applications with regard to precision, and since the characterization and modeling tools are currently under development, you asked me to comment on materials issues that might impact the DM design and testing. I have not conducted research on this question, and my own research on modeling MEMS has not included DM systems. I am only in a position to discuss some general considerations that may help in developing a research plan for the DM system. As I understand it, the relevant points about the DM system are as follows. The DM surface needs to be positioned to less than 1 {angstrom} RMS of the desired shape, and be stable to 0.3 {angstrom} RMS for an hour. In the ultimate application in space the stability requirements may be greater. For example, the DM shape can be set using a bright star and then allow the coronagraph to be turned to a dim star to collect data for several hours, counting on the mirror shape to be stable. The DM is made of a polysilicon membrane coated with one or more metal layers for the reflective surface and actuated by 32x32 or 64x64 electrostatic actuators on the back side. The uncertainty in the position of any one actuator should be at the few-picometer level or less averaged over the 300-{micro}m region of the actuator. Currently, experiments are conducted that can characterize the surface shape to the 1 nm level, and it is anticipated that the experiments will be able to characterize the shape at the sub-Angstrom level but not in the immediate future. Regarding stability, under relatively large deformations (10's of nm), the DM mirror surface shows no hysteresis at the measurable nm level. Let me begin by saying that I am not aware of any

  16. Stars Just Got Bigger - A 300 Solar Mass Star Uncovered

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-07-01

    they age," says Paul Crowther. "Being a little over a million years old, the most extreme star R136a1 is already 'middle-aged' and has undergone an intense weight loss programme, shedding a fifth of its initial mass over that time, or more than fifty solar masses." If R136a1 replaced the Sun in our Solar System, it would outshine the Sun by as much as the Sun currently outshines the full Moon. "Its high mass would reduce the length of the Earth's year to three weeks, and it would bathe the Earth in incredibly intense ultraviolet radiation, rendering life on our planet impossible," says Raphael Hirschi from Keele University, who belongs to the team. These super heavyweight stars are extremely rare, forming solely within the densest star clusters. Distinguishing the individual stars - which has now been achieved for the first time - requires the exquisite resolving power of the VLT's infrared instruments [2]. The team also estimated the maximum possible mass for the stars within these clusters and the relative number of the most massive ones. "The smallest stars are limited to more than about eighty times more than Jupiter, below which they are 'failed stars' or brown dwarfs," says team member Olivier Schnurr from the Astrophysikalisches Institut Potsdam. "Our new finding supports the previous view that there is also an upper limit to how big stars can get, although it raises the limit by a factor of two, to about 300 solar masses." Within R136, only four stars weighed more than 150 solar masses at birth, yet they account for nearly half of the wind and radiation power of the entire cluster, comprising approximately 100 000 stars in total. R136a1 alone energises its surroundings by more than a factor of fifty compared to the Orion Nebula cluster, the closest region of massive star formation to Earth. Understanding how high mass stars form is puzzling enough, due to their very short lives and powerful winds, so that the identification of such extreme cases as R136a1

  17. Measuring the Size of a Small, Frost World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-01-01

    . This is more than a factor one hundred smaller than Pluto's surface pressure, which is estimated to be in the range 10-15 microbars. "Comparing Pluto and Charon, we seem to cross a borderline between bodies which may have bound atmospheres - like Pluto - and airless bodies like Charon", said Olivier Hainaut, from ESO and member of the team. The observations also indicate that methane ice, if present, should be restricted to very cold regions of the surface. Similarly, nitrogen ice would be confined at best to high northern latitudes or permanently shadowed regions of Charon. As Pluto and its satellite sweep across the Milky Way, observations of more occultations will be tempted from the ground, while the NASA's Pluto-Kuiper Belt Mission, to be launched in January 2006, will be travelling towards the planet, that it should reach in July 2015. A report of these results is to be published in the January 5, 2006 issue of Nature ("Charon's size and upper limit on its atmosphere from a stellar occultation", by B. Sicardy, A. Bellucci, E. Gendron, F. Lacombe, S. Lacour, J. Lecacheux, E. Lellouch, S. Renner, S. Pau, F. Roques, T. Widemann, F. Colas, F. Vachier, N. Ageorges, O. Hainaut, O. Marco, W. Beisker, E. Hummel, C. Feinstein, H. Levato, A. Maury, E. Frappa, B. Gaillard, M. Lavayssière, M. Di Sora, F. Mallia, G. Masi, R. Behrend, F. Carrier, O. Mousis, P. Rousselot, A. Alvarez-Candal, D. Lazzaro, C. Veiga, A.H. Andrei, M. Assafin, D.N. da Silva Neto, R. Vieira Martins, C. Jacques, E. Pimentel, D. Weaver, J.-F Lecampion, F. Doncel, T. Momiyama, and G. Tancredi). High resolution images and their captions are available on this page.

