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Sample records for andrographis paniculata chuanxinlian

  1. Biofabrication of silver nanoparticles using Andrographis paniculata.

    PubMed

    Kotakadi, Venkata S; Gaddam, Susmila Aparna; Subba Rao, Y; Prasad, T N V K V; Varada Reddy, A; Sai Gopal, D V R

    2014-02-12

    New and novel strategies are of recent interest in the development of silver nanoparticles. The plant extracts are eco-friendly, economical and cost effective for synthesis of nanoparticles. In this paper, we represent biofabrication of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using Andrographis paniculata and the synthesized AgNPs was monitored by ultra-violet visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis). The morphology and crystalline nature of AgNPs were determined from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD), Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The size and the stability were detected by using Nanoparticle analyzer. The average size of the AgNPs was found to be 54 ± 2 nm and the Zeta potential was found to be -50.7 mV. The synthesized AgNPs have very good antifungal activity.

  2. Antioxidant action of Andrographis paniculata on lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Verma, Nibha; Vinayak, Manjula

    2008-12-01

    Regulation of the balance between production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by cellular processes and its removal by antioxidant defense system maintains normal physiological processes. Any condition leading to increased ROS results in oxidative stress which has been related with a number of diseases including cancer. Improvement in antioxidant defense system is required to overcome the damaging effects of oxidative stress. Therefore in the present study, effect of the aqueous extract of a medicinal plant Andrographis paniculata (AP) on antioxidant defense system in liver is investigated in lymphoma bearing AKR mice. Estimating catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione S transferase monitored the antioxidant action. Oral administration of the aqueous extract of A. paniculata in different doses causes a significant elevation of catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione S transferase activities. It reveals the antioxidant action of the aqueous extract of AP, which may play a role in the anticarcinogenic activity by reducing the oxidative stress. LDH activity is known to increase in various cancers due to hypoxic condition. Lactate dehydrogenase is used as tumor marker. We find a significant decrease in LDH activity on treatment with AP, which indicates a decrease in carcinogenic activity. A comparison with Doxorubicin (DOX), an anticancerous drug, indicates that the aqueous extract of AP is more effective than DOX with respect to its effect on catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione S transferase as well as on lactate dehydrogenase activities in liver of lymphoma bearing mice.

  3. A new diterpenoid from the aerial parts of Andrographis paniculata.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun-Hua; Li, Wen; Qiu, Rui-Xia; Jiang, Miao-Miao; Li, Guo-Qiang

    2014-01-01

    One new and seven known diterpenoids were isolated from the aerial parts of Andrographis paniculata, and their structures elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic and spectrometric analysis, as well as chemical methods. The in vitro antiviral activities of these compounds against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) were assayed.

  4. Elicitation of andrographolide in the suspension cultures of Andrographis paniculata.

    PubMed

    Gandi, Suryakala; Rao, Kiranmayee; Chodisetti, Bhuvaneswari; Giri, Archana

    2012-12-01

    Andrographis paniculata belonging to the family Acanthaceae produces a group of diterpene lactones, one of which is the pharmaceutically important-andrographolide. It is known to possess various important biological properties like anticancer, anti-HIV, anti-inflammatory, etc. This is the first report on the production of andrographolide in the cell suspension cultures of Andrographis paniculata by 'elicitation'. Elicitation was attempted to enhance the andrographolide content in the suspension cultures of Andrographis paniculata and also to ascertain its stimulation under stress conditions or in response to pathogen attack. The maximum andrographolide production was found to be 1.53 mg/g dry cell weight (DCW) at the end of stationary phase during the growth curve. The biotic elicitors (yeast, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Agrobacterium rhizogenes 532 and Agrobacterium tumefaciens C 58) were more effective in eliciting the response when compared to the abiotic elicitors (CdCl(2), AgNO(3), CuCl(2) and HgCl(2)). Yeast has shown to stimulate maximum accumulation of 13.5 mg/g DCW andrographolide, which was found to be 8.82-fold higher than the untreated cultures.

  5. Andrographis paniculata Extract (HMPL-004) for Active Ulcerative Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Sandborn, William J; Targan, Stephan R; Byers, Vera S; Rutty, Dean A; Mu, Hua; Zhang, Xun; Tang, Tom

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Andrographis paniculata has in vitro inhibitory activity against TNF-α, IL-1β and NF-κB. A pilot study of A. paniculata extract (HMPL-004) suggested similar efficacy to mesalamine for ulcerative colitis. METHODS: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial evaluated the efficacy of A. paniculata extract (HMPL-004) in 224 adults with mild-to-moderate ulcerative colitis. Patients were randomized to A. paniculata extract (HMPL-004) 1,200 mg or 1,800 mg daily or placebo for 8 weeks. RESULTS: In total, 45 and 60% of patients receiving A. paniculata 1,200 mg and 1,800 mg daily, respectively, were in clinical response at week 8, compared with 40% of those who received placebo (P=0.5924 for 1,200 mg vs. placebo and P=0.0183 for 1,800 mg vs. placebo). In all, 34 and 38% of patients receiving A. paniculata 1,200 mg and 1,800 mg daily, respectively, were in clinical remission at week 8, compared with 25% of those who received placebo (P=0.2582 for 1,200 mg vs. placebo and P=0.1011 for 1,800 mg vs. placebo). Adverse events developed in 60 and 53% of patients in the A. paniculata 1,200 mg and 1,800 mg daily groups, respectively, and 60% in the placebo group. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with mildly to moderately active ulcerative colitis treated with A. paniculata extract (HMPL-004) at a dose of 1,800 mg daily were more likely to achieve clinical response than those receiving placebo. PMID:23044768

  6. The Antiaging Properties of Andrographis paniculata by Activation Epidermal Cell Stemness.

    PubMed

    You, Jiyoung; Roh, Kyung-Baeg; Li, Zidan; Liu, Guangrong; Tang, Jian; Shin, Seoungwoo; Park, Deokhoon; Jung, Eunsun

    2015-09-22

    Andrographis paniculata (A. paniculata, Chuanxinlian), a medicinal herb with an extremely bitter taste that is native to China and other parts of Southeast Asia, possesses immense therapeutic value; however, its therapeutic properties have rarely been applied in the field of skin care. In this study, we investigated the effect of an A. paniculata extract (APE) on human epidermal stem cells (EpSCs), and confirmed its anti-aging effect through in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo study. An MTT assay was used to determine cell proliferation. A flow cytometric analysis, with propidium iodide, was used to evaluate the cell cycle. The expression of integrin β1 (CD29), the stem cell marker, was detected with antibodies, using flow cytometry in vitro, and immunohistochemical assays in ex vivo. Type 1 collagen and VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). During the clinical study, skin hydration, elasticity, wrinkling, sagging, and dermal density were evaluated before treatment and at four and eight weeks after the treatment with the test product (containing the APE) on the face. The proliferation of the EpSCs, treated with the APE, increased significantly. In the cell cycle analysis, the APE increased the G2/M and S stages in a dose-dependent manner. The expression of integrin β1, which is related to epidermal progenitor cell expansion, was up-regulated in the APE-treated EpSCs and skin explants. In addition, the production of VEGF in the EpSCs increased significantly in response to the APE treatment. Consistent with these results, the VEGF and APE-treated EpSCs conditioned medium enhanced the Type 1 collagen production in normal human fibroblasts (NHFs). In the clinical study, the APE improved skin hydration, dermal density, wrinkling, and sagging significantly. Our findings revealed that the APE promotes a proliferation of EpSCs, through the up-regulation of the integrin β1 and VEGF expression. The VEGF

  7. Andrographidine G, a new flavone glucoside from Andrographis paniculata.

    PubMed

    Hapuarachchi, Swarna D; Ali, Zulfiqar; Abe, Naohito; Sugandhika, Suresh T; Sandun, Senerath T P; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2013-03-01

    A new flavone glucoside, andrographidine G (1), was isolated from Andrographis paniculata together with 13 known compounds, including flavonoids, diterpenoids, and iridoids. The structure of 1 was established by spectroscopic and spectrometric techniques, including HR-ESI-TOF-MS, 1D and 2D NMR, and chemical methods. The known compounds were identified as andrographidine A (2), (2R)-5-hydroxy-7,8-dimethoxyflavanone-5-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (3), acanthoside B (4), neoandrographiside (5), andropanoside (6), andrographiside (7), andrographolide (8), 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographiside (9), 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide (10), procumbide (11), procumboside (12), 6-epi-8-O-acetylharpagide (13), and curvifloruside F (14).

  8. A new flavonoid from the aerial parts of Andrographis paniculata.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li-Xia; He, Hao; Xia, Gui-Yang; Zhou, Kai-Lan; Qiu, Feng

    2014-01-01

    A new flavonoid, 7,8-dimethoxy-2'-hydroxy-5-O-β-d-glucopyranosyloxyflavone (1), along with 15 known flavonoids (2-16), was isolated from the aerial parts of Andrographis paniculata Nees. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic analyses. Most of them have uncommon O-substitution patterns involving 5-, 7-, 8-, 2'-, 3'-, 4'- and 5'-O-substituents. The antiproliferative effects of these flavonoids against human leukaemia HL-60 cells were investigated. Among them, 13 was the most active, displaying potent antiproliferative activity with IC50 of 3.50 μM. The structure-activity relationships of these isolated compounds were discussed.

  9. Hepatoprotective activity of Andrographis paniculata and Swertia chirayita.

    PubMed

    Nagalekshmi, R; Menon, Aditya; Chandrasekharan, Dhanya K; Nair, Cherupally Krishnan Krishnan

    2011-12-01

    Andrographis paniculata (Family: Acanthaceae) and Swertia chirayita (Family: Gentianaceae) are two controversial medicinal plants used as Kiriyattu, having similar therapeutic action and are used as a hepatoprotective and hepatostimulative agent. A. paniculata grows in southern parts of India and S. chirayita in the Himalayan region. The present work concerns on the ability of the extracts of these plants to offer protection against acute hepatotoxicity induced by paracetamol (150 mg/kg) in Swiss albino mice. Oral administration of A. paniculata or S. chirayita extract (100-200mg/kg) offered a significant dose dependent protection against paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity as assessed in terms of biochemical and histopathological parameters. The paracetamol induced elevated levels of serum marker enzymes such as serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and bilirubin in peripheral blood serum and distorted hepatic tissue architecture along with increased levels of lipid peroxides (LPO) and reduction of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, reduced glutathione (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in liver tissue. Administration of the plant extracts after paracetamol insult restored the levels of these parameters to control (untreated) levels. Thus the present study revealed that the extracts of A. paniculata or S. chirayita offered protection against hepatotoxicity induced by paracetamol.

  10. [Research on UPLC-PDA fingerprint of andrographis paniculata and quantitative determination of 4 major constituents].

    PubMed

    Huang, Jing-Yi; Liu, Xiao-Lin; Zhou, Shui-Ping; Tong, Ling; Ding, Li

    2014-11-01

    Andrographis paniculata from different parts and origins were analyzed by UPLC-PDA fingerprint to provide refererice for related preparation technology. Using the peak of andrographolide as reference, 27 common peaks were identified, and digitized UPLC-PDA fingerprints for 23 batches of andrographis paniculata were established in this research. Principal component analysis (PCA) was carried out after feature extraction. The contents of andrographolide, neoandrographolide, deoxyandrographolide, dehydroandrographolide were determined by external standard method. The Plackett-Burman design combined with pareto chart was used to analyze the factors influencing the robustness of the method. It was found that the medicinal part has a more remarkable influence on the quality of andrographis paniculata than the origin. The contents of the 4 lactones the differ greatly in the different parts of andrographis paniculata, and the pH of the mobile phase is an important factor that influenced the robustness of the method.

  11. Bisandrographolide from Andrographis paniculata activates TRPV4 channels.

    PubMed

    Smith, Paula L; Maloney, Katherine N; Pothen, Randy G; Clardy, Jon; Clapham, David E

    2006-10-06

    Many transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are activated or blocked by various compounds found in plants; two prominent examples include the activation of TRPV1 channels by capsaicin and the activation of TRPM8 channels by menthol. We sought to identify additional plant compounds that are active on other types of TRP channels. We screened a library of extracts from 50 Chinese herbal plants using a calcium-imaging assay to find compounds active on TRPV3 and TRPV4 channels. An extract from the plant Andrographis paniculata potently activated TRPV4 channels. The extract was fractionated further, and the active compound was identified as bisandrographolide A (BAA). We used purified compound to characterize the activity of BAA on certain TRPV channel subtypes. Although BAA activated TRPV4 channels with an EC(50) of 790-950 nm, it did not activate or block activation of TRPV1, TRPV2, or TRPV3 channels. BAA activated a large TRPV4-like current in immortalized mouse keratinocytes (308 cells) that have been shown to express TRPV4 protein endogenously. This compound also activated TRPV4 currents in cell-free outside-out patches from HEK293T cells overexpressing TRPV4 cDNA, suggesting that BAA can activate the channel in a membrane-delimited manner. Another related compound, andrographolide, found in abundance in the plant Andrographis was unable to activate or block activation of TRPV4 channels. These experiments show that BAA activates TRPV4 channels, and we discuss the possibility that activation of TRPV4 by BAA could play a role in some of the effects of Andrographis extract described in traditional medicine.

  12. Antitussive arabinogalactan of Andrographis paniculata demonstrates synergistic effect with andrographolide.

    PubMed

    Nosáľová, Gabriela; Majee, Sujay Kumar; Ghosh, Kanika; Raja, Washim; Chatterjee, Udipta Ranjan; Jureček, Ludovít; Ray, Bimalendu

    2014-08-01

    Traditional Indian medicines have been used in humans for thousands of years. While the link to a particular indication has been established in man, the active principle of the formulations often remains unknown. In this study, we aim to investigate the structural features and antitussive activity of fractions from Andrographis paniculata leaves. In vivo investigations of water extract (WE), and both ethanol-soluble (WES) and precipitated (WEP) fractions from WE on the citric-acid induced cough efforts and airways smooth muscle reactivity in guinea pigs were performed. Chemical, chromatographic and spectroscopic analysis revealed the existence of a highly branched pectic arabinogalactan (109kDa) in WEP and andrographolide in WES. WEP showed significant antitussive activity while the potencies of WE and WES are even higher. Neither WE nor WES significantly alter specific airway smooth muscle reactivity. Remarkably, the antitussive activity of arabinogalactan could be increased by synergistic action with andrographolide. Finally, traditional aqueous extraction method provides an arabinogalactan from A. paniculata, which stimulate biological response but without addiction.

  13. Jasmonate-induced biosynthesis of andrographolide in Andrographis paniculata.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Shiv Narayan; Jha, Zenu; Sinha, Rakesh Kumar; Geda, Arvind Kumar

    2015-02-01

    Andrographolide is a prominent secondary metabolite found in Andrographis paniculata that exhibits enormous pharmacological effects. In spite of immense value, the normal biosynthesis of andrographolide results in low amount of the metabolite. To induce the biosynthesis of andrographolide, we attempted elicitor-induced activation of andrographolide biosynthesis in cell cultures of A. paniculata. This was carried out by using methyl jasmonate (MeJA) as an elicitor. Among the various concentrations of MeJA tested at different time periods, 5 µM MeJA yielded 5.25 times more andrographolide content after 24 h of treatment. The accumulation of andrographolide was correlated with the expression level of known regulatory genes (hmgs, hmgr, dxs, dxr, isph and ggps) of mevalonic acid (MVA) and 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol-4-phosphate (MEP) pathways. These results established the involvement of MeJA in andrographolide biosynthesis by inducing the transcription of its biosynthetic pathways genes. The coordination of isph, ggps and hmgs expression highly influenced the andrographolide biosynthesis.

  14. [Cloning and functional characterization of phytoene desaturase in Andrographis paniculata].

    PubMed

    Shen, Qin-qin; Li, Li-xia; Zhan, Peng-lin; Wang, Qiang

    2015-10-01

    A full-length cDNA of phytoene desaturase (PDS) gene from Andrographis paniculata was obtained through RACE-PCR. The cDNA sequence consists of 2 224 bp with an intact ORF of 1 752 bp (GeneBank: KP982892), encoding a ploypeptide of 584 amino acids. Homology analysis showed that the deduced protein has extensive sequence similarities to PDS from other plants, and contains a conserved NAD ( H) -binding domain of plant dehydrase cofactor binding-domain in N-terminal. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that ApPDS was more related to PDS of Sesamum indicum and Pogostemon cablin. The semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that ApPDS expressed in whole aboveground tissues with the highest expression in leaves. Virus induced gene silencing (VIGS) was performed to characterize the functional of ApPDS in planta. Significant photobleaching was not observed in infiltrated leaves, while the PDS gene has been down-regulated significantly at the yellowish area. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the first report of PDS gene cloning and functional characterization from A. paniculata, which lays the foundation for further investigation of new genes, especially that correlative to andrographolide biosynthetic pathway.

  15. [Genetic diversity analysis of Andrographis paniculata in China based on SRAP and SNP].

    PubMed

    Chen, Rong; Wang, Xiao-Yun; Song, Yu-Ning; Zhu, Yun-feng; Wang, Peng-liang; Li, Min; Zhong, Guo-Yue

    2014-12-01

    In order to reveal genetic diversity of domestic Andrographis paniculata and its impact on quality, genetic backgrounds of 103 samples from 7 provinces in China were analyzed using SRAP marker and SNP marker. Genetic structures of the A. paniculata populations were estimated with Powermarker V 3.25 and Mega 6.0 software, and polymorphic SNPs were identified with CodonCode Aligner software. The results showed that the genetic distances of domestic A. paniculata germplasm ranged from 0. 01 to 0.09, and no polymorphic SNPs were discovered in coding sequence fragments of ent-copalyl diphosphate synthase. A. paniculata germplasm from various regions in China had poor genetic diversity. This phenomenon was closely related to strict self-fertilization and earlier introduction from the same origin. Therefore, genetic background had little impact on variable qualities of A. paniculata in domestic market. Mutation breeding, polyploid breeding and molecular breeding were proposed as promising strategies in germplasm innovation.

  16. Phytochemical analysis of Andrographis paniculata and Orthosiphon stamineus leaf extracts for their antibacterial and antioxidant potential.

    PubMed

    Malahubban, M; Alimon, A R; Sazili, A Q; Fakurazi, S; Zakry, F A

    2013-09-01

    Leaves of Andrographis paniculata and Orthosiphon stamineus were extracted with water, ethanol, methanol and chloroform to assess their potential as antibacterial and antioxidant agents. High performance liquid chromatography analysis showed that the methanolic extracts of A. paniculata and O. stamineus leaves gave the highest amounts of andrographolide and rosmarinic acid, respectively. These leaf extracts exhibited antimicrobial and antioxidant activities and, at the highest concentration tested (200 mg/mL), showed greater inhibitory effects against the Gram positive bacteria Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus than 10% acetic acid. Andrographis paniculata and O. stamineus methanolic and ethanolic leaf extracts also showed the strongest antioxidant activity as compared with the other extracts tested. The bioactive compounds present in these leaf extracts have the potential to be developed into natural antibacterial and antioxidant agents that may have applications in animal and human health.

  17. Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Meat Yield of Boer Goats Fed Diets Containing Leaves or Whole Parts of Andrographis paniculata

    PubMed Central

    Yusuf, A. L.; Goh, Y. M.; Samsudin, A. A.; Alimon, A. R.; Sazili, A. Q.

    2014-01-01

    The study was conducted to determine the effect of feeding diets containing Andrographis paniculata leaves (APL), whole Andrographis paniculata plant (APWP) and a control without Andrographis paniculata (AP0), on growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat yield of 24 intact Boer bucks. The results obtained indicated that inclusion of Andrographis paniculata significantly improved feed intake, weight gain, feed efficiency and live weight. The ratios of carcass to fat, lean to bone, lean to fat, and composition of meat were also improved. In addition, there were significant differences (p<0.05) between the dietary treatments in dressing percentage and chilling loss. Goats fed on AP0 (control) had significantly higher proportions of fat and bone, as well as thicker back fat than the supplemented animals (APL and APWP). Higher gut fill in animals fed Andrographis paniculata suggested slow rate of digestion, which could have improved utilization and absorption of nutrients by the animals. Goats fed Andrographis paniculata also produced higher meat yield and relatively lower fat contents (p<0.05). PMID:25049980

  18. Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Meat Yield of Boer Goats Fed Diets Containing Leaves or Whole Parts of Andrographis paniculata.

    PubMed

    Yusuf, A L; Goh, Y M; Samsudin, A A; Alimon, A R; Sazili, A Q

    2014-04-01

    The study was conducted to determine the effect of feeding diets containing Andrographis paniculata leaves (APL), whole Andrographis paniculata plant (APWP) and a control without Andrographis paniculata (AP0), on growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat yield of 24 intact Boer bucks. The results obtained indicated that inclusion of Andrographis paniculata significantly improved feed intake, weight gain, feed efficiency and live weight. The ratios of carcass to fat, lean to bone, lean to fat, and composition of meat were also improved. In addition, there were significant differences (p<0.05) between the dietary treatments in dressing percentage and chilling loss. Goats fed on AP0 (control) had significantly higher proportions of fat and bone, as well as thicker back fat than the supplemented animals (APL and APWP). Higher gut fill in animals fed Andrographis paniculata suggested slow rate of digestion, which could have improved utilization and absorption of nutrients by the animals. Goats fed Andrographis paniculata also produced higher meat yield and relatively lower fat contents (p<0.05).

  19. Effect of Andrographis paniculata leaf extract on wound healing in rats.

    PubMed

    Al-Bayaty, Fouad Hussain; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Abu Hassan, Mohamed Ibrahim; Ali, Hapipah Mohd

    2012-01-01

    This work was carried out to study the effect of topical application of Andrographis paniculata on the rate of wound enclosure and its histological features. A wound was created in four groups of rat in posterior neck region. Blank placebo was applied topically to the wounds of Group 1. Groups 2 and 3 were dressed with placebo containing 5% and 10% extracts of A. paniculata, respectively. Intrasite gel was applied topically to the wounds of Group 4. Macroscopical examination revealed that the rate of wound healing was significantly accelerated in the wound dressed with A. paniculata extract compared to the blank placebo. The wounds dressed with 10% extract or Intrasite gel healed earlier compared to the wounds dressed with placebo containing 5% A. paniculata extract. Histologically, wounds dressed with A. paniculata extracts showed markedly less scar width and contained large amounts of fibroblast proliferation. More collagen and less angiogenesis with absence of inflammatory cells were seen for wounds dressed with 10% A. paniculata compared to the blank placebo. Conclusion, A. paniculata extracts significantly enhanced rate of wound healing in rats.

  20. Prophylactic effect of Andrographis paniculata extracts against Streptococcus agalactiae infection in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    PubMed

    Rattanachaikunsopon, Pongsak; Phumkhachorn, Parichat

    2009-05-01

    Six herbs were assessed for their antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus agalactiae, a major fish pathogen causing streptococcosis. Each herb was extracted with 3 solvents: water, 95% ethanol, and methanol. Using swab paper disc assays, aqueous extracts of Andrographis paniculata and Allium sativum produced the largest (27.5 mm) and smallest (10.3 mm) inhibition zones, respectively. Determination of minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of herb extracts against S. agalactiae showed that the aqueous extract of A. paniculata had the lowest MIC value (31.25 microg/mL). Aqueous extract of A. sativum was the only herb extract with a MIC > 500 microg/mL. Based on mortalities in 2 weeks after intraperitoneal S. agalactiae injection, the median lethal dose (LD(50)) of S. agalactiae for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) was 3.79 x 10(5) CFU/mL. In vivo experiments showed that fish feed supplemented with either A. paniculata leaf powder or dried matter of A. paniculata aqueous extract reduced mortality of S. agalactiae infected Nile tilapia. In addition, no mortality was found in fish receiving dried matter of A. paniculata aqueous extract supplemented feeds at ratios (w/w) of 4:36 and 5:35. During 2 weeks of feeding with A. paniculata supplemented feeds, no adverse effects on appearance, behavior, or feeding responses were observed.

  1. Chemopreventive Efficacy of Andrographis paniculata on Azoxymethane-Induced Aberrant Colon Crypt Foci In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Al-Henhena, Nawal; Ying, Rozaida Poh Yuen; Ismail, Salmah; Najm, Wala; Khalifa, Shaden A. M.; El-Seedi, Hesham; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen

    2014-01-01

    Andrographis paniculata is a grass-shaped medicinal herb, traditionally used in Southeast Asia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemoprotective effects of A. paniculata on colorectal cancer. A. paniculata ethanol extract was tested on azoxymethane (AOM)-induced aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in vivo and in vitro. A. paniculata treated groups showed a significant reduction in the number of ACF of the treated rats. Microscopically, ACF showed remarkably elongated and stratified cells, and depletion of the submucosal glands of AOM group compared to the treated groups. Histologically, staining showed slightly elevated masses above the surrounding mucosa with oval or slit-like orifices. Immunohistochemically, expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and β-catenin protein were down-regulated in the A. paniculata treated groups compared to the AOM group. When colon tissue was homogenized, malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) levels were significantly decreased, whereas superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was increased in the treated groups compared to the AOM group. A. paniculata ethanol extract showed antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity, as elucidated by the measure of oxidative stress markers. Further, the active fractions were assessed against cell lines of CCD841 and HT29 colon cancer cells. PMID:25390042

  2. Chemopreventive efficacy of Andrographis paniculata on azoxymethane-induced aberrant colon crypt foci in vivo.

    PubMed

    Al-Henhena, Nawal; Ying, Rozaida Poh Yuen; Ismail, Salmah; Najm, Walaa; Najm, Wala; Khalifa, Shaden A M; El-Seedi, Hesham; Ameen Abdulla, Mahmood; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen

    2014-01-01

    Andrographis paniculata is a grass-shaped medicinal herb, traditionally used in Southeast Asia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemoprotective effects of A. paniculata on colorectal cancer. A. paniculata ethanol extract was tested on azoxymethane (AOM)-induced aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in vivo and in vitro. A. paniculata treated groups showed a significant reduction in the number of ACF of the treated rats. Microscopically, ACF showed remarkably elongated and stratified cells, and depletion of the submucosal glands of AOM group compared to the treated groups. Histologically, staining showed slightly elevated masses above the surrounding mucosa with oval or slit-like orifices. Immunohistochemically, expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and β-catenin protein were down-regulated in the A. paniculata treated groups compared to the AOM group. When colon tissue was homogenized, malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) levels were significantly decreased, whereas superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was increased in the treated groups compared to the AOM group. A. paniculata ethanol extract showed antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity, as elucidated by the measure of oxidative stress markers. Further, the active fractions were assessed against cell lines of CCD841 and HT29 colon cancer cells.

  3. Improvement in the yield and quality of kalmegh (Andrographis paniculata Nees) under the sustainable production system.

    PubMed

    Verma, Rajesh Kumar; Verma, Sanjeet K; Pankaj, Umesh; Gupta, Anand K; Khan, Khushboo; Shankar, Karuna

    2015-02-01

    Andrographis paniculata Nees is an annual erect herb with wide medicinal and pharmacological applications due to the presence of andrographolide and other active chemical constituents. The large-scale cultivation of the kalmegh is not in practice. The aim of this study was to establish sustainable production systems of A. paniculata cv CIM-Megha with the application of different bioinoculants and chemical fertilisers. A. paniculata herb and andrographolide yield in the dried leaves was found to be highest (218% and 61.3%, respectively) in treatment T3 (NPK+Bacillus sp.) compared with T1 (control). The soil organic carbon, soil microbial respiration, soil enzymes activity and available nutrients improved significantly with combined application of bioinoculants and chemical fertilisers.

  4. Andrographis paniculata ameliorates carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-dependent hepatic damage and toxicity: diminution of oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Koh, Pei Hoon; Mokhtar, Ruzaidi Azli Mohd; Iqbal, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    Andrographis paniculata (hempedu bumi) is a plant that possesses many medicinal values in treating several diseases and for health care maintenance. However, its hepatoprotective activity and mechanism of action have not been fully investigated. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of A. paniculata and its mechanism of action in rats. Carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) challenge of rats at a dose of 1.2 ml/kg body weight-induced oxidative stress in the liver. This was evidenced by augmentation in lipid peroxidation, which was accompanied by a decrease in the activities of antioxidant enzymes and depletion in the level of reduced glutathione (P < 0.05). Parrallel to these changes, CCl(4) challenge too, enhanced hepatic damage as evidenced by sharp increase in serum transaminases (e.g. alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and lactate dehydrogenase) (P < 0.05). Additionally, the impairment of liver function corresponded to histolopathological changes. However, most of these changes were reversed in a dose-dependent fashion by pre-treatment of animals with A. paniculata (P < 0.05). The ability of A. paniculata to scavenge the 2,2-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical was determined through its EC(50) value. The EC(50) value of A. paniculata was 583.60 ± 4.25 µg/ml. In addition, A. paniculata was found to contain 65.37 ± 1.20 mg/g total phenolics expressed as gallic acid equivalent. From these studies, it is concluded that A. paniculata could be used as a hepatoprotective agent and possesses the potential to treat or prevent degenerative diseases where oxidative stress is implicated.

  5. Antimycobacterial Efficacy of Andrographis paniculata Leaf Extracts Under Intracellular and Hypoxic Conditions.

    PubMed

    Bhatter, Purva; Gupta, Pooja; Daswani, Poonam; Tetali, Pundarikakshudu; Birdi, Tannaz

    2015-01-01

    The inhibition of the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by the extracts of Andrographis paniculata has been studied using intracellular and axenic hypoxic conditions. The inhibition (confirmed using the gold standard colony forming unit assay) was found to increase with "double stimuli" or higher concentration of the extract. Organic solvent extracts were found to inhibit bacterial growth more than the aqueous extracts under microaerophilic conditions mimicked through axenic and intracellular assays. This could be further explored to evaluate the potential of the plant to be used against nonreplicating/dormant bacilli.

  6. Antimicrobial Compounds from Leaf Extracts of Jatropha curcas, Psidium guajava, and Andrographis paniculata

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, M. M.; Ahmad, S. H.; Mohamed, M. T. M.; Ab Rahman, M. Z.

    2014-01-01

    The present research was conducted to discover antimicrobial compounds in methanolic leaf extracts of Jatropha curcas and Andrographis paniculata and ethanolic leaf extract of Psidium guajava and the effectiveness against microbes on flower preservative solution of cut Mokara Red orchid flowers was evaluated. The leaves were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of nine, 66, and 29 compounds were identified in J. curcas, P. guajava, and A. paniculata leaf extracts, with five (88.18%), four (34.66%), and three (50.47%) having unique antimicrobial compounds, respectively. The experimental design on vase life was conducted using a completely randomized design with 10 replications. The flower vase life was about 6 days in the solution containing the P. guajava and A. paniculata leaf extracts at 15mg/L. Moreover, solution with leaf extracts of A. paniculata had the lowest bacterial count compared to P. guajava and J. curcas. Thus, these leaf extracts revealed the presence of relevant antimicrobial compounds. The leaf extracts have the potential as a cut flower solution to minimize microbial populations and extend flower vase life. However, the activities of specific antimicrobial compounds and double or triple combination leaf extracts to enhance the effectiveness to extend the vase life need to be tested. PMID:25250382

  7. Antimicrobial compounds from leaf extracts of Jatropha curcas, Psidium guajava, and Andrographis paniculata.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M M; Ahmad, S H; Mohamed, M T M; Ab Rahman, M Z

    2014-01-01

    The present research was conducted to discover antimicrobial compounds in methanolic leaf extracts of Jatropha curcas and Andrographis paniculata and ethanolic leaf extract of Psidium guajava and the effectiveness against microbes on flower preservative solution of cut Mokara Red orchid flowers was evaluated. The leaves were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of nine, 66, and 29 compounds were identified in J. curcas, P. guajava, and A. paniculata leaf extracts, with five (88.18%), four (34.66%), and three (50.47%) having unique antimicrobial compounds, respectively. The experimental design on vase life was conducted using a completely randomized design with 10 replications. The flower vase life was about 6 days in the solution containing the P. guajava and A. paniculata leaf extracts at 15 mg/L. Moreover, solution with leaf extracts of A. paniculata had the lowest bacterial count compared to P. guajava and J. curcas. Thus, these leaf extracts revealed the presence of relevant antimicrobial compounds. The leaf extracts have the potential as a cut flower solution to minimize microbial populations and extend flower vase life. However, the activities of specific antimicrobial compounds and double or triple combination leaf extracts to enhance the effectiveness to extend the vase life need to be tested.

  8. Immunostimulant, cerebroprotective & nootropic activities of Andrographis paniculata leaves extract in normal & type 2 diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Radhika, P.; Annapurna, A.; Rao, S. Nageswara

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: A large number of plants have been recognized to be effective in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Persistent hyperglycaemia is associated with decreased function of immune system and cerebral ischaemia mainly due to increased oxidative stress and inflammatory response. Andrographis paniculata is a medicinal plant widely used in folk medicine for various purposes. In this study the effect of chronic administration (7 days) of methanolic extract of A. paniculata leaves was studied in rats with experimentally induced diabetes, nootropic and immunostimulant activities were evaluated. The effect of acute administration of methanolic extract of A. paniculata leaves was also studied for cerebroprotective activity. Methods: Type 2 diabetes was induced in rats by streptozotocin (STZ) (65 mg/kg) + nicotinamide (150 mg/kg). Various biochemical parameters were estimated using standard methods. Results: A significant (P<0.05) increase in cognitive function was observed in both normal and type 2 diabetic rats. Nootropic activity in terms of per cent reduction in latency period was more in type 2 diabetic rats. A significant increase in blood lymphocyte count, splenic lymphocyte count and peritoneal macrophage count was observed in both normal and type 2 diabetic rats. Immunostimulant activity was observed more in type 2 diabetic rats. The per cent decrease in cerebral infarction was more in type 2 diabetic rats when compared to normal rats. The per cent increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels was more in type 2 diabetic rats. Interpretation & conclusions: The antioxidant activity of the methanolic extract of A. paniculata leaves was evident by decreased tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and increased SOD levels. These properties may be responsible for the observed cerebroprotective activity. The methanolic leaf extract of A. paniculata showed significant immunostimulant, cerebroprotective and nootropic activities in normal and type 2 diabetic

  9. Integration of Andrographis paniculata as Potential Medicinal Plant in Chir Pine (Pinus roxburghii Sarg.) Plantation of North-Western Himalaya.

    PubMed

    Sanwal, Chandra Shekher; Kumar, Raj; Bhardwaj, S D

    2016-01-01

    The integration of Andrographis paniculata under Pinus roxburghii (Chir pine) plantation has been studied to evaluate the growth and yield for its economic viability and conservation. It was grown on three topographical aspects, namely, northern, north-western, and western, at a spacing of 30 cm × 30 cm, followed by three tillage depths, namely, minimum (0 cm), medium (up to 10 cm), and deep (up to 15 cm) tillage. The growth parameters, namely, plant height and number of branches per plant, were recorded as significantly higher on western aspect and lowest on northern aspect except for leaf area index which was found nonsignificant. However under all tillage practices all the growth parameters in both understorey and open conditions were found to be nonsignificant except for plant height which was found to be significantly highest under deep tillage and lowest under minimum tillage. The study of net returns for Andrographis paniculata revealed that it had positive average annual returns even in understorey conditions which indicate its possible economic viability under integration of Chir pine plantations. Hence net returns can be enhanced by integrating Andrographis paniculata and this silvimedicinal system can be suggested which will help utilizing an unutilized part of land and increase total productivity from such lands besides conservation of the A. paniculata in situ.

  10. Integration of Andrographis paniculata as Potential Medicinal Plant in Chir Pine (Pinus roxburghii Sarg.) Plantation of North-Western Himalaya

    PubMed Central

    Sanwal, Chandra Shekher; Bhardwaj, S. D.

    2016-01-01

    The integration of Andrographis paniculata under Pinus roxburghii (Chir pine) plantation has been studied to evaluate the growth and yield for its economic viability and conservation. It was grown on three topographical aspects, namely, northern, north-western, and western, at a spacing of 30 cm × 30 cm, followed by three tillage depths, namely, minimum (0 cm), medium (up to 10 cm), and deep (up to 15 cm) tillage. The growth parameters, namely, plant height and number of branches per plant, were recorded as significantly higher on western aspect and lowest on northern aspect except for leaf area index which was found nonsignificant. However under all tillage practices all the growth parameters in both understorey and open conditions were found to be nonsignificant except for plant height which was found to be significantly highest under deep tillage and lowest under minimum tillage. The study of net returns for Andrographis paniculata revealed that it had positive average annual returns even in understorey conditions which indicate its possible economic viability under integration of Chir pine plantations. Hence net returns can be enhanced by integrating Andrographis paniculata and this silvimedicinal system can be suggested which will help utilizing an unutilized part of land and increase total productivity from such lands besides conservation of the A. paniculata in situ. PMID:27563482

  11. Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology of Andrographis paniculata and Its Major Bioactive Phytoconstituent Andrographolide

    PubMed Central

    Jayakumar, Thanasekaran; Hsieh, Cheng-Ying; Lee, Jie-Jen; Sheu, Joen-Rong

    2013-01-01

    Andrographis paniculata (Burm. F) Nees, generally known as “king of bitters,” is an herbaceous plant in the family Acanthaceae. In China, India, Thailand, and Malaysia, this plant has been widely used for treating sore throat, flu, and upper respiratory tract infections. Andrographolide, a major bioactive chemical constituent of the plant, has shown anticancer potential in various investigations. Andrographolide and its derivatives have anti-inflammatory effects in experimental models asthma, stroke, and arthritis. In recent years, pharmaceutical chemists have synthesized numerous andrographolide derivatives, which exhibit essential pharmacological activities such as those that are anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antitumor, antidiabetic, anti-HIV, antifeedant, and antiviral. However, what is noteworthy about this paper is summarizing the effects of andrographolide against cardiovascular disease, platelet activation, infertility, and NF-κB activation. Therefore, this paper is intended to provide evidence reported in relevant literature on qualitative research to assist scientists in isolating and characterizing bioactive compounds. PMID:23634174

  12. Inhibition of Helicobacter pylori and Its Associate Urease by Labdane Diterpenoids Isolated from Andrographis paniculata.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Rafik U; Dawane, Ashwini A; Pawar, Rajendra P; Gond, Dhananjay S; Meshram, Rohan J; Gacche, Rajesh N

    2016-03-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate anti-Helicobacter pylori and its associated urease activity of labdane diterpenoids isolated from Andrographis paniculata. A molecular docking analysis was performed by using ArgusLab 4.0.1 software. The results obtained indicate that compound A possesses strong inhibition to H. pylori, 28 ± 2.98 (minimum inhibitory concentration, 9 µg/mL), and its urease, 85.54 ± 2.62% (IC50 , 20.2 µg/mL). Compounds B, C, and D also showed moderate inhibition to H. pylori and its urease. The obtained results were in agreement with the molecular docking analysis of compounds. The phytochemicals under investigation were found to be promising antibacterial agents. Moreover, the isolated compounds can be considered as a resource for searching novel anti-H. pylori agents possessing urease inhibition.

  13. Preferentially Cytotoxic Constituents of Andrographis paniculata and their Preferential Cytotoxicity against Human Pancreatic Cancer Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sullim; Morita, Hiroyuki; Tezuka, Yasuhiro

    2015-07-01

    In the course of our search for anticancer agents based on a novel anti-austerity strategy, we found that the 70% EtOH extract of the crude drug Andrographis Herba (aerial parts of Andrographis paniculata), used in Japanese Kampo medicines, killed PANC-1 human pancreatic cancer cells preferentially in nutrient-deprived medium (NDM). Phytochemical investigation of the 70% EtOH extract led to the isolation of 21 known compounds consisting of six labdane-type diterpenes (11, 15, 17-19, 21), six flavones (5, 7, 10, 12, 14, 20), three flavanones (2, 6, 16), two sterols (3, 8), a fatty acid (1), a phthalate (4), a triterpene (9), and a monoterpene (13). Among them, 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide (17) displayed the most potent preferential cytotoxicity against PANC-1 and PSN-1 cells with PC50 values of 10.0 μM and 9.27 μM, respectively. Microscopical observation, double staining with ethidium bromide (EB) and acridine orange (AO), and flow cytometry with propidium iodide/annexin V double staining indicated that 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide (17) triggered apoptosis-like cell death in NDM with an amino acids and/or serum-sensitive mode.

  14. Anti-Diabetic Activity and Metabolic Changes Induced by Andrographis paniculata Plant Extract in Obese Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Muhammad Tayyab; Bin Mohd Sarib, Mohamad Syakir; Ismail, Intan Safinar; Abas, Faridah; Ismail, Amin; Lajis, Nordin Hj; Shaari, Khozirah

    2016-08-09

    Andrographis paniculata is an annual herb and widely cultivated in Southeast Asian countries for its medicinal use. In recent investigations, A. paniculata was found to be effective against Type 1 diabetes mellitus (Type 1 DM). Here, we used a non-genetic out-bred Sprague-Dawley rat model to test the antidiabetic activity of A. paniculata against Type 2 diabetes mellitus (Type 2 DM). Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (¹H-NMR) spectroscopy in combination with multivariate data analyses was used to evaluate the A. paniculata and metformin induced metabolic effects on the obese and obese-diabetic (obdb) rat models. Compared to the normal rats, high levels of creatinine, lactate, and allantoin were found in the urine of obese rats, whereas, obese-diabetic rats were marked by high glucose, choline and taurine levels, and low lactate, formate, creatinine, citrate, 2-oxoglutarate, succinate, dimethylamine, acetoacetate, acetate, allantoin and hippurate levels. Treatment of A. paniculata leaf water extract was found to be quite effective in restoring the disturbed metabolic profile of obdb rats back towards normal conditions. Thisstudy shows the anti-diabetic potential of A. paniculata plant extract and strengthens the idea of using this plant against the diabetes. Further classical genetic methods and state of the art molecular techniques could provide insights into the molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus and anti-diabetic effects of A. paniculata water extract.

  15. Establishment of in vitro adventitious root cultures and analysis of andrographolide in Andrographis paniculata.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Shiv Narayan; Jha, Zenu; Sinha, Rakesh Kumar

    2013-08-01

    Andrographolide is the principal bioactive component of the medicinal plant Andrographis paniculata, to which various diverse pharmacological properties are attributed. Traditionally, andrographolide was extracted from the leaves, stems and other parts of the plant. Leaves have the highest andrographolide content (2-3%) in comparison with the other plant parts. Adventitious root culture of leaf explants of A. paniculata was studied using different strength MS medium supplemented by different concentrations of auxins and a combination of NAA + kinetin for growth and andrographolide production. Among the different auxin treatments in adventitious root culture, only NAA was able to induce adventitious roots. Adventitious roots grown in modified strength MS medium showed the highest root growth (26.7 +/- 1.52), as well as the highest amount of andrographolide (133.3 +/- 1.5 mg/g DW) as compared with roots grown in half- and full-strength MS medium. Growth kinetics showed maximum biomass production after five weeks of culture in different strength MS liquid medium. The produced andrographolide content was 3.5 - 5.5 folds higher than that of the natural plant, depending on the medium strength.

  16. Pancreatic effect of andrographolide isolated from Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees.

    PubMed

    Nugroho, Agung Endro; Rais, Ichwan Ridwan; Setiawan, Iwan; Pratiwi, Pramita Yuli; Hadibarata, Tony; Tegar, Maulana; Pramono, Suwidjiyo

    2014-01-01

    Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees is a plant that originates from India and grows widely to Southeast which used for several purposes mainly as treatment of diabetes mellitus so the aim of this study was evaluate andrographolide for its pancreatic effect in neonatal streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats, a model of type 2 diabetic rats. Diabetic condition was induced with an intraperitoneal injection of 90 mg kg(-1) streptozotocin in two-day-old rats. After three months, the neonatal STZ-induced diabetic rats were treated with andrographolide or andrographolide-enriched extract of A. paniculata (AEEAP) for 8 consecutive days. Pancreatic effect was evaluated by estimating mainly the preprandial and postprandial blood glucose levels and other parameters such as morphology of pancreatic islet, beta cells density and morphology and immunohistochemically pancreatic insulin. Andrographolide significantly (p < 0.05) decreased the levels of blood glucose and improved diabetic rat islet and beta cells. However, AEEAP exhibited moderate hypoglycaemic effects on the blood glucose levels. Moderate changes in beta cells were observed after AEEAP treatment. They could restore decreasing of pancreatic insulin contents. Based on these results andrographolide and AEEAP exhibited pancreatic actions in neonatal STZ-induced diabetic rats. The activity of andrographolide was more effective than this of AEEAP.

  17. Review on liver inflammation and antiinflammatory activity of Andrographis paniculata for hepatoprotection.

    PubMed

    Chua, Lee Suan

    2014-11-01

    Till to date, the advancement of medical science and technology is still unable to provide inclusive treatment to liver inflammation caused by neither microbial invasion nor antibiotics nor environmental toxins. Therefore, this article provides the basic knowledge of liver inflammation up to the cellular level and its current medical treatment for inflammatory symptom suppression. Because of the adverse effects of drug treatment, people start looking for comprehensive alternative nowadays. Herbal medicine is believed to be the best of choice because it is being practiced until now for centuries. Although numerous herbal plants have been reported for their efficacies in liver protection, Andrographis paniculata is the most widely used herb for hepatoprotection, particularly in Ayurveda and traditional Chinese medicine. This review covers the significant observation on the biochemical responses due to the experimental induction of liver damage in vitro and in vivo using the marker compound of the herb, namely andrographolide and its derivatives. The standardized extract of A. paniculata with the right phytochemical composition of diterpenic labdanes is likely to have tremendous potential for the development of hepatoprotective medicine. This standardized herbal medicine may not provide immediate remedy, but it can be considered as a comprehensive therapy for liver inflammation.

  18. Effects of Andrographis paniculata and Orthosiphon stamineus extracts on the glucuronidation of 4-methylumbelliferone in human UGT isoforms.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Sabariah; Hanapi, Nur Aziah; Ab Halim, Mohd Rohaimi; Uchaipichat, Verawan; Mackenzie, Peter I

    2010-05-14

    The effects of Andrographis paniculata and Orthosiphon stamineus extracts on the in vitro glucuronidation of 4-methylumbelliferone (4MU) by recombinant human UGTs, UGT1A1, UGT1A3, UGT1A6, UGT1A7, UGT1A8, UGT1A10, UGT2B7 and UGT2B15 were determined. The potential inhibitory effects of both of the extracts on the activity of each of the UGT isoforms were investigated using 4MU as the substrate. Incubations contained UDP-glucuronic acid (UDPGA) as the cofactor, MgCl(2), cell lysate of respective isoform, and 4MU at the approximate apparent K(m) or S(50) value of each isoform. Final concentrations of Andrographis paniculata and Orthosiphon stamineus extracts used were 0.025, 0.25, 2.5, 25 and 50 microg/mL and 0.01, 0.10, 1.0, 10 and 50 microg/mL respectively. Both extracts variably inhibited the activity of most of the isoforms in a concentration dependent manner. Andrographis paniculata extract was the better inhibitor of all the isoforms studied (IC(50) 1.70 microg/mL for UGT1A3, 2.57 microg/mL for UGT1A8, 2.82 microg/mL for UGT2B7, 5.00 micorg/mL for UGT1A1, 5.66 microg/mL for UGT1A6, 9.88 microg/mL for UGT1A7 and 15.66 microg/mL for UGT1A10). Both extracts showed less than 70% inhibition of UGT2B15, so the IC(50) values were >50 microg/mL. The inhibition of human UGTs by Andrographis paniculata and Orthosiphon stamineus extracts in vitro suggests a potential for drug-herbal extract interactions in the therapeutic setting.

  19. A Classical Genetic Solution to Enhance the Biosynthesis of Anticancer Phytochemicals in Andrographis paniculata Nees

    PubMed Central

    Talei, Daryush; Abdul Kadir, Mihdzar; Rafii, Mohd Yusop; Sagineedu, Sreenivasa Rao

    2014-01-01

    Andrographolides, the diterpene lactones, are major bioactive phytochemicals which could be found in different parts of the medicinal herb Andrographis paniculata. A number of such compounds namely andrographolide (AG), neoandrographolide (NAG), and 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide (DDAG) have already attracted a great deal of attention due to their potential therapeutic effects in hard-to-treat diseases such as cancers and HIV. Recently, they have also been considered as substrates for the discovery of novel pharmaceutical compounds. Nevertheless, there is still a huge gap in knowledge on the genetic pattern of the biosynthesis of these bioactive compounds. Hence, the present study aimed to investigate the genetic mechanisms controlling the biosynthesis of these phytochemicals using a diallel analysis. The high performance liquid chromatography analysis of the three andrographolides in 210 F1 progenies confirmed that the biosynthesis of these andrographolides was considerably increased via intraspecific hybridization. The results revealed high, moderate and low heterosis for DDAG, AG and NAG, respectively. Furthermore, the preponderance of non-additive gene actions was affirmed in the enhancement of the three andrographolides contents. The consequence of this type of gene action was the occurrence of high broad-sense and low narrow-sense heritabilities for the above mentioned andrographolides. The prevalence of non-additive gene action suggests the suitability of heterosis breeding and hybrid seed production as a preferred option to produce new plant varieties with higher andrographolide contents using the wild accessions of A. paniculata. Moreover, from an evolutionary point of view, the occurrence of population bottlenecks in the Malaysian accessions of A. paniculata was unveiled by observing a low level of additive genetic variance (VA) for all the andrographolides. PMID:24586262

  20. De novo Assembly of Leaf Transcriptome in the Medicinal Plant Andrographis paniculata

    PubMed Central

    Cherukupalli, Neeraja; Divate, Mayur; Mittapelli, Suresh R.; Khareedu, Venkateswara R.; Vudem, Dashavantha R.

    2016-01-01

    Andrographis paniculata is an important medicinal plant containing various bioactive terpenoids and flavonoids. Despite its importance in herbal medicine, no ready-to-use transcript sequence information of this plant is made available in the public data base, this study mainly deals with the sequencing of RNA from A. paniculata leaf using Illumina HiSeq™ 2000 platform followed by the de novo transcriptome assembly. A total of 189.22 million high quality paired reads were generated and 1,70,724 transcripts were predicted in the primary assembly. Secondary assembly generated a transcriptome size of ~88 Mb with 83,800 clustered transcripts. Based on the similarity searches against plant non-redundant protein database, gene ontology, and eukaryotic orthologous groups, 49,363 transcripts were annotated constituting upto 58.91% of the identified unigenes. Annotation of transcripts—using kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes database—revealed 5606 transcripts plausibly involved in 140 pathways including biosynthesis of terpenoids and other secondary metabolites. Transcription factor analysis showed 6767 unique transcripts belonging to 97 different transcription factor families. A total number of 124 CYP450 transcripts belonging to seven divergent clans have been identified. Transcriptome revealed 146 different transcripts coding for enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of terpenoids of which 35 contained terpene synthase motifs. This study also revealed 32,341 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) in 23,168 transcripts. Assembled sequences of transcriptome of A. paniculata generated in this study are made available, for the first time, in the TSA database, which provides useful information for functional and comparative genomic analysis besides identification of key enzymes involved in the various pathways of secondary metabolism. PMID:27582746

  1. De novo Assembly of Leaf Transcriptome in the Medicinal Plant Andrographis paniculata.

    PubMed

    Cherukupalli, Neeraja; Divate, Mayur; Mittapelli, Suresh R; Khareedu, Venkateswara R; Vudem, Dashavantha R

    2016-01-01

    Andrographis paniculata is an important medicinal plant containing various bioactive terpenoids and flavonoids. Despite its importance in herbal medicine, no ready-to-use transcript sequence information of this plant is made available in the public data base, this study mainly deals with the sequencing of RNA from A. paniculata leaf using Illumina HiSeq™ 2000 platform followed by the de novo transcriptome assembly. A total of 189.22 million high quality paired reads were generated and 1,70,724 transcripts were predicted in the primary assembly. Secondary assembly generated a transcriptome size of ~88 Mb with 83,800 clustered transcripts. Based on the similarity searches against plant non-redundant protein database, gene ontology, and eukaryotic orthologous groups, 49,363 transcripts were annotated constituting upto 58.91% of the identified unigenes. Annotation of transcripts-using kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes database-revealed 5606 transcripts plausibly involved in 140 pathways including biosynthesis of terpenoids and other secondary metabolites. Transcription factor analysis showed 6767 unique transcripts belonging to 97 different transcription factor families. A total number of 124 CYP450 transcripts belonging to seven divergent clans have been identified. Transcriptome revealed 146 different transcripts coding for enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of terpenoids of which 35 contained terpene synthase motifs. This study also revealed 32,341 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) in 23,168 transcripts. Assembled sequences of transcriptome of A. paniculata generated in this study are made available, for the first time, in the TSA database, which provides useful information for functional and comparative genomic analysis besides identification of key enzymes involved in the various pathways of secondary metabolism.

  2. A classical genetic solution to enhance the biosynthesis of anticancer phytochemicals in Andrographis paniculata Nees.

    PubMed

    Valdiani, Alireza; Talei, Daryush; Tan, Soon Guan; Abdul Kadir, Mihdzar; Maziah, Mahmood; Rafii, Mohd Yusop; Sagineedu, Sreenivasa Rao

    2014-01-01

    Andrographolides, the diterpene lactones, are major bioactive phytochemicals which could be found in different parts of the medicinal herb Andrographis paniculata. A number of such compounds namely andrographolide (AG), neoandrographolide (NAG), and 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide (DDAG) have already attracted a great deal of attention due to their potential therapeutic effects in hard-to-treat diseases such as cancers and HIV. Recently, they have also been considered as substrates for the discovery of novel pharmaceutical compounds. Nevertheless, there is still a huge gap in knowledge on the genetic pattern of the biosynthesis of these bioactive compounds. Hence, the present study aimed to investigate the genetic mechanisms controlling the biosynthesis of these phytochemicals using a diallel analysis. The high performance liquid chromatography analysis of the three andrographolides in 210 F1 progenies confirmed that the biosynthesis of these andrographolides was considerably increased via intraspecific hybridization. The results revealed high, moderate and low heterosis for DDAG, AG and NAG, respectively. Furthermore, the preponderance of non-additive gene actions was affirmed in the enhancement of the three andrographolides contents. The consequence of this type of gene action was the occurrence of high broad-sense and low narrow-sense heritabilities for the above mentioned andrographolides. The prevalence of non-additive gene action suggests the suitability of heterosis breeding and hybrid seed production as a preferred option to produce new plant varieties with higher andrographolide contents using the wild accessions of A. paniculata. Moreover, from an evolutionary point of view, the occurrence of population bottlenecks in the Malaysian accessions of A. paniculata was unveiled by observing a low level of additive genetic variance (VA ) for all the andrographolides.

