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Sample records for androgen receptor polymorphisms

  1. Androgen receptor gene mutation, rearrangement, polymorphism

    PubMed Central

    Eisermann, Kurtis; Wang, Dan; Jing, Yifeng; Pascal, Laura E.

    2013-01-01

    Genetic aberrations of the androgen receptor (AR) caused by mutations, rearrangements, and polymorphisms result in a mutant receptor that has varied functions compared to wild type AR. To date, over 1,000 mutations have been reported in the AR with most of these being associated with androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS). While mutations of AR associated with prostate cancer occur less often in early stage localized disease, mutations in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) patients treated with anti-androgens occur more frequently with 10-30% of these patients having some form of mutation in the AR. Resistance to anti-androgen therapy usually results from gain-of-function mutations in the LBD such as is seen with bicalutamide and more recently with enzalutamide (MDV3100). Thus, it is crucial to investigate these new AR mutations arising from drug resistance to anti-androgens and other small molecule pharmacological agents. PMID:25045626

  2. Polymorphism of CAG repeats in androgen receptor of carnivores.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qin; Zhang, Xiuyue; Wang, Xiaofang; Zeng, Bo; Jia, Xiaodong; Hou, Rong; Yue, Bisong

    2012-03-01

    Androgen effect is mediated by the androgen receptor (AR). The polymorphism of CAG triplet repeat (polyCAG), in the N-terminal transactivation domain of the AR protein, has been involved either in endocrine or neurological disorders in human. We obtained partial sequence of AR exon 1 in 10 carnivore species. In most carnivore species, polyglutamine length polymorphism presented in all three CAG repeat regions of AR, in contrast, only CAG-I site polymorphism presented in primate species, and CAG-I and CAG-III sites polymorphism presented in Canidae. Therefore, studies focusing on disease-associated polymorphism of poly(CAG) in carnivore species AR should investigate all three CAG repeats sites, and should not only consider CAG-I sites as the human disease studies. The trinucleotide repeat length in carnivore AR exon 1 had undergone from expansions to contractions during carnivores evolution, unlike a linear increase in primate species. Furthermore, the polymorphisms of the triplet-repeats in the same tissue (somatic mosaicism) were demonstrated in Moutain weasel, Eurasian lynx, Clouded leopard, Chinese tiger, Black leopard and Leopard AR. And, the abnormal stop codon was found in the exon 1 of three carnivore species AR (Moutain weasel, Eurasian lynx and Black leopard). It seemed to have a high frequency presence of tissue-specific somatic in carnivores AR genes. Thus the in vivo mechanism leading to such highly variable phenotypes of the described mutations, and their impact on these animals, are worthwhile to be further elucidated.

  3. Androgen receptor and monoamine oxidase polymorphism in wild bonobos

    PubMed Central

    Garai, Cintia; Furuichi, Takeshi; Kawamoto, Yoshi; Ryu, Heungjin; Inoue-Murayama, Miho

    2014-01-01

    Androgen receptor gene (AR), monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA) and monoamine oxidase B gene (MAOB) have been found to have associations with behavioral traits, such as aggressiveness, and disorders in humans. However, the extent to which similar genetic effects might influence the behavior of wild apes is unclear. We examined the loci AR glutamine repeat (ARQ), AR glycine repeat (ARG), MAOA intron 2 dinucleotide repeat (MAin2) and MAOB intron 2 dinucleotide repeat (MBin2) in 32 wild bonobos, Pan paniscus, and compared them with those of chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes, and humans. We found that bonobos were polymorphic on the four loci examined. Both loci MAin2 and MBin2 in bonobos showed a higher diversity than in chimpanzees. Because monoamine oxidase influences aggressiveness, the differences between the polymorphisms of MAin2 and MBin2 in bonobos and chimpanzees may be associated with the differences in aggression between the two species. In order to understand the evolution of these loci and AR, MAOA and MAOB in humans and non-human primates, it would be useful to conduct future studies focusing on the potential association between aggressiveness, and other personality traits, and polymorphisms documented in bonobos. PMID:25606465

  4. Mental rotation in intellectually gifted boys is affected by the androgen receptor CAG repeat polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Durdiaková, Jaroslava; Lakatošová, Silvia; Kubranská, Aneta; Laznibatová, Jolana; Ficek, Andrej; Ostatníková, Daniela; Celec, Peter

    2013-08-01

    Testosterone was shown to organize brain and modulate cognitive functions. It is currently unknown whether mental rotation is also associated with prenatal testosterone exposure and testosterone-related genetic polymorphisms. The aim of our study was to analyze associations between mental rotation performance, the actual testosterone levels, the prenatal testosterone level (expressed as 2D:4D ratio) and the androgen receptor CAG repeat polymorphism in intellectually gifted boys. One hundred forty-seven boys aged 10-18 years with IQ>130 were enrolled. Saliva samples were collected and used for ELISA of actual levels of salivary testosterone. The 2D:4D finger length ratio as an indicator of prenatal testosterone was measured on both hands and averaged. Amthauer mental rotation test was used for the assessment of this spatial ability. The CAG repeat polymorphism in the androgen receptor gene was analyzed using PCR and capillary electrophoresis. Linear regression revealed that 2D:4D finger length ratio and the number of CAG repeats in the androgen receptor gene were associated with mental rotation. Actual levels of testosterone did not correlate significantly with mental rotation. Multivariate analysis of covariance revealed that after adjustment of age as a confounding variable, only the effect of the genetic polymorphism was significant. The results are in line with our previous genetic analysis of intellectually gifted boys showing the importance of CAG repeat polymorphism in the androgen receptor gene. Details of the interactions between androgen signaling, testosterone levels and its metabolism especially during the prenatal development of brain function remain to be elucidated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. CAG repeat polymorphism in the androgen receptor (AR) gene of SBMA patients and a control group.

    PubMed

    Sułek, Anna; Hoffman-Zacharska, Dorota; Krysa, Wioletta; Szirkowiec, Walentyna; Fidziańska, Elzbieta; Zaremba, Jacek

    2005-01-01

    Spinobulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is an X-linked form of motor neuron disease characterized by progressive atrophy of the muscles, dysphagia, dysarthria and mild androgen insensitivity. SBMA is caused by CAG repeat expansion in the androgen receptor gene. CAG repeat polymorphism was analysed in a Polish control group (n = 150) and patients suspected of SBMA (n = 60). Normal and abnormal ranges of CAG repeats were established in the control group and in 21 patients whose clinical diagnosis of SBMA was molecularly confirmed. The ranges are similar to those reported for other populations.

  6. Influence of androgen receptor repeat polymorphisms on personality traits in men

    PubMed Central

    Westberg, Lars; Henningsson, Susanne; Landén, Mikael; Annerbrink, Kristina; Melke, Jonas; Nilsson, Staffan; Rosmond, Roland; Holm, Göran; Anckarsäter, Henrik; Eriksson, Elias

    2009-01-01

    Background Testosterone has been attributed importance for various aspects of behaviour. The aim of our study was to investigate the potential influence of 2 functional polymorphisms in the amino terminal of the androgen receptor on personality traits in men. Methods We assessed and genotyped 141 men born in 1944 recruited from the general population. We used 2 different instruments: the Karolinska Scales of Personality and the Temperament and Character Inventory. For replication, we similarly assessed 63 men recruited from a forensic psychiatry study group. Results In the population-recruited sample, the lengths of the androgen receptor repeats were associated with neuroticism, extraversion and self-transcendence. The association with extraversion was replicated in the independent sample. Limitations Our 2 samples differed in size; sample 1 was of moderate size and sample 2 was small. In addition, the homogeneity of sample 1 probably enhanced our ability to detect significant associations between genotype and phenotype. Conclusion Our results suggest that the repeat polymorphisms in the androgen receptor gene may influence personality traits in men. PMID:19448851

  7. Association of androgen receptor GGN repeat length polymorphism and male infertility in Khuzestan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Moghadam, Mohamad; Khatami, Saied Reza; Galehdari, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Androgens play critical role in secondary sexual and male gonads differentiations such as spermatogenesis, via androgen receptor. The human androgen receptor (AR) encoding gene contains two regions with three nucleotide polymorphic repeats (CAG and GGN) in the first exon. Unlike the CAG repeats, the GGN has been less studied because of technical difficulties, so the functional role of these polymorphic repeats is still unclear. Objective: The goal of this study was to investigate any relationship between GGN repeat length in the first exon of AR gene and idiopathic male infertility in southwest of Iran. Materials and Methods: This is the first study on GGN repeat of AR gene in infertile male in Khuzestan, Iran. We used polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to categorize GGN repeat lengths in 72 infertile and 72 fertile men. Afterwards we sequenced the PCR products to determine the exact length of GGN repeat in each category. Our samples included 36 azoospermic and 36 oligozoospermic men as cases and 72 fertile men as control group. Results: We found that the numbers of repeats in the cases range from 18 to 25, while in the controls this range is from 20 to 28. The results showed a significant relation between the length of GGN repeat and fertility (p=0.015). The most frequent alleles were alleles with 24 and 25 repeats respectively in case and control groups. On the other hand no significant differences were found between Arab and non-Arab cases by considering GGN repeat lengths (p=0.234). Conclusion: Due to our results, there is a significant association between the presence of allele with 24 repeats and susceptibility to male infertility. Therefore this polymorphism should be considered in future studies to clarify etiology of disorders related to androgen receptor activity. PMID:26221130

  8. Androgen Receptor Gene Polymorphism, Aggression, and Reproduction in Tanzanian Foragers and Pastoralists

    PubMed Central

    Butovskaya, Marina L.; Lazebny, Oleg E.; Vasilyev, Vasiliy A.; Dronova, Daria A.; Karelin, Dmitri V.; Mabulla, Audax Z. P.; Shibalev, Dmitri V.; Shackelford, Todd K.; Fink, Bernhard; Ryskov, Alexey P.

    2015-01-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) gene polymorphism in humans is linked to aggression and may also be linked to reproduction. Here we report associations between AR gene polymorphism and aggression and reproduction in two small-scale societies in northern Tanzania (Africa)—the Hadza (monogamous foragers) and the Datoga (polygynous pastoralists). We secured self-reports of aggression and assessed genetic polymorphism of the number of CAG repeats for the AR gene for 210 Hadza men and 229 Datoga men (aged 17–70 years). We conducted structural equation modeling to identify links between AR gene polymorphism, aggression, and number of children born, and included age and ethnicity as covariates. Fewer AR CAG repeats predicted greater aggression, and Datoga men reported more aggression than did Hadza men. In addition, aggression mediated the identified negative relationship between CAG repeats and number of children born. PMID:26291982

  9. Single strand conformation polymorphism analysis of androgen receptor gene mutations in patients with androgen insensitivity syndromes: Application for diagnosis, genetic counseling, and therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Hiort, O. Tufts-New England Medical Center, Boston, MA ); Huang, Q. ); Sinnecker, G.H.G.; Kruse, K. ); Sadeghi-Nejad, A.; Wolfe, H.J. ); Yandell, D.W. ) Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA )

    1993-07-01

    Recent studies indicate that mutations in the androgen receptor gene are associated with androgen insensitivity syndromes, a heterogeneous group of related disorders involving defective sexual differentiation in karyotypic males. In this report, the authors address the possibility of rapid mutational analysis of the androgen receptor gene for initial diagnosis, genetic counseling, and molecular subclassification of affected patients and their families. DNA from peripheral blood leukocytes of six patients from five families with various degrees of androgen insensitivity was studied. Exons 2 to 8 of the androgen receptor gene were analyzed using a combination of single strand conformation polymorphism analysis and direct DNA sequencing. Female family members were also studied to identify heterozygote carriers. Point mutations in the AR gene were identified in all six patients, and all mutations caused amino acid substitutions. One patient with incomplete androgen insensitivity was a mosaic for the mutation. Four of the five mothers, as well as a young sister of one patient, were carriers of the mutation present in the affected child. The data show that new mutations may occur in the androgen receptor gene leading to sporadic androgen insensitivity syndrome. Molecular genetic characterization of the variant allele can serve as a primary tool for diagnosis and subsequent therapy, and can provide a basis for distinguishing heterozygous carriers in familial androgen resistance. The identification of carriers is of substantial clinical importance for genetic counseling. 29 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  10. The CAG polymorphism in androgen receptor (AR) gene impacts the moral permissibility of harmful behavior in females.

    PubMed

    Gong, Pingyuan; Fang, Pengpeng; Yang, Xing; Ru, Wenzhao; Wang, Bei; Gao, Xiaocai; Liu, Jinting

    2017-03-07

    The moral permissibility of harm is strikingly varied among individuals. In light of the connection between testosterone levels and utilitarian moral judgment, this study examined to what extent a CAG polymorphism in the androgen receptor gene, a genetic polymorphism with the ability to regulate testosterone function, contributes to individual differences in moral judgment. Four hundred and thirty-nine Chinese Han participants completed permissibility ratings of harm in moral dilemmas and moral transgression scenarios. Results showed a significant association between the CAG polymorphism and moral permissibility of harm in females. Females with more copies of the S allele, which is associated with higher availability of testosterone, were more likely to judge harmful utilitarian acts and unintentionally harmful acts as permissible, while these effects were absent in males. The findings provide the first evidence for a link between the androgen receptor gene and moral judgment and highlight the role of androgens in moral foundations.

  11. Androgen receptor gene polymorphisms lean mass and performance in young men.

    PubMed

    Guadalupe-Grau, Amelia; Rodríguez-González, F Germán; Dorado, Cecilia; Olmedillas, Hugo; Fuentes, Teresa; Pérez-Gómez, Jorge; Delgado-Guerra, Safira; Vicente-Rodríguez, Germán; Ara, Ignacio; Guerra, Borja; Arteaga-Ortiz, Rafael; Calbet, José A L; Díaz-Chico, B Nicolás

    2011-02-01

    The exon-1 of the androgen receptor (AR) gene contains two repeat length polymorphisms which modify either the amount of AR protein inside the cell (GGN(n), polyglycine) or its transcriptional activity (CAG(n), polyglutamine). Shorter CAG and/or GGN repeats provide stronger androgen signalling and vice versa. To test the hypothesis that CAG and GGN repeat AR polymorphisms affect muscle mass and various variables of muscular strength phenotype traits, the length of CAG and GGN repeats was determined by PCR and fragment analysis and confirmed by DNA sequencing of selected samples in 282 men (28.6 ± 7.6 years). Individuals were grouped as CAG short (CAG(S)) if harbouring repeat lengths of ≤ 21 and CAG long (CAG(L)) if CAG >21. GGN was considered short (GGN(S)) or long (GGN(L)) if GGN ≤ 23 or >23, respectively. No significant differences in lean body mass or fitness were observed between the CAG(S) and CAG(L) groups, or between GGN(S) and GGN(L) groups, but a trend for a correlation was found for the GGN repeat and lean mass of the extremities (r=-0.11, p=0.06). In summary, the lengths of CAG and GGN repeat of the AR gene do not appear to influence lean mass or fitness in young men.

  12. Androgen receptor gene polymorphism and prostate zonal volumes in Australian and Chinese men.

    PubMed

    Jin, B; Beilin, J; Zajac, J; Handelsman, D J

    2000-01-01

    Prostate diseases are age and androgen dependent. The evolution of clinically overt pathology requires decades of exposure to adult male levels of circulating testosterone, but the precise relationship between age and androgen circulation remains poorly understood. A marker of integrated androgen action over prolonged periods would therefore be a valuable tool for clinical and epidemiologic research into the origins of prostate disease. In order to evaluate these 2 factors, we have studied the CAG-repeat length polymorphism of the androgen receptor gene and the size of the total, central, and peripheral zones of the prostate, estimated by planimetric ultrasound in 2 populations with widely different susceptibility to death from invasive prostate cancer. From a larger epidemiologic study of the effects of ethnicity and migration on the origins of prostate disease, a nested-case control study was undertaken with 50 Chinese men living in Yue Yang, China and 50 non-Chinese men living in Sydney, Australia. All men had undergone planimetric transrectal prostate ultrasound together with blood sampling to determine CAG-repeat length by polymerase chain reaction and immunoassay of plasma testosterone, estradiol, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), and prostate-specific antigen (PSA). Australian men had larger central (7.9 +/- 0.4 vs 3.3 +/- 0.3 mL) and total (29.8 +/- 1.2 vs 25.5 +/- 1.1 mL) but not peripheral (22.0 +/- 0.9 vs 22.2 +/- 0.8 mL) prostate volumes compared with Chinese men. Even after adjustment for differences in body size (the Australian men were taller and heavier), the central-zone volume remained lower by approximately 50% in Chinese men (P < 0.001), whereas testis and total-prostate volumes were no longer significantly different. The length of CAG repeats was no different between Australian men (22.5 +/- 0.5 repeats) and Chinese men (22.5 +/- 0.5 repeats), and there was no correlation within or between populations in CAG

  13. Androgen receptor gene polymorphism influence fat accumulation: A longitudinal study from adolescence to adult age.

    PubMed

    Ponce-González, J G; Rodríguez-Garcia, L; Losa-Reyna, J; Guadalupe-Grau, A; Rodriguez-Gonzalez, F G; Díaz-Chico, B N; Dorado, C; Serrano-Sanchez, J A; Calbet, J A L

    2016-11-01

    To determine the influence of androgen receptor CAG and GGN repeat polymorphisms on fat mass and maximal fat oxidation (MFO), CAG and GGN repeat lengths were measured in 128 young boys, from which longitudinal data were obtained in 45 of them [mean ± SD: 12.8 ± 3.6 years old at recruitment, and 27.0 ± 4.8 years old at adult age]. Subjects were grouped as CAG short (CAGS ) if harboring repeat lengths ≤  21, the rest as CAG long (CAGL ); and GGN short (GGNS ) if GGN repeat lengths ≤  23, or long if >  23 (GGNL ). CAGS and GGNS were associated with lower adiposity than CAGL or GGNL (P < 0.05). There was an association between the logarithm of CAG repeats polymorphism and the changes of body mass (r = 0.34, P = 0.03). At adult age, CAGS men showed lower accumulation of total body and trunk fat mass, and lower resting metabolic rate (RMR) and MFO per kg of total lean mass compared with CAGL (P < 0.05). GGNS men also showed lower percentage of body fat (P < 0.05). In summary, androgen receptor CAG and GGN repeat polymorphisms are associated with RMR, MFO, fat mass, and its regional distribution in healthy male adolescents, influencing fat accumulation from adolescence to adult age. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Sex hormone levels, genetic androgen receptor polymorphism, and anxiety in ≥50-year-old males.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Gudrun; Nienhaus, Kathrin; Gromoll, Jörg; Heuft, Gereon; Nieschlag, Eberhard; Zitzmann, Michael

    2011-12-01

    While associations between somatic changes and sex hormone levels in aging men have been explored in many studies, the association of testosterone and estradiol with psychic symptoms other than depression and the role of the genetically determined CAG repeat (CAGn) polymorphism of the androgen receptor (AR) have received much less attention. The purpose of this article is to investigate the associations between general anxiety, phobic anxiety and panic with sex hormone levels and the genetic androgen receptor polymorphism in aging males. This cross-sectional study of males aged ≥50 years included 120 consecutive patients of the Department of Psychosomatics and Psychotherapy, 76 consecutive patients of the Andrology Clinic, and 100 participants from the general population; all of them completed the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), the Aging Males' Symptoms (AMS) Scale, and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Morning blood samples were analyzed for total and free testosterone, estradiol, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), and the CAGn AR polymorphism. Psychosomatic patients also underwent psychiatric assessment. Scores on the Anxiety subscales of the BSI and PHQ, Anxiety disorders according to International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision (ICD-10). The two clinical samples had significantly longer CAGn of the AR and higher anxiety levels compared to the population sample. Anxiety scores were positively correlated with CAGn in psychosomatic patients and in andrological patients, in the latter also with estradiol levels, while the population sample showed no significant correlations between anxiety scores, CAGn and sex hormones. Anxiety cases according to BSI, PHQ, and ICD-10 had significantly longer CAGn of the AR when compared to the other participants, but there were no significant differences in testosterone or free testosterone levels. Our results indicate that genetically determined long CAGn of the AR is an independent risk factor for higher

  15. Androgen receptor gene polymorphisms and the fat-bone axis in young men and women.

    PubMed

    Ponce-González, Jesú Gustavo; Guadalupe-Grau, Amelia; Rodríguez-González, Francisco Germán; Dorado, Cecilia; Olmedillas, Hugo; Fuentes, Teresa; Rodríguez-García, Lorena; Díaz-Chico, Bonifacio Nicolás; Calbet, José A L

    2012-01-01

    Androgen receptor (AR) CAG(n) (polyglutamine) and GGN(n) (polyglycine) repeat polymorphisms determine part of the androgenic effect and may influence adiposity. The association of fat mass, and its regional distribution, with the AR CAG(n) and GGN(n) polymorphisms was studied in 319 and 78 physically active nonsmoker men and women (mean ± SD: 28.3 ± 7.6 and 24.8 ± 6.2 years old, respectively). The length of CAG and GGN repeats was determined by polymerase chain reaction and fragment analysis, and confirmed by DNA sequencing of selected samples. Men were grouped as CAG short (CAG(S)) if harboring repeat lengths ≤ 21, the rest as CAG long (CAG(L)). The corresponding cutoff CAG number for women was 22. GGN was considered short (GGN(S)) if GGN ≤ 23, the rest as GGN long (GGN(L)). No association between AR polymorphisms and adiposity or the hormonal variables was observed in men. Neither was there a difference in the studied variables between men harboring CAG(L) + GGN(L),CAG(S) + GGN(S),CAG(S) + GGN(L), and CAG(L) + GGN(S) combinations. However, in women, GGN(n) was linearly related to the percentage of body fat (r = 0.30, P < .05), the percentage of fat in the trunk (r = 0.28, P < .05), serum leptin concentration (r = 0.40, P < .05), and serum osteocalcin concentration (r = 0.32, P < .05). In men, free testosterone was inversely associated with adiposity and serum leptin concentration, and positively with osteocalcin, even after accounting for differences in CAG(n), GGN(n), or both. In summary, this study shows that the AR repeat polymorphism has little influence on absolute and relative fat mass or its regional distribution in physically active men. In young women, GGN length is positively associated with adiposity, leptin, and osteocalcin.

  16. Testosterone and androgen receptor gene polymorphism are associated with confidence and competitiveness in men.

    PubMed

    Eisenegger, Christoph; Kumsta, Robert; Naef, Michael; Gromoll, Jörg; Heinrichs, Markus

    2017-06-01

    A contribution to a special issue on Hormones and Human Competition. Studies in non-human animals and humans have demonstrated the important role of testosterone in competitive interactions. Here, we investigated whether endogenous testosterone levels predict the decision to compete, in a design excluding spite as a motive underlying competitiveness. In a laboratory experiment with real monetary incentives, 181 men solved arithmetic problems, first under a noncompetitive piece rate, followed by a competition incentive scheme. We also assessed several parameters relevant to competition, such as risk taking, performance, and confidence in one's own performance. Salivary testosterone levels were measured before and 20min after the competition task using mass spectrometry. Participants were also genotyped for the CAG repeat polymorphism of the androgen receptor gene, known to influence the efficacy of testosterone signaling in a reciprocal relationship to the number of CAG repeats. We observed a significant positive association between basal testosterone levels and the decision to compete, and that higher testosterone levels were related to greater confidence in one's own performance. Whereas the number of CAG repeats was not associated with the choice to compete, a lower number of CAG repeats was related to greater confidence in those who chose to compete, but this effect was attributable to the polymorphism's effect on actual performance. An increase in testosterone levels was observed following the experiment, and this increase varied with self-reported high-school math grades. We expand upon the latest research by documenting effects of the androgen system in confidence in one's own ability, and conclude that testosterone promotes competitiveness without spite. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Androgen receptor gene polymorphisms are associated with aggression in Japanese Akita Inu.

    PubMed

    Konno, Akitsugu; Inoue-Murayama, Miho; Hasegawa, Toshikazu

    2011-10-23

    We tested for an association between variable number of tandem repeats in the canine androgen receptor (AR) gene and personality differences in Japanese Akita Inu dogs. The polymorphic trinucleotide (CAG) repeat region coding for glutamine in exon 1 of the AR gene was genotyped using genomic DNA obtained from 171 dogs. Three alleles (23, 24 and 26 repeats) were detected, and the allele frequency differed with the coat colour. We assessed the personality profiles of 100 fawn-coloured dogs (54 males and 46 females) based on a questionnaire answered by each dog's owner. The questionnaire consisted of five sub-scales (sociability, playfulness, neuroticism, aggressiveness, distractibility), and the psychometric properties were acceptable based upon internal consistency of the subscales. We found that male dogs with a short allele conferring increased AR function had higher aggressiveness scores than male dogs with longer alleles. By contrast, no evidence was found for a relationship between AR gene variants and personality in females. To our knowledge, our findings provide the first evidence of polymorphism in the AR gene being associated with canine aggression.

  18. Androgen receptor gene CAG repeat polymorphism and ovarian cancer risk: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yang; Wang, Jue; Wang, Ling; Du, Yan

    2017-02-28

    Ovarian cancer is one of the common gynecological malignancies worldwide. It is usually diagnosed at a later stage, thus missing the best opportunity for treatment. Despite the advancement of ovarian cancer treatment, the prognosis is still poor. Androgen receptor (AR) may play a role in ovarian carcinogenesis. Previous studies regarding the association between AR CAG repeat length and ovarian cancer risk reported inconsistent results. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the association between AR CAG repeat length and ovarian cancer risk following the MOOSE guidelines. PubMed, Web of Science, EBSCO and other databases were searched up to September 15(th) 2016. Case control studies with clear definition of CAG repeat length and detailed genotype information were included. Two authors independently reviewed and extracted data. Pooled analysis and subgroup analysis stratified by ethnicity were performed for different genetic models. Begg's funnel plot and Egger's test were performed for publication bias estimation. Overall, there was no association between the AR CAG repeat polymorphism and ovarian cancer risk. However, short CAG repeat polymorphism was associated with increased ovarian cancer risk in African Americans and Chinese under the dominant model, whereas a reverse association was observed in Caucasians and Italians under the other three models. Our study results should be interpreted with caution. Further well-designed epidemiological and functional studies are needed to elucidate the role of AR in ovarian carcinogenesis.

  19. Polymorphic CAG Repeat and Protein Expression of Androgen Receptor Gene in Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Huang, Rui; Wang, Guiyu; Song, Yanni; Wang, Feng; Zhu, Bing; Tang, Qingchao; Liu, Zheng; Chen, Yinggang; Zhang, Qian; Muhammad, Shan; Wang, Xishan

    2015-04-01

    Although somatic alterations in CAG repeats in the androgen receptor (AR) gene have been suggested to predispose to colorectal cancer, less is known about AR in colorectal cancer carcinogenesis. Because of lack of relevant analysis on CAG repeat length and AR expression in colorectal cancer, we aimed to investigate the prognostic value of polymorphic CAG and protein expression of the AR gene in patients with colorectal cancer. A case-control study was carried out on 550 patients with colorectal cancer and 540 healthy controls to investigate whether polymorphic CAG within the AR gene is linked to increased risk for colorectal cancer. Polymorphic CAG and AR expression were analyzed to clarify their relationship with clinicopathologic and prognostic factors in patients with colorectal cancer. The study showed that the AR gene in patients with colorectal cancer had a longer CAG repeat sequence than those in the control group, as well as increased risk for colorectal cancer among females (P = 0.013), males (P = 0.002), and total colorectal cancer population (P < 0.001), respectively. AR expression exhibited a significant difference in long CAG repeat sequence among males (P < 0.001), females (P < 0.001), and total colorectal cancer study population (P < 0.001). Both long CAG repeat sequence and negative AR expression were associated with a short 5-year overall survival (OS) rate in colorectal cancer. Long CAG repeat sequences and the absence of AR expression were closely related to the development of colorectal cancer. Both long CAG and decreased AR expression were correlated with the poor 5-year OS in patients with colorectal cancer.

  20. Androgen receptor and prostate-specific antigen gene polymorphisms and breast cancer in African-American women.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; John, Esther M; Ingles, Sue Ann

    2005-12-01

    Several previous studies have found the CAG repeat polymorphism in exon 1 of the androgen receptor (AR) gene to be associated with breast cancer risk among some groups of Caucasian and Asian women. In a population-based case-control study of 488 African-American women (239 cases and 249 controls), we examined this polymorphism along with a polymorphism (-158 G/A) in an androgen-regulated gene (PSA) whose expression has been correlated with breast cancer prognosis. Overall, we did not observe any significant association between the CAG repeat polymorphism and breast cancer risk. However, among women with a first-degree family history of breast cancer, longer CAG repeats were associated with a significantly increased risk. Women carrying at least one longer allele [(CAG)n > or = 22] had a 3-fold increased risk compared to those with two shorter alleles (odds ratio, 3.18; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-9.36). There was no significant association between the PSA gene polymorphism and breast cancer risk, nor was there significant gene-gene interaction. In summary, our results further support that shorter CAG repeats (stronger AR transactivation activity) may reduce the risk of breast cancer, at least among some groups of women. Our data, however, are unable to provide evidence that PSA is the pathway through which the protective effect of androgens operates.

  1. Aging males' symptoms in relation to the genetically determined androgen receptor CAG polymorphism, sex hormone levels and sample membership.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Gudrun; Nienhaus, Kathrin; Gromoll, Jörg; Heuft, Gereon; Nieschlag, Eberhard; Zitzmann, Michael

    2010-05-01

    Late-onset hypogonadism describes the co-occurrence of a range of physical, psychological and sexual symptoms in aging men, with the implication that these symptoms are caused by androgen deficiency. Previous investigations examined mostly population samples and did not take into account the testosterone modulating effects of the genetically determined CAG repeat polymorphism (CAGn) of the androgen receptor (AR) gene. This is the first study which investigates aging male symptoms (AMS) in relation to the genetically determined androgen receptor CAG polymorphism, estradiol and testosterone levels in men > or =50 years of age in a healthy population sample (n=100), outpatients of an andrological department (n=76) who presented with sexual and "aging male" symptoms and a psychosomatic/psychiatric sample (n=120) who presented with various psychological and medically unexplained somatic complaints. Although the population sample was significantly older than the two patient groups, they reported significantly fewer AMS and had higher testosterone levels and shorter CAG repeats of the AR. Regression analysis revealed influences of CAGn on the AMS global score and the psychological and somatic subscale only in the two patient samples, while testosterone had some impact on the sexual subscale. Our results suggest that the so-called aging male symptoms show a certain association to androgenicity, but that they are rather unspecific and of multifactorial origin. Other factors contributing to AMS need further clarification.

  2. The role of testosterone in coordinating male life history strategies: The moderating effects of the androgen receptor CAG repeat polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Gettler, Lee T; Ryan, Calen P; Eisenberg, Dan T A; Rzhetskaya, Margarita; Hayes, M Geoffrey; Feranil, Alan B; Bechayda, Sonny Agustin; Kuzawa, Christopher W

    2017-01-01

    Partnered fathers often have lower testosterone than single non-parents, which is theorized to relate to elevated testosterone (T) facilitating competitive behaviors and lower T contributing to nurturing. Cultural- and individual-factors moderate the expression of such psychobiological profiles. Less is known about genetic variation's role in individual psychobiological responses to partnering and fathering, particularly as related to T. We examined the exon 1 CAG (polyglutamine) repeat (CAGn) within the androgen receptor (AR) gene. AR CAGn shapes T's effects after it binds to AR by affecting AR transcriptional activity. Thus, this polymorphism is a strong candidate to influence individual-level profiles of "androgenicity." While males with a highly androgenic profile are expected to engage in a more competitive-oriented life history strategy, low androgenic men are at increased risk of depression, which could lead to similar outcomes for certain familial dynamics, such as marriage stability and parenting. Here, in a large longitudinal study of Filipino men (n=683), we found that men who had high androgenicity (elevated T and shorter CAGn) or low androgenicity (lower T and longer CAGn) showed elevated likelihood of relationship instability over the 4.5-year study period and were also more likely be relatively uninvolved with childcare as fathers. We did not find that CAGn moderated men's T responses to the fatherhood transition. In total, our results provide evidence for invested fathering and relationship stability at intermediate levels of androgenicity and help inform our understanding of variation in male reproductive strategies and the individual hormonal and genetic differences that underlie it. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Androgen receptor gene polymorphisms and risk of prostate cancer: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Hong; Li, Sheng; Huang, Jing-Yu; He, Zi-Qi; Meng, Xiang-Yu; Cao, Yue; Fang, Cheng; Zeng, Xian-Tao

    2017-01-01

    Although the association between CAG and GGN repeats in the androgen receptor gene and prostate cancer risk has been widely studied, it remains controversial from previous meta-analyses and narrative reviews. Therefore, we performed this meta-analysis to provide more precise estimates with sufficient power. A total of 51 publications with 61 studies for CAG repeats and 14 publications with 16 studies for GGN repeats were identified in the meta-analysis. The results showed that short CAG repeats (<22 repeats) carriers presented an elevated risk of prostate cancer than long CAG repeats (≥22) carriers (OR = 1.31, 95% CI 1.16 to 1.47). Prostate cancer cases presented an average fewer CAG repeats (MD = −0.85, 95% CI −1.28 to −0.42) than controls. Short GGN repeats (≤16) carriers presented an increased risk of prostate cancer than long GGN repeats (>16) carriers (OR = 1.38, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.82). In subgroup analyses, the abovementioned significant association was predominantly observed in Caucasian populations. The meta-analysis showed that short CAG and GGN repeats in androgen receptor gene were associated with increased risk of prostate cancer, especially in Caucasians. PMID:28091563

  4. Influence of Androgen Receptor Gene CAG and GGC Polymorphisms on Male Sexual Function: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Corona, Giovanni; Falzetti, Sara; delli Muti, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Background. No study has assessed the possible involvement of GGC androgen receptor (AR) polymorphism in sexual function. Our aim is to evaluate the association between CAG and GGC AR polymorphisms in this function. Methods. We retrospectively examined eighty-five outpatients. Clinical, biochemical, and genetic parameters were considered. Sexual assessment was performed using the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) which evaluates erectile function (EF), orgasmic function (OF), sexual desire (SD), intercourse satisfaction (IS), and overall satisfaction (OS). Results. In the whole sample, CAG repeats were inversely correlated with EF, OF, and total IIEF-15 score, whereas GGC tracts did not show any significant correlation with sexual function. CAG relationship with IIEF items retained significance only in the eugonadal but not in the hypogonadal cohort. On the other hand, GGC tracts were not found to be significantly correlated with IIEF variables in either eugonadal or hypogonadal subjects. In eugonadal subjects, logistic regression pointed out that a higher number of CAG triplets were associated with lower values of EF, OF, SD, OS, and total IIEF independently from other confounders. Conclusions. GGC polymorphism seems not to exert any influence on sexual function, whereas CAG polymorphism appears to affect sexual parameters only in eugonadal subjects. PMID:28243253

  5. Androgen receptor polymorphism-dependent variation in prostate-specific antigen concentrations of European men.

    PubMed

    Bentmar Holgersson, Magdalena; Giwercman, Aleksander; Bjartell, Anders; Wu, Frederick C W; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo T; O'Neill, Terence W; Pendleton, Neil; Vanderschueren, Dirk; Lean, Michael E J; Han, Thang S; Finn, Joseph D; Kula, Krzysztof; Forti, Gianni; Casanueva, Felipe F; Bartfai, György; Punab, Margus; Lundberg Giwercman, Yvonne

    2014-10-01

    Androgens acting via the androgen receptor (AR) stimulate production of PSA, which is a clinical marker of prostate cancer. Because genetic variants in the AR may have a significant impact on the risk of being diagnosed with prostate cancer, the aim was to investigate whether AR variants were associated with the risk of having PSA above clinically used cutoff thresholds of 3 or 4 ng/mL in men without prostate cancer. Men without prostate cancer history (n = 1,744) were selected from the European Male Ageing Study cohort of 40 to 79-year-old men from eight different European centers. Using linear and logistic regression models, with age and center as covariates, we investigated whether AR variants (CAG repeat-length and/or SNP genotype) were associated with having serum PSA concentrations above 3 or 4 ng/mL, which often are set as cutoff concentrations for further investigation of prostate cancer. Carriers of the SNP rs1204038 A-allele (16% of the men) were more likely to have PSA>3 and 4 ng/mL (OR; 95% confidence intervals, 1.65; 1.13-2.40 and 1.87; 1.18-2.96, respectively) than G-allele carriers. They also had shorter CAG repeats (median 20 vs. 23, P < 0.0005), but CAG repeat length per se did not affect the PSA concentrations. The A-allele of the SNP rs1204038 gives a 65% higher risk of having PSA above 3 ng/mL than the G-allele in men without prostate cancer, and thereby an increased risk of being referred for further examination on suspicion of prostate cancer. Serum PSA as a clinical marker could be improved by adjustment for AR-genotype. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  6. Androgen receptor CAG and GGC polymorphisms in Mediterraneans: repeat dynamics and population relationships.

    PubMed

    Esteban, Esther; Rodon, Natalia; Via, Marc; Gonzalez-Perez, Emili; Santamaria, Josep; Dugoujon, Jean-Michel; Chennawi, Farha El; Melhaoui, Mohamed; Cherkaoui, Mohamed; Vona, Giuseppe; Harich, Nourdin; Moral, Pedro

    2006-01-01

    Microsatellite variation (CAG and GGC repeats) of the androgen receptor (AR) gene shows remarkable differences among African and non-African populations. In vitro studies have demonstrated an inverse relationship between the length of both microsatellites and AR activity. This fact may explain the observed association of the AR gene with prostate cancer and the strong ethnic differences in the incidence of this cancer. CAG and GGC genetic variation has been tested in a large set of populations from the Ivory Coast as well as 12 Mediterranean samples whose variation is described for the first time. The pattern of frequencies observed in the Ivory Coast agrees with data previously reported for other Sub-Saharan populations. Concerning the Mediterranean variation, Sardinian samples are characterised by low genetic diversities, and Egyptian Siwa Berbers by a particular pattern of GGC frequencies. High and Middle Atlas Moroccan Berbers are the most closely related to the Sub-Saharan variation. For both the CAG and GGC repeats, the Ivory Coast and some Moroccan samples exhibit high frequencies of low size alleles (CAG under 18 repeats, and GGC under 15 repeats) that have been associated with prostate cancer.

  7. Targeting the androgen receptor.

    PubMed

    Friedlander, Terence W; Ryan, Charles J

    2012-11-01

    Androgen receptor (AR)-mediated signaling is critical to the growth and survival of prostate cancer. Although medical castration and antiandrogen therapy can decrease AR activity and lower PSA, castration resistance eventually develops. Recent work exploring the molecular structure and evolution of AR in response to hormonal therapies has revealed novel mechanisms of progression of castration-resistant prostate cancer and yielded new targets for drug development. This review focuses on understanding the mechanisms of persistent AR signaling in the castrate environment, and highlights new therapies either currently available or in clinical trials, including androgen synthesis inhibitors and novel direct AR inhibitors.

  8. Baldness and the androgen receptor: the AR polyglycine repeat polymorphism does not confer susceptibility to androgenetic alopecia.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Justine A; Scurrah, Katrina J; Cobb, Joanna E; Zaloumis, Sophie G; Duncan, Anna E; Harrap, Stephen B

    2007-05-01

    Androgenetic alopecia, or male pattern baldness, is a complex condition with a strong heritable component. In 2001, we published the first significant evidence of a genetic association between baldness and a synonymous coding SNP (rs6152) in the androgen receptor gene, AR. Recently, this finding was replicated in three independent studies, confirming an important role for AR in the baldness phenotype. In one such replication study, it was claimed that the causative variant underlying the association was likely to be the polyglycine (GGN) repeat polymorphism, one of two apparently functional triplet repeat polymorphisms located in the exon 1 transactivating domain of the gene. Here, we extend our original association finding and present comprehensive evidence from approximately 1,200 fathers and sons drawn from 703 families of the Victorian Family Heart Study, a general population Caucasian cohort, that neither exon 1 triplet repeat polymorphism is causative in this condition. Seventy-eight percent of fathers (531/683) and 30% of sons (157/520) were affected to some degree with AGA. We utilised statistical methods appropriate for the categorical nature of the phenotype and familial structure of the cohort, and determined that whilst SNP rs6152 was strongly associated with baldness (P < 0.0001), the GGN triplet repeat was not (P = 0.13). In the absence of any other known common functional coding variants, we argue that the causative variant is likely to be in the non-coding region, and yet to be identified. The identification of functional non-coding variants surrounding AR may have significance not only for baldness, but also for the many other complex conditions that have thus far been linked to AR.

  9. Association between G1733A (rs6152) polymorphism in androgen receptor gene and recurrent spontaneous abortions in Mexican population.

    PubMed

    Porras-Dorantes, Ángela; Brambila-Tapia, Aniel Jessica Leticia; Lazcano-Castellanos, Alma Benita; Da Silva-José, Thiago Donizete; Juárez-Osuna, Jesús Alejandro; García-Ortiz, José Elías

    2017-07-13

    Recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) is a multifactorial condition that occurs with a frequency of 0.2-5% in women of reproductive age. Among genetic factors, the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) G1733A in the androgen receptor (AR) gene has been associated with its presence in Greek and Iranian populations. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine its possible association with RSA in this population. A total of 156 Mexican RSA (with at least 2 consecutive abortions) unrelated patients and 152 unrelated healthy women were included, the presence of karyotype anomalies in the parents as well as uterine anomalies as well as antiphospholipid antibodies was excluded in patients; while all the controls presented at least two healthy pregnancies and no abortion. In all the included women, the presence of the SNP G1733A was determined by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) technique. No significant differences were observed in age between groups. The genotype GG, GA, and AA had a frequency of 0.70, 0.27, and 0.03 in controls and of 0.89, 0.10, and 0.01 in patients (p < 0.001); while the A allele frequency was of 0.06 and 0.16 in controls and patients, respectively (p < 0.0001). The difference in allele frequency increased 10-15% when patients with primary RSA (with no live births) and with at least three abortions were included. The SNP G1733A of the AR gene is significantly associated with RSA in Mexican patients. These results coincide with previous reports in other populations.

  10. Humanizing the Mouse Androgen Receptor to Study Polymorphisms and Mutations in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    hormone levels are subject to wide variation, so we are currently measuring seminal vesicle weight as a better indicator of testosterone action. Since we...and somatic mutations may affect progression and response to therapy [2-4]. In most cases, hormonal therapy is initially successful, but tumors...How do polymorphisms in AR lead to greater risk of disease? 2) How do somatic mutations in AR during tumor growth circumvent hormone ablation? This

  11. ANDROGEN RECEPTOR CAG AND GGN REPEAT POLYMORPHISMS AND BONE MASS IN BOYS AND GIRLS.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Garcia, Lorena; Ponce-Gonzalez, Jesus G; González-Henriquez, Juan J; Rodriguez-Gonzalez, Francisco G; Díaz-Chico, Bonifacio N; Calbet, Jose A L; Serrano-Sanchez, José A; Dorado, Cecilia; Guadalupe-Grau, Amelia

    2015-12-01

    Introducción: el gen humano del receptor de androgenos (AR) posee dos repeticiones polimorficas de trinucleotidos (CAG y GGN) que afectan a la cantidad de proteina AR traducida. En este estudio, genotipamos esos tractos polimorficos en una muestra representativa de ninos caucasicos espanoles (Tanner ≤ 5), compuesta por 152 ninos (11.5 } 2.6 anos) y 116 ninas (10.1 } 3.2 anos) e investigamos su asociacion con la masa osea. Métodos: la longitud de las repeticiones CAG y GGN se determino mediante PCR y analisis de fragmentos. La composicion corporal se midio mediante absorciometria dual de rayos X (DXA). Los participantes fueron agrupados como CAG cortos (CAGS) si poseian una longitud de repeticiones ≤ 21 y CAG largos si esta era > 21. Ademas, los participantes se agruparon como GGN cortos (GGNS) si poseian una longitud de repeticiones ≤ 23 y GGN largos (GGNL) si esta era > 23. Resultados: en los ninos se encontraron diferencias en talla, peso corporal, densidad mineral osea (BMD) y contenido mineral oseo (BMC) del cuerpo entero, BMC de las extremidades superiores e inferiores, BMD del cuello del femur, BMC y BMD del triangulo de Ward’s y BMD de la espina lumbar entre los grupos CAGS y CAGL (P < 0,05). Ademas, el BMD de las extremidades superiores fue significativamente diferente entre los grupos GGNS y GGNL. Tras ajustar por variables confusoras, la unica diferencia que se mantuvo significativa fue la del BMD en las extremidades superiores entre los grupos GGNS y GGNL (P < 0,05). No se observaron diferencias entre los grupos CAG y GGN y la masa osea en las ninas. Conclusiones: nuestros resultados apoyan la hipotesis de que los alelos largos de los polimorfismos CAG y GGN del AR estan asociados con una mayor masa osea en ninos prepuberes.

  12. Relationships among androgen receptor CAG repeat polymorphism, sex hormones and penile length in Han adult men from China: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yan-Min; Wu, Kai-Jie; Ning, Liang; Zeng, Jin; Kou, Bo; Xie, Hong-Jun; Ma, Zhen-Kun; Wang, Xin-Yang; Gong, Yong-Guang; He, Da-Lin

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the correlations among androgen receptor (AR) CAG repeat polymorphism, sex hormones and penile length in healthy Chinese young adult men. Two hundred and fifty-three healthy men (aged 22.8 ± 3.1 years) were enrolled. The individuals were grouped as CAG short (CAGS) if they harbored repeat length of ≤20 or as CAG long (CAGL) if their CAG repeat length was >20. Body height/weight, penile length and other parameters were examined and recorded by the specified physicians; CAG repeat polymorphism was determined by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method; and the serum levels of the sex hormones were detected by radioimmunoassay. Student's t-test or linear regression analysis was used to assess the associations among AR CAG repeat polymorphism, sex hormones and penile length. This investigation showed that the serum total testosterone (T) level was positively associated with the AR CAG repeat length (P = 0.01); whereas, no significant correlation of T or AR CAG repeat polymorphism with the penile length was found (P = 0.593). Interestingly, an inverse association was observed between serum prolactin (PRL) levels and penile length by linear regression analyses (β= −0.024, P = 0.039, 95% confidence interval (CI): −0.047, 0). Collectively, this study provides the first evidence that serum PRL, but not T or AR CAG repeat polymorphism, is correlated with penile length in the Han adult population from northwestern China. PMID:24589466

  13. The Androgen Receptor Gene Mutations Database.

    PubMed

    Gottlieb, B; Lehvaslaiho, H; Beitel, L K; Lumbroso, R; Pinsky, L; Trifiro, M

    1998-01-01

    The current version of the androgen receptor (AR) gene mutations database is described. The total number of reported mutations has risen from 272 to 309 in the past year. We have expanded the database: (i) by giving each entry an accession number; (ii) by adding information on the length of polymorphic polyglutamine (polyGln) and polyglycine (polyGly) tracts in exon 1; (iii) by adding information on large gene deletions; (iv) by providing a direct link with a completely searchable database (courtesy EMBL-European Bioinformatics Institute). The addition of the exon 1 polymorphisms is discussed in light of their possible relevance as markers for predisposition to prostate or breast cancer. The database is also available on the internet (http://www.mcgill. ca/androgendb/ ), from EMBL-European Bioinformatics Institute (ftp. ebi.ac.uk/pub/databases/androgen ), or as a Macintosh FilemakerPro or Word file (MC33@musica.mcgill.ca).

  14. The Androgen Receptor Gene Mutations Database.

    PubMed Central

    Gottlieb, B; Lehvaslaiho, H; Beitel, L K; Lumbroso, R; Pinsky, L; Trifiro, M

    1998-01-01

    The current version of the androgen receptor (AR) gene mutations database is described. The total number of reported mutations has risen from 272 to 309 in the past year. We have expanded the database: (i) by giving each entry an accession number; (ii) by adding information on the length of polymorphic polyglutamine (polyGln) and polyglycine (polyGly) tracts in exon 1; (iii) by adding information on large gene deletions; (iv) by providing a direct link with a completely searchable database (courtesy EMBL-European Bioinformatics Institute). The addition of the exon 1 polymorphisms is discussed in light of their possible relevance as markers for predisposition to prostate or breast cancer. The database is also available on the internet (http://www.mcgill. ca/androgendb/ ), from EMBL-European Bioinformatics Institute (ftp. ebi.ac.uk/pub/databases/androgen ), or as a Macintosh FilemakerPro or Word file (MC33@musica.mcgill.ca). PMID:9399843

  15. The Presence of Clitoromegaly in the Nonclassical Form of 21-Hydroxylase Deficiency Could Be Partially Modulated by the CAG Polymorphic Tract of the Androgen Receptor Gene

    PubMed Central

    Garcia Gomes, Larissa; Bugano Diniz Gomes, Diogo; Marcondes, José Antônio Miguel; Madureira, Guiomar; de Mendonca, Berenice Bilharinho; Bachega, Tânia A. Sartori Sanchez

    2016-01-01

    Background In the nonclassical form (NC), good correlation has been observed between genotypes and 17OH-progesterone (17-OHP) levels. However, this correlation was not identified with regard to the severity of hyperandrogenic manifestations, which could depend on interindividual variability in peripheral androgen sensitivity. Androgen action is modulated by the polymorphic CAG tract (nCAG) of the androgen receptor (AR) gene and by polymorphisms in 5α-reductase type 2 (SRD5A2) enzyme, both of which are involved in the severity of hyperandrogenic disorders. Objectives To analyze whether nCAG-AR and SRD5A2 polymorphisms influence the severity of the nonclassical phenotype. Patients NC patients (n = 114) diagnosed by stimulated-17OHP ≥10 ng/mL were divided into groups according to the beginning of hyperandrogenic manifestations (pediatric and adolescent/adult) and CYP21A2 genotypes (C/C: homozygosis for mild mutations; A/C: compound heterozygosis for severe/mild mutations). Methods CYP21A2 mutations were screened by allelic-specific PCR, MLPA and/or sequencing. HpaII-digested and HpaII-undigested DNA samples underwent GeneScan analysis to study nCAG, and the SRD5A2 polymorphisms were screened by RLFP. Results Mean nCAG did not differ among pediatric, adolescent/adult and asymptomatic subjects. In the C/C genotype, we observed a significantly lower frequency of longer CAG alleles in pediatric patients than in adolescent/adults (p = 0.01). In patients carrying the A/C genotype, the frequencies of shorter and longer CAG alleles did not differ between pediatric patients and adolescent/adults (p>0.05). Patients with clitoromegaly had significantly lower weighted CAG biallelic mean than those without it: 19.1±2.7 and 21.6±2.5, respectively (p = 0.007), independent of the CYP21A2 genotype's severity. The SRD5A2 polymorphisms were not associated with the variability of hyperandrogenic NC phenotypes. Conclusions In this series, we observed a modulatory effect of the CAG

  16. Is there an inter-relationship between prostate specific antigen, kallikrein-2 and androgen receptor gene polymorphisms with risk of prostate cancer in north Indian population?

    PubMed

    Mittal, Rama D; Mishra, Dhruva K; Thangaraj, K; Singh, Rajender; Mandhani, Anil

    2007-04-01

    Androgen receptor (AR) and kallikrein (KLK-2) regulates the PSA (prostate specific antigen) transcription and activation, respectively. We investigated the individual and combined risk of KLK-2, PSA and AR gene polymorphism in histologically confirmed CaP patients and healthy controls from north India. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood leucocytes pellet of 277 subjects. AR repeats analysis was done by PCR-Genscan method. PSA and KLK-2 were genotyped by PCR-RFLP method. Kruskal-Wallis test and logistic regression was applied for mean comparison and risk determination. A significant association for CaP risk was observed with short AR-CAG repeats (OR=3.36, p<0.001) and CC genotype of KLK-2 (OR=2.78, p=0.031), however, no association was found with PSA and AR-GGN repeat polymorphism. PSA/GG genotype was significantly associated with higher Gleason score (> or =7) of tumor (OR=6.23, p<0.01). No association was observed with other confounding variables such as PSA and age with any of these polymorphisms. Thus, we hypothesize that these polymorphisms may influence the etiology of CaP and may have the probability to become appropriate marker either independently or in combination. The combined information on serum PSA level, PSA (G/A), KLK-2 (C/T) genotypes and AR (CAG; GGN repeat) may assist in the deterrence of unnecessary biopsies.

  17. Racial differences in the androgen/androgen receptor pathway in prostate cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Pettaway, C. A.

    1999-01-01

    Pathologic and epidemiologic data suggest that while little racial variation exists in prostate cancer prevalence ("autopsy cancer"), striking racial variation exists for the clinically diagnosed form of the disease. A review of the available literature was performed to define whether racial differences in serum androgen levels or qualitative or quantitative differences in the androgen receptor were correlated with prostate cancer incidence or severity. Black men were found to be exposed to higher circulating testosterone levels from birth to about age 35 years. Such differences were not consistently noted among older men. Significant differences also were found for dihydrotestosterone metabolites among black, white, and Asian men. Unique racial genetic polymorphisms were noted for the gene for 5 alpha-reductase type 2 among black and Asian men. Novel androgen receptor mutations recently have been described among Japanese, but not white, men with latent prostate cancer. Finally, androgen receptor gene polymorphisms leading to shorter or longer glutamine and glycine residues in the receptor protein are correlated with racial variation in the incidence and severity of prostate cancer. This same polymorphism also could explain racial variation in serum prostate-specific antigen levels. Collectively, these data strongly suggest racial differences within the androgen/androgen receptor pathway not only exist but could be one cause of clinically observed differences in the biology of prostate cancer among racial groups. Images Figure 1 PMID:10628124

  18. Partial androgen insensitivity syndrome with thermolability in the androgen receptor.

    PubMed

    Hiraoka, Kenji; Kawauchi, Akihiro; Soh, Jintetsu; Ohe, Hiroshi; Shima, Hiroki; Miki, Tsuneharu

    2006-01-01

    We report case of partial androgen insensitivity syndrome in a 12-year-old boy referred to our clinic complaining of bilateral gynecomastia and left undescended testicle. Laparoscopy for undescended testicle and bilateral mastectomy were performed, and the left testicle was absent. When skin fibroblasts of the scrotum obtained during surgery were cultured to analyse the androgen receptors, a slight thermolability was observed. Genomic examination of the androgen receptor gene could not detect any mutations.

  19. The interaction of serum testosterone levels and androgen receptor CAG repeat polymorphism on the risk of erectile dysfunction in aging Taiwanese men.

    PubMed

    Liu, C C; Lee, Y C; Tsai, V F S; Cheng, K H; Wu, W J; Bao, B Y; Huang, C N; Yeh, H C; Tsai, C C; Wang, C J; Huang, S P

    2015-09-01

    Testosterone has been found to play important roles in men's sexual function. However, the effects of testosterone can be modulated by androgen receptor (AR) CAG repeat polymorphism. It could also contribute to the risk of erectile dysfunction (ED). The aim of this study is to evaluate the interaction of serum testosterone levels and AR CAG repeat polymorphism on the risk of ED in aging Taiwanese men. This cross-sectional data of Taiwanese men older than 40 years were collected from a free health screening held between August 2010 and August 2011 in Kaohsiung city, Taiwan. All participants completed a health questionnaires included five-item version of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) and the International Prostate Symptoms Score, received a detailed physical examination and provided 20 cm3 whole blood samples for biochemical and genetic evaluation. The IIEF-5 was used to evaluate ED. Serum albumin, total testosterone (TT), and sex hormone-binding globulin levels were measured. Free testosterone level was calculated. AR gene CAG repeat polymorphism was determined by direct sequencing. Finally, 478 men with the mean age of 55.7 ± 4.8 years were included. When TT levels were above 330 ng/dL, the effect of testosterone level on erectile function seemed to reach a plateau and a significantly negative correlation between AR CAG repeat length and the score of IIEF-5 was found (r = -0.119, p = 0.034). After adjusting for other covariates, the longer AR CAG repeat length was still an independent risk factor for ED in subjects with TT above 330 ng/dL (p = 0.006), but not in TT of 330 ng/dL or below. In conclusion, both serum testosterone levels and AR CAG repeat polymorphism can influence erectile function concomitantly. In subjects with normal TT concentration, those with longer AR CAG repeat lengths have a higher risk of developing ED.

  20. An unexpected wide population variation of the G1733A polymorphism of the androgen receptor gene: data on the Mediterranean region.

    PubMed

    Esteban, E; Via, M; González-Pérez, E; Santamaría, J; Dugoujon, J M; Vona, G; Harich, N; Luna, F; Saetta, A A; Bissar, N; Moral, P

    2005-01-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) has been proposed as a candidate gene for several cancers (breast, prostate, uterine endometrium, colon, and esophagus). Ethnicity is considered an associated risk factor for some of these cancers. Several case-control genetic studies have been focused in samples of the main ethnic groups, but little is known about the distribution of risk polymorphisms in current populations with accurate ethnic and/or geographic origins. The A allele of the G1733A polymorphism of the AR gene has been associated with increased risk of prostate cancer. We provide data from this marker in 12 samples from 7 Mediterranean countries such as Spain, Italy (Sardinia), Greece, Turkey, Morocco, Algeria, and Egypt. A sample from Ivory Coast has also been analyzed. The A allele distribution shows a frequency in the Ivory Coast population (65.17%) that contrasts with the low values found in Northern Mediterraneans (mean average value of 13.98%). North African populations present two-times higher frequencies (average value of 27.19%) than Europeans. The wide population variation range found for the A allele strengthens the potential interest of further screening as a baseline to the design of future preventive and population health programs.

  1. Methylation of HpaII and HhaI sites near the polymorphic CAG repeat in the human androgen-receptor gene correlates with X chromosome inactivation.

    PubMed Central

    Allen, R C; Zoghbi, H Y; Moseley, A B; Rosenblatt, H M; Belmont, J W

    1992-01-01

    The human androgen-receptor gene (HUMARA; GenBank) contains a highly polymorphic trinucleotide repeat in the first exon. We have found that the methylation of HpaII and HhaI sites less than 100 bp away from this polymorphic short tandem repeat (STR) correlates with X inactivation. The close proximity of the restriction-enzyme sites to the STR allows the development of a PCR assay that distinguishes between the maternal and paternal alleles and identifies their methylation status. The accuracy of this assay was tested on (a) DNA from hamster/human hybrid cell lines containing either an active or inactive human X chromosome; (b) DNA from normal males and females; and (c) DNA from females showing nonrandom patterns of X inactivation. Data obtained using this assay correlated substantially with those obtained using the PGK, HPRT, and M27 beta probes, which detect X inactivation patterns by Southern blot analysis. In order to demonstrate one application of this assay, we examined X inactivation patterns in the B lymphocytes of potential and obligate carriers of X-linked agammaglobulinemia. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:1281384

  2. Central body fat changes in men affected by post-surgical hypogonadotropic hypogonadism undergoing testosterone replacement therapy are modulated by androgen receptor CAG polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Tirabassi, G; delli Muti, N; Buldreghini, E; Lenzi, A; Balercia, G

    2014-08-01

    Little is known about the effect of androgen receptor (AR) gene CAG repeat polymorphism in conditioning body composition changes after testosterone replacement therapy (TRT). In this study, we aimed to clarify this aspect by focussing our attention on male post-surgical hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, a condition often associated with partial or total hypopituitarism. Fourteen men affected by post-surgical hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and undergoing several replacement hormone therapies were evaluated before and after TRT. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA)-derived body composition measurements, pituitary-dependent hormones and AR gene CAG repeat polymorphism were considered. While testosterone and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels increased after TRT, cortisol concentration decreased. No anthropometric or body composition parameters varied significantly, except for abdominal fat decrease. The number of CAG triplets was positively and significantly correlated with this abdominal fat decrease, while the opposite occurred between the latter and Δ-testosterone. No correlation of IGF-1 or cortisol variation (Δ-) with Δ-abdominal fat was found. At multiple linear regression, after correction for Δ-testosterone, the positive association between CAG triplet number and abdominal fat change was confirmed. In male post-surgical hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, shorter length of AR CAG repeat tract is independently associated with a more marked decrease of abdominal fat after TRT. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Androgen receptor in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Heinlein, Cynthia A; Chang, Chawnshang

    2004-04-01

    The normal development and maintenance of the prostate is dependent on androgen acting through the androgen receptor (AR). AR remains important in the development and progression of prostate cancer. AR expression is maintained throughout prostate cancer progression, and the majority of androgen-independent or hormone refractory prostate cancers express AR. Mutation of AR, especially mutations that result in a relaxation of AR ligand specificity, may contribute to the progression of prostate cancer and the failure of endocrine therapy by allowing AR transcriptional activation in response to antiandrogens or other endogenous hormones. Similarly, alterations in the relative expression of AR coregulators have been found to occur with prostate cancer progression and may contribute to differences in AR ligand specificity or transcriptional activity. Prostate cancer progression is also associated with increased growth factor production and an altered response to growth factors by prostate cancer cells. The kinase signal transduction cascades initiated by mitogenic growth factors modulate the transcriptional activity of AR and the interaction between AR and AR coactivators. The inhibition of AR activity through mechanisms in addition to androgen ablation, such as modulation of signal transduction pathways, may delay prostate cancer progression.

  4. A pharmacogenetic survey of androgen receptor (CAG)n and (GGN)n polymorphisms in patients experiencing long term side effects after finasteride discontinuation.

    PubMed

    Cecchin, Erika; De Mattia, Elena; Mazzon, Giorgio; Cauci, Sabina; Trombetta, Carlo; Toffoli, Giuseppe

    2014-12-09

    Finasteride is a steroid 5-alpha-reductase inhibitor, approved for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia (AGA) and benign prostate hyperplasia. In some patients the treatment is associated with adverse side effects that could become persistent after therapy discontinuation, resulting in the so-called post-finasteride syndrome (PFS). A pharmacogenetic component in the response to finasteride treatment was previously demonstrated. Two polymorphisms (CAG) rs4045402 and (GGN) rs3138869 in the gene encoding for the androgen receptor (AR) have been hypothesized to play a role in finasteride sensitivity. We aimed to compare the rs4045402 and rs3138869 polymorphisms prevalence in a group of 69 selected subjects (AGA+PFS) that used finasteride to treat alopecia and developed persistent side effects, with that in a group of 91 untreated subjects with AGA (AGA), and a group of 76 untreated subjects without AGA (NO-AGA). The rs4045402 and rs3138869 polymorphisms extreme-lengths alleles were more frequent among AGA+PFS (odds ratio, 5.88; 95% CI, 1.87-18.52) and AGA subjects (odds ratio, 3.55; 95% CI, 1.13-11.21) than among NO-AGA subjects, probably reflecting the genetic predisposing factors for AGA development. In conclusion, we described a predictive effect of the less common repeats' length CAG-rs4045402 and GGN-rs3138869 on AGA development. Prospective trials are required to confirm our findings also in other ethnicities, and to highlight possible further pharmacogenetic predictive markers of susceptibility to adverse effects.

  5. Androgen receptor (AR) in cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chiung-Kuei; Lee, Soo Ok; Chang, Eugene; Pang, Haiyan; Chang, Chawnshang

    2016-04-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are still the highest leading cause of death worldwide. Several risk factors have been linked to CVDs, including smoking, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and gender among others. Sex hormones, especially the androgen and its receptor, androgen receptor (AR), have been linked to many diseases with a clear gender difference. Here, we summarize the effects of androgen/AR on CVDs, including hypertension, stroke, atherosclerosis, abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), myocardial hypertrophy, and heart failure, as well as the metabolic syndrome/diabetes and their impacts on CVDs. Androgen/AR signaling exacerbates hypertension, and anti-androgens may suppress hypertension. Androgen/AR signaling plays dual roles in strokes, depending on different kinds of factors; however, generally males have a higher incidence of strokes than females. Androgen and AR differentially modulate atherosclerosis. Androgen deficiency causes elevated lipid accumulation to enhance atherosclerosis; however, targeting AR in selective cells without altering serum androgen levels would suppress atherosclerosis progression. Androgen/AR signaling is crucial in AAA development and progression, and targeting androgen/AR profoundly restricts AAA progression. Men have increased cardiac hypertrophy compared with age-matched women that may be due to androgens. Finally, androgen/AR plays important roles in contributing to obesity and insulin/leptin resistance to increase the metabolic syndrome. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.

  6. Androgen Receptor Signaling in Bladder Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Peng; Chen, Jinbo; Miyamoto, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    Emerging preclinical findings have indicated that steroid hormone receptor signaling plays an important role in bladder cancer outgrowth. In particular, androgen-mediated androgen receptor signals have been shown to correlate with the promotion of tumor development and progression, which may clearly explain some sex-specific differences in bladder cancer. This review summarizes and discusses the available data, suggesting the involvement of androgens and/or the androgen receptor pathways in urothelial carcinogenesis as well as tumor growth. While the precise mechanisms of the functions of the androgen receptor in urothelial cells remain far from being fully understood, current evidence may offer chemopreventive or therapeutic options, using androgen deprivation therapy, in patients with bladder cancer. PMID:28241422

  7. Androgen receptor gene CAG repeat polymorphism independently influences recovery of male sexual function after testosterone replacement therapy in postsurgical hypogonadotropic hypogonadism.

    PubMed

    Tirabassi, Giacomo; Delli Muti, Nicola; Corona, Giovanni; Maggi, Mario; Balercia, Giancarlo

    2014-05-01

    Few and contradictory studies have evaluated the possible influence of androgen receptor (AR) gene CAG repeat polymorphism on male sexual function. In this study we evaluated the role of AR gene CAG repeat polymorphism in the recovery of sexual function after testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) in men affected by postsurgical hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, a condition which is often associated with hypopituitarism and in which the sexual benefits of TRT must be distinguished from those of pituitary-function replacement therapies. Fifteen men affected by postsurgical hypogonadotropic hypogonadism were retrospectively assessed before and after TRT. Main outcome measures included sexual parameters as assessed by the International Index of Erectile Function questionnaire, levels of pituitary dependent hormones (total testosterone, free T3, free T4, cortisol, insulin-like growth factor-1 [IGF-1], prolactin), and results of genetic analysis (AR gene CAG repeat number). Plasma concentrations of free T3, free T4, cortisol, and prolactin did not vary significantly between the two phases, while testosterone and IGF-1 increased significantly after TRT. A significant improvement in all sexual parameters studied was found. The number of CAG triplets was negatively and significantly correlated with changes in all the sexual parameters, while opposite correlations were found between changes in sexual parameters and changes in testosterone levels; no correlation of change in IGF1 with change in sexual parameters was reported. On multiple linear regression analysis, after correction for changes in testosterone, nearly all the associations between the number of CAG triplets and changes in sexual parameters were confirmed. Shorter length AR gene CAG repeat number is associated with the recovery of sexual function after TRT in postsurgical male hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, independently of the effects of concomitant pituitary-replacement therapies. © 2014 International Society

  8. Effects of testosterone replacement therapy on bone metabolism in male post-surgical hypogonadotropic hypogonadism: focus on the role of androgen receptor CAG polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Tirabassi, G; delli Muti, N; Gioia, A; Biagioli, A; Lenzi, A; Balercia, G

    2014-04-01

    The relationship between androgen receptor (AR) CAG polymorphism and bone metabolism is highly controversial. We, therefore, aimed to evaluate the independent role of AR CAG repeat polymorphism on bone metabolism improvement induced by testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) in male post-surgical hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, a condition frequently associated with hypopituitarism and in which the effects of TRT have to be distinguished from those resulting from concomitant administration of pituitary function replacing hormones. 12 men affected by post-surgical hypogonadotropic hypogonadism [mean duration of hypogonadism 8.3 ± 2.05 (SD) months] were retrospectively assessed before and after TRT (from 74 to 84 weeks after the beginning of therapy). The following measures were studied: parameters of bone metabolism [serum markers and bone mineral density (BMD)], pituitary dependent hormones and genetic analysis (AR CAG repeat number). Total testosterone, estradiol, free T4 (FT4) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) increased between the two phases, while follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) decreased. While serum markers did not vary significantly between the two phases, BMD improved slightly but significantly in all the studied sites. The number of CAG triplets correlated negatively and significantly with all the variations (Δ-) of BMDs. Conversely, Δ-testosterone correlated positively and significantly with all studied Δ-BMDs, while Δ-FSH, Δ-estradiol, Δ-FT4, and Δ-IGF-1 did not correlate significantly with any of the Δ-BMDs. Multiple linear regression analysis, after correction for Δ-testosterone, showed that CAG repeat length was negatively and significantly associated with ∆-BMD of all measured sites. Our data suggest that, in post-surgical male hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, shorter AR CAG tract is independently associated with greater TRT-induced improvement of BMD.

  9. Combined effect of polymorphisms in type III 5-α reductase and androgen receptor gene with the risk of benign prostatic hyperplasia in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chung Lyul; Lee, Jaegeun; Na, Yong Gil; Song, Ki Hak

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated whether type III 5-alpha reductase (SRD5A3; steroid reductase 5-alpha 3) polymorphism was associated with susceptibility of benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and the combined effects in BPH risk between the type of short tandem repeat (STR) in SRD5A3 and the length of trinucleotide (CAG) repeats in androgen receptor (AR) gene. We compared the length of AC repeats in STR region of SRD5A3 gene and a CAG repeat in AR in 188 BPH patients who underwent transurethral resection of prostate (TURP) and 98 controls by polymerase chain reaction-based methods. We defined short type was less than 21 copies of AC repeats. The odds ratio for BPH between the men with at least one of short type and with both large types of STR in SRD5A3 gene was 3.10 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.87–5.16; P=0.000). And BPH was 2.35 times more likely to occur in with less than 23 copies of CAG repeats than men equal or greater than 23 copies in AR gene (95% CI, 1.18–2.36; P=0.016). The men with the large type of STR and ≥23 copies of CAG repeats have 5.3 times BPH risk compared to the reference group with the at least one of the short type of STR and <23 copies (P<0.000). In conclusion, these results suggest that shorter AC repeats of SRD5A3 gene and shorter CAG repeats of AR gene were associated with an increased risk for BPH. However, the interaction between above two factors was not affected in risk of BPH. PMID:27807533

  10. Androgen Receptor-Mediated Escape Mechanisms from Androgen Ablation Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-01

    03- catenin in lipogenesis can be assigned. In addition to being highly expressed in adipose tissue, both PPAR8 and PPARy are thought to serve...ProliferationPrlfato? a) Androgen Dependent PrCa b) Androgen Independent PrCa Figure 3 a) ER TR VDR VDR Wnt -*P-cat - *lo AR Wn Ic AR: RAR, RAR, RXR RXR* PPAR8 PPARy ...97) Tcf-4 PPARy Activation Increased PPAR7 detected in colonic cancer cells (85) Table 11. Nuclear Receptor Modulation of Wnt//J-catenin/Tcf

  11. Androgens, androgen receptors, and male gender role behavior.

    PubMed

    Wilson, J D

    2001-09-01

    Studies of genetic males with single gene mutations that impair testosterone formation or action and consequently prevent development of the normal male phenotype provide unique insight into the control of gender role behavior. 46,XY individuals with either of two autosomal recessive mutations [17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 3 (17 beta-HSD3) deficiency or steroid 5 alpha-reductase 2 (5 alpha-R2) deficiency] have a female phenotype at birth and are raised as females but frequently change gender role behavior to male after the expected time of puberty. In contrast, genetic males with mutations that impair profoundly the function of the androgen receptor are also raised as females and have consistent female behavior as adults. Furthermore, the rare men with mutations that impair estrogen synthesis or the estrogen receptor have male gender role behavior. These findings indicate that androgens are important determinants of gender role behavior (and probably of gender identity) and that this action is mediated by the androgen receptor and not the result of conversion of androgen to estrogen. The fact that all genetic males with 17 beta-HSD3 or 5 alpha-R2 deficiency do not change gender role behavior indicates that other factors are also important determinants of this process.