  18. Light echoes whisper the distance to a star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-02-01

    -scale structures. ESO PR Photo 04b/08 ESO PR Photo 04b/08 A Cone in the Universe "By measuring the apparent velocities of large samples of galaxies over the last thirty years, astronomers have been able to reconstruct a three-dimensional map of the distribution of galaxies over large volumes of the Universe. This map revealed large-scale structures such as clusters of galaxies and filamentary superclusters," says Olivier Le Fèvre, member of the team. "But the measured velocities also contain information about the local motions of galaxies; these introduce small but significant distortions in the reconstructed maps of the Universe. We have shown that measuring this distortion at different epochs of the Universe's history is a way to test the nature of dark energy." Guzzo and his collaborators have been able to measure this effect by using the VIMOS spectrograph on Melipal, one of the four 8.2-m telescopes that is part of ESO's VLT. As part of the VIMOS-VLT Deep Survey (VVDS), of which Le Fèvre is the Principal Investigator, spectra of several thousands of galaxies in a 4-square-degree field (or 20 times the size of the full Moon) at epochs corresponding to about half the current age of the Universe (about 7 billion years ago) were obtained and analysed. ESO PR Video 04/08 ESO PR Video 04/08 Journey through galaxies "This is the largest field ever covered homogeneously by means of spectroscopy to this depth," declares Le Fèvre. "We have now collected more than 13,000 spectra in this field and the total volume sampled by the survey is more than 25 million cubic light-years." The astronomers compared their result with that of the 2dFGRS survey that probed the local Universe, i.e. measures the distortion at the present time. Within current uncertainties, the measurement of this effect provides an independent indication of the need for an unknown extra energy ingredient in the 'cosmic soup', supporting the simplest form of dark energy, the so-called cosmological constant, introduced

  19. Watching a 'New Star' Make the Universe Dusty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-07-01

    ), extending over more than 5 months following the discovery. The astronomers first used the AMBER near-infrared instrument, then, as the nova continued to produce dust at a high rate, they moved to using the MIDI mid-infrared instrument, that is more sensitive to the radiation of the hot dust. Similarly, as the nova became fainter, the astronomers switched from the 1.8-m Auxiliary Telescopes to their larger brethren, the 8.2-m Unit Telescopes. With the interferometry mode, the resolution obtained is equivalent to using a telescope with a size between 35 and 71 metres (the distance between the 2 telescopes used). The first observations, secured 23 days after the discovery, showed that the source was very compact, less than 1 thousandth of an arcsecond (1 milli-arcsecond or mas), which is a size comparable to viewing one grain of sand from about 100 kilometres away. A few days later, after the detection of the major dust formation event, the source measured 13 mas. "It is most likely that the latter size corresponds to the diameter of the dust shell in expansion, while the size previously measured was an upper limit of the erupting source," explains lead author Olivier Chesneau. Over the following months the dusty shell expanded regularly, at a rate close to 2 million km/h. "This is the first time that the dust shell of a nova is spatially resolved and its evolution traced starting from the onset of its formation up to the point that it becomes too diluted to be seen", says co-author Dipankar Banerjee, from India. The measurement of the angular expansion rate, together with the knowledge of the expansion velocity, enables the astronomer to derive the distance of the object, in this case about 5500 light-years. "This is a new and promising technique for providing distances of close novae. This was made possible because the state of the art facility of the VLTI, both in terms of infrastructure and management of the observations, allows one to schedule such observations," says co

  20. High Resolution HST Images of Pluto and Charon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-05-01

    the physical properties of the two bodies, first of all their composition, surface structure and possible atmospheres. The analysis of data from a facility as complex as the Hubble Space Telescope is very demanding, and involves experts in many different fields: planetary astronomy, instrument technology, numerical image restoration, and spacecraft engineering. It is therefore not surprising that this investigation is expected to last a long time yet. However, while still in its preliminary stages, it already now appears to indicate the presence of areas of different reflectivity on the surface of Pluto. By a comparison of HST images obtained at two different wavelengths (i.e., in ultraviolet and visual light), the team members hope that it will become possible to construct rough maps of the planetary surface and perhaps also to answer the long-standing question of whether or not there is an atmosphere around Pluto. Notes: [1] This investigation is carried out at the Space Telescope European Coordinating Facility, which is located at the European Southern Observatory as part of a collaboration with the European Space Agency, and also involves other institutes in Europe and the U.S.A. The team of astronomers is headed by Rudolf Albrecht (ST-ECF), and includes Hans-Martin Adorf and Richard Hook (ST-ECF), Alessandra Gemmo and Olivier Hainaut (ESO), Cesare Barbieri and Gabriele Corrain (Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Italy), Chris Blades, Perry Greenfield and William Sparks (Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A.) and David Tholen (Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, U.S.A.). [2] The photo is available to the media from the ESO Information Service (address below) as ESO PR Photo 09/94-1 and from the Space Telescope Science Institute (Baltimore, USA) as STSci-PR94-17. Reproductions should be credited to NASA, ESA and ESO. Figure Caption Hubble Portrait of the "Double Planet" Pluto & Charon This is the clearest view yet of the distant