  3. Andrographis paniculata extracts and major constituent diterpenoids inhibit growth of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma cells by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Suriyo, Tawit; Pholphana, Nanthanit; Rangkadilok, Nuchanart; Thiantanawat, Apinya; Watcharasit, Piyajit; Satayavivad, Jutamaad

    2014-05-01

    Andrographis paniculata is an important herbal medicine widely used in several Asian countries for the treatment of various diseases due to its broad range of pharmacological activities. The present study reports that A. paniculata extracts potently inhibit the growth of liver (HepG2 and SK-Hep1) and bile duct (HuCCA-1 and RMCCA-1) cancer cells. A. paniculata extracts with different contents of major diterpenoids, including andrographolide, 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide, neoandrographolide, and 14-deoxyandrographolide, exhibited a different potency of growth inhibition. The ethanolic extract of A. paniculata at the first true leaf stage, which contained a high amount of 14-deoxyandrographolide but a low amount of andrographolide, showed a cytotoxic effect to cancer cells about 4 times higher than the water extract of A. paniculata at the mature leaf stage, which contained a high amount of andrographolide but a low amount of 14-deoxyandrographolide. Andrographolide, not 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide, neoandrographolide, or 14-deoxyandrographolide, possessed potent cytotoxic activity against the growth of liver and bile duct cancer cells. The cytotoxic effect of the water extract of A. paniculata at the mature leaf stage could be explained by the present amount of andrographolide, while the cytotoxic effect of the ethanolic extract of A. paniculata at the first true leaf stage could not. HuCCA-1 cells showed more sensitivity to A. paniculata extracts and andrographolide than RMCCA-1 cells. Furthermore, the ethanolic extract of A. paniculata at the first true leaf stage increased cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 and G2/M phases, and induced apoptosis in both HuCCA-1 and RMCCA-1 cells. The expressions of cyclin-D1, Bcl-2, and the inactive proenzyme form of caspase-3 were reduced by the ethanolic extract of A. paniculata in the first true leaf stage treatment, while a proapoptotic protein Bax was increased. The cleavage of poly (ADP

  4. Determination of phytochemicals, antioxidant activity and total phenolic content in Andrographis paniculata using chromatographic methods.

    PubMed

    Kurzawa, Marzanna; Filipiak-Szok, Anna; Kłodzińska, Ewa; Szłyk, Edward

    2015-07-15

    Antioxidant activity, total phenolics content and selected phytochemicals (alkaloids and andrographolides) were determined in Andrographis paniculata and in dietary supplements containing this plant. Antioxidant activity was measured by FRAP, CUPRAC and DPPH procedures and ranged from 503.36 to 6164.09μmol TE/100g d.m. depending on methods, part of plant and kind of dietary supplement. The total phenolics (175.13-1723.79mg GAE/100g) and andrographolides content (19.44-85.13mg/g) in the studied samples were correlated with antioxidant activities determined by CUPRAC, FRAP and DPPH (r>0.95, p<0.05 level). Purine alkaloids: caffeine, theobromine, theophylline and indole alkaloids: harmine, harmane, harmol, yohimbine, brucine and strychnine were detected in the studied samples by different chromatographic techniques (HPLC-DAD, LC-MS/MS, GC-MS). The total alkaloids content in APs-roots and APs-leaves varies from 50.71±0.36mg/g d.m. to 78.71±0.48mg/g d.m., respectively, whereas for dietary supplements (Pn and DK) TAC was found between 19.52±0.15mg/g and 22.18±0.15mg/g d.m.. The highest concentration of andrographolides was found in A. paniculata leaves, whereas the lowest in dietary supplement Pn. Moreover principal component analysis, cluster analysis and one-way ANOVA follow by Duncan's tests were also performed.

  5. Andrographis paniculata extract protect against isoproterenol-induced myocardial injury by mitigating cardiac dysfunction and oxidative injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Ojha, Shreesh; Bharti, Saurabh; Golechha, Mahaveer; Sharma, Ashok K; Rani, Neha; Kumari, Santosh; Arya, Dharamvir Singh

    2012-01-01

    Present study evaluated the cardioprotective effect of Andrographis paniculata (100, 200 or 400 mg/kg) against isoproterenol (85 mg/kg, b.w.)-induced cardiotoxicity referred as myocardial infarction in rats. Isoproterenol significantly (p < 0.05) decreased mean arterial pressure, heart rate, contractility and relaxation and increased left ventricular end diastolic pressure. Isoproterenol also significantly (p < 0.05) decreased antioxidants, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione and increased leakage of cardiac injury markers; creatine phosphokinase-MB isoenzyme, lactate dehydrogenase concomitant to increased lipid peroxidation and histopathological perturbations. However, pretreatment with A. paniculata favorably restored hemodynamic parameters and left ventricular function and significantly (p < 0.05) prevented the depletion of endogenous antioxidants and myocyte marker enzymes as well as inhibited lipid peroxidation. Significant (p < 0.05) reversal of almost all the hemodynamic, biochemical and histopathological parameters by A. paniculata pretreatment in isoproterenol-induced cardiotoxicity depicted the cardioprotective effect of A. paniculata. Results showed that A. paniculata protected heart against cardiotoxic effects of isoproterenol by boosting endogenous antioxidant network, restoring ventricular function and maintaining structural integrity of heart.

  6. Anti-diabetic potentials of Momordica charantia and Andrographis paniculata and their effects on estrous cyclicity of alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Reyes, B A S; Bautista, N D; Tanquilut, N C; Anunciado, R V; Leung, A B; Sanchez, G C; Magtoto, R L; Castronuevo, P; Tsukamura, H; Maeda, K-I

    2006-04-21

    Momordica charantia and Andrographis paniculata are the commonly used herbs by the diabetic patients in Pampanga, Philippines. While the anti-diabetic potential of Momordica charantia is well established in streptozocin- or alloxan-induced diabetic animals, the anti-diabetic potential of Andrographis paniculata in alloxan-induced diabetic rat is not known. Neither the effects of these herbs on estrous cyclicity of alloxan-induced diabetic rats are elucidated. Thus, in these experiments, Momordica charantia fruit juice or Andrographis paniculata decoction was orally administered to alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Rats that were treated with Momordica charantia and Andrographis paniculata had higher body weight (BW) compared with diabetic positive control (P < 0.01) from day 22 to day 27 (D27) but exhibited lower BW than the non-diabetic control (P < 0.05). These rats had lower feed (P < 0.05) and liquid intakes (P < 0.01) compared with diabetic positive control from day 17 to D27, but similar with the non-diabetic control. The blood glucose levels in these groups were significantly reduced from day 12 to D27 compared with diabetic positive control (P < 0.01), however, comparable with non-diabetic control. The diabetic positive control had extended mean estrous cycles (8 days) compared to Momordica charantia and Andrographis paniculata-treated diabetic rats (5 days; P < 0.05). Our results suggest that the anti-diabetic potentials of Momordica charantia and Andrographis paniculata could restore impaired estrous cycle in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

  7. Nano-preparation of Andrographis paniculata extract by casein micelle for antidiabetic agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arbianti, Rita; Dewi, Veronica; Imansari, Farisa; Hermansyah, Heri; Sahlan, Muhamad

    2017-02-01

    Side effects caused by oral medications for person with diabetic are the background of the development of alternative treatments by traditional medicine, herbs. Andrographis paniculata (AP) is one of the herbs that is potent to be anti-diabetic agent. The active compound of AP, andrographolide have been examined to have anti-diabetic activity as α-glucosidase enzyme inhibitor. This research aims to encapsulate sambiloto's extract with casein micelle and produce nanoparticles which have anti-diabetic activity as α-glucosidase inhibitor. Extract of AP is encapsulated by casein micelle and made into nano size using sonicator. The dominant active compounds in AP extract coated by casein are andrographolide, neoandrographolide, 14-deoxy-11,12didehydroandrographolide with encapsulation efficiency of 68.83%, 89.15% and 81.69%, the average diameter of the particles is about 120.57 nm and its loading capacity is 28.85%. AP's extract has antidiabetic activity as α-glucosidase inhibitor with percent inhibition of 95%. The morphology of nanoencapsulated AP's extract analyzed by FE-SEM, were similar with casein micelle.

  8. Intraspecific Crossability in Andrographis paniculata Nees: A Barrier against Breeding of the Species

    PubMed Central

    Valdiani, Alireza; Abdul Kadir, Mihdzar; Said Saad, Mohd; Talei, Daryush; Omidvar, Vahid; Hua, Chia Sok

    2012-01-01

    The ambiguity of crossability in Andrographis paniculata (AP) was pointed out in the present research. Accordingly, the effects of different style length and crossing time on intraspecific crossability of seven AP accessions in 21 possible combinations were investigated. The best results came out between 08:00 to 11:00 h for manual out-crossing of AP, while the time from 12:00 to 18:00 h showed a decreasing trend. Moreover, 12 mm style length was found as the most proper phenological stage in terms of stigmatic receptivity to perform out-crossing in this plant. All in all, AP behaved unlikely in each combination, and a significant difference was observed in crossability of AP accessions (P < 0.01). The lowest and highest crossability rate was found in hybrids 21 (11261NS × 11344K) and 27 (11322PA × 11350T) with 0.25% and 13.33%, respectively. Furthermore, a significant negative relationship between style length and crossibility (r2 = 0.762∗∗) was recorded in this research. As a final conclusion, crossing time and proper style length can improve the intraspecific crossability in the species, considerably. Despite all the mentioned contrivances, we still believe that a genetic incongruity should be involved as an additional obstacle in crossability of those combinations that failed or responded deficiently to outcrossing. PMID:22701352

  9. A new biocompatible microemulsion increases extraction yield and bioavailability of Andrographis paniculata.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Yan; Niu, Xin; Feng, Qian-Jin; Yang, Xue-Zhi; Wang, Dan-Wei; Zhao, Tong; Li, Lei; DU, Hong

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to design and prepare a biocompatible microemulsion of Andrographis paniculata (BMAP) containing both fat-soluble and water-soluble constituents. We determined the contents of active constituents of BMAP and evaluated its bioavailability. The biocompatible microemulsion (BM), containing lecithin and bile salts, was optimized in the present study, showing a good physical stability. The mean droplet size was 19.12 nm, and the average polydispersity index (PDI) was 0.153. The contents of andrographolide and dehydroandrographolide in BMAP, as determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), were higher than that in ethanol extraction. The pharmacokinetic results of BMAP showed that the AUC0-7 and AUC0→∞ values of BMAP were 2.267 and 27.156 μg·mL(-1)·h(-1), respectively, and were about 1.41-fold and 6.30-fold greater than that of ethanol extraction, respectively. These results demonstrated that the bioavailability of and rographolide extracted by BMAP was significantly higher than that extracted by ethanol. In conclusion, the BMAP preparation displayed ann improved dose form for future clinical applications.

  10. Analysis of the anticancer phytochemicals in Andrographis paniculata Nees. under salinity stress.

    PubMed

    Talei, Daryush; Valdiani, Alireza; Maziah, Mahmood; Sagineedu, Sreenivasa Rao; Saad, Mohd Said

    2013-01-01

    Salinity causes the adverse effects in all physiological processes of plants. The present study aimed to investigate the potential of salt stress to enhance the accumulation of the anticancer phytochemicals in Andrographis paniculata accessions. For this purpose, 70-day-old plants were grown in different salinity levels (0.18, 4, 8, 12, and 16 dSm(-1)) on sand medium. After inducing a period of 30-day salinity stress and before flowering, all plants were harvested and the data on morphological traits, proline content and the three anticancer phytochemicals, including andrographolide (AG), neoandrographolide (NAG), and 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide (DDAG), were measured. The results indicated that salinity had a significant effect on the aforementioned three anticancer phytochemicals. In addition, the salt tolerance index (STI) was significantly decreased, while, except for DDAG, the content of proline, the AG, and NAG was significantly increased (P ≤ 0.01). Furthermore, it was revealed that significant differences among accessions could happen based on the total dry weight, STI, AG, and NAG. Finally, we noticed that the salinity at 12 dSm(-1) led to the maximum increase in the quantities of AG, NAG, and DDAG. In other words, under salinity stress, the tolerant accessions were capable of accumulating the higher amounts of proline, AG, and NAG than the sensitive accessions.

  11. Interaction with bovine serum albumin of an anti-oxidative pectic arabinogalactan from Andrographis paniculata.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Udipta R; Ray, Sayani; Micard, Valérie; Ghosh, Debjani; Ghosh, Kanika; Bandyopadhyay, Shruti S; Ray, Bimalendu

    2014-01-30

    A pectic arabinogalactan was obtained from the leaves of Andrographis paniculata by aqueous extraction followed by α-amylase treatment, deproteination, and anion exchange chromatography. Methylation analysis, Smith degradation, and NMR spectroscopy indicated that it was a highly branched arabinogalactan containing a (1→3)-linked β-d-Galp main chain, substituted at O-6 by (1→6)-linked β-d-Galp side chains. The latter residues were substituted at O-3 by (1→5)- and (1→3)-linked α-l-Araf chains, and non reducing end-units of α-l-Araf and β-d-Galp. This homogeneous arabinogalactan (36 kDa), which contained phenolic acids, showed dose-dependent anti-oxidative properties. The phenolic acid moieties might be the functional sites. This arabinogalactan can form a complex with bovine serum albumin having binding constant K=6.48 × 10(6)/M. Thus, this study is an important step forward to investigate the involvement of arabinogalactan in processes including interaction with biologically important transport proteins.

  12. Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Wall. ex Nees: a review of ethnobotany, phytochemistry, and pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Md Sanower; Urbi, Zannat; Sule, Abubakar; Hafizur Rahman, K M

    2014-01-01

    As aboriginal sources of medications, medicinal plants are used from the ancient times. Andrographis paniculata is one of the highly used potential medicinal plants in the world. This plant is traditionally used for the treatment of common cold, diarrhoea, fever due to several infective cause, jaundice, as a health tonic for the liver and cardiovascular health, and as an antioxidant. It is also used to improve sexual dysfunctions and serve as a contraceptive. All parts of this plant are used to extract the active phytochemicals, but the compositions of phytoconstituents widely differ from one part to another and with place, season, and time of harvest. Our extensive data mining of the phytoconstituents revealed more than 55 ent-labdane diterpenoids, 30 flavonoids, 8 quinic acids, 4 xanthones, and 5 rare noriridoids. In this review, we selected only those compounds that pharmacology has already reported. Finally we focused on around 46 compounds for further discussion. We also discussed ethnobotany of this plant briefly. Recommendations addressing extraction process, tissue culture, and adventitious rooting techniques and propagation under abiotic stress conditions for improvement of phytoconstituents are discussed concisely in this paper. Further study areas on pharmacology are also proposed where needed.

  13. Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Wall. ex Nees: A Review of Ethnobotany, Phytochemistry, and Pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    Sule, Abubakar; Rahman, K. M. Hafizur

    2014-01-01

    As aboriginal sources of medications, medicinal plants are used from the ancient times. Andrographis paniculata is one of the highly used potential medicinal plants in the world. This plant is traditionally used for the treatment of common cold, diarrhoea, fever due to several infective cause, jaundice, as a health tonic for the liver and cardiovascular health, and as an antioxidant. It is also used to improve sexual dysfunctions and serve as a contraceptive. All parts of this plant are used to extract the active phytochemicals, but the compositions of phytoconstituents widely differ from one part to another and with place, season, and time of harvest. Our extensive data mining of the phytoconstituents revealed more than 55 ent-labdane diterpenoids, 30 flavonoids, 8 quinic acids, 4 xanthones, and 5 rare noriridoids. In this review, we selected only those compounds that pharmacology has already reported. Finally we focused on around 46 compounds for further discussion. We also discussed ethnobotany of this plant briefly. Recommendations addressing extraction process, tissue culture, and adventitious rooting techniques and propagation under abiotic stress conditions for improvement of phytoconstituents are discussed concisely in this paper. Further study areas on pharmacology are also proposed where needed. PMID:25950015

  14. Effects of Atmospheric Pressure Air Plasma Pretreatment on the Seed Germination and Early Growth of Andrographis paniculata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Jiayun; He, Rui; Zhang, Xiaoli; Zhan, Ruoting; Chen, Weiwen; Yang, Size

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this paper is to demonstrate whether air plasma can change the seed germination characteristics, seedling emergence, as well as biochemical reactivity, in Andrographis paniculata (A. paniculata) seedlings by modifying the seed coat and finding a beneficial treatment dose. Eight treatment doses and one control were used to conduct electrical conductivity determination, a germination test, a seedling emergence test and a biochemical assay. The results showed that after being treated with air plasma excited at 5950 V for 10 s, the permeability of the seeds was improved significantly, resulting in the acceleration of seed germination and seedling emergence. In the meantime, the catalase activity and catalase isoenzyme expression were also improved, while the malondialdehyde content in the seedlings was decreased (which means greater counteraction with environmental stress). After being treated with 4250 V for 10 s and 5950 V for 20 s, the seed germination was enhanced, but without an obvious change in seedling emergence. However, after treatment with 3400 V for 20 s and 5100 V for 10 s, the permeability of the seeds was decreased, resulting in a delay in seedling emergence. These results indicate that air plasma can change the physiological and biochemical characteristics of Andrographis paniculata seeds by modifying the seed coat, combined with the effects of the active plasma species, and that different treating doses have different effects.

  15. An effective vacuum assisted extraction method for the optimization of labdane diterpenoids from Andrographis paniculata by response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ya-Qi; Wu, Zhen-Feng; Ke, Gang; Yang, Ming

    2014-12-31

    An effective vacuum assisted extraction (VAE) technique was proposed for the first time and applied to extract bioactive components from Andrographis paniculata. The process was carefully optimized by response surface methodology (RSM). Under the optimized experimental conditions, the best results were obtained using a boiling temperature of 65 °C, 50% ethanol concentration, 16 min of extraction time, one extraction cycles and a 12:1 liquid-solid ratio. Compared with conventional ultrasonic assisted extraction and heat reflux extraction, the VAE technique gave shorter extraction times and remarkable higher extraction efficiency, which indicated that a certain degree of vacuum gave the solvent a better penetration of the solvent into the pores and between the matrix particles, and enhanced the process of mass transfer. The present results demonstrated that VAE is an efficient, simple and fast method for extracting bioactive components from A. paniculata, which shows great potential for becoming an alternative technique for industrial scale-up applications.

  16. Harnessing the medicinal properties of Andrographis paniculata for diseases and beyond: a review of its phytochemistry and pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    Okhuarobo, Agbonlahor; Falodun, Joyce Ehizogie; Erharuyi, Osayemwenre; Imieje, Vincent; Falodun, Abiodun; Langer, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Andrographis paniculata Wall (family Acanthaceae) is one of the most popular medicinal plants used traditionally for the treatment of array of diseases such as cancer, diabetes, high blood pressure, ulcer, leprosy, bronchitis, skin diseases, flatulence, colic, influenza, dysentery, dyspepsia and malaria for centuries in Asia, America and Africa continents. It possesses several photochemical constituents with unique and interesting biological properties. This review describes the past and present state of research on Andrographis paniculata with respect to the medicinal usage, phytochemistry, pharmacological activities, toxicity profile and therapeutic usage, in order to bridge the gap requiring future research opportunities. This review is based on literature study on scientific journals and books from library and electronic sources. Diterpenes, flavonoids, xanthones, noriridoides and other miscellaneous compounds have been isolated from the plant. Extract and pure compounds of the plant have been reported for their anti-microbial, cytotoxicity, anti-protozoan, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, immunostimulant, anti-diabetic, anti-infective, anti-angiogenic, hepato-renal protective, sex hormone/sexual function modulation, liver enzymes modulation insecticidal and toxicity activities. The results of numerous toxicity evaluations of extracts and metabolites isolated from this plant did not show any significant acute toxicity in experimental animals. Detailed and more comprehensive toxicity profile on mammalian tissues and organs is needed in future studies.

  17. In vitro comparative evaluation of non-leaves and leaves extracts of Andrographis paniculata on modulation of inflammatory mediators.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekaran, C V; Murali, B; Deepak, M; Agarwal, Amit

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate and compare the inhibitory property of extracts of Andrographis paniculata leaves [methanolic (AP1), hydroalcoholic (AP2), successive water (AP3)] and non-leaves [methanolic (AP4), hydroalcoholic (AP5), successive water (AP6)] towards inflammatory mediators (NO, IL-1 beta, IL-6, TNF alpha, PGE2, TXB2 and LTB4). Stimulant induced J774A.1 murine macrophages and HL-60 promyelocytic leukemic cells were used to study the inhibitory potential of extracts of A. paniculata on inflammatory mediators. Results revealed that AP1 and AP4 exhibited inhibitory effect on all the inflammatory mediators excluding PGE2 and TNF-alpha. AP2 and AP5 exhibited inhibitory effect towards IL-1 beta, TXB2 and did not show inhibitory effect towards other mediators. However, AP3 and AP6 failed to show inhibitory activity against any of the inflammatory mediators at the tested concentrations. Further, we observed that the magnitude of inhibitory effect displayed by A. paniculata extracts depends on the andrographolide content, although, it does not appear to influence the inhibitory effect towards LTB4 production.

  18. Andrographis paniculata Leaf Extract Prevents Thioacetamide-Induced Liver Cirrhosis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bardi, Daleya Abdulaziz; Halabi, Mohammed Farouq; Hassandarvish, Pouya; Rouhollahi, Elham; Paydar, Mohammadjavad; Moghadamtousi, Soheil Zorofchian; Al-Wajeeh, Nahla Saeed; Ablat, Abdulwali; Abdullah, Nor Azizan; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the hepatoprotective effects of ethanolic Andrographis paniculata leaf extract (ELAP) on thioacetamide-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. An acute toxicity study proved that ELAP is not toxic in rats. To examine the effects of ELAP in vivo, male Sprague Dawley rats were given intraperitoneal injections of vehicle 10% Tween-20, 5 mL/kg (normal control) or 200 mg/kg TAA thioacetamide (to induce liver cirrhosis) three times per week. Three additional groups were treated with thioacetamide plus daily oral silymarin (50 mg/kg) or ELAP (250 or 500 mg/kg). Liver injury was assessed using biochemical tests, macroscopic and microscopic tissue analysis, histopathology, and immunohistochemistry. In addition, HepG2 and WRL-68 cells were treated in vitro with ELAP fractions to test cytotoxicity. Rats treated with ELAP exhibited significantly lower liver/body weight ratios and smoother, more normal liver surfaces compared with the cirrhosis group. Histopathology using Hematoxylin and Eosin along with Masson’s Trichrome stain showed minimal disruption of hepatic cellular structure, minor fibrotic septa, a low degree of lymphocyte infiltration, and minimal collagen deposition after ELAP treatment. Immunohistochemistry indicated that ELAP induced down regulation of proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Also, hepatic antioxidant enzymes and oxidative stress parameters in ELAP-treated rats were comparable to silymarin-treated rats. ELAP administration reduced levels of altered serum liver biomarkers. ELAP fractions were non-cytotoxic to WRL-68 cells, but possessed anti-proliferative activity on HepG2 cells, which was confirmed by a significant elevation of lactate dehydrogenase, reactive oxygen species, cell membrane permeability, cytochrome c, and caspase-8,-9, and, -3/7 activity in HepG2 cells. A reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential was also detected in ELAP-treated HepG2 cells. The hepatoprotective effect of 500 mg/kg of ELAP is proposed to result

  19. Andrographis paniculata leaf extract prevents thioacetamide-induced liver cirrhosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Abdulaziz Bardi, Daleya; Halabi, Mohammed Farouq; Hassandarvish, Pouya; Rouhollahi, Elham; Paydar, Mohammadjavad; Moghadamtousi, Soheil Zorofchian; Al-Wajeeh, Nahla Saeed; Ablat, Abdulwali; Abdullah, Nor Azizan; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the hepatoprotective effects of ethanolic Andrographis paniculata leaf extract (ELAP) on thioacetamide-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. An acute toxicity study proved that ELAP is not toxic in rats. To examine the effects of ELAP in vivo, male Sprague Dawley rats were given intraperitoneal injections of vehicle 10% Tween-20, 5 mL/kg (normal control) or 200 mg/kg TAA thioacetamide (to induce liver cirrhosis) three times per week. Three additional groups were treated with thioacetamide plus daily oral silymarin (50 mg/kg) or ELAP (250 or 500 mg/kg). Liver injury was assessed using biochemical tests, macroscopic and microscopic tissue analysis, histopathology, and immunohistochemistry. In addition, HepG2 and WRL-68 cells were treated in vitro with ELAP fractions to test cytotoxicity. Rats treated with ELAP exhibited significantly lower liver/body weight ratios and smoother, more normal liver surfaces compared with the cirrhosis group. Histopathology using Hematoxylin and Eosin along with Masson's Trichrome stain showed minimal disruption of hepatic cellular structure, minor fibrotic septa, a low degree of lymphocyte infiltration, and minimal collagen deposition after ELAP treatment. Immunohistochemistry indicated that ELAP induced down regulation of proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Also, hepatic antioxidant enzymes and oxidative stress parameters in ELAP-treated rats were comparable to silymarin-treated rats. ELAP administration reduced levels of altered serum liver biomarkers. ELAP fractions were non-cytotoxic to WRL-68 cells, but possessed anti-proliferative activity on HepG2 cells, which was confirmed by a significant elevation of lactate dehydrogenase, reactive oxygen species, cell membrane permeability, cytochrome c, and caspase-8,-9, and, -3/7 activity in HepG2 cells. A reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential was also detected in ELAP-treated HepG2 cells. The hepatoprotective effect of 500 mg/kg of ELAP is proposed to result from

  20. Beneficial effects of an Andrographis paniculata extract and andrographolide on cognitive functions in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Ajit Kumar; Rai, Geeta; Chatterjee, Shyam Sunder; Kumar, Vikas

    2016-09-01

    Context Andrographolide containing Andrographis paniculata (Burm. F.) Wall. Ex Nees (Acanthaceae) extracts is often used for treatments of diabetes and other inflammatory disorders commonly accompanying cognitive and other psychiatric disorders. Objective To compare the efficacies of a standardised A. paniculata extract (AP) and pure andrographolide on cognitive functions, oxidative stress and cholinergic function in diabetic rats. Materials and methods Streptozotocin-induced diabetic Charles Foster albino rats treated orally with a hydro-methanolic A. paniculata leaf extract (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg/day), or with pure andrographolide (15, 30 and 60 mg/kg/day) for 10 consecutive days, were subjected to Morris water maze test. After the test, acetylcholinesterase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activities and lipid peroxidation (LPO) in brain tissues were assessed. Results Acetylcholinesterase activity in pre-frontal cortex and hippocampus of diabetic rats was 2.1 and 2.6 times higher compared to nondiabetic rats. LPO was 1.6 times higher and decreased SOD (56.3%) and CAT (44.9%) activities in pre-frontal cortex of diabetic rats compared to nondiabetic rats. AP or andrographolide treatments dose dependently attenuated cognitive deficits, reduced acetylcholinesterase activity, oxidative stress, improved diabetic hyperglycemia and insulin deficiency. All observed effects of AP were quantitatively almost equal to those expected from its analytically quantified andrographolide content. Discussion and conclusion Reported observations are the very first ones suggesting beneficial effects of andrographolide against diabetes associated cognitive deficits, increased acetylcholinesterase activity and deteriorated antioxidative status. Efforts to exploit A. paniculata extracts enriched in andrographolide as preventive measures against such disorders can be warranted.

  1. [Preparation of hydrophilic matrix sustained release tablets of total lactones from Andrographis paniculata and study on its in vitro release mechanism].

    PubMed

    Xu, Fang-Fang; Shi, Wei; Zhang, Hui; Guo, Qing-Ming; Wang Zhen-Zhong; Bi, Yu-An; Wang, Zhi-Min; Xiao, Wei

    2015-01-01

    In this study, hydrophilic matrix sustained release tablets of total lactones from Andrographis paniculata were prepared and the in vitro release behavior were also evaluated. The optimal prescription was achieved by studying the main factor of the type and amount of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) using single factor test and evaluating through cumulative release of three lactones. No burst drug release from the obtained matrix tablets was observed. Drug release sustained to 14 h. The release mechanism of three lactones from A. paniculata was accessed by zero-order, first-order, Higuchi and Peppas equation. The release behavior of total lactones from A. paniculata was better agreed with Higuchi model and the drug release from the tablets was controlled by degradation of the matrix. The preparation of hydrophilic matrix sustained release tablets of total lactones from A. paniculata with good performance of drug release was simple.

  2. Andrographis Paniculata shows anti-nociceptive effects in an animal model of sensory hypersensitivity associated with migraine.

    PubMed

    Greco, Rosaria; Siani, Francesca; Demartini, Chiara; Zanaboni, Annamaria; Nappi, Giuseppe; Davinelli, Sergio; Scapagnini, Giovanni; Tassorelli, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Administration of nitroglycerin (NTG) to rats induces a hyperalgesic condition and neuronal activation of central structures involved in migraine pain. In order to identify therapeutic strategies for migraine pain, we evaluated the anti-nociceptive activity of Andrographis Paniculata (AP), a herbaceous plant, in the hyperalgesia induced by NTG administration in the formalin test. We also analyzed mRNA expression of cytokines in specific brain areas after AP treatment. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were pre-treated with AP extract 30 minutes before NTG or vehicle injection. The data show that AP extract significantly reduced NTG-induced hyperalgesia in phase II of the test, 4 hours after NTG injection. In addition, AP extract reduced IL-6 mRNA expression in the medulla and mesencephalon and also mRNA levels of TNFalpha in the mesencephalic region. These findings suggest that AP extract may be a potential therapeutic approach in the treatment of general pain, and possibly of migraine.

  3. An effective protein extraction method for two-dimensional electrophoresis in the anticancer herb Andrographis paniculata Nees.

    PubMed

    Talei, Daryush; Valdiani, Alireza; Puad, Mohd Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    Proteomic analysis of plants relies on high yields of pure protein. In plants, protein extraction and purification present a great challenge due to accumulation of a large amount of interfering substances, including polysaccharides, polyphenols, and secondary metabolites. Therefore, it is necessary to modify the extraction protocols. A study was conducted to compare four protein extraction and precipitation methods for proteomic analysis. The results showed significant differences in protein content among the four methods. The chloroform-trichloroacetic acid-acetone method using 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazineethanesulfonic acid (HEPES) buffer provided the best results in terms of protein content, pellets, spot resolution, and intensity of unique spots detected. An overall of 83 qualitative or quantitative significant differential spots were found among the four methods. Based on the 2-DE gel map, the method is expected to benefit the development of high-level proteomic and biochemical studies of Andrographis paniculata, which may also be applied to other recalcitrant medicinal plant tissues.

  4. Gold nanoparticles: sonocatalytic synthesis using ethanolic extract of Andrographis paniculata and functionalization with polycaprolactone-gelatin composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babu, Punuri Jayasekhar; Saranya, Sibyala; Sharma, Pragya; Tamuli, Ranjan; Bora, Utpal

    2012-09-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were synthesized by sonication using ethanolic leaf extract of Andrographis paniculata. We investigated the optimum parameters for AuNP synthesis and functionalization with polycaprolactone-gelatin (PCL-GL) composites. The AuNPs were characterized with various biophysical techniques such as TEM, XRD, FT-IR and EDX spectroscopy. TEM images showed that nanoparticles were spherical in shape with a size range from 5 to 75 nm. EDX analysis revealed the presence of molecular oxygen and carbon on the surface of AuNPs. The synthesized AuNPs were tested for their effect on HeLa (human cervical cancer) and MCF-7 (human breast cancer) cell lines and found to be nontoxic and biocompatible, which are potential carriers for hydrophobic drugs.

  5. Effects of Andrographis paniculata Nees on growth, development and reproduction of malarial vector Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Kuppusamy, C; Murugan, K

    2010-12-01

    The use of environment friendly and easily biodegradable natural insecticides of plant origin has received progressively more attention as insecticide alternatives for the control of medically important mosquito vectors. The ethanol and methanol extracts of Andrographis paniculata Nees were evaluated for its effects on growth, development and reproduction of malarial vector Anopheles stephensi Liston. After 8 days of treatment, 88.60 and 85.25% of the larvae treated at 35p.p.m. failed to emerge in ethanol and methanol extracts respectively. In addition, the duration of larval instars and the total development time were prolonged, while female longevity and fecundity were markedly decreased. The suppression of pupation and adult emergence was probably due to juvenile hormone analog similarities in combination with growth regulators and toxicity, which reduced the overall performance of the malaria vector An. stephensi.

  6. Antiulcer activity of Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) wall. against cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcer in rats.

    PubMed

    Saranya, P; Geetha, A

    2011-07-01

    Antiulcer activity of Andrographis paniculata was evaluated by cysteamine induced duodenal ulcer model in rats. Male albino Wistar rats were pre-administered with 200 mg/kg body wt. of hydroalcoholic extact of Andrographis paniculata (HAEAP) orally, for 30 days prior to i.p. administration of 420 mg/kg body wt. of cysteamine as a single dose. Rats preadministered with 30 mg/kg body wt. of ranitidine served as standard drug. Ulcer index, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, mucin, glutathione peroxidase and myeloperoxidase activities, reduced glutathione/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio, glycoproteins and membrane bound enzyme activities were measured in duodenum of experimental animals. The ulcer score and myeloperoxidase activity were significantly minimized in rats treated with HAEAP. Mucin content was found to be preserved in rats treated with the extract. GSH/GSSG ratio and glutathione peroxidase activities were found to be maintained by the HAEAP. Level of lipid peroxidation products was found to be significantly low in HAEAP treated rats compared to ulcer control rats. The basolateral and brush border membrane bound enzyme activities which were depleted significantly in ulcer control rats were found to be maintained in rats pre-treated with the extract. The ulcer preventing effect was comparable to that of ranitidine treated rats. Level of glycoproteins was also found to be preserved in rats treated with the extract. The normal rats treated with the HAEAP did not show any abnormal alterations in the parameters studied. Histopathological observations also showed the ulcer preventing effect of the HAEAP. It is suggested that the ulcer preventing effect may be due to its mucin preserving and antioxidant nature.

  7. Nain-e Havandi Andrographis paniculata present yesterday, absent today: a plenary review on underutilized herb of Iran's pharmaceutical plants.

    PubMed

    Valdiani, Alireza; Kadir, Mihdzar Abdul; Tan, Soon Guan; Talei, Daryush; Abdullah, Mohd Puad; Nikzad, Sonia

    2012-05-01

    Nain-e Havandi (Andrographis paniculata Nees.) (AP) is an annual herbaceous plant belonging to the family Acanthacea. Only a few species of Andrographis genus out of 28 are medicinally concerned of which AP is the most important. Knowledge about the arrival of AP to Iran is extremely lacking but most probably it has been imported from India. However, evidence implies the familiarity of Iran's folkloric medicine with this plant, but it has been disappeared from contemporary medicine for unknown reasons. Presence of active ingredients from diterpenoids group such as andrographolide, neoandrographolide and 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide has given incredible unique medicinal properties to the plant. Traditionally, Nain-e Havandi has been used in the role of a non-farm plant as a remedy for skin problems, flu, respiratory disease, and snakebite in East and Southeast Asia for centuries. Recently, it has been utilized as a treatment for HIV, hepatitis, diabetes, cancer and kidney disorders. Intensive cultivation of the herb started only in the past decade in countries such as China, India, Thailand, Indonesia, West Indies, Mauritius and to some extent, in Malaysia. Availability of different ecological zones in Iran complies with reestablishment of AP in tropical and temperate regions of the country. This is killing two birds with one stone, supporting the conservational and economic aspects.

  8. Structure–function relationships of inhibition of mosquito cytochrome P450 enzymes by flavonoids of Andrographis paniculata.

    PubMed

    Kotewong, Rattanawadee; Duangkaew, Panida; Srisook, Ekaruth; Sarapusit, Songklod; Rongnoparut, Pornpimol

    2014-09-01

    The cytochrome P450 monooxygenases are known to play a major role in pyrethroid resistance, by means of increased rate of insecticide detoxification as a result of their overexpression. Inhibition of detoxification enzymes may help disrupting insect detoxifying defense system. The Anopheles minimus CYP6AA3 and CYP6P7 have shown pyrethroid degradation activity and been implicated in pyrethroid resistance. In this study inhibition of the extracts and constituents of Andrographis paniculata Nees. leaves and roots was examined against benzyloxyresorufin O-debenzylation (BROD) of CYP6AA3 and CYP6P7. Four purified flavones (5,7,4′-trihydroxyflavone, 5-hydroxy-7,8-dimethoxyflavone, 5-hydroxy-7,8,2′,3′-tetramethoxyflavone, and 5,4′-dihydroxy-7,8,2′,3′-tetramethoxyflavone), one flavanone (5-hydroxy-7,8-dimethoxyflavanone) and a diterpenoid (14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide) containing inhibitory effects toward both enzymes were isolated from A. paniculata. Structure–function relationships were observed for modes and kinetics of inhibition among flavones, while diterpenoid and flavanone were inferior to flavones. Docking of flavones onto enzyme homology models reinforced relationships on flavone structures and inhibition modes. Cell-based inhibition assays employing 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-y-l)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) cytotoxicity assays revealed that these flavonoids efficiently increased susceptibility of CYP6AA3- and CYP6P7-expressing Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells to cypermethrin toxicity, due to inhibition effects on mosquito enzymes. Thus synergistic effects on cypermethrin toxicity of A. paniculata compounds as a result of enzyme inhibition could be useful for mosquito vector control and insecticide resistance management in the future.

  9. A Phenylurea Cytokinin, CPPU, Elevated Reducing Sugar and Correlated to Andrographolide Contents in Leaves of Andrographis paniculata (Burm. F.) Wall. Ex Nees.

    PubMed

    Worakan, Phapawee; Karaket, Netiya; Maneejantra, Nuchada; Supaibulwatana, Kanyaratt

    2017-02-01

    Cytokinins are phytohormones that play multiple roles to control plant growth and development. In this study, leaf biomass and the production of andrographolide compounds in a medicinal plant Andrographis paniculata were significantly increased after exogenously treating with the synthetic cytokinin cytokinin-1-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-3-phenylurea (CPPU) at 0 (water), 5, or 10 mg L(-1) and observed the results for 24 h, 48 h, and 7 days of treatment. It was found that CPPU could significantly enhance new axillary bud formation and further promote branching 4.6-5.6-fold higher, resulting in higher fresh weight (FW) and dry weight (DW) than the control. Application of CPPU at 5 mg L(-1) significantly promoted the highest contents of total reducing sugar at 2.5-fold in leaves and at 1.5-fold in roots. Although treatments of CPPU significantly affected the increasing contents of chlorophyll and carotenoid (1.2-1.6-fold), CPPU at 10 mg L(-1) slightly caused leaf stress and chlorophyll reduction. Interestingly, 5 mg L(-1) CPPU could enhance andrographolide content, an active anti-infectious compound in Andrographis paniculata (2.2-fold higher than the control) that reached the highest content at 24 h after treatment. This study suggested that CPPU should be suitable for field application to promote leaf yields and induce the production of useful pharmaceutical compounds in Andrographis paniculata.

  10. Hybrid analysis (barcode-high resolution melting) for authentication of Thai herbal products, Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wall.ex Nees

    PubMed Central

    Osathanunkul, Maslin; Suwannapoom, Chatmongkon; Khamyong, Nuttaluck; Pintakum, Danupol; Lamphun, Santisuk Na; Triwitayakorn, Kanokporn; Osathanunkul, Kitisak; Madesis, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    Background: Andrographis paniculata Nees is a medicinal plant with multiple pharmacological properties. It has been used over many centuries as a household remedy. A. paniculata products sold on the markets are in processed forms so it is difficult to authenticate. Therefore buying the herbal products poses a high-risk of acquiring counterfeited, substituted and/or adulterated products. Due to these issues, a reliable method to authenticate products is needed. Materials and Methods: High resolution melting analysis coupled with DNA barcoding (Bar-HRM) was applied to detect adulteration in commercial herbal products. The rbcL barcode was selected to use in primers design for HRM analysis to produce standard melting profile of A. paniculata species. DNA of the tested commercial products was isolated and their melting profiles were then generated and compared with the standard A. paniculata. Results: The melting profiles of the rbcL amplicons of the three closely related herbal species (A. paniculata, Acanthus ebracteatus and Rhinacanthus nasutus) are clearly separated so that they can be distinguished by the developed method. The method was then used to authenticate commercial herbal products. HRM curves of all 10 samples tested are similar to A. paniculata which indicated that all tested products were contained the correct species as labeled. Conclusion: The method described in this study has been proved to be useful in aiding identification and/or authenticating A. paniculata. This Bar-HRM analysis has allowed us easily to determine the A. paniculata species in herbal products on the markets even they are in processed forms. SUMMARY We propose the use of DNA barcoding combined with High Resolution Melting analysis for authenticating of Andrographis paniculata products.The developed method can be used regardless of the type of the DNA template (fresh or dried tissue, leaf, and stem).rbcL region was chosen for the analysis and work well with our samplesWe can easily

  11. Hepatoprotective Effect of A Polyherbal Extract Containing Andrographis Paniculata, Tinospora Cordifolia and Solanum Nigrum Against Paracetamol Induced Hepatotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Dewasya Pratap; Awasthi, Harshika; Luqman, Suaib; Singh, Saudan; Mani, Dayanandan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Traditionally, a number of medicinal plants are used to treat various types of hepatic disorders but few of them were pharmacologically evaluated for their safety and efficacy. The combination of Andrographis paniculata (Kalmegha), Tinospora cordifolia (Guduchi), and Solanum nigrum (Kakmachi) was traditionally used in Indian System of Medicine (Ayurveda) for the treatment of various liver-related disorders. Objective: In the present study, an attempt was made to substantiate the ethnopharmacological use of a traditional formulation in hepatoprotection against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity. Subjects and Methods: Swiss albino mice (weight 20–25 g) were used for this study. Intraperitoneal injection of paracetamol (500 mg/kg body weight) was used to induce hepatotoxicity. Serum levels of alanine transaminase, aspartate aminotransferase, bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, were used as indices of liver injury. In addition total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein and creatinine were also assayed using the standard procedure. Results: Among the two different doses, pretreatment with Polyherbal extract at 500 mg/kg body weight exhibited a significant (P < 0.05) hepatoprotective activity as compared to paracetamol group. Conclusion: The polyherbal extract exhibits a significant hepatoprotective effect in vivo. The study contributes to its use in traditional Ayurveda system for the management of liver diseases. SUMMARY Traditionally, a number of medicinal plants are used to treat various types of liver disorders but few of them were pharmacologically evaluated for their safety and efficacy. Combination of Andrographis paniculata (Kalmegha), Tinospora cordifolia (Guduchi), and Solanum nigrum (Kakmachi) was traditionally used in Ayurveda for the treatment of various liver related disorders. In the present study an attempt was made to validate the ethnopharmacological use of a traditional formulation in hepatoprotection

  12. Eclipta yellow vein virus enhances chlorophyll destruction, singlet oxygen production and alters endogenous redox status in Andrographis paniculata.

    PubMed

    Khan, Asifa; Luqman, Suaib; Masood, Nusrat; Singh, Dhananjay Kumar; Saeed, Sana Tabanda; Samad, Abdul

    2016-07-01

    The infection of Eclipta yellow vein virus [EcYVV-IN, Accession No. KC476655], recently reported for the first time, on Andrographis paniculata was studied for redox-mediated alteration mechanism in infected plants. A. paniculata, an important medicinal plant, is used in traditional Indian, Chinese and modern system of medicine. Andrographolide, one of the foremost components of this plant, is known for its varied pharmacological properties. Our investigation provides insight into the effect of virus-induced changes in the singlet oxygen quenching due to the alteration in pigment content (chlorophyll and carotenoids) as well as activation of plant secondary metabolism along with defense activation leading to changes in enzymatic and non-enzymatic redox status. Due to infection, a reduction in carotenoid content was observed which leads to reduced quenching of singlet oxygen. An increased level of enzymatic (SOD and APX) and non-enzymatic antioxidant (DPPH, FRAP, RP, NO, TAC and TP) activities were also observed in virus-infected plants with a positive correlation (>0.9). However, CAT activity was diminished which could be either due to its proteolytic degradation or inactivation by superoxide anions (O(2-.)), NO or peroxynitrite radicals. A significant (p < 0.05) increase in total phenolic content was observed in the infected plants while no considerable difference was seen in the total flavonoid content. Our results highlighted the alteration in redox status caused by virus-induced biotic stress on the plants and could be useful for understanding the after effects of viral infection This study could also be helpful in developing biomimetic methods for improving the production of secondary metabolites of pharmaceutical importance.

  13. A polysaccharide from Andrographis paniculata induces mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis in human hepatoma cell line (HepG2).

    PubMed

    Zou, Yanmei; Xiong, Hua; Xiong, Huihua; Lu, Tao; Zhu, Feng; Luo, Zhiyong; Yuan, Xianglin; Wang, Yihua

    2015-07-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effects and action mechanisms of a purified polysaccharide (APWP) from Andrographis paniculata, on human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) HepG2 cells. The results showed that APWP was able to suppress the proliferation of HepG2 cells via inducing apoptosis. Western blot analysis revealed that dose-dependent increase in proapoptotic Bax protein and no change in antiapoptotic Bcl-2 protein in APWP-treated cells. Furthermore, exposure of tumor cells to APWP resulted in a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria to the cytosol. Besides, caspase-9 and caspase-3 were activated while caspase-8 was not affected in HepG2 cells followed by APWP treatment. All these results point clearly to the involvement of mitochondria-mediated signaling pathway in APWP-induced apoptosis and strongly suggest that APWP seems to be safe and effective in the prevention and treatment of HCC.

  14. Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Interaction of Andrographolide and Standardized Extract of Andrographis paniculata (Nees) with Nabumetone in Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Balap, Aishwarya; Lohidasan, Sathiyanarayanan; Sinnathambi, Arulmozhi; Mahadik, Kakasaheb

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the herb-drug interaction of Andrographis paniculata Nees (Acanthaceae) and Andrographolide (AN) with nabumetone (NAB) in wistar rats. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions were studied after co-administration of APE and AN with NAB in Wistar rats. In pharmacokinetic studies, significant decrease in Cmax, AUC0-t and AUC0-∞ of 6-MNA after co-administration with pure AN and APE has been observed. Tmax of 6-MNA has been increased to 2 h from 1.5 h in AN + NAB treated group. Changes in mean residential time, clearance and volume of distribution of 6-MNA in APE + NAB treated group and AN + NAB treated group indicated interference of other components of APE other than AN. In pharmacodynamic study, significant decrease in antiarthritic activity of NAB on concomitant administration with APE and AN has been observed. The study concludes that NAB exhibits pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions with APE and AN in rats thus alarms the concomitant use of herbal preparations containing APE and AN with NAB. Further study is needed to understand the mechanism and predict the herb-drug interaction in humans. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of Andrographis paniculata by rapid resolution liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Song, Yong-Xi; Liu, Shi-Ping; Jin, Zhao; Qin, Jian-Fei; Jiang, Zhi-Yuan

    2013-09-30

    A rapid resolution liquid chromatography/time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (RRLC-TOF/MS) method was developed for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the major chemical constituents in Andrographis paniculata. Fifteen compounds, including flavonoids and diterpenoid lactones, were unambiguously or tentatively identified in 10 min by comparing their retention times and accurate masses with standards or literature data. The characteristic fragmentation patterns of flavonoids and diterpenoid lactones were summarized, and the structures of the unknown compounds were predicted. Andrographolide, dehydroandrographolide and neoandrographolide were further quantified as marker substances. It was found that the calibration curves for all analytes showed good linearity (R² > 0.9995) within the test ranges. The overall limits of detection (LODs) and limits of quantification (LOQs) were 0.02 μg/mL to 0.06 μg/mL and 0.06 μg/mL to 0.2 μg/mL, respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) for intra- and inter-day precisions were below 3.3% and 4.2%, respectively. The mean recovery rates ranged from 96.7% to 104.5% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 2.72%. It is concluded that RRLC-TOF/MS is powerful and practical in qualitative and quantitative analysis of complex plant samples due to time savings, sensitivity, precision, accuracy and lowering solvent consumption.

  16. Salt stress-induced protein pattern associated with photosynthetic parameters and andrographolide content in Andrographis paniculata Nees.

    PubMed

    Talei, Daryush; Valdiani, Alireza; Maziah, Mahmood; Sagineedu, Sreenivasa Rao; Abiri, Rambod

    2015-01-01

    Andrographis paniculata is a multifunctional medicinal plant and a potent source of bioactive compounds. Impact of environmental stresses such as salinity on protein diversification, as well as the consequent changes in the photosynthetic parameters and andrographolide content (AG) of the herb, has not yet been thoroughly investigated. The present study showed that the salinity affects the protein pattern, and subsequently, it decreased the photosynthetic parameters, protein content, total dry weight, and total crude extract. Exceptionally, the AG content was increased (p ≤ 0.01). Moreover, it was noticed that the salinity at 12 dS m(-1) led to the maximum increase in AG content in all accessions. Interestingly, the leaf protein analysis revealed that the two polymorphic protein bands as low- and medium-sized of 17 and 45 kDa acted as the activator agents for the photosynthetic parameters and AG content. Protein sequencing and proteomic analysis can be conducted based on the present findings in the future.

  17. Inhibition of Group IIA Secretory Phospholipase A2 and its Inflammatory Reactions in Mice by Ethanolic Extract of Andrographis paniculata, a Well-known Medicinal Food

    PubMed Central

    Kishore, V.; Yarla, N. S.; Zameer, F.; Nagendra Prasad, M. N.; Santosh, M. S.; More, S. S.; Rao, D. G.; Dhananjaya, Bhadrapura Lakkappa

    2016-01-01

    Andrographis paniculata Nees is an important medicinal plant found in the tropical regions of the world, which has been traditionally used in Indian and Chinese medicinal systems. It is also used as medicinal food. A. paniculata is found to exhibit anti-inflammatory activities; however, its inhibitory potential on inflammatory Group IIA phospholipases A2 (PLA2) and its associated inflammatory reactions are not clearly understood. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the inhibitory/neutralizing potential of ethanolic extract of A. paniculata on the isolated inflammatory PLA2 (VRV-PL-VIIIa) from Daboii rusellii pulchella (belonging to Group IIA inflammatory secretory PLA2 [sPLA2]) and its associated edema-induced activities in Swiss albino mice. A. paniculata extract dose dependently inhibited the Group IIA sPLA2 enzymatic activity with an IC50 value of 10.3 ± 0.5 μg/ml. Further, the extract dose dependently inhibited the edema formation, when co-injected with enzyme indicating that a strong correlation exists between lipolytic and pro-inflammatory activities of the enzyme. In conclusion, results of this study shows that the ethanolic extract of A. paniculata effectively inhibits Group IIA sPLA2 and its associated inflammatory activities, which substantiate its anti-inflammatory properties. The results of the present study warranted further studies to develop bioactive compound (s) in ethanolic extract of A. paniculata as potent therapeutic agent (s) for inflammatory diseases. SUMMARY This study emphasis the anti-inflammatory effect of A. paniculata by inhibiting the inflammatory Group IIA sPLA2 and its associated inflammatory activities such as edema. It was found that there is a strong correlation between lipolytic activity and pro-inflammatory activity inhibition. Therefore, the study suggests that the extract processes potent anti-inflammatory agents, which could be developed as a potential therapeutic agent against inflammatory and related diseases

  18. Protective activity of andrographolide and arabinogalactan proteins from Andrographis paniculata Nees. against ethanol-induced toxicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Singha, Prajjal K; Roy, Somenath; Dey, Satyahari

    2007-04-20

    To find out the active principles against ethanol-induced toxicity in mice, Andrographis paniculata Nees. (Ap) was chosen and isolated andrographolide (ANDRO) and arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs). ANDRO was detected by HPTLC, FTIR and quantified by HPLC (10mg/g of Ap powder). AGPs was detected by beta-glucosyl Yariv staining of SDS-PAGE gel, FTIR and quantified by single radial gel diffusion assay with beta-glucosyl Yariv reagent (0.5mg/g Ap powder). The mice are pretreated intra-peritoneally (i.p.) with different doses (62.5, 125, 250, and 500mg/kg) of body weight of mice] of ANDRO and AGPs for 7 days and then ethanol (7.5g/kg of body weight) was injected, i.p. Besides, silymarin was used as standard hepatoprotective agent for comparative study with ANDRO and AGPs. The ameliorative activity of ANDRO and AGP against hepatic renal alcohol toxicity was measured by assessing GOT, GPT, ACP, ALP and LP levels in liver and kidney. It has been observed that pretreatment of mice with ANDRO and AGPs at 500mg/kg of body weight and 125mg/kg of body weight respectively could able to minimize the toxicity in compare to ethanol treated group as revealed by the different enzymatic assay in liver and kidney tissues and the results were comparable with silymarin. Hence, out of several ill-defined compounds present in Ap, ANDRO and AGPs are the potential bioactive compounds responsible for protection against ethanol-induced toxicity.

  19. Morpho-molecular analysis as a prognostic model for repulsive feedback of the medicinal plant "Andrographis paniculata" to allogamy.

    PubMed

    Valdiani, Alireza; Talei, Daryush; Javanmard, Arash; Tan, Soon Guan; Kadir, Mihdzar Abdul; Maziah, Mahmood

    2014-06-01

    Andrographis paniculata Nees. (AP) is a self-pollinated medicinal herb with a wide range of pharmaceutical properties, facing a low diversity in Malaysia. Cross-pollination of AP accessions leads to considerable rates of heterosis in the agro-morphological characteristics and anticancer phytochemicals of this eminent medicinal herb. However, the poor crossability of the plant at the interpopulation or intraspecific levels is an obstacle from the evolutionary and breeding points of view as an average of 4.56% crossability was recorded for AP in this study. Hence, this research aimed to elicit the impact of parental genetic distances (GDs) on the rate of crossability of AP using seven accessions in 21 possible cross combinations. To this end, a set of 55 randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) primers and a total of 13 agro-morphological markers were employed to test the hypothesis. Twenty-two out of the 55 RAPD primers amplified a total of 257 bands of which 107 bands were found to be polymorphic. The principal component analysis (PCA) based on the RAPD markers revealed that the studied AP accessions were distributed to three distinct groups. Furthermore, it was noticed that even a minor increase in GD between two parents can cause a decline in their crossability. Unlike, the morphological-based GDs acted neutrally to crossability. This finding suggests that, despite the low genetic diversity among the Malaysian APs, a population prescreening using RAPD markers would be useful to enhance the rate of fruit set through selecting the genetically adjacent parents.

  20. Involvement of an ent-copalyl diphosphate synthase in tissue-specific accumulation of specialized diterpenes in Andrographis paniculata.

    PubMed

    Misra, Rajesh Chandra; Garg, Anchal; Roy, Sudeep; Chanotiya, Chandan Singh; Vasudev, Prema G; Ghosh, Sumit

    2015-11-01

    Ent-labdane-related diterpene (ent-LRD) specialized (i.e. secondary) metabolites of the medicinal plant kalmegh (Andrographis paniculata) have long been known for several pharmacological activities. However, our understanding of the ent-LRD biosynthetic pathway has remained largely incomplete. Since ent-LRDs accumulate in leaves, we carried out a comparative transcriptional analysis using leaf and root tissues, and identified 389 differentially expressed transcripts, including 223 transcripts that were preferentially expressed in leaf tissue. Analysis of the transcripts revealed various specialized metabolic pathways, including transcripts of the ent-LRD biosynthetic pathway. Two class II diterpene synthases (ApCPS1 and ApCPS2) along with one (ApCPS1') and two (ApCPS2' and ApCPS2″) transcriptional variants that were the outcomes of alternative splicing of the precursor mRNA and alternative transcriptional termination, respectively, were identified. ApCPS1 and ApCPS2 encode for 832- and 817-amino acids proteins, respectively, and are phylogenetically related to the dicotyledons ent-copalyl diphosphate synthases (ent-CPSs). The spatio-temporal patterns of ent-LRD metabolites accumulation and gene expression suggested a likely role for ApCPS1 in general (i.e. primary) metabolism, perhaps by providing precursor for the biosynthesis of phytohormone gibberellin (GA). However, ApCPS2 is potentially involved in tissue-specific accumulation of ent-LRD specialized metabolites. Bacterially expressed recombinant ApCPS2 catalyzed the conversion of (E,E,E)-geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP), the general precursor of diterpenes to ent-copalyl diphosphate (ent-CPP), the precursor of ent-LRDs. Taken together, these results advance our understanding of the tissue-specific accumulation of specialized ent-LRDs of medicinal importance.