  12. The androgen receptor gene mutations database.

    PubMed

    Patterson, M N; Hughes, I A; Gottlieb, B; Pinsky, L

    1994-09-01

    The androgen receptor gene mutations database is a comprehensive listing of mutations published in journals and meetings proceedings. The majority of mutations are point mutations identified in patients with androgen insensitivity syndrome. Information is included regarding the phenotype, the nature and location of the mutations, as well as the effects of the mutations on the androgen binding activity of the receptor. The current version of the database contains 149 entries, of which 114 are unique mutations. The database is available from EMBL (NetServ@EMBL-Heidelberg.DE) or as a Macintosh Filemaker file (mc33001@musica.mcgill.ca).

  13. Development of a highly polymorphic STR marker for identity testing purposes at the human androgen receptor gene (HUMARA).

    PubMed

    Desmarais, D; Zhong, Y; Chakraborty, R; Perreault, C; Busque, L

    1998-09-01

    We developed a non-isotopic method which improves the technical quality of the X-linked HUMARA locus typing process. The use of formamide and a low concentration of acrylamide increased resolution and sharpness of HUMARA alleles in silver-stained polyacrylamide gels. In addition, the construction of an allelic ladder containing amplified sequence of 9 alleles (even-numbered alleles) of the HUMARA locus, allows confident, rapid and precise assignment of discretely defined alleles. Allele and genotype frequencies for the HUMARA locus were determined in a French Canadian population sample. Observed genotype frequencies in females conformed to Hardy-Weinberg expectations. Furthermore, the HUMARA locus is highly polymorphic with 18 observed alleles and an heterozygosity value of 89.3%. Also, this locus has average powers of discrimination of 97.8% and 88.7% for testing samples of female and male origin, respectively. In the French Canadian population, the average probability of excluding a random man as the father in paternity analysis when both mother and daughter are tested for this locus is 88.0%. Together, the results indicate that the HUMARA locus provides a highly discriminatory system that is appropriate for the purposes of forensic identification and paternity testing involving a female child.

  14. Androgen Receptor Signaling in Salivary Gland Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dalin, Martin G.; Watson, Philip A.; Ho, Alan L.; Morris, Luc G. T.

    2017-01-01

    Salivary gland cancers comprise a small subset of human malignancies, and are classified into multiple subtypes that exhibit diverse histology, molecular biology and clinical presentation. Local disease is potentially curable with surgery, which may be combined with adjuvant radiotherapy. However, metastatic or unresectable tumors rarely respond to chemotherapy and carry a poorer prognosis. Recent molecular studies have shown evidence of androgen receptor signaling in several types of salivary gland cancer, mainly salivary duct carcinoma. Successful treatment with anti-androgen therapy in other androgen receptor-positive malignancies such as prostate and breast cancer has inspired researchers to investigate this treatment in salivary gland cancer as well. In this review, we describe the prevalence, biology, and therapeutic implications of androgen receptor signaling in salivary gland cancer. PMID:28208703

  15. Androgen Receptor-Mediated Escape Mechanisms from Androgen Ablation Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-01

    well as mechanisms associated with prostate cancer growth and expansion, we may be able to develop therapies that prolong lives. Understanding the...and G. A. Coetzee. 2004. Androgen receptor signaling: mechanism of interleukin-6 inhibition. Cancer Res. 64:2619–2626. 19. Jia, L., and G. A. Coetzee...the prostate specific antigen locus: steroidal and non-steroidal mechanisms . Mol. Cancer Res. 1:385–392. 21. Johnstone, R. W. 2002. Histone

  16. The roles of androgen receptors and androgen-binding proteins in nongenomic androgen actions.

    PubMed

    Heinlein, Cynthia A; Chang, Chawnshang

    2002-10-01

    The biological activity of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone is thought to occur predominantly through binding to the androgen receptor (AR), a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily that functions as a ligand-activated transcription factor. However, androgens have also been reported to induce the rapid activation of kinase-signaling cascades and modulate intracellular calcium levels. These effects are considered to be nongenomic because they occur in cell types that lack a functional AR, in the presence of inhibitors of transcription and translation, or are observed to occur too rapidly to involve changes in gene transcription. Such nongenomic effects of androgens may occur through AR functioning in the cytoplasm to induce the MAPK signal cascade. In addition, androgens may function through the sex hormone binding globulin receptor and possibly a distinct G protein-coupled receptor to activate second messenger signaling mechanisms. The physiological effect of nongenomic androgen action has yet to be determined. However, it may ultimately contribute to regulation of transcription factor activity, including mediation of the transcriptional activity of AR.

  17. The androgen receptor gene mutations database.

    PubMed

    Gottlieb, B; Trifiro, M; Lumbroso, R; Vasiliou, D M; Pinsky, L

    1996-01-01

    The current version of the androgen receptor (AR) gene mutations database is described. We have added (if available) data on the androgen binding phenotype of the mutant AR, the clinical phenotype of the affected persons, the family history and whether the pathogenicity of a mutation has been proven. Exonic mutations are now listed in 5'-->3' sequence regardless of type and single base pair changes are presented in codon context. Splice site and intronic mutations are listed separately. The database has allowed us to substantiate and amplify the observation of mutational hot spots within exons encoding the AR androgen binding domain. The database is available from EML (ftp://www.ebi.ac.uk/pub/databases/androgen) or as a Macintosh Filemaker file (MC33@musica.mcgill.ca).

  18. Androgen receptor roles in spermatogenesis and infertility.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, Laura; Smith, Lee B

    2015-08-01

    Androgens such as testosterone are steroid hormones essential for normal male reproductive development and function. Mutations of androgen receptors (AR) are often found in patients with disorders of male reproductive development, and milder mutations may be responsible for some cases of male infertility. Androgens exert their action through AR and its signalling in the testis is essential for spermatogenesis. AR is not expressed in the developing germ cell lineage so is thought to exert its effects through testicular Sertoli and peri-tubular myoid (PTM) cells. AR signalling in spermatogenesis has been investigated in rodent models where testosterone levels are chemically supressed or models with transgenic disruption of AR. These models have pinpointed the steps of spermatogenesis that require AR signalling, specifically maintenance of spermatogonial numbers, blood-testis barrier integrity, completion of meiosis, adhesion of spermatids and spermiation, together these studies detail the essential nature of androgens in the promotion of male fertility.

  19. Androgen Receptor Variants and Prostate Cancer in Humanized AR Mice

    PubMed Central

    Albertelli, Megan A.; O’Mahony, Orla A.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY Androgen, acting via the androgen receptor (AR), is central to male development, differentiation and hormone-dependent diseases such as prostate cancer. AR is actively involved in the initiation of prostate cancer, the transition to androgen independence, and many mechanisms of resistance to therapy. To examine genetic variation of AR in cancer, we created mice by germ-line gene targeting in which human AR sequence replaces that of the mouse. Since shorter length of a polymorphic N-terminal glutamine (Q) tract has been linked to prostate cancer risk, we introduced alleles with 12, 21 or 48 Qs to test this association. The three “humanized” AR mouse strains (h/mAR) are normal physiologically, as well as by cellular and molecular criteria, although slight differences are detected in AR target gene expression, correlating inversely with Q tract length. However, distinct allele-dependent differences in tumorigenesis are evident when these mice are crossed to a transgenic prostate cancer model. Remarkably, Q tract variation also differentially impacts disease progression following androgen depletion. This finding emphasizes the importance of AR function in androgen-independent as well as –dependent disease. These mice provide a novel genetic paradigm in which to dissect opposing functions of AR in tumor suppression vs. oncogenesis. PMID:17936615

  20. Adolescents and androgens, receptors and rewards.

    PubMed

    Sato, Satoru M; Schulz, Kalynn M; Sisk, Cheryl L; Wood, Ruth I

    2008-05-01

    Adolescence is associated with increases in pleasure-seeking behaviors, which, in turn, are shaped by the pubertal activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis. In animal models of naturally rewarding behaviors, such as sex, testicular androgens contribute to the development and expression of the behavior in males. To effect behavioral maturation, the brain undergoes significant remodeling during adolescence, and many of the changes are likewise sensitive to androgens, presumably acting through androgen receptors (AR). Given the delicate interaction of gonadal hormones and brain development, it is no surprise that disruption of hormone levels during this sensitive period significantly alters adolescent and adult behaviors. In male hamsters, exposure to testosterone during adolescence is required for normal expression of adult sexual behavior. Males deprived of androgens during puberty display sustained deficits in mating. Conversely, androgens alone are not sufficient to induce mating in prepubertal males, even though brain AR are present before puberty. In this context, wide-spread use of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) during adolescence is a significant concern. AAS abuse has the potential to alter both the timing and the levels of androgens in adolescent males. In hamsters, adolescent AAS exposure increases aggression, and causes lasting changes in neurotransmitter systems. In addition, AAS are themselves reinforcing, as demonstrated by self-administration of testosterone and other AAS. However, recent evidence suggests that the reinforcing effects of androgens may not require classical AR. Therefore, further examination of interactions between androgens and rewarding behaviors in the adolescent brain is required for a better understanding of AAS abuse.

  1. Adolescents and Androgens, Receptors and Rewards

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Satoru M.; Schulz, Kalynn M.; Sisk, Cheryl L.; Wood, Ruth I.

    2008-01-01

    Adolescence is associated with increases in pleasure-seeking behaviors, which, in turn, are shaped by the pubertal activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis. In animal models of naturally rewarding behaviors, such as sex, testicular androgens contribute to the development and expression of the behavior in males. To effect behavioral maturation, the brain undergoes significant remodeling during adolescence, and many of the changes are likewise sensitive to androgens, presumably acting through androgen receptors (AR). Given the delicate interaction of gonadal hormones and brain development, it is no surprise that disruption of hormone levels during this sensitive period significantly alters adolescent and adult behaviors. In male hamsters, exposure to testosterone during adolescence is required for normal expression of adult sexual behavior. Males deprived of androgens during puberty display sustained deficits in mating. Conversely, androgens alone are not sufficient to induce mating in prepubertal males, even though brain AR are present before puberty. In this context, wide-spread use of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) during adolescence is a significant concern. AAS abuse has the potential to alter both the timing and the levels of androgens in adolescent males. In hamsters, adolescent AAS exposure increases aggression, and causes lasting changes in neurotransmitter systems. In addition, AAS are themselves reinforcing, as demonstrated by self-administration of testosterone and other AAS. However, recent evidence suggests that the reinforcing effects of androgens may not require classical AR. Therefore, further examination of interactions between androgens and rewarding behaviors in the adolescent brain is required for a better understanding of AAS abuse. PMID:18343381

  2. Development of selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs).

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Ramesh; Coss, Christopher C; Dalton, James T

    2017-06-15

    The Androgen Receptor (AR), a member of the steroid hormone receptor family, plays important roles in the physiology and pathology of diverse tissues. AR ligands, which include circulating testosterone and locally synthesized dihydrotestosterone, bind to and activate the AR to elicit their effects. Ubiquitous expression of the AR, metabolism and cross reactivity with other receptors limit broad therapeutic utilization of steroidal androgens. However, the discovery of selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) and other tissue-selective nuclear hormone receptor modulators that activate their cognate receptors in a tissue-selective manner provides an opportunity to promote the beneficial effects of androgens and other hormones in target tissues with greatly reduced unwanted side-effects. In the last two decades, significant resources have been dedicated to the discovery and biological characterization of SARMs in an effort to harness the untapped potential of the AR. SARMs have been proposed as treatments of choice for various diseases, including muscle-wasting, breast cancer, and osteoporosis. This review provides insight into the evolution of SARMs from proof-of-concept agents to the cusp of therapeutic use in less than two decades, while covering contemporary views of their mechanisms of action and therapeutic benefits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Androgen receptor in human endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Estay, Verónica; Carreño, Daniela V; San Francisco, Ignacio F; Sotomayor, Paula; Godoy, Alejandro S; Smith, Gary J

    2015-01-01

    Androgen receptor (AR) is a ligand-inducible transcription factor, and a member of the steroid-thyroid-retinoid receptor superfamily, that mediates the biological effects of androgens in a wide range of physiological and pathological processes. AR expression was identified in vascular cells nearly 20 years ago, and recent research has shown that AR mediates a variety of actions of androgens in endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells. In this mini-review, we review evidence indicating the importance of AR in human endothelial cell (HUVEC) homeostatic and pathogenic processes. Although a role for AR in the modulation of HUVEC biology is evident, the molecular mechanisms by which AR regulates HUVEC homeostasis and disease processes are not fully understood. Understanding these mechanisms could provide critical insights into the processes of pathogenesis of diseases ranging from cardiovascular disease to cancer that are major causes of human morbidity and mortality. PMID:25563353

  4. Transcriptional network of androgen receptor in prostate cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Takayama, Ken-ichi; Inoue, Satoshi

    2013-08-01

    The androgen receptor belongs to the nuclear receptor superfamily and functions as a ligand-dependent transcription factor. It binds to the androgen responsive element and recruits coregulatory factors to modulate gene transcription. In addition, the androgen receptor interacts with other transcription factors, such as forkhead box A1, and other oncogenic signaling pathway molecules that bind deoxyribonucleic acid and regulate transcription. Androgen receptor signaling plays an important role in the development of prostate cancer. Prostate cancer cells proliferate in an androgen-dependent manner, and androgen receptor blockade is effective in prostate cancer therapy. However, patients often progress to castration-resistant prostate cancer with elevated androgen receptor expression and hypersensitivity to androgen. Recently, comprehensive analysis tools, such as complementary DNA microarray, chromatin immunoprecipitation-on-chip and chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequence, have described the androgen-mediated diverse transcriptional program and gene networks in prostate cancer. Furthermore, functional and clinical studies have shown that some of the androgen receptor-regulated genes could be prognostic markers and potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of prostate cancer, particularly castration-resistant prostate cancer. Thus, identifying androgen receptor downstream signaling events and investigating the regulation of androgen receptor activity is critical for understanding the mechanism of carcinogenesis and progression to castration-resistant prostate cancer.

  5. Short poly-glutamine repeat in the androgen receptor in New World monkeys.

    PubMed

    Hiramatsu, Chihiro; Paukner, Annika; Kuroshima, Hika; Fujita, Kazuo; Suomi, Stephen J; Inoue-Murayama, Miho

    2017-12-01

    The androgen receptor mediates various physiological and developmental functions and is highly conserved in mammals. Although great intraspecific length polymorphisms in poly glutamine (poly-Q) and poly glycine (poly-G) regions of the androgen receptor in humans, apes and several Old World monkeys have been reported, little is known about the characteristics of these regions in New World monkeys. In this study, we surveyed 17 species of New World monkeys and found length polymorphisms in these regions in three species (common squirrel monkeys, tufted capuchin monkeys and owl monkeys). We found that the poly-Q region in New World monkeys is relatively shorter than that in catarrhines (humans, apes and Old World monkeys). In addition, we observed that codon usage for poly-G region in New World monkeys is unique among primates. These results suggest that the length of polymorphic regions in androgen receptor genes have evolved uniquely in New World monkeys.

  6. New Selective Estrogen and Androgen Receptor Modulators

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Bart L.; Khosla, Sundeep

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of Review The present review focuses on the most significant recent findings regarding selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) and selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs). SERMs, which interact with estrogen receptor (ER)-α and ER-β in multiple tissues, continue to generate clinical interest in potential applications in as many disorders as the tissues in which the two known receptors are found. SARMs have been demonstrated to have fewer clinical applications to date, but continue to be investigated for use in multiple disorders in which androgen receptor (AR) modulation is likely to be important. Both types of compounds hold great promise for therapeutic use in multiple hormonal disorders involving tissue-specific effects mediated by estrogen or androgen receptors. Recent Findings While SERMs have been available for clinical use for 50 years, recent investigation has focused on large randomized clinical trials for newer indications of older agents, or smaller clinical trials of newer agents with improved clinical activity and reduced side effects in specific tissues. In particular, the large, prospective, randomized, controlled, multi-year STAR and RUTH clinical trials have recently shown interesting similarities and differences between tamoxifen and raloxifene in estrogen-responsive tissues. Lasofoxifene and arzoxifene are two newer SERMs that have recently been demonstrated to improve bone mineral density and lower serum cholesterol values compared to older SERMs in smaller clinical trials. SARMs are a newer category of drug still being investigated mostly at the basic and preclinical level, with fewer clinical trials available for review. SARMs are currently being investigated mostly for use in prostate cancer at different stages, but hold promise for multiple other applications. Summary Recent clinical trials indicate that selective estrogen receptor modulators are useful in treatment of disorders of bone and mineral metabolism and

  7. The A645D mutation in the hinge region of the human androgen receptor (AR) gene modulates AR activity, depending on the context of the polymorphic glutamine and glycine repeats.

    PubMed

    Werner, Ralf; Holterhus, Paul-Martin; Binder, Gerhard; Schwarz, Hans-Peter; Morlot, Michel; Struve, Dagmar; Marschke, Christine; Hiort, Olaf

    2006-09-01

    Sufficient androgen receptor (AR) activity is crucial for normal male sexual differentiation. Here we report on two unrelated 46, XY patients suffering from undervirilization and genital malformations. Both patients had a short polyglycine (polyG) repeat of 10 residues and a relatively long polyglutamine (polyQ) repeat of 28 and 30 residues within the transactivation domain of the AR. In addition, they also harbor a rare A645D substitution. We made a set of AR expression plasmid constructs with varying polyQ and polyG tract sizes in context with or without the A645D substitution and analyzed their in vitro transactivation capacity in transfected CHO cells. We found that a short polyG repeat downmodulated AR activity to approximately 60-65% of the wild-type receptor. This effect was aggravated by A645D in context of a long polyQ repeat to less than 50% activity. In contrast, in the context of a short polyQ and a short polyG repeat, the A645D mutation rescues AR activity to almost wild-type levels, demonstrating a contradictory effect of this mutation, depending on the size of the polymorphic repeats. A combination of a short polyG repeat with a long polyQ repeat and an A645D substitution might contribute to the development of virilization disorders and explain the observed phenotypes of our patients as a form of androgen insensitivity. The whole recreation of AR sequence variations including individual polymorphic repeat sizes could unravel possible interference of mutations and variations on AR activity by in vitro transfection.

  8. The androgen receptor gene mutations database.

    PubMed

    Gottlieb, B; Trifiro, M; Lumbroso, R; Pinsky, L

    1997-01-01

    The current version of the androgen receptor (AR) gene mutations database is described. The total number of reported mutations has risen from 212 to 272. We have expanded the database: (i) by adding a large amount of new data on somatic mutations in prostatic cancer tissue; (ii) by defining a new constitutional phenotype, mild androgen insensitivity (MAI); (iii) by placing additional relevant information on an internet site (http://www.mcgill.ca/androgendb/ ). The database has allowed us to examine the contribution of CpG sites to the multiplicity of reports of the same mutation in different families. The database is also available from EMBL (ftp.ebi.ac.uk/pub/databases/androgen) or as a Macintosh Filemaker Pro or Word file (MC33@musica,mcgill.ca)

  9. The androgen receptor gene mutations database.

    PubMed Central

    Gottlieb, B; Trifiro, M; Lumbroso, R; Pinsky, L

    1997-01-01

    The current version of the androgen receptor (AR) gene mutations database is described. The total number of reported mutations has risen from 212 to 272. We have expanded the database: (i) by adding a large amount of new data on somatic mutations in prostatic cancer tissue; (ii) by defining a new constitutional phenotype, mild androgen insensitivity (MAI); (iii) by placing additional relevant information on an internet site (http://www.mcgill.ca/androgendb/ ). The database has allowed us to examine the contribution of CpG sites to the multiplicity of reports of the same mutation in different families. The database is also available from EMBL (ftp.ebi.ac.uk/pub/databases/androgen) or as a Macintosh Filemaker Pro or Word file (MC33@musica,mcgill.ca) PMID:9016528

  10. Discovery AND Therapeutic Promise OF Selective Androgen Receptor Modulators

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiyun; Kim, Juhyun; Dalton, James T.

    2007-01-01

    Androgens are essential for male development and the maintenance of male secondary characteristics, such as bone mass, muscle mass, body composition, and spermatogenesis. The main disadvantages of steroidal androgens are their undesirable physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties. The recent discovery of nonsteroidal selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) provides a promising alternative for testosterone replacement therapies with advantages including oral bioavailability, flexibility of structural modification, androgen receptor specificity, tissue selectivity, and the lack of steroid-related side effects. PMID:15994457

  11. Deciphering the selective androgen receptor modulators paradigm.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuqing; Sui, Zhihua

    2013-02-01

    The development and potential clinical use of tissue-selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) have advanced tremendously over the past few years. A key aspect of SARMs is the ability to clearly differentiate between the anabolic and androgenic activities. SARMs provide therapeutic opportunities in a variety of diseases, including muscle wasting associated with burns, cancer, end-stage renal disease, osteoporosis, frailty and hypogonadism. The aim of the present paper is to summarize the current standing of research and development of SARMs and plausible molecular mechanisms underlying the potential for selective modulation of androgen receptor (AR) by different ligands. This paper also provides an update on SARM discovery paradigms for preclinical evaluations. Promising results have been obtained in preclinical investigations and initial clinical trials, but long-term safety, tolerability and efficacy studies in patients are still necessary. Preclinically, improving knowledge of tissue selectivity at the molecular level, developing AR selectivity transcription profile, exploring in vitro/in vivo correlation, along with expanding selectivity evaluation among more androgen responsive tissues would accelerate the discovery of a new generation of more selective and safer clinical candidates, minimize false leads and hasten development of effective approaches for an expanded range of clinical conditions.

  12. Male genital leiomyomas showing androgen receptor expression.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Peñaranda, José Manuel; Vieites, Begoña; Evgenyeva, Elena; Vázquez-Veiga, Hugo; Forteza, Jeronimo

    2007-12-01

    Genital leiomyoma in men include those superficial leiomyomas arising in the scrotum and the areola. They are unusual neoplasms: few cases have been reported in the literature and they usually escape clinical diagnosis. Three cases of male genital leiomyomas are reported: two in the scrotum and one in the areola. They were all conservatively excised and the behaviour was completely benign in all cases. Histopathological examination showed the typical findings of superficial leiomyomas, with some minor differences between cases arising in the scrotum and those from the areola. Immunohistochemical findings not only confirmed the smooth muscle nature of all cases but also showed unequivocal immunostaining for androgen receptors in the leiomyomas from the scrotum. Immunostaining for androgen receptors in scrotal leiomyomas is, as far as we are aware, a previously unknown characteristic of male genital leiomyomas. This finding supports the role of steroid hormones in the growth of genital leiomyomas, similar to leiomyomas found in other locations.

  13. Mutational analysis of the androgen receptor gene in two Indian families with partial androgen insensitivity syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nagaraja, M R; Rastogi, Amit; Raman, Rajiva; Gupta, Dinesh K; Singh, S K

    2009-12-01

    Mutation in the androgen receptor gene (AR) is known to cause androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS). In an X-linked recessive manner, an AR mutation gets transmitted to the offspring through carrier mothers in 70% of cases, the other 30% arising de novo. However, reports on AR mutations amongst Indian patients with AIS are scarce in the literature. This study reports mutations in AR from two Indian families, each having a proband with partial androgen insensitivity syndrome (PAIS) phenotype. Clinical, endocrine and cytogenetic evaluation of these affected children was performed. Mutational analysis was carried out by polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformational polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) analysis followed by sequencing. The two point mutations were in exon 5: p.M742I, familial in patient 1 and p.V746M de novo in patient 2. These are hitherto unrecognized mutations in our population. Similar mutational studies are suggested in patients with AIS, in order to identify their frequency and clinical severity in our population.

  14. Androgen receptor and prostate cancer invasion.

    PubMed

    Bonaccorsi, Lorella; Muratori, Monica; Carloni, Vinicio; Zecchi, Sandra; Formigli, Lucia; Forti, Gianni; Baldi, Elisabetta

    2003-02-01

    Evidence indicates that androgen-sensitive prostate cancer cells have a lower malignant potential. We previously demonstrated that expression of androgen receptor (AR) by transfection of the androgen-independent prostate cancer cell line PC3 decreases invasion and adhesion of these cells through modulation of alpha6beta4 expression. Treatment with the androgen further reduced adhesion and invasion of the cells without, however, modifying alpha6beta4. Here we investigated whether the androgen has a direct effect on alpha6beta4-EGF receptor (EGFR) interaction and signalling leading to invasion of these cells. Immunoconfocal microscopy demonstrated that in control cells (PC3-Neo), alpha6beta4 and EGFR colocalize and redistribute in response to epidermal growth factor (EGF). In PC3-AR cells colocalization and redistribution between the two molecules was reduced and abolished by pre-treatment with R1881. Co-immunoprecipitation studies demonstrated that tyrosine phosphorylation of beta4 in response to EGF was reduced in PC3-AR cells compared to PC3-Neo. Immunoconfocal and co-immunoprecipitation studies demonstrated colocalization at membrane level and co-immunoprecipitation of EGFR and AR, indicating an interaction between the two proteins. PI3K activity, a key signalling pathway for invasion of these cells, was decreased in PC3-AR cells in response to EGF and further reduced by treatment with R1881. EGFR internalization was strongly reduced in PC3-AR compared with PC3-Neo cells and was reduced by treatment with R1881. In conclusion, the expression of AR by transfection in PC3 cells confers a less malignant phenotype by interfering with EGFR--alpha6beta4 interaction and signalling leading to invasion through a mechanism involving an interaction between the classic AR and EGFR.

  15. Androgen receptor profiling predicts prostate cancer outcome

    PubMed Central

    Stelloo, Suzan; Nevedomskaya, Ekaterina; van der Poel, Henk G; de Jong, Jeroen; van Leenders, Geert JLH; Jenster, Guido; Wessels, Lodewyk FA; Bergman, Andries M; Zwart, Wilbert

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the second most prevalent malignancy in men. Biomarkers for outcome prediction are urgently needed, so that high-risk patients could be monitored more closely postoperatively. To identify prognostic markers and to determine causal players in prostate cancer progression, we assessed changes in chromatin state during tumor development and progression. Based on this, we assessed genomewide androgen receptor/chromatin binding and identified a distinct androgen receptor/chromatin binding profile between primary prostate cancers and tumors with an acquired resistance to therapy. These differential androgen receptor/chromatin interactions dictated expression of a distinct gene signature with strong prognostic potential. Further refinement of the signature provided us with a concise list of nine genes that hallmark prostate cancer outcome in multiple independent validation series. In this report, we identified a novel gene expression signature for prostate cancer outcome through generation of multilevel genomic data on chromatin accessibility and transcriptional regulation and integration with publically available transcriptomic and clinical datastreams. By combining existing technologies, we propose a novel pipeline for biomarker discovery that is easily implementable in other fields of oncology. PMID:26412853

  16. Androgen receptor modulators: a marriage of chemistry and biology.

    PubMed

    McEwan, Iain J

    2013-06-01

    Androgenic steroids are important for male development in utero and secondary sexual characteristics at puberty. In addition, androgens play a role in non-reproductive tissues, such as bone and muscle in both sexes. The actions of the androgens testosterone and dihydrotestosterone are mediated by a single receptor protein, the androgen receptor. Over the last 60-70 years there has been considerable research interest in the development of inhibitors of androgen receptor for the management of diseases such as prostate cancer. However, more recently, there is also a growing appreciation of the need for selective androgen modulators that would demonstrate tissue-selective agonist or antagonist activity. The chemistry and biology of selective agonists, antagonists and selective androgen receptor modulators will be discussed in this review.

  17. Sequence variation in the androgen receptor gene is not a common determinant of male sexual orientation

    SciTech Connect

    Macke, J.P.; Nathans, J.; King, V.L. ); Hu, N.; Hu, S.; Hamer, D.; Bailey, M. ); Brown, T. )

    1993-10-01

    To test the hypothesis that DNA sequence variation in the androgen receptor gene plays a causal role in the development of male sexual orientation, the authors have (1) measured the degree of concordance of androgen receptor alleles in 36 pairs of homosexual brothers, (2) compared the lengths of polyglutamine and polyglycine tracts in the amino-terminal domain of the androgen receptor in a sample of 197 homosexual males and 213 unselected subjects, and (3) screened the entire androgen receptor coding region for sequence variation by PCR and denaturing gradient-gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and/or single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis in 20 homosexual males with homosexual or bisexual brothers and one homosexual male with no homosexual brothers, and screened the amino-terminal domain of the receptor for sequence variation in an additional 44 homosexual males, 37 of whom had one or more first- or second-degree male relatives who were either homosexual or bisexual. These analyses show that (1) homosexual brothers are as likely to be discordant as concordant for androgen receptor alleles; (2) there are no large-scale differences between the distributions of polyglycine or polyglutamine tract lengths in the homosexual and control groups; and (3) coding region sequence variation is not commonly found within the androgen receptor gene of homosexual men. The DGGE screen identified two rare amino acid substitutions, ser[sup 205] -to-arg and glu[sup 793]-to-asp, the biological significance of which is unknown. 32 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Novel androgen receptor gene mutation in patient with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ning, Ye; Zhang, Feng; Zhu, Yong; Chen, Huixing; Lu, Jianqi; Li, Zheng

    2012-07-01

    To present a rare case of a patient probably with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS) and studied its potential genetic cause. A 24-year-old woman with a normal-appearing vulva and vagina presented to us because of primary amenorrhea. Imaging studies showed no uterus or ovary development but inguinal cryptorchism. Histopathologic examination revealed normal testicular structures. Sequencing the CAIS-associated androgen receptor gene revealed a novel missense mutation of T to G (F698L). A novel androgen receptor gene mutation in the ligand binding domain was detected in the present patient with CAIS, supporting the important role of an androgen receptor defect in the etiology of CAIS.

  19. Androgen receptor (AR) coregulators: an overview.

    PubMed

    Heinlein, Cynthia A; Chang, Chawnshang

    2002-04-01

    The biological action of androgens is mediated through the androgen receptor (AR). Androgen-bound AR functions as a transcription factor to regulate genes involved in an array of physiological processes, most notably male sexual differentiation and maturation, and the maintenance of spermatogenesis. The transcriptional activity of AR is affected by coregulators that influence a number of functional properties of AR, including ligand selectivity and DNA binding capacity. As the promoter of target genes, coregulators participate in DNA modification, either directly through modification of histones or indirectly by the recruitment of chromatin-modifying complexes, as well as functioning in the recruitment of the basal transcriptional machinery. Aberrant coregulator activity due to mutation or altered expression levels may be a contributing factor in the progression of diseases related to AR activity, such as prostate cancer. AR demonstrates distinct differences in its interaction with coregulators from other steroid receptors due to differences in the functional interaction between AR domains, possibly resulting in alterations in the dynamic interactions between coregulator complexes.

  20. Expanding the therapeutic use of androgens via selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs)

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Wenqing; Dalton, James T.

    2007-01-01

    Selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) are a novel class of androgen receptor (AR) ligands that might change the future of androgen therapy dramatically. With improved pharmacokinetic characteristics and tissue-selective pharmacological activities, SARMs are expected to greatly extend the clinical applications of androgens to osteoporosis, muscle wasting, male contraception and diseases of the prostate. Mechanistic studies with currently available SARMs will help to define the contributions of differential tissue distribution, tissue-specific expression of 5α-reductase, ligand-specific regulation of gene expression and AR interactions with tissue-specific coactivators to their observed tissue selectivity, and lead to even greater expansion of selective anabolic therapies. PMID:17331889

  1. The role of androgen and androgen receptor in skin-related disorders.

    PubMed

    Lai, Jiann-Jyh; Chang, Philip; Lai, Kuo-Pao; Chen, Lumin; Chang, Chawnshang

    2012-09-01

    Androgen and androgen receptor (AR) may play important roles in several skin-related diseases, such as androgenetic alopecia and acne vulgaris. Current treatments for these androgen/AR-involved diseases, which target the synthesis of androgens or prevent its binding to AR, can cause significant adverse side effects. Based on the recent studies using AR knockout mice, it has been suggested that AR and androgens play distinct roles in the skin pathogenesis, and AR seems to be a better target than androgens for the treatment of these skin diseases. Here, we review recent studies of androgen/AR roles in several skin-related disorders, including acne vulgaris, androgenetic alopecia and hirsutism, as well as cutaneous wound healing.

  2. The Role of Androgen and Androgen Receptor in the Skin-Related Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Jiann-Jyh; Chang, Philip; Lai, Kuo-Pao; Chen, Lumin; Chang, Chawnshang

    2013-01-01

    Androgen and androgen receptor (AR) may play important roles in several skin related diseases, such as androgenetic alopecia and acne vulgaris. Current treatments for these androgen/AR-involved diseases, which target the synthesis of androgens or prevent its binding to AR, can cause significant adverse side effects. Based on the recent studies using AR knockout mice, it has been suggested that AR and androgens play distinct roles in the skin pathogenesis, and AR seems to be a better target than androgens for the treatment of these skin diseases. Here we review recent studies of androgen/AR roles in several skin-related disorders, including acne vulgaris, androgenetic alopecia, and hirsutism, as well as cutaneous wound healing. PMID:22829074

  3. Selective androgen receptor modulators as improved androgen therapy for advanced breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Coss, Christopher C; Jones, Amanda; Dalton, James T

    2014-11-01

    Androgens were at one time a therapeutic mainstay in the treatment of advanced breast cancer. Despite comparable efficacy, SERMs and aromatase inhibitors eventually became the therapies of choice due to in part to preferred side-effect profiles. Molecular characterization of breast tumors has revealed an abundance of androgen receptor expression but the choice of an appropriate androgen receptor ligand (agonist or antagonist) has been confounded by multiple conflicting reports concerning the role of the receptor in the disease. Modern clinical efforts have almost exclusively utilized antagonists. However, the recent clinical development of selective androgen receptor modulators with greatly improved side-effect profiles has renewed interest in androgen agonist therapy for advanced breast cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Transcriptional up-regulation of the human androgen receptor by androgen in bone cells.

    PubMed

    Wiren, K M; Zhang, X; Chang, C; Keenan, E; Orwoll, E S

    1997-06-01

    Androgen regulation of androgen receptor (AR) expression has been observed in a variety of tissues, generally as inhibition, and is thought to attenuate cellular responses to androgen. AR is expressed in osteoblasts, the bone-forming cell, suggesting direct actions of androgens on bone. Here we characterized the effect of androgen exposure on AR gene expression in human osteoblastic SaOS-2 and U-2 OS cells. Treatment of osteoblastic cells with the nonaromatizable androgen 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone increased AR steady state messenger RNA levels in a time- and dose-dependent fashion. Reporter assays with 2.3 kilobases of the proximal 5'-flanking region of the human AR promoter linked to the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene in transfected cultures showed that up-regulation of AR promoter activity by androgen was time and dose dependent. Treatment with other steroid hormones, including progesterone, 17beta-estradiol, and dexamethasone, was without effect. The antiandrogen hydroxyflutamide completely antagonized androgen up-regulation. Thus, in contrast to many other androgen target tissues, androgen exposure increases steady state AR messenger RNA levels in osteoblasts. This regulation occurs at least partially at the level of transcription, is mediated by the 5'-promoter region of the AR gene, and is dependent on functional AR. These results suggest that physiological concentrations of androgens have significant effects on AR expression in skeletal tissue.

  5. RAINBOW TROUT ANDROGEN RECEPTOR ALPHA AND THE HUMAN ANDROGEN RECEPTOR: COMPARISONS IN THE COS WHOLE CELL BINDING ASSAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    RAINBOW TROUT ANDROGEN RECEPTOR ALPHA AND HUMAN ANDROGEN RECEPTOR: COMPARISONS IN THE COS WHOLE CELL BINDING ASSAY.
    MC Cardon, PC Hartig,LE Gray, Jr. and VS Wilson.
    U.S. EPA, ORD, NHEERL, RTD, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA.
    Typically, in vitro hazard assessments for ...

  6. RAINBOW TROUT ANDROGEN RECEPTOR ALPHA AND THE HUMAN ANDROGEN RECEPTOR: COMPARISONS IN THE COS WHOLE CELL BINDING ASSAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rainbow Trout Androgen Receptor Alpha And Human Androgen Receptor: Comparisons in the COS Whole Cell Binding Assay
    Mary C. Cardon, L. Earl Gray, Jr. and Vickie S. Wilson
    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, ORD, NHEERL, Reproductive Toxicology Division, Research Triangle...

  7. RAINBOW TROUT ANDROGEN RECEPTOR ALPHA AND THE HUMAN ANDROGEN RECEPTOR: COMPARISONS IN THE COS WHOLE CELL BINDING ASSAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    RAINBOW TROUT ANDROGEN RECEPTOR ALPHA AND HUMAN ANDROGEN RECEPTOR: COMPARISONS IN THE COS WHOLE CELL BINDING ASSAY.
    MC Cardon, PC Hartig,LE Gray, Jr. and VS Wilson.
    U.S. EPA, ORD, NHEERL, RTD, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA.
    Typically, in vitro hazard assessments for ...

  8. RAINBOW TROUT ANDROGEN RECEPTOR ALPHA AND THE HUMAN ANDROGEN RECEPTOR: COMPARISONS IN THE COS WHOLE CELL BINDING ASSAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rainbow Trout Androgen Receptor Alpha And Human Androgen Receptor: Comparisons in the COS Whole Cell Binding Assay
    Mary C. Cardon, L. Earl Gray, Jr. and Vickie S. Wilson
    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, ORD, NHEERL, Reproductive Toxicology Division, Research Triangle...

  9. Androgen receptor, androgen-producing enzymes and their transcription factors in extramammary Paget disease.

    PubMed

    Azmahani, Abdullah; Nakamura, Yasuhiro; Ozawa, Yohei; McNamara, Keely M; Fujimura, Taku; Haga, Takahiro; Hashimoto, Akira; Aiba, Setsuya; Sasano, Hironobu

    2015-11-01

    Extramammary Paget disease (EMPD) has been known to frequently express androgen receptor (AR). Therefore, androgens could play roles in the biological behavior of Paget cells. 5α-Reductase (5α-red) types 1 and 2 and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 5 (17β-HSD5) are pivotal in situ regulators of androgen production in androgen-responsive tissues including androgen-dependent neoplasms. Therefore, in this study, we immunolocalized AR, androgen-producing enzymes, and their transcription factors to assess the state of in situ androgen production and actions and its correlation of invasiveness in EMPD. We studied 51 cases of EMPD with known clinicopathological status. AR, 5α-red1, 17β-HSD5, and β-catenin immunoreactivity was evaluated by using the modified H-score method while cyclin D1, p53, forkhead box protein P1, and a proliferation marker, Ki-67, were quantified using labeling index. The mean scores of AR, 5α-red1, and 17β-HSD5 in invasive EMPD were all significantly higher than noninvasive EMPD (P < .0001). Ki-67 labeling index as well as the cyclin D1 score was also significantly higher in invasive than noninvasive lesions of EMPD. These results demonstrated that androgen receptor and androgen-producing enzymes were both associated with cell cycle regulation and subsequently the invasiveness of EMPD lesions and could also indicate those above as potential markers of invasive potentials in EMPD.

  10. A yeast screen system for aromatase inhibitors and ligands for androgen receptor: yeast cells transformed with aromatase and androgen receptor.

    PubMed

    Mak, P; Cruz, F D; Chen, S

    1999-11-01

    Endocrine disruptors are hormone mimics that modify hormonal action in humans and animals. It is thought that some endocrine disruptors modify estrogen and androgen action in humans and animals by suppressing aromatase activity. Aromatase cytochrome P450 is the key enzyme that converts C19 androgens to aromatic C18 estrogenic steroids. We have developed a novel aromatase inhibitor screening method that allows us to identify antiaromatase activity of various environmental chemicals. The screen was developed by coexpressing the human aromatase and the mouse androgen receptor in yeast cells, which carry the androgen-responsive ss-galactosidase reporter plasmid. Functional expression of aromatase in yeast has been demonstrated using the [3H]-water release assay with intact cells as well as with yeast microsomes. The aromatase activity could be blocked by known aromatase inhibitors such as aminoglutethimide (AG). Yeast-produced androgen receptors were able to transactivate a yeast basal promoter linked to an androgen-responsive element in response to androgens. The resultant triple yeast transformant responded to the treatment of testosterone, androstenedione, or 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone (5 alpha-DHT). In the absence of the aromatase inhibitor AG, transcriptional activation was observed only for the nonaromatizable androgen 5 alpha-DHT. However, the two aromatizable androgens (testosterone and androstenedione) induced the reporter activity in the presence of AG. Using this yeast-based assay, we confirmed that two flavones, chrysin and alpha-naphtholflavone, are inhibitors of aromatase. Thus, this yeast system allows us to develop a high-throughput screening method, without using radioactive substrate, to identify aromatase inhibitors as well as new ligands (nonaromatizable androgen mimics) for the androgen receptors. In addition, this screening method also allows us to distinguish nonandrogenic aromatase inhibitors from inhibitors with androgenic activity. This yeast

  11. Calpain-Dependent Proteolysis of the Androgen Receptor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-01

    and Potential Therapeutic Target in Prostate Tumors. Cancer Research 69, 9001- 5 ). A review on the mechanisms leading to androgen independence was...were higher in Rv1, indicating there neuroendocrine nature. The most significant 5 pathway differences between R1 and Rv1 cells both in the presence...Androgen Receptor Cleavage as a Mechanism of Androgen Independence and Potential Therapeutic Target in Prostate Tumors. Cancer Research 69, 9001- 5

  12. Disruption of Androgen Receptor Signaling in Males by Environmental Chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Luccio-Camelo, Doug C.; Prins, Gail S

    2011-01-01

    Androgen-disruptors are environmental chemicals in that interfere with the biosynthesis, metabolism or action of endogenous androgens resulting in a deflection from normal male developmental programming and reproductive tract growth and function. Since male sexual differentiation is entirely androgen-dependent, it is highly susceptible to androgen-disruptors. Animal models and epidemiological evidence link exposure to androgen disrupting chemicals with reduced sperm counts, increased infertility, testicular dysgenesis syndrome, and testicular and prostate cancers. Further, there appears to be increased sensitivity to these agents during critical developmental windows when male differentiation is at its peak. A variety of in vitro and in silico approaches have been used to identify broad classes of androgen disrupting molecules that include organochlorinated pesticides, industrial chemicals, and plasticizers with capacity to ligand the androgen receptor. The vast majority of these synthetic molecules act as anti-androgens. This review will highlight the evidence for androgen disrupting chemicals that act through interference with the androgen receptor, discussing specific compounds for which there is documented in vivo evidence for male reproductive tract perturbations. PMID:21515368

  13. Update of the androgen receptor gene mutations database.

    PubMed

    Gottlieb, B; Beitel, L K; Lumbroso, R; Pinsky, L; Trifiro, M

    1999-01-01

    The current version of the androgen receptor (AR) gene mutations database is described. The total number of reported mutations has risen from 309 to 374 during the past year. We have expanded the database by adding information on AR-interacting proteins; and we have improved the database by identifying those mutation entries that have been updated. Mutations of unknown significance have now been reported in both the 5' and 3' untranslated regions of the AR gene, and in individuals who are somatic mosaics constitutionally. In addition, single nucleotide polymorphisms, including silent mutations, have been discovered in normal individuals and in individuals with male infertility. A mutation hotspot associated with prostatic cancer has been identified in exon 5. The database is available on the internet (http://www.mcgill.ca/androgendb/), from EMBL-European Bioinformatics Institute (ftp.ebi.ac.uk/pub/databases/androgen), or as a Macintosh FilemakerPro or Word file (MC33@musica.mcgill.ca). Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Targeting the Androgen Receptor with Steroid Conjugates

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) is a major therapeutic target in prostate cancer pharmacology. Progression of prostate cancer has been linked to elevated expression of AR in malignant tissue, suggesting that AR plays a central role in prostate cancer cell biology. Potent therapeutic agents can be precisely crafted to specifically target AR, potentially averting systemic toxicities associated with nonspecific chemotherapies. In this review, we describe various strategies to generate steroid conjugates that can selectively engage AR with high potency. Analogies to recent developments in nonsteroidal conjugates targeting AR are also evaluated. Particular focus is placed on potential applications in AR pharmacology. The review culminates with a description of future prospects for targeting AR. PMID:24936953

  15. Identification of Androgen Receptor-Specific Enhancer RNAs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    AND SUBTITLE Identification of Androgen Receptor-Specific Enhancer RNAs 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0120 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...enhancer RNAs in response to androgen treatment such that these enhancer RNAs may serve as novel biomarkers for prostate cancer diagnosis and prognosis

  16. Estrogen and progesterone receptors in androgenic alopecia versus alopecia areata.

    PubMed

    Wallace, M L; Smoller, B R

    1998-04-01

    In some situations, hair growth is under hormonal control. Androgenic alopecia is characterized as hormonally driven hair loss in the genetically susceptible individual. During pregnancy, hair growth is increased, as estrogen appears to prolong the anagen phase. However, postpartum hair loss is common, and thus may be related to a decrease in estrogen and or progesterone levels. In contrast, alopecia areata is not considered to be under hormonal control. We compared the immunohistochemical staining characteristics of nine cases of androgenic alopecia with those of 13 cases of alopecia areata using estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) markers. Estrogen receptor positivity in the dermal papilla was found in only two of 13 cases of alopecia areata, and in one case of androgenic alopecia. Six of 13 cases of alopecia areata demonstrated focal reactivity with the progesterone marker in a similar location, while only three cases of androgenic alopecia showed positivity with this antibody. Examination of the perifollicular fibroblasts for the ER marker showed positivity in one of 13 cases of alopecia areata and in one case of androgenic alopecia. Two cases of alopecia areata revealed focal staining in this location for the PR marker, while the androgenic alopecia cases failed to stain. These results indicate that estrogen and progesterone receptor expression is not significantly increased or decreased in the pilosebaceous units or surrounding mesenchymal cells in androgenic alopecia vs. alopecia areata. Therefore, an indirectly mediated process of estrogen/progesterone control on hair growth and development must be presumed for cases of androgenic alopecia.

  17. Recent advances in the development of selective androgen receptor modulators.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuqing; Lanter, James C; Sui, Zhihua

    2009-09-01

    The androgens testosterone and its more potent tissue metabolite 5-alpha-dihydrotesterone regulate diverse physiological process involving both reproductive and non-reproductive functions. Most of the signaling effects of androgens are mediated through the androgen receptor (AR), a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily of transcription factors. The AR has been a target for drug development focused on the treatment of pathological conditions arising from abnormal androgen levels or altered target tissue responsiveness, the improvement of physical performance and the regulation of male fertility. The primary focus for drug design has been the synthesis of chemicals to regulate the transcriptional activity of AR based on the structural and functional properties of the ligands, with a recent preference for selectively anabolic non-steroidals. A new class of molecules targeting androgen receptors called selective androgen receptor modulators is being developed, analogous to the clinically successful and at present marketed selective estrogen receptor modulators. This article highlights and reviews research advances in this field that have been published in patent literature since 2003. The structural diversity of selective androgen receptor modulators has dramatically increased. Several compounds have emerged as clinical and preclinical candidates.

  18. Expression of a hyperactive androgen receptor leads to androgen-independent growth of prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Chen-Lin; Cai, Changmeng; Giwa, Ahmed; Bivins, Aaronica; Chen, Shao-Yong; Sabry, Dina; Govardhan, Kumara; Shemshedini, Lirim

    2008-07-01

    Cellular changes that affect the androgen receptor (AR) can cause prostate cancer to transition from androgen dependent to androgen independent, which is usually lethal. One common change in prostate tumors is overexpression of the AR, which has been shown to lead to androgen-independent growth of prostate cancer cells. This led us to hypothesize that expression of a hyperactive AR would be sufficient for androgen-independent growth of prostate cancer cells. To test this hypothesis, stable lune cancer prostate (LNCaP) cell lines were generated, which express a virion phosphoprotein (VP)16-AR hybrid protein that contains full-length AR fused to the strong viral transcriptional activation domain VP16. This fusion protein elicited as much as a 20-fold stronger transcriptional activity than the natural AR. Stable expression of VP16-AR in LNCaP cells yielded androgen-independent cell proliferation, while under the same growth conditions the parental LNCaP cells exhibited only androgen-dependent growth. These results show that expression of a hyperactive AR is sufficient for androgen-independent growth of prostate cancer cells. To study the molecular basis of this enhanced growth, we measured the expression of soluble guanylyl cyclase-alpha1 (sGCalpha1), a subunit of the sGC, an androgen-regulated gene that has been shown to be involved in prostate cancer cell growth. Interestingly, the expression of sGCalpha1 is androgen independent in VP16-AR-expressing cells, in contrast to its androgen-induced expression in control LNCaP cells. RNA(I)-dependent inhibition of sGCalpha1 expression resulted in significantly reduced proliferation of VP16-AR cells, implicating an important role for sGCalpha1 in the androgen-independent growth of these cells.

  19. Nuclear exclusion of the androgen receptor by melatonin.

    PubMed

    Rimler, Avi; Culig, Zoran; Lupowitz, Zippora; Zisapel, Nava

    2002-05-01

    Androgen receptors (AR) play a crucial role in androgen-mediated processes and prostate cancer progression. The pineal hormone melatonin attenuates the androgen-dependent growth of benign and cancer prostate epithelial cells in vitro and may reverse clinical resistance to androgen ablation therapy in patients progressing on gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) analogue. Where along the AR cascade does melatonin act remains to be determined. The effects of melatonin on AR localization, level and activity were assessed using androgen-insensitive prostate carcinoma PC3 cells stably transfected with a wild-type AR-expressing vector (PC3-AR).AR was localized to the PC3-AR cell nucleus in the absence of dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Melatonin caused a robust exclusion of the AR from the cell nucleus to the cytoplasm. The nuclear export inhibitor, leptomycin B prevented this process. The exclusion was selective since melatonin had no such effect on the nuclear localization of estrogen receptors alpha (ERalpha) in these cells. Melatonin also caused nuclear exclusion of the AR in the presence of DHT. In addition, it attenuated androgen induced reporter gene activity in PC3 cells co-transfected with the human AR and AR reporter plasmids. Elevated androgen concentrations counteracted melatonin's effects. Melatonin did not decrease AR level or androgen binding in the cells. The nuclear localization of the AR is a hallmark of its cellular activity. These data point to AR nuclear exclusion as a possible mechanism to attenuate androgen responses in target tissues.

  20. Autoimmune anti-androgen-receptor antibodies in human serum.

    PubMed Central

    Liao, S; Witte, D

    1985-01-01

    Circulating autoantibodies to human and rat androgen receptors are present at high titers in the blood sera of some patients with prostate diseases. The antibodies from some serum samples were associated with a purified IgG fraction and interacted with the 3.8S cytosolic androgen-receptor complexes of rat ventral prostate to form 9- to 12S units. Other serum samples, however, formed 14- to 19S units, suggesting that other immunoglobulins might be involved. In the presence of an anti-human immunoglobulin as a second antibody, the androgen-receptor-antibody complexes could be immunoprecipitated. The antibodies interacted with the nuclear and the cytosolic androgen-receptor complexes, either the DNA-binding or the nonbinding form, but not with receptors for estradiol, progestin, or dexamethasone from a variety of sources. Human testosterone/estradiol-binding globulin, rat epididymal androgen-binding protein, or rat prostate alpha-protein (a nonreceptor steroid-binding protein) also did not interact with the antibodies to form immunoprecipitates. About 37% of male and 3% of female serum samples screened had significant antibody titer. The chance of finding serum with a high titer is much better in males older than 66 years than in the younger males or females at all ages. The presence of the high-titer antibodies may make it possible to prepare monoclonal antibodies to androgen receptors without purification of the receptors for immunization. PMID:3866227

  1. Targeting androgen receptor versus targeting androgens to suppress castration resistant prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Guo, Changcheng; Yeh, Shuyuan; Niu, Yuanjie; Li, Gonghui; Zheng, Junhua; Li, Lei; Chang, Chawnshang

    2017-07-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the 2nd leading cause of cancer-related death among men in the United States and its progression is tightly associated with the androgen/androgen receptor (AR) signals. Men castrated before puberty (eunuchs) or men with inherited deficiency of type II 5α-reductase (with failure to convert testosterone to the more potent dihydrotestosterone) (DHT) do not develop PCa. To date, androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) with anti-androgen treatments to reduce or prevent androgens from binding to the AR remains the main therapeutic option for advanced PCa since its discovery by Huggins and Hodges in 1941. Multiple strategies related to surgical/chemical castration with combinations of various anti-androgens, including Cyproterone Acetate, Flutamide, Nilutamide, Bicalutamide (Casodex) and Enzalutamide, as well as some androgen synthesis blockers, including Abiraterone, have been used to control PCa progression. However, patients on ADT with anti-androgen treatment eventually develop resistance, which might be accompanied with the unwanted side effects of enhanced metastasis. New therapeutic approaches via directly targeting the AR with ASC-J9(®), Cisplatin, EPI-001, Niclosamide, and VPC compounds as well as silencing AR with siRNAs or non-coding RNAs have been developed to further suppress PCa at the castration resistant stages. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Selective Androgen Receptor Downregulators (SARDs): A New Prostate Cancer Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-01

    used to down-regulate the AR include antisense oligonucleotides (9, 10), ribozyme treatments (11, 12), AR dominant negatives (13) and small...findings suggest that ICI may present a useful treatment option for patients with AR-dependent PCa. Unlike the ribozyme , antisense, siRNA, or dominant...of the androgen receptor messenger RNA and functional inhibition of androgen receptor activity by a hammerhead ribozyme . Mol Endocrinol, 12: 1558

  3. Targeting Prostate Cancer with Bifunctional Modulators of the Androgen Receptor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-11-1-0692 TITLE: Targeting Prostate Cancer with Bifunctional Modulators of the Androgen Receptor PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Anna ...Bifunctional Modulators of the Sb. GRANT NUMBER Androgen Receptor W81XWH-11-1-0692 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Anna ... Carey , N.; Finn, P.; Collins, L.; Tumber, A.; Ritchie, J.; Jensen, P.; Lichenstein, H.; Sehested, M. Determination of the class and isoform

  4. [Role of androgen in the elderly. Current status of development of selective androgen receptor modulator].

    PubMed

    Yanase, Toshihiko

    2013-08-01

    The research to develop a drug, so called selective androgen receptor modulator (SARM) , which shows beneficial androgenic action on bone and muscle, but hardly possesses the stimulatory action on prostate has been making a progress. However, no drug is available in the market at present. Most of such drugs are developed, aiming at the application to age-related muscle reduction (sarcopenia) and osteoporosis. We are now trying to develop a SARM which may have beneficial effect on metabolic syndrome.

  5. Artificial masculinization in tilapia involves androgen receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Golan, Matan; Levavi-Sivan, Berta

    2014-10-01

    Estrogens have a pivotal role in natural female sexual differentiation of tilapia while lack of steroids results in testicular development. Despite the fact that androgens do not participate in natural sex differentiation, synthetic androgens, mainly 17-α-methyltestosterone (MT) are effective in the production of all-male fish in aquaculture. The sex inversion potency of synthetic androgens may arise from their androgenic activity or else as inhibitors of aromatase activity. The current study is an attempt to differentiate between the two alleged activities in order to evaluate their contribution to the sex inversion process and aid the search for novel sex inversion agents. In the present study, MT inhibited aromatase activity, when applied in vitro as did the non-aromatizable androgen dihydrotestosterone (DHT). In comparison, exposure to fadrozole, a specific aromatase inhibitor, was considerably more effective. Androgenic activity of MT was evaluated by exposure of Sciaenochromis fryeri fry to the substance and testing for the appearance of blue color. Flutamide, an androgen antagonist, administered concomitantly with MT, reduced the appearance of the blue color and the sex inversion potency of MT in a dose-dependent manner. In tilapia, administration of MT, fadrozole or DHT resulted in efficient sex inversion while flutamide reduced the sex inversion potency of all three compounds. In the case of MT and DHT the decrease in sex inversion efficiency caused by flutamide is most likely due to the direct blocking of the androgen binding to its cognate receptor. The negative effect of flutamide on the efficiency of the fadrozole treatment may indicate that the masculinizing activity of fadrozole may be attributed to excess, un-aromatized, androgens accumulated in the differentiating gonad. The present study shows that when androgen receptors are blocked, there is a reduction in the efficiency of sex inversion treatments. Our results suggest that in contrast to

  6. Androgen-Induced Cell Migration: Role of Androgen Receptor/Filamin A Association

    PubMed Central

    Castoria, Gabriella; D'Amato, Loredana; Ciociola, Alessandra; Giovannelli, Pia; Giraldi, Tiziana; Sepe, Leandra; Paolella, Giovanni; Barone, Maria Vittoria; Migliaccio, Antimo; Auricchio, Ferdinando

    2011-01-01

    Background Androgen receptor (AR) controls male morphogenesis, gametogenesis and prostate growth as well as development of prostate cancer. These findings support a role for AR in cell migration and invasiveness. However, the molecular mechanism involved in AR-mediated cell migration still remains elusive. Methodology/Principal Findings Mouse embryo NIH3T3 fibroblasts and highly metastatic human fibrosarcoma HT1080 cells harbor low levels of transcriptionally incompetent AR. We now report that, through extra nuclear action, AR triggers migration of both cell types upon stimulation with physiological concentrations of the androgen R1881. We analyzed the initial events leading to androgen-induced cell migration and observed that challenging NIH3T3 cells with 10 nM R1881 rapidly induces interaction of AR with filamin A (FlnA) at cytoskeleton. AR/FlnA complex recruits integrin beta 1, thus activating its dependent cascade. Silencing of AR, FlnA and integrin beta 1 shows that this ternary complex controls focal adhesion kinase (FAK), paxillin and Rac, thereby driving cell migration. FAK-null fibroblasts migrate poorly and Rac inhibition by EHT impairs motility of androgen-treated NIH3T3 cells. Interestingly, FAK and Rac activation by androgens are independent of each other. Findings in human fibrosarcoma HT1080 cells strengthen the role of Rac in androgen signaling. The Rac inhibitor significantly impairs androgen-induced migration in these cells. A mutant AR, deleted of the sequence interacting with FlnA, fails to mediate FAK activation and paxillin tyrosine phosphorylation in androgen-stimulated cells, further reinforcing the role of AR/FlnA interaction in androgen-mediated motility. Conclusions/Significance The present report, for the first time, indicates that the extra nuclear AR/FlnA/integrin beta 1 complex is the key by which androgen activates signaling leading to cell migration. Assembly of this ternary complex may control organ development and prostate cancer

  7. Structural characteristics of anabolic androgenic steroids contributing to binding to the androgen receptor and to their anabolic and androgenic activities. Applied modifications in the steroidal structure.

    PubMed

    Fragkaki, A G; Angelis, Y S; Koupparis, M; Tsantili-Kakoulidou, A; Kokotos, G; Georgakopoulos, C

    2009-02-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are synthetic derivatives of testosterone introduced for therapeutic purposes providing enhanced anabolic potency with reduced androgenic effects. Androgens mediate their action through their binding to the androgen receptor (AR) which is mainly expressed in androgen target tissues, such as the prostate, skeletal muscle, liver and central nervous system. This paper reviews some of the wide spectrum of testosterone and synthetic AAS structure modifications related to the intended enhancement in anabolic activity. The structural features of steroids necessary for effective binding to the AR and those which contribute to the stipulation of the androgenic and anabolic activities are also presented.

  8. Substitution of synthetic chimpanzee androgen receptor for human androgen receptor in competitive binding and transcriptional activation assays for EDC screening

    EPA Science Inventory

    The potential effect of receptor-mediated endocrine modulators across species is of increasing concern. In attempts to address these concerns we are developing androgen and estrogen receptor binding assays using recombinant hormone receptors from a number of species across differ...

  9. Substitution of synthetic chimpanzee androgen receptor for human androgen receptor in competitive binding and transcriptional activation assays for EDC screening

    EPA Science Inventory

    The potential effect of receptor-mediated endocrine modulators across species is of increasing concern. In attempts to address these concerns we are developing androgen and estrogen receptor binding assays using recombinant hormone receptors from a number of species across differ...

  10. A yeast screen system for aromatase inhibitors and ligands for androgen receptor: yeast cells transformed with aromatase and androgen receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Mak, P; Cruz, F D; Chen, S

    1999-01-01

    Endocrine disruptors are hormone mimics that modify hormonal action in humans and animals. It is thought that some endocrine disruptors modify estrogen and androgen action in humans and animals by suppressing aromatase activity. Aromatase cytochrome P450 is the key enzyme that converts C19 androgens to aromatic C18 estrogenic steroids. We have developed a novel aromatase inhibitor screening method that allows us to identify antiaromatase activity of various environmental chemicals. The screen was developed by coexpressing the human aromatase and the mouse androgen receptor in yeast cells, which carry the androgen-responsive ss-galactosidase reporter plasmid. Functional expression of aromatase in yeast has been demonstrated using the [3H]-water release assay with intact cells as well as with yeast microsomes. The aromatase activity could be blocked by known aromatase inhibitors such as aminoglutethimide (AG). Yeast-produced androgen receptors were able to transactivate a yeast basal promoter linked to an androgen-responsive element in response to androgens. The resultant triple yeast transformant responded to the treatment of testosterone, androstenedione, or 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone (5 alpha-DHT). In the absence of the aromatase inhibitor AG, transcriptional activation was observed only for the nonaromatizable androgen 5 alpha-DHT. However, the two aromatizable androgens (testosterone and androstenedione) induced the reporter activity in the presence of AG. Using this yeast-based assay, we confirmed that two flavones, chrysin and alpha-naphtholflavone, are inhibitors of aromatase. Thus, this yeast system allows us to develop a high-throughput screening method, without using radioactive substrate, to identify aromatase inhibitors as well as new ligands (nonaromatizable androgen mimics) for the androgen receptors. In addition, this screening method also allows us to distinguish nonandrogenic aromatase inhibitors from inhibitors with androgenic activity. This yeast

  11. Prolonged treatment with bicalutamide induces androgen receptor overexpression and androgen hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Kawata, Hiromitsu; Ishikura, Nobuyuki; Watanabe, Miho; Nishimoto, Ayako; Tsunenari, Toshiaki; Aoki, Yuko

    2010-05-15

    Various hormone refractory prostate cancer cell models have been established with androgen depletion and have helped to clarify the mechanism for the transition into androgen-depletion independent status. However, the mechanism of bicalutamide resistance remains unclear because few cell models have been generated. We generated a bicalutamide-resistant subline, LNCaP-BC2, from LNCaP after prolonged treatment with bicalutamide. Androgen and/or bicalutamide responsiveness for proliferation and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) secretion were examined in vitro and in vivo. Testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) levels in xenografted tumors were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Androgen receptor (AR) gene mutation and amplification and AR and pAR(210) expression were determined. LNCaP-BC2 did not grow in an androgen-depleted medium and proliferation was stimulated in a tenfold lower concentration of androgen than that of LNCaP. LNCaP-BC2 grew in castrated male mice, and the DHT level in grafted LNCaP-BC2 tumors was 7.7-fold lower than in LNCaP tumors. Bicalutamide stimulated LNCaP-BC2 proliferation and PSA secretion in vitro and the antitumor activity of bicalutamide against LNCaP-BC2 was weaker than that of LNCaP in vivo. Additional AR mutation and AR gene amplification were not detected in LNCaP-BC2, but AR and pAR(210) expression and PSA secretion in LNCaP-BC2 were higher than in LNCaP. Bicalutamide-resistant LNCaP-BC2 exhibited AR overexpression and hypersensitivity to low levels of androgen. Our data suggests that AR overexpression is a significant mechanism of bicalutamide resistance similar to resistance from chronic androgen depletion. In addition, pAR(210) overexpression could be a potential mechanism for hypersensitivity to low androgen in LNCaP-BC2.

  12. [Bone and Men's Health. Bone selective androgen receptor modulators].

    PubMed

    Furuya, Kazuyuki

    2010-02-01

    Androgen, one of the sex steroid hormones shows various biological activities on the corresponding various tissues. Many efforts to produce novel drug materials maintaining a desired biological activity with an adequate tissue selectivity, which is so-called selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) , are being performed. As one of such efforts, studies on SARMs against bone tissues which possess a significant potential to stimulate a bone formation with reducing undesirable androgenic virilizing activities are in progress all over the world. This review focuses on the research and development activities of such SARMs and discuses their usefulness for the treatment of osteoporosis.

  13. Semen Quality, Hormonal Levels, and Androgen Receptor Gene Polymorphisms in a Population of Young Male Volunteers from Two Different Regions of Poland

    PubMed Central

    Kamieniczna, Marzena; Fraczek, Monika; Malcher, Agnieszka; Rozwadowska, Natalia; Czernikiewicz, Anna; Jedrzejczak, Piotr; Semczuk, Marian; Kurpisz, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    Background The population of healthy Polish men has not been frequently and systematically investigated for fertility status. The aim of this study was to assess the quality of semen in a randomly recruited population of young males. The most important task was to find a relationship between semen parameters, sex hormones, and AR gene polymorphism. Material/Methods Semen and blood samples from young men from the Poznan (n=113) and Lublin regions (n=89) were collected for semen analysis, assessment of hormonal concentrations, and calculation of the CAG and GGN repeats of the AR gene. Results Statistical comparisons of the hormones and circulating proteins and the seminological parameters revealed significant differences between the regional groups of males studied. Among the correlations found, we emphasize the positive relationship between inhibin B levels and both the number of spermatozoa per ml (R=0.37; p=0.0001) and the total sperm concentration (R=0.40; p=0.00003). Positive correlations between IGF1 and sperm morphology was also found (R=0.40; p=0.000004). The mean number of CAG repeats in our tested groups was 21.93±2.79, in a range from 16 to 31. The mean number of GGN repeats was 23.2±1.66 and ranged from 16 to 29. Numerous significant correlations were found between CAG or GGN repeats and blood hormones or circulating proteins and semen parameters; however, Spearman’s rank correlations revealed rather weak coefficients. Conclusions This report attempted to determine the quality of semen samples and sex hormones in a population of Polish young men. The results were found to be similar to data obtained in Scandinavia. The calculated means and range of CAG or GGN repeats of the AR gene in Polish males were similar to West European epidemiological data. PMID:26299772

  14. Suppression of Androgen Receptor Transactivation by Akt Kinase

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    sufficient for the survival of nerve growth factor-dependent sympathetic neurons . J Neurosci. 18:2933-2943. 10 Principal Investigator: Chang...dominant inherited cancer syndromes Abbreviations: aa, Amino acid; AR, androgen receptor; such as Cowden’s disease , which is associated with CDK...Endocrine mechanisms of disease , an inherited breast and thyroid cancer syn- disease : expression and degradation of androgen drome. Nat Genet 16:64-67

  15. Ethnic variation in allele distribution of the androgen receptor (AR) (CAG)n repeat.

    PubMed

    Ackerman, Christine M; Lowe, Lynn P; Lee, Hoon; Hayes, M Geoffrey; Dyer, Alan R; Metzger, Boyd E; Lowe, William L; Urbanek, Margrit

    2012-01-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) is important in reproductive organ development, as well as tissue homeostasis of the pancreas, liver, and skeletal muscle in adulthood. The trinucleotide (CAG)(n) repeat polymorphism in exon 1 of the AR gene is thought to regulate AR activity, with longer alleles conferring reduced receptor activity. Therefore, the evaluation of the allelic distribution of the AR (CAG)(n) repeat in various ethnic groups is crucial in understanding the interindividual variability in AR activity. We evaluated ethnic variation of this AR polymorphism by genotyping individuals from the multiethnic Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome study cohort. We genotyped 4421 Caucasian mothers and 3365 offspring of European ancestry; 1494 Thai mothers and 1742 offspring; 1119 Afro-Caribbean mothers and 1142 offspring; and 780 Hispanic mothers and 770 offspring of Mexican ancestry from Bellflower, California. The distributions of (CAG)(n) alleles among all 4 ethnic groups are significantly different (P < .0001). Pairwise tests confirmed significant differences between each pair of ethnicities tested (P < 10(-28)). The relative AR (CAG)(n) repeat length in the different groups was as follows: Afro-Caribbean (shortest repeat lengths and greatest predicted AR activity) < Caucasian < Hispanic < Thai (longest repeat length and lowest predicted AR activity). Significant interethnic differences in the allele frequencies of the AR exon 1 (CAG)(n) polymorphism exist. Our results suggest that there may be potential ethnic differences in androgenic pathway activity and androgen sensitivity.

  16. Androgen receptor: structure, role in prostate cancer and drug discovery

    PubMed Central

    Tan, MH Eileen; Li, Jun; Xu, H Eric; Melcher, Karsten; Yong, Eu-leong

    2015-01-01

    Androgens and androgen receptors (AR) play a pivotal role in expression of the male phenotype. Several diseases, such as androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) and prostate cancer, are associated with alterations in AR functions. Indeed, androgen blockade by drugs that prevent the production of androgens and/or block the action of the AR inhibits prostate cancer growth. However, resistance to these drugs often occurs after 2–3 years as the patients develop castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). In CRPC, a functional AR remains a key regulator. Early studies focused on the functional domains of the AR and its crucial role in the pathology. The elucidation of the structures of the AR DNA binding domain (DBD) and ligand binding domain (LBD) provides a new framework for understanding the functions of this receptor and leads to the development of rational drug design for the treatment of prostate cancer. An overview of androgen receptor structure and activity, its actions in prostate cancer, and how structural information and high-throughput screening have been or can be used for drug discovery are provided herein. PMID:24909511

  17. Androgen receptor: structure, role in prostate cancer and drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Tan, M H Eileen; Li, Jun; Xu, H Eric; Melcher, Karsten; Yong, Eu-leong

    2015-01-01

    Androgens and androgen receptors (AR) play a pivotal role in expression of the male phenotype. Several diseases, such as androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) and prostate cancer, are associated with alterations in AR functions. Indeed, androgen blockade by drugs that prevent the production of androgens and/or block the action of the AR inhibits prostate cancer growth. However, resistance to these drugs often occurs after 2-3 years as the patients develop castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). In CRPC, a functional AR remains a key regulator. Early studies focused on the functional domains of the AR and its crucial role in the pathology. The elucidation of the structures of the AR DNA binding domain (DBD) and ligand binding domain (LBD) provides a new framework for understanding the functions of this receptor and leads to the development of rational drug design for the treatment of prostate cancer. An overview of androgen receptor structure and activity, its actions in prostate cancer, and how structural information and high-throughput screening have been or can be used for drug discovery are provided herein.

  18. Androgen regulation of the androgen receptor of the quail uropygial gland: application of a [3H]mibolerone exchange assay.