  1. Epilachnini (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)—A Revision of the World Genera

    PubMed Central

    Tomaszewska, Wioletta; Szawaryn, Karol

    2016-01-01

    , E. hopeiana Miyatake 1985, E. insignis Gorham 1892, E. macularis Mulsant 1850, E. parainsignis Pang and Mao 1979, and Solanophila maxima Weise 1898 are transferred to Diekeana Tomaszewska and Szawaryn 2015 (comb. nov.); Epilachna fulvohirta Weise 1895, E. nigrolimbata Thomson 1875, Henosepilachna griveaudi Chazeau 1975, H. vadoni Chazeau 1976, Solanophila consignata Weise 1909, S. coquereli Sicard 1907, and S. gyldenstolpei Weise 1924 are transferred to Cleta Mulsant 1850 (comb. nov.); Afidenta janczyki Fürsch 1986, Epilachna capicola Mulsant 1850, E. godarti Mulsant 1850, E. scitula Weise 1898, Henospeilachna acervata Chazeau 1975, and Solanophila blaesa Weise 1905 are transferred to Afidentula Kapur 1958 (com. nov.); Coccinella elaterii Rossi 1794, C. hirta Thunberg 1781, C. pavonia Olivier 1808, Epilachna annulata Kolbe 1897, E. biplagiata Kolbe 1897, E. cinerascens Weise 1907, E. connectens Weise 1912, E. erichi Weise, 1897, E. occellata Bertoloni, 1849, E. pauli Weise, 1897, E. tetracycla Gerstaecker, 1871, E. umbratilis Weise 1909, E. vulgaris Weise 1901, Henosepilachna bigemmata Fürsch 1991, Solanophila guttifera Weise 1899, S. hova Weise 1905, and S. kaffaeensis Weise 1906 are transferred to Chnootriba Chevrolat 1837 (com. nov.); Coccinella guttatopustulata Fabricius 1775, Epilachna aruensis Crotch 1874, E. biroi Weise 1902, E. buqueti Montrouzier 1861, E. fulvimana Weise 1903, E. immaculata Bielawski 1963, E. karapensis Bielawski 1963, E. orrori Bielawski 1963, E. samuelsoni Jadwiszczak 1991, and E. slipinskii Jadwiszczak 1987 are transferred to Papuaepilachna Tomaszewska and Szawaryn, 2013 (comb. nov.). The history of classification, the known aspects of the biology and distributional data of the tribe are summarized. PMID:27651424

  2. Do Galaxies Follow Darwinian Evolution?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-12-01

    Using VIMOS on ESO's Very Large Telescope, a team of French and Italian astronomers have shown the strong influence the environment exerts on the way galaxies form and evolve. The scientists have for the first time charted remote parts of the Universe, showing that the distribution of galaxies has considerably evolved with time, depending on the galaxies' immediate surroundings. This surprising discovery poses new challenges for theories of the formation and evolution of galaxies. The 'nature versus nurture' debate is a hot topic in human psychology. But astronomers too face similar conundrums, in particular when trying to solve a problem that goes to the very heart of cosmological theories: are the galaxies we see today simply the product of the primordial conditions in which they formed, or did experiences in the past change the path of their evolution? ESO PR Photo 17/06 ESO PR Photo 45/06 Galaxy Distribution in Space In a large, three-year long survey carried out with VIMOS [1], the Visible Imager and Multi-Object Spectrograph on ESO's VLT, astronomers studied more than 6,500 galaxies over a wide range of distances to investigate how their properties vary over different timescales, in different environments and for varying galaxy luminosities [2]. They were able to build an atlas of the Universe in three dimensions, going back more than 9 billion years. This new census reveals a surprising result. The colour-density relation, that describes the relationship between the properties of a galaxy and its environment, was markedly different 7 billion years ago. The astronomers thus found that the galaxies' luminosity, their initial genetic properties, and the environments they reside in have a profound impact on their evolution. "Our results indicate that environment is a key player in galaxy evolution, but there's no simple answer to the 'nature versus nurture' problem in galaxy evolution," said Olivier Le Fèvre from the Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille

  3. Subduction initiation and recycling of Alboran domain derived crustal components prior to the intra-crustal emplacement of mantle peridotites in the Westernmost Mediterranean: isotopic evidence from the Ronda peridotite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varas-Reus, María Isabel; Garrido, Carlos J.; Bosch, Delphine; Marchesi, Claudio Claudio; Acosta-Vigil, Antonio; Hidas, Károly; Barich, Amel

    2014-05-01

    -Rif cordillera crustal rocks that might have been potentially subducted beneath the Alborán domain before the emplacement of Ronda peridotites. Isotopic data rules out potential crustal sources coming from pre-early Miocene Flysch Trough sediments and crustal rocks from the Blanca Unit currently underlying peridotite. Crustal rocks from the Jubrique Unit overlying the Ronda peridotite are the only crustal samples that may account for the relatively high 207Pb-208Pb/204Pb and low 206Pb/204Pb characteristic of the crustal contaminant added to the mantle source of late Cr-pyroxenites. These data strongly support Alboran geodynamic models that envisage slab roll-back as the tectonic mechanism responsible for Miocene lithospheric thinning, and provides a scenario where back-arc inversion leading to self-subduction of crustal units at the front of the Alboran wedge. REFERENCES 1. Durand-Delga, M., P. Rossi, P. Olivier, and D. Puglisi, Situation structurale et nature ophiolitique de roches basiques jurassiques associées aux flyschs maghrébins du Rif (Maroc) et de Sicile (Italie). Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences - Series IIA - Earth and Planetary Science, 2000. 331(1): p. 29-38. 2. Lenoir, X., C. Garrido, J.L. Bodinier, J.M. Dautria, and F. Gervilla, The Recrystallization Front of the Ronda Peridotite: Evidence for Melting and Thermal Erosion of Subcontinental Lithospheric Mantle beneath the Alboran Basin. Journal of Petrology, 2001. 42(1): p. 141-158. 3. Garrido, C.J., F. Gueydan, G. Booth-Rea, J. Precigout, K. Hidas, J.A. Padrón-Navarta, and C. Marchesi, Garnet lherzolite and garnet-spinel mylonite in the Ronda peridotite: Vestiges of Oligocene backarc mantle lithospheric extension in the western Mediterranean. Geology, 2011. 4. Balanyá, J.C., V. García-Dueñas, J.M. Azañón, and M. Sánchez-Gómez, Alternating contractional and extensional events in the Alpujarride nappes of the Alboran Domain (Betics, Gibraltar Arc). Tectonics, 1997. 16(2): p. 226-238. 5. Platt, J

