Xu, Gelin; Zheng, Ling; Zhou, Zhiming; Liu, Xinfeng
Evolvement of endovascular devices and increase of operator expertise have made angioplasty and stenting in intracranial vessels technically possible. Stenting has been reported in treating stenosis in middle and anterior cerebral arteries with favorable outcomes. However, the feasibility of stenting for stenosis in posterior cerebral artery (PCA) has not been established. We report a patient with progressive focal cerebral ischemic symptoms, which were arrested after reconstruction of the associated PCA stenosis with stenting.
Talati, Pratik; Rane, Swati; Kose, Samet; Gore, John; Heckers, Stephan
The human hippocampal formation is characterized by anterior-posterior gradients of cell density, neurochemistry and hemodynamics. In addition, some functions are associated with specific subfields (subiculum, CA1–4, dentate gyrus) and regions (anterior and posterior). We performed contrast-enhanced, high-resolution T1-weighted 3T steady state (SS) imaging to investigate cerebral blood volume (CBV) gradients of the hippocampal formation. We studied 14 healthy subjects and found significant CBV gradients (anterior > posterior) in the subiculum but not in other hippocampal subfields. Since CBV is a marker of basal metabolism, these results indicate a greater baseline activity in the anterior compared to the posterior subiculum. This gradient might be related to the role of the subiculum as the main outflow station of the hippocampal formation and might have implications for the mechanisms of neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:24677295
Noda, Kazuyuki; Fukae, Jiro; Fujishima, Kenji; Mori, Kentaro; Urabe, Takao; Hattori, Nobutaka; Okuma, Yasuyuki
Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) is characterized by acute severe headache with or without additional neurological symptoms and reversible cerebral vasoconstriction. Unruptured aneurysm has been reported in some cases with RCVS. We report a severe case of a 53-year-old woman with RCVS having an unruptured cerebral aneurysm and presenting as cortical subarachnoid hemorrhage, reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome, and cerebral infarction. She was successfully treated with corticosteroids and a calcium channel blocker and the aneurysm was clipped. Her various complications are due to the responsible vasoconstriction that started distally and progressed towards proximal arteries. This case demonstrates the spectrum of presentations of RCVS, a clinically complicated condition.
Khatibi, Kasra; Heit, Jeremy J; Telischak, Nicholas A; Elbers, Jorina M; Do, Huy M
A young patient with PAPA (pyogenic arthritis, pyoderma gangrenosum, and acne) syndrome developed an unusual cerebral arterial vasculopathy/vasculitis (CAV) that resulted in subarachnoid hemorrhage from a ruptured dissecting posterior cerebral artery (PCA) aneurysm. This aneurysm was successfully treated by endovascular coil sacrifice of the affected segment of the PCA. The patient made an excellent recovery with no significant residual neurologic deficit.
Khatibi, Kasra; Heit, Jeremy J; Telischak, Nicholas A; Elbers, Jorina M; Do, Huy M
A young patient with PAPA (pyogenic arthritis, pyoderma gangrenosum, and acne) syndrome developed an unusual cerebral arterial vasculopathy/vasculitis (CAV) that resulted in subarachnoid hemorrhage from a ruptured dissecting posterior cerebral artery (PCA) aneurysm. This aneurysm was successfully treated by endovascular coil sacrifice of the affected segment of the PCA. The patient made an excellent recovery with no significant residual neurologic deficit.
Durand-Birchenall, J; Bugnicourt, J-M
Although embolism and hypoperfusion may well occur concurrently in a non-negligible proportion of cerebral infarction patients, there is currently lack of proof, especially in the posterior circulation. Here, we are reporting on a case of multiple cerebral infarctions in a patient with neurofibromatosis type 1, multiple vascular abnormalities of the posterior cerebral circulation and intracranial artery occlusion. We hypothesize that cerebral blood flow impairment may have affected the clearance and destination of embolic particles.