    PubMed

    Amet, Y; Abalain, J H; di Stefano, S; Daniel, J Y; Tea, K; Floch, H H; Robel, P

    1986-06-01

    An exchange assay for androgen receptors in the quail uropygial gland using [3H]mibolerone was established. The most efficient exchange conditions were 3 days of incubation at 15 degrees C. Under these conditions, androgen receptors were stable in the presence of sodium molybdate, and the exchange of [3H]mibolerone with endogenous testosterone bound to cytosolic or nuclear androgen receptors was maximal. Less than 5% of [3H]mibolerone-binding sites occurred in the extracted nuclear pellets. Using this exchange technique, it was shown that androgen receptors in the uropygial gland of photostimulated male quail or castrated quail treated with testosterone were activated and that their concentrations in both cytosolic and nuclear fractions were increased. These results confirm the androgen dependency of the quail uropygial gland, and show that it is an organ which can be used as a model for the study of androgen action in sebaceous glands.

  19. Effects of androgen on immunohistochemical localization of androgen receptor and Connexin 43 in mouse ovary.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mei; Li, Jianhua; An, Yulin; Zhang, Shuiwen

    2015-10-01

    Androgens have essential roles in the regulation of follicular development and female fertility. Androgen excess is the leading defect in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients and involved in the ovarian dysfunction. The aim of this study was to elucidate the regarding regulatory role of androgen in the follicular development of female mouse. Immunohistochemical staining and Western blot analyses were performed to detect androgen receptor (AR) and Connexin 43 (Cx43) expression in ovaries from both control and testosterone-treated group mice. In this study, localizations of AR and Cx43 were dramatically altered in testosterone-treated mouse ovaries. In addition, AR expression was significantly increased, whereas Cx43 expression was markedly decreased after testosterone treatment. Alterations of AR and Cx43 expression by testosterone with concomitant reduction of MII oocytes. Overall, these results suggest the involvement of androgen in the regulation of AR and Cx43 localizations in mouse ovary. Alterations of AR and Cx43 expression by testosterone may affect normal folliculogenesis. Together these findings will enable us to begin understanding the important roles of AR and Cx43 actions in the regulation of follicular development, as well as providing insights into the role of AR and Cx43 actions in the androgen-associated reproductive diseases such as PCOS.

  20. Androgens induce sebaceous differentiation in sebocyte cells expressing a stable functional androgen receptor.

    PubMed

    Barrault, Christine; Garnier, Julien; Pedretti, Nathalie; Cordier-Dirikoc, Sevda; Ratineau, Emeline; Deguercy, Alain; Bernard, François-Xavier

    2015-08-01

    Androgens act through non-genomic and androgen receptor (AR)-dependent genomic mechanisms. AR is expressed in the sebaceous gland and the importance of androgens in the sebaceous function is well established. However, the in vitro models used to date have failed to evidence a clear genomic effect (e.g., modification of gene expression profile) of androgens on human sebocyte cells. In order to study the impact of active androgens in sebocytes, we constructed a stable human sebocyte cell line derived from SEBO662 [17] constitutively expressing a fully functional AR. In these SEBO662 AR+ cells, dihydrotestosterone (DHT) induced AR nuclear translocation and the strong modulation of a set of transcripts (RASD1, GREB1...) known to be androgen-sensitive in other androgenic cells and tissues. Moreover, we observed that DHT precociously down-regulated markers for immature follicular cells (KRT15, TNC) and for hair lineage (KRT75, FST) and up-regulated the expression of genes potentially related to sebocyte differentiation (MUC1/EMA, AQP3, FADS2). These effects were fully confirmed at the protein level. In addition, DHT-stimulated SEBO662 AR+, cultured in a low-calcium defined keratinocyte medium without serum or any complement, neosynthesize lipids, including sebum lipids, and store increased amounts of triglycerides in lipid droplets. DHT also induces morphological changes, increases cell size, and treatments over 7 days lead to a time-dependent increase in the population of apoptotic DNA-fragmented cells. Taken together, these results show for the first time that active androgens alone can engage immature sebocytes in a clear lipogenic differentiation process (Graphical abstract). These effects depend on the expression of a functional AR in these cells. This model should be of interest for revisiting the mechanisms of the sebaceous function in vitro and for the design of relevant pharmacological models for drug or compound testing.

  1. [Nuclear export signal of androgen receptor regulated of androgen receptor stability in prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Gong, Y Q; Zhang, C J; He, S M; Li, X S; Zhou, L Q; Guo, Y L

    2017-08-18

    To investigate the mechanisms of nuclear export signal of androgen receptor (NES(AR)) in the regulation of androgen receptor (AR) protein expression and stability in prostate cancer. The green fluorescent protein fusion protein expression vectors pEGFP-AR(1-918aa), pEGFP-NES(AR) (743-817aa), pEGFP-NAR (1-665aa) and pEGFP-NAR-NES(AR), and lysine mutants of NES(AR) pEGFP-NES(AR) K776R, pEGFP-NES(AR) K807R and pEGFP-NES(AR) K776R/K807R, were transiently transfected into prostate cancer cell line PC3. Fluorescence microscopy, Western blot and immunoprecipitation were used to detect NES(AR) regulation of androgen receptor stability. Under the fluorescence microscope, NES(AR)-containing fusion proteins were cytoplasmic localization, and their fluorescence intensities were much weaker than those without NES(AR). The expression levels of NES(AR)-containing fusion proteins were significantly lower than those without NES(AR). The half-lives of GFP-NES(AR) and GFP-NAR-NES(AR) were less than 6 h, while the expression of GFP and GFP-NAR was relatively stable and the half-life was more than 24 h in the presence of cycloheximide. The expression levels of GFP-NES(AR) were significantly increased by proteasome inhibitor MG132 treatment in a dose-dependent manner; in contrast, MG132 did not show any significant effect on the protein levels of GFP. When new protein synthesis was blocked, MG132 could also prevent the degradation of GFP-NES(AR) in the transfected cells in the presence of cycloheximide, while it had no significant effect on GFP protein stability in the parallel experiment. GFP immunoprecipitation showed that the ubiquitination level of GFP-NES(AR) fusion protein was significantly higher than that of the GFP control. The mutations of lysine sites K776 and K807 in NES(AR) significantly reduced the level of ubiquitination, and showed increased protein stability, indicating that they were the key amino acid residues of NES(AR) ubiquitination. NES(AR) was unstable and

  2. Identification of a novel androgen receptor agonist (or “androgen mimic”) of environmental concern: spironolactone

    EPA Science Inventory

    Spironolactone is a pharmaceutical that acts as an androgen receptor (AR) antagonist in humans to treat certain conditions such as hirsutism, various dermatologic afflictions, and female pattern hair loss. The drug is also used to treat hypertension as a diuretic. With this commo...

  3. Identification of a novel androgen receptor agonist (or “androgen mimic”) of environmental concern: spironolactone

    EPA Science Inventory

    Spironolactone is a pharmaceutical that acts as an androgen receptor (AR) antagonist in humans to treat certain conditions such as hirsutism, various dermatologic afflictions, and female pattern hair loss. The drug is also used to treat hypertension as a diuretic. With this commo...

  4. Enhanced evaluation of selective androgen receptor modulators in vivo.

    PubMed

    Otto-Duessel, M; He, M; Adamson, T W; Jones, J O

    2013-01-01

    Selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) are a class of drugs that control the activity of the androgen receptor (AR), which mediates the response to androgens, in a tissue-selective fashion. They are specifically designed to reduce the possible complications that result from the systemic inhibition or activation of AR in patients with diseases that involve androgen signalling. However, there are no ideal in vivo models for evaluating candidate SARMs. Therefore, we created a panel of androgen-responsive genes in clinically relevant AR expressing tissues including prostate, skin, bone, fat, muscle, brain and kidney. We used select genes from this panel to compare transcriptional changes in response to the full agonist dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and the SARM bolandiol at 16 h and 6 weeks. We identified several genes in each tissue whose expression at each of these time points correlates with the known tissue-specific effects of these compounds. For example, in the prostate we found four genes whose expression was much lower in animals treated with bolandiol compared with animals treated with DHT for 6 weeks, which correlated well with differences in prostate weight. We demonstrate that adding molecular measurements (androgen-regulated gene expression) to the traditional physiological measurements (tissue weights, etc.) makes the evaluation of potential SARMs more accurate, thorough and perhaps more rapid by allowing measurement of selectivity after only 16 h of drug treatment. © 2012 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  5. Trinucleotide repeats and protein folding and disease: the perspective from studies with the androgen receptor

    PubMed Central

    Orafidiya, Folake A; McEwan, Iain J

    2015-01-01

    The androgen receptor (AR), a ligand activated transcription factor plays a number of roles in reproduction, homeostasis and pathogenesis of disease. It has two major polymorphic sequences; a polyglutamine and a polyglycine repeat that determine the length of the protein and influence receptor folding, structure and function. Here, we review the role the folding of the AR plays in the pathogenesis of spinal-bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA), a neuromuscular degenerative disease arising from expansion of the polyglutamine repeat. We discuss current management for SBMA patients and how research on AR structure function may lead to future drug treatments. PMID:28031874

  6. Optimizing Ligand Efficiency of Selective Androgen Receptor Modulators (SARMs)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A series of selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) containing the 1-(trifluoromethyl)benzyl alcohol core have been optimized for androgen receptor (AR) potency and drug-like properties. We have taken advantage of the lipophilic ligand efficiency (LLE) parameter as a guide to interpret the effect of structural changes on AR activity. Over the course of optimization efforts the LLE increased over 3 log units leading to a SARM 43 with nanomolar potency, good aqueous kinetic solubility (>700 μM), and high oral bioavailability in rats (83%). PMID:26819671

  7. Optimizing Ligand Efficiency of Selective Androgen Receptor Modulators (SARMs).

    PubMed

    Handlon, Anthony L; Schaller, Lee T; Leesnitzer, Lisa M; Merrihew, Raymond V; Poole, Chuck; Ulrich, John C; Wilson, Joseph W; Cadilla, Rodolfo; Turnbull, Philip

    2016-01-14

    A series of selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) containing the 1-(trifluoromethyl)benzyl alcohol core have been optimized for androgen receptor (AR) potency and drug-like properties. We have taken advantage of the lipophilic ligand efficiency (LLE) parameter as a guide to interpret the effect of structural changes on AR activity. Over the course of optimization efforts the LLE increased over 3 log units leading to a SARM 43 with nanomolar potency, good aqueous kinetic solubility (>700 μM), and high oral bioavailability in rats (83%).

  8. Ligand competition binding assay for the androgen receptor.

    PubMed

    Féau, Clémentine; Arnold, Leggy A; Kosinski, Aaron; Guy, R Kiplin

    2011-01-01

    Evaluating endocrine activities of environmental chemicals or screening for new small molecule modulators of the androgen receptor (AR) transcription activity requires standardized and reliable assay procedures. Scintillation proximity assays (SPA) are sensitive and reliable techniques that are suitable for ligand competition binding assays. We have utilized a radiolabeled ligand competition binding assay for the androgen receptor (AR) that can be carried out in a 384-well format. This standardized, highly reproducible and low-cost assay has been automated for high-throughput screening (HTS) purposes.

  9. Androgen Activation of the Folate Receptor α Gene through Partial Tethering of the Androgen Receptor by C/EBPα○

    PubMed Central

    Sivakumaran, Suneethi; Zhang, Juan; Kelley, Karen M.M.; Gonit, Mesfin; Hao, Hong; Ratnam, Manohar

    2010-01-01

    The folate receptor α (FRα) is critical for normal embryonic and fetal development. The receptor has a relatively narrow tissue specificity which includes the visceral endoderm and the placenta and mediates delivery of folate, inadequacy of which results in termination of pregnancy or developmental defects. We have previously reported that the FRα gene is negatively and directly regulated by estrogen and positively but indirectly by progesterone and glucocorticoid. To further investigate hormonal control of this gene and in view of the growing evidence for the importance of the androgen receptor (AR) in endometrial and placental functions, we examined the response of the FRα gene to androgen. Here we demonstrate that the FRα gene is directly activated by androgen. The P4 promoter of the FRα gene is the target of hormone-dependent activation by the androgen receptor (AR) in a manner that is co-activator-dependent. The site of functional association of AR in the FRα gene maps to a 35bp region occurring ~1500bp upstream of the target promoter. The functional elements within this region are an androgen response element (ARE) half-site and a non-canonical C/EBP element that cooperate to recruit AR in a manner that is dependent on the DNA-bound C/EBPα. Since the placenta is rich in C/EBPα, the findings underscore the multiplicity of mechanisms by which the FRα gene is under the exquisite control of steroid hormones. PMID:20817090

  10. Identification of neuron selective androgen receptor inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Otto-Duessel, Maya; Tew, Ben Yi; Vonderfecht, Steven; Moore, Roger; Jones, Jeremy O

    2017-05-26

    To identify neuron-selective androgen receptor (AR) signaling inhibitors, which could be useful in the treatment of spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA), or Kennedy's disease, a neuromuscular disorder in which deterioration of motor neurons leads to progressive muscle weakness. Cell lines representing prostate, kidney, neuron, adipose, and muscle tissue were developed that stably expressed the CFP-AR-YFP FRET reporter. We used these cells to screen a library of small molecules for cell type-selective AR inhibitors. Secondary screening in luciferase assays was used to identify the best cell-type specific AR inhibitors. The mechanism of action of a neuron-selective AR inhibitor was examined in vitro using luciferase reporter assays, immunofluorescence microscopy, and immunoprecipitations. Rats were treated with the most potent compound and tissue-selective AR inhibition was examined using RT-qPCR of AR-regulated genes and immunohistochemistry. We identified the thiazole class of antibiotics as compounds able to inhibit AR signaling in a neuronal cell line but not a muscle cell line. One of these antibiotics, thiostrepton is able to inhibit the activity of both wild type and polyglutamine expanded AR in neuronal GT1-7 cells with nanomolar potency. The thiazole antibiotics are known to inhibit FOXM1 activity and accordingly, a novel FOXM1 inhibitor FDI-6 also inhibited AR activity in a neuron-selective fashion. The selective inhibition of AR is likely indirect as the varied structures of these compounds would not suggest that they are competitive antagonists. Indeed, we found that FOXM1 expression correlates with cell-type selectivity, FOXM1 co-localizes with AR in the nucleus, and that shRNA-mediated knock down of FOXM1 reduces AR activity and thiostrepton sensitivity in a neuronal cell line. Thiostrepton treatment reduces FOXM1 levels and the nuclear localization of beta-catenin, a known co-activator of both FOXM1 and AR, and reduces the association between beta

  11. Androgen Induces a Switch from Cytoplasmic Retention to Nuclear Import of the Androgen Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Li; Llewellyn, Ryan; Kesler, Cristina T.; Kelley, Joshua B.; Spencer, Adam; Snow, Chelsi J.; Shank, Leonard

    2013-01-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) has critical functions as a transcription factor in both normal and cancer cells, but the specific mechanisms that regulate its nuclear localization are not well defined. We found that an AR mutation commonly reported in prostate cancer generates an androgen-independent gain of function for nuclear import. The substitution, Thr877Ala, is within the ligand-binding domain, but the nuclear import gain of function is mediated by the bipartite nuclear localization signal (NLS) spanning the DNA-binding domain (DBD) and hinge region. Bipartite NLS activity depends on the structure provided by the DBD, and protein interactions with the bipartite NLS are repressed by the hinge region. The bipartite NLS is recognized by importin 7, a nuclear import receptor for several proteins. Importin 7 binding to AR, however, inhibits import by shielding the bipartite NLS. Androgen binding relieves the inhibition by inducing a switch that promotes exchange of importin 7 for karyopherin alpha import receptors. Importin 7 contributes to the regulation of AR import by restraining import until androgen is detected in the cytoplasm. PMID:24100013

  12. Comparative safety evaluation of selective androgen receptor modulators and anabolic androgenic steroids.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seul Min; Lee, Byung-Mu

    2015-01-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AASs) have been in use for decades for the treatment of short stature, severe burns, HIV wasting syndrome, osteoporosis, and anemia. However, their lack of selective effects on certain symptoms and unfavorable pharmacokinetic properties has limited their long-term usage in clinics. Selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) have some advantages over AASs; they are highly specific for androgen receptors, are orally available, and, most importantly, act as strong receptor agonists in skeletal muscle and bone, and as weak agonists or antagonists in androgen-responsive tissues such as the prostate and sebaceous glands. The exact molecular mechanism, however, has not been fully elucidated. This article includes a toxicological review of major AASs, and a comparative safety analysis of major AASs and SARMs in clinical trials to evaluate the therapeutic potential of SARMs. Based on the robust tissue selectivity of SARMs over AASs, they are worth considering as a promising therapeutic option for the treatment of various muscle-wasting diseases.

  13. A novel point mutation (R840S) in the androgen receptor in a Brazilian family with partial androgen insensitivity syndrome.

    PubMed

    Melo, K F; Latronico, A C; Costa, E M; Billerbeck, A E; Mendonca, B B; Arnhold, I J

    1999-10-01

    Mutations of the androgen receptor gene causing androgen insensitivity syndrome in 46, XY individuals, result in phenotypes ranging from complete female to ambiguous genitalia to males with minor degrees of undervirilization. We studied two Brazilian brothers with partial androgen insensitivity syndrome. They were born with perineal hypospadias, bifid scrotum, small penis and cryptorchidism, and developed gynecomastia at puberty. Genomic DNA was extracted and denaturinggradient gel electrophoresis of exon 7 of the androgen receptor gene followed by sequence analysis revealed a new mutation, a C A transversion, altering codon 840 from arginine (CGT) to serine (AGT). R840 is located in the androgen binding domain, in a "hot spot" region, important for the formation and function of the hormone receptor-complex and within the region that is involved in androgen receptor dimerization. Replacement of arginine (basic) by serine (neutral and polar) is a nonconservative substitution. Three mutations in this residue (R840C, R840G nonconservative and R840H, conservative) were previously reported in patients with partial androgen insensitivity syndrome and when expressed "in vitro" lead to a subnormal transactivation of a reporter gene. We conclude that the novel R840 mutation in the androgen receptor is the cause of partial androgen insensitivity syndrome in this Brazilian family.

  14. Akt suppresses androgen-induced apoptosis by phosphorylating and inhibiting androgen receptor

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hui-Kuan; Yeh, Shuyuan; Kang, Hong-Yo; Chang, Chawnshang

    2001-01-01

    Whereas several apoptosis-related proteins have been linked to the antiapoptotic effects of Akt serine–threonine kinase, the search continues to explain the Akt signaling role in promoting cell survival via antiapoptotic effects. Here, we demonstrate that Akt phosphorylates the androgen receptor (AR) at Ser-210 and Ser-790. A mutation at AR Ser-210 results in the reversal of Akt-mediated suppression of AR transactivation. Activation of the phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase/Akt pathway results in the suppression of AR target genes, such as p21, and the decrease of androgen/AR-mediated apoptosis, which may involve the inhibition of interaction between AR and AR coregulators. Together, these findings provide a molecular basis for cross-talk between two signaling pathways at the level of Akt and AR–AR coregulators that may help us to better understand the roles of Akt in the androgen/AR-mediated apoptosis. PMID:11404460

  15. Partial androgen insensitivity syndrome with R840H mutation in androgen receptor: report of one case.

    PubMed

    Yen, Jui-Lung; Chang, Kuang-Huey; Sheu, Jin-Cherng; Lee, Yann-Jinn; Tsai, Li-Ping

    2005-01-01

    Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) is the major cause of male pseudohermaphroditism. The severity of the disorders varies widely, ranging from the phenotypic women with female external genitalia in cases of complete AIS to the phenotype of ambiguous genitalia in partial androgen insensitivity syndrome (PAIS) and a rare group of phenotypic normal males with azoospermia. Here, we report an infant of PAIS with a missense mutation at position 2881 (G-->A) in exon 7, encoding substitution of histidine for arginine at codon 840 of the androgen receptor (AR) gene. Both the biochemical and molecular studies are presented. Establishing the diagnosis of PAIS is very important for gender assignment to an infant of ambiguous genitalia. The molecular analysis will facilitate genetic counselling to the maternal side relatives for carrier detection and prenatal diagnosis.

  16. C601S mutation in the androgen receptor results in partial loss of androgen function.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rajender; Singh, Pooja; Gupta, Nalini J; Chakrabarty, Baidyanath; Singh, Lalji; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy

    2010-11-01

    The present study was undertaken on a case of partial androgen insensitivity syndrome to look at the etiology of the disorder. The patient exhibited a female phenotype despite 46,XY chromosome complement. Direct DNA sequencing of coding region of the androgen receptor gene in this case revealed a 2329G>C substitution (cDNA sequence reference) in exon 3 of the gene. The substitution resulted in replacement of Cys with Ser at codon 601 of the ligand-binding domain of the protein. Analyses on 200 control samples revealed absence of this substitution(s). In vitro assays were done using COS-1 cells. The mutation resulted in partial (∼40%) loss of ligand-binding and significant (∼70%) loss of downstream transactivation function. The mutation was absent in the controls. The findings are particularly interesting since another substitution at the same codon (TGC-TTC) has been reported in association with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome.

  17. A case of complete androgen insensitivity syndrome with a novel androgen receptor mutation.

    PubMed

    Chin, Vivian L; Sheffer-Babila, Sharone; Lee, Ting A; Tanaka, Kathryn; Zhou, Ping

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of a 14-year-old girl with primary amenorrhea and phenotypic as well as hormonal features of complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS), who tested positive for a novel missense androgen receptor gene mutation resulting in serine-to-isoleucine change at position 703 in exon 4 in the ligand-binding domain. The interesting features of this case include a persistence of Müllerian derivatives, Sertoli cell adenoma, Tanner III pubic hair, and a normal bone mineral density. These features are not typically described in CAIS. This novel mutation associated with a unique clinical presentation serves to significantly enrich the literature on this rare and fascinating disorder of androgen insensitivity syndrome.

  18. Androgen stimulates endothelial cell proliferation via an androgen receptor/VEGF/cyclin A-mediated mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Jingjing; Hong, Yuan; Weng, Chunyan; Tan, Chen; Imperato-McGinley, Julianne

    2011-01-01

    Growing evidences support that androgen displays beneficial effects on cardiovascular functions although the mechanism of androgen actions remains to be elucidated. Modulation of endothelial cell growth and function is a potential mechanism of androgen actions. We demonstrated in the present study that androgens [dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and testosterone], but not 17β-estradiol, produced a time- and dose-dependent induction of cell proliferation in primary human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) as evident by increases in viable cell number and DNA biosynthesis. Real-time qRT-PCR analysis showed that DHT induced androgen receptor (AR), cyclin A, cyclin D1, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The addition of casodex, a specific AR antagonist, or transfection of a specific AR siRNA blocked DHT-induced cell proliferation and target gene expression, indicating that the DHT effects are mediated via AR. Moreover, coadministration of SU5416 to block VEGF receptors, or transfection of a specific VEGF-A siRNA to knockdown VEGF expression, produced a dose-dependent blockade of DHT induction of cell proliferation and cyclin A gene expression. Interestingly, roscovitine, a selective cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, also blocked the DHT stimulation of cell proliferation with a selective inhibition of DHT-induced VEGF-A expression. These results indicate that androgens acting on AR stimulate cell proliferation through upregulation of VEGF-A, cyclin A, and cyclin D1 in HAECs, which may be beneficial to cardiovascular functions since endothelial cell proliferation could assist the repair of endothelial injury/damage in cardiovascular system. PMID:21257919

  19. The Stress Response Mediator ATF3 Represses Androgen Signaling by Binding the Androgen Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongbo; Jiang, Ming; Cui, Hongmei; Chen, Mengqian; Buttyan, Ralph; Hayward, Simon W.; Hai, Tsonwin; Wang, Zhengxin

    2012-01-01

    Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) is a common mediator of cellular stress response signaling and is often aberrantly expressed in prostate cancer. We report here that ATF3 can directly bind the androgen receptor (AR) and consequently repress AR-mediated gene expression. The ATF3-AR interaction requires the leucine zipper domain of ATF3 that independently binds the DNA-binding and ligand-binding domains of AR, and the interaction prevents AR from binding to cis-acting elements required for expression of androgen-dependent genes while inhibiting the AR N- and C-terminal interaction. The functional consequences of the loss of ATF3 expression include increased transcription of androgen-dependent genes in prostate cancer cells that correlates with increased ability to grow in low-androgen-containing medium and increased proliferative activity of the prostate epithelium in ATF3 knockout mice that is associated with prostatic hyperplasia. Our results thus demonstrate that ATF3 is a novel repressor of androgen signaling that can inhibit AR functions, allowing prostate cells to restore homeostasis and maintain integrity in the face of a broad spectrum of intrinsic and environmental insults. PMID:22665497

  20. Mutational analysis of the androgen receptor gene in two Chinese families with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wang, Song; Xu, Haikun; An, Wei; Zhu, Dechun; Li, Dejun

    2016-06-01

    Androgens are essential for normal male sex differentiation and are responsible for the normal development of male secondary sexual characteristics at puberty. The physiological effects of androgens are mediated by the androgen receptor (AR). Mutations in the AR gene are the most common cause of androgen insensitivity syndrome. The present study undertook a genetic analysis of the AR gene in two unrelated families affected by complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS) in China. In family 1, a previously reported nonsense mutation (G-to-A; p.W751X) was identified in exon 5 of the AR gene. In addition, a novel missense mutation was detected in exon 6 of the AR gene from family 2; this mutation resulted in a predicted amino acid change from phenylalanine to serine at codon 804 (T-to-C; p.F804S) in the ligand-binding domain (LBD) of AR. Computer simulation of the structural changes generated by the p.F804S substitution revealed marked conformational alterations in the hydrophobic core responsible for the stability and function of the AR-LBD. In conclusion, the present study identified two mutations from two unrelated Chinese families affected by CAIS. The novel mutation (p.F804S) may provide insights into the molecular mechanism underlying CAIS. Furthermore, it expands on the number of mutational hot spots in the international AR mutation database, which may be useful in the future for prenatal diagnosis and genetic counseling.

  1. Cytoplasmic localization of the androgen receptor is independent of calreticulin

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Minh M.; Dincer, Zehra; Wade, James R.; Alur, Mahesh; Michalak, Marek; DeFranco, Donald B.; Wang, Zhou

    2009-01-01

    Identification and characterization of factors regulating intracellular localization of the androgen receptor (AR) are fundamentally important because nucleocytoplasmic trafficking of AR is a critical step in AR regulation by androgen manipulation. Normally, AR is localized to the cytoplasm in the absence of androgen. Upon ligand binding, AR translocates to the nucleus, where it can modulate transcription of AR-responsive genes. The withdrawal of androgen results in the export of unliganded AR from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, where it is transcriptionally inactive. Calreticulin has been implicated as a possible nuclear export factor for AR because the two proteins form a complex. In this study, we assessed whether the cytoplasmic localization of AR requires binding to calreticulin. To test this we substituted the calreticulin binding sequence (CBS) KVFFKR (residues 579–584) with the amino acids RLAARK in AR and monitored the cellular localization of a GFP-AR fusion protein in the absence of androgen. We also determined if knockdown or knockout of calreticulin expression affected the cytoplasmic localization of the AR. We found that a mutated CBS did not affect the localization of AR and that in the absence of androgen, AR is localized to the cytoplasm regardless of its ability to interact with calreticulin. Also, a reduction in the levels or loss of calreticulin did not affect the localization of AR. These data argue that calreticulin is not required for the cytoplasmic localization of AR. PMID:19150386

  2. Nonsteroidal Androgen Receptor Ligands: Versatile Syntheses and Biological Data

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    We report herein a stereoselective and straightforward methodology for the synthesis of new androgen receptor ligands with (anti)-agonistic activities. Oxygen–nitrogen replacement in bicalutamide-like structures paves the way to the disclosure of a new class of analogues, including cyclized/nitrogen-substituted derivatives, with promising antiandrogen (or anabolic) activity. PMID:24900495

  3. ANDROGEN RECEPTOR ANTAGONISM BY THE ORGANOPHOSPHATE INSECTICIDE FENITROTHION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Androgen receptor antagonism by the organophosphate insecticide fenitrothion. Tamura, H., Maness, S.C., Reischmann, K. Dorman, D.C., Gray, L.E., and Gaido, K.W. (2000). Toxicol. Sci.

    Organophosphate insecticides represent one of the most widely used classes of pesticide...

  4. Chromatin binding by the androgen receptor in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Itkonen, Harri; Mills, Ian G

    2012-09-05

    Alterations in transcriptional programs are fundamental to the development of cancers. The androgen receptor is central to the normal development of the prostate gland and to the development of prostate cancer. To a large extent this is believed to be due to the control of gene expression through the interaction of the androgen receptor with chromatin and subsequently with coregulators and the transcriptional machinery. Unbiased genome-wide studies have recently uncovered the recruitment sites that are gene-distal and intragenic rather than associated with proximal promoter regions. Whilst expression profiles from AR-positive primary prostate tumours and cell lines can directly relate to the AR cistrome in prostate cancer cells, this distribution raises significant challenges in making direct mechanistic connections. Furthermore, extrapolating from datasets assembled in one model to other model systems or clinical samples poses challenges if we are to use the AR-directed transcriptome to guide the development of novel biomarkers or treatment decisions. This review will provide an overview of the androgen receptor before addressing the challenges and opportunities created by whole-genome studies of the interplay between the androgen receptor and chromatin. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Selective Gene Regulation by Androgen Receptor in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    androgen receptor pathway in prostate cancer. Curr Opin Pharmacol, 2008. 8(4): p. 440-8. 6. Claessens, F., P. Alen , A. Devos, B. Peeters, G...Chem, 1996. 271(32): p. 19013-6. 7. Schoenmakers, E., P. Alen , G. Verrijdt, B. Peeters, G. Verhoeven, W. Rombauts, and F. Claessens, Differential DNA

  6. ANDROGEN RECEPTOR ANTAGONISM BY THE ORGANOPHOSPHATE INSECTICIDE FENITROTHION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Androgen receptor antagonism by the organophosphate insecticide fenitrothion. Tamura, H., Maness, S.C., Reischmann, K. Dorman, D.C., Gray, L.E., and Gaido, K.W. (2000). Toxicol. Sci.

    Organophosphate insecticides represent one of the most widely used classes of pesticide...

  7. A novel androgen receptor mutation resulting in complete androgen insensitivity syndrome and bilateral Leydig cell hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rajender; Shastry, Prabhakar K; Rasalkar, Avinash A; Singh, Lalji; Thangaraj, K

    2006-01-01

    Androgens drive male secondary sexual differentiation and maturation. Mutations in the androgen receptor (AR) gene cause a broad spectrum of abnormal phenotypes in humans, ranging from mild through partial to complete androgen insensitivity. We have analyzed the AR gene by using denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) and direct sequencing and have studied gonads histologically in a familial case of complete androgen insensitivity syndrome. Sequence analysis of the AR gene showed a novel C2578T missense mutation, resulting in the replacement of a highly conserved leucine residue with phenylalanine (L859F) in ligand-binding domain of the receptor. The residue L859, located in helix 10 of the androgen receptor, plays a significant role in overall architecture of ligand-binding pocket. The mutation was absent from the father, normal brother of the patients, and 100 normal males recruited in this study as controls. The inheritance of the mutation in the family clearly shows that C2578T is the underlying mutation for the eventual phenotype in the patients. Histology of patient's gonads showed Leydig cell hyperplasia, with a few or no spermatogonium. It is thought that AR gene mutations result in hormonal imbalance, resulting in the high levels of luteinizing hormone (LH) and ultimately Leydig cell hyperplasia or tumor formation. In the present study, we have reported a rare familial case of Leydig cell hyperplasia despite consistently normal LH levels. The finding will help in giving counseling to this family and prevent the transmission of the mutated X chromosome to the coming generations.

  8. Inhibitors for Androgen Receptor Activation Surfaces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    new class of chemical therapeutics for treatment of prostate cancer. 15. SUBJECT TERMS X-ray crystallography, high throughput screening, medicinal... treatments because anti-androgen resis- tance usually develops. We conducted functional and x-ray screens to identify compounds that bind the AR surface and...possibility that such compounds could be used for prostate cancer treatment . It is unlikely that natural T3 or Triac concentrations approach levels required

  9. Cellular androgen content influences enzalutamide agonism of F877L mutant androgen receptor

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Daniel J.; Van Hook, Kathryn; King, Carly J.; Schwartzman, Jacob; Lisac, Robert; Urrutia, Joshua; Sehrawat, Archana; Woodward, Josha; Wang, Nicholas J.; Gulati, Roman; Thomas, George V.; Beer, Tomasz M.; Gleave, Martin; Korkola, James E.; Gao, Lina; Heiser, Laura M.; Alumkal, Joshi J.

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed and second-most lethal cancer among men in the United States. The vast majority of prostate cancer deaths are due to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) – the lethal form of the disease that has progressed despite therapies that interfere with activation of androgen receptor (AR) signaling. One emergent resistance mechanism to medical castration is synthesis of intratumoral androgens that activate the AR. This insight led to the development of the AR antagonist enzalutamide. However, resistance to enzalutamide invariably develops, and disease progression is nearly universal. One mechanism of resistance to enzalutamide is an F877L mutation in the AR ligand-binding domain that can convert enzalutamide to an agonist of AR activity. However, mechanisms that contribute to the agonist switch had not been fully clarified, and there were no therapies to block AR F877L. Using cell line models of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), we determined that cellular androgen content influences enzalutamide agonism of mutant F877L AR. Further, enzalutamide treatment of AR F877L-expressing cell lines recapitulated the effects of androgen activation of F877L AR or wild-type AR. Because the BET bromodomain inhibitor JQ-1 was previously shown to block androgen activation of wild-type AR, we tested JQ-1 in AR F877L-expressing CRPC models. We determined that JQ-1 suppressed androgen or enzalutamide activation of mutant F877L AR and suppressed growth of mutant F877L AR CRPC tumors in vivo, demonstrating a new strategy to treat tumors harboring this mutation. PMID:27276681

  10. Inflammation, Prostate Cancer and Negative Regulation of Androgen Receptor Expression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    activity, 2) microRNA -mediated regulation of prostate cancer cell proliferation. My data establish that the human AR level is negatively regulated by... cancer , scanning of the cancer microRNA array shows that miR-454 is up regulated in androgen-independent C4-2 cells and overexpression of miR-454...TERMS Androgen receptor, prostate cancer , TNF-α, NF-κB, microRNA 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF

  11. Discordant measures of androgen-binding kinetics in two mutant androgen receptors causing mild or partial androgen insensitivity, respectively.

    PubMed

    Shkolny, D L; Beitel, L K; Ginsberg, J; Pekeles, G; Arbour, L; Pinsky, L; Trifiro, M A

    1999-02-01

    We have characterized two different mutations of the human androgen receptor (hAR) found in two unrelated subjects with androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS): in one, the external genitalia were ambiguous (partial, PAIS); in the other, they were male, but small (mild, MAIS). Single base substitutions have been found in both individuals: E772A in the PAIS subject, and R871G in the MAIS patient. In COS-1 cells transfected with the E772A and R871G hARs, the apparent equilibrium dissociation constants (Kd) for mibolerone (MB) and methyltrienolone are normal. Nonetheless, the mutant hAR from the PAIS subject (E772A) has elevated nonequilibrium dissociation rate constants (k(diss)) for both androgens. In contrast, the MAIS subject's hAR (R871G) has k(diss) values that are apparently normal for MB and methyltrienolone; in addition, the R871G hAR's ability to bind MB resists thermal stress better than the hAR from the PAIS subject. The E772A and R871G hARs, therefore, confer the same pattern of discordant androgen-binding parameters in transfected COS-1 cells as observed previously in the subjects' genital skin fibroblasts. This proves their pathogenicity and correlates with the relative severity of the clinical phenotype. In COS-1 cells transfected with an androgen-responsive reporter gene, trans-activation was 50% of normal in cells containing either mutant hAR. However, mutant hAR-MB binding is unstable during prolonged incubation with MB, whereas normal hAR-MB binding increases. Thus, normal equilibrium dissociation constants alone, as determined by Scatchard analysis, may not be indicative of normal hAR function. An increased k(diss) despite a normal Kd for a given androgen suggests that it not only has increased egress from a mutant ligand-binding pocket, but also increased access to it. This hypothesis has certain implications in terms of the three-dimensional model of the ligand-binding domain of the nuclear receptor superfamily.

  12. Androgen receptor and antiandrogen therapy in male breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Di Lauro, Luigi; Barba, Maddalena; Pizzuti, Laura; Vici, Patrizia; Sergi, Domenico; Di Benedetto, Anna; Mottolese, Marcella; Speirs, Valerie; Santini, Daniele; De Maria, Ruggero; Maugeri-Saccà, Marcello

    2015-11-01

    Cancers arising in the male breast are uncommon. Male breast cancer is a hormone-driven disease that often expresses the estrogen receptor, and antiestrogen therapy represents the mainstay of treatment. Paradoxically, the advent of a wave of antiestrogens eclipsed the therapeutic potential of alternative therapeutic options. At the beginning of the hormonal therapy era the administration of antiandrogens to metastatic male breast cancer patients was proposed. Ever since the use of these compounds has largely been neglected. A therapeutic role for antiandrogens has been envisioned again in recent years. First, molecular characterization efforts pointed to the androgen receptor as a potential therapeutic target. Second, the development of aromatase inhibitors unexpectedly raised the need for neutralizing androgens in order to tackle endocrine feedback mechanisms responsible for acquired resistance. We herein provide an overview of molecular studies where the androgen receptor was investigated at the genomic, transcriptomic or phenotypic level. We then discuss androgens in the context of the endocrine networks nourishing male breast cancer. Finally, clinical evidence on antiandrogens is summarized along with strategies should be implemented to improve the medical management of these patients.

  13. Synthetic anabolic agents: steroids and nonsteroidal selective androgen receptor modulators.

    PubMed

    Thevis, Mario; Schänzer, Wilhelm

    2010-01-01

    The central role of testosterone in the development of male characteristics, as well as its beneficial effects on physical performance and muscle growth, has led to the search for synthetic alternatives with improved pharmacological profiles. Hundreds of steroidal analogs have been prepared with a superior oral bioavailability, which should also possess reduced undesirable effects. However, only a few entered the pharmaceutical market due to severe toxicological incidences that were mainly attributed to the lack of tissue selectivity. Prominent representatives of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are for instance methyltestosterone, metandienone and stanozolol, which are discussed as model compounds with regard to general pharmacological aspects of synthetic AAS. Recently, nonsteroidal alternatives to AAS have been developed that selectively activate the androgen receptor in either muscle tissue or bones. These so-called selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) are currently undergoing late clinical trials (IIb) and will be prohibited by the World Anti-Doping Agency from January 2008. Their entirely synthetic structures are barely related to steroids, but particular functional groups allow for the tissue-selective activation or inhibition of androgen receptors and, thus, the stimulation of muscle growth without the risk of severe undesirable effects commonly observed in steroid replacement therapies. Hence, these compounds possess a high potential for misuse in sports and will be the subject of future doping control assays.

  14. Androgen receptor in human health: a potential therapeutic target.

    PubMed

    Siddique, Hifzur Rahman; Nanda, Sanjeev; Parray, Aijaz; Saleem, Mohammad

    2012-12-01

    Androgen is a key for the activation of Androgen Receptor (AR) in most of the disease conditions, however androgen-independent activation of AR is also found in aggressive type human malignancies. An intense search for the inhibitors of AR is underway to cure AR-dependent diseases. In addition to targeting various components of AR signaling pathway, compounds which directly target AR are under preclinical and clinical investigation. Various In vitro and preclinical animal studies suggest that different natural compounds have potential to act against AR. Some natural compounds have been found to be pharmacologically effective against AR irrespective of varying routs of administration viz; oral, intra-peritoneal and intravenous. This mini-review summarizes the studies conducted with different natural agents in determining their pharmacological utility against AR signaling.

  15. Stromal Androgen Receptor in Prostate Cancer Development and Progression

    PubMed Central

    Leach, Damien A.; Buchanan, Grant

    2017-01-01

    Prostate cancer development and progression is the result of complex interactions between epithelia cells and fibroblasts/myofibroblasts, in a series of dynamic process amenable to regulation by hormones. Whilst androgen action through the androgen receptor (AR) is a well-established component of prostate cancer biology, it has been becoming increasingly apparent that changes in AR signalling in the surrounding stroma can dramatically influence tumour cell behavior. This is reflected in the consistent finding of a strong association between stromal AR expression and patient outcomes. In this review, we explore the relationship between AR signalling in fibroblasts/myofibroblasts and prostate cancer cells in the primary site, and detail the known functions, actions, and mechanisms of fibroblast AR signaling. We conclude with an evidence-based summary of how androgen action in stroma dramatically influences disease progression. PMID:28117763

  16. Alternative splicing of the androgen receptor in polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fangfang; Pan, Jiexue; Liu, Ye; Meng, Qing; Lv, Pingping; Qu, Fan; Ding, Guo-Lian; Klausen, Christian; Leung, Peter C. K.; Chan, Hsiao Chang; Yao, Weimiao; Zhou, Cai-Yun; Shi, Biwei; Zhang, Junyu; Sheng, Jianzhong; Huang, Hefeng

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common female endocrine disorders and a leading cause of female subfertility. The mechanism underlying the pathophysiology of PCOS remains to be illustrated. Here, we identify two alternative splice variants (ASVs) of the androgen receptor (AR), insertion and deletion isoforms, in granulosa cells (GCs) in ∼62% of patients with PCOS. AR ASVs are strongly associated with remarkable hyperandrogenism and abnormalities in folliculogenesis, and are absent from all control subjects without PCOS. Alternative splicing dramatically alters genome-wide AR recruitment and androgen-induced expression of genes related to androgen metabolism and folliculogenesis in human GCs. These findings establish alternative splicing of AR in GCs as the major pathogenic mechanism for hyperandrogenism and abnormal folliculogenesis in PCOS. PMID:25825716

  17. Androgen receptor genotyping in a large Australasian cohort with androgen insensitivity syndrome; identification of four novel mutations.

    PubMed

    Jeske, Y W A; McGown, I N; Cowley, D M; Oley, C; Thomsett, M J; Choong, C S Y; Cotterill, A M

    2007-08-01

    We genotyped the androgen receptor (AR) gene in 31 Australasian patients with androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS). The entire coding region of AR was examined including analysis of polymorphic CAG and GGN repeats in all patients. AR defects were found in 66.7% (6/9) of patients with complete AIS (CAIS) and 13.6% (3/22) of patients with partial AIS (PAIS). A novel deletion (N858delG) leading to a premature stop codon was found in CAIS patient P1. CAIS patient P2 has a novel deletion (N2676delGAGT) resulting in a stop at codon 787. These mutations would result in inactivation of AR protein. A novel insertion of a cysteine residue in the first zinc finger of the AR DNA-binding domain (N2045_2047dupCTG) was found in CAIS patient P3. PAIS patient P4 has a novel amino acid substitution (Arg760Ser) in the AR ligand binding domain, which may impair ligand binding. Five patients were found to have previously reported AR mutations and no mutations were identified in the remaining patients.

  18. Design, Synthesis, and Preclinical Characterization of the Selective Androgen Receptor Modulator (SARM) RAD140

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    This report describes the discovery of RAD140, a potent, orally bioavailable, nonsteroidal selective androgen receptor modulator (SARM). The characterization of RAD140 in several preclinical models of anabolic androgen action is also described. PMID:24900290

  19. Design, Synthesis, and Preclinical Characterization of the Selective Androgen Receptor Modulator (SARM) RAD140.

    PubMed

    Miller, Chris P; Shomali, Maysoun; Lyttle, C Richard; O'Dea, Louis St L; Herendeen, Hillary; Gallacher, Kyla; Paquin, Dottie; Compton, Dennis R; Sahoo, Bishwabhusan; Kerrigan, Sean A; Burge, Matthew S; Nickels, Michael; Green, Jennifer L; Katzenellenbogen, John A; Tchesnokov, Alexei; Hattersley, Gary

    2011-02-10

    This report describes the discovery of RAD140, a potent, orally bioavailable, nonsteroidal selective androgen receptor modulator (SARM). The characterization of RAD140 in several preclinical models of anabolic androgen action is also described.

  20. The effect of Permixon on androgen receptors.

    PubMed

    el-Sheikh, M M; Dakkak, M R; Saddique, A

    1988-01-01

    Permixon, the liposterolic extract of the plant Serenoa Repens is a recently introduced drug for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. The effect of Permixon on dihydrotestosterone and testosterone binding by eleven different tissue specimens was tested. The drug reduced the mean uptake of both hormones by 40.9% and 41.9% respectively in all tissue specimens. Since hirsutism and virilism are among other gynecological problems caused either by excessive androgen stimulation or excess endorgan response, we suggest that Permixon could be a useful treatment in such conditions and recommend further investigations of the possible therapeutic values of the drug in gynecological practice.

  1. Enhanced Evaluation of Selective Androgen Receptor Modulators In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Otto-Duessel, Maya; He, Miaoling; Adamson, Trinka W.; Jones, Jeremy O.

    2014-01-01

    Selective AR modulators (SARMs) are a class of drugs that control the activity of the androgen receptor (AR), which mediates the response to androgens, in a tissue-selective fashion. They are specifically designed to reduce the possible complications that result from the systemic inhibition or activation of AR in patients with diseases that involve androgen signaling. However, there are no ideal in vivo models for evaluating candidate SARMs. Therefore, we created a panel of androgen responsive genes in clinically-relevant AR expressing tissues including prostate, skin, bone, fat, muscle, brain, and kidney. We used select genes from this panel to compare transcriptional changes in response to the full agonist dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and the SARM bolandiol at 16h and 6wks. We identified several genes in each tissue whose expression at each of these time points correlates with the known tissue-specific effects of these compounds. For example, in the prostate we found four genes whose expression was much lower in animals treated with bolandiol compared to animals treated with DHT for 6wks, which correlated well with differences in prostate weight. We demonstrate that adding molecular measurements (androgen regulated gene expression) to the traditional physiological measurements (tissue weights, etc) makes the evaluation of potential SARMs more accurate, thorough, and perhaps more rapid by allowing measurement of selectivity after only 16 hours of drug treatment. PMID:23258627

  2. AKT regulates androgen receptor-dependent growth and PSA expression in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Mikhailova, Margarita; Wang, Yu; Bedolla, Roble; Lu, Xiao-Hua; Kreisberg, Jeffrey I; Ghosh, Paramita M

    2008-01-01

    Recurrent prostate cancer (PC) is usually treated with androgen deprivation therapy, which, despite initial success, eventually fails due to the development of androgen-independent PC. Androgen deprivation stimulates a significant increase in the phosphorylation (activation) of Akt, a serine/threonine kinase, which regulates cell growth and survival. Hence, we asked whether the increase in Akt phosphorylation contributes to the development of androgen independence. Akt regulates transcriptional activity of the androgen receptor (AR), and our data show that Akt-stimulated AR transcriptional activity is dependent on androgen-binding to the AR. PC proliferation has both androgen-sensitive and insensitive components. The androgen sensitive component is Akt-dependent, while the androgen-insensitive is not. However, Akt-induced cell survival is largely AR independent, suggesting that the cell stimulates Akt phosphorylation when subjected to androgen deprivation as an alternate pathway to maintain survival.

  3. Androgen Receptor Structure, Function and Biology: From Bench to Bedside

    PubMed Central

    Davey, Rachel A; Grossmann, Mathis

    2016-01-01

    The actions of androgens such as testosterone and dihydrotestosterone are mediated via the androgen receptor (AR), a ligand-dependent nuclear transcription factor and member of the steroid hormone nuclear receptor family. Given its widespread expression in many cells and tissues, the AR has a diverse range of biological actions including important roles in the development and maintenance of the reproductive, musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, immune, neural and haemopoietic systems. AR signalling may also be involved in the development of tumours in the prostate, bladder, liver, kidney and lung. Androgens can exert their actions via the AR in a DNA binding-dependent manner to regulate target gene transcription, or in a non-DNA binding-dependent manner to initiate rapid, cellular events such as the phosphorylation of 2nd messenger signalling cascades. More recently, ligand-independent actions of the AR have also been identified. Given the large volume of studies relating to androgens and the AR, this review is not intended as an extensive review of all studies investigating the AR, but rather as an overview of the structure, function, signalling pathways and biology of the AR as well as its important role in clinical medicine, with emphasis on recent developments in this field. PMID:27057074

  4. Cell-based assays for screening androgen receptor ligands

    PubMed Central

    Campana, Carmela; Pezzi, Vincenzo; Rainey, William E

    2015-01-01

    The androgen receptor (AR, NR3C4), mediates the majority of androgen effects on target cells. The AR is activated following ligand binding that result in activation of target gene transcription. Several cell based model systems have been developed that allow sensitive detection and monitoring of steroids or other compounds with AR bioactivity. Most cell based AR reporter models use transgenic gene constructs that include an androgen response element (ARE) that controls reporter gene expression. The DNA cis-regulatory elements that respond to AR share sequence similarity with cis-regulatory elements for glucocorticoid (GR, NR3C1), mineralocorticoid (MR, NR3C2) and progesterone (PGR, NR3C3) receptors, which has compromised AR selectivity for some models. In recent years, the sensitivity and selectivity of AR bioassays have been significantly improved through careful selection of cell models, utilization of improved reporter genes and the use of yeast two hybrid AR systems. This review summarizes and compares the currently available androgen-responsive cell model systems. PMID:26036905

  5. Androgen Receptor Regulates the Growth of Neuroblastoma Cells in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Junyan; Wang, Dongmei; Guo, Lianying; Fang, Shengyun; Wang, Yang; Xing, Rong

    2017-01-01

    Background: Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial tumors in children. At present about the true etiology of neuroblastoma is unclear and many studies have tried to find effective treatments for these primary malignant tumors. Although it has been illustrated that androgen receptor (AR) was expressed in neuroblastoma cells in some former reports, the biological role of androgen receptor in the development of neuroblastoma is not fully understood. Methods: Androgen (R1881) and the antagonists of androgen receptor (MDV3100 and ARN509) were used to study the role of the androgen receptor signaling pathway in vitro and in vivo on SH-SY5Y and Neuro-2a (N2a) cell lines. Results: We found that AR expression showed an R1881 dose-dependent manner in neuroblastoma cells in vitro and R1881was able to increase, while both antagonists of androgen receptor (MDV3100 and ARN509) significantly decrease, the proliferation, migration, invasion and sphere formation of SH-SY5Y and N2a cells. Moreover, androgen promoted the growth of N2a tumor in vivo. However, when androgen receptor (AR) was effectively knocked down in the two cell lines by siRNA, either promoting or inhibiting effect of the androgen or androgen receptor antagonists, respectively, was attenuated. Conclusion: Our results suggested that androgen receptor may involve in the progression of neuroblastoma as well as provided insight into a new target for the diagnosis and treatment of neuroblastoma patients. PMID:28326012

  6. Androgen Receptor Regulates the Growth of Neuroblastoma Cells in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Sun, Junyan; Wang, Dongmei; Guo, Lianying; Fang, Shengyun; Wang, Yang; Xing, Rong

    2017-01-01

    Background: Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial tumors in children. At present about the true etiology of neuroblastoma is unclear and many studies have tried to find effective treatments for these primary malignant tumors. Although it has been illustrated that androgen receptor (AR) was expressed in neuroblastoma cells in some former reports, the biological role of androgen receptor in the development of neuroblastoma is not fully understood. Methods: Androgen (R1881) and the antagonists of androgen receptor (MDV3100 and ARN509) were used to study the role of the androgen receptor signaling pathway in vitro and in vivo on SH-SY5Y and Neuro-2a (N2a) cell lines. Results: We found that AR expression showed an R1881 dose-dependent manner in neuroblastoma cells in vitro and R1881was able to increase, while both antagonists of androgen receptor (MDV3100 and ARN509) significantly decrease, the proliferation, migration, invasion and sphere formation of SH-SY5Y and N2a cells. Moreover, androgen promoted the growth of N2a tumor in vivo. However, when androgen receptor (AR) was effectively knocked down in the two cell lines by siRNA, either promoting or inhibiting effect of the androgen or androgen receptor antagonists, respectively, was attenuated. Conclusion: Our results suggested that androgen receptor may involve in the progression of neuroblastoma as well as provided insight into a new target for the diagnosis and treatment of neuroblastoma patients.

  7. Androgen receptor in the Mongolian gerbil ventral prostate: evaluation during different phases of postnatal development and following androgen blockage.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, Renato S; Scarano, Wellerson R; Campos, Silvana G P; Santos, Fernanda C A; Vilamaior, Patricia S L; Góes, Rejane M; Taboga, Sebastião R

    2008-12-01

    The normal growth, differentiation and maintenance of the morphofunctional integrity of the prostate gland are dependent on the interaction of constant levels of androgens with their receptors. The need to study the responses to hormones under several conditions and the effect of their blockage is due to the fact that the human prostate is the site of a great number of age-related diseases, and the ones with a major medical importance are prostate cancer (CaP) and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), which can both be treated with androgen suppression. Seventy-five male gerbils were divided, randomly, into 3 groups of 25 animals each, where each group corresponded to one phase of postnatal development. In each phase, it was possible to morphologically and stereologically analyze the compartments of prostatic ventral lobe, as well as to immunohistochemically analyze the degree of expression of androgen receptors (ARs) after the androgen blockage therapies. In addition, it was possible to establish the hormonal dosage of serum testosterone levels given the comparative approach of the expression of androgen receptors. There is a pattern of AR distribution in the prostatic ventral lobe throughout postnatal development, in which the younger the animal is the higher, the interaction of circulating androgens that stimulate the AR expression in both the epithelial and stromal compartments. The androgen blockage therapies decreased AR expression in the prostatic compartments, but the androgen reposition after these blockages was not sufficient to recover the glandular structure or stimulate the AR expression up to normal physiological conditions. Both the regulation and distribution of androgen receptors along the gerbil prostatic tissues are complex mechanisms that are likely to be genetically regulated by androgens prenatally or by other factors that are still unknown. This rodent species seems to be a valuable model in the attempt to improve the understanding of the

  8. Nonsteroidal selective androgen receptor modulator Ostarine in cancer cachexia.

    PubMed

    Zilbermint, Mihail F; Dobs, Adrian S

    2009-10-01

    Cancer cachexia is a complex syndrome, affecting up to 60% of the approximately 1.4 million patients diagnosed with cancer each year in the USA. This condition is characterized by progressive deterioration of a patient's nutritional status, weight loss, anorexia, diminished quality of life and increased mortality and morbidity. Current therapy with progestational, anti-inflammatory and anabolic agents is often ineffective and has a large number of undesirable effects. The newly developed nonsteroidal selective androgen receptor modulator Ostarine has demonstrated promising results in Phase I and II clinical trials, increasing total lean body mass, enhancing functional performance and decreasing total tissue percent fat. This selective androgen receptor modulator may have the ability to perform as a potent anabolic agent with minimal side effects on other organs (prostate and hair follicles), thus presenting a new strategy in managing cancer cachexia. However, more extensive data is required before its efficacy is confirmed.

  9. Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Nonsteroidal Androgen Receptor Ligands

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Wenqing; Kim, Juhyun; Dalton, James T.

    2007-01-01

    Testosterone and structurally related anabolic steroids have been used to treat hypogonadism, muscle wasting, osteoporosis, male contraception, cancer cachexia, anemia, and hormone replacement therapy in aging men or age-related frailty; while antiandrogens may be useful for treatment of conditions like acne, alopecia (male-pattern baldness), hirsutism, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer. However, the undesirable physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties of steroidal androgen receptor (AR) ligands limited their clinical use. Nonsteroidal AR ligands with improved pharmacological and pharmacokinetic properties have been developed to overcome these problems. This review focuses on the pharmacokinetics, metabolism, and pharmacology of clinically used and emerging nonsteroidal AR ligands, including antagonists, agonists, and selective androgen receptor modulators. PMID:16841196

  10. Selective androgen receptor modulators in preclinical and clinical development

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, Ramesh; Mohler, Michael L.; Bohl, Casey E.; Miller, Duane D.; Dalton, James T.

    2008-01-01

    Androgen receptor (AR) plays a critical role in the function of several organs including primary and accessory sexual organs, skeletal muscle, and bone, making it a desirable therapeutic target. Selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) bind to the AR and demonstrate osteo- and myo-anabolic activity; however, unlike testosterone and other anabolic steroids, these nonsteroidal agents produce less of a growth effect on prostate and other secondary sexual organs. SARMs provide therapeutic opportunities in a variety of diseases, including muscle wasting associated with burns, cancer, or end-stage renal disease, osteoporosis, frailty, and hypogonadism. This review summarizes the current standing of research and development of SARMs, crystallography of AR with SARMs, plausible mechanisms for their action and the potential therapeutic indications for this emerging class of drugs. PMID:19079612

  11. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of nonsteroidal androgen receptor ligands.

    PubMed

    Gao, Wenqing; Kim, Juhyun; Dalton, James T

    2006-08-01

    Testosterone and structurally related anabolic steroids have been used to treat hypogonadism, muscle wasting, osteoporosis, male contraception, cancer cachexia, anemia, and hormone replacement therapy in aging men or age-related frailty; while antiandrogens may be useful for treatment of conditions like acne, alopecia (male-pattern baldness), hirsutism, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer. However, the undesirable physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties of steroidal androgen receptor (AR) ligands limited their clinical use. Nonsteroidal AR ligands with improved pharmacological and pharmacokinetic properties have been developed to overcome these problems. This review focuses on the pharmacokinetics, metabolism, and pharmacology of clinically used and emerging nonsteroidal AR ligands, including antagonists, agonists, and selective androgen receptor modulators.

  12. Classical androgen receptors in non-classical sites in the brain

    PubMed Central

    Sarkey, Sara; Azcoitia, Iñigo; Garcia-Segura, Luis Miguel; Garcia-Ovejero, Daniel; DonCarlos, Lydia L.

    2008-01-01

    Androgen receptors are expressed in many different neuronal populations in the central nervous system where they often act as transcription factors in the cell nucleus. However, recent studies have detected androgen receptor immunoreactivity in neuronal and glial processes of the adult rat neocortex, hippocampal formation, and amygdala as well as in the telencephalon of Eastern Fence and green anole lizards. This review discusses previously published findings on extranuclear androgen receptors, as well as new experimental results that begin to establish a possible functional role for androgen receptors in axons within cortical regions. Electron microscopic studies have revealed that androgen receptor immunoreactive processes in the rat brain correspond to axons, dendrites and glial processes. New results show that lesions of the dorsal CA1 region by local administration of ibotenic acid reduce the density of androgen receptor immunoreactive axons in the cerebral cortex and the amygdala, suggesting that these axons may originate in the hippocampus. Androgen receptor immunoreactivity in axons is also decreased by the intracerebroventricular administration of colchicine, suggesting that androgen receptor protein is transported from the perikaryon to the axons by fast axonal transport. Androgen receptors in axons located in the cerebral cortex and amygdala and originating in the hippocampus may play an important role in the rapid behavioral effects of androgens. PMID:18402960

  13. Nonsteroidal selective androgen receptor modulators enhance female sexual motivation.

    PubMed

    Jones, Amanda; Hwang, Dong Jin; Duke, Charles B; He, Yali; Siddam, Anjaiah; Miller, Duane D; Dalton, James T

    2010-08-01

    Women experience a decline in estrogen and androgen levels after natural or surgically induced menopause, effects that are associated with a loss of sexual desire and bone mineral density. Studies in our laboratories have shown the beneficial effects of selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) in the treatment of osteoporosis and muscle wasting in animal models. A series of S-3-(phenoxy)-2-hydroxy-2-methyl-N-(4-cyano-3-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-propionamide analogs was synthesized to evaluate the effects of B-ring substitutions on in vitro and in vivo pharmacologic activity, especially female sexual motivation. The androgen receptor (AR) relative binding affinities ranged from 0.1 to 26.5% (relative to dihydrotestosterone) and demonstrated a range of agonist activity at 100 nM. In vivo pharmacologic activity was first assessed by using male rats. Structural modifications to the B-ring significantly affected the selectivity of the SARMs, demonstrating that single-atom substitutions can dramatically and unexpectedly influence activity in androgenic (i.e., prostate) and anabolic (i.e., muscle) tissues. (S)-N-(4-cyano-3-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-3-(3-fluoro,4-chlorophenoxy)-2-hydroxy-2-methyl-propanamide (S-23) displayed full agonist activity in androgenic and anabolic tissues; however, the remaining SARMs were more prostate-sparing, selectively maintaining the size of the levator ani muscle in castrated rats. The partner-preference paradigm was used to evaluate the effects of SARMs on female sexual motivation. With the exception of two four-halo substituted analogs, the SARMs increased sexual motivation in ovariectomized rats, with potency and efficacy comparable with testosterone propionate. These results indicate that the AR is important in regulating female libido given the nonaromatizable nature of SARMs and it could be a superior alternative to steroidal testosterone preparations in the treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder.

  14. Nonsteroidal Selective Androgen Receptor Modulators Enhance Female Sexual Motivation

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Amanda; Hwang, Dong Jin; Duke, Charles B.; He, Yali; Siddam, Anjaiah; Miller, Duane D.

    2010-01-01

    Women experience a decline in estrogen and androgen levels after natural or surgically induced menopause, effects that are associated with a loss of sexual desire and bone mineral density. Studies in our laboratories have shown the beneficial effects of selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) in the treatment of osteoporosis and muscle wasting in animal models. A series of S-3-(phenoxy)-2-hydroxy-2-methyl-N-(4-cyano-3-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-propionamide analogs was synthesized to evaluate the effects of B-ring substitutions on in vitro and in vivo pharmacologic activity, especially female sexual motivation. The androgen receptor (AR) relative binding affinities ranged from 0.1 to 26.5% (relative to dihydrotestosterone) and demonstrated a range of agonist activity at 100 nM. In vivo pharmacologic activity was first assessed by using male rats. Structural modifications to the B-ring significantly affected the selectivity of the SARMs, demonstrating that single-atom substitutions can dramatically and unexpectedly influence activity in androgenic (i.e., prostate) and anabolic (i.e., muscle) tissues. (S)-N-(4-cyano-3-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-3-(3-fluoro,4-chlorophenoxy)-2-hydroxy-2-methyl-propanamide (S-23) displayed full agonist activity in androgenic and anabolic tissues; however, the remaining SARMs were more prostate-sparing, selectively maintaining the size of the levator ani muscle in castrated rats. The partner-preference paradigm was used to evaluate the effects of SARMs on female sexual motivation. With the exception of two four-halo substituted analogs, the SARMs increased sexual motivation in ovariectomized rats, with potency and efficacy comparable with testosterone propionate. These results indicate that the AR is important in regulating female libido given the nonaromatizable nature of SARMs and it could be a superior alternative to steroidal testosterone preparations in the treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder. PMID:20444881

  15. Targeting Androgen Receptor Aberrations in Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Adam; Welti, Jonathan; Blagg, Julian; de Bono, Johann S

    2016-09-01

    Androgen receptor (AR) splice variants (SV) have been implicated in the development of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer and resistance to AR targeting therapies, including abiraterone and enzalutamide. Agents targeting AR-SV are urgently needed to test this hypothesis and further improve the outcome of patients suffering from this lethal disease. Clin Cancer Res; 22(17); 4280-2. ©2016 AACRSee related article by Yang et al., p. 4466.

  16. Studies of a co-chaperone of the androgen receptor, FKBP52, as candidate for hypospadias

    PubMed Central

    Beleza-Meireles, Ana; Barbaro, Michela; Wedell, Anna; Töhönen, Virpi; Nordenskjöld, Agneta

    2007-01-01

    Background Hypospadias is a common inborn error of the male urethral development, for which the aetiology is still elusive. Polymorphic variants in genes involved in the masculinisation of male genitalia, such as the androgen receptor, have been associated with some cases of hypospadias. Co-regulators of the androgen receptor start being acknowledged as possible candidates for hormone-resistance instances, which could account for hypospadias. One such molecule, the protein FKBP52, coded by the FKBP4 gene, has an important physiological role in up-regulating androgen receptor activity, an essential step in the development of the male external genitalia. The presence of hypospadias in mice lacking fkbp52 encouraged us to study the sequence and the expression of FKBP4 in boys with isolated hypospadias. Patients and methods The expression of FKBP52 in the genital skin of boys with hypospadias and in healthy controls was tested by immunohistochemistry. Mutation screening in the FKBF4 gene was performed in ninety-one boys with non syndromic hypospadias. Additionally, two polymorphisms were typed in a larger cohort. Results Immunohistochemistry shows epithelial expression of FKBP52 in the epidermis of the penile skin. No apparent difference in the FKBP52 expression was detected in healthy controls, mild or severe hypospadias patients. No sequence variants in the FKBP4 gene have implicated in hypospadias in our study. Conclusion FKBP52 is likely to play a role in growth and development of the male genitalia, since it is expressed in the genital skin of prepubertal boys; however alterations in the sequence and in the expression of the FKBP4 gene are not a common cause of non-syndromic hypospadias. PMID:17343741

  17. Studies of a co-chaperone of the androgen receptor, FKBP52, as candidate for hypospadias.

    PubMed

    Beleza-Meireles, Ana; Barbaro, Michela; Wedell, Anna; Töhönen, Virpi; Nordenskjöld, Agneta

    2007-03-07

    Hypospadias is a common inborn error of the male urethral development, for which the aetiology is still elusive. Polymorphic variants in genes involved in the masculinisation of male genitalia, such as the androgen receptor, have been associated with some cases of hypospadias. Co-regulators of the androgen receptor start being acknowledged as possible candidates for hormone-resistance instances, which could account for hypospadias. One such molecule, the protein FKBP52, coded by the FKBP4 gene, has an important physiological role in up-regulating androgen receptor activity, an essential step in the development of the male external genitalia. The presence of hypospadias in mice lacking fkbp52 encouraged us to study the sequence and the expression of FKBP4 in boys with isolated hypospadias. The expression of FKBP52 in the genital skin of boys with hypospadias and in healthy controls was tested by immunohistochemistry. Mutation screening in the FKBF4 gene was performed in ninety-one boys with non syndromic hypospadias. Additionally, two polymorphisms were typed in a larger cohort. Immunohistochemistry shows epithelial expression of FKBP52 in the epidermis of the penile skin. No apparent difference in the FKBP52 expression was detected in healthy controls, mild or severe hypospadias patients. No sequence variants in the FKBP4 gene have implicated in hypospadias in our study. FKBP52 is likely to play a role in growth and development of the male genitalia, since it is expressed in the genital skin of prepubertal boys; however alterations in the sequence and in the expression of the FKBP4 gene are not a common cause of non-syndromic hypospadias.

  18. Posttranslational modification of the androgen receptor in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    van der Steen, Travis; Tindall, Donald J; Huang, Haojie

    2013-07-16

    The androgen receptor (AR) is important in the development of the prostate by regulating transcription, cellular proliferation, and apoptosis. AR undergoes posttranslational modifications that alter its transcription activity, translocation to the nucleus and stability. The posttranslational modifications that regulate these events are of utmost importance to understand the functional role of AR and its activity. The majority of these modifications occur in the activation function-1 (AF1) region of the AR, which contains the transcriptional activation unit 1 (TAU1) and 5 (TAU5). Identification of the modifications that occur to these regions may increase our understanding of AR activation in prostate cancer and the role of AR in the progression from androgen-dependent to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Most of the posttranslational modifications identified to date have been determined using the full-length AR in androgen dependent cells. Further investigations into the role of posttranslational modifications in androgen-independent activation of full-length AR and constitutively active splicing variants are warranted, findings from which may provide new therapeutic options for CRPC.

  19. Expression of androgen receptor target genes in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Rana, Kesha; Lee, Nicole K L; Zajac, Jeffrey D; MacLean, Helen E

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to determine the mechanisms of the anabolic actions of androgens in skeletal muscle by investigating potential androgen receptor (AR)-regulated genes in in vitro and in vivo models. The expression of the myogenic regulatory factor myogenin was significantly decreased in skeletal muscle from testosterone-treated orchidectomized male mice compared to control orchidectomized males, and was increased in muscle from male AR knockout mice that lacked DNA binding activity (AR(ΔZF2)) versus wildtype mice, demonstrating that myogenin is repressed by the androgen/AR pathway. The ubiquitin ligase Fbxo32 was repressed by 12 h dihydrotestosterone treatment in human skeletal muscle cell myoblasts, and c-Myc expression was decreased in testosterone-treated orchidectomized male muscle compared to control orchidectomized male muscle, and increased in AR(∆ZF2) muscle. The expression of a group of genes that regulate the transition from myoblast proliferation to differentiation, Tceal7 , p57(Kip2), Igf2 and calcineurin Aa, was increased in AR(∆ZF2) muscle, and the expression of all but p57(Kip2) was also decreased in testosterone-treated orchidectomized male muscle compared to control orchidectomized male muscle. We conclude that in males, androgens act via the AR in part to promote peak muscle mass by maintaining myoblasts in the proliferative state and delaying the transition to differentiation during muscle growth and development, and by suppressing ubiquitin ligase-mediated atrophy pathways to preserve muscle mass in adult muscle.

  20. A test of somatic mosaicism in the androgen receptor gene of Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis).

    PubMed

    Prentice, Melanie B; Bowman, Jeff; Wilson, Paul J

    2015-10-26

    The androgen receptor, an X-linked gene, has been widely studied in human populations because it contains highly polymorphic trinucleotide repeat motifs that have been associated with a number of adverse human health and behavioral effects. A previous study on the androgen receptor gene in carnivores reported somatic mosaicism in the tissues of a number of species including Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx). We investigated this claim in a closely related species, Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis). The presence of somatic mosaicism in lynx tissues could have implications for the future study of exonic trinucleotide repeats in landscape genomic studies, in which the accurate reporting of genotypes would be highly problematic. To determine whether mosaicism occurs in Canada lynx, two lynx individuals were sampled for a variety of tissue types (lynx 1) and tissue locations (lynx 1 and 2), and 1,672 individuals of known sex were genotyped to further rule out mosaicism. We found no evidence of mosaicism in tissues from the two necropsied individuals, or any of our genotyped samples. Our results indicate that mosaicism does not manifest in Canada lynx. Therefore, the use of hide samples for further work involving trinucleotide repeat polymorphisms in Canada lynx is warranted.