  1. Protective effects of Andrographis paniculata extract and pure andrographolide against chronic stress-triggered pathologies in rats.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Ajit Kumar; Soni, Upendra Kumar; Rai, Geeta; Chatterjee, Shyam Sunder; Kumar, Vikas

    2014-11-01

    This study was designed to experimentally verify the possibility that Andrographis paniculata could be another medicinal herb potentially useful for prevention of diverse spectrums of pathologies commonly associated with chronic unavoidable environmental stress, and whether andrographolide could as well be its quantitatively major bioactive secondary metabolite. Preventive effects of 21 daily oral 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg doses of a therapeutically used extract of the plant (AP) and 30 and 60 mg/kg/day of pure andrographolide were compared in rats subjected to 1-h daily unavoidable foot-shocks. A pharmaceutically well-standardized Withania somnifera (WS) root extract was used as a reference herbal anti-stress agent in all experiments. Effects of the treatments on stress-induced alterations in body weight, gastric ulcer, adrenal and spleen weights, and depressive state and sexual behavior in male rats were quantified. Other parameters quantified were plasma cortisol levels, and expressions of the cytokines TNF-α, IL-10 and IL-1β in blood and brain. All observed stress-induced pathological changes were less pronounced or completely prevented by both AP and pure andrographolide. Even the lowest tested doses of AP (50 mg/kg/day) or of andrographolide (30 mg/kg/day) suppressed almost maximally the blood IL-1β and IL-10 as well as brain TNF-α and IL-10 expressions induced by chronic stress. Qualitatively, the observed activity profiles of both of them were similar to those of WS dose tested. These results reveal that both AP and andrographolide are pharmacologically polyvalent anti-stress agents, and that biological processes regulating corticosterone and cytokine homeostasis are involved in their modes of actions.

  2. The effects of Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Nees extract and diterpenoids on the CYP450 isoforms' activities, a review of possible herb-drug interaction risks.

    PubMed

    Tan, Mei Lan; Lim, Lin Ee

    2015-01-01

    Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Nees is a popular medicinal plant and its components are used in various traditional product preparations. However, its herb-drug interactions risks remain unclear. This review specifically discusses the various published studies carried out to evaluate the effects of Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Nees plant extracts and diterpenoids on the CYP450 metabolic enzyme and if the plant components pose a possible herb-drug interaction risk. Unfortunately, the current data are insufficient to indicate if the extracts or diterpenoids can be labeled as in vitro CYP1A2, CYP2C9 or CYP3A4 inhibitors. A complete CYP inhibition assay utilizing human liver microsomes and the derivation of relevant parameters to predict herb-drug interaction risks may be necessary for these isoforms. However, based on the current studies, none of the extracts and diterpenoids exhibited CYP450 induction activity in human hepatocytes or human-derived cell lines. It is crucial that a well-defined experimental design is needed to make a meaningful herb-drug interaction prediction.

  3. AP-1/IRF-3 Targeted Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Andrographolide Isolated from Andrographis paniculata

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Ting; Yang, Woo Seok; Sung, Gi-Ho; Rhee, Man Hee; Poo, Haryoung; Kim, Mi-Yeon; Kim, Kyung-Woon; Kim, Jong Heon; Cho, Jae Youl

    2013-01-01

    Andrographolide (AG) is an abundant component of plants of the genus Andrographis and has a number of beneficial properties including neuroprotective, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and antidiabetic effects. Despite numerous pharmacological studies, the precise mechanism of AG is still ambiguous. Thus, in the present study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms of AG and its target proteins as they pertain to anti-inflammatory responses. AG suppressed the production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), as well as the mRNA abundance of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, and interferon-beta (IFN-β) in a dose-dependent manner in both lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) activated RAW264.7 cells and peritoneal macrophages. AG also substantially ameliorated the symptoms of LPS-induced hepatitis and EtOH/HCl-induced gastritis in mice. Based on the results of luciferase reporter gene assays, kinase assays, and measurement of nuclear levels of transcription factors, the anti-inflammatory effects of AG were found to be clearly mediated by inhibition of both (1) extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/activator protein (AP)-1 and (2) IκB kinase ε (IKKε)/interferon regulatory factor (IRF)-3 pathways. In conclusion, we detected a novel molecular signaling pathway by which AG can suppress inflammatory responses. Thus, AG is a promising anti-inflammatory drug with two pharmacological targets. PMID:23840248

  4. Extraction of three bioactive diterpenoids from Andrographis paniculata: effect of the extraction techniques on extract composition and quantification of three andrographolides using high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Satyanshu; Dhanani, Tushar; Shah, Sonal

    2014-10-01

    Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) wall.ex Nees (Acanthaceae) or Kalmegh is an important medicinal plant finding uses in many Ayurvedic formulations. Diterpenoid compounds andrographolides (APs) are the main bioactive phytochemicals present in leaves and herbage of A. paniculata. The efficiency of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) using carbon dioxide was compared with the solid-liquid extraction techniques such as solvent extraction, ultrasound-assisted solvent extraction and microwave-assisted solvent extraction with methanol, water and methanol-water as solvents. Also a rapid and validated reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection method was developed for the simultaneous determination of the three biologically active compounds, AP, neoandrographolide and andrograpanin, in the extracts of A. paniculata. Under the best SFE conditions tested for diterpenoids, which involved extraction at 60°C and 100 bar, the extractive efficiencies were 132 and 22 µg/g for AP and neoandrographolide, respectively. The modifier percentage significantly affected the extraction efficiency.

  5. Liquid and solid self-microemulsifying drug delivery systems for improving the oral bioavailability of andrographolide from a crude extract of Andrographis paniculata.

    PubMed

    Sermkaew, Namfa; Ketjinda, Wichan; Boonme, Prapaporn; Phadoongsombut, Narubodee; Wiwattanapatapee, Ruedeekorn

    2013-11-20

    The purpose of this study was to develop self-microemulsifying formulations of an Andrographis paniculata extract in liquid and pellet forms for an improved oral delivery of andrographolide. The optimized liquid self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) was composed of A. paniculata extract (11.1%), Capryol 90 (40%), Cremophor RH 40 (40%) and Labrasol (8.9%). This liquid SMEDDS was further adsorbed onto colloidal silicon dioxide and microcrystalline cellulose, and converted to SMEDDS pellets by the extrusion/spheronization technique. The microemulsion droplet sizes of the liquid and pellet formulations after dilution with water were in the range of 23.4 and 30.3 nm. The in vitro release of andrographolide from the liquid SMEDDS and SMEDDS pellets was 97.64% (SD 1.97%) and 97.74% (SD 3.36%) within 15 min, respectively while the release from the initial extract was only 10%. The oral absorption of andrographolide was determined in rabbits. The C(max) value of andrographolide from the A. paniculata extract liquid SMEDDS and SMEDDS pellet formulations (equivalent to 17.5mg/kg of andrographolide) was 6-fold and 5-fold greater than the value from the initial extract in aqueous suspension (equivalent to 35 mg/kg of andrographolide), respectively. In addition, the AUC(0-12h) was increased 15-fold by the liquid SMEDDS and 13-fold by the SMEDDS pellets compared to the extract in aqueous suspension, respectively. The results clearly indicated that the liquid and solid SMEDDS could be effectively used to improve the dissolution and oral bioavailability that would also enable a reduction in the dose of the poorly water soluble A. paniculata extract.

  6. Anti-Infective Metabolites of a Newly Isolated Bacillus thuringiensis KL1 Associated with Kalmegh (Andrographis paniculata Nees.), a Traditional Medicinal Herb

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Sudipta; Yasmin, Sahana; Ghosh, Subhadeep; Bhattacharya, Somesankar; Banerjee, Debdulal

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to isolate endophytic bacteria possessing anti-infective property from Kalmegh (Andrographis paniculata Nees.), a well-known medicinal plant. A total of 23 strains were isolated from this plant among which the strain KL1, isolated from surface-sterilized leaf of this medicinal herb, showed broad-spectrum antagonism against an array of Gram-positive and -negative bacterial pathogens. Ethyl acetate extract of KL1-fermented media yielded a greenish amorphous substance retaining anti-infective property. Solvent-extracted crude material was separated by thin-layer chromatography, and the active ingredient was located by autobiogram analysis. The purified anti-infective compound was found as anthracene derivative as analyzed by ultraviolet and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The strain was identified as Bacillus thuringiensis KL1 from cultural, physiochemical, and molecular aspects. The above results indicate the pharmaceutical potential of the candidate isolate. PMID:26997870

  7. Quantitative analysis of four major diterpenoids in Andrographis paniculata by 1H NMR and its application for quality control of commercial preparations.

    PubMed

    Yang, Minghua; Wang, Junsong; Kong, Lingyi

    2012-11-01

    A quantitative proton nuclear magnetic resonance technique (qHNMR) has been successfully introduced to quantify andrographolide, dehydroandrographolide, deoxyandrographolide and neoandrographolide in Andrographis paniculata, a commonly used important traditional Chinese medicine. Creative use of trifluoroacetic acid-d, which satisfactorily resolved the overlapping signals of these compounds in crowded regions of δ 4.5-5.6 ppm in (1)H NMR spectrum, made their quantification possible. Optimization of other experimental conditions, including internal standard, NMR pulse sequence, and NMR relaxation delay time, finally established the (1)H NMR based quantification approach, which was validated with satisfactory accuracy, precision, repeatability, and recovery. Except for deoxyandrographolide and neoandrographolide in two compound recipes, this method was successfully applied to quantify the four major components in fourteen raw herb materials and five commercial preparations, providing quantification results in good agreement with those determined by HPLC. The inherent advantages of qHNMR, such as its rapidity and simplicity, make itself a feasible alternative to HPLC for the quality control of A. paniculata raw material and herbal preparations.

  8. Comparison of total phenolic content, scavenging activity and HPLC-ESI-MS/MS profiles of both young and mature leaves and stems of Andrographis paniculata.

    PubMed

    Chua, Lee Suan; Yap, Ken Choy; Jaganath, Indu Bala

    2013-12-01

    The total phenolic content and radical scavenging activity of Andrographis paniculata has been investigated to estimate the amount of phenolic compounds and diterpene lactones, respectively in the plant extracts. The stem extracts exhibited higher total phenolic content and scavenging activity than those of the leaf extracts from both young and mature plants. A range of 19.6-47.8 mg extract of A. paniculata from different parts of the plant is equivalent to the scavenging activity exhibited by one mg of standard Trolox. HPLC-ESI-MS/MS was also used to identify simultaneously the phytochemicals from the leaves and stems of both young and mature plant samples. Of the identified compounds, seven of the sixteen diterpene lactones, three of the six flavonoids, five of the six phenolic acids and two cyclic acids are reported here for the first time for this species. Multivariate statistical approaches such as Hierarchiral Component Analysis (HCA) and Principle Component Analysis (PCA) have clustered the plant extracts into the leaf and stem groups, regardless of plant age. Further classification based on the phytochemical profiles revealed that mostly phenolic acids and flavonoids were from the young leaf extracts, and diterpenoids and their glycosides from the mature leaf extracts. However, the phytochemical profiles for the stems of both young and mature plants were not significantly different as presented in the dendrogram of HCA and the score plot of PCA. The marker for mature plants might be the m/z 557 ion (dihydroxyl dimethyl 19-[(beta-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-19-oxo-ent-labda-8(17),13-dien-16,15-olide), whereas the m/z 521 ion (propyl neoandrographolide) could be the marker for leaf extracts.

  9. Simultaneous determination of andrographolide, dehydroandrographolide and neoandrographolide in dog plasma by LC-MS/MS and its application to a dog pharmacokinetic study of Andrographis paniculata tablet.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fang-fang; Fu, Shu-jun; Gu, Sheng-pan; Wang, Zhi-min; Wang, Zhen-zhong; He, Xin; Xiao, Wei

    2015-05-15

    In this study, a sensitive and rapid liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated to simultaneously determinate andrographolide (AP), dehydroandrographolide (DP), and neoandrographolide (NP) in plasma of beagle dogs after oral administration of Andrographis paniculata tablet (A. paniculata). The analytes and bilobalide (internal standard) were separated on an Agilent ZORBAX XDB-C18 column (50mm×2.1mm, 3.5μm) by using gradient elution consisting of methanol and water at a flow rate of 0.50mL/min in 7min. Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode was performed to quantify data under monitoring precursor-product ion transitions of m/z 348.8→286.9, 330.9→107.9, 479.1→160.8 and 325.0→163.0 for AP, DP, NP and internal standard (IS) at negative ion mode, respectively. This method was developed at linearity ranging from 0.50 to 250ng/mL for AP, 1.00 to 500ng/mL for DP and 0.20 to 100ng/mL for NP. The accuracy of each analyte ranged between 94.8% and 107.1% and the precision was within 14.6%. No significant matrix effect was observed. AP, DP and NP were stable during sample storage, preparation and analytic procedures. Furthermore, this method was successfully applied in the investigation of the pharmacokinetic profile of AP, DP and NP in beagle dogs after oral administration of A. paniculata tablet (49.5mg for AP, 7.0mg for DP, 22.0mg for NP). Biological half-life (t1/2) was 2.08±0.99, 3.13±1.19 and 1.07±0.38h for AP, DP and NP, respectively. The areas under curves (AUC0-t) of AP, DP and NP was 494.50±150.64, 26.01±8.72 and 78.78±18.29ngh/mL, respectively.

  10. Evaluation of anti-bacterial and anti-oxidant potential of andrographolide and echiodinin isolated from callus culture of Andrographis paniculata Nees

    PubMed Central

    Arifullah, Mohmmed; Namsa, Nima Dandu; Mandal, Manabendra; Chiruvella, Kishore Kumar; Vikrama, Paritala; Gopal, Ghanta Rama

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the anti-bacterial and anti-oxidant activity of andrographolide (AND) and echiodinin (ECH) of Andrographis paniculata. Methods In this study, an attempt has been made to demonstrate the anti-microbial and anti-oxidant activity of isolated AND and ECH by broth micro-dilution method and 2,2-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) assay, respectively. Structure elucidation was determined by electro-spray ionization-MSD, NMR (1H and 13C) and IR spectra. Results AND was effective against most of the strains tested including Mycobacterium smegmatis, showing broad spectrum of growth inhibition activity with Minimum inhibitory concentration values against Staphylococcus aureus (100 µg/mL), Streptococcus thermophilus (350 µg/mL) Bacillus subtilis (100 µg/mL), Escherichia coli (50 µg/mL), Mycobacterium smegmatis (200 µg/mL), Klebsiella pneumonia (100 µg/mL), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (200 µg/mL). ECH showed specific anti-bacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa at a concentration higher than 225 µg/mL. Both AND and ECH were not effective against the two yeast strains, Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae tested in this study. Conclusion This preliminary study showed promising anti-bacterial activity and moderate free radical scavenging activity of AND and ECH, and it may provide the scientific rationale for its popular folklore medicines. PMID:23905016

  11. Anti-dengue efficacy of bioactive andrographolide from Andrographis paniculata (Lamiales: Acanthaceae) against the primary dengue vector Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Edwin, Edward-Sam; Vasantha-Srinivasan, Prabhakaran; Senthil-Nathan, Sengottayan; Thanigaivel, Annamalai; Ponsankar, Athirstam; Pradeepa, Venkatraman; Selin-Rani, Selvaraj; Kalaivani, Kandaswamy; Hunter, Wayne B; Abdel-Megeed, Ahmed; Duraipandiyan, Veeramuthu; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah

    2016-11-01

    The current study investigated the toxic effect of the leaf extract compound andrographolide from Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f) against the dengue vector Ae. aegypti. GC-MS analysis revealed that andrographolide was recognized as the major chemical constituent with the prominent peak area compared with other compounds. All isolated toxic compounds were purified and confirmed through RP-HPLC against chemical standards. The larvicidal assays established at 25ppm of bioactive compound against the treated instars of Ae. Aegypti showed prominent mortality compared to other treated concentrations. The percent mortality of larvae was directly proportional to concentration. The lethal concentration (LC50) was observed at 12ppm treatment concentration. The bioactive andrographolide considerably reduced the detoxifying enzyme regulations of α- and β- carboxylesterases. In contrast, the levels of GST and CYP450 significantly increase in a dose dependent manner. The andrographolide also showed strong oviposition deterrence effects at the sub-lethal dose of 12ppm. Similarly, the mean number of eggs were also significantly reduced in a dose dependent manner. At the concentration of 12ppm the effective percentage of repellency was greater than 90% with a protection time of 15-210min, compared with control. The histopathology study displayed that larvae treated with bioactive andrographolide had cytopathic effects in the midgut epithelium compared with the control. The present study established that bioactive andrographolide served as a potential useful for dengue vector management.

  12. Effect of Holarrhena antidysentrica (Ha) and Andrographis paniculata (Ap) on the biofilm formation and cell membrane integrity of opportunistic pathogen Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Tanwar, Ankit; Chawla, Raman; Chakotiya, Ankita Singh; Thakur, Pallavi; Goel, Rajeev; Basu, Mitra; Arora, Rajesh; Khan, Haider Ali

    2016-12-01

    Increasing occurrence of gastroenteritis outbreaks caused by food borne opportunistic microorganisms has become a major problem in food industry as well as in immunocompromised host. Antimicrobial agents are losing their efficacy due to increase in the microbial resistance. For such reasons, conventional treatment has become limited to manage the infections state. Need of the hour is to instigate the search for safer holistic alternatives. The present study was hence conducted to assess the antibiofilm effect and mode of action of aquo alcoholic extracts of Holarrhena antidysentrica (Ha) and Andrographis paniculata (Ap) against the Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium. Both the extracts were screened for the presence of phytocompounds followed by the characterization using Attenuated Total Reflection (ATR) infrared spectroscopy and bioactivity finger print analysis. Anti-biofilm assays were determined to test the potential of both extracts to inhibit the biofilm formation, while Propidium Iodide (PI) uptake analysis revealed that cell membrane was damaged by the exposure of nutraceuticals for 1 h. This study has demonstrated that both nutraceuticals have anti-biofilm and antimicrobial activity perturbing the membrane integrity of food-borne S. typhimurium and could be used as curative remedy to control the food borne microbial infection.

  13. Multi-analysis strategy for metabolism of Andrographis paniculata in rat using liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenlan; Sun, Xiangming; Xu, Ying; Wang, Xuezhi; Bai, Jing; Ji, Yubin

    2015-07-01

    Compared with chemical drugs, it is a huge challenge to identify active ingredients of multicomponent traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). For most TCMs, metabolism investigation of absorbed constituents is a feasible way to clarify the active material basis. Although Andrographis paniculata (AP) has been extensively researched by domestic and foreign scholars, its metabolism has seldom been fully addressed to date. In this paper, high-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry was applied to analysis and characterization of AP metabolism in rat urine and feces samples after oral administration of ethanol extract. The differences in metabolites and metabolic pathways between the two biological samples were further compared. The chemical structures of 20 components were tentatively identified from drug-treated biological samples, including six prototype components and 14 metabolites, which underwent such main metabolic pathways as hydrolyzation, hydrogenation, dehydroxylation, deoxygenation, methylation, glucuronidation, sulfonation and sulfation. Two co-existing components were found in urine and feces samples, suggesting that some ingredients' metabolic processes were not unique. This study provides a comprehensive report on the metabolism of AP in rats, which will be helpful for understanding its mechanism.

  14. Dehydroandrographolide, an iNOS inhibitor, extracted from Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Nees, induces autophagy in human oral cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Ming-Ju; Lin, Chiao-Wen; Chiou, Hui-Ling; Yang, Shun-Fa; Chen, Mu-Kuan

    2015-10-13

    Autophagy, which is constitutively executed at the basal level in all cells, promotes cellular homeostasis by regulating the turnover of organelles and proteins. Andrographolide and dehydroandrographolide (DA) are the two principle components of Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Nees. and are the main contributors to its therapeutic properties. However, the pharmacological activities of dehydroandrographolide (DA) remain unclear. In this study, DA induces oral cancer cell death by activating autophagy. Treatment with autophagy inhibitors inhibited DA-induced human oral cancer cell death. In addition, DA increased LC3-II expression and reduced p53 expression in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, DA induced autophagy and decreased cell viability through modulation of p53 expression. DA-induced autophagy was triggered by an activation of JNK1/2 and an inhibition of Akt and p38. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that DA induced autophagy in human oral cancer cells by modulating p53 expression, activating JNK1/2, and inhibiting Akt and p38. Finally, an administration of DA effectively suppressed the tumor formation in the oral carcinoma xenograft model in vivo. This is the first study to reveal the novel function of DA in activating autophagy, suggesting that DA could serve as a new and potential chemopreventive agent for treating human oral cancer.

  15. Andrographis paniculata Extract and Andrographolide Modulate the Hepatic Drug Metabolism System and Plasma Tolbutamide Concentrations in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Haw-Wen; Huang, Chin-Shiu; Liu, Pei-Fen; Li, Chien-Chun; Liu, Cheng-Tzu; Chiang, Jia-Rong; Yao, Hsien-Tsung; Lii, Chong-Kuei

    2013-01-01

    Andrographolide is the most abundant terpenoid of A. paniculata which is used in the treatment of diabetes. In this study, we investigated the effects of A. paniculata extract (APE) and andrographolide on the expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes in rat liver and determined whether modulation of these enzymes changed the pharmacokinetics of tolbutamide. Rats were intragastrically dosed with 2 g/kg/day APE or 50 mg/kg/day andrographolide for 5 days before a dose of 20 mg/kg tolbutamide was given. APE and andrographolide reduced the AUC0–12 h of tolbutamide by 37% and 18%, respectively, compared with that in controls. The protein and mRNA levels and enzyme activities of CYP2C6/11, CYP1A1/2, and CYP3A1/2 were increased by APE and andrographolide. To evaluate whether APE or andrographolide affected the hypoglycemic action of tolbutamide, high-fat diet-induced obese mice were used and treated in the same manner as the rats. APE and andrographolide increased CYP2C6/11 expression and decreased plasma tolbutamide levels. In a glucose tolerance test, however, the hypoglycemic effect of tolbutamide was not changed by APE or andrographolide. These results suggest that APE and andrographolide accelerate the metabolism rate of tolbutamide through increased expression and activity of drug-metabolizing enzymes. APE and andrographolide, however, do not impair the hypoglycemic effect of tolbutamide. PMID:23997806

  16. Efficacy of crude extracts of Andrographis paniculata nees. on Callosobruchus chinensis L. during post harvest storage of cowpea.

    PubMed

    Bright, A A; Babu, A; Ignacimuth, S; Dorn, S

    2001-07-01

    Bioefficacy of different solvent fractions of A. paniculata was tested against the cowpea weevil, C. chinensis in terms of its effect on adult mortality, total egg output and emergence of F1 adults. All the extracts were effective against the weevil, the efficacy was however more significant with respect to methanol and ethyl acetate extracts at the highest concentrations (1,000 ppm) which lead to 72.01 and 67.69% adult mortality respectively. The efficacy was dose dependent. Total egg and percent emergence of Fl adults were lowest for methanol followed by ethyl acetate fractions. Possible role of the principal chemical constituents of this plant in bringing about mortality of the pest, reduction in egg laying and adult emergence are discussed.

  17. Proteomic analysis of the salt-responsive leaf and root proteins in the anticancer plant Andrographis paniculata Nees.

    PubMed

    Talei, Daryush; Valdiani, Alireza; Rafii, Mohd Yusop; Maziah, Mahmood

    2014-01-01

    Separation of proteins based on the physicochemical properties with different molecular weight and isoelectric points would be more accurate. In the current research, the 45-day-old seedlings were treated with 0 (control) and 12 dS m(-1) of sodium chloride in the hydroponic system. After 15 days of salt exposure, the total protein of the fresh leaves and roots was extracted and analyzed using two-dimensional electrophoresis system (2-DE). The analysis led to the detection of 32 induced proteins (19 proteins in leaf and 13 proteins in the root) as well as 12 upregulated proteins (four proteins in leaf and eight proteins in the root) in the salt-treated plants. Of the 44 detected proteins, 12 were sequenced, and three of them matched with superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase and ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate oxygenase whereas the rest remained unknown. The three known proteins associate with plants response to environmental stresses and could represent the general stress proteins in the present study too. In addition, the proteomic feedback of different accessions of A. paniculata to salt stress can potentially be used to breed salt-tolerant varieties of the herb.

  18. Genoproteomics-assisted improvement of Andrographis paniculata: toward a promising molecular and conventional breeding platform for autogamous plants affecting the pharmaceutical industry.

    PubMed

    Valdiani, Alireza; Talei, Daryush; Lattoo, Surrinder K; Ortiz, Rodomiro; Rasmussen, Søren Kjærsgaard; Batley, Jacqueline; Rafii, Mohd Yusop; Maziah, Mahmood; Sabu, Kallevettankuzhy K; Abiri, Rambod; Sakuanrungsirikul, Suchirat; Tan, Soon Guan

    2017-01-03

    Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Wall. ex Nees. (AP) is a hermaphroditic, self-compatible, and habitual inbreeding plant. Its main bioactive component is andrographolide, which is capable of inducing autophagic cell death in some human cancer cells and helps fight HIV/AIDS. Increasing the andrographolide content by investigating the genetic mechanisms controlling its biosynthesis in order to improve and develop high-yielding cultivars are the main breeding targets for AP. However, there might exist some limitations or barriers for crossability within AP accessions. Recently, this problem was addressed in AP by using a combination of crossbreeding and biotechnology-aided genetic methods. This review emphasizes that development of a breeding platform in a hard-to-breed plant, such as AP, requires the involvement of a broad range of methods from classical genetics to molecular breeding. To this end, a phenological stage (for example, flowering and stigma development) can be simplified to a quantitative morphological trait (for example, bud or stigma length) to be used as an index to express the highest level of receptivity in order to manage outcrossing. The outcomes of the basic crossability research can be then employed in diallel mating and crossbreeding. This review explains how genomic data could produce useful information regarding genetic distance and its influence on the crossability of AP accessions. Our review indicates that co-dominant DNA markers, such as microsatellites, are also capable of resolving the evolutionary pathway and cryptic features of plant populations and such information can be used to select the best breeding strategy. This review also highlights the importance of proteomic analysis as a breeding tool. In this regard, protein diversification, as well as the impact of normal and stress-responsive proteins on morphometric and physiological behaviors, could be used in breeding programs. These findings have immense potential for improving

  19. ED-XRF spectrometric analysis of comparative elemental composition of in vivo and in vitro roots of Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wall. ex Nees--a multi-medicinal herb.

    PubMed

    Behera, P R; Nayak, P; Barik, D P; Rautray, T R; Thirunavoukkarasu, M; Chand, P K

    2010-12-01

    The multi-elemental composition of in vitro--proliferated root tissues of Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wall. ex Nees was compared with that of the naturally grown in vivo plants. Trace elements namely Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Rb, Sr and Pb in addition to two macro-elements K and Ca were identified and quantified in root tissues of both sources using the energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF) technique. ED-XRF analysis was performed using Mo K X-rays generated from a secondary molybdenum target. The elemental content of in vitro roots was found to be at par with that of naturally grown plants of the same species. This opens up a possibility of exploiting in vitro root cultures as a viable, alternative and renewable source of phytochemicals of relevance, besides providing a means for conservation of the valuable natural resources.

  20. Separation of five compounds from leaves of Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees by off-line two-dimensional high-speed counter-current chromatography combined with gradient and recycling elution.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Liu, Qi; Yu, Jingang; Zeng, Hualiang; Jiang, Shujing; Chen, Xiaoqing

    2015-05-01

    An off-line two-dimensional high-speed counter-current chromatography method combined with gradient and recycling elution mode was established to isolate terpenoids and flavones from the leaves of Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees. By using the solvent systems composed of n-hexane/ethyl acetate/methanol/water with different volume ratios, five compounds including roseooside, 5,4'-dihydroxyflavonoid-7-O-β-d-pyranglucuronatebutylester, 7,8-dimethoxy-2'-hydroxy-5-O-β-d-glucopyranosyloxyflavon, 14-deoxyandrographiside, and andrographolide were successfully isolated. Purities of these isolated compounds were all over 95% as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Their structures were identified by UV, mass spectrometry, and (1) H NMR spectroscopy. It has been demonstrated that the combination of off-line two-dimensional high-speed counter-current chromatography with different elution modes is an efficient technique to isolate compounds from complex natural product extracts.

  1. A Simple and Sensitive LC-MS/MS Method for Determination of Four Major Active Diterpenoids from Andrographis paniculata in Human Plasma and Its Application to a Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Pholphana, Nanthanit; Panomvana, Duangchit; Rangkadilok, Nuchanart; Suriyo, Tawit; Ungtrakul, Teerapat; Pongpun, Wanwisa; Thaeopattha, Saichit; Satayavivad, Jutamaad

    2016-01-01

    Andrographis paniculata contains four major active diterpenoids, including andrographolide (1), 14-deoxy-11, 12-didehydroandrographolide (2), neoandrographolide (3), and 14-deoxyandrographolide (4), which exhibit differences in types and/or degrees of their pharmacological activity. Previous pharmacokinetic studies in humans reported only the parameters of compound 1 and its analytical method in human plasma. The purpose of this study was to develop a simple, sensitive, and selective liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry technique for the simultaneous determination of all four major active diterpenoids in the A. paniculata product in human plasma. These four diterpenoids in plasma samples were extracted by a simple protein precipitation method with methanol and separated on a Kinetex C18 column using a gradient system with a mobile phase of acetonitrile and water. The liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry was performed in the negative mode, and the multiple reaction monitoring mode was used for the quantitation. The method showed a good linearity over a wide concentration range of 2.50-500 ng/mL for 1 and over the range of 1.00-500 ng/mL for the other diterpenoids with a correlation coefficient R(2) > 0.995. The lower limit of quantification of 1 was found to be 2.50 ng/mL, while those of the other diterpenoids were 1.00 ng/mL. The intraday and interday accuracy (relative error) ranged from 0.03 % to 10.03 %, and the intraday and interday precisions (relative standard deviation) were in the range of 2.05-9.67 %. The extraction recovery (86.54-111.56 %) with a relative standard deviation of 2.78-8.61 % and the matrix effect (85.15-112.36 %) were within the acceptance criteria. Moreover, these four major active diterpenoids were stable in plasma samples at the studied storage conditions with a relative error ≤-9.79 % and a relative standard deviation ≤ 9.26 %. Hence, this present method was successfully validated

  2. Double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, pilot clinical trial of ImmunoGuard--a standardized fixed combination of Andrographis paniculata Nees, with Eleutherococcus senticosus Maxim, Schizandra chinensis Bail. and Glycyrrhiza glabra L. extracts in patients with Familial Mediterranean Fever.

    PubMed

    Amaryan, G; Astvatsatryan, V; Gabrielyan, E; Panossian, A; Panosyan, V; Wikman, G

    2003-05-01

    Double blind, randomized, placebo controlled pilot study of ImmunoGuard--a standardized fixed combination of Andrographis paniculata Nees., Eleutherococcus senticosus Maxim., Schizandra chinensis Bail., and Glycyrrhiza glabra L. special extracts standardized for the content of Andrographolide (4 mg/tablet), Eleuteroside E, Schisandrins and Glycyrrhizin, was carried out in two parallel groups of patients. The study was conducted in 24 (3-15 years of both genders) patients with Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF), 14 were treated with tablets of series A (verum) and 10 patients received series B product (placebo). The study medication was taken three times of four tablets daily for 1 month. Daily dose of the andrographolide--48 mg. The primary outcome measures in physician's evaluation were related to duration, frequency and severity of attacks in FMF patients (attacks characteristics score). The patient's self-evaluation was based mainly on symptoms--abdominal, chest pains, temperature, arthritis, myalgia, erysipelas-like erythema. All of 3 features (duration, frequency, severity of attacks) showed significant improvement in the verum group as compared with the placebo. In both clinical and self evaluation the severity of attacks was found to show the most significant improvement in the verum group. Both the clinical and laboratory results of the present phase II (pilot) clinical study suggest that ImmunoGuard is a safe and efficacious herbal drug for the management of patients with FMF.

  3. In Vitro Production of Echioidinin, 7-O-Methywogonin from Callus Cultures of Andrographis lineata and Their Cytotoxicity on Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Arifullah; Chiruvella, Kishore K.; Rao, Yerra Koteswara; Geethangili, Madamanchi; Raghavan, Sathees C.; Ghanta, Rama Gopal

    2015-01-01

    Andrographis lineata is an herbal medicinal plant used in traditional medicine as a substitute for Andrographis paniculata. Here, using mature leaf explants of A. lineata we demonstrate for the first time the callus induction established on MS medium containing 1.0 mg l–1 IAA. Dried callus was subjected to solvent extraction with acetone. Further the acetone residue was separated by silica gel column chromatography, crystallized and characterized on the basis of nuclear magnetic resonance (proton and c13) and liquid chromatographic mass spectroscopy. This analysis revealed the occurrence of two known flavones namely, 7-O-methylwogonin (MW) and Echioidinin (ED). Furthermore, these compounds were tested for their cytotoxicity against leukemic cell line, CEM. We identify that ED and MW induced cytotoxicity in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Further increase in the LDH release upon treatment with ED and MW further confirmed our cytotoxicity results against leukemic cell line. Strikingly, MW was more potent than ED when compared by trypan blue and MTT assays. Our results recapitulate the utility of callus cultures for the production of plant specific bioactive secondary metabolites instead of using wild plants. Together, our in vitro studies provide new insights of A. lineata callus cultures serving as a source for cancer chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:26488879

  4. Triterpenoids from Brazilian Ginseng, Pfaffia paniculata

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two new nortriterpenoids pfaffine A and B (1-2) were isolated from the roots of Pfaffia paniculata Kuntze, along with ten known compounds including four ecdysteroids, ecdysone (3), 20-hydroxyecdysone (4), pterosterone (5), rapisterone (6), five triterpenoids, pfaffic acid (7), pfameric acid (8), me...

  5. A new coumarin from Murraya paniculata.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Muhammad Iqbal; Azizuddin; Khalid, Asaad; Sultani, Shaikh Ziauddin; Atta-ur-Rahman

    2002-01-01

    A new natural product, 2'-O-ethylmurrangatin (1) was isolated along with two previously known compounds murranganone (2) and paniculatin (3) from the leaves of Murraya paniculata. The structure of compound 1 was elucidated with the help of spectroscopic studies and by chemical reactions. Compounds 2 and 3 have been found to be cholinesterase inhibitors.

  6. Two new coumarins from Murraya paniculata.

    PubMed

    Saied, Sumayya; Nizami, Shaikh Sirajuddin; Anis, Itrat

    2008-01-01

    Two new coumarins, murrmeranzin (1) and murralonginal (2), together with four known compounds minumicrolin (3), murrangatin (4), meranzin hydrate (5) and hainanmurpanin (6) have been isolated from the aerial parts of Murraya paniculata. The structures of these compounds were determined through spectral analysis. Minumicrolin (3) showed mild butyrylcholinesterase inhibition activity.

  7. Antiplasmodial Isoflavanes and Pterocarpans from Apoplanesia paniculata.

    PubMed

    Su, Qingxi; Krai, Priscilla; Goetz, Michael; Cassera, Maria B; Kingston, David G I

    2015-08-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of an EtOH extract of the roots of the plant Apoplanesia paniculata (Fabaceae) led to the isolation of the three known compounds amorphaquinone (1), pendulone (2), and melilotocarpan C (3), and the two new pterocarpans 4 and 5. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited good antiplasmodial activity with IC50 values of 5.7 ± 1.5 and 7.0 ± 0.8 µM, respectively. Compound 3 exhibited weak antiplasmodial activity (41.8 ± 5.2 µM), while compounds 4 and 5 were inactive. Compound 6 was synthesized to confirm the structure of 5, and it showed enhanced antiplasmodial activity (15.8 ± 1.4 µM) compared to its analogues 3-5.

  8. Antiplasmodial Isoflavanes and Pterocarpans from Apoplanesia paniculata

    PubMed Central

    Su, Qingxi; Krai, Priscilla; Goetz, Michael; Cassera, Maria B.; Kingston, David G. I.

    2015-01-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of an EtOH extract of the roots of the plant Apoplanesia paniculata (Fabaceae) led to the isolation of the three known compounds amorphaquinone (1), pendulone (2) and melilotocarpan C (3) and the two new pterocarpans 4 and 5. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited good antiplasmodial activity with IC50 values of 5.7 ± 1.5 and 7.0 ± 0.8 µM, respectively. Compound 3 exhibited weak antiplasmodial activity (41.8 ± 5.2 µM), while compounds 4 and 5 were inactive. Compound 6 was synthesized to confirm the structure of 5, and it showed enhanced antiplasmodial activity (15.8 ± 1.4 µM) compared to its analogues 3 – 5. PMID:26018916

  9. Coumarins from Murraya paniculata var. zollingeri endemic to the Timor Islands.

    PubMed

    Teshima, Naoko; Yamada, Hiromi; Ju-ichi, Motoharu; Uji, Tahan; Kinoshita, Takeshi; Ito, Chihiro

    2015-02-01

    Four new coumarins, murrangatin-1'-senecioate (1), 5-methoxypanial (2), mexoticin-2'-senecioate (3) and murralongic acid (4), were isolated from the leaves of Murraya paniculata var. zollingeri, together with 23 known coumarins. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated based on spectroscopic data. The taxonomic status of M. paniculata var. zollingeri is briefly discussed, along with its similarity to M. paniculata.

  10. New triterpenoidal saponins from Koelreuteria paniculata

    PubMed Central

    Mostafa, Ahmad E.; El-Hela, Atef A.; Mohammad, Abd-Elsalam I.; Cutler, Stephen J.; Ross, Samir A.

    2016-01-01

    Bioassay guided fractionation and chemical investigation of the ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Koelreuteria paniculata Laxm. (Sapindaceae), resulted in the isolation and identification of three new triterpenoid saponins 1–3 named Paniculatosoid A–C, along with eleven known compounds. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated using 1D and 2D NMR experiments, HRESIMS, and comparison with literature data. The occurrence of tridesmosidic saponin is reported for the first time from family Sapindaceae, as well as it is rarely found in natural saponins. Compounds 4–13 were evaluated for their antibacterial, antifungal, antimalarial and antileishmanial activities. Compound 12 showed weak antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli with an IC50 value of 101 μM. Compounds 12 and 13 showed antimalarial activity against chloroquine-sensitive (D6) Plasmodium falciparum protozoan with IC50 values of 6.46 and 6.95 μM, and against chloroquine-resistant (W2) Plasmodium falciparum protozoan with IC50 values of 9.34 and 4.18 μM. PMID:28250867

  11. Paniculacin, a new coumarin derivative from Murraya paniculata.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Sumayya; Shah, Shazia; Mehmood, Rashad; Malik, Abdul

    2011-08-01

    Paniculacin (1), a new coumarin derivative, has been isolated from the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of the ethanolic extract of Murraya paniculata along with umbelliferone, scopoletin, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, trans-cinnamic acid, and β-sitosterol. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectral data.

  12. Induction of Nrf2-dependent Antioxidation and Protection Against Carbon Tetrachloride-induced Liver Damage by Andrographis Herba (穿心蓮chuān xīn lián) Ethanolic Extract

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Haw-Wen; Huang, Yu-Ju; Yao, Hsien-Tsung; Lii, Chong-Kuei

    2012-01-01

    Andrographis paniculata is a traditional Chinese herb and displays diverse biological activities including antioxidation, anti-tumorigenesis, anti-virus, and anti-atherogenesis. In this study, we investigated the up-regulation of ethanolic extract of A. paniculata (APE) on the antioxidant defense in rat livers and whether this enhancement protected against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver damage. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were orally administered (i.g.) 0, 0.75, or 2 g/kg/d APE for 5 d. At d 6, rats were sacrificed and liver tissues were removed. Some animals (n=8) were intraperitoneally injected CCl4 (1 mL/kg, 50% in olive oil) and blood was drawn 24 h after CCl4 treatment. The results showed that APE increased hepatic glutathione (GSH) content and superoxide dismutase, GSH peroxidase, and GSH S-transferase activities in a dose-dependent manner (p < 0.05). Results of immunoblotting and RT-PCR revealed that rats treated with APE had higher glutamate cysteine ligase catalytic and modifier subunits, heme oxygenase 1, superoxide dismutase 1, and GSH S-transferase Ya and Yb protein and mRNA expression than those of control rats. Moreover, APE increased Nrf2 nuclear translocation and Nrf2 binding to DNA in rat liver. In the presence of CCl4, APE decreased hepatic thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances production and plasma aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase activities. These results suggest that APE protection against CCl4 insult is attributed, at least in part, to its up-regulation of antioxidant defense in rat liver. PMID:24716135

  13. Isolation and structure elucidation of a new prenylcoumarin from Murraya paniculata var. omphalocarpa (Rutaceae).

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Takeshi; Shimada, Motoko

    2002-01-01

    A new C-8 prenylated 5,7-dimethoxycoumarin named omphamurrayin was isolated from the leaves of Murraya paniculata var. omphalocarpa, and its structure was established as 5,7-dimethoxy-8-(1-oxo-2-senecioyl-3-methyl-3-butenyl)-2H-1-benzopyran-2-one on the basis of the spectroscopic evidence. The taxonomic status of M. paniculata var. omphalocarpa is briefly discussed, along with its synonymity to M. paniculata from the chemosystematic viewpoint.

  14. New cytotoxic lupane triterpenoids from the twigs of Coussarea paniculata.

    PubMed

    Prakash Chaturvedula, V S; Schilling, Jennifer K; Johnson, Randall K; Kingston, David G I

    2003-03-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of a CH(2)Cl(2)-MeOH extract of the twigs of Coussarea paniculata using a yeast-based assay for potential DNA-damaging agents resulted in the isolation of three new lupane triterpenoids, 1-3, in addition to eight known triterpenoids, lupeol (4), lupeyl acetate (5), betulin (6), betulinic acid (7), 3-epi-betulinic acid (8), 3-epi-betulinaldehyde (9), oleanolic acid (10), and ursolic acid (11). The structures of the new compounds were established as lup-20(29)-en-3beta,25-diol (1), lup-20(29)-en-11alpha-ol-25,3beta-lactone (2), and 3-deoxybetulonic acid (3), on the basis of extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data interpretation and chemical conversion.

  15. Growth and Heavy Metal Accumulation of Koelreuteria Paniculata Seedlings and Their Potential for Restoring Manganese Mine Wastelands in Hunan, China

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zhihong; Xiang, Wenhua; Ma, Yu’e; Lei, Pifeng; Tian, Dalun; Deng, Xiangwen; Yan, Wende; Fang, Xi

    2015-01-01

    The planting of trees on mine wastelands is an effective, long-term technique for phytoremediation of heavy metal-contaminated wastes. In this study, a pot experiment with seedlings of Koelreuteria paniculata under six treatments of local mine wastes was designed to determine the major constraints on tree establishment and to evaluate the feasibility of planting K. paniculata on manganese mine wastelands. Results showed that K. paniculata grew well in mine tailings, and also under a regime of equal amounts of mine tailings and soil provided in adjacent halves of pots. In contrast, mine sludge did not favor survival and growth because its clay texture limited fine root development. The bio-concentration factor and the translocation factor were mostly less than 1, indicating a low phytoextraction potential for K. paniculata. K. paniculata is suited to restore manganese mine sludge by mixing the mine sludge with local mine tailings or soil. PMID:25654773

  16. Coumarins and flavonoid from Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack: Antibacterial and anti-inflammation activity.

    PubMed

    Rodanant, Pirasut; Khetkam, Pichit; Suksamrarn, Apichart; Kuvatanasuchati, Jintakorn

    2015-11-01

    The ethyl acetate extract of leaves of Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack was described in the previous in vitro study on the inhibition effect on the growth of periodontopathic bacteria and the reduction of cytokines from LPS-stimulated macrophages. In this study, four coumarins including murrangatin (1), murrangatin acetate (2), murranganonesenecionate (3), micropubescin (4) and one flavonoid, 3', 4', 5', 7-tetramethoxyflavone (5) were isolated from the leaves of ethyl acetate extract of M. paniculata. MTT assay was used to test cytotoxicity on human gingival fibroblast and monocytes. The isolated compounds were evaluated for their antibacterial effect against Porphyromonas gingivalis (ATCC33277) and anti-inflammation on lipopolysaccharide-stimulated inflammation using monocyte cells. All isolated compounds exhibited antibacterial activity against P. gingivalis (ATCC 33277). Murranganonesenecionate (3) was highly potent anti-inflammation properties. The coumarin constituents from M. paniculata leaves might be potential lead molecules for the development of antimicrobial drugs for treating periodontal disease.

  17. Chemical Constituents from Andrographis echioides and Their Anti-Inflammatory Activity

    PubMed Central

    Shen, De-Yang; Juang, Shin-Hun; Kuo, Ping-Chung; Huang, Guan-Jhong; Chan, Yu-Yi; Damu, Amooru G.; Wu, Tian-Shung

    2013-01-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the whole plants of Andrographis echioides afforded two new 2′-oxygenated flavonoids (1) and (2), two new phenyl glycosides (3) and (4), along with 37 known structures. The structures of new compounds were elucidated by spectral analysis and chemical transformation studies. Among the isolated compounds, (1–2) and (6–19) were subjected into the examination for their iNOS inhibitory bioactivity. The structure-activity relationships of the flavonoids for their inhibition of NO production were also discussed. PMID:23271366

  18. Vasorelaxing activity of two coumarins from Murraya paniculata leaves.

    PubMed

    Cuong, Nguyen Manh; Khanh, Pham Ngoc; Duc, Ho Viet; Huong, Tran Thu; Tai, Bui Huu; Binh, Nguyen Quoc; Durante, Miriam; Fusi, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    In the search for novel chemical scaffolds leading to potential antihypertensive agents, the methanol extract of Murraya paniculata leaves was assessed for its effects on isolated rat aorta rings. The vasorelaxing effect of the chloroform fraction of the methanol plant extract was the most potent for its vasorelaxing activity on rat aorta rings contracted by 60 mM K(+) (K60). Two coumarins were isolated from the chloroform fraction: the novel kimcuongin (1) and the known murracarpin (2). Their structures were determined from spectroscopic evidences including (1)H- and (13)C-NMR, correlation spectroscopy (COSY), nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy (NOESY), heteronuclear multiple bond correlation (HMBC), heteronuclear single quantum correlation (HSQC), and high resolution mass spectrometry (HR-MS). Kimcuongin and, to a lesser extent, murracarpin, showed vasorelaxing activity with IC50 values of 37.7 µM and 139.3 µM, respectively. The coumarins kimcuongin and murracarpin may thus represent a novel class of vasodilators of natural source.

  19. Yuehchukene, a Novel Anti-implantation Indole Alkaloid from Murraya paniculata.

    PubMed

    Kong, Y C; Ng, K H; Wat, K H; Wong, A; Saxena, I F; Cheng, K F; But, P P; Chang, H T

    1985-08-01

    Yuehchukene, 11beta-(3'-indolyl-7,9alpha,9beta-trimethyl-5beta,8,9,10beta-tetrahydroindano-[2,3- B]indole, a novel dimeric indole alkaloid from the roots of MURRAY A PANICULATA has potent anti-implantation activity in rats at 3 mg/kg P. O. dosing on pregnancy day 2.

  20. Structural features of a water soluble gum polysaccharide from Murraya paniculata fruits.

    PubMed

    Mondal, S K; Ray, B; Ghosal, P K; Teleman, A; Vuorinen, T

    2001-10-22

    A water soluble gum polysaccharide was isolated from Murraya paniculata fruits. Hydrolytic experiments, methylation analysis, periodate oxidation studies and NMR data revealed that the polysaccharide was extensively branched and it consisted of 1,3-, and 1,3,6-linked beta-D-galactopyranosyl units, terminal beta-D-galactopyranosyl units and terminal alpha-D-glucopyranosyl 1,4-beta-D-galactopyranosyl units. Small amounts of 4-O-methylglucuronic acid residues were also present.

  1. Comparative analysis of the essential oil composition of Murraya paniculata and M. exotica.

    PubMed

    Lv, Hai-Ning; Guo, Xiao-Yu; Tu, Peng-Fei; Jiang, Yong

    2013-10-01

    Murrayae Folium et Cacumen (MFC) is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) derived from the leaves and twigs of two aromatic species of Rutaceae: Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack and M. exotica L. It has long been used as a folk medicine in South China for the treatment of a variety of disorders, particularly for inflammatory lesions and pains. In the present study, a detailed chemical examination as well as a comparative analysis of the essential oil composition of M. paniculata and M. exotica was conducted by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 141 volatile components were identified from the essential oil of these two plants. Sesquiterpenes were found to be the predominant constituents, accounting for 92.8% of the oil from M. paniculata and 87.9% of that from M. exotica. A comparative analysis of the essential oil composition of these two plants revealed a high level of similarity in their main constituents, such as the co-occurrence of E-caryophyllene, spathulenol and delta-elemene, which gave the chemical evidence for their equal medicinal application as MFC in TCMs. Moreover, in combination with literature reports, E-caryophyllene was theoretically deduced as one of the pharmacologically effective components of MFC that is responsible for treating inflammatory lesions and for local anaesthesia.

  2. Association of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’, the causal agent of citrus huanglongbing in Murraya paniculata and Diaphorina citri in Thailand

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Orange jasmine, Murraya paniculata, is a preferred alternative host for the Asian citrus psyllid, the primary vector of citrus Huanglongbing (HLB) disease caused by ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (Las). M. paniculata plant samples and psyllids on the Murraya plants from ten diverse geographical...

  3. Prenylated Coumarins from Heracleum stenopterum, Peucedanum praeruptorum, Clausena lansium, and Murraya paniculata.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang-Mei; Jiang, Xian-Jun; Yang, Ku; Wang, Li-Xia; Wen, Shi-Zhen; Wang, Fei

    2016-10-01

    Four hitherto unknown prenylated coumarins, namely 6″-O-β-D-apiofuranosylapterin (1), 4'-O-isobutyroylpeguangxienin (2), 6-(3-methyl-2-oxobutyroyl)-7-methoxycoumarin (3), and 6-hydroxycoumurrayin (4), were isolated from the ethanol extract of Heracleum stenopterum, Peucedanum praeruptorum, Clausena lansium, and Murraya paniculata, respectively. Their chemical structures were established on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis. Compound 2 exhibited in vitro cytotoxic activity against five human cancer cell lines (HL-60, A-549, SMMC-7721, MCF-7, and SW-480) with IC50 values ranging from 15.9 to 23.2 μM.

  4. Dormancy and Germination In Vitro Response of Hydrangea Macrophylla and Hydrangea paniculata Seed to Light, Stratification, and Gibberellic Acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed germination was optimized for ten Hydrangea macrophylla cultivars and two Hydrangea paniculata cultivars in vitro. Methods were also developed to assay seed physiology. Best results were obtained with 0.5X Gamborgs solid media in conjunction with Plant Preservative Mixture (PPM), and by sterili...

  5. Characterization and cloning of an 11S globulin with hemagglutination activity from Murraya paniculata.

    PubMed

    Singh, Anamika; Selvakumar, Purushotham; Saraswat, Akhilesh; Tomar, Prabhat P S; Mishra, Manisha; Singh, Pradhyumna K; Sharma, Ashwani K

    2015-01-01

    A ~56 kDa protein having hemagglutination activity was purified and characterized from the Murraya paniculata seeds. The gel electrophoresis studies demonstrated that protein is primarily of two different subunits, molecular weight ~ 35 and 21 kDa held together by disulfide-linkages and predominantly by secondary forces. The cloning and sequence analysis revealed that the protein exhibited a substantial sequence identity to seed storage 11S globulin family proteins. The sequence analysis of Murraya paniculata globulin (MPG) demonstrated higher and lower molecular weight polypeptides to be acidic (α) and basic (β) respectively. The sequence analysis further showed that it possesses a characteristic bi-cupin motif and a putative metal binding pocket. CD analysis revealed that the MPG was a β/α protein with a slightly higher content of the former. Conformational changes in protein have been studied by fluorescence spectrometry by using various chemical treatments. The results demonstrated that MPG belongs to 11S globulin family and exhibit's hemagglutination activity, which implicates it to be possessing lectin-like property.

  6. Isoflavonoids in the Rutaceae family: 1. Fortunella obovata, Murraya paniculata and four Citrus species.

    PubMed

    Lapcík, Oldrich; Klejdus, Borivoj; Davidová, Michaela; Kokoska, Ladislav; Kubán, Vlastimil; Moravcová, Jitka

    2004-01-01

    Several types of compounds with immunoreactivity similar to isoflavonoids were detected in water: ethanol extracts of leaves of Fortunella obovata Hort. ex Tanaka, Murraya paniculata Jack. and four Citrus species, namely C. aurantium L, C. grandis Osbeck, C. limonia Osbeck., and C. sinensis Osbeck (Rutaceae). The chromatographic mobilities of the immunoreactive substances were compared with those of authentic standards, revealing a spectrum of isoflavonoid metabolites in all plants studied. Aglycones as well as glycosides were recognized, namely daidzin, genistin, daidzein, genistein, formononetin, biochanin A, prunetin, and several incompletely characterized isoflavonoids. A subsequent HPLC-MS study verified the identities of the main immunoreactive isoflavonoids and established the identities of several others, viz. glycitein, glycitin, ononin and sissotrin, including the malonylated and acetylated isoflavonoid glucosides. The estimated content of the individual immunoreactive entities ranged from a few microg to about 2 mg/kg (dry weight). It is concluded that the isoflavonoid metabolic pathway is present throughout the Rutaceae family.

