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Sample records for andrographis paniculata chuanxinlian

  1. Renoprotective effects of Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees in rats

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Pratibha; Srivastava, Man Mohan

    2009-01-01

    Background Renal failure is an increasingly common condition with limited treatment options that is causing a major financial and emotional burden on the community. Andrographis paniculata is the plant used in Ayurveda for several remedies. Scientific evidence suggests its versatile biological functions that support its traditional use in the Orient. The plant is claimed to possess immunological, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antithrombotic, and hepatoprotective properties. But, to date, there is no study demonstrating the protective effect of A. paniculata on gentamicin-induced renal failure. The present study aims to highlight the first ever reported, antirenal failure activity of A. paniculata. Methods Male Wistar albino rats were divided into three groups: normal control, gentamicin control, and aqueous extract of A. paniculata (200 mg/kg, per oral (p.o.))-treated. The nephrotoxic model was induced by gentamicin (80 mg/kg, intraperitoeal (i.p.)). Blood samples were examined for serum creatinine, serum urea, and blood urea nitrogen after the 10 days of treatment. Results A gentamicin-induced nephrotoxic animal model was successfully prepared. Aqueous extract of A. paniculata attenuated the gentamicin-induced increase in serum creatinine, serum urea, and blood urea nitrogen levels by 176.92%, 106.27%, and 202.90%, respectively. Conclusion The present study reports that the aqueous extract (whole plant) of A. paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees exhibits a significant renoprotective effect in gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in male Wistar albino rats. PMID:19736602

  2. Andrographis paniculata Extract (HMPL-004) for Active Ulcerative Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Sandborn, William J; Targan, Stephan R; Byers, Vera S; Rutty, Dean A; Mu, Hua; Zhang, Xun; Tang, Tom

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Andrographis paniculata has in vitro inhibitory activity against TNF-α, IL-1β and NF-κB. A pilot study of A. paniculata extract (HMPL-004) suggested similar efficacy to mesalamine for ulcerative colitis. METHODS: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial evaluated the efficacy of A. paniculata extract (HMPL-004) in 224 adults with mild-to-moderate ulcerative colitis. Patients were randomized to A. paniculata extract (HMPL-004) 1,200 mg or 1,800 mg daily or placebo for 8 weeks. RESULTS: In total, 45 and 60% of patients receiving A. paniculata 1,200 mg and 1,800 mg daily, respectively, were in clinical response at week 8, compared with 40% of those who received placebo (P=0.5924 for 1,200 mg vs. placebo and P=0.0183 for 1,800 mg vs. placebo). In all, 34 and 38% of patients receiving A. paniculata 1,200 mg and 1,800 mg daily, respectively, were in clinical remission at week 8, compared with 25% of those who received placebo (P=0.2582 for 1,200 mg vs. placebo and P=0.1011 for 1,800 mg vs. placebo). Adverse events developed in 60 and 53% of patients in the A. paniculata 1,200 mg and 1,800 mg daily groups, respectively, and 60% in the placebo group. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with mildly to moderately active ulcerative colitis treated with A. paniculata extract (HMPL-004) at a dose of 1,800 mg daily were more likely to achieve clinical response than those receiving placebo. PMID:23044768

  3. The Antiaging Properties of Andrographis paniculata by Activation Epidermal Cell Stemness.

    PubMed

    You, Jiyoung; Roh, Kyung-Baeg; Li, Zidan; Liu, Guangrong; Tang, Jian; Shin, Seoungwoo; Park, Deokhoon; Jung, Eunsun

    2015-01-01

    Andrographis paniculata (A. paniculata, Chuanxinlian), a medicinal herb with an extremely bitter taste that is native to China and other parts of Southeast Asia, possesses immense therapeutic value; however, its therapeutic properties have rarely been applied in the field of skin care. In this study, we investigated the effect of an A. paniculata extract (APE) on human epidermal stem cells (EpSCs), and confirmed its anti-aging effect through in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo study. An MTT assay was used to determine cell proliferation. A flow cytometric analysis, with propidium iodide, was used to evaluate the cell cycle. The expression of integrin β1 (CD29), the stem cell marker, was detected with antibodies, using flow cytometry in vitro, and immunohistochemical assays in ex vivo. Type 1 collagen and VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). During the clinical study, skin hydration, elasticity, wrinkling, sagging, and dermal density were evaluated before treatment and at four and eight weeks after the treatment with the test product (containing the APE) on the face. The proliferation of the EpSCs, treated with the APE, increased significantly. In the cell cycle analysis, the APE increased the G2/M and S stages in a dose-dependent manner. The expression of integrin β1, which is related to epidermal progenitor cell expansion, was up-regulated in the APE-treated EpSCs and skin explants. In addition, the production of VEGF in the EpSCs increased significantly in response to the APE treatment. Consistent with these results, the VEGF and APE-treated EpSCs conditioned medium enhanced the Type 1 collagen production in normal human fibroblasts (NHFs). In the clinical study, the APE improved skin hydration, dermal density, wrinkling, and sagging significantly. Our findings revealed that the APE promotes a proliferation of EpSCs, through the up-regulation of the integrin β1 and VEGF expression. The VEGF

  4. [Research on UPLC-PDA fingerprint of andrographis paniculata and quantitative determination of 4 major constituents].

    PubMed

    Huang, Jing-Yi; Liu, Xiao-Lin; Zhou, Shui-Ping; Tong, Ling; Ding, Li

    2014-11-01

    Andrographis paniculata from different parts and origins were analyzed by UPLC-PDA fingerprint to provide refererice for related preparation technology. Using the peak of andrographolide as reference, 27 common peaks were identified, and digitized UPLC-PDA fingerprints for 23 batches of andrographis paniculata were established in this research. Principal component analysis (PCA) was carried out after feature extraction. The contents of andrographolide, neoandrographolide, deoxyandrographolide, dehydroandrographolide were determined by external standard method. The Plackett-Burman design combined with pareto chart was used to analyze the factors influencing the robustness of the method. It was found that the medicinal part has a more remarkable influence on the quality of andrographis paniculata than the origin. The contents of the 4 lactones the differ greatly in the different parts of andrographis paniculata, and the pH of the mobile phase is an important factor that influenced the robustness of the method.

  5. Clinical studies on kalmegh (andrographis paniculata nees) in infective hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Chturvedi, G N; Tomar, G S; Tiwari, S K; Singh, K P

    1983-04-01

    Infective hepatitis ia an acute inflamatory condition of liver. It is usually manifested in the form of Jaundice. In this clinical study Kalmegh(Andrographis paniculata Nees) was given in the decoction form to the patients of infective hepitis. The results were assessed on the basis of clinical and biochemical parameters. A marked symptomatic improvement in majority of the cases was observed. A statistically highly significant decrease was noted in various liver function tests viz., serum bilirubin, thymol turbidity, alkaline phosphatase, S.G.O.T.; S.G.P.T. and serum globulin fraction of protein. Moreover it increased significantly total serum globulin fraction of protien. Moreover it increased significantly total serum protein level along with albumin fraction. On the total assessment 80% cases of this series were cured and 20% patients were relieved. Therefore, Kalmegh appears to be a useful remedy for the treatment of infective hepatitis.

  6. Antitussive arabinogalactan of Andrographis paniculata demonstrates synergistic effect with andrographolide.

    PubMed

    Nosáľová, Gabriela; Majee, Sujay Kumar; Ghosh, Kanika; Raja, Washim; Chatterjee, Udipta Ranjan; Jureček, Ludovít; Ray, Bimalendu

    2014-08-01

    Traditional Indian medicines have been used in humans for thousands of years. While the link to a particular indication has been established in man, the active principle of the formulations often remains unknown. In this study, we aim to investigate the structural features and antitussive activity of fractions from Andrographis paniculata leaves. In vivo investigations of water extract (WE), and both ethanol-soluble (WES) and precipitated (WEP) fractions from WE on the citric-acid induced cough efforts and airways smooth muscle reactivity in guinea pigs were performed. Chemical, chromatographic and spectroscopic analysis revealed the existence of a highly branched pectic arabinogalactan (109kDa) in WEP and andrographolide in WES. WEP showed significant antitussive activity while the potencies of WE and WES are even higher. Neither WE nor WES significantly alter specific airway smooth muscle reactivity. Remarkably, the antitussive activity of arabinogalactan could be increased by synergistic action with andrographolide. Finally, traditional aqueous extraction method provides an arabinogalactan from A. paniculata, which stimulate biological response but without addiction.

  7. Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Meat Yield of Boer Goats Fed Diets Containing Leaves or Whole Parts of Andrographis paniculata

    PubMed Central

    Yusuf, A. L.; Goh, Y. M.; Samsudin, A. A.; Alimon, A. R.; Sazili, A. Q.

    2014-01-01

    The study was conducted to determine the effect of feeding diets containing Andrographis paniculata leaves (APL), whole Andrographis paniculata plant (APWP) and a control without Andrographis paniculata (AP0), on growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat yield of 24 intact Boer bucks. The results obtained indicated that inclusion of Andrographis paniculata significantly improved feed intake, weight gain, feed efficiency and live weight. The ratios of carcass to fat, lean to bone, lean to fat, and composition of meat were also improved. In addition, there were significant differences (p<0.05) between the dietary treatments in dressing percentage and chilling loss. Goats fed on AP0 (control) had significantly higher proportions of fat and bone, as well as thicker back fat than the supplemented animals (APL and APWP). Higher gut fill in animals fed Andrographis paniculata suggested slow rate of digestion, which could have improved utilization and absorption of nutrients by the animals. Goats fed Andrographis paniculata also produced higher meat yield and relatively lower fat contents (p<0.05). PMID:25049980

  8. Improvement in the yield and quality of kalmegh (Andrographis paniculata Nees) under the sustainable production system.

    PubMed

    Verma, Rajesh Kumar; Verma, Sanjeet K; Pankaj, Umesh; Gupta, Anand K; Khan, Khushboo; Shankar, Karuna

    2015-02-01

    Andrographis paniculata Nees is an annual erect herb with wide medicinal and pharmacological applications due to the presence of andrographolide and other active chemical constituents. The large-scale cultivation of the kalmegh is not in practice. The aim of this study was to establish sustainable production systems of A. paniculata cv CIM-Megha with the application of different bioinoculants and chemical fertilisers. A. paniculata herb and andrographolide yield in the dried leaves was found to be highest (218% and 61.3%, respectively) in treatment T3 (NPK+Bacillus sp.) compared with T1 (control). The soil organic carbon, soil microbial respiration, soil enzymes activity and available nutrients improved significantly with combined application of bioinoculants and chemical fertilisers. PMID:25348874

  9. Improvement in the yield and quality of kalmegh (Andrographis paniculata Nees) under the sustainable production system.

    PubMed

    Verma, Rajesh Kumar; Verma, Sanjeet K; Pankaj, Umesh; Gupta, Anand K; Khan, Khushboo; Shankar, Karuna

    2015-02-01

    Andrographis paniculata Nees is an annual erect herb with wide medicinal and pharmacological applications due to the presence of andrographolide and other active chemical constituents. The large-scale cultivation of the kalmegh is not in practice. The aim of this study was to establish sustainable production systems of A. paniculata cv CIM-Megha with the application of different bioinoculants and chemical fertilisers. A. paniculata herb and andrographolide yield in the dried leaves was found to be highest (218% and 61.3%, respectively) in treatment T3 (NPK+Bacillus sp.) compared with T1 (control). The soil organic carbon, soil microbial respiration, soil enzymes activity and available nutrients improved significantly with combined application of bioinoculants and chemical fertilisers.

  10. Antimicrobial compounds from leaf extracts of Jatropha curcas, Psidium guajava, and Andrographis paniculata.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M M; Ahmad, S H; Mohamed, M T M; Ab Rahman, M Z

    2014-01-01

    The present research was conducted to discover antimicrobial compounds in methanolic leaf extracts of Jatropha curcas and Andrographis paniculata and ethanolic leaf extract of Psidium guajava and the effectiveness against microbes on flower preservative solution of cut Mokara Red orchid flowers was evaluated. The leaves were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of nine, 66, and 29 compounds were identified in J. curcas, P. guajava, and A. paniculata leaf extracts, with five (88.18%), four (34.66%), and three (50.47%) having unique antimicrobial compounds, respectively. The experimental design on vase life was conducted using a completely randomized design with 10 replications. The flower vase life was about 6 days in the solution containing the P. guajava and A. paniculata leaf extracts at 15 mg/L. Moreover, solution with leaf extracts of A. paniculata had the lowest bacterial count compared to P. guajava and J. curcas. Thus, these leaf extracts revealed the presence of relevant antimicrobial compounds. The leaf extracts have the potential as a cut flower solution to minimize microbial populations and extend flower vase life. However, the activities of specific antimicrobial compounds and double or triple combination leaf extracts to enhance the effectiveness to extend the vase life need to be tested. PMID:25250382

  11. Antimicrobial Compounds from Leaf Extracts of Jatropha curcas, Psidium guajava, and Andrographis paniculata

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, M. M.; Ahmad, S. H.; Mohamed, M. T. M.; Ab Rahman, M. Z.

    2014-01-01

    The present research was conducted to discover antimicrobial compounds in methanolic leaf extracts of Jatropha curcas and Andrographis paniculata and ethanolic leaf extract of Psidium guajava and the effectiveness against microbes on flower preservative solution of cut Mokara Red orchid flowers was evaluated. The leaves were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of nine, 66, and 29 compounds were identified in J. curcas, P. guajava, and A. paniculata leaf extracts, with five (88.18%), four (34.66%), and three (50.47%) having unique antimicrobial compounds, respectively. The experimental design on vase life was conducted using a completely randomized design with 10 replications. The flower vase life was about 6 days in the solution containing the P. guajava and A. paniculata leaf extracts at 15mg/L. Moreover, solution with leaf extracts of A. paniculata had the lowest bacterial count compared to P. guajava and J. curcas. Thus, these leaf extracts revealed the presence of relevant antimicrobial compounds. The leaf extracts have the potential as a cut flower solution to minimize microbial populations and extend flower vase life. However, the activities of specific antimicrobial compounds and double or triple combination leaf extracts to enhance the effectiveness to extend the vase life need to be tested. PMID:25250382

  12. Antimicrobial compounds from leaf extracts of Jatropha curcas, Psidium guajava, and Andrographis paniculata.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M M; Ahmad, S H; Mohamed, M T M; Ab Rahman, M Z

    2014-01-01

    The present research was conducted to discover antimicrobial compounds in methanolic leaf extracts of Jatropha curcas and Andrographis paniculata and ethanolic leaf extract of Psidium guajava and the effectiveness against microbes on flower preservative solution of cut Mokara Red orchid flowers was evaluated. The leaves were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of nine, 66, and 29 compounds were identified in J. curcas, P. guajava, and A. paniculata leaf extracts, with five (88.18%), four (34.66%), and three (50.47%) having unique antimicrobial compounds, respectively. The experimental design on vase life was conducted using a completely randomized design with 10 replications. The flower vase life was about 6 days in the solution containing the P. guajava and A. paniculata leaf extracts at 15 mg/L. Moreover, solution with leaf extracts of A. paniculata had the lowest bacterial count compared to P. guajava and J. curcas. Thus, these leaf extracts revealed the presence of relevant antimicrobial compounds. The leaf extracts have the potential as a cut flower solution to minimize microbial populations and extend flower vase life. However, the activities of specific antimicrobial compounds and double or triple combination leaf extracts to enhance the effectiveness to extend the vase life need to be tested.

  13. Integration of Andrographis paniculata as Potential Medicinal Plant in Chir Pine (Pinus roxburghii Sarg.) Plantation of North-Western Himalaya

    PubMed Central

    Sanwal, Chandra Shekher; Bhardwaj, S. D.

    2016-01-01

    The integration of Andrographis paniculata under Pinus roxburghii (Chir pine) plantation has been studied to evaluate the growth and yield for its economic viability and conservation. It was grown on three topographical aspects, namely, northern, north-western, and western, at a spacing of 30 cm × 30 cm, followed by three tillage depths, namely, minimum (0 cm), medium (up to 10 cm), and deep (up to 15 cm) tillage. The growth parameters, namely, plant height and number of branches per plant, were recorded as significantly higher on western aspect and lowest on northern aspect except for leaf area index which was found nonsignificant. However under all tillage practices all the growth parameters in both understorey and open conditions were found to be nonsignificant except for plant height which was found to be significantly highest under deep tillage and lowest under minimum tillage. The study of net returns for Andrographis paniculata revealed that it had positive average annual returns even in understorey conditions which indicate its possible economic viability under integration of Chir pine plantations. Hence net returns can be enhanced by integrating Andrographis paniculata and this silvimedicinal system can be suggested which will help utilizing an unutilized part of land and increase total productivity from such lands besides conservation of the A. paniculata in situ. PMID:27563482

  14. Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology of Andrographis paniculata and Its Major Bioactive Phytoconstituent Andrographolide

    PubMed Central

    Jayakumar, Thanasekaran; Hsieh, Cheng-Ying; Lee, Jie-Jen; Sheu, Joen-Rong

    2013-01-01

    Andrographis paniculata (Burm. F) Nees, generally known as “king of bitters,” is an herbaceous plant in the family Acanthaceae. In China, India, Thailand, and Malaysia, this plant has been widely used for treating sore throat, flu, and upper respiratory tract infections. Andrographolide, a major bioactive chemical constituent of the plant, has shown anticancer potential in various investigations. Andrographolide and its derivatives have anti-inflammatory effects in experimental models asthma, stroke, and arthritis. In recent years, pharmaceutical chemists have synthesized numerous andrographolide derivatives, which exhibit essential pharmacological activities such as those that are anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antitumor, antidiabetic, anti-HIV, antifeedant, and antiviral. However, what is noteworthy about this paper is summarizing the effects of andrographolide against cardiovascular disease, platelet activation, infertility, and NF-κB activation. Therefore, this paper is intended to provide evidence reported in relevant literature on qualitative research to assist scientists in isolating and characterizing bioactive compounds. PMID:23634174

  15. Inhibition of Helicobacter pylori and Its Associate Urease by Labdane Diterpenoids Isolated from Andrographis paniculata.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Rafik U; Dawane, Ashwini A; Pawar, Rajendra P; Gond, Dhananjay S; Meshram, Rohan J; Gacche, Rajesh N

    2016-03-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate anti-Helicobacter pylori and its associated urease activity of labdane diterpenoids isolated from Andrographis paniculata. A molecular docking analysis was performed by using ArgusLab 4.0.1 software. The results obtained indicate that compound A possesses strong inhibition to H. pylori, 28 ± 2.98 (minimum inhibitory concentration, 9 µg/mL), and its urease, 85.54 ± 2.62% (IC50 , 20.2 µg/mL). Compounds B, C, and D also showed moderate inhibition to H. pylori and its urease. The obtained results were in agreement with the molecular docking analysis of compounds. The phytochemicals under investigation were found to be promising antibacterial agents. Moreover, the isolated compounds can be considered as a resource for searching novel anti-H. pylori agents possessing urease inhibition.

  16. Anti-Diabetic Activity and Metabolic Changes Induced by Andrographis paniculata Plant Extract in Obese Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Muhammad Tayyab; Bin Mohd Sarib, Mohamad Syakir; Ismail, Intan Safinar; Abas, Faridah; Ismail, Amin; Lajis, Nordin Hj; Shaari, Khozirah

    2016-01-01

    Andrographis paniculata is an annual herb and widely cultivated in Southeast Asian countries for its medicinal use. In recent investigations, A. paniculata was found to be effective against Type 1 diabetes mellitus (Type 1 DM). Here, we used a non-genetic out-bred Sprague-Dawley rat model to test the antidiabetic activity of A. paniculata against Type 2 diabetes mellitus (Type 2 DM). Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (¹H-NMR) spectroscopy in combination with multivariate data analyses was used to evaluate the A. paniculata and metformin induced metabolic effects on the obese and obese-diabetic (obdb) rat models. Compared to the normal rats, high levels of creatinine, lactate, and allantoin were found in the urine of obese rats, whereas, obese-diabetic rats were marked by high glucose, choline and taurine levels, and low lactate, formate, creatinine, citrate, 2-oxoglutarate, succinate, dimethylamine, acetoacetate, acetate, allantoin and hippurate levels. Treatment of A. paniculata leaf water extract was found to be quite effective in restoring the disturbed metabolic profile of obdb rats back towards normal conditions. Thisstudy shows the anti-diabetic potential of A. paniculata plant extract and strengthens the idea of using this plant against the diabetes. Further classical genetic methods and state of the art molecular techniques could provide insights into the molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus and anti-diabetic effects of A. paniculata water extract. PMID:27517894

  17. De novo Assembly of Leaf Transcriptome in the Medicinal Plant Andrographis paniculata

    PubMed Central

    Cherukupalli, Neeraja; Divate, Mayur; Mittapelli, Suresh R.; Khareedu, Venkateswara R.; Vudem, Dashavantha R.

    2016-01-01

    Andrographis paniculata is an important medicinal plant containing various bioactive terpenoids and flavonoids. Despite its importance in herbal medicine, no ready-to-use transcript sequence information of this plant is made available in the public data base, this study mainly deals with the sequencing of RNA from A. paniculata leaf using Illumina HiSeq™ 2000 platform followed by the de novo transcriptome assembly. A total of 189.22 million high quality paired reads were generated and 1,70,724 transcripts were predicted in the primary assembly. Secondary assembly generated a transcriptome size of ~88 Mb with 83,800 clustered transcripts. Based on the similarity searches against plant non-redundant protein database, gene ontology, and eukaryotic orthologous groups, 49,363 transcripts were annotated constituting upto 58.91% of the identified unigenes. Annotation of transcripts—using kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes database—revealed 5606 transcripts plausibly involved in 140 pathways including biosynthesis of terpenoids and other secondary metabolites. Transcription factor analysis showed 6767 unique transcripts belonging to 97 different transcription factor families. A total number of 124 CYP450 transcripts belonging to seven divergent clans have been identified. Transcriptome revealed 146 different transcripts coding for enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of terpenoids of which 35 contained terpene synthase motifs. This study also revealed 32,341 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) in 23,168 transcripts. Assembled sequences of transcriptome of A. paniculata generated in this study are made available, for the first time, in the TSA database, which provides useful information for functional and comparative genomic analysis besides identification of key enzymes involved in the various pathways of secondary metabolism. PMID:27582746

  18. De novo Assembly of Leaf Transcriptome in the Medicinal Plant Andrographis paniculata.

    PubMed

    Cherukupalli, Neeraja; Divate, Mayur; Mittapelli, Suresh R; Khareedu, Venkateswara R; Vudem, Dashavantha R

    2016-01-01

    Andrographis paniculata is an important medicinal plant containing various bioactive terpenoids and flavonoids. Despite its importance in herbal medicine, no ready-to-use transcript sequence information of this plant is made available in the public data base, this study mainly deals with the sequencing of RNA from A. paniculata leaf using Illumina HiSeq™ 2000 platform followed by the de novo transcriptome assembly. A total of 189.22 million high quality paired reads were generated and 1,70,724 transcripts were predicted in the primary assembly. Secondary assembly generated a transcriptome size of ~88 Mb with 83,800 clustered transcripts. Based on the similarity searches against plant non-redundant protein database, gene ontology, and eukaryotic orthologous groups, 49,363 transcripts were annotated constituting upto 58.91% of the identified unigenes. Annotation of transcripts-using kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes database-revealed 5606 transcripts plausibly involved in 140 pathways including biosynthesis of terpenoids and other secondary metabolites. Transcription factor analysis showed 6767 unique transcripts belonging to 97 different transcription factor families. A total number of 124 CYP450 transcripts belonging to seven divergent clans have been identified. Transcriptome revealed 146 different transcripts coding for enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of terpenoids of which 35 contained terpene synthase motifs. This study also revealed 32,341 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) in 23,168 transcripts. Assembled sequences of transcriptome of A. paniculata generated in this study are made available, for the first time, in the TSA database, which provides useful information for functional and comparative genomic analysis besides identification of key enzymes involved in the various pathways of secondary metabolism.

  19. De novo Assembly of Leaf Transcriptome in the Medicinal Plant Andrographis paniculata.

    PubMed

    Cherukupalli, Neeraja; Divate, Mayur; Mittapelli, Suresh R; Khareedu, Venkateswara R; Vudem, Dashavantha R

    2016-01-01

    Andrographis paniculata is an important medicinal plant containing various bioactive terpenoids and flavonoids. Despite its importance in herbal medicine, no ready-to-use transcript sequence information of this plant is made available in the public data base, this study mainly deals with the sequencing of RNA from A. paniculata leaf using Illumina HiSeq™ 2000 platform followed by the de novo transcriptome assembly. A total of 189.22 million high quality paired reads were generated and 1,70,724 transcripts were predicted in the primary assembly. Secondary assembly generated a transcriptome size of ~88 Mb with 83,800 clustered transcripts. Based on the similarity searches against plant non-redundant protein database, gene ontology, and eukaryotic orthologous groups, 49,363 transcripts were annotated constituting upto 58.91% of the identified unigenes. Annotation of transcripts-using kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes database-revealed 5606 transcripts plausibly involved in 140 pathways including biosynthesis of terpenoids and other secondary metabolites. Transcription factor analysis showed 6767 unique transcripts belonging to 97 different transcription factor families. A total number of 124 CYP450 transcripts belonging to seven divergent clans have been identified. Transcriptome revealed 146 different transcripts coding for enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of terpenoids of which 35 contained terpene synthase motifs. This study also revealed 32,341 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) in 23,168 transcripts. Assembled sequences of transcriptome of A. paniculata generated in this study are made available, for the first time, in the TSA database, which provides useful information for functional and comparative genomic analysis besides identification of key enzymes involved in the various pathways of secondary metabolism. PMID:27582746

  20. Adaptogenic potential of andrographolide: An active principle of the king of bitters (Andrographis paniculata).

    PubMed

    Thakur, Ajit Kumar; Chatterjee, Shyam Sunder; Kumar, Vikas

    2015-01-01

    Andrographolide is a major bioactive secondary plant metabolite isolated Andrographis paniculata (Burm. F.) Wall. Ex. Nees. ( chuān xīn lián), a well-known traditionally used medicinal herb. The aim of the study was to pharmacologically evaluate the beneficial effect of andrographolide on stress-induced thermoregulatory and other physiological responses in mice. A stress-induced hyperthermia test was conducted in mice. The test agents were orally administered once daily for 11 consecutive days, and treatment effects on body weight changes, basal rectal temperature, and foot-shock-triggered hyperthermic responses were quantified on Day 1, Day 5, Day 7, and Day 10 of the experiments. Pentobarbital-induced hypnosis was quantified on the 11(th) day of treatment. Observations made during a pilot dose finding experiment revealed that, like A. paniculata extracts, pure andrographolide also possess adaptogenic properties. Observed dose-dependent efficacies of 3 mg/kg/d, 10 mg/kg/d, and 30 mg/kg/d andrographolide in the pilot experiment were reconfirmed by conducting two further analogous experiments using separate groups of either male or female mice. In these confirmatory experiments, efficacies of andrographolide were compared with that of 5 mg/kg/d oral doses of the standard anxiolytic diazepam. Significantly reduced body weights and elevated core temperatures of the three vehicle-treated control groups observed on the 5(th) day and subsequent observational days were completely absent even in the groups treated with the lowest andrographolide dose (3 mg/kg/d) or diazepam (5 mg/kg/d). Benzodiazepine-like potentiation of pentobarbital hypnosis was observed in andrographolide-treated animals. These observations reveal that andrographolide is functionally a diazepam-like desensitizer of biological mechanisms, and processes involved in stress trigger thermoregulatory and other physiological responses. PMID:26151008

  1. Effects of Atmospheric Pressure Air Plasma Pretreatment on the Seed Germination and Early Growth of Andrographis paniculata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Jiayun; He, Rui; Zhang, Xiaoli; Zhan, Ruoting; Chen, Weiwen; Yang, Size

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this paper is to demonstrate whether air plasma can change the seed germination characteristics, seedling emergence, as well as biochemical reactivity, in Andrographis paniculata (A. paniculata) seedlings by modifying the seed coat and finding a beneficial treatment dose. Eight treatment doses and one control were used to conduct electrical conductivity determination, a germination test, a seedling emergence test and a biochemical assay. The results showed that after being treated with air plasma excited at 5950 V for 10 s, the permeability of the seeds was improved significantly, resulting in the acceleration of seed germination and seedling emergence. In the meantime, the catalase activity and catalase isoenzyme expression were also improved, while the malondialdehyde content in the seedlings was decreased (which means greater counteraction with environmental stress). After being treated with 4250 V for 10 s and 5950 V for 20 s, the seed germination was enhanced, but without an obvious change in seedling emergence. However, after treatment with 3400 V for 20 s and 5100 V for 10 s, the permeability of the seeds was decreased, resulting in a delay in seedling emergence. These results indicate that air plasma can change the physiological and biochemical characteristics of Andrographis paniculata seeds by modifying the seed coat, combined with the effects of the active plasma species, and that different treating doses have different effects.

  2. A new biocompatible microemulsion increases extraction yield and bioavailability of Andrographis paniculata.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Yan; Niu, Xin; Feng, Qian-Jin; Yang, Xue-Zhi; Wang, Dan-Wei; Zhao, Tong; Li, Lei; DU, Hong

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to design and prepare a biocompatible microemulsion of Andrographis paniculata (BMAP) containing both fat-soluble and water-soluble constituents. We determined the contents of active constituents of BMAP and evaluated its bioavailability. The biocompatible microemulsion (BM), containing lecithin and bile salts, was optimized in the present study, showing a good physical stability. The mean droplet size was 19.12 nm, and the average polydispersity index (PDI) was 0.153. The contents of andrographolide and dehydroandrographolide in BMAP, as determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), were higher than that in ethanol extraction. The pharmacokinetic results of BMAP showed that the AUC0-7 and AUC0→∞ values of BMAP were 2.267 and 27.156 μg·mL(-1)·h(-1), respectively, and were about 1.41-fold and 6.30-fold greater than that of ethanol extraction, respectively. These results demonstrated that the bioavailability of and rographolide extracted by BMAP was significantly higher than that extracted by ethanol. In conclusion, the BMAP preparation displayed ann improved dose form for future clinical applications.

  3. Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Wall. ex Nees: A Review of Ethnobotany, Phytochemistry, and Pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    Sule, Abubakar; Rahman, K. M. Hafizur

    2014-01-01

    As aboriginal sources of medications, medicinal plants are used from the ancient times. Andrographis paniculata is one of the highly used potential medicinal plants in the world. This plant is traditionally used for the treatment of common cold, diarrhoea, fever due to several infective cause, jaundice, as a health tonic for the liver and cardiovascular health, and as an antioxidant. It is also used to improve sexual dysfunctions and serve as a contraceptive. All parts of this plant are used to extract the active phytochemicals, but the compositions of phytoconstituents widely differ from one part to another and with place, season, and time of harvest. Our extensive data mining of the phytoconstituents revealed more than 55 ent-labdane diterpenoids, 30 flavonoids, 8 quinic acids, 4 xanthones, and 5 rare noriridoids. In this review, we selected only those compounds that pharmacology has already reported. Finally we focused on around 46 compounds for further discussion. We also discussed ethnobotany of this plant briefly. Recommendations addressing extraction process, tissue culture, and adventitious rooting techniques and propagation under abiotic stress conditions for improvement of phytoconstituents are discussed concisely in this paper. Further study areas on pharmacology are also proposed where needed. PMID:25950015

  4. Analysis of the Anticancer Phytochemicals in Andrographis paniculata Nees. under Salinity Stress

    PubMed Central

    Valdiani, Alireza; Maziah, Mahmood; Saad, Mohd Said

    2013-01-01

    Salinity causes the adverse effects in all physiological processes of plants. The present study aimed to investigate the potential of salt stress to enhance the accumulation of the anticancer phytochemicals in Andrographis paniculata accessions. For this purpose, 70-day-old plants were grown in different salinity levels (0.18, 4, 8, 12, and 16 dSm−1) on sand medium. After inducing a period of 30-day salinity stress and before flowering, all plants were harvested and the data on morphological traits, proline content and the three anticancer phytochemicals, including andrographolide (AG), neoandrographolide (NAG), and 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide (DDAG), were measured. The results indicated that salinity had a significant effect on the aforementioned three anticancer phytochemicals. In addition, the salt tolerance index (STI) was significantly decreased, while, except for DDAG, the content of proline, the AG, and NAG was significantly increased (P ≤ 0.01). Furthermore, it was revealed that significant differences among accessions could happen based on the total dry weight, STI, AG, and NAG. Finally, we noticed that the salinity at 12 dSm−1 led to the maximum increase in the quantities of AG, NAG, and DDAG. In other words, under salinity stress, the tolerant accessions were capable of accumulating the higher amounts of proline, AG, and NAG than the sensitive accessions. PMID:24371819

  5. A new biocompatible microemulsion increases extraction yield and bioavailability of Andrographis paniculata.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Yan; Niu, Xin; Feng, Qian-Jin; Yang, Xue-Zhi; Wang, Dan-Wei; Zhao, Tong; Li, Lei; DU, Hong

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to design and prepare a biocompatible microemulsion of Andrographis paniculata (BMAP) containing both fat-soluble and water-soluble constituents. We determined the contents of active constituents of BMAP and evaluated its bioavailability. The biocompatible microemulsion (BM), containing lecithin and bile salts, was optimized in the present study, showing a good physical stability. The mean droplet size was 19.12 nm, and the average polydispersity index (PDI) was 0.153. The contents of andrographolide and dehydroandrographolide in BMAP, as determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), were higher than that in ethanol extraction. The pharmacokinetic results of BMAP showed that the AUC0-7 and AUC0→∞ values of BMAP were 2.267 and 27.156 μg·mL(-1)·h(-1), respectively, and were about 1.41-fold and 6.30-fold greater than that of ethanol extraction, respectively. These results demonstrated that the bioavailability of and rographolide extracted by BMAP was significantly higher than that extracted by ethanol. In conclusion, the BMAP preparation displayed ann improved dose form for future clinical applications. PMID:27667514

  6. Harnessing the medicinal properties of Andrographis paniculata for diseases and beyond: a review of its phytochemistry and pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    Okhuarobo, Agbonlahor; Falodun, Joyce Ehizogie; Erharuyi, Osayemwenre; Imieje, Vincent; Falodun, Abiodun; Langer, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Andrographis paniculata Wall (family Acanthaceae) is one of the most popular medicinal plants used traditionally for the treatment of array of diseases such as cancer, diabetes, high blood pressure, ulcer, leprosy, bronchitis, skin diseases, flatulence, colic, influenza, dysentery, dyspepsia and malaria for centuries in Asia, America and Africa continents. It possesses several photochemical constituents with unique and interesting biological properties. This review describes the past and present state of research on Andrographis paniculata with respect to the medicinal usage, phytochemistry, pharmacological activities, toxicity profile and therapeutic usage, in order to bridge the gap requiring future research opportunities. This review is based on literature study on scientific journals and books from library and electronic sources. Diterpenes, flavonoids, xanthones, noriridoides and other miscellaneous compounds have been isolated from the plant. Extract and pure compounds of the plant have been reported for their anti-microbial, cytotoxicity, anti-protozoan, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, immunostimulant, anti-diabetic, anti-infective, anti-angiogenic, hepato-renal protective, sex hormone/sexual function modulation, liver enzymes modulation insecticidal and toxicity activities. The results of numerous toxicity evaluations of extracts and metabolites isolated from this plant did not show any significant acute toxicity in experimental animals. Detailed and more comprehensive toxicity profile on mammalian tissues and organs is needed in future studies.

  7. Andrographis paniculata Leaf Extract Prevents Thioacetamide-Induced Liver Cirrhosis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bardi, Daleya Abdulaziz; Halabi, Mohammed Farouq; Hassandarvish, Pouya; Rouhollahi, Elham; Paydar, Mohammadjavad; Moghadamtousi, Soheil Zorofchian; Al-Wajeeh, Nahla Saeed; Ablat, Abdulwali; Abdullah, Nor Azizan; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the hepatoprotective effects of ethanolic Andrographis paniculata leaf extract (ELAP) on thioacetamide-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. An acute toxicity study proved that ELAP is not toxic in rats. To examine the effects of ELAP in vivo, male Sprague Dawley rats were given intraperitoneal injections of vehicle 10% Tween-20, 5 mL/kg (normal control) or 200 mg/kg TAA thioacetamide (to induce liver cirrhosis) three times per week. Three additional groups were treated with thioacetamide plus daily oral silymarin (50 mg/kg) or ELAP (250 or 500 mg/kg). Liver injury was assessed using biochemical tests, macroscopic and microscopic tissue analysis, histopathology, and immunohistochemistry. In addition, HepG2 and WRL-68 cells were treated in vitro with ELAP fractions to test cytotoxicity. Rats treated with ELAP exhibited significantly lower liver/body weight ratios and smoother, more normal liver surfaces compared with the cirrhosis group. Histopathology using Hematoxylin and Eosin along with Masson’s Trichrome stain showed minimal disruption of hepatic cellular structure, minor fibrotic septa, a low degree of lymphocyte infiltration, and minimal collagen deposition after ELAP treatment. Immunohistochemistry indicated that ELAP induced down regulation of proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Also, hepatic antioxidant enzymes and oxidative stress parameters in ELAP-treated rats were comparable to silymarin-treated rats. ELAP administration reduced levels of altered serum liver biomarkers. ELAP fractions were non-cytotoxic to WRL-68 cells, but possessed anti-proliferative activity on HepG2 cells, which was confirmed by a significant elevation of lactate dehydrogenase, reactive oxygen species, cell membrane permeability, cytochrome c, and caspase-8,-9, and, -3/7 activity in HepG2 cells. A reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential was also detected in ELAP-treated HepG2 cells. The hepatoprotective effect of 500 mg/kg of ELAP is proposed to result

  8. Andrographolide: A Novel Antimalarial Diterpene Lactone Compound from Andrographis paniculata and Its Interaction with Curcumin and Artesunate

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Kirti; Dash, Aditya P.; Dey, Nrisingha

    2011-01-01

    Andrographolide (AND), the diterpene lactone compound, was purified by HPLC from the methanolic fraction of the plant Andrographis paniculata. The compound was found to have potent antiplasmodial activity when tested in isolation and in combination with curcumin and artesunate against the erythrocytic stages of Plasmodium falciparum in vitro and Plasmodium berghei ANKA in vivo. IC50s for artesunate (AS), andrographolide (AND), and curcumin (CUR) were found to be 0.05, 9.1 and 17.4 μM, respectively. The compound (AND) was found synergistic with curcumin (CUR) and addictively interactive with artesunate (AS). In vivo, andrographolide-curcumin exhibited better antimalarial activity, not only by reducing parasitemia (29%), compared to the control (81%), but also by extending the life span by 2-3 folds. Being nontoxic to the in vivo system this agent can be used as template molecule for designing new derivatives with improved antimalarial properties. PMID:21760808

  9. Gold nanoparticles: sonocatalytic synthesis using ethanolic extract of Andrographis paniculata and functionalization with polycaprolactone-gelatin composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babu, Punuri Jayasekhar; Saranya, Sibyala; Sharma, Pragya; Tamuli, Ranjan; Bora, Utpal

    2012-09-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were synthesized by sonication using ethanolic leaf extract of Andrographis paniculata. We investigated the optimum parameters for AuNP synthesis and functionalization with polycaprolactone-gelatin (PCL-GL) composites. The AuNPs were characterized with various biophysical techniques such as TEM, XRD, FT-IR and EDX spectroscopy. TEM images showed that nanoparticles were spherical in shape with a size range from 5 to 75 nm. EDX analysis revealed the presence of molecular oxygen and carbon on the surface of AuNPs. The synthesized AuNPs were tested for their effect on HeLa (human cervical cancer) and MCF-7 (human breast cancer) cell lines and found to be nontoxic and biocompatible, which are potential carriers for hydrophobic drugs.

  10. Oxidative stress in the brain of nicotine-induced toxicity: protective role of Andrographis paniculata Nees and vitamin E.

    PubMed

    Das, Subhasis; Gautam, N; Dey, Sankar Kumar; Maiti, Tarasankar; Roy, Somenath

    2009-04-01

    Mitochondria are the crossroads of several crucial cellular activities; they produce considerable quantities of superoxide radical and hydrogen peroxide, which can damage important macromolecules. Nicotine affects a variety of cellular processes, from induction of gene expression to modulation of enzymatic activities. The aim of this study was to elucidate the protective effects of andrographolide (ANDRO) aqueous extract (AE-Ap) of Andrographis paniculata, and vitamin E on nicotine-induced brain mitochondria. In this investigation, nicotine (1 mg.kg body mass-1.day-1) was treated, for the period of 7 days, simultaneously with 2 A. paniculata products, ANDRO and AE-Ap (250 mg.kg body mass-1.day-1); and vitamin E (50 mg.kg body mass-1.day-1) was supplemented in different group of male Wistar rats. The activities of mitochondrial electron transport chain (Mito-ETC) complexes (I, II, III), nitric oxide production, superoxide anion, catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase, and concentrations of reduced glutathione and oxidized glutathione were measured in discrete regions of brain (the cerebral hemisphere, cerebellum, diencephalons, and brain stem). The study revealed that nicotine inhibits the Mito-ETC complexes and produces nitric oxide, which suppressed the mitochondrial oxidative stress scavenger system in different brain regions. In these circumstances, lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation were noted in different discrete regions of brain mitochondria. ANDRO, AE-Ap, and vitamin E showed the protective potentiality against nicotine toxicity. The analysis of such alterations is important in determining the basis of normal dysfunction in the brain associated with nicotine toxicity, which could be ameliorated by A. paniculata and vitamin E, and may help to develop therapeutic means against nicotine-induced disorders. PMID:19370042

  11. Structure–function relationships of inhibition of mosquito cytochrome P450 enzymes by flavonoids of Andrographis paniculata.