  1. A recurrent synonymous mutation in the human androgen receptor gene causing complete androgen insensitivity syndrome.

    PubMed

    Batista, Rafael Loch; Rodrigues, Andresa di Santi; Nishi, Mirian Yumie; Gomes, Nathalia Lisboa; Faria, José Antonio Diniz; Moraes, Daniela Rodrigues de; Carvalho, Luciani Renata; Costa, Elaine Maria Frade; Domenice, Sorahia; Mendonca, Berenice Bilharinho

    2017-07-22

    Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) is the most common cause of 46,XY disorders of sex development (46,XY DSD). This syndrome is an X-linked inheritance disease and it is caused by mutations in the human androgen receptor (AR) gene. Non-synonymous point AR mutations are frequently described in this disease, including in the complete phenotype. We present a novel synonymous mutation in the human AR gene (c.1530C > T) in four 46,XY patients from two unrelated families associated with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS). The analysis of mRNA from testis showed that synonymous AR mutation changed the natural exon 1 donor splice site, with deletion of the last 92 nucleotides of the AR exon 1 leading to a premature stop codon 12 positions ahead resulting in a truncate AR protein. Linkage analyses suggested a probable founder effect for this mutation. In conclusion, we described the first synonymous AR mutation associated with CAIS phenotype, reinforcing the disease-causing role of synonymous mutations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Triterpenes from Alisma orientalis act as androgen receptor agonists, progesterone receptor antagonists, and glucocorticoid receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsiang-Ru

    2014-08-01

    Alisma orientalis, a well-known traditional medicine, exerts numerous pharmacological effects including anti-diabetes, anti-hepatitis, and anti-diuretics but its bioactivity is not fully clear. Androgen receptor (AR), progesterone receptor (PR), and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) are three members of nuclear receptor superfamily that has been widely targeted for developing treatments for essential diseases including prostate cancer and breast cancer. In this study, two triterpenes, alisol M 23-acetate and alisol A 23-acetate from Alisma orientalis were determined whether they may act as androgen receptor (AR), progesterone receptor (PR), or glucocorticoid receptor (GR) modulators. Indeed, in the transient transfection reporter assays, alisol M 23-acetate and alisol A 23-acetate transactivated AR in dose-dependent manner, while they transrepressed the transactivation effects exerted by agonist-activated PR and GR. Through molecular modeling docking studies, they were shown to respectively interact with AR, PR, or GR ligand binding pocket fairly well. All these results indicate that alisol M 23-acetate and alisol A 23-acetate from Alisma orientalis might possess therapeutic effects through their modulation of AR, PR, and GR pathways. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Immunohistochemical analysis of androgen effects on androgen receptor expression in developing Leydig and Sertoli cells.

    PubMed

    Shan, L X; Bardin, C W; Hardy, M P

    1997-03-01

    Leydig and Sertoli cells are both targets of androgen action in the testis. Androgen exerts contrasting effects on the two cell types partially inhibiting steroidogenesis in adult Leydig cell and stimulating adult Sertoli cell functions required to support spermatogenesis. The developmental changes in the messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of androgen receptor (AR) also differ between Leydig and Sertoli cells, with Leydig cell AR mRNA being highest on day 35 postpartum, whereas Sertoli cell AR mRNA levels are highest on day 90. The purpose of the present study was to determine if the concentrations of AR in Leydig and Sertoli cells are differentially regulated during development using quantitative immunostaining. AR protein levels were measured in rat testes after hormonal treatments at three developmental stages: on days 21, 35, and 90 postpartum. At each age, five groups of animals were treated for 4 days with: 1) vehicle; 2) LHRH antagonist (NalGlu, 0.3 mg/kg BW.day) to suppress endogenous levels of androgen that accompany inhibition of LH and FSH secretion; 3) NalGlu + LH (0.2 mg/kg BW.day); 4) NalGlu + testosterone (T, at 7.5 mg/kg BW.day); and 5) NalGlu + MENT (a potent synthetic androgen, 7 alpha-methyl-19-nortestosterone, 0.7 mg/kg BW.day). AR protein was visualized by immunohistochemistry and measured by computer-assisted image analysis in Leydig and Sertoli cells using frozen sections of tests. After NalGlu treatment, AR levels in Leydig cells declined sharply to 42% and 31% of vehicle control (P < 0.01) in the 21 and 35 days postpartum age groups, respectively, but in 90-day-old rats there was no change. AR levels were partially maintained by exogenous LH, and completely maintained by exogenous androgen treatments in Leydig cells from 21- and 35-day-old rats, whereas in Leydig cells from 90-day-old rats, AR levels were unaffected in all treatment groups. In contrast, after NalGlu treatment, the AR concentration in Sertoli cells from 90-day-old rats were reduced

  4. Seminal Plasma Proteins as Androgen Receptor Corregulators Promote Prostate Cancer Growth

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-13-1-0412 TITLE: Seminal Plasma Proteins as Androgen Receptor Corregulators Promote Prostate Cancer Growth PRINCIPAL...SUBTITLE Seminal Plasma Proteins as Androgen Receptor Corregulators Promote Prostate Cancer Growth 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-13...semenogelin I (SgI) in the presence of zinc, promote prostate cancer growth via functioning as androgen receptor (AR) co-activators. Using cell lines

  5. Apolipoprotein D (APOD) is a putative biomarker of androgen receptor function in androgen insensitivity syndrome.

    PubMed

    Appari, Mahesh; Werner, Ralf; Wünsch, Lutz; Cario, Gunnar; Demeter, Janos; Hiort, Olaf; Riepe, Felix; Brooks, James D; Holterhus, Paul-Martin

    2009-06-01

    Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) is the most common cause of disorders of sex development usually caused by mutations in the androgen receptor (AR) gene. AIS is characterized by a poor genotype-phenotype correlation, and many patients with clinically presumed AIS do not seem to have mutations in the AR gene. We therefore aimed at identifying a biomarker enabling the assessment of the cellular function of the AR as a transcriptional activator. In the first step, we used complementary DNA (cDNA) microarrays for a genome-wide screen for androgen-regulated genes in two normal male primary scrotal skin fibroblast strains compared to two labia majora fibroblast strains from 46,XY females with complete AIS (CAIS). Apolipoprotein D (APOD) and two further transcripts were significantly upregulated by dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in scrotum fibroblasts, while CAIS labia majora cells were unresponsive. Microarray data were well correlated with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR; R = 0.93). Subsequently, we used qRT-PCR in independent new cell cultures and confirmed the significant DHT-dependent upregulation of APOD in five normal scrotum strains [13.5 +/- 8.2 (SD)-fold] compared with three CAIS strains (1.2 +/- 0.7-fold, p = 0.028; t test) and six partial androgen insensitivity syndrome strains (2 +/- 1.3-fold, p = 0.034; t test). Moreover, two different 17ss-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase III deficiency labia majora strains showed APOD induction in the range of normal scrotum (9.96 +/- 1.4-fold), supporting AR specificity. Therefore, qRT-PCR of APOD messenger RNA transcription in primary cultures of labioscrotal skin fibroblasts is a promising tool for assessing AR function, potentially allowing a function-based diagnostic evaluation of AIS in the future.

  6. Discovery of an androgen receptor modulator pharmacophore based on 2-quinolinones.

    PubMed

    van Oeveren, Arjan; Pio, Barbara A; Tegley, Christopher M; Higuchi, Robert I; Wu, Min; Jones, Todd K; Marschke, Keith B; Negro-Vilar, Andrés; Zhi, Lin

    2007-03-15

    A series of alkylamino-2-quinolinone compounds (3) was discovered as androgen receptor modulators based on an early linear tricyclic quinoline pharmacophore (1). The series demonstrated selective high binding affinity to androgen receptor and potent receptor modulating activities in the cotransfection assays.

  7. A comparison of progestin and androgen receptor binding using the CoMFA technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loughney, Deborah A.; Schwender, Charles F.

    1992-12-01

    A series of 48 steroids has been studied with the SYBYL QSAR module using Relative Binding Affinities (RBAs) to progesterone and androgen receptors obtained from the literature. Models for the progesterone and androgen data were developed. Both models show regions where sterics and electrostatics correlate to binding affinity but are different for androgen and progesterone which suggests differences possibly important for receptor selectivity. The progesterone model is more predictive than the androgen (predictive r2 of 0.725 vs. 0.545 for progesterone and androgen, respectively).

  8. ANDROGEN RECEPTOR LEVELS ARE UPREGULATED BY AKT IN PROSTATE CANCER

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Susan; Ruoff, Rachel; Kahoud, Nicole; Franke, Thomas F.; Logan, Susan K.

    2013-01-01

    Multiple lines of evidence suggest a functional link between the androgen receptor (AR) and the serine/threonine kinase Akt in the development and progression of prostate cancer. To investigate the impact of Akt activity on AR homeostasis, we treated androgen-dependent LNCaP and LAPC-4 prostate cancer cells with Akt inhibitor. Akt inhibition decreased AR expression, suggesting that Akt activity was required for regulation of AR protein levels. However, while androgen-independent LNCaP-abl cells also showed diminished AR protein levels in response to Akt inhibition, treatment of androgen-independent LNCaP-AI cells failed to alter AR protein levels upon similar treatment, suggesting that AR protein levels in these androgen-independent prostate cells were regulated by mechanisms independent of Akt activation. Regulation of AR, downstream of activated Akt, also was observed in vivo when examining transgenic mice that overexpress constitutively active mutant myristoylated (myr)-Akt1 in the prostate. Transgenic mice animals expressing activated myr-Akt1 exhibited higher levels of AR mRNA and protein. Expression of activated myr-Akt1 did not alter prostate cell growth and no significant size differences between prostate tissues derived from transgenic animals were observed when comparing transgenic to wild-type mice. Still, transgenic mice overexpressing Akt exhibited higher levels of γH2AX and phosphorylated Chk2 in prostate tissue. These changes in markers associated with oncogene-induced senescence confirmed significant altered signaling in the transgenic mouse model. Overall, results presented here suggest that AR levels are regulated by the Akt pathway. PMID:21317204

  9. Discovery of diarylhydantoins as new selective androgen receptor modulators.

    PubMed

    Nique, François; Hebbe, Séverine; Peixoto, Christophe; Annoot, Denis; Lefrançois, Jean-Michel; Duval, Eric; Michoux, Laurence; Triballeau, Nicolas; Lemoullec, Jean-Michel; Mollat, Patrick; Thauvin, Maxime; Prangé, Thierry; Minet, Dominique; Clément-Lacroix, Philippe; Robin-Jagerschmidt, Catherine; Fleury, Damien; Guédin, Denis; Deprez, Pierre

    2012-10-11

    A novel selective androgen receptor modulator scaffold has been discovered through structural modifications of hydantoin antiandrogens. Several 4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-N-arylhydantoins displayed partial agonism with nanomolar in vitro potency in transactivation experiments using androgen receptor (AR) transfected cells. In a standard castrated male rat model, several compounds showed good anabolic activity on levator ani muscle, dissociated from the androgenic activity on ventral prostate, after oral dosing at 30 mg/kg. (+)-4-[3,4-Dimethyl-2,5-dioxo-4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)imidazolidin-1-yl]-2-(trifluoromethyl)benzonitrile ((+)-11b) displayed anabolic potency with a strong dissociation between levator ani muscle and ventral prostate (A(50) = 0.5 mg/kg vs 70 mg/kg). The binding modes of two compounds, including (+)-11b, within the AR ligand-binding domain have been studied by cocrystallization experiments using a coactivator-like peptide. Both compounds bound to the same site, and the overall structures of the AR were very similar.

  10. The liver X receptor agonist T0901317 acts as androgen receptor antagonist in human prostate cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chuu, Chih-pin; Chen, Rou-Yu; Hiipakka, Richard A.; Kokontis, John M.; Warner, Karen V.; Xiang, Jialing; Liao, Shutsung . E-mail: sliao@uchicago.edu

    2007-06-01

    T0901317 is a potent non-steroidal synthetic liver X receptor (LXR) agonist. T0901317 blocked androgenic stimulation of the proliferation of androgen-dependent LNCaP 104-S cells and androgenic suppression of the proliferation of androgen-independent LNCaP 104-R2 cells, inhibited the transcriptional activation of an androgen-dependent reporter gene by androgen, and suppressed gene and protein expression of prostate specific antigen (PSA), a target gene of androgen receptor (AR) without affecting gene and protein expression of AR. T0901317 also inhibited binding of a radiolabeled androgen to AR, but inhibition was much weaker compared to the effect of the antiandrogens, bicalutamide and hydroxyflutamide. The LXR agonist T0901317, therefore, acts as an antiandrogen in human prostate cancer cells.

  11. An androgen response element driven reporter assay for the detection of androgen receptor activity in prostate cells

    PubMed Central

    Hellem, Margrete Reime; Olsen, Jan Roger; Hua, Yaping; Marvyin, Kristo; Qu, Yi; Lin, Biaoyang; Ke, Xisong; Øyan, Anne Margrete; Kalland, Karl-Henning

    2017-01-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) transcription factor plays a key role in the development and progression of prostate cancer, as is evident from the efficacy of androgen-deprivation therapy, AR is also the most frequently mutated gene, in castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). AR has therefore become an even more attractive therapeutic target in aggressive and disseminated prostate cancer. To investigate mechanisms of AR and AR target gene activation in different subpopulations of prostate cancer cells, a toolkit of AR expressor and androgen response element (ARE) reporter vectors were developed. Three ARE reporter vectors were constructed with different ARE consensus sequences in promoters linked to either fluorescence or luciferase reporter genes in lentiviral vector backbones. Cell lines transduced with the different vectors expressed the reporters in an androgen-dependent way according to fluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry and multi-well fluorescent and luminescence assays. Interestingly, the background reporter activity in androgen-depleted medium was significantly higher in LNCaP cells compared to the prostate transit amplifying epithelial cell lines, EP156T-AR and 957E/hTERT-AR with exogenous AR. The androgen-induced signal to background was much higher in the latter benign prostate cells than in LNCaP cells. Androgen-independent nuclear localization of AR was seen in LNCaP cells and reduced ARE-signaling was seen following treatment with abiraterone, an androgen synthesis inhibitor. The ARE reporter activity was significantly stronger when stimulated by androgens than by β-estradiol, progesterone and dexamethasone in all tested cell types. Finally, no androgen-induced ARE reporter activity was observed in tumorigenic mesenchymal progeny cells of EP156T cells following epithelial to mesenchymal transition. This underscores the observation that expression of the classical luminal differentiation transcriptome is restricted in mesenchymal type cells with

  12. Loss of androgen receptor binding to selective androgen response elements causes a reproductive phenotype in a knockin mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Schauwaers, Kris; De Gendt, Karel; Saunders, Philippa T. K.; Atanassova, Nina; Haelens, Annemie; Callewaert, Leen; Moehren, Udo; Swinnen, Johannes V.; Verhoeven, Guido; Verrijdt, Guy; Claessens, Frank

    2007-01-01

    Androgens influence transcription of their target genes through the activation of the androgen receptor (AR) that subsequently interacts with specific DNA motifs in these genes. These DNA motifs, called androgen response elements (AREs), can be classified in two classes: the classical AREs, which are also recognized by the other steroid hormone receptors; and the AR-selective AREs, which display selectivity for the AR. For in vitro interaction with the selective AREs, the androgen receptor DNA-binding domain is dependent on specific residues in its second zinc-finger. To evaluate the physiological relevance of these selective elements, we generated a germ-line knockin mouse model, termed SPARKI (SPecificity-affecting AR KnockIn), in which the second zinc-finger of the AR was replaced with that of the glucocorticoid receptor, resulting in a chimeric protein that retains its ability to bind classical AREs but is unable to bind selective AREs. The reproductive organs of SPARKI males are smaller compared with wild-type animals, and they are also subfertile. Intriguingly, however, they do not display any anabolic phenotype. The expression of two testis-specific, androgen-responsive genes is differentially affected by the SPARKI mutation, which is correlated with the involvement of different types of response elements in their androgen responsiveness. In this report, we present the first in vivo evidence of the existence of two functionally different types of AREs and demonstrate that AR-regulated gene expression can be targeted based on this distinction. PMID:17360365

  13. The androgen receptor associates with the epidermal growth factor receptor in androgen-sensitive prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Bonaccorsi, L; Muratori, M; Carloni, V; Marchiani, S; Formigli, L; Forti, G; Baldi, E

    2004-08-01

    Many recent evidences indicate that androgen-sensitive prostate cancer cells have a lower malignant phenotype that is in particular characterized by a reduced migration and invasion. We previously demonstrated that expression of androgen receptor (AR) by transfection of the androgen-independent prostate cancer cell line PC3 decreases invasion and adhesion of these cells (PC3-AR) through modulation of alpha6beta4 integrin expression. The treatment with the synthetic androgen R1881 further reduced invasion of the cells without, however, modifying alpha6beta4 expression on the cell surface, suggesting an interference with the invasion process in response to EGF. We investigated whether the presence of the AR could affect EGF receptor (EGFR)-mediated signaling in response to EGF by evaluating autotransphosphorylation of the receptor as well as activation of downstream signalling pathways. Immunoprecipitation studies demonstrated a reduction of EGF-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of EGFR in PC3-AR cells. In addition, EGF-stimulated PI3K activity, a key signalling pathway for invasion of these cells, was decreased in PC3-AR cells and further reduced by treatment with R1881, indicating decreased functionality of EGFR. An interaction between EGFR and AR has been demonstrated by immunoconfocal and co-immunoprecipitation analysis in PC3-AR cells, suggesting a possible interference of AR on EGFR signalling by interaction of the two proteins. In conclusion, our results suggest that the expression of AR by transfection in PC3 cells confers a less malignant phenotype by interfering with EGFR autophosphorylation and signalling in response to EGF leading to invasion through a mechanism involving an interaction between AR and EGFR.

  14. A satellite cell-specific knockout of the androgen receptor reveals myostatin as a direct androgen target in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Dubois, Vanessa; Laurent, Michaël R; Sinnesael, Mieke; Cielen, Nele; Helsen, Christine; Clinckemalie, Liesbeth; Spans, Lien; Gayan-Ramirez, Ghislaine; Deldicque, Louise; Hespel, Peter; Carmeliet, Geert; Vanderschueren, Dirk; Claessens, Frank

    2014-07-01

    Androgens have well-established anabolic actions on skeletal muscle, although the direct effects of the androgen receptor (AR) in muscle remain unclear. We generated satellite cell-specific AR-knockout (satARKO) mice in which the AR is selectively ablated in satellite cells, the muscle precursor cells. Total-limb maximal grip strength is decreased by 7% in satARKO mice, with soleus muscles containing ∼10% more type I fibers and 10% less type IIa fibers than the corresponding control littermates. The weight of the perineal levator ani muscle is markedly reduced (-52%). Thus, muscle AR is involved in fiber-type distribution and force production of the limb muscles, while it is a major determinant of the perineal muscle mass. Surprisingly, myostatin (Mstn), a strong inhibitor of skeletal muscle growth, is one of the most androgen-responsive genes (6-fold reduction in satARKO) through direct transcription activation by the AR. Consequently, muscle hypertrophy in response to androgens is augmented in Mstn-knockout mice. Our finding that androgens induce Mstn signaling to restrain their own anabolic actions has implications for the treatment of muscle wasting disorders.-Dubois, V., Laurent, M. R., Sinnesael, M., Cielen, N., Helsen, C., Clinckemalie, L., Spans, L., Gayan-Ramirez, G., Deldicque, L., Hespel, P., Carmeliet, G., Vanderschueren, D., and Claessens, F. A satellite cell-specific knockout of the androgen receptor reveals myostatin as a direct androgen target in skeletal muscle.

  15. Targeting the androgen receptor in triple-negative breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Gucalp, Ayca; Traina, Tiffany A

    Triple-negative breast cancer represents approximately 15%-20% of all newly diagnosed breast cancers, but it accounts for a disproportionate number of breast cancer-related deaths each year. Owing to the lack of estrogen, progesterone, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 expression, patients with triple-negative breast cancer do not benefit from generally well-tolerated and effective therapies targeting the estrogen and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 signaling pathways and are faced with an increased risk of disease progression and poorer overall survival. The heterogeneity of triple-negative breast cancer has been increasingly recognized and this may lead to therapeutic opportunities because of newly defined oncogenic drivers and targets. A subset of triple-negative breast tumors expresses the androgen receptor (AR) and this may benefit from treatments that inhibit the AR-signaling pathway. The first proof-of-concept trial established activity of the AR antagonist, bicalutamide, in patients with advanced AR+ triple-negative breast cancer. Since that time, evidence further supports the activity of other next-generation AR-targeted agents such as enzalutamide. Not unlike in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer, mechanisms of resistance are being investigated and rationale exists for thoughtful, well-designed combination regimens such as AR antagonism with CDK4/6 pathway inhibitors or PI3K inhibitors. Furthermore, novel agents developed for the treatment of prostate cancer, which reduce androgen production such as abiraterone acetate and seviteronel, are being tested as well. This review summarizes the underlying biology of AR signaling in breast cancer development and the available clinical trial data for the use of anti-androgen therapy in the treatment of AR+ triple-negative breast cancer.

  16. Regulation of the androgen receptor by SET9-mediated methylation.

    PubMed

    Gaughan, Luke; Stockley, Jacqueline; Wang, Nan; McCracken, Stuart R C; Treumann, Achim; Armstrong, Kelly; Shaheen, Fadhel; Watt, Kate; McEwan, Iain J; Wang, Chenguang; Pestell, Richard G; Robson, Craig N

    2011-03-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) is a member of the nuclear hormone receptor family of transcription factors that plays a critical role in regulating expression of genes involved in prostate development and transformation. Upon hormone binding, the AR associates with numerous co-regulator proteins that regulate the activation status of target genes via flux to the post-translational modification status of histones and the receptor. Here we show that the AR interacts with and is directly methylated by the histone methyltransferase enzyme SET9. Methylation of the AR on lysine 632 is necessary for enhancing transcriptional activity of the receptor by facilitating both inter-domain communication between the N- and C-termini and recruitment to androgen-target genes. We also show that SET9 is pro-proliferative and anti-apoptotic in prostate cancer cells and demonstrates up-regulated nuclear expression in prostate cancer tissue. In all, our date indicate a new mechanism of AR regulation that may be therapeutically exploitable for prostate cancer treatment.

  17. c-Jun targets amino terminus of androgen receptor in regulating androgen-responsive transcription.

    PubMed

    Bubulya, A; Zhou, X F; Shen, X Q; Fisher, C J; Shemshedini, L

    2000-08-01

    The human androgen receptor (hAR) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily and functions as a ligand-inducible transcription factor. We have previously proposed that c-Jun mediates the transcriptional activity of this receptor. The modular nature of hAR was used in this study to generate several fusions with the heterologous DNA-binding domain of the yeast transcription factor GAL4 in an attempt to identify the c-Jun-responsive domains within the receptor. Our results suggest that the target of c-Jun action is the amino terminus (AB region) of the receptor and that hAR amino acids 502-521 are critical for the c-Jun response. Additionally, amino acids 503-555 were shown to harbor an autonomous transactivation that is stimulated by c-Jun. Furthermore, we demonstrated that transcription intermediary factor-2 (TIF-2), a coactivator that acts on the activation function-2, stimulates the full-length hAR. These results suggest that c-Jun and TIF-2 can work together as coactivators on the hAR by targeting distinct portions of the receptor.

  18. A Novel Mechanism of Androgen Receptor Action

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    alternative splicing of the HER-2 gene, is comprised of subdomains I ( L1 ) and II (S1) of the HER-2 receptor tyrosine kinase, followed by a 79- amino acid C...pathway activation. Specifically, herstatin had no effect on EGF or TGF-α-stimulated ERK activation in 3T3 cells over- expressing EGFR (49), but did...reported inhibition of EGF and heregulin-stimulated Akt/PKB activation in 3T3 and MCF-7 cells (49, 50, 54). Thus, herstatin expression did not reduce

  19. Associations between Salivary Testosterone Levels, Androgen-Related Genetic Polymorphisms, and Self-Estimated Ejaculation Latency Time.

    PubMed

    Jern, Patrick; Westberg, Lars; Ankarberg-Lindgren, Carina; Johansson, Ada; Gunst, Annika; Sandnabba, N Kenneth; Santtila, Pekka

    2014-08-01

    Recently, testosterone (T) has been shown to be associated with premature ejaculation (PE) symptoms in the literature. Furthermore, studies suggest that the etiology of PE is partly under genetic control. The aim of this study was to reassess findings suggesting an association between testosterone (T) and a key symptom of PE, ejaculation latency time (ELT), as well as exploratively investigating associations between six androgen-related genetic polymorphisms and ELT. Statistical analyses were performed on a population-based sample of 1,429 Finnish men aged 18-45 years (M = 26.9, SD = 4.7). Genotype information was available for 1,345-1,429 of these (depending on the polymorphism), and salivary T samples were available from 384 men. Two androgen receptor gene-linked, two 5-alpha-reductase type 2-gene-linked, and two sex hormone-binding globuline gene-linked polymorphisms were genotyped. Ejaculatory function was assessed using self-reported ELT. We found no association between salivary T levels and ELT. We found a nominally significant association between a 5-alpha-reductase type 2-gene-linked polymorphism (rs2208532) and ELT, but this association did not remain significant after correction for multiple testing. One single nucleotide polymorphism in the sex hormone-binding globulin gene (rs1799941) moderated (significantly after correction for multiple testing) the association between salivary T and ELT, so that A:A genotype carriers had significantly lower salivary T levels as a function of increasing ELT compared with other genotype groups. We were unable to find support for the hypothesis suggesting an association between T levels and ELT, possibly because of the low number of phenotypically extreme cases (the sample used in the present study was population based). Our results concerning genetic associations should be interpreted with caution until replication studies have been conducted. Jern P, Westberg L, Ankarberg-Lindgren C, Johansson A, Gunst A, Sandnabba NK

  20. Minoxidil may suppress androgen receptor-related functions

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Cheng-Lung; Liu, Jai-Shin; Lin, An-Chi; Yang, Chih-Hsun; Chung, Wen-Hung; Wu, Wen-Guey

    2014-01-01

    Although minoxidil has been used for more than two decades to treat androgenetic alopecia (AGA), an androgen-androgen receptor (AR) pathway-dominant disease, its precise mechanism of action remains elusive. We hypothesized that minoxidil may influence the AR or its downstream signaling. These tests revealed that minoxidil suppressed AR-related functions, decreasing AR transcriptional activity in reporter assays, reducing expression of AR targets at the protein level, and suppressing AR-positive LNCaP cell growth. Dissecting the underlying mechanisms, we found that minoxidil interfered with AR-peptide, AR-coregulator, and AR N/C-terminal interactions, as well as AR protein stability. Furthermore, a crystallographic analysis using the AR ligand-binding domain (LBD) revealed direct binding of minoxidil to the AR in a minoxidil-AR-LBD co-crystal model, and surface plasmon resonance assays demonstrated that minoxidil directly bound the AR with a Kd value of 2.6 μM. Minoxidil also suppressed AR-responsive reporter activity and decreased AR protein stability in human hair dermal papilla cells. The current findings provide evidence that minoxidil could be used to treat both cancer and age-related disease, and open a new avenue for applications of minoxidil in treating androgen-AR pathway-related diseases. PMID:24742982

  1. Minoxidil may suppress androgen receptor-related functions.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Cheng-Lung; Liu, Jai-Shin; Lin, An-Chi; Yang, Chih-Hsun; Chung, Wen-Hung; Wu, Wen-Guey

    2014-04-30

    Although minoxidil has been used for more than two decades to treat androgenetic alopecia (AGA), an androgen-androgen receptor (AR) pathway-dominant disease, its precise mechanism of action remains elusive. We hypothesized that minoxidil may influence the AR or its downstream signaling. These tests revealed that minoxidil suppressed AR-related functions, decreasing AR transcriptional activity in reporter assays, reducing expression of AR targets at the protein level, and suppressing AR-positive LNCaP cell growth. Dissecting the underlying mechanisms, we found that minoxidil interfered with AR-peptide, AR-coregulator, and AR N/C-terminal interactions, as well as AR protein stability. Furthermore, a crystallographic analysis using the AR ligand-binding domain (LBD) revealed direct binding of minoxidil to the AR in a minoxidil-AR-LBD co-crystal model, and surface plasmon resonance assays demonstrated that minoxidil directly bound the AR with a K(d) value of 2.6 µM. Minoxidil also suppressed AR-responsive reporter activity and decreased AR protein stability in human hair dermal papilla cells. The current findings provide evidence that minoxidil could be used to treat both cancer and age-related disease, and open a new avenue for applications of minoxidil in treating androgen-AR pathway-related diseases.

  2. Recent developments in antiandrogens and selective androgen receptor modulators.

    PubMed

    Haendler, Bernard; Cleve, Arwed

    2012-04-16

    The androgens testosterone and dihydrotestosterone play an essential role in the development and maintenance of primary and secondary male characteristics. Androgens bind to a specific androgen receptor (AR), a ligand-dependent transcription factor which controls the expression of a large number of downstream target genes. The AR is an essential player in early and late prostate cancer, and may also be involved in some forms of breast cancer. It also represents a drug target for the treatment of hypogonadism. Recent studies furthermore indicate that targeting the AR in pathologies such as frailty syndrome, cachexia or polycystic ovary syndrome may have clinical benefit. Numerous AR ligands with very different pharmacological properties have been identified in the last 40 years and helped to treat several of these diseases. However, progress still needs to be made in order to find compounds with an improved profile with regard to efficacy, differentiation and side-effects. This will only be achieved through a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in normal and aberrant AR signaling. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Mechanisms of acquired resistance to androgen receptor targeting drugs in castration resistant prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chism, David D.; De Silva, Dinuka; Whang, Young E.

    2014-01-01

    After initial response to androgen receptor targeting drugs abiraterone or enzalutamide, most patients develop progressive disease and therefore, castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) remains a terminal disease. Multiple mechanisms underlying acquired resistance have been postulated. Intratumoral androgen synthesis may resume after abiraterone treatment. A point mutation in the ligand binding domain of androgen receptor may confer resistance to enzalutamide. Emergence of androgen receptor splice variants lacking the ligand binding domain may mediate resistance to abiraterone and enzalutamide. Steroid receptors such as glucocorticoid receptor may substitute for androgen receptor. Drugs with novel mechanisms of action or combination therapy, along with biomarkers for patient selection, may be needed to improve the therapy of CRPC. PMID:24927631

  4. Androgen receptor serine 81 mediates Pin1 interaction and activity

    PubMed Central

    La Montagna, Raffaele; Caligiuri, Isabella; Maranta, Pasquale; Lucchetti, Chiara; Esposito, Luca; Paggi, Marco G.; Toffoli, Giuseppe; Rizzolio, Flavio; Giordano, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Hormone-dependent tumors are characterized by deregulated activity of specific steroid receptors, allowing aberrant expression of many genes involved in cancer initiation, progression and metastasis. In prostate cancer, the androgen receptor (AR) protein has pivotal functions, and over the years it has been the target of different drugs. AR is a nuclear receptor whose activity is regulated by a phosphorylation mechanism controlled by hormone and growth factors. Following phosphorylation, AR interacts with many cofactors that closely control its function. Among such cofactors, Pin1 is a peptidyl-prolyl isomerase that is involved in the control of protein phosphorylation and has a prognostic value in prostate cancer. In the present study, we demonstrate that ARSer81 is involved in the interaction with Pin1, and that this interaction is important for the transcriptional activity of AR. Since Pin1 expression positively correlates with tumor grade, our results suggest that Pin1 can participate in this process by modulating AR function. PMID:22894932

  5. Androgen Receptor: A Complex Therapeutic Target for Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Ramesh; Dalton, James T

    2016-12-02

    Molecular and histopathological profiling have classified breast cancer into multiple sub-types empowering precision treatment. Although estrogen receptor (ER) and human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER2) are the mainstay therapeutic targets in breast cancer, the androgen receptor (AR) is evolving as a molecular target for cancers that have developed resistance to conventional treatments. The high expression of AR in breast cancer and recent discovery and development of new nonsteroidal drugs targeting the AR provide a strong rationale for exploring it again as a therapeutic target in this disease. Ironically, both nonsteroidal agonists and antagonists for the AR are undergoing clinical trials, making AR a complicated target to understand in breast cancer. This review provides a detailed account of AR's therapeutic role in breast cancer.

  6. Androgen Receptor: A Complex Therapeutic Target for Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, Ramesh; Dalton, James T.

    2016-01-01

    Molecular and histopathological profiling have classified breast cancer into multiple sub-types empowering precision treatment. Although estrogen receptor (ER) and human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER2) are the mainstay therapeutic targets in breast cancer, the androgen receptor (AR) is evolving as a molecular target for cancers that have developed resistance to conventional treatments. The high expression of AR in breast cancer and recent discovery and development of new nonsteroidal drugs targeting the AR provide a strong rationale for exploring it again as a therapeutic target in this disease. Ironically, both nonsteroidal agonists and antagonists for the AR are undergoing clinical trials, making AR a complicated target to understand in breast cancer. This review provides a detailed account of AR’s therapeutic role in breast cancer. PMID:27918430

  7. Molecular features and clinical phenotypes in androgen insensitivity syndrome in the absence and presence of androgen receptor gene mutations.

    PubMed

    Holterhus, P M; Werner, R; Hoppe, U; Bassler, J; Korsch, E; Ranke, M B; Dörr, H G; Hiort, O

    2005-12-01

    Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) is characterized by deficient or absent virilization in 46,XY individuals despite normal or even elevated androgen levels. AIS is usually caused by mutations in the androgen receptor (AR) gene. We aimed at contrasting clinical, biochemical, and molecular genetic characteristics of three patients (P1-P3) with clinically evident partial (P1) and complete (P2, P3) AIS with and without AR gene mutations. AR expression was studied in cultured genital skin fibroblasts (GSF) by Western immunoblotting, ligand binding analyses, Northern blotting, semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and RT-PCR spanning exons 1-8. AR gene DNA sequence was analyzed by single-strand conformation analysis (SSCA), and DNA sequencing. GSF revealed reduced (P1) or absent (P2, P3) ligand binding. Northern blots showed either slightly reduced hybridization of the 10.5-kb AR transcript (P3) or no hybridization (P1, P2), as confirmed by semiquantitative RT-PCR. RT-PCR spanning exons 1-8 detected single AR mRNA bands in P1-P3 excluding splicing errors. Western analyses showed either low (P1) or no (P2, P3) AR protein. While SSCA initially did not reveal any molecular abnormality, sequencing showed a novel CAG (Gln) to TAG (stop) mutation at codon 59 (P3) and a previously described 2-bp deletion at codon 472, leading to a frameshift and premature stop in codon 499 (P2). Intriguingly, P1 showed an unaltered DNA sequence of the coding region of the AR gene including all intron-exon boundaries. In conclusion, patients with clinically evident complete AIS are likely to harbor an AR gene mutation, demanding that the two polymorphic regions must always be included in molecular analyses of the AR gene. Moreover, our data support the concept that in a subset of AIS patients, particularly those with partial AIS, molecular alterations outside the coding region of the AR gene must be presumed.

  8. Structure of the homodimeric androgen receptor ligand-binding domain

    PubMed Central

    Nadal, Marta; Prekovic, Stefan; Gallastegui, Nerea; Helsen, Christine; Abella, Montserrat; Zielinska, Karolina; Gay, Marina; Vilaseca, Marta; Taulès, Marta; Houtsmuller, Adriaan B.; van Royen, Martin E.; Claessens, Frank; Fuentes-Prior, Pablo; Estébanez-Perpiñá, Eva

    2017-01-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) plays a crucial role in normal physiology, development and metabolism as well as in the aetiology and treatment of diverse pathologies such as androgen insensitivity syndromes (AIS), male infertility and prostate cancer (PCa). Here we show that dimerization of AR ligand-binding domain (LBD) is induced by receptor agonists but not by antagonists. The 2.15-Å crystal structure of homodimeric, agonist- and coactivator peptide-bound AR-LBD unveils a 1,000-Å2 large dimerization surface, which harbours over 40 previously unexplained AIS- and PCa-associated point mutations. An AIS mutation in the self-association interface (P767A) disrupts dimer formation in vivo, and has a detrimental effect on the transactivating properties of full-length AR, despite retained hormone-binding capacity. The conservation of essential residues suggests that the unveiled dimerization mechanism might be shared by other nuclear receptors. Our work defines AR-LBD homodimerization as an essential step in the proper functioning of this important transcription factor. PMID:28165461

  9. Sequencing the transcriptional network of androgen receptor in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Chng, Kern Rei; Cheung, Edwin

    2013-11-01

    The progression of prostate cancer is largely dependent on the activity of the androgen receptor (AR), which in turn, correlates with the net output of the AR transcriptional regulatory network. A detailed and thorough understanding of the AR transcriptional regulatory network is therefore critical in the strategic manipulation of AR activity for the targeted eradication of prostate cancer cells. In this mini-review, we highlight some of the novel and unexpected mechanistic and functional insights of the AR transcriptional network derived from recent targeted sequencing (ChIP-Seq) studies of AR and its coregulatory factors in prostate cancer cells.

  10. The role of the androgen receptor in the development and progression of bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Izumi, Koji; Miyamoto, Hiroshi

    2012-07-01

    Men are at a higher risk of developing bladder cancer than women. Since bladder cancer cell lines and tissues were found to express the androgen receptor, efforts have been made to inspect whether androgen-mediated androgen receptor signals are implicated in bladder carcinogenesis as well as cancer progression. Mounting evidence supports the view that bladder cancer is a member of the endocrine-related tumors and may clearly explain the gender-specific difference in the incidence. However, the underlying mechanisms of how androgen receptor signals regulate bladder cancer growth are still far from fully characterized. Moreover, it remains controversial whether the androgen receptor pathway always plays a dominant role in bladder cancer progression. In this review, we summarize the available data on the involvement of androgen receptor signaling in bladder cancer. In particular, current evidence demonstrating the stimulatory effects of androgens on tumor progression or, more convincingly, tumorigenesis via the androgen receptor pathway may offer great potential for androgen deprivation as a therapeutic or chemopreventive option in patients with bladder cancer.

  11. Molecular cloning and characterization of a nuclear androgen receptor activated by 11-ketotestosterone

    PubMed Central

    Olsson, Per-Erik; Berg, A Håkan; von Hofsten, Jonas; Grahn, Birgitta; Hellqvist, Anna; Larsson, Anders; Karlsson, Johnny; Modig, Carina; Borg, Bertil; Thomas, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Although 11-ketotestosterone is a potent androgen and induces male secondary sex characteristics in many teleosts, androgen receptors with high binding affinity for 11-ketotestosterone or preferential activation by 11-ketotestosterone have not been identified. So, the mechanism by which 11-ketotestosterone exhibits such high potency remains unclear. Recently we cloned the cDNA of an 11-ketotestosterone regulated protein, spiggin, from three-spined stickleback renal tissue. As spiggin is the only identified gene product regulated by 11-ketotestosterone, the stickleback kidney is ideal for determination of the mechanism of 11-ketotestosterone gene regulation. A single androgen receptor gene with two splicing variants, belonging to the androgen receptor-β subfamily was cloned from stickleback kidney. A high affinity, saturable, single class of androgen specific binding sites, with the characteristics of an androgen receptor, was identified in renal cytosolic and nuclear fractions. Measurement of ligand binding moieties in the cytosolic and nuclear fractions as well as to the recombinant receptor revealed lower affinity for 11-ketotestosterone than for dihydrotestosterone. Treatment with different androgens did not up-regulate androgen receptor mRNA level or increase receptor abundance, suggesting that auto-regulation is not involved in differential ligand activation. However, comparison of the trans-activation potential of the stickleback androgen receptor with the human androgen receptor, in both human HepG2 cells and zebrafish ZFL cells, revealed preferential activation by 11-ketotestosterone of the stickleback receptor, but not of the human receptor. These findings demonstrate the presence of a receptor preferentially activated by 11-ketotestosterone in the three-spined stickleback, so far the only one known in any animal. PMID:16107211

  12. Diphenyl ethers as androgen receptor antagonists for the topical suppression of sebum production.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Lorna H; Hu, Lain-Yen; Nguyen, Maria; Fakhoury, Stephen; Smith, Yvonne; Iula, Donna; Kostlan, Catherine; Carroll, Matthew; Dettling, Danielle; Du, Daniel; Pocalyko, David; Wade, Kimberly; Lefker, Bruce

    2009-04-15

    A series of diphenyl ethers was prepared and evaluated for androgen receptor antagonist activity in human androgen receptor binding and cellular functional assays. Analogs with potent in vitro activities were evaluated for topical in vivo efficacy in the Golden Syrian Hamster ear model. Several compounds showed reduction in wax esters in this validated animal model.

  13. Survival Signaling in Prostate Cancer: Role of Androgen Receptor and Integrins in Regulating Survival

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    Dawkins HJ. Androgen receptor expression of proliferating basal and luminal cells in adult murine ventral prostate. J Endocrinol 1999 September 1...Redmond, S. L., D’Antuono, M. F. and Dawkins , H. J. (1999). Androgen receptor expression of proliferating basal and luminal cells in adult murine ventral

  14. L712V mutation in the androgen receptor gene causes complete androgen insensitivity syndrome due to severe loss of androgen function.

    PubMed

    Rajender, Singh; Gupta, Nalini J; Chakrabarty, Baidyanath; Singh, Lalji; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy

    2013-12-11

    Inability to respond to the circulating androgens is named as androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS). Mutations in the androgen receptor (AR) gene are the most common cause of AIS. A cause and effect relationship between some of these mutations and the AIS phenotype has been proven by in vitro studies. Several other mutations have been identified, but need to be functionally validated for pathogenicity. Screening of the AR mutations upon presumptive diagnosis of AIS is recommended. We analyzed a case of complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS) for mutations in the AR gene. Sequencing of the entire coding region revealed C>G mutation (CTT-GTT) at codon 712 (position according to the NCBI database) in exon 4 of the gene, resulting in replacement of leucine with valine in the ligand-binding domain of the AR protein. No incidence of this mutation was observed in 230 normal male individuals analyzed for comparison. In vitro androgen binding and transactivation assays using mutant clone showed approximately 71% loss of ligand binding and about 76% loss of transactivation function. We conclude that CAIS in this individual was due to L712V substitution in the androgen receptor protein.

  15. Different types of androgen receptor mutations in patients with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome.

    PubMed

    Shao, Jialiang; Hou, Jiangang; Li, Bingkun; Li, Dongyang; Zhang, Ning; Wang, Xiang

    2015-02-01

    Mutations of androgen receptor (AR) are the most frequent cause of 46, XY disorders of sex development and associated with a variety of phenotypes, ranging from phenotypic women (complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS)) to milder degrees of undervirilization (partial form or PAIS) or men with only infertility (mild form or MAIS). From 2009 to 2012, two young Chinese female individuals with CAIS from two families were referred to our hospital due to primary amenorrhea. Defects in testosterone (T) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) synthesis were excluded. Physical examination revealed that the patients have normal female external genitalia, normal breast development, vellus hair in the axilla and on the arms and legs, but absence of pubic hair, and a blind-ending vagina. Two different types of AR mutations have been detected by sequencing of genomic DNA: Family A showed deletion of exon 2 in AR gene; Family B showed a single nucleotide C-to-T transition in exon 8 of AR gene resulting in a proline 893-to-leucine substitution (Pro893Leu). Testicular histology showed developmental immaturity of seminiferous tubules with the absence of spermatogenic cells or spermatozoa. No AR immunoreactivity was observed in either case. Three adult patients recovered well from bilateral orchiectomy. The juvenile patient of family B was followed up. Our present study on these two families revealed two different types of AR mutation. The definitive diagnosis of AIS was based on clinical examination and genetic investigations. Our findings verified the mechanism of CAIS and also enriched AR Gene Mutation Database.

  16. In-vitro characterization of androgen receptor mutations associated with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome reveals distinct functional deficits.

    PubMed

    Werner, R; Zhan, J; Gesing, J; Struve, D; Hiort, O

    2008-01-01

    Adequate androgen receptor (AR) function is crucial for male sex development and maintenance of secondary male characteristics. Mutations in the AR lead to androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) characterized by an end-organ resistance to androgens. The clinical appearance of individuals with 46,XY karyotype and an AR mutation varies widely from normal male to the ultimate completely female phenotype of complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS). We have analyzed the androgen receptor missense mutations P723S, P904S, and H917R, clinically associated with CAIS, which were described to have a normal maximum androgen binding (Bmax) but elevated equilibrium dissociation constants (Kd's) and compared their properties with the F916X deletion mutant, leading to the loss of the last four amino acids of the AR. Functional analysis allowed a quantitative and qualitative discrimination of these mutants in transactivation, amino-terminal/carboxy-terminal (N/C)-interaction, and coactivation capacity, varying widely with each distinct mutation. We conclude that mutations in the AR have to be characterized meticulously, not only to prove any quantitative functional deficit as a proof of consequence, but also to gain knowledge on qualitative functional properties. This is necessary as a possible link to genotype-phenotype correlation in AIS, but also with respect to medical decision making in CAIS.

  17. Microsatellites within the feline androgen receptor are suitable for X chromosome-linked clonality testing in archival material.

    PubMed

    Farwick, Nadine M; Klopfleisch, Robert; Gruber, Achim D; Weiss, Alexander Th A

    2017-04-01

    Objectives A hallmark of neoplasms is their origin from a single cell; that is, clonality. Many techniques have been developed in human medicine to utilise this feature of tumours for diagnostic purposes. One approach is X chromosome-linked clonality testing using polymorphisms of genes encoded by genes on the X chromosome. The aim of this study was to determine if the feline androgen receptor gene was suitable for X chromosome-linked clonality testing. Methods The feline androgen receptor gene was characterised and used to test clonality of feline lymphomas by PCR and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, using archival formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded material. Results Clonality of the feline lymphomas under study was confirmed and the gene locus was shown to represent a suitable target in clonality testing. Conclusions and relevance Because there are some pitfalls of using X chromosome-linked clonality testing, further studies are necessary to establish this technique in the cat.

  18. Identification of novel androgen receptor target genes in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jariwala, Unnati; Prescott, Jennifer; Jia, Li; Barski, Artem; Pregizer, Steve; Cogan, Jon P; Arasheben, Armin; Tilley, Wayne D; Scher, Howard I; Gerald, William L; Buchanan, Grant; Coetzee, Gerhard A; Frenkel, Baruch

    2007-01-01

    Background The androgen receptor (AR) plays critical roles in both androgen-dependent and castrate-resistant prostate cancer (PCa). However, little is known about AR target genes that mediate the receptor's roles in disease progression. Results Using Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP) Display, we discovered 19 novel loci occupied by the AR in castrate resistant C4-2B PCa cells. Only four of the 19 AR-occupied regions were within 10-kb 5'-flanking regulatory sequences. Three were located up to 4-kb 3' of the nearest gene, eight were intragenic and four were in gene deserts. Whereas the AR occupied the same loci in C4-2B (castrate resistant) and LNCaP (androgen-dependent) PCa cells, differences between the two cell lines were observed in the response of nearby genes to androgens. Among the genes strongly stimulated by DHT in C4-2B cells – D-dopachrome tautomerase (DDT), Protein kinase C delta (PRKCD), Glutathione S- transferase theta 2 (GSTT2), Transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 3 (TRPV3), and Pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase 1 (PYCR1) – most were less strongly or hardly stimulated in LNCaP cells. Another AR target gene, ornithine aminotransferase (OAT), was AR-stimulated in a ligand-independent manner, since it was repressed by AR siRNA knockdown, but not stimulated by DHT. We also present evidence for in vivo AR-mediated regulation of several genes identified by ChIP Display. For example, PRKCD and PYCR1, which may contribute to PCa cell growth and survival, are expressed in PCa biopsies from primary tumors before and after ablation and in metastatic lesions in a manner consistent with AR-mediated stimulation. Conclusion AR genomic occupancy is similar between LNCaP and C4-2B cells and is not biased towards 5' gene flanking sequences. The AR transcriptionally regulates less than half the genes nearby AR-occupied regions, usually but not always, in a ligand-dependent manner. Most are stimulated and a few are repressed. In general

  19. The use of androgen receptor amino/carboxyl-terminal interaction assays to investigate androgen receptor gene mutations in subjects with varying degrees of androgen insensitivity.

    PubMed

    Ghali, Shereen A; Gottlieb, Bruce; Lumbroso, Rose; Beitel, Lenore K; Elhaji, Youssef; Wu, Jian; Pinsky, Leonard; Trifiro, Mark A

    2003-05-01

    Five mutations in the ligand-binding domain (LBD) of the human androgen receptor (hAR) found in patients with varying degrees of androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) were investigated for their effects on receptor dynamics. These were Arg(871)Gly (mild), Ser(814)Asn (partial), Glu(772)Ala (partial), Val(866)Met (complete), and Arg(774)Cys (complete). Previous analysis showed that the mutant receptors exhibited near-normal kinetics, except Arg(774)Cys, which had severely reduced androgen binding, and Val(866)Met, which showed increased equilibrium dissociation constant (K(d)) and elevated dissociation rate (k) values. Ser(814)Asn exhibited ligand-selective k values, i.e. increased for dihydrotestosterone and mibolerone, but normal for methyltrenolene. Using mammalian two-hybrid assays, hAR amino/carboxyl (N/C)-terminal interactions of the mutant receptors were analyzed in the presence and absence of the hAR coactivator transcription intermediary factor 2 (TIF2). The mutations conferred decreased hAR N/C-terminal interaction, i.e. mild (approximately 1.5-fold), partial (2-fold), and complete (10-fold), that mirrored the degree of AIS. All mutant LBDs showed a 2- to 3-fold increase in N/C-terminal interactions when TIF2 was cotransfected, although of a magnitude still less than that of wild-type LBD with TIF2. The ligand-selective properties of the Ser(814)Asn mutant were also clearly reflected by the N/C-terminal interactions. Thus, measurement of N/C-terminal interactions may assist in the molecular analysis of mutant hARs associated with AIS.

  20. Advantages and Limitations of Androgen Receptor-Based Methods for Detecting Anabolic Androgenic Steroid Abuse as Performance Enhancing Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Kathy; Yazdi, Tahmineh; Masharani, Umesh; Tyrrell, Blake; Butch, Anthony; Schaufele, Fred

    2016-01-01

    Testosterone (T) and related androgens are performance enhancing drugs (PEDs) abused by some athletes to gain competitive advantage. To monitor unauthorized androgen abuse, doping control programs use mass spectrometry (MS) to detect androgens, synthetic anabolic-androgenic steroids (AASs) and their metabolites in an athlete’s urine. AASs of unknown composition will not be detected by these procedures. Since AASs achieve their anabolic effects by activating the Androgen Receptor (AR), cell-based bioassays that measure the effect of a urine sample on AR activity are under investigation as complementary, pan-androgen detection methods. We evaluated an AR BioAssay as a monitor for androgen activity in urine pre-treated with glucuronidase, which releases T from the inactive T-glucuronide that predominates in urine. AR BioAssay activity levels were expressed as ‘T-equivalent’ concentrations by comparison to a T dose response curve. The T-equivalent concentrations of androgens in the urine of hypogonadal participants supplemented with T (in whom all androgenic activity should arise from T) were quantitatively identical to the T measurements conducted by MS at the UCLA Olympic Analytical Laboratory (0.96 ± 0.22). All 17 AASs studied were active in the AR BioAssay; other steroids were inactive. 12 metabolites of 10 commonly abused AASs, which are used for MS monitoring of AAS doping because of their prolonged presence in urine, had reduced or no AR BioAssay activity. Thus, the AR BioAssay can accurately and inexpensively monitor T, but its ability to monitor urinary AASs will be limited to a period immediately following doping in which the active AASs remain intact. PMID:26998755

  1. Advantages and Limitations of Androgen Receptor-Based Methods for Detecting Anabolic Androgenic Steroid Abuse as Performance Enhancing Drugs.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Kathy; Yazdi, Tahmineh; Masharani, Umesh; Tyrrell, Blake; Butch, Anthony; Schaufele, Fred

    2016-01-01

    Testosterone (T) and related androgens are performance enhancing drugs (PEDs) abused by some athletes to gain competitive advantage. To monitor unauthorized androgen abuse, doping control programs use mass spectrometry (MS) to detect androgens, synthetic anabolic-androgenic steroids (AASs) and their metabolites in an athlete's urine. AASs of unknown composition will not be detected by these procedures. Since AASs achieve their anabolic effects by activating the Androgen Receptor (AR), cell-based bioassays that measure the effect of a urine sample on AR activity are under investigation as complementary, pan-androgen detection methods. We evaluated an AR BioAssay as a monitor for androgen activity in urine pre-treated with glucuronidase, which releases T from the inactive T-glucuronide that predominates in urine. AR BioAssay activity levels were expressed as 'T-equivalent' concentrations by comparison to a T dose response curve. The T-equivalent concentrations of androgens in the urine of hypogonadal participants supplemented with T (in whom all androgenic activity should arise from T) were quantitatively identical to the T measurements conducted by MS at the UCLA Olympic Analytical Laboratory (0.96 ± 0.22). All 17 AASs studied were active in the AR BioAssay; other steroids were inactive. 12 metabolites of 10 commonly abused AASs, which are used for MS monitoring of AAS doping because of their prolonged presence in urine, had reduced or no AR BioAssay activity. Thus, the AR BioAssay can accurately and inexpensively monitor T, but its ability to monitor urinary AASs will be limited to a period immediately following doping in which the active AASs remain intact.

  2. Androgen receptor functions in castration-resistant prostate cancer and mechanisms of resistance to new agents targeting the androgen axis

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, X; Cai, C; Chen, S; Chen, S; Yu, Z; Balk, SP

    2016-01-01

    The metabolic functions of androgen receptor (AR) in normal prostate are circumvented in prostate cancer (PCa) to drive tumor growth, and the AR also can acquire new growth-promoting functions during PCa development and progression through genetic and epigenetic mechanisms. Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT, surgical or medical castration) is the standard treatment for metastatic PCa, but patients invariably relapse despite castrate androgen levels (castration-resistant PCa, CRPC). Early studies from many groups had shown that AR was highly expressed and transcriptionally active in CRPC, and indicated that steroids from the adrenal glands were contributing to this AR activity. More recent studies showed that CRPC cells had increased expression of enzymes mediating androgen synthesis from adrenal steroids, and could synthesize androgens de novo from cholesterol. Phase III clinical trials showing a survival advantage in CRPC for treatment with abiraterone (inhibitor of the enzyme CYP17A1 required for androgen synthesis that markedly reduces androgens and precursor steroids) and for enzalutamide (new AR antagonist) have now confirmed that AR activity driven by residual androgens makes a major contribution to CRPC, and led to the recent Food and Drug Administration approval of both agents. Unfortunately, patients treated with these agents for advanced CRPC generally relapse within a year and AR appears to be active in the relapsed tumors, but the molecular mechanisms mediating intrinsic or acquired resistance to these AR-targeted therapies remain to be defined. This review outlines AR functions that contribute to PCa development and progression, the roles of intratumoral androgen synthesis and AR structural alterations in driving AR activity in CRPC, mechanisms of action for abiraterone and enzalutamide, and possible mechanisms of resistance to these agents. PMID:23752196

  3. Androgen Receptor (AR) Promotes Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) Development via Modulating Inflammatory IL1α and TGFβ1 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chiung-Kuei; Luo, Jie; Lai, Kuo-Pao; Wang, Ronghao; Pang, Haiyan; Chang, Eugene; Yan, Chen; Sparks, Janet; Lee, Soo Ok; Cho, Joshua; Chang, Chawnshang

    2015-01-01

    Gender difference is a risk factor for abdominal aortic aneurism formation yet the reason for male predominance remains unclear. Androgen and the androgen receptor influence the male gender difference, indicating that androgen receptor signaling may affect abdominal aortic aneurism development. Using angiotensin II induced abdominal aortic aneurism in apolipoprotein E null mouse models (82.4% abdominal aortic aneurism incidence), we found that mice lacking androgen receptor failed to develop abdominal aortic aneurism and aorta had dramatically reduced macrophages infiltration and intact elastic fibers. These findings suggested that androgen receptor expression in endothelial cells, macrophages or smooth muscle cells might play a role in abdominal aortic aneurism development. Selective knockout of androgen receptor in each of these cell types further demonstrated that mice lacking androgen receptor in macrophages (20% abdominal aortic aneurism incidence) or smooth muscle cells (12.5% abdominal aortic aneurism incidence), but not in endothelial cells (71.4% abdominal aortic aneurism incidence) had suppressed abdominal aortic aneurism development. Mechanism dissection showed that androgen receptor functioned through modulation of interleukin 1α and transforming growth factor β1 signals and by targeting androgen receptor with androgen receptor degradation enhancer ASC-J9® led to significant suppression of abdominal aortic aneurism development. These results demonstrate the underlying mechanism by which androgen receptor influences abdominal aortic aneurism development through interleukin 1α and transforming growth factor β1, and provides a potential new therapy to suppress/prevent abdominal aortic aneurism by targeting androgen receptor with ASC-J9®. PMID:26324502

  4. Severe forms of partial androgen insensitivity syndrome due to p.L830F novel mutation in androgen receptor gene in a Brazilian family

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The androgen insensitivity syndrome may cause developmental failure of normal male external genitalia in individuals with 46,XY karyotype. It results from the diminished or absent biological action of androgens, which is mediated by the androgen receptor in both embryo and secondary sex development. Mutations in the androgen receptor gene, located on the X chromosome, are responsible for the disease. Almost 70% of 46,XY affected individuals inherited mutations from their carrier mothers. Findings Molecular abnormalities in the androgen receptor gene in individuals of a Brazilian family with clinical features of severe forms of partial androgen insensitivity syndrome were evaluated. Seven members (five 46,XY females and two healthy mothers) of the family were included in the investigation. The coding exons and exon-intron junctions of androgen receptor gene were sequenced. Five 46,XY members of the family have been found to be hemizygous for the c.3015C>T nucleotide change in exon 7 of the androgen receptor gene, whereas the two 46,XX mothers were heterozygote carriers. This nucleotide substitution leads to the p.L830F mutation in the androgen receptor. Conclusions The novel p.L830F mutation is responsible for grades 5 and 6 of partial androgen insensitivity syndrome in two generations of a Brazilian family. PMID:21645389

  5. Modulation of the cytosolic androgen receptor in striated muscle by sex steroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rance, N. E.; Max, S. E.

    1982-01-01

    The influence of orchiectomy (GDX) and steroid administration on the level of the cytosolic androgen receptor in the rat levator ani muscle and in rat skeletal muscles (tibialis anterior and extensor digitorum longus) was studied. Androgen receptor binding to muscle cytosol was measured using H-3 methyltrienolone (R1881) as ligand, 100 fold molar excess unlabeled R1881 to assess nonspecific binding, and 500 fold molar excess of triamcinolone acetonide to prevent binding to glucocorticoid and progestin receptors. Results demonstrate that modification of the levels of sex steroids can alter the content of androgen receptors of rat striated muscle. Data suggest that: (1) cytosolic androgen receptor levels increase after orchiectomy in both levator ani muscle and skeletal muscle; (2) the acute increase in receptor levels is blocked by an inhibitor of protein synthesis; and (3) administration of estradiol-17 beta to castrated animals increases receptor binding in levator ani muscle but not in skeletal muscle.

  6. Selective androgen receptor modulator activity of a steroidal antiandrogen TSAA-291 and its cofactor recruitment profile.

    PubMed

    Hikichi, Yukiko; Yamaoka, Masuo; Kusaka, Masami; Hara, Takahito

    2015-10-15

    Selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) specifically bind to the androgen receptor and exert agonistic or antagonistic effects on target organs. In this study, we investigated the SARM activity of TSAA-291, previously known as a steroidal antiandrogen, in mice because TSAA-291 was found to possess partial androgen receptor agonist activity in reporter assays. In addition, to clarify the mechanism underlying its tissue selectivity, we performed comprehensive cofactor recruitment analysis of androgen receptor using TSAA-291 and dihydrotestosterone (DHT), an endogenous androgen. The androgen receptor agonistic activity of TSAA-291 was more obvious in reporter assays using skeletal muscle cells than in those using prostate cells. In castrated mice, TSAA-291 increased the weight of the levator ani muscle without increasing the weight of the prostate and seminal vesicle. Comprehensive cofactor recruitment analysis via mammalian two-hybrid methods revealed that among a total of 112 cofactors, 12 cofactors including the protein inhibitor of activated STAT 1 (PIAS1) were differently recruited to androgen receptor in the presence of TSAA-291 and DHT. Prostate displayed higher PIAS1 expression than skeletal muscle. Forced expression of the PIAS1 augmented the transcriptional activity of the androgen receptor, and silencing of PIAS1 by siRNAs suppressed the secretion of prostate-specific antigen, an androgen responsive marker. Our results demonstrate that TSAA-291 has SARM activity and suggest that TSAA-291 may induce different conformational changes of the androgen receptor and recruitment profiles of cofactors such as PIAS1, compared with DHT, to exert tissue-specific activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Immunocytochemical demonstration of androgen receptors in Leydig cells of the bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus, Schreber): an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Bilińska, B; Słomczyńska, M; Kmicikiewicz, I

    1996-04-01

    Androgen receptors of the bank vole Leydig cells in vitro were immunostained using a polyclonal antibody against androgen receptors followed by streptavidine-peroxidase complex or rhodamine-labelled goat anti-rabbit IgG visualization. The immunocytochemical studies revealed localization of androgen receptors in the whole cytoplasm or in the perinuclear area of the cells. Addition of dehydroepiandrosterone into the culture medium resulted in nuclear localization of the androgen receptors. Long (18L : 6D) and short (6L : 18D) photoperiods as well as the age of animals were taken into account. The concentration of androgen receptors was changed dependent on age and status of reproduction.

  8. Bisphenol A affects androgen receptor function via multiple mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Teng, Christina; Goodwin, Bonnie; Shockley, Keith; Xia, Menghang; Huang, Ruili; Norris, John; Merrick, B Alex; Jetten, Anton M; Austin, Christopher P; Tice, Raymond R

    2013-05-25

    Bisphenol A (BPA), is a well-known endocrine disruptor compound (EDC) that affects the normal development and function of the female and male reproductive system, however the mechanisms of action remain unclear. To investigate the molecular mechanisms of how BPA may affect ten different nuclear receptors, stable cell lines containing individual nuclear receptor ligand binding domain (LBD)-linked to the β-Gal reporter were examined by a quantitative high throughput screening (qHTS) format in the Tox21 Screening Program of the NIH. The results showed that two receptors, estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and androgen receptor (AR), are affected by BPA in opposite direction. To confirm the observed effects of BPA on ERα and AR, we performed transient transfection experiments with full-length receptors and their corresponding response elements linked to luciferase reporters. We also included in this study two BPA analogs, bisphenol AF (BPAF) and bisphenol S (BPS). As seen in African green monkey kidney CV1 cells, the present study confirmed that BPA and BPAF act as ERα agonists (half maximal effective concentration EC50 of 10-100 nM) and as AR antagonists (half maximal inhibitory concentration IC50 of 1-2 μM). Both BPA and BPAF antagonized AR function via competitive inhibition of the action of synthetic androgen R1881. BPS with lower estrogenic activity (EC50 of 2.2 μM), did not compete with R1881 for AR binding, when tested at 30 μM. Finally, the effects of BPA were also evaluated in a nuclear translocation assays using EGPF-tagged receptors. Similar to 17β-estradiol (E2) which was used as control, BPA was able to enhance ERα nuclear foci formation but at a 100-fold higher concentration. Although BPA was able to bind AR, the nuclear translocation was reduced. Furthermore, BPA was unable to induce functional foci in the nuclei and is consistent with the transient transfection study that BPA is unable to activate AR.

  9. The PPAR{gamma} ligand ciglitazone regulates androgen receptor activation differently in androgen-dependent versus androgen-independent human prostate cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, Patrice E.; Lyles, Besstina E.; Stewart, LaMonica V.

    2010-12-10

    The androgen receptor (AR) regulates growth and progression of androgen-dependent as well as androgen-independent prostate cancer cells. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR{gamma}) agonists have been reported to reduce AR activation in androgen-dependent LNCaP prostate cancer cells. To determine whether PPAR{gamma} ligands are equally effective at inhibiting AR activity in androgen-independent prostate cancer, we examined the effect of the PPAR{gamma} ligands ciglitazone and rosiglitazone on C4-2 cells, an androgen- independent derivative of the LNCaP cell line. Luciferase-based reporter assays and Western blot analysis demonstrated that PPAR{gamma} ligand reduced dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-induced increases in AR activity in LNCaP cells. However, in C4-2 cells, these compounds increased DHT-induced AR driven luciferase activity. In addition, ciglitazone did not significantly alter DHT-mediated increases in prostate specific antigen (PSA) protein or mRNA levels within C4-2 cells. siRNA-based experiments demonstrated that the ciglitazone-induced regulation of AR activity observed in C4-2 cells was dependent on the presence of PPAR{gamma}. Furthermore, overexpression of the AR corepressor cyclin D1 inhibited the ability of ciglitazone to induce AR luciferase activity in C4-2 cells. Thus, our data suggest that both PPAR{gamma} and cyclin D1 levels influence the ability of ciglitazone to differentially regulate AR signaling in androgen-independent C4-2 prostate cancer cells.

  10. Multivalent Peptidomimetic Conjugates as Inhibitors of Androgen Receptor Function in Therapy-Resistant Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    regulates genes involved in cell growth. Although powerful anti-androgen drugs can be administered to block AR action and have been used...successfully to treat patients with prostate cancer, over time the tumors become resistant to the drugs , leaving few treatment options. The goal of this...androgen receptor (AR), which regulates genes involved in cell growth. Although powerful anti-androgen drugs can be administered to block AR action

  11. Promoter-dependent activity on androgen receptor N-terminal domain mutations in androgen insensitivity syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tadokoro-Cuccaro, Rieko; Davies, John; Mongan, Nigel P; Bunch, Trevor; Brown, Rosalind S; Audi, Laura; Watt, Kate; McEwan, Iain J; Hughes, Ieuan A

    2014-01-01

    Androgen receptor (AR) mutations are associated with androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS). Missense mutations identified in the AR-N-terminal domain (AR-NTD) are rare, and clinical phenotypes are typically mild. We investigated 7 missense mutations and 2 insertion/deletions located in the AR-NTD. This study aimed to elucidate the pathogenic role of AR-NTD mutants in AIS and to use this knowledge to further define AR-NTD function. AR-NTD mutations (Q120E, A159T, G216R, N235K, G248V, L272F, and P380R) were introduced into AR-expression plasmids. Stably expressing cell lines were established for del57L and ins58L. Transactivation was measured using luciferase reporter constructs under the control of GRE and Pem promoters. Intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy and partial proteolysis studies were performed for mutations which showed reduced activities by using a purified AR-AF1 protein. Pem-luciferase reporter activation was reduced for A159T, N235K, and G248V but not the GRE-luciferase reporter. Protein structure analysis detected no significant change in the AR-AF1 region for these mutations. Reduced cellular expression and transactivation activity were observed for ins58L. The mutations Q120E, G216R, L272F, P380R, and del57L showed small or no detectable changes in function. Thus, clinical and experimental analyses have identified novel AR-signalling defects associated with mutations in the structurally disordered AR-NTD domain in patients with AIS. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Androgen receptor upregulation mediates radioresistance after ionizing radiation

    PubMed Central

    Spratt, Daniel E.; Evans, Michael J.; Davis, Brian J.; Doran, Michael G.; Lee, Man Xia; Shah, Neel; Wongvipat, John; Carnazza, Kathryn E.; Klee, George G.; Polkinghorn, William; Tindall, Donald J.; Lewis, Jason S.; Sawyers, Charles L.

    2015-01-01

    Clinical trials have established the benefit of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) combined with radiotherapy (RT) in prostate cancer. ADT sensitizes prostate cancer to RT-induced death at least in part through inhibition of DNA repair machinery, but for unknown reasons adjuvant ADT provides further survival benefits. Here we show that androgen receptor (AR) expression and activity are durably upregulated following RT in multiple human prostate cancer models in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, the degree of AR upregulation correlates with survival in vitro and time to tumor progression in animal models. We also provide evidence of AR pathway upregulation, measured by a rise in serum levels of AR-regulated hK2 protein, in nearly 20 percent of patients after RT. Furthermore, these men were three fold more likely to experience subsequent biochemical failure. Collectively, these data demonstrate that RT can upregulate AR signaling post-therapy to an extent that negatively impacts disease progression and/or survival. PMID:26432404

  13. Improving selective androgen receptor modulator discovery and preclinical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jeremy Orion

    2009-09-01

    Selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) represent a new class of pharmaceuticals that may find wide clinical use. However, selectivity is not understood at the molecular level, which has made the discovery and preclinical evaluation of SARMs difficult. We review the current state of SARM discovery and preclinical evaluation, as well as our current understanding of the molecular mechanisms controlling AR selectivity. We then discuss how increasing our molecular knowledge of AR selectivity will help create better discovery and evaluation methods and lead to a wider array of safer SARMs. The SARM field has advanced rapidly, but without a solid foundation of molecular knowledge to inform discovery and preclinical evaluation methods. The field has also taken a narrow view of selectivity, disregarding many androgen-responsive tissues, which could lead to unforeseen and detrimental side effects with chronic administration of SARMs. An investment in basic research could accelerate the discovery of a new generation of more selective and safer SARMs that could be used to treat an expanded range of clinical conditions.

  14. Mechanisms of the androgen receptor splicing in prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, L L; Xie, N; Sun, S; Plymate, S; Mostaghel, E; Dong, X

    2014-06-12

    Prostate tumors develop resistance to androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) by multiple mechanisms, one of which is to express constitutively active androgen receptor (AR) splice variants lacking the ligand-binding domain. AR splice variant 7 (AR-V7, also termed AR3) is the most abundantly expressed variant that drives prostate tumor progression under ADT conditions. However, the molecular mechanism by which AR-V7 is generated remains unclear. In this manuscript, we demonstrated that RNA splicing of AR-V7 in response to ADT was closely associated with AR gene transcription initiation and elongation rates. Enhanced AR gene transcription by ADT provides a prerequisite condition that further increases the interactions between AR pre-mRNA and splicing factors. Under ADT conditions, recruitment of several RNA splicing factors to the 3' splicing site for AR-V7 was increased. We identified two RNA splicing enhancers and their binding proteins (U2AF65 and ASF/SF2) that had critical roles in splicing AR pre-mRNA into AR-V7. These data indicate that ADT-induced AR gene transcription rate and splicing factor recruitment to AR pre-mRNA contribute to the enhanced AR-V7 levels in prostate cancer cells.

  15. Mechanisms of the Androgen Receptor Splicing in Prostate Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Liang liang; Xie, Ning; Sun, Shihua; Plymate, Stephen; Mostaghel, Elahe; Dong, Xuesen

    2015-01-01

    Prostate tumors develop resistance to androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) by multiple mechanisms, one of which is to express constitutively active androgen receptor (AR) splice variants lacking the ligand binding domain. AR splice variant 7 (AR-V7, also termed AR3) is the most abundantly expressed variant that drives prostate tumor progression under ADT conditions. However, the molecular mechanism by which AR-V7 is generated remains unclear. In this manuscript, we demonstrated that RNA splicing of AR-V7 in response to ADT was closely associated with AR gene transcription initiation and elongation rates. Enhanced AR gene transcription by ADT provides a pre-requisite condition that further increases the interactions between AR pre-mRNA and splicing factors. Under ADT conditions, recruitment of several RNA splicing factors to the 3’ splicing site for AR-V7 was increased. We identified two RNA splicing enhancers and their binding proteins (U2AF65 and ASF/SF2) that played critical roles in splicing AR pre-mRNA into AR-V7. These data indicate that ADT-induced AR gene transcription rate and splicing factor recruitment to AR pre-mRNA contribute to the enhanced AR-V7 levels in prostate cancer cells. PMID:23851510

  16. Role of androgen receptor splice variants in prostate cancer metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jin; Qiu, Yun

    2017-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most lethal cancers in western countries. Androgen receptor (AR) signaling pathway plays a key role in PCa progression. Despite the initial effectiveness of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for treatment of patients with advanced PCa, most of them will develop resistance to ADT and progress to metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Constitutively transcriptional activated AR splice variants (AR-Vs) have emerged as critical players in the development and progression of mCRPC. Among AR-Vs identified to date, AR-V7 (a.k.a. AR3) is one of the most abundant and frequently found in both PCa cell lines and in human prostate tissues. Most of functional studies have been focused on AR-V7/AR3 and revealed its role in regulation of survival, growth, differentiation and migration in prostate cells. In this review, we will summarize our current understanding of regulation of expression and activity of AR-Vs in mCRPC. PMID:28239558

  17. The role of the androgen receptor in CNS masculinization.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Falgueras, Alicia; Pinos, Helena; Collado, Paloma; Pasaro, Eduardo; Fernandez, Rosa; Jordan, Cynthia L; Segovia, Santiago; Guillamon, Antonio

    2005-02-21

    The medial posterior region of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTMP) and the locus coeruleus (LC) show opposite patterns of sexual dimorphism. The BSTMP in males is greater in volume and number of neurons than in females (male > female) while in the LC, the opposite is true (female > male). To investigate the possible role of the androgen receptor (AR) in the masculinization of these two structures, males with the testicular feminization mutation (Tfm) were compared to their control littermate males. No differences were seen in the number of neurons of the BSTMP between Tfm and their control littermate males, while in the LC, Tfm males have a greater number of neurons than their control littermate males. These results show that the AR is involved in the control of neuron number in the LC but not in the BSTMP. Results based on the LC suggest that when females have a larger brain area than males, masculinization in males may be achieved through the AR, with androgens perhaps decreasing cell survival.