  7. Phytochemical Screening and Antinociceptive and Antidiarrheal Activities of Hydromethanol and Petroleum Benzene Extract of Microcos paniculata Barks

    PubMed Central

    Moushome, Rafath Ara; Akter, Mst. Irin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Microcos paniculata is traditionally used for treating diarrhea, wounds, cold, fever, hepatitis, dyspepsia, and heat stroke. Objective. To investigate the qualitative phytochemical constituents of hydromethanol (HMPB) and petroleum benzene extract of Microcos paniculata barks (PBMPB) and to evaluate their antinociceptive and antidiarrheal activities. Methods. Phytochemical constituents and antinociceptive and antidiarrheal activities were determined and evaluated by different tests such as Molisch's, Fehling's, Mayer's, Wagner's, Dragendorff's, frothing, FeCl3, alkali, Pew's, and Salkowski's test, general test of glycosides, Baljet and NH4OH test, formalin-induced paw licking, acetic acid-induced writhing, tail immersion, and hot plate tests, and castor oil and MgSO4 induced diarrheal tests. Results. These extracts revealed the presence of saponins, flavonoids, and triterpenoids and significantly (⁎P < 0.05, versus control) reduced paw licking and abdominal writhing of mice. At 30 min after their administration, PBMPB revealed significant increase in latency (⁎P < 0.05, versus control) in tail immersion test. In hot plate test, HMPB and PBMPB 200 mg/kg showed significant increase in response latency (⁎P < 0.05, versus control) at 30 min after their administration. Moreover, both extracts significantly (⁎P < 0.05, versus control) inhibited percentage of diarrhea in antidiarrheal models. Conclusion. Study results indicate that M. paniculata may provide a source of plant compounds with antinociceptive and antidiarrheal activities. PMID:27777944

  8. Pfaffosidic Fraction from Hebanthe paniculata Induces Cell Cycle Arrest and Caspase-3-Induced Apoptosis in HepG2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Tereza Cristina; Cogliati, Bruno; Latorre, Andréia Oliveira; Akisue, Gokithi; Nagamine, Márcia Kazumi; Haraguchi, Mitsue; Hansen, Daiane; Sanches, Daniel Soares; Dagli, Maria Lúcia Zaidan

    2015-01-01

    Hebanthe paniculata roots (formerly Pfaffia paniculata and popularly known as Brazilian ginseng) show antineoplastic, chemopreventive, and antiproliferative properties. Functional properties of these roots and their extracts are usually attributed to the pfaffosidic fraction, which is composed mainly by pfaffosides A–F. However, the therapeutic potential of this fraction in cancer cells is not yet entirely understood. This study aimed to analyze the antitumoral effects of the purified pfaffosidic fraction or saponinic fraction on the human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cell line. Cellular viability, proliferation, and apoptosis were evaluated, respectively, by MTT assay, BrdU incorporation, activated caspase-3 immunocytochemistry, and DNA fragmentation assay. Cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry and the cell cycle-related proteins were analyzed by quantitative PCR and Western blot. The cells exposed to pfaffosidic fraction had reduced viability and cellular growth, induced G2/M at 48 h or S at 72 h arrest, and increased sub-G1 cell population via cyclin E downregulation, p27KIP1 overexpression, and caspase-3-induced apoptosis, without affecting the DNA integrity. Antitumoral effects of pfaffosidic fraction from H. paniculata in HepG2 cells originated by multimechanisms of action might be associated with cell cycle arrest in the S phase, by CDK2 and cyclin E downregulation and p27KIP1 overexpression, besides induction of apoptosis through caspase-3 activation. PMID:26075002

  9. Leaves of orange jasmine (Murraya paniculata) as indicators of airborne heavy metal in Bangkok, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Titseesang, Teerawet; Wood, Timothy; Panich, Noppaporn

    2008-10-01

    Orange jasmine (Murraya paniculata) leaves were collected from three different sites in the area of Bangkok and in a remote area as a control site. The leaf samples were digested and the concentrations of Cu, Fe, Pb, Mn, Ni, Cr, and Zn were then quantified by using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). All three Bangkok sites were polluted with heavy metals compared with the background site. Fe was found as the highest mean concentration of the metals studied, while Pb was the lowest. There was a high correlation coefficient between metals Cu-Mn, Cu-Zn, Cu-Pb, and Mn-Zn. However, Fe was not correlated with other metals. There was no significant difference in Pb between sites. The significant difference in other metals found in the study could be attributed to different anthropogenic activities between sites. The principal-component analysis (PCA) identified two factors according to the sources of metals making up the anthropogenic (traffic) and natural (soil) sources. Traffic emission was found to be the main source of metal pollution in the atmosphere of Bangkok.

  10. [Study on key physical properties of granulated products of Andrographis mixed powder by high-speed mixing wet method].

    PubMed

    Liao, Zheng-Gen; Li, Zhe; Ming, Liang-Shan; Luo, Juan; Jiang, Qie-Ying; Zhao, Guo-Wei; Liang, Xin-Li

    2014-10-01

    The impact of key physical properties on granulated products by the high-speed mixing wet method was studied. Andrographis extracts were utilized as the model drug. Four processing methods were adopted to prepare mixed powder of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) and starch with the mass ratio 1:0.5, 1:1 and 1:2 by the high-speed mixing wet method. The properties of the prepared granules were evaluated with such indexes as granule yield, the ratio of lumps and fine powder, granule-AOR and granule-HR. The impact of key physical properties on granulated products was analyzed through stepwise regression analysis. The results showed that angle of repose, moisture content, pore volume, density and contact angle with water were key physical properties of the powder. The key physical properties of Chinese medical extracts powder are the important factor impacting granulated products made by the high-speed mixing wet method. In this study, the impact of key physical properties on granulated products of Chinese medical extracts was analyzed from the physical angle.

  11. Photosynthetic and carbohydrate status of easy and difficult-to-acclimate sea oats (Uniola Paniculata L.) genotypes during in vitro culture and ex vitro acclimation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Photosynthesis and carbohydrate status of an easy-to-acclimatize (EK 16-3) and a difficult-to-acclimatize (EK 11-1) genotype of sea oats (Uniola paniculata), a native dune species of the southeastern U.S., were evaluated during in vitro culture and ex vitro greenhouse acclimatization. During in vitr...

  12. Titers of 'Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus' in Murraya paniculata and Murraya-reared Diaphorina citri are much lower than in citrus and citrus-reared psyllids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Huanglongbing, one of the most devastating diseases of citrus, is associated with the bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus vectored by the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri, in North America. Murraya paniculata is a common ornamental plant that is an alternate host of Ca. L. asiaticus an...

  13. Molecular cytogenetics and tandem repeat sequence evolution in the allopolyploid Nicotiana rustica compared with diploid progenitors N. paniculata and N. undulata.

    PubMed

    Lim, K Y; Matyasek, R; Kovarik, A; Fulnecek, J; Leitch, A R

    2005-01-01

    Nicotiana rustica (2n = 4x = 48) is a natural allotetraploid composed of P and U genomes which are closely related to genomes of diploid species N. paniculata and N. undulata. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) also confirms that the diploid parents, or close relatives, are the ancestors of N. rustica. In order to study genetic interactions between ancestral genomes in the allotetraploid, we isolated three families of repetitive sequences, two from N. paniculata (NPAMBE and NPAMBO) and one from N. undulata (NUNSSP). Southern blot hybridization revealed that the sequences are digested with a range of restriction enzymes into regular ladder patterns indicating a tandem arrangement of high copy repeats possessing monomeric units of about 180 bp. The three-tandem sequences belong to a larger Nicotiana tandem repeat family called here the HRS-60 family. Members of this family are found in all Nicotiana species studied. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis localized the satellite repeats to subtelomeric regions of most chromosomes of N. paniculata and N. undulata. The pattern of sequence distribution on the P- and U-genomes of N. rustica was similar to the putative parents N. paniculata and N. undulata respectively. However, NPAMBO repeats appear to be reduced and rearranged in N. rustica that may suggest evolution within the P genome. GISH and FISH with the tandem repeat probes failed to reveal intergenomic translocations as might be predicted from the nucleocytoplasmic interaction hypothesis.

  14. Toxicological evaluation of Terminalia paniculata bark extract and its protective effect against CCl4-induced liver injury in rodents

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Based on the reported antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential of Terminalia paniculata, the bark aqueous extract (TPW) was investigated against liver damage. Methods Intrinsic cytotoxicity was tested on normal human liver (Chang) cell lines, followed by acute and sub-chronic toxicity studies in mice. TPW was then evaluated against CCl4-induced liver toxicity in rats. Liver enzymes (AST, ALT, and ALP) and antioxidant markers were assessed. The effect of TPW on isolated hepatic cells, post-CCl4 administration, was assessed by isolated mitochondrial membrane staining. The actions of TPW on apoptotic pathway in CCl4-treated Chang cells were also elucidated. Results TPW was found to be safe at all doses tested in both in vitro and in vivo toxicity studies. TPW (400 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly (*p <0.05) improved liver enzyme activity as compared to CCl4. Also, it improved antioxidant status (GSH, GST, MDA and total thiol) and preserved hepatic cell architecture. TPW pre-treatment significantly attenuated the levels of phospho-p53, p53, cleaved caspase-3, phospho-Bad, Bad and cleaved PARP in CCl4-treated Chang cells, improving the viability considerably. Conclusion The findings support a protective role for Terminalia paniculata in pathologies involving oxidative stress. PMID:23742226

  15. Effect of andrographolide on phosphatases activity and cytotoxicity against Spodoptera litura

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development of biorational insecticides from plant extracts, holds promise for many farmers in developing countries as an affordable alternative to commercially available pesticides. The chemical andrographolide was isolated using ethanol extraction of the leaves of Andrographis paniculata, an annua...

  16. Some morphological and anatomical studies of leaves and flowers of Murraya paniculata (Jack) Linn. in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Taha, Rosna Mat; Haron, Noorma Wati

    2008-04-01

    In the present study, various explants of Murraya paniculata (Jack) Linn., such as cotyledons, shoots and young stems were cultured on MS medium supplemented with various concentrations of Benzyl Amino Purine (BAP) under 25 +/- 1 degree C with 16 h light and 8 h dark and also 8 h light and 16 h dark to obtain complete plant regeneration. In vitro flowering was observed from shoot explants cultured on MS supplemented with 0.5-2.0 mg L(-1) Naphthalene Acetic Acid (NAA) and also on MS basal medium under similar conditions. The leaves and flowers obtained from both in vivo and in vitro conditions were examined and compared. Morphological studies such as leaf clearing, epidermal peeling were studied using light and scanning electron microscope. Macromorphological studies of the flowers produced from in vivo and in vitro conditions were also examined. Morphologically, there were no differences between in vivo and in vitro flowers except the flowers produced from tissue culture systems were smaller in size with protruding stigmas. Differences were also found in the number of layers of palisade cells and the presence or absence of epicuticle layer of the leaves. Leaves produced from tissue culture system were smaller in size with membranous texture. Stomata were present only on the abaxial surfaces of both in vivo and in vitro leaves but the stomata were raised above the epidermis in the latter.

  17. Improvement of friable callus production of Boerhaavia paniculata Rich and the investigation of its lipid profile by GC/MS.

    PubMed

    Souza, Joanne M M; Berkov, Strahill; Santos, Alberdan S

    2014-09-01

    In this study, a protocol to induce high amount of friable callus of Boerhaavia paniculata RICH and a lipidomics technique were applied to investigate the profile of lipids to relate to those present in the roots of this plant that presented anti-inflammatory activity in the crude hexane extract. The callus culture was induced from seeds in solidified Murashige and Skoog medium containing different amounts of glucose and different concentrations of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. The explants were kept in a germination chamber at 30±2°C with a photoperiod of 16 h under light intensity of 27 µmol m-2 s-1 for 4 weeks. The best results for friable callus formation and development of the biomass were obtained in the treatment containing 2.26 µM 2.4-D and glucose (1.5 %; w/v). Lipidomics techniques were applied in hexane fraction showing higher concentrations of the steroids β-sitosterol (3.53 mg/100 g dc-dry cells), and fatty acids, especially 2-hydroxy-tetracosanoic acid (0.34 mg/100 g dc), eicosanoic acid (86.25 mg/100 g dc), stearic acid (420.83 mg/100 g dc), tetradecanoic acid (10.74 mg/100 g dc) and linoleic acid (100.61 mg/100 g dc). The lipid profile of callus versus that found in the roots of wild plant is described in this work.

  18. [Impact of canopy structural characteristics on inner air temperature and relative humidity of Koelreuteria paniculata community in summer].

    PubMed

    Qin, Zhong; Li, Zhan-dong; Cheng, Fang-yun; Sha, Hai-feng

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the diurnal variation of the correlations between the cooling and humidifying effects and canopy structural characteristics of the Koelreuteria paniculata community, the measurements of air temperature, relative humidity, canopy density, leaf area index (LAI) and mean leaf angle (MLA) were performed on calm sunny summer days in the community in Beijing Olympic Forest Park, China. There were significant correlations between the canopy density, LAI and MLA, which affected the cooling and humidifying effects together. The cooling effect reached its maximum by 12:00, whereas the humidifying effect reached its peak at 10:00. Compared with the control open space site, the community appeared to lower the air temperature by 0.43 to 7.53 °C and to increase the relative humidity by 1%-22% during the daytime. However, the cooling and humidifying effects seem to be not effective during the night. The canopy density and LAI were better for determining the cooling and humidifying effects from 9:00 to 12:00. However, these effects were largely controlled only by the canopy density from 12:00 to 14:00 and were significantly correlated with the canopy density and LAI afterwards until 18:00.

  19. Protective effect of total flavonoids extracted from the leaves of Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack on diabetic nephropathy in rats.

    PubMed

    Zou, Jingtao; Yu, Xiaofeng; Qu, Shaochun; Li, Xuwen; Jin, Yongri; Sui, Dayuan

    2014-02-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effects of total flavonoids extracted from the leaves of Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack (TFMP) on diabetic nephropathy. High fat diet and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were treated with the TFMP (35 or 70 mg/kg) for 13 weeks. Changes of renal function parameters were examined at the end of administration. Some kidneys were collected for histological and immunohistochemistry studies, the other ones for biochemical parameters analysis. TFMP significantly decreased the levels of serum blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, creatinine clearance, interleukin-6, urinary albumin, 24h-urinary albumin excretion rate, kidney weight to body weight ratio and fasting blood glucose in diabetic rats. Meanwhile, the levels of triglycerides, total and LDL cholesterols in the TFMP treated diabetic rats were lower and the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level was higher than that in the diabetic rats. TFMP treatment significantly blocked the decrease of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase and increase of malondialdehyde levels in diabetic rats. Furthermore, the TFMP not only decreased the expression of TGF-β1 and CTGF protein, but also reduced diabetes-induced morphological alterations of the kidney. These results suggest that TFMP is a protective agent against renal damage in diabetic nephropathy.

  20. Phytochemical Analysis and Modulation of Antibiotic Activity by Luehea paniculata Mart. & Zucc. (Malvaceae) in Multiresistant Clinical Isolates of Candida Spp.

    PubMed Central

    Calixto Júnior, João T.; Morais, Selene M.; Martins, Clécio G.; Vieira, Larissa G.; Morais-Braga, Maria Flaviana B.; Carneiro, Joara N. P.; Machado, Antonio J. P.; Menezes, Irwin R. A.; Tintino, Saulo R.; Coutinho, Henrique D. M.

    2015-01-01

    The high incidence of fungal infections has led to the continuous search for new drugs. Extracts of Luehea paniculata, a tree of multiple medicinal uses, were evaluated for anti-Candida activity, as well as its modulator potential of the Fluconazole antibiotic. Chemical prospecting of ethanol extracts of leaf and bark was carried out, the quantification of total phenols and flavonoids, characterized by the HPLC-DAD technique. The rosmarinic acid and the vitexin flavonoid were observed as major constituents in ELELP and ESWELP, respectively. Antioxidant activity was also evaluated by the method of scavenging the free radical DPPH, and quercetin was used as standard, obtaining IC50 values: 0.341 (mg/mL) for ELELP and 0.235 (mg/mL) for ESWELP. The microdilution assay was performed for antifungal activity against strains of Candida albicans, C. krusei, and C. tropicalis and showed minimum inhibitory concentrations values ≥1024 μg/mL. In the modulator action of extracts on Fluconazole against multiresistant clinical isolates of Candida (subinhibitory concentration minimum of 128 μg/mL), a significant synergism was observed, indicating that the extracts potentiated the antifungal effect against C. tropicalis, where antioxidant flavonoids could be responsible. This is the first report about modifying activity of the antibiotic action of a species of the genus Luehea. PMID:25821822

  1. Phyto mediated biogenic synthesis of silver nanoparticles using leaf extract of Andrographis echioides and its bio-efficacy on anticancer and antibacterial activities.

    PubMed

    Elangovan, K; Elumalai, D; Anupriya, S; Shenbhagaraman, R; Kaleena, P K; Murugesan, K

    2015-10-01

    The present study reveals the efficiency of Andrographis echioides for green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The leaf aqueous extract of A. echioides was used for the synthesis of AgNPs and they were characterized by UV-visible, High Resonance Scanning Electron Microscope (HRSEM), Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX), Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. The toxicity of AgNPs was evaluated by using MTT assay. Our present study showed that biosynthesized AgNPs inhibited proliferation of human breast adenocarcinoma cancer cell line (MCF-7) with 31.5 μg/mL at 24h incubation. Results suggest that AgNPs may exert its anticancer activity on MCF-7 cell line by suppressing its growth. The silver nanoparticles was studied against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. The highest antibacterial activity was found against Escherichia coli (28 mm) and Staphylococcus aureus (23 mm) respectively.

  2. Warfarin and coumarin-like Murraya paniculata extract down-regulate EpCAM-mediated cell adhesion: individual components versus mixture for studying botanical metastatic chemopreventives.

    PubMed

    Shao, Jingwei; Zhou, Suxia; Jiang, Zhou; Chi, Ting; Ma, Ji; Kuo, Minliang; Lee, Alan Yueh-Luen; Jia, Lee

    2016-08-02

    We recently defined cancer metastatic chemoprevention as utilizing safe and effective molecules to comprehensively prevent the spark of activation-adhesion-extravasation-proliferation metastatic cascade caused by circulating tumor cells (CTCs). The strategy focuses on preventing the most important starting point of the cascade. We identified an extract from a well-known medical plant Murraya paniculata, which inhibited both embryonic implantation to human endometrium as traditionally-used for abortion and CTC adhesion to human endothelium. Here, we separated and characterized five coumarin-containing components (Z1-Z5) from the botanic extract. Flow cytometry revealed that within 1-100 μg/mL, Z3 and Z5 down-regulated EpCAM expression in human colon HCT116, whereas, Z1 and Z2 did oppositely. Warfarin and Z1-Z5 component mixture (CM) also down-regulated EpCAM expression. The down-regulation of EpCAM by Z3, Z5, CM and warfarin was confirmed by western blotting, and caused inhibition on adhesion of cancer cells to human endothelial cells. Rat coagulation study showed that warfarin prolonged prothrombin time, whereas, Z3 did not. The present studies revealed that, for the first time, warfarin and coumarin-like components Z3, Z5 and CM from Murraya paniculata could directly inhibit EpCAM-mediated cell-cell adhesion.

  3. Warfarin and coumarin-like Murraya paniculata extract down-regulate EpCAM-mediated cell adhesion: individual components versus mixture for studying botanical metastatic chemopreventives

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Jingwei; Zhou, Suxia; Jiang, Zhou; Chi, Ting; Ma, Ji; Kuo, Minliang; Lee, Alan Yueh-Luen; Jia, Lee

    2016-01-01

    We recently defined cancer metastatic chemoprevention as utilizing safe and effective molecules to comprehensively prevent the spark of activation-adhesion-extravasation-proliferation metastatic cascade caused by circulating tumor cells (CTCs). The strategy focuses on preventing the most important starting point of the cascade. We identified an extract from a well-known medical plant Murraya paniculata, which inhibited both embryonic implantation to human endometrium as traditionally-used for abortion and CTC adhesion to human endothelium. Here, we separated and characterized five coumarin-containing components (Z1–Z5) from the botanic extract. Flow cytometry revealed that within 1–100 μg/mL, Z3 and Z5 down-regulated EpCAM expression in human colon HCT116, whereas, Z1 and Z2 did oppositely. Warfarin and Z1-Z5 component mixture (CM) also down-regulated EpCAM expression. The down-regulation of EpCAM by Z3, Z5, CM and warfarin was confirmed by western blotting, and caused inhibition on adhesion of cancer cells to human endothelial cells. Rat coagulation study showed that warfarin prolonged prothrombin time, whereas, Z3 did not. The present studies revealed that, for the first time, warfarin and coumarin-like components Z3, Z5 and CM from Murraya paniculata could directly inhibit EpCAM-mediated cell-cell adhesion. PMID:27480614

  4. Chemical composition, antioxidant properties and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Murraya paniculata leaves from the mountains of Central Cuba.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Elisa Jorge; Ramis-Ramos, Guillermo; Heyden, Yvan Vander; Simó-Alfonso, Ernesto F; Lerma-García, María Jesús; Saucedo-Hernández, Yanelis; Monteagudo, Urbano; Morales, Yeni; Holgado, Beatriz; Herrero-Martínez, José Manuel

    2012-11-01

    The essential oil of Murraya paniculata L leaves from the mountains of the Central Region of Cuba, obtained by hydrodistillation, was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Eighteen compounds, accounting for 95.1% of the oil were identified. The major component was beta-caryophyllene (ca. 30%). The antioxidant activity of essential oil was evaluated against Cucurbita seed oil by peroxide, thiobarbituric acid and p-anisidine methods. The essential oil showed stronger antioxidant activity than that of butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene, but lower than that of propyl gallate. Moreover, this antioxidant activity was supported by the complementary antioxidant assay in the linoleic acid system and 2, 2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl. The essential oil also showed good to moderate inhibitory effects against Klebsiellapneumoniae and Bacillus subtilis.

  5. Dose and time-dependent sub-chronic toxicity study of hydroethanolic leaf extract of Flabellaria paniculata Cav. (Malpighiaceae) in rodents

    PubMed Central

    Akindele, Abidemi J.; Adeneye, Adejuwon A.; Salau, Oluwole S.; Sofidiya, Margaret O.; Benebo, Adokiye S.

    2014-01-01

    Flabellaria paniculata Cav. (Malpighiaceae) is a climbing shrub, the preparations of which are used in the treatment of wounds and ulcers in Nigeria and Ghana. This study investigated the sub-chronic toxicity profile of the hydroethanolic leaf extract of F. paniculata (HLE-FP). HLE-FP was administered p.o. (20, 100, and 500 mg/kg) for 30 and 60 days to different groups of rats. Control animals received 10 ml/kg distilled water. In the group of animals for reversibility study, HLE-FP administration ceased on the 60th day and animals were monitored for a further 15 days. Results showed that oral treatment with HLE-FP for 30 days caused significant (p < 0.05) reductions in weight gain pattern compared to control. These changes were sustained with 60 days treatment. However, no significant (p > 0.05) differences in relative organ weights between control and treatment groups were observed. HLE-FP-treated rats showed significant (p < 0.05) increases in Hb, PCV and RBC on day 30 and significant (p < 0.05) increases in MCV and MCH indices on day 60 compared to control. There were significant (p < 0.05) elevations in serum K+, urea and creatinine compared to control. The liver function tests showed slight but non-significant alterations in relevant parameters when compared to control. Biochemical findings were supported by histopathological observations of vital organs including the kidney and liver. Toxicities observed in respect of kidney function were irreversible at 15 days of stoppage of treatment. In the acute toxicity study, HLE-FP given p.o. caused no lethality at 5000 mg/kg but behavioral manifestations like restlessness, generalized body tremor, feed, and water refusal were observed. The i.p. LD50 was estimated to be 2951.2 mg/kg. Findings in this study showed that HLE-FP is relatively non-toxic on acute exposure and generally safe on sub-chronic administration, but could be deleterious on the kidneys on prolonged oral exposure at a high dose. Thus, caution should

  6. Total Coumarins from Hydrangea paniculata Protect against Cisplatin-Induced Acute Kidney Damage in Mice by Suppressing Renal Inflammation and Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Jie, Ma; Jingzhi, Yang; Dongjie, Wang; Dongming, Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Aim. Hydrangea paniculata (HP) Sieb. is a medical herb which is widely distributed in southern China, and current study is to evaluate renal protective effect of aqueous extract of HP by cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) in animal model and its underlying mechanisms. Materials and Methods. HP extract was prepared and the major ingredients were coumarin glycosides. AKI mouse models were established by single i.p. injection of 20 mg/kg cisplatin, and HP was orally administrated for total five times. The renal biochemical functions, pathological staining, kidney oxidative stress, and inflammatory status were measured. Apoptosis of tubular cells and infiltration of macrophages and neutrophils were also tested. Results. HP administration could improve the renal function by decreasing concentration of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine and attenuates renal oxidative stress and tubular pathological injury and apoptosis; further research demonstrated that HP could inhibit the overproduction of proinflammatory cytokines and regulate caspase and BCL-2 family proteins. HP also reduced renal infiltration of macrophages and neutrophils, and its effect might be by downregulating phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and stat3 signaling pathway. Conclusions. This present study suggests that HP could ameliorate cisplatin induced kidney damage by antioxidation and suppressing renal inflammation and tubular cell apoptosis. PMID:28367225

  7. The paradigm-shifting idea and its practice: from traditional abortion Chinese medicine Murraya paniculata to safe and effective cancer metastatic chemopreventives.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhou; Pang, Yaqiong; Yu, Xiaobo; Zhou, Suxia; Qian, Jun; Zheng, Ning; Dong, Haiyan; Shi, Qing; Kuo, Minliang; Jia, Lee

    2016-04-19

    Recent large epidemiological studies demonstrated benefit of oral contraceptives in reducing cancer risk, and our analysis also showed molecular and cellular similarities between embryo implantation and CTCs adhesion-invasion to endothelium. We here hypothesize that abortion traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) may serve well for pre-metastatic chemoprevention. To test the hypothesis, we selected the safe and well-known abortifacient TCM Murraya paniculata and identified a most-promising extracted fraction G (containing flavonoids and coumarins) from its many raw ethanol/dichloromethane extracts by using the bioactivity-guided fast screen assay. G showed free radical scavenging effect, and specifically inhibited both embryo implantation to human endometrial bed and cancer HT29 cells to human endothelium in a concentration-dependent manner (1-30 μg/mL) without significant cytotoxicity demonstrated by its high adhesion inhibition ratio. The inhibition may result from its down-regulation on expression of integrin β1 and α6, and CD44 on HT29 cells, as well as E-selectin on endothelial cells. Furthermore, G inhibited invasion and migration of HT29 cells. Pretreatment followed by one-month oral administration of G to the immunocompetent mice inoculated with mouse melanoma cells produced significant inhibition on lung metastasis without marked side effects. Collectively, this paradigm-shifting study provides, for the first time, a new strategy to discover safe and effective pre-metastatic chemopreventives from abortion TCM.

  8. The paradigm-shifting idea and its practice: from traditional abortion Chinese medicine Murraya paniculata to safe and effective cancer metastatic chemopreventives

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Suxia; Qian, Jun; Zheng, Ning; Dong, Haiyan; Shi, Qing; Kuo, Minliang; Jia, Lee

    2016-01-01

    Recent large epidemiological studies demonstrated benefit of oral contraceptives in reducing cancer risk, and our analysis also showed molecular and cellular similarities between embryo implantation and CTCs adhesion-invasion to endothelium. We here hypothesize that abortion traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) may serve well for pre-metastatic chemoprevention. To test the hypothesis, we selected the safe and well-known abortifacient TCM Murraya paniculata and identified a most-promising extracted fraction G (containing flavonoids and coumarins) from its many raw ethanol/dichloromethane extracts by using the bioactivity-guided fast screen assay. G showed free radical scavenging effect, and specifically inhibited both embryo implantation to human endometrial bed and cancer HT29 cells to human endothelium in a concentration-dependent manner (1–30 μg/mL) without significant cytotoxicity demonstrated by its high adhesion inhibition ratio. The inhibition may result from its down-regulation on expression of integrin β1 and α6, and CD44 on HT29 cells, as well as E-selectin on endothelial cells. Furthermore, G inhibited invasion and migration of HT29 cells. Pretreatment followed by one-month oral administration of G to the immunocompetent mice inoculated with mouse melanoma cells produced significant inhibition on lung metastasis without marked side effects. Collectively, this paradigm-shifting study provides, for the first time, a new strategy to discover safe and effective pre-metastatic chemopreventives from abortion TCM. PMID:26959747

  9. Characterization of seventy polymethoxylated flavonoids (PMFs) in the leaves of Murraya paniculata by on-line high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to photodiode array detection and electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jia-Yu; Li, Ning; Che, Yan-Yun; Zhang, Yun; Liang, Shen-Xuan; Zhao, Ming-Bo; Jiang, Yong; Tu, Peng-Fei

    2011-12-15

    A sensitive HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS method was established to screen and identify the polymethoxylated flavonoids (PMFs) in the leaves of Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack. 16 PMF standards were first to be analyzed in positive mode by the CID-MS/MS. For polymethoxylated flavones, the fragments of [M+H-n×15](+) produced by loss of one or more methyl radicals from the protonated molecule, as well as [M+H-16](+), [M+H-28](+), [M+H-29](+), [M+H-31](+), [M+H-33](+), [M+H-43](+), [M+H-44](+), [M+H-46](+) and [M+H-61](+) fragment ions were detected, which could be taken as their diagnostic characters. For polymethoxylated flavanones and chalcones, their [M+H](+) ions usually underwent RDA cleavage fragmentation of the C-ring prior to the similar loss of diagnostic fragment ions as polymethoxylated flavones, which could be adopted as a shortcut to distinguish them from ordinary flavones rapidly. For the PMF glycosides, the neutral loss of the similar fragments with polymethoxylated flavones from their [aglycone+H](+) could be adopted as a simple method to screen them out from complex mixture. Based on these characterizations of PMFs and the results of EIC-MS/MS experiment, 70 PMFs including 45 flavones, 17 flavanones or chalcones and 8 PMFs glycosides were screened out from the complex extract of the leaves of M. paniculata. Among them, 16 compounds were unambiguously identified by comparison with reference substances. The results indicated that the developed analysis method could be employed as a rapid, effective technique for structural characterization of PMFs.

  10. Studies on effects of indigenous plant extracts on filarial vector Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles.

    PubMed

    Elango, G; Rahuman, A Abdul; Kamaraj, C; Zahir, A Abduz; Bagavan, A

    2010-06-01

    Mosquito control is facing a threat because of the emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. The purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of leaf ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa ex Roxb (Rutaceae), Andrographis lineata Wallich ex Nees. (Acanthaceae), Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wall. ex Nees. (Acanthaceae), Cocculus hirsutus (L.) Diels (Menispermaceae), Eclipta prostrata L. (Asteraceae) and Tagetes erecta L. (Compositae) on ovicidal and oviposition-deterrent activities against Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles (Diptera: Culicidae). The percentage of egg hatching in methanol extracts of Andrographis lineata, Cocculus hirsutus and T. erecta were 16, 12 and 16 exerted at 500 ppm, respectively. The percentage of effective oviposition repellency was 97.77 at 500 ppm and the lowest repellency was 42.06 at 31.25 ppm in methanol and acetone extracts of Andrographis lineata and Andrographis paniculata, respectively. The oviposition activity index values revealed that the solvent plant extracts have deterrent effect, and they caused a remarkable negative response resulting in oviposition of very few eggs. These results suggest that the leaf solvent plant extracts have the potential to be used as an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of the Culex tritaeniorhynchus.

  11. Metabolomic comparative analysis of the phloem sap of curry leaf tree (Bergera koenegii), orange jasmine (Murraya paniculata), and Valencia sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) supports their differential responses to Huanglongbing.

    PubMed

    Killiny, Nabil

    2016-11-01

    Orange jasmine, Murraya paniculata and curry leaf tree, Bergera koenegii are alternative hosts for Diaphorina citri, the vector of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), the pathogen of huanglongbing (HLB) in citrus. D. citri feeds on the phloem sap where CLas grows. It has been shown that orange jasmine was a better host than curry leaf tree to D. citri. In addition, CLas can infect orange jasmine but not curry leaf tree. Here, we compared the phloem sap composition of these 2 plants to the main host, Valencia sweet orange, Citrus sinensis. Phloem sap was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after trimethylsilyl derivatization. Orange jasmine was the highest in proteinogenic, non-proteinogenic amino acids, organic acids, as well as total metabolites. Valencia was the highest in mono- and disaccharides, and sugar alcohols. Curry leaf tree was the lowest in most of the metabolites as well as total metabolites. Interestingly, malic acid was high in Valencia and orange jasmine but was not detected in the curry leaf. On the other hand, tartaric acid which can prevent the formation of malic acid in Krebs cycle was high in curry leaf. The nutrient inadequacy of the phloem sap in curry leaf tree, especially the amino acids could be the reason behind the longer life cycle and the low survival of D. citri and the limitation of CLas growth on this host. Information obtained from this study may help in cultivation of CLas and development of artificial diet for rearing of D. citri.

  12. Ex Vivo Antioxidant Activity of Selected Medicinal Plants against Fenton Reaction-Mediated Oxidation of Biological Lipid Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Pai Kotebagilu, Namratha; Reddy Palvai, Vanitha; Urooj, Asna

    2015-01-01

    Free radical-mediated oxidation is often linked to various degenerative diseases. Biological substrates with lipids as major components are susceptible to oxygen-derived lipid peroxidation due to their composition. Lipid peroxide products act as biomarkers in evaluating the antioxidant potential of various plants and functional foods. The study focused on evaluation of the antioxidant potential of two extracts (methanol and 80% methanol) of four medicinal plants, Andrographis paniculata, Costus speciosus, Canthium parviflorum, and Abrus precatorius, against Fenton reaction-mediated oxidation of three biological lipid substrates; cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and brain homogenate. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was measured by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances method. Also, the correlation between the polyphenol, flavonoid content, and the antioxidant activity in biological substrates was analyzed. Results indicated highest antioxidant potential by 80% methanol extract of Canthium parviflorum (97.55%), methanol extract of Andrographis paniculata (72.15%), and methanol extract of Canthium parviflorum (49.55%) in cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and brain, respectively. The polyphenol and flavonoid contents of methanol extract of Andrographis paniculata in cholesterol (r = 0.816) and low-density lipoprotein (r = 0.948) and Costus speciosus in brain (r = 0.977, polyphenols, and r = 0.949, flavonoids) correlated well with the antioxidant activity. The findings prove the antioxidant potential of the selected medicinal plants against Fenton reaction in biological lipid substrates. PMID:26933511

  13. Study on THz spectra of the active ingredients in the TCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, ShiHua; Wang, WenFeng; Liu, GuiFeng; Ge, Min; Zhu, ZhiYong

    2008-03-01

    Terahertz spectroscopy has tremendous potential for applications to evaluate the quality of the drugs including the TCM. In this paper, the Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy investigated two active ingredients: Andrographolide and Dehydroandrographoline, isolated from Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees. We also measured the mixtures of two active ingredients at the different ratio and the quantitative analysis is also applied to determine the contents of compound. The Terahertz spectroscopy is a potential and promising technique in identifying the components, evaluating the drugs sanitation and inspecting the quality of medicine including TCM.

  14. Screening of plants acting against Heterometrus laoticus scorpion venom activity on fibroblast cell lysis.

    PubMed

    Uawonggul, Nunthawun; Chaveerach, Arunrat; Thammasirirak, Sompong; Arkaravichien, Tarinee; Chuachan, Chattong; Daduang, Sakda

    2006-01-16

    The aqueous extracts of 64 plant species, listed as animal- or insect-bite antidotes in old Thai drug recipes were screened for their activity against fibroblast cell lysis after Heterometrus laoticus scorpion venom treatment. The venom was preincubated with plant extract for 30 min and furthered treated to confluent fibroblast cells for 30 min. More than 40% efficiency (test/control) was obtained from cell treatment with venom preincubated with extracts of Andrographis paniculata Nees (Acanthaceae), Barringtonia acutangula (L.) Gaertn. (Lecythidaceae), Calamus sp. (Palmae), Clinacanthus nutans Lindau (Acanthaceae), Euphorbia neriifolia L. (Euphorbiaceae), Ipomoea aquatica Forssk (Convolvulaceae), Mesua ferrea L. (Guttiferae), Passiflora laurifolia L. (Passifloraceae), Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. (Labiatae), Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiaceae), Rumex sp. (Polygonaceae) and Sapindus rarak DC. (Sapindaceae), indicating that they had a tendency to be scorpion venom antidotes. However, only Andrographis paniculata and Barringtonia acutangula extracts provided around 50% viable cells from extract treatments without venom preincubation. These two plant extracts are expected to be scorpion venom antidotes with low cytotoxicity.

  15. Efficacy of indigenous plant extracts on the malaria vector Anopheles subpictus Grassi (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Elango, G.; Zahir, A. Abduz; Bagavan, A.; Kamaraj, C.; Rajakumar, G.; Santhoshkumar, T.; Marimuthu, S.; Rahuman, A. Abdul

    2011-01-01

    Background & objectives: Mosquito control is facing a threat due to the emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Insecticides of plant origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. The purpose of the present study was to assess the ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extracts of Andrographis paniculata, Eclipta prostrata and Tagetes erecta leaves tested for oviposition-deterrent, ovicidal and repellent activities against malaria vector, Anopheles subpictus Grassi (Diptera: Culicidae). Methods: The dried leaves of the three plants were powdered mechanically and extracted with ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol. One gram of crude extract was first dissolved in 100 ml of acetone (stock solution). From the stock solution, test solution concentrations of 31.21- 499.42 mg/l for oviposition- deterrence assay and repellency and 15.60 - 998.85 mg/l were used in ovicidal assay. The percentage oviposition- deterrence, hatching rate of eggs and protection time were calculated. One-way analysis of variance was used for the multiple concentration tests and for per cent mortality to determine significant treatment differences. Results: The percentage of effective oviposition repellency was highest at 499.42 mg/l and the lowest at 31.21 mg/l in ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extracts of A. paniculata, E. prostrata and T. erecta. The oviposition activity index (OAI) value of ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extracts of A. paniculata, E. prostrata and T. erecta at 499.42 mg/l were -0.91, -0.93, -0.84, -0.84, -0.87, -0.82, -0.87, -0.89 and -0.87, respectively. Mortality (no egg hatchability) was 100 per cent with ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of A. paniculata, E. prostrata and T. erecta at 998.85 mg/l. The maximum adult repellent activity was observed at 499.42 mg/l in ethyl acetate extracts of A. paniculata, E. prostrata and methanol extracts of T. erecta, and the mean complete protection time ranged from 120 to 150 min with

  16. Adulticidal and repellent properties of indigenous plant extracts against Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Sivakumar, Rajamohan

    2012-05-01

    Several diseases are associated to the mosquito-human interaction. Mosquitoes are the carriers of severe and well-known illnesses such as malaria, arboviral encephalitis, dengue fever, chikunguniya fever, West Nile virus, and yellow fever. These diseases produce significant morbidity and mortality in humans and livestock around the world. The adulticidal and repellent activities of crude hexane, ethyl acetate, benzene, chloroform, and methanol extracts of leaf of Eclipta alba and Andrographis paniculata were assayed for their toxicity against two important vector mosquitoes, viz., Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). The adult mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. All extracts showed moderate adulticide effects; however, the highest adult mortality was found in methanol extract of A. paniculata against the adults of C. quinquefasciatus and A. aegypti with the LC(50) and LC(90) values were 149.81, 172.37 ppm and 288.12, 321.01 ppm, respectively. The results of the repellent activity of hexane, ethyl acetate, benzene, chloroform, and methanol extract of E. alba and A. paniculata plants at three different concentrations of 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 mg/cm(2) were applied on skin of forearm in man and exposed against adult female mosquitoes. In this observation, these two plant crude extracts gave protection against mosquito bites without any allergic reaction to the test person, and also, the repellent activity is dependent on the strength of the plant extracts. These results suggest that the leaf solvent plant extracts have the potential to be used as an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of mosquitoes. This is the first report on the mosquito adulticidal and repellent activities of the reported E. alba and A. paniculata plants.

  17. Understanding the Antifungal Mechanism of Ag@ZnO Core-shell Nanocomposites against Candida krusei

    PubMed Central

    Das, Bhaskar; Khan, Md. Imran; Jayabalan, R.; Behera, Susanta K.; Yun, Soon-Il; Tripathy, Suraj K.; Mishra, Amrita

    2016-01-01

    In the present paper, facile synthesis of Ag@ZnO core-shell nanocomposites is reported where zinc oxide is coated on biogenic silver nanoparticles synthesized using Andrographis paniculata and Aloe vera leaf extract. Structural features of as synthesized nanocomposites are characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, XRD, and FTIR. Morphology of the above core-shell nanocomposites is investigated by electron microscopy. As synthesized nanocomposite material has shown antimicrobial activity against Candida krusei, which is an opportunistic pathogen known to cause candidemia. The possible mode of activity of the above material has been studied by in-vitro molecular techniques. Our investigations have shown that surface coating of biogenic silver nanoparticles by zinc oxide has increased its antimicrobial efficiency against Candida krusei, while decreasing its toxicity towards A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cell lines. PMID:27812015

  18. Formulation and evaluation of herbal anti-acne moisturizer.

    PubMed

    Rasheed, Arun; Shama, Shaik Neelufar; Joy, Jyothi Mulanjananiyil; Reddy, Bobbu Sravya; Roja, Chirra

    2012-10-01

    The moisture content present in human skin makes it look young and the use of moisturizer results in fastening the moisture with a surface film of oil. Acne vulgaris is one of the most commonly seen diseases among the youth. The present study is focused on the use of herbs as moisturizer for acne treatment. The anti-acne moisturizer was formulated from herbal crude extracts and investigated the physico-chemical parameters as well as antibacterial activity of the formulation. The study revealed that ethanol extract of Andrographis paniculata, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Ocimum sanctum, Azadiracta indica and Green tea possessed the potential for inhibiting acne. It was observed that the optimal formula of anti-acne moisturizer was satisfactorily effective to control acne inducing bacteria i.e., Staphylococcus epidermis and Propionibacterium. The physico-chemical parameters of the formulation were also optimal with no signs of irritation.

  19. Mycosynthesis of silver nanoparticles bearing antibacterial activity

    PubMed Central

    Azmath, Pasha; Baker, Syed; Rakshith, Devaraju; Satish, Sreedharamurthy

    2015-01-01

    Mycosynthesis of silver nanoparticles was achieved by endophytic Colletotrichum sp. ALF2-6 inhabiting Andrographis paniculata. Well dispersed nanoparticles were characterized using UV–Visible spectrometry with maximum absorption conferring at 420 nm. FTIR analysis revealed possible biomolecules reducing the metal salt and stabilization of nanoparticles. XRD analysis depicted the diffraction intensities exhibiting between 20 and 80 °C at 2theta angle thus conferring the crystalline nature of nanoparticles. Morphological characteristic using TEM revealed the polydispersity of nanoparticles with size ranging from 20 to 50 nm. Synthesized nanoparticles exhibited bactericidal activity against selected human pathogens. Nanoparticles mode of action was carried out to reveal DNA damage activity. Thus the present investigation reports facile fabrication of silver nanoparticles from endophytic fungi. PMID:27013906

  20. Simultaneous Estimation of Andrographolide and Wedelolactone in Herbal Formulations

    PubMed Central

    Patel, M. B.; Kadakia, V. M.; Mishra, S. H.

    2008-01-01

    Andrographolide and wedelolactone are active components of Andrographis paniculata and Eclipta alba, respectively. The extracts of these plants are used in many traditional hepatoprotective formulations. An attempt has been made to develop an accurate, precise and specific HPTLC method to quantify simultaneously both these chemical markers of diversified chemical structures in different dosage forms like tablet and syrup. Precoated silica 60F254 plates with toluene:acetone:formic acid (9:6:1) as mobile phase and detection wavelength of 254 nm were used. The method was validated in terms of linearity, accuracy, precision and specificity. The calibration curve was found to be linear between 200 to 400 ng/spot for andrographolide and 100 to 200 ng/spot for wedelolactone. The limit of detection and the limit of quantification for andrographolide were 26.16 and 79.28 ng/spot, respectively and for wedelolactone 5.06 and 15.32 ng/spot, respectively. PMID:21394279

  1. Effect of Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine with Antiquorum Sensing Activity on Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Shuxin; Jiang, Yan; Zhu, Wei; Zhuang, Xiyi; Fu, Jiangyan

    2013-01-01

    Traditional Chinese herbal medicines (TCHMs) were tested for their ability of antiquorum sensing. Water extracts of Rhubarb, Fructus gardeniae, and Andrographis paniculata show antiquorumsensing activity when using Chromobacterium violaceum CV12472 as reporter; the sub-MIC concentrations of these TCHMs were tested against AHL-dependent phenotypic expressions of PAO1. Results showed significant reduction in pyocyanin pigment, protease, elastase production, and biofilm formation in PAO1 without inhibiting the bacterial growth, revealing that the QSI by the extracts is not related to static or killing effects on the bacteria. The results indicate a potential modulation of bacterial cell-cell communication, P. aeruginosa biofilm, and virulence factors by traditional Chinese herbal medicine. This study introduces not only a new mode of action for traditional Chinese herbal medicines, but also a potential new therapeutic direction for the treatment of bacterial infections, which have QSI activity and might be important in reducing virulence and pathogenicity of pathogenic bacteria. PMID:24319480

  2. Herb–drug interaction prediction based on the high specific inhibition of andrographolide derivatives towards UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 2B7

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Hai-Ying; Sun, Dong-Xue; Cao, Yun-Feng; Ai, Chun-Zhi; Qu, Yan-Qing; Hu, Cui-Min; Jiang, Changtao; Dong, Pei-Pei; Sun, Xiao-Yu; Hong, Mo; Tanaka, Naoki; Gonzalez, Frank J.; and others

    2014-05-15

    Herb–drug interaction strongly limits the clinical application of herbs and drugs, and the inhibition of herbal components towards important drug-metabolizing enzymes (DMEs) has been regarded as one of the most important reasons. The present study aims to investigate the inhibition potential of andrographolide derivatives towards one of the most important phase II DMEs UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs). Recombinant UGT isoforms (except UGT1A4)-catalyzed 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU) glucuronidation reaction and UGT1A4-catalyzed trifluoperazine (TFP) glucuronidation were employed to firstly screen the andrographolide derivatives' inhibition potential. High specific inhibition of andrographolide derivatives towards UGT2B7 was observed. The inhibition type and parameters (K{sub i}) were determined for the compounds exhibiting strong inhibition capability towards UGT2B7, and human liver microsome (HLMs)-catalyzed zidovudine (AZT) glucuronidation probe reaction was used to furtherly confirm the inhibition behavior. In combination of inhibition parameters (K{sub i}) and in vivo concentration of andrographolide and dehydroandrographolide, the potential in vivo inhibition magnitude was predicted. Additionally, both the in vitro inhibition data and computational modeling results provide important information for the modification of andrographolide derivatives as selective inhibitors of UGT2B7. Taken together, data obtained from the present study indicated the potential herb–drug interaction between Andrographis paniculata and the drugs mainly undergoing UGT2B7-catalyzed metabolic elimination, and the andrographolide derivatives as potential candidates for the selective inhibitors of UGT2B7. - Highlights: • Specific inhibition of andrographolide derivatives towards UGT2B7. • Herb-drug interaction related withAndrographis paniculata. • Guidance for design of UGT2B7 specific inhibitors.

  3. Strong synergistic induction of CYP1A1 expression by andrographolide plus typical CYP1A inducers in mouse hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Jaruchotikamol, Atika; Jarukamjorn, Kanokwan Sirisangtrakul, Wanna; Sakuma, Tsutomu; Kawasaki, Yuki; Nemoto, Nobuo

    2007-10-15

    The effects of andrographolide, the major diterpenoid constituent of Andrographis paniculata, on the expression of cytochrome P450 superfamily 1 members, including CYP1A1, CYP1A2, and CYP1B1, as well as on aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) expression in primary cultures of mouse hepatocytes were investigated in comparison with the effects of typical CYP1A inducers, including benz[a]anthracene, {beta}-naphthoflavone, and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. Andrographolide significantly induced the expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 mRNAs in a concentration-dependent manner, as did the typical CYP1A inducers, but did not induce that of CYP1B1 or AhR. Interestingly, andrographolide plus the typical CYP1A inducers synergistically induced CYP1A1 expression, and the synergism was blocked by an AhR antagonist, resveratrol. The CYP1A1 enzyme activity showed a similar pattern of induction. This is the first report that shows that andrographolide has a potency to induce CYP1A1 enzyme and indicates that andrographolide could be a very useful compound for investigating the regulatory mechanism of the CYP1A1 induction pathway. In addition, our findings suggest preparing advice for rational administration of A. paniculata, according to its ability to induce CYP1A1 expression.

  4. Analgesic, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory and toxic effects of andrographolide derivatives in experimental animals.

    PubMed

    Suebsasana, Supawadee; Pongnaratorn, Panicha; Sattayasai, Jintana; Arkaravichien, Tarinee; Tiamkao, Siriporn; Aromdee, Chantana

    2009-09-01

    Andrographolide (1) and 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide (2) are active constituents of Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.), family Acanthaceae. A. paniculata extracts are reported to have antiviral, antipyretic, immunostimulant and anticancer activities. In this study, 1 and its 14-acetyl- (4) and 3,19-isopropylidenyl- (3) derivatives, as well as 2 and its 3,19-dipalmitoyl-derivative (5), were intraperitoneally tested for their analgesic, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory and acute toxicity effects in animal models. Analgesic effects were tested in mice using hot plate and writhing tests to distinguish the central and peripheral effects, respectively. The results showed that, at 4 mg/kg, all tested substances have significant analgesic effects, and the highest potency was seen with 3, 4 and 5. Increasing the dose of 3 and 5 to 8 mg/kg did not increase the analgesic effect. In the writhing test, 3 and 5, but not 1, showed significant results. In a baker's yeast-induced fever model, 3 and 5 significantly reduced rats' rectal temperature (p < 0.05). In a carrageenan-induced inflammation model, 1, 3 and 5 significantly reduced rats' paw volume. Doses of 3 and 5 up to 100 mg/kg did not show any serious toxic effects. From this study, 3 and 5 are the most interesting derivatives, showing much greater potency than their parent compounds. These could be further developed as analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory agents, without any serious toxicity.

  5. Screening of anti-dengue activity in methanolic extracts of medicinal plants

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Dengue fever regardless of its serotypes has been the most prevalent arthropod-borne viral diseases among the world population. The development of a dengue vaccine is complicated by the antibody-dependent enhancement effect. Thus, the development of a plant-based antiviral preparation promises a more potential alternative in combating dengue disease. Methods Present studies investigated the antiviral effects of standardised methanolic extracts of Andrographis paniculata, Citrus limon, Cymbopogon citratus, Momordica charantia, Ocimum sanctum and Pelargonium citrosum on dengue virus serotype 1 (DENV-1). Results O. sanctum contained 88.6% of total flavonoids content, an amount that was the highest among all the six plants tested while the least was detected in M. charantia. In this study, the maximum non-toxic dose (MNTD) of the six medicinal plants was determined by testing the methanolic extracts against Vero E6 cells in vitro. Studies also determined that the MNTD of methanolic extract was in the decreasing order of M. charantia >C. limon >P. citrosum, O. sanctum >A. paniculata >C. citratus. Antiviral assay based on cytopathic effects (CPE) denoted by degree of inhibition upon treating DENV1-infected Vero E6 cells with MNTD of six medicinal plants showed that A. paniculata has the most antiviral inhibitory effects followed by M. charantia. These results were further verified with an in vitro inhibition assay using MTT, in which 113.0% and 98.0% of cell viability were recorded as opposed to 44.6% in DENV-1 infected cells. Although methanolic extracts of O. sanctum and C. citratus showed slight inhibition effect based on CPE, a significant inhibition was not reflected in MTT assay. Methanolic extracts of C. limon and P. citrosum did not prevent cytopathic effects or cell death from DENV-1. Conclusions The methanol extracts of A. paniculata and M. charantia possess the ability of inhibiting the activity of DENV-1 in in vitro assays. Both of these plants are

  6. Low incidence of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus in Diaphorina citri and its host plant Murraya paniculata

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is one of the most devastating diseases of citrus worldwide. Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus is the prevalent species of three HLB-associated Liberibacter species, which is vectored by the psyllid Diaphorina citri. The vector and the bacteria have host plants outside Citrus, ...

  7. First Report of Dodder Transmission of Huanglongbing from Naturally Infected Murraya paniculata to Citrus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Huanglongbing (HLB) or “greening” disease of citrus is caused by phloem-limited, uncultured bacteria in the genus “Candidatus Liberibacter”. HLB is one of the most destructive diseases of citrus worldwide and is considered so dangerous to a U.S. citrus production that the USDA has listed “Ca. Liberi...

  8. Inhibition of Human Cytochrome P450 2c8-catalyzed Amodiaquine N-desethylation: Effect of Five Traditionally and Commonly Used Herbs

    PubMed Central

    Muthiah, Yasotha Devi; Ong, Chin Eng; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Ismail, Rusli

    2016-01-01

    Background: In Southeast Asia and many parts of the world, herbal products are increasingly used in parallel with modern medicine. Objective: This study aimed to investigate the effects of herbs commonly used in Southeast Asia on activity of cytochrome P450 2C8 (CYP2C8), an important human hepatic enzyme in drug metabolism. Materials and Methods: The selected herbs, such as Eurycoma longifolia Jack (ELJ), Labisia pumila (LP), Echinacea purpurea (EP), Andrographis paniculata (AP), and Ginkgo biloba (GB), were subjected to inhibition studies using an in vitro CYP2C8 activity marker, amodiaquine N-desethylase assay. Inhibition parameters, inhibitory concentration 50% (IC50), and Ki values were determined to study the potency and mode of inhibition. Results: All herbs inhibited CYP2C8 with the following order of potency: LP > ELJ > GB > AP > EP. LP and ELJ inhibited potently at Ki's of 2 and 4 times the Ki of quercetin, the positive control. The inhibition by LP was uncompetitive in nature as compared to competitive or mixed type inhibition observed with other herbs. GB exhibited moderate inhibitory effect at a Ki6 times larger than quercetin Ki. AP and EP, on the other hand, showed only weak inhibition. Conclusion: The herbs we chose represented the more commonly used herbs in Southeast Asia where collision of tradition and modernization in healthcare, if not properly managed, may lead to therapeutic misadventures. We conclude that concurrent consumption of some herbs, in particular, LP and ELJ, may have relevance in drug-herb interactions via CYP2C8 inhibition in vivo. SUMMARY Herbs are increasingly used in parallel with modern medicines nowadays. In this study five commonly used herbs in Southeast Asia region, ELJ, LP, EP, AP and GB, were investigated for their in vitro inhibitory potency on CYP2C8, an important drug-metaboliz-ing human hepatic enzyme. All herbs inhibited CYP2C8 activity marker, amodiaquine N-desethylation, with potency order of LP > ELJ > GB >AP

  9. Bar-HRM for Authentication of Plant-Based Medicines: Evaluation of Three Medicinal Products Derived from Acanthaceae Species.

    PubMed

    Osathanunkul, Maslin; Madesis, Panagiotis; de Boer, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    Medicinal plants are used as a popular alternative to synthetic drugs, both in developed and developing countries. The economic importance of the herbal and natural supplement industry is increasing every year. As the herbal industry grows, consumer safety is one issue that cannot be overlooked. Herbal products in Thai local markets are commonly sold without packaging or labels. Plant powders are stored in large bags or boxes, and therefore buying local herbal products poses a high risk of acquiring counterfeited, substituted and/or adulterated products. Due to these issues, a reliable method to authenticate products is needed. Here DNA barcoding was used in combination with High Resolution Melting analysis (Bar-HRM) to authenticate three medicinal Acanthaceae species (Acanthus ebracteatus, Andrographis paniculata and Rhinacanthus nasutus) commonly used in Thailand. The rbcL barcode was selected for use in primers design for HRM analysis to produce standard melting profiles of the selected species. Melting data from the HRM assay using the designed rbcL primers showed that the three chosen species could be distinguished from each other. HRM curves of all fifteen test samples indicated that three of tested products did not contain the indicated species. Two closely related species (A. paniculata and R. nasutus), which have a high level of morphological similarity, were interchanged with one another in three tested products. Incorrect information on packaging and labels of the tested herbal products was the cause of the results shown here. Morphological similarity among the species of interest also hindered the collection process. The Bar-HRM method developed here proved useful in aiding in the identification and authentication of herbal species in processed samples. In the future, species authentication through Bar-HRM could be used to promote consumer trust, as well as raising the quality of herbal products.

  10. Biochemical and histochemical analyses revealing endophytic Alcaligenes faecalis mediated suppression of oxidative stress in Abelmoschus esculentus challenged with Sclerotium rolfsii.