    PubMed

    Kotewong, Rattanawadee; Duangkaew, Panida; Srisook, Ekaruth; Sarapusit, Songklod; Rongnoparut, Pornpimol

    2014-09-01

    The cytochrome P450 monooxygenases are known to play a major role in pyrethroid resistance, by means of increased rate of insecticide detoxification as a result of their overexpression. Inhibition of detoxification enzymes may help disrupting insect detoxifying defense system. The Anopheles minimus CYP6AA3 and CYP6P7 have shown pyrethroid degradation activity and been implicated in pyrethroid resistance. In this study inhibition of the extracts and constituents of Andrographis paniculata Nees. leaves and roots was examined against benzyloxyresorufin O-debenzylation (BROD) of CYP6AA3 and CYP6P7. Four purified flavones (5,7,4′-trihydroxyflavone, 5-hydroxy-7,8-dimethoxyflavone, 5-hydroxy-7,8,2′,3′-tetramethoxyflavone, and 5,4′-dihydroxy-7,8,2′,3′-tetramethoxyflavone), one flavanone (5-hydroxy-7,8-dimethoxyflavanone) and a diterpenoid (14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide) containing inhibitory effects toward both enzymes were isolated from A. paniculata. Structure–function relationships were observed for modes and kinetics of inhibition among flavones, while diterpenoid and flavanone were inferior to flavones. Docking of flavones onto enzyme homology models reinforced relationships on flavone structures and inhibition modes. Cell-based inhibition assays employing 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-y-l)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) cytotoxicity assays revealed that these flavonoids efficiently increased susceptibility of CYP6AA3- and CYP6P7-expressing Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells to cypermethrin toxicity, due to inhibition effects on mosquito enzymes. Thus synergistic effects on cypermethrin toxicity of A. paniculata compounds as a result of enzyme inhibition could be useful for mosquito vector control and insecticide resistance management in the future.

  12. Protective effect of Andrographis paniculata and andrographolide on cyclophosphamide-induced urothelial toxicity.

    PubMed

    Sheeja, K; Kuttan, Girija

    2006-09-01

    The protective effect of Andrograhis paniculata and andrographolide (ANDLE) against cyclophosphamide (CTX)-induced urothelial toxicity was investigated in this study. Pretreatment of Swiss albino mice with A paniculata extract (10 mg/dose/animal intraperitoneally [ip]) and ANDLE (500 microg/dose/animal ip) could significantly reduce CTX (1.5 nmol/kg body weight)-induced urothelial toxicity. Morphological and histopathological analysis of urinary bladder of CTX-treated mice showed severe inflammation and dark coloration, whereas A paniculata and ANDLE-treated mice showed almost normal bladder morphology. Elevation of urinary protein level (7.33 +/- 0.3 g/L) by CTX administration was reduced by A paniculata (3.78 +/- 0.4 g/L) and ANDLE treatment (4.19 +/- 0.1 g/L). Urinary urea N2 level, which was elevated after 48 hours of CTX administration (24.25 +/- 0.2 g/L) was found to be reduced by the treatment with A paniculata (14.19 +/- 0.5 g/L) and ANDLE (15.79 +/- 0.4 g/L). A decreased level of reduced glutahione (GSH) content in liver (2.81 +/- 0.1 nmol/mg protein) and bladder (1.20 +/- 0.2 nmol/mg protein) after CTX administration was also increased by the treatment with A paniculata (liver: 5.78 +/- 0.3 nmol/mg protein; bladder: 2.96 +/- 0.2 nmol/mg protein) and ANDLE (liver: 5.14 +/- 0.3 nmol/mg protein; bladder: 2.84 +/- 0.2 nmol/mg protein). Production of the proinflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, which was elevated during CTX administration, was found to be inhibited by A paniculata and ANDLE treatment. The lowered level of interleukin-2 and interferon-gamma during CTX treatment was elevated by the administration of A paniculata and ANDLE. PMID:16880430

  13. Protective effect of Andrographis paniculata and andrographolide on cyclophosphamide-induced urothelial toxicity.

    PubMed

    Sheeja, K; Kuttan, Girija

    2006-09-01

    The protective effect of Andrograhis paniculata and andrographolide (ANDLE) against cyclophosphamide (CTX)-induced urothelial toxicity was investigated in this study. Pretreatment of Swiss albino mice with A paniculata extract (10 mg/dose/animal intraperitoneally [ip]) and ANDLE (500 microg/dose/animal ip) could significantly reduce CTX (1.5 nmol/kg body weight)-induced urothelial toxicity. Morphological and histopathological analysis of urinary bladder of CTX-treated mice showed severe inflammation and dark coloration, whereas A paniculata and ANDLE-treated mice showed almost normal bladder morphology. Elevation of urinary protein level (7.33 +/- 0.3 g/L) by CTX administration was reduced by A paniculata (3.78 +/- 0.4 g/L) and ANDLE treatment (4.19 +/- 0.1 g/L). Urinary urea N2 level, which was elevated after 48 hours of CTX administration (24.25 +/- 0.2 g/L) was found to be reduced by the treatment with A paniculata (14.19 +/- 0.5 g/L) and ANDLE (15.79 +/- 0.4 g/L). A decreased level of reduced glutahione (GSH) content in liver (2.81 +/- 0.1 nmol/mg protein) and bladder (1.20 +/- 0.2 nmol/mg protein) after CTX administration was also increased by the treatment with A paniculata (liver: 5.78 +/- 0.3 nmol/mg protein; bladder: 2.96 +/- 0.2 nmol/mg protein) and ANDLE (liver: 5.14 +/- 0.3 nmol/mg protein; bladder: 2.84 +/- 0.2 nmol/mg protein). Production of the proinflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, which was elevated during CTX administration, was found to be inhibited by A paniculata and ANDLE treatment. The lowered level of interleukin-2 and interferon-gamma during CTX treatment was elevated by the administration of A paniculata and ANDLE.

  14. Hybrid analysis (barcode-high resolution melting) for authentication of Thai herbal products, Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wall.ex Nees

    PubMed Central

    Osathanunkul, Maslin; Suwannapoom, Chatmongkon; Khamyong, Nuttaluck; Pintakum, Danupol; Lamphun, Santisuk Na; Triwitayakorn, Kanokporn; Osathanunkul, Kitisak; Madesis, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    Background: Andrographis paniculata Nees is a medicinal plant with multiple pharmacological properties. It has been used over many centuries as a household remedy. A. paniculata products sold on the markets are in processed forms so it is difficult to authenticate. Therefore buying the herbal products poses a high-risk of acquiring counterfeited, substituted and/or adulterated products. Due to these issues, a reliable method to authenticate products is needed. Materials and Methods: High resolution melting analysis coupled with DNA barcoding (Bar-HRM) was applied to detect adulteration in commercial herbal products. The rbcL barcode was selected to use in primers design for HRM analysis to produce standard melting profile of A. paniculata species. DNA of the tested commercial products was isolated and their melting profiles were then generated and compared with the standard A. paniculata. Results: The melting profiles of the rbcL amplicons of the three closely related herbal species (A. paniculata, Acanthus ebracteatus and Rhinacanthus nasutus) are clearly separated so that they can be distinguished by the developed method. The method was then used to authenticate commercial herbal products. HRM curves of all 10 samples tested are similar to A. paniculata which indicated that all tested products were contained the correct species as labeled. Conclusion: The method described in this study has been proved to be useful in aiding identification and/or authenticating A. paniculata. This Bar-HRM analysis has allowed us easily to determine the A. paniculata species in herbal products on the markets even they are in processed forms. SUMMARY We propose the use of DNA barcoding combined with High Resolution Melting analysis for authenticating of Andrographis paniculata products.The developed method can be used regardless of the type of the DNA template (fresh or dried tissue, leaf, and stem).rbcL region was chosen for the analysis and work well with our samplesWe can easily

  15. Hepatoprotective Effect of A Polyherbal Extract Containing Andrographis Paniculata, Tinospora Cordifolia and Solanum Nigrum Against Paracetamol Induced Hepatotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Dewasya Pratap; Awasthi, Harshika; Luqman, Suaib; Singh, Saudan; Mani, Dayanandan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Traditionally, a number of medicinal plants are used to treat various types of hepatic disorders but few of them were pharmacologically evaluated for their safety and efficacy. The combination of Andrographis paniculata (Kalmegha), Tinospora cordifolia (Guduchi), and Solanum nigrum (Kakmachi) was traditionally used in Indian System of Medicine (Ayurveda) for the treatment of various liver-related disorders. Objective: In the present study, an attempt was made to substantiate the ethnopharmacological use of a traditional formulation in hepatoprotection against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity. Subjects and Methods: Swiss albino mice (weight 20–25 g) were used for this study. Intraperitoneal injection of paracetamol (500 mg/kg body weight) was used to induce hepatotoxicity. Serum levels of alanine transaminase, aspartate aminotransferase, bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, were used as indices of liver injury. In addition total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein and creatinine were also assayed using the standard procedure. Results: Among the two different doses, pretreatment with Polyherbal extract at 500 mg/kg body weight exhibited a significant (P < 0.05) hepatoprotective activity as compared to paracetamol group. Conclusion: The polyherbal extract exhibits a significant hepatoprotective effect in vivo. The study contributes to its use in traditional Ayurveda system for the management of liver diseases. SUMMARY Traditionally, a number of medicinal plants are used to treat various types of liver disorders but few of them were pharmacologically evaluated for their safety and efficacy. Combination of Andrographis paniculata (Kalmegha), Tinospora cordifolia (Guduchi), and Solanum nigrum (Kakmachi) was traditionally used in Ayurveda for the treatment of various liver related disorders. In the present study an attempt was made to validate the ethnopharmacological use of a traditional formulation in hepatoprotection

  16. Inhibition of Group IIA Secretory Phospholipase A2 and its Inflammatory Reactions in Mice by Ethanolic Extract of Andrographis paniculata, a Well-known Medicinal Food

    PubMed Central

    Kishore, V.; Yarla, N. S.; Zameer, F.; Nagendra Prasad, M. N.; Santosh, M. S.; More, S. S.; Rao, D. G.; Dhananjaya, Bhadrapura Lakkappa

    2016-01-01

    Andrographis paniculata Nees is an important medicinal plant found in the tropical regions of the world, which has been traditionally used in Indian and Chinese medicinal systems. It is also used as medicinal food. A. paniculata is found to exhibit anti-inflammatory activities; however, its inhibitory potential on inflammatory Group IIA phospholipases A2 (PLA2) and its associated inflammatory reactions are not clearly understood. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the inhibitory/neutralizing potential of ethanolic extract of A. paniculata on the isolated inflammatory PLA2 (VRV-PL-VIIIa) from Daboii rusellii pulchella (belonging to Group IIA inflammatory secretory PLA2 [sPLA2]) and its associated edema-induced activities in Swiss albino mice. A. paniculata extract dose dependently inhibited the Group IIA sPLA2 enzymatic activity with an IC50 value of 10.3 ± 0.5 μg/ml. Further, the extract dose dependently inhibited the edema formation, when co-injected with enzyme indicating that a strong correlation exists between lipolytic and pro-inflammatory activities of the enzyme. In conclusion, results of this study shows that the ethanolic extract of A. paniculata effectively inhibits Group IIA sPLA2 and its associated inflammatory activities, which substantiate its anti-inflammatory properties. The results of the present study warranted further studies to develop bioactive compound (s) in ethanolic extract of A. paniculata as potent therapeutic agent (s) for inflammatory diseases. SUMMARY This study emphasis the anti-inflammatory effect of A. paniculata by inhibiting the inflammatory Group IIA sPLA2 and its associated inflammatory activities such as edema. It was found that there is a strong correlation between lipolytic activity and pro-inflammatory activity inhibition. Therefore, the study suggests that the extract processes potent anti-inflammatory agents, which could be developed as a potential therapeutic agent against inflammatory and related diseases

  17. Salt stress-induced protein pattern associated with photosynthetic parameters and andrographolide content in Andrographis paniculata Nees.

    PubMed

    Talei, Daryush; Valdiani, Alireza; Maziah, Mahmood; Sagineedu, Sreenivasa Rao; Abiri, Rambod

    2015-01-01

    Andrographis paniculata is a multifunctional medicinal plant and a potent source of bioactive compounds. Impact of environmental stresses such as salinity on protein diversification, as well as the consequent changes in the photosynthetic parameters and andrographolide content (AG) of the herb, has not yet been thoroughly investigated. The present study showed that the salinity affects the protein pattern, and subsequently, it decreased the photosynthetic parameters, protein content, total dry weight, and total crude extract. Exceptionally, the AG content was increased (p ≤ 0.01). Moreover, it was noticed that the salinity at 12 dS m(-1) led to the maximum increase in AG content in all accessions. Interestingly, the leaf protein analysis revealed that the two polymorphic protein bands as low- and medium-sized of 17 and 45 kDa acted as the activator agents for the photosynthetic parameters and AG content. Protein sequencing and proteomic analysis can be conducted based on the present findings in the future. PMID:25384250

  18. Andrographis Paniculata shows anti-nociceptive effects in an animal model of sensory hypersensitivity associated with migraine

    PubMed Central

    Greco, Rosaria; Siani, Francesca; Demartini, Chiara; Zanaboni, Annamaria; Nappi, Giuseppe; Davinelli, Sergio; Scapagnini, Giovanni; Tassorelli, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Administration of nitroglycerin (NTG) to rats induces a hyperalgesic condition and neuronal activation of central structures involved in migraine pain. In order to identify therapeutic strategies for migraine pain, we evaluated the anti-nociceptive activity of Andrographis Paniculata (AP), a herbaceous plant, in the hyperalgesia induced by NTG administration in the formalin test. We also analyzed mRNA expression of cytokines in specific brain areas after AP treatment. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were pre-treated with AP extract 30 minutes before NTG or vehicle injection. The data show that AP extract significantly reduced NTG-induced hyperalgesia in phase II of the test, 4 hours after NTG injection. In addition, AP extract reduced IL-6 mRNA expression in the medulla and mesencephalon and also mRNA levels of TNF-alpha in the mesencephalic region. These findings suggest that AP extract may be a potential therapeutic approach in the treatment of general pain, and possibly of migraine. PMID:27027895

  19. Salt stress-induced protein pattern associated with photosynthetic parameters and andrographolide content in Andrographis paniculata Nees.

    PubMed

    Talei, Daryush; Valdiani, Alireza; Maziah, Mahmood; Sagineedu, Sreenivasa Rao; Abiri, Rambod

    2015-01-01

    Andrographis paniculata is a multifunctional medicinal plant and a potent source of bioactive compounds. Impact of environmental stresses such as salinity on protein diversification, as well as the consequent changes in the photosynthetic parameters and andrographolide content (AG) of the herb, has not yet been thoroughly investigated. The present study showed that the salinity affects the protein pattern, and subsequently, it decreased the photosynthetic parameters, protein content, total dry weight, and total crude extract. Exceptionally, the AG content was increased (p ≤ 0.01). Moreover, it was noticed that the salinity at 12 dS m(-1) led to the maximum increase in AG content in all accessions. Interestingly, the leaf protein analysis revealed that the two polymorphic protein bands as low- and medium-sized of 17 and 45 kDa acted as the activator agents for the photosynthetic parameters and AG content. Protein sequencing and proteomic analysis can be conducted based on the present findings in the future.

  20. In silico and in vitro Studies on Begomovirus Induced Andrographolide Biosynthesis Pathway in Andrographis Paniculata for Combating Inflammation and Cancer.

    PubMed

    Khan, Asifa; Sharma, Pooja; Khan, Feroz; Ajayakumar, P V; Shanker, Karuna; Samad, Abdul

    2016-07-01

    Andrographolide and neoandrographolide are major bioactive molecules of Andrographis paniculata, a well-known medicinal plant. These molecules exhibited varying degrees of anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities in-vitro and in-vivo. Role of begomovirus protein C2/TrAP in biosynthesis of andrographolide was identified through molecular modeling, docking and predicted results were substantiated by in vitro studies. Homology molecular modeling and molecular docking were performed to study the binding conformations and different bonding behaviors, in order to reveal the possible mechanism of action behind higher accumulation of andrographolide. It was concluded that C2/TrAP inhibit the activation of SNF1-Related Protein Kinase-1 (SnRK1) in terpenoid pathway and removes the negative regulation of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR) by SnRK1, leading to higher accumulation of andrographolide and neoandrographolide in begomovirus infected plants. The binding site residues of SnRK1 docked with C2/TrAP were found to be associated with ATP binding site, substrate binding site and activation loop. Predicted results were also validated by HPTLC. This study provides important insights into understanding the role of viral protein in altering the regulation of biosynthesis of andrographolide and could be used in future research to develop biomimetic methods for increasing the production of such phytometabolites having anti-cancerous and anti-inflammatory properties. PMID:27492239

  1. Involvement of an ent-copalyl diphosphate synthase in tissue-specific accumulation of specialized diterpenes in Andrographis paniculata.

    PubMed

    Misra, Rajesh Chandra; Garg, Anchal; Roy, Sudeep; Chanotiya, Chandan Singh; Vasudev, Prema G; Ghosh, Sumit

    2015-11-01

    Ent-labdane-related diterpene (ent-LRD) specialized (i.e. secondary) metabolites of the medicinal plant kalmegh (Andrographis paniculata) have long been known for several pharmacological activities. However, our understanding of the ent-LRD biosynthetic pathway has remained largely incomplete. Since ent-LRDs accumulate in leaves, we carried out a comparative transcriptional analysis using leaf and root tissues, and identified 389 differentially expressed transcripts, including 223 transcripts that were preferentially expressed in leaf tissue. Analysis of the transcripts revealed various specialized metabolic pathways, including transcripts of the ent-LRD biosynthetic pathway. Two class II diterpene synthases (ApCPS1 and ApCPS2) along with one (ApCPS1') and two (ApCPS2' and ApCPS2″) transcriptional variants that were the outcomes of alternative splicing of the precursor mRNA and alternative transcriptional termination, respectively, were identified. ApCPS1 and ApCPS2 encode for 832- and 817-amino acids proteins, respectively, and are phylogenetically related to the dicotyledons ent-copalyl diphosphate synthases (ent-CPSs). The spatio-temporal patterns of ent-LRD metabolites accumulation and gene expression suggested a likely role for ApCPS1 in general (i.e. primary) metabolism, perhaps by providing precursor for the biosynthesis of phytohormone gibberellin (GA). However, ApCPS2 is potentially involved in tissue-specific accumulation of ent-LRD specialized metabolites. Bacterially expressed recombinant ApCPS2 catalyzed the conversion of (E,E,E)-geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP), the general precursor of diterpenes to ent-copalyl diphosphate (ent-CPP), the precursor of ent-LRDs. Taken together, these results advance our understanding of the tissue-specific accumulation of specialized ent-LRDs of medicinal importance.

  2. Extraction of three bioactive diterpenoids from Andrographis paniculata: effect of the extraction techniques on extract composition and quantification of three andrographolides using high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Satyanshu; Dhanani, Tushar; Shah, Sonal

    2014-10-01

    Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) wall.ex Nees (Acanthaceae) or Kalmegh is an important medicinal plant finding uses in many Ayurvedic formulations. Diterpenoid compounds andrographolides (APs) are the main bioactive phytochemicals present in leaves and herbage of A. paniculata. The efficiency of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) using carbon dioxide was compared with the solid-liquid extraction techniques such as solvent extraction, ultrasound-assisted solvent extraction and microwave-assisted solvent extraction with methanol, water and methanol-water as solvents. Also a rapid and validated reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection method was developed for the simultaneous determination of the three biologically active compounds, AP, neoandrographolide and andrograpanin, in the extracts of A. paniculata. Under the best SFE conditions tested for diterpenoids, which involved extraction at 60°C and 100 bar, the extractive efficiencies were 132 and 22 µg/g for AP and neoandrographolide, respectively. The modifier percentage significantly affected the extraction efficiency.

  3. Liquid and solid self-microemulsifying drug delivery systems for improving the oral bioavailability of andrographolide from a crude extract of Andrographis paniculata.

    PubMed

    Sermkaew, Namfa; Ketjinda, Wichan; Boonme, Prapaporn; Phadoongsombut, Narubodee; Wiwattanapatapee, Ruedeekorn

    2013-11-20

    The purpose of this study was to develop self-microemulsifying formulations of an Andrographis paniculata extract in liquid and pellet forms for an improved oral delivery of andrographolide. The optimized liquid self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) was composed of A. paniculata extract (11.1%), Capryol 90 (40%), Cremophor RH 40 (40%) and Labrasol (8.9%). This liquid SMEDDS was further adsorbed onto colloidal silicon dioxide and microcrystalline cellulose, and converted to SMEDDS pellets by the extrusion/spheronization technique. The microemulsion droplet sizes of the liquid and pellet formulations after dilution with water were in the range of 23.4 and 30.3 nm. The in vitro release of andrographolide from the liquid SMEDDS and SMEDDS pellets was 97.64% (SD 1.97%) and 97.74% (SD 3.36%) within 15 min, respectively while the release from the initial extract was only 10%. The oral absorption of andrographolide was determined in rabbits. The C(max) value of andrographolide from the A. paniculata extract liquid SMEDDS and SMEDDS pellet formulations (equivalent to 17.5mg/kg of andrographolide) was 6-fold and 5-fold greater than the value from the initial extract in aqueous suspension (equivalent to 35 mg/kg of andrographolide), respectively. In addition, the AUC(0-12h) was increased 15-fold by the liquid SMEDDS and 13-fold by the SMEDDS pellets compared to the extract in aqueous suspension, respectively. The results clearly indicated that the liquid and solid SMEDDS could be effectively used to improve the dissolution and oral bioavailability that would also enable a reduction in the dose of the poorly water soluble A. paniculata extract.

  4. Anti-Infective Metabolites of a Newly Isolated Bacillus thuringiensis KL1 Associated with Kalmegh (Andrographis paniculata Nees.), a Traditional Medicinal Herb.

    PubMed

    Roy, Sudipta; Yasmin, Sahana; Ghosh, Subhadeep; Bhattacharya, Somesankar; Banerjee, Debdulal

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to isolate endophytic bacteria possessing anti-infective property from Kalmegh (Andrographis paniculata Nees.), a well-known medicinal plant. A total of 23 strains were isolated from this plant among which the strain KL1, isolated from surface-sterilized leaf of this medicinal herb, showed broad-spectrum antagonism against an array of Gram-positive and -negative bacterial pathogens. Ethyl acetate extract of KL1-fermented media yielded a greenish amorphous substance retaining anti-infective property. Solvent-extracted crude material was separated by thin-layer chromatography, and the active ingredient was located by autobiogram analysis. The purified anti-infective compound was found as anthracene derivative as analyzed by ultraviolet and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The strain was identified as Bacillus thuringiensis KL1 from cultural, physiochemical, and molecular aspects. The above results indicate the pharmaceutical potential of the candidate isolate.

  5. Anti-Infective Metabolites of a Newly Isolated Bacillus thuringiensis KL1 Associated with Kalmegh (Andrographis paniculata Nees.), a Traditional Medicinal Herb

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Sudipta; Yasmin, Sahana; Ghosh, Subhadeep; Bhattacharya, Somesankar; Banerjee, Debdulal

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to isolate endophytic bacteria possessing anti-infective property from Kalmegh (Andrographis paniculata Nees.), a well-known medicinal plant. A total of 23 strains were isolated from this plant among which the strain KL1, isolated from surface-sterilized leaf of this medicinal herb, showed broad-spectrum antagonism against an array of Gram-positive and -negative bacterial pathogens. Ethyl acetate extract of KL1-fermented media yielded a greenish amorphous substance retaining anti-infective property. Solvent-extracted crude material was separated by thin-layer chromatography, and the active ingredient was located by autobiogram analysis. The purified anti-infective compound was found as anthracene derivative as analyzed by ultraviolet and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The strain was identified as Bacillus thuringiensis KL1 from cultural, physiochemical, and molecular aspects. The above results indicate the pharmaceutical potential of the candidate isolate. PMID:26997870

  6. Overlapping elution-extrusion counter-current chromatography: a novel method for efficient purification of natural cytotoxic andrographolides from Andrographis paniculata.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dingfang; Cao, Xiaoji; Wu, Shihua

    2012-02-01

    Counter-current chromatography (CCC) is extremely useful for the separation, purification, and isolation of natural products. Recently, Berthod et al. established an elution-extrusion CCC method in metabolic analysis by combining regular chromatographic elution with stationary-phase extrusion, which extends the hydrophobicity window of a counter-current separation. In this study, a novel overlapping elution-extrusion CCC method was developed and applied to the preparation of natural cytotoxic andrographolides from the aerial parts of Andrographis paniculata, a well-known Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) with potent anti-inflammatory effect and anti-cancer activity. Its theory was first developed, and then a series of CCC experiments were performed to investigate the efficiency of the method in the separation of the ethanol extracts from A. paniculata. Results show that overlapping elution-extrusion CCC is an efficient method to prepare a cytotoxic natural diterpenoid combination of 14-deoxy-andrographolide and 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide with the molar ratio of 1:2 as well as andrographolide using an optimized solvent system composed of hexane-ethyl acetate-ethanol-water (5:5:4:6, v/v) with an on-demand solvent preparation mode. All components obtained showed potent cytotoxic activity against human hepatocellular liver carcinoma cells HepG2 and doxorubicin-resistant R-HepG2 cells. Molecular structures have been identified by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-TOF-MS), one- and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (1D- and 2D-NMR). The method appears to be very useful for the high-throughput purification of natural products.

  7. A phase I clinical study of Andrographis paniculata fixed combination Kan Jang versus ginseng and valerian on the semen quality of healthy male subjects.

    PubMed

    Mkrtchyan, A; Panosyan, V; Panossian, A; Wikman, G; Wagner, H

    2005-06-01

    The safety of different doses of Kan Jang--a fixed combination of Andrographis paniculata special extract (SHA-10) and Acanthopanax senticosus--compared to two extensively used medicinal plants, Valeriana officinalis and Panax ginseng in the form of standardized extracts, has been examined. A phase I clinical study was designed to evaluate the effect on semen quality of healthy males in terms of spermatogenesis and quality of semen. The results of the study revealed no significant negative effect of Kan Jang on male semen quality and fertility, but rather a positive trend with respect to the number of spermatozoids in the whole ejaculate, the percentage of active (normokinetic) forms of spermatozoids, and fertility indexes, together with a decrease in the percentage of inactive (diskinetic) forms of spermatozoids. In the group receiving ginseng, no significant negative effects on the fertility parameters were revealed and there was a clear decrease in the percentage of diskinetic forms of spermatozoids. Subjects receiving valerian showed a temporary increase in the percentage of normokinetic spermatozoids and a decrease in diskinetic forms, but these changes had no effect on fertility indices. The results indicate that Kan Jang, ginseng and valerian are safe with respect to effects on human male sterility when administered at dose levels corresponding to approximately 3 times the human daily dose. PMID:16008115

  8. Dehydroandrographolide, an iNOS inhibitor, extracted from Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Nees, induces autophagy in human oral cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Ming-Ju; Lin, Chiao-Wen; Chiou, Hui-Ling; Yang, Shun-Fa; Chen, Mu-Kuan

    2015-10-13

    Autophagy, which is constitutively executed at the basal level in all cells, promotes cellular homeostasis by regulating the turnover of organelles and proteins. Andrographolide and dehydroandrographolide (DA) are the two principle components of Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Nees. and are the main contributors to its therapeutic properties. However, the pharmacological activities of dehydroandrographolide (DA) remain unclear. In this study, DA induces oral cancer cell death by activating autophagy. Treatment with autophagy inhibitors inhibited DA-induced human oral cancer cell death. In addition, DA increased LC3-II expression and reduced p53 expression in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, DA induced autophagy and decreased cell viability through modulation of p53 expression. DA-induced autophagy was triggered by an activation of JNK1/2 and an inhibition of Akt and p38. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that DA induced autophagy in human oral cancer cells by modulating p53 expression, activating JNK1/2, and inhibiting Akt and p38. Finally, an administration of DA effectively suppressed the tumor formation in the oral carcinoma xenograft model in vivo. This is the first study to reveal the novel function of DA in activating autophagy, suggesting that DA could serve as a new and potential chemopreventive agent for treating human oral cancer. PMID:26356821

  9. Anti-dengue efficacy of bioactive andrographolide from Andrographis paniculata (Lamiales: Acanthaceae) against the primary dengue vector Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Edwin, Edward-Sam; Vasantha-Srinivasan, Prabhakaran; Senthil-Nathan, Sengottayan; Thanigaivel, Annamalai; Ponsankar, Athirstam; Pradeepa, Venkatraman; Selin-Rani, Selvaraj; Kalaivani, Kandaswamy; Hunter, Wayne B; Abdel-Megeed, Ahmed; Duraipandiyan, Veeramuthu; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah

    2016-11-01

    The current study investigated the toxic effect of the leaf extract compound andrographolide from Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f) against the dengue vector Ae. aegypti. GC-MS analysis revealed that andrographolide was recognized as the major chemical constituent with the prominent peak area compared with other compounds. All isolated toxic compounds were purified and confirmed through RP-HPLC against chemical standards. The larvicidal assays established at 25ppm of bioactive compound against the treated instars of Ae. Aegypti showed prominent mortality compared to other treated concentrations. The percent mortality of larvae was directly proportional to concentration. The lethal concentration (LC50) was observed at 12ppm treatment concentration. The bioactive andrographolide considerably reduced the detoxifying enzyme regulations of α- and β- carboxylesterases. In contrast, the levels of GST and CYP450 significantly increase in a dose dependent manner. The andrographolide also showed strong oviposition deterrence effects at the sub-lethal dose of 12ppm. Similarly, the mean number of eggs were also significantly reduced in a dose dependent manner. At the concentration of 12ppm the effective percentage of repellency was greater than 90% with a protection time of 15-210min, compared with control. The histopathology study displayed that larvae treated with bioactive andrographolide had cytopathic effects in the midgut epithelium compared with the control. The present study established that bioactive andrographolide served as a potential useful for dengue vector management. PMID:27443607

  10. Andrographis paniculata elicits anti-invasion activities by suppressing TM4SF3 gene expression and by anoikis-sensitization in esophageal cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Grace Gar-Lee; Lee, Julia Kin-Ming; Li, Lin; Chan, Kar-Man; Wong, Eric Chun-Wai; Chan, Judy Yuet-Wah; Fung, Kwok-Pui; Lui, Vivian Wai Yan; Chiu, Philip Wai-Yan; Lau, Clara Bik-San

    2015-01-01

    Esophageal cancer is the sixth most common cancer in male causing death worldwide. It is usually diagnosed at advanced stage with high postoperative recurrence and systemic metastasis, which leads to poor prognosis. The potential inhibitory effect of herbal medicines on metastasis of esophageal cancer has drawn researchers’ great attention. In the present study, the anti-invasion activities of Andrographis paniculata (AP) have been evaluated in two esophageal cancer cell lines, EC-109 and KYSE-520, as well as human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1). The anti-tumor and anti-metastatic activities of AP were also evaluated in human esophageal xenograft-bearing mouse models. Our results demonstrated for the first time that aqueous extract of AP inhibited the motility and invasion of esophageal cancer cells, which is the initial step of metastasis, without cytotoxicity. Anoikis resistance has also been reversed in AP-treated cancer cells. Besides, the expression of metastasis-related gene TM4SF3 in EC-109 cells was significantly decreased in AP extract-treated cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, the anti-tumor and anti-metastatic efficacies in subcutaneous and intraperitoneal esophageal xenograft-bearing mice were demonstrated after oral administration of AP aqueous extract for 3 weeks. Last but not least, the active component, isoandrographolide, responsible for the anti-migratory activity was firstly revealed here. In conclusion, the AP aqueous extract exerted inhibitory activities on the migration and anoikis resistance of esophageal cancer cells EC-109 and KYSE-520, as well as suppressed the proliferation and motility of endothelial cells. Combining the mentioned effects may account for the anti-tumor and anti-metastasis effects of AP aqueous extract in xenograft-bearing mice. The findings in the present study further enhance the understanding of the therapeutic mechanisms of the herb AP, which may lead to clinical applications. PMID

  11. Proteomic Analysis of the Salt-Responsive Leaf and Root Proteins in the Anticancer Plant Andrographis paniculata Nees

    PubMed Central

    Rafii, Mohd Yusop; Maziah, Mahmood

    2014-01-01

    Separation of proteins based on the physicochemical properties with different molecular weight and isoelectric points would be more accurate. In the current research, the 45-day-old seedlings were treated with 0 (control) and 12 dS m−1 of sodium chloride in the hydroponic system. After 15 days of salt exposure, the total protein of the fresh leaves and roots was extracted and analyzed using two-dimensional electrophoresis system (2-DE). The analysis led to the detection of 32 induced proteins (19 proteins in leaf and 13 proteins in the root) as well as 12 upregulated proteins (four proteins in leaf and eight proteins in the root) in the salt-treated plants. Of the 44 detected proteins, 12 were sequenced, and three of them matched with superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase and ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate oxygenase whereas the rest remained unknown. The three known proteins associate with plants response to environmental stresses and could represent the general stress proteins in the present study too. In addition, the proteomic feedback of different accessions of A. paniculata to salt stress can potentially be used to breed salt-tolerant varieties of the herb. PMID:25423252

  12. Double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, pilot clinical trial of ImmunoGuard--a standardized fixed combination of Andrographis paniculata Nees, with Eleutherococcus senticosus Maxim, Schizandra chinensis Bail. and Glycyrrhiza glabra L. extracts in patients with Familial Mediterranean Fever.

    PubMed

    Amaryan, G; Astvatsatryan, V; Gabrielyan, E; Panossian, A; Panosyan, V; Wikman, G

    2003-05-01

    Double blind, randomized, placebo controlled pilot study of ImmunoGuard--a standardized fixed combination of Andrographis paniculata Nees., Eleutherococcus senticosus Maxim., Schizandra chinensis Bail., and Glycyrrhiza glabra L. special extracts standardized for the content of Andrographolide (4 mg/tablet), Eleuteroside E, Schisandrins and Glycyrrhizin, was carried out in two parallel groups of patients. The study was conducted in 24 (3-15 years of both genders) patients with Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF), 14 were treated with tablets of series A (verum) and 10 patients received series B product (placebo). The study medication was taken three times of four tablets daily for 1 month. Daily dose of the andrographolide--48 mg. The primary outcome measures in physician's evaluation were related to duration, frequency and severity of attacks in FMF patients (attacks characteristics score). The patient's self-evaluation was based mainly on symptoms--abdominal, chest pains, temperature, arthritis, myalgia, erysipelas-like erythema. All of 3 features (duration, frequency, severity of attacks) showed significant improvement in the verum group as compared with the placebo. In both clinical and self evaluation the severity of attacks was found to show the most significant improvement in the verum group. Both the clinical and laboratory results of the present phase II (pilot) clinical study suggest that ImmunoGuard is a safe and efficacious herbal drug for the management of patients with FMF. PMID:12809357

  13. ANTIVENOM ACTIVITIES OF SOME SPECIES OF ANDROGRAPHIS WALL

    PubMed Central

    Balu, S.; Alagesaboopathi, C.

    1995-01-01

    Antivenom activities of the alcoholic extracts of three species of Andrographis wall, were measured at a concentration of 10,25,50,75 and 100 μg/ml by in vitro assay of HRBC membrane lysis. All the extracts were found to be effective in the inhibition of in vitro HRBC lysis. The maximum antivenom activity was found in the alcoholicextract of Andrographis paniculata Nees. PMID:22556697

  14. Anti-diabetic effect of a combination of andrographolide-enriched extract of Andrographis paniculata (Burm f.) Nees and asiaticoside-enriched extract of Centella asiatica L. in high fructose-fat fed rats.

    PubMed

    Nugroho, Agung Endro; Lindawati, Novena Yety; Herlyanti, Kyky; Widyastuti, Lina; Pramono, Suwidjiyo

    2013-12-01

    Traditionally, a combination of medicinal plants is commonly used for lowering blood glucose in diabetic patients in order to provide additional benefits of the single drug. A. paniculata and C. asiatica are two traditional medicines form South Asian and Southeast Asain countries consumed by people for treating daibates mellitus and its complications. Hyperglycemia in the rats was stimulated by high fructose-fat diet that consists of 36% fructose, 15% lard, and 5% egg yolks in 0.36 g/200 g body weight for 70 days. The rats were orally administered with the combination of andrographolide-enriched extract of A. paniculata (AEEAP) leaves and asiaticoside-enriched extract of C. asiatica (AEECA) herbs from day 70 for 7 days. Antidiabetic activity was evaluated by estimating mainly the blood glucose levels and other parameters such as HDL, LDL, cholesterol and triglyceride. The results showed that combination at the ratio of 70:30 exhibited a promosing antidiabetic effect in high-fat-fructose-fed rat, and exhibited sinergistic effects on blood cholesterol and HDL levels. It can be concluded that its antidiabetic effect was better than that of single treatment of AEEAP or AEECA. That combination was also potential to develop as a blood glucose-lowering agent for diabetic patients.

  15. A new coumarin from Murraya paniculata.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Muhammad Iqbal; Azizuddin; Khalid, Asaad; Sultani, Shaikh Ziauddin; Atta-ur-Rahman

    2002-01-01

    A new natural product, 2'-O-ethylmurrangatin (1) was isolated along with two previously known compounds murranganone (2) and paniculatin (3) from the leaves of Murraya paniculata. The structure of compound 1 was elucidated with the help of spectroscopic studies and by chemical reactions. Compounds 2 and 3 have been found to be cholinesterase inhibitors.

  16. Triterpenoids from Brazilian Ginseng, Pfaffia paniculata

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two new nortriterpenoids pfaffine A and B (1-2) were isolated from the roots of Pfaffia paniculata Kuntze, along with ten known compounds including four ecdysteroids, ecdysone (3), 20-hydroxyecdysone (4), pterosterone (5), rapisterone (6), five triterpenoids, pfaffic acid (7), pfameric acid (8), me...

  17. Triterpenoids from the stems of Myricaria paniculata.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuai; Dai, Sheng-Jun; Chen, Ruo-Yun; Yu, De-Quan

    2005-06-01

    Two new pentacyclic triterpenoids myricarin A and B (1 and 2) have been isolated from the stems of Myricaria paniculata, together with seven known compounds, myriconal, 28-hydroxy-14-taraxeren-3-one, epi-friedelanol, beta-sitosterol, 4-methyl stigmast-7-en-3-ol, 12-hentriacontanol and 1-triacontanol. Their structures have been established by chemical and spectroscopic methods. Cytotoxic activities of 1 and 2 have been evaluated against several different cell lines.

  18. In Vitro Production of Echioidinin, 7-O-Methywogonin from Callus Cultures of Andrographis lineata and Their Cytotoxicity on Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Arifullah; Chiruvella, Kishore K.; Rao, Yerra Koteswara; Geethangili, Madamanchi; Raghavan, Sathees C.; Ghanta, Rama Gopal

    2015-01-01

    Andrographis lineata is an herbal medicinal plant used in traditional medicine as a substitute for Andrographis paniculata. Here, using mature leaf explants of A. lineata we demonstrate for the first time the callus induction established on MS medium containing 1.0 mg l–1 IAA. Dried callus was subjected to solvent extraction with acetone. Further the acetone residue was separated by silica gel column chromatography, crystallized and characterized on the basis of nuclear magnetic resonance (proton and c13) and liquid chromatographic mass spectroscopy. This analysis revealed the occurrence of two known flavones namely, 7-O-methylwogonin (MW) and Echioidinin (ED). Furthermore, these compounds were tested for their cytotoxicity against leukemic cell line, CEM. We identify that ED and MW induced cytotoxicity in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Further increase in the LDH release upon treatment with ED and MW further confirmed our cytotoxicity results against leukemic cell line. Strikingly, MW was more potent than ED when compared by trypan blue and MTT assays. Our results recapitulate the utility of callus cultures for the production of plant specific bioactive secondary metabolites instead of using wild plants. Together, our in vitro studies provide new insights of A. lineata callus cultures serving as a source for cancer chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:26488879

  19. Antiplasmodial Isoflavanes and Pterocarpans from Apoplanesia paniculata

    PubMed Central

    Su, Qingxi; Krai, Priscilla; Goetz, Michael; Cassera, Maria B.; Kingston, David G. I.

    2015-01-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of an EtOH extract of the roots of the plant Apoplanesia paniculata (Fabaceae) led to the isolation of the three known compounds amorphaquinone (1), pendulone (2) and melilotocarpan C (3) and the two new pterocarpans 4 and 5. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited good antiplasmodial activity with IC50 values of 5.7 ± 1.5 and 7.0 ± 0.8 µM, respectively. Compound 3 exhibited weak antiplasmodial activity (41.8 ± 5.2 µM), while compounds 4 and 5 were inactive. Compound 6 was synthesized to confirm the structure of 5, and it showed enhanced antiplasmodial activity (15.8 ± 1.4 µM) compared to its analogues 3 – 5. PMID:26018916

  20. SSR Marker Analysis of Genetic Relationships within Hydrangea paniculata

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic diversity studies using 26 simple-sequence repeat (SSR) markers were conducted with 36 taxa of Hydrangea paniculata Sieb. The SSR loci were highly variable among the taxa, producing a mean of 5.8 alleles per locus. Three cultivars (Boskoop, Compact Grandiflora and Webb) were either identic...