Quach, Eric T; Gonzalez, Andres A; Shilian, Parastou; Russin, Jonathan J
We present the first report, to our knowledge, in which revascularization of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) with a high flow extracranial-intracranial procedure resulted in symptomatic hyperemia of the posterior circulation. Cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome (CHS) is a poorly understood phenomenon that is classically seen in the distribution of a revascularized artery. A 37-year-old woman presented with a 3 month history of cognitive and speech difficulties, persistent headaches, weakness, numbness, and paresthesia which was worse in the right extremities and face. She was found to have bilateral watershed infarcts worse in the left cerebral hemisphere, severe bilateral stenosis of the supraclinoid internal carotid artery, and a small left superior hypophyseal aneurysm. The patient underwent left cerebral hemisphere revascularization with a high flow external carotid artery to MCA bypass with aneurysm trapping. During skin closure, significant changes were seen in her bilateral upper extremity motor-evoked potentials. The patient's postoperative exam was noted for an intermittent inability to follow commands, bilateral upper extremity weakness, vertical nystagmus, and alogia that all dramatically improved with strict blood pressure control. Postoperative perfusion imaging revealed posterior circulation hyperemia. This patient highlights the potential for hyperemic complications outside the revascularized arterial territory. Strict blood pressure control is recommended in order to prevent and manage hyperemia-associated symptoms. Improving our understanding of CHS may assist in identifying at risk patients and at risk arterial territories in order to optimize CHS prevention and management strategies.
Lee, Ji Yeoun; Kim, Seung-Ki; Phi, Ji Hoon
The majority of clinical studies on moyamoya disease (MMD) have focused on anterior circulation. The disease involvement of posterior circulation in MMD, mainly in the posterior cerebral artery (PCA), has been mentioned since the early 1980s, and it has been repeatedly emphasized as one of the most important factors related to poor prognosis in MMD. However, its clinical features and outcome have only been elucidated during the last few years. In this review, the angiographic definition of PCA stenosis is summarized. The clinical features are elucidated as being either early-onset or delayed-onset, according to the time of PCA stenosis diagnosis in reference to the anterior circulation revascularization surgeries. The surgical strategy and hypothesis on the mechanism of PCA stenosis is also briefly mentioned. It appears that some MMD patients may show PCA stenosis during the early or late course of the disease and that the presenting symptoms may vary. Because the hemodynamic compromise caused by PCA stenosis may respond well to surgical treatment, clinicians should be aware of the condition, especially during follow-up of MMD patients. PMID:26180612
Wallace, Adam N; Kayan, Yasha; Austin, Matthew J; Delgado Almandoz, Josser E; Kamran, Mudassar; Cross, DeWitte T; Moran, Christopher J; Osbun, Joshua W; Kansagra, Akash P
Flow diversion may have advantages in the treatment of posterior communicating artery (PComA) aneurysms associated with a fetal origin posterior cerebral artery (PCA), which can be challenging to treat with conventional techniques. However, a PComA incorporated into the aneurysm may prevent or delay aneurysm occlusion. Also, coverage of a fetal origin PCA risks infarction of a large vascular territory. The purpose of this study was to examine the safety and effectiveness of using the Pipeline Embolization Device (PED) to treat PComA aneurysms associated with a fetal origin PCA. Retrospective review of PComA aneurysms associated with a fetal origin PCA treated with the PED at two neurovascular centers was performed. Periprocedural complications and clinical and angiographic outcomes were reviewed. Seven female patients underwent a total of seven PED procedures to treat seven PcomA aneurysms associated with a fetal origin PCA. The symptomatic complication rate was 14% (1/7) per patient and 13% (1/8) per procedure. Angiographic follow up was obtained for 6 of 7 aneurysms. Follow-up DSA at 5-7 months after treatment demonstrated complete occlusion of 17% (1/6) of aneurysms. One aneurysm was retreated with a second PED and occlusion was demonstrated 36 months after the second treatment, yielding an overall complete occlusion rate of 33% (2/6). PED treatment was largely ineffective at treating PComA aneurysms associated with a fetal origin PCA, and should only be considered when conventional treatment options, including microsurgical clipping, are not feasible. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Cipolla, Marilyn J; Bishop, Nicole; Chan, Siu-Lung