    PubMed

    Ray, Shatrupa; Singh, Vivek; Singh, Surendra; Sarma, Birinchi Kumar; Singh, Harikesh Bahadur

    2016-12-01

    Sclerotium rolfsii is a highly aggressive pathogen that causes huge economic losses, especially in temperate climates. Alcaligenes faecalis, particularly in endophytic form, has rarely been used to control this fungus. In this study, endophytic Alcaligenes sp. strain BHU 12, BHU 16 (isolated from Abelmoschus esculentus leaf) and BHU M7 (isolated from Andrographis paniculata leaf) were reported to trigger a wide range of host defenses in Okra plant against the collar-rot pathogen S. rolfsii. Endophytic colonization of the strains in ten days old plants was assessed through re-isolation of the rif-tagged strains on rifampicin augmented nutrient agar media. The ability of the endophytic strains to induce systemic defense responses in above-ground organs was assessed by collecting leaf tissues of the Okra plants grown under non-gnotobiotic conditions at different time intervals post seedling bacterization with the endophytic biocontrol agents. The pathogen challenged unprimed plants exhibited flaccidity of the stem and leaves at 48 h post infection (hpi) in contrast to the bioprimed and challenged plants. Biochemical and histochemical analyses explained the above phenomenon as activation of phyto-peroxidases leading to an increased metabolism of the reactive oxygen species (ROS), accompanied by activation of the phenylpropanoid network and a subsequent enhancement in plant phenolics. Interestingly, though the maximum increase in the defense pathways was observed in treatments with native endophytes of Okra plant, yet the enhancement in antioxidant pathway due to A. paniculata borne endophytes was also quite significant. Thus, this work clearly demonstrates how Okra plants respond to the "non-hostile" colonization of bacterial endophytes and how induced defense response can contribute to the biocontrol activity of the endophytic strains.

  11. Bar-HRM for Authentication of Plant-Based Medicines: Evaluation of Three Medicinal Products Derived from Acanthaceae Species

    PubMed Central

    Osathanunkul, Maslin; Madesis, Panagiotis; de Boer, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    Medicinal plants are used as a popular alternative to synthetic drugs, both in developed and developing countries. The economic importance of the herbal and natural supplement industry is increasing every year. As the herbal industry grows, consumer safety is one issue that cannot be overlooked. Herbal products in Thai local markets are commonly sold without packaging or labels. Plant powders are stored in large bags or boxes, and therefore buying local herbal products poses a high risk of acquiring counterfeited, substituted and/or adulterated products. Due to these issues, a reliable method to authenticate products is needed. Here DNA barcoding was used in combination with High Resolution Melting analysis (Bar-HRM) to authenticate three medicinal Acanthaceae species (Acanthus ebracteatus, Andrographis paniculata and Rhinacanthus nasutus) commonly used in Thailand. The rbcL barcode was selected for use in primers design for HRM analysis to produce standard melting profiles of the selected species. Melting data from the HRM assay using the designed rbcL primers showed that the three chosen species could be distinguished from each other. HRM curves of all fifteen test samples indicated that three of tested products did not contain the indicated species. Two closely related species (A. paniculata and R. nasutus), which have a high level of morphological similarity, were interchanged with one another in three tested products. Incorrect information on packaging and labels of the tested herbal products was the cause of the results shown here. Morphological similarity among the species of interest also hindered the collection process. The Bar-HRM method developed here proved useful in aiding in the identification and authentication of herbal species in processed samples. In the future, species authentication through Bar-HRM could be used to promote consumer trust, as well as raising the quality of herbal products. PMID:26011474

  12. The effect of Eurycoma longifolia on sperm quality of male rats.

    PubMed

    Chan, Kit-Lam; Low, Bin-Seng; Teh, Chin-Hoe; Das, Prashanta K

    2009-10-01

    The present study investigated the effects of a standardized methanol extract of E. longifolia Jack containing the major quassinoid constituents of 13alpha(21)-epoxyeurycomanone (1), eurycomanone (2), 13alpha,21-dihydroeurycomanone (3) and eurycomanol (4) on the epididymal spermatozoa profile of normal and Andrographis paniculata induced infertile rats. The standardized MeOH extract at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, the EtOAc fraction (70 mg/kg), and standardized MeOH extract at 200 mg/kg co-administered with the EtOAc fraction of A. paniculata at 70 mg/kg were each given orally to male Sprague-Dawley albino rats for 48 consecutive days. The spermatozoa count, morphology, motility, plasma testosterone level and Leydig cell count of the animals were statistically analyzed by ANOVA with a post-hoc Tukey HSD test. The results showed that the sperm count of rats given the standardized MeOH extract alone at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg were increased by 78.9, 94.3 and 99.2%, respectively when compared with that of control (p < 0.01). The low count, poor motility and abnormal morphology of the spermatozoa induced by the A. paniculata fraction were significantly reversed by the standardized MeOH extract of E. longifolia (p < 0.001). The plasma testosterone level of the rats treated with the standardized MeOH extract at 200 mg/kg was significantly increased (p < 0.01) when compared with that of the control and infertile animals. The spermatocytes in the seminiferous tubules and the Leydig cells appeared normal. Testosterone level was significantly higher in the testes (p < 0.01) than in the plasma after 30 days of oral treatment with the standardized MeOH extract. Interestingly, eurycomanone (2) alone was detected in the rat testis homogenates by HPLC-UV and confirmed by LC/MS, and may have contributed towards the improvement of sperm quality. Thus, the plant may potentially be suitable for the management of male infertility.

  13. Andrographolide: A New Plant-Derived Antineoplastic Entity on Horizon

    PubMed Central

    Varma, Astha; Padh, Harish; Shrivastava, Neeta

    2011-01-01

    Plant-derived natural products occupy an important position in the area of cancer chemotherapy. Molecules such as vincristine, vinblastine, paclitaxel, camptothecin derivatives, epipodophyllotoxin, and so forth, are invaluable contributions of nature to modern medicine. However, the quest to find out novel therapeutic compounds for cancer treatment and management is a never-ending venture; and diverse plant species are persistently being studied for identification of prospective anticancer agents. In this regard, Andrographis paniculata Nees, a well-known plant of Indian and Chinese traditional system of medicines, has drawn attention of researchers in recent times. Andrographolide, the principal bioactive chemical constituent of the plant has shown credible anticancer potential in various investigations around the globe. In vitro studies demonstrate the capability of the compound of inducing cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in a variety of cancer cells at different concentrations. Andrographolide also shows potent immunomodulatory and anti-angiogenic activities in tumorous tissues. Synthetic analogues of the compound have also been created and analyzed, which have also shown similar activities. Although it is too early to predict its future in cancer chemotherapy, the prologue strongly recommends further research on this molecule to assess its potential as a prospective anticancer agent. PMID:19752167

  14. Engineered andrographolide nanosystems for smart recovery in hepatotoxic conditions

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Partha; Das, Suvadra; Auddy, Runa Ghosh; Mukherjee, Arup

    2014-01-01

    Andrographolide (AG) is one of the most potent labdane diterpenoid-type free radical scavengers available from plant sources. The compound is the principal bioactive component in Andrographis paniculata leaf extracts, and is responsible for anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and immunomodulatory activity. The application of AG in therapeutics, however, is severely constrained, due to its low aqueous solubility, short biological half-life, and poor cellular permeability. Engineered nanoparticles in biodegradable polymer systems were therefore conceived as one solution to aid in further drug-like applications of AG. In this study, a cationic modified poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid nanosystem was applied for evaluation against experimental mouse hepatotoxic conditions. Biopolymeric nanoparticles of hydrodynamic size of 229.7±17.17 nm and ζ-potential +34.4±1.87 mV facilitated marked restoration in liver functions and oxidative stress markers. Superior dissolution for bioactive AG, hepatic residence, and favorable cytokine regulation in the liver tissues are some of the factors responsible for the newer nanosystem-assisted rapid recovery. PMID:25336950

  15. Herbal and plant therapy in patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Triantafyllidi, Aikaterini; Xanthos, Theodoros; Papalois, Apostolos; Triantafillidis, John K.

    2015-01-01

    The use of herbal therapy in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is increasing worldwide. The aim of this study was to review the literature on the efficacy of herbal therapy in IBD patients. Studies on herbal therapy for IBD published in Medline and Embase were reviewed, and response to treatment and remission rates were recorded. Although the number of the relevant clinical studies is relatively small, it can be assumed that the efficacy of herbal therapies in IBD is promising. The most important clinical trials conducted so far refer to the use of mastic gum, tormentil extracts, wormwood herb, aloe vera, triticum aestivum, germinated barley foodstuff, and boswellia serrata. In ulcerative colitis, aloe vera gel, triticum aestivum, andrographis paniculata extract and topical Xilei-san were superior to placebo in inducing remission or clinical response, and curcumin was superior to placebo in maintaining remission; boswellia serrata gum resin and plantago ovata seeds were as effective as mesalazine, whereas oenothera biennis had similar relapse rates as ω-3 fatty acids in the treatment of ulcerative colitis. In Crohn’s disease, mastic gum, Artemisia absinthium, and Tripterygium wilfordii were superior to placebo in inducing remission and preventing clinical postoperative recurrence, respectively. Herbal therapies exert their therapeutic benefit by different mechanisms including immune regulation, antioxidant activity, inhibition of leukotriene B4 and nuclear factor-kappa B, and antiplatelet activity. Large, double-blind clinical studies assessing the most commonly used natural substances should urgently be conducted. PMID:25830661

  16. Andrographolide induces autophagic cell death in human liver cancer cells through cyclophilin D-mediated mitochondrial permeability transition pore.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Feng, Lina; Nie, Hao; Zheng, Xiaodong

    2012-11-01

    Liver cancer is the third leading cause of cancer death worldwide and about half of the patients with liver cancer require adjuvant therapy after surgical resection. Therefore, development of novel agents to eradicate cancer cells may constitute a viable approach to treat patients with liver cancer. Andrographolide, a diterpenoid lactone isolated from Andrographis paniculata, is known to possess potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antineoplastic and antiviral properties. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxic effect of andrographolide on human liver cancer cells and explored the cell death mechanism. Andrographolide induced a cell death distinct from apoptosis in multiple human liver cancer cells. The death was characterized by autophagy as evidenced by the accumulation of LC3 II and autophagosomes, and the formation of puncta GFP-LC3. This autophagy as well as cytotoxicity caused by andrographolide could be effectively prevented by 3-methyladenine (a chemical inhibitor of autophagy). Mechanistic study indicated that andrographolide induced autophagic cell death by disruption of mitochondrial transmembrane potential and elevation of reactive oxygen species, which were correlated with mitochondrial permeability transition pore Inhibition of cyclophilin D (a component of MPTP) by cyclosporin A or abrogation of its expression by small interfering RNA significantly suppressed the cytotoxicity of andrographolide, suggesting that cyclophilin D may play an important role in mediating andrographolide-induced cytotoxicity. Taken together, our findings unveil a novel mechanism of drug action by andrographolide in liver cancer cells and suggest that andrographolide may represent a promising novel agent in the treatment of liver cancer.

  17. Use of asiatic pennywort Centella asiatica aqueous extract as a bath treatment to control columnaris in Nile tilapia.

    PubMed

    Rattanachaikunsopon, P; Phumkhachorn, P

    2010-03-01

    To develop antibiotic-free and chemical-free aquaculture, it is necessary to have natural substances to control diseases of aquatic animals. The aim of this study was to find an herb having therapeutic effect against columnaris, a fish disease caused by the bacterium Flavobacterium columnare. Of all tested herbs (including kalmegh Andrographis paniculata, candle bush Cassia alata, Asiatic pennywort Centella asiatica, mangosteen Garcinia mangostana, pomegranate Punica granatum, and guava Psidium guajava), the aqueous extract of Asiatic pennywort exhibited the strongest antimicrobial activity against F. columnare; the minimal inhibitory concentration was 31.25 lg/mL. It was also found to have a bactericidal effect on F. columnare. When experimental bath exposures of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus to F. columnare were performed, the median lethal dose was determined to be 2.37 x 10(5) colony forming units/mL. For in vivo trials, six different concentrations (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 mg/L) of Asiatic pennywort aqueous extract were used as bath treatments to control experimentally induced columnaris in Nile tilapia. The decrease in fish mortality was dose dependent, and at a concentration of 100 mg/L no mortality or adverse effects were noted in the infected fish. This study suggests that Asiatic pennywort aqueous extract has the potential to control disease caused by F. columnare.

  18. Xiang-Qi-Tang and its active components exhibit anti-inflammatory and anticoagulant properties by inhibiting MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways in LPS-treated rat cardiac microvascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    He, Chang-Liang; Yi, Peng-Fei; Fan, Qiao-Jia; Shen, Hai-Qing; Jiang, Xiao-Lin; Qin, Qian-Qian; Song, Zhou; Zhang, Cui; Wu, Shuai-Cheng; Wei, Xu-Bin; Li, Ying-Lun; Fu, Ben-Dong

    2013-04-01

    Xiang-Qi-Tang (XQT) is a Chinese herbal formula containing Cyperus rotundus, Astragalus membranaceus and Andrographis paniculata. Alpha-Cyperone (CYP), astragaloside IV (AS-IV) and andrographolide (AND) are the three major active components in this formula. XQT may modulate the inflammatory or coagulant responses. We therefore assessed the effects of XQT on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory model of rat cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (RCMECs). XQT, CYP, AS-IV and AND inhibited the production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), and up-regulated the mRNA expression of Kruppel-like factor 2 (KLF2). XQT and CYP inhibited the secretion of tissue factor (TF). To further explore the mechanism, we found that XQT, or its active components CYP, AS-IV and AND significantly inhibited extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 phosphorylation protein expression as well as decreased the phosphorylation levels of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) p65 proteins in LPS-stimulated RCMECs. These results suggested that XQT and its active components inhibited the expression of inflammatory and coagulant mediators via mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPKs) and NF-κB signaling pathways. These findings may contribute to future research on the action mechanisms of this formula, as well as therapy for inflammation- or coagulation-related diseases.

  19. Herbal and plant therapy in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Triantafyllidi, Aikaterini; Xanthos, Theodoros; Papalois, Apostolos; Triantafillidis, John K

    2015-01-01

    The use of herbal therapy in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is increasing worldwide. The aim of this study was to review the literature on the efficacy of herbal therapy in IBD patients. Studies on herbal therapy for IBD published in Medline and Embase were reviewed, and response to treatment and remission rates were recorded. Although the number of the relevant clinical studies is relatively small, it can be assumed that the efficacy of herbal therapies in IBD is promising. The most important clinical trials conducted so far refer to the use of mastic gum, tormentil extracts, wormwood herb, aloe vera, triticum aestivum, germinated barley foodstuff, and boswellia serrata. In ulcerative colitis, aloe vera gel, triticum aestivum, andrographis paniculata extract and topical Xilei-san were superior to placebo in inducing remission or clinical response, and curcumin was superior to placebo in maintaining remission; boswellia serrata gum resin and plantago ovata seeds were as effective as mesalazine, whereas oenothera biennis had similar relapse rates as ω-3 fatty acids in the treatment of ulcerative colitis. In Crohn's disease, mastic gum, Artemisia absinthium, and Tripterygium wilfordii were superior to placebo in inducing remission and preventing clinical postoperative recurrence, respectively. Herbal therapies exert their therapeutic benefit by different mechanisms including immune regulation, antioxidant activity, inhibition of leukotriene B4 and nuclear factor-kappa B, and antiplatelet activity. Large, double-blind clinical studies assessing the most commonly used natural substances should urgently be conducted.

  20. Andrographolide Stimulates Neurogenesis in the Adult Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Varela-Nallar, Lorena; Arredondo, Sebastian B.; Tapia-Rojas, Cheril; Hancke, Juan; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C.

    2015-01-01

    Andrographolide (ANDRO) is a labdane diterpenoid component of Andrographis paniculata widely used for its anti-inflammatory properties. We have recently determined that ANDRO is a competitive inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β), a key enzyme of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling cascade. Since this signaling pathway regulates neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus, we evaluated whether ANDRO stimulates this process. Treatment with ANDRO increased neural progenitor cell proliferation and the number of immature neurons in the hippocampus of 2- and 10-month-old mice compared to age-matched control mice. Moreover, ANDRO stimulated neurogenesis increasing the number of newborn dentate granule neurons. Also, the effect of ANDRO was evaluated in the APPswe/PS1ΔE9 transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. In these mice, ANDRO increased cell proliferation and the density of immature neurons in the dentate gyrus. Concomitantly with the increase in neurogenesis, ANDRO induced the activation of the Wnt signaling pathway in the hippocampus of wild-type and APPswe/PS1ΔE9 mice determined by increased levels of β-catenin, the inactive form of GSK-3β, and NeuroD1, a Wnt target gene involved in neurogenesis. Our findings indicate that ANDRO stimulates neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus suggesting that this drug could be used as a therapy in diseases in which neurogenesis is affected. PMID:26798521

  1. Taxonomic significance of leaf micromorphology in some selected taxa of Acanthaceae (Peninsular Malaysia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurul-Aini, C. A. C.; Noraini, T.; Latiff, A.; Amirul-Aiman, A. J.; Ruzi, A. R.; Idris, S.

    2014-09-01

    Comparative leaf micromorphology study was conducted in eight taxa of Acanthaceae from Peninsular Malaysia. Eight chosen taxa were Acanthus ebracteatus Vahl, A. ilicifolius L., A. volubilis Wall, A. montanus T. Anderson, Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wall. ex Nees, Asystasia gangetica subsp. micrantha (Nees) Ensermu, Chroesthes longifolia (Wight) B. Hansen and Peristrophe roxburghiana (Schult.) Bremek. The objective of this study was to identify the leaf micromorphological characteristics that can be used in species identification and also as supportive data in classification. The procedures involved such as dehydration, critical point drying, gold coated and examination under scanning electron microscope. Findings in this study have demonstrated the similarities and variations in leaf micromorphological characteristics such as in type of epicuticular waxes, cuticular ornamentations, stomata characteristics and in the presence of trichomes. Six types of epicuticular waxes and five types of trichomes were observed. Variations in cuticular ornamentations and stomata structure can be used to differentiate species. One diagnostic character was found and proven to be very useful to identify Acanthus via the presence of simple trichomes (short-conicle like). In conclusion, the results of this study have shown that leaf micromorphological characteristics have taxonomic significance that can be useful in classifications and identification especially at species level.

  2. Andrographolide sensitizes cisplatin-induced apoptosis via suppression of autophagosome-lysosome fusion in human cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jing; Hu, Shuai-Er; Tan, Shi-Hao; Cao, Ruoxi; Chen, Yiyang; Xia, Dajing; Zhu, Xinqiang; Yang, Xing-Fen; Ong, Choon-Nam; Shen, Han-Ming

    2012-03-01

    Suppression of autophagy has been increasingly recognized as a novel cancer therapeutic approach. Andrographolide (Andro), a diterpenoid lactone isolated from an herbal plant Andrographis paniculata, is known to possess anti-inflammatory and anticancer activity. In this study, we sought to examine the effect of Andro on autophagy, and to evaluate whether such effect is relevant to the sensitization effect of Andro on apoptosis induced by DNA damage agents in cancer cells. First, we found that Andro is able to significantly enhance autophagic markers in various cancer cell lines, including GFP-LC3 puncta and LC3-II level. Interestingly, Andro treatment also led to marked increase of p62 protein level and addition of chloroquine (CQ) failed to further enhance either LC3-II or p62 level, indicating that Andro is likely to suppress autophagic flux at the maturation and degradation stage. Next, we provided evidence that Andro inhibits autophagosome maturation not by affecting the lysosomal function, but by impairing autophagosome-lysosome fusion. Lastly, we demonstrated that treatment with cisplatin, a DNA damage agent, induces autophagy in cancer cells. Importantly, Andro is capable of sensitizing cisplatin-induced cell killing determined with both short-term apoptosis assays and long-term clonogenic test, via suppression of autophagy, a process independent of p53. In summary, these observations collectively suggest that Andro could be a promising anti-cancer agent in combination therapy via its potent inhibitory effect on autophagy by disrupting autophagosome-lysosome fusion.

  3. Andrographolide could inhibit human colorectal carcinoma Lovo cells migration and invasion via down-regulation of MMP-7 expression.

    PubMed

    Shi, Ming-Der; Lin, Hui-Hsuan; Chiang, Tai-An; Tsai, Li-Yu; Tsai, Shu-Mei; Lee, Yi-Chieh; Chen, Jing-Hsien

    2009-08-14

    Andrographolide (Andro), a diterpenoid lactone isolated from a traditional herbal medicine Andrographis paniculata, is known to possess multiple pharmacological activities. In our previous study, Andro had been shown to have potent anti-cancer activity against human colorectal carcinoma Lovo cells by inhibiting cell-cycle progression. To further investigate the mechanism for the anti-cancer properties of Andro, it was used to examine the effect on migration and invasion of Lovo cells. The results of wound-healing assay and in vitro transwell assay revealed that Andro inhibited dose-dependently the migration and invasion of Lovo cells under non-cytotoxic concentrations. Using zymographic assay and RT-PCR, the results revealed that Andro diminished the activity and the mRNA and protein levels of MMP-7, but not MMP-2 or MMP-9. The down-regulation of MMP-7 appeared to be via the inactivation of activator protein-1 (AP-1) since the treatment with Andro suppressed the nuclear protein level of AP-1, which was accompanied by a decrease in DNA-binding level of the factor. Taken together, these results indicated that Andro reduces the MMP-7-mediated cellular events in Lovo cells, and provided a new mechanism for its anti-cancer activity.

  4. Andrographolide inhibits oral squamous cell carcinogenesis through NF-κB inactivation.

    PubMed

    Wang, L-J; Zhou, X; Wang, W; Tang, F; Qi, C-L; Yang, X; Wu, S; Lin, Y-Q; Wang, J-T; Geng, J-G

    2011-10-01

    The NF-κB family of transcription factors is essential for promoting cell proliferation and preventing cell apoptosis. We have previously shown that Andrographolide (Andro) isolated from an herbal plant, Andrographis paniculata, covalently modifies reduced cysteine(62) in the oligonucleotide binding pocket of p50 for inhibition of NF-κB activation. Here we report that Andro, but not its inactive structural analog 4H-Andro, potently suppressed squamous cell carcinogenesis induced by 7,12-dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene (DMBA) in the hamster model of cheek buccal pouch. Compared with 4H-Andro, Andro reduced phosphorylation of p65 (Ser536) and IκBα (Ser32/36) for inhibiting aberrant NF-κB activation, suppressed c-Myc and cyclin D1 expression and attenuated neoplastic cell proliferation, promoted cancerous cell apoptosis, and mitigated tumor-induced angiogenesis. Consistently, Andro retarded growth, decreased proliferation, and promoted apoptosis of Tb cells, a human tongue squamous cell carcinoma cell line, in time- and dose-dependent manners, with concomitant reduction of the expression of NF-κB targeting molecules in vitro. Our results thus demonstrate that NF-κB activation plays important roles in the pathogenesis of chemically induced squamous cell carcinoma. By inhibition of aberrant NF-κB activation, Andro treats chemically induced oral squamous cell carcinogenesis.

  5. Andrographolide inhibits growth of human T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia Jurkat cells by downregulation of PI3K/AKT and upregulation of p38 MAPK pathways.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tingfang; Yao, Shuluan; Zhang, Xianfeng; Guo, Yan

    2016-01-01

    T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) as a prevalent hematologic malignancy is one of the most common malignant tumors worldwide in children. Andrographolide (Andro), the major active component from Andrographis paniculata, has been shown to possess antitumor activities in several types of cancer cells. However, whether Andro would inhibit T-ALL cell growth remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxic effect of Andro on human T-ALL Jurkat cells and explored the mechanisms of cell death. Cell apoptosis was assayed by flow cytometry, and the signaling transduction for Andro was analyzed by Western blotting. The results indicated 10 μg/mL Andro could significantly induce Jurkat cells' apoptosis, depending on the inhibition of PI3K/AKT pathway. Moreover, Andro-induced apoptosis is enhanced by AKT-selective inhibitor LY294002. ERK- or JNK-selective inhibitors PD98059 and SP600125 had no effect on Andro-induced apoptosis. In addition, p38 inhibitor SB203580 could reverse Andro-induced apoptosis in Jurkat cells. We also found that the protein expression of p-p53 and p-p38 were increased after Andro treatments. The result of an in vivo study also demonstrated Andro's dose-dependent inhibition in subcutaneous Jurkat xenografts. In conclusion, our findings explained a novel mechanism of drug action by Andro in Jurkat cells and suggested that Andro might be developed into a new candidate therapy for T-ALL patients in the coming days.

  6. Andrographolide suppresses endothelial cell apoptosis via activation of phosphatidyl inositol-3-kinase/Akt pathway.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiun-Han; Hsiao, George; Lee, An-Rong; Wu, Chin-Chen; Yen, Mao-Hsiung

    2004-04-01

    Andrographolide (Andro), an active component isolated from the Chinese official herbal Andrographis paniculata, which has been reported to prevent oxygen radical production and thus prevent inflammatory diseases. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways by which Andro protects human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) from growth factor (GF) deprivation-induced apoptosis. Results demonstrated that HUVECs undergo apoptosis after 18 hr of GF deprivation but that this cell death was suppressed by the addition of Andro in a concentration-dependent manner (1-100 microM). Andro suppresses the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis by inhibiting release of cytochrome c into the cytoplasm and dissipation of mitochondrial potential (Deltapsi(m)), as a consequence, prevented caspase-3 and -9 activation. Treatment of endothelial cells with Andro-induced activation of the protein kinase Akt, an anti-apoptotic signal, and phosphorylation of BAD, a down-stream target of Akt. Suppression of Akt activity by wortmannin, by LY-294002 and by using a dominant negative Akt mutant abolished the anti-apoptotic effect of Andro. In contrast, the ERK1/2 activities were not affected by Andro. The ERK1/2 inhibitor, PD98059 failed to antagonize the protective effect of Andro. In conclusion, Andro exerts its anti-apoptotic potential via activation of the Akt-BAD pathway in HUVECs and thus may represent a candidate of therapeutic agent for atherosclerosis.

  7. Andrographolide inhibits osteopontin expression and breast tumor growth through down regulation of PI3 kinase/Akt signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Kumar, S; Patil, H S; Sharma, P; Kumar, D; Dasari, S; Puranik, V G; Thulasiram, H V; Kundu, G C

    2012-09-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers among women in India and around the world. Despite recent advancement in the treatment of breast cancer, the results of chemotherapy to date remain unsatisfactory, prompting a need to identify natural agents that could target cancer efficiently with least side effects. Andrographolide (Andro) is one such molecule which has been shown to possess inhibitory effect on cancer cell growth. In this study, Andro, a natural diterpenoid lactone isolated from Andrographis paniculata has been shown to inhibit breast cancer cell proliferation, migration and arrest cell cycle at G2/M phase and induces apoptosis through caspase independent pathway. Our experimental evidences suggest that Andro attenuates endothelial cell motility and tumor-endothelial cell interaction. Moreover, Andro suppresses breast tumor growth in orthotopic NOD/SCID mice model. The anti-tumor activity of Andro in both in vitro and in vivo model was correlated with down regulation of PI3 kinase/Akt activation and inhibition of pro-angiogenic molecules such as OPN and VEGF expressions. Collectively, these results demonstrate that Andro may act as an effective anti-tumor and anti-angiogenic agent for the treatment of breast cancer.

  8. Andrographolide enhances proliferation and prevents dedifferentiation of rabbit articular chondrocytes: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Luo, Li-Ke; Wei, Qing-Jun; Liu, Lei; Zheng, Li; Zhao, Jin-Min

    2015-01-01

    As the main active constituent of Andrographis paniculata that was applied in treatment of many diseases including inflammation in ancient China, andrographolide (ANDRO) was found to facilitate reduction of edema and analgesia in arthritis. This suggested that ANDRO may be promising anti-inflammatory agent to relieve destruction and degeneration of cartilage after inflammation. In this study, the effect of ANDRO on rabbit articular chondrocytes in vitro was investigated. Results showed that not more than 8 μM ANDRO did no harm to chondrocytes (P < 0.05). DNA content and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) /DNA were, respectively, improved in ANDRO groups comparing to the control (P < 0.05). ANDRO could promote expression of aggrecan, collagen II, and Sox9 genes while downregulating expression of collagen I gene (P < 0.05). Furthermore, hypertrophy that may result in chondrocyte ossification could not be detected in all groups (P > 0.05). The viability assay, hematoxylin-eosin, safranin O, and immunohistochemical staining also showed better performances in ANDRO groups. As to the doses, 3 μM ANDRO showed the best performance. The results indicate that ANDRO can accelerate proliferation of rabbit articular chondrocytes in vitro and meanwhile maintain the phenotype, which may provide valuable references for further exploration on arthritis.

  9. Intracellular glutathione regulates Andrographolide-induced cytotoxicity on hepatoma Hep3B cells.

    PubMed

    Ji, Lili; Shen, Kaikai; Liu, Jun; Chen, Ying; Liu, Tianyu; Wang, Zhengtao

    2009-01-01

    Andrographolide (ANDRO), a diterpenoid lactone isolated from the traditional herbal plant Andrographis paniculata, was reported to induce apoptosis in hepatoma Hep3B cells in our previous study (Ji LL, Liu TY, Liu J, Chen Y, Wang ZT. Andrographolide inhibits human hepatoma-derived Hep3B cells growth through the activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase. Planta Med 2007; 73: 1397-1401). The present investigation was carried out to observe whether cellular reduced glutathione (GSH) plays important roles in ANDRO-induced apoptosis. ANDRO initially increased intracellular GSH levels which then decreased later, while inhibition of cellular GSH synthesis by L-Buthionine-(S,R)-sulfoximine (BSO) augmented ANDRO-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in Hep3B cells. On the other hand, the thiol antioxidant dithiothreitol (DTT) rescued ANDRO-depleted cellular GSH, and abrogated ANDRO-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis. Furthermore, BSO pretreatment augmented ANDRO-decreased expression of antioxidant protein thioredoxin 1 (Trx1), while DTT reversed this decrease. Further results showed that ANDRO increased the activity of the GSH-related antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Taken together, this study demonstrates that the intracellular redox system plays important roles in regulating the cytotoxicity of ANDRO on hepatoma Hep3B cells.

  10. Andrographolide Stimulates Neurogenesis in the Adult Hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Varela-Nallar, Lorena; Arredondo, Sebastian B; Tapia-Rojas, Cheril; Hancke, Juan; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C

    2015-01-01

    Andrographolide (ANDRO) is a labdane diterpenoid component of Andrographis paniculata widely used for its anti-inflammatory properties. We have recently determined that ANDRO is a competitive inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β), a key enzyme of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling cascade. Since this signaling pathway regulates neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus, we evaluated whether ANDRO stimulates this process. Treatment with ANDRO increased neural progenitor cell proliferation and the number of immature neurons in the hippocampus of 2- and 10-month-old mice compared to age-matched control mice. Moreover, ANDRO stimulated neurogenesis increasing the number of newborn dentate granule neurons. Also, the effect of ANDRO was evaluated in the APPswe/PS1ΔE9 transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. In these mice, ANDRO increased cell proliferation and the density of immature neurons in the dentate gyrus. Concomitantly with the increase in neurogenesis, ANDRO induced the activation of the Wnt signaling pathway in the hippocampus of wild-type and APPswe/PS1ΔE9 mice determined by increased levels of β-catenin, the inactive form of GSK-3β, and NeuroD1, a Wnt target gene involved in neurogenesis. Our findings indicate that ANDRO stimulates neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus suggesting that this drug could be used as a therapy in diseases in which neurogenesis is affected.

  11. Inhibition of the JAK-STAT3 pathway by andrographolide enhances chemosensitivity of cancer cells to doxorubicin.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jing; Ong, Choon-Nam; Hur, Gang-Min; Shen, Han-Ming

    2010-05-01

    Andrographolide (Andro), a diterpenoid lactone isolated from a traditional herbal medicine Andrographis paniculata, is known to possess potent anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties. In this study, we sought to examine the effect of Andro on signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) pathway and evaluate whether suppression of STAT3 activity by Andro could sensitize cancer cells to a chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin. First, we demonstrated that Andro is able to significantly suppress both constitutively activated and IL-6-induced STAT3 phosphorylation and subsequent nuclear translocation in cancer cells. Such inhibition is found to be achieved through suppression of Janus-activated kinase (JAK)1/2 and interaction between STAT3 and gp130. For understanding the biological significance of the inhibitory effect of Andro on STAT3, we next investigated the effect of Andro on doxorubicin-induced apoptosis in human cancer cells. In our study the constitutive activation level of STAT3 was found to be correlated to the resistance of cancer cells to doxorubicin-induced apoptosis. Both the short-term MTT assay and the long-term colony formation assay showed that Andro dramatically promoted doxorubicin-induced cell death in cancer cells, indicating that Andro enhances the sensitivity of cancer cells to doxorubicin mainly via STAT3 suppression. These observations thus reveal a novel anticancer function of Andro and suggest a potential therapeutic strategy of using Andro in combination with chemotherapeutic agents for treatment of cancer.

  12. Critical roles of cellular glutathione homeostasis and jnk activation in andrographolide-mediated apoptotic cell death in human hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Ji, Lili; Shen, Kaikai; Jiang, Ping; Morahan, Grant; Wang, Zhengtao

    2011-08-01

    Andrographolide (ANDRO), isolated from the traditional herbal medicine Andrographis paniculata, is reported to have the potential therapeutic effects for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in our previous reports. Here, we investigated the mechanism of ANDRO-mediated apoptotic cell death, focusing on the involvement of cellular reduced glutathione (GSH) homeostasis and c-Jun NH(2) -Terminal kinase (JNK). Buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), an inhibitor of cellular GSH biosynthesis, significantly augmented ANDRO-induced cytotoxicity in hepatoma Hep3B and HepG2 cells. BSO depleted cellular GSH, and augmented ANDRO-induced apoptosis, inhibition of colony formation and JNK activation in Hep3B cells. All these effects could be reversed by GSH monoethyl ester (GSH.EE), whose deacetylation replenishes cellular GSH. BSO also augmented ANDRO-induced activation of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1), mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase-4 (MKK4) and c-Jun, which are all up-stream or down-stream signals of JNK. Further results showed that JNK inhibitor SP600125 and 420116 both reversed ANDRO-induced cytotoxicity, and SP600125 also decreased ANDRO-increased intracellular GSH and GCL activity. Finally, we showed that in nude mice bearing xenografted Hep3B tumors, BSO improved the inhibition of tumor growth by ANDRO. Taken together, our results suggest that there is a crosstalk between JNK activation and cellular GSH homeostasis, and ANDRO targets this to induce cytotoxicity in hepatoma cells.

  13. Andrographolide inhibits intracellular Chlamydia trachomatis multiplication and reduces secretion of proinflammatory mediators produced by human epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Hua, Ziyu; Frohlich, Kyla M; Zhang, Yan; Feng, Xiaogeng; Zhang, Jiaxing; Shen, Li

    2015-02-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common sexually transmitted bacterial disease worldwide. Untreated C. trachomatis infections may cause inflammation and ultimately damage tissues. Here, we evaluated the ability of Andrographolide (Andro), a natural diterpenoid lactone component of Andrographis paniculata, to inhibit C. trachomatis infection in cultured human cervical epithelial cells. We found that Andro exposure inhibited C. trachomatis growth in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The greatest inhibitory effect was observed when exponentially growing C. trachomatis was exposed to Andro. Electron micrographs demonstrated the accumulation of unusual, structurally deficient chlamydial organisms, correlated with a decrease in levels of OmcB expressed at the late stage of infection. Additionally, Andro significantly reduced the secretion of interleukin6, CXCL8 and interferon-γ-induced protein10 produced by host cells infected with C. trachomatis. These results indicate the efficacy of Andro to perturb C. trachomatis transition from the metabolically active reticulate body to the infectious elementary body and concurrently reduce the production of a proinflammatory mediator by epithelial cells in vitro. Further dissection of Andro's anti-Chlamydia action may provide identification of novel therapeutic targets.

  14. Andrographolide: antibacterial activity against common bacteria of human health concern and possible mechanism of action.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Malabika; Parai, Debaprasad; Chattopadhyay, Subrata; Mukherjee, Samir Kumar

    2017-01-17

    Increasing bacterial resistance to common drugs is a major public health concern for the treatment of infectious diseases. Certain naturally occurring compounds of plant sources have long been reported to possess potential antimicrobial activity. This study was aimed to investigate the antibacterial activity and possible mechanism of action of andrographolide (Andro), a diterpenoid lactone from a traditional medicinal herb Andrographis paniculata. Extent of antibacterial action was assessed by minimal bactericidal concentration method. Radiolabeled N-acetyl glucosamine, leucine, thymidine, and uridine were used to determine the effect of Andro on the biosyntheses of cell wall, protein, DNA, and RNA, respectively. In addition, anti-biofilm potential of this compound was also tested. Andro showed potential antibacterial activity against most of the tested Gram-positive bacteria. Among those, Staphylococcus aureus was found to be most sensitive with a minimal inhibitory concentration value of 100 μg/mL. It was found to be bacteriostatic. Specific inhibition of intracellular DNA biosynthesis was observed in a dose-dependent manner in S. aureus. Andro mediated inhibition of biofilm formation by S. aureus was also found. Considering its antimicrobial potency, Andro might be accounted as a promising lead for new antibacterial drug development.

  15. Andrographolide sensitizes the cytotoxicity of human colorectal carcinoma cells toward cisplatin via enhancing apoptosis pathways in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hui-Hsuan; Shi, Ming-Der; Tseng, Hsien-Chun; Chen, Jing-Hsien

    2014-05-01

    Andrographolide (Andro), a diterpenoid lactone isolated from a traditional herbal medicine Andrographis paniculata, has been shown to suppress the growth and invasion of human colorectal carcinoma (CRC) Lovo cells, and trigger apoptosis in vitro. The potential of Andro as a chemotherapeutic agent in CRC was evaluated by investigating its cytotoxic effects as a single agent or in coadministration with cisplatin (CDDP). Andro potentiated the cytotoxic effect of CDDP in Lovo cells through apoptosis. The molecular mechanism for these favorable cellular response was further investigated by analyzing the apoptotic profiles, protein levels, and mRNA expression patterns of several key genes after treatments of Andro or/and CDDP. Molecular results indicated that the effect of Andro alone might be mediated via both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways in Lovo cells. The addition of Andro to CDDP induced synergistic apoptosis, which could be corroborated to the changes in protein and mRNA levels of Bax and Bcl-2, and the increased Fas/FasL association in these cells, resulting in increased release of cytochrome c, and activation of caspases. Pretreatment of Nok-1 monoclonal antibody, a Fas signaling inhibitor, or Bax inhibitor peptide V5 repressed the Andro-induced cleavage of procaspase and the sensitization to CDDP-induced apoptosis. Finally, the combination therapy of Andro with CDDP was evidenced by its synergistic inhibition on the growth of Lovo cells in xenograft tumor studies. The results indicate that Andro, in combination with chemotherapeutics, is likely to represent a potential therapeutic strategy for CRC.

  16. Andrographolide activates the canonical Wnt signalling pathway by a mechanism that implicates the non-ATP competitive inhibition of GSK-3β: autoregulation of GSK-3β in vivo.

    PubMed

    Tapia-Rojas, Cheril; Schüller, Andreas; Lindsay, Carolina B; Ureta, Roxana C; Mejías-Reyes, Cristóbal; Hancke, Juan; Melo, Francisco; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C

    2015-03-01

    Wnt/β-catenin signalling is an important pathway that regulates multiple biological processes, including cell adhesion and determination of cell fate during animal development; in the adult nervous system it regulates the structure and function of synapses. Wnt-signalling dysfunction is associated with several neurodegenerative diseases such as schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. The use of natural compounds is an interesting strategy in the search for drugs with the therapeutic potential to activate this signalling pathway. In the present study, we report that andrographolide (ANDRO), a component of Andrographis paniculata, is a potent activator of Wnt signalling. Our results indicate that ANDRO activates this pathway, inducing the transcription of Wnt target genes by a mechanism that bypasses Wnt ligand binding to its receptor. In vitro kinase assays demonstrate that ANDRO inhibits glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β by a non-ATP-competitive, substrate-competitive mode of action. In silico analyses suggest that ANDRO interacts with the substrate-binding site of GSK-3β. Finally, we demonstrated that the increase seen in the levels of GSK-3β phosphorylated at Ser⁹ is the result of an autoregulatory mechanism of the kinase in vivo, although not through activation of protein phosphatase type 1. Our results suggest that ANDRO could be used as a potential therapeutic drug for disorders caused by Wnt-signalling dysfunction such as neurodegenerative diseases.

  17. Andrographolide Activates Keap1/Nrf2/ARE/HO-1 Pathway in HT22 Cells and Suppresses Microglial Activation by Aβ42 through Nrf2-Related Inflammatory Response

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Ji Yeon; Pyo, Euisun; An, Jin-Pyo; Kim, Jinwoong; Sung, Sang Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Therapeutic approach of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been gradually diversified. We examined the therapeutic and preventive potential of andrographolide, which is a lactone diterpenoid from Andrographis paniculata, and focused on the Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1)/nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2)-mediated heme oxygenase (HO)-1-inducing effects and the inhibitory activity of amyloid beta (Aβ)42-induced microglial activation related to Nrf2 and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB)-mediated inflammatory responses. Andrographolide induced the expression and translocation of Nrf2 from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, thereby activating antioxidant response element (ARE) gene transcription and HO-1 expression in murine hippocampal HT22 cells. Andrographolide eliminated intracellular Aβ42 in BV-2 cells and decreased the production of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, prostaglandin (PG)E2, and nitric oxide (NO) because of artificial phagocytic Aβ42. It decreased pNF-κB accumulation in the nucleus and the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (i-NOS) and cyclooxygenase II (COX-II) in the microglial BV-2 cell line. In summary, andrographolide activates Nrf2-mediated HO-1 expression and inhibits Aβ42-overexpressed microglial BV-2 cell activation. These results suggested that andrographolide might have the potential for further examination of the therapeutics of AD. PMID:28373747

  18. Characterisation and immuno-stimulating activity of polysaccharides from Thai medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Burana-Osot, J; Pattanapanyasat, K; Soonthornchareonnon, N; Sukapirom, K; Toida, T

    2010-09-01

    Water-soluble polysaccharides were isolated from the tubers of Butea superba Roxb. and Pueraria candollei Wall. Ex Benth. var. mirifica (Shaw et Suvat.) C. Niyomdham, the leaves of Centella asiatica (L.) Urb, Ocimum basilicum L., Psidium guajava and Andrographis paniculata (Burn. f.) Nees, the stems of Cymbopogon citratus (Stapf ExG), and the fruits of Psidium guajava and Scaphium scaphigerum. The immunological impacts of the polysaccharides on T-lymphocyte proliferation in vitro was investigated by flow cytometric (immunofluorescence) analysis using staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) as a positive control. It was found that the polysaccharides enhanced T-lymphocyte proliferation, ranging from 4.5 to 27.0% at a concentration of 100 microg mL(-1), while the activity of SEB was 13.3%. The medicinal plants showing the highest immuno-stimulating activity were the tubers of Butea superba Roxb. The water-extracted tubers contained 60.0% (w/w) carbohydrates with 6.6% (w/w) uronic acid. The major constituent monosaccharides of the tubers were 28.2 mol% galactose, 10.5 mol% arabinose and 36.4 mol% glucose.

  19. Anti-inflammatory effect of novel andrographolide derivatives through inhibition of NO and PGE2 production.

    PubMed

    Dai, Gui-Fu; Zhao, Jin; Jiang, Zhi-Wen; Zhu, Li-Ping; Xu, Hai-Wei; Ma, Wen-Yan; Chen, Xiao-Rang; Dong, Rui-Jing; Li, Wei-Yi; Liu, Hong-Min

    2011-12-01

    Andrographolide (1) is a major diterpene lactone exhibiting anti-inflammatory effects and is found in the plant Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f) Nees, which is widely used in Traditional Chinese Medicine. Synthesis of more effective drugs from andrographolide is very interesting and can prove to be highly useful. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of andrographolide and its derivatives (compounds 2-6) through dimethylbenzene-induced ear edema in mice. Substances under study were administrated intragastrically and the structure-activity relationship was analyzed. Results showed that compounds 5 and 6 significantly inhibited ear edema compared with compound 1 (p<0.05), indicating that the introduction of p-Chlorobenzylidene to C-15 of compound 2 enhances the anti-inflammatory effect. Moreover, compound 6 exhibited the strongest anti-inflammatory effect against ear edema in mice (79.4%; 1.35 mmol/kg, ig) and paw edema in rats (50.4%; 0.90 mmol/kg, ig). In addition, compound 6 significantly (p<0.05) inhibited granuloma formation and reduced the increase in vascular permeability induced by peritoneal injection of 0.6% acetic acid solution in mice. Findings indicate that compound 6 exerts its enhanced anti-inflammatory effects by decreasing serum iNOS activity, NO production, and PGE(2) production.

  20. Andrographolide reduces cognitive impairment in young and mature AβPPswe/PS-1 mice.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Felipe G; Tapia-Rojas, Cheril; Carvajal, Francisco J; Hancke, Juan; Cerpa, Waldo; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C

    2014-12-18

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder in which the amyloid-β (Aβ) oligomers are a key factor in synaptic impairment and in spatial memory decline associated with neuronal dysfunction. This impairment includes synaptic failure associated with the loss of synaptic proteins that contribute to AD progression. Interestingly, the use of natural compounds is an emergent conceptual strategy in the search for drugs with therapeutic potentials for treating neurodegenerative disorders. In the present study, we report that andrographolide (ANDRO), which is a labdane diterpene extracted from Andrographis paniculata, increases slope of field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSP) in the CA1 region of hippocampal slices and inhibits long-term depression (LTD), protecting the long-term potentiation (LTP) against the damage induced by Aβ oligomers in vitro, most likely by inhibiting glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β). Additionally, ANDRO prevents changes in neuropathology in two different age groups (7- and 12-month-old mice) of an AβPPswe/PS-1 Alzheimer's model. ANDRO reduces the Aβ levels, changing the ontogeny of amyloid plaques in hippocampi and cortices in 7-month-old mice, and reduces tau phosphorylation around the Aβ oligomeric species in both age groups. Additionally, we observed that ANDRO recovers spatial memory functions that correlate with protecting synaptic plasticity and synaptic proteins in two different age groups. Our results suggest that ANDRO could be used in a potential preventive therapy during AD progression.

  1. 14-Deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide induces DDIT3-dependent endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated autophagy in T-47D breast carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Tan, Heng Kean; Muhammad, Tengku Sifzizul Tengku; Tan, Mei Lan

    2016-06-01

    14-Deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide (14-DDA), a major diterpenoid isolated from Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Nees, is known to be cytotoxic and elicits a non-apoptotic cell death in T-47D breast carcinoma cells. In this study, the mechanistic toxicology properties of 14-DDA in T-47D cells were further investigated. 14-DDA is found to induce the formation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) vacuoles and autophagosomes, with concurrent upregulation of LC3-II in the breast carcinoma cells. It stimulated an increase in cytosolic calcium concentration and caused a collapse in mitochondrial membrane potential in these cells. In addition, both DDIT3 and GADD45A, molecules implicated in ER stress pathway, were significantly upregulated. DDIT3 knockdown suppressed the formation of both ER vacuoles and autophagosomes, indicating that 14-DDA-induced ER stress and autophagy is dependent on this transcription factor. Collectively, it is possible that GADD45A/p38 MAPK/DDIT3 pathway is involved in the 14-DDA-induced ER-stress-mediated autophagy in T-47D cells.

  2. Regulation of Inflammatory Gene Expression in PBMCs by Immunostimulatory Botanicals

    PubMed Central

    Denzler, Karen L.; Waters, Robert; Jacobs, Bertram L.; Rochon, Yvan; Langland, Jeffrey O.

    2010-01-01

    Many hundreds of botanicals are used in complementary and alternative medicine for therapeutic use as antimicrobials and immune stimulators. While there exists many centuries of anecdotal evidence and few clinical studies on the activity and efficacy of these botanicals, limited scientific evidence exists on the ability of these botanicals to modulate the immune and inflammatory responses. Using botanogenomics (or herbogenomics), this study provides novel insight into inflammatory genes which are induced in peripheral blood mononuclear cells following treatment with immunomodulatory botanical extracts. These results may suggest putative genes involved in the physiological responses thought to occur following administration of these botanical extracts. Using extracts from immunostimulatory herbs (Astragalus membranaceus, Sambucus cerulea, Andrographis paniculata) and an immunosuppressive herb (Urtica dioica), the data presented supports previous cytokine studies on these herbs as well as identifying additional genes which may be involved in immune cell activation and migration and various inflammatory responses, including wound healing, angiogenesis, and blood pressure modulation. Additionally, we report the presence of lipopolysaccharide in medicinally prepared extracts of these herbs which is theorized to be a natural and active component of the immunostimulatory herbal extracts. The data presented provides a more extensive picture on how these herbs may be mediating their biological effects on the immune and inflammatory responses. PMID:20838436

  3. Andrographolide inhibits intracellular Chlamydia trachomatis multiplication and reduces secretion of proinflammatory mediators produced by human epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Ziyu; Frohlich, Kyla M.; Zhang, Yan; Feng, Xiaogeng; Zhang, Jiaxing; Shen, Li

    2014-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common sexually transmitted bacterial disease worldwide. Untreated C. trachomatis infections may cause inflammation and ultimately damage tissues. Here, we evaluated the ability of Andrographolide (Andro), a natural diterpenoid lactone component of Andrographis paniculata, to inhibit C. trachomatis infection in cultured human cervical epithelial cells. We found that Andro exposure inhibited C. trachomatis growth in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The greatest inhibitory effect was observed when exponentially growing C. trachomatis was exposed to Andro. Electron micrographs demonstrated the accumulation of unusual, structurally deficient chlamydial organisms, correlated with a decrease in levels of OmcB expressed at the late stage of infection. Additionally, Andro significantly reduced the secretion of interleukin6, CXCL8 and interferon-γ-induced protein10 produced by host cells infected with C. trachomatis. These results indicate the efficacy of Andro to perturb C. trachomatis transition from the metabolically active reticulate body to the infectious elementary body and concurrently reduce the production of a proinflammatory mediator by epithelial cells in vitro. Further dissection of Andro's anti-Chlamydia action may provide identification of novel therapeutic targets. PMID:25854005

  4. Activity of andrographolide against chikungunya virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Wintachai, Phitchayapak; Kaur, Parveen; Lee, Regina Ching Hua; Ramphan, Suwipa; Kuadkitkan, Atichat; Wikan, Nitwara; Ubol, Sukathida; Roytrakul, Sittiruk; Chu, Justin Jang Hann; Smith, Duncan R.

    2015-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a re-emerging mosquito-borne alphavirus that has recently engendered large epidemics around the world. There is no specific antiviral for treatment of patients infected with CHIKV, and development of compounds with significant anti-CHIKV activity that can be further developed to a practical therapy is urgently required. Andrographolide is derived from Andrographis paniculata, a herb traditionally used to treat a number of conditions including infections. This study sought to determine the potential of andrographolide as an inhibitor of CHIKV infection. Andrographolide showed good inhibition of CHIKV infection and reduced virus production by approximately 3log10 with a 50% effective concentration (EC50) of 77 μM without cytotoxicity. Time-of-addition and RNA transfection studies showed that andrographolide affected CHIKV replication and the activity of andrographolide was shown to be cell type independent. This study suggests that andrographolide has the potential to be developed further as an anti-CHIKV therapeutic agent. PMID:26384169

  5. Andrographolide Enhances Proliferation and Prevents Dedifferentiation of Rabbit Articular Chondrocytes: An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Li-ke; Wei, Qing-jun; Liu, Lei; Zheng, Li; Zhao, Jin-min

    2015-01-01

    As the main active constituent of Andrographis paniculata that was applied in treatment of many diseases including inflammation in ancient China, andrographolide (ANDRO) was found to facilitate reduction of edema and analgesia in arthritis. This suggested that ANDRO may be promising anti-inflammatory agent to relieve destruction and degeneration of cartilage after inflammation. In this study, the effect of ANDRO on rabbit articular chondrocytes in vitro was investigated. Results showed that not more than 8 μM ANDRO did no harm to chondrocytes (P < 0.05). DNA content and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) /DNA were, respectively, improved in ANDRO groups comparing to the control (P < 0.05). ANDRO could promote expression of aggrecan, collagen II, and Sox9 genes while downregulating expression of collagen I gene (P < 0.05). Furthermore, hypertrophy that may result in chondrocyte ossification could not be detected in all groups (P > 0.05). The viability assay, hematoxylin-eosin, safranin O, and immunohistochemical staining also showed better performances in ANDRO groups. As to the doses, 3 μM ANDRO showed the best performance. The results indicate that ANDRO can accelerate proliferation of rabbit articular chondrocytes in vitro and meanwhile maintain the phenotype, which may provide valuable references for further exploration on arthritis. PMID:25802548

  6. Development of andrographolide molecularly imprinted polymer for solid-phase extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Xiaoying; Liu, Qingshan; Jiang, Yifan; Luo, Yongming

    2011-06-01

    A method employing molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) as selective sorbent for solid-phase extraction (SPE) to pretreat samples was developed. The polymers were prepared by precipitation polymerization with andrographolide as template molecule. The structure of MIP was characterized and its static adsorption capacity was measured by the Scatchard equation. In comparison with C 18-SPE and non-imprinted polymer (NIP) SPE column, MIP-SPE column displays high selectivity and good affinity for andrographolide and dehydroandrographolide for extract of herb Andrographis paniculata ( Burm.f.) Nees (APN). MIP-SPE column capacity was 11.9 ± 0.6 μmol/g and 12.1 ± 0.5 μmol/g for andrographolide and dehydroandrographolide, respectively and was 2-3 times higher than that of other two columns. The precision and accuracy of the method developed were satisfactory with recoveries between 96.4% and 103.8% (RSD 3.1-4.3%, n = 5) and 96.0% and 104.2% (RSD 2.9-3.7%, n = 5) for andrographolide and dehydroandrographolide, respectively. Various real samples were employed to confirm the feasibility of method. This developed method demonstrates the potential of molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction for rapid, selective, and effective sample pretreatment.

  7. Antihyperglycaemic effect of 'Ilogen-Excel', an ayurvedic herbal formulation in streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Umamaheswari, Selvaraj; Mainzen Prince, Ponnaian Stanely

    2007-01-01

    'Ilogen-Excel', an Ayurvedic herbal formulation is composed of eight medicinal plants (Curcuma longa, Strychnos potatorum, Salacia oblonga, Tinospora cordifolia, Vetivelia zizanioides, Coscinium fenestratum, Andrographis paniculata and Mimosa pudica). The present study evaluates the antihyperglycemic effect of 'Ilogen-Excel' in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Rats were rendered diabetic by streptozotocin (STZ) (45 mg/kg body weight). Oral administration of 'Ilogen-Excel' (50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg) for 60 days resulted in significantly lowered levels of blood glucose and significantly increased levels of plasma insulin, hepatic glycogen and total hemoglobin. 'Ilogen-Excel' administration also decreased the levels of glycosylated hemoglobin, plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, hydroperoxides, ceruloplasmin and vitamin E in diabetic rats. Plasma reduced glutathione and vitamin C were significantly elevated by oral administration of 'Ilogen-Excel'. Administration of insulin normalized all the biochemical parameters studied in diabetic rats. The effect at a dose of 100 mg/kg was more pronounced than 50 mg/kg and brought back all the parameters to near normal levels. Thus, our study shows the antihyperglycemic effects of 'Ilogen-Excel' in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Our study also shows that combined therapy is better than individual therapy.