  1. Induction of Nrf2-dependent Antioxidation and Protection Against Carbon Tetrachloride-induced Liver Damage by Andrographis Herba (穿心蓮chuān xīn lián) Ethanolic Extract

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Haw-Wen; Huang, Yu-Ju; Yao, Hsien-Tsung; Lii, Chong-Kuei

    2012-01-01

    Andrographis paniculata is a traditional Chinese herb and displays diverse biological activities including antioxidation, anti-tumorigenesis, anti-virus, and anti-atherogenesis. In this study, we investigated the up-regulation of ethanolic extract of A. paniculata (APE) on the antioxidant defense in rat livers and whether this enhancement protected against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver damage. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were orally administered (i.g.) 0, 0.75, or 2 g/kg/d APE for 5 d. At d 6, rats were sacrificed and liver tissues were removed. Some animals (n=8) were intraperitoneally injected CCl4 (1 mL/kg, 50% in olive oil) and blood was drawn 24 h after CCl4 treatment. The results showed that APE increased hepatic glutathione (GSH) content and superoxide dismutase, GSH peroxidase, and GSH S-transferase activities in a dose-dependent manner (p < 0.05). Results of immunoblotting and RT-PCR revealed that rats treated with APE had higher glutamate cysteine ligase catalytic and modifier subunits, heme oxygenase 1, superoxide dismutase 1, and GSH S-transferase Ya and Yb protein and mRNA expression than those of control rats. Moreover, APE increased Nrf2 nuclear translocation and Nrf2 binding to DNA in rat liver. In the presence of CCl4, APE decreased hepatic thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances production and plasma aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase activities. These results suggest that APE protection against CCl4 insult is attributed, at least in part, to its up-regulation of antioxidant defense in rat liver. PMID:24716135

  2. Growth and Heavy Metal Accumulation of Koelreuteria Paniculata Seedlings and Their Potential for Restoring Manganese Mine Wastelands in Hunan, China

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zhihong; Xiang, Wenhua; Ma, Yu’e; Lei, Pifeng; Tian, Dalun; Deng, Xiangwen; Yan, Wende; Fang, Xi

    2015-01-01

    The planting of trees on mine wastelands is an effective, long-term technique for phytoremediation of heavy metal-contaminated wastes. In this study, a pot experiment with seedlings of Koelreuteria paniculata under six treatments of local mine wastes was designed to determine the major constraints on tree establishment and to evaluate the feasibility of planting K. paniculata on manganese mine wastelands. Results showed that K. paniculata grew well in mine tailings, and also under a regime of equal amounts of mine tailings and soil provided in adjacent halves of pots. In contrast, mine sludge did not favor survival and growth because its clay texture limited fine root development. The bio-concentration factor and the translocation factor were mostly less than 1, indicating a low phytoextraction potential for K. paniculata. K. paniculata is suited to restore manganese mine sludge by mixing the mine sludge with local mine tailings or soil. PMID:25654773

  3. Growth and heavy metal accumulation of Koelreuteria paniculata seedlings and their potential for restoring manganese mine wastelands in Hunan, China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhihong; Xiang, Wenhua; Ma, Yu'e; Lei, Pifeng; Tian, Dalun; Deng, Xiangwen; Yan, Wende; Fang, Xi

    2015-02-03

    The planting of trees on mine wastelands is an effective, long-term technique for phytoremediation of heavy metal-contaminated wastes. In this study, a pot experiment with seedlings of Koelreuteria paniculata under six treatments of local mine wastes was designed to determine the major constraints on tree establishment and to evaluate the feasibility of planting K. paniculata on manganese mine wastelands. Results showed that K. paniculata grew well in mine tailings, and also under a regime of equal amounts of mine tailings and soil provided in adjacent halves of pots. In contrast, mine sludge did not favor survival and growth because its clay texture limited fine root development. The bio-concentration factor and the translocation factor were mostly less than 1, indicating a low phytoextraction potential for K. paniculata. K. paniculata is suited to restore manganese mine sludge by mixing the mine sludge with local mine tailings or soil.

  4. In vitro anti oxidant activity and acute oral toxicity of Terminalia paniculata bark ethanolic extract on Sprague Dawley rats

    PubMed Central

    Mopuri, Ramgopal; Meriga, Balaji

    2014-01-01

    Objective To ensure the safety and evaluate the anti oxidant activity of Terminalia paniculata (T. paniculata) ethanolic extract in Sprague Dawley rats. Methods The solvent extracts (hexane, ethyl acetate and ethanol) of T. paniculata were subjected to phytochemical analysis and their DPPH radical scavenging activity was assayed. The oral acute toxicity was evaluated using ethanolic extract of T. paniculata. Results Ethyl acetate and ethanolic extracts showed more phytochemicals, whereas highest DPPH scavenging activity was found in ethanolic extract. In an acute toxicity study, T. paniculata ethanolic extract was orally administered (1 000 mg/kg body weight) to rats and observed for 72 h for any toxic symptoms and the dose was continued up to 14 d. On the 15th day rats were sacrificed and blood samples were collected from control and test animals and analyzed for some biochemical parameters. We did not observe any behavioral changes in test groups in comparison with their controls. Also, there were no significant alterations in biochemical, hematological (hemoglobin content and blood cells count) and liver function parameters such as serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, total proteins, albumin and bilirubin levels between T. paniculata ethanolic extract treated and normal control groups. Conclusions Together our results demonstrated that T. paniculata ethanolic possessed potent antioxidant activity and it was safer and non toxic to rats even at higher doses and therefore could be well considered for further investigation for its medicinal and therapeutic efficacy. PMID:25182554

  5. Pollen viability of Polygala paniculata L. (Polygalaceae) using different staining methods.

    PubMed

    Frescura, Viviane Dal-Souto; Laughinghouse, Haywood Dail; do Canto-Dorow, Thais Scotti; Tedesco, Solange Bosio

    2012-12-01

    Polygala paniculata L. is a medicinal plant that grows in the Brazilian Atlantic coast, known as 'barba-de-São-João', 'barba-de-bode', 'vassourinha branca', and 'mimosa'. In this study, pollen viability was estimated by three different staining methods: 2% acetic orcein, 2% acetic carmine, and Alexander's stain. The young inflorescences of twenty accessions were collected and fixed in a solution of ethanol: acetic acid (3:1) for 24 hours, then stored in ethanol 70% under refrigeration. Six slides per plant, two for each stain, were prepared by squashing, and 300 pollen grains per slide were analyzed. Pollen viability was high (> 70%) for most accessions of P. paniculata using the Alexander's stain, which proved the most adequate method to estimate pollen viability.

  6. Association of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’, the causal agent of citrus huanglongbing in Murraya paniculata and Diaphorina citri in Thailand

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Orange jasmine, Murraya paniculata, is a preferred alternative host for the Asian citrus psyllid, the primary vector of citrus Huanglongbing (HLB) disease caused by ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (Las). M. paniculata plant samples and psyllids on the Murraya plants from ten diverse geographical...

  7. Chemical Constituents from Andrographis echioides and Their Anti-Inflammatory Activity

    PubMed Central

    Shen, De-Yang; Juang, Shin-Hun; Kuo, Ping-Chung; Huang, Guan-Jhong; Chan, Yu-Yi; Damu, Amooru G.; Wu, Tian-Shung

    2013-01-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the whole plants of Andrographis echioides afforded two new 2′-oxygenated flavonoids (1) and (2), two new phenyl glycosides (3) and (4), along with 37 known structures. The structures of new compounds were elucidated by spectral analysis and chemical transformation studies. Among the isolated compounds, (1–2) and (6–19) were subjected into the examination for their iNOS inhibitory bioactivity. The structure-activity relationships of the flavonoids for their inhibition of NO production were also discussed. PMID:23271366

  8. The differentially-expressed proteome in Zn/Cd hyperaccumulator Arabis paniculata Franch. in response to Zn and Cd.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xiao-Wen; Qiu, Rong-Liang; Ying, Rong-Rong; Tang, Ye-Tao; Tang, Lu; Fang, Xiao-Hang

    2011-01-01

    The Zn/Cd hyperaccumulator Arabis paniculata is able to tolerate high level of Zn and Cd. To clarify the molecular basis of Zn and Cd tolerance, proteomic approaches were applied to identify proteins involved in Zn and Cd stress response in A. paniculata. Plants were exposed to both low and high Zn or Cd levels for 10 d. Proteins of leaves in each treatment were separated by 2-DE (two-dimensional electrophoresis). Nineteen differentially-expressed proteins upon Zn treatments and 18 proteins upon Cd treatments were observed. Seventeen out of 19 of Zn-responsive proteins and 16 out of 18 of Cd-responsive proteins were identified using MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry). The most of identified proteins were known to function in energy metabolism, xenobiotic/antioxidant defense, cellular metabolism, protein metabolism, suggesting the responses of A. paniculata to Zn and Cd share similar pathway to certain extend. However, the different metal defense was also revealed between Zn and Cd treatment in A. paniculata. These results indicated that A. paniculata against to Zn stress mainly by enhancement of energy metabolism including auxin biosynthesis and protein metabolism to maintain plant growth and correct misfolded proteins. In the case of Cd, plants adopted antioxidative/xenobiotic defense and cellular metabolism to keep cellular redox homeostasis and metal-transportation under Cd stress. PMID:21074242

  9. Antioxidative response to Cd in a newly discovered cadmium hyperaccumulator, Arabis paniculata F.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Rong-Liang; Zhao, Xuan; Tang, Ye-Tao; Yu, Fang-Ming; Hu, Peng-Jie

    2008-12-01

    A hydroponic experiment was carried out to study the effect of cadmium (Cd) on growth, Cd accumulation, lipid peroxidation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) content and antioxidative enzymes in leaves and roots of Arabis paniculata F., a new Cd hyperaccumuator found in China. The results showed that 22-89 microM Cd in solution enhanced the growth of A. paniculata after three weeks, with 21-27% biomass increase compared to the control. Cd concentrations in shoots and roots increased with increasing Cd supply levels, and reached a maximum of 1662 and 8670 mg kg(-1) Cd dry weight at 178 microM Cd treatment, respectively. In roots, 22-89 microM Cd reduced the content of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide (O(2)(-1)) and H(2)O(2) as well as the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR). In leaves, the contents of MDA, O(2)(-1) and H(2)O(2) remained unaffected by 22-89 microM Cd, while 178 microM Cd treatment significantly increased the MDA content, 69.5% higher than that of the control; generally, the activities of SOD, catalase (CAT), GPX and APX showed an increasing pattern with increasing Cd supply levels. Our present work concluded that A. paniculata has a great capability of Cd tolerance and accumulation. Moderate Cd treatment (22-89 microM Cd) alleviated the oxidative stress in roots, while higher level of Cd addition (178 microM) could cause an increasing generation of ROS, which was effectively scavenged by the antioxidative system. PMID:18992910

  10. In Vitro antibacterial and in Vivo cytotoxic activities of Grewia paniculata

    PubMed Central

    Nasrin, Mahmuda; Dash, Pritesh Ranjan; Ali, Mohammad Shawkat

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Grewia paniculata (Family: Malvaceae) has been used to treat inflammation, respiratory disorders and fever. It is additionally employed for other health conditions including colds, diarrhea and as an insecticide in Bangladesh. The aim of the present study was to investigate the antibacterial and cytotoxic activities of different extracts of Grewia paniculata. Materials and Methods: The antibacterial activity was evaluated against both gram negative and gram positive bacteria using disc diffusion method by determination of the diameter of zone of inhibition. Cytotoxic activity was performed by brine shrimp (Artemia salina) lethality bioassay. Results: In disc diffusion method, all the natural products (400 μg/disc) showed moderate to potent activity against all the tested bacteria. The ethanol extract of bark (EEB) and ethanol fraction of bark (EFB) (400 μg/disc) exhibited highest activity against Shigella dysenteriae with a zone of inhibition of 23±1.63 mm and 23±1.77 mm respectively. In the brine shrimp lethality bioassay all the extracts showed moderate cytotoxic activity when compared with the standard drug vincristin sulphate. For example, LC50 value of the ethanol fraction of bark (EFB) was 3.01 μg/ml while the LC50 of vincristine sulphate was 0.52 μg/ml. Conclusions: The results suggest that all the natural products possess potent antibacterial and moderate cytotoxic. PMID:25949950

  11. Effect of Flabellaria paniculata Cav. extracts on gastric ulcer in rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The leaves and root of Flabellaria paniculata (Malpighiaceae) are frequently used in the treatment of wounds and ulcers in Nigerian folk medicine. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of ethanolic extracts from the leaves (FPL) and root (FPR) of F. paniculata on gastric ulcers in rats. Methods The effect of FPL and FPR (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) was evaluated in ethanol and indomethacin gastric ulcer models. Control groups for FPL and FPR were orally treated with 3% Tween 20 and distilled water respectively. FPL was further investigated in pylorus ligation model. Misoprostol and cimetidine were used as reference. Results FPL significantly (P < 0.05) reduced gastric lesions by 82.22% and 67.32% in ethanol and indomethacin induced ulcer models at 100 mg/kg respectively while FPR (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) did not exert significant effect in the two models. In pylorus ligation model, FPL exerted a significant preventive antiulcer effect as indicated by reduction in gastric volume at 200 and 400 mg/kg doses. Only 400 mg/kg of the extract exerted a significant reduction in ulcer index when compared with the control group. The oral route LD50 of FPL was estimated to be 4570 mg/kg while that of FPR was 2754 mg/kg. The LD50 in intraperitoneal injection was estimated to be 1202.26 and 1380.38 mg/kg for FPL and FPR respectively. The phytochemical investigation showed that both extracts possess triterpenoids and saponin, while the presence of flavonoid was detected only in FPL. Conclusions The results of this study indicated that FPL and not FPR is effective against experimentally induced gastric ulcers. The presence of varied phytochemical constituents probably influenced the pharmacological differences between the two extracts. PMID:23031805

  12. Stimulating property of Turnera diffusa and Pfaffia paniculata extracts on the sexual-behavior of male rats.

    PubMed

    Arletti, R; Benelli, A; Cavazzuti, E; Scarpetta, G; Bertolini, A

    1999-03-01

    Sexually potent and sexually sluggish/impotent male rats were treated orally with different amounts of Turnera diffusa and Pfaffia paniculata fluid extracts (0.25, 0.50, 1.0 ml/kg). While having no effect on the copulatory behavior of sexually potent rats, both plant extracts--singly or in combination--improved the copulatory performance of sexually sluggish/impotent rats. The highest dose of either extract (1 ml/kg) (as well as the combination of 0.5 ml/kg of each extract) increased the percentage of rats achieving ejaculation and significantly reduced mount, intromission and ejaculation latencies, post-ejaculatory interval and intercopulatory interval. Neither extract affected locomotor activity. These results seem to support the folk reputation of Turnera diffusa and Pfaffia paniculata as sexual stimulants. PMID:10227074

  13. Phytochemical Screening and Antinociceptive and Antidiarrheal Activities of Hydromethanol and Petroleum Benzene Extract of Microcos paniculata Barks

    PubMed Central

    Moushome, Rafath Ara; Akter, Mst. Irin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Microcos paniculata is traditionally used for treating diarrhea, wounds, cold, fever, hepatitis, dyspepsia, and heat stroke. Objective. To investigate the qualitative phytochemical constituents of hydromethanol (HMPB) and petroleum benzene extract of Microcos paniculata barks (PBMPB) and to evaluate their antinociceptive and antidiarrheal activities. Methods. Phytochemical constituents and antinociceptive and antidiarrheal activities were determined and evaluated by different tests such as Molisch's, Fehling's, Mayer's, Wagner's, Dragendorff's, frothing, FeCl3, alkali, Pew's, and Salkowski's test, general test of glycosides, Baljet and NH4OH test, formalin-induced paw licking, acetic acid-induced writhing, tail immersion, and hot plate tests, and castor oil and MgSO4 induced diarrheal tests. Results. These extracts revealed the presence of saponins, flavonoids, and triterpenoids and significantly (⁎P < 0.05, versus control) reduced paw licking and abdominal writhing of mice. At 30 min after their administration, PBMPB revealed significant increase in latency (⁎P < 0.05, versus control) in tail immersion test. In hot plate test, HMPB and PBMPB 200 mg/kg showed significant increase in response latency (⁎P < 0.05, versus control) at 30 min after their administration. Moreover, both extracts significantly (⁎P < 0.05, versus control) inhibited percentage of diarrhea in antidiarrheal models. Conclusion. Study results indicate that M. paniculata may provide a source of plant compounds with antinociceptive and antidiarrheal activities. PMID:27777944

  14. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using methanolic root extracts of Diospyros paniculata and their antimicrobial activities.

    PubMed

    Rao, N Hanumanta; N, Lakshmidevi; Pammi, S V N; Kollu, Pratap; S, Ganapaty; P, Lakshmi

    2016-05-01

    Since the discovery and subsequent widespread use of antibiotics, a variety of bacterial species of human and animal origin have developed numerous mechanisms that render bacteria resistant to some, and in certain cases to nearly all antibiotics, thereby limiting the treatment options and compromising effective therapy. In the present study, the green synthesis of nanoparticles is carried out by the reduction of silver acetate in the presence of crude methanolic root extracts of Diospyros paniculata, a member of family Ebenaceae. The UV-Vis absorption spectrum of the biologically reduced reaction mixture showed the surface plasmon peak at 428 nm, a characteristic peak of silver nanoparticles. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed the face-centered cubic crystalline structure of metallic silver. The average diameter of Ag NPs is about 17 nm from Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) which is in good agreement with the average crystallite size (19 nm) calculated from XRD analysis. Further the study has been extended to the antimicrobial activity against test pathogenic Gram (+), Gram (-) bacterial and fungal strains. The biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles showed promising activity against all the tested pathogenic strains and the activity has been enhanced with the increased dose levels. PMID:26952458

  15. Comparative anatomy of gall development on Gypsophila paniculata induced by bacteria with different mechanisms of pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Chalupowicz, L; Barash, I; Schwartz, M; Aloni, R; Manulis, S

    2006-07-01

    Galls induced on Gypsophila paniculata by Pantoea agglomerans pv. gypsophilae (Pag) and Agrobacterium tumefaciens (At), bacteria with different mechanisms of pathogenicity, were compared morphologically and anatomically. The pathogenicity of Pag is dependent on the presence of an indigenous plasmid that harbors hrp gene cluster, genes encoding Hop virulence proteins and biosynthetic genes for auxin (IAA) and cytokinins (CKs), whereas that of At involves host transformation. The Pag-induced gall was rough, brittle and exhibited limited growth, in contrast to the smooth, firm appearance and continuous growth of the At-induced gall. Anatomical analysis revealed the presence of cells with enlarged nuclei and multiple nucleoli, giant cells and suberin deposition in Pag that were absent from At-induced galls. Although circular vessels were observed in both gall types, they were more numerous and the vascular system was more organized in At. An aerenchymal tissue was observed in the upper part of the galls. Ethylene emission from Pag galls, recorded 6 days after inoculation, was eight times as great as that from non-infected controls. In contrast, a significant decrease in ethylene production was observed in Gypsophila cuttings infected with Pag mutants deficient in IAA and CK production. The results presented are best accounted for by the two pathogens having distinct pathogenicity mechanisms that lead to their differential recognition by the host as non-self (Pag) and self (At).

  16. Two phases of response to long-term moderate heat: Variation in thermotolerance between Arabidopsis thaliana and its relative Arabis paniculata.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ting; Liu, Peile; Zheng, Guowei; Li, Weiqi

    2016-02-01

    Long-term moderate heat is often experienced by plants and will become even more common in the future due to global warming. However, the responses of plants to this stress have not been characterised. In the present study, growth between Arabidopsis thaliana and its relative Arabis paniculata upon long-term exposure to moderate heat was compared. It was found that the latter was more tolerant than the former, and the patterns of physiological and biochemical responses of both plants presented two phases. The early phase involved no significant visible morphological and physiological changes. It occurred during the first third of the heat treatment and was extended when the stress was attenuated. During the later phase, the plants died or were damaged. Heat shock proteins were dramatically induced at the early phase and gradually decreased at the later phase in A. thaliana. By contrast, the levels were induced and maintained in A. paniculata. Profiling of membrane lipids found that the two plants exhibited opposite patterns of lipid remodelling at the early phase: A. paniculata synthesised phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylinositol and showed a rapid decrease in the degree of lipid unsaturation, while A. thaliana degraded its lipids at the early phase and showed an accelerated degradation at the later phase. These biochemical adjustments during the early phase could favor the thermotolerance of A. paniculata. These results suggest that this species could thus be a model for the study of resistance to long-term moderate heat, through a strategy by which plants can adapt to long-term moderate heat.

  17. Two phases of response to long-term moderate heat: Variation in thermotolerance between Arabidopsis thaliana and its relative Arabis paniculata.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ting; Liu, Peile; Zheng, Guowei; Li, Weiqi

    2016-02-01

    Long-term moderate heat is often experienced by plants and will become even more common in the future due to global warming. However, the responses of plants to this stress have not been characterised. In the present study, growth between Arabidopsis thaliana and its relative Arabis paniculata upon long-term exposure to moderate heat was compared. It was found that the latter was more tolerant than the former, and the patterns of physiological and biochemical responses of both plants presented two phases. The early phase involved no significant visible morphological and physiological changes. It occurred during the first third of the heat treatment and was extended when the stress was attenuated. During the later phase, the plants died or were damaged. Heat shock proteins were dramatically induced at the early phase and gradually decreased at the later phase in A. thaliana. By contrast, the levels were induced and maintained in A. paniculata. Profiling of membrane lipids found that the two plants exhibited opposite patterns of lipid remodelling at the early phase: A. paniculata synthesised phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylinositol and showed a rapid decrease in the degree of lipid unsaturation, while A. thaliana degraded its lipids at the early phase and showed an accelerated degradation at the later phase. These biochemical adjustments during the early phase could favor the thermotolerance of A. paniculata. These results suggest that this species could thus be a model for the study of resistance to long-term moderate heat, through a strategy by which plants can adapt to long-term moderate heat. PMID:26782026

  18. Effect of andrographolide on phosphatases activity and cytotoxicity against Spodoptera litura

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development of biorational insecticides from plant extracts, holds promise for many farmers in developing countries as an affordable alternative to commercially available pesticides. The chemical andrographolide was isolated using ethanol extraction of the leaves of Andrographis paniculata, an annua...

  19. Phytochemical Analysis and Modulation of Antibiotic Activity by Luehea paniculata Mart. & Zucc. (Malvaceae) in Multiresistant Clinical Isolates of Candida Spp.

    PubMed Central

    Calixto Júnior, João T.; Morais, Selene M.; Martins, Clécio G.; Vieira, Larissa G.; Morais-Braga, Maria Flaviana B.; Carneiro, Joara N. P.; Machado, Antonio J. P.; Menezes, Irwin R. A.; Tintino, Saulo R.; Coutinho, Henrique D. M.

    2015-01-01

    The high incidence of fungal infections has led to the continuous search for new drugs. Extracts of Luehea paniculata, a tree of multiple medicinal uses, were evaluated for anti-Candida activity, as well as its modulator potential of the Fluconazole antibiotic. Chemical prospecting of ethanol extracts of leaf and bark was carried out, the quantification of total phenols and flavonoids, characterized by the HPLC-DAD technique. The rosmarinic acid and the vitexin flavonoid were observed as major constituents in ELELP and ESWELP, respectively. Antioxidant activity was also evaluated by the method of scavenging the free radical DPPH, and quercetin was used as standard, obtaining IC50 values: 0.341 (mg/mL) for ELELP and 0.235 (mg/mL) for ESWELP. The microdilution assay was performed for antifungal activity against strains of Candida albicans, C. krusei, and C. tropicalis and showed minimum inhibitory concentrations values ≥1024 μg/mL. In the modulator action of extracts on Fluconazole against multiresistant clinical isolates of Candida (subinhibitory concentration minimum of 128 μg/mL), a significant synergism was observed, indicating that the extracts potentiated the antifungal effect against C. tropicalis, where antioxidant flavonoids could be responsible. This is the first report about modifying activity of the antibiotic action of a species of the genus Luehea. PMID:25821822

  20. Improvement of friable callus production of Boerhaavia paniculata Rich and the investigation of its lipid profile by GC/MS.

    PubMed

    Souza, Joanne M M; Berkov, Strahill; Santos, Alberdan S

    2014-09-01

    In this study, a protocol to induce high amount of friable callus of Boerhaavia paniculata RICH and a lipidomics technique were applied to investigate the profile of lipids to relate to those present in the roots of this plant that presented anti-inflammatory activity in the crude hexane extract. The callus culture was induced from seeds in solidified Murashige and Skoog medium containing different amounts of glucose and different concentrations of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. The explants were kept in a germination chamber at 30±2°C with a photoperiod of 16 h under light intensity of 27 µmol m-2 s-1 for 4 weeks. The best results for friable callus formation and development of the biomass were obtained in the treatment containing 2.26 µM 2.4-D and glucose (1.5 %; w/v). Lipidomics techniques were applied in hexane fraction showing higher concentrations of the steroids β-sitosterol (3.53 mg/100 g dc-dry cells), and fatty acids, especially 2-hydroxy-tetracosanoic acid (0.34 mg/100 g dc), eicosanoic acid (86.25 mg/100 g dc), stearic acid (420.83 mg/100 g dc), tetradecanoic acid (10.74 mg/100 g dc) and linoleic acid (100.61 mg/100 g dc). The lipid profile of callus versus that found in the roots of wild plant is described in this work. PMID:25211097

  1. Phytochemical analysis and modulation of antibiotic activity by Luehea paniculata Mart. & Zucc. (Malvaceae) in multiresistant clinical isolates of Candida spp.

    PubMed

    Calixto Júnior, João T; Morais, Selene M; Martins, Clécio G; Vieira, Larissa G; Morais-Braga, Maria Flaviana B; Carneiro, Joara N P; Machado, Antonio J P; Menezes, Irwin R A; Tintino, Saulo R; Coutinho, Henrique D M

    2015-01-01

    The high incidence of fungal infections has led to the continuous search for new drugs. Extracts of Luehea paniculata, a tree of multiple medicinal uses, were evaluated for anti-Candida activity, as well as its modulator potential of the Fluconazole antibiotic. Chemical prospecting of ethanol extracts of leaf and bark was carried out, the quantification of total phenols and flavonoids, characterized by the HPLC-DAD technique. The rosmarinic acid and the vitexin flavonoid were observed as major constituents in ELELP and ESWELP, respectively. Antioxidant activity was also evaluated by the method of scavenging the free radical DPPH, and quercetin was used as standard, obtaining IC50 values: 0.341 (mg/mL) for ELELP and 0.235 (mg/mL) for ESWELP. The microdilution assay was performed for antifungal activity against strains of Candida albicans, C. krusei, and C. tropicalis and showed minimum inhibitory concentrations values ≥1024 μg/mL. In the modulator action of extracts on Fluconazole against multiresistant clinical isolates of Candida (subinhibitory concentration minimum of 128 μg/mL), a significant synergism was observed, indicating that the extracts potentiated the antifungal effect against C. tropicalis, where antioxidant flavonoids could be responsible. This is the first report about modifying activity of the antibiotic action of a species of the genus Luehea. PMID:25821822

  2. [Impact of canopy structural characteristics on inner air temperature and relative humidity of Koelreuteria paniculata community in summer].

    PubMed

    Qin, Zhong; Li, Zhan-dong; Cheng, Fang-yun; Sha, Hai-feng

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the diurnal variation of the correlations between the cooling and humidifying effects and canopy structural characteristics of the Koelreuteria paniculata community, the measurements of air temperature, relative humidity, canopy density, leaf area index (LAI) and mean leaf angle (MLA) were performed on calm sunny summer days in the community in Beijing Olympic Forest Park, China. There were significant correlations between the canopy density, LAI and MLA, which affected the cooling and humidifying effects together. The cooling effect reached its maximum by 12:00, whereas the humidifying effect reached its peak at 10:00. Compared with the control open space site, the community appeared to lower the air temperature by 0.43 to 7.53 °C and to increase the relative humidity by 1%-22% during the daytime. However, the cooling and humidifying effects seem to be not effective during the night. The canopy density and LAI were better for determining the cooling and humidifying effects from 9:00 to 12:00. However, these effects were largely controlled only by the canopy density from 12:00 to 14:00 and were significantly correlated with the canopy density and LAI afterwards until 18:00.

  3. Warfarin and coumarin-like Murraya paniculata extract down-regulate EpCAM-mediated cell adhesion: individual components versus mixture for studying botanical metastatic chemopreventives

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Jingwei; Zhou, Suxia; Jiang, Zhou; Chi, Ting; Ma, Ji; Kuo, Minliang; Lee, Alan Yueh-Luen; Jia, Lee

    2016-01-01

    We recently defined cancer metastatic chemoprevention as utilizing safe and effective molecules to comprehensively prevent the spark of activation-adhesion-extravasation-proliferation metastatic cascade caused by circulating tumor cells (CTCs). The strategy focuses on preventing the most important starting point of the cascade. We identified an extract from a well-known medical plant Murraya paniculata, which inhibited both embryonic implantation to human endometrium as traditionally-used for abortion and CTC adhesion to human endothelium. Here, we separated and characterized five coumarin-containing components (Z1–Z5) from the botanic extract. Flow cytometry revealed that within 1–100 μg/mL, Z3 and Z5 down-regulated EpCAM expression in human colon HCT116, whereas, Z1 and Z2 did oppositely. Warfarin and Z1-Z5 component mixture (CM) also down-regulated EpCAM expression. The down-regulation of EpCAM by Z3, Z5, CM and warfarin was confirmed by western blotting, and caused inhibition on adhesion of cancer cells to human endothelial cells. Rat coagulation study showed that warfarin prolonged prothrombin time, whereas, Z3 did not. The present studies revealed that, for the first time, warfarin and coumarin-like components Z3, Z5 and CM from Murraya paniculata could directly inhibit EpCAM-mediated cell-cell adhesion. PMID:27480614

  4. Warfarin and coumarin-like Murraya paniculata extract down-regulate EpCAM-mediated cell adhesion: individual components versus mixture for studying botanical metastatic chemopreventives.

    PubMed

    Shao, Jingwei; Zhou, Suxia; Jiang, Zhou; Chi, Ting; Ma, Ji; Kuo, Minliang; Lee, Alan Yueh-Luen; Jia, Lee

    2016-01-01

    We recently defined cancer metastatic chemoprevention as utilizing safe and effective molecules to comprehensively prevent the spark of activation-adhesion-extravasation-proliferation metastatic cascade caused by circulating tumor cells (CTCs). The strategy focuses on preventing the most important starting point of the cascade. We identified an extract from a well-known medical plant Murraya paniculata, which inhibited both embryonic implantation to human endometrium as traditionally-used for abortion and CTC adhesion to human endothelium. Here, we separated and characterized five coumarin-containing components (Z1-Z5) from the botanic extract. Flow cytometry revealed that within 1-100 μg/mL, Z3 and Z5 down-regulated EpCAM expression in human colon HCT116, whereas, Z1 and Z2 did oppositely. Warfarin and Z1-Z5 component mixture (CM) also down-regulated EpCAM expression. The down-regulation of EpCAM by Z3, Z5, CM and warfarin was confirmed by western blotting, and caused inhibition on adhesion of cancer cells to human endothelial cells. Rat coagulation study showed that warfarin prolonged prothrombin time, whereas, Z3 did not. The present studies revealed that, for the first time, warfarin and coumarin-like components Z3, Z5 and CM from Murraya paniculata could directly inhibit EpCAM-mediated cell-cell adhesion. PMID:27480614

  5. [Influence of exogenous salicylic acid on the level of phytohormones in tissues of Phlox paniculata and Phlox setacea leaves with special reference to resistance against the powdery mildew causative agent Erysiphe cichoracearum D.C. f. phlogis Jacz].

    PubMed

    Talieva, M N; Kondrat'eva, V V

    2002-01-01

    We studied the effects of exogenous salicylic acid on the level of endogenous cytokinins and abscisic and salicylic acids in the tissues of leaves of phloxes contrasting in resistance against the powdery mildew causative agent: susceptible Phlox paniculata L. and resistant Ph. setacea L. Studies were carried out under the conditions of biotic stress. The initial level of salicylic and abscisic acids and cytokinins is the highest in the resistant phlox species. After treatment with salicylic species, the total level of cytokinins and endogenous salicylic acid increased in both species. When the treated phlox species were infected by the powdery mildew causative agent, the level of abscisic and salicylic acids increased in the susceptible Ph. paniculata, while that of cytokinins increased in the resistant Ph. setacea. The role of salicylic acid in the induction of plant defense reactions against phytopathogens is discussed.

  6. Dose and time-dependent sub-chronic toxicity study of hydroethanolic leaf extract of Flabellaria paniculata Cav. (Malpighiaceae) in rodents.

    PubMed

    Akindele, Abidemi J; Adeneye, Adejuwon A; Salau, Oluwole S; Sofidiya, Margaret O; Benebo, Adokiye S

    2014-01-01

    Flabellaria paniculata Cav. (Malpighiaceae) is a climbing shrub, the preparations of which are used in the treatment of wounds and ulcers in Nigeria and Ghana. This study investigated the sub-chronic toxicity profile of the hydroethanolic leaf extract of F. paniculata (HLE-FP). HLE-FP was administered p.o. (20, 100, and 500 mg/kg) for 30 and 60 days to different groups of rats. Control animals received 10 ml/kg distilled water. In the group of animals for reversibility study, HLE-FP administration ceased on the 60th day and animals were monitored for a further 15 days. Results showed that oral treatment with HLE-FP for 30 days caused significant (p < 0.05) reductions in weight gain pattern compared to control. These changes were sustained with 60 days treatment. However, no significant (p > 0.05) differences in relative organ weights between control and treatment groups were observed. HLE-FP-treated rats showed significant (p < 0.05) increases in Hb, PCV and RBC on day 30 and significant (p < 0.05) increases in MCV and MCH indices on day 60 compared to control. There were significant (p < 0.05) elevations in serum K(+), urea and creatinine compared to control. The liver function tests showed slight but non-significant alterations in relevant parameters when compared to control. Biochemical findings were supported by histopathological observations of vital organs including the kidney and liver. Toxicities observed in respect of kidney function were irreversible at 15 days of stoppage of treatment. In the acute toxicity study, HLE-FP given p.o. caused no lethality at 5000 mg/kg but behavioral manifestations like restlessness, generalized body tremor, feed, and water refusal were observed. The i.p. LD50 was estimated to be 2951.2 mg/kg. Findings in this study showed that HLE-FP is relatively non-toxic on acute exposure and generally safe on sub-chronic administration, but could be deleterious on the kidneys on prolonged oral exposure at a high dose. Thus, caution

  7. Dose and time-dependent sub-chronic toxicity study of hydroethanolic leaf extract of Flabellaria paniculata Cav. (Malpighiaceae) in rodents

    PubMed Central

    Akindele, Abidemi J.; Adeneye, Adejuwon A.; Salau, Oluwole S.; Sofidiya, Margaret O.; Benebo, Adokiye S.

    2014-01-01

    Flabellaria paniculata Cav. (Malpighiaceae) is a climbing shrub, the preparations of which are used in the treatment of wounds and ulcers in Nigeria and Ghana. This study investigated the sub-chronic toxicity profile of the hydroethanolic leaf extract of F. paniculata (HLE-FP). HLE-FP was administered p.o. (20, 100, and 500 mg/kg) for 30 and 60 days to different groups of rats. Control animals received 10 ml/kg distilled water. In the group of animals for reversibility study, HLE-FP administration ceased on the 60th day and animals were monitored for a further 15 days. Results showed that oral treatment with HLE-FP for 30 days caused significant (p < 0.05) reductions in weight gain pattern compared to control. These changes were sustained with 60 days treatment. However, no significant (p > 0.05) differences in relative organ weights between control and treatment groups were observed. HLE-FP-treated rats showed significant (p < 0.05) increases in Hb, PCV and RBC on day 30 and significant (p < 0.05) increases in MCV and MCH indices on day 60 compared to control. There were significant (p < 0.05) elevations in serum K+, urea and creatinine compared to control. The liver function tests showed slight but non-significant alterations in relevant parameters when compared to control. Biochemical findings were supported by histopathological observations of vital organs including the kidney and liver. Toxicities observed in respect of kidney function were irreversible at 15 days of stoppage of treatment. In the acute toxicity study, HLE-FP given p.o. caused no lethality at 5000 mg/kg but behavioral manifestations like restlessness, generalized body tremor, feed, and water refusal were observed. The i.p. LD50 was estimated to be 2951.2 mg/kg. Findings in this study showed that HLE-FP is relatively non-toxic on acute exposure and generally safe on sub-chronic administration, but could be deleterious on the kidneys on prolonged oral exposure at a high dose. Thus, caution should

  8. The P-700-chlorophyl alpha-protein complex and two major light-harvesting complexes of Acrocarpia paniculata and other brown seaweeds.

    PubMed

    Barrett, J; Anderson, J M

    1980-05-01

    Acrocarpia paniculata thylakoids were fragmented with Triton X-100 and the pigment-protein complexes so released were isolated by sucrose density gradient centrifugation. Three main chlorophyll-carotenoid-protein complexes with distinct pigment compositions were isolated. (1) A P-700-chlorophyll a-protein complex, with a ratio of 1 P-700: 38 chlorophyll a: 4 beta-carotene molecules, had similar absorption and fluorescence characteristics to the chlorophyll-protein complex 1 isolated with Triton X-100 from higher plants, green algae and Ecklonia radiata. (2) an orange-brown complex had a chlorophyll a : c2 : fucoxanthin molar ratio of 2 : 1 : 2. this complex had no chlorophyll c1 and contained most of the fucoxanthin present in the chloroplasts. This pigment complex is postulated to be the main light-harvesting complex of brown seaweeds. (3) A green complex had a chlorophyll a : c1 : c2 : violaxanthin molar ratio of 8 : 1 : 1. This also is a light-harvesting complex. the absorption and fluorescence spectral characteristics and other physical properties were consistent with the pigments of these three major complexes being bound to protein. Differential extraction of brown algal thylakoids with Triton X-100 showed that a chlorophyll c2-fucoxanthin-protein complex was a minor pigment complex of these thylakoids. PMID:7378391

  9. The paradigm-shifting idea and its practice: from traditional abortion Chinese medicine Murraya paniculata to safe and effective cancer metastatic chemopreventives.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhou; Pang, Yaqiong; Yu, Xiaobo; Zhou, Suxia; Qian, Jun; Zheng, Ning; Dong, Haiyan; Shi, Qing; Kuo, Minliang; Jia, Lee

    2016-04-19

    Recent large epidemiological studies demonstrated benefit of oral contraceptives in reducing cancer risk, and our analysis also showed molecular and cellular similarities between embryo implantation and CTCs adhesion-invasion to endothelium. We here hypothesize that abortion traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) may serve well for pre-metastatic chemoprevention. To test the hypothesis, we selected the safe and well-known abortifacient TCM Murraya paniculata and identified a most-promising extracted fraction G (containing flavonoids and coumarins) from its many raw ethanol/dichloromethane extracts by using the bioactivity-guided fast screen assay. G showed free radical scavenging effect, and specifically inhibited both embryo implantation to human endometrial bed and cancer HT29 cells to human endothelium in a concentration-dependent manner (1-30 μg/mL) without significant cytotoxicity demonstrated by its high adhesion inhibition ratio. The inhibition may result from its down-regulation on expression of integrin β1 and α6, and CD44 on HT29 cells, as well as E-selectin on endothelial cells. Furthermore, G inhibited invasion and migration of HT29 cells. Pretreatment followed by one-month oral administration of G to the immunocompetent mice inoculated with mouse melanoma cells produced significant inhibition on lung metastasis without marked side effects. Collectively, this paradigm-shifting study provides, for the first time, a new strategy to discover safe and effective pre-metastatic chemopreventives from abortion TCM.

  10. Skimmin, a Coumarin from Hydrangea paniculata, Slows down the Progression of Membranous Glomerulonephritis by Anti-Inflammatory Effects and Inhibiting Immune Complex Deposition

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Hongqi; Li, Yan; Zhang, Dongming; Shi, Jing; Yang, Jingzhi

    2013-01-01

    Skimmin is one of the major pharmacologically active molecules present in Hydrangea paniculata, a medical herb used in the traditional Chinese medicine as an anti-inflammatory agent. In the current study, we attempted to investigate its renoprotective activity and underlying mechanisms in a rat model of membranous glomerulonephritis induced by cationic bovine serum albumin (c-BSA). Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into five groups, including normal control, model control, Mycophenolate Mofetil-treated group, and two skimming-treated groups (15 mg/kg and 30 mg/kg). Our research showed that treatment with skimmin significantly reduced the levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN), urinary albumin excretion (UAE), and serum creatinine (Scr) as compared with model control after experimental induction of membranous glomerulonephritis (P < 0.01). Moreover, glomerular hypercellularity, tubulointerstitial injury, and glomerular deposition of IgG were less intense after skimmin treatment. By immunochemistry analysis, we demonstrated that skimmin could significantly inhibit interleukin-1β (IL1β) and IL-6 expression (P < 0.05), reduce the loss of nephrin and podocin, and suppress the infiltration of renal interstitium by CD3-positive T cell and CD20-positive B cell. These results suggest that treatment with skimmin can significantly improve renal function and suppress the IgG deposition as well as the development of glomerular lesions in a rat model of membranous glomerulonephritis. PMID:23990847

  11. The paradigm-shifting idea and its practice: from traditional abortion Chinese medicine Murraya paniculata to safe and effective cancer metastatic chemopreventives

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Suxia; Qian, Jun; Zheng, Ning; Dong, Haiyan; Shi, Qing; Kuo, Minliang; Jia, Lee

    2016-01-01

    Recent large epidemiological studies demonstrated benefit of oral contraceptives in reducing cancer risk, and our analysis also showed molecular and cellular similarities between embryo implantation and CTCs adhesion-invasion to endothelium. We here hypothesize that abortion traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) may serve well for pre-metastatic chemoprevention. To test the hypothesis, we selected the safe and well-known abortifacient TCM Murraya paniculata and identified a most-promising extracted fraction G (containing flavonoids and coumarins) from its many raw ethanol/dichloromethane extracts by using the bioactivity-guided fast screen assay. G showed free radical scavenging effect, and specifically inhibited both embryo implantation to human endometrial bed and cancer HT29 cells to human endothelium in a concentration-dependent manner (1–30 μg/mL) without significant cytotoxicity demonstrated by its high adhesion inhibition ratio. The inhibition may result from its down-regulation on expression of integrin β1 and α6, and CD44 on HT29 cells, as well as E-selectin on endothelial cells. Furthermore, G inhibited invasion and migration of HT29 cells. Pretreatment followed by one-month oral administration of G to the immunocompetent mice inoculated with mouse melanoma cells produced significant inhibition on lung metastasis without marked side effects. Collectively, this paradigm-shifting study provides, for the first time, a new strategy to discover safe and effective pre-metastatic chemopreventives from abortion TCM. PMID:26959747

  12. Terminalia paniculata bark extract attenuates non-alcoholic fatty liver via down regulation of fatty acid synthase in high fat diet-fed obese rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study was performed to understand the possible therapeutic activity of Terminalia paniculata ethanolic extract (TPEE) on non alcoholic fatty liver in rats fed with high fat diet. Methods Thirty six SD rats were divided into 6 groups (n = 6): Normal control (NC), high fat diet (HFD), remaining four groups were fed on HFD along with different doses of TPEE (100,150 and 200 mg/kg b.wt) or orlistat, for ten weeks. Liver tissue was homogenized and analyzed for lipid profiles, activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content. Further, the expression levels of FAS and AMPK-1α were also studied in addition to histopathology examination of liver tissue in all the groups. Results HFD significantly increased hepatic liver total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), free fatty acids (FFA) and MDA but decreased the activities of SOD and CAT which were subsequently reversed by supplementation with TPEE in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, TPEE administration significantly down regulated hepatic mRNA expression of FAS but up regulated AMPK-1α compared to HFD alone fed group. Furthermore, western blot analysis of FAS has clearly demonstrated decreased expression of FAS in HFD + TPEE (200 mg/kg b.wt) treated group when compared to HFD group at protein level. Conclusions Our biochemical studies on hepatic lipid profiles and antioxidant enzyme activities supported by histological and expression studies suggest a potential therapeutic role for TPEE in regulating obesity through FAS. PMID:24678767

  13. Ex Vivo Antioxidant Activity of Selected Medicinal Plants against Fenton Reaction-Mediated Oxidation of Biological Lipid Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Pai Kotebagilu, Namratha; Reddy Palvai, Vanitha; Urooj, Asna

    2015-01-01

    Free radical-mediated oxidation is often linked to various degenerative diseases. Biological substrates with lipids as major components are susceptible to oxygen-derived lipid peroxidation due to their composition. Lipid peroxide products act as biomarkers in evaluating the antioxidant potential of various plants and functional foods. The study focused on evaluation of the antioxidant potential of two extracts (methanol and 80% methanol) of four medicinal plants, Andrographis paniculata, Costus speciosus, Canthium parviflorum, and Abrus precatorius, against Fenton reaction-mediated oxidation of three biological lipid substrates; cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and brain homogenate. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was measured by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances method. Also, the correlation between the polyphenol, flavonoid content, and the antioxidant activity in biological substrates was analyzed. Results indicated highest antioxidant potential by 80% methanol extract of Canthium parviflorum (97.55%), methanol extract of Andrographis paniculata (72.15%), and methanol extract of Canthium parviflorum (49.55%) in cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and brain, respectively. The polyphenol and flavonoid contents of methanol extract of Andrographis paniculata in cholesterol (r = 0.816) and low-density lipoprotein (r = 0.948) and Costus speciosus in brain (r = 0.977, polyphenols, and r = 0.949, flavonoids) correlated well with the antioxidant activity. The findings prove the antioxidant potential of the selected medicinal plants against Fenton reaction in biological lipid substrates. PMID:26933511

  14. Screening of indigenous plants for anthelmintic action against human Ascaris lumbricoides: Part--II.

    PubMed

    Raj, R K

    1975-01-01

    Alcoholic extracts of the rhizomes of Alpinia galanga, Andrographis paniculata, bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum, rind of Citrus decumana, Desmodium triflorum, seeds of Hydnocarpus wightiana, rhizomes of Kaempfaria galanga, Lippia nodiflora, tender leaves of Morinda citrifolia, rhizomes of Pollia serzogonian, Tephrosia purpuria and rhizomes of Zingiber zerumbeth showed good in vitro anthelmintic activity against human Ascaris lumbricoides. While, the alcoholic extracts of the bark of Alibzzia lebbek, the bulb of Allium sativum, rhizomes of Alpinia calcaratta, rind of Citrus acida, rind of Citrus aromatium, rind of Citrus medica, rhizomes of Curcuma aromatica and rind of Punica granatum showed moderate invitro activity.