Severe preeclampsia and eclampsia are associated with brain edema that forms preferentially in the posterior cerebral cortex possibly because of decreased sympathetic innervation of posterior cerebral arteries and less effective autoregulation during acute hypertension. In the present study, we examined the effect of pregnancy on the effectiveness of cerebral blood flow autoregulation using laser Doppler flowmetry and edema formation by wet:dry weight in acute hypertension induced by phenylephrine infusion in the anterior and posterior cerebrum from nonpregnant (n=8) and late-pregnant (n=6) Sprague-Dawley rats. In addition, we compared the effect of pregnancy on sympathetic innervation by tyrosine hydroxylase staining of posterior and middle cerebral arteries (n=5-6 per group) and endothelial and neuronal NO synthase expression using quantitative PCR (n=3 per group). In nonpregnant animals, there was no difference in autoregulation between the anterior and posterior cerebrum. However, in late-pregnant animals, the threshold of cerebral blood flow autoregulation was shifted to lower pressures in the posterior cerebrum, which was associated with increased neuronal NO synthase expression in the posterior cerebral cortex versus anterior. Compared with the nonpregnant state, pregnancy increased the threshold of autoregulation in both brain regions that was related to decreased expression of endothelial NO synthase. Lastly, acute hypertension during pregnancy caused greater edema formation in both brain cortices that was not attributed to changes in sympathetic innervation. These findings suggest that, although pregnancy shifted the cerebral blood flow autoregulatory curve to higher pressures in both the anterior and posterior cortices, it did not protect from edema during acute hypertension.
Cipolla, Marilyn J.; Bishop, Nicole; Chan, Siu-Lung
Severe pre/eclampsia are associated with brain edema that forms preferentially in the posterior cerebral cortex possibly due to decreased sympathetic innervation of posterior cerebral arteries and less effective autoregulation during acute hypertension. In the present study, we examined the effect of pregnancy on the effectiveness of cerebral blood flow autoregulation using laser Doppler flowmetry and edema formation by wet:dry weight in acute hypertension induced by phenylephrine infusion in the anterior and posterior cerebrum from nonpregnant (n=8) and late-pregnant (n=6) Sprague Dawley rats. In addition, we compared the effect of pregnancy on sympathetic innervation by tyrosine hydroxylase staining of posterior and middle cerebral arteries (n=5–6/group) and endothelial and neuronal nitric oxide synthase expression using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (n=3/group). In nonpregnant animals, there was no difference in autoregulation between anterior and posterior cerebrum. However, in late-pregnant animals, the threshold of cerebral blood flow autoregulation was shifted to lower pressures in the posterior cerebrum, which was associated with increased neuronal nitric oxide synthase expression in the posterior cerebral cortex vs. anterior. Compared to the nonpregnant state, pregnancy increased the threshold of autoregulation in both brain regions that was related to decreased expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Lastly, acute hypertension during pregnancy caused greater edema formation in both brain cortices that was not due to changes in sympathetic innervation. These findings suggest that although pregnancy shifted the cerebral blood flow autoregulatory curve to higher pressures in both the anterior and posterior cortices, it did not protect from edema during acute hypertension. PMID:22824983
Chankaew, Ekawut; Sitthinamsuwan, Bunpot; Srirabheebhat, Prajak; Aurboonyawat, Thaweesak; Nunta-aree, Sarun
De novo aneurysm formation is a rare entity of cerebral aneurysms. The authors describe a 19-year-old man presenting with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage of unknown etiology. The initial cerebral angiography revealed no identifiable vascular lesion. A few weeks following a surgical evacuation of the hematoma, a tiny saccular aneurysm was incidentally found on the distal posterior cerebral artery (PCA) remote from the site of the primary ictus. Several rationales indicated that it was compatible with a cerebral aneurysm of infective etiology. The aneurysm was successfully treated by antibiotic therapy alone. To the authors' knowledge, de novo aneurysm on the PCA has rarely been reported.