  8. Murraya paniculata (orange jasmine), a host and possible inoculum reservoir for Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, causal agent of Huanglongbing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Huanglongbing (HLB), considered the most serious vectored-pathogen of citrus, is transmitted in nature by the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri and the African citrus psyllid Trioza erytreae. In 1999, D. citri was discovered in southern Florida and has become established in FL and TX. Huanglon...

  9. [Studies on anti-implantation and hormone activity of yuehchukene, an alkaloid isolated from the root of Murraya paniculata].

    PubMed

    Wang, N G; Guan, M Z; Lei, H P

    1990-01-01

    Oral or subcutaneous administration of yuehchukene to female mice at the dosage of 2 or 4 mg/kg.d on day 1-3 of gestation resulted in 100% anti-implantation effect. However, yuehchukene at 4 mg/kg.d was found to have no anti-implantation effect in hamsters. Allen-Doisy test showed that yuehchukene had obvious estrogenic activity. Treatment of immature mice with yuehchukene at the dosage of 2 or 4 mg/kg.d for 3 days caused an increase of uterine weight. Combined use of yuehchukene with estradiol was shown to have synergistic effect on promoting uterine growth. Experiments showed that the estrogenic activity of yuehchukene was weaker than that of estriol. The affinity of this compound for estrogen receptor was also found to be weaker than that of estriol.

  10. Large Scale Screening of Ethnomedicinal Plants for Identification of Potential Antibacterial Compounds.

    PubMed

    Panda, Sujogya Kumar; Mohanta, Yugal Kishore; Padhi, Laxmipriya; Park, Young-Hwan; Mohanta, Tapan Kumar; Bae, Hanhong

    2016-03-14

    The global burden of bacterial infections is very high and has been exacerbated by increasing resistance to multiple antibiotics. Antibiotic resistance leads to failed treatment of infections, which can ultimately lead to death. To overcome antibiotic resistance, it is necessary to identify new antibacterial agents. In this study, a total of 662 plant extracts (diverse parts) from 222 plant species (82 families, 177 genera) were screened for antibacterial activity using the agar cup plate method. The aqueous and methanolic extracts were prepared from diverse plant parts and screened against eight bacterial (two Gram-positive and six Gram-negative) species, most of which are involved in common infections with multiple antibiotic resistance. The methanolic extracts of several plants were shown to have zones of inhibition ≥ 12 mm against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentration was calculated only with methanolic extracts of selected plants, those showed zone of inhibition ≥ 12 mm against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Several extracts had minimum inhibitory concentration ≤ 1 mg/mL. Specifically Adhatoda vasica, Ageratum conyzoides, Alangium salvifolium, Alpinia galanga, Andrographis paniculata, Anogeissus latifolia, Annona squamosa, A. reticulate, Azadirachta indica, Buchanania lanzan, Cassia fistula, Celastrus paniculatus, Centella asiatica, Clausena excavate, Cleome viscosa, Cleistanthus collinus, Clerodendrum indicum, Croton roxburghii, Diospyros melanoxylon, Eleutherine bulbosa, Erycibe paniculata, Eryngium foetidum, Garcinia cowa, Helicteres isora, Hemidesmus indicus, Holarrhena antidysenterica, Lannea coromandelica, Millettia extensa, Mimusops elengi, Nyctanthes arbor-tristis, Oroxylum indicum, Paederia foetida, Pterospermum acerifolium, Punica granatum, Semecarpus anacardium, Spondias pinnata, Terminalia alata and Vitex negundo were shown to have significant antimicrobial activity. The species

  11. Andrographolide inhibits prostate cancer by targeting cell cycle regulators, CXCR3 and CXCR7 chemokine receptors.

    PubMed

    Mir, Hina; Kapur, Neeraj; Singh, Rajesh; Sonpavde, Guru; Lillard, James W; Singh, Shailesh

    2016-01-01

    Despite state of the art cancer diagnostics and therapies offered in clinic, prostate cancer (PCa) remains the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths. Hence, more robust therapeutic/preventive regimes are required to combat this lethal disease. In the current study, we have tested the efficacy of Andrographolide (AG), a bioactive diterpenoid isolated from Andrographis paniculata, against PCa. This natural agent selectively affects PCa cell viability in a dose and time-dependent manner, without affecting primary prostate epithelial cells. Furthermore, AG showed differential effect on cell cycle phases in LNCaP, C4-2b and PC3 cells compared to retinoblastoma protein (RB(-/-)) and CDKN2A lacking DU-145 cells. G2/M transition was blocked in LNCaP, C4-2b and PC3 after AG treatment whereas DU-145 cells failed to transit G1/S phase. This difference was primarily due to differential activation of cell cycle regulators in these cell lines. Levels of cyclin A2 after AG treatment increased in all PCa cells line. Cyclin B1 levels increased in LNCaP and PC3, decreased in C4-2b and showed no difference in DU-145 cells after AG treatment. AG decreased cyclin E2 levels only in PC3 and DU-145 cells. It also altered Rb, H3, Wee1 and CDC2 phosphorylation in PCa cells. Intriguingly, AG reduced cell viability and the ability of PCa cells to migrate via modulating CXCL11 and CXCR3 and CXCR7 expression. The significant impact of AG on cellular and molecular processes involved in PCa progression suggests its potential use as a therapeutic and/or preventive agent for PCa.

  12. Inhibition of cell-cycle progression in human colorectal carcinoma Lovo cells by andrographolide.

    PubMed

    Shi, Ming-Der; Lin, Hui-Hsuan; Lee, Yi-Che; Chao, Jian-Kang; Lin, Rong-An; Chen, Jing-Hsien

    2008-08-11

    In recent years, attention has been focused on the anti-cancer properties of pure components, an important role in the prevention of disease. Andrographolide (Andro), the major constituent of Andrographis paniculata (Burm. F.) Nees plant, is implicated towards its pharmacological activity. To investigate the mechanism basis for the anti-tumor properties of Andro, Andro was used to examine its effect on cell-cycle progression in human colorectal carcinoma Lovo cells. The data from cell growth experiment showed that Andro exhibited the anti-proliferation effect on Lovo cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. This event was accompanied the arrest of the cells at the G1-S phase by Andro at the tested concentrations of 0-30 microM. Cellular uptake of Andro and Andro was confirmed by capillary electrophoresis analysis and the intracellular accumulation of Andro (0.61+/-0.07 microM/mg protein) was observed when treatment of Lovo cells with Andro for 12h. In addition, an accumulation of the cells in G1 phase (15% increase for 10 microM of Andro) was observed as well as by the association with a marked decrease in the protein expression of Cyclin A, Cyclin D1, Cdk2 and Cdk4. Andro also inducted the content of Cdk inhibitor p21 and p16, and the phosphorylation of p53. Further immunoprecipitation studies found that, in response to the treatment, the formation of Cyclin D1/Cdk4 and Cyclin A/Cdk2 complexes had declined, preventing the phosphorylation of Rb and the subsequent dissociation of Rb/E2F complex. These results suggested Andro can inhibit Lovo cell growth by G1-S phase arrest, and was exerted by inducing the expression of p53, p21 and p16 that, in turn, repressed the activity of Cyclin D1/Cdk4 and/or Cyclin A/Cdk2, as well as Rb phosphorylation.

  13. Development of a Bifunctional Andrographolide-Based Chemical Probe for Pharmacological Study.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Ya-Hsin; Hsu, Yu-Ling; Liu, Sheng-Hung; Liao, Hsin-Chia; Lee, Po-Xuan; Lin, Chao-Hsiung; Lo, Lee-Chiang; Fu, Shu-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Andrographolide (ANDRO) is a lactone diterpenoid compound present in the medicinal plant Andrographis paniculata which is clinically applied for multiple human diseases in Asia and Europe. The pharmacological activities of andrographolide have been widely demonstrated, including anti-inflammation, anti-cancer and hepatoprotection. However, the pharmacological mechanism of andrographolide remains unclear. Therefore, further characterization on the kinetics and molecular targets of andrographolide is essential. In this study, we described the synthesis and characterization of a novel fluorescent andrographolide derivative (ANDRO-NBD). ANDRO-NBD exhibited a comparable anti-cancer spectrum to andrographolide: ANDRO-NBD was cytotoxic to various types of cancer cells and suppressed the migration activity of melanoma cells; ANDRO-NBD treatment induced the cleavage of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) and the downregulation of its client oncoproteins, v-Src and Bcr-abl. Notably, ANDRO-NBD showed superior inhibitory effects to andrographolide in all anticancer assays we have performed. In addition, ANDRO-NBD was further used as a fluorescent probe to investigate the uptake kinetics, cellular distribution and molecular targets of andrographolide. Our data revealed that ANDRO-NBD entered cells rapidly and its fluorescent signal could be detected in nucleus, cytoplasm, mitochondria, and lysosome. Moreover, we demonstrated that ANDRO-NBD was covalently bound to several putative target proteins of andrographolide, including NF-κB and hnRNPK. In summary, we developed a fluorescent andrographolide probe with comparable bioactivity to andrographolide, which serves as a powerful tool to explore the pharmacological mechanism of andrographolide.

  14. Cellular glutathione content modulates the effect of andrographolide on β-naphthoflavone-induced CYP1A1 mRNA expression in mouse hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Sachiko; Chatuphonprasert, Waranya; Jaruchotikamol, Atika; Sakuma, Tsutomu; Nemoto, Nobuo

    2011-02-04

    We previously reported that andrographolide (Andro), a major bioactive constituent of Andrographis paniculata, synergistically enhanced the inducible expression of CYP1A1 mRNA. In this study, although the synergism was confirmed at 24h after the start of treatment with Andro and β-naphthoflavone (βNF), a CYP1A inducer, the expression was profoundly suppressed at an earlier phase, namely at 6-12h, when the βNF-induced expression peaked. Although oxidized glutathione (GSSG) levels were higher in co-treated cells at 6 and 24h, levels of reactive oxygen species varied depending on the treatment period and species, indicating no relation to the synergistic expression of CYP1A1 mRNA. Glutathione (GSH) and N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) significantly enhanced the βNF-induced expression, and partly reversed the suppressive effect of Andro in the early phase. At 24h, the addition of GSH or NAC had no effect on βNF-induced CYP1A1 mRNA expression, but significantly reduced the synergistic effect of Andro. The synergistic effect was enhanced by l-buthionine-(S,R)-sulfoximine, a GSH depleter. Furthermore, H(2)O(2) and ascorbic acid further modified the profile of synergism of Andro on βNF-inducible CYP1A1 mRNA expression. These results suggest that GSH status might be involved in βNF-induced CYP1A1 mRNA expression, and the interaction of Andro with GSH might modulate the expression.

  15. Andrographolide Ameliorates Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Progression by Inhibiting Inflammatory Cell Infiltration through Downregulation of Cytokine and Integrin Expression

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Jun; Liu, Zhenjie; Wang, Qiwei; Giles, Jasmine; Greenberg, Jason; Sheibani, Nader; Kent, K. Craig

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), characterized by exuberant inflammation and tissue deterioration, is a common aortic disease associated with a high mortality rate. There is currently no established pharmacological therapy to treat this progressive disease. Andrographolide (Andro), a major bioactive component of the herbaceous plant Andrographis paniculata, has been found to exhibit potent anti-inflammatory properties by inhibiting nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) activity in several disease models. In this study, we investigated the ability of Andro to suppress inflammation associated with aneurysms, and whether it may be used to block the progression of AAA. Whereas diseased aortae continued to expand in the solvent-treated group, daily administration of Andro to mice with small aneurysms significantly attenuated aneurysm growth, as measured by the diminished expansion of aortic diameter (165.68 ± 15.85% vs. 90.62 ± 22.91%, P < 0.05). Immunohistochemistry analyses revealed that Andro decreased infiltration of monocytes/macrophages and T cells. Mechanistically, Andro inhibited arterial NF-κB activation and reduced the production of proinflammatory cytokines [CCL2, CXCL10, tumor necrosis factor α, and interferon-γ] in the treated aortae. Furthermore, Andro suppressed α4 integrin expression and attenuated the ability of monocytes/macrophages to adhere to activated endothelial cells. These results indicate that Andro suppresses progression of AAA, likely through inhibition of inflammatory cell infiltration via downregulation of NF-κB–mediated cytokine production and α4 integrin expression. Thus, Andro may offer a pharmacological therapy to slow disease progression in patients with small aneurysms. PMID:26483397

  16. Development of a Bifunctional Andrographolide-Based Chemical Probe for Pharmacological Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Sheng-Hung; Liao, Hsin-Chia; Lee, Po-Xuan; Lin, Chao-Hsiung; Lo, Lee-Chiang; Fu, Shu-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Andrographolide (ANDRO) is a lactone diterpenoid compound present in the medicinal plant Andrographis paniculata which is clinically applied for multiple human diseases in Asia and Europe. The pharmacological activities of andrographolide have been widely demonstrated, including anti-inflammation, anti-cancer and hepatoprotection. However, the pharmacological mechanism of andrographolide remains unclear. Therefore, further characterization on the kinetics and molecular targets of andrographolide is essential. In this study, we described the synthesis and characterization of a novel fluorescent andrographolide derivative (ANDRO-NBD). ANDRO-NBD exhibited a comparable anti-cancer spectrum to andrographolide: ANDRO-NBD was cytotoxic to various types of cancer cells and suppressed the migration activity of melanoma cells; ANDRO-NBD treatment induced the cleavage of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) and the downregulation of its client oncoproteins, v-Src and Bcr-abl. Notably, ANDRO-NBD showed superior inhibitory effects to andrographolide in all anticancer assays we have performed. In addition, ANDRO-NBD was further used as a fluorescent probe to investigate the uptake kinetics, cellular distribution and molecular targets of andrographolide. Our data revealed that ANDRO-NBD entered cells rapidly and its fluorescent signal could be detected in nucleus, cytoplasm, mitochondria, and lysosome. Moreover, we demonstrated that ANDRO-NBD was covalently bound to several putative target proteins of andrographolide, including NF-κB and hnRNPK. In summary, we developed a fluorescent andrographolide probe with comparable bioactivity to andrographolide, which serves as a powerful tool to explore the pharmacological mechanism of andrographolide. PMID:27035713

  17. Andrographolide down-regulates hypoxia-inducible factor-1α in human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hui-Hsuan; Tsai, Chia-Wen; Chou, Fen-Pi; Wang, Chau-Jong; Hsuan, Shu-Wen; Wang, Cheng-Kun; Chen, Jing-Hsien

    2011-02-01

    Andrographolide (Andro), a diterpenoid lactone isolated from a traditional herbal medicine Andrographis paniculata, is known to possess multiple pharmacological activities. In our previous study, Andro had been shown to inhibit non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) A549 cell migration and invasion via down-regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway. Here we demonstrated that Andro inhibited the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) in A549 cells. HIF-1α plays an important role in tumor growth, angiogenesis and lymph node metastasis of NSCLC. The Andro-induced decrease of cellular protein level of HIF-1α was correlated with a rapid ubiquitin-dependent degradation of HIF-1α, and was accompanied by increased expressions of hydroxyl-HIF-1α and prolyl hydroxylase (PHD2), and a later decrease of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) upon the treatment of Andro. The Andro-inhibited VEGF expression appeared to be a consequence of HIF-1α inactivation, because its DNA binding activity was suppressed by Andro. Molecular data showed that all these effects of Andro might be mediated via TGFβ1/PHD2/HIF-1α pathway, as demonstrated by the transfection of TGFβ1 overexpression vector and PHD2 siRNA, and the usage of a pharmacological MG132 inhibitor. Furthermore, we elucidated the involvement of Andro in HIF-1α transduced VEGF expression in A549 cells and other NSCLC cell lines. In conclusion, these results highlighted the potential effects of Andro, which may be developed as a chemotherapeutic or an anti-angiogenesis agent for NSCLC in the future.

  18. Andrographolide inhibits growth of human T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia Jurkat cells by downregulation of PI3K/AKT and upregulation of p38 MAPK pathways

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Tingfang; Yao, Shuluan; Zhang, Xianfeng; Guo, Yan

    2016-01-01

    T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) as a prevalent hematologic malignancy is one of the most common malignant tumors worldwide in children. Andrographolide (Andro), the major active component from Andrographis paniculata, has been shown to possess antitumor activities in several types of cancer cells. However, whether Andro would inhibit T-ALL cell growth remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxic effect of Andro on human T-ALL Jurkat cells and explored the mechanisms of cell death. Cell apoptosis was assayed by flow cytometry, and the signaling transduction for Andro was analyzed by Western blotting. The results indicated 10 μg/mL Andro could significantly induce Jurkat cells’ apoptosis, depending on the inhibition of PI3K/AKT pathway. Moreover, Andro-induced apoptosis is enhanced by AKT-selective inhibitor LY294002. ERK- or JNK-selective inhibitors PD98059 and SP600125 had no effect on Andro-induced apoptosis. In addition, p38 inhibitor SB203580 could reverse Andro-induced apoptosis in Jurkat cells. We also found that the protein expression of p-p53 and p-p38 were increased after Andro treatments. The result of an in vivo study also demonstrated Andro’s dose-dependent inhibition in subcutaneous Jurkat xenografts. In conclusion, our findings explained a novel mechanism of drug action by Andro in Jurkat cells and suggested that Andro might be developed into a new candidate therapy for T-ALL patients in the coming days. PMID:27114702

  19. Anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects from sequenced combinations of andrographolide and cisplatin on ovarian cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Yunos, Nurhanan M; Mutalip, Siti S M; Jauri, Muhammad H; Yu, Jun Q; Huq, Fazlul

    2013-10-01

    Andrographolide (Andro) is a diterpenoid that is isolated from Andrographis paniculata and reported to be active against several cancer cell lines. However, few in-depth studies have been carried out on its effects on ovarian cancer cell lines alone or in combination with cisplatin (Cis), which is commonly used to treat ovarian cancer. The aim of this study was to determine the anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects of Andro administered alone and in combination with Cis in the ovarian A2780 and A2780(cisR) cancer cell lines using five different sequences of administration (Cis/Andro h): 0/0h, 4/0 h, 0/4 h, 24/0 h and 0/24 h. The results were evaluated in terms of medium-effect dose (Dm) and combination indices (CI) using the CalcuSyn software. Unlike Cis, whose activity was lower in the resistant A2780(cisR) cell line than in the parent A2780 cell line, Andro was found to be three times more active in the A2780(cisR) cell line as compared to that in A2780 cell line. Synergism was observed when Cis and Andro were administered using the sequences 0/4 h and 4/0 h. The percentage of apoptotic cell death was found to be greater for the 0/4 h combination of Andro and Cis as compared to those values from single-drug treatments. The results may be clinically significant if confirmed in vivo.

  20. Andrographolide exerted its antimicrobial effects by upregulation of human β-defensin-2 induced through p38 MAPK and NF-κB pathway in human lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Shao, Zhen-Jun; Zheng, Xiao-Wei; Feng, Ting; Huang, Juan; Chen, Jian; Wu, Yi-Ying; Zhou, Li-Ming; Tu, Wen-Wei; Li, Hong

    2012-05-01

    Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f) Nees is a traditional herbal medicine for the treatment of infection and inflammation in China. Andrographolide (andro) is one of the major components. Human β-defensin-2 (hBD-2) is an inducible antimicrobial peptide that plays an important role in innate immunity. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of andro on upregulation of hBD-2 and the key signaling pathways involved in andro-induced hBD-2 expression. Real-time reverse transcription - PCR and Western blot assays showed that andro (1.0-10 µmol/L) can upregulate the expression of hBD-2 in a dose-dependent manner. Further studies suggested that hBD-2 mRNA and protein expression in responsive to andro were attenuated by pretreatment with SB203580 (an inhibitor of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK)), MG-132 (an inhibitor of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB)), and an NF-κB activator inhibitor, but not by an inhibitor of ERK (PD98059) or by an inhibitor of JNK(SP600125). Moreover, we found that a second p38 MAPK inhibitor (SB202190) significantly blocked andro-mediated hBD-2 induction in SPC-A-1 lung epithelial cells. Finally, the p-c-Jun transcription factor activity assay also showed that AP-1 activity was induced by andro compared with the untreated group. We conclude that andro may exert its antimicrobial effects by upregulating the expression of hBD-2 through the p38 MAPK and NF-κB pathway.

  1. Andrographolide Inhibits Nuclear Factor-κB Activation through JNK-Akt-p65 Signaling Cascade in Tumor Necrosis Factor-α-Stimulated Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Ying; Hsieh, Cheng-Ying; Lee, Lin-Wen; Sheu, Joen-Rong

    2014-01-01

    Critical vascular inflammation leads to vascular dysfunction and cardiovascular diseases, including abdominal aortic aneurysms, hypertension, and atherosclerosis. Andrographolide is the most active and critical constituent isolated from the leaves of Andrographis paniculata, a herbal medicine widely used for treating anti-inflammation in Asia. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms of the inhibitory effects of andrographolide in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) exposed to a proinflammatory stimulus, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Treating TNF-α-stimulated VSMCs with andrographolide suppressed the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in a concentration-dependent manner. A reduction in TNF-α-induced c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), Akt, and p65 phosphorylation was observed in andrographolide-treated VSMCs. However, andrographolide affected neither IκBα degradation nor p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase or extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 phosphorylation under these conditions. Both treatment with LY294002, a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt inhibitor, and treatment with SP600125, a JNK inhibitor, markedly reversed the andrographolide-mediated inhibition of p65 phosphorylation. In addition, LY294002 and SP600125 both diminished Akt phosphorylation, whereas LY294002 had no effects on JNK phosphorylation. These results collectively suggest that therapeutic interventions using andrographolide can benefit the treatment of vascular inflammatory diseases, and andrographolide-mediated inhibition of NF-κB activity in TNF-α-stimulated VSMCs occurs through the JNK-Akt-p65 signaling cascade, an IκBα-independent mechanism. PMID:25114952

  2. Andrographolide Ameliorates Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Progression by Inhibiting Inflammatory Cell Infiltration through Downregulation of Cytokine and Integrin Expression.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jun; Liu, Zhenjie; Wang, Qiwei; Giles, Jasmine; Greenberg, Jason; Sheibani, Nader; Kent, K Craig; Liu, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), characterized by exuberant inflammation and tissue deterioration, is a common aortic disease associated with a high mortality rate. There is currently no established pharmacological therapy to treat this progressive disease. Andrographolide (Andro), a major bioactive component of the herbaceous plant Andrographis paniculata, has been found to exhibit potent anti-inflammatory properties by inhibiting nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) activity in several disease models. In this study, we investigated the ability of Andro to suppress inflammation associated with aneurysms, and whether it may be used to block the progression of AAA. Whereas diseased aortae continued to expand in the solvent-treated group, daily administration of Andro to mice with small aneurysms significantly attenuated aneurysm growth, as measured by the diminished expansion of aortic diameter (165.68 ± 15.85% vs. 90.62 ± 22.91%, P < 0.05). Immunohistochemistry analyses revealed that Andro decreased infiltration of monocytes/macrophages and T cells. Mechanistically, Andro inhibited arterial NF-κB activation and reduced the production of proinflammatory cytokines [CCL2, CXCL10, tumor necrosis factor α, and interferon-γ] in the treated aortae. Furthermore, Andro suppressed α4 integrin expression and attenuated the ability of monocytes/macrophages to adhere to activated endothelial cells. These results indicate that Andro suppresses progression of AAA, likely through inhibition of inflammatory cell infiltration via downregulation of NF-κB-mediated cytokine production and α4 integrin expression. Thus, Andro may offer a pharmacological therapy to slow disease progression in patients with small aneurysms.

  3. Andrographolide enhances 5-fluorouracil-induced apoptosis via caspase-8-dependent mitochondrial pathway involving p53 participation in hepatocellular carcinoma (SMMC-7721) cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lu; Wu, Dingfang; Luo, Kewang; Wu, Shihua; Wu, Ping

    2009-04-18

    Despite recent significant advances in the treatment of human carcinoma (HCC), the results of chemotherapy to date remain unsatisfactory. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) still represents the cornerstone of treatment of carcinoma, and resistance to the actions of 5-FU is a major obstacle to successful chemotherapy. More effective treatment strategies may involve combinations of agents with activity against HCC. Andrographolide (ANDRO), a natural bicyclic diterpenoid lactone isolated from Andrographis paniculata, has been shown to suppress the growth of HCC cells and trigger apoptosis in vitro. To assess the suitability of ANDRO as a chemotherapeutic agent in HCC, its cytotoxic effects have been evaluated both as a single agent and in combination with 5-FU. ANDRO potentiates the cytotoxic effect of 5-FU in HCC cell line SMMC-7721 through apoptosis. ANDRO alone induces SMMC-7721 apoptosis with p53 expression, Bax conformation and caspase-3,8,9 activation. Surprisingly, the addition of ANDRO to 5-FU induces synergistic apoptosis, which could be corroborated to the increased caspase-8, p53 activity and the significant changes of Bax conformation in these cells, resulting in increased losses of mitochondrial membrane potential, increased release of cytochrome c, and activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3. Suppression of caspase-8 with the specific inhibitor z-IETD-fmk abrogates largely ANDRO/5-FU biological activity by preventing mitochondrial membrane potential disappearance, caspase-3,9 activation and subsequent apoptosis. The results suggest that ANDRO may be effective in combination with 5-FU for the treatment of HCC cells SMMC-7721.

  4. Activated charcoal-mediated RNA extraction method for Azadirachta indica and plants highly rich in polyphenolics, polysaccharides and other complex secondary compounds

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background High quality RNA is a primary requisite for numerous molecular biological applications but is difficult to isolate from several plants rich in polysaccharides, polyphenolics and other secondary metabolites. These compounds either bind with nucleic acids or often co-precipitate at the final step and many times cannot be removed by conventional methods and kits. Addition of vinyl-pyrollidone polymers in extraction buffer efficiently removes polyphenolics to some extent, but, it failed in case of Azadirachta indica and several other medicinal and aromatic plants. Findings Here we report the use of adsorption property of activated charcoal (0.03%–0.1%) in RNA isolation procedures to remove complex secondary metabolites and polyphenolics to yield good quality RNA from Azadirachta indica. We tested and validated our modified RNA isolation method across 21 different plants including Andrographis paniculata, Aloe vera, Rosa damascena, Pelargonium graveolens, Phyllanthus amarus etc. from 13 other different families, many of which are considered as tough system for isolating RNA. The A260/280 ratio of the extracted RNA ranged between 1.8-2.0 and distinct 28S and 18S ribosomal RNA bands were observed in denaturing agarose gel electrophoresis. Analysis using Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer revealed intact total RNA yield with very good RNA Integrity Number. Conclusions The RNA isolated by our modified method was found to be of high quality and amenable for sensitive downstream molecular applications like subtractive library construction and RT-PCR. This modified RNA isolation procedure would aid and accelerate the biotechnological studies in complex medicinal and aromatic plants which are extremely rich in secondary metabolic compounds. PMID:23537338

  5. Andrographolide down-regulates hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha} in human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Hui-Hsuan; Tsai, Chia-Wen; Chou, Fen-Pi; Wang, Chau-Jong; Hsuan, Shu-Wen; Wang, Cheng-Kun; Chen, Jing-Hsien

    2011-02-01

    Andrographolide (Andro), a diterpenoid lactone isolated from a traditional herbal medicine Andrographis paniculata, is known to possess multiple pharmacological activities. In our previous study, Andro had been shown to inhibit non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) A549 cell migration and invasion via down-regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway. Here we demonstrated that Andro inhibited the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha} (HIF-1{alpha}) in A549 cells. HIF-1{alpha} plays an important role in tumor growth, angiogenesis and lymph node metastasis of NSCLC. The Andro-induced decrease of cellular protein level of HIF-1{alpha} was correlated with a rapid ubiquitin-dependent degradation of HIF-1{alpha}, and was accompanied by increased expressions of hydroxyl-HIF-1{alpha} and prolyl hydroxylase (PHD2), and a later decrease of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) upon the treatment of Andro. The Andro-inhibited VEGF expression appeared to be a consequence of HIF-1{alpha} inactivation, because its DNA binding activity was suppressed by Andro. Molecular data showed that all these effects of Andro might be mediated via TGF{beta}1/PHD2/HIF-1{alpha} pathway, as demonstrated by the transfection of TGF{beta}1 overexpression vector and PHD2 siRNA, and the usage of a pharmacological MG132 inhibitor. Furthermore, we elucidated the involvement of Andro in HIF-1{alpha} transduced VEGF expression in A549 cells and other NSCLC cell lines. In conclusion, these results highlighted the potential effects of Andro, which may be developed as a chemotherapeutic or an anti-angiogenesis agent for NSCLC in the future.

  6. Andrographolide recovers cognitive impairment in a natural model of Alzheimer's disease (Octodon degus).

    PubMed

    Rivera, Daniela S; Lindsay, Carolina; Codocedo, Juan Francisco; Morel, Isidora; Pinto, Claudio; Cisternas, Pedro; Bozinovic, Francisco; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C

    2016-10-01

    The social species Octodon degus (degu) is the only wild-type South American rodent that develops Alzheimer's-like pathology with age. Here, we evaluated the ability of a natural product (Andrographolide, ANDRO), a diterpene of the labdane family obtained from the Asian plant Andrographis paniculata, to recover the cognitive decline in this long-lived animal model. We administered ANDRO to aged degus (56-month old) for 3 months. In addition, in 2 control groups (young degus: 12-month old and aged degus: 56-month old), we administrated saline solution as a vehicle. We evaluated cognitive performance through several behavioral tests. We also performed a series of physiological and biochemical analyses (e.g., electrophysiological and immunoblotting assessment) to identify possible mechanisms underlying cognitive performance associated with age. Our results suggest that there is an effect of aging on the loss of cognitive function, and this decrease in cognitive function was also related to a decrease in the synaptic functions and an increase in the main hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). More importantly, ANDRO treatments showed the following beneficial effects: (1) recovery of spatial memory and learning performance; (2) recovery of synaptic basal transmission; (3) partial or complete protection of certain synaptic proteins; and (4) a specific neuroprotective effect, including the reduction of phosphorylated tau protein and amyloid beta aggregate maturation in aged degus. Taken together, our results suggest that ANDRO could be used as a potential therapy for AD and support the use of O. degus as a natural model in which to study both neural damage associated with aging processes and the behavioral and neuropathological hallmarks of aging-related diseases such as AD.

  7. A Biochemical Study on the Gastroprotective Effect of Andrographolide in Rats Induced with Gastric Ulcer

    PubMed Central

    Saranya, P.; Geetha, A.; Selvamathy, S. M. K. Narmadha

    2011-01-01

    The major objective of the study was to evaluate the gastroprotective property of andrographolide, a chief component of the leaves of Andrographis paniculata in terms of the ulcer preventive effect in rats. An acute toxicity test was conducted with different concentrations of andrographolide to determine the LD50 value. The dose responsive study was conducted in rats pretreated with andrographolide (1, 3 and 5 mg/kg) for a period of 30 days, prior to ulcer induction by administering ethanol, aspirin or by pyloric ligation. The ulcer protective efficacy was tested by determining the ulcer score, pH, pepsin, titrable acidity, gastric mucin, lipid peroxides, reduced glutathione, and enzymatic antioxidants superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase in gastric tissue. The activities of H+-K+ ATPase and myeloperoxidase were also determined in gastric tissue. The LD50 value was found to be 48 mg/kg b. wt and the effective dose was found to be 3 mg/kg. We have observed a significant reduction in the ulcer score in rats pretreated with 3 mg of andrographolide/kg body weight. A favourable increase in the pH and decrease in titrable acidity were observed in the gastric fluid of rats pretreated with the test drug. The gastric tissue H+-K+ ATPase and myeloperoxidase activities were elevated in ulcer-induced animals. The elevation in the enzyme activity was significantly minimized in the andrographolide received animals. The antioxidants and mucin levels were significantly maintained in the gastric tissue of drug-pretreated animals. Andrographolide did not produce any toxic effects in normal rats. This study reveals that the ulcer preventive efficacy of andrographolide may probably due to its antioxidant, cytoprotective and antiacid secretory effects. PMID:22923868

  8. Andrographolide derivative AL-1 improves insulin resistance through down-regulation of NF-κB signalling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yongmei; Yan, Hui; Zhang, Zaijun; Zhang, Gaoxiao; Sun, Yewei; Yu, Pei; Wang, Yuqiang; Xu, Lipeng

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Andrographolide is the most active constituent of the medicinal plant Andrographis paniculata. Previously, we synthesized a novel andrographolide derivative AL-1, conjugating andrographolide with lipoic acid. Although the antioxidative and/or anti-inflammatory activity of AL-1 contributes to its cytoprotective effects, whether AL-1 can improve insulin resistance and the mechanisms responsible for its action have not been elucidated. Experimental Approach We investigated the anti-hyperlipidaemic and anti-hyperglycaemic effects of AL-1 in a high-fat diet/streptozocin-induced animal diabetic model. In addition, we investigated the effect of AL-1 on the NF-κB signalling pathway in rat islet derived insulinoma cells (RIN-m cells) with a focus on the link between reactive oxygen species-associated inflammation and insulin resistance. Key Results AL-1, at doses of 40 and 80 mg·kg−1, had a significant hypoglycaemic effect; it significantly reduced the level of cholesterol and increased HDL. AL-1 also reduced the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and enhanced insulin sensitivity. In addition, AL-1 improved the morphology of pancreatic islets and their function. Furthermore, AL-1 suppressed high glucose-induced phosphorylation of p65 and IκBα in RIN-m cells. Conclusion and Implications AL-1 has a hypoglycaemic effect and improves insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic rats. It protected islet from high glucose-induced oxidative damage by down-regulating the NF-κB signalling pathway. Further investigations of AL-1 as a promising new agent for treatment and/or prevention of diabetes are warranted. PMID:25712508

  9. Bioavailability of andrographolide and protection against carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative damage in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Haw-Wen; Huang, Chin-Shiu; Li, Chien-Chun; Lin, Ai-Hsuan; Huang, Yu-Ju; Wang, Tsu-Shing; Yao, Hsien-Tsung; Lii, Chong-Kuei

    2014-10-01

    Andrographolide, a bioactive diterpenoid, is identified in Andrographis paniculata. In this study, we investigated the pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of andrographolide in rats and studied whether andrographolide enhances antioxidant defense in a variety of tissues and protects against carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative damage. After a single 50-mg/kg administration, the maximum plasma concentration of andrographolide was 1 μM which peaked at 30 min. The bioavailability of andrographolide was 1.19%. In a hepatoprotection study, rats were intragastrically dosed with 30 or 50 mg/kg andrographolide for 5 consecutive days. The results showed that andrographolide up-regulated glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL) catalytic and modifier subunits, superoxide dismutase (SOD)-1, heme oxygenase (HO)-1, and glutathione (GSH) S-transferase (GST) Ya/Yb protein and mRNA expression in the liver, heart, and kidneys. The activity of SOD, GST, and GSH reductase was also increased in rats dosed with andrographolide (p < 0.05). Immunoblot analysis and EMSA revealed that andrographolide increased nuclear Nrf2 contents and Nrf2 binding to DNA, respectively. After the 5-day andrographolide treatment, one group of animals was intraperitoneally injected with carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}) at day 6. Andrographolide pretreatment suppressed CCl{sub 4}-induced plasma aminotransferase activity and hepatic lipid peroxidation (p < 0.05). These results suggest that andrographolide is quickly absorbed in the intestinal tract in rats with a bioavailability of 1.19%. Andrographolide protects against chemical-induced oxidative damage by up-regulating the gene transcription and activity of antioxidant enzymes in various tissues. - Highlights: • The bioavailability of andrographolide is 1.19% in rats. • Plasma concentration reaches 1 μM after giving 50 mg/kg andrographolide. • Andrographolide up-regulates Nrf2-dependent antioxidant genes. • Andrographolide increases antioxidant defense

  10. Pro-neurogenic effects of andrographolide on RSC96 Schwann cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Fuben; Wu, Huayu; Zhang, Kun; Lv, Peizhen; Zheng, Li; Zhao, Jinmin

    2016-01-01

    Nerve regeneration remains a challenge to the treatment of peripheral nerve injury. Andrographolide (Andro) is the main active constituent of Andrographis paniculata, which has been applied in the treatment of several diseases, including inflammation, in ancient China. Andro has been reported to facilitate the reduction of edema and to exert analgesic effects in the treatment of various diseases. These findings suggest that Andro may be considered a promising anti-inflammatory agent that may suppress destruction and accelerate proliferation of Schwann cells following peripheral nerve injury. In the present study, the effects of Andro on RSC96 cells were investigated in vitro. The RSC96 cell line is a spontaneously immortalized rat Schwann cell line, which was originally derived from a long-term culture of rat primary Schwann cells. RSC96 cells were treated with a range of 0 to 50 µM Andro prior to the MTT assay. Cell proliferation, morphology, synthesis and nerve-specific gene expression were performed to detect the effect of Andro on RSC96 cells. The results of the present study demonstrated that the recommended doses of Andro ranged between 0.78 and 12.5 µM, among which the most obvious response was observed when used at 3.125 µM (P<0.05). DNA content was improved in Andro groups compared with the control group (P<0.05). In addition, Andro was able to promote the gene expression of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, ciliary neurotrophic factor, and the specific Schwann cell marker S100β (P<0.05). The results of a viability assay, hematoxylin-eosin staining, and immunohistochemistry were also improved in Andro groups. These results indicated that Andro may accelerate proliferation of RSC96 cells in vitro, whilst maintaining the Schwann cell phenotype; therefore, the present study may provide valuable evidence for the further exploration of the effects of Andro on peripheral nerves. PMID:27599453

  11. Diversity of the citrus HLB bacterium, ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’, in psyllids (Diaphorina citri) collected from Murraya paniculata and citrus spp. in Thailand

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (Las) is a phloem inhabiting bacterium that causes huanglongbing disease (HLB), also known as citrus greening associated with three species of a-Proteobacteria in the genus ‘Candidatus Liberibacter sp’. Prophage is an important genetic element of bacterial genomes...

  12. [Effects of exogenous Ca2+ on the seed germination of Koelreuteria paniculata in limestone area of Southwest China under drought stress].

    PubMed

    Cai, Xi-Yue; Chen, Xiao-De; Li, Chao-Zheng; Liu, Cheng

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, different arid environments in the limestone area of Southwest China were simulated by using different concentrations (0%, 5%, 15%, 25%, and 30%) of PEG6000 (polyethylene glycol), and a gradient of exogenous Ca2+ (0, 15, 20, 25, and 30 mmol x L(-1) of CaCl2) was installed to simulate the high calcium soil environments, aimed to study the effects of different concentration PEG6000, CaCl2, and their interactions on the seed germination characteristics of Koelreuteria bipinnata, one of the preferred species in the ecological restoration in limestone area. Under the action of CaCl2 alone, medium or low concentration exogenous Ca2+ had lesser effect on the seed germination parameters, but high concentration exogenous Ca2+ had inhibition effect on the seed germination. Medium or low concentration CaC12 could increase the seedling fresh biomass. When the PEG6000 concentration increased from 0% to 25%, the seed germination rate, germination potential, germination index, and vigor index showed a significant decreasing trend, and the seedling fresh biomass decreased remarkably. When certain concentration of exogenous Ca2+ was exerted to the drought treatment groups, medium or low concentration CaCl2 improved the seed germination characteristics, which compensated the loss from drought stress to a certain degree. When the CaCl2 concentration was up to 30 mmol x L(-1), the seeds were hard to germinate. Additionally, no seeds germinated under the condition of PEG with the concentration of 30%. It was suggested that applying definite concentration of exogenous Ca2+ could increase the seedling fresh biomass under PEG6000 stress, and make the seedlings more adapt to arid environment.

  13. The relevance of Murraya paniculata and related species as potential hosts and inoculum reservoirs of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, causal agent of Huanglongbing (HLB)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Huanglongbing (HLB), considered the most serious insect-vectored bacterial disease of citrus, is transmitted in nature by the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri and the African citrus psyllid Trioza erytreae. Diaphorina citri was discovered in southern Florida in 1998 and the HLB disease in 2005...

  14. Hepatoprotective effect of engineered silver nanoparticles coated bioactive compounds against diethylnitrosamine induced hepatocarcinogenesis in experimental mice.

    PubMed

    Prasannaraj, Govindaraj; Venkatachalam, Perumal

    2017-02-01

    Nanoparticle based drug delivery can rapidly improves the therapeutic potential of anti-cancer agents. The present study focused to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized using aqueous extracts of Andrographis paniculata leaves (ApAgNPs) and Semecarpus anacardium nuts (SaAgNPs) against diethylnitrosamine (DEN) induced liver cancer in mice model. The physico-chemical properties of synthesized AgNPs were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Selected Area Electron Diffraction (SAED), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectrum, Zeta potential and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) analysis. The surface plasmon resonance (SPR) absorption spectrum revealed a strong peak at 420nm for both SaAgNPs and ApAgNPs. FTIR results exhibited the presence of possible functional groups in the synthesized AgNPs. TEM analysis determined the hexagonal, and spherical shape of the synthesized silver nanoparticles. The XRD and SAED pattern confirmed the crystalline nature and crystalline size of the AgNPs. EDX result clearly showed strong silver signals in the range between 2 and 4keV. Zeta potential measurements indicated a sharp peak at -3.93 and -13.8mV for ApAgNPs and SaAgNPs, respectively. DLS measurement expressed the particle size distribution was 70 and 60nm for ApAgNPs and SaAgNPs, respectively. DEN (20mg/kg b.wt.) was subjected to induce liver cancer in mice for 8weeks and treated with biosynthesized silver nanoparticles. Interestingly, ApAgNPs and SaAgNPs treated DEN induced animal groups show a decreased level of aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT), serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) activity and elevated level of catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity over untreated DEN control

  15. Anti-inflammatory and Antimicrobial Effects of Heat-Clearing Chinese Herbs: A Current Review.

    PubMed

    Muluye, Rekik A; Bian, Yuhong; Alemu, Paulos N

    2014-04-01

    Inflammation is a normal immune response; but if the body's regulation of inflammation is dysfunctional, then it will have an adverse effect on the body. Although use of modern drugs for inflammation has a relieving effect, it is still unsatisfactory. Moreover, the emergence of drug-resistant strains and even new kinds of microorganisms is causing significant morbidity and mortality. Recently, more attention has been focused on herbal medicine to treat various diseases because of the ability of the herbs to affect multiple target signaling pathways and their multiple mechanisms of action. Thus, a large number of studies have reported on the anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effects of the traditional Chinese herbs. Literature survey was performed by conducting systematic electronic search in PubMed, Science Direct, Google Scholar, and in books. This review has listed 11 heat-clearing Chinese herbs (HCCHs) including Scutellaria baicalensis ( Huáng Qín), Coptis chinensis ( Huáng Lián), Flos Lonicerae ( Jīn Yín Hūa), Forsythia suspensa ( Lián Qiào), Isatidis Folium ( Dà Qīn Yè), Radix Isatidis ( Bǎn Lán Gēn), Viola yedoensis ( Zǐ Huā Dì Dīn), Pulsatilla Radix ( Bái Tóu Wēn), Andrographis paniculata ( Chuān Xīn Lián), Houttuynia cordata ( Yú Xīng Cǎo), and Patrinia Herba ( Bài Jiàn Cǎo), which have anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effects, and has described their effects through different mechanisms of action and multiple targets. Their ability to affect multiple target signaling pathways and their potential mechanisms of action contributing to their anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activity may be related to their action of removing heat and counteracting toxicity. Further studies are needed on the collection of HCCHs to know the detailed mechanism of action of herbs in this group for the assessment of effective drug.

  16. Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B inhibitory activity of Indonesian herbal medicines and constituents of Cinnamomum burmannii and Zingiber aromaticum.

    PubMed

    Saifudin, Azis; Kadota, Shigetoshi; Tezuka, Yasuhiro

    2013-04-01

    We screened water and methanol extracts of 28 Indonesian medicinal plants for their protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) inhibitory activities. Nine water extracts, i.e., Alstonia scholaris leaf, Blumea balsamifera, Cinnamomum burmannii, Cymbopogon nardus, Melaleuca leucadendra, Phyllanthus niruri, Piper nigrum, Syzygium aromaticum, and Sy. polyanthum, exhibited ≥70 % inhibition at 25 μg/mL, whereas 11 methanol extracts, i.e., Als. scholaris, Andrographis paniculata, B. balsamifera, Ci. burmannii, Curcuma heyneana, Glycyrrhiza glabra, M. leucadendra, Punica granatum, Rheum palmatum, Sy. polyanthum, and Z. aromaticum, exhibited ≥70 % inhibition at 25 μg/mL. Water extracts of B. balsamifera (IC50, 2.26 μg/mL) and M. leucadendra (IC50, 2.05 μg/mL), and methanol extracts of Ci. burmannii (IC50, 2.47 μg/mL), Pu. granatum (IC50, 2.40 μg/mL), and Sy. polyanthum (IC50, 1.03 μg/mL) exhibited strong inhibitory activity, which was comparable with that of the positive control, RK-682 (IC50, 2.05 μg/mL). The PTP1B inhibitory activity of the constituents of Ci. burmannii and Z. aromaticum was then evaluated. 5'-Hydroxy-5-hydroxymethyl-4″,5″-methylenedioxy-1,2,3,4-dibenzo-1,3,5-cycloheptatriene (2; IC50, 29.7 μM) and trans-cinnamaldehyde (5; IC50, 57.6 μM) were the active constituents of Ci. burmannii, while humulatrien-5-ol-8-one (21; IC50, 27.7 μM), kaempferol-3,4'-di-O-methyl ether (32; IC50, 17.5 μM), and (S)-6-gingerol (33; IC50, 28.1 μM) were those of Z. aromaticum. These results suggest that these medicinal plants may contribute to the treatment and/or prevention of type II diabetes and/or obesity through PTP1B inhibition.

  17. 14-Deoxyandrographolide alleviates ethanol-induced hepatosteatosis through stimulation of AMP-activated protein kinase activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Samir; Mukhopadhyay, Sibabrata; Bandhopadhyay, Sukdeb; Sen, Gargi; Biswas, Tuli

    2014-03-01

    Andrographis paniculata (AP) is a traditional medicinal plant of Ayurveda. It grows widely in Asia and is prescribed in the treatment of liver diseases. Here we have investigated the beneficial role of 14-deoxyandrographolide (14-DAG), a bioactive diterpenoid from AP, against alcoholic steatosis in rats. 14-DAG was extracted from aerial parts (leaves and stems) of AP. Rats were fed with ethanol for 8 weeks. Animals were treated with 14-DAG during the last 4 weeks of ethanol treatment. In vitro studies were undertaken in a human hepatocellular liver carcinoma cell line culture. Hepatosteatosis was assessed from histopathological studies of liver sections. Acetyl-CoA, malonyl-CoA, and triglyceride contents were determined using commercially available kits. Fatty acid synthesis was evaluated from incorporation of 1-(14)C acetate. Regulation of fatty acid oxidation and lipogenesis were monitored with immunoblotting and immunoprecipitation studies. Ethanol exposure led to hepatotoxicity, as evident from the marked enhancement in the levels of AST and ALT. The values decreased almost to control levels in response to 14-DAG treatment. Results showed that ethanol feeding induced deactivation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) that led to enhanced lipid synthesis and decreased fatty acid oxidation, culminating in hepatic fat accumulation. Treatment with 14-DAG activated AMPK through induction of cyclic AMP-protein kinase A pathway. Activation of AMPK was followed by down-regulation of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, and fatty acid synthase, leading to suppression of lipogenesis. This was associated with up-regulation of sirtuin 1 and depletion of malonyl-CoA, in favor of increased fatty acid oxidation. 14-DAG controlled ethanol-induced hepatosteatosis by interfering with dysregulation of lipid metabolism. In conclusion, our results indicated that 14-DAG was capable of preventing the development of fatty liver through AMPK

  18. Pro‑neurogenic effects of andrographolide on RSC96 Schwann cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fuben; Wu, Huayu; Zhang, Kun; Lv, Peizhen; Zheng, Li; Zhao, Jinmin

    2016-10-01

    Nerve regeneration remains a challenge to the treatment of peripheral nerve injury. Andrographolide (Andro) is the main active constituent of Andrographis paniculata, which has been applied in the treatment of several diseases, including inflammation, in ancient China. Andro has been reported to facilitate the reduction of edema and to exert analgesic effects in the treatment of various diseases. These findings suggest that Andro may be considered a promising anti‑inflammatory agent that may suppress destruction and accelerate proliferation of Schwann cells following peripheral nerve injury. In the present study, the effects of Andro on RSC96 cells were investigated in vitro. The RSC96 cell line is a spontaneously immortalized rat Schwann cell line, which was originally derived from a long‑term culture of rat primary Schwann cells. RSC96 cells were treated with a range of 0 to 50 µM Andro prior to the MTT assay. Cell proliferation, morphology, synthesis and nerve‑specific gene expression were performed to detect the effect of Andro on RSC96 cells. The results of the present study demonstrated that the recommended doses of Andro ranged between 0.78 and 12.5 µM, among which the most obvious response was observed when used at 3.125 µM (P<0.05). DNA content was improved in Andro groups compared with the control group (P<0.05). In addition, Andro was able to promote the gene expression of glial cell line‑derived neurotrophic factor, brain‑derived neurotrophic factor, ciliary neurotrophic factor, and the specific Schwann cell marker S100β (P<0.05). The results of a viability assay, hematoxylin‑eosin staining, and immunohistochemistry were also improved in Andro groups. These results indicated that Andro may accelerate proliferation of RSC96 cells in vitro, whilst maintaining the Schwann cell phenotype; therefore, the present study may provide valuable evidence for the further exploration of the effects of Andro on peripheral nerves.

  19. 14-Deoxy-11,12-dehydroandrographolide exerts anti-influenza A virus activity and inhibits replication of H5N1 virus by restraining nuclear export of viral ribonucleoprotein complexes.

    PubMed

    Cai, Wentao; Li, Yongtao; Chen, Sunrui; Wang, Mengli; Zhang, Anding; Zhou, Hongbo; Chen, Huanchun; Jin, Meilin

    2015-06-01

    The highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus has become a worldwide public health threat, and current antiviral therapies have limited activity against the emerging, resistant influenza viruses. Therefore, effective drugs with novel targets against influenza A viruses, H5N1 strains in particular, should be developed. In the present study, 14-deoxy-11,12-dehydroandrographolide (DAP), a major component of the traditional Chinese medicine Andrographis paniculata, exerted potent anti-influenza A virus activity against A/chicken/Hubei/327/2004 (H5N1), A/duck/Hubei/XN/2007 (H5N1), A/PR/8/34 (H1N1), A/NanChang/08/2010 (H1N1) and A/HuNan/01/2014 (H3N2) in vitro. To elucidate the underlying mechanisms, a series of experiments was conducted using A/chicken/Hubei/327/2004 (H5N1) as an example. Our results demonstrated that DAP strongly inhibited H5N1 replication by reducing the production of viral nucleoprotein (NP) mRNA, NP and NS1proteins, whereas DAP had no effect on the absorption and release of H5N1 towards/from A549 cells. DAP also effectively restrained the nuclear export of viral ribonucleoprotein (vRNP) complexes. This inhibitory effect ought to be an important anti-H5N1 mechanism of DAP. Meanwhile, DAP significantly reduced the upregulated expression of all the tested proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, IFN-α, IL-1β and IFN-β) and chemokines (CXCL-10 and CCL-2) stimulated by H5N1. Overall results suggest that DAP impairs H5N1 replication at least in part by restraining nuclear export of vRNP complexes, and the inhibition of viral replication leads to a subsequent decrease of the intense proinflammatory cytokine/chemokine expression. In turn, the effect of modification of the host excessive immune response may contribute to overcoming H5N1. To our knowledge, this study is the first to reveal the antiviral and anti-inflammatory activities of DAP in vitro against H5N1 influenza A virus infection.