  15. Screening of plants acting against Heterometrus laoticus scorpion venom activity on fibroblast cell lysis.

    PubMed

    Uawonggul, Nunthawun; Chaveerach, Arunrat; Thammasirirak, Sompong; Arkaravichien, Tarinee; Chuachan, Chattong; Daduang, Sakda

    2006-01-16

    The aqueous extracts of 64 plant species, listed as animal- or insect-bite antidotes in old Thai drug recipes were screened for their activity against fibroblast cell lysis after Heterometrus laoticus scorpion venom treatment. The venom was preincubated with plant extract for 30 min and furthered treated to confluent fibroblast cells for 30 min. More than 40% efficiency (test/control) was obtained from cell treatment with venom preincubated with extracts of Andrographis paniculata Nees (Acanthaceae), Barringtonia acutangula (L.) Gaertn. (Lecythidaceae), Calamus sp. (Palmae), Clinacanthus nutans Lindau (Acanthaceae), Euphorbia neriifolia L. (Euphorbiaceae), Ipomoea aquatica Forssk (Convolvulaceae), Mesua ferrea L. (Guttiferae), Passiflora laurifolia L. (Passifloraceae), Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. (Labiatae), Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiaceae), Rumex sp. (Polygonaceae) and Sapindus rarak DC. (Sapindaceae), indicating that they had a tendency to be scorpion venom antidotes. However, only Andrographis paniculata and Barringtonia acutangula extracts provided around 50% viable cells from extract treatments without venom preincubation. These two plant extracts are expected to be scorpion venom antidotes with low cytotoxicity. PMID:16169172

  16. Hepatoprotective effect of poly herbal formulation against various hepatotoxic agents in rats

    PubMed Central

    Tatiya, Anil U.; Surana, Sanjay J.; Sutar, Manisha P.; Gamit, Nehal H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Individually Andrographis paniculata Nees. (Acanthaceae), Phyllanthus niruri Linn.(Euphorbiaceae) and Phyllanthus emblica Linn. single plant extracts have been reported to have hepatoprotective activity. However, literature survey shows that no sufficient scientific data has been publish on pharmacological evaluation of these plants in combined form. Method: Hepatoprotective activity of the polyherbal hepatoprotaective formulation (PHF)-containing spray-dried aqueous extracts of Andrographis paniculata Nees. (Acanthaceae), Phyllanthus niruri Linn. (Euphorbiaceae) and Phyllanthus emblica Linn. (Euphorbiaceae), was screened against paracetamol, carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), and ethanol-induced hepatic damage in rats. PHF was evaluated by measuring levels of serum marker enzymes like SGOT, SGPT, ALP, direct bilirubin (DB), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). The histological studies were also studied support the biochemical parameters. Silymarin was used as standard drug. Results: Administration of PHF (100 and 200 mg/kg p.o.) significantly inhibited paracetamol, CCl4 and ethanol-induced elevation levels of SGPT, SGOT, ALP, DB and LDH. A comparative histopathological study of liver exhibited almost normal architecture as compared to toxicant group. Conclusion: Results suggests that the hepatoprotective effects of PHF might be useful for liver protection due to combined action of all plant extracts along with their phytoconstituents. PMID:22224062

  17. Screening of plants acting against Heterometrus laoticus scorpion venom activity on fibroblast cell lysis.

    PubMed

    Uawonggul, Nunthawun; Chaveerach, Arunrat; Thammasirirak, Sompong; Arkaravichien, Tarinee; Chuachan, Chattong; Daduang, Sakda

    2006-01-16

    The aqueous extracts of 64 plant species, listed as animal- or insect-bite antidotes in old Thai drug recipes were screened for their activity against fibroblast cell lysis after Heterometrus laoticus scorpion venom treatment. The venom was preincubated with plant extract for 30 min and furthered treated to confluent fibroblast cells for 30 min. More than 40% efficiency (test/control) was obtained from cell treatment with venom preincubated with extracts of Andrographis paniculata Nees (Acanthaceae), Barringtonia acutangula (L.) Gaertn. (Lecythidaceae), Calamus sp. (Palmae), Clinacanthus nutans Lindau (Acanthaceae), Euphorbia neriifolia L. (Euphorbiaceae), Ipomoea aquatica Forssk (Convolvulaceae), Mesua ferrea L. (Guttiferae), Passiflora laurifolia L. (Passifloraceae), Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. (Labiatae), Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiaceae), Rumex sp. (Polygonaceae) and Sapindus rarak DC. (Sapindaceae), indicating that they had a tendency to be scorpion venom antidotes. However, only Andrographis paniculata and Barringtonia acutangula extracts provided around 50% viable cells from extract treatments without venom preincubation. These two plant extracts are expected to be scorpion venom antidotes with low cytotoxicity.

  18. Efficacy of indigenous plant extracts on the malaria vector Anopheles subpictus Grassi (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Elango, G.; Zahir, A. Abduz; Bagavan, A.; Kamaraj, C.; Rajakumar, G.; Santhoshkumar, T.; Marimuthu, S.; Rahuman, A. Abdul

    2011-01-01

    Background & objectives: Mosquito control is facing a threat due to the emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Insecticides of plant origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. The purpose of the present study was to assess the ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extracts of Andrographis paniculata, Eclipta prostrata and Tagetes erecta leaves tested for oviposition-deterrent, ovicidal and repellent activities against malaria vector, Anopheles subpictus Grassi (Diptera: Culicidae). Methods: The dried leaves of the three plants were powdered mechanically and extracted with ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol. One gram of crude extract was first dissolved in 100 ml of acetone (stock solution). From the stock solution, test solution concentrations of 31.21- 499.42 mg/l for oviposition- deterrence assay and repellency and 15.60 - 998.85 mg/l were used in ovicidal assay. The percentage oviposition- deterrence, hatching rate of eggs and protection time were calculated. One-way analysis of variance was used for the multiple concentration tests and for per cent mortality to determine significant treatment differences. Results: The percentage of effective oviposition repellency was highest at 499.42 mg/l and the lowest at 31.21 mg/l in ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extracts of A. paniculata, E. prostrata and T. erecta. The oviposition activity index (OAI) value of ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extracts of A. paniculata, E. prostrata and T. erecta at 499.42 mg/l were -0.91, -0.93, -0.84, -0.84, -0.87, -0.82, -0.87, -0.89 and -0.87, respectively. Mortality (no egg hatchability) was 100 per cent with ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of A. paniculata, E. prostrata and T. erecta at 998.85 mg/l. The maximum adult repellent activity was observed at 499.42 mg/l in ethyl acetate extracts of A. paniculata, E. prostrata and methanol extracts of T. erecta, and the mean complete protection time ranged from 120 to 150 min with

  19. Adulticidal and repellent properties of indigenous plant extracts against Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Sivakumar, Rajamohan

    2012-05-01

    Several diseases are associated to the mosquito-human interaction. Mosquitoes are the carriers of severe and well-known illnesses such as malaria, arboviral encephalitis, dengue fever, chikunguniya fever, West Nile virus, and yellow fever. These diseases produce significant morbidity and mortality in humans and livestock around the world. The adulticidal and repellent activities of crude hexane, ethyl acetate, benzene, chloroform, and methanol extracts of leaf of Eclipta alba and Andrographis paniculata were assayed for their toxicity against two important vector mosquitoes, viz., Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). The adult mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. All extracts showed moderate adulticide effects; however, the highest adult mortality was found in methanol extract of A. paniculata against the adults of C. quinquefasciatus and A. aegypti with the LC(50) and LC(90) values were 149.81, 172.37 ppm and 288.12, 321.01 ppm, respectively. The results of the repellent activity of hexane, ethyl acetate, benzene, chloroform, and methanol extract of E. alba and A. paniculata plants at three different concentrations of 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 mg/cm(2) were applied on skin of forearm in man and exposed against adult female mosquitoes. In this observation, these two plant crude extracts gave protection against mosquito bites without any allergic reaction to the test person, and also, the repellent activity is dependent on the strength of the plant extracts. These results suggest that the leaf solvent plant extracts have the potential to be used as an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of mosquitoes. This is the first report on the mosquito adulticidal and repellent activities of the reported E. alba and A. paniculata plants.

  20. Antioxidant, total phenolic content and cytotoxicity evaluation of selected Malaysian plants.

    PubMed

    Qader, Suhailah Wasman; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Chua, Lee Suan; Najim, Nigar; Zain, Mazatulikhma Mat; Hamdan, Salehhuddin

    2011-01-01

    Aqueous and ethanol extracts of different traditional Malaysian plants (Polygonum minus, Andrographis paniculata, Curcuma xanthorrhiza, Momordica charantia and Strobilanthes crispus) were evaluated for their antioxidant properties, total phenolic content and cytotoxic activity. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by using 1,1-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. The results showed that ethanol extracts contain high antioxidant activities compared to aqueous extracts. The findings exhibited a strong correlation between antioxidant activity and the total phenol contents. In addition, all the plant extracts showed non-toxic effects against a normal human lung fibroblast cell line (Hs888Lu). Although traditionally aqueous extracts are used, we determined that ethanol extracts usually achieved better activity in the assays.

  1. Mycosynthesis of silver nanoparticles bearing antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Azmath, Pasha; Baker, Syed; Rakshith, Devaraju; Satish, Sreedharamurthy

    2016-03-01

    Mycosynthesis of silver nanoparticles was achieved by endophytic Colletotrichum sp. ALF2-6 inhabiting Andrographis paniculata. Well dispersed nanoparticles were characterized using UV-Visible spectrometry with maximum absorption conferring at 420 nm. FTIR analysis revealed possible biomolecules reducing the metal salt and stabilization of nanoparticles. XRD analysis depicted the diffraction intensities exhibiting between 20 and 80 °C at 2theta angle thus conferring the crystalline nature of nanoparticles. Morphological characteristic using TEM revealed the polydispersity of nanoparticles with size ranging from 20 to 50 nm. Synthesized nanoparticles exhibited bactericidal activity against selected human pathogens. Nanoparticles mode of action was carried out to reveal DNA damage activity. Thus the present investigation reports facile fabrication of silver nanoparticles from endophytic fungi. PMID:27013906

  2. Andrographolide attenuates interleukin-1β-stimulated upregulation of chemokine CCL5 and glial fibrillary acidic protein in astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Wong, Siew-Ying; Chan, Su-Jing; Wong, W S Fred; Wong, Peter T-H; Lai, Mitchell K P

    2014-08-20

    Andrographolide is a bioactive molecule isolated from Andrographis paniculata with anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities. In this study, we tested the effects of andrographolide on astrocyte-mediated neuroinflammatory responses. Cultured rat primary astrocytes were treated with proinflammatory cytokine interleukin 1β with or without pretreatment with andrographolide, and then processed for measurements of chemokine C-C motif ligand 5 (CCL5) and glial fibrillary acidic protein. The activation status of nuclear factor-κB activation that may underlie CCL5 upregulation was also measured. Andrographolide pretreatment was found to attenuate the upregulation of CCL5 and glial fibrillary basic protein as well as reduce the phosphorylation of nuclear factor-κB p65 and IκBα after interleukin 1β stimulation. These data suggest that andrographolide should be evaluated further as a therapeutic for central nervous system diseases characterized by astrocyte-mediated neuroinflammatory processes.

  3. Formulation and evaluation of herbal anti-acne moisturizer.

    PubMed

    Rasheed, Arun; Shama, Shaik Neelufar; Joy, Jyothi Mulanjananiyil; Reddy, Bobbu Sravya; Roja, Chirra

    2012-10-01

    The moisture content present in human skin makes it look young and the use of moisturizer results in fastening the moisture with a surface film of oil. Acne vulgaris is one of the most commonly seen diseases among the youth. The present study is focused on the use of herbs as moisturizer for acne treatment. The anti-acne moisturizer was formulated from herbal crude extracts and investigated the physico-chemical parameters as well as antibacterial activity of the formulation. The study revealed that ethanol extract of Andrographis paniculata, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Ocimum sanctum, Azadiracta indica and Green tea possessed the potential for inhibiting acne. It was observed that the optimal formula of anti-acne moisturizer was satisfactorily effective to control acne inducing bacteria i.e., Staphylococcus epidermis and Propionibacterium. The physico-chemical parameters of the formulation were also optimal with no signs of irritation. PMID:23010007

  4. Heavy metal and nutrient concentration in soil and plants growing on a metalliferous chromite minespoil.

    PubMed

    Samantaray, S; Rout, G R; Das, P

    2001-10-01

    Metal contamination in soil and plant samples from a chromite mine and its adjoining regions was determined. The metal concentration varied in stem, leaf and root of different tree species. In the case of shrubs, the highest concentration of iron (18.5 mg kg(-1) was detected in the stem of Combretum roxburghii. The concentration of aluminium varied from 1.8 - 5.3 mg kg(-1) dry weight, whereas the nickel content was found to be the highest in the stem of Calotropis gigantea. In the case of herbs, chromium concentration was highest (60.9 mg kg(-1) dry weight) in Evovulus alsenoides and the lowest (18.8 mg kg(-1) dry weight) in Andrographis paniculata. There was a significant correlation observed between chromium in soil with the root of tree species like Lagerstroemia parviflora, Madhuca longifolia, Anogeissus latifolia and Haldina cordyfolia. Nickel in soil was significantly correlated with the stem and leaf of all the tree species except Chlroxylon sweitenta. Iron in soil showed correlation with the stem and leaf of Chloroxylon sweitenia. Among the shrubs (Calotropis gigantea, Combretum roxburghii and Smilax zeylancia), chromium in soil showed a correlation with the root. Nickel in soil was positively correlated with the stem and leaf of Calotropis gigantea and Combretum roxburghii. Among the herbs, chromium in the whole plant of Evolvulus alsenoids, Solanum surattense and Phyllanthus fraternus showed significant positive correlation with soil; nickel in Solanum surattense showed significant positive correlation with soil. The positive correlation coefficient was observed between iron in the whole plant and soil on Phyllanthus virgatus, Phyllanthus fraternus and Andrographis paniculata. The above information would be useful for the establishment of a vegetation cover on the minewaste heaps.

  5. Anti-hemolytic, hemagglutination inhibition and bacterial membrane disruptive properties of selected herbal extracts attenuate virulence of Carbapenem Resistant Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Pallavi; Chawla, Raman; Narula, Alka; Goel, Rajeev; Arora, Rajesh; Sharma, Rakesh Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Expression of a multitude of virulence factors by multi-drug resistant microbial strains, e.g., Carbapenem Resistant Escherichia coli (Family: Enterobacteriaceae; Class: Gammaproteobacteria), is responsible for resistance against beta-lactam antibiotics. Hemolysin production and induction of hemagglutination by bacterial surface receptors inflicts direct cytotoxicity by destroying host phagocytic and epithelial cells. We have previously reported that Berberis aristata, Camellia sinensis, Cyperus rotundus Holarrhena antidysenterica and Andrographis paniculata are promising herbal leads for targeting Carbapenem resistant Escherichia coli. These herbal leads were analyzed for their anti-hemolytic potential by employing spectrophotometric assay of hemoglobin liberation. Anti-hemagglutination potential of the extracts was assessed by employing qualitative assay of visible RBC aggregate formation. Camellia sinensis (PTRC-31911-A) exhibited anti-hemolytic potential of 73.97 ± 0.03%, followed by Holarrhena antidysenterica (PTRC-8111-A) i.e., 68.32 ± 0.05%, Berberis aristata (PTRC-2111-A) i.e., 60.26 ± 0.05% and Cyperus rotundus (PTRC-31811-A) i.e., 53.76 ± 0.03%. Comprehensive, visual analysis of hemagglutination inhibition revealed that only Berberis aristata (PTRC-2111-A) and Camellia sinensis (PTRC-31911-A) exhibited anti-hemagglutination activity. However, Andrographis paniculata (PTRC-11611-A) exhibited none of the inhibitory activities. Furthermore, the pair wise correlation analysis of the tested activities with quantitative phytochemical descriptors revealed that an increased content of alkaloid; flavonoids; polyphenols, and decreased content of saponins supported both the activities. Additionally, flow cytometry revealed that cell membrane structures of CRE were damaged by extracts of Berberis aristata (PTRC-2111-A) and Camellia sinensis (PTRC-31911-A) at their respective Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations, thereby confirming noteworthy antibacterial

  6. Herb–drug interaction prediction based on the high specific inhibition of andrographolide derivatives towards UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 2B7

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Hai-Ying; Sun, Dong-Xue; Cao, Yun-Feng; Ai, Chun-Zhi; Qu, Yan-Qing; Hu, Cui-Min; Jiang, Changtao; Dong, Pei-Pei; Sun, Xiao-Yu; Hong, Mo; Tanaka, Naoki; Gonzalez, Frank J.; and others

    2014-05-15

    Herb–drug interaction strongly limits the clinical application of herbs and drugs, and the inhibition of herbal components towards important drug-metabolizing enzymes (DMEs) has been regarded as one of the most important reasons. The present study aims to investigate the inhibition potential of andrographolide derivatives towards one of the most important phase II DMEs UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs). Recombinant UGT isoforms (except UGT1A4)-catalyzed 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU) glucuronidation reaction and UGT1A4-catalyzed trifluoperazine (TFP) glucuronidation were employed to firstly screen the andrographolide derivatives' inhibition potential. High specific inhibition of andrographolide derivatives towards UGT2B7 was observed. The inhibition type and parameters (K{sub i}) were determined for the compounds exhibiting strong inhibition capability towards UGT2B7, and human liver microsome (HLMs)-catalyzed zidovudine (AZT) glucuronidation probe reaction was used to furtherly confirm the inhibition behavior. In combination of inhibition parameters (K{sub i}) and in vivo concentration of andrographolide and dehydroandrographolide, the potential in vivo inhibition magnitude was predicted. Additionally, both the in vitro inhibition data and computational modeling results provide important information for the modification of andrographolide derivatives as selective inhibitors of UGT2B7. Taken together, data obtained from the present study indicated the potential herb–drug interaction between Andrographis paniculata and the drugs mainly undergoing UGT2B7-catalyzed metabolic elimination, and the andrographolide derivatives as potential candidates for the selective inhibitors of UGT2B7. - Highlights: • Specific inhibition of andrographolide derivatives towards UGT2B7. • Herb-drug interaction related withAndrographis paniculata. • Guidance for design of UGT2B7 specific inhibitors.

  7. Strong synergistic induction of CYP1A1 expression by andrographolide plus typical CYP1A inducers in mouse hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Jaruchotikamol, Atika; Jarukamjorn, Kanokwan Sirisangtrakul, Wanna; Sakuma, Tsutomu; Kawasaki, Yuki; Nemoto, Nobuo

    2007-10-15

    The effects of andrographolide, the major diterpenoid constituent of Andrographis paniculata, on the expression of cytochrome P450 superfamily 1 members, including CYP1A1, CYP1A2, and CYP1B1, as well as on aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) expression in primary cultures of mouse hepatocytes were investigated in comparison with the effects of typical CYP1A inducers, including benz[a]anthracene, {beta}-naphthoflavone, and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. Andrographolide significantly induced the expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 mRNAs in a concentration-dependent manner, as did the typical CYP1A inducers, but did not induce that of CYP1B1 or AhR. Interestingly, andrographolide plus the typical CYP1A inducers synergistically induced CYP1A1 expression, and the synergism was blocked by an AhR antagonist, resveratrol. The CYP1A1 enzyme activity showed a similar pattern of induction. This is the first report that shows that andrographolide has a potency to induce CYP1A1 enzyme and indicates that andrographolide could be a very useful compound for investigating the regulatory mechanism of the CYP1A1 induction pathway. In addition, our findings suggest preparing advice for rational administration of A. paniculata, according to its ability to induce CYP1A1 expression.

  8. Investigations into the antiadhesive activity of herbal extracts against Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed

    Bensch, K; Tiralongo, J; Schmidt, K; Matthias, A; Bone, K M; Lehmann, R; Tiralongo, E

    2011-08-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is one of the most common bacterial causes of diarrhoea in the industrialized world, being associated with the occurrence of Guillain-Barré Syndrome, and inducing diseases partially through intestinal adherence. With increasing reports of C. jejuni drug resistance against standard antibiotics, investigations into antiadhesive agents for the prevention of bacterial infection are highly significant. Given the consumer-driven development towards holistic and integrative healthcare, research into additional anti-Campylobacter effects of herbal medicines that are already used for their beneficial effects on bowel and digestive functions is important. Twenty-one herbal extracts were screened for antiadhesive activity against C. jejuni using modifications of previously published antiadhesion assays. Antiadhesion effects with IC(50) values <3 mg/mL were obtained for seven ethanol plant extracts, with Zingiber officinale (ginger), Capsicum annum (cayenne) and Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice) displaying the highest antiadhesion activity against C. jejuni (IC(50) : <0.1 mg/mL, 0.29 mg/mL and 0.65 mg/mL, respectively). Differences in antiadhesion activity were found for two different Echinacea species, with E. purpurea displaying significantly higher and dose dependent antiadhesion activity than E. angustifolia. No significant antiadhesion activity (IC(50) values >35 mg/mL) was found for Agrimonia eupatoria (agrimony), Andrographis paniculata (andrographis), Matricaria recutita (chamomile), Foeniculum vulgare (fennel), Filipendula ulmaria (meadowsweet) and Artemisia absinthium (wormwood) extracts. This study provides evidence for additional beneficial effects of marketed herbal medicines in gastrointestinal disorders. PMID:21280113

  9. Inhibition of Human Cytochrome P450 2c8-catalyzed Amodiaquine N-desethylation: Effect of Five Traditionally and Commonly Used Herbs

    PubMed Central

    Muthiah, Yasotha Devi; Ong, Chin Eng; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Ismail, Rusli

    2016-01-01

    Background: In Southeast Asia and many parts of the world, herbal products are increasingly used in parallel with modern medicine. Objective: This study aimed to investigate the effects of herbs commonly used in Southeast Asia on activity of cytochrome P450 2C8 (CYP2C8), an important human hepatic enzyme in drug metabolism. Materials and Methods: The selected herbs, such as Eurycoma longifolia Jack (ELJ), Labisia pumila (LP), Echinacea purpurea (EP), Andrographis paniculata (AP), and Ginkgo biloba (GB), were subjected to inhibition studies using an in vitro CYP2C8 activity marker, amodiaquine N-desethylase assay. Inhibition parameters, inhibitory concentration 50% (IC50), and Ki values were determined to study the potency and mode of inhibition. Results: All herbs inhibited CYP2C8 with the following order of potency: LP > ELJ > GB > AP > EP. LP and ELJ inhibited potently at Ki's of 2 and 4 times the Ki of quercetin, the positive control. The inhibition by LP was uncompetitive in nature as compared to competitive or mixed type inhibition observed with other herbs. GB exhibited moderate inhibitory effect at a Ki6 times larger than quercetin Ki. AP and EP, on the other hand, showed only weak inhibition. Conclusion: The herbs we chose represented the more commonly used herbs in Southeast Asia where collision of tradition and modernization in healthcare, if not properly managed, may lead to therapeutic misadventures. We conclude that concurrent consumption of some herbs, in particular, LP and ELJ, may have relevance in drug-herb interactions via CYP2C8 inhibition in vivo. SUMMARY Herbs are increasingly used in parallel with modern medicines nowadays. In this study five commonly used herbs in Southeast Asia region, ELJ, LP, EP, AP and GB, were investigated for their in vitro inhibitory potency on CYP2C8, an important drug-metaboliz-ing human hepatic enzyme. All herbs inhibited CYP2C8 activity marker, amodiaquine N-desethylation, with potency order of LP > ELJ > GB >AP

  10. Inhibition of Human Cytochrome P450 2c8-catalyzed Amodiaquine N-desethylation: Effect of Five Traditionally and Commonly Used Herbs

    PubMed Central

    Muthiah, Yasotha Devi; Ong, Chin Eng; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Ismail, Rusli

    2016-01-01

    Background: In Southeast Asia and many parts of the world, herbal products are increasingly used in parallel with modern medicine. Objective: This study aimed to investigate the effects of herbs commonly used in Southeast Asia on activity of cytochrome P450 2C8 (CYP2C8), an important human hepatic enzyme in drug metabolism. Materials and Methods: The selected herbs, such as Eurycoma longifolia Jack (ELJ), Labisia pumila (LP), Echinacea purpurea (EP), Andrographis paniculata (AP), and Ginkgo biloba (GB), were subjected to inhibition studies using an in vitro CYP2C8 activity marker, amodiaquine N-desethylase assay. Inhibition parameters, inhibitory concentration 50% (IC50), and Ki values were determined to study the potency and mode of inhibition. Results: All herbs inhibited CYP2C8 with the following order of potency: LP > ELJ > GB > AP > EP. LP and ELJ inhibited potently at Ki's of 2 and 4 times the Ki of quercetin, the positive control. The inhibition by LP was uncompetitive in nature as compared to competitive or mixed type inhibition observed with other herbs. GB exhibited moderate inhibitory effect at a Ki6 times larger than quercetin Ki. AP and EP, on the other hand, showed only weak inhibition. Conclusion: The herbs we chose represented the more commonly used herbs in Southeast Asia where collision of tradition and modernization in healthcare, if not properly managed, may lead to therapeutic misadventures. We conclude that concurrent consumption of some herbs, in particular, LP and ELJ, may have relevance in drug-herb interactions via CYP2C8 inhibition in vivo. SUMMARY Herbs are increasingly used in parallel with modern medicines nowadays. In this study five commonly used herbs in Southeast Asia region, ELJ, LP, EP, AP and GB, were investigated for their in vitro inhibitory potency on CYP2C8, an important drug-metaboliz-ing human hepatic enzyme. All herbs inhibited CYP2C8 activity marker, amodiaquine N-desethylation, with potency order of LP > ELJ > GB >AP

  11. Bar-HRM for Authentication of Plant-Based Medicines: Evaluation of Three Medicinal Products Derived from Acanthaceae Species

    PubMed Central

    Osathanunkul, Maslin; Madesis, Panagiotis; de Boer, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    Medicinal plants are used as a popular alternative to synthetic drugs, both in developed and developing countries. The economic importance of the herbal and natural supplement industry is increasing every year. As the herbal industry grows, consumer safety is one issue that cannot be overlooked. Herbal products in Thai local markets are commonly sold without packaging or labels. Plant powders are stored in large bags or boxes, and therefore buying local herbal products poses a high risk of acquiring counterfeited, substituted and/or adulterated products. Due to these issues, a reliable method to authenticate products is needed. Here DNA barcoding was used in combination with High Resolution Melting analysis (Bar-HRM) to authenticate three medicinal Acanthaceae species (Acanthus ebracteatus, Andrographis paniculata and Rhinacanthus nasutus) commonly used in Thailand. The rbcL barcode was selected for use in primers design for HRM analysis to produce standard melting profiles of the selected species. Melting data from the HRM assay using the designed rbcL primers showed that the three chosen species could be distinguished from each other. HRM curves of all fifteen test samples indicated that three of tested products did not contain the indicated species. Two closely related species (A. paniculata and R. nasutus), which have a high level of morphological similarity, were interchanged with one another in three tested products. Incorrect information on packaging and labels of the tested herbal products was the cause of the results shown here. Morphological similarity among the species of interest also hindered the collection process. The Bar-HRM method developed here proved useful in aiding in the identification and authentication of herbal species in processed samples. In the future, species authentication through Bar-HRM could be used to promote consumer trust, as well as raising the quality of herbal products. PMID:26011474

  12. Andrographolide Exerts Chondroprotective Activity in Equine Cartilage Explant and Suppresses Interleukin-1β-Induced MMP-2 Expression in Equine Chondrocyte Culture

    PubMed Central

    Kongtawelert, Prachya

    2014-01-01

    Cartilage erosion in degenerative joint diseases leads to lameness in affected horses. It has been reported that andrographolide from Andrographis paniculata inhibited cartilage matrix-degrading enzymes. This study aimed to explore whether this compound protects equine cartilage degradation in the explant culture model and to determine its effect on matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) expression, a matrix-degrading enzyme, in equine chondrocyte culture. Equine articular cartilage explant culture was induced by 25 ng/mL interleukin-1β, a key inducer of cartilage degeneration, in cultures with or without andrographolide ranging from 10 to 50 μM. After 3–21 days, they were analyzed for the markers of cartilage degradation. It was found that interleukin-1β increased the release of sulfated glycosaminoglycans and hyaluronan from the explants into the culture media consistently with the decrease in uronic acid and collagen content in the cartilage explants. These catabolic effects were inhibited when cotreated with interleukin-1β and andrographolide. In primary equine chondrocytes, andrographolide suppressed interleukin-1β-induced MMP-2 mRNA expression and MMP-2 activity in the culture medium. These results confirmed the in vitro potent chondroprotective activities of this compound which were performed in cartilage explants and on a cellular level. These may indicate the application of andrographolide for therapeutic use in equine degenerative joint diseases. PMID:27379277

  13. Spasmolytic effect of traditional herbal formulation on guinea pig ileum

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Dushyant; Ganguly, Kuntal; Hegde, H. V.; Patil, P. A.; Kholkute, S. D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The herbal formulation consisting of Andrographis paniculata Nees., Cassia fistula L., Foeniculum vulgare Mill. and Cuminum cyminum L. is widely used by the local traditional practitioners in rural Northern Karnataka for spasmodic abdominal pain. Objective: The present study was undertaken to evaluate safety and spasmolytic effect of poly-herbal formulation. Materials and Methods: Acute toxicity studies were carried out in Swiss mice, as per the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) guidelines. The spasmolytic activity of the formulation was studied in isolated guinea pig ileum model using histamine and acetylcholine as agonists. The data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA, followed by Dunnetts post-hoc test and P ≤ 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The formulation did not show any adverse toxic effects and found to be safe. It also showed significant (P < 0.05) relaxation in different agonist like histamine and acetylcholine-induced contractions in guinea pig ileum. Conclusion: Antispasmodic activity of the herbal formulation can be attributed to its atropine-like activity. The present findings, therefore, support its utility in spasmodic abdominal pain. PMID:26604555

  14. Characterisation and immuno-stimulating activity of polysaccharides from Thai medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Burana-Osot, J; Pattanapanyasat, K; Soonthornchareonnon, N; Sukapirom, K; Toida, T

    2010-09-01

    Water-soluble polysaccharides were isolated from the tubers of Butea superba Roxb. and Pueraria candollei Wall. Ex Benth. var. mirifica (Shaw et Suvat.) C. Niyomdham, the leaves of Centella asiatica (L.) Urb, Ocimum basilicum L., Psidium guajava and Andrographis paniculata (Burn. f.) Nees, the stems of Cymbopogon citratus (Stapf ExG), and the fruits of Psidium guajava and Scaphium scaphigerum. The immunological impacts of the polysaccharides on T-lymphocyte proliferation in vitro was investigated by flow cytometric (immunofluorescence) analysis using staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) as a positive control. It was found that the polysaccharides enhanced T-lymphocyte proliferation, ranging from 4.5 to 27.0% at a concentration of 100 microg mL(-1), while the activity of SEB was 13.3%. The medicinal plants showing the highest immuno-stimulating activity were the tubers of Butea superba Roxb. The water-extracted tubers contained 60.0% (w/w) carbohydrates with 6.6% (w/w) uronic acid. The major constituent monosaccharides of the tubers were 28.2 mol% galactose, 10.5 mol% arabinose and 36.4 mol% glucose.

  15. Xiang-qi-tang increases avian pathogenic Escherichia coli-induced survival rate and regulates serum levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1 and soluble endothelial protein C receptor in chicken.

    PubMed

    He, Chang-Liang; Fu, Ben-Dong; Shen, Hai-Qing; Jiang, Xiao-Lin; Zhang, Chang-Shuai; Wu, Shuai-Cheng; Zhu, Wei; Wei, Xu-Bin

    2011-01-01

    Xiang-qi-tang (XQT) is a Chinese herbal formula containing rhizoma Cyperi, Andrographis paniculata and Astragalus membranaceus. The present study investigated the effects of XQT on the mortality and inflammatory mediators in a chicken model challenged with avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC). To detect the effect of XQT, the chickens were pretreated with the formula 12 h before being challenged with 10(8) colony forming unit (CFU) of APEC. The results showed that 0.6 g/kg XQT significantly elevated the survival rate of infected chickens. To further investigate the mechanism of decreasing mortality of XQT, we examined plasma inflammatory mediator levels. The levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 (IL-1) and soluble endothelial protein C receptor (sEPCR) were significantly increased in chickens challenged with APEC alone, whereas chickens pretreated with 0.6 g/kg XQT showed marked decrease of these inflammatory mediator levels during the death peak. Taken together, this study demonstrates that XQT has protective effects in APEC-treated chickens. The action mechanisms of XQT involve anti-inflammation and antithrombotic activity. These findings may contribute to future research on the action mechanisms of this formula, as well as prevention of or therapy for avian colibacillosis.

  16. Herbal and plant therapy in patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Triantafyllidi, Aikaterini; Xanthos, Theodoros; Papalois, Apostolos; Triantafillidis, John K.

    2015-01-01

    The use of herbal therapy in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is increasing worldwide. The aim of this study was to review the literature on the efficacy of herbal therapy in IBD patients. Studies on herbal therapy for IBD published in Medline and Embase were reviewed, and response to treatment and remission rates were recorded. Although the number of the relevant clinical studies is relatively small, it can be assumed that the efficacy of herbal therapies in IBD is promising. The most important clinical trials conducted so far refer to the use of mastic gum, tormentil extracts, wormwood herb, aloe vera, triticum aestivum, germinated barley foodstuff, and boswellia serrata. In ulcerative colitis, aloe vera gel, triticum aestivum, andrographis paniculata extract and topical Xilei-san were superior to placebo in inducing remission or clinical response, and curcumin was superior to placebo in maintaining remission; boswellia serrata gum resin and plantago ovata seeds were as effective as mesalazine, whereas oenothera biennis had similar relapse rates as ω-3 fatty acids in the treatment of ulcerative colitis. In Crohn’s disease, mastic gum, Artemisia absinthium, and Tripterygium wilfordii were superior to placebo in inducing remission and preventing clinical postoperative recurrence, respectively. Herbal therapies exert their therapeutic benefit by different mechanisms including immune regulation, antioxidant activity, inhibition of leukotriene B4 and nuclear factor-kappa B, and antiplatelet activity. Large, double-blind clinical studies assessing the most commonly used natural substances should urgently be conducted. PMID:25830661

  17. Synthesis and in vitro cytotoxicity of novel C-12 substituted-14-deoxy-andrographolide derivatives as potent anti-cancer agents.

    PubMed

    Kandanur, Sai Giridhar Sarma; Golakoti, Nageswara Rao; Nanduri, Srinivas

    2015-12-15

    Andrographolide, the major labdane diterpenoid from Andrographis paniculata has been reported to be cytotoxic against various cancer cells in vitro. Our research efforts led to the discovery of novel 12-phenyl thio and 12-aryl amino-14-deoxy-andrographolide derivatives (III q and III r) with potent cytotoxic activity, 12-benzyl amino-14-deoxy-andrographolide analogues showing broad range of cytotoxic activity against most of the cell lines and 12-alkyl amino-14-deoxy-andrographolide derivatives being selective to few cell lines (PC-3 and HOP-92), when the selected analogues were evaluated against 60 human cancer cell line panel at National Cancer Institute (N.C.I.), USA. The SAR (structure activity relationship) studies demonstrated potent activity for the compounds containing the following functionalities at C-12: substituted aryl amino/phenyl thio>benzylamine>alkyl amine. The significant cytotoxic activity observed for compounds III q and III r suggest that these could serve as templates for further optimization. PMID:26561364

  18. Andrographolide Stimulates Neurogenesis in the Adult Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Varela-Nallar, Lorena; Arredondo, Sebastian B.; Tapia-Rojas, Cheril; Hancke, Juan; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C.

    2015-01-01

    Andrographolide (ANDRO) is a labdane diterpenoid component of Andrographis paniculata widely used for its anti-inflammatory properties. We have recently determined that ANDRO is a competitive inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β), a key enzyme of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling cascade. Since this signaling pathway regulates neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus, we evaluated whether ANDRO stimulates this process. Treatment with ANDRO increased neural progenitor cell proliferation and the number of immature neurons in the hippocampus of 2- and 10-month-old mice compared to age-matched control mice. Moreover, ANDRO stimulated neurogenesis increasing the number of newborn dentate granule neurons. Also, the effect of ANDRO was evaluated in the APPswe/PS1ΔE9 transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. In these mice, ANDRO increased cell proliferation and the density of immature neurons in the dentate gyrus. Concomitantly with the increase in neurogenesis, ANDRO induced the activation of the Wnt signaling pathway in the hippocampus of wild-type and APPswe/PS1ΔE9 mice determined by increased levels of β-catenin, the inactive form of GSK-3β, and NeuroD1, a Wnt target gene involved in neurogenesis. Our findings indicate that ANDRO stimulates neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus suggesting that this drug could be used as a therapy in diseases in which neurogenesis is affected. PMID:26798521

  19. Andrographolide Induces Apoptosis of C6 Glioma Cells via the ERK-p53-Caspase 7-PARP Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shih-Hung; Wang, Seu-Mei; Syu, Jhih-Pu; Chen, Ying; Wang, Sheng-De; Peng, Yu-Sen; Kuo, Meng-Fai; Kung, Hsiu-Ni

    2014-01-01

    Background. Glioma is the most malignant tumor of the central nervous system. Efforts on the development of new chemotherapy are mandatory. Andrographolide (AND), a diterpenoid lactone isolated from the Andrographis paniculata, has been shown to have antitumor activities in several types of cancer cells. Whether AND can exert its antitumor activity in glioblastoma cells remains unknown. This study examined the anticancer effects of AND, both in vitro and in vivo. Methods. Cell apoptosis was assayed by flow cytometry and nuclear staining. The signaling pathway for AND was determined by western blotting. The effects of AND on tumor growth was evaluated in a mouse model. Results and Conclusion. In vitro, with application of specific inhibitors and siRNA, AND-induced apoptosis was proven through ROS-ERK-P53-caspase 7-PARP signaling pathway. In vivo, AND significantly retarded tumor growth and caused regression of well-formed tumors in vivo. Furthermore, AND did not induce apoptosis or activate ERK and p53 in primary cultured astrocyte cells, and it may serve as a potential therapeutic candidate for the treatment of glioma. PMID:25162007

  20. Engineered andrographolide nanosystems for smart recovery in hepatotoxic conditions

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Partha; Das, Suvadra; Auddy, Runa Ghosh; Mukherjee, Arup

    2014-01-01

    Andrographolide (AG) is one of the most potent labdane diterpenoid-type free radical scavengers available from plant sources. The compound is the principal bioactive component in Andrographis paniculata leaf extracts, and is responsible for anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and immunomodulatory activity. The application of AG in therapeutics, however, is severely constrained, due to its low aqueous solubility, short biological half-life, and poor cellular permeability. Engineered nanoparticles in biodegradable polymer systems were therefore conceived as one solution to aid in further drug-like applications of AG. In this study, a cationic modified poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid nanosystem was applied for evaluation against experimental mouse hepatotoxic conditions. Biopolymeric nanoparticles of hydrodynamic size of 229.7±17.17 nm and ζ-potential +34.4±1.87 mV facilitated marked restoration in liver functions and oxidative stress markers. Superior dissolution for bioactive AG, hepatic residence, and favorable cytokine regulation in the liver tissues are some of the factors responsible for the newer nanosystem-assisted rapid recovery. PMID:25336950

  1. Identification and evaluation of agents isolated from traditionally used herbs against Ophiophagus hannah venom.

    PubMed

    Salama, R; Sattayasai, J; Gande, A K; Sattayasai, N; Davis, M; Lattmann, E

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was firstly to identify active molecules in herbs, that are traditionally used for the treatment of snake bite, such as Curcuma antinaia, Curcuma contravenenum, Andrographis paniculata, and Tanacetum parthenium; secondly to test similar structurally related molecules and finally to prepare and evaluate an efficient formulation against Ophiophagus hannah venom intoxification. Three labdane based compounds, including labdane dialdehyde, labdane lactone, and labdane trialdehyde and two lactones including 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide and parthenolide were isolated by column chromatography and characterised. Using the isolated rat phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragm preparation, the antagonistic effect of crude extracts, isolated compounds and prepared formulations were measured in vitro on the inhibition of the neuromuscular transmission. Inhibition on muscle contraction, produced by the 5 μg/mL venom, was reversed by test agents in organ bath preparations. A labdane trialdehyde, isolated from C. contravenenum, was identified as the best antagonising agent in the low micromolar range. Tests on formulations of the most potent C. contravenenum extract showed, that the suppository with witepsol H15 was an effective medicine against O. hannah venom. This study elucidated the active compounds, accounting for the antivenin activity of traditionally used herbs and suggested the most suitable formulation, which may help to develop potent medicines for the treatment of snake bite in the future.