  4. Visiting with an Old and Active Friend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-03-01

    .5 arcmin 2 , i.e. only a small part of the original 8192 x 8192 pix 2 WFI frame (0.24 arcsec/pix; 34 arcmin across). PR Photo 07b/01 is a reproduction of the combined R-frames (18 min exposure) that has been 'stretched' to better show the faintest details of the coma and fan-shaped 'tail'. The field measures about 6 x 6 arcmin 2. North is up, and East is left in both photos. The observers were ESO astronomers Olivier Hainaut and Audrey Delsanti who obtained these data during a short period before the objects of their main programme became observable.

  5. Soil organic degradation: bridging the gap between Rock-Eval pyrolysis and chemical characterization (CPMAS 13C NMR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, Remy; Sebag, David; Verrecchia, Eric

    2013-04-01

    -alkyl C, aromatic C and phenolic C and carbonyl-carboxyl C. Moreover, in order to avoid the influence of pedogenesis, we decided to use "less complex OM", i.e. compost samples. The choice to use compost samples has been dictated by the fact that i) composting processes are well described and referenced in the literature, and ii) these samples have already been studied previously (Albrecht, 2009). Significantly high correlations are observed between classes, or indices, from RE pyrolysis and main classes of organic matter detected by NMR e.g. F1 and labile / easily degradable components (alkyl C et O-alkyl C); F3/F4 and humified OM (aromatic C and phenolic C); R index (contributions of bio-macromolecules) and phenolic and aromatic C; I index (related to immature OM) and labile / easily degradable components (alkyl C et O-alkyl C). This work confirms the interest of RE pyrolysis in soil science (notably by using the R/I index ratio). Compost was an ideal model with a clear chronological evolution of organic matter. The next step consists of using more complex samples such as bulk soil samples. REFERENCES Albrecht, R., Joffre, R., Le Petit, J., Terrom, G., Périssol, C. 2009. Calibration of Chemical and Biological Changes in Cocomposting of Biowastes Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy. Environmental Science & Technology, 43(3), 804-811. Copard, Y., Di-Govanni, C., Martaud, T., Alberic, P., Olivier, J.E. 2006. Using Rock-Eval 6 pyrolysis for tracking fossil organic carbon in modern environments: implications for the roles of erosion and weathering. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 31(2), 135-153. Disnar, J.R., Guillet, B., Keravis, D., Di-Giovanni, C., Sebag, D. 2003. Soil organic matter (SOM) characterization by Rock-Eval pyrolysis: scope and limitations. Organic Geochemistry, 34(3), 327-343. Kogel-Knabner, I. 2000. Analytical approaches for characterizing soil organic matter. Organic Geochemistry, 31(7-8), 609-625. Lafargue, E., Marquis, F., Pillot, D. 1998. Rock-Eval 6

  6. A study of the members of the tribe Phasmatini Gray, 1835, that occur within the boundaries of Wallacea (Phasmatodea: Phasmatidae: Phasmatinae: "Lanceocercata").

    PubMed

    Hennemann, Frank H; Conle, Oskar V; Suzuki, Sigetake

    2015-09-01

    The tribe Phasmatini Gray, 1835 predominantly includes very striking stick insects of remarkable size, most of which are characteristic for their large and often colourful wings. The tribe represents roughly half of the Giant Stick Insects of Wallacea, a subregion in Eastern Indonesia comprising thousands of islands that are separated by deep water straits from the continental islands to the west (Sundaland: Borneo, Java and Sumatra) and East (New Guinea). Within Wallacea the Phasmatini are represented by four genera, namely Anchiale Stål, 1875, Eurycnema Audinet-Serville, 1838, Paracyphocrania Redtenbacher, 1908 and Phasma Lichtenstein, 1796. Currently eight distinct species are known to occur in the Wallacea. Two of these are newly described in the present paper , this is Anchiale buruense sp. n. and Paracyphocrania major sp. n.. Keys are provided for the distinction of the Phasmatini taxa of Wallacea and information on the overall distribution of the four genera is presented, which reveals a derivation of the tribe from the Australian region. The tribe Phasmatini itself is briefly characterized and discussed. Brief characterizations of the four genera are provided along with complete lists of the species currently contained. Anchiale Stål, 1875 is represented in the Wallacea by two species. A. maculata (Olivier, 1792) is widely distributed throughout Wallacea except for Sulawesi and shows considerable intraspecific variability. Both sexes and the eggs are illustrated and the eggs formally described for the first time. The synonymies of A. maculata are clarified. A. stolli Sharp, 1898 and A. confusa Sharp, 1898 from New Britain and the Solomon Islands are shown to be errorneous synonyms of A. maculata and are here re-established as valid species (stat. rev.). A. caesarea Redtenbacher, 1908 is removed from the genus Acrophylla Gray, 1835 and transferred to Anchiale (comb. n.). The new species A. buruense sp. n. from the island of Buru (Maluku Islands) is