  18. Improved androgen specificity of AR-EcoScreen by CRISPR based glucocorticoid receptor knockout.

    PubMed

    Zwart, Nick; Andringa, Dave; de Leeuw, Willem-Jan; Kojima, Hiroyuki; Iida, Mitsuru; Houtman, Corine J; de Boer, Jacob; Kool, Jeroen; Lamoree, Marja H; Hamers, Timo

    2017-08-11

    The AR-EcoScreen is a widely used reporter assay for the detection of androgens and anti-androgens. Endogenous expression of glucocorticoid receptors and their affinity for the androgen responsive element that drives reporter expression, however, makes the reporter cells sensitive to interference by glucocorticoids and less specific for (anti-)androgens. To create a glucocorticoid insensitive derivative of the AR-EcoScreen, CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing was used to develop glucocorticoid receptor knockout mutants by targeting various sites in the glucocorticoid gene. Two mutant cell lines were further characterized and validated against the unmodified AR-EcoScreen with a set of 19 environmentally relevant chemicals and a series of environmental passive sampler extracts with (anti-)androgenic activity. Sequencing of the targeted sites revealed premature stop codons following frame-shift mutations, leading to an absence of functional glucocorticoid receptor expression. The introduced mutations rendered cell lines insensitive to glucocorticoid activation and caused no significant difference in the responsiveness towards (anti-)androgens, compared to the unmodified AR-EcoScreen cells, allowing the selective, GR-independent, determination of (anti-)androgenicity in environmental passive sampler extracts. The increase in selectivity for (anti-)androgens improves reliability of the AR-EcoScreen and will provide higher accuracy in determining (anti-)androgenic potential when applied in toxicity screening and environmental monitoring of both single compounds and mixtures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Novel selective androgen receptor modulators: SAR studies on 6-bisalkylamino-2-quinolinones.

    PubMed

    van Oeveren, Arjan; Motamedi, Mehrnoush; Martinborough, Esther; Zhao, Shuo; Shen, Yixing; West, Sarah; Chang, William; Kallel, Adam; Marschke, Keith B; López, Francisco J; Negro-Vilar, Andrés; Zhi, Lin

    2007-03-15

    A series of selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) with a wide spectrum of receptor modulating activities was developed based on optimization of the 4-substituted 6-bisalkylamino-2-quinolinones (3). Significance of the trifluoromethyl group on the side chains and its interactions with amino acid residues within the androgen receptor (AR) ligand binding domain are discussed. A representative analog (9) was tested orally in a rodent model of hypogonadism and demonstrated desirable tissue selectivity.

  20. Finasteride treatment alters tissue specific androgen receptor expression in prostate tissues.

    PubMed

    Bauman, Tyler M; Sehgal, Priyanka D; Johnson, Karen A; Pier, Thomas; Bruskewitz, Reginald C; Ricke, William A; Huang, Wei

    2014-06-01

    Normal and pathologic growth of the prostate is dependent on the synthesis of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) from testosterone by 5α-reductase. Finasteride is a selective inhibitor of 5α-reductase 2, one isozyme of 5α-reductase found in abundance in the human prostate. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of finasteride on androgen receptor expression and tissue morphology in human benign prostatic hyperplasia specimens. Patients undergoing transurethral resection of the prostate and either treated or not treated with finasteride between 2004 and 2010 at the University of Wisconsin-Hospital were retrospectively identified using an institutional database. Prostate specimens from each patient were triple-stained for androgen receptor, prostate-specific antigen, and basal marker cytokeratin 5. Morphometric analysis was performed using the multispectral imaging, and results were compared between groups of finasteride treated and non-treated patients. Epithelial androgen receptor but not stromal androgen receptor expression was significantly lower in patients treated with finasteride than in non-treated patients. Androgen receptor-regulated prostate-specific antigen was not significantly decreased in finasteride-treated patients. Significant luminal epithelial atrophy and basal cell hyperplasia were prevalent in finasteride treated patients. Epithelial androgen receptor expression was highly correlated to the level of luminal epithelial atrophy. In this study, finasteride decreased the expression of epithelial androgen receptor in a tissue specific manner. The correlation between epithelial androgen receptor and the extent of luminal epithelial atrophy suggests that epithelial androgen receptor may be directly regulating the atrophic effects observed with finasteride treatment. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Finasteride Treatment Alters Tissue Specific Androgen Receptor Expression in Prostate Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Bauman, Tyler M.; Sehgal, Priyanka D.; Johnson, Karen A.; Pier, Thomas; Bruskewitz, Reginald C.; Ricke, William A.; Huang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Normal and pathologic growth of the prostate is dependent on the synthesis of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) from testosterone by 5α-reductase. Finasteride is a selective inhibitor of 5α-reductase 2, one isozyme of 5α-reductase found in abundance in the human prostate. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of finasteride on androgen receptor expression and tissue morphology in human benign prostatic hyperplasia specimens. METHODS Patients undergoing transurethral resection of the prostate and either treated or not treated with finasteride between 2004 and 2010 at the University of Wisconsin-Hospital were retrospectively identified using an institutional database. Prostate specimens from each patient were triple-stained for androgen receptor, prostate-specific antigen, and basal marker cytokeratin 5. Morphometric analysis was performed using the multispectral imaging, and results were compared between groups of finasteride treated and non-treated patients. RESULTS Epithelial androgen receptor but not stromal androgen receptor expression was significantly lower in patients treated with finasteride than in non-treated patients. Androgen receptor-regulated prostate-specific antigen was not significantly decreased in finasteride-treated patients. Significant luminal epithelial atrophy and basal cell hyperplasia were prevalent in finasteride treated patients. Epithelial androgen receptor expression was highly correlated to the level of luminal epithelial atrophy. CONCLUSIONS In this study, finasteride decreased the expression of epithelial androgen receptor in a tissue specific manner. The correlation between epithelial androgen receptor and the extent of luminal epithelial atrophy suggests that epithelial androgen receptor may be directly regulating the atrophic effects observed with finasteride treatment. PMID:24789081

  2. Androgen receptor expression in breast cancer in relation to molecular phenotype: results from the Nurses' Health Study.

    PubMed

    Collins, Laura C; Cole, Kimberly S; Marotti, Jonathan D; Hu, Rong; Schnitt, Stuart J; Tamimi, Rulla M

    2011-07-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that androgen receptor is expressed in many breast cancers, but its expression in relation to the various breast cancer subtypes as defined by molecular profiling has not been studied in detail. We constructed tissue microarrays from 3093 breast cancers that developed in women enrolled in the Nurses' Health Study. Tissue microarray sections were immunostained for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), cytokeratin 5/6, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and androgen receptor (ER). Immunostain results were used to categorize each cancer as luminal A or B, HER2 and basal like. The relationships between androgen receptor expression and molecular subtype were analyzed. Overall, 77% of the invasive breast carcinomas were androgen receptor positive. Among 2171 invasive cancers, 64% were luminal A, 15% luminal B, 6% HER2 and 11% basal like. The frequency of androgen receptor expression varied significantly across the molecular phenotypes (P<0.0001). In particular, androgen receptor expression was commonly observed in luminal A (91%) and B (68%) cancers, but was less frequently seen in HER2 cancers (59%). Despite being defined by the absence of ER and PR expression and being considered hormonally unresponsive, 32% of basal-like cancers expressed androgen receptor. Among 246 cases of ductal carcinoma in situ, 86% were androgen receptor positive, but the frequency of androgen receptor expression differed significantly across the molecular phenotypes (P=0.001), and high nuclear grade lesions were less likely to be androgen receptor positive compared with lower-grade lesions. Androgen receptor expression is most commonly seen in luminal A and B invasive breast cancers. However, expression of androgen receptor is also seen in approximately one-third of basal-like cancers, providing further evidence that basal-like cancers represent a heterogeneous group. Our findings raise the

  3. Oestradiol metabolism and androgen receptor genotypes are associated with right ventricular function

    PubMed Central

    Ventetuolo, Corey E.; Mitra, Nandita; Wan, Fei; Manichaikul, Ani; Barr, R. Graham; Johnson, Craig; Bluemke, David A.; Lima, Joao A.C.; Tandri, Hari; Ouyang, Pamela; Kawut, Steven M.

    2016-01-01

    Sex hormones are linked to right ventricular (RV) function, but the relationship between genetic variation in these pathways and RV function is unknown. We performed a cross-sectional study of 2761 genotyped adults without cardiovascular disease. The relationships between RV measures and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 10 candidate genes were assessed. Urinary oestradiol (E2) metabolites produced by cytochrome P4501B1 (CYP1B1) and serum testosterone were measured in women and men respectively. In African-American (AA) women, the CYP1B1 SNP rs162561 was associated with RV ejection fraction (RVEF), such that each copy of the A allele was associated with a 2.0% increase in RVEF. Haplotype analysis revealed associations with RVEF in AA (global p<7.2×10−6) and white (global p=0.05) women. In white subjects, higher E2 metabolite levels were associated with significantly higher RVEF. In men, androgen receptors SNPs (rs1337080; rs5918764) were significantly associated with all RV measures and modified the relationship between testosterone and RVEF. Genetic variation in E2 metabolism and androgen signalling was associated with RV morphology in a sex-specific manner. The CYP1B1 SNP identified is in tight linkage disequilibrium with SNPs associated with pulmonary hypertension and oncogenesis, suggesting these pathways may underpin sexual dimorphism in RV failure. PMID:26647441

  4. The androgen receptor gene: a major modifier of speed of neuronal transmission and intelligence?

    PubMed

    Manning, J T

    2007-01-01

    Humans show considerable additive genetic variance in cognitive ability or general intelligence (g) but the genes that influence this variation are largely unknown. It is suggested here that the X-linked androgen receptor gene (AR) has a major modifying effect on speed of neuronal transmission and thus on g. The AR is polymorphic in its N-terminal transactivation domain which encodes a polyglutamine tract (CAGn) with a parametric mean of n=21 CAG repeats and normal variation between n=11 and n=30 repeats . Very low repeat numbers are associated with mental retardation, repeat numbers above 30 with reduced cognitive function, and CAGn greater than 40 with spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy. Within the range of 11-30 repeats short CAG chains are associated with high androgen sensitivity and high sperm counts. Despite this, all human populations contain many individuals with n>21 repeats. I suggest that within the range of 11-30 repeats there is a positive association with speed of neuronal transmission and values of g. The advantage of high g and the consequent spread of alleles for high CAGn will be countered by the negative effects on sperm production. Below CAGn=11 and above CAGn=30 neuronal speed may reduce, thus leading to reductions in g and loss of function of neurons. In support of the model I discuss the link between the X-chromosome and g, the comparative structure of the AR gene in the primates, and the variation in CAGn and g in human ethnic groups.

  5. Rarity of DNA sequence alterations in the promoter region of the human androgen receptor gene.

    PubMed

    Cabral, D F; Santos, A; Ribeiro, M L; Mesquita, J C; Carvalho-Salles, A B; Hackel, C

    2004-12-01

    The human androgen receptor (AR) gene promoter lies in a GC-rich region containing two principal sites of transcription initiation and a putative Sp1 protein-binding site, without typical "TATA" and "CAAT" boxes. It has been suggested that mutations within the 5'untranslated region (5'UTR) may contribute to the development of prostate cancer by changing the rates of gene transcription and/or translation. In order to investigate this question, the aim of the present study was to search for the presence of mutations or polymorphisms at the AR-5'UTR in 92 prostate cancer patients, where histological diagnosis of adenocarcinoma was established in specimens obtained from transurethral resection or after prostatectomy. The AR-5'UTR was amplified by PCR from genomic DNA samples of the patients and of 100 healthy male blood donors, included as controls. Conformation-sensitive gel electrophoresis was used for DNA sequence alteration screening. Only one band shift was detected in one individual from the blood donor group. Sequencing revealed a new single nucleotide deletion (T) in the most conserved portion of the promoter region at position +36 downstream from the transcription initiation site I. Although the effect of this specific mutation remains unknown, its rarity reveals the high degree of sequence conservation of the human androgen promoter region. Moreover, the absence of detectable variation within the critical 5'UTR in prostate cancer patients indicates a low probability of its involvement in prostate cancer etiology.

  6. Reduced CAG repeats length in androgen receptor gene is associated with violent criminal behavior.

    PubMed

    Rajender, Singh; Pandu, Guguluth; Sharma, J D; Gandhi, K P C; Singh, Lalji; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy

    2008-09-01

    Androgens mediate their functions through androgen receptors (AR). The two triplet repeats in the AR gene (CAG and GGN) are highly polymorphic among various populations and have been extensively studied in diverse clinical conditions and antisocial personality disorders. Several studies have reported either higher levels of testosterone among rapists or the correlation of shorter CAG repeats with criminal activities. However, to date, no study has analyzed AR gene in rapists worldwide, and no study has been conducted on criminals from Indian subcontinent. Therefore, we have analyzed the AR-CAG repeat length in 645 men, of which 241 were convicted for rape, 107 for murder, 26 for both murder and rape, and 271 were control males. The aim was to explore if there was any correlation between CAG repeat length and criminal behavior. The study revealed significantly shorter CAG repeats in the rapists (mean 18.44 repeats) and murderers (mean 17.59 repeats) compared to the control men (mean 21.19 repeats). The criminals who committed murder after rape had a far shorter mean repeat length (mean 17.31 repeats) in comparison to the controls or those convicted of rape or murder alone. In short, our study suggests that the reduced CAG repeats in the AR gene are associated with criminal behavior. This, along with other studies, would help in understanding the biological factors associated with the antisocial or criminal activities.

  7. The Biological and Clinical Significance of Androgen Receptor Variants

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    fewer transcripts t Assigned value close to lowest detectable values, ie 1 o - •. for statistical analysis t Treated as miss ing and excluded from...analysis. 2160 TRANSCRIPT LEVELS OF ANDROGEN RECEPTOR VARIANT AND PROSTATE CANCER A c Grade 3 E Gr:tde 3 Grade 4/5 Grade4/S p ::: O ·. ?! II...AR-V7 p=O.I71 o.oo o.o. o . rD o . r6 iiU’O cue; Grade 3 AR-Vl p:0,707 • .. ~ ·- -r--~---- 0.00 OM 0.10 0.1.1 ll20 O.B lUG Q.W llN O.fO D. Jf

  8. The long and winding road for selective androgen receptor modulators.

    PubMed

    Dalton, James T

    2017-10-01

    Numerous selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) with differing chemical structures and nearly ideal pharmacological and pharmacokinetic properties have been developed that are well tolerated and selectively increase lean body mass in humans. However, definitive demonstration of the linkage between lean body mass and physical function in a relevant, large patient population has remained elusive for a SARM. The clinical endpoints serving as their basis of approval have shifted with time and clinical indication and are likely to continue to do so as the field matures with additional safety and efficacy data pertaining to the relationship between lean body mass and physical function, regulatory decisions with SARMs and other agents, and yet unexplored clinical indications. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  9. The emerging role of the androgen receptor in bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Lombard, Alan P; Mudryj, Maria

    2015-10-01

    Men are three to four times more likely to get bladder cancer than women. The gender disparity characterizing bladder cancer diagnoses has been investigated. One hypothesis is that androgen receptor (AR) signaling is involved in the etiology and progression of this disease. Although bladder cancer is not typically described as an endocrine-related malignancy, it has become increasingly clear that AR signaling plays a role in bladder tumors. This review summarizes current findings regarding the role of the AR in bladder cancer. We discuss work demonstrating AR expression in bladder cancer and its role in promoting formation and progression of tumors. Additionally, we discuss the therapeutic potential of targeting the AR in this disease.

  10. Quantitative Proteomic Profiles of Androgen Receptor Signaling in the Liver of Fathead Minnows Pimephalus promelas

    EPA Science Inventory

    Androgenic chemicals are present in the environment at concentrations that impair reproductive processes in fish. The objective of this experiment was to identify proteins altered by an androgen receptor agonist (17â-trenbolone) and antagonist (flutamide) in the liver. Female fa...

  11. Quantitative Proteomic Profiles of Androgen Receptor Signaling in the Liver of Fathead Minnows Pimephalus promelas

    EPA Science Inventory

    Androgenic chemicals are present in the environment at concentrations that impair reproductive processes in fish. The objective of this experiment was to identify proteins altered by an androgen receptor agonist (17â-trenbolone) and antagonist (flutamide) in the liver. Female fa...

  12. Androgen receptor is expressed in mouse cardiomyocytes at prenatal and early postnatal developmental stages.

    PubMed

    Pedernera, Enrique; Gómora, María José; Meneses, Iván; De Ita, Marlon; Méndez, Carmen

    2017-08-14

    Previous studies show that androgens are involved in hypertrophy and excitability of cardiomyocytes and that their effects are mediated through their receptor. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of androgen receptor (AR) in mouse heart during prenatal and early postnatal stages. The expression of AR and related genes, alpha myosin heavy chain -Myh6-, beta myosin heavy chain -Myh7- and atrial natriuretic factor -Nppa- was simultaneously evaluated by semiquantitative RT-PCR. AR was also detected by immunohistochemistry. Androgen receptor mRNA was detected in hearts from 10.5 days post coitum to 16 postnatal days. A higher expression of AR mRNA in atria compared to ventricles was observed in neonatal mouse. A positive correlation between mRNA levels of AR and Nppa was observed in mouse heart at early postnatal development. Androgen receptor expression is similar in males and females during cardiac development. Finally, androgen receptor protein was observed by immunohistochemistry in myocardial cells of atria and ventricles from 12.5 days onwards and restricted after 16.5 days post-coitum to nuclei of cardiomyocytes. Present results provide evidence that androgen receptor is expressed from prenatal stages in mouse heart, supporting the proposition that androgens could be involved in mammalian heart development.

  13. Androgen receptor signaling regulates growth of glioblastoma multiforme in men.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaoming; Jiang, Yuhua; Wei, Wei; Cong, Ping; Ding, Yinlu; Xiang, Lei; Wu, Kang

    2015-02-01

    Although glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most malignant primary human brain cancer with surprisingly high incidence rate in adult men than in women, the exact mechanism underlying this pronounced epidemiology is unclear. Here, we showed significant upregulated androgen receptor (AR) expression in the GBM tissue compared to the periphery normal brain tissue in patients. An expression of AR was further detected in all eight examined human GBM cell lines. To figure out whether AR signaling may play a role in GBM, we used high AR-expressing U87-MG GBM line for further study. We found that activation of transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) receptor signaling by TGFβ1 in GBM significantly inhibited cell growth and increased apoptosis. Moreover, application of active AR ligand 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) significantly decreased the effect of TGFβ1 on GBM growth and apoptosis, suggesting that AR signaling pathway may contradict the effect of TGFβ receptor signaling in GBM. However, neither total protein nor the phosphorylated protein of SMAD3, a major TGFβ receptor signaling downstream effector in GBM, was affected by DHT, suggesting that AR activation may not affect the SMAD3 protein production or phosphorylation of TGFβ receptor and SMAD3. Finally, immunoprecipitation followed by immunoblot confirmed binding of pAR to pSMAD3, which may prevent the DNA binding of pSMAD3 and subsequently prevent its effect on cell growth in GBM. Taken together, our study suggests that AR signaling may promote tumorigenesis of GBM in adult men by inhibiting TGFβ receptor signaling.

  14. A frame-shift mutation in the androgen receptor gene causes complete androgen insensitivity in the testicular-feminized mouse.

    PubMed Central

    He, W W; Kumar, M V; Tindall, D J

    1991-01-01

    The testicular feminized (Tfm) mouse lacks completely androgen responsiveness; and therefore, is unique for studying the role of androgenic steroids in different biological processes. In order to understand the molecular basis of this mutation, 2.8 kilobases of cDNA encoding the Tfm mouse androgen receptor (AR) were amplified with a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. No large deletion in the coding region of the Tfm mouse AR was detected. However, sequence analysis revealed a single base deletion in the coding region of the Tfm AR mRNA. This mutation, which is located in the amino-terminus domain of the receptor, is predicted to cause a frame-shift in translation resulting in a premature termination of AR synthesis at amino acid 412. In vitro translation studies of the recombinant wild type and Tfm AR's demonstrated that the Tfm AR cDNA failed to produce a full-length receptor. Furthermore, the Tfm AR was demonstrated to lack transcriptional activation capability by cotransfection experiments using the Tfm AR with a reporter plasmid of mouse mammary tumor virus long terminal repeat linked to the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene. These studies provide evidence of the molecular defect which causes androgen insensitivity in the Tfm mouse. Images PMID:2041777

  15. Regulators of Androgen Action Resource: a one-stop shop for the comprehensive study of androgen receptor action.

    PubMed

    DePriest, Adam D; Fiandalo, Michael V; Schlanger, Simon; Heemers, Frederike; Mohler, James L; Liu, Song; Heemers, Hannelore V

    2016-01-01

    Androgen receptor (AR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that is the main target for treatment of non-organ-confined prostate cancer (CaP). Failure of life-prolonging AR-targeting androgen deprivation therapy is due to flexibility in steroidogenic pathways that control intracrine androgen levels and variability in the AR transcriptional output. Androgen biosynthesis enzymes, androgen transporters and AR-associated coregulators are attractive novel CaP treatment targets. These proteins, however, are characterized by multiple transcript variants and isoforms, are subject to genomic alterations, and are differentially expressed among CaPs. Determining their therapeutic potential requires evaluation of extensive, diverse datasets that are dispersed over multiple databases, websites and literature reports. Mining and integrating these datasets are cumbersome, time-consuming tasks and provide only snapshots of relevant information. To overcome this impediment to effective, efficient study of AR and potential drug targets, we developed the Regulators of Androgen Action Resource (RAAR), a non-redundant, curated and user-friendly searchable web interface. RAAR centralizes information on gene function, clinical relevance, and resources for 55 genes that encode proteins involved in biosynthesis, metabolism and transport of androgens and for 274 AR-associated coregulator genes. Data in RAAR are organized in two levels: (i) Information pertaining to production of androgens is contained in a 'pre-receptor level' database, and coregulator gene information is provided in a 'post-receptor level' database, and (ii) an 'other resources' database contains links to additional databases that are complementary to and useful to pursue further the information provided in RAAR. For each of its 329 entries, RAAR provides access to more than 20 well-curated publicly available databases, and thus, access to thousands of data points. Hyperlinks provide direct access to gene

  16. Antiandrogens act as selective androgen receptor modulators at the proteome level in prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Brooke, Greg N; Gamble, Simon C; Hough, Michael A; Begum, Shajna; Dart, D Alwyn; Odontiadis, Michael; Powell, Sue M; Fioretti, Flavia M; Bryan, Rosie A; Waxman, Jonathan; Wait, Robin; Bevan, Charlotte L

    2015-05-01

    Current therapies for prostate cancer include antiandrogens, inhibitory ligands of the androgen receptor, which repress androgen-stimulated growth. These include the selective androgen receptor modulators cyproterone acetate and hydroxyflutamide and the complete antagonist bicalutamide. Their activity is partly dictated by the presence of androgen receptor mutations, which are commonly detected in patients who relapse while receiving antiandrogens, i.e. in castrate-resistant prostate cancer. To characterize the early proteomic response to these antiandrogens we used the LNCaP prostate cancer cell line, which harbors the androgen receptor mutation most commonly detected in castrate-resistant tumors (T877A), analyzing alterations in the proteome, and comparing these to the effect of these therapeutics upon androgen receptor activity and cell proliferation. The majority are regulated post-transcriptionally, possibly via nongenomic androgen receptor signaling. Differences detected between the exposure groups demonstrate subtle changes in the biological response to each specific ligand, suggesting a spectrum of agonistic and antagonistic effects dependent on the ligand used. Analysis of the crystal structures of the AR in the presence of cyproterone acetate, hydroxyflutamide, and DHT identified important differences in the orientation of key residues located in the AF-2 and BF-3 protein interaction surfaces. This further implies that although there is commonality in the growth responses between androgens and those antiandrogens that stimulate growth in the presence of a mutation, there may also be influential differences in the growth pathways stimulated by the different ligands. This therefore has implications for prostate cancer treatment because tumors may respond differently dependent upon which mutation is present and which ligand is activating growth, also for the design of selective androgen receptor modulators, which aim to elicit differential proteomic

  17. Antiandrogens Act as Selective Androgen Receptor Modulators at the Proteome Level in Prostate Cancer Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Brooke, Greg N.; Gamble, Simon C.; Hough, Michael A.; Begum, Shajna; Dart, D. Alwyn; Odontiadis, Michael; Powell, Sue M.; Fioretti, Flavia M.; Bryan, Rosie A.; Waxman, Jonathan; Wait, Robin; Bevan, Charlotte L.

    2015-01-01

    Current therapies for prostate cancer include antiandrogens, inhibitory ligands of the androgen receptor, which repress androgen-stimulated growth. These include the selective androgen receptor modulators cyproterone acetate and hydroxyflutamide and the complete antagonist bicalutamide. Their activity is partly dictated by the presence of androgen receptor mutations, which are commonly detected in patients who relapse while receiving antiandrogens, i.e. in castrate-resistant prostate cancer. To characterize the early proteomic response to these antiandrogens we used the LNCaP prostate cancer cell line, which harbors the androgen receptor mutation most commonly detected in castrate-resistant tumors (T877A), analyzing alterations in the proteome, and comparing these to the effect of these therapeutics upon androgen receptor activity and cell proliferation. The majority are regulated post-transcriptionally, possibly via nongenomic androgen receptor signaling. Differences detected between the exposure groups demonstrate subtle changes in the biological response to each specific ligand, suggesting a spectrum of agonistic and antagonistic effects dependent on the ligand used. Analysis of the crystal structures of the AR in the presence of cyproterone acetate, hydroxyflutamide, and DHT identified important differences in the orientation of key residues located in the AF-2 and BF-3 protein interaction surfaces. This further implies that although there is commonality in the growth responses between androgens and those antiandrogens that stimulate growth in the presence of a mutation, there may also be influential differences in the growth pathways stimulated by the different ligands. This therefore has implications for prostate cancer treatment because tumors may respond differently dependent upon which mutation is present and which ligand is activating growth, also for the design of selective androgen receptor modulators, which aim to elicit differential proteomic

  18. Androgens downregulate miR-21 expression in breast cancer cells underlining the protective role of androgen receptor

    PubMed Central

    Donà, Ada; Rizza, Pietro; Aquila, Saveria; Avena, Paola; Lanzino, Marilena; Pellegrino, Michele; Vivacqua, Adele; Tucci, Paola; Morelli, Catia; Andò, Sebastiano; Sisci, Diego

    2016-01-01

    Although the protective role of androgen receptor (AR) in breast cancer (BC) is well established, the mechanisms involved remains largely unexplored. MicroRNAs play fundamental roles in many biological processes, including tumor cell development and metastasis. Herein, we report that androgens reduce BC cells proliferation acting as a negative modulator of the onco-miRNA-21. The synthetic androgen miboleron (Mib) decreases BC cell proliferation induced by miR-21 over-expression and AR knockdown evidenced the requirement of AR in the down-regulation of miR-21 expression. These effects seem to be a general mechanism occurring in BC tissues. Chromatin immune-precipitation (ChIP) analysis disclosed the binding of AR to a specific ARE sequence in miR-21 proximal promoter and recognizes the recruitment of HDAC3 as component for AR-mediated transcriptional repression. Such event is associated to a significantly reduced PolII binding in Mib treated extracts confirming that activated AR is a transcriptional repressor of miR-21 expression, providing further insight into the protective role of androgens in breast cancer cells. Collectively, our data and the widespread AR expression in primary and metastatic breast tumours, suggest a careful examination of the therapeutic potential of androgens also in potentiating the effectiveness of anti-oestrogen adjuvant therapies. PMID:26862856

  19. Androgens downregulate miR-21 expression in breast cancer cells underlining the protective role of androgen receptor.

    PubMed

    Casaburi, Ivan; Cesario, Maria Grazia; Donà, Ada; Rizza, Pietro; Aquila, Saveria; Avena, Paola; Lanzino, Marilena; Pellegrino, Michele; Vivacqua, Adele; Tucci, Paola; Morelli, Catia; Andò, Sebastiano; Sisci, Diego

    2016-03-15

    Although the protective role of androgen receptor (AR) in breast cancer (BC) is well established, the mechanisms involved remains largely unexplored. MicroRNAs play fundamental roles in many biological processes, including tumor cell development and metastasis. Herein, we report that androgens reduce BC cells proliferation acting as a negative modulator of the onco-miRNA-21.The synthetic androgen miboleron (Mib) decreases BC cell proliferation induced by miR-21 over-expression and AR knockdown evidenced the requirement of AR in the down-regulation of miR-21 expression. These effects seem to be a general mechanism occurring in BC tissues.Chromatin immune-precipitation (ChIP) analysis disclosed the binding of AR to a specific ARE sequence in miR-21 proximal promoter and recognizes the recruitment of HDAC3 as component for AR-mediated transcriptional repression. Such event is associated to a significantly reduced PolII binding in Mib treated extracts confirming that activated AR is a transcriptional repressor of miR-21 expression, providing further insight into the protective role of androgens in breast cancer cells.Collectively, our data and the widespread AR expression in primary and metastatic breast tumours, suggest a careful examination of the therapeutic potential of androgens also in potentiating the effectiveness of anti-oestrogen adjuvant therapies.

  20. Prostate cancer stem cells: the role of androgen and estrogen receptors

    PubMed Central

    Di Zazzo, Erika; Galasso, Giovanni; Giovannelli, Pia; Di Donato, Marzia; Di Santi, Annalisa; Cernera, Gustavo; Rossi, Valentina; Abbondanza, Ciro; Moncharmont, Bruno; Sinisi, Antonio Agostino; Castoria, Gabriella; Migliaccio, Antimo

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers in men, and androgen deprivation therapy still represents the primary treatment for prostate cancer patients. This approach, however, frequently fails and patients develop castration-resistant prostate cancer, which is almost untreatable. Cancer cells are characterized by a hierarchical organization, and stem/progenitor cells are endowed with tumor-initiating activity. Accumulating evidence indicates that prostate cancer stem cells lack the androgen receptor and are, indeed, resistant to androgen deprivation therapy. In contrast, these cells express classical (α and/or β) and novel (GPR30) estrogen receptors, which may represent new putative targets in prostate cancer treatment. In the present review, we discuss the still-debated mechanisms, both genomic and non-genomic, by which androgen and estradiol receptors (classical and novel) mediate the hormonal control of prostate cell stemness, transformation, and the continued growth of prostate cancer. Recent preclinical and clinical findings obtained using new androgen receptor antagonists, anti-estrogens, or compounds such as enhancers of androgen receptor degradation and peptides inhibiting non-genomic androgen functions are also presented. These new drugs will likely lead to significant advances in prostate cancer therapy. PMID:26506594

  1. Identification and Characterization of the Androgen Receptor From the American Alligator, Alligator mississippiensis

    PubMed Central

    Miyagawa, Shinichi; Yatsu, Ryohei; Kohno, Satomi; Doheny, Brenna M.; Ogino, Yukiko; Ishibashi, Hiroshi; Katsu, Yoshinao; Ohta, Yasuhiko; Guillette, Louis J.

    2015-01-01

    Androgens are essential for the development, reproduction, and health throughout the life span of vertebrates, particularly during the initiation and maintenance of male sexual characteristics. Androgen signaling is mediated by the androgen receptor (AR), a member of the steroid nuclear receptor superfamily. Mounting evidence suggests that environmental factors, such as exogenous hormones or contaminants that mimic hormones, can disrupt endocrine signaling and function. The American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis), a unique model for ecological research in that it exhibits environment-dependent sex determination, is oviparous and long lived. Alligators from a contaminated environment exhibit low reproductive success and morphological disorders of the testis and phallus in neonates and juveniles, both associated with androgen signaling; thus, the alterations are hypothesized to be related to disrupted androgen signaling. However, this line of research has been limited because of a lack of information on the alligator AR gene. Here, we isolated A mississippiensis AR homologs (AmAR) and evaluated receptor-hormone/chemical interactions using a transactivation assay. We showed that AmAR responded to all natural androgens and their effects were inhibited by cotreatment with antiandrogens, such as flutamide, p,p′-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene, and vinclozolin. Intriguingly, we found a spliced form of the AR from alligator cDNA, which lacks seven amino acids within the ligand-binding domain that shows no response to androgens. Finally, we have initial data on a possible dominant-negative function of the spliced form of the AR against androgen-induced AmAR. PMID:25974402

  2. [Myoanabolic steroids and selective androgen receptor modulators: mechanism of action and perspectives].

    PubMed

    Tóth, Miklós

    2009-11-08

    Interest in anabolic steroids has been renewed in the last decade with the discovery of tissue-selective androgen receptor modulators exhibiting high myotropic and small androgenic activity. An explanation put forward by us in 1982 for the mechanism of the preferential myotropic effect of nandrolone (19-nortestosterone) exploits the fundamental difference between the 5alpha-reductase concentrations in skeletal muscle and androgenic target tissue. In androgenic tissue, testosterone is converted to the more potent 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone whereas nandrolone is converted to a less potent derivative. As 5alpha-reduction is negligible in skeletal muscle, this explains why nandrolone shows a greater myotropic to androgenic ratio when compared with testosterone. Anabolic steroids that do not undergo 5alpha-reduction exert myotropic-androgenic dissociation because their effect in androgenic tissues is not amplified by 5alpha-reduction. Tissue selectivity by receptor modulators may be achieved by inducing specific conformational changes of the androgen receptor that affect its interaction with transcriptional coregulators. Anabolic activity is mediated by the stimulation of ribosomal RNA synthesis therefore regulation of this synthesis by anabolic steroids would deserve detailed studies.

  3. Identification and Characterization of the Androgen Receptor From the American Alligator, Alligator mississippiensis.

    PubMed

    Miyagawa, Shinichi; Yatsu, Ryohei; Kohno, Satomi; Doheny, Brenna M; Ogino, Yukiko; Ishibashi, Hiroshi; Katsu, Yoshinao; Ohta, Yasuhiko; Guillette, Louis J; Iguchi, Taisen

    2015-08-01

    Androgens are essential for the development, reproduction, and health throughout the life span of vertebrates, particularly during the initiation and maintenance of male sexual characteristics. Androgen signaling is mediated by the androgen receptor (AR), a member of the steroid nuclear receptor superfamily. Mounting evidence suggests that environmental factors, such as exogenous hormones or contaminants that mimic hormones, can disrupt endocrine signaling and function. The American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis), a unique model for ecological research in that it exhibits environment-dependent sex determination, is oviparous and long lived. Alligators from a contaminated environment exhibit low reproductive success and morphological disorders of the testis and phallus in neonates and juveniles, both associated with androgen signaling; thus, the alterations are hypothesized to be related to disrupted androgen signaling. However, this line of research has been limited because of a lack of information on the alligator AR gene. Here, we isolated A mississippiensis AR homologs (AmAR) and evaluated receptor-hormone/chemical interactions using a transactivation assay. We showed that AmAR responded to all natural androgens and their effects were inhibited by cotreatment with antiandrogens, such as flutamide, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene, and vinclozolin. Intriguingly, we found a spliced form of the AR from alligator cDNA, which lacks seven amino acids within the ligand-binding domain that shows no response to androgens. Finally, we have initial data on a possible dominant-negative function of the spliced form of the AR against androgen-induced AmAR.

  4. (Chemical Research in Toxicology) Development and Validation of a Computational Model for Androgen Receptor Activity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Testing thousands of chemicals to identify potential androgen receptor (AR) agonists or antagonists would cost millions of dollars and take decades to complete using current validated methods. High-throughput in vitro screening (HTS) and computational toxicology approaches can mo...

  5. INTERACTION OF ORGANOPHOSPHATE PESTICIDES AND RELATED COMPOUNDS WITH THE ANDROGEN RECEPTOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Identification of several environmental chemicals capable of binding to the androgen receptor (AR) and interfering with its normal function has heightened concern for adverse effects across a broad spectrum of environmental chemicals. We previously demonstrated AR antagonist act...

  6. INTERACTION OF ORGANOPHOSPHATE PESTICIDES AND RELATED COMPOUNDS WITH THE ANDROGEN RECEPTOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Identification of several environmental chemicals capable of binding to the androgen receptor (AR) and interfering with its normal function has heightened concern for adverse effects across a broad spectrum of environmental chemicals. We previously demonstrated AR antagonist act...

  7. Development of β-amino-carbonyl compounds as androgen receptor antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhi-yun; Zhu, Yan-hui; Zhou, Cai-hong; Liu, Qing; Lu, Hui-li; Ge, Yun-jun; Wang, Ming-wei

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Androgen receptor (AR) antagonists have proven to be useful in the early control of prostate cancer. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize a novel β-amino-carbonyl-based androgen receptor antagonist. Methods: Different isomers of the β-amino-carbonyl compounds were obtained by chiral separation. The bioactivities of the isomers were evaluated by AR nuclear translocation, mammalian two-hybrid, competitive receptor binding and cell proliferation assays. The expression of genes downstream of AR was analyzed with real-time PCR. The therapeutic effects on tumor growth in vivo were observed in male SCID mice bearing LNCaP xenografts. Results: Compound 21 was previously identified as an AR modulator by the high-throughput screening of a diverse compound library. In the present study, the two isomers of compound 21, termed compounds 21-1 and 21-2, were characterized as partial AR agonists in terms of androgen-induced AR nuclear translocation, prostate-specific antigen expression and cell proliferation. Further structural modifications led to the discovery of a androgen receptor antagonist (compound 6012), which blocked androgen receptor nuclear translocation, androgen-responsive gene expression and androgen-dependent LNCaP cell proliferation. Four stereoisomers of compound 6012 were isolated, and their bioactivities were assessed. The pharmacological effects of 6012, including AR binding, androgen-induced AR translocation, NH2- and COOH-terminal interaction, growth inhibition of LNCaP cells in vitro and LNCaP xenograft growth in nude mice, were mainly restricted to isomer 6012-4 (1R, 3S). Conclusion: Compound 6012-4 was determined to be a novel androgen receptor antagonist with prostate cancer inhibitory activities comparable to bicalutamide both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:24786235

  8. The antiandrogenic effect of finasteride against a mutant androgen receptor

    PubMed Central

    Chhipa, Rishi Raj; Zhang, Haitao; Ip, Clement

    2011-01-01

    Finasteride is known to inhibit Type 2 5α-reductase and thus block the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT). The structural similarity of finasteride to DHT raises the possibility that finasteride may also interfere with the function of the androgen receptor (AR). Experiments were carried out to evaluate the antiandrogenic effect of finasteride in LNCaP, C4-2 and VCaP human prostate cancer cells. Finasteride decreased DHT binding to AR, and DHT-stimulated AR activity and cell growth in LNCaP and C4-2 cells, but not in VCaP cells. LNCaP and C4-2 (derived from castration-resistant LNCaP) cells express the T877A mutant AR, while VCaP cells express the wild-type AR. When PC-3 cells, which are AR-null, were transfected with either the wild-type or the T877A mutant AR, only the mutant AR-expressing cells were sensitive to finasteride inhibition of DHT binding. Peroxiredoxin-1 (Prx1) is a novel endogenous facilitator of AR binding to DHT. In Prx1-rich LNCaP cells, the combination of Prx1 knockdown and finasteride was found to produce a greater inhibitory effect on AR activity and cell growth than either treatment alone. The observation suggests that cells with a low expression of Prx1 are likely to be more responsive to the antiandrogenic effect of finasteride. Additional studies showed that the efficacy of finasteride was comparable to that of bicalutamide (a widely used non-steroidal antiandrogen). The implication of the above findings is discussed in the context of developing strategies to improve the outcome of androgen deprivation therapy. PMID:21386657

  9. Honokiol inhibits androgen receptor activity in prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Hahm, Eun-Ryeong; Karlsson, A Isabella; Bonner, Michael Y; Arbiser, Jack L; Singh, Shivendra V

    2014-04-01

    We have shown previously that honokiol (HNK), a bioactive component of the medicinal plant Magnolia officinalis, inhibits growth of human prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. However, the effect of HNK on androgen receptor (AR) signaling has not been studied. LNCaP, C4-2, and TRAMP-C1 cells were used for various assays. Trypan blue dye exclusion assay or clonogenic assay was performed for determination of cell viability. The effects of HNK and/or its analogs on protein levels of AR and its target gene product prostate specific antigen (PSA) were determined by western blotting. RNA interference of p53 was achieved by transient transfection. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was performed for mRNA expression of AR. Nuclear level of AR was visualized by microscopy. Apoptosis was quantified by DNA fragmentation assay or flow cytometry after Annexin V-propidium iodide staining. HNK and its dichloroacetate analog (HDCA) were relatively more effective in suppressing cell viability and AR protein level than honokiol epoxide or biseugenol. Nuclear translocation of AR stimulated by a synthetic androgen (R1881) was markedly suppressed in the presence of HNK. Downregulation of AR protein resulting from HNK exposure was attributable to transcriptional repression as well as proteasomal degradation. HNK-mediated suppression of AR protein was maintained in LNCaP cells after knockdown of p53 protein. HNK-induced apoptosis was not affected by R1881 treatment. The present study demonstrates, for the first time, that HNK inhibits activity of AR in prostate cancer cells regardless of the p53 status. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Androgen resistance.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Ieuan A; Deeb, Asma

    2006-12-01

    Androgen resistance causes the androgen insensitivity syndrome in its variant forms and is a paradigm of clinical syndromes associated with hormone resistance. In its complete form, the syndrome causes XY sex reversal and a female phenotype. Partial resistance to androgens is a common cause of ambiguous genitalia of the newborn, but a similar phenotype may result from several other conditions, including defects in testis determination and androgen biosynthesis. The biological actions of androgens are mediated by a single intracellular androgen receptor encoded by a gene on the long arm of the X chromosome. Mutations in this gene result in varying degrees of androgen receptor dysfunction and phenotypes that often show poor concordance with the genotype. Functional characterization and three-dimensional modelling of novel mutant receptors has been informative in understanding the mechanism of androgen action. Management issues in syndromes of androgen insensitivity include decisions on sex assignment, timing of gonadectomy in relation to tumour risk, and genetic and psychological counselling.

  11. Evaluation of Androgen Receptor Function in Prostate Cancer Prognosis and Therapeutic Stratification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    encompassing major biological functions regulated by AR in the human prostate. Expression levels of the selected genes were determined in radical...functions regulated by AR in the human prostate. The primers and probes have been obtained, and tested by using cDNA from VCaP prostate cancer cell line...monitoring potential dysfunctions of the androgen receptor by measuring the expression of a panel of genes directly regulated by androgen receptor. We

  12. Selective Androgen Receptor Down-Regulators (SARDs): A New Prostate Cancer Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-01

    PCa (9). Thus far, the techniques that have been used to down-regulate the AR include antisense oligonucleotides (10, 11), ribozyme treatments (12...Our findings suggest that ICI may present a useful treatment option for patients with AR-dependent PCa. Unlike the ribozyme , antisense, siRNA, or...Catalytic cleavage of the androgen receptor messenger RNA and functional inhibition of androgen receptor activity by a hammerhead ribozyme . Mol Endocrinol

  13. Obstructing Androgen Receptor Activation in Prostate Cancer Cells through Posttranslational Modification by NEDD8

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-01

    08-1-0143 TITLE: Obstructing Androgen Receptor Activation in Prostate Cancer Cells through Posttranslational modification by NEDD8...0143 Obstructing Androgen Receptor Activation in Prostate Cancer Cells through Posttranslational modification by NEDD8 Dr. Don Chen UMDNJ-Robert Wood...of prostate cancer. Post-translational modification has significant impacts on gene expression, but how it affects AR activity is largely unknown

  14. Targeting Androgen Receptor in Breast Cancer: Enzalutamide as a Novel Breast Cancer Therapeutic

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-13-1-0091 TITLE: Targeting Androgen Receptor in Breast Cancer : Enzalutamide as a Novel Breast Cancer Therapeutic PRINCIPAL...2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Targeting Androgen Receptor in Breast Cancer : Enzalutamide as a Novel Breast Cancer Therapeutic 5b...activity in breast cancer as a single agent and in combination with exemestane. Activity is seen in both triple negative AR+ BC and also ER+AR+ BC

  15. Involvement of the Androgen and Glucocorticoid Receptors in Bladder Cancer

    PubMed Central

    McBeth, Lucien; Grabnar, Maria; Selman, Steven; Hinds, Terry D.

    2015-01-01

    Bladder cancer is encountered worldwide having been associated with a host of environmental and lifestyle risk factors. The disease has a male to female prevalence of 3 : 1. This disparity has raised the possibility of the androgen receptor (AR) pathway being involved in the genesis of the disease; indeed, research has shown that AR is involved in and is likely a driver of bladder cancer. Similarly, an inflammatory response has been implicated as a major player in bladder carcinogenesis. Consistent with this concept, recent work on anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid signaling points to a pathway that may impact bladder cancer. The glucocorticoid receptor- (GR-) α isoform has an important role in suppressing inflammatory processes, which may be attenuated by AR in the development of bladder cancer. In addition, a GR isoform that is inhibitory to GRα, GRβ, is proinflammatory and has been shown to induce cancer growth. In this paper, we review the evidence of inflammatory mediators and the relationship of AR and GR isoforms as they relate to the propensity for bladder cancer. PMID:26347776

  16. Nuclear transportation of exogenous epidermal growth factor receptor and androgen receptor via extracellular vesicles.

    PubMed

    Read, Jolene; Ingram, Alistair; Al Saleh, Hassan A; Platko, Khrystyna; Gabriel, Kathleen; Kapoor, Anil; Pinthus, Jehonathan; Majeed, Fadwa; Qureshi, Talha; Al-Nedawi, Khalid

    2017-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) plays a central role in the progression of several human malignancies. Although EGFR is a membrane receptor, it undergoes nuclear translocation, where it has a distinct signalling pathway. Herein, we report a novel mechanism by which cancer cells can directly transport EGFR to the nucleus of other cells via extracellular vesicles (EVs). The transported receptor is active and stimulates the nuclear EGFR pathways. Interestingly, the translocation of EGFR via EVs occurs independently of the nuclear localisation sequence that is required for nuclear translocation of endogenous EGFR. Also, we found that the mutant receptor EGFRvIII could be transported to the nucleus of other cells via EVs. To assess the role of EVs in the regulation of an actual nuclear receptor, we studied the regulation of androgen receptor (AR). We found that full-length AR and mutant variant ARv7 are secreted in EVs derived from prostate cancer cell lines and could be transported to the nucleus of AR-null cells. The EV-derived AR was able to bind the androgen-responsive promoter region of prostate specific antigen, and recruit RNA Pol II, an indication of active transcription. The nuclear-translocated AR via EVs enhanced the proliferation of acceptor cells in the absence of androgen. Finally, we provide evidence that nuclear localisation of AR could occur in vivo via orthotopically-injected EVs in male SCID mice prostate glands. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing the nuclear translocation of nuclear receptors via EVs, which significantly extends the role of EVs as paracrine transcriptional regulators. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Selective Androgen Receptor Modulator in a Patient With Hormone-Positive Metastatic Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Vontela, Namratha; Koduri, Vamsi; Schwartzberg, Lee S; Vidal, Gregory A

    2017-03-01

    Androgen receptors (ARs) are highly coexpressed in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancers. Their role in breast tumorigenesis has been postulated, but the mechanism is not yet well-characterized. Steroidal androgens were previously used as an anticancer strategy but fell out of favor because of toxicity and the discovery of alternative therapies. Recent attempts to modulate androgen pathway signaling have focused on AR inhibitors. This report discusses a case using a well-tolerated selective AR modulator to treat a highly pretreated patient with ER-positive breast cancer, which resulted in a durable partial response. Copyright © 2017 by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network.

  18. Orchiectomy or androgen receptor blockade attenuates baroreflex-mediated bradycardia in conscious rats

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Gregg R; Abdel-Rahman, Abdel A

    2006-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that testosterone enhances baroreflex bradycardia. Therefore, conscious unrestrained rats were used to investigate the role of the androgen receptor in the testosterone-mediated modulation of baroreflex bradycardia. Androgen depletion (3 weeks), and androgen receptor blockade (20–24 h), were implemented to test the hypothesis that testosterone influences baroreflex bradycardia via its activity at the androgen receptor in male rats. Phenylephrine (1–16 μg kg-1) was used to assess baroreflex bradycardia. Results Androgen depletion attenuated baroreflex bradycardia (P < 0.01). The antiandrogen flutamide (5, 15, or 30 mg kg-1, s.c.) caused dose-related attenuation of baroreflex bradycardia in spite of a significant (P < 0.05) increase in serum testosterone. The latter did not lead to increased serum 17β-estradiol level. Conclusion The data suggest: 1) Androgen depletion or adequate androgen receptor blockade attenuates baroreflex bradycardia. 2) The reflex increase in serum testosterone may counterbalance the action of the lower doses (5 or 15 mg kg-1) of flutamide. 3) The absence of a change in serum 17β-estradiol rules out its contribution to flutamide action on baroreflex bradycardia. PMID:16430770

  19. Partial androgen insensitivity and correlations with the predicted three dimensional structure of the androgen receptor ligand-binding domain.

    PubMed

    Yong, E L; Tut, T G; Ghadessy, F J; Prins, G; Ratnam, S S

    1998-02-01

    Genetic defects of the human androgen receptor (AR) can cause a wide spectrum of androgen insensitivity syndromes (AIS) ranging from phenotypic females in those with complete AIS; ambiguous genitalia in partial AIS; to male infertility in minimal AIS. The majority of these defects are due to point mutations resulting in amino acid substitutions. It is however unclear why certain mutations result in partial AIS, whereas others in the same exon cause the complete syndrome. We present a case of partial AIS due to a point mutation affecting codon 758 of the AR ligand-binding domain (LBD) that changed the sense of the codon from asparagine to threonine (N758T). The mutant receptor displayed normal binding affinity to DHT but abnormal dissociation kinetics in both patient's fibroblasts and transfected COS-7 cells. The mutant AR was thermolabile, and resulted in approximately 50% reduction in receptor transactivation capacity when examined with a reporter gene incorporating an androgen-response-element. Although the 3-D structure of AR LBD is not known, the homologous region in a member of the steroid receptor superfamily, retinoid-X receptor (RXR-alpha), has been crystallized, allowing comparison of aligned amino-acid sequences of RXR-alpha and AR. The mutation, N758T, lies in a predicted linker region between the fifth alpha-helix (H5) and the first beta-strand (S1). Generally, mutations leading to partial AIS tend to cluster in the predicted linker regions located between the structural helices of the AR LBD. Most strikingly, the predicted linker regions contain over 70% of the mutant ARs associated with prostate cancer in the LBD. The occurrence of mutations associated with both partial AIS and prostate cancer in the same predicted linker regions, suggest that this clustering is not coincidental and that the predicted linker regions are likely to have important, but subtle, roles in defining androgen binding and ligand specificity.

  20. The Deubiquitinating Enzyme USP7 Regulates Androgen Receptor Activity by Modulating Its Binding to Chromatin.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shu-Ting; Okada, Maiko; Nakato, Ryuichiro; Izumi, Kosuke; Bando, Masashige; Shirahige, Katsuhiko

    2015-08-28

    The androgen receptor (AR), a nuclear receptor superfamily transcription factor, plays a key role in prostate cancer. AR signaling is the principal target for prostate cancer treatment, but current androgen-deprivation therapies cannot completely abolish AR signaling because of the heterogeneity of prostate cancers. Therefore, unraveling the mechanism of AR reactivation in androgen-depleted conditions can identify effective prostate cancer therapeutic targets. Increasing evidence indicates that AR activity is mediated by the interplay of modifying/demodifying enzymatic co-regulators. To better understand the mechanism of AR transcriptional activity regulation, we used antibodies against AR for affinity purification and identified the deubiquitinating enzyme ubiquitin-specific protease 7, USP7 as a novel AR co-regulator in prostate cancer cells. We showed that USP7 associates with AR in an androgen-dependent manner and mediates AR deubiquitination. Sequential ChIP assays indicated that USP7 forms a complex with AR on androgen-responsive elements of target genes upon stimulation with the androgen 5α-dihydrotestosterone. Further investigation indicated that USP7 is necessary to facilitate androgen-activated AR binding to chromatin. Transcriptome profile analysis of USP7-knockdown LNCaP cells also revealed the essential role of USP7 in the expression of a subset of androgen-responsive genes. Hence, inhibition of USP7 represents a compelling therapeutic strategy for the treatment of prostate cancer. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. The Deubiquitinating Enzyme USP7 Regulates Androgen Receptor Activity by Modulating Its Binding to Chromatin*

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shu-Ting; Okada, Maiko; Nakato, Ryuichiro; Izumi, Kosuke; Bando, Masashige; Shirahige, Katsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    The androgen receptor (AR), a nuclear receptor superfamily transcription factor, plays a key role in prostate cancer. AR signaling is the principal target for prostate cancer treatment, but current androgen-deprivation therapies cannot completely abolish AR signaling because of the heterogeneity of prostate cancers. Therefore, unraveling the mechanism of AR reactivation in androgen-depleted conditions can identify effective prostate cancer therapeutic targets. Increasing evidence indicates that AR activity is mediated by the interplay of modifying/demodifying enzymatic co-regulators. To better understand the mechanism of AR transcriptional activity regulation, we used antibodies against AR for affinity purification and identified the deubiquitinating enzyme ubiquitin-specific protease 7, USP7 as a novel AR co-regulator in prostate cancer cells. We showed that USP7 associates with AR in an androgen-dependent manner and mediates AR deubiquitination. Sequential ChIP assays indicated that USP7 forms a complex with AR on androgen-responsive elements of target genes upon stimulation with the androgen 5α-dihydrotestosterone. Further investigation indicated that USP7 is necessary to facilitate androgen-activated AR binding to chromatin. Transcriptome profile analysis of USP7-knockdown LNCaP cells also revealed the essential role of USP7 in the expression of a subset of androgen-responsive genes. Hence, inhibition of USP7 represents a compelling therapeutic strategy for the treatment of prostate cancer. PMID:26175158

  2. Crosstalk between RON and androgen receptor signaling in the development of castration resistant prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Batth, Izhar; Yun, Huiyoung; Hussain, Suleman; Meng, Peng; Osumulski, Powel; Huang, Tim Hui-Ming; Bedolla, Roble; Profit, Amanda; Reddick, Robert; Kumar, Addanki

    2016-01-01

    Castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is the fatal form of prostate cancer. Although reactivation of androgen receptor (AR) occurs following androgen deprivation, the precise mechanism involved is unclear. Here we show that the receptor tyrosine kinase, RON alters mechanical properties of cells to influence epithelial to mesenchymal transition and functions as a transcription factor to differentially regulate AR signaling. RON inhibits AR activation and subset of AR-regulated transcripts in androgen responsive LNCaP cells. However in C4-2B, a castrate-resistant sub-line of LNCaP and AR-negative androgen independent DU145 cells, RON activates subset of AR-regulated transcripts. Expression of AR in PC-3 cells leads to activation of RON under androgen deprivation but not under androgen proficient conditions implicating a role for RON in androgen independence. Consistently, RON expression is significantly elevated in castrate resistant prostate tumors. Taken together our results suggest that RON activation could aid in promoting androgen independence and that inhibition of RON in combination with AR antagonist(s) merits serious consideration as a therapeutic option during hormone deprivation therapy. PMID:26872377

  3. Crosstalk between RON and androgen receptor signaling in the development of castration resistant prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Batth, Izhar; Yun, Huiyoung; Hussain, Suleman; Meng, Peng; Osmulski, Pawel; Huang, Tim Hui-Ming; Bedolla, Roble; Profit, Amanda; Reddick, Robert; Kumar, Addanki

    2016-03-22

    Castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is the fatal form of prostate cancer. Although reactivation of androgen receptor (AR) occurs following androgen deprivation, the precise mechanism involved is unclear. Here we show that the receptor tyrosine kinase, RON alters mechanical properties of cells to influence epithelial to mesenchymal transition and functions as a transcription factor to differentially regulate AR signaling. RON inhibits AR activation and subset of AR-regulated transcripts in androgen responsive LNCaP cells. However in C4-2B, a castrate-resistant sub-line of LNCaP and AR-negative androgen independent DU145 cells, RON activates subset of AR-regulated transcripts. Expression of AR in PC-3 cells leads to activation of RON under androgen deprivation but not under androgen proficient conditions implicating a role for RON in androgen independence. Consistently, RON expression is significantly elevated in castrate resistant prostate tumors. Taken together our results suggest that RON activation could aid in promoting androgen independence and that inhibition of RON in combination with AR antagonist(s) merits serious consideration as a therapeutic option during hormone deprivation therapy.

  4. Pembrolizumab and Enobosarm in Treating Patients With Androgen Receptor Positive Metastatic Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-09-15

    Androgen Receptor Positive; Estrogen Receptor Negative; HER2/Neu Negative; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Stage III Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-Negative Breast Carcinoma

  5. RECOMBINANT ANDROGEN RECEPTOR (AR) BINDING ACROSS VERTEBRATE SPECIES: COMPARISON OF BINDING OF ENVIRONMENTAL COMPOUNDS TO HUMAN, RAINBOW TROUT AND FATHEAD MINNOW AR.

    EPA Science Inventory

    In vitro screening assays designed to identify androgen mimics or antagonists typically use mammalian (rat, human) androgen receptors (AR). Although the amino acid sequences of receptors from nonmammalian vertebrates are not identical to the mammalian receptors, it is uncertain ...

  6. RECOMBINANT ANDROGEN RECEPTOR (AR) BINDING ACROSS VERTEBRATE SPECIES: COMPARISON OF BINDING OF ENVIRONMENTAL COMPOUNDS TO HUMAN, RAINBOW TROUT AND FATHEAD MINNOW AR.

    EPA Science Inventory

    In vitro screening assays designed to identify androgen mimics or antagonists typically use mammalian (rat, human) androgen receptors (AR). Although the amino acid sequences of receptors from nonmammalian vertebrates are not identical to the mammalian receptors, it is uncertain ...

  7. A high-throughput ligand competition binding assay for the androgen receptor and other nuclear receptors.

    PubMed

    Féau, Clémentine; Arnold, Leggy A; Kosinski, Aaron; Guy, R Kiplin

    2009-01-01

    Standardized, automated ligand-binding assays facilitate evaluation of endocrine activities of environmental chemicals and identification of antagonists of nuclear receptor ligands. Many current assays rely on fluorescently labeled ligands that are significantly different from the native ligands. The authors describe a radiolabeled ligand competition scintillation proximity assay (SPA) for the androgen receptor (AR) using Ni-coated 384-well FlashPlates and liganded AR-LBD protein. This highly reproducible, low-cost assay is well suited for automated high-throughput screening. In addition, the authors show that this assay can be adapted to measure ligand affinities for other nuclear receptors (peroxisome proliferation-activated receptor gamma, thyroid receptors alpha and beta).

  8. Androgen receptor expression predicts different clinical outcomes for breast cancer patients stratified by hormone receptor status

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yan; Zheng, Yi-Zi; Liu, Yi-Rong; Lang, Guan-Tian; Qiao, Feng; Hu, Xin; Shao, Zhi-Ming

    2016-01-01

    In this study we sought to correlate androgen receptor (AR) expression with tumor progression and disease-free survival (DFS) in breast cancer patients. We investigated AR expression in 450 breast cancer patients. We found that breast cancers expressing the estrogen receptor (ER) are more likely to co-express AR compared to ER-negative cancers (56.0% versus 28.1%, P < 0.001). In addition, we found that AR expression is correlated with increased DFS in patients with luminal breast cancer (P < 0.001), and decreased DFS in TNBC (triple negative breast cancer, P = 0.014). In addition, patients with HR+ tumors (Hormone receptor positive tumors) expressing low levels of AR have the lowest DFS among all receptor combinations. We also propose a novel prognostic model using AR receptor status, BRCA1, and present data showing that our model is more predictive of disease free survival compared to the traditional TMN staging system. PMID:27285752

  9. Effect of nonpersistent pesticides on estrogen receptor, androgen receptor, and aryl hydrocarbon receptor.

    PubMed

    Medjakovic, Svjetlana; Zoechling, Alfred; Gerster, Petra; Ivanova, Margarita M; Teng, Yun; Klinge, Carolyn M; Schildberger, Barbara; Gartner, Michael; Jungbauer, Alois

    2014-10-01

    Nonpersistent pesticides are considered less harmful for the environment, but their impact as endocrine disruptors has not been fully explored. The pesticide Switch was applied to grape vines, and the maximum residue concentration of its active ingredients was quantified. The transactivation potential of the pesticides Acorit, Frupica, Steward, Reldan, Switch, Cantus, Teldor, and Scala and their active compounds (hexythiazox, mepanipyrim, indoxacarb, chlorpyrifos-methyl, cyprodinil, fludioxonil, boscalid, fenhexamid, and pyrimethanil) were tested on human estrogen receptor α (ERα), androgen receptor (AR) and arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR) in vitro. Relative binding affinities of the pure pesticide constituents for AR and their effect on human breast cancer and prostate cancer cell lines were evaluated. Residue concentrations of Switch's ingredients were below maximum residue limits. Fludioxonil and fenhexamid were ERα agonists (EC50 -values of 3.7 and 9.0 μM, respectively) and had time-dependent effects on endogenous ERα-target gene expression (cyclin D1, progesterone receptor, and nuclear respiratory factor 1) in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Fludioxonil, mepanipyrim, cyprodinil, pyrimethanil, and chlorpyrifos-methyl were AhR-agonists (EC50 s of 0.42, 0.77, 1.4, 4.6, and 5.1 μM, respectively). Weak AR binding was shown for chlorpyrifos-methyl, cyprodinil, fenhexamid, and fludioxonil. Assuming a total uptake which does not take metabolism and clearance rates into account, our in vitro evidence suggests that pesticides could activate pathways affecting hormonal balance, even within permitted limits, thus potentially acting as endocrine disruptors. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., a Wiley company.

  10. Dihydrotestosterone and estrogen regulation of rat brain androgen-receptor immunoreactivity.

    PubMed

    Lynch, C S; Story, A J

    Androgen-receptor upregulation that occurs with androgenic-anabolic steroid (AAS) administration may be mediated by AAS metabolites, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and estrogen. Castrated and intact male rats received 14 s.c. daily injections of AAS (2 mg/kg testosterone cypionate, 2 mg/kg nandrolone decanoate, and 1 mg/kg boldenone undecylenate in sesame oil vehicle), DHT (5 mg/kg dihydrotestosterone), EB (5 mg/kg estradiol benzoate), or sesame oil vehicle. Approximately 18-24 h after the fourteenth injection, brain tissues were removed and processed immunocytochemically using the PG-21 androgen-receptor antibody. As reported before, castration eliminated AR-ir (androgen-receptor immunoreactivity) and AAS upregulated AR-ir in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMHVL), medial amygdala (MePV), and medial preoptic area (MPOM). When compared to AAS, DHT fully upregulated AR-ir in the VM VL and MPOM and partially upregulated AR-ir in the MePV. EB treatment partially upregulated AR-ir in the VMHVL and MePV, but not in the MPOM of castrated rats. Because AR-ir in the MPOM was consistently upregulated by DHT or AAS, and not EB, androgen-receptor availability in this region may be mediated specifically via androgen receptors.

  11. Is reduced CAG repeat length in androgen receptor gene associated with risk of prostate cancer in Indian population?

    PubMed

    Mishra, Dk; Thangaraj, K; Mandhani, A; Kumar, A; Mittal, Rd

    2005-07-01

    Shorter CAG repeats in androgen receptor (AR) gene have been found to be associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer (CaP). Ethnic variations in CAG repeat length may contribute to varying risks in different populations. To evaluate the prognostic significance of androgen receptor (AR) CAG repeats in Indian population for CaP, genomic DNA from 113 CaP, 57 benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) patients and 133 normal healthy controls were examined by using a PCR-based GeneScan analysis. The mean number of CAG repeat in CaP was significantly lower as compared to the healthy controls (20.26 vs 22.98; p = 0.016). The odds ratio for CaP was 2.96 (p < 0.01), when individuals with short CAG repeat (< or =22) were compared with those having longer repeats (>22). A significant association was also observed between short CAG repeat and young age at diagnosis (OR 2.18; p = 0.04). The mean CAG repeat was not significantly different in BPH and healthy controls; however, BPH patients showed a tendency towards short CAG repeats. Thus, our results show that CAG repeat polymorphism in AR gene is significantly associated with CaP risk, suggesting that AR CAG polymorphism may act as a risk modifier to CaP in Indian population.

  12. Androgen receptor roles in insulin resistance and obesity in males: the linkage of androgen-deprivation therapy to metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yu, I-Chen; Lin, Hung-Yun; Sparks, Janet D; Yeh, Shuyuan; Chang, Chawnshang

    2014-10-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most frequently diagnosed malignancies in men. Androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) is the first-line treatment and fundamental management for men with advanced PCa to suppress functions of androgen/androgen receptor (AR) signaling. ADT is effective at improving cancer symptoms and prolonging survival. However, epidemiological and clinical studies support the notion that testosterone deficiency in men leads to the development of metabolic syndrome that increases cardiovascular disease risk. The underlying mechanisms by which androgen/AR signaling regulates metabolic homeostasis in men are complex, and in this review, we discuss molecular mechanisms mediated by AR signaling that link ADT to metabolic syndrome. Results derived from various AR knockout mouse models reveal tissue-specific AR signaling that is involved in regulation of metabolism. These data suggest that steps be taken early to manage metabolic complications associated with PCa patients receiving ADT, which could be accomplished using tissue-selective modulation of AR signaling and by treatment with insulin-sensitizing agents. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  13. Characterization of a new class of androgen receptor antagonists with potential therapeutic application in advanced prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Huifang; Hassona, Mohamed D H; Lack, Nathan A; Axerio-Cilies, Peter; Leblanc, Eric; Tavassoli, Peyman; Kanaan, Natalia; Frewin, Kate; Singh, Kriti; Adomat, Hans; Böhm, Konrad J; Prinz, Helge; Guns, Emma Tomlinson; Rennie, Paul S; Cherkasov, Artem

    2013-11-01

    The human androgen receptor plays a major role in the development and progression of prostate cancer and represents a well-established drug target. All clinically approved androgen receptor antagonists possess similar chemical structures and exhibit the same mode of action on the androgen receptor. Although initially effective, resistance to these androgen receptor antagonists usually develops and the cancer quickly progresses to castration-resistant and metastatic states. Yet even in these late-stage patients, the androgen receptor is critical for the progression of the disease. Thus, there is a continuing need for novel chemical classes of androgen receptor antagonists that could help overcome the problem of resistance. In this study, we implemented and used the synergetic combination of virtual and experimental screening to discover a number of new 10-benzylidene-10H-anthracen-9-ones that not only effectively inhibit androgen receptor transcriptional activity, but also induce almost complete degradation of the androgen receptor. Of these 10-benzylidene-10H-anthracen-9-one analogues, a lead compound (VPC-3033) was identified that showed strong androgen displacement potency, effectively inhibited androgen receptor transcriptional activity, and possesses a profound ability to cause degradation of androgen receptor. Notably, VPC-3033 exhibited significant activity against prostate cancer cells that have already developed resistance to the second-generation antiandrogen enzalutamide (formerly known as MDV3100). VPC-3033 also showed strong antiandrogen receptor activity in the LNCaP in vivo xenograft model. These results provide a foundation for the development of a new class of androgen receptor antagonists that can help address the problem of antiandrogen resistance in prostate cancer. ©2013 AACR.

  14. Increased cytosolic androgen receptor binding in rat striated muscle following denervation and disuse

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernard, P. A.; Fishman, P. S.; Max, S. R.; Rance, N. E.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of denervation and disuse on cytosolic androgen receptor binding by rat striated muscle are investigated. Denervation of the extensor digitorum longus and tibialis anterior muscles caused by a 40-50-percent increase in cytosolic androgen receptor concentration with no change in apparent binding affinity. This effect was evident at 6 h postdenervation, maximal at 24 h, and declined to 120 percent of the control level 72 h after denervation. A 40-percent increase in cytosolic androgen receptor concentration was also noted 24 hr after denervation of the hormone-sensitive levator ani muscle. The effect of denervation on androgen receptors was blocked by in vivo injection of cycloheximide; therefore, de novo receptor synthesis probably is not involved in the observed increase. Disuse, produced by subperineurial injection of tetrodotoxin into the tibial and common peroneal branches of the sciatic nerve, mimicked the effect of denervation on androgen receptor binding, suggesting that neuromuscular activity is important in regulation of receptor concentration. Possible mechanisms subserving this effect are discussed.

  15. Selective Androgen Receptor Modulators (SARMs) as Function Promoting Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Bhasin, Shalender; Jasuja, Ravi

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of review The last decade has witnessed unprecedented discovery effort to develop selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) that improve physical function and bone health without adversely affecting the prostate and cardiovascular outcomes. This review describes the historical evolution, the rationale for SARM development, and the mechanisms of testosterone action and SARM selectivity. Recent Findings While steroidal SARMs have been around since the 1940s, a number of nonsteroidal SARMs that do not serve as substrates for CYP19 aromatase or 5α-reductase, act as full agonists in muscle and bone and as partial agonists in prostate are in development. The differing interactions of steroidal and nonsteroidal compounds with AR contribute to their unique pharmacologic actions. Ligand binding induces specific conformational changes in the ligand binding domain, which could modulate surface topology and protein-protein interactions between AR and coregulators, resulting in tissue-specific gene regulation. Preclinical studies have demonstrated the ability of SARMs to increase muscle and bone mass in preclinical rodent models with varying degree of prostate sparing. Phase I trials of SARMs in humans have reported modest increments in fat-free mass. Summary SARMs hold promise as a new class of function promoting anabolic therapies for a number of clinical indications, including functional limitations associated with aging and chronic disease, frailty, cancer cachexia, and osteoporosis. PMID:19357508

  16. Androgen receptor regulates SRC expression through microRNA-203

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Hong-Yuan; Yeh, Hsiu-Lien; Yin, Juan Juan; Liu, Shih-Yang; Liu, Yen-Nien

    2016-01-01

    The SRC kinase has pivotal roles in multiple developmental processes and in tumor progression. An inverse relationship has been observed between androgen receptor (AR) activity and SRC signaling in advanced prostate cancer (PCa); however, the modulation of AR/SRC crosstalk that leads to metastatic PCa is unclear. Here, we showed that patients with high SRC levels displayed correspondingly low canonical AR gene signatures. Our results demonstrated that activated AR induced miR-203 and reduced SRC levels in PCa model systems. miR-203 directly binds to the 3′ UTR of SRC and regulates the stability of SRC mRNA upon AR activation. Moreover, we found that progressive PCa cell migration and growth were associated with a decrease in AR-regulated miR-203 and an increase in SRC. Relationships among AR, miR-203, and SRC were also confirmed in clinical datasets and specimens. We suggest that the induction of SRC results in increased PCa metastasis that is linked to the dysregulation of the AR signaling pathway through the inactivation of miR-203. PMID:27028864

  17. Androgen- and Estrogen-Receptor Content in Spontaneous and Experimentally Induced Canine Prostatic Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Trachtenberg, John; Hicks, L. Louise; Walsh, Patrick C.