  2. Cigarette Smoke-Induced Lung Disease Predisposes to More Severe Infection with Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae: Protective Effects of Andrographolide.

    PubMed

    Tan, W S Daniel; Peh, Hong Yong; Liao, Wupeng; Pang, Chu Hui; Chan, Tze Khee; Lau, Suk Hiang; Chow, Vincent T; Wong, W S Fred

    2016-05-27

    Cigarette smoke (CS) is associated with many maladies, one of which is chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). As the disease progresses, patients are more prone to develop COPD exacerbation episodes by bacterial infection, particularly to nontypeable Haemophilus influenza (NTHi) infection. The present study aimed to develop a CS-exposed mouse model that increases inflammation induced by NTHi challenge and investigate the protective effects of andrographolide, a bioactive molecule with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties isolated from the plant Andrographis paniculata. Female BALB/c mice exposed to 2 weeks of CS followed by a single intratracheal instillation of NTHi developed increased macrophage and neutrophil pulmonary infiltration, augmented cytokine levels, and heightened oxidative damage. Andrographolide effectively reduced lung cellular infiltrates and decreased lung levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, CXCL1/KC, 8-OHdG, matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8), and MMP-9. The protective actions of andrographolide on CS-predisposed NTHi inflammation might be attributable to increased nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) activation and decreased Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) repressor function, resulting in enhanced gene expression of antioxidant enzymes including heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase-2 (GPx-2), glutamate-cysteine ligase modifier (GCLM), and NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1). Taken together, these findings strongly support a therapeutic potential for andrographolide in preventing lung inflammation caused by NTHi in cigarette smokers.

  3. Andrographolide Stimulates Neurogenesis in the Adult Hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Varela-Nallar, Lorena; Arredondo, Sebastian B; Tapia-Rojas, Cheril; Hancke, Juan; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C

    2015-01-01

    Andrographolide (ANDRO) is a labdane diterpenoid component of Andrographis paniculata widely used for its anti-inflammatory properties. We have recently determined that ANDRO is a competitive inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β), a key enzyme of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling cascade. Since this signaling pathway regulates neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus, we evaluated whether ANDRO stimulates this process. Treatment with ANDRO increased neural progenitor cell proliferation and the number of immature neurons in the hippocampus of 2- and 10-month-old mice compared to age-matched control mice. Moreover, ANDRO stimulated neurogenesis increasing the number of newborn dentate granule neurons. Also, the effect of ANDRO was evaluated in the APPswe/PS1ΔE9 transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. In these mice, ANDRO increased cell proliferation and the density of immature neurons in the dentate gyrus. Concomitantly with the increase in neurogenesis, ANDRO induced the activation of the Wnt signaling pathway in the hippocampus of wild-type and APPswe/PS1ΔE9 mice determined by increased levels of β-catenin, the inactive form of GSK-3β, and NeuroD1, a Wnt target gene involved in neurogenesis. Our findings indicate that ANDRO stimulates neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus suggesting that this drug could be used as a therapy in diseases in which neurogenesis is affected. PMID:26798521

  4. Taxonomic significance of leaf micromorphology in some selected taxa of Acanthaceae (Peninsular Malaysia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurul-Aini, C. A. C.; Noraini, T.; Latiff, A.; Amirul-Aiman, A. J.; Ruzi, A. R.; Idris, S.

    2014-09-01

    Comparative leaf micromorphology study was conducted in eight taxa of Acanthaceae from Peninsular Malaysia. Eight chosen taxa were Acanthus ebracteatus Vahl, A. ilicifolius L., A. volubilis Wall, A. montanus T. Anderson, Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wall. ex Nees, Asystasia gangetica subsp. micrantha (Nees) Ensermu, Chroesthes longifolia (Wight) B. Hansen and Peristrophe roxburghiana (Schult.) Bremek. The objective of this study was to identify the leaf micromorphological characteristics that can be used in species identification and also as supportive data in classification. The procedures involved such as dehydration, critical point drying, gold coated and examination under scanning electron microscope. Findings in this study have demonstrated the similarities and variations in leaf micromorphological characteristics such as in type of epicuticular waxes, cuticular ornamentations, stomata characteristics and in the presence of trichomes. Six types of epicuticular waxes and five types of trichomes were observed. Variations in cuticular ornamentations and stomata structure can be used to differentiate species. One diagnostic character was found and proven to be very useful to identify Acanthus via the presence of simple trichomes (short-conicle like). In conclusion, the results of this study have shown that leaf micromorphological characteristics have taxonomic significance that can be useful in classifications and identification especially at species level.

  5. Andrographolide activates the canonical Wnt signalling pathway by a mechanism that implicates the non-ATP competitive inhibition of GSK-3β: autoregulation of GSK-3β in vivo.

    PubMed

    Tapia-Rojas, Cheril; Schüller, Andreas; Lindsay, Carolina B; Ureta, Roxana C; Mejías-Reyes, Cristóbal; Hancke, Juan; Melo, Francisco; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C

    2015-03-01

    Wnt/β-catenin signalling is an important pathway that regulates multiple biological processes, including cell adhesion and determination of cell fate during animal development; in the adult nervous system it regulates the structure and function of synapses. Wnt-signalling dysfunction is associated with several neurodegenerative diseases such as schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. The use of natural compounds is an interesting strategy in the search for drugs with the therapeutic potential to activate this signalling pathway. In the present study, we report that andrographolide (ANDRO), a component of Andrographis paniculata, is a potent activator of Wnt signalling. Our results indicate that ANDRO activates this pathway, inducing the transcription of Wnt target genes by a mechanism that bypasses Wnt ligand binding to its receptor. In vitro kinase assays demonstrate that ANDRO inhibits glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β by a non-ATP-competitive, substrate-competitive mode of action. In silico analyses suggest that ANDRO interacts with the substrate-binding site of GSK-3β. Finally, we demonstrated that the increase seen in the levels of GSK-3β phosphorylated at Ser⁹ is the result of an autoregulatory mechanism of the kinase in vivo, although not through activation of protein phosphatase type 1. Our results suggest that ANDRO could be used as a potential therapeutic drug for disorders caused by Wnt-signalling dysfunction such as neurodegenerative diseases.

  6. Protective Effect of Selected Medicinal Plants against Hydrogen Peroxide Induced Oxidative Damage on Biological Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Pai Kotebagilu, Namratha; Reddy Palvai, Vanitha

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress is developed due to susceptibility of biological substrates to oxidation by generation of free radicals. In degenerative diseases, oxidative stress level can be reduced by antioxidants which neutralize free radicals. Primary objective of this work was to screen four medicinal plants, namely, Andrographis paniculata, Costus speciosus, Canthium parviflorum, and Abrus precatorius, for their antioxidant property using two biological substrates—RBC and microsomes. The antioxidative ability of three solvent extracts, methanol (100% and 80%) and aqueous leaf extracts, was studied at different concentrations by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances method using Fenton's reagent to induce oxidation in the substrates. The polyphenol and flavonoid content were analyzed to relate with the observed antioxidant effect of the extracts. The phytochemical screening indicated the presence of flavonoids, polyphenols, tannins, and β-carotene in the samples. In microsomes, 80% methanol extract of Canthium and Costus and, in RBC, 80% methanol extract of Costus showed highest inhibition of oxidation and correlated well with the polyphenol and flavonoid content. From the results it can be concluded that antioxidants from medicinal plants are capable of inhibiting oxidation in biological systems, suggesting scope for their use as nutraceuticals. PMID:25436152

  7. Andrographolide Enhances Proliferation and Prevents Dedifferentiation of Rabbit Articular Chondrocytes: An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Li-ke; Wei, Qing-jun; Liu, Lei; Zheng, Li; Zhao, Jin-min

    2015-01-01

    As the main active constituent of Andrographis paniculata that was applied in treatment of many diseases including inflammation in ancient China, andrographolide (ANDRO) was found to facilitate reduction of edema and analgesia in arthritis. This suggested that ANDRO may be promising anti-inflammatory agent to relieve destruction and degeneration of cartilage after inflammation. In this study, the effect of ANDRO on rabbit articular chondrocytes in vitro was investigated. Results showed that not more than 8 μM ANDRO did no harm to chondrocytes (P < 0.05). DNA content and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) /DNA were, respectively, improved in ANDRO groups comparing to the control (P < 0.05). ANDRO could promote expression of aggrecan, collagen II, and Sox9 genes while downregulating expression of collagen I gene (P < 0.05). Furthermore, hypertrophy that may result in chondrocyte ossification could not be detected in all groups (P > 0.05). The viability assay, hematoxylin-eosin, safranin O, and immunohistochemical staining also showed better performances in ANDRO groups. As to the doses, 3 μM ANDRO showed the best performance. The results indicate that ANDRO can accelerate proliferation of rabbit articular chondrocytes in vitro and meanwhile maintain the phenotype, which may provide valuable references for further exploration on arthritis. PMID:25802548

  8. Andrographolide prevents high-fat diet-induced obesity in C57BL/6 mice by suppressing the sterol regulatory element-binding protein pathway.

    PubMed

    Ding, Lili; Li, Jinmei; Song, Baoliang; Xiao, Xu; Huang, Wendong; Zhang, Binfeng; Tang, Xiaowen; Qi, Meng; Yang, Qiming; Yang, Qiaoling; Yang, Li; Wang, Zhengtao

    2014-11-01

    Sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs) are major transcription factors regulating the expression of genes involved in biosynthesis of cholesterol, fatty acids, and triglycerides. We investigated the effect of the specific SREBP suppressor andrographolide, a natural compound isolated from Andrographis paniculata, on the regulation of SREBP signaling by use of Western blot, reporter gene assay, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. In addition, the antiobesity effects of andrographolide were evaluated in C57BL/6 mice with high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. Our results showed that andrographolide downregulated the expressions of SREBPs target genes and decreased cellular lipid accumulation in vitro. Further, andrographolide (100 mg/kg per day) attenuated HFD-induced body weight gain and fat accumulation in liver or adipose tissues, and improved serum lipid levels and insulin or glucose sensitivity in HFD-induced obese mice. Andrographolide effectively suppressed the respiratory quotient, energy expenditure, and oxygen consumption, which may have contributed to the decreased body-weight gain of the obese mice fed with a HFD. Consistently, andrographolide regulated SREBP target genes and metabolism-associated genes in liver or brown adipose tissue, which may have directly contributed to the lower lipid levels and enhanced insulin sensitivity. Taken together, our results indicated that andrographolide ameliorated lipid metabolism and improved glucose use in mice with HFD-induced obesity. Andrographolide has potential as a leading compound in the prevention or treatment of obesity and insulin resistance.

  9. Development of andrographolide molecularly imprinted polymer for solid-phase extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Xiaoying; Liu, Qingshan; Jiang, Yifan; Luo, Yongming

    2011-06-01

    A method employing molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) as selective sorbent for solid-phase extraction (SPE) to pretreat samples was developed. The polymers were prepared by precipitation polymerization with andrographolide as template molecule. The structure of MIP was characterized and its static adsorption capacity was measured by the Scatchard equation. In comparison with C 18-SPE and non-imprinted polymer (NIP) SPE column, MIP-SPE column displays high selectivity and good affinity for andrographolide and dehydroandrographolide for extract of herb Andrographis paniculata ( Burm.f.) Nees (APN). MIP-SPE column capacity was 11.9 ± 0.6 μmol/g and 12.1 ± 0.5 μmol/g for andrographolide and dehydroandrographolide, respectively and was 2-3 times higher than that of other two columns. The precision and accuracy of the method developed were satisfactory with recoveries between 96.4% and 103.8% (RSD 3.1-4.3%, n = 5) and 96.0% and 104.2% (RSD 2.9-3.7%, n = 5) for andrographolide and dehydroandrographolide, respectively. Various real samples were employed to confirm the feasibility of method. This developed method demonstrates the potential of molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction for rapid, selective, and effective sample pretreatment.

  10. Signal detection for Thai traditional medicine: examination of national pharmacovigilance data using reporting odds ratio and reported population attributable risk.

    PubMed

    Wechwithan, Sareeya; Suwankesawong, Wimon; Sornsrivichai, Vorasith; McNeil, Edward B; Jiraphongsa, Chuleeporn; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi

    2014-10-01

    Herbal containing medicine consumption has increased while the awareness of adverse drug reaction (ADR) was less than conventional medicine. Early detection of unexpected numbers of ADRs from herbal medicines' reports which are abnormal from the whole database needs quantification. Disproportionality analysis has been performed for signal detection by using reporting odds ratio (ROR) as measurement. The impact of having medicine as exposures in each ADR should be measured by using reported population attributable risks (RPAR). This study aimed to quantify the contribution of Thai traditional medicine (TTM) to ADR reports and to assess the association between TTMs and serious adverse drug reactions. Data were retrieved from the adverse drug reaction surveillance database, Thai-Food and Drug Administration from 2002 to 2013. Crude and adjusted RORs for each drug-ADR pair and RPARs were computed. TTM contributed only 0.001% of all serious ADRs reported. Out of 4208 TTM-ADR pairs were examined, three had the statistically significant RORs, namely Andrographis paniculata and anaphylactic shock (ROR 2.32, 95% CI 1.03, 5.21); green traditional medicine and Stevens-Johnson syndrome (ROR 13.04, 95% CI 5.4-31.51) and Derris scandens Benth and angioedema (ROR 2.71, 95% CI 1.05-6.95). Their RPARs ranged from 0.05% to 0.16%. We conclude that TTMs need more intensive surveillance. PMID:24945744

  11. Xiang-Qi-Tang and its active components exhibit anti-inflammatory and anticoagulant properties by inhibiting MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways in LPS-treated rat cardiac microvascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    He, Chang-Liang; Yi, Peng-Fei; Fan, Qiao-Jia; Shen, Hai-Qing; Jiang, Xiao-Lin; Qin, Qian-Qian; Song, Zhou; Zhang, Cui; Wu, Shuai-Cheng; Wei, Xu-Bin; Li, Ying-Lun; Fu, Ben-Dong

    2013-04-01

    Xiang-Qi-Tang (XQT) is a Chinese herbal formula containing Cyperus rotundus, Astragalus membranaceus and Andrographis paniculata. Alpha-Cyperone (CYP), astragaloside IV (AS-IV) and andrographolide (AND) are the three major active components in this formula. XQT may modulate the inflammatory or coagulant responses. We therefore assessed the effects of XQT on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory model of rat cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (RCMECs). XQT, CYP, AS-IV and AND inhibited the production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), and up-regulated the mRNA expression of Kruppel-like factor 2 (KLF2). XQT and CYP inhibited the secretion of tissue factor (TF). To further explore the mechanism, we found that XQT, or its active components CYP, AS-IV and AND significantly inhibited extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 phosphorylation protein expression as well as decreased the phosphorylation levels of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) p65 proteins in LPS-stimulated RCMECs. These results suggested that XQT and its active components inhibited the expression of inflammatory and coagulant mediators via mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPKs) and NF-κB signaling pathways. These findings may contribute to future research on the action mechanisms of this formula, as well as therapy for inflammation- or coagulation-related diseases. PMID:23171279

  12. Andrographolide inhibits intracellular Chlamydia trachomatis multiplication and reduces secretion of proinflammatory mediators produced by human epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Ziyu; Frohlich, Kyla M.; Zhang, Yan; Feng, Xiaogeng; Zhang, Jiaxing; Shen, Li

    2014-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common sexually transmitted bacterial disease worldwide. Untreated C. trachomatis infections may cause inflammation and ultimately damage tissues. Here, we evaluated the ability of Andrographolide (Andro), a natural diterpenoid lactone component of Andrographis paniculata, to inhibit C. trachomatis infection in cultured human cervical epithelial cells. We found that Andro exposure inhibited C. trachomatis growth in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The greatest inhibitory effect was observed when exponentially growing C. trachomatis was exposed to Andro. Electron micrographs demonstrated the accumulation of unusual, structurally deficient chlamydial organisms, correlated with a decrease in levels of OmcB expressed at the late stage of infection. Additionally, Andro significantly reduced the secretion of interleukin6, CXCL8 and interferon-γ-induced protein10 produced by host cells infected with C. trachomatis. These results indicate the efficacy of Andro to perturb C. trachomatis transition from the metabolically active reticulate body to the infectious elementary body and concurrently reduce the production of a proinflammatory mediator by epithelial cells in vitro. Further dissection of Andro's anti-Chlamydia action may provide identification of novel therapeutic targets. PMID:25854005

  13. Deoxyandrographolide promotes glucose uptake through glucose transporter-4 translocation to plasma membrane in L6 myotubes and exerts antihyperglycemic effect in vivo.

    PubMed

    Arha, Deepti; Pandeti, Sukanya; Mishra, Akansha; Srivastava, Swayam Prakash; Srivastava, Arvind Kumar; Narender, Tadigoppula; Tamrakar, Akhilesh Kumar

    2015-12-01

    Skeletal muscle is the principal site for postprandial glucose utilization and augmenting the rate of glucose utilization in this tissue may help to control hyperglycemia associated with diabetes mellitus. Here, we explored the effect of Deoxyandrographolide (DeoAn) isolated from the Andrographis paniculata Nees on glucose utilization in skeletal muscle and investigated its antihyperglycemic effect in vivo in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and genetically diabetic db/db mice. In L6 myotubes, DeoAn dose-dependently stimulated glucose uptake by enhancing the translocation of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) to cell surface, without affecting the total cellular GLUT4 and GLUT1 content. These effects of DeoAn were additive to insulin. Further analysis revealed that DeoAn activated PI-3-K- and AMPK-dependent signaling pathways, account for the augmented glucose transport in L6 myotubes. Furthermore, DeoAn lowered postprandial blood glucose levels in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and also suppressed the rises in the fasting blood glucose, serum insulin, triglycerides and LDL-Cholesterol levels of db/db mice. These findings suggest the therapeutic efficacy of the DeoAn for type 2 diabetes mellitus and can be potential phytochemical for its management.

  14. Antihyperglycaemic effect of 'Ilogen-Excel', an ayurvedic herbal formulation in streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Umamaheswari, Selvaraj; Mainzen Prince, Ponnaian Stanely

    2007-01-01

    'Ilogen-Excel', an Ayurvedic herbal formulation is composed of eight medicinal plants (Curcuma longa, Strychnos potatorum, Salacia oblonga, Tinospora cordifolia, Vetivelia zizanioides, Coscinium fenestratum, Andrographis paniculata and Mimosa pudica). The present study evaluates the antihyperglycemic effect of 'Ilogen-Excel' in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Rats were rendered diabetic by streptozotocin (STZ) (45 mg/kg body weight). Oral administration of 'Ilogen-Excel' (50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg) for 60 days resulted in significantly lowered levels of blood glucose and significantly increased levels of plasma insulin, hepatic glycogen and total hemoglobin. 'Ilogen-Excel' administration also decreased the levels of glycosylated hemoglobin, plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, hydroperoxides, ceruloplasmin and vitamin E in diabetic rats. Plasma reduced glutathione and vitamin C were significantly elevated by oral administration of 'Ilogen-Excel'. Administration of insulin normalized all the biochemical parameters studied in diabetic rats. The effect at a dose of 100 mg/kg was more pronounced than 50 mg/kg and brought back all the parameters to near normal levels. Thus, our study shows the antihyperglycemic effects of 'Ilogen-Excel' in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Our study also shows that combined therapy is better than individual therapy.

  15. Regulation of inflammatory gene expression in PBMCs by immunostimulatory botanicals.

    PubMed

    Denzler, Karen L; Waters, Robert; Jacobs, Bertram L; Rochon, Yvan; Langland, Jeffrey O

    2010-01-01

    Many hundreds of botanicals are used in complementary and alternative medicine for therapeutic use as antimicrobials and immune stimulators. While there exists many centuries of anecdotal evidence and few clinical studies on the activity and efficacy of these botanicals, limited scientific evidence exists on the ability of these botanicals to modulate the immune and inflammatory responses. Using botanogenomics (or herbogenomics), this study provides novel insight into inflammatory genes which are induced in peripheral blood mononuclear cells following treatment with immunomodulatory botanical extracts. These results may suggest putative genes involved in the physiological responses thought to occur following administration of these botanical extracts. Using extracts from immunostimulatory herbs (Astragalus membranaceus, Sambucus cerulea, Andrographis paniculata) and an immunosuppressive herb (Urtica dioica), the data presented supports previous cytokine studies on these herbs as well as identifying additional genes which may be involved in immune cell activation and migration and various inflammatory responses, including wound healing, angiogenesis, and blood pressure modulation. Additionally, we report the presence of lipopolysaccharide in medicinally prepared extracts of these herbs which is theorized to be a natural and active component of the immunostimulatory herbal extracts. The data presented provides a more extensive picture on how these herbs may be mediating their biological effects on the immune and inflammatory responses. PMID:20838436

  16. Andrographolide reduces cognitive impairment in young and mature AβPPswe/PS-1 mice.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Felipe G; Tapia-Rojas, Cheril; Carvajal, Francisco J; Hancke, Juan; Cerpa, Waldo; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder in which the amyloid-β (Aβ) oligomers are a key factor in synaptic impairment and in spatial memory decline associated with neuronal dysfunction. This impairment includes synaptic failure associated with the loss of synaptic proteins that contribute to AD progression. Interestingly, the use of natural compounds is an emergent conceptual strategy in the search for drugs with therapeutic potentials for treating neurodegenerative disorders. In the present study, we report that andrographolide (ANDRO), which is a labdane diterpene extracted from Andrographis paniculata, increases slope of field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSP) in the CA1 region of hippocampal slices and inhibits long-term depression (LTD), protecting the long-term potentiation (LTP) against the damage induced by Aβ oligomers in vitro, most likely by inhibiting glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β). Additionally, ANDRO prevents changes in neuropathology in two different age groups (7- and 12-month-old mice) of an AβPPswe/PS-1 Alzheimer's model. ANDRO reduces the Aβ levels, changing the ontogeny of amyloid plaques in hippocampi and cortices in 7-month-old mice, and reduces tau phosphorylation around the Aβ oligomeric species in both age groups. Additionally, we observed that ANDRO recovers spatial memory functions that correlate with protecting synaptic plasticity and synaptic proteins in two different age groups. Our results suggest that ANDRO could be used in a potential preventive therapy during AD progression.

  17. Andrographolide reduces cognitive impairment in young and mature AβPPswe/PS-1 mice.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Felipe G; Tapia-Rojas, Cheril; Carvajal, Francisco J; Hancke, Juan; Cerpa, Waldo; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder in which the amyloid-β (Aβ) oligomers are a key factor in synaptic impairment and in spatial memory decline associated with neuronal dysfunction. This impairment includes synaptic failure associated with the loss of synaptic proteins that contribute to AD progression. Interestingly, the use of natural compounds is an emergent conceptual strategy in the search for drugs with therapeutic potentials for treating neurodegenerative disorders. In the present study, we report that andrographolide (ANDRO), which is a labdane diterpene extracted from Andrographis paniculata, increases slope of field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSP) in the CA1 region of hippocampal slices and inhibits long-term depression (LTD), protecting the long-term potentiation (LTP) against the damage induced by Aβ oligomers in vitro, most likely by inhibiting glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β). Additionally, ANDRO prevents changes in neuropathology in two different age groups (7- and 12-month-old mice) of an AβPPswe/PS-1 Alzheimer's model. ANDRO reduces the Aβ levels, changing the ontogeny of amyloid plaques in hippocampi and cortices in 7-month-old mice, and reduces tau phosphorylation around the Aβ oligomeric species in both age groups. Additionally, we observed that ANDRO recovers spatial memory functions that correlate with protecting synaptic plasticity and synaptic proteins in two different age groups. Our results suggest that ANDRO could be used in a potential preventive therapy during AD progression. PMID:25524173

  18. Murraya paniculata (orange jasmine), a host and possible inoculum reservoir for Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, causal agent of Huanglongbing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Huanglongbing (HLB), considered the most serious vectored-pathogen of citrus, is transmitted in nature by the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri and the African citrus psyllid Trioza erytreae. In 1999, D. citri was discovered in southern Florida and has become established in FL and TX. Huanglon...

  19. Large Scale Screening of Ethnomedicinal Plants for Identification of Potential Antibacterial Compounds.

    PubMed

    Panda, Sujogya Kumar; Mohanta, Yugal Kishore; Padhi, Laxmipriya; Park, Young-Hwan; Mohanta, Tapan Kumar; Bae, Hanhong

    2016-01-01

    The global burden of bacterial infections is very high and has been exacerbated by increasing resistance to multiple antibiotics. Antibiotic resistance leads to failed treatment of infections, which can ultimately lead to death. To overcome antibiotic resistance, it is necessary to identify new antibacterial agents. In this study, a total of 662 plant extracts (diverse parts) from 222 plant species (82 families, 177 genera) were screened for antibacterial activity using the agar cup plate method. The aqueous and methanolic extracts were prepared from diverse plant parts and screened against eight bacterial (two Gram-positive and six Gram-negative) species, most of which are involved in common infections with multiple antibiotic resistance. The methanolic extracts of several plants were shown to have zones of inhibition ≥ 12 mm against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentration was calculated only with methanolic extracts of selected plants, those showed zone of inhibition ≥ 12 mm against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Several extracts had minimum inhibitory concentration ≤ 1 mg/mL. Specifically Adhatoda vasica, Ageratum conyzoides, Alangium salvifolium, Alpinia galanga, Andrographis paniculata, Anogeissus latifolia, Annona squamosa, A. reticulate, Azadirachta indica, Buchanania lanzan, Cassia fistula, Celastrus paniculatus, Centella asiatica, Clausena excavate, Cleome viscosa, Cleistanthus collinus, Clerodendrum indicum, Croton roxburghii, Diospyros melanoxylon, Eleutherine bulbosa, Erycibe paniculata, Eryngium foetidum, Garcinia cowa, Helicteres isora, Hemidesmus indicus, Holarrhena antidysenterica, Lannea coromandelica, Millettia extensa, Mimusops elengi, Nyctanthes arbor-tristis, Oroxylum indicum, Paederia foetida, Pterospermum acerifolium, Punica granatum, Semecarpus anacardium, Spondias pinnata, Terminalia alata and Vitex negundo were shown to have significant antimicrobial activity. The species

  20. Bioavailability of andrographolide and protection against carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative damage in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Haw-Wen; Huang, Chin-Shiu; Li, Chien-Chun; Lin, Ai-Hsuan; Huang, Yu-Ju; Wang, Tsu-Shing; Yao, Hsien-Tsung; Lii, Chong-Kuei

    2014-10-01

    Andrographolide, a bioactive diterpenoid, is identified in Andrographis paniculata. In this study, we investigated the pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of andrographolide in rats and studied whether andrographolide enhances antioxidant defense in a variety of tissues and protects against carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative damage. After a single 50-mg/kg administration, the maximum plasma concentration of andrographolide was 1 μM which peaked at 30 min. The bioavailability of andrographolide was 1.19%. In a hepatoprotection study, rats were intragastrically dosed with 30 or 50 mg/kg andrographolide for 5 consecutive days. The results showed that andrographolide up-regulated glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL) catalytic and modifier subunits, superoxide dismutase (SOD)-1, heme oxygenase (HO)-1, and glutathione (GSH) S-transferase (GST) Ya/Yb protein and mRNA expression in the liver, heart, and kidneys. The activity of SOD, GST, and GSH reductase was also increased in rats dosed with andrographolide (p < 0.05). Immunoblot analysis and EMSA revealed that andrographolide increased nuclear Nrf2 contents and Nrf2 binding to DNA, respectively. After the 5-day andrographolide treatment, one group of animals was intraperitoneally injected with carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}) at day 6. Andrographolide pretreatment suppressed CCl{sub 4}-induced plasma aminotransferase activity and hepatic lipid peroxidation (p < 0.05). These results suggest that andrographolide is quickly absorbed in the intestinal tract in rats with a bioavailability of 1.19%. Andrographolide protects against chemical-induced oxidative damage by up-regulating the gene transcription and activity of antioxidant enzymes in various tissues. - Highlights: • The bioavailability of andrographolide is 1.19% in rats. • Plasma concentration reaches 1 μM after giving 50 mg/kg andrographolide. • Andrographolide up-regulates Nrf2-dependent antioxidant genes. • Andrographolide increases antioxidant defense

  1. Andrographolide recovers cognitive impairment in a natural model of Alzheimer's disease (Octodon degus).

    PubMed

    Rivera, Daniela S; Lindsay, Carolina; Codocedo, Juan Francisco; Morel, Isidora; Pinto, Claudio; Cisternas, Pedro; Bozinovic, Francisco; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C

    2016-10-01

    The social species Octodon degus (degu) is the only wild-type South American rodent that develops Alzheimer's-like pathology with age. Here, we evaluated the ability of a natural product (Andrographolide, ANDRO), a diterpene of the labdane family obtained from the Asian plant Andrographis paniculata, to recover the cognitive decline in this long-lived animal model. We administered ANDRO to aged degus (56-month old) for 3 months. In addition, in 2 control groups (young degus: 12-month old and aged degus: 56-month old), we administrated saline solution as a vehicle. We evaluated cognitive performance through several behavioral tests. We also performed a series of physiological and biochemical analyses (e.g., electrophysiological and immunoblotting assessment) to identify possible mechanisms underlying cognitive performance associated with age. Our results suggest that there is an effect of aging on the loss of cognitive function, and this decrease in cognitive function was also related to a decrease in the synaptic functions and an increase in the main hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). More importantly, ANDRO treatments showed the following beneficial effects: (1) recovery of spatial memory and learning performance; (2) recovery of synaptic basal transmission; (3) partial or complete protection of certain synaptic proteins; and (4) a specific neuroprotective effect, including the reduction of phosphorylated tau protein and amyloid beta aggregate maturation in aged degus. Taken together, our results suggest that ANDRO could be used as a potential therapy for AD and support the use of O. degus as a natural model in which to study both neural damage associated with aging processes and the behavioral and neuropathological hallmarks of aging-related diseases such as AD.

  2. Andrographolide inhibits growth of human T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia Jurkat cells by downregulation of PI3K/AKT and upregulation of p38 MAPK pathways

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Tingfang; Yao, Shuluan; Zhang, Xianfeng; Guo, Yan

    2016-01-01

    T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) as a prevalent hematologic malignancy is one of the most common malignant tumors worldwide in children. Andrographolide (Andro), the major active component from Andrographis paniculata, has been shown to possess antitumor activities in several types of cancer cells. However, whether Andro would inhibit T-ALL cell growth remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxic effect of Andro on human T-ALL Jurkat cells and explored the mechanisms of cell death. Cell apoptosis was assayed by flow cytometry, and the signaling transduction for Andro was analyzed by Western blotting. The results indicated 10 μg/mL Andro could significantly induce Jurkat cells’ apoptosis, depending on the inhibition of PI3K/AKT pathway. Moreover, Andro-induced apoptosis is enhanced by AKT-selective inhibitor LY294002. ERK- or JNK-selective inhibitors PD98059 and SP600125 had no effect on Andro-induced apoptosis. In addition, p38 inhibitor SB203580 could reverse Andro-induced apoptosis in Jurkat cells. We also found that the protein expression of p-p53 and p-p38 were increased after Andro treatments. The result of an in vivo study also demonstrated Andro’s dose-dependent inhibition in subcutaneous Jurkat xenografts. In conclusion, our findings explained a novel mechanism of drug action by Andro in Jurkat cells and suggested that Andro might be developed into a new candidate therapy for T-ALL patients in the coming days. PMID:27114702

  3. Andrographolide Ameliorates Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Progression by Inhibiting Inflammatory Cell Infiltration through Downregulation of Cytokine and Integrin Expression.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jun; Liu, Zhenjie; Wang, Qiwei; Giles, Jasmine; Greenberg, Jason; Sheibani, Nader; Kent, K Craig; Liu, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), characterized by exuberant inflammation and tissue deterioration, is a common aortic disease associated with a high mortality rate. There is currently no established pharmacological therapy to treat this progressive disease. Andrographolide (Andro), a major bioactive component of the herbaceous plant Andrographis paniculata, has been found to exhibit potent anti-inflammatory properties by inhibiting nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) activity in several disease models. In this study, we investigated the ability of Andro to suppress inflammation associated with aneurysms, and whether it may be used to block the progression of AAA. Whereas diseased aortae continued to expand in the solvent-treated group, daily administration of Andro to mice with small aneurysms significantly attenuated aneurysm growth, as measured by the diminished expansion of aortic diameter (165.68 ± 15.85% vs. 90.62 ± 22.91%, P < 0.05). Immunohistochemistry analyses revealed that Andro decreased infiltration of monocytes/macrophages and T cells. Mechanistically, Andro inhibited arterial NF-κB activation and reduced the production of proinflammatory cytokines [CCL2, CXCL10, tumor necrosis factor α, and interferon-γ] in the treated aortae. Furthermore, Andro suppressed α4 integrin expression and attenuated the ability of monocytes/macrophages to adhere to activated endothelial cells. These results indicate that Andro suppresses progression of AAA, likely through inhibition of inflammatory cell infiltration via downregulation of NF-κB-mediated cytokine production and α4 integrin expression. Thus, Andro may offer a pharmacological therapy to slow disease progression in patients with small aneurysms. PMID:26483397

  4. Useful ethnophytomedicinal recipes of angiosperms used against diabetes in South East Asian Countries (India, Pakistan & Sri Lanka).

    PubMed

    Marwat, Sarfaraz Khan; Rehman, Fazalur; Khan, Ejaz Ahmad; Khakwani, Abdul Aziz; Ullah, Imdad; Khan, Kaleem Ullah; Khan, Inam Ullah

    2014-09-01

    This paper is based on data recorded from various literatures pertaining to ethnophytomedicinal recipes used against diabetes in South East Asia (India, Pakistan and Srilanka). Traditional plant treatments have been used throughout the world for the therapy of diabetes mellitus. In total 419 useful phytorecipes of 270 plant species belonging to 74 Angiospermic families were collected. From the review it was revealed that plants showing hypoglycemic potential mainly belong to the families, Cucurbitaceae (16 spp.), Euphorbiaceae (15 spp.), Caesalpiniaceae and Papilionaceae (13 spp. each), Moraceae (11 spp.), Acanthaceae (10 spp.), Mimosaceae (09 spp.), Asteraceae, Malvaceae and Poaceae (08 spp. each), Hippocrateaceae, Rutaceae and Zingiberaceae (07 spp. each), Apocynaceae, Asclepiadaceae and Verbenaceae (06 spp. each), Apiaceae, Convolvulaceae, Lamiaceae, Myrtaceae, Solanaceae (05 spp.each). The most active plants are Syzigium cumini (14 recipes), Phyllanthus emblica (09 recipes), Centella asiatica and Momordica charantia (08 recipes each), Azadirachta indica (07 recipes), Aegle marmelos, Catharanthus roseus, Ficus benghalensis, Ficus racemosa, Gymnema sylvestre (06 recipes each), Allium cepa, A. sativum, Andrographis paniculata, Curcuma longa (05 recipes each), Citrullus colocynthis, Justicia adhatoda, Nelumbo nucifera, Tinospora cordifolia, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Ziziphus mauritiana and Wattakaka volubilis (4 recipes each). These traditional recipes include extracts, leaves, powders, flour, seeds, vegetables, fruits and herbal mixtures. Data inventory consists of botanical name, recipe, vernacular name, English name. Some of the plants of the above data with experimentally confirmed antidiabetic properties have also been recorded. More investigations must be carried out to evaluate the mechanism of action of diabetic medicinal plants. Toxicity of these plants should also be explained. Scientific validation of these recipes may help in discovering new drugs from

  5. Andrographolide derivative AL-1 improves insulin resistance through down-regulation of NF-κB signalling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yongmei; Yan, Hui; Zhang, Zaijun; Zhang, Gaoxiao; Sun, Yewei; Yu, Pei; Wang, Yuqiang; Xu, Lipeng

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Andrographolide is the most active constituent of the medicinal plant Andrographis paniculata. Previously, we synthesized a novel andrographolide derivative AL-1, conjugating andrographolide with lipoic acid. Although the antioxidative and/or anti-inflammatory activity of AL-1 contributes to its cytoprotective effects, whether AL-1 can improve insulin resistance and the mechanisms responsible for its action have not been elucidated. Experimental Approach We investigated the anti-hyperlipidaemic and anti-hyperglycaemic effects of AL-1 in a high-fat diet/streptozocin-induced animal diabetic model. In addition, we investigated the effect of AL-1 on the NF-κB signalling pathway in rat islet derived insulinoma cells (RIN-m cells) with a focus on the link between reactive oxygen species-associated inflammation and insulin resistance. Key Results AL-1, at doses of 40 and 80 mg·kg−1, had a significant hypoglycaemic effect; it significantly reduced the level of cholesterol and increased HDL. AL-1 also reduced the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and enhanced insulin sensitivity. In addition, AL-1 improved the morphology of pancreatic islets and their function. Furthermore, AL-1 suppressed high glucose-induced phosphorylation of p65 and IκBα in RIN-m cells. Conclusion and Implications AL-1 has a hypoglycaemic effect and improves insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic rats. It protected islet from high glucose-induced oxidative damage by down-regulating the NF-κB signalling pathway. Further investigations of AL-1 as a promising new agent for treatment and/or prevention of diabetes are warranted. PMID:25712508

  6. Andrographolide inhibits prostate cancer by targeting cell cycle regulators, CXCR3 and CXCR7 chemokine receptors.

    PubMed

    Mir, Hina; Kapur, Neeraj; Singh, Rajesh; Sonpavde, Guru; Lillard, James W; Singh, Shailesh

    2016-01-01

    Despite state of the art cancer diagnostics and therapies offered in clinic, prostate cancer (PCa) remains the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths. Hence, more robust therapeutic/preventive regimes are required to combat this lethal disease. In the current study, we have tested the efficacy of Andrographolide (AG), a bioactive diterpenoid isolated from Andrographis paniculata, against PCa. This natural agent selectively affects PCa cell viability in a dose and time-dependent manner, without affecting primary prostate epithelial cells. Furthermore, AG showed differential effect on cell cycle phases in LNCaP, C4-2b and PC3 cells compared to retinoblastoma protein (RB(-/-)) and CDKN2A lacking DU-145 cells. G2/M transition was blocked in LNCaP, C4-2b and PC3 after AG treatment whereas DU-145 cells failed to transit G1/S phase. This difference was primarily due to differential activation of cell cycle regulators in these cell lines. Levels of cyclin A2 after AG treatment increased in all PCa cells line. Cyclin B1 levels increased in LNCaP and PC3, decreased in C4-2b and showed no difference in DU-145 cells after AG treatment. AG decreased cyclin E2 levels only in PC3 and DU-145 cells. It also altered Rb, H3, Wee1 and CDC2 phosphorylation in PCa cells. Intriguingly, AG reduced cell viability and the ability of PCa cells to migrate via modulating CXCL11 and CXCR3 and CXCR7 expression. The significant impact of AG on cellular and molecular processes involved in PCa progression suggests its potential use as a therapeutic and/or preventive agent for PCa. PMID:27029529

  7. Insights into the antiatherogenic molecular mechanisms of andrographolide against Porphyromonas gingivalis-induced atherosclerosis in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Al Batran, Rami; Al-Bayaty, Fouad; Al-Obaidi, Mazen M Jamil; Ashrafi, Amer

    2014-12-01

    Atherosclerosis is the commonest and most important vascular disease. Andrographolide (AND) is the main bioactive component of the medicinal plant Andrographis paniculata and is used in traditional medicine. This study was aimed to evaluate the antiatherogenic effect of AND against atherosclerosis induced by Porphyromonas gingivalis in White New Zealand rabbits. Thirty rabbits were divided into five groups as follows: G1, normal group; G2-5, were orally challenged with P. gingivalis five times a week over 12 weeks; G2, atherogenic control group; G3, standard group treated with atorvastatin (AV) 5 mg/kg; and G4 and G5, treatment groups treated with AND 10 and 20 mg/kg, respectively over 12 weeks. Serums were subjected to antioxidant enzymatic and anti-inflammatory activities, and the aorta was subjected to histological analyses. Groups treated with AND showed a significant reversal of liver and renal biochemical changes, compared with the atherogenic control group. In the same groups, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), total glutathione (GSH) levels in serum were significantly increased (P < 0.05), and lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde (MDA)) levels were significantly decreased (P < 0.05), respectively. Furthermore, treated groups with AV and AND showed significant decrease in the level of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 compared with the atherogenic control group. In aortic homogenate, the level of nitrotyrosine was significantly increased, while the level of MCP1 was significantly decreased in AV and AND groups compared with the atherogenic control group. In addition, staining the aorta with Sudan IV showed a reduction in intimal thickening plaque in AV and AND groups compared with the atherogenic control group. AND has showed an antiatherogenic property as well as the capability to reduce lipid, liver, and kidney biomarkers in atherogenic serum that prevents atherosclerosis complications caused by P. gingivalis.