  7. PREFACE: Nanosafe2010: International Conference on Safe Production and Use of Nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sentein, Carole; Schuster, Frédéric; Tardif, François

    2011-07-01

    matters of interest to the NanoSafety community have been debated. The success of the conference confirms the need of such a global meeting with the aim of bridging the gap between the best scientists, engineers, exhibitors and participants from countries concerned with safe and responsible nanomaterial activities. Therefore, the third edition of the International NanoSafe Conference "NanoSafe2012" will be held in Grenoble at Minatec, 13-15 November 2012. The meeting was financially supported by generous contributions from the European Commission, La Région Rhône Alpes, la Ville de Grenoble, la Metro, and partners such as CEA, INERIS, Philips, Cordouan Technologies, Nanosight, TSI, Ecomesure, GRIMM Aerosol Technik, Particle Measuring Systems, Respirex, Lux Research, Dekati, Malvern Instruments, TSE Systems, INTERTEK ICS, NANO magazine and IOP Publishing. We would like to express our thanks to all the authors for their time and genuine efforts and to the reviewers for their fruitful comments during the preparation of this volume. The Conference OrganizersCarole SenteinFrédéric SchusterFrançois Tardif Conference photographs Local Organising CommitteeCarole SENTEIN (CEA)Dominique BAGUET (CEA)Didier MOLKO (MINATEC)Audrey SCARINGELLA (MINATEC)Frédéric SCHUSTER (CEA)François TARDIF (CEA) International Advisory CommitteeChair: Frédéric SCHUSTER (CEA, FR), François TARDIF (CEA, FR)Co-chair: Georgios KATALAGARIANAKIS (EC, BE)Paul AMYOTTE (Dalhousie U., CA)Mélanie AUFFAN (CEREGE, FR)Daniel BERNARD (ARKEMA, FR)Jorge BOCZKOWSKI (INSERM, FR)Jean-Yves BOTTERO (CEREGE, FR)Jacques BOUILLARD (INERIS, FR)Jean-Philippe BOURGOIN (CEA, FR)Marie CARRIERE (CEA, FR)Krunal CHOPRA (LSFI, IN)Rolf ECKHOFF (U. Bergen, NO)Michael ELLENBECKER (U. Massachusetts, USA)Claude EMOND (U. Montréal, CA)François GENDARMES (IRSN, FR)Peter HATTO (ISO, UK)Peter HOET (KUL, BE)Jean-Pierre KAISER (Empa, CH)Olivier LE BIHAN (INERIS, FR)Tinh NGUYEN (NIST, USA)Bernd NOWACK (Empa, CH)Günter OBERDÖRSTER (U

  8. A Strange Supernova with a Gamma-Ray Burst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-10-01

    significantly enhance our understanding of the nature of these powerful and enigmatic events. In view of the range in emitted energy, it now seems likely that there may be more than one class of Gamma-Ray Burst. According to some models for Gamma-Ray Bursts that include beaming (emission of the radiation in one prefered direction), it is possible that these events are only detected if they have a favourable angle with respect to the line of sight. In the case of SN 1998bw this is probably not the case, however, and it was only detected in gamma-rays, because it is so relatively nearby. The question of differences in intrinsic brightness and possible different classes of objects is far from settled yet. Note: [1] The ESO astronomers involved in this work are Thomas Augusteijn, Hermann Boehnhardt, James Brewer, Vanessa Doublier, Jean-Francois Gonzalez, Olivier Hainaut, Bruno Leibundgut, Christopher Lidman and Fernando Patat . How to obtain ESO Press Information ESO Press Information is made available on the World-Wide Web (URL: http://www.eso.org ). ESO Press Photos may be reproduced, if credit is given to the European Southern Observatory.

  9. Comet Halley passes the halfway mark. Very distant image obtained with the ESO NTT.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-02-01