    1980-01-01

    To gain insight into the mechanism by which steroidal hormones influence the development of canine prostatic hyperplasia, nuclear and cytosolic androgen- and estrogen-receptor content, as measured under exchange conditions by the binding of [3H]R1881 (methyltrienolone) and [3H]estradiol, respectively, were quantitated in the prostates of purebred beagles of known age. In young dogs with spontaneously arising and experimentally induced (androstanediol plus estradiol treatment) prostatic hyperplasia, nuclear, but not cytosolic, prostatic androgen-receptor content was significantly greater than that determined in the normal prostates of age-matched dogs (3,452±222 and 4,035±274 fmol/mg DNA vs. 2,096±364 fmol/mg DNA, respectively). No differences were observed between the androgen-receptor content of the normal prostates of young dogs and the hyperplastic prostates of old dogs. The cytosolic and nuclear estrogen-receptor content of spontaneously arising prostatic hyperplasia in both young and old animals was similar to that found in normal prostates. The administration of estradiol plus androstanediol to castrate dogs significantly increased the prostatic nuclear androgen-receptor content over that found in dogs treated only with androstanediol. This estradiol-associated increase in nuclear androgen-receptor content was accompanied by the development of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Estradiol treatment of castrate dogs resulted in an increase in prostatic nuclear estrogen-receptor content, in the appearance of a putative prostatic cytosolic progesterone receptor, and in an alteration of the epithelium of the prostate to one characterized by squamous metaplasia. Treatment of castrate dogs with both estradiol and androstanediol resulted in a reduction in prostatic nuclear estrogen-receptor content, disappearance of the progesterone receptor, and loss of squamous metaplasia. An increase in nuclear androgen-receptor content, thus, appears to be an important event in the

  18. A Novel Anti-Beta2-Microglobulin Antibody Inhibition of Androgen Receptor Expression, Survival, and Progression in Prostate Cancer Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-31

    receptor signaling in prostate cancer. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther 2005;5(1):63-74. 2. Heinlein CA, Chang C. Androgen receptor in prostate cancer. Endocr...prostate cancer. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther 2005;5:63^74. 22. Heinlein CA, Chang C. Androgen receptor in pros- tate cancer. Endocr Rev 2004;25:276^308

  19. BA321, a novel carborane analog that binds to androgen and estrogen receptors, acts as a new selective androgen receptor modulator of bone in male mice.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kenta; Hirata, Michiko; Tominari, Tsukasa; Matsumoto, Chiho; Endo, Yasuyuki; Murphy, Gillian; Nagase, Hideaki; Inada, Masaki; Miyaura, Chisato

    2016-09-09

    Carboranes are a class of carbon-containing polyhedral boron cluster compounds with globular geometry and hydrophobic surface that interact with hormone receptors such as estrogen receptor (ER) and androgen receptor (AR). We have synthesized BA321, a novel carborane compound, which binds to AR. We found here that it also binds to ERs, ERα and ERβ. In orchidectomized (ORX) mice, femoral bone mass was markedly reduced due to androgen deficiency and BA321 restored bone loss in the male, whilst the decreased weight of seminal vesicle in ORX mice was not recovered by administration of BA321. In female mice, BA321 acts as a pure estrogen agonist, and restored both the loss of bone mass and uterine atrophy due to estrogen deficiency in ovariectomized (OVX) mice. In bone tissues, the trabecular bone loss occurred in both ORX and OVX mice, and BA321 completely restored the trabecular bone loss in both sexes. Cortical bone loss occurred in ORX mice but not in OVX mice, and BA321 clearly restored cortical bone loss due to androgen deficiency in ORX mice. Therefore, BA321 is a novel selective androgen receptor modulator (SARM) that may offer a new therapy option for osteoporosis in the male. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Classification and virtual screening of androgen receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiazhong; Gramatica, Paola

    2010-05-24

    Computational tools, such as quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR), are highly useful as screening support for prioritization of substances of very high concern (SVHC). From the practical point of view, QSAR models should be effective to pick out more active rather than inactive compounds, expressed as sensitivity in classification works. This research investigates the classification of a big data set of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs)-androgen receptor (AR) antagonists, mainly aiming to improve the external sensitivity and to screen for potential AR binders. The kNN, lazy IB1, and ADTree methods and the consensus approach were used to build different models, which improve the sensitivity on external chemicals from 57.1% (literature) to 76.4%. Additionally, the models' predictive abilities were further validated on a blind collected data set (sensitivity: 85.7%). Then the proposed classifiers were used: (i) to distinguish a set of AR binders into antagonists and agonists; (ii) to screen a combined estrogen receptor binder database to find out possible chemicals that can bind to both AR and ER; and (iii) to virtually screen our in-house environmental chemical database. The in silico screening results suggest: (i) that some compounds can affect the normal endocrine system through a complex mechanism binding both to ER and AR; (ii) new EDCs, which are nonER binders, but can in silico bind to AR, are recognized; and (iii) about 20% of compounds in a big data set of environmental chemicals are predicted as new AR antagonists. The priority should be given to them to experimentally test the binding activities with AR.

  1. Clinical, cytogenetic and molecular analysis of androgen insensitivity syndromes from south Indian cohort and detection and in-silico characterization of androgen receptor gene mutations.

    PubMed

    V G, Abilash; S, Radha; K M, Marimuthu; K, Thangaraj; S, Arun; S, Nishu; A, Mohana Priya; J, Meena; D, Anuradha

    2016-01-30

    Rare cases of 9 complete androgen insensitivity syndromes, 9 cases of partial androgen insensitivity syndromes and equal number of male control samples were selected for this study. Few strong variations in clinical features were noticed; Giemsa banded metaphase revealed a 46,XY karyotype and the frequency of chromosome aberrations were significantly higher when compared with control samples. DNA sequence analysis of the androgen receptor gene of androgen insensitivity syndromes revealed three missense mutations - c.C1713>G resulting in the replacement of a highly conserved histidine residue with glutamine p.(His571Glu) in DNA-binding domain, c.A1715>G resulting in the replacement of a highly conserved tyrosine residue with cysteine p.(Tyr572Cys) in DNA-binding domain and c.G2599>A resulting in the replacement of a highly conserved valine residue with methionine p.(Val867Met) in ligand-binding domain of androgen receptor gene respectively. The heterozygous type of mutations c.C1713>G and c.G2599>A observed in mothers of the patients for familial cases concluding that the mutation was inherited from the mother. The novel mutation c.C1713>G is reported first time in androgen insensitivity syndrome. In-silico analysis of mutations observed in androgen receptor gene of androgen insensitivity syndrome predicted that the substitution at Y572C and V867M could probably disrupt the protein structure and function.

  2. Testosterone-mediated increase in 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone content, nuclear androgen receptor levels, and cell division in an androgen-independent prostate carcinoma of Noble rats.

    PubMed

    Ho, S M; Leav, I; Damassa, D; Kwan, P W; Merk, F B; Seto, H S

    1988-02-01

    An androgen-independent, transplantable prostate carcinoma line (AIT), originally derived from the dorsolateral prostate (DLP) of Noble rat, was implanted into orchiectomized Noble rats and its response to androgen stimulation was studied and compared to that of the regenerating DLP tissue in sexually ablated rats. AIT tumors carried in castrated hosts displayed a high basal level of proliferative activity (mitotic index (MI), 15.0 +/- 0.5) while DLP tissue in untreated castrates exhibited no proliferative activity. Following androgen stimulation by testosterone capsule implantation into host rats, the AIT responded with a marked increase in cell proliferation; MI values doubled to 30.0 +/- 2.9 on Day 5 following androgen stimulation. This androgen-induced increase in MI values was coincident with elevations in nuclear androgen receptor (20-fold increase) and 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone content (3-fold increase) in the tumor. However, by Day 10 following androgen treatment, indices of cell proliferation in the AIT declined to pre-androgen-stimulated levels (MI, 14.8 +/- 1.9) despite the continued elevations in nuclear androgen receptor and tissue 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone contents. Parallel changes in MI were also observed in the normal regenerating DLP following androgen stimulation. MI values in this tissue increased from nondetectable levels to 38.1 +/- 4.7 on Day 5 but declined to relatively low levels (4.5 +/- 0.9) by Day 10 following androgen replacement. Taken together these findings led us to conclude that the AIT carried in castrates is capable of responding to testosterone in a manner similar to that observed for androgen-stimulated DLP of sexually ablated rats. Thus, in both the neoplastic and regenerating tissues, the initial response to androgen is characterized by a marked enhancement of cell proliferation which was correlated with an increase in androgen receptor and 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone content. However, like its tissue of origin, the AIT

  3. Identification of an anabolic selective androgen receptor modulator that actively induces death of androgen-independent prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Azriel; Meissner, Robert S; Gentile, Michael A; Chisamore, Michael J; Opas, Evan E; Scafonas, Angela; Cusick, Tara E; Gambone, Carlo; Pennypacker, Brenda; Hodor, Paul; Perkins, James J; Bai, Chang; Ferraro, Damien; Bettoun, David J; Wilkinson, Hilary A; Alves, Stephen E; Flores, Osvaldo; Ray, William J

    2014-09-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) initially responds to inhibition of androgen receptor (AR) signaling, but inevitably progresses to hormone ablation-resistant disease. Much effort is focused on optimizing this androgen deprivation strategy by improving hormone depletion and AR antagonism. However we found that bicalutamide, a clinically used antiandrogen, actually resembles a selective AR modulator (SARM), as it partially regulates 24% of endogenously 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-responsive genes in AR(+) MDA-MB-453 breast cancer cells. These data suggested that passive blocking of all AR functions is not required for PCa therapy. Hence, we adopted an active strategy that calls for the development of novel SARMs, which induce a unique gene expression profile that is intolerable to PCa cells. Therefore, we screened 3000 SARMs for the ability to arrest the androgen-independent growth of AR(+) 22Rv1 and LNCaP PCa cells but not AR(-) PC3 or DU145 cells. We identified only one such compound; the 4-aza-steroid, MK-4541, a potent and selective SARM. MK-4541 induces caspase-3 activity and cell death in both androgen-independent, AR(+) PCa cell lines but spares AR(-) cells or AR(+) non-PCa cells. This activity correlates with its promoter context- and cell-type dependent transcriptional effects. In rats, MK-4541 inhibits the trophic effects of DHT on the prostate, but not the levator ani muscle, and triggers an anabolic response in the periosteal compartment of bone. Therefore, MK-4541 has the potential to effectively manage prostatic hypertrophic diseases owing to its antitumor SARM-like mechanism, while simultaneously maintaining the anabolic benefits of natural androgens.

  4. A Novel Androgen Receptor Splice Variant Is Upregulated during Prostate Cancer Progression and Promotes Androgen-depletion-resistant Growth

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Zhiyong; Yang, Xi; Sun, Feng; Jiang, Richeng; Linn, Douglas E.; Chen, Hege; Chen, Hegang; Kong, Xiangtian; Melamed, Jonathan; Tepper, Clifford G.; Kung, Hsing-Jien; Brodie, Angela M. H.; Edwards, Joanne; Qiu, Yun

    2009-01-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) plays a key role in progression to incurable androgen-ablation resistant prostate cancer (PCA). We have identified three novel AR splice variants lacking the ligand binding domain (designated as AR3, AR4 and AR5) in hormone insensitive PCA cells. AR3, one of the major splice variants expressed in human prostate tissues, is constitutively active and its transcriptional activity is not regulated by androgens or antiandrogens. Immunohistochemistry analysis on tissue microarrays containing 429 human prostate tissue samples shows that AR3 is significantly upregulated during PCA progression and AR3 expression level is correlated with the risk of tumor recurrence after radical prostatectomy. Overexpression of AR3 confers ablation-independent growth of PCA cells while specific knock-down of AR3 expression (without altering AR level) in hormone resistant PCA cells attenuates their growth under androgen-depleted conditions in both cell culture and xenograft models, suggesting an indispensable role of AR3 in ablation-independent growth of PCA cells. Furthermore, AR3 may play a distinct yet essential role in ablation-independent growth through regulating a unique set of genes including AKT1, which are not regulated by the prototype AR. Our data suggest that aberrant expression of AR splice variants may be a novel mechanism underlying ablation-independence during PCA progression and AR3 may serve as a prognostic marker to predict patient outcome in response to hormonal therapy. Given that these novel AR splice variants are not inhibited by currently available anti-androgen drugs, development of new drugs targeting these AR isoforms may potentially be effective for treatment of ablation-resistant PCA. PMID:19244107

  5. Identification of androgen receptors in normal human osteoblast-like cells

    SciTech Connect

    Colvard, D.S.; Eriksen, E.F.; Keeting, P.E.; Riggs, B.L.; Spelsberg, T.C. ); Wilson, E.M.; Lubahn, D.B.; French, F.S. )

    1989-02-01

    The sex steroids, androgens and estrogens, are major regulators of bone metabolism. However, whether these hormones act on bone cells through direct or indirect mechanisms has remained unclear. A nuclear binding assay recently used to demonstrate estrogen receptors in bone was used to identify specific nuclear binding of a tritiated synthetic androgen, ({sup 3}H)R1881 (methyltrienolone), in 21 of 25 (84%) human osteoblast-like cell strains and a concentration of bound steroid receptors of 821 {plus minus} 140 molecules per cell nucleus. Binding was saturable and steroid-specific. Androgen receptor gene expression in osteoblasts was confirmed by RNA blot analysis. Relative concentrations of androgen and estrogen receptors were compared by measuring specific nuclear estrogen binding. Nuclear binding of ({sup 3}H)estradiol was observed in 27 of 30 (90%) cell strains; the concentration of bound estradiol receptor was 1537 {plus minus} 221 molecules per cell nucleus. The concentrations of nuclear binding sites were similar in males and females for both ({sup 3}H)R1881 and ({sup 3}H)estradiol. The authors conclude that both androgens and estrogens act directly on human bone cells through their respective receptor-mediated mechanisms.

  6. Genome-wide impact of Androgen Receptor Trapped Clone-27 Loss on Androgen-regulated Transcription in Prostate Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nwachukwu, Jerome C.; Mita, Paolo; Ruoff, Rachel; Ha, Susan; Wang, Qianben; Huang, S. Joseph; Taneja, Samir S.; Brown, Myles; Gerald, William L.; Garabedian, Michael J.; Logan, Susan K.

    2009-01-01

    The Androgen Receptor (AR) directs diverse biological processes through interaction with coregulators such as Androgen Receptor Trapped clone-27 (ART-27). Our results demonstrate that ART-27 is recruited to AR-binding sites by ChIP analysis. In addition, the impact of ART-27 on genome wide transcription was examined. The studies indicate that loss of ART-27 enhances expression of many androgen-regulated genes, suggesting that ART-27 inhibits gene expression. Surprisingly, classes of genes that are upregulated upon ART-27 depletion include regulators of DNA damage checkpoint and cell cycle progression, suggesting that ART-27 functions to keep expression levels of these genes low. Consistent with this idea, stable reduction of ART-27 by shRNA enhances LNCaP cell proliferation compared to control cells. The impact of ART-27 loss was also examined in response to the antiandrogen, bicalutamide. Unexpectedly, cells treated with ART-27 siRNA no longer exhibited gene repression in response to bicalutamide. To examine ART-27 loss in prostate cancer progression, immunohistochemistry was conducted on a tissue array containing samples from primary tumors of individuals who were clinically followed and later shown to have either recurrent or non-recurrent disease. Comparison of ART-27 and AR staining indicated that nuclear ART-27 expression was lost in the majority of AR-positive recurrent prostate cancers. Our studies demonstrate that reduction of ART-27 protein levels in prostate cancer may facilitate antiandrogen resistant disease. PMID:19318562

  7. A new mutation of the androgen receptor, P817A, causing partial androgen insensitivity syndrome: in vitro and structural analysis.

    PubMed

    Lumbroso, S; Wagschal, A; Bourguet, W; Georget, V; Mazen, I; Servant, N; Audran, F; Sultan, C; Auzou, G

    2004-06-01

    Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) is an X-linked disease caused by mutations in the androgen receptor (AR) resulting in various degrees of defective masculinization in 46,XY individuals. In the present study, we describe a novel mutation in exon 7 of the AR gene in an Egyptian patient with partial AIS (PAIS). Sequencing analysis of the AR gene revealed a novel missense mutation, P817A, within the ligand-binding domain (LBD). This is the first report of a mutation within the short amino acid motif (codons 815-817) of the beta-strand lying between helices H8 and H9 of the AR LBD. The functional defects of the mutated protein were characterized by in vitro study and included significantly decreased ligand-binding affinity and impaired transactivation potential. Limited proteolysis assays performed with the wild-type and mutant AR receptors incubated with the synthetic agonist R1881 revealed that the P817A mutation resulted in a reduced stabilization of the AR active conformation. Structural analyses showed that this mutation is likely to perturb the beta-sheet interaction between residues 815-817 and 911-913. This structural alteration destabilizes the position of the C-terminal extension, which contains residues critical for androgen function.

  8. Androgen receptor and immune inflammation in benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Izumi, Kouji; Li, Lei; Chang, Chawnshang

    2014-01-01

    Both benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer (PCa) are frequent diseases in middle-aged to elderly men worldwide. While both diseases are linked to abnormal growth of the prostate, the epidemiological and pathological features of these two prostate diseases are different. BPH nodules typically arise from the transitional zone, and, in contrast, PCa arises from the peripheral zone. Androgen deprivation therapy alone may not be sufficient to cure these two prostatic diseases due to its undesirable side effects. The alteration of androgen receptor-mediated inflammatory signals from infiltrating immune cells and prostate stromal/epithelial cells may play key roles in those unwanted events. Herein, this review will focus on the roles of androgen/androgen receptor signals in the inflammation-induced progression of BPH and PCa. PMID:26594314

  9. Pharmacological characterization of AC-262536, a novel selective androgen receptor modulator.

    PubMed

    Piu, Fabrice; Gardell, Luis R; Son, Thomas; Schlienger, Nathalie; Lund, Birgitte W; Schiffer, Hans H; Vanover, Kim E; Davis, Robert E; Olsson, Roger; Bradley, Stefania Risso

    2008-03-01

    Because of the limitations and liabilities of current testosterone therapies, non-steroidal tissue-selective androgen receptor modulators may provide a clinically meaningful advance in therapy. Using a functional cell-based assay AC-262536 was identified as a potent and selective AR ligand, with partial agonist activity relative to the natural androgen testosterone. A 2-week chronic study in castrated male rats indicated that AC-262536 significantly improves anabolic parameters in these animals, especially in stimulating the growth of the levator ani and in suppressing elevated LH levels. In sharp contrast to testosterone, AC-262536 has weak androgenic effects, as measured by prostate and seminal vesicle weights. Thus, AC-262536 represents a novel class of selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) with beneficial anabolic effects.

  10. Fractalkine receptor polymorphism and chronic tonsillitis.

    PubMed

    Babakurban, Seda Turkoglu; Erbek, Selim S; Terzi, Yunus Kasim; Arslan, Fatih; Sahin, Feride I

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study is to examine whether there is an association of fractalkine gene receptor polymorphisms with chronic tonsillitis. This is a cross-sectional study in the setting of a tertiary referral center. The study group included 79 patients with chronic tonsillitis and 76 controls without history of chronic tonsillitis. Genotypes were identified by restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses after polymerase chain reaction. c.745G>A (V249I) single nucleotide polymorphism and the frequencies of the G and A alleles did not differ in the patient and control groups (p = 0.363; p = 0.743, respectively). c.839C>T (T280M) single nucleotide polymorphism was found to be higher in controls than in the patients with chronic tonsillitis (p < 0.001). Consistent with this result, T allele frequency was higher in controls than in the patients with chronic tonsillitis (p < 0.001). In this study, we suggested that fractalkine gene receptor c.839C>T (T280M) single nucleotide polymorphism could be associated with a reduced risk of chronic tonsillitis.

  11. The Role of Stat3 Activation in Androgen Receptor Signaling and Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-01

    Naruto, M., and Kishimoto, T. Molecular cloning of APRF, a novel IFN-stimulated gene factor 3 p91- related transcrip- tion factor involved in the gp130...independent tumor cells. The molecular mechanism characterizing prostate cancer progression from androgen-dependence to androgenindependence is incompletely...consequence of Stat3 activation in prostate cancer cell growth and to determine the molecular basis of Stat3 interactions with androgen receptor signaling

  12. Targeting Androgen Receptor Function by MicroRNA in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-01

    MicroRNA in Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Girish C. Shukla, Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Cleveland Clinic Foundation...Targeting Androgen Receptor Function by MicroRNA in Prostate Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-06-1-0191 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d...antagonists results in higher levels of AR which is one of the causative factors of the development of androgen-independent prostate cancer . We proposed

  13. TAF1, From a General Transcription Factor to Modulator of Androgen Receptor in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-01

    Shin M , Tsujimoto Y, Takayama H, Aozasa K, Okuyama A 2001 Potential mechanism for the effects of dexamethasone on growth of androgen-independent...A., Cheng H., Zoubeidi A., Fazli L., Gleave M ., Snoek R., Rennie P. S., TAF1 Differentially Enhances Androgen Receptor Transcriptional Activity via...adenocarcinoma cell line LAPC-4. Urology 62:167-171 6. Nishimura K, Nonomura N, Satoh E, Harada Y, Nakayama M , Tokizane T, Fukui T, Ono Y, Inoue H

  14. New Strategy for Prostate Cancer Prevention Based on Selenium Suppression of Androgen Receptor Signaling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-01

    regulates androgen receptor, and finasteride , a 5α-reductase inhibitor, has a synerigistic effect in inhibiting the growth of prostate cancer cells...impact of the selenium and finasteride combination on androgen signaling; 2) Identifying the pro-apoptotic target genes of FOXO1 that are induced by...selenium; 3) studying the potential AR antagonistic effect of finasteride . The last was not proposed in the original application. But we strongly

  15. The neural androgen receptor: a therapeutic target for myelin repair in chronic demyelination.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Rashad; Ghoumari, Abdel M; Bielecki, Bartosz; Steibel, Jérôme; Boehm, Nelly; Liere, Philippe; Macklin, Wendy B; Kumar, Narender; Habert, René; Mhaouty-Kodja, Sakina; Tronche, François; Sitruk-Ware, Regine; Schumacher, Michael; Ghandour, M Said

    2013-01-01

    Myelin regeneration is a major therapeutic goal in demyelinating diseases, and the failure to remyelinate rapidly has profound consequences for the health of axons and for brain function. However, there is no efficient treatment for stimulating myelin repair, and current therapies are limited to anti-inflammatory agents. Males are less likely to develop multiple sclerosis than females, but often have a more severe disease course and reach disability milestones at an earlier age than females, and these observations have spurred interest in the potential protective effects of androgens. Here, we demonstrate that testosterone treatment efficiently stimulates the formation of new myelin and reverses myelin damage in chronic demyelinated brain lesions, resulting from the long-term administration of cuprizone, which is toxic for oligodendrocytes. In addition to the strong effect of testosterone on myelin repair, the number of activated astrocytes and microglial cells returned to low control levels, indicating a reduction of neuroinflammatory responses. We also identify the neural androgen receptor as a novel therapeutic target for myelin recovery. After the acute demyelination of cerebellar slices in organotypic culture, the remyelinating actions of testosterone could be mimicked by 5α-dihydrotestosterone, a metabolite that is not converted to oestrogens, and blocked by the androgen receptor antagonist flutamide. Testosterone treatment also failed to promote remyelination after chronic cuprizone-induced demyelination in mice with a non-functional androgen receptor. Importantly, testosterone did not stimulate the formation of new myelin sheaths after specific knockout of the androgen receptor in neurons and macroglial cells. Thus, the neural brain androgen receptor is required for the remyelination effect of testosterone, whereas the presence of the receptor in microglia and in peripheral tissues is not sufficient to enhance remyelination. The potent synthetic

  16. Neurodistribution of Androgen Receptor Immunoreactivity in the Male Frog, Rana esculenta

    PubMed Central

    Guerriero, G.; Prins, G. S.; Birch, L.; Ciarcia, G.

    2010-01-01

    Sexual behavior in vertebrates depends on the cyclic release of steroids and their binding to the brain receptors. Previously, we demonstrated the presence of specific binding of 3H-testosterone and staining with PG-21 in the brain of the adult male frog, Rana esculenta. Here, we report our further receptor characterization using an anti–androgen receptor antiserum, PG-21, and the androgen site of action in frog brain. Nuclei, which contained cells labeled for the androgen receptor (AR), were mainly identified in the olfactory bulbs, preoptic-septal region, infundibulum, amygdala, thalamus, tectum, torus semicircularis, and medulla. The neuroanatomical AR staining appears similar to that in other lower vertebrates. PMID:15891054

  17. Functional analysis of a novel androgen receptor mutation, Q902K, in an individual with partial androgen insensitivity.

    PubMed

    Umar, Arzu; Berrevoets, Cor A; Van, N Mai; van Leeuwen, Marije; Verbiest, Michael; Kleijer, Wim J; Dooijes, Dennis; Grootegoed, J Anton; Drop, Stenvert L S; Brinkmann, Albert O

    2005-01-01

    Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) is caused by defects in the androgen receptor (AR) that render the AR partially or completely inactive. As a result, embryonic sex differentiation is impaired. Here, we describe a novel mutation in the AR found in a patient with partial AIS. The mutation results in a substitution of a glutamine (Q) by a lysine (K) residue at position 902, Q902K. The AR Q902K mutation was investigated in vitro with respect to its functional properties. The equilibrium dissociation constants (K(d)s) of AR Q902K in the presence of either the synthetic androgen R1881 or the natural ligand DHT were slightly elevated. The R1881 dissociation rate (t(1/2)) was increased 3-fold for AR Q902K compared with wild type. Transcriptional activity was decreased to 85% of wild type, and the dose-response curve revealed that the sensitivity to hormone was decreased due to the mutation. Furthermore, the 114-kDa androgen-induced phosphorylated AR protein band was not detectable in genital skin fibroblasts. However, it could be detected in transfected CHO cells expressing the mutant receptor in the presence of 10 and 100 nm R1881. Functional interaction assays and a GST pull-down assay showed that the interaction between the NH2 and COOH terminus of AR Q902K was reduced to 50% of wild type. Furthermore, the transactivation by the coactivator TIF2 (transcriptional intermediary factor 2) was decreased 2- to 3-fold. The half-maximal response in both assays was shifted to a higher hormone concentration compared with wild type. These results indicate that residue Q902 is involved in TIF2 and NH2/COOH interaction and that the Q to K mutation results in a mild impairment of AR function, which can explain the partial AIS phenotype of the patient.

  18. Targeting Androgen Receptor in Breast Cancer: Enzalutamide as a Novel Breast Cancer Therapeutic

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    Detroit, MI RESULTS BACKGROUND Androgen Receptor Signaling in ER/PgR+ Breast Cancer  Estrogen receptor (ER)/ progesterone receptor (PgR...phenotypes. – Distinct subtypes are classified by the presence of estrogen (ER), progesterone (PgR), and human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2) receptors...Exclusion Criteria Stage 1 • Severe concurrent disease, infection, or comorbidity • Pregnancy or lactation • Known/suspected brain metastases or

  19. Inhibition of the Androgen Receptor by Antiandrogens in Spinobulbar Muscle Atrophy.

    PubMed

    Baniahmad, Aria

    2016-03-01

    Spinal-bulbar muscle atrophy (SBMA) or also named Kennedy's Disease is caused by a polyglutamine expansion (PolyQ) of the coding region of the androgen receptor (AR). The AR is a ligand-controlled transcription factor and member of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. The central characteristics of the SBMA pathogenicity are muscle weakness, the loss of motoneurons and the occurrence of AR-containing protein aggregates that are observed in spinal cord motoneurons and skeletal muscles induced by the AR-PolyQ expansion in the presence of androgens. The PolyQ triggers a misfolding in the AR-PolyQ and leads to protein aggregation in spinal cord motoneurons and muscle cells. The AR-PolyQ toxicity is activated by the AR ligand testosterone and dihydrotestosterone that activate the receptor and triggers nuclear toxicity by inducing AR nuclear translocation. In line with this, androgen treatment of SBMA patients worsened the SBMA symptoms. SBMA has been modeled in AR-overexpressing and AR-PolyQ-knock-in animals, but precisely how the PolyQ expansion leads to neurodegeneration is unclear. The androgen-induced toxicity and androgen-dependent nuclear accumulation of AR-PolyQ protein seems to be central to the pathogenesis. Therefore, the inhibition of the androgen-activated AR-PolyQ might be a therapeutic option. Here the use of AR antagonists for treatment option of SBMA will be reviewed and discussed.

  20. Myocyte androgen receptors increase metabolic rate and improve body composition by reducing fat mass.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Shannon M; Rao, Pengcheng; Niel, Lee; Chatterjee, Diptendu; Stagljar, Marijana; Monks, D Ashley

    2010-07-01

    Testosterone and other androgens are thought to increase lean body mass and reduce fat body mass in men by activating the androgen receptor. However, the clinical potential of androgens for improving body composition is hampered by our limited understanding of the tissues and cells that promote such changes. Here we show that selective overexpression of androgen receptor in muscle cells (myocytes) of transgenic male rats both increases lean mass percentage and reduces fat mass. Similar changes in body composition are observed in human skeletal actin promoter driving expression of androgen receptor (HSA-AR) transgenic mice and result from acute testosterone treatment of transgenic female HSA-AR rats. These shifts in body composition in HSA-AR transgenic male rats are associated with hypertrophy of type IIb myofibers and decreased size of adipocytes. Metabolic analyses of transgenic males show higher activity of mitochondrial enzymes in skeletal muscle and increased O(2) consumption by the rats. These results indicate that androgen signaling in myocytes not only increases muscle mass but also reduces fat body mass, likely via increases in oxidative metabolism.

  1. Optical biosensor analysis in studying new synthesized bicalutamide analogs binding to androgen receptor.

    PubMed

    Fortugno, Cecilia; Varchi, Greta; Guerrini, Andrea; Carrupt, Pierre-Alain; Bertucci, Carlo

    2014-07-01

    Bicalutamide (Casodex®) is a non-steroidal anti-androgen drug used in the treatment of prostate cancer, which represents the second most common malignancy diagnosed in men worldwide. In this work, we analyze the ability of some novel bicalutamide analogs to bind the androgen receptor, by using an optical biosensor. Androgen receptor was covalently immobilized on a carboxy methyl dextran matrix. The immobilized receptor chip was then used for the binding experiments of the bicalutamide analogs. The (R)-bicalutamide dissociation constant was in good agreement to the value reported in literature obtained by using radiolabeled targets. Most of the new synthesized compounds showed higher androgen receptor binding level, when compared to the reference. Our results clearly indicate that the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technique offers many advantages with respect to other available technologies in terms of studying biomolecular interactions. Moreover, this study provides an effective methodology for determining the binding affinity of novel chemical entities for the isolated androgen receptor, thus excluding possible off-target interactions occurring in conventional cell-based techniques.

  2. Characterizing and Targeting Androgen Receptor Pathway-Independent Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-01

    combined with dutasteride (ZD), bicalutamide and dutasteride (ZBD), or bicalutamide, dutasteride, and ketoconazole (ZBDK) for 3 months before...SRD5A) inhibitor dutasteride to inhibit conversion of testosterone to the more potent androgen DHT, the CYP11A1/CYP17A1 inhibitor ketoconazole to...including drugs affecting androgen or ketoconazole metabolism, his- tory of thrombosis, unstable angina, or heart failure were exclusionary. Men were

  3. Characterizing and Targeting Androgen Receptor Pathway-Independent Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH- 10 -1-0771 TITLE: Characterizing and Targeting Androgen...NUMBER Seattle, WA 98109-1024 9. SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10 . SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) U.S...pros- tate cancer cells in the absence of exogenous AR ligands, we performed a high-throughput RNAi screen ( HTRS ) using two androgen-sensitive prostate

  4. Prostate Cell Specific Regulation of Androgen Receptor Phosphorylation in Vivo

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-01

    the AR-P-S213 antigen was present in epithelial cells of the urogenital sinus when endogenous androgen levels are high, but absent at a later stage...of development when endogenous androgen levels are low. Immunoreactivity is evident in differentiated cells lining the lumen of the urogenital sinus ...sion in human prostate development. Sections of early (15-wk) and late (21 wk) urogenital sinus were stained using CREB and pCREB (S133) antibodies

  5. Controlling Androgen receptor nuclear localization by dendrimer conjugates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haoyu

    Androgen Receptor (AR) antagonists, such as bicalutamide and flutamide have been used widely in the treatment of prostate cancer. Although initial treatment is effective, prostate cancer cells often acquire antiandrogen resistance with prolonged treatment. AR over-expression and AR mutations contribute to the development of antiandrogen resistant cancer. Second generation antiandrogens such as enzalutamide are more effective and show reduced AR nuclear localization. In this study, derivatives of PAN52, a small molecule antiandrogen previously developed in our lab, were conjugated to the surface of generation 4 and generation 6 PAMAM dendrimers to obtain antiandrogen PAMAM dendrimer conjugates (APDC). APDCs readily enter cells and associate with AR in the cytoplasm. Due to their large size and positive charge, they can not enter the nucleus, thus retaining AR in the cytoplasm. In addition, APDCs are effective in decreasing AR mediated transcription and cell proliferation. APDC is the first AR antagonists that inhibit DHT-induced nuclear localization of AR. By inhibiting AR nuclear localization, APDC represents a new class of antiandrogens that offer an alternative approach to addressing antiandrogen-resistant prostate cancer. Lysine post-translational modification of AR Nuclear Localization Sequence (NLS) has great impact on AR cellular localization. It is of interest to understand which modifications modulate AR translocation into the nucleus. In this study, we prepared dendrimer-based acetyltransferase mimetic (DATM), DATM is able to catalytically acetylate AR in CWR22Rv1 cells, which will be a useful tool for studying AR modification effect on AR cellular localization. Derivatives of DATM, which transfer other chemical groups to AR, can be prepared similarly, and with more dendrimer based AR modification tools prepared in future, we will be able to understand and control AR cellular localization through AR modification.

  6. EGF receptor (EGFR) signaling promoting invasion is disrupted in androgen-sensitive prostate cancer cells by an interaction between EGFR and androgen receptor (AR).

    PubMed

    Bonaccorsi, Lorella; Carloni, Vinicio; Muratori, Monica; Formigli, Lucia; Zecchi, Sandra; Forti, Gianni; Baldi, Elisabetta

    2004-10-20

    We previously demonstrated that expression of androgen receptor (AR) by transfection of the androgen-independent prostate cancer cell line PC3 decreases invasion and adhesion of these cells (PC3-AR) through modulation of alpha6beta4 integrin expression. The treatment with androgens further reduced invasion of the cells without modifying alpha6beta4 expression, suggesting an interference with the invasion process by androgens. Here, we investigated EGF-mediated signal transduction processes that lead to invasion in PC3-AR cells. We show that EGF-induced EGFR autotransphosphorylation is reduced in PC3-AR cells compared to PC3 cells transfected only with the vector (PC3-Neo). EGF-stimulated PI3K activity, a key signaling pathway for invasion of these cells, and EGF-PI3K interaction are also decreased in PC3-AR cells and further reduced by treatment with androgen. Finally, we show that EGFR internalization process was reduced in PC3-AR and LNCaP cells compared to PC3-Neo. Investigations on the location of AR in PC3-AR transfected cells were also conducted. Immunoconfocal microscopy and coimminoprecipitation studies demonstrated the presence of an interaction between EGFR and AR at membrane level in PC3-AR and LNCaP cells. In conclusion, our results suggest that the expression of AR by transfection in PC3 cells confers a less-malignant phenotype by interfering with EGFR signaling leading to invasion through a mechanism involving an interaction between AR and EGFR.

  7. Expression of a mutant androgen receptor in cloned fibroblasts derived from a heterozygous carrier for the syndrome of testicular feminization.

    PubMed Central

    Elawady, M K; Allman, D R; Griffin, J E; Wilson, J D

    1983-01-01

    Thermolability of androgen binding was compared in fibroblasts cloned from normal female skin, skin from a subject with testicular feminization whose mutation is known to be associated with a thermolabile androgen receptor, and from the mother of the subject with testicular feminization. Seven of 28 clones studied from the mother exhibited thermolability of binding, indicating that the mutant gene that causes thermolability of binding, like the gene responsible for the normal androgen receptor, is X-linked. PMID:6602545

  8. Trafficking of androgen receptor mutants fused to green fluorescent protein: a new investigation of partial androgen insensitivity syndrome.

    PubMed

    Georget, V; Térouanne, B; Lumbroso, S; Nicolas, J C; Sultan, C

    1998-10-01

    The naturally occurring mutations of the androgen receptor (AR), detected in patients with androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS), are currently analyzed by in vitro assays. Unfortunately, these assays do not always permit the demonstration of a direct relationship between the in vitro activity of the receptor and the severity of the phenotype (in particular, for mutations detected in patients with partial AIS). We recently studied the trafficking of wild-type AR, fused to the green fluorescent protein (GFP) in living cells. In the present study, we applied this method for the analysis of AR mutants to find out whether it could be a complementary method of investigation of AIS. After construction of the GFP-AR mutant fusion proteins, the androgen-binding characteristics, nuclear transfer capacities, and transcriptional activities were evaluated. The nuclear transfer was quantified in the presence of various concentrations of dihydrotestosterone (DHT). We studied two mutants associated with partial AIS: G743V and R840C. The androgen-binding characteristics of both mutants were affected, in comparison with normal AR. Although the affinities were similar, the dissociation rate of GFP-AR-G743V was twice that of GFP-AR-R840C. In transcriptional assay, both mutants were active only at high concentrations of androgen. The nuclear trafficking of the mutants was evaluated by two parameters: 1) the rate of nuclear transfer; and 2) the maximal amount of receptors imported into the nucleus. At 10(-6) mol/L DHT, the GFP-AR mutants entered into the nucleus in a fashion similar to that of GFP-AR-wt. At 10(-7) mol/L DHT, the rate and maximal degree of nuclear import were both reduced, even more, for GFP-AR-G743V. The difference between mutants was more pronounced at 10(-9) mol/L DHT, because GFP-AR-G743V entered into the nucleus with even slower kinetics. Though the androgen-binding affinity and transcriptional activity assays did not reveal major differences between mutants, the

  9. Aberrant E2F activation by polyglutamine expansion of androgen receptor in SBMA neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Eriko; Zhao, Yue; Ito, Saya; Sawatsubashi, Shun; Murata, Takuya; Furutani, Takashi; Shirode, Yuko; Yamagata, Kaoru; Tanabe, Masahiko; Kimura, Shuhei; Ueda, Takashi; Fujiyama, Sally; Lim, Jinseon; Matsukawa, Hiroyuki; Kouzmenko, Alexander P.; Aigaki, Toshiro; Tabata, Tetsuya; Takeyama, Ken-ichi; Kato, Shigeaki

    2009-01-01

    Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by a polyglutamine repeat (polyQ) expansion within the human androgen receptor (AR). Unlike other neurodegenerative diseases caused by abnormal polyQ expansion, the onset of SBMA depends on androgen binding to mutant human polyQ-AR proteins. This is also observed in Drosophila eyes ectopically expressing the polyQ-AR mutants. We have genetically screened mediators of androgen-induced neurodegeneration caused by polyQ-AR mutants in Drosophila eyes. We identified Rbf (Retinoblastoma-family protein), the Drosophila homologue of human Rb (Retinoblastoma protein), as a neuroprotective factor. Androgen-dependent association of Rbf or Rb with AR was remarkably potentiated by aberrant polyQ expansion. Such potentiated Rb association appeared to attenuate recruitment of histone deacetyltransferase 1 (HDAC1), a corepressor of E2F function. Either overexpression of Rbf or E2F deficiency in fly eyes reduced the neurotoxicity of the polyQ-AR mutants. Induction of E2F function by polyQ-AR-bound androgen was suppressed by Rb in human neuroblastoma cells. We conclude that abnormal expansion of polyQ may potentiate innate androgen-dependent association of AR with Rb. This appears to lead to androgen-dependent onset of SBMA through aberrant E2F transactivation caused by suppressed histone deacetylation. PMID:19237573

  10. Aberrant E2F activation by polyglutamine expansion of androgen receptor in SBMA neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Eriko; Zhao, Yue; Ito, Saya; Sawatsubashi, Shun; Murata, Takuya; Furutani, Takashi; Shirode, Yuko; Yamagata, Kaoru; Tanabe, Masahiko; Kimura, Shuhei; Ueda, Takashi; Fujiyama, Sally; Lim, Jinseon; Matsukawa, Hiroyuki; Kouzmenko, Alexander P; Aigaki, Toshiro; Tabata, Tetsuya; Takeyama, Ken-ichi; Kato, Shigeaki

    2009-03-10

    Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by a polyglutamine repeat (polyQ) expansion within the human androgen receptor (AR). Unlike other neurodegenerative diseases caused by abnormal polyQ expansion, the onset of SBMA depends on androgen binding to mutant human polyQ-AR proteins. This is also observed in Drosophila eyes ectopically expressing the polyQ-AR mutants. We have genetically screened mediators of androgen-induced neurodegeneration caused by polyQ-AR mutants in Drosophila eyes. We identified Rbf (Retinoblastoma-family protein), the Drosophila homologue of human Rb (Retinoblastoma protein), as a neuroprotective factor. Androgen-dependent association of Rbf or Rb with AR was remarkably potentiated by aberrant polyQ expansion. Such potentiated Rb association appeared to attenuate recruitment of histone deacetyltransferase 1 (HDAC1), a corepressor of E2F function. Either overexpression of Rbf or E2F deficiency in fly eyes reduced the neurotoxicity of the polyQ-AR mutants. Induction of E2F function by polyQ-AR-bound androgen was suppressed by Rb in human neuroblastoma cells. We conclude that abnormal expansion of polyQ may potentiate innate androgen-dependent association of AR with Rb. This appears to lead to androgen-dependent onset of SBMA through aberrant E2F transactivation caused by suppressed histone deacetylation.

  11. Novel missense mutation in the P-box of androgen receptor in a patient with androgen insensitivity syndrome.

    PubMed

    Katsumata, Noriyuki; Horikawa, Reiko; Tanaka, Toshiaki

    2008-03-01

    Mutations in the X-linked AR gene cause androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) by impairing androgen-dependent male sex differentiation to various degree. Here we describe a partial AIS patient with confliction with the assigned female sex. Although the patient was noticed to have ambiguous genitalia at birth, the patient was reared as a female with no medical intervention. At the age of 31 years, the patient visited us because the patient was dissatisfied with the assigned female sex. The patient was treated with systemic testosterone and topical dihydrotestosterone, but the external genitalia responded only minimally to the treatment. The genetic analysis revealed a novel missense K580R mutation in the P-box of the DNA-binding domain of androgen receptor, which was the first missense mutation shared by AIS and prostate cancer. Although the best predictor of the adult gender identity is documented to be the initial gender assignment in patients with partial AIS as well as those with complete AIS, deciding gender assignment for infants with partial AIS is still challenging.

  12. Androgen Receptor Signalling in Prostate Cancer: The Functional Consequences of Acetylation

    PubMed Central

    Lavery, Derek N.; Bevan, Charlotte L.

    2011-01-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) is a ligand activated transcription factor and member of the steroid hormone receptor (SHR) subfamily of nuclear receptors. In the early stages of prostate carcinogenesis, tumour growth is dependent on androgens, and AR directly mediates these effects by modulating gene expression. During transcriptional regulation, the AR recruits numerous cofactors with acetylation-modifying enzymatic activity, the best studied include p300/CBP and the p160/SRC family of coactivators. It is known that recruitment of histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs) is key in fine-tuning responses to androgens and is thus likely to play a role in prostate cancer progression. Further, these proteins can also modify the AR itself. The functional consequences of AR acetylation, the role of modifying enzymes in relation to AR transcriptional response, and prostate cancer will be discussed. PMID:21274273

  13. Coregulator control of androgen receptor action by a novel nuclear receptor-binding motif.

    PubMed

    Jehle, Katja; Cato, Laura; Neeb, Antje; Muhle-Goll, Claudia; Jung, Nicole; Smith, Emmanuel W; Buzon, Victor; Carbó, Laia R; Estébanez-Perpiñá, Eva; Schmitz, Katja; Fruk, Ljiljana; Luy, Burkhard; Chen, Yu; Cox, Marc B; Bräse, Stefan; Brown, Myles; Cato, Andrew C B

    2014-03-28

    The androgen receptor (AR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that is essential for prostate cancer development. It is activated by androgens through its ligand-binding domain (LBD), which consists predominantly of 11 α-helices. Upon ligand binding, the last helix is reorganized to an agonist conformation termed activator function-2 (AF-2) for coactivator binding. Several coactivators bind to the AF-2 pocket through conserved LXXLL or FXXLF sequences to enhance the activity of the receptor. Recently, a small compound-binding surface adjacent to AF-2 has been identified as an allosteric modulator of the AF-2 activity and is termed binding function-3 (BF-3). However, the role of BF-3 in vivo is currently unknown, and little is understood about what proteins can bind to it. Here we demonstrate that a duplicated GARRPR motif at the N terminus of the cochaperone Bag-1L functions through the BF-3 pocket. These findings are supported by the fact that a selective BF-3 inhibitor or mutations within the BF-3 pocket abolish the interaction between the GARRPR motif(s) and the BF-3. Conversely, amino acid exchanges in the two GARRPR motifs of Bag-1L can impair the interaction between Bag-1L and AR without altering the ability of Bag-1L to bind to chromatin. Furthermore, the mutant Bag-1L increases androgen-dependent activation of a subset of AR targets in a genome-wide transcriptome analysis, demonstrating a repressive function of the GARRPR/BF-3 interaction. We have therefore identified GARRPR as a novel BF-3 regulatory sequence important for fine-tuning the activity of the AR.

  14. Androgen receptor action in osteoblasts in male mice is dependent on their stage of maturation.

    PubMed

    Russell, Patricia K; Clarke, Michele V; Cheong, Karey; Anderson, Paul H; Morris, Howard A; Wiren, Kristine M; Zajac, Jeffrey D; Davey, Rachel A

    2015-05-01

    Androgen action via the androgen receptor (AR) is essential for normal skeletal growth and bone maintenance post-puberty in males; however, the molecular and cellular mechanisms by which androgens exert their actions in osteoblasts remains relatively unexplored in vivo. To identify autonomous AR actions in osteoblasts independent of AR signaling in other tissues, we compared the extent to which the bone phenotype of the Global-ARKO mouse was restored by replacing the AR in osteoblasts commencing at either the (1) proliferative or (2) mineralization stage of their maturation. In trabecular bone, androgens stimulated trabecular bone accrual during growth via the AR in proliferating osteoblasts and maintained trabecular bone post-puberty via the AR in mineralizing osteoblasts, with its predominant action being to inhibit bone resorption by decreasing the ratio of receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) to osteoprotegerin (OPG) gene expression. During growth, replacement of the AR in proliferating but not mineralizing osteoblasts of Global-ARKOs was able to partially restore periosteal circumference, supporting the concept that androgen action in cortical bone to increase bone size during growth is mediated via the AR in proliferating osteoblasts. This study provides further significant insight into the mechanism of androgen action via the AR in osteoblasts, demonstrating that it is dependent on the stage of osteoblast maturation.

  15. Androgen receptor regulation of the seladin-1/DHCR24 gene: altered expression in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Bonaccorsi, Lorella; Luciani, Paola; Nesi, Gabriella; Mannucci, Edoardo; Deledda, Cristiana; Dichiara, Francesca; Paglierani, Milena; Rosati, Fabiana; Masieri, Lorenzo; Serni, Sergio; Carini, Marco; Proietti-Pannunzi, Laura; Monti, Salvatore; Forti, Gianni; Danza, Giovanna; Serio, Mario; Peri, Alessandro

    2008-10-01

    Prostate cancer (CaP) represents a major leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the Western world. Elevated cholesterol levels, resulting from altered cholesterol metabolism, have been found in CaP cells. Seladin-1 (SELective Alzheimer Disease INdicator-1)/DHCR24 is a recently described gene involved in cholesterol biosynthesis. Here, we demonstrated the androgen regulation of seladin-1/DHCR24 expression, due to the presence of androgen responsive element sequences in its promoter region. In metastatic androgen receptor-negative CaP cells seladin-1/DHCR24 expression and cholesterol amount were reduced compared to androgen receptor-positive cells. In tumor samples from 61 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy the expression of seladin-1/DHCR24 was significantly higher with respect to normal tissues. In addition, in cancer tissues mRNA levels were positively related to T stage. In tumor specimens from 23 patients who received androgen ablation treatment for 3 months before surgery seladin-1/DHCR24 expression was significantly lower with respect to patients treated by surgery only. In conclusion, our study demonstrated for the first time the androgen regulation of the seladin-1/DHCR24 gene and the presence of a higher level of expression in CaP tissues, compared to the normal prostate. These findings, together with the results previously obtained in metastatic disease, suggest an involvement of this gene in CaP.

  16. Topoisomerase 2 Alpha Cooperates with Androgen Receptor to Contribute to Prostate Cancer Progression

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer-Klein, J. L.; Murphy, Stephen J.; Johnson, Sarah H.; Vasmatzis, George; Kovtun, Irina V.

    2015-01-01

    Overexpression of TOP2A is associated with risk of systemic progression in prostate cancer patients, and higher levels of TOP2A were found in hormone-resistant cases. To elucidate the mechanism by which high levels of TOP2A contribute to tumor progression we generated TOP2A overexpressing prostate cancer cell lines. We show that TOP2A promotes tumor aggressiveness by inducing chromosomal rearrangements of genes that contribute to a more invasive phenotype. Anti-androgen treatment alone was ineffective in killing TOP2A overexpressing cells due to activation of an androgen receptor network. TOP2A poisons killed tumor cells more efficiently early in the progression course, while at later stages they provided greater benefit when combined with anti-androgen therapy. Mechanistically, we find that TOP2A enhances androgen signaling by facilitating transcription of androgen responsive genes, thereby promoting tumor cell growth. These studies revealed a relationship between TOP2A and androgen receptor signaling pathway that contributes to prostate cancer progression and confers sensitivity to treatments. PMID:26560244

  17. Postmenopausal cognitive changes and androgen levels in the context of apolipoprotein E polymorphism

    PubMed Central

    Pinkas, Jarosław; Gujski, Mariusz; Owoc, Alfred; Raczkiewicz, Dorota; Gustaw-Rothenberg, Kasia

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The focus of this study was to assess cognitive functions in relation to androgens and specifically testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone in postmenopausal women as well as the correlation between cognitive functions and these two androgens according to polymorphism of the apolipoprotein E gene (APOE). Material and methods A group of 402 women was recruited to the study (minimum 2 years after the last menstruation, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) more than 30 U/ml and no dementia signs on Montreal Cognitive Assessment). The computerized battery of the Central Nervous System Vital Signs test was used to diagnose cognitive functions. APOE genotyping was performed by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Testosterone (TTE) and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in the blood serum were assessed for further statistical correlations analysis. Results In the group of postmenopausal women, higher testosterone concentration was associated with lower scores for Neurocognition Index (NCI) (p = 0.028), memory (p = 0.008) and psychomotor speed (p < 0.001). Presence of at least one APOE ε4 allele potentiated testosterone’s negative influence on cognitive functions (p < 0.05). Woman with a high normal level of DHEA scored significantly better in verbal (p = 0.027) and visual memory (p < 0.001) than other participants. APOE polymorphism did not modify the relationship between DHEA concentration and scores for cognitive functions. Conclusions Hormonal balance variations after menopause may influence brain processes concerned with cognition, especially memory and psychomotor speed. The observed effects may be related to androgens’ influence on higher cortical functions in the changed hormonal dynamics of the postmenopausal period. PMID:28883857

  18. Androgens Upregulate Endometrial Epithelial Progesterone Receptor Expression: Potential Implications for Endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Babayev, Samir N; Park, Chan Woo; Keller, Patrick W; Carr, Bruce R; Word, Ruth A; Bukulmez, Orhan

    2017-10-01

    Androgenic compounds have been implicated in induction of endometrial atrophy yet the mechanisms of androgen effects on human endometrium have not been well studied. We hypothesized that androgens may promote their endometrial effects via modulation of progesterone receptor (PR) expression. Proliferative phase endometrial samples were collected at the time of hysterectomy. We evaluated the effect of the potent androgen 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) on endometrial PR expression by treating human endometrial explants, endometrial stromal cells, and Ishikawa cells with DHT. Ishikawa cells were also treated with DHT ± the androgen receptor (AR) blocker flutamide. The PR-B, total PR messenger RNA (mRNA), and PR protein expression were assessed. Expression of cyclin D1 and D2 was checked as markers of cell proliferation. As expected, estradiol induced PR expression in isolated stromal cells, endometrial epithelial cells, and tissue explants. The DHT treatment also resulted in increased PR expression in endometrial explants and Ishikawa cells but not in stromal cells. Further, protein levels of both nuclear PR isoforms (PR-A and PR-B) were induced with the DHT treatment. Although flutamide treatment alone did not affect PR expression, flutamide diminished androgen-induced upregulation of PR in both endometrial explants and Ishikawa cells. Although estradiol induced both cyclin D1 and cyclin D2 mRNA, DHT did not induce these markers of cell proliferation. Androgens may mediate endometrial effects through upregulation of PR gene and protein expression. Endometrial PR upregulation by androgens is mediated, at least in part, through AR.

  19. Targeting Androgen Receptor Function by MicroRNA in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-01

    MicroRNA in Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Girish C. Shukla, Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Cleveland Clinic Foundation...Androgen Receptor Function by MicroRNA in Prostate Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-06-1-0191 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d...examine if androgen receptor (AR) translation is modulated by a naturally occurring hsa-mir- 183 microRNA ( miRNA ) and to validate that the 3’UTR of AR

  20. Targeting Androgen Receptor Function by MicroRNA in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-01

    0191 TITLE: Targeting Androgen Receptor Function by MicroRNA in Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Girish C. Shukla, Ph.D...W81XWH-06-1-0191 Targeting androgen receptor function by miRNA in prostate cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER PC050287 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...translation is modulated by a naturally occurring hsa-mir- 183 microRNA ( miRNA ) and to validate that the 3’UTR of AR is a bona fide target of miRNA using

  1. Minireview: The Androgen Receptor in Breast Tissues: Growth Inhibitor, Tumor Suppressor, Oncogene?

    PubMed Central

    Hickey, T. E.; Robinson, J. L. L.; Carroll, J. S.

    2012-01-01

    Androgen receptor (AR) signaling exerts an antiestrogenic, growth-inhibitory influence in normal breast tissue, and this role may be sustained in estrogen receptor α (ERα)-positive luminal breast cancers. Conversely, AR signaling may promote growth of a subset of ERα-negative, AR-positive breast cancers with a molecular apocrine phenotype. Understanding the molecular mechanisms whereby androgens can elicit distinct gene expression programs and opposing proliferative responses in these two breast cancer phenotypes is critical to the development of new therapeutic strategies to target the AR in breast cancer. PMID:22745190

  2. Synthesis, structure-activity relationships, and characterization of novel nonsteroidal and selective androgen receptor modulators.

    PubMed

    Schlienger, Nathalie; Lund, Birgitte W; Pawlas, Jan; Badalassi, Fabrizio; Bertozzi, Fabio; Lewinsky, Rasmus; Fejzic, Alma; Thygesen, Mikkel B; Tabatabaei, Ali; Bradley, Stefania Risso; Gardell, Luis R; Piu, Fabrice; Olsson, Roger

    2009-11-26

    Herein we describe the discovery of ACP-105 (1), a novel and potent nonsteroidal selective androgen receptor modulator (SARM) with partial agonist activity relative to the natural androgen testosterone. Compound 1 was developed from a series of compounds found in a HTS screen using the receptor selection and amplification technology (R-SAT). In vivo, 1 improved anabolic parameters in a 2-week chronic study in castrated male rats. In addition to compound 1, a number of potent antiandrogens were discovered from the same series of compounds whereof one compound, 13, had antagonist activity at the AR T877A mutant involved in prostate cancer.

  3. High abundance androgen receptor in goldfish brain: characteristics and seasonal changes

    SciTech Connect

    Pasmanik, M.; Callard, G.V.

    1988-08-01

    Testosterone (T) exerts its actions in brain directly via androgen receptors or, after aromatization to estradiol, via estrogen receptors. Brain aromatase activity in teleost fish is 100-1000 times greater than in mammals and would be expected to significantly reduce the quantity of androgen available for receptor binding. Experiments were carried out on the goldfish Carassius auratus to determine if androgen receptors are present in teleost brain and whether their physicochemical properties reflect elevated aromatase. Cytosolic and nuclear extracts were assayed with the use of (/sup 3/H)T and charcoal, Sephadex LH-20, or DNA-cellulose chromatography to separate bound and free steroids. Binding activity was saturable and had an equally high affinity for T and 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone. Although mibolerone was a relatively weak competitor, the putative teleost androgen 11-ketotestosterone, methyltrienolone (R1881), estradiol, progesterone, and cortisol were poor ligands. Characteristics that distinguish this receptor from a steroid-binding protein in goldfish serum are the presence of binding activity in both nuclear and cytosolic extracts, a low rate of ligand-receptor dissociation, electrophoretic mobility, sedimentation properties in low vs. high salt, and tissue distribution. DNA cellulose-adhering and nonadhering forms were detected, but these did not differ in other variables measured. Although goldfish androgen receptors resembled those of mammals in all important physicochemical characteristics, they were unusually abundant compared to levels in rat brain, but comparable to levels in prostate and other male sex hormone target organs. Moreover, there were seasonal variations in total receptors, with a peak at spawning (April) 4- to 5-fold higher than values in reproductively inactive fish.

  4. An examination of how different mutations at arginine 855 of the androgen receptor result in different androgen insensitivity phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Elhaji, Youssef A; Wu, Jian Hui; Gottlieb, Bruce; Beitel, Lenore K; Alvarado, Carlos; Batist, Gerald; Trifiro, Mark A

    2004-08-01

    Two substitutions at an identical location in the ligand-binding domain (LBD) of the human androgen receptor (AR), R855C and R855H, are associated with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) and partial AIS, respectively. Kinetic analysis of the mutant receptors in genital skin fibroblasts and in transfected cells revealed very low total binding (Bmax) and increased rate constants of dissociation (k) for the R855C mutant; and normal Bmax and k, with slightly elevated equilibrium affinity constants (Kd), but decreased transactivational capacity for the R855H mutant. Further analysis of the R855H mutant revealed both thermolability and decreased N/C-terminal inter-actions in the presence and absence of the co-activator transcriptional intermediary factor 2. To establish the nature of these functional differences we have used molecular dynamic modeling to create four-dimensional models of each of the mutant receptors. Molecular dynamic modeling produced profoundly different models for each of the mutants: in modeling of R855C a surprisingly significant distant alteration in the position of helix 12 of the helix 12 positioning of the AR ligand binding domain (AR-LBD) occurs, which would predict severe ligand binding abnormalities and complete AIS; in modeling of R855H, no dramatic effect on the position of helix 12 was seen; thus, binding properties of the receptor are not compromised. Molecular dynamics four-dimensional modeling clearly supports the biochemical and kinetic studies of both mutants. Such novel computational modeling may lead to a better understanding of the structure-function relationships and the molecular mechanics of ligand binding not only of the AR-LBD but also of other nuclear receptors.

  5. Drug insight: Testosterone and selective androgen receptor modulators as anabolic therapies for chronic illness and aging.

    PubMed

    Bhasin, Shalender; Calof, Olga M; Storer, Thomas W; Lee, Martin L; Mazer, Norman A; Jasuja, Ravi; Montori, Victor M; Gao, Wenqing; Dalton, James T

    2006-03-01

    Several regulatory concerns have hindered development of androgens as anabolic therapies, despite unequivocal evidence that testosterone supplementation increases muscle mass and strength in men; it induces hypertrophy of type I and II muscle fibers, and increases myonuclear and satellite cell number. Androgens promote differentiation of mesenchymal multipotent cells into the myogenic lineage and inhibit their adipogenic differentiation, by facilitating association of androgen receptors with beta-catenin and activating T-cell factor 4. Meta-analyses indicate that testosterone supplementation increases fat-free mass and muscle strength in HIV-positive men with weight loss, glucocorticoid-treated men, and older men with low or low-normal testosterone levels. The effects of testosterone on physical function and outcomes important to patients have not, however, been studied. In older men, increased hematocrit and increased risk of prostate biopsy and detection of prostate events are the most frequent, testosterone-related adverse events. Concerns about long-term risks have restrained enthusiasm for testosterone use as anabolic therapy. Selective androgen-receptor modulators that are preferentially anabolic and that spare the prostate hold promise as anabolic therapies. We need more studies to determine whether testosterone or selective androgen-receptor modulators can induce meaningful improvements in physical function and patient-important outcomes in patients with physical dysfunction associated with chronic illness or aging.

  6. Drug Insight: testosterone and selective androgen receptor modulators as anabolic therapies for chronic illness and aging

    PubMed Central

    Bhasin, Shalender; Calof, Olga M; Storer, Thomas W; Lee, Martin L; Mazer, Norman A; Jasuja, Ravi; Montori, Victor M; Gao, Wenqing; Dalton, James T

    2007-01-01

    SUMMARY Several regulatory concerns have hindered development of androgens as anabolic therapies, despite unequivocal evidence that testosterone supplementation increases muscle mass and strength in men; it induces hypertrophy of type I and II muscle fibers, and increases myonuclear and satellite cell number. Androgens promote differentiation of mesenchymal multipotent cells into the myogenic lineage and inhibit their adipogenic differentiation, by facilitating association of androgen receptors with β-catenin and activating T-cell factor 4. Meta-analyses indicate that testosterone supplementation increases fat-free mass and muscle strength in HIV-positive men with weight loss, glucocorticoid-treated men, and older men with low or low-normal testosterone levels. The effects of testosterone on physical function and outcomes important to patients have not, however, been studied. In older men, increased hematocrit and increased risk of prostate biopsy and detection of prostate events are the most frequent, testosterone-related adverse events. Concerns about long-term risks have restrained enthusiasm for testosterone use as anabolic therapy. Selective androgen-receptor modulators that are preferentially anabolic and that spare the prostate hold promise as anabolic therapies. We need more studies to determine whether testosterone or selective androgen-receptor modulators can induce meaningful improvements in physical function and patient-important outcomes in patients with physical dysfunction associated with chronic illness or aging. PMID:16932274

  7. Androgen Receptor Status Is a Prognostic Marker in Non-Basal Triple Negative Breast Cancers and Determines Novel Therapeutic Options

    PubMed Central

    Guler, Gulnur; Balci, Serdar; Irkkan, Cigdem; Paisie, Carolyn; Lovat, Francesca; Morrison, Carl; Zhang, Jianying; Scarpa, Aldo; Croce, Carlo M.; Shapiro, Charles L.; Huebner, Kay

    2014-01-01

    Triple negative breast cancers are a heterogeneous group of tumors characterized by poor patient survival and lack of targeted therapeutics. Androgen receptor has been associated with triple negative breast cancer pathogenesis, but its role in the different subtypes has not been clearly defined. We examined androgen receptor protein expression by immunohistochemical analysis in 678 breast cancers, including 396 triple negative cancers. Fifty matched lymph node metastases were also examined. Association of expression status with clinical (race, survival) and pathological (basal, non-basal subtype, stage, grade) features was also evaluated. In 160 triple negative breast cancers, mRNA microarray expression profiling was performed, and differences according to androgen receptor status were analyzed. In triple negative cancers the percentage of androgen receptor positive cases was lower (24.8% vs 81.6% of non-triple negative cases), especially in African American women (16.7% vs 25.5% of cancers of white women). No significant difference in androgen receptor expression was observed in primary tumors vs matched metastatic lesions. Positive androgen receptor immunoreactivity was inversely correlated with tumor grade (p<0.01) and associated with better overall patient survival (p = 0.032) in the non-basal triple negative cancer group. In the microarray study, expression of three genes (HER4, TNFSF10, CDK6) showed significant deregulation in association with androgen receptor status; eg CDK6, a novel therapeutic target in triple negative cancers, showed significantly higher expression level in androgen receptor negative cases (p<0.01). These findings confirm the prognostic impact of androgen receptor expression in non-basal triple negative breast cancers, and suggest targeting of new androgen receptor-related molecular pathways in patients with these cancers. PMID:24505496

  8. Androgen receptor status is a prognostic marker in non-basal triple negative breast cancers and determines novel therapeutic options.

    PubMed

    Gasparini, Pierluigi; Fassan, Matteo; Cascione, Luciano; Guler, Gulnur; Balci, Serdar; Irkkan, Cigdem; Paisie, Carolyn; Lovat, Francesca; Morrison, Carl; Zhang, Jianying; Scarpa, Aldo; Croce, Carlo M; Shapiro, Charles L; Huebner, Kay

    2014-01-01

    Triple negative breast cancers are a heterogeneous group of tumors characterized by poor patient survival and lack of targeted therapeutics. Androgen receptor has been associated with triple negative breast cancer pathogenesis, but its role in the different subtypes has not been clearly defined. We examined androgen receptor protein expression by immunohistochemical analysis in 678 breast cancers, including 396 triple negative cancers. Fifty matched lymph node metastases were also examined. Association of expression status with clinical (race, survival) and pathological (basal, non-basal subtype, stage, grade) features was also evaluated. In 160 triple negative breast cancers, mRNA microarray expression profiling was performed, and differences according to androgen receptor status were analyzed. In triple negative cancers the percentage of androgen receptor positive cases was lower (24.8% vs 81.6% of non-triple negative cases), especially in African American women (16.7% vs 25.5% of cancers of white women). No significant difference in androgen receptor expression was observed in primary tumors vs matched metastatic lesions. Positive androgen receptor immunoreactivity was inversely correlated with tumor grade (p<0.01) and associated with better overall patient survival (p = 0.032) in the non-basal triple negative cancer group. In the microarray study, expression of three genes (HER4, TNFSF10, CDK6) showed significant deregulation in association with androgen receptor status; eg CDK6, a novel therapeutic target in triple negative cancers, showed significantly higher expression level in androgen receptor negative cases (p<0.01). These findings confirm the prognostic impact of androgen receptor expression in non-basal triple negative breast cancers, and suggest targeting of new androgen receptor-related molecular pathways in patients with these cancers.

  9. Cross-species sensitivity to a novel androgen receptor agonist of potential environmental concern, spironolactone.

    PubMed

    LaLone, Carlie A; Villeneuve, Daniel L; Cavallin, Jenna E; Kahl, Michael D; Durhan, Elizabeth J; Makynen, Elizabeth A; Jensen, Kathleen M; Stevens, Kyle E; Severson, Megan N; Blanksma, Chad A; Flynn, Kevin M; Hartig, Philip C; Woodard, Jonne S; Berninger, Jason P; Norberg-King, Teresa J; Johnson, Rodney D; Ankley, Gerald T

    2013-11-01

    Spironolactone is a pharmaceutical that in humans is used to treat conditions like hirsutism, various dermatologic afflictions, and female-pattern hair loss through antagonism of the androgen receptor. Although not routinely monitored in the environment, spironolactone has been detected downstream of a pharmaceutical manufacturer, indicating a potential for exposure of aquatic species. Furthermore, spironolactone has been reported to cause masculinization of female western mosquitofish, a response indicative of androgen receptor activation. Predictive methods to identify homologous proteins to the human and western mosquitofish androgen receptor suggest that vertebrates would be more susceptible to adverse effects mediated by chemicals like spironolactone that target the androgen receptor compared with invertebrate species that lack a relevant homolog. In addition, an adverse outcome pathway previously developed for activation of the androgen receptor suggests that androgen mimics can lead to reproductive toxicity in fish. To assess this, 21-d reproduction studies were conducted with 2 fish species, fathead minnow and Japanese medaka, and the invertebrate Daphnia magna. Spironolactone significantly reduced the fecundity of medaka and fathead minnows at 50 μg/L, whereas daphnia reproduction was not affected by concentrations as large as 500 μg/L. Phenotypic masculinization of females of both fish species was observed at 5 μg/L as evidenced by formation of tubercles in fathead minnows and papillary processes in Japanese medaka. Effects in fish occurred at concentrations below those reported in the environment. These results demonstrate how a priori knowledge of an adverse outcome pathway and the conservation of a key molecular target across vertebrates can be utilized to identify potential chemicals of concern in terms of monitoring and highlight potentially sensitive species and endpoints for testing.

  10. Epidermal growth factor receptor-dependent stimulation of amphiregulin expression in androgen-stimulated human prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed Central

    Sehgal, I; Bailey, J; Hitzemann, K; Pittelkow, M R; Maihle, N J

    1994-01-01

    Amphiregulin is a heparin-binding epidermal growth factor (EGF)-related peptide that binds to the EGF receptor (EGF-R) with high affinity. In this study, we report a role for amphiregulin in androgen-stimulated regulation of prostate cancer cell growth. Androgen is known to enhance EGF-R expression in the androgen-sensitive LNCaP human prostate carcinoma cell line, and it has been suggested that androgenic stimuli may regulate proliferation, in part, through autocrine mechanisms involving the EGF-R. In this study, we demonstrate that LNCaP cells express amphiregulin mRNA and peptide and that this expression is elevated by androgenic stimulation. We also show that ligand-dependent EGF-R stimulation induces amphiregulin expression and that androgenic effects on amphiregulin synthesis are mediated through this EGF-R pathway. Parallel studies using the estrogen-responsive breast carcinoma cell line, MCF-7, suggest that regulation of amphiregulin by estrogen may also be mediated via an EGF-R pathway. In addition, heparin treatment of LNCaP cells inhibits androgen-stimulated cell growth further suggesting that amphiregulin can mediate androgen-stimulated LNCaP proliferation. Together, these results implicate an androgen-regulated autocrine loop composed of amphiregulin and its receptor in prostate cancer cell growth and suggest that the mechanism of steroid hormone regulation of amphiregulin synthesis may occur through androgen upregulation of the EGF-R and subsequent receptor-dependent pathways. Images PMID:8049525

  11. BA321, a novel carborane analog that binds to androgen and estrogen receptors, acts as a new selective androgen receptor modulator of bone in male mice

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, Kenta; Hirata, Michiko; Tominari, Tsukasa; Matsumoto, Chiho; Endo, Yasuyuki; Murphy, Gillian; Nagase, Hideaki; and others

    2016-09-09

    Carboranes are a class of carbon-containing polyhedral boron cluster compounds with globular geometry and hydrophobic surface that interact with hormone receptors such as estrogen receptor (ER) and androgen receptor (AR). We have synthesized BA321, a novel carborane compound, which binds to AR. We found here that it also binds to ERs, ERα and ERβ. In orchidectomized (ORX) mice, femoral bone mass was markedly reduced due to androgen deficiency and BA321 restored bone loss in the male, whilst the decreased weight of seminal vesicle in ORX mice was not recovered by administration of BA321. In female mice, BA321 acts as a pure estrogen agonist, and restored both the loss of bone mass and uterine atrophy due to estrogen deficiency in ovariectomized (OVX) mice. In bone tissues, the trabecular bone loss occurred in both ORX and OVX mice, and BA321 completely restored the trabecular bone loss in both sexes. Cortical bone loss occurred in ORX mice but not in OVX mice, and BA321 clearly restored cortical bone loss due to androgen deficiency in ORX mice. Therefore, BA321 is a novel selective androgen receptor modulator (SARM) that may offer a new therapy option for osteoporosis in the male. - Highlights: • A novel carborane compound BA321 binds to both AR and ERs, ERα and ERβ. • BA321 restores bone loss in orchidectomized mice without effects on sex organ. • BA321 acts as an estrogen agonist in bone and uterus in ovariectomized mice. • BA321 may be a new SARM to prevent the loss of musculoskeletal mass in elder men.