  8. Enhanced protective activity of nano formulated andrographolide against arsenic induced liver damage.

    PubMed

    Das, Sujata; Pradhan, Goutam Kumar; Das, Subhadip; Nath, Debjani; Das Saha, Krishna

    2015-12-01

    Chronic exposure to arsenic over a period of time induces toxicity, primarily in liver but gradually in all systems of the body. Andrographolide (AG), a major diterpene lactone of Andrographis paniculata, shows a wide array of physiological functions including hepatoprotection. Therapeutic applications of AG are however seriously constrained because of its insolubility, poor bioavailability, and short plasma half-life. Nanoparticulation of AG is a possible solution to these problems. In the present study we investigated the effectiveness of polylactide co-glycolide (PLGA) nanocapsulated andrographolide (NA) against arsenic induced liver damage in mice. NA of average diameter 65.8 nm and encapsulation efficiency of 64% were prepared. Sodium arsenite at a dose of 40 mg/L supplied via drinking water in mice significantly raised the serum level of liver function markers such as AST, ALT, and ALP, and caused arsenic deposition in liver and ROS generation, though it did not show any lethality up to 30 days of exposure. However, even liver toxicity was not observed when mice were given AG and NA orally at doses up to 100 mg/kg bwt and 20 mg/kg bwt respectively on alternate days for one month. Treatment of non-toxic doses of AG or NA on alternate days along with arsenic significantly decreased the arsenic induced elevation of the serum level of ALT, AST and ALP, and arsenic deposition in liver. AG and NA increased the level of hepatic antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT), and the level of reduced glutathione (GSH). Also, the ROS level was lowered in mice exposed to arsenic but treated with AG or NA. Protective efficiency of NA is about five times more than that of AG. Administration of NA to arsenic-treated mice caused signs of improvement in liver tissue architecture. In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that NA could be beneficial against arsenic-induced liver toxicity.

  9. Andrographolide down-regulates hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha} in human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Hui-Hsuan; Tsai, Chia-Wen; Chou, Fen-Pi; Wang, Chau-Jong; Hsuan, Shu-Wen; Wang, Cheng-Kun; Chen, Jing-Hsien

    2011-02-01

    Andrographolide (Andro), a diterpenoid lactone isolated from a traditional herbal medicine Andrographis paniculata, is known to possess multiple pharmacological activities. In our previous study, Andro had been shown to inhibit non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) A549 cell migration and invasion via down-regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway. Here we demonstrated that Andro inhibited the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha} (HIF-1{alpha}) in A549 cells. HIF-1{alpha} plays an important role in tumor growth, angiogenesis and lymph node metastasis of NSCLC. The Andro-induced decrease of cellular protein level of HIF-1{alpha} was correlated with a rapid ubiquitin-dependent degradation of HIF-1{alpha}, and was accompanied by increased expressions of hydroxyl-HIF-1{alpha} and prolyl hydroxylase (PHD2), and a later decrease of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) upon the treatment of Andro. The Andro-inhibited VEGF expression appeared to be a consequence of HIF-1{alpha} inactivation, because its DNA binding activity was suppressed by Andro. Molecular data showed that all these effects of Andro might be mediated via TGF{beta}1/PHD2/HIF-1{alpha} pathway, as demonstrated by the transfection of TGF{beta}1 overexpression vector and PHD2 siRNA, and the usage of a pharmacological MG132 inhibitor. Furthermore, we elucidated the involvement of Andro in HIF-1{alpha} transduced VEGF expression in A549 cells and other NSCLC cell lines. In conclusion, these results highlighted the potential effects of Andro, which may be developed as a chemotherapeutic or an anti-angiogenesis agent for NSCLC in the future.

  10. Andrographolide recovers cognitive impairment in a natural model of Alzheimer's disease (Octodon degus).

    PubMed

    Rivera, Daniela S; Lindsay, Carolina; Codocedo, Juan Francisco; Morel, Isidora; Pinto, Claudio; Cisternas, Pedro; Bozinovic, Francisco; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C

    2016-10-01

    The social species Octodon degus (degu) is the only wild-type South American rodent that develops Alzheimer's-like pathology with age. Here, we evaluated the ability of a natural product (Andrographolide, ANDRO), a diterpene of the labdane family obtained from the Asian plant Andrographis paniculata, to recover the cognitive decline in this long-lived animal model. We administered ANDRO to aged degus (56-month old) for 3 months. In addition, in 2 control groups (young degus: 12-month old and aged degus: 56-month old), we administrated saline solution as a vehicle. We evaluated cognitive performance through several behavioral tests. We also performed a series of physiological and biochemical analyses (e.g., electrophysiological and immunoblotting assessment) to identify possible mechanisms underlying cognitive performance associated with age. Our results suggest that there is an effect of aging on the loss of cognitive function, and this decrease in cognitive function was also related to a decrease in the synaptic functions and an increase in the main hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). More importantly, ANDRO treatments showed the following beneficial effects: (1) recovery of spatial memory and learning performance; (2) recovery of synaptic basal transmission; (3) partial or complete protection of certain synaptic proteins; and (4) a specific neuroprotective effect, including the reduction of phosphorylated tau protein and amyloid beta aggregate maturation in aged degus. Taken together, our results suggest that ANDRO could be used as a potential therapy for AD and support the use of O. degus as a natural model in which to study both neural damage associated with aging processes and the behavioral and neuropathological hallmarks of aging-related diseases such as AD. PMID:27505720

  11. Useful ethnophytomedicinal recipes of angiosperms used against diabetes in South East Asian Countries (India, Pakistan & Sri Lanka).

    PubMed

    Marwat, Sarfaraz Khan; Rehman, Fazalur; Khan, Ejaz Ahmad; Khakwani, Abdul Aziz; Ullah, Imdad; Khan, Kaleem Ullah; Khan, Inam Ullah

    2014-09-01

    This paper is based on data recorded from various literatures pertaining to ethnophytomedicinal recipes used against diabetes in South East Asia (India, Pakistan and Srilanka). Traditional plant treatments have been used throughout the world for the therapy of diabetes mellitus. In total 419 useful phytorecipes of 270 plant species belonging to 74 Angiospermic families were collected. From the review it was revealed that plants showing hypoglycemic potential mainly belong to the families, Cucurbitaceae (16 spp.), Euphorbiaceae (15 spp.), Caesalpiniaceae and Papilionaceae (13 spp. each), Moraceae (11 spp.), Acanthaceae (10 spp.), Mimosaceae (09 spp.), Asteraceae, Malvaceae and Poaceae (08 spp. each), Hippocrateaceae, Rutaceae and Zingiberaceae (07 spp. each), Apocynaceae, Asclepiadaceae and Verbenaceae (06 spp. each), Apiaceae, Convolvulaceae, Lamiaceae, Myrtaceae, Solanaceae (05 spp.each). The most active plants are Syzigium cumini (14 recipes), Phyllanthus emblica (09 recipes), Centella asiatica and Momordica charantia (08 recipes each), Azadirachta indica (07 recipes), Aegle marmelos, Catharanthus roseus, Ficus benghalensis, Ficus racemosa, Gymnema sylvestre (06 recipes each), Allium cepa, A. sativum, Andrographis paniculata, Curcuma longa (05 recipes each), Citrullus colocynthis, Justicia adhatoda, Nelumbo nucifera, Tinospora cordifolia, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Ziziphus mauritiana and Wattakaka volubilis (4 recipes each). These traditional recipes include extracts, leaves, powders, flour, seeds, vegetables, fruits and herbal mixtures. Data inventory consists of botanical name, recipe, vernacular name, English name. Some of the plants of the above data with experimentally confirmed antidiabetic properties have also been recorded. More investigations must be carried out to evaluate the mechanism of action of diabetic medicinal plants. Toxicity of these plants should also be explained. Scientific validation of these recipes may help in discovering new drugs from

  12. Activated charcoal-mediated RNA extraction method for Azadirachta indica and plants highly rich in polyphenolics, polysaccharides and other complex secondary compounds

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background High quality RNA is a primary requisite for numerous molecular biological applications but is difficult to isolate from several plants rich in polysaccharides, polyphenolics and other secondary metabolites. These compounds either bind with nucleic acids or often co-precipitate at the final step and many times cannot be removed by conventional methods and kits. Addition of vinyl-pyrollidone polymers in extraction buffer efficiently removes polyphenolics to some extent, but, it failed in case of Azadirachta indica and several other medicinal and aromatic plants. Findings Here we report the use of adsorption property of activated charcoal (0.03%–0.1%) in RNA isolation procedures to remove complex secondary metabolites and polyphenolics to yield good quality RNA from Azadirachta indica. We tested and validated our modified RNA isolation method across 21 different plants including Andrographis paniculata, Aloe vera, Rosa damascena, Pelargonium graveolens, Phyllanthus amarus etc. from 13 other different families, many of which are considered as tough system for isolating RNA. The A260/280 ratio of the extracted RNA ranged between 1.8-2.0 and distinct 28S and 18S ribosomal RNA bands were observed in denaturing agarose gel electrophoresis. Analysis using Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer revealed intact total RNA yield with very good RNA Integrity Number. Conclusions The RNA isolated by our modified method was found to be of high quality and amenable for sensitive downstream molecular applications like subtractive library construction and RT-PCR. This modified RNA isolation procedure would aid and accelerate the biotechnological studies in complex medicinal and aromatic plants which are extremely rich in secondary metabolic compounds. PMID:23537338

  13. Development of a Bifunctional Andrographolide-Based Chemical Probe for Pharmacological Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Sheng-Hung; Liao, Hsin-Chia; Lee, Po-Xuan; Lin, Chao-Hsiung; Lo, Lee-Chiang; Fu, Shu-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Andrographolide (ANDRO) is a lactone diterpenoid compound present in the medicinal plant Andrographis paniculata which is clinically applied for multiple human diseases in Asia and Europe. The pharmacological activities of andrographolide have been widely demonstrated, including anti-inflammation, anti-cancer and hepatoprotection. However, the pharmacological mechanism of andrographolide remains unclear. Therefore, further characterization on the kinetics and molecular targets of andrographolide is essential. In this study, we described the synthesis and characterization of a novel fluorescent andrographolide derivative (ANDRO-NBD). ANDRO-NBD exhibited a comparable anti-cancer spectrum to andrographolide: ANDRO-NBD was cytotoxic to various types of cancer cells and suppressed the migration activity of melanoma cells; ANDRO-NBD treatment induced the cleavage of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) and the downregulation of its client oncoproteins, v-Src and Bcr-abl. Notably, ANDRO-NBD showed superior inhibitory effects to andrographolide in all anticancer assays we have performed. In addition, ANDRO-NBD was further used as a fluorescent probe to investigate the uptake kinetics, cellular distribution and molecular targets of andrographolide. Our data revealed that ANDRO-NBD entered cells rapidly and its fluorescent signal could be detected in nucleus, cytoplasm, mitochondria, and lysosome. Moreover, we demonstrated that ANDRO-NBD was covalently bound to several putative target proteins of andrographolide, including NF-κB and hnRNPK. In summary, we developed a fluorescent andrographolide probe with comparable bioactivity to andrographolide, which serves as a powerful tool to explore the pharmacological mechanism of andrographolide. PMID:27035713

  14. Andrographolide protects against cigarette smoke-induced oxidative lung injury via augmentation of Nrf2 activity

    PubMed Central

    Guan, SP; Tee, W; Ng, DSW; Chan, TK; Peh, HY; Ho, WE; Cheng, C; Mak, JC; Wong, WSF

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Cigarette smoke is a major cause for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Andrographolide is an active biomolecule isolated from the plant Andrographis paniculata. Andrographolide has been shown to activate nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a redox-sensitive antioxidant transcription factor. As Nrf2 activity is reduced in COPD, we hypothesize that andrographolide may have therapeutic value for COPD. Experimental Approach Andrographolide was given i.p. to BALB/c mice daily 2 h before 4% cigarette smoke exposure for 1 h over five consecutive days. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lungs were collected for analyses of cytokines, oxidative damage markers and antioxidant activities. BEAS-2B bronchial epithelial cells were exposed to cigarette smoke extract (CSE) and used to study the antioxidant mechanism of action of andrographolide. Key Results Andrographolide suppressed cigarette smoke-induced increases in lavage fluid cell counts; levels of IL-1β, MCP-1, IP-10 and KC; and levels of oxidative biomarkers 8-isoprostane, 8-OHdG and 3-nitrotyrosine in a dose-dependent manner. Andrographolide promoted inductions of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities in lungs from cigarette smoke-exposed mice. In BEAS-2B cells, andrographolide markedly increased nuclear Nrf2 accumulation, promoted binding to antioxidant response element (ARE) and total cellular glutathione level in response to CSE. Andrographolide up-regulated ARE-regulated gene targets including glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic (GCLC) subunit, GCL modifier (GCLM) subunit, GPx, GR and heme oxygenase-1 in BEAS-2B cells in response to CSE. Conclusions Andrographolide possesses antioxidative properties against cigarette smoke-induced lung injury probably via augmentation of Nrf2 activity and may have therapeutic potential for treating COPD. PMID:23146110

  15. Pro-neurogenic effects of andrographolide on RSC96 Schwann cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Fuben; Wu, Huayu; Zhang, Kun; Lv, Peizhen; Zheng, Li; Zhao, Jinmin

    2016-01-01

    Nerve regeneration remains a challenge to the treatment of peripheral nerve injury. Andrographolide (Andro) is the main active constituent of Andrographis paniculata, which has been applied in the treatment of several diseases, including inflammation, in ancient China. Andro has been reported to facilitate the reduction of edema and to exert analgesic effects in the treatment of various diseases. These findings suggest that Andro may be considered a promising anti-inflammatory agent that may suppress destruction and accelerate proliferation of Schwann cells following peripheral nerve injury. In the present study, the effects of Andro on RSC96 cells were investigated in vitro. The RSC96 cell line is a spontaneously immortalized rat Schwann cell line, which was originally derived from a long-term culture of rat primary Schwann cells. RSC96 cells were treated with a range of 0 to 50 µM Andro prior to the MTT assay. Cell proliferation, morphology, synthesis and nerve-specific gene expression were performed to detect the effect of Andro on RSC96 cells. The results of the present study demonstrated that the recommended doses of Andro ranged between 0.78 and 12.5 µM, among which the most obvious response was observed when used at 3.125 µM (P<0.05). DNA content was improved in Andro groups compared with the control group (P<0.05). In addition, Andro was able to promote the gene expression of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, ciliary neurotrophic factor, and the specific Schwann cell marker S100β (P<0.05). The results of a viability assay, hematoxylin-eosin staining, and immunohistochemistry were also improved in Andro groups. These results indicated that Andro may accelerate proliferation of RSC96 cells in vitro, whilst maintaining the Schwann cell phenotype; therefore, the present study may provide valuable evidence for the further exploration of the effects of Andro on peripheral nerves. PMID:27599453

  16. Enhanced protective activity of nano formulated andrographolide against arsenic induced liver damage.

    PubMed

    Das, Sujata; Pradhan, Goutam Kumar; Das, Subhadip; Nath, Debjani; Das Saha, Krishna

    2015-12-01

    Chronic exposure to arsenic over a period of time induces toxicity, primarily in liver but gradually in all systems of the body. Andrographolide (AG), a major diterpene lactone of Andrographis paniculata, shows a wide array of physiological functions including hepatoprotection. Therapeutic applications of AG are however seriously constrained because of its insolubility, poor bioavailability, and short plasma half-life. Nanoparticulation of AG is a possible solution to these problems. In the present study we investigated the effectiveness of polylactide co-glycolide (PLGA) nanocapsulated andrographolide (NA) against arsenic induced liver damage in mice. NA of average diameter 65.8 nm and encapsulation efficiency of 64% were prepared. Sodium arsenite at a dose of 40 mg/L supplied via drinking water in mice significantly raised the serum level of liver function markers such as AST, ALT, and ALP, and caused arsenic deposition in liver and ROS generation, though it did not show any lethality up to 30 days of exposure. However, even liver toxicity was not observed when mice were given AG and NA orally at doses up to 100 mg/kg bwt and 20 mg/kg bwt respectively on alternate days for one month. Treatment of non-toxic doses of AG or NA on alternate days along with arsenic significantly decreased the arsenic induced elevation of the serum level of ALT, AST and ALP, and arsenic deposition in liver. AG and NA increased the level of hepatic antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT), and the level of reduced glutathione (GSH). Also, the ROS level was lowered in mice exposed to arsenic but treated with AG or NA. Protective efficiency of NA is about five times more than that of AG. Administration of NA to arsenic-treated mice caused signs of improvement in liver tissue architecture. In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that NA could be beneficial against arsenic-induced liver toxicity. PMID:26485141

  17. Enhancement of absorption and hepatoprotective potential through soya-phosphatidylcholine-andrographolide vesicular system.

    PubMed

    Jain, Pushpendra Kumar; Khurana, Navneet; Pounikar, Yogesh; Gajbhiye, Asmita; Kharya, Murli Dhar

    2013-06-01

    Andrographis paniculata is a medicinal herb used extensively for various ailments and contains therapeutically active phytoconstituent, andrographolide (AN). Although hepatoprotective activity of AN is established, but their bioavailability is restricted due to its rapid clearance. The aim of this study, therefore, was to formulate AN herbosomes (ANH) through complexation with naturally occurring soya-phosphatidylcholine (SPC), in order to enhance absorption. Prepared andrographolide-soy phosphatidylcholine (AN-SPC) complex prepared was subjected for characterisation of complex and formation of vesicular system known as ANH using rotary evaporation techniques. This complex was subjected to in vitro study using everted small intestine sac technique which showed significantly increased absorption of AN from the ANH as compared to the plain AN. The hepatoprotective potential of ANH and plain AN was evaluated using carbon tetrachloride inducing hepatotoxicity rat model and compared, in which ANH equivalent to 50 mg/kg of plain AN significantly restore serum glutamate oxalacetate transaminase (112.4 ± 9.67 for AN whereas 90.2 ± 4.23 for ANH) and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (109.3 ± 7.89 for AN whereas 90.6 ± 4.34 for ANH) level as compared to control group. The ANH showed significantly better absorption than plain AN and this effect of ANH was also comparable to the standard drug (Silymarin). The findings of present study reveal that ANH has better bioavailability as shown by in vitro absorption study and hence improved hepatoprotection as compared to plain AN at equivalent dose.

  18. The relevance of Murraya paniculata and related species as potential hosts and inoculum reservoirs of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, causal agent of Huanglongbing (HLB)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Huanglongbing (HLB), considered the most serious insect-vectored bacterial disease of citrus, is transmitted in nature by the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri and the African citrus psyllid Trioza erytreae. Diaphorina citri was discovered in southern Florida in 1998 and the HLB disease in 2005...

  19. Diversity of the citrus HLB bacterium, ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’, in psyllids (Diaphorina citri) collected from Murraya paniculata and citrus spp. in Thailand

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (Las) is a phloem inhabiting bacterium that causes huanglongbing disease (HLB), also known as citrus greening associated with three species of a-Proteobacteria in the genus ‘Candidatus Liberibacter sp’. Prophage is an important genetic element of bacterial genomes...

  20. [Effects of exogenous Ca2+ on the seed germination of Koelreuteria paniculata in limestone area of Southwest China under drought stress].

    PubMed

    Cai, Xi-Yue; Chen, Xiao-De; Li, Chao-Zheng; Liu, Cheng

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, different arid environments in the limestone area of Southwest China were simulated by using different concentrations (0%, 5%, 15%, 25%, and 30%) of PEG6000 (polyethylene glycol), and a gradient of exogenous Ca2+ (0, 15, 20, 25, and 30 mmol x L(-1) of CaCl2) was installed to simulate the high calcium soil environments, aimed to study the effects of different concentration PEG6000, CaCl2, and their interactions on the seed germination characteristics of Koelreuteria bipinnata, one of the preferred species in the ecological restoration in limestone area. Under the action of CaCl2 alone, medium or low concentration exogenous Ca2+ had lesser effect on the seed germination parameters, but high concentration exogenous Ca2+ had inhibition effect on the seed germination. Medium or low concentration CaC12 could increase the seedling fresh biomass. When the PEG6000 concentration increased from 0% to 25%, the seed germination rate, germination potential, germination index, and vigor index showed a significant decreasing trend, and the seedling fresh biomass decreased remarkably. When certain concentration of exogenous Ca2+ was exerted to the drought treatment groups, medium or low concentration CaCl2 improved the seed germination characteristics, which compensated the loss from drought stress to a certain degree. When the CaCl2 concentration was up to 30 mmol x L(-1), the seeds were hard to germinate. Additionally, no seeds germinated under the condition of PEG with the concentration of 30%. It was suggested that applying definite concentration of exogenous Ca2+ could increase the seedling fresh biomass under PEG6000 stress, and make the seedlings more adapt to arid environment.

  1. 14-Deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide attenuates excessive inflammatory responses and protects mice lethally challenged with highly pathogenic A(H5N1) influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    Cai, Wentao; Chen, Sunrui; Li, Yongtao; Zhang, Anding; Zhou, Hongbo; Chen, Huanchun; Jin, Meilin

    2016-09-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been an excellent treasury for centuries' accumulation of clinical experiences, which deserves to be tapped for potential drugs and improved using modern scientific methods. 14-Deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide (DAP), a major component of an important TCM named Andrographis paniculata, with non-toxic concentration of 1000 mg/kg/day, effectively reduced the mortality and weight loss of mice lethally challenged with A/chicken/Hubei/327/2004 (H5N1) or A/PR/8/34 (H1N1) influenza A viruses (IAV) when initiated at 4 h before infection, or A/duck/Hubei/XN/2007 (H5N1) when initiated at 4 h or 48 h before infection, or 4 h post-infection (pi). DAP (1000 or 500 mg/kg/day) also significantly diminished lung virus titres of infected mice when initiated at 4 h or 48 h before infection, or 4 h pi. In the infection of A/duck/Hubei/XN/2007 (H5N1), DAP (1000 mg/kg/day) treatment initiated at 48 h before infection gained the best efficacy that virus titres in lungs of mice in log10TCID50/mL reduced from 2.61 ± 0.14 on 3 days post-infection (dpi), 2.98 ± 0.17 on 5 dpi, 3.54 ± 0.19 on 7 dpi to 1.46 ± 0.14 on 3 dpi, 1.86 ± 0.18 on 5 dpi, 2.03 ± 0.21 on 7 dpi. Moreover, DAP obviously alleviated lung histopathology and also strongly inhibited proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines expression. The mRNA levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, CCL-2/MCP-1, IFN-α, IFN-β, IFN-γ, MIP-1α, MIP-1β in lungs of A/duck/Hubei/XN/2007 (H5N1)-infected mice and serum protein expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, CCL-2/MCP-1 and CXCL-10/IP-10 in mice infected with all the three strains of IAV were all significantly reduced by DAP. Results demonstrated that DAP could restrain both the host intense inflammatory responses and high viral load, which were considered to contribute to the pathogenesis of H5N1 virus and should be controlled together in a clinical setting. Considering the anti-inflammatory and anti-IAV activities of DAP, DAP may

  2. Increased tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and natural killer cell (NK) function using an integrative approach in late stage cancers.

    PubMed

    See, Darryl; Mason, Stephanie; Roshan, Ramesh

    2002-05-01

    Natural products may increase cytotoxic activity of Natural Killer Cells (NK) Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF-alpha) while decreasing DNA damage in patients with late-stage cancer. Pilot studies have suggested that a combination of Nutraceuticals can raise NK cell function and TNF-alpha alpha activity and result in improved clinical outcomes in patients with late stage cancer. The objective of the study is to determine if Nutraceuticals can significantly raise NK function and TNF levels in patients with late stage cancer. After informed consent was obtained, 20 patients with stage IV, end-stage cancer were evaluated (one bladder, five breast, two prostate, one neuroblastoma, two non-small cell lung, three colon, 1 mesothelioma, two lymphoma, one ovarian, one gastric, one osteosarcoma). Transfer Factor Plus (TFP+, 3 tablets 3 times per day), IMUPlus (non denatured milk whey protein, 40 gm/day); Intravenous (50 to 100 gm/day) and oral (1-2 gm/day) ascorbic acid; Agaricus Blazeii Murill teas (10 gm/day); Immune Modulator Mix (a combination of vitamin, minerals, antioxidants and immune-enhancing natural products); nitrogenated soy extract (high levels of genistein and dadzein) and Andrographis Paniculata (500 mg twice, daily) were used. Baseline NK function by standard 4 h 51Cr release assay and TNF alpha and receptor levels were measured by ELISA from resting and phytohemagglutinin (PHA) stimulated adherent and non-adherent Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell (PBMC). Total mercaptans and glutathione in plasma were taken and compared to levels measured 6 months later. Complete blood counts and chemistry panels were routinely monitored. As of a mean of 6 months, 16/20 patients were still alive. The 16 survivors had significantly higher NK function than baseline (p < .01 for each) and TNF-alpha levels in all four cell populations studied (p < .01 for each). Total mercaptans (p < .01) and TNF-alpha receptor levels were significantly reduced (p < .01). It was also observed

  3. 14-Deoxyandrographolide alleviates ethanol-induced hepatosteatosis through stimulation of AMP-activated protein kinase activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Samir; Mukhopadhyay, Sibabrata; Bandhopadhyay, Sukdeb; Sen, Gargi; Biswas, Tuli

    2014-03-01

    Andrographis paniculata (AP) is a traditional medicinal plant of Ayurveda. It grows widely in Asia and is prescribed in the treatment of liver diseases. Here we have investigated the beneficial role of 14-deoxyandrographolide (14-DAG), a bioactive diterpenoid from AP, against alcoholic steatosis in rats. 14-DAG was extracted from aerial parts (leaves and stems) of AP. Rats were fed with ethanol for 8 weeks. Animals were treated with 14-DAG during the last 4 weeks of ethanol treatment. In vitro studies were undertaken in a human hepatocellular liver carcinoma cell line culture. Hepatosteatosis was assessed from histopathological studies of liver sections. Acetyl-CoA, malonyl-CoA, and triglyceride contents were determined using commercially available kits. Fatty acid synthesis was evaluated from incorporation of 1-(14)C acetate. Regulation of fatty acid oxidation and lipogenesis were monitored with immunoblotting and immunoprecipitation studies. Ethanol exposure led to hepatotoxicity, as evident from the marked enhancement in the levels of AST and ALT. The values decreased almost to control levels in response to 14-DAG treatment. Results showed that ethanol feeding induced deactivation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) that led to enhanced lipid synthesis and decreased fatty acid oxidation, culminating in hepatic fat accumulation. Treatment with 14-DAG activated AMPK through induction of cyclic AMP-protein kinase A pathway. Activation of AMPK was followed by down-regulation of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, and fatty acid synthase, leading to suppression of lipogenesis. This was associated with up-regulation of sirtuin 1 and depletion of malonyl-CoA, in favor of increased fatty acid oxidation. 14-DAG controlled ethanol-induced hepatosteatosis by interfering with dysregulation of lipid metabolism. In conclusion, our results indicated that 14-DAG was capable of preventing the development of fatty liver through AMPK

  4. Anti-inflammatory and Antimicrobial Effects of Heat-Clearing Chinese Herbs: A Current Review

    PubMed Central

    Muluye, Rekik A.; Bian, Yuhong; Alemu, Paulos N.

    2014-01-01

    Inflammation is a normal immune response; but if the body's regulation of inflammation is dysfunctional, then it will have an adverse effect on the body. Although use of modern drugs for inflammation has a relieving effect, it is still unsatisfactory. Moreover, the emergence of drug-resistant strains and even new kinds of microorganisms is causing significant morbidity and mortality. Recently, more attention has been focused on herbal medicine to treat various diseases because of the ability of the herbs to affect multiple target signaling pathways and their multiple mechanisms of action. Thus, a large number of studies have reported on the anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effects of the traditional Chinese herbs. Literature survey was performed by conducting systematic electronic search in PubMed, Science Direct, Google Scholar, and in books. This review has listed 11 heat-clearing Chinese herbs (HCCHs) including Scutellaria baicalensis (黃芩 Huáng Qín), Coptis chinensis (黃連 Huáng Lián), Flos Lonicerae (金銀花 Jīn Yín Hūa), Forsythia suspensa (連翹 Lián Qiào), Isatidis Folium (大青葉 Dà Qīn Yè), Radix Isatidis (板藍根 Bǎn Lán Gēn), Viola yedoensis (紫花地丁 Zǐ Huā Dì Dīn), Pulsatilla Radix (白頭翁 Bái Tóu Wēn), Andrographis paniculata (穿心蓮 Chuān Xīn Lián), Houttuynia cordata (魚腥草 Yú Xīng Cǎo), and Patrinia Herba (敗醬草 Bài Jiàn Cǎo), which have anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effects, and has described their effects through different mechanisms of action and multiple targets. Their ability to affect multiple target signaling pathways and their potential mechanisms of action contributing to their anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activity may be related to their action of removing heat and counteracting toxicity. Further studies are needed on the collection of HCCHs to know the detailed mechanism of action of herbs in this group for the assessment of effective drug. PMID:24860732

  5. Anti-inflammatory and Antimicrobial Effects of Heat-Clearing Chinese Herbs: A Current Review.

    PubMed

    Muluye, Rekik A; Bian, Yuhong; Alemu, Paulos N

    2014-04-01

    Inflammation is a normal immune response; but if the body's regulation of inflammation is dysfunctional, then it will have an adverse effect on the body. Although use of modern drugs for inflammation has a relieving effect, it is still unsatisfactory. Moreover, the emergence of drug-resistant strains and even new kinds of microorganisms is causing significant morbidity and mortality. Recently, more attention has been focused on herbal medicine to treat various diseases because of the ability of the herbs to affect multiple target signaling pathways and their multiple mechanisms of action. Thus, a large number of studies have reported on the anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effects of the traditional Chinese herbs. Literature survey was performed by conducting systematic electronic search in PubMed, Science Direct, Google Scholar, and in books. This review has listed 11 heat-clearing Chinese herbs (HCCHs) including Scutellaria baicalensis ( Huáng Qín), Coptis chinensis ( Huáng Lián), Flos Lonicerae ( Jīn Yín Hūa), Forsythia suspensa ( Lián Qiào), Isatidis Folium ( Dà Qīn Yè), Radix Isatidis ( Bǎn Lán Gēn), Viola yedoensis ( Zǐ Huā Dì Dīn), Pulsatilla Radix ( Bái Tóu Wēn), Andrographis paniculata ( Chuān Xīn Lián), Houttuynia cordata ( Yú Xīng Cǎo), and Patrinia Herba ( Bài Jiàn Cǎo), which have anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effects, and has described their effects through different mechanisms of action and multiple targets. Their ability to affect multiple target signaling pathways and their potential mechanisms of action contributing to their anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activity may be related to their action of removing heat and counteracting toxicity. Further studies are needed on the collection of HCCHs to know the detailed mechanism of action of herbs in this group for the assessment of effective drug. PMID:24860732

  6. Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B inhibitory activity of Indonesian herbal medicines and constituents of Cinnamomum burmannii and Zingiber aromaticum.

    PubMed

    Saifudin, Azis; Kadota, Shigetoshi; Tezuka, Yasuhiro

    2013-04-01

    We screened water and methanol extracts of 28 Indonesian medicinal plants for their protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) inhibitory activities. Nine water extracts, i.e., Alstonia scholaris leaf, Blumea balsamifera, Cinnamomum burmannii, Cymbopogon nardus, Melaleuca leucadendra, Phyllanthus niruri, Piper nigrum, Syzygium aromaticum, and Sy. polyanthum, exhibited ≥70 % inhibition at 25 μg/mL, whereas 11 methanol extracts, i.e., Als. scholaris, Andrographis paniculata, B. balsamifera, Ci. burmannii, Curcuma heyneana, Glycyrrhiza glabra, M. leucadendra, Punica granatum, Rheum palmatum, Sy. polyanthum, and Z. aromaticum, exhibited ≥70 % inhibition at 25 μg/mL. Water extracts of B. balsamifera (IC50, 2.26 μg/mL) and M. leucadendra (IC50, 2.05 μg/mL), and methanol extracts of Ci. burmannii (IC50, 2.47 μg/mL), Pu. granatum (IC50, 2.40 μg/mL), and Sy. polyanthum (IC50, 1.03 μg/mL) exhibited strong inhibitory activity, which was comparable with that of the positive control, RK-682 (IC50, 2.05 μg/mL). The PTP1B inhibitory activity of the constituents of Ci. burmannii and Z. aromaticum was then evaluated. 5'-Hydroxy-5-hydroxymethyl-4″,5″-methylenedioxy-1,2,3,4-dibenzo-1,3,5-cycloheptatriene (2; IC50, 29.7 μM) and trans-cinnamaldehyde (5; IC50, 57.6 μM) were the active constituents of Ci. burmannii, while humulatrien-5-ol-8-one (21; IC50, 27.7 μM), kaempferol-3,4'-di-O-methyl ether (32; IC50, 17.5 μM), and (S)-6-gingerol (33; IC50, 28.1 μM) were those of Z. aromaticum. These results suggest that these medicinal plants may contribute to the treatment and/or prevention of type II diabetes and/or obesity through PTP1B inhibition. PMID:22645080

  7. Anti-inflammatory and Antimicrobial Effects of Heat-Clearing Chinese Herbs: A Current Review.

    PubMed

    Muluye, Rekik A; Bian, Yuhong; Alemu, Paulos N

    2014-04-01

    Inflammation is a normal immune response; but if the body's regulation of inflammation is dysfunctional, then it will have an adverse effect on the body. Although use of modern drugs for inflammation has a relieving effect, it is still unsatisfactory. Moreover, the emergence of drug-resistant strains and even new kinds of microorganisms is causing significant morbidity and mortality. Recently, more attention has been focused on herbal medicine to treat various diseases because of the ability of the herbs to affect multiple target signaling pathways and their multiple mechanisms of action. Thus, a large number of studies have reported on the anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effects of the traditional Chinese herbs. Literature survey was performed by conducting systematic electronic search in PubMed, Science Direct, Google Scholar, and in books. This review has listed 11 heat-clearing Chinese herbs (HCCHs) including Scutellaria baicalensis ( Huáng Qín), Coptis chinensis ( Huáng Lián), Flos Lonicerae ( Jīn Yín Hūa), Forsythia suspensa ( Lián Qiào), Isatidis Folium ( Dà Qīn Yè), Radix Isatidis ( Bǎn Lán Gēn), Viola yedoensis ( Zǐ Huā Dì Dīn), Pulsatilla Radix ( Bái Tóu Wēn), Andrographis paniculata ( Chuān Xīn Lián), Houttuynia cordata ( Yú Xīng Cǎo), and Patrinia Herba ( Bài Jiàn Cǎo), which have anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effects, and has described their effects through different mechanisms of action and multiple targets. Their ability to affect multiple target signaling pathways and their potential mechanisms of action contributing to their anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activity may be related to their action of removing heat and counteracting toxicity. Further studies are needed on the collection of HCCHs to know the detailed mechanism of action of herbs in this group for the assessment of effective drug.

  8. Traditional herbal medicine in Far-west Nepal: a pharmacological appraisal

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Plant species have long been used as principal ingredients of traditional medicine in far-west Nepal. The medicinal plants with ethnomedicinal values are currently being screened for their therapeutic potential but their data and information are inadequately compared and analyzed with the Ayurveda and the phytochemical findings. Methods The present study evaluated ethnomedicinal plants and their uses following literature review, comparison, field observations, and analysis. Comparison was made against earlier standard literature of medicinal plants and ethnomedicine of the same area, the common uses of the Ayurveda and the latest common phytochemical findings. The field study for primary data collection was carried out from 2006-2008. Results The herbal medicine in far-west Nepal is the basis of treatment of most illness through traditional knowledge. The medicine is made available via ancient, natural health care practices such as tribal lore, home herbal remedy, and the Baidhya, Ayurveda and Amchi systems. The traditional herbal medicine has not only survived but also thrived in the trans-cultural environment with its intermixture of ethnic traditions and beliefs. The present assessment showed that traditional herbal medicine has flourished in rural areas where modern medicine is parsimoniously accessed because of the high cost and long travel time to health center. Of the 48 Nepalese medicinal plants assessed in the present communication, about half of the species showed affinity with the common uses of the Ayurveda, earlier studies and the latest phytochemical findings. The folk uses of Acacia catechu for cold and cough, Aconitum spicatum as an analgesic, Aesculus indica for joint pain, Andrographis paniculata for fever, Anisomeles indica for urinary affections, Azadirachta indica for fever, Euphorbia hirta for asthma, Taxus wallichiana for tumor control, and Tinospora sinensis for diabetes are consistent with the latest pharmacological findings

  9. Flowering and expression of flowering-related genes under long-day conditions with light-emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Hori, Yoshimi; Nishidate, Koji; Nishiyama, Manabu; Kanahama, Koki; Kanayama, Yoshinori

    2011-08-01

    The effects of light quality on flowering time were investigated in Gypsophila paniculata, which is a long-day cut flower, and with Arabidopsis under long-day conditions with light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Gypsophila paniculata plants were grown under natural daylight and flowering was controlled by long-day treatment with a weak LED light of a single color in the night. Flowering was promoted not by blue light, but by far-red light in G. paniculata, while flowering was promoted by both light colors in Arabidopsis. FT homologs of G. paniculata GpFT1 and GpFT2 were differentially expressed under long-day conditions with white light, suggesting that they play roles in flowering at different stages of reproductive development. GpFTs and FT gene expression was not induced by far-red light in G. paniculata or Arabidopsis. Instead, the expression of the SOC1 homolog of G. paniculata GpSOC1 and SOC1 was induced by far-red light in G. paniculata and Arabidopsis. Flowering was promoted by induction of FT and SOC1 expression with blue light in Arabidopsis, whereas GpFTs and GpSOC1 expression was low with blue light induction in G. paniculata. The relationship between flowering and the expression of FT and SOC1 in Arabidopsis was confirmed with ft and soc1 mutants. These results suggest that long-day conditions with far-red light promote flowering through SOC1 and its homologs, while the conditions with blue light do not promote flowering in G. paniculata, because of low expression of GpFTs and GpSOC1 in contrast to that in Arabidopsis.

  10. Shoot regeneration of mesophyll protoplasts transformed by Agrobacterium tumefaciens, not achievable with untransformed protoplasts.

    PubMed

    Steffen, A; Eriksson, T; Schieder, O

    1986-04-01

    Alternative methods for shoot regeneration in protoplast derived cultures were developed in Nicotiana paniculata and Physalis minima. In both species protoplast derived callus is not regeneratable to shoots by conventional methods, e.g. hormone treatment. Leaf discs and stem segments of N. paniculata and P. minima were incubated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens "shooter" strains harbouring pGV 2215 or pGV 2298 or wildtype strain B6S3. After 36 h of co-incubation protoplasts were prepared. (Leaf disc and stem segment cloning). Co-cultivation experiments were also undertaken with protoplasts of both species. Transformed clones, characterized by their hormone independent growth and octopine production, could be isolated after about two months. Transformation frequencies of "leaf disc and stem segment cloning" and co-cultivation experiments varied from 5×10(-3) to 5×10(-5). After about one year of cultivation on hormone-free culture medium, shoots could be recovered from colonies of N. paniculata, transformed by the strain harbouring pGV 2298. In protoplast derived colonies of P. minima, shoot induction was obtained only after transformation by bacteria carrying pGV 2215. This demonstrates the importance of the particular "shooter" mutant, as well as the response of the host plant. Transformed shoots of P. minima produced octopine, whereas octopine production in transformed shoots and callus of N. paniculata was undetectable after one year of cultivation, though T-DNA was still present in the plant genome. Transformed shoots of N. paniculata and P. minima do not produce any roots. Shoots of N. paniculata have an especially tumerous phenotype. Shoots of both species were successfully grafted to normal donor plants of N. tabacum.

  11. [Cold resistance of Pistacia chinensis and Koelreuteria integrifoliola].

    PubMed

    Feng, Xian-Bin; Dong, Qian; Li, Xu-Xin; Lu, Bing-She

    2011-05-01

    Taking one-year-old dormant shoots of Pistacia chinensis and Koelreuteria integrifoliola as test materials and the shoots of northern indigenous tree species K. paniculata as the control, the changes of their membrane-lipid peroxidation, antioxidative enzyme activity, and organic osmoregulatory substance content under artificial cooling were studied, aimed to analyze the differences of the three tree species in cold resistance. With the decrease of temperature, the ion leakage percentage of the three tree species increased in S-shape, and the SOD and POD activities decreased after an initial increase. The MDA, soluble protein, and soluble sugar contents of K. integrifoliola and K. paniculata under decreasing temperature decreased after an initial increase, while those of P. chinensis had an increasing trend. The semi-lethal temperature (LT50 ) of K. paniculata, K. integrifoliola, and P. chinensis calculated by the Logistic equation of ion leakage percentage was -27.2 degrees C, -23.7 degrees C, and -27.0 degrees C, respectively. Among the three tree species, K. paniculata had the strongest cold resistance, followed by P. chinensis, and K. integrifoliola. PMID:21812286

  12. Micropropagation and Tissue Culture of Hydrangea macrophylla for Mutagenesis, Ploidy Manipulation, and Possible Transformation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have established parameters for efficient in vitro germination of open pollinated seeds from 17 Hydrangea macrophylla and 2 Hydrangea paniculata cultivars. All tested hydrangea seed had a confirmed light requirement for germination to occur, and contrary to some prior reports, we discovered that ...

  13. Comparison of the emergence of three Brassicaceae species of different origins grown in Spain and USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thlaspi arvense, Camelina sativa, C. microcarpa and Neslia paniculata are four Brassicaceae family species that are becoming rare in North-Eastern Spain. Conversely, both T. arvense and C. sativa are being investigated as oilseed crops in North America for industrial/biofuel purposes. C. microcarpa ...

  14. A comparison of plant species for rearing Asian citrus psyllid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five plant genotypes were compared with respect to Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) reproduction potential: Bergera koenigii, Citrus aurantiifolia, C. macrophylla, C. taiwanica and Murraya paniculata. Asian citrus psyllid reproduction is dependent on young flush and thus Asian citrus psyllid production po...

  15. Lectotypifications of six taxa in the Boraginales (Cordiaceae and Heliotropiaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Feuillet, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A large number of specimens used as original material for the description of new species were destroyed in the bombing of the Berlin-Dahlem herbarium, B, in 1943. Six lectotypes are designated here for Cordia discolor Cham., Cordia multispicata Cham., Cordia tobagensis Urb. and its variety broadwayi Urb. in the Cordiaceae and for Tournefortia paniculata Cham. and Tournefortia ulei Vaupel in the Heliotropiaceae. PMID:27212885

  16. The genus Fleischmannia in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil and Paraguay (Eupatorieae, Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Robinson, Harold

    2015-01-01

    Species of the genus Fleischmannia from Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil and Paraguay are reviewed, and keys are provided that cover the species in each country. New taxa described are Fleischmannia hatschbachii, Fleischmannia matogrosensis, Fleischmannia microstemon var. paniculata from Brazil, Fleischmannia hassleri from Paraguay and Fleischmannia neei and Fleischmannia steinbachii from Bolivia, and one new combination for a Fleischmannia prasiifolia variety is provided. The additions bring the total known species of the genus to 102.