    to our neighbourhood will take place in the year 2061. 1 A B/W photo accompanies this Press Release. 2 The members are Olivier Hainaut and Richard West (ESO), Brian Marsden (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, Massachusetts, U.S.A.) and Karen Meech (Institute for Astronomy, Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.A.). The Halley observation is also described on a Circular of the International Astronomical Union, published today. 3 See ESO Press Release 03/91 of 22 February 1991. FIGURE CAPTION ESO PR PHOTO 04/94-1: COMET HALLEY AT 2,820 MILLION KM This negative photo shows the faint image of periodic comet Halley (in the circle) at the record heliocentric distance 18.82 AU (= 2,820 million km, about the distance of Uranus). It was obtained with the SuSI CCD camera at the ESO 3.58 m New Technology Telescope (NTT) during the night of January 10--11, 1994. Nine individual exposures, each lasting 25 minutes, were used to produce this picture. They were cleaned to remove various sky and instrumental noise, shifted according to the predicted motion of the comet and then co-added. This ensures that all recorded light from the comet is concentrated in one place. At the same time, the images of the other objects that do not share the motion of the comet, are not superposed and will therefore be seen as long trails. The non-uniformities of these trails arise because of varying sky conditions and also due to the time intervals between the individual exposures. In addition to the comet, the picture contains the images of three very different types of objects: stars with relatively sharp trails (e.g. the comparatively bright one, just below the comet image), several extended (diffuse) galaxies, and an artificial Earth satellite which happened to cross the field during one of the exposures (its trail extends from the middle of the left edge to the lower edge). The measured magnitude of P/Halley is V = 26.5 +-0.2. The position in the sky is less than 1 arcsec from that predicted

  10. ESA's high-energy observatories spot doughnut-shaped cloud with a black-hole filling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-07-01

    -energy X-rays seen by XMM-Newton appear to come from a diffuse emission, far away from the black hole, the higher-energy X-rays detected by Integral are directly related to the black hole activity. The team could infer the doughnut’s structure and its distance from the black hole by virtue of light that was either reflected or completely absorbed. The torus itself appears to be several hundred light years from the black hole, although the observation could not gauge its diameter, from inside to outside. The result marks the clearest observation of an obscured black hole in X-ray and gamma-ray `colours’, a span of energy nearly a million times wider than the window of visible light, from red to violet. Multi-wavelength studies are increasingly important to understanding black holes, as already demonstrated earlier this year. In May 2004, the European project known as the Astrophysical Virtual Observatory, in which ESA plays a major role, found 30 supermassive black holes that had previously escaped detection behind masking dust clouds. Note for editors This result will appear on The Astrophysical Journal. Besides Volker Beckmann, the author list includes Neil Gehrels, Pascal Favre, Roland Walter, Thierry Courvoisier, Pierre-Olivier Petrucci and Julien Malzac. For more information about the Astrophysical Virtual Observatory programme and how it has allowed European scientists to discover a number of previously hidden black holes, see: http://www.spacetelescope.org/news/html/heic0409.html More about Integral The International Gamma Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (Integral) is the first space observatory that can simultaneously observe celestial objects in gamma rays, X-rays and visible light. Integral was launched on a Russian Proton rocket on 17 October 2002 into a highly elliptical orbit around Earth. Its principal targets include regions of the galaxy where chemical elements are being produced and compact objects, such as black holes. More information on Integral can be

  11. Comet or Asteroid?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-11-01

    , Institute of Planetary Exploration) soon thereafter obtained seven unfiltered CCD images on three consecutive nights with the 60-cm `Bochum telescope' at La Silla, Uri Carsenty found a tail extending 15 arcseconds in the WSE direction from the point source, cf. ESO Press Photo 31b/97. The (red) magnitude was about 19, or 150,000 times fainter than what is visible to the naked eye. More observations were obtained at La Silla during the following nights, confirming the persistent presence of this tail. NTT observations confirm the cometary nature of P/1997 T3 ESO Press Photo 31c/97 ESO Press Photo 31c/97 [JPG, 52k] Caption: Deep NTT image of P/1997 T3. This image covers a field of 105 x 60 arcsec and is a composite of several CCD exposures. It was taken with the ESO New Technology Telescope (NTT) and the EMMI multi-mode instrument by ESO astronomers Hermann Boehnhardt and Olivier Hainaut on different days between 21 and 25 October 1997. By computer processing, the images of P/1997 T3 are aligned to the same pixel position and co-added in order to increase the visibility of the comet. Due to the motion of the comet, multiple images of several galaxies and stars appear in this photo. At the time of the observations, the comet was about 3.34 AU from Earth and about 4.30 AU from the Sun. A larger version [JPG, 384k] is also available. In late October 1997, further images of the new object and its tail were taken with the ESO 3.5-m New Technology Telescope (NTT) at La Silla, cf. ESO Press Photo 31c/97. On these, the narrow tail was seen to be at least 90 arcsec long and pointing roughly in the Sun direction . The steady appearance and the sunward orientation of the tail indicates that it consists of dust. Moreover, a preliminary image analysis shows the presence of a weak and very condensed coma of dust grains around the nucleus. Interestingly, a series of images through several broadband filters with a total of almost 30 min exposure time did not show any trace of a normal, anti