  20. Fabrication and in vitro/in vivo evaluation of amorphous andrographolide nanosuspensions stabilized by d-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate/sodium lauryl sulfate.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Hongzhi; Chen, Lihua; Rui, Tianqi; Wang, Jingxian; Chen, Ting; Fu, Tingming; Li, Junsong; Di, Liuqing

    2017-01-01

    Andrographolide (ADG) is a diterpenoid isolated from Andrographis paniculata with a wide spectrum of biological activities, including anti-inflammatory, anticancer and hepatoprotective effects. However, its poor water solubility and efflux by P-glycoprotein have resulted in lower bioavailability. In this study, ADG nanosuspensions (ADG-NS) were prepared using a wet media milling technique followed by freeze drying. d-α-Tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS), a surfactant that inhibits P-glycoprotein function, and sodium lauryl sulfate were used as surface stabilizers. A Box-Behnken design was used to optimize the nanosuspension preparation. The products of these optimal preparation conditions were amorphous and possessed much faster dissolution in vitro than a coarse powder of ADG. The particle size and redispersibility index of the freeze-dried ADG-NS were 244.6±3.0 nm and 113%±1.14% (n=3), respectively. A short-term stability study indicated that the freeze-dried ADG-NS could remain highly stable as nanosuspensions during the testing period. A test of transport across a Caco-2 cell monolayer revealed that the membrane permeability (Papp) of ADG-NS was significantly higher than the permeability of the ADG coarse powder or ADG-NS without TPGS (P<0.01). Compared to the ADG coarse powder, a physical mixture, commercial dripping pills and ADG-NS without TPGS, ADG-NS exhibited significantly higher plasma exposure with significant enhancements in Cmax and area under the curve of plasma concentration versus time from zero to the last sampling time (AUC0-t ) (P<0.01). An evaluation of the anti-inflammatory effect on Carr-induced paw edema demonstrated that the ADG-NS were more effective in reducing the rate of paw swelling, producing a greater increase in the serum levels of nitric oxide (NO), Interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) (P<0.01) and an increase in superoxide dismutase activity (P<0.05) compared to the ADG coarse powder

  1. Traditional herbal medicine in Far-west Nepal: a pharmacological appraisal

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Plant species have long been used as principal ingredients of traditional medicine in far-west Nepal. The medicinal plants with ethnomedicinal values are currently being screened for their therapeutic potential but their data and information are inadequately compared and analyzed with the Ayurveda and the phytochemical findings. Methods The present study evaluated ethnomedicinal plants and their uses following literature review, comparison, field observations, and analysis. Comparison was made against earlier standard literature of medicinal plants and ethnomedicine of the same area, the common uses of the Ayurveda and the latest common phytochemical findings. The field study for primary data collection was carried out from 2006-2008. Results The herbal medicine in far-west Nepal is the basis of treatment of most illness through traditional knowledge. The medicine is made available via ancient, natural health care practices such as tribal lore, home herbal remedy, and the Baidhya, Ayurveda and Amchi systems. The traditional herbal medicine has not only survived but also thrived in the trans-cultural environment with its intermixture of ethnic traditions and beliefs. The present assessment showed that traditional herbal medicine has flourished in rural areas where modern medicine is parsimoniously accessed because of the high cost and long travel time to health center. Of the 48 Nepalese medicinal plants assessed in the present communication, about half of the species showed affinity with the common uses of the Ayurveda, earlier studies and the latest phytochemical findings. The folk uses of Acacia catechu for cold and cough, Aconitum spicatum as an analgesic, Aesculus indica for joint pain, Andrographis paniculata for fever, Anisomeles indica for urinary affections, Azadirachta indica for fever, Euphorbia hirta for asthma, Taxus wallichiana for tumor control, and Tinospora sinensis for diabetes are consistent with the latest pharmacological findings

  2. Fabrication and in vitro/in vivo evaluation of amorphous andrographolide nanosuspensions stabilized by d-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate/sodium lauryl sulfate

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Hongzhi; Chen, Lihua; Rui, Tianqi; Wang, Jingxian; Chen, Ting; Fu, Tingming; Li, Junsong; Di, Liuqing

    2017-01-01

    Andrographolide (ADG) is a diterpenoid isolated from Andrographis paniculata with a wide spectrum of biological activities, including anti-inflammatory, anticancer and hepatoprotective effects. However, its poor water solubility and efflux by P-glycoprotein have resulted in lower bioavailability. In this study, ADG nanosuspensions (ADG-NS) were prepared using a wet media milling technique followed by freeze drying. d-α-Tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS), a surfactant that inhibits P-glycoprotein function, and sodium lauryl sulfate were used as surface stabilizers. A Box–Behnken design was used to optimize the nanosuspension preparation. The products of these optimal preparation conditions were amorphous and possessed much faster dissolution in vitro than a coarse powder of ADG. The particle size and redispersibility index of the freeze-dried ADG-NS were 244.6±3.0 nm and 113%±1.14% (n=3), respectively. A short-term stability study indicated that the freeze-dried ADG-NS could remain highly stable as nanosuspensions during the testing period. A test of transport across a Caco-2 cell monolayer revealed that the membrane permeability (Papp) of ADG-NS was significantly higher than the permeability of the ADG coarse powder or ADG-NS without TPGS (P<0.01). Compared to the ADG coarse powder, a physical mixture, commercial dripping pills and ADG-NS without TPGS, ADG-NS exhibited significantly higher plasma exposure with significant enhancements in Cmax and area under the curve of plasma concentration versus time from zero to the last sampling time (AUC0−t) (P<0.01). An evaluation of the anti-inflammatory effect on Carr-induced paw edema demonstrated that the ADG-NS were more effective in reducing the rate of paw swelling, producing a greater increase in the serum levels of nitric oxide (NO), Interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) (P<0.01) and an increase in superoxide dismutase activity (P<0.05) compared to the ADG coarse powder

  3. 14-Deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide attenuates excessive inflammatory responses and protects mice lethally challenged with highly pathogenic A(H5N1) influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    Cai, Wentao; Chen, Sunrui; Li, Yongtao; Zhang, Anding; Zhou, Hongbo; Chen, Huanchun; Jin, Meilin

    2016-09-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been an excellent treasury for centuries' accumulation of clinical experiences, which deserves to be tapped for potential drugs and improved using modern scientific methods. 14-Deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide (DAP), a major component of an important TCM named Andrographis paniculata, with non-toxic concentration of 1000 mg/kg/day, effectively reduced the mortality and weight loss of mice lethally challenged with A/chicken/Hubei/327/2004 (H5N1) or A/PR/8/34 (H1N1) influenza A viruses (IAV) when initiated at 4 h before infection, or A/duck/Hubei/XN/2007 (H5N1) when initiated at 4 h or 48 h before infection, or 4 h post-infection (pi). DAP (1000 or 500 mg/kg/day) also significantly diminished lung virus titres of infected mice when initiated at 4 h or 48 h before infection, or 4 h pi. In the infection of A/duck/Hubei/XN/2007 (H5N1), DAP (1000 mg/kg/day) treatment initiated at 48 h before infection gained the best efficacy that virus titres in lungs of mice in log10TCID50/mL reduced from 2.61 ± 0.14 on 3 days post-infection (dpi), 2.98 ± 0.17 on 5 dpi, 3.54 ± 0.19 on 7 dpi to 1.46 ± 0.14 on 3 dpi, 1.86 ± 0.18 on 5 dpi, 2.03 ± 0.21 on 7 dpi. Moreover, DAP obviously alleviated lung histopathology and also strongly inhibited proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines expression. The mRNA levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, CCL-2/MCP-1, IFN-α, IFN-β, IFN-γ, MIP-1α, MIP-1β in lungs of A/duck/Hubei/XN/2007 (H5N1)-infected mice and serum protein expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, CCL-2/MCP-1 and CXCL-10/IP-10 in mice infected with all the three strains of IAV were all significantly reduced by DAP. Results demonstrated that DAP could restrain both the host intense inflammatory responses and high viral load, which were considered to contribute to the pathogenesis of H5N1 virus and should be controlled together in a clinical setting. Considering the anti-inflammatory and anti-IAV activities of DAP, DAP may

  4. Coumarin-related compounds as plant growth inhibitors from two rutaceous plants in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Jiwajinda, S; Santisopasri, V; Ohigashi, H

    2000-02-01

    Chemical investigation of naturally occurring plant growth inhibitors from Rutaceous plants in Thailand led us to identify five 7-methoxycoumarins and one 5,7-dimethoxycoumarin from Murraya paniculata, and six furanocoumarins from Citrus aurantifolia. Of these compounds, murranganon senecioate (1) is a new natural compound found in M. paniculata. Minumicrolin (6) was found to be highly active against the 2nd leaf sheath elongation of rice seedlings.

  5. Shoot regeneration of mesophyll protoplasts transformed by Agrobacterium tumefaciens, not achievable with untransformed protoplasts.

    PubMed

    Steffen, A; Eriksson, T; Schieder, O

    1986-04-01

    Alternative methods for shoot regeneration in protoplast derived cultures were developed in Nicotiana paniculata and Physalis minima. In both species protoplast derived callus is not regeneratable to shoots by conventional methods, e.g. hormone treatment. Leaf discs and stem segments of N. paniculata and P. minima were incubated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens "shooter" strains harbouring pGV 2215 or pGV 2298 or wildtype strain B6S3. After 36 h of co-incubation protoplasts were prepared. (Leaf disc and stem segment cloning). Co-cultivation experiments were also undertaken with protoplasts of both species. Transformed clones, characterized by their hormone independent growth and octopine production, could be isolated after about two months. Transformation frequencies of "leaf disc and stem segment cloning" and co-cultivation experiments varied from 5×10(-3) to 5×10(-5). After about one year of cultivation on hormone-free culture medium, shoots could be recovered from colonies of N. paniculata, transformed by the strain harbouring pGV 2298. In protoplast derived colonies of P. minima, shoot induction was obtained only after transformation by bacteria carrying pGV 2215. This demonstrates the importance of the particular "shooter" mutant, as well as the response of the host plant. Transformed shoots of P. minima produced octopine, whereas octopine production in transformed shoots and callus of N. paniculata was undetectable after one year of cultivation, though T-DNA was still present in the plant genome. Transformed shoots of N. paniculata and P. minima do not produce any roots. Shoots of N. paniculata have an especially tumerous phenotype. Shoots of both species were successfully grafted to normal donor plants of N. tabacum.

  6. A third species of Polyspatha, an Africanendemic genus of Commelinaceae

    PubMed Central

    Faden, Robert B.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Polyspatha oligospatha Faden, the third species in a small African endemic genus of Commelinaceae, is described. It is widespread but has been overlooked because of its small stature and resemblance to small plants of Polyspatha paniculata. It differs from both Polyspatha paniculata and Polyspatha hirsuta, the two other species, by its leaf pubescence, fewer, more widely spaced and usually patent spathes, deeply ridged seeds with numerous knobby, transversely interrupted ridges, and morning anthesis. It occurs throughout the Congolian forests from Cameroon to Uganda, but it is also disjunct in Ivory Coast, across the Dahomey gap. PMID:22171175

  7. Oviposition-deterrent, ovicidal, and repellent activities of indigenous plant extracts against Anopheles subpictus Grassi (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Elango, G; Bagavan, A; Kamaraj, C; Abduz Zahir, A; Abdul Rahuman, A

    2009-11-01

    Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. The leaf acetone, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos (Linn.) Correa ex Roxb, Andrographis lineata Wallich ex Nees, and Cocculus hirsutus (L.) Diels were tested for oviposition-deterrent, ovicidal, and repellent activities against Anopheles subpictus Grassi (Diptera: Culicidae). The percentage of effective oviposition repellency of 92.60 , 93.04, 95.20, 88.26, 92.80, 94.01, 95.77, 96.93, and 92.54 at 500 ppm and the lowest repellency of 47.14, 58.00, 56.52, 64.93, 71.09, 66.42, 50.62, 57.62, and 65.73 at 31.25 ppm in acetone, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos, Andrographis lineata, and Cocculus hirsutus, respectively. The oviposition activity index (OAI) value of acetone, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos, Andrographis lineata, and Cocculus hirsutus at 500 ppm were -0.86, -0.87, -0.90, -0.78, -0.87, -0.86, -0.91, -0.94, and -0.86 respectively. The OAI values revealed that the solvent plant extracts have deterrent effect, and they caused a remarkable negative response resulting in oviposition of very few eggs. Mean percent hatchability of the ovicidal activity was observed 24 h after treatment. The percent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. Mortality of 100% with ethyl acetate extract of Aegle marmelos, methanol extracts Aegle marmelos, Andrographis lineata, and Cocculus hirsutus were exerted at 1,000 ppm. The maximum repellent activity was observed at 500 ppm in methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos, Andrographis lineata, and ethyl acetate extract of Cocculus hirsutus, and the mean complete protection time ranged from 90 to 120 min with the different extracts tested. These results suggest that the leaf extracts of Aegle marmelos, Andrographis lineata, and Cocculus hirsutus have the potential to be used as an ideal ecofriendly

  8. Bionomics of Asian citrus psyllid (Hemiptera: Liviidae) associated with orange jasmine hedges in southest central Florida, with special reference to biological control by Tamarixia radiata

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, is an important pest in Florida because it vectors bacteria responsible for citrus huanglongbing disease. In addition to infesting citrus, orange jasmine (Murraya paniculata) is one of ACP’s favorite host plants and is widely grown as an orn...

  9. Bionomics of Asian citrus psyllid associated with orange jasmine hedges in Florida, with special reference to biological control by Tamarixia radiata

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) is an important invasive citrus pest because it vectors a bacterium responsible for a devastating disease of citrus known as huanglongbing. Orange jasmine (Murraya paniculata) is a favored alternate ACP host plant and is widely grown as an ornamental plant in urban ar...

  10. Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus is present in orange jasmine and Asian citrus psyllid reared from jasmine at low titers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Orange jasmine, Murraya paniculata, is a common horticultural plant in Florida, and an alternate host of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama. Orange jasmine has also been reported to harbor the bacteria Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, the causal agent of huanglongbing disease. We ...

  11. Sources of the anti-implantation alkaloid yuehchukene in the genus Murraya.

    PubMed

    Kong, Y C; Ng, K H; But, P P; Li, Q; Yu, S X; Zhang, H T; Cheng, K F; Soejarto, D D; Kan, W S; Waterman, P G

    1986-02-01

    The genus Murraya has been widely used in traditional medicine in east Asia. In view of the recent isolation of the anti-implantation alkaloid yuehchukene from M. paniculata a search has now been made for other natural sources of this alkaloid within the genus. In this paper we report findings for nine taxa of Murraya.

  12. Klebsiella pneumoniae Planktonic and Biofilm Reduction by Different Plant Extracts: In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    da Rocha Santos, Carlos Eduardo; Camargo Reis Mello, Daphne; Nishiama Theodoro, Lígia; De Oliveira, Felipe Eduardo; Back Brito, Graziella N.; Campos Junqueira, Juliana; Cardoso Jorge, Antonio Olavo; Dias de Oliveira, Luciane

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the action of Pfaffia paniculata K., Juglans regia L., and Rosmarius officinalis L. extracts against planktonic form and biofilm of Klebsiella pneumoniae (ATCC 4352). Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum microbicidal concentration (MMC) values were determined for each extract by microdilution broth method, according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Next, antimicrobial activity of the extracts on biofilm was analyzed. For this, standardized suspension at 107 UFC/mL of K. pneumoniae was distributed into 96-well microplates (n = 10) and after 48 h at 37°C and biofilm was subjected to treatment for 5 min with the extracts at a concentration of 200 mg/mL. ANOVA and Tukey tests (5%) were used to verify statistical significant reduction (p < 0.05) of planktonic form and biofilm. P paniculata K., R. officinalis L., and J. regia L. showed reductions in biomass of 55.6, 58.1, and 18.65% and cell viability reduction of 72.4, 65.1, and 31.5%, respectively. The reduction obtained with P. paniculata and R. officinalis extracts was similar to the reduction obtained with chlorhexidine digluconate 2%. In conclusion, all extracts have microbicidal action on the planktonic form but only P. paniculata K. and R. officinalis L. were effective against biofilm. PMID:28004034

  13. A comparison of plant species for rearing Asian citrus psyllid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five plant genotypes were compared with respect to Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) reproduction potential: Bergera koenigii, Citrus aurantiifolia, C. macrophylla, C. taiwanica and Murraya paniculata. Asian citrus psyllid reproduction is dependent on young flush and thus Asian citrus psyllid production po...

  14. Comparison of the emergence of three Brassicaceae species of different origins grown in Spain and USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thlaspi arvense, Camelina sativa, C. microcarpa and Neslia paniculata are four Brassicaceae family species that are becoming rare in North-Eastern Spain. Conversely, both T. arvense and C. sativa are being investigated as oilseed crops in North America for industrial/biofuel purposes. C. microcarpa ...

  15. Lectotypifications of six taxa in the Boraginales (Cordiaceae and Heliotropiaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Feuillet, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A large number of specimens used as original material for the description of new species were destroyed in the bombing of the Berlin-Dahlem herbarium, B, in 1943. Six lectotypes are designated here for Cordia discolor Cham., Cordia multispicata Cham., Cordia tobagensis Urb. and its variety broadwayi Urb. in the Cordiaceae and for Tournefortia paniculata Cham. and Tournefortia ulei Vaupel in the Heliotropiaceae. PMID:27212885

  16. The genus Fleischmannia in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil and Paraguay (Eupatorieae, Asteraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Harold

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Species of the genus Fleischmannia from Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil and Paraguay are reviewed, and keys are provided that cover the species in each country. New taxa described are Fleischmannia hatschbachii, Fleischmannia matogrosensis, Fleischmannia microstemon var. paniculata from Brazil, Fleischmannia hassleri from Paraguay and Fleischmannia neei and Fleischmannia steinbachii from Bolivia, and one new combination for a Fleischmannia prasiifolia variety is provided. The additions bring the total known species of the genus to 102. PMID:26752962

  17. Larvicidal activities of three plants against filarial vector Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Rawani, Anjali; Haldar, Koyel Mallick; Ghosh, Anupam; Chandra, Goutam

    2009-10-01

    The present study was carried out to establish the larvicidal properties of crude extracts of three plants, viz. Carica papaya, Murraya paniculata and Cleistanthus collinus against Culex quinquefasciatus as target species. The relative efficacy of the plant extracts in vector control was as follows: C. papaya seed extract > M. paniculata fruit extract > M. paniculata leaf extract > C. collinus leaf extract. Result of log-probit analysis (at 95% confidence level) revealed that LC(50) and LC(95) values gradually decreased with the exposure periods similar to the result in bioassay experiment for each of the plant extract. The results of preliminary qualitative phytochemical analysis of all the plants revealed the presence of many bioactive principles such as steroids, alkaloids, terpenes, saponins, etc. that may be responsible for their biocontrol potentiality. The appropriate lethal concentrations at 24 h for each of the extracts were also studied on non-target organisms such as Diplonychus annulatum and Chironomus circumdatus, and no change in the swimming behaviour and survivality was noticed, which indicates that all the extracts are safe for the aquatic ecosystem.

  18. Responses of the Asian citrus psyllid to volatiles emitted by the flushing shoots of its rutaceous host plants.

    PubMed

    Patt, J M; Sétamou, M

    2010-04-01

    Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) carries Candidatus liberibacter spp., the putative causal agents of Huanglongbing. D. citri reproduces and develops only on the flushing shoots of its rutaceous host plants. Here we examined whether D. citri is attracted to host plant odors and a mixture of synthetic terpenes. Tests conducted in a vertically oriented Y-tube olfactometer showed that both males and females preferentially entered the Y-tube arm containing the odor from the young shoots of Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack and Citrus limon L. Burm. f. cultivar Eureka. Only males exhibited a preference for the odor of C. sinensis L., whereas the odor of C. x paradisi MacFadyen cultivar Rio Red was not attractive to both sexes. The volatiles emitted by young shoots of grapefruit cultivar Rio Red, Meyer lemon (Citrus x limon L. Burm.f.), and M. paniculata were analyzed by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry. The samples were comprised of monoterpenes, monoterpene esters, and sesquiterpenes. The number of compounds present varied from 2 to 17, whereas the total amount of sample collected over 6 h ranged from 5.6 to 119.8 ng. The quantitatively dominant constituents were (E)-beta-ocimene, linalool, linalyl acetate, and beta-caryophyllene. The attractiveness of a mixture of synthetic terpenes, modeled on the volatiles collected from M. paniculata, was evaluated in screened cages in a no-choice test. At three observation intervals, significantly more individuals were trapped on white targets scented with the mixture than on unscented targets. These results indicate the feasibility of developing D. citri attractants patterned on actual host plant volatiles.

  19. Base Exterior Architecture Plan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-02-01

    Sedlum confusum 00 2-112 Gal Hibiscus rosa-silensis 1 Gal Murraya paniculata u ,-s to be removed 1181 x 00 A.%~ ~ Of\\o SLNnkI -V- -V. Cof 1368 136 1...Carissa grandiflora Natal Plum Codlasumn variegatumn Croton 0Gardenia taitensis Tiare Gardenia DxHibiscus rosa-sinensis Hibiscus 0Impatiens sultani... Hibiscus 1 Gal. or 2-1/2 Gal. Impatiens 1 Gal. Ixora 1 Gal. no Texas Privet 5 Gal. Mock Orange 1 Gal. Oleander 1 Gal. Tobira 2-1/2 to 5 Gal. Bird of Paradise

  20. Discrete wetland groundwater discharges revealed with a three-dimensional temperature model and botanical indicators (Boxford, UK)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    House, Andrew R.; Sorensen, James P. R.; Gooddy, Daren C.; Newell, Andrew J.; Marchant, Ben; Mountford, J. Owen; Scarlett, Peter; Williams, Peter J.; Old, Gareth H.

    2015-03-01

    Wetlands provide unique goods and services, as habitats of high biodiversity. Hydrology is the principal control on wetland functioning; hence, understanding the water source is fundamental. However, groundwater inflows may be discrete and easily missed. Research techniques are required with low cost and minimal impact in sensitive settings. In this study, the effectiveness of using a three-dimensional (3D) temperature model and botanical indicators to characterise groundwater discharge is explored at the CEH (Centre for Ecology and Hydrology) River Lambourn Observatory, Boxford, UK. This comprises a 10 ha lowland riparian wetland, designated for its scientific interest and conservation value. Temperature data were collected in winter at multiple depths down to 0.9 m over approximately 3.6 ha and transformed into a 3D model via ordinary kriging. Anomalous warm zones indicated distinct areas of groundwater upwelling which were concurrent with relic channel structures. Lateral heat propagation from the channels was minimal and restricted to within 5-10 m. Vertical temperature sections within the channels suggest varying degrees of groundwater discharge along their length. Hydrochemical analysis showed that warmer peat waters were akin to deeper aquifer waters, confirming the temperature anomalies as areas of groundwater discharge. Subsequently, a targeted vegetation survey identified Carex paniculata as an indicator of groundwater discharge. The upwelling groundwater contains high concentrations of nitrate which is considered to support the spatially restricted growth of Carex paniculata against a background of poor fen communities located in reducing higher-phosphate waters.

  1. Host plant affects morphometric variation of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae)

    PubMed Central

    Paris, Thomson M.; Hall, David G.; Hentz, Matthew G.; Hetesy, Gabriella; Stansly, Philip A.

    2016-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, is one of the most serious citrus pests worldwide due to its role as vector of huanglongbing or citrus greening disease. While some optimal plant species for ACP oviposition and development have been identified, little is known of the influence of host plants on ACP size and shape. Our goal was to determine how size and shape of ACP wing and body size varies when development occurs on different host plants in a controlled rearing environment. ACP were reared on six different rutaceous species; Bergera koenigii, Citrus aurantifolia, Citrus macrophylla, Citrus maxima, Citrus taiwanica and Murraya paniculata. Adults were examined for morphometric variation using traditional and geometric analysis based on 12 traits or landmarks. ACP reared on C. taiwanica were consistently smaller than those reared on the other plant species. Wing aspect ratio also differed between C. maxima and C. taiwanica. Significant differences in shape were detected with those reared on M. paniculata having narrower wings than those reared on C. macrophylla. This study provides evidence of wing size and shape differences of ACP based on host plant species which potentially may impact dispersal. Further study is needed to determine if behavioral and physiological differences are associated with the observed phenotypic differences. PMID:27833820

  2. Increased snow facilitates plant invasion in mixedgrass prairie.

    PubMed

    Blumenthlal, D; Chimner, R A; Welker, J M; Morgan, J A

    2008-07-01

    Although global change is known to influence plant invasion, little is known about interactions between altered precipitation and invasion. In the North American mixedgrass prairie, invasive species are often abundant in wet and nitrogen (N)-rich areas, suggesting that predicted changes in precipitation and N deposition could exacerbate invasion. Here, this possibility was tested by seeding six invasive species into experimental plots of mixedgrass prairie treated with a factorial combination of increased snow, summer irrigation, and N addition. Without added snow, seeded invasive species were rarely observed. Snow addition increased average above-ground biomass of Centaurea diffusa from 0.026 to 66 g m(-2), of Gypsophila paniculata from 0.1 to 7.3 g m(-2), and of Linaria dalmatica from 5 to 101 g m(-2). Given added snow, summer irrigation increased the density of G. paniculata, and N addition increased the density and biomass of L. dalmatica. Plant density responses mirrored those of plant biomass, indicating that increases in biomass resulted, in part, from increases in recruitment. In contrast to seeded invasive species, resident species did not respond to snow addition. These results suggest that increases in snowfall or variability of snowfall may exacerbate forb invasion in the mixedgrass prairie.

  3. Eco-toxicological effects of two kinds of lead compounds on forest tree seed in alkaline soil.

    PubMed

    Yang, Nan; Zhou, Fu-Rong; Wang, Jin-Xin

    2016-03-01

    In order to compare the different eco-toxicological effects of lead nitrate and lead acetate on forest tree seed, a biological incubation experiment was conducted to testify the inhibition effects of two lead compounds on rates of seed germination, root and stem elongation, and seedling fresh weight for six plants (Amaorpha fruticosa L., Robinia psedoacacia L., Pinus tabuliformis Carr., Platycladus orientalis L., Koelreuteria paniculata Laxm., Hippophae rhamnoides L.) in soil. The results indicate that the inhibition effects of the two lead compounds on the rates of root elongation of plants were greater than other indices; root elongation can possibly be used as indices to investigate the relationship between lead toxicity and plant response. The response of trees to lead toxicity varied significantly, and the order of tolerance to lead pollution was as follows: Amaorpha fruticosa L. > Platycladus orientalis L. > Koelreuteria paniculata Laxm. > Robinia psedoacacia L. > Pinus tabuliformis Carr. > Hippophae rhamnoides L. Therefore, we suggest that Amaorpha fruticosa L. and Platycladus orientalis L. be used as tolerant plants for soil phytoremediation and Hippophae rhamnoides L. as an indicative plant to diagnose the toxicity of lead pollution on soil quality. Lead nitrate and lead acetate differentially restrain seeds, with seeds being more sensitive to lead nitrate than lead acetate in the soil. Thus, the characteristics of lead compounds should be taken into full consideration to appraise its impact on the environment.

  4. Accumulation and function of trigonelline in non-leguminous plants.

    PubMed

    Ashihara, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Shin

    2014-06-01

    As part of our studies of the occurrence, biosynthesis, function and human use of trigonelline, we looked at trigonelline-accumulating plant species and at the distribution of trigonelline in different organs of trigonelline-accumulating non-leguminous plants. There are many trigonelline-synthesizing plant species, but apart from legume seeds only a few species accumulate high concentrations of trigonelline. We have found only three species that accumulate high levels of trigonelline: Murraya paniculata (orange jessamine), Coffea arabica (coffee) and Mirabilisjalapa (four o'clock flower). Trigonelline was found in all parts of Murraya paniculata seedlings at 4-13 micromol/g fresh weight; more than 70% was distributed in the leaves. In the coffee plant, trigonelline was found in all organs, and the concentrations in the upper stems, including tips (48 micromol/g FW) and seeds (26 micromol/g FW), were higher than in other organs. In Mirabilis jalapa plants, trigonelline was found in leaves, stems, flowers, roots and seeds; the concentration varied from 0.3 to 13 micromol/g FW and was generally higher in young tissues than in mature tissues, except for seeds. Exogenously supplied nicotinamide increases the trigonelline content. The in planta role of trigonelline and the possible use oftrigonelline-accumulating plants in herbal medicine are discussed.

  5. Host plant affects morphometric variation of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae).

    PubMed

    Paris, Thomson M; Allan, Sandra A; Hall, David G; Hentz, Matthew G; Hetesy, Gabriella; Stansly, Philip A

    2016-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, is one of the most serious citrus pests worldwide due to its role as vector of huanglongbing or citrus greening disease. While some optimal plant species for ACP oviposition and development have been identified, little is known of the influence of host plants on ACP size and shape. Our goal was to determine how size and shape of ACP wing and body size varies when development occurs on different host plants in a controlled rearing environment. ACP were reared on six different rutaceous species; Bergera koenigii, Citrus aurantifolia, Citrus macrophylla, Citrus maxima, Citrus taiwanica and Murraya paniculata. Adults were examined for morphometric variation using traditional and geometric analysis based on 12 traits or landmarks. ACP reared on C. taiwanica were consistently smaller than those reared on the other plant species. Wing aspect ratio also differed between C. maxima and C. taiwanica. Significant differences in shape were detected with those reared on M. paniculata having narrower wings than those reared on C. macrophylla. This study provides evidence of wing size and shape differences of ACP based on host plant species which potentially may impact dispersal. Further study is needed to determine if behavioral and physiological differences are associated with the observed phenotypic differences.

  6. The Relation of Carbon Dioxide Compensation and Chlorenchymatous Vascular Bundle Sheaths in Leaves of Dicots

    PubMed Central

    Crookston, R. Kent; Moss, Dale N.

    1970-01-01

    Low CO2 compensation points have been found to be associated with several unusual characteristics related to photosynthesis. One such characteristic is a prominent, chlorenchymatous vascular bundle sheath in the leaves. It has been suggested that the presence of this sheath in dicotyledons can serve as a means of detecting low CO2-compensating species. We collected 88 dicotyledon species from 22 families reported to have chlorenchymatous sheaths. Of the 88, only three, Tribulus terrestris, L., Boerhaavia paniculata, L. C. Rich, and Trianthema portulacastrum L., had low CO2 compensation points. Cross sections of the leaves of the other species revealed that they did have chlorenchymatous vascular bundle sheaths. However, these sheath cells contained chloroplasts which were not specialized for starch formation as were the bundle sheath chloroplasts of the low CO2-compensating species. Images PMID:16657506

  7. Essential Oil Variation from Twenty Two Genotypes of Citrus in Brazil-Chemometric Approach and Repellency Against Diaphorina citri Kuwayama.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Moacir Dos Santos; Ribeiro, Leandro do Prado; Borgoni, Paulo Cesar; Silva, Maria Fátima das Graças Fernandes da; Forim, Moacir Rossi; Fernandes, João Batista; Vieira, Paulo Cezar; Vendramin, José Djair; Machado, Marcos Antônio

    2016-06-22

    The chemical composition of volatile oils from 22 genotypes of Citrus and related genera was poorly differentiated, but chemometric techniques have clarified the relationships between the 22 genotypes, and allowed us to understand their resistance to D. citri. The most convincing similarities include the synthesis of (Z)-β-ocimene and (E)-caryophyllene for all 11 genotypes of group A. Genotypes of group B are not uniformly characterized by essential oil compounds. When stimulated with odor sources of 22 genotypes in a Y-tube olfactometer D. citri preferentially entered the arm containing the volatile oils of Murraya paniculata, confirming orange jasmine as its best host. C. reticulata × C. sinensis was the least preferred genotype, and is characterized by the presence of phytol, (Z)-β-ocimene, and β-elemene, which were not found in the most preferred genotype. We speculate that these three compounds may act as a repellent, making these oils less attractive to D. citri.

  8. Modelling the effect of an alternative host population on the spread of citrus Huanglongbing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    d'A. Vilamiu, Raphael G.; Ternes, Sonia; Laranjeira, Francisco F.; de C. Santos, Tâmara T.

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this work was to model the spread of citrus Huanglongbing (HLB) considering the presence of a population of alternative hosts (Murraya paniculata). We developed a compartmental deterministic mathematical model for representing the dynamics of HLB disease in a citrus orchard, including delays in the latency and incubation phases of the disease in the plants and a delay period on the nymphal stage of Diaphorina citri, the insect vector of HLB in Brazil. The results of numerical simulations indicate that alternative hosts should not play a crucial role on HLB dynamics considering a typical scenario for the Recôncavo Baiano region in Brazil . Also, the current policy of removing symptomatic plants every three months should not be expected to significantly hinder HLB spread.

  9. Oxidative potential of some endophytic fungi using 1-indanone as a substrate.

    PubMed

    Fill, Taicia Pacheco; da Silva, Jose Vinicius; de Oliveira, Kleber Thiago; da Silva, Bianca Ferreira; Rodrigues-Fo, Edson

    2012-06-01

    The oxidative potential of the fungus Penicillium brasilianum, a strain isolated as an endophyte from a Meliaceae plant (Melia azedarach), was investigated using 1-indanone as a substrate to track the production of monooxygenases. The fungus produced the dihydrocoumarin from 1-indanone with the classical Baeyer-Villiger reaction regiochemistry, and (-)-(R)-3-hydroxy-1-indanone with 78% ee. Minor compounds resulting from lipase and SAM activities were also detected. The biotransformation procedures were also applied to a collection of Penicillium and Aspergillus fungi obtained from M. azedarach and Murraya paniculata. The results showed that Baeyer-Villiger were mostly active in fungi isolated from M. azedarach. Almost all of the fungi tested produced 3-hydroxy-1-indanone..

  10. Phytoliths of common grasses in the coastal environments of southeastern USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Houyuan; Liu, Kam-biu

    2003-11-01

    Thirty-four grass species were collected for phytolith analysis from a variety of coastal environments in the southeastern USA (Georgia, Florida, and Louisiana), including salt marshes, freshwater/brackish marshes, pine/oak forests, maritime hardwood forests, and sand dunes. Phytoliths produced by these modern grasses include a large diversity of shapes and types. We propose a preliminary relationship between modern coastal plant communities and their predominant phytolith contents. The dominant grasses of coastal sand dunes, such as Uniola paniculata, produce primarily flat tower and two-horned tower phytoliths. Rondel/saddle ellipsoid phytoliths are mainly produced by Spartina alterniflora, the most common plant in coastal salt marshes. Rondel and spool/horned tower phytoliths are common in brackish marsh grasses. Plants from interdune meadow produce primarily dumbbell phytoliths, as well as small cross and Cyperaceae-type phytoliths. These results provide a basis for the interpretation of fossil phytolith assemblages and the reconstruction of coastal environmental changes.

  11. Antimicrobial activity of plant extracts against sexually transmitted pathogens.

    PubMed

    Jadhav, Nutan; Kulkarni, Sangeeta; Mane, Arati; Kulkarni, Roshan; Palshetker, Aparna; Singh, Kamalinder; Joshi, Swati; Risbud, Arun; Kulkarni, Smita

    2015-01-01

    Comprehensive management of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) using vaginal or rectal microbicide-based intervention is one of the strategies for prevention of HIV infection. Herbal products have been used for treating STIs traditionally. Herein, we present in vitro activity of 10 plant extracts and their 34 fractions against three sexually transmitted/reproductive tract pathogens - Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Haemophilus ducreyi and Candida albicans. The plant parts were selected; the extracts/fractions were prepared and screened by disc diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory and minimum cidal concentrations were determined. The qualitative phytochemical analysis of selected extracts/fractions showing activity was performed. Of the extracts/fractions tested, three inhibited C. albicans, ten inhibited N. gonorrhoeae and five inhibited H. ducreyi growth. Our study demonstrated that Terminalia paniculata Roth. extracts/fractions inhibited growth of all three organisms. The ethyl acetate fraction of Syzygium cumini Linn. and Bridelia retusa (L.) Spreng. extracts was found to inhibit N. gonorrhoeae at lowest concentrations.

  12. Activity of some Mexican medicinal plant extracts on carrageenan-induced rat paw edema.

    PubMed

    Meckes, M; David-Rivera, A D; Nava-Aguilar, V; Jimenez, A

    2004-07-01

    The extracts obtained from 14 plants of the Mexican medicinal flora were assessed for anti-inflammatory activity by carrageenan-induced rat paw edema model. The i.p. administration of the extracts at a dose of 400 mg/kg produced a high reduction of edema with 70% of the plant extracts. Oenothera rosea methanol extract, Sphaeralcea angustifolia chloroform extract, Acaciafarnesiana, Larrea tridentata and Rubus coriifolius methanol extracts as well as the aqueous extract of Chamaedora tepejilote were demonstrated to be particularly active against the induced hind-paw edema. Moderate inhibition of edema formation was also demonstrated with the methanol extracts of Astianthus viminalis, Brickellia paniculata, C. tepejilote and Justicia spicigera.

  13. The effects of aluminium on plant growth in a temperate and deciduous aluminium accumulating species

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, Marco; Watanabe, Toshihiro; Jansen, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Aluminium (Al) is a phytotoxic element affecting the growth and yield of many crop plants, especially in the tropics. Yet, some plants are able to accumulate high levels of Al. The monogeneric family Symplocaceae represents an Al accumulating family including many tropical and evergreen species with high Al levels in their above ground plant tissues. It is unclear, however, whether Al accumulation also characterises temperate species of Symplocos, and whether or not the uptake has a beneficial growth effect. Here, we investigate if the temperate, deciduous species Symplocos paniculata is able to accumulate Al by growing seedlings and saplings in a hydroponic setup at pH 4 with and without Al. Pyrocatechol-violet (PCV) and aluminon staining was performed to visualize Al accumulation in various plant tissues. Both seedlings and saplings accumulate Al in their tissues if available. Mean Al levels in leaves were 4107 (±1474 mg kg−1) and 4290 (±4025 mg kg−1) for the seedlings and saplings, respectively. The saplings treated without Al showed a high mortality rate unlike the Al accumulating ones. The seedlings, however, showed no difference in growth and vitality between the two treatments. The saplings treated with Al showed new twig, leaf and root development, resulting in a considerable biomass increase. PCV and aluminon staining indicated the presence of Al in leaf, wood and bark tissue of the plants. S. paniculata shares the capacity to accumulate Al with its tropical sister species and is suggested to be a facultative accumulator. Whether or not Al has a beneficial effect remains unclear, due to developmental differences between seedlings and saplings. Al is suggested to be transported via the xylem transport system into the leaves, which show the highest Al levels. Radial transport via ray parenchyma to bark tissue is also likely given the high Al concentrations in the bark tissue. PMID:27613876

  14. [A new taxonomic system of the genus Murraya (Rutaceae) based on integration of morphology-based taxonomy and chemotaxonomy; and a philological survey on M. exotica in view of the relationship between Okinawa and China].

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    This review concerns the taxonomic status of the genus Murraya in tribe Clausenae, subfamily Aurantioideae, family Rutaceae, and presents a new system integrating both morphology-based taxonomy and chemotaxonomy. This genus has been morphologically divided into the sects Murraya and Bergera. This dichotomy is justified by the noticeable difference of secondary metabolites with 3-prenylindoles in Murraya and carbazoles in Bergera. As for other metabolites of genus Murraya, coumarins are found in both sects, but differ clearly in types; 8-prenylcoumarins occur throughout the sect Murraya whereas geranylated furocoumarins are known from some species of the sect Bergera. As far as chemical properties are concerned, sect Bergera is much closer to genus Clausena than sect Murraya, suggesting the dichotomy of genus Murraya to be generic rather than sectional. 8-Prenylcoumarins characterizing sect Murraya play a decisive role in the distinction of M. exotica from M. paniculata that occurs most widely in subtropical and tropical Asia and is well known for morphologic as well as chemical diversity. Though the morphological difference between the two species is slight only in leaves and leaflets, the distinction is well substantiated by the following chemical feature: 7-OMe-8-prenylcoumarins occur in M. exotica whereas 5,7-di-OMe-8-prenylcoumarins in M. paniculata. Sect Murraya has a very close relation to genus Merrillia that is chemically characterized by similar types of 8-prenylcoumarins, and is also related to a certain extent to genus Micromelum. M. exotica is philologically surveyed in view of the delicate relationships between Okinawa, the only habitat of this plant in Japan, and China in order to clarify its historical background.

  15. Nectar robbery by a hermit hummingbird: association to floral phenotype and its influence on flowers and network structure.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Pietro Kiyoshi; Vizentin-Bugoni, Jeferson; Dalsgaard, Bo; Sazima, Ivan; Sazima, Marlies

    2015-07-01

    Interactions between flowers and their visitors span the spectrum from mutualism to antagonism. The literature is rich in studies focusing on mutualism, but nectar robbery has mostly been investigated using phytocentric approaches focused on only a few plant species. To fill this gap, we studied the interactions between a nectar-robbing hermit hummingbird, Phaethornis ruber, and the array of flowers it visits. First, based on a literature review of the interactions involving P. ruber, we characterized the association of floral larceny to floral phenotype. We then experimentally examined the effects of nectar robbing on nectar standing crop and number of visits of the pollinators to the flowers of Canna paniculata. Finally, we asked whether the incorporation of illegitimate interactions into the analysis affects plant-hummingbird network structure. We identified 97 plant species visited by P. ruber and found that P. ruber engaged in floral larceny in almost 30% of these species. Nectar robbery was especially common in flowers with longer corolla. In terms of the effect on C. paniculata, the depletion of nectar due to robbery by P. ruber was associated with decreased visitation rates of legitimate pollinators. At the community level, the inclusion of the illegitimate visits of P. ruber resulted in modifications of how modules within the network were organized, notably giving rise to a new module consisting of P. ruber and mostly robbed flowers. However, although illegitimate visits constituted approximately 9% of all interactions in the network, changes in nestedness, modularity, and network-level specialization were minor. Our results indicate that although a flower robber may have a strong effect on the pollination of a particular plant species, the inclusion of its illegitimate interactions has limited capacity to change overall network structure.

  16. Modification of flower architecture during early stages in the evolution of self-fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Vallejo-Marín, Mario; Barrett, Spencer C. H.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims The evolution of selfing from outcrossing is characterized by a series of morphological changes to flowers culminating in the selfing syndrome. However, which morphological traits initiate increased self-pollination and which are accumulated after self-fertilization establishes is poorly understood. Because the expression of floral traits may depend on the conditions experienced by an individual during flower development, investigation of changes in mating system should also account for environmental and developmental factors. Here, early stages in the evolution of self-pollination are investigated by comparing floral traits among Brazilian populations of Eichhornia paniculata (Pontederiaceae), an annual aquatic that displays variation in selfing rates associated with the breakdown of tristyly to semi-homostyly. Methods Thirty-one Brazilian populations under uniform glasshouse conditions were compared to investigate genetic and environmental influences on flower size and stigma–anther separation (herkogamy), two traits that commonly vary in association with transitions to selfing. Within-plant variation in herkogamy was also examined and plants grown under contrasting environmental conditions were compared to examine to what extent this trait exhibits phenotypic plasticity. Key Results In E. paniculata a reduction in herkogamy is the principal modification initiating the evolution of selfing. Significantly, reduced herkogamy was restricted to the mid-styled morph and occurred independently of flower size. Significant genetic variation for herkogamy was detected among populations and families, including genotypes exhibiting developmental instability of stamen position with bimodal distributions of herkogamy values. Cloned genets exposed to contrasting growth conditions demonstrated environmental control of herkogamy and genotypic differences in plasticity of this trait. Conclusions The ability to modify herkogamy independently of other floral

  17. Mechanisms for success after long-term nutrient enrichment in a boreal forest understory.

    PubMed

    Grainger, Tess Nahanni; Turkington, Roy

    2013-01-01

    Global levels of reactive nitrogen are predicted to rise in the coming decades as a result of increased deposition from the burning of fossil fuels and the large-scale conversion of nitrogen into a useable form for agriculture. Many plant communities respond strongly to increases in soil nitrogen, particularly in northern ecosystems where nitrogen levels are naturally very low. An experiment in northern Canada that was initiated in 1990 has been investigating the effects of long-term nutrient enrichment (fertilizer added annually) on a boreal forest understory community. We used this experiment to investigate why some species increase in abundance under nutrient enrichment whereas others decline. We focused on four species that differed in their responses to fertilization: Mertensia paniculata and Epilobium angustifolium increased in abundance, Achillea millefolium remained relatively constant and Festuca altaica declined. We hypothesized that the two species that were successful in the new high-nutrient, light-limited environment would be taller, have higher specific leaf area, change phenology by growing earlier in the season and be more morphologically plastic than their less successful counterparts. We compared plant height, specific leaf area, growth spurt date and allocation to leaves in plants grown in control and fertilized plots. We demonstrated that each of the two species that came to dominate fertilized plots has a different combination of traits and responses that likely gave them a competitive advantage; M. paniculata has the highest specific leaf area of the four species whereas E. angustifolium is tallest and exhibits morphological plasticity when fertilized by increasing biomass allocation to leaves. These results indicate that rather than one strategy determining success when nutrients become available, a variety of traits and responses may contribute to a species' ability to persist in a nutrient-enriched boreal forest understory.

  18. Hepatoprotective Effects of Chinese Medicinal Herbs: A Focus on Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Oxidative Activities.

    PubMed

    Lam, Puiyan; Cheung, Fan; Tan, Hor Yue; Wang, Ning; Yuen, Man Fung; Feng, Yibin

    2016-03-29

    The liver is intimately connected to inflammation, which is the innate defense system of the body for removing harmful stimuli and participates in the hepatic wound-healing response. Sustained inflammation and the corresponding regenerative wound-healing response can induce the development of fibrosis, cirrhosis and eventually hepatocellular carcinoma. Oxidative stress is associated with the activation of inflammatory pathways, while chronic inflammation is found associated with some human cancers. Inflammation and cancer may be connected by the effect of the inflammation-fibrosis-cancer (IFC) axis. Chinese medicinal herbs display abilities in protecting the liver compared to conventional therapies, as many herbal medicines have been shown as effective anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative agents. We review the relationship between oxidative stress and inflammation, the development of hepatic diseases, and the hepatoprotective effects of Chinese medicinal herbs via anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative mechanisms. Moreover, several Chinese medicinal herbs and composite formulae, which have been commonly used for preventing and treating hepatic diseases, including Andrographis Herba, Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Lycii Fructus, Coptidis Rhizoma, curcumin, xiao-cha-hu-tang and shi-quan-da-bu-tang, were selected for reviewing their hepatoprotective effects with focus on their anti-oxidative and ant-inflammatory activities. This review aims to provide new insight into how Chinese medicinal herbs work in therapeutic strategies for liver diseases.

  19. Andrographolide attenuates inflammation by inhibition of NF-kappa B activation through covalent modification of reduced cysteine 62 of p50.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yi-Feng; Ye, Bu-Qing; Li, Yi-Dan; Wang, Jian-Guo; He, Xiang-Jiu; Lin, Xianfeng; Yao, Xinsheng; Ma, Dawei; Slungaard, Arne; Hebbel, Robert P; Key, Nigel S; Geng, Jian-Guo

    2004-09-15

    NF-kappaB is a central transcriptional factor and a pleiotropic regulator of many genes involved in immunological responses. During the screening of a plant extract library of traditional Chinese herbal medicines, we found that NF-kappaB activity was potently inhibited by andrographolide (Andro), an abundant component of the plant Andrographis that has been commonly used as a folk remedy for alleviation of inflammatory disorders in Asia for millennia. Mechanistically, it formed a covalent adduct with reduced cysteine (62) of p50, thus blocking the binding of NF-kappaB oligonucleotide to nuclear proteins. Andro suppressed the activation of NF-kappaB in stimulated endothelial cells, which reduced the expression of cell adhesion molecule E-selectin and prevented E-selectin-mediated leukocyte adhesion under flow. It also abrogated the cytokine- and endotoxin-induced peritoneal deposition of neutrophils, attenuated septic shock, and prevented allergic lung inflammation in vivo. Notably, it had no suppressive effect on IkappaBalpha degradation, p50 and p65 nuclear translocation, or cell growth rates. Our results thus reveal a unique pharmacological mechanism of Andro's protective anti-inflammatory actions.

  20. The influence of herbal medicine on platelet function and coagulation: a narrative review.

    PubMed

    McEwen, Bradley J

    2015-04-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide. Platelet activation and aggregation play a central role in hemostasis and thrombosis. Herbal medicines have been traditionally used in the management of CVD and can play a role in modifying CVD progression, particularly in platelet function, and have the potential of altering platelet function tests, as well as some coagulation parameters. Herbal medicines, such as feverfew, garlic, ginger, ginseng, motherwort, St John's wort, and willow bark, were found to reduce platelet aggregation. In vitro studies show promise in the reduction of platelet aggregation for Andrographis, feverfew, garlic, ginger, Ginkgo, ginseng, hawthorn, horse chestnut, and turmeric. In addition, cranberry, danshen, dong quai, Ginkgo, ginseng, green tea, and St John's wort were found to have potential interactions with warfarin. Furthermore, St John's wort interacted with clopidogrel and danshen with aspirin. Therefore, repeat testing of platelet function and coagulation studies, particularly for patients on warfarin therapy, may be required after exclusion of herbal medicines that could have possibly affected initial test results.

  1. Hepatoprotective Effects of Chinese Medicinal Herbs: A Focus on Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Oxidative Activities

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Puiyan; Cheung, Fan; Tan, Hor Yue; Wang, Ning; Yuen, Man Fung; Feng, Yibin

    2016-01-01

    The liver is intimately connected to inflammation, which is the innate defense system of the body for removing harmful stimuli and participates in the hepatic wound-healing response. Sustained inflammation and the corresponding regenerative wound-healing response can induce the development of fibrosis, cirrhosis and eventually hepatocellular carcinoma. Oxidative stress is associated with the activation of inflammatory pathways, while chronic inflammation is found associated with some human cancers. Inflammation and cancer may be connected by the effect of the inflammation-fibrosis-cancer (IFC) axis. Chinese medicinal herbs display abilities in protecting the liver compared to conventional therapies, as many herbal medicines have been shown as effective anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative agents. We review the relationship between oxidative stress and inflammation, the development of hepatic diseases, and the hepatoprotective effects of Chinese medicinal herbs via anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative mechanisms. Moreover, several Chinese medicinal herbs and composite formulae, which have been commonly used for preventing and treating hepatic diseases, including Andrographis Herba, Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Lycii Fructus, Coptidis Rhizoma, curcumin, xiao-cha-hu-tang and shi-quan-da-bu-tang, were selected for reviewing their hepatoprotective effects with focus on their anti-oxidative and ant-inflammatory activities. This review aims to provide new insight into how Chinese medicinal herbs work in therapeutic strategies for liver diseases. PMID:27043533

  2. Antibacterial function of herbal extracts on growth, survival and immunoprotection in the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    AftabUddin, Sheikh; Siddique, Mohammad Abdul Momin; Romkey, Shaharin Salma; Shelton, William L

    2017-03-29

    This study examined the effects of an herbal extract composed of nine herbs i.e Aloe vera, Andrographis pariculata, Annona squamosa, Azadirachta indica, Citrus aurantifolia, Coriandrum sativum, Ocimum sanctum, Ollium cepa and Psidium guajava on growth, survival rate and immunoprotection against pathogenic Vibrio harveyi in the tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon. The petroleum ether, methanol and N-hexen extracts of different herbal plants were selected, processed and thoroughly mixed in equal proportions and added to the shrimp diets at a concentration of 1.0, 2.5 and 5.0 mL kg(-1). After 60 days of feeding, shrimps were challenged with V. harveyi bacteria (1 × 10(7) cells mL(-1)), which were isolated and propagated from the infected shrimps. The shrimps fed on diets with methanolic extraction of 2.5 mL kg(-1) had significantly (P < 0.001) higher survival rate (76%), specific growth rate (4.26 ± 0.11%) and better food conversion ratio (1.5) than the other groups. This study indicates that addition of methanolic herbal extracts of 2.5 mL kg(-1) can positively influence the immune response of tiger shrimp against V. harveyi infection.

  3. Divergent Hydraulic Safety Strategies in Three Co-occurring Anacardiaceae Tree Species in a Chinese Savanna.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shu-Bin; Zhang, Jiao-Lin; Cao, Kun-Fang

    2016-01-01

    Vulnerability segmentation, the condition under which plant leaves are more vulnerable to drought-induced cavitation than stems, may act as a "safety valve" to protect stems from hydraulic failure. Evergreen, winter-deciduous, and drought-deciduous tree species co-occur in tropical savannas, but there have been no direct studies on the role of vulnerability segmentation and stomatal regulation in maintaining hydraulic safety in trees with these three leaf phenologies. To this end, we selected three Anacardiaceae tree species co-occurring in a Chinese savanna, evergreen Pistacia weinmanniifolia, drought-deciduous Terminthia paniculata, and winter-deciduous Lannea coromandelica, to study inter-species differentiation in leaf and stem hydraulic safety. We found that the two deciduous species had significantly higher sapwood-specific hydraulic conductivity and leaf-specific hydraulic conductance than the evergreen species. Moreover, two deciduous species were more vulnerable to stem cavitation than the evergreen species, although both drought-deciduous species and evergreen species had drought-resistance leaves. The evergreen species maintained a wide hydraulic safety margin (HSM) in stems and leaves; which was achieved by embolism resistance of both stems and leaves and isohydric stomatal control. Both deciduous species had limited HSMs in stems and leaves, being isohydric in the winter-deciduous species and anisohydric in drought-deciduous species. The difference in water potential at 50% loss of hydraulic conductivity between the leaves and the terminal stems (P50leaf-stem) was positive in P. weinmanniifolia and L. coromandelica, whereas, T. paniculata exhibited a lack of vulnerability segmentation. In addition, differences in hydraulic architecture were found to be closely related to other structural traits, i.e., leaf mass per area, wood density, and sapwood anatomy. Overall, the winter-deciduous species exhibits a drought-avoidance strategy that maintains the

  4. [Effects of Different Modifier Concentrations on Lead-Zinc Tolerance, Subcellular Distribution and Chemical Forms for Four Kinds of Woody Plants].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong-hua; Zhang, Fu-yun; Wu, Xiao-fu; Liang, Xi; Yuan, Si-wen

    2015-10-01

    Four kinds of lead-zinc tolerant woody plants: Nerium oleander, Koelreuteria paniculata, Paulownia and Boehmeria were used as materials to estimate their enrichment and transferable capacity of lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) and analyze the subcellular distribution and chemical speciation of Zn and Ph in different parts of plants, under different modifier concentrations (CK group: 100% lead-zinc slag plus a small amount of phosphate fertilizer, improved one: 85% of lead-zinc slag ± 10% peat ± 5% bacterial manure plus a small amount of phosphate fertilizer, improved two: 75% lead-zinc slag ± 20% peat ± 5% bacterial manure ± a small amount of phosphate). Results showed that: (1) The content of Pb, Zn in matrix after planting four kinds of plants was lower than before, no significant difference between improved one and improved two of Nerium oleander and Boehmeria was found, but improved two was better than improved one of Paulownia, while improved one was better than improved two of Koelreuteria paniculata; Four plants had relatively low aboveground enrichment coefficient of Pb and Zn, but had a high transfer coefficient, showed that the appropriate modifier concentration was able to improve the Pb and Zn enrichment and transfer ability of plants. (2) In subcellular distribution, most of Pb and Zn were distributed in plant cell wall components and soluble components while the distribution in cell organelles such as mitochondria, chloroplasts and nucleus component were less. Compared with CK group, two improved group made soluble components of the cell walls of Pb fixation and retention of zinc role in the enhancement. (3) As for the chemical forms of Pb and Zn in plants, the main chemical forms of Pb were hydrochloric acid, sodium chloride and ethanol extractable forms, while other chemical form contents were few, the main chemical forms of Zn were different based on plant type. Compared with CK group, the proportion of the active Pb chemical form in different plant

  5. Divergent Hydraulic Safety Strategies in Three Co-occurring Anacardiaceae Tree Species in a Chinese Savanna

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shu-Bin; Zhang, Jiao-Lin; Cao, Kun-Fang

    2017-01-01

    Vulnerability segmentation, the condition under which plant leaves are more vulnerable to drought-induced cavitation than stems, may act as a “safety valve” to protect stems from hydraulic failure. Evergreen, winter-deciduous, and drought-deciduous tree species co-occur in tropical savannas, but there have been no direct studies on the role of vulnerability segmentation and stomatal regulation in maintaining hydraulic safety in trees with these three leaf phenologies. To this end, we selected three Anacardiaceae tree species co-occurring in a Chinese savanna, evergreen Pistacia weinmanniifolia, drought-deciduous Terminthia paniculata, and winter-deciduous Lannea coromandelica, to study inter-species differentiation in leaf and stem hydraulic safety. We found that the two deciduous species had significantly higher sapwood-specific hydraulic conductivity and leaf-specific hydraulic conductance than the evergreen species. Moreover, two deciduous species were more vulnerable to stem cavitation than the evergreen species, although both drought-deciduous species and evergreen species had drought-resistance leaves. The evergreen species maintained a wide hydraulic safety margin (HSM) in stems and leaves; which was achieved by embolism resistance of both stems and leaves and isohydric stomatal control. Both deciduous species had limited HSMs in stems and leaves, being isohydric in the winter-deciduous species and anisohydric in drought-deciduous species. The difference in water potential at 50% loss of hydraulic conductivity between the leaves and the terminal stems (P50leaf−stem) was positive in P. weinmanniifolia and L. coromandelica, whereas, T. paniculata exhibited a lack of vulnerability segmentation. In addition, differences in hydraulic architecture were found to be closely related to other structural traits, i.e., leaf mass per area, wood density, and sapwood anatomy. Overall, the winter-deciduous species exhibits a drought-avoidance strategy that maintains

  6. Interaction of Rhizosphere Bacteria, Fertilizer, and Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi with Sea Oats †

    PubMed Central

    Will, M. E.; Sylvia, D. M.