  12. Molecular biology of androgen insensitivity.

    PubMed

    Jääskeläinen, Jarmo

    2012-04-16

    Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) is the most common specific cause of 46,XY disorder in sex development. The androgen signaling pathway is complex but so far, the only gene linked with AIS is the androgen receptor (AR). Mutations in the AR are found in most subjects with complete AIS but in partial AIS, the rate has varied 28-73%, depending on the case selection. More than 400 different mutations in AR leading to AIS have been reported. Most mutations are missense substitutions located in the ligand binding domain of the receptor. However, when systematically screened, a substantial amount of mutations can be detected also in the N-terminal domain encoded by exon 1. Within this exon lie two trinucleotide, CAG and GGN repeat regions which are polymorphic in length. Their role in androgen insensitivity is somewhat unclear. Recent advances in protein modeling have resulted in better understanding of the mechanism of known AR mutations.

  13. Discovery of potent and muscle selective androgen receptor modulators through scaffold modifications.

    PubMed

    Li, James J; Sutton, James C; Nirschl, Alexandra; Zou, Yan; Wang, Haixia; Sun, Chongqing; Pi, Zulan; Johnson, Rebecca; Krystek, Stanley R; Seethala, Ramakrishna; Golla, Rajasree; Sleph, Paul G; Beehler, Blake C; Grover, Gary J; Fura, Aberra; Vyas, Viral P; Li, Cindy Y; Gougoutas, Jack Z; Galella, Michael A; Zahler, Robert; Ostrowski, Jacek; Hamann, Lawrence G

    2007-06-28

    A novel series of imidazolin-2-ones were designed and synthesized as highly potent, orally active and muscle selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs), with most of the compounds exhibiting low nM in vitro potency in androgen receptor (AR) binding and functional assays. Once daily oral treatment with the lead compound 11a (AR Ki = 0.9 nM, EC50 = 1.8 nM) for 14 days induced muscle growth with an ED50 of 0.09 mg/kg, providing approximately 50-fold selectivity over prostate growth in an orchidectomized rat model. Pharmacokinetic studies in rats demonstrated that the lead compound 11a had oral bioavailability of 65% and a plasma half-life of 5.5 h. On the basis of their preclinical profiles, the SARMs in this series are expected to provide beneficial anabolic effects on muscle with minimal androgenic effects on prostate tissue.

  14. Small-Molecule-Mediated Degradation of the Androgen Receptor through Hydrophobic Tagging.

    PubMed

    Gustafson, Jeffrey L; Neklesa, Taavi K; Cox, Carly S; Roth, Anke G; Buckley, Dennis L; Tae, Hyun Seop; Sundberg, Thomas B; Stagg, D Blake; Hines, John; McDonnell, Donald P; Norris, John D; Crews, Craig M

    2015-08-10

    Androgen receptor (AR)-dependent transcription is a major driver of prostate tumor cell proliferation. Consequently, it is the target of several antitumor chemotherapeutic agents, including the AR antagonist MDV3100/enzalutamide. Recent studies have shown that a single AR mutation (F876L) converts MDV3100 action from an antagonist to an agonist. Here we describe the generation of a novel class of selective androgen receptor degraders (SARDs) to address this resistance mechanism. Molecules containing hydrophobic degrons linked to small-molecule AR ligands induce AR degradation, reduce expression of AR target genes and inhibit proliferation in androgen-dependent prostate cancer cell lines. These results suggest that selective AR degradation may be an effective therapeutic prostate tumor strategy in the context of AR mutations that confer resistance to second-generation AR antagonists.

  15. Testosterone regulation of androgen receptor levels in the uropygial gland of quails (Coturnix coturnix): a further proof for the androgen dependency of the uropygial gland.

    PubMed

    Amet, Y; Abalain, J H; Daniel, J Y; Di Stefano, S; Floch, H H

    1986-05-01

    In castrated quails supplemented with testosterone by a chronically implanted silastic capsule, removal of the implant resulted in the gradual disappearance of the androgen receptors in both cloacal and uropygial glands. However, after a 7-day time span, the receptors reappeared in both glands but did not reach the original level of implanted birds. On the other hand, the photostimulation of intact birds induced an increase of the receptor content of their uropygial and cloacal glands when compared to sexually quiescent birds. These results show that, the concentration of the androgen receptors of the uropygial and cloacal glands of adult male quails is partly controlled by testosterone. By comparison with the mechanism of the action of testosterone in mammal target organs, our results add weight to the androgen dependency of quails uropygial glands (a sebaceous like organ).

  16. Short androgen receptor poly-glutamine-promoted endometrial cancer is associated with benzo[a]pyrene-mediated aryl hydrocarbon receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lumin; Bao, Bo-Ying; Chang, Wei-Chun; Ho, Jason Yen-Ping; Cheng, Bi-Hua; Wang, Chung-Lin; Tang, Qifeng; Cheng, Wei-Chung; Chang, Hui-Wen; Hung, Yao-Ching; Ma, Wen-Lung

    2017-08-07

    The androgen receptor (AR) poly-glutamine polymorphism (AR-Q) was reported to play role in endometrial cancer (EMCA) development, yet controversial. Environmental factors interact with genetic variation have been reported in EMCA. Aerosol toxins, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), are EMCA facilitators. This report examined the interplay between AR-Qs and BaP in EMCA. During analysing patient AR-Q polymorphism and Aryl hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR) expressions, we found overall survival (OS) benefit is ascending with AR-Q lengths (5-year OS of 61.3% in Q length <20 and 88% in Q length >23). And AhR is higher expressed in short AR-Q tumour compared to that in long AR-Q patient. In vitro study found androgen-response element (ARE) activity descends with AR-Qs length (Q13 > Q25 > Q35), whereas BaP suppresses ARE activities in EMCA cells. Furthermore, AR-Q13 (but not AR-Q25, or -35) enhances BaP-induced dioxin-responsive element (DRE) activity. Lastly, AR-Q13 exerts higher colony-forming capacity than other AR-Qs, and knock-down AhR abolished AR-Q13-mediated colony numbers. This study demonstrated a possible interaction of gene (AR-Q polymorphism) and environmental toxins (e.g. BaP) to affect cancer progression. A large-scale epidemiology and public health survey on the interaction of environmental toxin and AR poly-Q in EMCA is suggested. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  17. Development and Characterization of Uterine Glandular Epithelium Specific Androgen Receptor Knockout Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jaesung Peter; Zheng, Yu; Skulte, Katherine A; Handelsman, David J; Simanainen, Ulla

    2015-11-01

    While estrogen action is the major driver of uterine development, androgens acting via the androgen receptor (AR) may also promote uterine growth as suggested by uterine phenotypes in global AR knockout (ARKO) female mice. Because AR is expressed in uterine endometrial glands, we generated (Cre/loxP) uterine gland epithelium-specific ARKO (ugeARKO) to determine the role of endometrial gland-specific androgen actions. However, AR in uterine gland epithelium may not be required for normal uterine development and function because ugeARKO females had normal uterine development and fertility. To determine if exogenous androgens acting via AR can fully support uterine growth in the absence of estrogens, the ARKO and ugeARKO females were ovariectomized and treated with supraphysiological doses of testosterone or dihydrotestosterone (nonaromatizable androgen). Both dihydrotestosterone and testosterone supported full uterine regrowth in wild-type females while ARKO females had no regrowth (comparable to ovariectomized only). These findings suggest that androgens acting via AR can promote full uterine regrowth in the absence of estrogens. The ugeARKO had 50% regrowth when compared to intact uterine glands, and histomorphologically, both the endometrial and myometrial areas were significantly (P < 0.05) reduced, suggesting glandular epithelial AR located in the endometrium may indirectly modify myometrial development. Additionally, to confirm Cre function in endometrial glands, we generated uge-specific PTEN knockout mouse model. The ugePTEN knockout females developed severe endometrial hyperplasia and therefore present a novel model for future research.

  18. EPI-001, A Compound Active against Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer, Targets Transactivation Unit 5 of the Androgen Receptor.

    PubMed

    De Mol, Eva; Fenwick, R Bryn; Phang, Christopher T W; Buzón, Victor; Szulc, Elzbieta; de la Fuente, Alex; Escobedo, Albert; García, Jesús; Bertoncini, Carlos W; Estébanez-Perpiñá, Eva; McEwan, Iain J; Riera, Antoni; Salvatella, Xavier

    2016-09-16

    Castration-resistant prostate cancer is the lethal condition suffered by prostate cancer patients that become refractory to androgen deprivation therapy. EPI-001 is a recently identified compound active against this condition that modulates the activity of the androgen receptor, a nuclear receptor that is essential for disease progression. The mechanism by which this compound exerts its inhibitory activity is however not yet fully understood. Here we show, by using high resolution solution nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, that EPI-001 selectively interacts with a partially folded region of the transactivation domain of the androgen receptor, known as transactivation unit 5, that is key for the ability of prostate cells to proliferate in the absence of androgens, a distinctive feature of castration-resistant prostate cancer. Our results can contribute to the development of more potent and less toxic novel androgen receptor antagonists for treating this disease.

  19. EPI-001, a compound active against castration-resistant prostate cancer, targets transactivation unit 5 of the androgen receptor

    PubMed Central

    De Mol, Eva; Fenwick, R. Bryn; Phang, Christopher T. W.; Buzón, Victor; Szulc, Elzbieta; de la Fuente, Alex; Escobedo, Albert; García, Jesús; Bertoncini, Carlos W.; Estébanez-Perpiñá, Eva; McEwan, Iain J.; Riera, Antoni; Salvatella, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Castration-resistant prostate cancer is the lethal condition suffered by prostate cancer patients that become refractory to androgen deprivation therapy. EPI-001 is a recently identified compound active against this condition that modulates the activity of the androgen receptor, a nuclear receptor that is essential for disease progression. The mechanism by which this compound exerts its inhibitory activity is however not yet fully understood. Here we show, by using high resolution solution nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, that EPI-001 selectively interacts with a partially folded region of the transactivation domain of the androgen receptor, known as transactivation unit 5, that is key for the ability of prostate cells to proliferate in the absence of androgens, a distinctive feature of castration-resistant prostate cancer. Our results can contribute to the development of more potent and less toxic novel androgen receptor antagonists for treating this disease. PMID:27356095

  20. Beyond aggression: Androgen-receptor blockade modulates social interaction in wild meerkats.

    PubMed

    delBarco-Trillo, Javier; Greene, Lydia K; Goncalves, Ines Braga; Fenkes, Miriam; Wisse, Jillian H; Drewe, Julian A; Manser, Marta B; Clutton-Brock, Tim; Drea, Christine M

    2016-02-01

    In male vertebrates, androgens are inextricably linked to reproduction, social dominance, and aggression, often at the cost of paternal investment or prosociality. Testosterone is invoked to explain rank-related reproductive differences, but its role within a status class, particularly among subordinates, is underappreciated. Recent evidence, especially for monogamous and cooperatively breeding species, suggests broader androgenic mediation of adult social interaction. We explored the actions of androgens in subordinate, male members of a cooperatively breeding species, the meerkat (Suricata suricatta). Although male meerkats show no rank-related testosterone differences, subordinate helpers rarely reproduce. We blocked androgen receptors, in the field, by treating subordinate males with the antiandrogen, flutamide. We monitored androgen concentrations (via baseline serum and time-sequential fecal sampling) and recorded behavior within their groups (via focal observation). Relative to controls, flutamide-treated animals initiated less and received more high-intensity aggression (biting, threatening, feeding competition), engaged in more prosocial behavior (social sniffing, grooming, huddling), and less frequently initiated play or assumed a 'dominant' role during play, revealing significant androgenic effects across a broad range of social behavior. By contrast, guarding or vigilance and measures of olfactory and vocal communication in subordinate males appeared unaffected by flutamide treatment. Thus, androgens in male meerkat helpers are aligned with the traditional trade-off between promoting reproductive and aggressive behavior at a cost to affiliation. Our findings, based on rare endocrine manipulation in wild mammals, show a more pervasive role for androgens in adult social behavior than is often recognized, with possible relevance for understanding tradeoffs in cooperative systems.

  1. Systematic Evaluation of Genetic Variation at the Androgen Receptor Locus and Risk of Prostate Cancer in a Multiethnic Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Freedman, Matthew L.; Pearce, Celeste L.; Penney, Kathryn L.; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Henderson, Brian E.; Altshuler, David

    2005-01-01

    Repeat length of the CAG microsatellite polymorphism in exon 1 of the androgen receptor (AR) gene has been associated with risk of prostate cancer in humans. This association has been the focus of >20 primary epidemiological publications and multiple review articles, but a consistent and reproducible association has yet to be confirmed. We systematically addressed possible causes of false-negative and false-positive association in >4,000 individuals from a multiethnic, prospective cohort study of prostate cancer, comprehensively studying genetic variation by microsatellite genotyping, direct resequencing of exons in advanced cancer cases, and haplotype analysis across the 180-kb AR genomic locus. These data failed to confirm that common genetic variation in the AR gene locus influences risk of prostate cancer. A systematic approach that assesses both coding and noncoding genetic variation in large and diverse patient samples can help clarify hypotheses about association between genetic variants and disease. PMID:15570555

  2. A review of estrogen receptor/androgen receptor genomics in male breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Severson, Tesa M; Zwart, Wilbert

    2017-03-01

    Male breast cancer is a rare disease, of which little is known. In contrast to female breast cancer, the very vast majority of all cases are positive for estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), implicating the function of this steroid hormone receptor in tumor development and progression. Consequently, adjuvant treatment of male breast cancer revolves around inhibition of ERα. In addition, the androgen receptor (AR) gradually receives more attention as a relevant novel target in breast cancer treatment. Importantly, the rationale of treatment decision making is strongly based on parallels with female breast cancer. Yet, prognostic indicators are not necessarily the same in breast cancer between both genders, complicating translatability of knowledge developed in female breast cancer toward male patients. Even though ERα and AR are expressed both in female and male disease, are the genomic functions of both steroid hormone receptors conserved between genders? Recent studies have reported on mutational and epigenetic similarities and differences between male and female breast cancer, further suggesting that some features are strongly conserved between the two diseases, whereas others are not. This review critically discusses the recent developments in the study of male breast cancer in relation to ERα and AR action and highlights the potential future studies to further elucidate the genomic regulation of this rare disease. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  3. Androgen receptor transactivation assay using green fluorescent protein as a reporter.

    PubMed

    Beck, Verena; Reiter, Evelyne; Jungbauer, Alois

    2008-02-15

    For screening of a large number of samples for androgenic activity, a robust system with minimal handling is required. The coding sequence for human androgen receptor (AR) was inserted into expression plasmid YEpBUbi-FLAG1, resulting in the plasmid YEpBUbiFLAG-AR, and the estrogen response element (ERE) on the reporter vector YRpE2 was replaced by an androgen response element (ARE), resulting in the plasmid YRpE2-ARE. Thus, a fully functional transactivation assay system with beta-galactosidase as a reporter gene could be created. Furthermore, green fluorescent protein (GFP) was introduced as an alternative reporter gene that resulted in a simplification of the whole assay procedure. For evaluation of both reporter systems, seven steroidal compounds with known AR agonistic properties (5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone, testosterone, androstenedione, 17 alpha-methyltestosterone, progesterone, epitestosterone, and d-norgestrel) were tested, and their potencies obtained in the different assays were compared. Furthermore, potencies from the transactivation assays were compared with IC(50) values obtained in radioligand binding assays. The newly developed androgen receptor transactivation assay is a useful tool for characterizing compounds with androgenic activity.

  4. Parallel evolution between aromatase and androgen receptor in the animal kingdom.

    PubMed

    Tiwary, Basant; Tiwary, Besant K; Li, Wen-Hsiung

    2009-01-01

    There are now many known cases of orthologous or unrelated proteins in different species that have undergone parallel evolution to satisfy a similar function. However, there are no reported cases of parallel evolution for proteins that bind a common ligand but have different functions. We focused on two proteins that have different functions in steroid hormone biosynthesis and action but bind a common ligand, androgen. The first protein, androgen receptor (AR), is a nuclear hormone receptor and the second one, aromatase (cytochrome P450 19 [CYP19]), converts androgen to estrogen. We hypothesized that binding of the androgen ligand has exerted common selective pressure on both AR and CYP19, resulting in a signature of parallel evolution between these two proteins, though they perform different functions. Consistent with this hypothesis, we found that rates of amino acid change in AR and CYP19 are strongly correlated across the metazoan phylogeny, whereas no significant correlation was found in the control set of proteins. Moreover, we inferred that genomic toolkits required for steroid biosynthesis and action were present in a basal metazoan, cnidarians. The close similarities between vertebrate and sea anemone AR and CYP19 suggest a very ancient origin of their endocrine functions at the base of metazoan evolution. Finally, we found evidence supporting the hypothesis that the androgen-to-estrogen ratio determines the gonadal sex in all metazoans.

  5. Andrographolide Targets Androgen Receptor Pathway in Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chengfei; Nadiminty, Nagalakshmi; Tummala, Ramakumar; Chun, Jae Yeon; Lou, Wei; Zhu, Yezi; Sun, Meng; Evans, Christopher P.; Zhou, Qinghua; Gao, Allen C.

    2011-01-01

    Androgen receptor (AR) signaling not only plays a pivotal role in the development of androgen-dependent prostate cancer but is also important in the growth and survival of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). The first line of treatment of androgen-dependent prostate cancer is the use of androgen deprivation therapy. However, most patients will eventually relapse due to development of CRPC. Thus, development of a strategy to target AR for treatment of CRPC is urgently needed. The authors have previously identified andrographolide as an inhibitor of interleukin-6, which can suppress tumor growth of prostate cancer cells by screening compounds from the Prestwick Natural compound library. In this study, they identified that andrographolide can inhibit AR expression and prostate cancer cell growth and induce apoptosis. Andrographolide is able to down-regulate AR expression at both mRNA and protein levels, prevents its nuclear translocation, and inhibits transactivation of its target genes. Andrographolide prevents the binding of Hsp90 to AR, resulting in proteasome-mediated AR degradation. Furthermore, andrographolide inhibits castration-resistant C4-2 cell growth by reducing AR expression and activity. Thus, andrographolide can be developed as a potential therapeutic agent for prostate cancer by inhibition of androgen receptor signaling. PMID:21779488

  6. Antagonizing effects of membrane-acting androgens on the eicosanoid receptor OXER1 in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kalyvianaki, Konstantina; Gebhart, Veronika; Peroulis, Nikolaos; Panagiotopoulou, Christina; Kiagiadaki, Fotini; Pediaditakis, Iosif; Aivaliotis, Michalis; Moustou, Eleni; Tzardi, Maria; Notas, George; Castanas, Elias; Kampa, Marilena

    2017-01-01

    Accumulating evidence during the last decades revealed that androgen can exert membrane initiated actions that involve signaling via specific kinases and the modulation of significant cellular processes, important for prostate cancer cell growth and metastasis. Results of the present work clearly show that androgens can specifically act at the membrane level via the GPCR oxoeicosanoid receptor 1 (OXER1) in prostate cancer cells. In fact, OXER1 expression parallels that of membrane androgen binding in prostate cancer cell lines and tumor specimens, while in silico docking simulation of OXER1 showed that testosterone could bind to OXER1 within the same grove as 5-OxoETE, the natural ligand of OXER1. Interestingly, testosterone antagonizes the effects of 5-oxoETE on specific signaling pathways and rapid effects such as actin cytoskeleton reorganization that ultimately can modulate cell migration and metastasis. These findings verify that membrane-acting androgens exert specific effects through an antagonistic interaction with OXER1. Additionally, this interaction between androgen and OXER1, which is an arachidonic acid metabolite receptor expressed in prostate cancer, provides a novel link between steroid and lipid actions and renders OXER1 as new player in the disease. These findings should be taken into account in the design of novel therapeutic approaches in prostate cancer. PMID:28290516

  7. Pantolactams as androgen receptor antagonists for the topical suppression of sebum production.

    PubMed

    Sexton, Karen E; Barrett, Stephen; Bridgwood, Katy; Carroll, Matthew; Dettling, Danielle; Du, Daniel; Fakhoury, Stephen; Fedij, Victor; Hu, Lain-Yen; Kostlan, Catherine; Pocalyko, David; Raheja, Neil; Smith, Yvonne; Shanmugasundaram, Veerabahu; Wade, Kimberly

    2011-09-15

    A series of pantolactam based compounds were identified as potent antagonists for the androgen receptor (AR). Those that possessed properties suitable for topical delivery were evaluated in the validated Hamster Ear Model. Several compounds were found to be efficacious in reducing wax esters, a major component of sebum, initiating further preclinical work on these compounds. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Species comparisons in molecular and functional attributes of the androgen and estrogen receptor

    EPA Science Inventory

    While endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) have the potential to act via several mechanisms of action, one of the most widely studied is the ability of environmental chemicals to interact directly with either the estrogen (ER) or androgen receptor (AR). In vitro screening assay...

  9. Cross species sensitivity to a novel androgen receptor agonist of potential environmental concern, spironolactone

    EPA Science Inventory

    Spironolactone (SPL) is a pharmaceutical that is used in humans as an androgen receptor (AR) antagonist to treat conditions like hirsutism, various dermatologic afflictions, and female pattern hair loss, in addition to its common usage as a diuretic to treat hypertension. Althoug...

  10. Cross species sensitivity to a novel androgen receptor agonist of potential environmental concern, spironolactone

    EPA Science Inventory

    Spironolactone (SPL) is a pharmaceutical that is used in humans as an androgen receptor (AR) antagonist to treat conditions like hirsutism, various dermatologic afflictions, and female pattern hair loss, in addition to its common usage as a diuretic to treat hypertension. Althoug...

  11. Identification of Androgen Receptor and Beta-Catenin Target Genes in Prostate and Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    Transdisciplinary Research in Epigenetics and Cancer Journal Clubs and Transdisciplinary Science Meetings, biweekly and monthly 3. To gain expertise...Target Genes in Prostate and Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Laura Lamb CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Washington University...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Identification of Androgen Receptor and Beta-Catenin Target Genes in Prostate and Prostate Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Genes in

  12. A Time-course Study with the Androgen Receptor Antagonist Flutamide in Fish

    EPA Science Inventory

    Flutamide, a drug registered to treat some types of prostate cancer in humans, has been used for many years as a model androgen receptor (AR) antagonist in studies aimed at characterizing disruption of the vertebrate hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. Various studies hav...

  13. Species comparisons in molecular and functional attributes of the androgen and estrogen receptor

    EPA Science Inventory

    While endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) have the potential to act via several mechanisms of action, one of the most widely studied is the ability of environmental chemicals to interact directly with either the estrogen (ER) or androgen receptor (AR). In vitro screening assay...

  14. Discovery of a novel series of nonsteroidal androgen receptor modulators: 5- or 6-oxachrysen-2-ones.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shuo; Shen, Yixing; van Oeveren, Arjan; Marschke, Keith B; Zhi, Lin

    2008-06-01

    A novel oxachrysenone series (2) of nonsteroidal selective androgen receptor modulators (SARM) was developed based on the 6-aryl-2-quinolinones (1). Synthesis and preliminary SAR results based on in vitro assays are discussed. In the cotransfection assay, lead compound 5d showed AR agonist activity more potent than dihydrotestosterone (DHT), whereas compound 17b was a potent antagonist similar to bicalutamide.

  15. Stilbenes inhibit androgen receptor expression in 22Rv1 castrate-resistant prostate cancer cells

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Androgen receptor (AR) signaling plays an important role in the development and progression of prostate cancer (PCa). Importantly, AR continues to be expressed in advanced stages of castrate-resistant PCa (CRPC), where it can have ligand- independent activity. Identification of naturally occurring s...

  16. A Time-course Study with the Androgen Receptor Antagonist Flutamide in Fish

    EPA Science Inventory

    Flutamide, a drug registered to treat some types of prostate cancer in humans, has been used for many years as a model androgen receptor (AR) antagonist in studies aimed at characterizing disruption of the vertebrate hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. Various studies hav...

  17. AOP description: Androgen receptor agonism leading to reproductive dysfunction (in fish)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This adverse outcome pathway details the linkage between binding and activation of androgen receptor as a nuclear transcription factor in females and the adverse effect of reduced cumulative fecundity in repeat-spawning fish species. Cumulative fecundity is the most apical endpoi...

  18. AOP description: Androgen receptor agonism leading to reproductive dysfunction (in fish)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This adverse outcome pathway details the linkage between binding and activation of androgen receptor as a nuclear transcription factor in females and the adverse effect of reduced cumulative fecundity in repeat-spawning fish species. Cumulative fecundity is the most apical endpoi...

  19. Non-Genomic Action of Androgens is Mediated by Rapid Phosphorylation and Regulation of Androgen Receptor Trafficking.

    PubMed

    Deng, Qiong; Zhang, Zeng; Wu, Yong; Yu, Wang-Yang; Zhang, Jianwen; Jiang, Zhi-Mao; Zhang, Ying; Liang, Hui; Gui, Yao-Ting

    2017-08-30

    Testosterone is critical for maintaining spermatogenesis and male fertility. The accomplishment of these processes requires the synergistic actions of the classical and non-classical signaling pathways of androgens. A murine testicular Sertoli cell line, TM4 cell was used to examine androgen actions in Sertoli cells. Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence assay were employed to study the testosterone-induced Androgen receptor (AR) translocation. Protein phosphorylation antibody array was applied to identify the phosphorylation sites under testosterone treatment, and these findings were verified by Western blot analysis. We found that a physiological dose of testosterone induced fast membrane association of AR. By using a phosphorylation antibody array, several phosphorylation sites, such as MEK1/2 (Ser217/221), Akt (Ser473), and Erk1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204) were rapidly phosphorylated within 5 min of testosterone treatment. Inhibition of the MEK and Akt signaling pathways prevented AR trafficking. Blocking of AR by flutamide eliminated the stimulation effect of testosterone on kinase phosphorylation. Testosterone induced kinase Src phosphorylation, and inhibition of Src restricted AR translocation to the membrane and the nucleus. Findings suggested that the membrane association of AR was mediated by the MEK and Akt phosphorylation signaling pathways, which resulted in Src activation and was initiated by testosterone binding to the membrane-localized AR. This study provides new insights into the testosterone signaling pathway in Sertoli cells, which mediate spermatogenesis. In addition, the study can be used in the diagnosis and treatment of male infertility caused by disorders in spermatogenesis. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Prostatic cancer/benign prostatic hypertrophy. Subcellular distribution of estradiol/androgen receptors.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Edith L; Mercado, E; Calzada, L

    2005-01-01

    Six microsomal population of estradiol and androgen receptors have been characterized in human benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) and prostate cancer (PCa). Estradiol receptor (ER) and androgen receptors (AR) were extracted using 0.6 M KCL and determined by the dextran-coated charcoal method. ER and AR levels were smaller in BPH plasma membranes (PM) than in Pca cases. For functions 3, 4, 6, the ER values in PCa were 25-38% less with regard to BPH ER values. Whereas in PCa, AR values obtained in all fractions were higher when compared to BPH AR values. In benign prostatic hypertrophy and prostatic cancer, ER and AR levels were significantly higher in the nuclear fraction. In the nuclear fraction, ER and AR levels in BPH and PCa were significantly different. The subcellular distribution of AR and ER in BPH and PCa constitutes a reservation mechanism and processing a receptors for their continued growth.

  1. MicroRNA Targets of Human Androgen Receptor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-01

    A large number of genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors contribute to the risk of prostate cancer . Among them are androgens, dietary factors ...our understanding with respect to molecular mechanisms, signaling pathways and intrinsic factors which contribute to the development of prostate cancer ...ribonuclease which function to process precursor- microRNAs (pre- miRNAs ) to mature miRNA (Denli et al. 2004; Sohn et al. 2007; Mueller et al. 2010). miRNAs are

  2. URI Regulation of Androgen Receptor-Mediated Cell Growth

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    2001). The development of androgen-independent prostate cancer. Nat Rev Cancer 1, 34-45. Li, B., Carey, M., and Workman , J.L. (2007). The role of...transcription in prostate cancer cells. Cancer Res 69, 3140-3147. Rowe, H.M., Jakobsson, J ., Mesnard, D., Rougemont, J ., Reynard, S., Aktas, T...Maillard, P.V., Layard-Liesching, H., Verp, S., Marquis, J ., et al. (2010). KAP1 controls endogenous retroviruses in embryonic stem cells. Nature 463

  3. Inhibition of NF-kappa B signaling restores responsiveness of castrate resistant prostate cancer cells to anti-androgen treatment by decreasing androgen receptor variants expression

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Renjie; Yamashita, Hironobu; Yu, Xiuping; Wang, Jingbin; Franco, Omar E.; Wang, Yufen; Hayward, Simon W.; Matusik, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Androgen receptor splicing variants (ARVs) which lack the ligand-binding domain (LBD) are associated with the development of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), including resistance to the new generation of high affinity anti-androgens. However, the mechanism by which ARVs expression is regulated is not fully understood. In this study, we show that activation of classical NF-κB signaling increases the expression of ARVs in prostate cancer (PCa) cells and converts androgen sensitive PCa cells to become androgen insensitive; while, downregulation of NF-κB signaling inhibits ARVs expression and restores responsiveness of CRPC to anti-androgen therapy. In addition, we demonstrated that combination of anti-androgen with NF-κB targeted therapy inhibits efficiently tumor growth of human CRPC xenografts. These results indicate that induction ARVs by activated NF-κB signaling in PCa cells is a critical mechanism by which the PCa progresses to CRPC. This has important implications since it can prolong the survival of CRPC patients by restoring the tumors to once again respond to conventional androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT). PMID:25220414

  4. Testosterone and Androgen Receptor Sensitivity in Relation to Hyperactivity Symptoms in Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and hyperactivity symptoms exhibit an incidence that is male-biased. Thus androgen activity can be considered a plausible biological risk factor for these disorders. However, there is insufficient information about the association between increased androgen activity and hyperactivity symptoms in children with ASD. Methods In the present study, the relationship between parameters of androgenicity (plasmatic testosterone levels and androgen receptor sensitivity) and hyperactivity in 60 boys (age 3–15) with ASD is investigated. Given well documented differences in parent and trained examiners ratings of symptom severity, we employed a standardized parent`s questionnaire (Nisonger Child Behavior Rating Form) as well as a direct examiner`s rating (Autism diagnostic observation schedule) for assessment of hyperactivity symptoms. Results Although it was found there was no significant association between actual plasmatic testosterone levels and hyperactivity symptoms, the number of CAG triplets was significantly negatively correlated with hyperactivity symptoms (R2 = 0.118, p = 0.007) in the sample, indicating increased androgen receptor sensitivity in association with hyperactivity symptoms. Direct trained examiner´s assessment appeared to be a relevant method for evaluating of behavioral problems in the investigation of biological underpinnings of these problems in our study. Conclusions A potential ASD subtype characterized by increased rates of hyperactivity symptoms might have distinct etiopathogenesis and require a specific behavioral and pharmacological approach. We propose an increase of androgen receptor sensitivity as a biomarker for a specific ASD subtype accompanied with hyperactivity symptoms. Findings are discussed in terms of their implications for practice and future research. PMID:26910733

  5. Androgen receptors and experimental bone loss - an in vivo and in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Steffens, Joao Paulo; Coimbra, Leila Santana; Rossa, Carlos; Kantarci, Alpdogan; Van Dyke, Thomas E; Spolidorio, Luis Carlos

    2015-12-01

    Testosterone is a sex hormone that exhibits many functions beyond reproduction; one such function is the regulation of bone metabolism. The role played by androgen receptors during testosterone-mediated biological processes associated with bone metabolism is largely unknown. This study aims to use a periodontal disease model in vivo in order to assess the involvement of androgen receptors on microbial-induced inflammation and alveolar bone resorption in experimental bone loss. The impact of hormone deprivation was tested through both orchiectomy and chemical blockage of androgen receptor using flutamide (FLU). Additionally, the direct effect of exogenous testosterone, and the role of the androgen receptor, on osteoclastogenesis were investigated. Thirty male adult rats (n=10/group) were subjected to: 1-orchiectomy (OCX); 2-OCX sham surgery; or 3-OCX sham surgery plus FLU, four weeks before the induction of experimental bone loss. Ten OCX sham-operated rats were not subjected to experimental bone loss and served as healthy controls. The rats were euthanized two weeks later, so as to assess bone resorption and the production of inflammatory cytokines in the gingival tissue and serum. In order to study the in vitro impact of testosterone, osteoclasts were differentiated from RAW264.7 cells and testosterone was added at increasing concentrations. Both OCX and FLU increased bone resorption, but OCX alone was observed to increase osteoclast count. IL-1β production was increased only in the gingival tissue of OCX animals, whereas FLU-treated animals presented a decreased expression of IL-6. Testosterone reduced the osteoclast formation in a dose-dependent manner, and significantly impacted the production of TNF-α; FLU partially reversed these actions. When taken together, our results indicate that testosterone modulates experimental bone loss, and that this action is mediated, at least in part, via the androgen receptor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  6. Androgen receptor blockade using flutamide skewed sex ratio of litters in mice

    PubMed Central

    Gharagozlou, Faramarz; Youssefi, Reza; Vojgani, Mehdi; Akbarinejad, Vahid; Rafiee, Ghazaleh

    2016-01-01

    Maternal testosterone has been indicated to affect sex ratio of offspring. The present study was conducted to elucidate the role of androgen receptor in this regard by blockade of androgen receptor using flutamide in female mice. Mice were randomly assigned to two experimental groups. Mice in the control (n = 20) and treatment (n = 20) groups received 8 IU equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) followed by human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) injection (8 IU) 47 hr later. In addition, mice in the control and treatment groups received four injections of ethanol-saline vehicle and flutamide solution (2.50 mg), respectively, started from 1 hr before eCG injection until hCG injection at 12-hr intervals. Conception rate was not different between the treatment (18/20: 90.00%) and control (19/20: 95.00%) groups (p > 0.05). Litter size was higher in the treatment (8.22 ± 0.26) than control (7.21 ± 0.28) group (p < 0.05). Male sex ratio was lower in the flutamide-treated mice (67/148: 45.30%) as compared with the untreated ones (80/137: 58.40%; odds ratio = 1.69; p < 0.05). In conclusion, the results showed that androgen receptor blockade could skew sex ratio of offspring toward females implying that the effect of testosterone on sex ratio might be through binding to androgen receptor. In addition, the blockade of androgen receptor using flutamide appeared to enhance litter size. PMID:27482363

  7. Androgen receptors and experimental bone loss – An in vivo and in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Steffens, Joao Paulo; Coimbra, Leila Santana; Rossa, Carlos; Kantarci, Alpdogan; Van Dyke, Thomas E.; Spolidorio, Luis Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Testosterone is a sex hormone that exhibits many functions beyond reproduction; one such function is the regulation of bone metabolism. The role played by androgen receptors during testosterone-mediated biological processes associated with bone metabolism is largely unknown. This study aims to use a periodontal disease model in vivo in order to assess the involvement of androgen receptors on microbial-induced inflammation and alveolar bone resorption in experimental bone loss. The impact of hormone deprivation was tested through both orchiectomy and chemical blockage of androgen receptor using flutamide (FLU). Additionally, the direct effect of exogenous testosterone, and the role of the androgen receptor, on osteoclastogenesis were investigated. Thirty male adult rats (n=10/group) were subjected to: 1- orchiectomy (OCX); 2- OCX sham-surgery; or 3- OCX sham-surgery plus FLU, four weeks before the induction of experimental bone loss. Ten OCX sham-operated rats were not subjected to experimental bone loss and served as healthy controls. The rats were euthanized two weeks later, so as to assess bone resorption and the production of inflammatory cytokines in the gingival tissue and serum. In order to study the in vitro impact of testosterone, osteoclasts were differentiated from RAW264.7 cells and testosterone was added at increasing concentrations. Both OCX and FLU increased bone resorption, but OCX alone was observed to increase osteoclast count. IL-1β production was increased only in the gingival tissue of OCX animals, whereas FLU-treated animals presented a decreased expression of IL-6. Testosterone reduced the osteoclast formation in a dose-dependent manner, and significantly impacted the production of TNF-α; FLU partially reversed these actions. When taken together, our results indicate that testosterone modulates experimental bone loss, and that this action is mediated, at least in part, via the androgen receptor. PMID:26450018

  8. Androgen receptors beyond prostate cancer: an old marker as a new target

    PubMed Central

    Kurzrock, Razelle

    2015-01-01

    Androgen receptors (ARs) play a critical role in the development of prostate cancer. Targeting ARs results in important salutary effects in this malignancy. Despite mounting evidence that ARs also participate in the pathogenesis and/or progression of diverse tumors, exploring the impact of hormonal manipulation of these receptors has not been widely pursued beyond prostate cancer. This review describes patterns of AR expression in a spectrum of cancers, and the potential to exploit this knowledge in the clinical therapeutic setting. PMID:25595907

  9. Selectivity in progesterone and androgen receptor binding of progestagens used in oral contraceptives

    SciTech Connect

    Kloosterboer, H.J.; Vonk-Noordegraaf, C.A.; Turpijn, E.W.

    1988-09-01

    The relative binding affinities (RBAs) of four progestational compounds (norethisterone, levonorgestrel, 3-keto-desogestrel and gestodene) for the human progesterone and androgen receptors were measured in MCF-7 cytosol and intact MCF-7 cells. For the binding to the progesterone receptor, both Org 2058 and Org 3236 (or 3-keto-desogestrel) were used as labelled ligands. The following ranking (low to high) for the RBA of the nuclear (intact cells) progesterone receptor irrespective of the ligand used is found: norethisterone much less than levonorgestrel less than 3-keto-destogestrel less than gestodene. The difference between the various progestagens is significant with the exception of that between 3-keto-desogestrel and gestodene, when Org 2058 is used as ligand. For the cytosolic progesterone receptor, the same order is found with the exception that similar RBAs are found for gestodene and 3-keto-desogestrel. The four progestagens clearly differ with respect to binding to the androgen receptor using dihydrotestosterone as labelled ligand in intact cells; the ranking (low to high) is: norethisterone less than 3 keto-desogestrel less than levonorgestrel and gestodene. The difference between 3-keto-desogestrel and levonorgestrel or gestodene is significant. The selectivity indices (ratio of the mean RBA for the progesterone receptor to that of androgen receptor) in intact cells are significantly higher for 3-keto-desogestrel and gestodene than for levonorgestrel and norethisterone. From these results we conclude that the introduction of the 18-methyl in norethisterone (levonorgestel) increases both the binding to the progesterone and androgen receptors.

  10. Expression of androgen receptor in breast cancer & its correlation with other steroid receptors & growth factors

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Ashwani K.; Agrawal, Usha; Negi, Shivani; Bansal, Anju; Mohil, R.; Chintamani, Chintamani; Bhatnagar, Amar; Bhatnagar, Dinesh; Saxena, Sunita

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: Breast cancer is the second most common malignancy in Indian women. Among the members of the steroid receptor superfamily the role of estrogen and progesterone receptors (ER and PR) is well established in breast cancer in predicting the prognosis and management of therapy, however, little is known about the clinical significance of androgen receptor (AR) in breast carcinogenesis. The present study was aimed to evaluate the expression of AR in breast cancer and to elucidate its clinical significance by correlating it with clinicopathological parameters, other steroid receptors (ER and PR) and growth factors receptors (EGFR and CD105). Methods: Expression of AR, ER, PR, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and endoglin (CD105) was studied in 100 cases of breast cancer by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Risk ratio (RR) along with 95% confidence interval (CI) was estimated to assess the strength of association between the markers and clinicopathological characteristics. Categorical principal component analysis (CATPCA) was applied to obtain new sets of linearly combined expression, for their further evaluation with clinicopathological characteristics (n=100). Results: In 31 cases presenting with locally advanced breast cancer (LABC), the expression of AR, ER, PR, EGFR and CD105 was associated with response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT). The results indicated the association of AR+ (P=0.001) and AR+/EGFR- (P=0.001) with the therapeutic response to NACT in LABC patients. The AR expression exhibited maximum sensitivity, specificity and likelihood ratio of positive and negative test. The present results showed the benefit of adding AR, EGFR and CD105 to the existing panel of markers to be able to predict response to therapy. Interpretation & conclusions: More studies on the expression profiles of AR+, AR+/CD105+ and AR+/EGFR- in larger set of breast cancer patients may possibly help in confirming their predictive role for therapeutic response

  11. CLONING, EXPRESSION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF THE ANDROGEN RECEPTOR AND ISOLATION OF ESTROGEN RECEPTOR ALPHA FROM THE FATHEAD MINNOW (PIMEPHALES PROMELAS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In vitro screening assays designed to identify hormone mimics or antagonists, including those recommended for use in the EPA's Tier 1 screening battery, typically use mammalian estrogen (ER) and androgen receptors (AR) such as rat or human. Although we know that the amino acid s...

  12. CLONING, EXPRESSION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF THE ANDROGEN RECEPTOR AND ISOLATION OF ESTROGEN RECEPTOR ALPHA FROM THE FATHEAD MINNOW (PIMEPHALES PROMELAS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In vitro screening assays designed to identify hormone mimics or antagonists, including those recommended for use in the EPA's Tier 1 screening battery, typically use mammalian estrogen (ER) and androgen receptors (AR) such as rat or human. Although we know that the amino acid s...

  13. Complete androgen insensitivity syndrome caused by a deep intronic pseudoexon-activating mutation in the androgen receptor gene

    PubMed Central

    Känsäkoski, Johanna; Jääskeläinen, Jarmo; Jääskeläinen, Tiina; Tommiska, Johanna; Saarinen, Lilli; Lehtonen, Rainer; Hautaniemi, Sampsa; Frilander, Mikko J.; Palvimo, Jorma J.; Toppari, Jorma; Raivio, Taneli

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in the X-linked androgen receptor (AR) gene underlie complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS), the most common cause of 46,XY sex reversal. Molecular genetic diagnosis of CAIS, however, remains uncertain in patients who show normal coding region of AR. Here, we describe a novel mechanism of AR disruption leading to CAIS in two 46,XY sisters. We analyzed whole-genome sequencing data of the patients for pathogenic variants outside the AR coding region. Patient fibroblasts from the genital area were used for AR cDNA analysis and protein quantification. Analysis of the cDNA revealed aberrant splicing of the mRNA caused by a deep intronic mutation (c.2450-118A>G) in the intron 6 of AR. The mutation creates a de novo 5′ splice site and a putative exonic splicing enhancer motif, which leads to the preferential formation of two aberrantly spliced mRNAs (predicted to include a premature stop codon). Patient fibroblasts contained no detectable AR protein. Our results show that patients with CAIS and normal AR coding region need to be examined for deep intronic mutations that can lead to pseudoexon activation. PMID:27609317

  14. [Transdisciplinary Approach for Sarcopenia. Appication of selective androgen receptor modulator to the therapy of sarcopenia].

    PubMed

    Yanase, Toshihiko; Tanabe, Makito; Nomiyama, Takashi

    2014-10-01

    The research to develop a drug, so called selective androgen receptor modulator (SARM) , which shows beneficial androgenic action on bone and muscle, but hardly possesses the stimulatory action on prostate has been making a progress. However, no drug is available in the market at present. Most of such drugs are developed, aiming at the application to age-related muscle reduction (sarcopenia) and osteoporosis. Recently, in a clinical trial of SARM (enbosarm) administration to healthy elderly men, a promising data showing the increase of lean body mass and physical function has been reported. Future clinical applications of SARMs are expected.

  15. [A potential of selective androgen receptor modulator(SARM)for the therapy of osteoporosis].

    PubMed

    Yanase, Toshihiko

    2016-07-01

    In recent years, the drugs, which show anabolic, effect on bone and muscle without stimulating prostate has been developed. They show tissue-specific selective androgen actions and called selective androgen receptor modulators(SARMs). The development of drug targeting bone and muscle in male is very promising as a treatment tool for osteoporosis and sarcopenia in the near future. The clinical study is under going especially in the field of cachexia associated with cancer, but unfortunately there is no drug in the current market at present. The current situation of the development of SARMs will be reviewed.

  16. Polymorphisms in estrogen- and androgen-metabolizing genes and the risk of gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Freedman, Neal D.; Ahn, Jiyoung; Hou, Lifang; Lissowska, Jolanta; Zatonski, Witold; Yeager, Meredith; Chanock, Stephen J.; Chow, Wong Ho; Abnet, Christian C.

    2009-01-01

    Androgens and estrogens may play a role in gastric cancer etiology. To investigate the association of gastric cancer with single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in six genes (COMT, CYP1B1, CYP17A1, CYP19A1, HSD17B1 and SHBG) involved in estrogen and androgen synthesis and metabolism, 58 haplotype-tagging SNPs were genotyped in 295 gastric cancer cases and 415 controls from a population-based study in Poland. We assessed differences in haplotype frequency between cases and controls using a global score test and calculated multivariate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for individual haplotypes using logistic regression. We found associations in one linkage disequilibrium (LD) block containing the 3′ untranslated region of COMT (rs9332377, rs165728, rs165849 and rs1110478), global score test (df = 4, P = 0.033). Relative to the most frequent GATA haplotype, the GATG haplotype was associated with statistically significant increased gastric cancer risk (OR = 1.50, 95% CI: 1.06–2.12; false discovery rate (FDR) value = 0.459) and the AACA haplotype with borderline increased risk (OR = 1.36, 95% CI = 1.00–1.85; FDR = 0.50). We also found associations for the LD block containing part of the SHBG coding region (rs6258, rs6259, rs2955617, rs1641544 and rs1641537). The CACCC haplotype was associated with statistically significant lower gastric cancer risk relative to the referent CGACC haplotype (OR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.34–0.90; FDR = 0.459), but the overall score test was statistically non-significant. No other statistically significant associations were observed. In summary, we found possible associations between gastric cancer and polymorphisms in COMT, involved in estrogen inactivation, and SHBG, a modulator of hormone bioavailability. These findings should be interpreted cautiously until replicated in other studies. PMID:19015200

  17. Bitter taste receptor polymorphisms and human aging.

    PubMed

    Campa, Daniele; De Rango, Francesco; Carrai, Maura; Crocco, Paolina; Montesanto, Alberto; Canzian, Federico; Rose, Giuseppina; Rizzato, Cosmeri; Passarino, Giuseppe; Barale, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have shown that genetic factors account for 25% of the variation in human life span. On the basis of published molecular, genetic and epidemiological data, we hypothesized that genetic polymorphisms of taste receptors, which modulate food preferences but are also expressed in a number of organs and regulate food absorption processing and metabolism, could modulate the aging process. Using a tagging approach, we investigated the possible associations between longevity and the common genetic variation at the three bitter taste receptor gene clusters on chromosomes 5, 7 and 12 in a population of 941 individuals ranging in age from 20 to 106 years from the South of Italy. We found that one polymorphism, rs978739, situated 212 bp upstream of the TAS2R16 gene, shows a statistically significant association (p = 0.001) with longevity. In particular, the frequency of A/A homozygotes increases gradually from 35% in subjects aged 20 to 70 up to 55% in centenarians. These data provide suggestive evidence on the possible correlation between human longevity and taste genetics.

  18. Bitter Taste Receptor Polymorphisms and Human Aging

    PubMed Central

    Carrai, Maura; Crocco, Paolina; Montesanto, Alberto; Canzian, Federico; Rose, Giuseppina; Rizzato, Cosmeri

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have shown that genetic factors account for 25% of the variation in human life span. On the basis of published molecular, genetic and epidemiological data, we hypothesized that genetic polymorphisms of taste receptors, which modulate food preferences but are also expressed in a number of organs and regulate food absorption processing and metabolism, could modulate the aging process. Using a tagging approach, we investigated the possible associations between longevity and the common genetic variation at the three bitter taste receptor gene clusters on chromosomes 5, 7 and 12 in a population of 941 individuals ranging in age from 20 to 106 years from the South of Italy. We found that one polymorphism, rs978739, situated 212 bp upstream of the TAS2R16 gene, shows a statistically significant association (p = 0.001) with longevity. In particular, the frequency of A/A homozygotes increases gradually from 35% in subjects aged 20 to 70 up to 55% in centenarians. These data provide suggestive evidence on the possible correlation between human longevity and taste genetics. PMID:23133589

  19. Androgen receptor polyglutamine repeat length (AR-CAGn) modulates the effect of testosterone on androgen-associated somatic traits in Filipino young adult men.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Calen P; Georgiev, Alexander V; McDade, Thomas W; Gettler, Lee T; Eisenberg, Dan T A; Rzhetskaya, Margarita; Agustin, Sonny S; Hayes, M Geoffrey; Kuzawa, Christopher W

    2017-06-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) mediates expression of androgen-associated somatic traits such as muscle mass and strength. Within the human AR is a highly variable glutamine short-tandem repeat (AR-CAGn), and CAG repeat number has been inversely correlated to AR transcriptional activity in vitro. However, evidence for an attenuating effect of long AR-CAGn on androgen-associated somatic traits has been inconsistent in human populations. One possible explanation for this lack of consistency is that the effect of AR-CAGn on AR bioactivity in target tissues likely varies in relation to circulating androgen levels. We tested whether relationships between AR-CAGn and several androgen-associated somatic traits (waist circumference, lean mass, arm muscle area, and grip strength) were modified by salivary (waking and pre-bed) and circulating (total) testosterone (T) levels in young adult males living in metropolitan Cebu, Philippines (n = 675). When men's waking T was low, they had a reduction in three out of four androgen-associated somatic traits with lengthening AR-CAGn (p < .1), consistent with in vitro research. However, when waking T was high, we observed the opposite effect-lengthening AR-CAGn was associated with an increase in these same somatic traits. Our finding that longer AR-CAGn predicts greater androgen-associated trait expression among high-T men runs counter to in vitro work, but is generally consistent with the few prior studies to evaluate similar interactions in human populations. Collectively, these results raise questions about the applicability of findings derived from in vitro AR-CAGn studies to the receptor's role in maintaining androgen-associated somatic traits in human populations. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. PMA induces androgen receptor downregulation and cellular apoptosis in prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Itsumi, Momoe; Shiota, Masaki; Yokomizo, Akira; Takeuchi, Ario; Kashiwagi, Eiji; Dejima, Takashi; Inokuchi, Junichi; Tatsugami, Katsunori; Uchiumi, Takeshi; Naito, Seiji

    2014-08-01

    Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) induces cellular apoptosis in prostate cancer cells, the growth of which is governed by androgen/androgen receptor (AR) signaling, but the mechanism by which PMA exerts this effect remains unknown. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the mechanistic action of PMA in prostate cancer cells with regard to AR. We showed that PMA decreased E2F1 as well as AR expression in androgen-dependent prostate cancer LNCaP cells. Furthermore, PMA activated JNK and p53 signaling, resulting in the induction of cellular apoptosis. In LNCaP cells, androgen deprivation and a novel anti-androgen enzalutamide (MDV3100) augmented cellular apoptosis induced by PMA. Moreover, castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) C4-2 cells were more sensitive to PMA compared with LNCaP cells and were sensitized to PMA by enzalutamide. Finally, the expression of PKC, E2F1, and AR was diminished in PMA-resistant cells, indicating that the gain of independence from PKC, E2F1, and AR functions leads to PMA resistance. In conclusion, PMA exerted its anti-cancer effects via the activation of pro-apoptotic JNK/p53 and inhibition of pro-proliferative E2F1/AR in prostate cancer cells including CRPC cells. The therapeutic effects of PMA were augmented by androgen deletion and enzalutamide in androgen-dependent prostate cancer cells, as well as by enzalutamide in castration-resistant cells. Taken together, PMA derivatives may be promising therapeutic agents for treating prostate cancer patients including CRPC patients.

  1. Effects of androgen receptor polyglutamine tract expansion on proliferation of NG108-15 cells.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, H; Kimura, F; Nakagawa, T; Ikemoto, T; Furutama, D; Shinoda, K; Kato, S; Shimizu, A; Ohsawa, N

    1997-01-31

    Expansion of the polyglutamine tracts in the androgen receptor (AR) has been recognized as a cause of X-linked spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA). In the present study, NG108-15 cells were stably transfected with expression vectors coding for either the wild type (WT) AR gene (CAG repeat number = 22) or a mutated (MT) AR gene (CAG repeat number = 52). Cells proliferation and cell cycle parameters were evaluated for NG108-15-WT and NG108-15-MT cells in the presence or absence of androgen. NG108-15-WT cells demonstrated an androgen-dependent increase in cell number, while NG108-15-MT cells did not. Our results demonstrate that expansion of polyglutamine tracts in the AR may affect the proliferation and differentiation of nerve cells.

  2. [Evidence and characterization of an androgen receptor in the uropygial gland of the adult male quail].

    PubMed

    Amet, Y; Abalain, J H; Daniel, J Y; Thieulant, M L; Floch, H H

    1982-11-15

    5 alpha-DHT is bound with a high affinity (Kd = 0.8 nM) and a limited capacity (80 fmol/mg proteins) in the cytosol of the preen gland of quails, an analogue of sebaceous glands. The complex can be precipitated by protamin-sulfate and is sedimented in the 8 S region after ultra-centrifugation in a sucrose gradient. The occurrence of this binding that exhibits the main properties of an androgen receptor, supports the use of the preen gland of quails as a tool for the study of the mechanism of action of androgens in birds and as a model for the study of the androgen control of sebaceous-like glands.

  3. Biological implications of estrogen and androgen effects on androgen receptor and its mRNA levels in human uterine endometrium.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, J; Nishigaki, M; Hori, M; Ichigo, S; Itoh, T; Tamaya, T

    1995-06-01

    It has been shown that some effects of testosterone are different from those of its 5 alpha-reduced metabolite, dihydrotestosterone. Briefly, activities of testosterone might be related to cellular differentiation, whereas dihydrotestosterone acts on cellular proliferation. The number of testosterone binding sites in the uterine endometrium was increased by estradiol dipropionate, and this increase was down-regulated by testosterone cypionate. Dihydrotestosterone-specific binding sites in the endometrium were not modulated by estradiol dipropionate and testosterone cypionate. The dissociation constants of the binding sites for testosterone and dihydrotestosterone were not altered by these steroids. Estradiol dipropionate with or without testosterone cypionate induced androgen receptor mRNA expression in the endometrium. In conclusion, testosterone might predominantly affect cellular differentiation in the endometrium.

  4. Identification of Anabolic Selective Androgen Receptor Modulators with Reduced Activities in Reproductive Tissues and Sebaceous Glands

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Azriel; Harada, Shun-Ichi; Kimmel, Donald B.; Bai, Chang; Chen, Fang; Rutledge, Su Jane; Vogel, Robert L.; Scafonas, Angela; Gentile, Michael A.; Nantermet, Pascale V.; McElwee-Witmer, Sheila; Pennypacker, Brenda; Masarachia, Patricia; Sahoo, Soumya P.; Kim, Yuntae; Meissner, Robert S.; Hartman, George D.; Duggan, Mark E.; Rodan, Gideon A.; Towler, Dwight A.; Ray, William J.

    2009-01-01

    Androgen replacement therapy is a promising strategy for the treatment of frailty; however, androgens pose risks for unwanted effects including virilization and hypertrophy of reproductive organs. Selective Androgen Receptor Modulators (SARMs) retain the anabolic properties of androgens in bone and muscle while having reduced effects in other tissues. We describe two structurally similar 4-aza-steroidal androgen receptor (AR) ligands, Cl-4AS-1, a full agonist, and TFM-4AS-1, which is a SARM. TFM-4AS-1 is a potent AR ligand (IC50, 38 nm) that partially activates an AR-dependent MMTV promoter (55% of maximal response) while antagonizing the N-terminal/C-terminal interaction within AR that is required for full receptor activation. Microarray analyses of MDA-MB-453 cells show that whereas Cl-4AS-1 behaves like 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), TFM-4AS-1 acts as a gene-selective agonist, inducing some genes as effectively as DHT and others to a lesser extent or not at all. This gene-selective agonism manifests as tissue-selectivity: in ovariectomized rats, Cl-4AS-1 mimics DHT while TFM-4AS-1 promotes the accrual of bone and muscle mass while having reduced effects on reproductive organs and sebaceous glands. Moreover, TFM-4AS-1 does not promote prostate growth and antagonizes DHT in seminal vesicles. To confirm that the biochemical properties of TFM-4AS-1 confer tissue selectivity, we identified a structurally unrelated compound, FTBU-1, with partial agonist activity coupled with antagonism of the N-terminal/C-terminal interaction and found that it also behaves as a SARM. TFM-4AS-1 and FTBU-1 represent two new classes of SARMs and will allow for comparative studies aimed at understanding the biophysical and physiological basis of tissue-selective effects of nuclear receptor ligands. PMID:19846549

  5. Identification of anabolic selective androgen receptor modulators with reduced activities in reproductive tissues and sebaceous glands.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Azriel; Harada, Shun-Ichi; Kimmel, Donald B; Bai, Chang; Chen, Fang; Rutledge, Su Jane; Vogel, Robert L; Scafonas, Angela; Gentile, Michael A; Nantermet, Pascale V; McElwee-Witmer, Sheila; Pennypacker, Brenda; Masarachia, Patricia; Sahoo, Soumya P; Kim, Yuntae; Meissner, Robert S; Hartman, George D; Duggan, Mark E; Rodan, Gideon A; Towler, Dwight A; Ray, William J

    2009-12-25

    Androgen replacement therapy is a promising strategy for the treatment of frailty; however, androgens pose risks for unwanted effects including virilization and hypertrophy of reproductive organs. Selective Androgen Receptor Modulators (SARMs) retain the anabolic properties of androgens in bone and muscle while having reduced effects in other tissues. We describe two structurally similar 4-aza-steroidal androgen receptor (AR) ligands, Cl-4AS-1, a full agonist, and TFM-4AS-1, which is a SARM. TFM-4AS-1 is a potent AR ligand (IC(50), 38 nm) that partially activates an AR-dependent MMTV promoter (55% of maximal response) while antagonizing the N-terminal/C-terminal interaction within AR that is required for full receptor activation. Microarray analyses of MDA-MB-453 cells show that whereas Cl-4AS-1 behaves like 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), TFM-4AS-1 acts as a gene-selective agonist, inducing some genes as effectively as DHT and others to a lesser extent or not at all. This gene-selective agonism manifests as tissue-selectivity: in ovariectomized rats, Cl-4AS-1 mimics DHT while TFM-4AS-1 promotes the accrual of bone and muscle mass while having reduced effects on reproductive organs and sebaceous glands. Moreover, TFM-4AS-1 does not promote prostate growth and antagonizes DHT in seminal vesicles. To confirm that the biochemical properties of TFM-4AS-1 confer tissue selectivity, we identified a structurally unrelated compound, FTBU-1, with partial agonist activity coupled with antagonism of the N-terminal/C-terminal interaction and found that it also behaves as a SARM. TFM-4AS-1 and FTBU-1 represent two new classes of SARMs and will allow for comparative studies aimed at understanding the biophysical and physiological basis of tissue-selective effects of nuclear receptor ligands.

  6. Androgen and estrogen receptor mediated mechanisms of testosterone action in male rat pelvic autonomic ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Purves-Tyson, T.D.; Arshi, M.S.; Handelsman, D. J.; Cheng, Y.; Keast, J. R.

    2007-01-01

    Although male reproductive function is primarily androgen dependent, many studies suggest that estrogens have direct actions on the male reproductive organs. Pelvic autonomic neurons provide the motor control of the internal reproductive organs and the penis and various properties of these neurons are affected by endogenous androgens. However, the possible role of estrogens at this site has not been examined. Here we have investigated the significance of estrogens produced by aromatisation of testosterone in the physiological actions of androgens on adult male rat pelvic ganglion neurons. RT-PCR studies showed that aromatase and both estrogen receptors (ERα and ERβ) are expressed in these ganglia. Western blotting also showed that aromatase is expressed in male pelvic ganglia. Using immunohistochemical visualisation, ERα was predominantly expressed by nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-positive parasympathetic pelvic ganglion neurons. In vivo studies showed that the decrease in pelvic ganglion soma size caused by gonadectomy could be prevented by administration of testosterone (T) or dihydrotestosterone (DHT), but not 17β-estradiol (E2), showing that this maintenance action of testosterone is mediated entirely by androgenic mechanisms. However, in vitro studies of cultured pelvic ganglion neurons revealed that T, DHT and E each stimulated the growth of longer and more complex neurites in both noradrenergic and cholinergic NOS-expressing neurons. The effects of T were attenuated by either androgen or estrogen receptor antagonists, or by inhibition of aromatase. Together these studies demonstrate that estrogens are likely to be synthesised in the male pelvic ganglia, produced from testosterone by local aromatase. The effects of androgens on axonal growth are likely to be at least partly mediated by estrogenic mechanisms, which may be important for understanding disease-, aging- and injury-induced plasticity in this part of the nervous system. PMID:17629410

  7. Green tea polyphenol EGCG blunts androgen receptor function in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Imtiaz A.; Asim, Mohammad; Hafeez, Bilal B.; Adhami, Vaqar M.; Tarapore, Rohinton S.; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2011-01-01

    Androgen deprivation therapy is the major treatment for advanced prostate cancer (PCa). However, it is a temporary remission, and the patients almost inevitably develop hormone refractory prostate cancer (HRPC). HRPC is almost incurable, although most HRPC cells still express androgen receptor (AR) and depend on the AR for growth, making AR a prime drug target. Here, we provide evidence that epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the major polyphenol in green tea, is a direct antagonist of androgen action. In silico modeling and FRET-based competition assay showed that EGCG physically interacts with the ligand-binding domain of AR by replacing a high-affinity labeled ligand (IC50 0.4 μM). The functional consequence of this interaction was a decrease in AR-mediated transcriptional activation, which was due to EGCG mediated inhibition of interdomain N-C termini interaction of AR. Treatment with EGCG also repressed the transcriptional activation by a hotspot mutant AR (T877A) expressed ectopically as well as the endogenous AR mutant. As the physiological consequence of AR antagonism, EGCG repressed R1881-induced PCa cell growth. In a xenograft model, EGCG was found to inhibit AR nuclear translocation and protein expression. We also observed a significant down-regulation of androgen-regulated miRNA-21 and up-regulation of a tumor suppressor, miRNA-330, in tumors of mice treated with EGCG. Taken together, we provide evidence that EGCG functionally antagonizes androgen action at multiple levels, resulting in inhibition of PCa growth.—Siddiqui, I. A., Asim, M., Hafeez, B. B., Adhami, V. M., Tarapore, R. S., Mukhtar, H. Green tea polyphenol EGCG blunts androgen receptor function in prostate cancer. PMID:21177307

  8. Testosterone regulates keratin 33B expression in rat penis growth through androgen receptor signaling

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yan-Min; Wu, Kai-Jie; Dang, Qiang; Shi, Qi; Gao, Yang; Guo, Peng; Xu, Shan; Wang, Xin-Yang; He, Da-Lin; Gong, Yong-Guang

    2014-01-01

    Androgen therapy is the mainstay of treatment for the hypogonadotropic hypogonadal micropenis because it obviously enhances penis growth in prepubescent microphallic patients. However, the molecular mechanisms of androgen treatment leading to penis growth are still largely unknown. To clarify this well-known phenomenon, we successfully generated a castrated male Sprague Dawley rat model at puberty followed by testosterone administration. Interestingly, compared with the control group, testosterone treatment stimulated a dose-dependent increase of penis weight, length, and width in castrated rats accompanied with a dramatic recovery of the pathological changes of the penis. Mechanistically, testosterone administration substantially increased the expression of androgen receptor (AR) protein. Increased AR protein in the penis could subsequently initiate transcription of its target genes, including keratin 33B (Krt33b). Importantly, we demonstrated that KRT33B is generally expressed in the rat penis and that most KRT33B expression is cytoplasmic. Furthermore, AR could directly modulate its expression by binding to a putative androgen response element sequence of the Krt33b promoter. Overall, this study reveals a novel mechanism facilitating penis growth after testosterone treatment in precastrated prepubescent animals, in which androgen enhances the expression of AR protein as well as its target genes, such as Krt33b. PMID:24994782

  9. Testosterone regulates keratin 33B expression in rat penis growth through androgen receptor signaling.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yan-Min; Wu, Kai-Jie; Dang, Qiang; Shi, Qi; Gao, Yang; Guo, Peng; Xu, Shan; Wang, Xin-Yang; He, Da-Lin; Gong, Yong-Guang

    2014-01-01

    Androgen therapy is the mainstay of treatment for the hypogonadotropic hypogonadal micropenis because it obviously enhances penis growth in prepubescent microphallic patients. However, the molecular mechanisms of androgen treatment leading to penis growth are still largely unknown. To clarify this well-known phenomenon, we successfully generated a castrated male Sprague Dawley rat model at puberty followed by testosterone administration. Interestingly, compared with the control group, testosterone treatment stimulated a dose-dependent increase of penis weight, length, and width in castrated rats accompanied with a dramatic recovery of the pathological changes of the penis. Mechanistically, testosterone administration substantially increased the expression of androgen receptor (AR) protein. Increased AR protein in the penis could subsequently initiate transcription of its target genes, including keratin 33B (Krt33b). Importantly, we demonstrated that KRT33B is generally expressed in the rat penis and that most KRT33B expression is cytoplasmic. Furthermore, AR could directly modulate its expression by binding to a putative androgen response element sequence of the Krt33b promoter. Overall, this study reveals a novel mechanism facilitating penis growth after testosterone treatment in precastrated prepubescent animals, in which androgen enhances the expression of AR protein as well as its target genes, such as Krt33b.

  10. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis-related hepatocellular carcinoma: is there a role for the androgen receptor pathway?

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Mahmoud A; Lacin, Sahin; Abdel-Wahab, Reham; Uemura, Mark; Hassan, Manal; Rashid, Asif; Duda, Dan G; Kaseb, Ahmed O

    2017-01-01

    The epidemic of insulin resistance, obesity, and metabolic syndrome has led to the emergence of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) as the most common cause of liver disease in the US. Patients with NASH are at an increased risk for hepatic disease-related morbidity and death, and chronic inflammation in NASH patients can lead to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The prevalence of HCC is higher in males than in females, and genetic studies have identified androgen and androgen receptors (ARs) as partially responsible for the gender disparity in the development of liver disease and HCC. Although many factors are known to play important roles in the progression of inflammation in NASH patients, the role of androgen and AR in the progression of NASH to HCC has been understudied. This review summarizes the evidence for a potential role of androgen and the AR pathway in the development of NASH-related HCC and in the treatment of HCC. It has been proposed that AR plays a role in the progression of HCC: inhibitory roles in early stages of hepatocarcinogenesis and tumor-promoting roles in advanced stages. AR can be activated by several pathways, even in the absence of androgen. While AR has been explored as a potential therapeutic target in HCC, several clinical trials have failed to demonstrate a clinical benefit of antiandrogen drugs in HCC. This review discusses the potential reason for these observations and discuss the potential future trials design in this important setting. PMID:28424556

  11. Androgen receptor mutations are associated with altered epigenomic programming as evidenced by HOXA5 methylation.

    PubMed

    Bens, S; Ammerpohl, O; Martin-Subero, J I; Appari, M; Richter, J; Hiort, O; Werner, R; Riepe, F G; Siebert, R; Holterhus, P-M

    2011-01-01

    Male external genital differentiation is accompanied by implementation of a long-term, male-specific gene expression pattern indicating androgen programming in cultured genital fibroblasts. We hypothesized the existence of an epigenetic background contributing to this phenomenon. DNA methylation levels in 2 normal scrotal fibroblast strains from 46,XY males compared to 2 labia majora fibroblast strains from 46,XY females with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) due to androgen receptor (AR) mutations were analyzed by Illumina GoldenGate methylation arrays®. Results were validated with pyrosequencing in labia majora fibroblast strains from fifteen 46,XY patients and compared to nine normal male scrotal fibroblast strains. HOXA5 showed a significantly higher methylation level in complete AIS. This finding was confirmed by bisulfite pyrosequencing of 14 CpG positions within the HOXA5 promoter in the same strains. Extension of the 2 groups revealed a constant low HOXA5 methylation pattern in the controls in contrast to a highly variable methylation pattern in the AIS patients. HOXA5 represents a candidate gene of androgen-mediated promoter methylation. The constantly low HOXA5 DNA methylation level of normal male scrotal fibroblast strains and the frequently high methylation levels in labia majora fibroblast strains in AIS indicate for the first time that androgen programming in sexual differentiation is not restricted to global gene transcription but also occurs at the epigenetic level.

  12. Non-Genomic Actions of the Androgen Receptor in Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Jacky K.; Sadar, Marianne D.