Background Stenosis of the internal carotid artery has been associated with cognitive impairment and decline. However, studies testing the effect of carotid revascularisation on cognition have had conflicting results. This may in part be explained by variation in the flow territory of the carotid artery. In 12 to 36% of the patients, the posterior cerebral artery is mainly or exclusively supplied by the internal carotid artery via a foetal-type posterior cerebral artery. In these patients, ipsilateral carotid artery stenosis is likely to result in a larger area with hypoperfusion than in case of a normal posterior cerebral artery. Patients with a foetal-type posterior cerebral artery could therefore benefit more from revascularisation. We compared the effects of carotid revascularisation on cognition between patients with a foetal-type and those with a normal posterior cerebral artery. Methods Patients with symptomatic internal carotid artery stenosis ≥ 50%, enrolled in the International Carotid Stenting Study (ICSS) at a single centre, underwent detailed neuropsychological examinations before and 6 months after revascularisation. Cognitive test results were standardized into z-scores, from which a cognitive sumscore was calculated. The primary outcome was the change in cognitive sumscore between baseline and follow-up. Changes in cognitive sumscore were compared between patients with an ipsilateral foetal-type and those with a normal posterior cerebral artery, as assessed with CT or MR angiography. Results Of 145 patients enrolled in ICSS at the centre during the study period, 98 had both angiography at baseline and neuropsychological examination at baseline and at 6-months follow-up. The cognitive sum score decreased by 0.28 (95% confidence interval, 0.10 to 0.45) in 13 patients with an ipsilateral foetal-type posterior cerebral artery and by 0.07 (95% CI, 0.002 to 0.15) in 85 patients with a normal posterior cerebral artery (mean difference, -0.20; 95% CI
Ortiz, N; Barraquer Bordas, L; Dourado, M; Rey, A; Avila, A
When cerebral infarction determines hemiplegia or hemiparesia which accompany a hemilateral sensitive deficit and hemianopsia and even neuropsychologic symptoms (aphasic alterations in the case of injury to the left hemisphere, heminegligence and anosognosy in the case of injury to the right hemisphere) the involvement of a sylvian artery syndrome is usually considered. Nonetheless, recent contributions have reported that such symptoms may appear in infarctions of the territory of the posterior cerebral artery. Two clinical-radiologic observations in this line are presented. Nuclear magnetic resonance demonstrated injury to the posterior arm of the internal capsule in one case and in the other the lesion developed over three times, in the latter of which injury to the cerebral peduncle was produced causing hemiparesia. The authors emphasize that hemiplegia or hemiparesia in some infarctions of the posterior cerebral artery may be due to 1) mesencephalic infarction in the posterior plane of the retromamillar Foix and Hillemand pediculum (or G. Lazorthes interpedunculum), 2) infarction or "ischemic penumbra" in the internal capsule by involvement of any of the perforating branches of the posterior cerebrum irrigating the thalamus, except for the medial posterior choroid artery or even of the Foix and Hillemand thalamus-tuberian pediculum (or Lazorthes inferior and anterior) which principally initiates at the posterior communicating branch with a fragment of the posterior branch of the internal capsule perhaps not always being under its control. In this case, the thrombus occupying the posterior cerebrum may extend to the cited communicating branch or a hemodynamic deficit may be produced in the territory of the same.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Ratcliff, G; Newcombe, F
Men with chronic, penetrating missile wounds of the brain were examined with two `spatial' tasks: a visually-guided stylus maze and a locomotor map-reading task. Men whose lesions involved the posterior part of the right cerebral hemisphere were significantly worse than those with left posterior lesions at stylus maze-learning. On the locomotor task, however, a highly significant deficit was found in the group of men with bilateral posterior cerebral lesions, while those with unilateral lesions of either hemisphere and those with bilateral frontal lesions were unimpaired. The contributions of the two cerebral hemispheres to the analysis of spatial information are discussed in the light of these results and it is suggested that, while the right hemisphere has a special role in the perception of space, it does not bear exclusive responsibility for the maintenance of spatial orientation.