    1990-01-01

    Plants must be established quickly on replenished beaches in order to stabilize the sand and begin the dune-building process. The objective of this research was to determine whether inoculation of sea oats (Uniola paniculata L.) with bacteria (indigenous rhizosphere bacteria and N2 fixers) alone or in combination with vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi would enhance plant growth in beach sand. At two fertilizer-N levels, Klebsiella pneumoniae and two Azospirillum spp. did not provide the plants with fixed atmospheric N; however, K. pneumoniae increased root and shoot growth. When a sparingly soluble P source (CaHPO4) was added to two sands, K. pneumoniae increased plant growth in sand with a high P content. The phosphorus content of shoots was not affected by bacterial inoculation, indicating that a mechanism other than bacterially enhanced P availability to plants was responsible for the growth increases. When sea oats were inoculated with either K. pneumoniae or Acaligenes denitrificans and a mixed Glomus inoculum, there was no consistent evidence of a synergistic effect on plant growth. Nonetheless, bacterial inoculation increased root colonization by vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi when the fungal inoculum consisted of colonized roots but had no effect on colonization when the inoculum consisted of spores alone. K. pneumoniae was found to increase spore germination and hyphal growth of Glomus deserticola compared with the control. The use of bacterial inoculants to enhance establishment of pioneer dune plants warrants further study. PMID:16348236

  7. Structural variations among monocot emergent and amphibious species from lakes of the semi-arid region of Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Leite, K R B; França, F; Scatena, V I

    2012-02-01

    Temporary lakes are common in the semi-arid region of the State of Bahia and form water mirrors in the rainy season. In this period, various vegetal species appear having different life forms adapted to the seasonality conditions of the rainfall regime. This work surveyed the adaptive anatomical structures of some emergent and amphibious monocot species occurring in these lakes. We studied the anatomy of roots, rhizomes, leaves and scapes of Cyperus odoratus, Oxycaryum cubense, Pycreus macrostachyos (Cyperaceae) - amphibious species; and of Echinodorus grandiflorus (Alismataceae), Eichhornia paniculata (Pontederiaceae) and Habenaria repens (Orchidaceae) - emergent species. The anatomical features of the dermal, fundamental and vascular systems confirming the tendency of the adaptive convergence of these plants to temporary lacustrine the environment include: single layered epidermal cells with a thin cuticle layer in the aerial organs; the presence of air canals in all the organs; few or no supporting tissues; and less numerous conducting elements and thinner cell walls in the xylem. The reduction of the supporting tissues, the number of stomata, which can even be absent, and the number of conducting elements and the degree of cell wall lignification in the xylem of the emergent species is more accentuated than that of the amphibious species. The pattern of distribution of aerenchyma in the roots of the studied species was considered important to distinguish between amphibious and emergent life forms.

  8. Phenolic composition and antiparasitic activity of plants from the Brazilian Northeast "Cerrado".

    PubMed

    Calixto Júnior, João Tavares; de Morais, Selene Maia; Gomez, Celeste Vega; Molas, Cathia Coronel; Rolon, Miriam; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Athayde, Margareth Linde; de Morais Oliveira, Cícera Datiane; Tintino, Saulo Relison; Henrique Douglas, Melo Coutinho

    2016-05-01

    This work describes the antiparasitic and cytotoxic activities of three plant species from the Cerrado biome, Northeastern Brazil. Significant antiparasitic inhibition was observed against Trypanosoma cruzi (63.86%), Leishmania brasiliensis (92.20%) and Leishmania infantum (95.23%) when using ethanol extract from leaves of Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (Malvaceae), at a concentration of 500 μg/mL. However, low levels of inhibition were observed when assessing leishmanicidal and trypanocidal (Clone CL-B5) activities of crude ethanol extracts from leaves and bast tissue of Luehea paniculata (Malvaceae) and leaves and bark of Prockia crucis (Salicaceae) at a concentration of 500 μg/mL. The extracts revealed the presence of phenolic acids such as gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid and rosmarinic acid, as well as flavonoids such as rutin, luteolin, apigenin and quercetin - the latter detected only in G. ulmifolia. G. ulmifolia extract displayed higher leishmanicidal activity probably due to the presence of quercetin, a potent known leishmanicidal compound. A cytotoxicity test indicated values over 50% at the highest concentration (1000 μg/mL) for all natural products, which were considered cytotoxic. This points out the need for further tests to enable future in vivo trials, including antineoplastic activity on human tumor cells.

  9. Phenolic composition and antiparasitic activity of plants from the Brazilian Northeast “Cerrado”

    PubMed Central

    Calixto Júnior, João Tavares; de Morais, Selene Maia; Gomez, Celeste Vega; Molas, Cathia Coronel; Rolon, Miriam; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Athayde, Margareth Linde; de Morais Oliveira, Cícera Datiane; Tintino, Saulo Relison; Henrique Douglas, Melo Coutinho

    2015-01-01

    This work describes the antiparasitic and cytotoxic activities of three plant species from the Cerrado biome, Northeastern Brazil. Significant antiparasitic inhibition was observed against Trypanosoma cruzi (63.86%), Leishmania brasiliensis (92.20%) and Leishmania infantum (95.23%) when using ethanol extract from leaves of Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (Malvaceae), at a concentration of 500 μg/mL. However, low levels of inhibition were observed when assessing leishmanicidal and trypanocidal (Clone CL-B5) activities of crude ethanol extracts from leaves and bast tissue of Luehea paniculata (Malvaceae) and leaves and bark of Prockia crucis (Salicaceae) at a concentration of 500 μg/mL. The extracts revealed the presence of phenolic acids such as gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid and rosmarinic acid, as well as flavonoids such as rutin, luteolin, apigenin and quercetin – the latter detected only in G. ulmifolia. G. ulmifolia extract displayed higher leishmanicidal activity probably due to the presence of quercetin, a potent known leishmanicidal compound. A cytotoxicity test indicated values over 50% at the highest concentration (1000 μg/mL) for all natural products, which were considered cytotoxic. This points out the need for further tests to enable future in vivo trials, including antineoplastic activity on human tumor cells. PMID:27081371

  10. Plant Sensitivity to Burial and Coastal Foredune Morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, E. B.; Moore, L. J.; deVries, E.; Jass, T. L.; Duran Vinent, O.

    2015-12-01

    Coastal dunes arise from a feedback between plant growth and aeolian sediment transport. Dune plants are uniquely adapted to the harsh coastal environment, and are able to tolerate high temperature, drought, salt spray, and burial by sand. Accurate modeling of coastal dunes relies on understanding how coastal plants respond to these stresses, and how the dune building feedback is modified as a result. We use two years of data from an experimental planting on Hog Island, VA, USA to parameterize a logistic growth model that explicitly includes the effects of plant burial on three species of common dune plants on the US East Coast: Spartina patens, Ammophila breviligulata, and Uniola paniculata. We couple this new plant growth model to the Coastal Dune Model of Durán and Moore (2013). Using this enhanced model we explore the consequences of plant sensitivity to burial on coastal dune growth. These results will add to the growing literature on coupled vegetation and sand transport models, specifically the modeling of coastal dunes.

  11. Dune vegetation fertilization by nesting sea turtles.

    PubMed

    Hannan, Laura B; Roth, James D; Ehrhart, Llewellyn M; Weishampel, John F

    2007-04-01

    Sea turtle nesting presents a potential pathway to subsidize nutrient-poor dune ecosystems, which provide the nesting habitat for sea turtles. To assess whether this positive feedback between dune plants and turtle nests exists, we measured N concentration and delta15N values in dune soils, leaves from a common dune plant (sea oats [Uniola paniculata]), and addled eggs of loggerhead (Caretta caretta) and green turtles (Chelonia mydas) across a nesting gradient (200-1050 nests/km) along a 40.5-km stretch of beach in east central Florida, USA. The delta15N levels were higher in loggerhead than green turtle eggs, denoting the higher trophic level of loggerhead turtles. Soil N concentration and delta15N values were both positively correlated to turtle nest density. Sea oat leaf tissue delta15N was also positively correlated to nest density, indicating an increased use of augmented marine-based nutrient sources. Foliar N concentration was correlated with delta15N, suggesting that increased nutrient availability from this biogenic vector may enhance the vigor of dune vegetation, promoting dune stabilization and preserving sea turtle nesting habitat.

  12. Oral delivery of double-stranded RNAs induces mortality in nymphs and adults of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri

    PubMed Central

    Galdeano, Diogo Manzano; Breton, Michèle Claire; Lopes, João Roberto Spotti; Falk, Bryce W.

    2017-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, is one of the most important citrus pests. ACP is the vector of the phloem-limited bacteria Candidatus Liberibacter americanus and Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, the causal agents of the devastating citrus disease huanglongbing (HLB). The management of HLB is based on the use of healthy young plants, eradication of infected plants and chemical control of the vector. RNA interference (RNAi) has proven to be a promising tool to control pests and explore gene functions. Recently, studies have reported that target mRNA knockdown in many insects can be induced through feeding with double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). In the current study, we targeted the cathepsin D, chitin synthase and inhibitor of apoptosis genes of adult and nymph ACP by feeding artificial diets mixed with dsRNAs and Murraya paniculata leaves placed in dsRNAs solutions, respectively. Adult ACP mortality was positively correlated with the amount of dsRNA used. Both nymphs and adult ACP fed dsRNAs exhibited significantly increased mortality over time compared with that of the controls. Moreover, qRT-PCR analysis confirmed the dsRNA-mediated RNAi effects on target mRNAs. These results showed that RNAi can be a powerful tool for gene function studies in ACP and perhaps for HLB control. PMID:28282380

  13. Heavy metal concentrations in marine green, brown, and red seaweeds from coastal waters of Yemen, the Gulf of Aden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Shwafi, Nabil A.; Rushdi, Ahmed I.

    2008-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the concentration levels of heavy metals in different species of the main three marine algal divisions from the Gulf of Aden coastal waters, Yemen. The divisions included Chlorophyta—green plants ( Halimeda tuna, Rhizoclonium kochiamum, Caldophora koiei, Enteromorpha compressa, and Caulerpa racemosa species), Phaeophyta—brown seaweeds ( Padina boryana, Turbinaria elatensis, Sargassum binderi, Cystoseira myrica, and Sargassum boveanum species), and Rhodophyta—red seaweeds ( Hypnea cornuta, Champia parvula, Galaxaura marginate, Laurencia paniculata, Gracilaria foliifere, and species). The heavy metals, which included cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), Iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and vanadium (V) were measured by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAs). The concentrations of heavy metals in all algal species are in the order of Fe >> Cu > Mn > Cr > Zn > Ni > Pb > Cd > V > Co. The results also showed that the uptake of heavy metals by different marine algal divisions was in the order of Chlorophyta > Phaeophyta > Rhodophyta. These heavy metals were several order of magnitude higher than the concentrations of the same metals in seawater. This indicates that marine alga progressively uptake heavy metals from seawater.

  14. Toxic compounds in honey.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Nazmul; Khalil, Md Ibrahim; Islam, Md Asiful; Gan, Siew Hua

    2014-07-01

    There is a wealth of information about the nutritional and medicinal properties of honey. However, honey may contain compounds that may lead to toxicity. A compound not naturally present in honey, named 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), may be formed during the heating or preservation processes of honey. HMF has gained much interest, as it is commonly detected in honey samples, especially samples that have been stored for a long time. HMF is a compound that may be mutagenic, carcinogenic and cytotoxic. It has also been reported that honey can be contaminated with heavy metals such as lead, arsenic, mercury and cadmium. Honey produced from the nectar of Rhododendron ponticum contains alkaloids that can be poisonous to humans, while honey collected from Andromeda flowers contains grayanotoxins, which can cause paralysis of limbs in humans and eventually leads to death. In addition, Melicope ternata and Coriaria arborea from New Zealand produce toxic honey that can be fatal. There are reports that honey is not safe to be consumed when it is collected from Datura plants (from Mexico and Hungary), belladonna flowers and Hyoscamus niger plants (from Hungary), Serjania lethalis (from Brazil), Gelsemium sempervirens (from the American Southwest), Kalmia latifolia, Tripetalia paniculata and Ledum palustre. Although the symptoms of poisoning due to honey consumption may differ depending on the source of toxins, most common symptoms generally include dizziness, nausea, vomiting, convulsions, headache, palpitations or even death. It has been suggested that honey should not be considered a completely safe food.

  15. The in vitro anti-giardial activity of extracts from plants that are used for self-medication by AIDS patients in southern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Sawangjaroen, N; Subhadhirasakul, S; Phongpaichit, S; Siripanth, C; Jamjaroen, K; Sawangjaroen, K

    2005-01-01

    This study evaluated the anti-giardial activity of chloroform, methanol and water extracts of 12 medicinal plants (39 extracts), commonly used as self medication by AIDS patients in southern Thailand. The plant extracts and a standard drug, metronidazole, were incubated with 2x10(5) trophozoites of Giardia intestinalis per millilitre of growth medium in 96-well tissue culture plates under anaerobic conditions for 24 h. The cultures were examined with an inverted microscope and the minimum inhibitory concentration and the IC50 value for each extract was determined. The chloroform extracts from Alpinia galanga, Boesenbergia pandurata, Eclipta prostrata, Piper betle, Piper chaba, Zingiber zerumbet, and the methanol extracts from B. pandurata and E. prostrata were classified as "active", i.e. with an IC50 of <100 microg/ml, whereas the chloroform extract from Murraya paniculata was classified as being "moderately active". This study shows that extracts from some medicinal plants have potential for use as therapeutic agents against G. intestinalis infections.

  16. Roles of olfactory cues, visual cues, and mating status in orientation of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) to four different host plants.

    PubMed

    Wenninger, Erik J; Stelinski, Lukasz L; Hall, David G

    2009-02-01

    Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) is an important worldwide pest of citrus that vectors bacteria (Candidatus Liberibacter spp.) responsible for huanglongbing (citrus greening disease). We examined the behavioral responses of mated and unmated D. citri of both sexes to odors from host plants in a Y-tube olfactometer, with and without visual cues. The host plants tested were 'Duncan' grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macfayden), sour orange (Citrus aurantium L.), navel orange (C. sinensis L.), and Murraya paniculata L. Jack. Responses varied by plant species, psyllid sex and mating status, and the presence of a visual cue. Evidence of attraction generally was stronger in females and in mated individuals of both sexes relative to virgins. The presence of a visual cue typically enhanced attractiveness of olfactory cues; in no case did unmated individuals show evidence of attraction to host plant odors in the absence of avisual cue. In the absence of visual cues, mated females and males showed evidence of attraction only to odors from sour orange and navel orange, respectively. Psyllids exhibited anemotactic responses when assayed with plant odors alone but showed strong evidence of attraction only when olfactory and visual cues were combined, suggesting that olfactory cues facilitate orientation to host plants but may be insufficient alone. Antennal responses to citrus volatiles were confirmed by electroantennogram. The results reported here provide evidence that D. citri uses olfactory and visual cues in orientation to host plants and suggest the possibility of using plant volatiles in monitoring and management of this pest.

  17. The effects of host, geographic origin, and gender on the thermal requirements of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae).

    PubMed

    Nava, Dori E; Gomez-Torres, Mariuxi L; Rodrigues, Marjorie D; Bento, José M S; Haddad, Marinéia L; Parra, José R P

    2010-04-01

    Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) is the vector of the bacteria that causes citrus greening and is considered one of the world's most important citrus diseases. We examined how host, geographic region, and gender affect the thermal requirements of D. citri. The insects were reared in climatic chambers at constant temperatures of 18, 20, 22, 25, 28, 30, and 32 +/- 1 degrees C, 70 +/- 10% RH, and a 14 h photophase. Host plants for D. citri included orange (Citrus sinensis [Rutaceae]) varieties Pêra and Natal, the rootstock, Rungpur lime (C. limonia [Rutaceae]) and the natural host, Orange jessamine (Murraya paniculata [Rutaceae]). To study the influence of geographic origin on thermal requirements, we studied D. citri populations from Piracicaba, SP (warmer region) and Itapetininga, SP (cooler region). The duration and survival of the development stages and the duration of the total development (egg-adult) did not differ significantly on the different hosts, but it did vary with temperature. Nymphs of D. citri created on the different hosts have the same thermal requirements. The thermal requirements for this species collected from the two climate regions were identical; males and females also had the same thermal requirements.

  18. [Selection and purification potential evaluation of woody plant in vertical flow constructed wetlands in the subtropical area].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong-Hua; Wu, Xiao-Fu; Hao, Jun; Chen, Ming-Li; Zhu, Guang-Yu

    2014-02-01

    In order to solve the problem that wetland herbaceous plants tend to die during winter in subtropics areas, selection and purification potential evaluation experiments were carried out by introducing into the constructed wetlands 16 species of woody wetland plants. Cluster analysis was performed by including the morphological characteristics, physiological characteristics, as well as nitrogen and phosphorus accumulation of the woody wetland plants. The results indicated that there were significant differences among the tested woody plants in their survival rate, height increase, root length increase and vigor, Chlorophyll content, Superoxide dismutase, Malonaldehyde, Proline, Peroxidase, biomass, average concentration and accumulation of nitrogen and phosphorus. Based on the established evaluation system, the tested plants were clustered into 3 groups. The plants in the 1st group possessing high purification potentials are Nerium oleander and Hibiscus syriacus. Those in the 2nd group possessing moderate purification potentials are Trachycarpus fortune, Llex latifolia Thunb., Gardenia jasminoides, Serissa foetida and Ilex crenatacv Convexa. And those in the 3rd group with low purification potentials are Jasminum udiflorum, Hedera helix, Ligustrum vicaryi, Ligustrum lucidum, Buxus sempervives, Murraya paniculata, Osmanthus fragrans, Mahoniafortune and Photinia serrulata.

  19. Can ethnopharmacology contribute to the development of anti-fertility drugs?

    PubMed

    Pei-Gen, X; Nai-Gong, W

    1991-04-01

    China, one of the developing countries with approx. one-fifth of the world population, has been making great efforts in controlling her population size. One of the efforts being stressed is to look into the practicability of employing Chinese herbal medicine for fertility control. The rich ethnopharmacological descriptions in the ancient books of herbal remedy and those scattered in the folklore medicine contribute the possibility of this approach. After a discussion concerning the facets of antifertility drugs linked with male or female fertility regulation, several selected examples are presented, which include yuehchukene (isolated from Murraya paniculata), pseudolarix acids A and B (from Pseudolarix kaempferi), mardekoside A (from Mardenia koi), gardenic acid and gardenodic acid A (from Gardenia jasminoides) as early pregnancy terminating agent, for fertility regulation in females; whereas gossypol (from cottonseed oil) and total glycosides of Tripterygium wilfordii (GTW) as antispermatogenic agent for fertility regulation in males. Further research and development strategies of antifertility drugs from herbal medicines have also been discussed based on a collective research data in this field worldwide.

  20. Development of macrolide lactone antibiotic brefeldin A fermentation process with Eupenicillium brefeldianum ZJB082702.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ya-Jun; Xue, Feng; Wu, Ye-Fei; Xue, Ya-Ping; Zheng, Yu-Guo

    2012-09-01

    In this work, a robust brefeldin A-synthesizing fungus, Eupenicillium brefeldianum ZJB082702, was bred from a Murraya paniculata endophytic fungus E. brefeldianum A1163. Using one-factor-at-a-time experimental design, optimization of media composition for E. brefeldianum ZJB082702 fermenting brefeldin A was conducted. Outcomes indicated that mixed carbon source and mixed nitrogen source were of c ritical importance to brefeldin A fermentation. After 6d culture in the optimized fermentation media, composed of (gl(-1)) 13.33 starch, 26.67 glucose, 1.0 yeast extract powder, 1.0 corn steep liquor, 0.5 soybean meal, 0.75 NaNO(3), 2.5 malt extract, 6.0 CaCO(3), 3.0 MgSO(4), 4.0 KH(2)PO(4), 1.0 × 10(-2) CuSO(4), brefeldin A yield peaked at 1304.7 mgl(-1), 648.2 mgl(-1) in 500 ml baffled flask and 15 l stirred fermentor respectively, formed as a growth associated type of secondary metabolite based on fermentation profile analysis.

  1. Assessing the Capacity of Plant Species to Accumulate Particulate Matter in Beijing, China

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Li; Ma, Zeyu; Xu, Yansen; Sun, Fengbin; Lun, Xiaoxiu; Liu, Xuhui; Chen, Jungang; Yu, Xinxiao

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution causes serious problems in spring in northern China; therefore, studying the ability of different plants to accumulate particulate matter (PM) at the beginning of the growing season may benefit urban planners in their attempts to control air pollution. This study evaluated deposits of PM on the leaves and in the wax layer of 35 species (11 shrubs, 24 trees) in Beijing, China. Differences in the accumulation of PM were observed between species. Cephalotaxus sinensis, Euonymus japonicus, Broussonetia papyriferar, Koelreuteria paniculata and Quercus variabilis were all efficient in capturing small particles. The plants exhibiting high amounts of total PM accumulation (on leaf surfaces and/or in the wax layer), also showed comparatively high levels of PM accumulation across all particle sizes. A comparison of shrubs and trees did not reveal obvious differences in their ability to accumulate particles based on growth form; a combination of plantings with different growth forms can efficiently reduce airborne PM concentrations near the ground. To test the relationships between leaf traits and PM accumulation, leaf samples of selected species were observed using a scanning electron microscope. Growth forms with greater amounts of pubescence and increased roughness supported PM accumulation; the adaxial leaf surfaces collected more particles than the abaxial surfaces. The results of this study may inform the selection of species for urban green areas where the goal is to capture air pollutants and mitigate the adverse effects of air pollution on human health. PMID:26506104

  2. Phylogeny and classification of Naucleeae s.l. (Rubiaceae) inferred from molecular (ITS, rBCL, and tRNT-F) and morphological data.

    PubMed

    Razafimandimbison, Sylvain G; Bremer, Birgitta

    2002-07-01

    Parsimony analyses of the tribe Naucleeae sensu lato (s.l.) using the noncoding internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of nuclear rDNA, the protein-coding rbcL and noncoding trnT-F regions of chloroplast DNA, and morphological data were performed to construct new intratribal classification, test the monophyly of previous subtribal circumscriptions, and evaluate the generic status of Naucleeae s.l. Fifty-two ITS, 45 rbcL, and 55 trnT-F new sequences are published here. Our study supports the monophyly of the subtribes Anthocephalidae, Mitragynae, Uncariae all sensu Haviland and Naucleinae sensu Ridsdale. There was no support for Cephalanthidae sensu Haviland and Adininae sensu Ridsdale. Naucleeae can be subdivided into six highly supported and morphologically distinct subtribes, Breoniinae, Cephalanthinae, Corynantheinae, Naucleinae, and Mitragyninae, Uncarinae, plus one, Adininae, which is poorly supported. The relationships among these subtribes were largely unresolved. We maintain the following 22 genera: Adina, Adinauclea, Breonadia, Breonia, Burttdavya, Cephalanthus, Gyrostipula, Haldina, Janotia, Ludekia, Metadina, Mitragyna, Myrmeconauclea, Nauclea, Neolamarckia, Neonauclea, Ochreinauclea, Pausinystalia, Pertusadina, Sarcocephalus, Sinoadina, and Uncaria. Pseudocinchona is reestablished. Corynanthe is restricted to C. paniculata and Hallea is reincluded in Mitragyna. Our results were inconclusive for assessing the relationships among Adina, Adinauclea, Metadina, and Pertusadina due to lack of resolution.

  3. [Hummingbird abundance and flowers use in a template forest from Southeast Mexico].

    PubMed

    Partida Lara, Ruth; Enríquez, Paula L; Rangel-Salazar, José Luis; Lara, Carlos; Martínez Ico, Miguel

    2012-12-01

    Hummingbird abundance varies with plant bloom phenology used for feeding. However, the information on hummingbird-flower interaction is limited for tropical mountain environments. We evaluated hummingbird abundance using mist nest and estimated monthly flowering phenology visited by hummingbirds in three different habitats (oak forest, cloud forest and bush) from January to August 2010 in Huitepec Ecological Reserve. We recorded four hummingbird species (Hylocharis leucotis, Lampornis amethystinus, Lamprolaima rhami and Eugenes fulgens), and their abundance varied among habitats (H3.8=14.8, p=0.001). Seven plant species were visited for hummingbirds and showed the highest number of flower species during dry season. Bush had the highest blossom. Fuchsia paniculata had the highest blossom period but only was visited by H. leucotis. Passiflora membranacea was the only species visited for all hummingbird species. The only positive association was E. fulgens abundance with P.a membranacea bloom (r(S)=0.93, p=0.02). Hummingbird abundance fluctuations in this study are determined for interactions with floral resources and their habitat distribution.

  4. Oral delivery of double-stranded RNAs induces mortality in nymphs and adults of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri.

    PubMed

    Galdeano, Diogo Manzano; Breton, Michèle Claire; Lopes, João Roberto Spotti; Falk, Bryce W; Machado, Marcos Antonio

    2017-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, is one of the most important citrus pests. ACP is the vector of the phloem-limited bacteria Candidatus Liberibacter americanus and Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, the causal agents of the devastating citrus disease huanglongbing (HLB). The management of HLB is based on the use of healthy young plants, eradication of infected plants and chemical control of the vector. RNA interference (RNAi) has proven to be a promising tool to control pests and explore gene functions. Recently, studies have reported that target mRNA knockdown in many insects can be induced through feeding with double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). In the current study, we targeted the cathepsin D, chitin synthase and inhibitor of apoptosis genes of adult and nymph ACP by feeding artificial diets mixed with dsRNAs and Murraya paniculata leaves placed in dsRNAs solutions, respectively. Adult ACP mortality was positively correlated with the amount of dsRNA used. Both nymphs and adult ACP fed dsRNAs exhibited significantly increased mortality over time compared with that of the controls. Moreover, qRT-PCR analysis confirmed the dsRNA-mediated RNAi effects on target mRNAs. These results showed that RNAi can be a powerful tool for gene function studies in ACP and perhaps for HLB control.

  5. Microsatellite in Aeschynomene falcata (Leguminosae): diversity, cross-amplification, and chromosome localization.

    PubMed

    Polido, C A; Mantello, C C; Moraes, A P; Souza, A P; Forni-Martins, E R

    2014-12-04

    Aeschynomene falcata is an important forage species; however, because of low seed production, it is underutilized as forage species. Aeschynomene is a polyphyletic genus with a challenging taxonomic position. Two subgenera have been proposed, and it is suggested that Aeschynomene can be split in 2 genera. Thus, new markers, such as microsatellite sequences, are desirable for improving breeding programs for A. falcata. Based on transferability and in situ localization, these microsatellite sequences can be applied as chromosome markers in the genus Aeschynomene and closely related genera. Here, we report the first microsatellite library developed for this genus; 11 microsatellites were characterized, with observed and expected heterozygosities ranging from 0.0000 to 0.7143 and from 0.1287 to 0.8360, respectively. Polymorphic information content varied from 0.1167 to 0.7786. The departure from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium may have resulted from frequent autogamy, which is characteristic of A. falcata. Of the 11 microsatellites, 9 loci were cross-amplified in A. brevipes and A. paniculata and 7 in Dalbergia nigra and Machaerium vestitum. Five of these 7 cross-amplified microsatellites were applied as probes during the in situ hybridization assay and 2 showed clear signals on A. falcata chromosomes, ensuring their viability as chromosome markers.

  6. Compatible host/mycorrhizal fungus combinations for micropropagated sea oats: II. Field evaluation.

    PubMed

    Al Agely, Abid; Sylvia, David M

    2008-07-01

    Sea oats (Uniola paniculata L.) are the dominant plant in the pioneer coastal dunes of Florida and are widely used for dune restoration. DNA analysis has revealed significant ecotypic variation among Atlantic and Gulf coast populations of sea oats, but little is known about the diversity of the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) communities present in the dune systems. In a prior greenhouse study, we evaluated the functional diversity that exists among the AM fungal communities from divergent Florida dunes and selected effective host/AM fungus combinations for further study. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of these compatible combinations on the growth of sea oats planted at Anastasia State Recreation Area (AN) on the Atlantic coast and St. George Island State Park (SG) on the Gulf coast. Micropropagated sea oats from each site were inoculated with AM fungal communities also from AN and SG or a microbial filtrate control. The complete factorial of treatment combinations were grown in the greenhouse for 8 weeks and outplanted to the AN and SG field sites. After 1 year, root colonization was evaluated, and after 2 years, root colonization, shoot and root dry masses, and shoot- and root-P contents were determined. Overall, sea oats planted at AN had greater percent root colonization, shoot dry mass, and shoot-P content than those planted at SG. At AN, the local sea oat ecotype responded more to the fungal community from the same site relative to shoot dry mass and shoot-P content. At SG, the local fungal community produced larger plants with greater P content regardless of the origin of the host. We conclude that sea oat productivity is responsive to AM fungal ecotype as well as host ecotype, and fungal origin should therefore be taken into account when planning sea oat plantings on coastal dunes.

  7. Effects of disturbance on vegetation by sand accretion and erosion across coastal dune habitats on a barrier island.

    PubMed

    Miller, Thomas E

    2015-01-12

    Coastal geomorphology and vegetation are expected to be particularly sensitive to climate change, because of disturbances caused by sea-level rise and increased storm frequency. Dunes have critical reciprocal interactions with vegetation; dunes create habitats for plants, while plants help to build dunes and promote geomorphological stability. These interactions are also greatly affected by disturbances associated with sand movement, either in accretion (dune building) or in erosion. The magnitude and intensity of disturbances are expected to vary with habitat, from the more exposed and less stable foredunes, to low-lying and flood-prone interdunes, to the protected and older backdunes. Permanent plots were established at three different spatial scales on St George Island, FL, USA, where the vegetation and dune elevation were quantified annually from 2011 to 2013. Change in elevation, either through accretion or erosion, was used as a measure of year-to-year disturbance over the 2 years of the study. At the scale of different dune habitats, foredunes were found to have the greatest disturbance, while interdunes had the least. Elevation and habitat (i.e. foredune, interdune, backdune) were significantly correlated with plant community composition. Generalized linear models conducted within each habitat show that the change in elevation (disturbance) is also significantly correlated with the plant community, but only within foredunes and interdunes. The importance of disturbance in exposed foredunes was expected and was found to be related to an increasing abundance of a dominant species (Uniola paniculata) in eroding areas. The significant effect of disturbance in the relatively stable interdunes was surprising, and may be due to the importance of flooding associated with small changes in elevation in these low-lying areas. Overall, this study documents changes in the plant community associated with elevation, and demonstrates that the foredune and interdune

  8. Phylogenetic Relationships of Citrus and Its Relatives Based on matK Gene Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Penjor, Tshering; Uehara, Miki; Ide, Manami; Matsumoto, Natsumi; Matsumoto, Ryoji

    2013-01-01

    The genus Citrus includes mandarin, orange, lemon, grapefruit and lime, which have high economic and nutritional value. The family Rutaceae can be divided into 7 subfamilies, including Aurantioideae. The genus Citrus belongs to the subfamily Aurantioideae. In this study, we sequenced the chloroplast matK genes of 135 accessions from 22 genera of Aurantioideae and analyzed them phylogenetically. Our study includes many accessions that have not been examined in other studies. The subfamily Aurantioideae has been classified into 2 tribes, Clauseneae and Citreae, and our current molecular analysis clearly discriminate Citreae from Clauseneae by using only 1 chloroplast DNA sequence. Our study confirms previous observations on the molecular phylogeny of Aurantioideae in many aspects. However, we have provided novel information on these genetic relationships. For example, inconsistent with the previous observation, and consistent with our preliminary study using the chloroplast rbcL genes, our analysis showed that Feroniella oblata is not nested in Citrus species and is closely related with Feronia limonia. Furthermore, we have shown that Murraya paniculata is similar to Merrillia caloxylon and is dissimilar to Murraya koenigii. We found that “true citrus fruit trees” could be divided into 2 subclusters. One subcluster included Citrus, Fortunella, and Poncirus, while the other cluster included Microcitrus and Eremocitrus. Compared to previous studies, our current study is the most extensive phylogenetic study of Citrus species since it includes 93 accessions. The results indicate that Citrus species can be classified into 3 clusters: a citron cluster, a pummelo cluster, and a mandarin cluster. Although most mandarin accessions belonged to the mandarin cluster, we found some exceptions. We also obtained the information on the genetic background of various species of acid citrus grown in Japan. Because the genus Citrus contains many important accessions, we have

  9. Establishment of Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Other Microorganisms on a Beach Replenishment Site in Florida †

    PubMed Central

    Sylvia, D. M.; Will, M. E.

    1988-01-01

    Beach replenishment is a widely used method of controlling coastal erosion. To reduce erosional losses from wind, beach grasses are often planted on the replenishment sands. However, there is little information on the microbial populations in this material that may affect plant establishment and growth. The objectives of this research were to document changes in the populations of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi and other soil microorganisms in replenishment materials and to determine whether roots of transplanted beach grasses become colonized by beneficial microbes. The study was conducted over a 2-year period on a replenishment project in northeastern Florida. Three sampling locations were established at 1-km intervals along the beach. Each location consisted of three plots: an established dune, replenishment sand planted with Uniola paniculata and Panicum sp., and replenishment sand left unplanted. Fungal and bacterial populations increased rapidly in the rhizosphere of beach grasses in the planted plots. However, no bacteria were recovered that could fix significant amounts of N2. The VAM fungi established slowly on the transplanted grasses. Even after two growing seasons, levels of root colonization and sporulation were significantly below those found in the established dune. There was a shift in the dominant VAM fungi found in the planted zone with respect to those in the established dunes. The most abundant species recovered from the established dunes were Glomus deserticola, followed by Acaulospora scrobiculata and Scutellospora weresubiae. The VAM fungi that colonized the planted zone most rapidly were Glomus globiferum, followed by G. deserticola and Glomus aggregatum. PMID:16347547

  10. Identification of dioxin and dioxin-like polychlorbiphenyls in plant tissues and contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Jou, Jin-Juh; Chung, Jen-Chir; Weng, Ying-Ming; Liaw, Shu-Liang; Wang, Ming Kuang

    2007-10-01

    The environmental analysis laboratory (EAL) of the Taiwan environmental protection administration (TEPA) has been monitoring certain sites polluted in southern Taiwan by pentachlorophenol manufacture. The analytical results revealed peculiarities in the concentration distributions in plant tissues. There are no available data on dioxin and dioxin-like polychlorbiphenyls (DL-PCBs), which can be taken up from contaminated soils by plant tissues. Thus, the aims of this study were to identify, understand, and to validate these dioxin and DL-PCBs concentrations in plant tissues of the contaminated soils. This research analyzed ten species of plant tissues, including tappa (Boussonetia papyrifera) and common jasmin orange (Murraya paniculata) from sites in southern Taiwan, with different levels of contamination. Dioxin concentrations in these plant tissues ranged from 12.7 to 2919 ng WHO-TEQ(DF)/kg dry weight (d.w.), with average of 463 ng WHO-TEQ(DF)/kg d.w. (n=16). The DL-PCBs concentrations ranged from 0.236 to 1.75 ng WHO-TEQp/kg d.w., with an average of 0.605 ng WHO-TEQp/kg d.w. (n=8). Tappa is one of the most common and fastest growing plants in Taiwan. It also shows the highest tolerance to environmental contaminants and accumulates dioxin and DL-PCBs. This is one of the best species to take up dioxins and DL-PCBs effectively. It can be recommended as a candidate for dioxin and DL-PCB phyto-remediation. These data are useful to evaluate bioaccumulation of dioxin and DL-PCBs, and to study the capability of phyto-remediation in contaminated soils.

  11. Biology of Diaphorina citri (Homoptera: Psyllidae) on four host plants.

    PubMed

    Tsai, J H; Liu, Y H

    2000-12-01

    The biology of the citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri Kuwayama was studied at 25 degrees C on four commonly grown citrus and related plants [rough lemon, Citrus jambhiri Lush; sour orange, C aurantium L.; grapefruit, C. paradisi Macfadyen; and orange jessamine, Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack] in the laboratory. The biological characteristics of each life stage are described. The average egg incubation periods on orange jessamine, grapefruit, rough lemon, and sour orange varied very little (4.1-4.2 d). The average nymphal developmental periods on these four host plants were essentially the same except the fifth stadium. Survival of immatures on orange jessamine, grapefruit, rough lemon, and sour orange was 75.4, 84.6, 78.3, and 68.6%, respectively. Female adults lived an average of 39.7, 39.7, 47.6, and 43.7 d on these respective host plants. The average number of eggs laid per female on grapefruit (858 eggs) was significantly more than those on other hosts (P < 0.05). The intrinsic rate of natural increase (r(m)) for D. citri on grapefruit was highest. Jackknife estimates of r(m) varied from 0.188 on grapefruit to 0.162 on orange jessamine and rough lemon. The mean population generation time on these hosts ranged from 31.6 to 34.1 d. The continuous flushes produced by orange jessamine could play an important role in maintaining high populations of this vector when the new flushes are not available in the commercial citrus groves.

  12. The anti-amoebic activity of some medicinal plants used by AIDS patients in southern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Sawangjaroen, Nongyao; Phongpaichit, S; Subhadhirasakul, S; Visutthi, M; Srisuwan, N; Thammapalerd, N

    2006-05-01

    The anti-amoebic activities of chloroform, methanol and water extracts from 12 Thai medicinal plants (39 extracts) commonly used by AIDS patients in southern Thailand were screened, at a concentration of 1,000 microg/ml, against Entamoeba histolytica strain HTH-56:MUTM and strain HM1:IMSS growing in vitro. The extracts were incubated with 2x10(5) E. histolytica trophozoites/ml of medium at 37 degrees C under anaerobic conditions for 24 h. The cultures were examined with an inverted microscope and scored (1-4) according to the appearance and numbers of the trophozoites. The extracts that caused inhibition were selected and retested using the same conditions but with concentrations that ranged from 31.25 to 1,000 microg/ml using E. histolytica strain HM1:IMSS, and the IC(50) values for each extract were calculated. The chloroform extracts from Alpinia galanga (IC(50) 55.2 microg/ml), Barleria lupulina (IC(50) 78.5 microg/ml), Boesenbergia pandurata (IC(50) 45.8 microg/ml), Piper betle (IC(50) 91.1 microg/ml) and Piper chaba (IC(50) 71.4 microg/ml) and the methanol extract from B. pandurata (IC(50) 57.6 microg/ml) were all classified as "active", i.e. with an IC(50) of less than 100 microg/ml, whereas those from Murraya paniculata (IC(50) 116.5 microg/ml) and Zingiber zerumbet (IC(50) 196.9 microg/ml) were classified as being "moderately active". The IC(50) of a standard drug, metronidazole, was 1.1 microg/ml.

  13. Multimodal cues drive host-plant assessment in Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri).

    PubMed

    Patt, Joseph M; Meikle, William G; Mafra-Neto, Agenor; Sétamou, Mamoudou; Mangan, Robert; Yang, Chenghai; Malik, Nasir; Adamczyk, John J

    2011-12-01

    Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri) transmits the causal agent of Huanglongbing, a devastating disease of citrus trees. In this study we measured behavioral responses of D. citri to combinations of visual, olfactory, and gustatory stimuli in test arenas. Stimuli were presented to the psyllids in droplets or lines of an emulsified wax formulation in two different arena types in no-choice tests. First, when placed on a colored ring situated halfway between the center and perimeter of a petri dish, D. citri spent more time on yellow versus gray rings; however, this response disappeared when either gray or yellow wax droplets were applied. When the psyllids were presented with droplets scented with terpenes, the response to both scent and color was increased. The addition of a dilute (≍0.1 M) sucrose solution to the wax droplets increased the magnitude of D. citri responses. Next, groups of D. citri were placed on plastic laboratory film covering a sucrose solution, to mimic a leaf surface. Test stimuli were presented via two 'midribs' made from lines of emulsified wax formulation. Probing levels were measured as a function of color saturation and scent composition, and concentration. The test scents were based on qualitatively major volatiles emitted by Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack, Citrus aurantifolia (Christm.) Swingle, and C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck. The highest probing response was observed on the middle concentration (20-μl scent/10 ml wax formulation) of the C. aurantifolia-scented wax lines. Results indicate that there are interactive effects between the different sensory modalities in directing host-plant assessment behavior.

  14. The evolution of CMA bands in Citrus and related genera.

    PubMed

    e Silva, Ana Emília Barros; Marques, André; dos Santos, Karla G B; Guerra, Marcelo

    2010-06-01

    Most species of Citrus and related genera display a similar karyotype with 2n = 18 and a variable number of terminal heterochromatic blocks positively stained with chromomycin A(3) (CMA(+) bands). Some of these blocks are 45S rDNA sites, whereas others may correspond to the main GC-rich satellite DNA found in several Citrus species. In the present work, the distribution of the 45S rDNA and the main satellite DNA isolated from C. sinensis (CsSat) were investigated by in situ hybridization in seven species of Citrus, two species of closely related genera (Fortunella obovata and Poncirus trifoliata) and four species of the subfamily Aurantioideae, which were less related to Citrus (Atalantia monophylla, Murraya paniculata, Severinia buxifolia, and Triphasia trifolia). In Citrus, Fortunella, and Poncirus, most CMA(+) bands colocalized only with CsSat sites, whereas others colocalized only with rDNA sites. However, some of these species displayed a few CMA(+) bands that colocalized with sites of both probes and other CMA(+) bands that did not colocalized with any of the probes. On the other hand, in the four species less related to Citrus, no CsSat signal was found on chromosomes. On Southern blot, the CsSat probe hybridized with genomic DNA from Citrus, Fortunella, and Poncirus at high stringency only, while under the less stringent conditions, it also hybridized with distantly related species. Therefore, CsSat sequences are the principal component of the heterochromatic blocks of Citrus, Poncirus, and Fortunella, whereas CsSat-like sequences seem to be widespread in the subfamily Aurantioideae. These data further suggest that the variable number of terminal CMA(+) bands observed on chromosomes of Citrus and related genera are probably the consequence of amplification or reduction in the number of CsSat-like sequences distributed on chromosome termini, paralleled by mutation and homogenization events, as proposed by the library hypothesis.

  15. Phylogenetic relationships of citrus and its relatives based on matK gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Penjor, Tshering; Yamamoto, Masashi; Uehara, Miki; Ide, Manami; Matsumoto, Natsumi; Matsumoto, Ryoji; Nagano, Yukio

    2013-01-01

    The genus Citrus includes mandarin, orange, lemon, grapefruit and lime, which have high economic and nutritional value. The family Rutaceae can be divided into 7 subfamilies, including Aurantioideae. The genus Citrus belongs to the subfamily Aurantioideae. In this study, we sequenced the chloroplast matK genes of 135 accessions from 22 genera of Aurantioideae and analyzed them phylogenetically. Our study includes many accessions that have not been examined in other studies. The subfamily Aurantioideae has been classified into 2 tribes, Clauseneae and Citreae, and our current molecular analysis clearly discriminate Citreae from Clauseneae by using only 1 chloroplast DNA sequence. Our study confirms previous observations on the molecular phylogeny of Aurantioideae in many aspects. However, we have provided novel information on these genetic relationships. For example, inconsistent with the previous observation, and consistent with our preliminary study using the chloroplast rbcL genes, our analysis showed that Feroniella oblata is not nested in Citrus species and is closely related with Feronia limonia. Furthermore, we have shown that Murraya paniculata is similar to Merrillia caloxylon and is dissimilar to Murraya koenigii. We found that "true citrus fruit trees" could be divided into 2 subclusters. One subcluster included Citrus, Fortunella, and Poncirus, while the other cluster included Microcitrus and Eremocitrus. Compared to previous studies, our current study is the most extensive phylogenetic study of Citrus species since it includes 93 accessions. The results indicate that Citrus species can be classified into 3 clusters: a citron cluster, a pummelo cluster, and a mandarin cluster. Although most mandarin accessions belonged to the mandarin cluster, we found some exceptions. We also obtained the information on the genetic background of various species of acid citrus grown in Japan. Because the genus Citrus contains many important accessions, we have

  16. Screening for antimicrobial activity of ten medicinal plants used in Colombian folkloric medicine: A possible alternative in the treatment of non-nosocomial infections

    PubMed Central

    Rojas, Jhon J; Ochoa, Veronica J; Ocampo, Saul A; Muñoz, John F

    2006-01-01

    Background The antimicrobial activity and Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of the extracts of Bidens pilosa L., Bixa orellana L., Cecropia peltata L., Cinchona officinalis L., Gliricidia sepium H.B. & K, Jacaranda mimosifolia D.Don, Justicia secunda Vahl., Piper pulchrum C.DC, P. paniculata L. and Spilanthes americana Hieron were evaluated against five bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus β hemolític, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli), and one yeast (Candida albicans). These plants are used in Colombian folk medicine to treat infections of microbial origin. Methods Plants were collected by farmers and traditional healers. The ethanol, hexane and water extracts were obtained by standard methods. The antimicrobial activity was found by using a modified agar well diffusion method. All microorganisms were obtained from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC). MIC was determined in the plant extracts that showed some efficacy against the tested microorganisms. Gentamycin sulfate (1.0 μg/ml), clindamycin (0.3 μg/ml) and nystatin (1.0 μg/ml) were used as positive controls. Results The water extracts of Bidens pilosa L., Jacaranda mimosifolia D.Don, and Piper pulchrum C.DC showed a higher activity against Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli than gentamycin sulfate. Similarly, the ethanol extracts of all species were active against Staphylococcus aureus except for Justicia secunda. Furthermore, Bixa orellana L, Justicia secunda Vahl. and Piper pulchrum C.DC presented the lowest MICs against Escherichia coli (0.8, 0.6 and 0.6 μg/ml, respectively) compared to gentamycin sulfate (0.9 8g/ml). Likewise, Justicia secunda and Piper pulchrum C.DC showed an analogous MIC against Candida albicans (0.5 and 0.6 μg/ml, respectively) compared to nystatin (0.6 μg/ml). Bixa orellana L, exhibited a better MIC against Bacillus cereus (0.2 μg/ml) than gentamycin sulfate (0.5 μg/ml). Conclusion This in vitro study corroborated the

  17. Long term effects of fen restoration: Parameterization of net ecosystem exchange models along a land use-degradation gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergmann, L.; Drösler, M.; Schultz, R.; Freibauer, A.; Jungkunst, H.; Höll, B.

    2010-05-01

    In combination with fluctuating water regimes and extreme variations in weather conditions expected through climate change, continual disturbance to the soils through peat use poses a risk to the carbon storage capacities and sequestration potentials of peatlands. Restoration and/ or extensive use of peatlands are strategies to optimize vegetation and hydrological balance within these sensitive ecosystems. Our goal was to determine the long term effects of fen restoration on CO2 fluxes and to identify the driving parameters causing differential fluxes along a disturbance gradient. This study aimed specifically to provide a CO2-C flux dataset to determine net ecosystem exchange (NEE) in restored temperate fens ecosystems. A climate controlled chamber system was used for measuring instantaneous NEE over the entire year in the Donauried in 2005 and in the Loisach-Kochelsee fens in 2006, both in southern Germany. The sites were chosen to represent both a management gradient (from intensive grasslands and crops to long-term restored Carex lawns) and a water table gradient (-78 cm below surface to -1 cm below surface). NEE was measured using the closed chamber technique, allowing for separation of NEE into gross ecosystem production (GEP) and ecosystem respiration (Reco). In both study areas, management strongly influenced ecosystem respiration and GPP and thus NEE, where Reco remained a strong determinant of NEE balances. Whereas the managed-degraded sites are acting as sources of CO2, a positive effect of restoration is seen in terms of NEE exchange. The restored sites are either acting as significant sinks for CO2 (Donauried old restored sites) or are have significantly lower emissions as the managed-degraded sites. NEE values ranged from 1041 g CO2-C m2 a1source to the atmosphere in a two cut grassland to a -130 g CO2-C m2 a1sinkin the long-term restored unmanaged Carex paniculata site. Reco was highest in grassland sites and lowest in the restored Carex sites. A

  18. Hydroecological impacts of climate change modelled for a lowland UK wetland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    House, Andrew; Acreman, Mike; Sorensen, James; Thompson, Julian

    2015-04-01

    australis, principal habitat for the endangered Vertigo moulinsiana. Further, the reduced influx of base-rich groundwater and increased dominance of high pH rain-fed waters alters the acidity of the soil. This leads to changes in species composition, with potential reductions in Carex paniculata, Caltha palustris and Typha latifolia.

  19. Pantoea agglomerans: a mysterious bacterium of evil and good. Part III. Deleterious effects: infections of humans, animals and plants.

    PubMed

    Dutkiewicz, Jacek; Mackiewicz, Barbara; Kinga Lemieszek, Marta; Golec, Marcin; Milanowski, Janusz

    2016-06-02

    (Arrhenatherum elatius). Some plant-pathogenic strains of P. agglomerans are tumourigenic, inducing gall formation on table beet, an ornamental plant gypsophila (Gypsophila paniculata), wisteria, Douglas-fir and cranberry. Recently, a Pantoea species closely related to P. agglomerans has been identified as a cause of bacterial blight disease in the edible mushroom Pleurotus eryngii cultivated in China. The genetically governed determinants of plant pathogenicity in Pantoea agglomerans include such mechanisms as the hypersensitive response and pathogenicity (hrp) system, phytohormones, the quorum-sensing (QS) feedback system and type III secretion system (T3SS) injecting the effector proteins into the cytosol of a plant cell.

  20. Organic matter evolution throughout a 100-cm ombrotrophic profile from an Italian floating mire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaccone, Claudio; D'Orazio, Valeria; Lobianco, Daniela; Miano, Teodoro M.

    2015-04-01

    The curious sight of an island floating and moving on a lake naturally, already described by Pliny the Elder in his Naturalis historia (AD 77-79), fascinated people from time immemorial. Floating mires are defined by the occurrence of emergent vegetation rooted in highly organic buoyant mats that rise and fall with changes in water level. Peat-forming floating mires could provide an exceptional tool for environmental studies, since much of their evolution, as well as the changes of the surrounding areas, is recorded in their peat deposits. A complete, 4-m deep peat core was collected in July 2012 from the floating island of Posta Fibreno, a relic mire in the Central Italy. This floating island has a diameter of ca. 30 m, a submerged thickness of about 3 m, and the vegetation is organized in concentric belts, from the Carex paniculata palisade to the Sphagnum centre. Here, some of the southernmost Italian populations of Sphagnum palustre occur. The 14C age dating of macrofossils removed from the sample at 360 cm of depth revealed that the island probably formed more than 500 yrs ago (435±20 yr BP). In the present work, we show preliminary results regarding the evolution of the organic matter along the first, ombrotrophic 100 cm of depth, hoping also to provide some insight into the possible mechanism of the evolution of this floating island. The 100 cm monolith was collected using a Wardenaar corer and cut frozen in 1-cm layers. It consists almost exclusively of Sphagnum mosses, often spaced out, in the top 20-30 cm, by leaves of Populus tremula that annually fell off. This section shows a very low bulk density, ranging from 0.017 and 0.059 g cm-3 (avg. value, 0.03±0.01 g cm-3), an average water content of 96.1±1.1%, and a gravimetric water content ranging between 14.3 and 41.5 gwater gdrypeat-1. The pH of porewaters was in the range 5-5.5. The C content along the profile ranged between 35 and 47% (avg., 41±1%), whereas the N between 0.3 and 0.9% (avg., 0.6±0

  1. Seven centuries of atmospheric Pb deposition recorded in a floating mire from Central Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaccone, Claudio; Lobianco, Daniela; D'Orazio, Valeria; Miano, Teodoro M.; Shotyk, William

    2016-04-01

    Floating mires generally consist of emergent vegetation rooted in highly organic buoyant mats that rise and fall with changes in water level. Generally speaking, the entire floating mass (mat) is divided into a mat root zone and an underlying mat peat zone. Floating mires are distributed world-wide; large areas of floating marsh occur along rivers and lakes in Africa, the Danube Delta in Romania, the Amazon River in South America, and in the Mississippi River delta in USA, whereas smaller areas occur also in The Netherlands, Australia and Canada. While peat cores from ombrotrophic bogs have been often (and successfully) used to reconstruct changes in the atmospheric deposition of several metals (including Pb), no studies are present in literature about the possibility to use peat profiles from floating mires. To test the hypothesis that peat-forming floating mires could provide an exceptional tool for environmental studies, a complete, 4-m deep peat profile was collected in July 2012 from the floating island of Posta Fibreno, a relic mire in the Central Italy. This floating island has a diameter of ca. 30 m, a submerged thickness of about 3 m, and the vegetation is organized in concentric belts, from the Carex paniculata palisade to the Sphagnum palustre centre. The whole core was frozen cut each 1-to-2 cm (n =231), and Pb determined by quadrupole ICP-MS (at the ultraclean SWAMP lab, University of Alberta, Canada) in each sample throughout the first 100 cm, and in each odd-numbered slice for the remaining 300 cm. The 14C age dating of organic sediments (silty peat) isolated from the sample at 385 cm of depth revealed that the island probably formed ca. 700 yrs ago. Lead concentration trend shows at least two main zones of interest, i.e., a clear peak (ranging from 200 to 1600 ppm) between 110-115 cm of depth, probably corresponding to early 1960's - late 1970's, and a broad band (80-160 ppm) between 295-320 cm of depth, corresponding to approximately AD 1480

  2. Respiratory and allergic diseases: from upper respiratory tract infections to asthma.

    PubMed

    Jaber, Raja

    2002-06-01

    Andrographis shortens the duration of the common cold. The one study on Elderberry's use for the flu was encouraging, and the data on the homeopathic remedy Oscillococcinum interesting, but more studies should be performed. Saline washes may be helpful to patients with allergic rhinitis and chronic sinusitis. Patients also may try the German combination (available in the United States) of elderberry, vervain, gentian, primrose, and sorrel that has been tested in randomized clinical trials. Bromelain is safe to try; the trials of bromelain supplementation were promising but were never repeated. The preceding suggestions need to be grounded in a program based on optimal medical management. Patients need to be well educated in the proper medical management of their disease and skilled at monitoring disease stability and progress. Asthmatic patients need to monitor their bronchodilator usage and peak flow meter measurements to step up their medical treatment in a timely manner, if needed. Patients welcome physician guidance when exploring the breadth of treatments available today. A true patient-physician partnership is always empowering to patients who are serious about regaining their function and health.

  3. Seven hundred years of peat formation recorded throughout a deep floating mire profile from Central Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobianco, Daniela; D'Orazio, Valeria; Miano, Teodoro; Zaccone, Claudio

    2016-04-01

    Floating mires are defined by the occurrence of emergent vegetation rooted in highly organic buoyant mats that rise and fall with changes in water level. Islands floating and moving on a lake naturally were already described by Pliny the Elder in his Naturalis historia almost two millennia ago. Actually, he devoted a whole chapter of Naturalis historia to "Of Islands Ever Floating and Swimming", reporting how certain isles were always waving and never stood still. The status of "flotant" has been defined transitory; in fact, these small isles often disappear, in most of the cases because of a transition from floating island to firm land during decades is likely to happen. That is why most of the floating islands described by Pliny the Elder (e.g., Lacus Fundanus, Lacus Cutiliensis, Lacus Mutinensis, Lacus Statoniensis, Lacus Tarquiniensis, Lydia Calaminae, Lacus Vadimonis) do not exist anymore. In the present study, peat formation and organic matter evolution were investigated in order to understand how these peculiar environments form, and how stable actually they are. In fact, it is hoped that peat-forming floating mires could provide an exceptional tool for environmental studies, since much of their evolution, as well as the changes of the surrounding areas, is recorded in their peat deposits. A complete, 4-m deep peat core was collected in July 2012 from the floating island of Posta Fibreno, a relic mire in the Central Italy. This floating island has a diameter of ca. 30 m, a submerged thickness of about 3 m, and the vegetation is organized in concentric belts, from the Carex paniculata palisade to the Sphagnum centre. Here, some of the southernmost Italian populations of Sphagnum palustre occur. The 14C age dating of organic sediments isolated from the sample at 385 cm of depth revealed that the island formed ca. 700 yrs ago (620±30 yr BP). The top 100 cm, consisting almost exclusively of Sphagnum mosses, show a very low bulk density (avg., 0.03±0.01 g cm-3