    2017-01-01

    Androgen receptor (AR) is a validated drug target for prostate cancer based on its role in proliferation, survival, and metastases of prostate cancer cells. Unfortunately, despite recent improvements to androgen deprivation therapy and the advent of better antiandrogens with a superior affinity for the AR ligand-binding domain (LBD), most patients with recurrent disease will eventually develop lethal metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Expression of constitutively active AR splice variants that lack the LBD contribute toward therapeutic resistance by bypassing androgen blockade and antiandrogens. In the canonical pathway, binding of androgen to AR LBD triggers the release of AR from molecular chaperones which enable conformational changes and protein–protein interactions to facilitate its nuclear translocation where it regulates the expression of target genes. However, preceding AR function in the nucleus, initial binding of androgen to AR LBD in the cytoplasm may already initiate signal transduction pathways to modulate cellular proliferation and migration. In this article, we review the significance of signal transduction pathways activated by rapid, non-genomic signaling of the AR during the progression to metastatic CRPC and put into perspective the implications for current and novel therapies that target different domains of AR. PMID:28144231

  13. Neural androgen receptor overexpression affects cell number in the spinal nucleus of the bulbocavernosus.

    PubMed

    Coome, L A; Swift-Gallant, A; Ramzan, F; Melhuish Beaupre, L; Brkic, T; Monks, D A

    2017-09-01

    The spinal nucleus of the bulbocavernosus (SNB) is a sexually dimorphic neuromuscular system in which the masculinisation of cell number is assumed to depend on the action of perinatal androgen in non-neural targets, whereas the masculinisation of cell size is assumed to depend primarily on the action of adult androgen on SNB cells themselves. To test these hypotheses, we characterised the SNB of Cre/loxP transgenic mice that overexpress androgen receptor (AR) throughout the body (CMV-AR) or in neural tissue only (Nestin-AR). Additionally, we examined the effects of androgen manipulation in male mutants and wild-type (WT) controls. We reproduced the expected sex differences in both motoneurone number and size, as well as the expected adult androgen dependence of SNB size. We found effects of genotype such that both Nestin-AR and CMV-AR have more SNB motoneurones than WT littermates and also that CMV-AR females have larger SNB motoneurones than Nes-AR or WT females. These results raise the possibility that AR can act in neurones and/or glia to rescue SNB motoneurones, as well as on non-neural AR to increase SNB cell size. © 2017 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  14. Effect of androgen suppression compared with androgen receptor blockade on arterial stiffness in men with prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Dockery, Frances; Bulpitt, Christopher J; Agarwal, Sanjiv; Vernon, Clare; Rajkumar, Chakravarthi

    2009-01-01

    Endogenous testosterone and estradiol are thought to be cardio-protective in men. We wanted to determine the effects of 2 different anti-androgen therapies on arterial stiffness as one suppresses (goserelin--a gonadotrophin-releasing hormone analog) while the other increases (bicalutamide--an androgen receptor blocker) both testosterone and estradiol. We conducted a randomized trial on 43 men (mean age, 71.2 +/- 6.2 years) with localized prostate cancer. They received either goserelin or bicalutamide for 24 weeks. Carotid-femoral (C-F) and carotid-radial (C-R) pulse wave velocities (PWVs) were measured. Twenty age- and disease-matched men with prostate cancer on no active treatment were studied in a similar manner. After 12 weeks of goserelin, radial artery PWV increased significantly from baseline and a nonsignificant increase was observed in femoral PWV (change from baseline radial: +1.4 m/s, P = .002, femoral: +0.9 m/s, P = .127) Both PWV measures increased significantly with bicalutamide (change from baseline radial: +0.8, femoral: +0.9 m/s, P or= .967 at 12 weeks and P >or= .07 at 24 weeks). The untreated men studied in parallel showed no changes at 12 or 24 weeks in either PWV measure. Anti-androgen treatment in men might increase large artery stiffness, an adverse cardiovascular risk factor; however, the effect was not maintained with testosterone receptor blockade, in the longer term, but tended to be sustained with suppression therapy. This could relate to the different sex hormone effects of the 2 therapies.

  15. Androgens regulate ovarian follicular development by increasing follicle stimulating hormone receptor and microRNA-125b expression.

    PubMed

    Sen, Aritro; Prizant, Hen; Light, Allison; Biswas, Anindita; Hayes, Emily; Lee, Ho-Joon; Barad, David; Gleicher, Norbert; Hammes, Stephen R

    2014-02-25

    Although androgen excess is considered detrimental to women's health and fertility, global and ovarian granulosa cell-specific androgen-receptor (AR) knockout mouse models have been used to show that androgen actions through ARs are actually necessary for normal ovarian function and female fertility. Here we describe two AR-mediated pathways in granulosa cells that regulate ovarian follicular development and therefore female fertility. First, we show that androgens attenuate follicular atresia through nuclear and extranuclear signaling pathways by enhancing expression of the microRNA (miR) miR-125b, which in turn suppresses proapoptotic protein expression. Second, we demonstrate that, independent of transcription, androgens enhance follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) receptor expression, which then augments FSH-mediated follicle growth and development. Interestingly, we find that the scaffold molecule paxillin regulates both processes, making it a critical regulator of AR actions in the ovary. Finally, we report that low doses of exogenous androgens enhance gonadotropin-induced ovulation in mice, further demonstrating the critical role that androgens play in follicular development and fertility. These data may explain reported positive effects of androgens on ovulation rates in women with diminished ovarian reserve. Furthermore, this study demonstrates mechanisms that might contribute to the unregulated follicle growth seen in diseases of excess androgens such as polycystic ovary syndrome.

  16. A novel selective androgen receptor modulator, NEP28, is efficacious in muscle and brain without serious side effects on prostate.

    PubMed

    Akita, Kazumasa; Harada, Koichiro; Ichihara, Junji; Takata, Naoko; Takahashi, Yasuhiko; Saito, Koichi

    2013-11-15

    Age-related androgen depletion is known to be a risk factor for various diseases, such as osteoporosis and sarcopenia. Furthermore, recent studies have demonstrated that age-related androgen depletion results in accumulation of β-amyloid protein and thereby acts as a risk factor for the development of Alzheimer's disease. Supplemental androgen therapy has been shown to be efficacious in treating osteoporosis and sarcopenia. In addition, studies in animals have demonstrated that androgens can play a protective role against Alzheimer's disease. However, androgen therapy is not used routinely for these indications, because of side effects. Selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) are a new class of compounds. SARMs maintain the beneficial effects of androgens on bone and muscle while reducing unwanted side effects. NEP28 is a new SARM exhibiting high selectivity for androgen receptor. To investigate the pharmacological effects of NEP28, we compared the effects on muscle, prostate, and brain with mice that were androgen depleted by orchidectomy and then treated with either placebo, NEP28, dihydrotestosterone, or methyltestosterone. We demonstrated that NEP28 showed tissue-selective effect equivalent to or higher than existing SARMs. In addition, the administration of NEP28 increased the activity of neprilysin, a known Aβ-degrading enzyme. These results indicate that SARM is efficacious for the treatment of not only osteoporosis and sarcopenia, but also Alzheimer's disease. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Genetic polymorphisms in the androgen metabolism pathway and risk of prostate cancer in low incidence Malaysian ethnic groups

    PubMed Central

    Poniah, Prevathe; Mohamed, Zahurin; Apalasamy, Yamunah Devi; Mohd Zain, Shamsul; Kuppusamy, Shanggar; Razack, Azad HA

    2015-01-01

    Androgens are involved in prostate cancer (PCa) cell growth. Genes involved in androgen metabolism mediate key steps in sex steroid metabolism. This study attempted to investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the androgen metabolism pathway are associated with PCa risk in low incidence Asian ethnic groups. We genotyped 172 Malaysian subjects for cytochrome P450 family 17 (CYP17A1), steroid-5-alpha-reductase, polypeptide 1 and 2 (SRD5A1 and SRD5A2), and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) genes of the androgen metabolism pathway and assessed the testosterone, dihydrotestosterone and IGF-1 levels. SNPs in the CYP17A1, SRD5A1, SRD5A2, and IGF-1 genes were genotyped using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Although we did not find significant association between SNPs analysed in this study with PCa risk, we observed however, significant association between androgen levels and the IGF-1 and several SNPs. Men carrying the GG genotype for SNP rs1004467 (CYP17A1) had significantly elevated testosterone (P = 0.012) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) levels (P = 0.024) as compared to carriers of the A allele. The rs518673 of the SRD5A1 was associated with prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels. Our findings suggest CYP17A1 rs1004467 SNP is associated with testosterone and DHT levels indicating the importance of this gene in influencing androgen levels in the circulatory system of PCa patients, hence could be used as a potential marker in PCa assessment. PMID:26770559

  18. Androgen Suppresses the Proliferation of Androgen Receptor-Positive Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer Cells via Inhibition of Cdk2, CyclinA, and Skp2

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Shih Sheng; Lin, Ching-Yu; Fukuchi, Junichi; Hiipakka, Richard A.; Chung, Chi-Jung; Chan, Tzu-Min; Liao, Shutsung; Chang, Chung-Ho; Chuu, Chih-Pin

    2014-01-01

    The majority of prostate cancer (PCa) patient receiving androgen ablation therapy eventually develop castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). We previously reported that androgen treatment suppresses Skp2 and c-Myc through androgen receptor (AR) and induced G1 cell cycle arrest in androgen-independent LNCaP 104-R2 cells, a late stage CRPC cell line model. However, the mechanism of androgenic regulation of Skp2 in CRPC cells was not fully understood. In this study, we investigated the androgenic regulation of Skp2 in two AR-positive CRPC cell line models, the LNCaP 104-R1 and PC-3AR Cells. The former one is an early stage androgen-independent LNCaP cells, while the later one is PC-3 cells re-expressing either wild type AR or mutant LNCaP AR. Proliferation of LNCaP 104-R1 and PC-3AR cells is not dependent on but is suppressed by androgen. We observed in this study that androgen treatment reduced protein expression of Cdk2, Cdk7, Cyclin A, cyclin H, Skp2, c-Myc, and E2F-1; lessened phosphorylation of Thr14, Tyr15, and Thr160 on Cdk2; decreased activity of Cdk2; induced protein level of p27Kip1; and caused G1 cell cycle arrest in LNCaP 104-R1 cells and PC-3AR cells. Overexpression of Skp2 protein in LNCaP 104-R1 or PC-3AR cells partially blocked accumulation of p27Kip1 and increased Cdk2 activity under androgen treatment, which partially blocked the androgenic suppressive effects on proliferation and cell cycle. Analyzing on-line gene array data of 214 normal and PCa samples indicated that gene expression of Skp2, Cdk2, and cyclin A positively correlates to each other, while Cdk7 negatively correlates to these genes. These observations suggested that androgen suppresses the proliferation of CRPC cells partially through inhibition of Cyclin A, Cdk2, and Skp2. PMID:25271736

  19. Bone stroma-derived cells change coregulators recruitment to androgen receptor and decrease cell proliferation in androgen-sensitive and castration-resistant prostate cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Villagran, Marcelo A.; Gutierrez-Castro, Francisco A.; Pantoja, Diego F.; Alarcon, Jose C.; Fariña, Macarena A.; Amigo, Romina F.; Muñoz-Godoy, Natalia A.; Pinilla, Mabel G.; Peña, Eduardo A.; Gonzalez-Chavarria, Ivan; Toledo, Jorge R.; Rivas, Coralia I.; Vera, Juan C.; McNerney, Eileen M.; Onate, Sergio A.

    2015-11-27

    Prostate cancer (CaP) bone metastasis is an early event that remains inactive until later-stage progression. Reduced levels of circulating androgens, due to andropause or androgen deprivation therapies, alter androgen receptor (AR) coactivator expression. Coactivators shift the balance towards enhanced AR-mediated gene transcription that promotes progression to androgen-resistance. Disruptions in coregulators may represent a molecular switch that reactivates latent bone metastasis. Changes in AR-mediated transcription in androgen-sensitive LNCaP and androgen-resistant C4-2 cells were analyzed for AR coregulator recruitment in co-culture with Saos-2 and THP-1. The Saos-2 cell line derived from human osteosarcoma and THP-1 cell line representing human monocytes were used to display osteoblast and osteoclast activity. Increased AR activity in androgen-resistant C4-2 was due to increased AR expression and SRC1/TIF2 recruitment and decreased SMRT/NCoR expression. AR activity in both cell types was decreased over 90% when co-cultured with Saos-2 or THP-1 due to dissociation of AR from the SRC1/TIF2 and SMRT/NCoR coregulators complex, in a ligand-dependent and cell-type specific manner. In the absence of androgens, Saos-2 decreased while THP-1 increased proliferation of LNCaP cells. In contrast, both Saos-2 and THP-1 decreased proliferation of C4-2 in absence and presence of androgens. Global changes in gene expression from both CaP cell lines identified potential cell cycle and androgen regulated genes as mechanisms for changes in cell proliferation and AR-mediated transactivation in the context of bone marrow stroma cells. - Highlights: • Decreased corepressor expression change AR in androgen-resistance prostate cancer. • Bone stroma-derived cells change AR coregulator recruitment in prostate cancer. • Bone stroma cells change cell proliferation in androgen-resistant cancer cells. • Global gene expression in CaP cells is modified by bone stroma cells in co

  20. Androgen receptor overexpression alters binding dynamics of the receptor to chromatin and chromatin structure.

    PubMed

    Urbanucci, Alfonso; Marttila, Saara; Jänne, Olli A; Visakorpi, Tapio

    2012-08-01

    Castration-resistant prostate cancers (CRPCs) overexpress often androgen receptor (AR). Here, we investigated the effect of AR overexpression on the dynamics of AR loading and RNA polymerase II (RNA Pol II) recruitment to chromatin. Acetylation of histone 3 (AcH3) on lysines 9 and 14 (K9 and K14) was also studied. We used an LNCaP-based AR overexpression cell line model that includes a control line and two sublines, LNCaP-ARmo and LNCaP-ARhi, which overexpress AR twofold to threefold and fourfold to fivefold, respectively. Cells were exposed to 1 or 100 nM of dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) on the promoters and enhancers of prostate specific antigen (PSA) and transmembrane protease, serine 2 (TMPRSS2) genes was performed. qRT-PCR was used to measure the levels of PSA and TMPRSS2 transcripts. Upon stimulation with 1 nM DHT, AR and RNA Pol II were recruited onto PSA and TMPRSS2 enhancer regions to a greater extent (P < 0.05) in AR-overexpressing cells compared to control cells. The difference in AR loading between the control and AR-overexpressing cells was abolished by a higher DHT concentration. The ratio of AcH3/H3 was increased in AR-overexpressing cells. The induction of transcription of PSA and TMPRSS2 occurred earlier in the AR-overexpressing cells. Our findings suggest that the levels of AR potentiate the recruitment of the AR, as well as components of the basic transcription machinery, to chromatin and affect the acetylation of histones in the presence of low levels of androgens. These changes result in enhanced gene transcription of AR target genes. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Critical role of androgen receptor in the postnatal period in male sexual behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Shunji; Ohoya, Miku; Takanami, Keiko; Matsuda, Ken Ichi; Kawata, Mitsuhiro

    2015-11-16

    Gonadal hormones have a developmental role in organization of the nervous system that regulates sexually dimorphic behavior. It is well known that androgen secreted from testes in the perinatal period is converted to estrogen by aromatase in rodent brain, and that estrogen and its receptor play a pivotal role in masculinization of brain structure and function. Treatment with flutamide, an androgen receptor (AR) antagonist, during the perinatal period inhibits development of malespecific brain structure and function, suggesting that androgen signaling via AR also influences brain masculinization. In this study, we investigated which stage during the postnatal period is critical for androgen signaling in brain masculinization. The postnatal period was designated as postnatal days (PD) 0-22, and divided into stages I (PD 0-7), II (PD 8-14), and III (PD 15-22). Newborn male rats were given flutamide subcutaneously in each stage. After adulthood, the effects of postnatal flutamide treatment on brain masculinization were evaluated byanalysis of male sexual behavior. Continuous inhibition of AR throughout stages I and II caused a robust reduction of the intromission ratio and ejaculation frequency compared with other groups. AR inhibition in stage I, II, or III did not cause any change. AR inhibition had no effect onmount behavior. These results show that stage-specific AR activation in the first two postnatal weeks may contribute to brain masculinization mediating male sexual behavior in adulthood.

  2. Synthetic lethality between androgen receptor signalling and the PARP pathway in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Asim, Mohammad; Tarish, Firas; Zecchini, Heather I; Sanjiv, Kumar; Gelali, Eleni; Massie, Charles E; Baridi, Ajoeb; Warren, Anne Y; Zhao, Wanfeng; Ogris, Christoph; McDuffus, Leigh-Anne; Mascalchi, Patrice; Shaw, Greg; Dev, Harveer; Wadhwa, Karan; Wijnhoven, Paul; Forment, Josep V; Lyons, Scott R; Lynch, Andy G; O'Neill, Cormac; Zecchini, Vincent R; Rennie, Paul S; Baniahmad, Aria; Tavaré, Simon; Mills, Ian G; Galanty, Yaron; Crosetto, Nicola; Schultz, Niklas; Neal, David; Helleday, Thomas

    2017-08-29

    Emerging data demonstrate homologous recombination (HR) defects in castration-resistant prostate cancers, rendering these tumours sensitive to PARP inhibition. Here we demonstrate a direct requirement for the androgen receptor (AR) to maintain HR gene expression and HR activity in prostate cancer. We show that PARP-mediated repair pathways are upregulated in prostate cancer following androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT). Furthermore, upregulation of PARP activity is essential for the survival of prostate cancer cells and we demonstrate a synthetic lethality between ADT and PARP inhibition in vivo. Our data suggest that ADT can functionally impair HR prior to the development of castration resistance and that, this potentially could be exploited therapeutically using PARP inhibitors in combination with androgen-deprivation therapy upfront in advanced or high-risk prostate cancer.Tumours with homologous recombination (HR) defects become sensitive to PARPi. Here, the authors show that androgen receptor (AR) regulates HR and AR inhibition activates the PARP pathway in vivo, thus inhibition of both AR and PARP is required for effective treatment of high risk prostate cancer.

  3. Tissue-specific pioneer factors associate with androgen receptor cistromes and transcription programs

    PubMed Central

    Pihlajamaa, Päivi; Sahu, Biswajyoti; Lyly, Lauri; Aittomäki, Viljami; Hautaniemi, Sampsa; Jänne, Olli A

    2014-01-01

    Androgen receptor (AR) binds male sex steroids and mediates physiological androgen actions in target tissues. ChIP-seq analyses of AR-binding events in murine prostate, kidney and epididymis show that in vivo AR cistromes and their respective androgen-dependent transcription programs are highly tissue specific mediating distinct biological pathways. This high order of tissue specificity is achieved by the use of exclusive collaborating factors in the three androgen-responsive tissues. We find two novel collaborating factors for AR signaling in vivo—Hnf4α (hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α) in mouse kidney and AP-2α (activating enhancer binding protein 2α) in mouse epididymis—that define tissue-specific AR recruitment. In mouse prostate, FoxA1 serves for the same purpose. FoxA1, Hnf4α and AP-2α motifs are over-represented within unique AR-binding loci, and the cistromes of these factors show substantial overlap with AR-binding events distinct to each tissue type. These licensing or pioneering factors are constitutively bound to chromatin and guide AR to specific genomic loci upon hormone exposure. Collectively, liganded receptor and its DNA-response elements are required but not sufficient for establishment of tissue-specific transcription programs. PMID:24451200

  4. Epidermal growth factor increases coactivation of the androgen receptor in recurrent prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Christopher W; Fei, Xiaoyin; Ponguta, Liliana A; He, Bin; Bill, Heather M; French, Frank S; Wilson, Elizabeth M

    2004-02-20

    Growth of normal and neoplastic prostate is mediated by the androgen receptor (AR), a ligand-dependent transcription factor activated by high affinity androgen binding. The AR is highly expressed in recurrent prostate cancer cells that proliferate despite reduced circulating androgen. In this report, we show that epidermal growth factor (EGF) increases androgen-dependent AR transactivation in the recurrent prostate cancer cell line CWR-R1 through a mechanism that involves a post-transcriptional increase in the p160 coactivator transcriptional intermediary factor 2/glucocorticoid receptor interacting protein 1 (TIF2/GRIP1). Site-specific mutagenesis and selective MAPK inhibitors linked the EGF-induced increase in AR transactivation to phosphorylation of TIF2/GRIP1. EGF signaling increased the coimmunoprecipitation of TIF2 and AR. AR transactivation and its stimulation by EGF were reduced by small interfering RNA inhibition of TIF2/GRIP1 expression. The data indicate that EGF signaling through MAPK increases TIF2/GRIP1 coactivation of AR transactivation in recurrent prostate cancer.

  5. Sex differences in neuromuscular androgen receptor expression and sociosexual behavior in a sex changing fish

    PubMed Central

    Pradhan, Devaleena S.; Thonkulpitak, Kevin; Drilling, Cathleen; Black, Michael; Grober, Matthew S.

    2017-01-01

    Androgen signaling, via receptor binding, is critical for regulating the physiological and morphological foundations of male-typical reproductive behavior in vertebrates. Muscles essential for male courtship behavior and copulation are highly sensitive to androgens. Differences in the distribution and density of the androgen receptor (AR) are important for maintaining dimorphic musculature and thus may provide for anatomical identification of sexually selected traits. In Lythrypnus dalli, a bi-directional hermaphroditic teleost fish, both sexes produce agonistic approach displays, but reproductive behavior is sexually dimorphic. The male-specific courtship behavior is characterized by rapid jerky movements (involving dorsal fin erection) towards a female or around their nest. Activation of the supracarinalis muscle is involved in dorsal fin contributions to both agonistic and sociosexual behavior in other fishes, suggesting that differences in goby sexual behavior may be reflected in sexual dimorphism in AR signaling in this muscle. We examined sex differences in the local distribution of AR in supracarinalis muscle and spinal cord. Our results demonstrate that males do express more AR in the supracarinalis muscle relative to females, but there was no sex difference in the number of spinal motoneurons expressing AR. Interestingly, AR expression in the supracarinalis muscle was also related to rates of sociosexual behavior in males, providing evidence that sexual selection may influence muscle androgenic sensitivity to enhance display vigor. Sex differences in the distribution and number of cells expressing AR in the supracarinalis muscle may underlie the expression of dimorphic behaviors in L. dalli. PMID:28520775

  6. Androgen Receptor Localizes to Plasma Membrane by Binding to Caveolin-1 in Mouse Sertoli Cells

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Qiong; Wu, Yong; Zhang, Zeng; Wang, Yue; Li, Minghua

    2017-01-01

    The nonclassical androgen signaling pathway translates signals into alterations in cellular function within minutes, and this action is proposed to be mediated by an androgen receptor (AR) localized to the plasma membrane. This study was designed to determine the mechanism underlying the membrane association of androgen receptor in TM4 cells, a mouse Sertoli cell line. Western blot analysis indicated testosterone-induced AR translocation to the cell membrane. Data from coimmunoprecipitation indicated that AR is associated with caveolin-1, and testosterone enhanced this association. Knockdown of caveolin-1 by shRNA decreased the amount of AR localized to membrane fraction and prevented AR membrane trafficking after being exposed to testosterone at physiological concentration. The palmitoylation inhibitor 2-bromopalmitate decreased AR membrane localization in basal condition and completely blocked testosterone-induced AR translocation to membrane fraction. These data suggested that AR localized to membrane fraction by binding with caveolin-1 through palmitoylation of the cysteine residue. This study provided a new evidence for AR membrane localization and its application for clarifying the nonclassical signaling pathway of androgens. PMID:28642789

  7. Androgen Receptor Localizes to Plasma Membrane by Binding to Caveolin-1 in Mouse Sertoli Cells.

    PubMed

    Deng, Qiong; Wu, Yong; Zhang, Zeng; Wang, Yue; Li, Minghua; Liang, Hui; Gui, Yaoting

    2017-01-01

    The nonclassical androgen signaling pathway translates signals into alterations in cellular function within minutes, and this action is proposed to be mediated by an androgen receptor (AR) localized to the plasma membrane. This study was designed to determine the mechanism underlying the membrane association of androgen receptor in TM4 cells, a mouse Sertoli cell line. Western blot analysis indicated testosterone-induced AR translocation to the cell membrane. Data from coimmunoprecipitation indicated that AR is associated with caveolin-1, and testosterone enhanced this association. Knockdown of caveolin-1 by shRNA decreased the amount of AR localized to membrane fraction and prevented AR membrane trafficking after being exposed to testosterone at physiological concentration. The palmitoylation inhibitor 2-bromopalmitate decreased AR membrane localization in basal condition and completely blocked testosterone-induced AR translocation to membrane fraction. These data suggested that AR localized to membrane fraction by binding with caveolin-1 through palmitoylation of the cysteine residue. This study provided a new evidence for AR membrane localization and its application for clarifying the nonclassical signaling pathway of androgens.

  8. Pharmacological characterization of an imidazolopyrazole as novel selective androgen receptor modulator.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuqing; Allan, George F; Tannenbaum, Pamela; Sbriscia, Tifanie; Linton, Olivia; Lai, Muh-Tsann; Haynes-Johnson, Donna; Bhattacharjee, Sheela; Lundeen, Scott G; Sui, Zhihua

    2013-03-01

    Selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) are androgens with tissue-selective activity. SARMs that have anabolic activity on muscle while having minimal stimulatory activity on prostate are classified as SARM agonists. They can be used to prevent the loss of lean body mass that is associated with cancer, immunodeficiency, renal disease and aging. They may also have anabolic activity on bone; thus, unlike estrogens, they may reverse the loss of bone strength associated with aging or hypogonadism. Our in-house effort on SARM program discovers a nonsteroidal androgen receptor ligand with a unique imidazolopyrazole moiety in its structure. In vitro, this compound is a weak androgen receptor binder and a weak androgen agonist. Despite this, in orchidectomized mature rats it is an effective SARM agonist, with an ED(50) on levator ani muscle of 3.3mg/kg and an ED(50) on ventral prostate of >30mg/kg. It has its maximal effect on muscle at the dose of 10mg/kg. In addition, this compound has mixed agonistic and antagonistic activities on prostate, reducing the weight of that tissue in intact rats by 22% at 10mg/kg. The compound does not have significant effect on gonadotropin levels or testosterone levels in both orchidectomized and intact male rats. It does not have notable progestin, estrogen or glucocorticoid agonistic or antagonistic activity in rats. In a female sexual behavior model, it improves the sexual desire of ovariectomized female rats for sexually mature intact males over nonsexually ovariectomized females. Overall, the imidazolopyrazole is a potent prostate-sparing candidate for development as a SARM agonist with an appropriate pharmacological profile for clinical benefit in muscle-wasting conditions and female sexual function disorders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Endostatin inhibits androgen-independent prostate cancer growth by suppressing nuclear receptor-mediated oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joo Hyoung; Kang, Minsung; Wang, Hong; Naik, Gurudatta; Mobley, James A; Sonpavde, Guru; Garvey, W Timothy; Darley-Usmar, Victor M; Ponnazhagan, Selvarangan

    2017-04-01

    Androgen-deprivation therapy has been identified to induce oxidative stress in prostate cancer (PCa), leading to reactivation of androgen receptor (AR) signaling in a hormone-refractory manner. Thus, antioxidant therapies have gained attention as adjuvants for castration-resistant PCa. Here, we report for the first time that human endostatin (ES) prevents androgen-independent growth phenotype in PCa cells through its molecular targeting of AR and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and downstream pro-oxidant signaling. This reversal after ES treatment significantly decreased PCa cell proliferation through down-regulation of GR and up-regulation of manganese superoxide dismutase and reduced glutathione levels. Proteome and biochemical analyses of ES-treated PCa cells further indicated a significant up-regulation of enzymes in the major reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging machinery, including catalase, glutathione synthetase, glutathione reductase, NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase, biliverdin reductase, and thioredoxin reductase, resulting in a concomitant reduction of intracellular ROS. ES further augmented the antioxidant system through up-regulation of glucose influx, the pentose phosphate pathway, and NAD salvaging pathways. This shift in cancer cell redox homeostasis by ES significantly decreased the effect of protumorigenic oxidative machinery on androgen-independent PCa growth, suggesting that ES can suppress GR-induced resistant phenotype upon AR antagonism and that the dual targeting action of ES on AR and GR can be further translated to PCa therapy.-Lee, J. H., Kang, M., Wang, H., Naik, G., Mobley, J. A., Sonpavde, G., Garvey, W. T., Darley-Usmar, V. M., Ponnazhagan, S. Endostatin inhibits androgen-independent prostate cancer growth by suppressing nuclear receptor-mediated oxidative stress.

  10. Novel mutation in the ligand-binding domain of the androgen receptor gene (l790p) associated with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome.

    PubMed

    Raicu, Florina; Giuliani, Rossella; Gatta, Valentina; Palka, Chiara; Franchi, Paolo Guanciali; Lelli-Chiesa, Pierluigi; Tumini, Stefano; Stuppia, Liborio

    2008-07-01

    Mutations in the X-linked androgen receptor (AR) gene cause androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS), resulting in an impaired embryonic sex differentiation in 46,XY genetic men. Complete androgen insensitivity (CAIS) produces a female external phenotype, whereas cases with partial androgen insensitivity (PAIS) have various ambiguities of the genitalia. Mild androgen insensitivity (MAIS) is characterized by undermasculinization and gynecomastia. Here we describe a 2-month-old 46,XY female patient, with all of the characteristics of CAIS. Defects in testosterone (T) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) synthesis were excluded. Sequencing of the AR gene showed the presence in exon 6 of a T to C transition in the second base of codon 790, nucleotide position 2369, causing a novel missense Leu790Pro mutation in the ligand-binding domain of the AR protein. The identification of a novel AR mutation in a girl with CAIS provides significant information due to the importance of missense mutations in the ligand-binding domain of the AR, which are able to induce functional abnormalities in the androgen binding capability, stabilization of active conformation, or interaction with coactivators.

  11. Cinical Significance of Androgen Receptor, CK-5/6, KI-67 and Molecular Subtypes in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kayahan, Münire; İdiz, Ufuk Oğuz; Gucin, Zuhal; Erözgen, Fazilet; Memmi, Naim; Müslümanoğlu, Mahmut

    2014-01-01

    Objective To detect the relationship between molecular subtypes of breast cancer with expressions of androgen receptor, cytokeratin 5/6 (CK5/6)and Ki-67. Materials and Methods Expressions of androgen receptor, CK-5/6 and Ki-67 were determined by immunohistochemistry in paraffin-embedded sections obtained from 86 invasive breast cancer cases of stages I/IIa/IIb in 4 molecular subtypes. Patients treated for recurrent disease and locally advanced disease were excluded. Results Forty one luminal A cases, ie. positive estrogen receptor(ER) and/or progesteron receptor (PR) with negative epidermal growth factor receptor (HER2), 14 luminal B, ie. positive ER and/or PR and positive HER2, 14 HER2-enriched (HER2+), ie. negative ER and PR with positive HER2, and 17 triple negative (negative ER and PR and HER2) invasive breast cancers were included. Mean follow-up was 17.46±11.70 mo. Androgen receptor-negativity and CK5/6-positivity were significantly more common in HER2+ and triple negative groups. Ki-67 and histological grade were higher in HER2+ group, significantly. Two deaths were triple negative (P=0.04). Androgen receptor-negativity, CK5/6 and Ki-67 status did not affect survival or systemic metastases, significantly. All groups had local recurrences. Local recurrence was significantly associated with androgen receptor-negativity in luminal A and high Ki-67 value in HER2+ groups. Systemic metastases were significantly more common in triple negative and HER2+ groups. Conclusion Molecular subtypes of breast cancer are prognostic and predictive. Androgen receptor is expressed more commonly in luminal subtypes with better prognosis and androgen receptor negativity is associated with development of local recurrence in luminal A cancers.

  12. Automated microscopy and image analysis for androgen receptor function.

    PubMed

    Hartig, Sean M; Newberg, Justin Y; Bolt, Michael J; Szafran, Adam T; Marcelli, Marco; Mancini, Michael A

    2011-01-01

    Systems-level approaches have emerged that rely on analytical, microscopy-based technology for the discovery of novel drug targets and the mechanisms driving AR signaling, transcriptional activity, and ligand independence. Single cell behavior can be quantified by high-throughput microscopy methods through analysis of endogenous protein levels and localization or creation of biosensor cell lines that can simultaneously detect both acute and latent responses to known and unknown androgenic stimuli. The cell imaging and analytical protocols can be automated to discover agonist/antagonist response windows for nuclear translocation, reporter gene activity, nuclear export, and subnuclear transcription events, facilitating access to a multiplex model system that is inherently unavailable through classic biochemical approaches. In this chapter, we highlight the key steps needed for developing, conducting, and analyzing high-throughput screens to identify effectors of AR signaling.

  13. Inhibition of cyclin D1 expression by androgen receptor in breast cancer cells--identification of a novel androgen response element.

    PubMed

    Lanzino, Marilena; Sisci, Diego; Morelli, Catia; Garofalo, Cecilia; Catalano, Stefania; Casaburi, Ivan; Capparelli, Claudia; Giordano, Cinzia; Giordano, Francesca; Maggiolini, Marcello; Andò, Sebastiano

    2010-09-01

    Cyclin D1 gene (CCND1) is a critical mitogen-regulated cell-cycle control element whose transcriptional modulation plays a crucial role in breast cancer growth and progression. Here we demonstrate that the non-aromatizable androgen 5-α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) inhibits endogenous cyclin D1 expression, as evidenced by reduction of cyclin D1 mRNA and protein levels, and decrease of CCND1-promoter activity, in MCF-7 cells. The DHT-dependent inhibition of CCND1 gene activity requires the involvement and the integrity of the androgen receptor (AR) DNA-binding domain. Site directed mutagenesis, DNA affinity precipitation assay, electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses indicate that this inhibitory effect is ligand dependent and it is mediated by direct binding of AR to an androgen response element (CCND1-ARE) located at -570 to -556-bp upstream of the transcription start site, in the cyclin D1 proximal promoter. Moreover, AR-mediated repression of the CCND1 involves the recruitment of the atypical orphan nuclear receptor DAX1 as a component of a multiprotein repressor complex also embracing the participation of Histone Deacetylase 1. In conclusion, identification of the CCND1-ARE allows defining cyclin D1 as a specific androgen target gene in breast and might contribute to explain the molecular basis of the inhibitory role of androgens on breast cancer cells proliferation.

  14. Expression of estrogen, androgen, and glucocorticoid receptors in recent striae distensae.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, Raquel Cristina Tancsik; Zecchin, Karina Gotardello; de Moraes, Aparecida Machado

    2010-01-01

    Stretch marks or striae distensae (SD) can be considered a common skin disorder, but their physiopathogenic mechanisms have not been totally clarified. Although it is considered an esthetic complaint, it may have serious psychosocial consequences besides the local and systemic alterations of the conjunctive tissue. This study aims at assessing and quantifying the estrogen, androgen and glucocorticoid receptors in skin samples with striae and comparing with normal skin. Skin samples for biopsy were obtained from eight patients with SD and eight patients without lesions. The samples were frozen at -80 degrees C and underwent processing to obtain proteic extract to quantify the estrogen, androgen and glucocorticoid receptors with the Western Blot method. When the estrogen receptor in the skin with SD was compared with healthy skin, it was observed to have increased twice as much (P = 0.00001). The androgen and glucocorticoid receptors in the SD skin had also increased (P = 0.00015 and P = 0.00083, respectively). These findings indicate that under certain conditions there is an increase in hormonal receptor expression, suggesting that regions that undergo greater mechanical stretching of the skin may express greater hormonal receptor activity. This activity may influence the metabolism of the extracellular matrix, causing the formation of SD. Alterations in hormone receptors occur within a well-defined time period during the formation of SD; however, there are differences in the functionality of hormone receptors during different stages in the development of the lesions. The preliminary results appear to be relevant and represent an initial step towards an understanding of the pathophysiology of SD.

  15. Structure of the ligand-binding domain (LBD) of human androgen receptor in complex with a selective modulator LGD2226

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Feng; Liu, Xiao-qin; Li, He; Liang, Kai-ni; Miner, Jeffrey N.; Hong, Mei; Kallel, E. Adam; Oeveren, Arjan van; Zhi, Lin; Jiang, Tao

    2006-11-01

    Crystal structure of the ligand-binding domain of androgen receptor in complex with LGD2226. The androgen receptor (AR) is a ligand-inducible steroid hormone receptor that mediates androgen action, determining male sexual phenotypes and promoting spermatogenesis. As the androgens play a dominant role in male sexual development and function, steroidal androgen agonists have been used clinically for some years. However, there is a risk of potential side effects and most steroidal androgens cannot be dosed orally, which limits the use of these substances. 1,2-Dihydro-6-N,N-bis(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl) amino-4-trifluoromethyl-2-quinolinone (LGD2226) is a synthetic nonsteroidal ligand and a novel selective AR modulator. The crystal structure of the complex of LGD2226 with the androgen receptor ligand-binding domain (AR LBD) at 2.1 Å was solved and compared with the structure of the AR LBD–R1881 complex. It is hoped that this will aid in further explaining the selectivity of LGD2226 observed in in vitro and in vivo assays and in developing more selective and effective therapeutic agents.

  16. The Long-Term Outcome of Boys With Partial Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome and a Mutation in the Androgen Receptor Gene.

    PubMed

    Lucas-Herald, A; Bertelloni, S; Juul, A; Bryce, J; Jiang, J; Rodie, M; Sinnott, R; Boroujerdi, M; Lindhardt Johansen, M; Hiort, O; Holterhus, P M; Cools, M; Guaragna-Filho, G; Guerra-Junior, G; Weintrob, N; Hannema, S; Drop, S; Guran, T; Darendeliler, F; Nordenstrom, A; Hughes, I A; Acerini, C; Tadokoro-Cuccaro, R; Ahmed, S F

    2016-11-01

    In boys with suspected partial androgen insensitivity syndrome (PAIS), systematic evidence that supports the long-term prognostic value of identifying a mutation in the androgen receptor gene (AR) is lacking. To assess the clinical characteristics and long-term outcomes in young men with suspected PAIS in relation to the results of AR analysis. Through the International Disorders of Sex Development Registry, clinical information was gathered on young men suspected of having PAIS (n = 52) who presented before the age of 16 years and had genetic analysis of AR. The median ages at presentation and at the time of the study were 1 month (range, 1 day to 16 years) and 22 years (range, 16 to 52 years), respectively. Of the cohort, 29 men (56%) had 20 different AR mutations reported. At diagnosis, the median external masculinization scores were 7 and 6 in cases with and without AR mutation, respectively (P = .9), and median current external masculinization scores were 9 and 10, respectively (P = .28). Thirty-five men (67%) required at least one surgical procedure, and those with a mutation were more likely to require multiple surgeries for hypospadias (P = .004). All cases with an AR mutation had gynecomastia, compared to 9% of those without an AR mutation. Of the six men who had a mastectomy, five (83%) had an AR mutation. Boys with genetically confirmed PAIS are likely to have a poorer clinical outcome than those with XY DSD, with normal T synthesis, and without an identifiable AR mutation. Routine genetic analysis of AR to confirm PAIS informs long-term prognosis and management.

  17. The Long-Term Outcome of Boys With Partial Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome and a Mutation in the Androgen Receptor Gene

    PubMed Central

    Lucas-Herald, A.; Bertelloni, S.; Juul, A.; Bryce, J.; Jiang, J.; Rodie, M.; Sinnott, R.; Boroujerdi, M.; Lindhardt Johansen, M.; Hiort, O.; Holterhus, P. M.; Cools, M.; Guaragna-Filho, G.; Guerra-Junior, G.; Weintrob, N.; Hannema, S.; Drop, S.; Guran, T.; Darendeliler, F.; Nordenstrom, A.; Hughes, I. A.; Acerini, C.; Tadokoro-Cuccaro, R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: In boys with suspected partial androgen insensitivity syndrome (PAIS), systematic evidence that supports the long-term prognostic value of identifying a mutation in the androgen receptor gene (AR) is lacking. Objective: To assess the clinical characteristics and long-term outcomes in young men with suspected PAIS in relation to the results of AR analysis. Methods: Through the International Disorders of Sex Development Registry, clinical information was gathered on young men suspected of having PAIS (n = 52) who presented before the age of 16 years and had genetic analysis of AR. Results: The median ages at presentation and at the time of the study were 1 month (range, 1 day to 16 years) and 22 years (range, 16 to 52 years), respectively. Of the cohort, 29 men (56%) had 20 different AR mutations reported. At diagnosis, the median external masculinization scores were 7 and 6 in cases with and without AR mutation, respectively (P = .9), and median current external masculinization scores were 9 and 10, respectively (P = .28). Thirty-five men (67%) required at least one surgical procedure, and those with a mutation were more likely to require multiple surgeries for hypospadias (P = .004). All cases with an AR mutation had gynecomastia, compared to 9% of those without an AR mutation. Of the six men who had a mastectomy, five (83%) had an AR mutation. Conclusions: Boys with genetically confirmed PAIS are likely to have a poorer clinical outcome than those with XY DSD, with normal T synthesis, and without an identifiable AR mutation. Routine genetic analysis of AR to confirm PAIS informs long-term prognosis and management. PMID:27403927

  18. Testosterone downregulates angiotensin II type-2 receptor via androgen receptor-mediated ERK1/2 MAP kinase pathway in rat aorta.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Jay S; Hankins, Gary D; Kumar, Sathish

    2016-10-01

    Blood pressure is lower in females than males. Angiotensin II type-2 receptor (AT2R) induces vasodilation. This study determined whether sex differences in vascular AT2R expression occur and if androgens exert control on AT2R expression in the vasculature. AT2Rs in the aorta of male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were examined following alteration in androgen levels by gonadectomy or hormone supplementation. AT2R mRNA and protein expression levels were lower in the aortas of males than females. In males, testosterone withdrawal by castration significantly elevated AT2R mRNA and protein levels and testosterone replacement restored them. In females, increasing androgen levels decreased AT2R mRNA and protein expression and this was attenuated by androgen receptor blocker flutamide. Ex vivo, dihydrotestosterone downregulated AT2R in endothelium-intact but not endothelium-denuded aorta. Dihydrotestosterone-induced AT2R downregulation in isolated aorta was blocked by an androgen receptor antagonist. Furthermore, blockade of ERK1/2 but not p38 MAP kinase or TGFβ signaling with specific inhibitors abolished dihydrotestosterone-induced AT2R downregulation. Androgens downregulate AT2R expression levels in aorta, in vivo and ex vivo. The androgen receptor-mediated ERK1/2 MAP kinase-signaling pathway may be a key mechanism by which testosterone downregulates AT2R expression, implicating androgens' contributing role to gender differences in vascular AT2R expression. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Androgen Receptors in a Cichlid Fish, Astatotilapia burtoni: Structure, Localization, and Expression Levels

    PubMed Central

    HARBOTT, LENE K.; BURMEISTER, SABRINA S.; WHITE, RICHARD B.; VAGELL, MIKE; FERNALD, RUSSELL D.

    2009-01-01

    Androgens are an important output of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis that controls reproduction in all vertebrates. In male teleosts two androgens, testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone, control sexual differentiation and development in juveniles and reproductive behavior in adults. Androgenic signals provide feedback at many levels of the HPG axis, including the hypothalamic neurons that synthesize and release gonadotropin-releasing hormone 1 (GnRH1), but the precise cellular site of androgen action in the brain is not known. Here we describe two androgen receptor subtypes, ARα and ARβ, in the cichlid Astatotilapia burtoni and show that these subtypes are differentially located throughout the adult brain in nuclei known to function in the control of reproduction. ARα was expressed in the ventral part of the ventral telencephalon, the preoptic area (POA) of the hypothalamus and the ventral hypothalamus, whereas ARβ was more widely expressed in the dorsal and ventral telencephalon, the POA, and the ventral and dorsal hypothalamus. We provide the first evidence in any vertebrate that the GnRH1-releasing neurons, which serve as the central control point of the HPG axis, express both subtypes of AR. Using quantitative real-time PCR, we show that A. burtoni AR subtypes have different expression levels in adult tissue, with ARα showing significantly higher expression than ARβ in the pituitary, and ARβ expressed at a higher level than ARα in the anterior and middle brain. These data provide important insight into the role of androgens in regulating the vertebrate reproductive axis. PMID:17614300

  20. G-protein alpha-s and -12 subunits are involved in androgen-stimulated PI3K activation and androgen receptor transactivation in prostate cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianjun; Youn, Hyewon; Yang, Jun; Du, Ningchao; Liu, Jihong; Liu, Hongwei; Li, Benyi

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND The androgen receptor (AR) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that mediates androgenic hormone action in cells. We recently demonstrated the involvement of phosphoinositide 3-OH kinase (PI3K) p110beta in AR transactivation and gene expression. In this study, we determined the upstream signals that lead to PI3K/p110beta activation and AR transactivation after androgen stimulation. METHODS Human prostate cancer LAPC-4 and 22Rv1 cell lines were used for the experiments. AR transactivation was assessed using an androgen responsive element-driven luciferase (ARE-LUC) assay. Cell proliferation was examined using BrdU incorporation and MTT assays. Target genes were silenced using small interfering RNA (siRNA) approach. Gene expression was evaluated at the mRNA level (real-time RT-PCR) and protein level (Western blot). PI3K kinase activities were measured using immunoprecipitation-based in vitro kinase assay. The AR-DNA binding activity was determined using Chromatin-immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay. RESULTS First, at the cellular plasma membrane, disrupting the integrity of caveolae microdomain with methyl-β- cyclodextrin (M-β-CD) abolished androgen-induced AR transactivation and gene expression. Then, knocking down caveolae structural proteins caveolin-1 or -2 with the gene-specific siRNAs significantly reduced androgen-induced AR transactivation. Next, silencing Gαs and Gα12 genes but not other G-proteins blocked androgen-induced AR transactivation and cell proliferation. Consistently, overexpression of Gαs or Gα12 active mutants enhanced androgen-induced AR transactivation, of which Gαs active mutant sensitized the AR to castration-level of androgen (R1881). Most interestingly, knocking down Gαs but not Gα12 subunit significantly suppressed androgen-stimulated PI3K p110beta activation. However, chromatin-immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis revealed that both Gαs or Gα12 subunits are involved in androgen-induced AR interaction with the AR

  1. Androgen insensitivity syndrome: somatic mosaicism of the androgen receptor in seven families and consequences for sex assignment and genetic counseling.

    PubMed

    Köhler, Birgit; Lumbroso, Serge; Leger, Juliane; Audran, Francoise; Grau, Enric Sarret; Kurtz, Francois; Pinto, Graziella; Salerno, Mariacarolina; Semitcheva, Tatiana; Czernichow, Paul; Sultan, Charles

    2005-01-01

    Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) is caused by numerous mutations of the androgen receptor (AR) gene. The phenotype may range from partial AIS (PAIS) with ambiguous genitalia to complete AIS (CAIS) with female genitalia. In 70% of the cases, AR mutations are transmitted in an X-linked recessive manner through the carrier mothers, but in 30%, the mutations arise de novo. When de novo mutations occur after the zygotic stage, they result in somatic mosaicisms, which are an important consideration for both virilization in later life-because both mutant and wild-type receptors are expressed-and genetic counseling. We report here six patients with AIS due to somatic mutations of the AR and one mother with somatic mosaicism who transmitted the mutation twice. Of the four patients with PAIS, three presented spontaneous or induced virilization at birth or puberty. These cases underline the crucial role of the remnant wild-type AR for virilization because the same mutations, when they are inherited, lead to CAIS. We also report two novel mutations of the AR, with somatic mosaicism, detected in patients with CAIS. Thus, the remnant wild-type receptor does not always lead to virilization. In one of these patients, a high ratio of wild-type to mutant AR expression was found in the gonads and genital skin fibroblasts. Although no prenatal virilization occurred, the possibility of virilization at puberty could not be excluded, and early gonadectomy was performed. A seventh patient had a CAIS with a novel germline AR mutation. The mutation was inherited from the mother, in whom mosaicism was detected in blood and who transmitted the mutation to a second, XX, offspring. The detection of somatic AR mutations is particularly important for the clinical management and genetic counseling of patients with AIS. Before definite sex assignment, a testosterone treatment trial should be performed in all patients with PAIS, but it becomes crucial when an AR mosaicism has been detected. In

  2. Chronic Exposure to Anabolic Androgenic Steroids Alters Neuronal Function in the Mammalian Forebrain via Androgen Receptor- and Estrogen Receptor-Mediated Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Penatti, Carlos A A; Porter, Donna M; Henderson, Leslie P

    2009-01-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) can promote detrimental effects on social behaviors for which γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptor-mediated circuits in the forebrain play a critical role. While all AAS bind to androgen receptors (AR), they may also be aromatized to estrogens and thus potentially impart effects via estrogen receptors (ER). Chronic exposure of wild type male mice to a combination of chemically distinct AAS increased action potential (AP) frequency, selective GABAA receptor subunit mRNAs, and GABAergic synaptic current decay in the medial preoptic area (mPOA). Experiments performed with pharmacological agents and in AR-deficient Tfm mutant mice suggest that the AAS-dependent enhancement of GABAergic transmission in wild type mice is AR-mediated. In AR-deficient mice, the AAS elicited dramatically different effects, decreasing AP frequency, sIPSC amplitude and frequency and the expression of selective GABAA receptor subunit mRNAs. Surprisingly, in the absence of AR signaling, the data indicate that the AAS do not act as ER agonists, but rather suggest a novel in vivo action in which the AAS inhibit aromatase and impair endogenous ER signaling. These results show that the AAS have the capacity to alter neuronal function in the forebrain via multiple steroid signaling mechanisms and suggest that effects of these steroids in the brain will depend not only on the balance of AR- vs. ER-mediated regulation for different target genes, but also on the ability of these drugs to alter steroid metabolism and thus the endogenous steroid milieu. PMID:19812324

  3. Chronic exposure to anabolic androgenic steroids alters neuronal function in the mammalian forebrain via androgen receptor- and estrogen receptor-mediated mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Penatti, Carlos A A; Porter, Donna M; Henderson, Leslie P

    2009-10-07

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) can promote detrimental effects on social behaviors for which GABA type A (GABA(A)) receptor-mediated circuits in the forebrain play a critical role. While all AAS bind to androgen receptors (AR), they may also be aromatized to estrogens and thus potentially impart effects via estrogen receptors (ER). Chronic exposure of wild-type male mice to a combination of chemically distinct AAS increased action potential (AP) frequency, selective GABA(A) receptor subunit mRNAs, and GABAergic synaptic current decay in the medial preoptic area (mPOA). Experiments performed with pharmacological agents and in AR-deficient Tfm mutant mice suggest that the AAS-dependent enhancement of GABAergic transmission in wild-type mice is AR-mediated. In AR-deficient mice, the AAS elicited dramatically different effects, decreasing AP frequency, spontaneous IPSC amplitude and frequency and the expression of selective GABA(A) receptor subunit mRNAs. Surprisingly, in the absence of AR signaling, the data indicate that the AAS do not act as ER agonists, but rather suggest a novel in vivo action in which the AAS inhibit aromatase and impair endogenous ER signaling. These results show that the AAS have the capacity to alter neuronal function in the forebrain via multiple steroid signaling mechanisms and suggest that effects of these steroids in the brain will depend not only on the balance of AR- versus ER-mediated regulation for different target genes, but also on the ability of these drugs to alter steroid metabolism and thus the endogenous steroid milieu.

  4. Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs). Part I.

    PubMed

    Aikawa, Katsuji; Miyawaki, Toshio; Hitaka, Takenori; Imai, Yumi N; Hara, Takahito; Miyazaki, Junichi; Yamaoka, Masuo; Kusaka, Masami; Kanzaki, Naoyuki; Tasaka, Akihiro; Shiraishi, Mitsuru; Yamamoto, Satoshi

    2015-05-15

    To develop effective drugs for hypogonadism, sarcopenia, and cachexia, we designed, synthesized, and evaluated selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) that exhibit not only anabolic effects on organs such as muscles and the central nervous system (CNS) but also neutral or antagonistic effects on the prostate. Based on the information obtained from a docking model with androgen receptor (AR), we modified a hit compound A identified through high-throughput screening. Among the prepared compounds, 1-(4-cyano-1-naphthyl)-2,3-disubstituted pyrrolidine derivatives 17h, 17m, and 17j had highly potent AR agonistic activities in vitro and good tissue selectivity in vivo. These derivatives increased the weight of the levator ani muscle without influencing the prostate and seminal vesicle. In addition, these compounds induced sexual behavior in castrated rats, indicating that the compounds could also act as agonists on the CNS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Strategies for Amplification of Trinucleotide Repeats: Optimization of Fragile X and Androgen Receptor PCR.

    PubMed

    Papp; Snyder; Sedra; Guida; Prior

    1996-06-01

    Background: Trinucleotide repeat regions are heritable unstable elements that change in copy number from generation to generation. Amplification of these triplet repeats is an important diagnostic tool for molecular medicine. However, these repeats are often difficult to amplify and may require the use of different cosolvents or amplification strategies. Methods and Results: We used the fragile X and androgen receptor triplet repeat regions to demonstrate a series of conditions that may be used to optimize the amplification of repeat sequences. Conclusions: For androgen receptor, we show that predigestion of the template DNA was sufficient to generate consistent amplification. In the case of fragile X we found that predigestion, when combined with use of betaine as a destabilizing additive, was superior to other methods and yielded consistent amplification of normal and premutation alleles in both isotopic and nonisotopic reactions.

  6. Androgen Receptor Splice Variants are Resistant to Inhibitors of Hsp90 and FKBP52, which alter Androgen Receptor Activity and Expression

    PubMed Central

    Shafi, Ayesha A.; Cox, Marc B.; Weigel, Nancy L.

    2013-01-01

    Androgen ablation therapy is the most common treatment for advanced prostate cancer (PCa), but most patients will develop castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), which has no cure. CRPC is androgen-depletion resistant but androgen receptor (AR) dependent. AR is a nuclear receptor whose transcriptional activity is regulated by hormone binding to the ligand-binding domain (LBD). Constitutively active AR splice variants that lack LBDs often are expressed in CRPC. The expression of these variants indicates that methods to inhibit AR activity that do not rely on inactivating the LBD are needed. Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90), a potential therapeutic target in PCa, is an AR chaperone crucial for proper folding, hormone binding and transcriptional activity of AR. We generated LNCaP cell lines with regulated expression of the AR-V7 variant as well as a cell line expressing artificially truncated AR (termed AR-NTD) to characterize splice variant function. Using an Hsp90 inhibitor, Geldanamycin (GA), and an AR-Hsp90-FKBP52 specific inhibitor, MJC13, we sought to determine if the AR variants also require Hsp90 and associated co-chaperone, FKBP52, for their activity. GA inhibits AR transcriptional activity but has little effect on AR-V7 activity. Moreover, GA decreases the stability of AR protein, with no effect on AR-V7 levels. Full-length AR activity is strongly inhibited by MJC13 while AR-V7 is unaffected. Thus, the variants are resistant to inhibitors of the Hsp90-AR heterocomplex. Although Hsp90 inhibitors will continue to inhibit growth promoting kinases and signaling through activated full-length AR in CRPC, AR signaling through variants will be retained. PMID:23380368

  7. Role of androgen and vitamin D receptors in endothelial cells from benign and malignant human prostate

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Ivy; Montecinos, Viviana P.; Buttyan, Ralph; Johnson, Candace S.; Smith, Gary J.

    2013-01-01

    Forty years ago, Judah Folkman (Folkman. N Engl J Med 285: 1182–1186, 1971) proposed that tumor growth might be controlled by limiting formation of new blood vessels (angiogenesis) needed to supply a growing tumor with oxygen and nutrients. To this end, numerous “antiangiogenic” agents have been developed and tested for therapeutic efficacy in cancer patients, including prostate cancer (CaP) patients, with limited success. Despite the lack of clinical efficacy of lead anti-angiogenic therapeutics in CaP patients, recent published evidence continues to support the idea that prostate tumor vasculature provides a reasonable target for development of new therapeutics. Particularly relevant to antiangiogenic therapies targeted to the prostate is the observation that specific hormones can affect the survival and vascular function of prostate endothelial cells within normal and malignant prostate tissues. Here, we review the evidence demonstrating that both androgen(s) and vitamin D significantly impact the growth and survival of endothelial cells residing within prostate cancer and that systemic changes in circulating androgen or vitamin D drastically affect blood flow and vascularity of prostate tissue. Furthermore, recent evidence will be discussed about the expression of the receptors for both androgen and vitamin D in prostate endothelial cells that argues for direct effects of these hormone-activated receptors on the biology of endothelial cells. Based on this literature, we propose that prostate tumor vasculature represents an unexplored target for modulation of tumor growth. A better understanding of androgen and vitamin D effects on prostate endothelial cells will support development of more effective angiogenesis-targeting therapeutics for CaP patients. PMID:23548616

  8. Targeting androgen receptor/Src complex impairs the aggressive phenotype of human fibrosarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Castoria, Gabriella; Giovannelli, Pia; Di Donato, Marzia; Hayashi, Ryo; Arra, Claudio; Appella, Ettore; Auricchio, Ferdinando; Migliaccio, Antimo

    2013-01-01

    Hormones and growth factors influence the proliferation and invasiveness of human mesenchymal tumors. The highly aggressive human fibrosarcoma HT1080 cell line harbors classical androgen receptor (AR) that responds to androgens triggering cell migration in the absence of significant mitogenesis. As occurs in many human cancer cells, HT1080 cells also express epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). We report that the pure anti-androgen Casodex inhibits the growth of HT1080 cell xenografts in immune-depressed mice, revealing a novel role of AR in fibrosarcoma progression. In HT1080 cultured cells EGF, but not androgens, robustly increases DNA synthesis. Casodex abolishes the EGF mitogenic effect, implying a crosstalk between EGFR and AR. The mechanism underlying this crosstalk has been analyzed using an AR-derived small peptide, S1, which prevents AR/Src tyrosine kinase association and androgen-dependent Src activation. Present findings show that in HT1080 cells EGF induces AR/Src Association, and the S1 peptide abolishes both the assembly of this complex and Src activation. The S1 peptide inhibits EGF-stimulated DNA synthesis, cell matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) secretion and invasiveness of HT1080 cells. Both Casodex and S1 peptide also prevent DNA synthesis and migration triggered by EGF in various human cancer-derived cells (prostate, breast, colon and pancreas) that express AR. This study shows that targeting the AR domain involved in AR/Src association impairs EGF signaling in human fibrosarcoma HT1080 cells. The EGF-elicited processes inhibited by the peptide (DNA synthesis, MMP-9 secretion and invasiveness) cooperate in increasing the aggressive phenotype of HT1080 cells. Therefore, AR represents a new potential therapeutic target in human fibrosarcoma, as supported by Casodex inhibition of HT1080 cell xenografts. The extension of these findings in various human cancer-derived cell lines highlights the conservation of this process across divergent cancer

  9. Identification of endocrine active disinfection by-products (DBPs) that bind to the androgen receptor.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Breanne E; Smeester, Lisa; Fry, Rebecca C; Weinberg, Howard S

    2017-11-01

    The formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water occurs when chemical disinfectants such as chlorine and chloramine react with natural organic matter and anthropogenic pollutants. Some DBPs have been linked to bladder cancer and infertility; however, the underlying mechanism of action is unknown. One possibility is disruption of the endocrine system, with DBPs binding to the androgen receptor and subsequently altering gene expression. Using the androgen receptor-binding assay and in silico molecular docking, the binding affinity of 21 suspected and known DBPs were tested individually at concentrations over the range 0.1 nM-2 mM. 14 DBPs were found to bind at IC50 values ranging from 1.86 mM for 2,3-dichloropropionamide to 13.5 μM for 3,4,5,6-tetrachloro-benzoquinone as compared to the positive control, 4-n-nonylphenol which bound at 31.6 μM. Since DBPs are present in drinking waters as mixtures, the question of how IC50 values for individual DBPs might be affected by the presence of other chemicals is addressed. Seven of the chemicals with the strongest binding affinities and one chemical with no binding affinity were tested in binary mixtures with 4-n-nonylphenol, a known androgenic chemical found in some surface waters. In these binary mixtures, concentration additive binding was observed. While typical levels of individual androgenic DBPs in drinking water are below their measured IC50 values, their combined binding abilities in mixtures could be a source of androgen disruption. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. The androgen receptor confers protection against diet-induced atherosclerosis, obesity, and dyslipidemia in female mice

    PubMed Central

    Fagman, Johan B.; Wilhelmson, Anna S.; Motta, Benedetta M.; Pirazzi, Carlo; Alexanderson, Camilla; De Gendt, Karel; Verhoeven, Guido; Holmäng, Agneta; Anesten, Fredrik; Jansson, John-Olov; Levin, Malin; Borén, Jan; Ohlsson, Claes; Krettek, Alexandra; Romeo, Stefano; Tivesten, Åsa

    2015-01-01

    Androgens have important cardiometabolic actions in males, but their metabolic role in females is unclear. To determine the physiologic androgen receptor (AR)–dependent actions of androgens on atherogenesis in female mice, we generated female AR-knockout (ARKO) mice on an atherosclerosis-prone apolipoprotein E (apoE)–deficient background. After 8 weeks on a high-fat diet, but not on a normal chow diet, atherosclerosis in aorta was increased in ARKO females (+59% vs. control apoE-deficient mice with intact AR gene). They also displayed increased body weight (+18%), body fat percentage (+62%), and hepatic triglyceride levels, reduced insulin sensitivity, and a marked atherogenic dyslipidemia (serum cholesterol, +52%). Differences in atherosclerosis, body weight, and lipid levels between ARKO and control mice were abolished in mice that were ovariectomized before puberty, consistent with a protective action of ovarian androgens mediated via the AR. Furthermore, the AR agonist dihydrotestosterone reduced atherosclerosis (−41%; thoracic aorta), subcutaneous fat mass (−44%), and cholesterol levels (−35%) in ovariectomized mice, reduced hepatocyte lipid accumulation in hepatoma cells in vitro, and regulated mRNA expression of hepatic genes pivotal for lipid homeostasis. In conclusion, we demonstrate that the AR protects against diet-induced atherosclerosis in female mice and propose that this is mediated by modulation of body composition and lipid metabolism.—Fagman, J. B., Wilhelmson, A. S., Motta, B. M., Pirazzi, C., Alexanderson, C., De Gendt, K., Verhoeven, G., Holmäng, A., Anesten, F., Jansson, J.-O., Levin, M., Borén, J., Ohlsson, C., Krettek, A., Romeo, S., Tivesten, A. The androgen receptor confers protection against diet-induced atherosclerosis, obesity, and dyslipidemia in female mice. PMID:25550469

  11. GLI1, a crucial mediator of sonic hedgehog signaling in prostate cancer, functions as a negative modulator for androgen receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Guangchun; Goto, Yutaka; Sakamoto, Ryuichi; Tanaka, Kimitaka; Matsubara, Eri; Nakamura, Masafumi; Zheng, Hong; Lu, Jian; Takayanagi, Ryoichi; Nomura, Masatoshi

    2011-01-21

    Research highlights: {yields} GLI1, which play a central role in sonic hedgehog signaling in prostate cancer, can act as a co-repressor to substantially block androgen receptor-mediated transactivation. {yields} GLI1 directly interacts with AR. {yields} SHH-GLI pathway might be one of determinants governing the transition of prostate cancer from an androgen-dependent to an androgen-independent state. -- Abstract: Sonic hedgehog (SHH) signaling, acting in a combinatorial manner with androgen signaling, is essential for prostate patterning and development. Recently, elevated activation of SHH signaling has been shown to play important roles in proliferation, progression and metastasis of prostate cancer. In this report, we demonstrate for the first time, that GLI1, which has been shown to play a central role in SHH signaling in prostate cancer, can act as a co-repressor to substantially block androgen receptor (AR)-mediated transactivation, at least in part, by directly interacting with AR. Our observations suggest that the SHH-GLI pathway might be one of determinants governing the transition of prostate cancer from an androgen-dependent to an androgen-independent state by compensating, or even superseding androgen signaling.

  12. The androgen receptor cytosine-adenine-guanine repeat length contributes to the development of epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Xiangrui; Lu, Peng; Chu, Zhi; Fan, Qingxia

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the main cause of death among women with gynecological malignancies. Androgen and its receptors play an important role in ovarian cancer pathogenesis. Here, We aim to evaluate the relationship between AR CAG and GGN repeat length polymorphisms and Epithelial Ovarian Cancer (EOC) risk in a two-stage, case-control study among Chinese women. The repeat length was analyzed as a categorical variable for CAG_A and GGN_A (average allele), CAG-S and GGN_S (shorter allele), CAG-L and GGN_L (longer allele), respectively. The median value of the repeat length among the controls was used as the cutoff point. Women with longer AR CAG repeats had a decreased risk of developing EOC. The results was replicated in an independent samples. Compared to those with shorter (<22) CAG_A repeat length, women with longer (≥22) CAG_A repeats length had a 31% decreased EOC risk (OR = 0.69, 95% CI: 0.62–0.77, P = 5.06 × 10−11). For CAG_S and CAG_L, the results remain consistent. However, we didn't detected any significant associations for GGN_A, GGN_S, and GGN_L. This should be the first study to examine the association between AR repeat length polymorphisms and ovarian cancer risk in a relatively large group of Asian women. PMID:26556855

  13. Targeting Ligand Dependent and Ligand Independent Androgen Receptor Signaling in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    or replace the effect of a natural peptide. A classic example is the human analogue of insulin , admin- istered to patients with insulin - dependent ... diabetes . Initially purified from bovine and porcine (44), insulin is now routinely manufactured via recombinant methods as pro- insulin (45). However...2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Targeting Ligand Dependent and Ligand Independent Androgen Receptor Signaling in Prostate Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER

  14. Targeting Androgen Receptor in Breast Cancer: Enzalutamide as a Novel Breast Cancer Therapeutic

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    Frozen sections were cut and analyzed for tumor by the Univ of CO Pathology Core and sent on dry ice to the laboratory of collaborator Dr. Chip...D’Amato N, Richer JK. Endocrine therapy for triple negative breast cancer. Oral presentation at Pathology Grand Rounds, University of Colorado Anschutz...Whippany, NJ “Landscape of Androgen Receptors in Breast Cancer Subtypes” July 2015 Virginia Commonwealth University Department of Pathology Grand Rounds

  15. Identifying Androgen Receptor-Independent Mechanisms of Prostate Cancer Resistance to Second-Generation Antiandrogen Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0276 TITLE: Identifying Androgen Receptor-Independent Mechanisms of Prostate Cancer Resistance to Second-Generation...Antiandrogen Therapy PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: David Wise, MD, PhD CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Sloan Kettering Institute for Cancer Research New York...of Prostate Cancer Resistance to Second-Generation Antiandrogen Therapy 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0276 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S

  16. N-Aryl-oxazolidin-2-imine Muscle Selective Androgen Receptor Modulators Enhance Potency through Pharmacophore Reorientation

    SciTech Connect

    Nirschl, Alexandra A.; Zou, Yan; Krystek, Jr., Stanley R.; Sutton, James C.; Simpkins, Ligaya M.; Lupisella, John A.; Kuhns, Joyce E.; Seethala, Ramakrishna; Golla, Rajasree; Sleph, Paul G.; Beehler, Blake C.; Grover, Gary J.; Egan, Donald; Fura, Aberra; Vyas, Viral P.; Li, Yi-Xin; Sack, John S.; Kish, Kevin F.; An, Yongmi; Bryson, James A.; Gougoutas, Jack Z.; DiMarco, John; Zahler, Robert; Ostrowski, Jacek; Hamann, Lawrence G.

    2010-11-09

    A novel selective androgen receptor modulator (SARM) scaffold was discovered as a byproduct obtained during synthesis of our earlier series of imidazolidin-2-ones. The resulting oxazolidin-2-imines are among the most potent SARMs known, with many analogues exhibiting sub-nM in vitro potency in binding and functional assays. Despite the potential for hydrolytic instability at gut pH, compounds of the present class showed good oral bioavailability and were highly active in a standard rodent pharmacological model.

  17. Discovery of non-LBD inhibitor for androgen receptor by structure-guide design.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Byung Jun; Kim, Nakjeong; Kim, Jun Tae; Koo, Tae-Sung; Yoo, Sung-Eun; Jeong, Seo Hee; Kim, Seong Hwan; Kang, Nam Sook

    2013-07-01

    In this study, we synthesized the BF-3 binding small molecules, a series of pyridazinone-based compounds, as a novel class of non-LBP antiandrogens for treating prostate cancer by inhibiting androgen receptor. The new class compound was discovered to inhibitor the viability of AR-dependent human prostate LNCap cells and AR activity combining with the computational method. It showed a good physicochemical and PK property.

  18. Humanized Androgen Receptor Mice: A Genetic Model for Differential Response to Prostate Cancer Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    For each Q tract allele, we have currently obtained at least 30 experimental and 30 control mice . Some have reached their time points and tissues...overexpression of ETV1). Experimental mice have been generated and prostates are being microdissected as animals reach their time points. Initial...TITLE: Humanized Androgen Receptor Mice : A Genetic Model for Differential Response to Prostate Cancer Therapy PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Diane M

  19. Phospho-kinase profile of triple negative breast cancer and androgen receptor signaling

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The androgen receptor (AR) plays a central role in the oncogenesis of different tumors, as is the case in prostate cancer. In triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) a gene expression classification has described different subgroups including a luminal androgen subtype. The AR can be controlled by several mechanisms like the activation of membrane tyrosine kinases and downstream signaling pathways. However little is known in TNBC about how the AR is modulated by these mechanisms and the potential therapeutic strategists to inhibit its expression. Methods We used human samples to evaluate the expression of AR by western-blot and phospho-proteomic kinase arrays that recognize membrane tyrosine kinase receptors and downstream mediators. Western-blots in human cell lines were carried out to analyze the expression and activation of individual proteins. Drugs against these kinases in different conditions were used to measure the expression of the androgen receptor. PCR experiments were performed to assess changes in the AR gene after therapeutic modulation of these pathways. Results AR is present in a subset of TNBC and its expression correlates with activated membrane receptor kinases-EGFR and PDGFRβ in human samples and cell lines. Inhibition of the PI3K/mTOR pathway in TNBC cell lines decreased notably the expression of the AR. Concomitant administration of the anti-androgen bicalutamide with the EGFR, PDGFRβ and Erk1/2 inhibitors, decreased the amount of AR compared to each agent given alone, and had an additive anti-proliferative effect. Administration of dihydrotestosterone augmented the expression of AR that was not modified by the inhibition of the PI3K/mTOR or Erk1/2 pathways. AR expression was posttranscriptionally regulated by PI3K or Erk1/2 inhibition. Conclusion Our results describe the expression of the AR in TNBC as a druggable target and further suggest the combination of bicalutamide with inhibitors of EGFR, PDGFRβ or Erk1/2 for future

  20. Activational action of testosterone on androgen receptors protects males preventing temporomandibular joint pain.

    PubMed

    Fanton, L E; Macedo, C G; Torres-Chávez, K E; Fischer, L; Tambeli, C H

    2017-01-01

    Testosterone protects male rats from Temporomandibular Joint (TMJ) pain. This study investigated whether this protective effect is mediated by an organizational action of testosterone during nervous system development, by central estrogen and androgen receptors and by the 5α-reduced metabolite of testosterone, dihydrotestosterone. A pharmacological approach was used to assess the ability of the androgen receptor antagonist flutamide, the estrogen receptor antagonist ICI 182 780 and the 5-α reductase inhibitor dutasteride to block the protective effect of testosterone, evaluated through the behavioral response induced by a TMJ injection of 0.5% formalin. Flutamide and ICI 182 780 were injected into the medullary subarachnoid space, and dutasteride and testosterone were systemically administered. The TMJ injection of 0.5% formalin induced a significant nociceptive behavioral response in gonadectomized male and naïve female, but not in sham gonadectomized male rats, confirming that endogenous testosterone prevents TMJ nociception in males. Testosterone administration prevented formalin-induced TMJ nociception in males gonadectomized either in the neonatal (at the day of birth) or adult period and in naïve female rats, suggesting that the protective effect of testosterone on TMJ nociception does not depend on its organizational actions during critical periods of development. The administration of flutamide and dutasteride but not of ICI 182 780 blocked the protective effect of testosterone. We conclude that the protective effect of testosterone on TMJ nociception depends on activational actions of dihydrotestosterone on androgen receptors rather than on organizational androgenic actions during central nervous system development or estrogenic actions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.