  17. The genus Fleischmannia in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil and Paraguay (Eupatorieae, Asteraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Harold

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Species of the genus Fleischmannia from Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil and Paraguay are reviewed, and keys are provided that cover the species in each country. New taxa described are Fleischmannia hatschbachii, Fleischmannia matogrosensis, Fleischmannia microstemon var. paniculata from Brazil, Fleischmannia hassleri from Paraguay and Fleischmannia neei and Fleischmannia steinbachii from Bolivia, and one new combination for a Fleischmannia prasiifolia variety is provided. The additions bring the total known species of the genus to 102. PMID:26752962

  18. [Level of cytokines, abscisic and salicylic acids in the leafs of Phlox under the effect of invasion by conidia of phytopathogens].

    PubMed

    Talieva, M N; Kondrat'eva, V V; Andreev, L N

    2001-01-01

    We studied the effects of the invasion of Phlox paniculata L. and Ph. setacea L. by causative agents of the phlox powdery mildew (compatible combination) and lupine powdery mildew (incompatible combination) on the level of endogenous cytokinins and abscisic and salicylic acids. In all experimental variants, the level of zeatin-riboside and abscisic and salicylic acids in the leaves of invaded plants increased within 48 h. The highest level of phytohormones and salicylic acid was recorded in the absolutely resistant species Ph. setacea.

  19. Eco-toxicological effects of two kinds of lead compounds on forest tree seed in alkaline soil.

    PubMed

    Yang, Nan; Zhou, Fu-Rong; Wang, Jin-Xin

    2016-03-01

    In order to compare the different eco-toxicological effects of lead nitrate and lead acetate on forest tree seed, a biological incubation experiment was conducted to testify the inhibition effects of two lead compounds on rates of seed germination, root and stem elongation, and seedling fresh weight for six plants (Amaorpha fruticosa L., Robinia psedoacacia L., Pinus tabuliformis Carr., Platycladus orientalis L., Koelreuteria paniculata Laxm., Hippophae rhamnoides L.) in soil. The results indicate that the inhibition effects of the two lead compounds on the rates of root elongation of plants were greater than other indices; root elongation can possibly be used as indices to investigate the relationship between lead toxicity and plant response. The response of trees to lead toxicity varied significantly, and the order of tolerance to lead pollution was as follows: Amaorpha fruticosa L. > Platycladus orientalis L. > Koelreuteria paniculata Laxm. > Robinia psedoacacia L. > Pinus tabuliformis Carr. > Hippophae rhamnoides L. Therefore, we suggest that Amaorpha fruticosa L. and Platycladus orientalis L. be used as tolerant plants for soil phytoremediation and Hippophae rhamnoides L. as an indicative plant to diagnose the toxicity of lead pollution on soil quality. Lead nitrate and lead acetate differentially restrain seeds, with seeds being more sensitive to lead nitrate than lead acetate in the soil. Thus, the characteristics of lead compounds should be taken into full consideration to appraise its impact on the environment.

  20. Strong larvicidal activity of three species of Spilanthes (Akarkara) against malaria (Anopheles stephensi Liston, Anopheles culicifacies, species C) and filaria vector (Culex quinquefasciatus Say).

    PubMed

    Pandey, Vibha; Agrawal, Veena; Raghavendra, K; Dash, A P

    2007-12-01

    A system for biocontrol of malaria and filarial mosquito vectors has been developed using herbal extracts of three Spilanthes species, S. acmella L.var oleraceae Clarke, S. calva L. and S. paniculata Wall ex DC. Cent percent mortalities was achieved against the late third/early fourth instar larvae of A. stephensi Liston, A. culicifacies species C and C. quinquefasciatus Say using crude hexane extract obtained from flower heads of Spilanthes spp. Of the three plant species, S. acmella extract proved to be the most effective in inducing complete lethality at minimum doses, the respective LC50 and LC90 values being 4.57 and 7.83 (A. stephensi), 0.87 and 1.92 (A. culicifacies) and 3.11 and 8.89 ppm (C. quinquefasciatus). This was followed by S. calva and S. paniculata extracts, respectively. This is the first report of achieving cent percent lethality against these mosquito larvae using minimal doses of plant extracts from this or any other plant species. PMID:17922235

  1. Eco-toxicological effects of two kinds of lead compounds on forest tree seed in alkaline soil.

    PubMed

    Yang, Nan; Zhou, Fu-Rong; Wang, Jin-Xin

    2016-03-01

    In order to compare the different eco-toxicological effects of lead nitrate and lead acetate on forest tree seed, a biological incubation experiment was conducted to testify the inhibition effects of two lead compounds on rates of seed germination, root and stem elongation, and seedling fresh weight for six plants (Amaorpha fruticosa L., Robinia psedoacacia L., Pinus tabuliformis Carr., Platycladus orientalis L., Koelreuteria paniculata Laxm., Hippophae rhamnoides L.) in soil. The results indicate that the inhibition effects of the two lead compounds on the rates of root elongation of plants were greater than other indices; root elongation can possibly be used as indices to investigate the relationship between lead toxicity and plant response. The response of trees to lead toxicity varied significantly, and the order of tolerance to lead pollution was as follows: Amaorpha fruticosa L. > Platycladus orientalis L. > Koelreuteria paniculata Laxm. > Robinia psedoacacia L. > Pinus tabuliformis Carr. > Hippophae rhamnoides L. Therefore, we suggest that Amaorpha fruticosa L. and Platycladus orientalis L. be used as tolerant plants for soil phytoremediation and Hippophae rhamnoides L. as an indicative plant to diagnose the toxicity of lead pollution on soil quality. Lead nitrate and lead acetate differentially restrain seeds, with seeds being more sensitive to lead nitrate than lead acetate in the soil. Thus, the characteristics of lead compounds should be taken into full consideration to appraise its impact on the environment. PMID:26927657

  2. Discrete wetland groundwater discharges revealed with a three-dimensional temperature model and botanical indicators (Boxford, UK)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    House, Andrew R.; Sorensen, James P. R.; Gooddy, Daren C.; Newell, Andrew J.; Marchant, Ben; Mountford, J. Owen; Scarlett, Peter; Williams, Peter J.; Old, Gareth H.

    2015-03-01

    Wetlands provide unique goods and services, as habitats of high biodiversity. Hydrology is the principal control on wetland functioning; hence, understanding the water source is fundamental. However, groundwater inflows may be discrete and easily missed. Research techniques are required with low cost and minimal impact in sensitive settings. In this study, the effectiveness of using a three-dimensional (3D) temperature model and botanical indicators to characterise groundwater discharge is explored at the CEH (Centre for Ecology and Hydrology) River Lambourn Observatory, Boxford, UK. This comprises a 10 ha lowland riparian wetland, designated for its scientific interest and conservation value. Temperature data were collected in winter at multiple depths down to 0.9 m over approximately 3.6 ha and transformed into a 3D model via ordinary kriging. Anomalous warm zones indicated distinct areas of groundwater upwelling which were concurrent with relic channel structures. Lateral heat propagation from the channels was minimal and restricted to within 5-10 m. Vertical temperature sections within the channels suggest varying degrees of groundwater discharge along their length. Hydrochemical analysis showed that warmer peat waters were akin to deeper aquifer waters, confirming the temperature anomalies as areas of groundwater discharge. Subsequently, a targeted vegetation survey identified Carex paniculata as an indicator of groundwater discharge. The upwelling groundwater contains high concentrations of nitrate which is considered to support the spatially restricted growth of Carex paniculata against a background of poor fen communities located in reducing higher-phosphate waters.

  3. The Relation of Carbon Dioxide Compensation and Chlorenchymatous Vascular Bundle Sheaths in Leaves of Dicots

    PubMed Central

    Crookston, R. Kent; Moss, Dale N.

    1970-01-01

    Low CO2 compensation points have been found to be associated with several unusual characteristics related to photosynthesis. One such characteristic is a prominent, chlorenchymatous vascular bundle sheath in the leaves. It has been suggested that the presence of this sheath in dicotyledons can serve as a means of detecting low CO2-compensating species. We collected 88 dicotyledon species from 22 families reported to have chlorenchymatous sheaths. Of the 88, only three, Tribulus terrestris, L., Boerhaavia paniculata, L. C. Rich, and Trianthema portulacastrum L., had low CO2 compensation points. Cross sections of the leaves of the other species revealed that they did have chlorenchymatous vascular bundle sheaths. However, these sheath cells contained chloroplasts which were not specialized for starch formation as were the bundle sheath chloroplasts of the low CO2-compensating species. Images PMID:16657506

  4. Ethnobotanical study of some Ghanaian anti-malarial plants.

    PubMed

    Asase, Alex; Oteng-Yeboah, Alfred A; Odamtten, George T; Simmonds, Monique S J

    2005-06-01

    An ethnobotanical study was conducted in the Wechiau Community Hippopotamus Sanctuary area in Ghana, through interviews and quadrate studies, to investigate the range and abundance of species used in the treatment of malaria. Forty-one species belonging to 17 families were encountered during the study. Of the 17 families studied Leguminosae and Anacardiaceae predominated in terms of number of species used to treat malaria. Eight plant species namely, Afraegle paniculata (Rutaceae), Haematostaphis barteri (Anacardiaceae), Indigo era pulchra (Leguminosae), Monanthotaxis sp. (Annonaceae), Ozoroa insignis (Anacardiaceae), Strychnos innocua (Loganiaceae), Strychnos spinosa (Loganiaceae) and Xeroderris stuhlmannii (Leguminosae) have not previously been documented for the treatment of malaria in Ghana. The results are discussed and recommendations made for future research to support the conservation and sustainable harvesting of the species reported to have medicinal properties. PMID:15894138

  5. Culture and selection of somatic hybrids using an auxotrophic cell line.

    PubMed

    Hein, T; Przewoźny, T; Schieder, O

    1983-01-01

    Protoplast fusions between Nicotiana tabacum and N. paniculata and between N. tabacum and N. sylvestris were obtained by polyethylene glycol and Ca(NO3)2 treatment. The protoplasts of one parent originated from cell suspensions, while the protoplasts of the other originated from leaf mesophyll. The heterokaryons were detectable by their intermediate phenotype, namely the green chloroplasts from mesophyll and the dense cytoplasm from suspension cells. They were isolated with micropipettes immediately after fusion using a micromanipulator and were transferred into a protoplast suspension of an auxotrophic cell line serving as a nursery. This mutant is not able to utilize nitrate and had to be supplemented with amino acids. The somatic hybrids were selected by a stepwise reduction of the supplements, which caused the death of the mutant cell colonies, while the autotrophic somatic hybrids continued to grow. The hybrid character of the selected colonies was confirmed by isoenzyme investigations.

  6. Essential Oil Variation from Twenty Two Genotypes of Citrus in Brazil-Chemometric Approach and Repellency Against Diaphorina citri Kuwayama.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Moacir Dos Santos; Ribeiro, Leandro do Prado; Borgoni, Paulo Cesar; Silva, Maria Fátima das Graças Fernandes da; Forim, Moacir Rossi; Fernandes, João Batista; Vieira, Paulo Cezar; Vendramin, José Djair; Machado, Marcos Antônio

    2016-01-01

    The chemical composition of volatile oils from 22 genotypes of Citrus and related genera was poorly differentiated, but chemometric techniques have clarified the relationships between the 22 genotypes, and allowed us to understand their resistance to D. citri. The most convincing similarities include the synthesis of (Z)-β-ocimene and (E)-caryophyllene for all 11 genotypes of group A. Genotypes of group B are not uniformly characterized by essential oil compounds. When stimulated with odor sources of 22 genotypes in a Y-tube olfactometer D. citri preferentially entered the arm containing the volatile oils of Murraya paniculata, confirming orange jasmine as its best host. C. reticulata × C. sinensis was the least preferred genotype, and is characterized by the presence of phytol, (Z)-β-ocimene, and β-elemene, which were not found in the most preferred genotype. We speculate that these three compounds may act as a repellent, making these oils less attractive to D. citri.

  7. Modelling the effect of an alternative host population on the spread of citrus Huanglongbing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    d'A. Vilamiu, Raphael G.; Ternes, Sonia; Laranjeira, Francisco F.; de C. Santos, Tâmara T.

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this work was to model the spread of citrus Huanglongbing (HLB) considering the presence of a population of alternative hosts (Murraya paniculata). We developed a compartmental deterministic mathematical model for representing the dynamics of HLB disease in a citrus orchard, including delays in the latency and incubation phases of the disease in the plants and a delay period on the nymphal stage of Diaphorina citri, the insect vector of HLB in Brazil. The results of numerical simulations indicate that alternative hosts should not play a crucial role on HLB dynamics considering a typical scenario for the Recôncavo Baiano region in Brazil . Also, the current policy of removing symptomatic plants every three months should not be expected to significantly hinder HLB spread.

  8. Antimicrobial activity of plant extracts against sexually transmitted pathogens.

    PubMed

    Jadhav, Nutan; Kulkarni, Sangeeta; Mane, Arati; Kulkarni, Roshan; Palshetker, Aparna; Singh, Kamalinder; Joshi, Swati; Risbud, Arun; Kulkarni, Smita

    2015-01-01

    Comprehensive management of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) using vaginal or rectal microbicide-based intervention is one of the strategies for prevention of HIV infection. Herbal products have been used for treating STIs traditionally. Herein, we present in vitro activity of 10 plant extracts and their 34 fractions against three sexually transmitted/reproductive tract pathogens - Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Haemophilus ducreyi and Candida albicans. The plant parts were selected; the extracts/fractions were prepared and screened by disc diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory and minimum cidal concentrations were determined. The qualitative phytochemical analysis of selected extracts/fractions showing activity was performed. Of the extracts/fractions tested, three inhibited C. albicans, ten inhibited N. gonorrhoeae and five inhibited H. ducreyi growth. Our study demonstrated that Terminalia paniculata Roth. extracts/fractions inhibited growth of all three organisms. The ethyl acetate fraction of Syzygium cumini Linn. and Bridelia retusa (L.) Spreng. extracts was found to inhibit N. gonorrhoeae at lowest concentrations. PMID:25427632

  9. Essential Oil Variation from Twenty Two Genotypes of Citrus in Brazil-Chemometric Approach and Repellency Against Diaphorina citri Kuwayama.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Moacir Dos Santos; Ribeiro, Leandro do Prado; Borgoni, Paulo Cesar; Silva, Maria Fátima das Graças Fernandes da; Forim, Moacir Rossi; Fernandes, João Batista; Vieira, Paulo Cezar; Vendramin, José Djair; Machado, Marcos Antônio

    2016-01-01

    The chemical composition of volatile oils from 22 genotypes of Citrus and related genera was poorly differentiated, but chemometric techniques have clarified the relationships between the 22 genotypes, and allowed us to understand their resistance to D. citri. The most convincing similarities include the synthesis of (Z)-β-ocimene and (E)-caryophyllene for all 11 genotypes of group A. Genotypes of group B are not uniformly characterized by essential oil compounds. When stimulated with odor sources of 22 genotypes in a Y-tube olfactometer D. citri preferentially entered the arm containing the volatile oils of Murraya paniculata, confirming orange jasmine as its best host. C. reticulata × C. sinensis was the least preferred genotype, and is characterized by the presence of phytol, (Z)-β-ocimene, and β-elemene, which were not found in the most preferred genotype. We speculate that these three compounds may act as a repellent, making these oils less attractive to D. citri. PMID:27338332

  10. [A new taxonomic system of the genus Murraya (Rutaceae) based on integration of morphology-based taxonomy and chemotaxonomy; and a philological survey on M. exotica in view of the relationship between Okinawa and China].

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    This review concerns the taxonomic status of the genus Murraya in tribe Clausenae, subfamily Aurantioideae, family Rutaceae, and presents a new system integrating both morphology-based taxonomy and chemotaxonomy. This genus has been morphologically divided into the sects Murraya and Bergera. This dichotomy is justified by the noticeable difference of secondary metabolites with 3-prenylindoles in Murraya and carbazoles in Bergera. As for other metabolites of genus Murraya, coumarins are found in both sects, but differ clearly in types; 8-prenylcoumarins occur throughout the sect Murraya whereas geranylated furocoumarins are known from some species of the sect Bergera. As far as chemical properties are concerned, sect Bergera is much closer to genus Clausena than sect Murraya, suggesting the dichotomy of genus Murraya to be generic rather than sectional. 8-Prenylcoumarins characterizing sect Murraya play a decisive role in the distinction of M. exotica from M. paniculata that occurs most widely in subtropical and tropical Asia and is well known for morphologic as well as chemical diversity. Though the morphological difference between the two species is slight only in leaves and leaflets, the distinction is well substantiated by the following chemical feature: 7-OMe-8-prenylcoumarins occur in M. exotica whereas 5,7-di-OMe-8-prenylcoumarins in M. paniculata. Sect Murraya has a very close relation to genus Merrillia that is chemically characterized by similar types of 8-prenylcoumarins, and is also related to a certain extent to genus Micromelum. M. exotica is philologically surveyed in view of the delicate relationships between Okinawa, the only habitat of this plant in Japan, and China in order to clarify its historical background.

  11. Nectar robbery by a hermit hummingbird: association to floral phenotype and its influence on flowers and network structure.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Pietro Kiyoshi; Vizentin-Bugoni, Jeferson; Dalsgaard, Bo; Sazima, Ivan; Sazima, Marlies

    2015-07-01

    Interactions between flowers and their visitors span the spectrum from mutualism to antagonism. The literature is rich in studies focusing on mutualism, but nectar robbery has mostly been investigated using phytocentric approaches focused on only a few plant species. To fill this gap, we studied the interactions between a nectar-robbing hermit hummingbird, Phaethornis ruber, and the array of flowers it visits. First, based on a literature review of the interactions involving P. ruber, we characterized the association of floral larceny to floral phenotype. We then experimentally examined the effects of nectar robbing on nectar standing crop and number of visits of the pollinators to the flowers of Canna paniculata. Finally, we asked whether the incorporation of illegitimate interactions into the analysis affects plant-hummingbird network structure. We identified 97 plant species visited by P. ruber and found that P. ruber engaged in floral larceny in almost 30% of these species. Nectar robbery was especially common in flowers with longer corolla. In terms of the effect on C. paniculata, the depletion of nectar due to robbery by P. ruber was associated with decreased visitation rates of legitimate pollinators. At the community level, the inclusion of the illegitimate visits of P. ruber resulted in modifications of how modules within the network were organized, notably giving rise to a new module consisting of P. ruber and mostly robbed flowers. However, although illegitimate visits constituted approximately 9% of all interactions in the network, changes in nestedness, modularity, and network-level specialization were minor. Our results indicate that although a flower robber may have a strong effect on the pollination of a particular plant species, the inclusion of its illegitimate interactions has limited capacity to change overall network structure.

  12. Nectar robbery by a hermit hummingbird: association to floral phenotype and its influence on flowers and network structure.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Pietro Kiyoshi; Vizentin-Bugoni, Jeferson; Dalsgaard, Bo; Sazima, Ivan; Sazima, Marlies

    2015-07-01

    Interactions between flowers and their visitors span the spectrum from mutualism to antagonism. The literature is rich in studies focusing on mutualism, but nectar robbery has mostly been investigated using phytocentric approaches focused on only a few plant species. To fill this gap, we studied the interactions between a nectar-robbing hermit hummingbird, Phaethornis ruber, and the array of flowers it visits. First, based on a literature review of the interactions involving P. ruber, we characterized the association of floral larceny to floral phenotype. We then experimentally examined the effects of nectar robbing on nectar standing crop and number of visits of the pollinators to the flowers of Canna paniculata. Finally, we asked whether the incorporation of illegitimate interactions into the analysis affects plant-hummingbird network structure. We identified 97 plant species visited by P. ruber and found that P. ruber engaged in floral larceny in almost 30% of these species. Nectar robbery was especially common in flowers with longer corolla. In terms of the effect on C. paniculata, the depletion of nectar due to robbery by P. ruber was associated with decreased visitation rates of legitimate pollinators. At the community level, the inclusion of the illegitimate visits of P. ruber resulted in modifications of how modules within the network were organized, notably giving rise to a new module consisting of P. ruber and mostly robbed flowers. However, although illegitimate visits constituted approximately 9% of all interactions in the network, changes in nestedness, modularity, and network-level specialization were minor. Our results indicate that although a flower robber may have a strong effect on the pollination of a particular plant species, the inclusion of its illegitimate interactions has limited capacity to change overall network structure. PMID:25740333

  13. The effects of aluminium on plant growth in a temperate and deciduous aluminium accumulating species

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, Marco; Watanabe, Toshihiro; Jansen, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Aluminium (Al) is a phytotoxic element affecting the growth and yield of many crop plants, especially in the tropics. Yet, some plants are able to accumulate high levels of Al. The monogeneric family Symplocaceae represents an Al accumulating family including many tropical and evergreen species with high Al levels in their above ground plant tissues. It is unclear, however, whether Al accumulation also characterises temperate species of Symplocos, and whether or not the uptake has a beneficial growth effect. Here, we investigate if the temperate, deciduous species Symplocos paniculata is able to accumulate Al by growing seedlings and saplings in a hydroponic setup at pH 4 with and without Al. Pyrocatechol-violet (PCV) and aluminon staining was performed to visualize Al accumulation in various plant tissues. Both seedlings and saplings accumulate Al in their tissues if available. Mean Al levels in leaves were 4107 (±1474 mg kg−1) and 4290 (±4025 mg kg−1) for the seedlings and saplings, respectively. The saplings treated without Al showed a high mortality rate unlike the Al accumulating ones. The seedlings, however, showed no difference in growth and vitality between the two treatments. The saplings treated with Al showed new twig, leaf and root development, resulting in a considerable biomass increase. PCV and aluminon staining indicated the presence of Al in leaf, wood and bark tissue of the plants. S. paniculata shares the capacity to accumulate Al with its tropical sister species and is suggested to be a facultative accumulator. Whether or not Al has a beneficial effect remains unclear, due to developmental differences between seedlings and saplings. Al is suggested to be transported via the xylem transport system into the leaves, which show the highest Al levels. Radial transport via ray parenchyma to bark tissue is also likely given the high Al concentrations in the bark tissue. PMID:27613876

  14. [Effects of Different Modifier Concentrations on Lead-Zinc Tolerance, Subcellular Distribution and Chemical Forms for Four Kinds of Woody Plants].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong-hua; Zhang, Fu-yun; Wu, Xiao-fu; Liang, Xi; Yuan, Si-wen

    2015-10-01

    Four kinds of lead-zinc tolerant woody plants: Nerium oleander, Koelreuteria paniculata, Paulownia and Boehmeria were used as materials to estimate their enrichment and transferable capacity of lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) and analyze the subcellular distribution and chemical speciation of Zn and Ph in different parts of plants, under different modifier concentrations (CK group: 100% lead-zinc slag plus a small amount of phosphate fertilizer, improved one: 85% of lead-zinc slag ± 10% peat ± 5% bacterial manure plus a small amount of phosphate fertilizer, improved two: 75% lead-zinc slag ± 20% peat ± 5% bacterial manure ± a small amount of phosphate). Results showed that: (1) The content of Pb, Zn in matrix after planting four kinds of plants was lower than before, no significant difference between improved one and improved two of Nerium oleander and Boehmeria was found, but improved two was better than improved one of Paulownia, while improved one was better than improved two of Koelreuteria paniculata; Four plants had relatively low aboveground enrichment coefficient of Pb and Zn, but had a high transfer coefficient, showed that the appropriate modifier concentration was able to improve the Pb and Zn enrichment and transfer ability of plants. (2) In subcellular distribution, most of Pb and Zn were distributed in plant cell wall components and soluble components while the distribution in cell organelles such as mitochondria, chloroplasts and nucleus component were less. Compared with CK group, two improved group made soluble components of the cell walls of Pb fixation and retention of zinc role in the enhancement. (3) As for the chemical forms of Pb and Zn in plants, the main chemical forms of Pb were hydrochloric acid, sodium chloride and ethanol extractable forms, while other chemical form contents were few, the main chemical forms of Zn were different based on plant type. Compared with CK group, the proportion of the active Pb chemical form in different plant

  15. Reverse Phase-ultra Flow Liquid Chromatography-diode Array Detector Quantification of Anticancerous and Antidiabetic Drug Mangiferin from 11 Species of Swertia from India

    PubMed Central

    Kshirsagar, Parthraj R.; Gaikwad, Nikhil B.; Panda, Subhasis; Hegde, Harsha V.; Pai, Sandeep R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Genus Swertia is valued for its great medicinal potential, mainly Swertia chirayita (Roxb. ex Fleming) H. Karst. is used in traditional medicine for a wide range of diseases. Mangiferin one of xanthoids is referred with enormous pharmacological potentials. Objective: The aim of the study was to quantify and compare the anticancerous and antidiabetic drug mangiferin from 11 Swertia species from India. The study also evaluates hierarchical relationships between the species based on mangiferin content using multivariate analysis. Materials and Methods: The reverse phase-ultra flow liquid chromatography-diode array detector analyses was performed and chromatographic separation was achieved on a Lichrospher 100, C18e (5 μm) column (250–4.6 mm). Mobile phase consisting of 0.2% triethylamine (pH-4 with O-phosphoric acid) and acetonitrile (85:15) was used for separation with injection volume 20 μL and detection wave length at 257 nm. Results: Results indicated that concentration of mangiferin has been found to vary largely between Swertia species collected from different regions. Content of mangiferin was found to be highest in Swertia minor compared to other Swertia species studied herein from the Western Ghats and Himalayan region also. The same was also evident in the multivariate analysis, wherein S. chirayita, S. minor and Swertia paniculata made a separate clade. Conclusion: Conclusively, the work herein provides insights of mangiferin content from 11 Swertia species of India and also presents their hierarchical relationships. To best of the knowledge this is the first report of higher content of mangiferin from any Swertia species. SUMMARY The present study quantifies and compares mangiferin in 11 species of Swertia from India. The study also evaluates hierarchical relationships between the species based on mangiferin content using multivariate analysis. The mangiferin content was highest in S. minor compared to the studied Swertia species. To the

  16. [Effects of Different Modifier Concentrations on Lead-Zinc Tolerance, Subcellular Distribution and Chemical Forms for Four Kinds of Woody Plants].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong-hua; Zhang, Fu-yun; Wu, Xiao-fu; Liang, Xi; Yuan, Si-wen

    2015-10-01

    Four kinds of lead-zinc tolerant woody plants: Nerium oleander, Koelreuteria paniculata, Paulownia and Boehmeria were used as materials to estimate their enrichment and transferable capacity of lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) and analyze the subcellular distribution and chemical speciation of Zn and Ph in different parts of plants, under different modifier concentrations (CK group: 100% lead-zinc slag plus a small amount of phosphate fertilizer, improved one: 85% of lead-zinc slag ± 10% peat ± 5% bacterial manure plus a small amount of phosphate fertilizer, improved two: 75% lead-zinc slag ± 20% peat ± 5% bacterial manure ± a small amount of phosphate). Results showed that: (1) The content of Pb, Zn in matrix after planting four kinds of plants was lower than before, no significant difference between improved one and improved two of Nerium oleander and Boehmeria was found, but improved two was better than improved one of Paulownia, while improved one was better than improved two of Koelreuteria paniculata; Four plants had relatively low aboveground enrichment coefficient of Pb and Zn, but had a high transfer coefficient, showed that the appropriate modifier concentration was able to improve the Pb and Zn enrichment and transfer ability of plants. (2) In subcellular distribution, most of Pb and Zn were distributed in plant cell wall components and soluble components while the distribution in cell organelles such as mitochondria, chloroplasts and nucleus component were less. Compared with CK group, two improved group made soluble components of the cell walls of Pb fixation and retention of zinc role in the enhancement. (3) As for the chemical forms of Pb and Zn in plants, the main chemical forms of Pb were hydrochloric acid, sodium chloride and ethanol extractable forms, while other chemical form contents were few, the main chemical forms of Zn were different based on plant type. Compared with CK group, the proportion of the active Pb chemical form in different plant

  17. The influence of herbal medicine on platelet function and coagulation: a narrative review.

    PubMed

    McEwen, Bradley J

    2015-04-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide. Platelet activation and aggregation play a central role in hemostasis and thrombosis. Herbal medicines have been traditionally used in the management of CVD and can play a role in modifying CVD progression, particularly in platelet function, and have the potential of altering platelet function tests, as well as some coagulation parameters. Herbal medicines, such as feverfew, garlic, ginger, ginseng, motherwort, St John's wort, and willow bark, were found to reduce platelet aggregation. In vitro studies show promise in the reduction of platelet aggregation for Andrographis, feverfew, garlic, ginger, Ginkgo, ginseng, hawthorn, horse chestnut, and turmeric. In addition, cranberry, danshen, dong quai, Ginkgo, ginseng, green tea, and St John's wort were found to have potential interactions with warfarin. Furthermore, St John's wort interacted with clopidogrel and danshen with aspirin. Therefore, repeat testing of platelet function and coagulation studies, particularly for patients on warfarin therapy, may be required after exclusion of herbal medicines that could have possibly affected initial test results. PMID:25839871

  18. Hepatoprotective Effects of Chinese Medicinal Herbs: A Focus on Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Oxidative Activities.

    PubMed

    Lam, Puiyan; Cheung, Fan; Tan, Hor Yue; Wang, Ning; Yuen, Man Fung; Feng, Yibin

    2016-03-29

    The liver is intimately connected to inflammation, which is the innate defense system of the body for removing harmful stimuli and participates in the hepatic wound-healing response. Sustained inflammation and the corresponding regenerative wound-healing response can induce the development of fibrosis, cirrhosis and eventually hepatocellular carcinoma. Oxidative stress is associated with the activation of inflammatory pathways, while chronic inflammation is found associated with some human cancers. Inflammation and cancer may be connected by the effect of the inflammation-fibrosis-cancer (IFC) axis. Chinese medicinal herbs display abilities in protecting the liver compared to conventional therapies, as many herbal medicines have been shown as effective anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative agents. We review the relationship between oxidative stress and inflammation, the development of hepatic diseases, and the hepatoprotective effects of Chinese medicinal herbs via anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative mechanisms. Moreover, several Chinese medicinal herbs and composite formulae, which have been commonly used for preventing and treating hepatic diseases, including Andrographis Herba, Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Lycii Fructus, Coptidis Rhizoma, curcumin, xiao-cha-hu-tang and shi-quan-da-bu-tang, were selected for reviewing their hepatoprotective effects with focus on their anti-oxidative and ant-inflammatory activities. This review aims to provide new insight into how Chinese medicinal herbs work in therapeutic strategies for liver diseases.

  19. Hepatoprotective Effects of Chinese Medicinal Herbs: A Focus on Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Oxidative Activities

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Puiyan; Cheung, Fan; Tan, Hor Yue; Wang, Ning; Yuen, Man Fung; Feng, Yibin

    2016-01-01

    The liver is intimately connected to inflammation, which is the innate defense system of the body for removing harmful stimuli and participates in the hepatic wound-healing response. Sustained inflammation and the corresponding regenerative wound-healing response can induce the development of fibrosis, cirrhosis and eventually hepatocellular carcinoma. Oxidative stress is associated with the activation of inflammatory pathways, while chronic inflammation is found associated with some human cancers. Inflammation and cancer may be connected by the effect of the inflammation-fibrosis-cancer (IFC) axis. Chinese medicinal herbs display abilities in protecting the liver compared to conventional therapies, as many herbal medicines have been shown as effective anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative agents. We review the relationship between oxidative stress and inflammation, the development of hepatic diseases, and the hepatoprotective effects of Chinese medicinal herbs via anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative mechanisms. Moreover, several Chinese medicinal herbs and composite formulae, which have been commonly used for preventing and treating hepatic diseases, including Andrographis Herba, Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Lycii Fructus, Coptidis Rhizoma, curcumin, xiao-cha-hu-tang and shi-quan-da-bu-tang, were selected for reviewing their hepatoprotective effects with focus on their anti-oxidative and ant-inflammatory activities. This review aims to provide new insight into how Chinese medicinal herbs work in therapeutic strategies for liver diseases. PMID:27043533

  20. [Hummingbird abundance and flowers use in a template forest from Southeast Mexico].

    PubMed

    Partida Lara, Ruth; Enríquez, Paula L; Rangel-Salazar, José Luis; Lara, Carlos; Martínez Ico, Miguel

    2012-12-01

    Hummingbird abundance varies with plant bloom phenology used for feeding. However, the information on hummingbird-flower interaction is limited for tropical mountain environments. We evaluated hummingbird abundance using mist nest and estimated monthly flowering phenology visited by hummingbirds in three different habitats (oak forest, cloud forest and bush) from January to August 2010 in Huitepec Ecological Reserve. We recorded four hummingbird species (Hylocharis leucotis, Lampornis amethystinus, Lamprolaima rhami and Eugenes fulgens), and their abundance varied among habitats (H3.8=14.8, p=0.001). Seven plant species were visited for hummingbirds and showed the highest number of flower species during dry season. Bush had the highest blossom. Fuchsia paniculata had the highest blossom period but only was visited by H. leucotis. Passiflora membranacea was the only species visited for all hummingbird species. The only positive association was E. fulgens abundance with P.a membranacea bloom (r(S)=0.93, p=0.02). Hummingbird abundance fluctuations in this study are determined for interactions with floral resources and their habitat distribution. PMID:23342516

  1. Phenolic composition and antiparasitic activity of plants from the Brazilian Northeast "Cerrado".

    PubMed

    Calixto Júnior, João Tavares; de Morais, Selene Maia; Gomez, Celeste Vega; Molas, Cathia Coronel; Rolon, Miriam; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Athayde, Margareth Linde; de Morais Oliveira, Cícera Datiane; Tintino, Saulo Relison; Henrique Douglas, Melo Coutinho

    2016-05-01

    This work describes the antiparasitic and cytotoxic activities of three plant species from the Cerrado biome, Northeastern Brazil. Significant antiparasitic inhibition was observed against Trypanosoma cruzi (63.86%), Leishmania brasiliensis (92.20%) and Leishmania infantum (95.23%) when using ethanol extract from leaves of Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (Malvaceae), at a concentration of 500 μg/mL. However, low levels of inhibition were observed when assessing leishmanicidal and trypanocidal (Clone CL-B5) activities of crude ethanol extracts from leaves and bast tissue of Luehea paniculata (Malvaceae) and leaves and bark of Prockia crucis (Salicaceae) at a concentration of 500 μg/mL. The extracts revealed the presence of phenolic acids such as gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid and rosmarinic acid, as well as flavonoids such as rutin, luteolin, apigenin and quercetin - the latter detected only in G. ulmifolia. G. ulmifolia extract displayed higher leishmanicidal activity probably due to the presence of quercetin, a potent known leishmanicidal compound. A cytotoxicity test indicated values over 50% at the highest concentration (1000 μg/mL) for all natural products, which were considered cytotoxic. This points out the need for further tests to enable future in vivo trials, including antineoplastic activity on human tumor cells. PMID:27081371

  2. Assessing the Capacity of Plant Species to Accumulate Particulate Matter in Beijing, China

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Li; Ma, Zeyu; Xu, Yansen; Sun, Fengbin; Lun, Xiaoxiu; Liu, Xuhui; Chen, Jungang; Yu, Xinxiao

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution causes serious problems in spring in northern China; therefore, studying the ability of different plants to accumulate particulate matter (PM) at the beginning of the growing season may benefit urban planners in their attempts to control air pollution. This study evaluated deposits of PM on the leaves and in the wax layer of 35 species (11 shrubs, 24 trees) in Beijing, China. Differences in the accumulation of PM were observed between species. Cephalotaxus sinensis, Euonymus japonicus, Broussonetia papyriferar, Koelreuteria paniculata and Quercus variabilis were all efficient in capturing small particles. The plants exhibiting high amounts of total PM accumulation (on leaf surfaces and/or in the wax layer), also showed comparatively high levels of PM accumulation across all particle sizes. A comparison of shrubs and trees did not reveal obvious differences in their ability to accumulate particles based on growth form; a combination of plantings with different growth forms can efficiently reduce airborne PM concentrations near the ground. To test the relationships between leaf traits and PM accumulation, leaf samples of selected species were observed using a scanning electron microscope. Growth forms with greater amounts of pubescence and increased roughness supported PM accumulation; the adaxial leaf surfaces collected more particles than the abaxial surfaces. The results of this study may inform the selection of species for urban green areas where the goal is to capture air pollutants and mitigate the adverse effects of air pollution on human health. PMID:26506104

  3. Phylogenetic relationships of the silver saxifrages (Saxifraga, sect. Ligulatae haworth): implications for the evolution of substrate specificity, life histories, and biogeography.

    PubMed

    Conti, E; Soltis, D E; Hardig, T M; Schneider, J

    1999-12-01

    The silver saxifrages (Saxifraga sect. Ligulatae Haworth; Saxifragaceae) exhibit remarkable variation of substrate specialization, with strictly calcicole to calcifuge species, as well as life histories which range from semelparity to iteroparity. They occur almost exclusively in the European mountain ranges and display high levels of endemism. Sequences from chloroplast and nuclear ribosomal DNA were obtained to resolve phylogenetic relationships among the silver saxifrages and related taxa and to gain insight into the evolution of substrate specificity, life history, and biogeography. The resulting phylogenies suggested that (1) Saxifraga sect. Ligulatae, as traditionally defined, does not constitute a monophyletic group; (2) lime-secreting hydathodes in calcifuge species apparently represent a secondary nonaptation; (3) semelparity evolved independently two or three times in the silver saxifrages and allied sections, possibly in response to climatic changes that occured during the Pleistocene; and (4) narrow endemics, for example S. cochlearis, likely evolved from the fragmentation of the widespread S. paniculata into refugial populations that became isolated during the glacial maxima of the Pleistocene. PMID:10620412

  4. The effects of host, geographic origin, and gender on the thermal requirements of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae).

    PubMed

    Nava, Dori E; Gomez-Torres, Mariuxi L; Rodrigues, Marjorie D; Bento, José M S; Haddad, Marinéia L; Parra, José R P

    2010-04-01

    Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) is the vector of the bacteria that causes citrus greening and is considered one of the world's most important citrus diseases. We examined how host, geographic region, and gender affect the thermal requirements of D. citri. The insects were reared in climatic chambers at constant temperatures of 18, 20, 22, 25, 28, 30, and 32 +/- 1 degrees C, 70 +/- 10% RH, and a 14 h photophase. Host plants for D. citri included orange (Citrus sinensis [Rutaceae]) varieties Pêra and Natal, the rootstock, Rungpur lime (C. limonia [Rutaceae]) and the natural host, Orange jessamine (Murraya paniculata [Rutaceae]). To study the influence of geographic origin on thermal requirements, we studied D. citri populations from Piracicaba, SP (warmer region) and Itapetininga, SP (cooler region). The duration and survival of the development stages and the duration of the total development (egg-adult) did not differ significantly on the different hosts, but it did vary with temperature. Nymphs of D. citri created on the different hosts have the same thermal requirements. The thermal requirements for this species collected from the two climate regions were identical; males and females also had the same thermal requirements.

  5. Plant Sensitivity to Burial and Coastal Foredune Morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, E. B.; Moore, L. J.; deVries, E.; Jass, T. L.; Duran Vinent, O.

    2015-12-01

    Coastal dunes arise from a feedback between plant growth and aeolian sediment transport. Dune plants are uniquely adapted to the harsh coastal environment, and are able to tolerate high temperature, drought, salt spray, and burial by sand. Accurate modeling of coastal dunes relies on understanding how coastal plants respond to these stresses, and how the dune building feedback is modified as a result. We use two years of data from an experimental planting on Hog Island, VA, USA to parameterize a logistic growth model that explicitly includes the effects of plant burial on three species of common dune plants on the US East Coast: Spartina patens, Ammophila breviligulata, and Uniola paniculata. We couple this new plant growth model to the Coastal Dune Model of Durán and Moore (2013). Using this enhanced model we explore the consequences of plant sensitivity to burial on coastal dune growth. These results will add to the growing literature on coupled vegetation and sand transport models, specifically the modeling of coastal dunes.

  6. Phytotoxicity of biosolids and screening of selected plant species with potential for mercury phytoextraction.

    PubMed

    Lomonte, Cristina; Doronila, Augustine I; Gregory, David; Baker, Alan J M; Kolev, Spas D

    2010-01-15

    Mercury contaminated stockpiles of biosolids (3.5-8.4 mg kg(-1) Hg) from Melbourne Water's Western Treatment Plant (MW-WTP) were investigated to evaluate the possibility for their phytoremediation. Nine plant species (Atriplex codonocarpa, Atriplex semibaccata, Austrodanthonia caespitosa, Brassica juncea, Brassica napus, Gypsophila paniculata, Sorghum bicolor, Themeda triandra and Trifolium subterraneum) were screened for phytoextraction potential in Hg-contaminated biosolids from MW-WTP. In addition, the same plant species were germinated and grown in two other substrates (i.e. potting mix and potting mix spiked with mercury(II)). Growth measurements and the mercury uptake for all three substrates were compared. Some plant species grown in potting mix spiked with mercury(II) grew more vigorously than in the other two substrates and showed higher levels of sulphur in their tissues. These results suggested that the mercury stress activated defence mechanisms and it was hypothesised that this was the likely reason for the enhanced production of sulphur compounds in the plant species studied which stimulated their growth. Some species did not grow in biosolids because of the combined effect of high mercury toxicity and high salt content. Atriplex conodocarpa and Australodanthonia caespitose proved to be the most suitable candidates for mercury phytoextraction because of their ability to translocate mercury from roots to the above-ground tissues. PMID:19775810

  7. Dune vegetation fertilization by nesting sea turtles.

    PubMed

    Hannan, Laura B; Roth, James D; Ehrhart, Llewellyn M; Weishampel, John F

    2007-04-01

    Sea turtle nesting presents a potential pathway to subsidize nutrient-poor dune ecosystems, which provide the nesting habitat for sea turtles. To assess whether this positive feedback between dune plants and turtle nests exists, we measured N concentration and delta15N values in dune soils, leaves from a common dune plant (sea oats [Uniola paniculata]), and addled eggs of loggerhead (Caretta caretta) and green turtles (Chelonia mydas) across a nesting gradient (200-1050 nests/km) along a 40.5-km stretch of beach in east central Florida, USA. The delta15N levels were higher in loggerhead than green turtle eggs, denoting the higher trophic level of loggerhead turtles. Soil N concentration and delta15N values were both positively correlated to turtle nest density. Sea oat leaf tissue delta15N was also positively correlated to nest density, indicating an increased use of augmented marine-based nutrient sources. Foliar N concentration was correlated with delta15N, suggesting that increased nutrient availability from this biogenic vector may enhance the vigor of dune vegetation, promoting dune stabilization and preserving sea turtle nesting habitat.