Tymko, Michael M; Rickards, Caroline A; Skow, Rachel J; Ingram-Cotton, Nathan C; Howatt, Michael K; Day, Trevor A
Steady-state tilt has no effect on cerebrovascular reactivity to increases in the partial pressure of end-tidal carbon dioxide (PETCO2). However, the anterior and posterior cerebral circulations may respond differently to a variety of stimuli that alter central blood volume, including lower body negative pressure (LBNP). Little is known about the superimposed effects of head-up tilt (HUT; decreased central blood volume and intracranial pressure) and head-down tilt (HDT; increased central blood volume and intracranial pressure), and LBNP on cerebral blood flow (CBF) responses. We hypothesized that (a) cerebral blood velocity (CBV; an index of CBF) responses during LBNP would not change with HUT and HDT, and (b) CBV in the anterior cerebral circulation would decrease to a greater extent compared to posterior CBV during LBNP when controlling PETCO2 In 13 male participants, we measured CBV in the anterior (middle cerebral artery, MCAv) and posterior (posterior cerebral artery, PCAv) cerebral circulations using transcranial Doppler ultrasound during LBNP stress (-50 mmHg) in three body positions (45°HUT, supine, 45°HDT). PETCO2 was measured continuously and maintained at constant levels during LBNP through coached breathing. Our main findings were that (a) steady-state tilt had no effect on CBV responses during LBNP in both the MCA (P = 0.077) and PCA (P = 0.583), and (b) despite controlling for PETCO2, both the MCAv and PCAv decreased by the same magnitude during LBNP in HUT (P = 0.348), supine (P = 0.694), and HDT (P = 0.407). Here, we demonstrate that there are no differences in anterior and posterior circulations in response to LBNP in different body positions.
Masoud, Hesham; Nguyen, Thanh N.; Thatcher, Joshua; Barest, Glenn; Norbash, Alexander M.
We present a rare case of bilateral posterior cerebral artery variant anatomy seen in a patient presenting with acute ischemic stroke. An embryological explanation of the variant configuration is discussed along with demonstrative radiologic images and a display of the vascular territory supplied. PMID:26600800
Van Buren, J M
After an "occipital lobectomy" that resulted in a severe dyslexia and a moderate dysgraphia-dyscalculia, anatomical study showed damage to the posterior extremity of the angular gyrus and degeneration in the posteroinferior pulvinar. This is in contrast to an earlier case that had degeneration in the anterosuperior pulvinor associated with a small anterior temporoparietal infarct and a well-documented receptive-expressive aphasia. However, the role of the pulvinar in speech function remains uncertain. The surgeon should be aware of the short distance between the angular gyrus and both the midline and the occipital pole because a lesion here during an "occipital lobectomy" produces a distressing and durable speech impairment.
Agarwal, Rajkumar; Davis, Cresha; Altinok, Deniz; Serajee, Fatema J
We report a patient with hemolytic uremic syndrome who presented with radiological manifestations suggestive of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome and reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome. A 13-year-old girl presented with fever and bloody diarrhea and progressed to develop hemolytic uremic syndrome. She subsequently developed encephalopathy, aphasia, and right-sided weakness. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed presence of vasogenic edema in the left frontal lobe, in addition to T2 and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery changes in white matter bilaterally, compatible with posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome. Magnetic resonance angiography showed beading of the cerebral vessels. Neurological deficits reversed 8 days after symptom onset, with resolution of the beading pattern on follow-up magnetic resonance angiography after 3 weeks, suggesting reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome. Both posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome and reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome may represent manifestations of similar underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms. Recognition of the co-existence of these processes in patients with hemolytic uremic syndrome may aid in judicious management of these patients and avoidance of inappropriate therapeutic interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lee, Jun Ho; Choi, Hui-Chul; Kim, Chulho; Sohn, Jong Hee; Kim, Heung Cheol
Necrotizing fasciitis is a soft tissue infection that is characterized by extensive necrosis of the subcutaneous fat, neurovascular structures, and fascia. Cerebral infarction after facial necrotizing fasciitis has been rarely reported. A 61-year-old woman with diabetes was admitted with painful swelling of her right cheek. One day later, she was stuporous and quadriplegic. A computed tomographic scan of her face revealed right facial infection in the periorbital soft tissue, parotid, buccal muscle, and maxillary sinusitis. A computed tomographic scan of the brain revealed cerebral infarction in the right hemisphere, left frontal area, and both cerebellum. Four days later, she died from cerebral edema and septic shock. Involvement of the cerebral vasculature, such as the carotid or vertebral artery by necrotizing fasciitis, can cause cerebral infarction. Facial necrotizing fasciitis should be treated early with surgical treatment and the appropriate antibiotic therapy.