  12. Feeling the Heat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-05-01

    Successful "First Light" for the Mid-Infrared VISIR Instrument on the VLT Summary Close to midnight on April 30, 2004, intriguing thermal infrared images of dust and gas heated by invisible stars in a distant region of our Milky Way appeared on a computer screen in the control room of the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT). These images mark the successful "First Light" of the VLT Imager and Spectrometer in the InfraRed (VISIR), the latest instrument to be installed on this powerful telescope facility at the ESO Paranal Observatory in Chile. The event was greeted with a mixture of delight, satisfaction and some relief by the team of astronomers and engineers from the consortium of French and Dutch Institutes and ESO who have worked on the development of VISIR for around 10 years [1]. Pierre-Olivier Lagage (CEA, France), the Principal Investigator, is content : "This is a wonderful day! A result of many years of dedication by a team of engineers and technicians, who can today be proud of their work. With VISIR, astronomers will have at their disposal a great instrument on a marvellous telescope. And the gain is enormous; 20 minutes of observing with VISIR is equivalent to a whole night of observing on a 3-4m class telescope." Dutch astronomer and co-PI Jan-Willem Pel (Groningen, The Netherlands) adds: "What's more, VISIR features a unique observing mode in the mid-infrared: spectroscopy at a very high spectral resolution. This will open up new possibilities such as the study of warm molecular hydrogen most likely to be an important component of our galaxy." PR Photo 16a/04: VISIR under the Cassegrain focus of the Melipal telescope PR Photo 16b/04: VISIR mounted behind the mirror of the Melipal telescope PR Photo 16c/04: Colour composite of the star forming region G333.6-0.2 PR Photo 16d/04: Colour composite of the Galactic Centre PR Photo 16e/04: The Ant Planetary Nebula at 12.8 μm PR Photo 16f/04: The starburst galaxy He2-10 at 11.3μm PR Photo 16g/04: High

  13. ISO Results Presented at International Astronomical Union

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-08-01

    in analysing the chemical composition of the gases and dust in the vicinity of old and new stars, and in comets too, has been a major contribution from ISO. As described in previous Information Notes, materials identified by their infrared signatures include carbon monoxide and water in vapour or icy form, tarry carbon-rich compounds, and minerals including olivine, which is a major constituent of the Earth's rocky mantle. When the Sun itself grows old, it will swell and cool, and will eventually puff much its material into space. Its burnt-out core will collapse to make a white dwarf star. A star of roughly solar mass, seen in the last phase of its expiry, makes a planetary nebula -- a sphere of scattered ashes around the glowing ember of the white dwarf. ISO has examined several planetary nebulae, including the Helix Nebula, the subject of a newly released picture from ISO showing remarkable detail. Massive stars not only burn up much more quickly than sun-like stars, but perish more spectacularly in supernova explosions. For a few weeks, an exploding star glows more brightly than a billion suns. Its interior collapses to make a neutron star far denser than a white dwarf, and the star blasts its outer layers into space. One reason why supernovae are important in the chemical scheme of the cosmos is that only they can make the heaviest elements, such as gold and uranium. The remnant of a supernova remains discernible for thousands of years after the explosion. The most recent supernova observed in the Milky Way Galaxy occurred little more than 300 years ago and the resulting nebulous object is called Cassiopeia A. ISO has made the first detailed examination of Cassiopeia A by infrared rays unobservable from the Earth's surface. It gives direct evidence of dust formation. "The newly cooked elements provided by the supernova have to cool before they can create fresh supplies of interstellar dust," comments Pierre-Olivier Lagage of CEA SAp at Saclay (France) who led

  14. Double Planet Meets Triple Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-08-01

    site "missed" the upper layers of Pluto's atmosphere by a mere 200 km or so - this is equivalent to no more than one hundredth of an arcsec as projected on the sky. More information A full report on the NACO observations and other results by the present group of astronomers, also from the subsequent occultation of another star on August 21, 2002, that was extensively observed with the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) on Mauna Kea (Hawaii, USA), is available at this URL: http://despa.obspm.fr/~sicardy/pluton/results.html Other sharp NACO images have been published recently, e.g. ESO PR 25/01 , ESO PR Photos 04a-c/02 and ESO PR Photos 19a-c/02. Note [1]: The group from the Observatoire de Paris and other observatories is lead by Bruno Sicardy and also includes François Colas, Thomas Widemann, Françoise Roques, Christian Veillet, Jean-Charles Cuillandre, Wolfgang Beisker, Cyril Birnbaum, Kate Brooks, Audrey Delsanti, Pierre Drossart, Agnès Fienga, Eric Gendron, Mike Kretlow, Anne-Marie Lagrange, Jean Lecacheux, Emmanuel Lellouch, Cédric Leyrat, Alain Maury, Elisabeth Raynaud, Michel Rapaport, Stefan Renner and Mathias Schultheis . From ESO participated Nancy Ageorges, Olivier Hainaut, Chris Lidman and Jason Spyromilio . Contact Bruno Sicardy LESIA - Observatoire de Paris France Phone: +33-1-45 07 71 15 email: bruno.sicardy@obspm.fr Appendix: Stellar occultations and Pluto's atmosphere Stellar occultations are presently the only way to probe Pluto's tenuous atmosphere . When the star moves behind the planet, the stellar rays suffer minute deviations as they are refracted (i.e., bent and defocussed) by the planet's atmospheric layers. This effect, together with the large distance to the planet, manifests itself as a gradual decline of observed intensity of the stellar light, rather than an abrupt drop as this would be the case if the planet had no atmosphere. Pluto's atmosphere was first detected on August 19, 1985, during a stellar occultation observed from Israel