  8. Floral odor bouquet loses its ant repellent properties after inhibition of terpene biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Junker, Robert R; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Unsicker, Sybille B

    2011-12-01

    In their natural environment, plants are synchronously confronted with mutualists and antagonists, and thus benefit from signals that contain messages for both functional groups of interaction partners. Floral scents are complex blends of volatiles of different chemical classes, including benzenoids and terpenoids. It has been hypothesized that benzenoids have evolved as pollinator attracting signals, while monoterpenoids serve as defensive compounds against antagonists. In order to test this hypothesis, we reduced terpene emission in flowers of Phlox paniculata with specific biosynthetic inhibitors and compared the responses of Lasius niger ants to natural and inhibited floral scent bouquets. While the natural odors were strongly repellent to ants, the bouquets with a reduced emission rate of terpenoids were not. The loss of the flowers' ability to repel ants could be attributed predominantly to reduced amounts of linalool, a monoterpene alcohol. Flying flower visitors, mainly hoverflies, did not discriminate between the two types of flowers in an outdoor experiment. Since individual compounds appear to be capable of either attracting pollinators or defending the flower from enemies, the complexity of floral scent bouquets may have evolved to allow flowers to respond to both mutualists and antagonists simultaneously.

  9. Brazilian plants as possible adaptogens: an ethnopharmacological survey of books edited in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Fúlvio Rieli; Carlini, Elisaldo A

    2007-02-12

    In a survey, from Brazilian books, we searched plants that are in popular use for purposes resembling those of an adaptogen. This study focused on 24 books by authors from diverse regions in the country, resulting in a total of 1317 citations of uses related to a possible adaptogen effect from approximately 766 plants. Only species native to Brazil, cited in at least four books, were selected, resulting a total of 33 species, belonging to 24 families. Of these, four species have been studied previously in relation to effects that are considered as part of an adaptogen effect (anti-stress, memory enhancement, increased physical and/or sexual performance): Heteropterys aphrodisiaca (Malpighiaceae), Paullinia cupana (Sapindaceae), Ptychopetalum olacoides (Olacaceae), and Turnera diffusa (Turneraceae). Three others--Pfaffia glomerata, Pfaffia paniculata (Amaranthaceae), and Trichilia catigua (Meliaceae)--have also been the object of pharmacological studies that support their use as a possible adaptogen, but they are listed in less than four books. The overall results obtained in the present review of Brazilian folk literature reveals that Brazil is rich in plants with potential adaptogen-like effect, but lacks pharmacological studies (mostly clinical ones) to confirm these therapeutic properties. PMID:17030478

  10. Toxic compounds in honey.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Nazmul; Khalil, Md Ibrahim; Islam, Md Asiful; Gan, Siew Hua

    2014-07-01

    There is a wealth of information about the nutritional and medicinal properties of honey. However, honey may contain compounds that may lead to toxicity. A compound not naturally present in honey, named 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), may be formed during the heating or preservation processes of honey. HMF has gained much interest, as it is commonly detected in honey samples, especially samples that have been stored for a long time. HMF is a compound that may be mutagenic, carcinogenic and cytotoxic. It has also been reported that honey can be contaminated with heavy metals such as lead, arsenic, mercury and cadmium. Honey produced from the nectar of Rhododendron ponticum contains alkaloids that can be poisonous to humans, while honey collected from Andromeda flowers contains grayanotoxins, which can cause paralysis of limbs in humans and eventually leads to death. In addition, Melicope ternata and Coriaria arborea from New Zealand produce toxic honey that can be fatal. There are reports that honey is not safe to be consumed when it is collected from Datura plants (from Mexico and Hungary), belladonna flowers and Hyoscamus niger plants (from Hungary), Serjania lethalis (from Brazil), Gelsemium sempervirens (from the American Southwest), Kalmia latifolia, Tripetalia paniculata and Ledum palustre. Although the symptoms of poisoning due to honey consumption may differ depending on the source of toxins, most common symptoms generally include dizziness, nausea, vomiting, convulsions, headache, palpitations or even death. It has been suggested that honey should not be considered a completely safe food.

  11. The development of enantiostyly.

    PubMed

    Jesson, Linley K; Kang, Julie; Wagner, Sara L; Barrett, Spencer C H; Dengler, Nancy G

    2003-02-01

    Enantiostyly, the deflection of the style either to the left (left-styled) or right (right-styled) side of the floral axis, has evolved in at least ten angiosperm families. Two types of enantiostyly occur: monomorphic enantiostyly, in which individuals exhibit both stylar orientations, and dimorphic enantiostyly, in which the two stylar orientations occur on separate plants. To evaluate architectural or developmental constraints on the evolution of both forms of enantiostyly, we examined inflorescence structure and floral development among unrelated enantiostylous species. We investigated relations between the position of left- and right-styled flowers and inflorescence architecture in four monomorphic enantiostylous species, and we examined the development of enantiostyly in nine monomorphic and dimorphic enantiostylous species from five unrelated lineages. The location of left- and right-styled flowers within inflorescences ranged from highly predictable (in Solanum rostratum) to random (in Heteranthera mexicana). There were striking differences among taxa in the timing of stylar bending. In Wachendorfia paniculata, Dilatris corymbosa, and Philydrum lanuginosum, the style deflected in the bud, whereas in Heteranthera spp., Monochoria australasica, Cyanella lutea, and Solanum rostratum, stylar bending occurred at the beginning of anthesis. Comparisons of organ initiation and development indicated that asymmetries along the left-right axis were expressed very late in development, despite the early initiation of a dorsiventral asymmetry. We suggest that the evolution of dimorphic enantiostyly from monomorphic enantiostyly may be constrained by a lack of left-right positional information in the bud.

  12. Microsatellite in Aeschynomene falcata (Leguminosae): diversity, cross-amplification, and chromosome localization.

    PubMed

    Polido, C A; Mantello, C C; Moraes, A P; Souza, A P; Forni-Martins, E R

    2014-12-04

    Aeschynomene falcata is an important forage species; however, because of low seed production, it is underutilized as forage species. Aeschynomene is a polyphyletic genus with a challenging taxonomic position. Two subgenera have been proposed, and it is suggested that Aeschynomene can be split in 2 genera. Thus, new markers, such as microsatellite sequences, are desirable for improving breeding programs for A. falcata. Based on transferability and in situ localization, these microsatellite sequences can be applied as chromosome markers in the genus Aeschynomene and closely related genera. Here, we report the first microsatellite library developed for this genus; 11 microsatellites were characterized, with observed and expected heterozygosities ranging from 0.0000 to 0.7143 and from 0.1287 to 0.8360, respectively. Polymorphic information content varied from 0.1167 to 0.7786. The departure from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium may have resulted from frequent autogamy, which is characteristic of A. falcata. Of the 11 microsatellites, 9 loci were cross-amplified in A. brevipes and A. paniculata and 7 in Dalbergia nigra and Machaerium vestitum. Five of these 7 cross-amplified microsatellites were applied as probes during the in situ hybridization assay and 2 showed clear signals on A. falcata chromosomes, ensuring their viability as chromosome markers.

  13. [Selection and purification potential evaluation of woody plant in vertical flow constructed wetlands in the subtropical area].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong-Hua; Wu, Xiao-Fu; Hao, Jun; Chen, Ming-Li; Zhu, Guang-Yu

    2014-02-01

    In order to solve the problem that wetland herbaceous plants tend to die during winter in subtropics areas, selection and purification potential evaluation experiments were carried out by introducing into the constructed wetlands 16 species of woody wetland plants. Cluster analysis was performed by including the morphological characteristics, physiological characteristics, as well as nitrogen and phosphorus accumulation of the woody wetland plants. The results indicated that there were significant differences among the tested woody plants in their survival rate, height increase, root length increase and vigor, Chlorophyll content, Superoxide dismutase, Malonaldehyde, Proline, Peroxidase, biomass, average concentration and accumulation of nitrogen and phosphorus. Based on the established evaluation system, the tested plants were clustered into 3 groups. The plants in the 1st group possessing high purification potentials are Nerium oleander and Hibiscus syriacus. Those in the 2nd group possessing moderate purification potentials are Trachycarpus fortune, Llex latifolia Thunb., Gardenia jasminoides, Serissa foetida and Ilex crenatacv Convexa. And those in the 3rd group with low purification potentials are Jasminum udiflorum, Hedera helix, Ligustrum vicaryi, Ligustrum lucidum, Buxus sempervives, Murraya paniculata, Osmanthus fragrans, Mahoniafortune and Photinia serrulata. PMID:24812951

  14. Phenolic composition and antiparasitic activity of plants from the Brazilian Northeast “Cerrado”

    PubMed Central

    Calixto Júnior, João Tavares; de Morais, Selene Maia; Gomez, Celeste Vega; Molas, Cathia Coronel; Rolon, Miriam; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Athayde, Margareth Linde; de Morais Oliveira, Cícera Datiane; Tintino, Saulo Relison; Henrique Douglas, Melo Coutinho

    2015-01-01

    This work describes the antiparasitic and cytotoxic activities of three plant species from the Cerrado biome, Northeastern Brazil. Significant antiparasitic inhibition was observed against Trypanosoma cruzi (63.86%), Leishmania brasiliensis (92.20%) and Leishmania infantum (95.23%) when using ethanol extract from leaves of Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (Malvaceae), at a concentration of 500 μg/mL. However, low levels of inhibition were observed when assessing leishmanicidal and trypanocidal (Clone CL-B5) activities of crude ethanol extracts from leaves and bast tissue of Luehea paniculata (Malvaceae) and leaves and bark of Prockia crucis (Salicaceae) at a concentration of 500 μg/mL. The extracts revealed the presence of phenolic acids such as gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid and rosmarinic acid, as well as flavonoids such as rutin, luteolin, apigenin and quercetin – the latter detected only in G. ulmifolia. G. ulmifolia extract displayed higher leishmanicidal activity probably due to the presence of quercetin, a potent known leishmanicidal compound. A cytotoxicity test indicated values over 50% at the highest concentration (1000 μg/mL) for all natural products, which were considered cytotoxic. This points out the need for further tests to enable future in vivo trials, including antineoplastic activity on human tumor cells. PMID:27081371

  15. Heavy metal concentrations in marine green, brown, and red seaweeds from coastal waters of Yemen, the Gulf of Aden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Shwafi, Nabil A.; Rushdi, Ahmed I.

    2008-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the concentration levels of heavy metals in different species of the main three marine algal divisions from the Gulf of Aden coastal waters, Yemen. The divisions included Chlorophyta—green plants ( Halimeda tuna, Rhizoclonium kochiamum, Caldophora koiei, Enteromorpha compressa, and Caulerpa racemosa species), Phaeophyta—brown seaweeds ( Padina boryana, Turbinaria elatensis, Sargassum binderi, Cystoseira myrica, and Sargassum boveanum species), and Rhodophyta—red seaweeds ( Hypnea cornuta, Champia parvula, Galaxaura marginate, Laurencia paniculata, Gracilaria foliifere, and species). The heavy metals, which included cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), Iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and vanadium (V) were measured by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAs). The concentrations of heavy metals in all algal species are in the order of Fe >> Cu > Mn > Cr > Zn > Ni > Pb > Cd > V > Co. The results also showed that the uptake of heavy metals by different marine algal divisions was in the order of Chlorophyta > Phaeophyta > Rhodophyta. These heavy metals were several order of magnitude higher than the concentrations of the same metals in seawater. This indicates that marine alga progressively uptake heavy metals from seawater.

  16. Sargassum as a Natural Solution to Enhance Dune Plant Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Amy; Feagin, Rusty

    2010-11-01

    Many beach management practices focus on creating an attractive environment for tourists, but can detrimentally affect long-term dune integrity. One such practice is mechanical beach raking in which the wrack line is removed from the beach front. In Texas, Sargassum fluitans and natans, types of brown alga, are the main components of wrack and may provide a subsidy to the ecosystem. In this study, we used greenhouse studies to test the hypothesis that the addition of sargassum can increase soil nutrients and produce increased growth in dune plants. We also conducted an analysis of the nutrients in the sargassum to determine the mechanisms responsible for any growth enhancement. Panicum amarum showed significant enhancement of growth with the addition of sargassum, and while Helianthus debilis, Ipomoea stolonifera, Sporobolus virginicus, and Uniola paniculata responded slightly differently to the specific treatments, none were impaired by the addition of sargassum. In general, plants seemed to respond well to unwashed sargassum and multiple additions of sargassum, indicating that plants may have adapted to capitalize on the subsidy in its natural state directly from the ocean. For coastal managers, the use of sargassum as a fertilizer could be a positive, natural, and efficient method of dealing with the accumulation of wrack on the beach.

  17. Establishment of Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Other Microorganisms on a Beach Replenishment Site in Florida †

    PubMed Central

    Sylvia, D. M.; Will, M. E.

    1988-01-01

    Beach replenishment is a widely used method of controlling coastal erosion. To reduce erosional losses from wind, beach grasses are often planted on the replenishment sands. However, there is little information on the microbial populations in this material that may affect plant establishment and growth. The objectives of this research were to document changes in the populations of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi and other soil microorganisms in replenishment materials and to determine whether roots of transplanted beach grasses become colonized by beneficial microbes. The study was conducted over a 2-year period on a replenishment project in northeastern Florida. Three sampling locations were established at 1-km intervals along the beach. Each location consisted of three plots: an established dune, replenishment sand planted with Uniola paniculata and Panicum sp., and replenishment sand left unplanted. Fungal and bacterial populations increased rapidly in the rhizosphere of beach grasses in the planted plots. However, no bacteria were recovered that could fix significant amounts of N2. The VAM fungi established slowly on the transplanted grasses. Even after two growing seasons, levels of root colonization and sporulation were significantly below those found in the established dune. There was a shift in the dominant VAM fungi found in the planted zone with respect to those in the established dunes. The most abundant species recovered from the established dunes were Glomus deserticola, followed by Acaulospora scrobiculata and Scutellospora weresubiae. The VAM fungi that colonized the planted zone most rapidly were Glomus globiferum, followed by G. deserticola and Glomus aggregatum. PMID:16347547

  18. Phylogenetic Relationships of Citrus and Its Relatives Based on matK Gene Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Penjor, Tshering; Uehara, Miki; Ide, Manami; Matsumoto, Natsumi; Matsumoto, Ryoji

    2013-01-01

    The genus Citrus includes mandarin, orange, lemon, grapefruit and lime, which have high economic and nutritional value. The family Rutaceae can be divided into 7 subfamilies, including Aurantioideae. The genus Citrus belongs to the subfamily Aurantioideae. In this study, we sequenced the chloroplast matK genes of 135 accessions from 22 genera of Aurantioideae and analyzed them phylogenetically. Our study includes many accessions that have not been examined in other studies. The subfamily Aurantioideae has been classified into 2 tribes, Clauseneae and Citreae, and our current molecular analysis clearly discriminate Citreae from Clauseneae by using only 1 chloroplast DNA sequence. Our study confirms previous observations on the molecular phylogeny of Aurantioideae in many aspects. However, we have provided novel information on these genetic relationships. For example, inconsistent with the previous observation, and consistent with our preliminary study using the chloroplast rbcL genes, our analysis showed that Feroniella oblata is not nested in Citrus species and is closely related with Feronia limonia. Furthermore, we have shown that Murraya paniculata is similar to Merrillia caloxylon and is dissimilar to Murraya koenigii. We found that “true citrus fruit trees” could be divided into 2 subclusters. One subcluster included Citrus, Fortunella, and Poncirus, while the other cluster included Microcitrus and Eremocitrus. Compared to previous studies, our current study is the most extensive phylogenetic study of Citrus species since it includes 93 accessions. The results indicate that Citrus species can be classified into 3 clusters: a citron cluster, a pummelo cluster, and a mandarin cluster. Although most mandarin accessions belonged to the mandarin cluster, we found some exceptions. We also obtained the information on the genetic background of various species of acid citrus grown in Japan. Because the genus Citrus contains many important accessions, we have

  19. Effects of disturbance on vegetation by sand accretion and erosion across coastal dune habitats on a barrier island

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Thomas E.

    2015-01-01

    Coastal geomorphology and vegetation are expected to be particularly sensitive to climate change, because of disturbances caused by sea-level rise and increased storm frequency. Dunes have critical reciprocal interactions with vegetation; dunes create habitats for plants, while plants help to build dunes and promote geomorphological stability. These interactions are also greatly affected by disturbances associated with sand movement, either in accretion (dune building) or in erosion. The magnitude and intensity of disturbances are expected to vary with habitat, from the more exposed and less stable foredunes, to low-lying and flood-prone interdunes, to the protected and older backdunes. Permanent plots were established at three different spatial scales on St George Island, FL, USA, where the vegetation and dune elevation were quantified annually from 2011 to 2013. Change in elevation, either through accretion or erosion, was used as a measure of year-to-year disturbance over the 2 years of the study. At the scale of different dune habitats, foredunes were found to have the greatest disturbance, while interdunes had the least. Elevation and habitat (i.e. foredune, interdune, backdune) were significantly correlated with plant community composition. Generalized linear models conducted within each habitat show that the change in elevation (disturbance) is also significantly correlated with the plant community, but only within foredunes and interdunes. The importance of disturbance in exposed foredunes was expected and was found to be related to an increasing abundance of a dominant species (Uniola paniculata) in eroding areas. The significant effect of disturbance in the relatively stable interdunes was surprising, and may be due to the importance of flooding associated with small changes in elevation in these low-lying areas. Overall, this study documents changes in the plant community associated with elevation, and demonstrates that the foredune and interdune

  20. Immunostimulatory complexes containing Eimeria tenella antigens and low toxicity plant saponins induce antibody response and provide protection from challenge in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Berezin, V E; Bogoyavlenskyi, A P; Khudiakova, S S; Alexuk, P G; Omirtaeva, E S; Zaitceva, I A; Tustikbaeva, G B; Barfield, R C; Fetterer, R H

    2010-01-20

    Immunostimulating complexes (ISCOMs) are unique multimolecular structures formed by encapsulating antigens, lipids and triterpene saponins and are one of the most successful antigen delivery systems for microbial antigens. In the current study, both the route of administration and the antigen concentration of ISCOMs, containing Eimeria tenella antigens and saponins from native plants, were evaluated in their ability to stimulate humoral immunity and to protect chickens against a challenge infection with E. tenella. Broiler chickens were immunized with ISCOM preparations containing E. tenella antigens and the purified saponins Gg6, Ah6 and Gp7 isolated from Glycyrrhiza glabra, Aesculus hippocastanum and Gipsophila paniculata, respectively. The effects of the route of administration, dose of antigen and type of saponin used for construction of ISCOMs were evaluated for ability to stimulate serum IgG and IgM and to protect chickens against a homologous challenge. A single intranasal immunization was the most effective route for administering ISCOMs although the in ovo route was also quite effective. Dose titration experiments demonstrated efficacy after single immunization with various ISCOM doses but maximum effects were observed when ISCOMs contain 5-10mug antigen. Immunization of birds by any of the three routes with E. tenella antigens alone or antigens mixed with alum hydroxide adjuvant resulted in lower serum antibody and reduced protection to challenge relative to immunization with ISCOMs. Overall the results of this study confirm that significant immunostimulation and protection to challenge are achieved by immunization of chickens with ISCOMs containing purified saponins and native E. tenella antigens and suggest that ISCOMs may be successfully used to develop a safe and effective vaccine for prevention of avian coccidiosis.

  1. Effects of disturbance on vegetation by sand accretion and erosion across coastal dune habitats on a barrier island.

    PubMed

    Miller, Thomas E

    2015-01-12

    Coastal geomorphology and vegetation are expected to be particularly sensitive to climate change, because of disturbances caused by sea-level rise and increased storm frequency. Dunes have critical reciprocal interactions with vegetation; dunes create habitats for plants, while plants help to build dunes and promote geomorphological stability. These interactions are also greatly affected by disturbances associated with sand movement, either in accretion (dune building) or in erosion. The magnitude and intensity of disturbances are expected to vary with habitat, from the more exposed and less stable foredunes, to low-lying and flood-prone interdunes, to the protected and older backdunes. Permanent plots were established at three different spatial scales on St George Island, FL, USA, where the vegetation and dune elevation were quantified annually from 2011 to 2013. Change in elevation, either through accretion or erosion, was used as a measure of year-to-year disturbance over the 2 years of the study. At the scale of different dune habitats, foredunes were found to have the greatest disturbance, while interdunes had the least. Elevation and habitat (i.e. foredune, interdune, backdune) were significantly correlated with plant community composition. Generalized linear models conducted within each habitat show that the change in elevation (disturbance) is also significantly correlated with the plant community, but only within foredunes and interdunes. The importance of disturbance in exposed foredunes was expected and was found to be related to an increasing abundance of a dominant species (Uniola paniculata) in eroding areas. The significant effect of disturbance in the relatively stable interdunes was surprising, and may be due to the importance of flooding associated with small changes in elevation in these low-lying areas. Overall, this study documents changes in the plant community associated with elevation, and demonstrates that the foredune and interdune

  2. Effects of disturbance on vegetation by sand accretion and erosion across coastal dune habitats on a barrier island.

    PubMed

    Miller, Thomas E

    2015-01-01

    Coastal geomorphology and vegetation are expected to be particularly sensitive to climate change, because of disturbances caused by sea-level rise and increased storm frequency. Dunes have critical reciprocal interactions with vegetation; dunes create habitats for plants, while plants help to build dunes and promote geomorphological stability. These interactions are also greatly affected by disturbances associated with sand movement, either in accretion (dune building) or in erosion. The magnitude and intensity of disturbances are expected to vary with habitat, from the more exposed and less stable foredunes, to low-lying and flood-prone interdunes, to the protected and older backdunes. Permanent plots were established at three different spatial scales on St George Island, FL, USA, where the vegetation and dune elevation were quantified annually from 2011 to 2013. Change in elevation, either through accretion or erosion, was used as a measure of year-to-year disturbance over the 2 years of the study. At the scale of different dune habitats, foredunes were found to have the greatest disturbance, while interdunes had the least. Elevation and habitat (i.e. foredune, interdune, backdune) were significantly correlated with plant community composition. Generalized linear models conducted within each habitat show that the change in elevation (disturbance) is also significantly correlated with the plant community, but only within foredunes and interdunes. The importance of disturbance in exposed foredunes was expected and was found to be related to an increasing abundance of a dominant species (Uniola paniculata) in eroding areas. The significant effect of disturbance in the relatively stable interdunes was surprising, and may be due to the importance of flooding associated with small changes in elevation in these low-lying areas. Overall, this study documents changes in the plant community associated with elevation, and demonstrates that the foredune and interdune

  3. Multimodal cues drive host-plant assessment in Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri).

    PubMed

    Patt, Joseph M; Meikle, William G; Mafra-Neto, Agenor; Sétamou, Mamoudou; Mangan, Robert; Yang, Chenghai; Malik, Nasir; Adamczyk, John J

    2011-12-01

    Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri) transmits the causal agent of Huanglongbing, a devastating disease of citrus trees. In this study we measured behavioral responses of D. citri to combinations of visual, olfactory, and gustatory stimuli in test arenas. Stimuli were presented to the psyllids in droplets or lines of an emulsified wax formulation in two different arena types in no-choice tests. First, when placed on a colored ring situated halfway between the center and perimeter of a petri dish, D. citri spent more time on yellow versus gray rings; however, this response disappeared when either gray or yellow wax droplets were applied. When the psyllids were presented with droplets scented with terpenes, the response to both scent and color was increased. The addition of a dilute (≍0.1 M) sucrose solution to the wax droplets increased the magnitude of D. citri responses. Next, groups of D. citri were placed on plastic laboratory film covering a sucrose solution, to mimic a leaf surface. Test stimuli were presented via two 'midribs' made from lines of emulsified wax formulation. Probing levels were measured as a function of color saturation and scent composition, and concentration. The test scents were based on qualitatively major volatiles emitted by Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack, Citrus aurantifolia (Christm.) Swingle, and C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck. The highest probing response was observed on the middle concentration (20-μl scent/10 ml wax formulation) of the C. aurantifolia-scented wax lines. Results indicate that there are interactive effects between the different sensory modalities in directing host-plant assessment behavior.

  4. The Evolution of Selfing Is Accompanied by Reduced Efficacy of Selection and Purging of Deleterious Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Arunkumar, Ramesh; Ness, Rob W.; Wright, Stephen I.; Barrett, Spencer C. H.

    2015-01-01

    The transition from outcrossing to selfing is predicted to reduce the genome-wide efficacy of selection because of the lower effective population size (Ne) that accompanies this change in mating system. However, strongly recessive deleterious mutations exposed in the homozygous backgrounds of selfers should be under strong purifying selection. Here, we examine estimates of the distribution of fitness effects (DFE) and changes in the magnitude of effective selection coefficients (Nes) acting on mutations during the transition from outcrossing to selfing. Using forward simulations, we investigated the ability of a DFE inference approach to detect the joint influence of mating system and the dominance of deleterious mutations on selection efficacy. We investigated predictions from our simulations in the annual plant Eichhornia paniculata, in which selfing has evolved from outcrossing on multiple occasions. We used range-wide sampling to generate population genomic datasets and identified nonsynonymous and synonymous polymorphisms segregating in outcrossing and selfing populations. We found that the transition to selfing was accompanied by a change in the DFE, with a larger fraction of effectively neutral sites (Nes < 1), a result consistent with the effects of reduced Ne in selfers. Moreover, an increased proportion of sites in selfers were under strong purifying selection (Nes > 100), and simulations suggest that this is due to the exposure of recessive deleterious mutations. We conclude that the transition to selfing has been accompanied by the genome-wide influences of reduced Ne and strong purifying selection against deleterious recessive mutations, an example of purging at the molecular level. PMID:25552275

  5. Polar auxin transport is essential for gall formation by Pantoea agglomerans on Gypsophila.

    PubMed

    Chalupowicz, Laura; Weinthal, Dan; Gaba, Victor; Sessa, Guido; Barash, Isaac; Manulis-Sasson, Shulamit

    2013-02-01

    The virulence of the bacterium Pantoea agglomerans pv. gypsophilae (Pag) on Gypsophila paniculata depends on a type III secretion system (T3SS) and its effectors. The hypothesis that plant-derived indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) plays a major role in gall formation was examined by disrupting basipetal polar auxin transport with the specific inhibitors 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA) and N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA). On inoculation with Pag, galls developed in gypsophila stems above but not below lanolin rings containing TIBA or NPA, whereas, in controls, galls developed above and below the rings. In contrast, TIBA and NPA could not inhibit tumour formation in tomato caused by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The colonization of gypsophila stems by Pag was reduced below, but not above, the lanolin-TIBA ring. Following Pag inoculation and TIBA treatment, the expression of hrpL (a T3SS regulator) and pagR (a quorum-sensing transcriptional regulator) decreased four-fold and that of pthG (a T3SS effector) two-fold after 24 h. Expression of PIN2 (a putative auxin efflux carrier) increased 35-fold, 24 h after Pag inoculation. However, inoculation with a mutant in the T3SS effector pthG reduced the expression of PIN2 by two-fold compared with wild-type infection. The results suggest that pthG might govern the elevation of PIN2 expression during infection, and that polar auxin transport-derived IAA is essential for gall initiation.

  6. Phylogenetic relationships of citrus and its relatives based on matK gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Penjor, Tshering; Yamamoto, Masashi; Uehara, Miki; Ide, Manami; Matsumoto, Natsumi; Matsumoto, Ryoji; Nagano, Yukio

    2013-01-01

    The genus Citrus includes mandarin, orange, lemon, grapefruit and lime, which have high economic and nutritional value. The family Rutaceae can be divided into 7 subfamilies, including Aurantioideae. The genus Citrus belongs to the subfamily Aurantioideae. In this study, we sequenced the chloroplast matK genes of 135 accessions from 22 genera of Aurantioideae and analyzed them phylogenetically. Our study includes many accessions that have not been examined in other studies. The subfamily Aurantioideae has been classified into 2 tribes, Clauseneae and Citreae, and our current molecular analysis clearly discriminate Citreae from Clauseneae by using only 1 chloroplast DNA sequence. Our study confirms previous observations on the molecular phylogeny of Aurantioideae in many aspects. However, we have provided novel information on these genetic relationships. For example, inconsistent with the previous observation, and consistent with our preliminary study using the chloroplast rbcL genes, our analysis showed that Feroniella oblata is not nested in Citrus species and is closely related with Feronia limonia. Furthermore, we have shown that Murraya paniculata is similar to Merrillia caloxylon and is dissimilar to Murraya koenigii. We found that "true citrus fruit trees" could be divided into 2 subclusters. One subcluster included Citrus, Fortunella, and Poncirus, while the other cluster included Microcitrus and Eremocitrus. Compared to previous studies, our current study is the most extensive phylogenetic study of Citrus species since it includes 93 accessions. The results indicate that Citrus species can be classified into 3 clusters: a citron cluster, a pummelo cluster, and a mandarin cluster. Although most mandarin accessions belonged to the mandarin cluster, we found some exceptions. We also obtained the information on the genetic background of various species of acid citrus grown in Japan. Because the genus Citrus contains many important accessions, we have

  7. Screening for antimicrobial activity of ten medicinal plants used in Colombian folkloric medicine: A possible alternative in the treatment of non-nosocomial infections

    PubMed Central

    Rojas, Jhon J; Ochoa, Veronica J; Ocampo, Saul A; Muñoz, John F

    2006-01-01

    Background The antimicrobial activity and Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of the extracts of Bidens pilosa L., Bixa orellana L., Cecropia peltata L., Cinchona officinalis L., Gliricidia sepium H.B. & K, Jacaranda mimosifolia D.Don, Justicia secunda Vahl., Piper pulchrum C.DC, P. paniculata L. and Spilanthes americana Hieron were evaluated against five bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus β hemolític, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli), and one yeast (Candida albicans). These plants are used in Colombian folk medicine to treat infections of microbial origin. Methods Plants were collected by farmers and traditional healers. The ethanol, hexane and water extracts were obtained by standard methods. The antimicrobial activity was found by using a modified agar well diffusion method. All microorganisms were obtained from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC). MIC was determined in the plant extracts that showed some efficacy against the tested microorganisms. Gentamycin sulfate (1.0 μg/ml), clindamycin (0.3 μg/ml) and nystatin (1.0 μg/ml) were used as positive controls. Results The water extracts of Bidens pilosa L., Jacaranda mimosifolia D.Don, and Piper pulchrum C.DC showed a higher activity against Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli than gentamycin sulfate. Similarly, the ethanol extracts of all species were active against Staphylococcus aureus except for Justicia secunda. Furthermore, Bixa orellana L, Justicia secunda Vahl. and Piper pulchrum C.DC presented the lowest MICs against Escherichia coli (0.8, 0.6 and 0.6 μg/ml, respectively) compared to gentamycin sulfate (0.9 8g/ml). Likewise, Justicia secunda and Piper pulchrum C.DC showed an analogous MIC against Candida albicans (0.5 and 0.6 μg/ml, respectively) compared to nystatin (0.6 μg/ml). Bixa orellana L, exhibited a better MIC against Bacillus cereus (0.2 μg/ml) than gentamycin sulfate (0.5 μg/ml). Conclusion This in vitro study corroborated the

  8. Pantoea agglomerans: a mysterious bacterium of evil and good. Part III. Deleterious effects: infections of humans, animals and plants.

    PubMed

    Dutkiewicz, Jacek; Mackiewicz, Barbara; Kinga Lemieszek, Marta; Golec, Marcin; Milanowski, Janusz

    2016-06-01

    (Arrhenatherum elatius). Some plant-pathogenic strains of P. agglomerans are tumourigenic, inducing gall formation on table beet, an ornamental plant gypsophila (Gypsophila paniculata), wisteria, Douglas-fir and cranberry. Recently, a Pantoea species closely related to P. agglomerans has been identified as a cause of bacterial blight disease in the edible mushroom Pleurotus eryngii cultivated in China. The genetically governed determinants of plant pathogenicity in Pantoea agglomerans include such mechanisms as the hypersensitive response and pathogenicity (hrp) system, phytohormones, the quorum-sensing (QS) feedback system and type III secretion system (T3SS) injecting the effector proteins into the cytosol of a plant cell. PMID:27294620

  9. Potential tree species for use in the restoration of unsanitary landfills.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kee Dae; Lee, Eun Ju

    2005-07-01

    biloba, Hibiscus syriacus, Koelreuteria paniculata, Ligustrum obtusifolium, Liriodendron tulipifera, Pinus koraiensis, Pinus thunbergii, and Sophora japonica. As a result of a comparison of the total ratio (sum of shoot extension and diameter growth at the landfill relative to a reference site) and mortality, six species (Liriodendron tulipifera, Albizzia julibrissin, Ligustrum obtusifolium, Buxus microphylla var. koreana, Hibiscus syriacus, and Sophora japonica), which had a total ratio >1 and experienced low mortality, are recommended as potentially suitable species for waste landfill remediation. We suggest that mixed plantations of ubiquitous adaptable species and naturally occurring black locust will enhance the landscape through synergistic effects. PMID:16132448

  10. Hydroecological impacts of climate change modelled for a lowland UK wetland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    House, Andrew; Acreman, Mike; Sorensen, James; Thompson, Julian

    2015-04-01

    australis, principal habitat for the endangered Vertigo moulinsiana. Further, the reduced influx of base-rich groundwater and increased dominance of high pH rain-fed waters alters the acidity of the soil. This leads to changes in species composition, with potential reductions in Carex paniculata, Caltha palustris and Typha latifolia.

  11. Seven centuries of atmospheric Pb deposition recorded in a floating mire from Central Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaccone, Claudio; Lobianco, Daniela; D'Orazio, Valeria; Miano, Teodoro M.; Shotyk, William

    2016-04-01

    Floating mires generally consist of emergent vegetation rooted in highly organic buoyant mats that rise and fall with changes in water level. Generally speaking, the entire floating mass (mat) is divided into a mat root zone and an underlying mat peat zone. Floating mires are distributed world-wide; large areas of floating marsh occur along rivers and lakes in Africa, the Danube Delta in Romania, the Amazon River in South America, and in the Mississippi River delta in USA, whereas smaller areas occur also in The Netherlands, Australia and Canada. While peat cores from ombrotrophic bogs have been often (and successfully) used to reconstruct changes in the atmospheric deposition of several metals (including Pb), no studies are present in literature about the possibility to use peat profiles from floating mires. To test the hypothesis that peat-forming floating mires could provide an exceptional tool for environmental studies, a complete, 4-m deep peat profile was collected in July 2012 from the floating island of Posta Fibreno, a relic mire in the Central Italy. This floating island has a diameter of ca. 30 m, a submerged thickness of about 3 m, and the vegetation is organized in concentric belts, from the Carex paniculata palisade to the Sphagnum palustre centre. The whole core was frozen cut each 1-to-2 cm (n =231), and Pb determined by quadrupole ICP-MS (at the ultraclean SWAMP lab, University of Alberta, Canada) in each sample throughout the first 100 cm, and in each odd-numbered slice for the remaining 300 cm. The 14C age dating of organic sediments (silty peat) isolated from the sample at 385 cm of depth revealed that the island probably formed ca. 700 yrs ago. Lead concentration trend shows at least two main zones of interest, i.e., a clear peak (ranging from 200 to 1600 ppm) between 110-115 cm of depth, probably corresponding to early 1960's - late 1970's, and a broad band (80-160 ppm) between 295-320 cm of depth, corresponding to approximately AD 1480

  12. Organic matter evolution throughout a 100-cm ombrotrophic profile from an Italian floating mire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaccone, Claudio; D'Orazio, Valeria; Lobianco, Daniela; Miano, Teodoro M.

    2015-04-01

    The curious sight of an island floating and moving on a lake naturally, already described by Pliny the Elder in his Naturalis historia (AD 77-79), fascinated people from time immemorial. Floating mires are defined by the occurrence of emergent vegetation rooted in highly organic buoyant mats that rise and fall with changes in water level. Peat-forming floating mires could provide an exceptional tool for environmental studies, since much of their evolution, as well as the changes of the surrounding areas, is recorded in their peat deposits. A complete, 4-m deep peat core was collected in July 2012 from the floating island of Posta Fibreno, a relic mire in the Central Italy. This floating island has a diameter of ca. 30 m, a submerged thickness of about 3 m, and the vegetation is organized in concentric belts, from the Carex paniculata palisade to the Sphagnum centre. Here, some of the southernmost Italian populations of Sphagnum palustre occur. The 14C age dating of macrofossils removed from the sample at 360 cm of depth revealed that the island probably formed more than 500 yrs ago (435±20 yr BP). In the present work, we show preliminary results regarding the evolution of the organic matter along the first, ombrotrophic 100 cm of depth, hoping also to provide some insight into the possible mechanism of the evolution of this floating island. The 100 cm monolith was collected using a Wardenaar corer and cut frozen in 1-cm layers. It consists almost exclusively of Sphagnum mosses, often spaced out, in the top 20-30 cm, by leaves of Populus tremula that annually fell off. This section shows a very low bulk density, ranging from 0.017 and 0.059 g cm-3 (avg. value, 0.03±0.01 g cm-3), an average water content of 96.1±1.1%, and a gravimetric water content ranging between 14.3 and 41.5 gwater gdrypeat-1. The pH of porewaters was in the range 5-5.5. The C content along the profile ranged between 35 and 47% (avg., 41±1%), whereas the N between 0.3 and 0.9% (avg., 0.6±0

  13. Respiratory and allergic diseases: from upper respiratory tract infections to asthma.

    PubMed

    Jaber, Raja

    2002-06-01

    Andrographis shortens the duration of the common cold. The one study on Elderberry's use for the flu was encouraging, and the data on the homeopathic remedy Oscillococcinum interesting, but more studies should be performed. Saline washes may be helpful to patients with allergic rhinitis and chronic sinusitis. Patients also may try the German combination (available in the United States) of elderberry, vervain, gentian, primrose, and sorrel that has been tested in randomized clinical trials. Bromelain is safe to try; the trials of bromelain supplementation were promising but were never repeated. The preceding suggestions need to be grounded in a program based on optimal medical management. Patients need to be well educated in the proper medical management of their disease and skilled at monitoring disease stability and progress. Asthmatic patients need to monitor their bronchodilator usage and peak flow meter measurements to step up their medical treatment in a timely manner, if needed. Patients welcome physician guidance when exploring the breadth of treatments available today. A true patient-physician partnership is always empowering to patients who are serious about regaining their function and health.

  14. Respiratory and allergic diseases: from upper respiratory tract infections to asthma.

    PubMed

    Jaber, Raja

    2002-06-01

    Andrographis shortens the duration of the common cold. The one study on Elderberry's use for

  15. Seven hundred years of peat formation recorded throughout a deep floating mire profile from Central Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobianco, Daniela; D'Orazio, Valeria; Miano, Teodoro; Zaccone, Claudio

    2016-04-01

    Floating mires are defined by the occurrence of emergent vegetation rooted in highly organic buoyant mats that rise and fall with changes in water level. Islands floating and moving on a lake naturally were already described by Pliny the Elder in his Naturalis historia almost two millennia ago. Actually, he devoted a whole chapter of Naturalis historia to "Of Islands Ever Floating and Swimming", reporting how certain isles were always waving and never stood still. The status of "flotant" has been defined transitory; in fact, these small isles often disappear, in most of the cases because of a transition from floating island to firm land during decades is likely to happen. That is why most of the floating islands described by Pliny the Elder (e.g., Lacus Fundanus, Lacus Cutiliensis, Lacus Mutinensis, Lacus Statoniensis, Lacus Tarquiniensis, Lydia Calaminae, Lacus Vadimonis) do not exist anymore. In the present study, peat formation and organic matter evolution were investigated in order to understand how these peculiar environments form, and how stable actually they are. In fact, it is hoped that peat-forming floating mires could provide an exceptional tool for environmental studies, since much of their evolution, as well as the changes of the surrounding areas, is recorded in their peat deposits. A complete, 4-m deep peat core was collected in July 2012 from the floating island of Posta Fibreno, a relic mire in the Central Italy. This floating island has a diameter of ca. 30 m, a submerged thickness of about 3 m, and the vegetation is organized in concentric belts, from the Carex paniculata palisade to the Sphagnum centre. Here, some of the southernmost Italian populations of Sphagnum palustre occur. The 14C age dating of organic sediments isolated from the sample at 385 cm of depth revealed that the island formed ca. 700 yrs ago (620±30 yr BP). The top 100 cm, consisting almost exclusively of Sphagnum mosses, show a very low bulk density (avg., 0.03±0.01 g cm

  16. Seven hundred years of peat formation recorded throughout a deep floating mire profile from Central Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobianco, Daniela; D'Orazio, Valeria; Miano, Teodoro; Zaccone, Claudio

    2016-04-01

    Floating mires are defined by the occurrence of emergent vegetation rooted in highly organic buoyant mats that rise and fall with changes in water level. Islands floating and moving on a lake naturally were already described by Pliny the Elder in his Naturalis historia almost two millennia ago. Actually, he devoted a whole chapter of Naturalis historia to "Of Islands Ever Floating and Swimming", reporting how certain isles were always waving and never stood still. The status of "flotant" has been defined transitory; in fact, these small isles often disappear, in most of the cases because of a transition from floating island to firm land during decades is likely to happen. That is why most of the floating islands described by Pliny the Elder (e.g., Lacus Fundanus, Lacus Cutiliensis, Lacus Mutinensis, Lacus Statoniensis, Lacus Tarquiniensis, Lydia Calaminae, Lacus Vadimonis) do not exist anymore. In the present study, peat formation and organic matter evolution were investigated in order to understand how these peculiar environments form, and how stable actually they are. In fact, it is hoped that peat-forming floating mires could provide an exceptional tool for environmental studies, since much of their evolution, as well as the changes of the surrounding areas, is recorded in their peat deposits. A complete, 4-m deep peat core was collected in July 2012 from the floating island of Posta Fibreno, a relic mire in the Central Italy. This floating island has a diameter of ca. 30 m, a submerged thickness of about 3 m, and the vegetation is organized in concentric belts, from the Carex paniculata palisade to the Sphagnum centre. Here, some of the southernmost Italian populations of Sphagnum palustre occur. The 14C age dating of organic sediments isolated from the sample at 385 cm of depth revealed that the island formed ca. 700 yrs ago (620±30 yr BP). The top 100 cm, consisting almost exclusively of Sphagnum mosses, show a very low bulk density (avg., 0.03±0.01 g cm-3