  15. Enacs Survey of Southern Galaxies Indicates Open Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1996-02-01

    first time. This may imply that the formation of at least a good fraction of the nearby, rich clusters is still going on. If the mean density of the Universe is indeed much smaller than the critical density, as indicated by the cluster masses determined during this survey, then this is a quite unexpected result. One explanation may be that many clusters have only started to form fairly recently. Notes: [1] The team is headed by Peter Katgert (Leiden Observatory, The Netherlands) and Alain Mazure (Laboratoire d'Astronomie Spatiale, Marseille, France); other members are Andrea Biviano and Roland den Hartog (Leiden Observatory, The Netherlands), Pierre Dubath (Observatoire de Geneve, Switzerland), Eric Escalera (SISSA, Trieste, Italy), Paola Focardi (Bologna University, Italy), Daniel Gerbal (Institut d'Astrophysique, Paris, France), Guilano Giuricin (SISSA, Trieste, Italy), Bernard Jones (Theoretical Astrophysics Centre, Copenhagen, Denmark), Olivier Le Fevre (Meudon Observatory, Paris, France), Mariano Moles and Jaime Perea (Astrophysics Institute of Andalucia, Granada, Spain), and George Rhee (University of Nevada, Las Vegas, U.S.A.). [2] The detailed results will soon be published in two comprehensive articles to appear in the European journal Astronomy & Astrophysics. [3] This Press Release is accompanied by ESO Press Photo 07/96, (click here to get the image [GIF,45k] and caption ) showing one of the rich clusters, as observed with the ESO 1-metre Schmidt telescope. [4] The masses of the planets in the solar system are determined in a similar way from the motions of their moons. The faster the moon moves around the planet at a given distance, the heavier is the planet.

  16. The big comet crash of 1994. Intensive observational campaign at ESO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-01-01

    observing time to this programme is just over 40 full nights, a quantity never allocated for any single astronomical event at ESO. This clearly illustrates the importance attached to this very special programme. At this moment, the more than 30 astronomers involved are in the middle of the complex and detailed preparations for this unique event, less than six months from now. Together with observational programmes at other observatories, they will provide efficient coverage of the collisions and the associated effects. WHICH OBSERVATIONS WILL BE CARRIED OUT AT ESO ? Some of the earliest observations at ESO will be carried out with the Danish 1.54 m telescope by a small team of ESO astronomers led by Olivier Hainaut. Beginning in late April 1994, images will be obtained of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 which will allow to further improve the accuracy of the orbit and thereby to increase the precision with which the times of the individual impacts can be predicted. It is expected that such observations, when made carefully up to the last days before the first impacts, will result in a final timing accuracy of a few minutes; this will of course be of importance for all other observations, both from the ground, and especially for those being carried out from the spacecraft. A team from the Munich Observatory (Germany) under the leadership of Heinz Barwig will perform rapid brightness mesurements of Jupiter's moons at the predicted times of the impacts with their special high-speed photometer attached to the ESO 1 metre telescope. The flashes from the impacts will be reflected from the surfaces of those Jupiter moons which are in view of the impact sites. If this happens when a moon is in full sunlight, the relative increase of intensity will probably only be of the order of 1. However, if one of the moons is located in the shadow of Jupiter and is at the same time visible from the Earth, then the relative brightening may be very conspicuous. Whether this will be the case will of

  17. VIMOS - a Cosmology Machine for the VLT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-03-01

    bundle can simultaneously observe a continuous sky area measuring no less than 56 x 56 arcsec 2. A dedicated machine, the Mask Manufacturing Unit (MMU) , cuts the slits for the entrance apertures of the spectrograph. The laser is capable of cutting 200 slits in less than 15 minutes. This facility was put into operation at Paranal by the VIRMOS Consortium already in August 2000 and has since been extensively used for observations with the FORS2 instrument; more details are available in ESO PR 19/99. Fast start-up of VIMOS at Paranal ESO PR Photo 09d/02 ESO PR Photo 09d/02 [Preview - JPEG: 473 x 400 pix - 280k] [Normal - JPEG: 946 x 1209 pix - 728k] ESO PR Photo 09e/02 ESO PR Photo 09e/02 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 438 pix - 176k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 876 pix - 664k] Caption : PR Photo 09d/02 : The VIRMOS team in the MELIPAL control room, moments after "First Light" on February 26, 2002. From left to right: Oreste Caputi, Marco Scodeggio, Giovanni Sciarretta , Olivier Le Fevre, Sylvie Brau-Nogue, Christian Lucuix, Bianca Garilli, Markus Kissler-Patig (in front), Xavier Reyes, Michel Saisse, Luc Arnold and Guido Mancini . PR Photo 09e/02 : The spiral galaxy NGC 5364 was the first object to be observed by VIMOS. This false-colour near-infrared, raw "First Light" photo shows the extensive spiral arms. Technical information about this photo is available below. VIMOS was shipped from Observatoire de Haute-Provence (France) at the end of 2001, and reassembled at Paranal during a first period in January 2002. From mid-February, the instrument was made ready for installation on the VLT MELIPAL telescope; this happened on February 24, 2002. VIMOS saw "First Light" just two days later, on February 26, 2000, cf. PR Photo 09e/02 . During the same night, a number of excellent images were obtained of various objects, demonstrating the fine capabilities of the instrument in the "direct imaging"-mode. The first spectra were successfully taken during the night of March 2 - 3, 2002 . The slit