Ban, Seung Pil; Hwang, Gyojun; Kim, Chang Hyeun; Kwon, O-Ki
Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) combined with posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a rare complication in patients treated with immunosuppressants. A 52-year-old male patient presented with seizures after heart transplantation. The patient was suspected of having PRES on brain images. Despite the strict blood pressure control, the patient presented with altered mentality and the brain images showed a newly developed large acute infarction. Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) revealed the classic "sausage on a string" appearance of the cerebral arteries - potential feature of RCVS. To our knowledge, this is the first case report to describe RCVS combined with PRES after heart transplantation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lin, Cho-I; Lin, Yu-Ching; Lien, Wei-Chih; Hsieh, Pei-Chun; Lin, Sheng-Han; Kuan, Ta-Shen
Introduction Punding is a complex stereotyped behavior, characterized by excessiveness, non-goal orientation, and repetitiveness. It is mostly associated with Parkinson’s disease, and very few cases in non-Parkinson’s disease have been reported. We report a case of punding associated with supratentorial ischemic stroke. Case presentation We present a 70-year-old man with left posterior cerebral artery infarction with quetiapine-induced punding manifesting as repetitive unidirectional body turning. Remission of punding behavior ensued after cessation of quetiapine and administration of clonazepam. Conclusion This case describes the clinical course of quetiapine-induced punding in a patient with left posterior cerebral artery infarction. It suggests clonazepam may serve as a treatment option for poststroke punding. PMID:28408832
Fisher, C M
There is an unusual type of vascular episode in the territory of the posterior cerebral artery which remains relatively unknown. Ten cases are presented in which a posterior cerebral artery deficit developed suddenly in dramatic fashion with headache, visual symptoms, sensory and motor deficits and signs of third nerve involvement. Nine of the patients were female and one was male. Seven were under the age of 33. In all instances there was a permanent neurologic sequela, usually a hemianopia. A similar case was described in 1901. The nature of the underlying process remains obscure, but the evidence favors accompanied migraine in which a particularly severe attack results in permanent damage. The term "catastrophic migraine" is suggested.
Vasović, Ljiljana P; Jovanović, Ivan D; Ugrenović, Sladjana Z; Anđelković, Zlatibor P
Numerous studies have reported that all components of the cerebral arterial circle in the 4-month-old human fetus are more slender than adult vessels, and of equal caliber. After that period, a degree of caliber differentiation is present, especially at the level of the posterior communicating arteries. The aim of this study was to determine arterial diameters in the posterior part of the fetal cerebral arterial circle from the 4th month (IV) to the 6th (VI). One hundred and seventy-two fetal cerebral arterial circles were examined by means of a surgical microscope. It was determined that average diameters of the left (right) pre-communicating parts of the posterior cerebral artery ranged from 0.30 ± 0.03 (0.29 ± 0.02) mm in month IV, to 0.36 ± 0.04 (0.36 ± 0.03) mm during month V and up to 0.55 ± 0.22 (0.50 ± 0.18) mm in month VI. The average diameters of the left (right) posterior communicating artery ranged from 0.24 ± 0.02 mm (0.25 ± 0.02) in month IV, to 0.30 ± 0.03 mm (0.29 ± 0.05) during month V and up to 0.38 ± 0.08 (0.44 ± 0.10) in month VI. Gender differences between posterior cerebral artery and posterior communicating artery diameters were not significant. Average posterior cerebral artery diameters were significantly larger than posterior communicating artery diameters in months IV and V, but not in month VI. It was established that caliber differentiation in the posterior part of the cerebral arterial circle began from gestational month IV, and that gender differences in arterial diameters were not significant until month VI of gestation. PMID:17784935
Hwang, Jaechun; Kim, Suk Jae; Hong, Ji Man; Bang, Oh Young; Chung, Chin-Sang; Lee, Kwang Ho; Kim, Gyeong-Moon
The clinical significance of microembolic signals (MES) in the posterior circulation remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the sources and consequences of MES in acute posterior circulation cerebral ischemia. We evaluated a total of 140 consecutive patients (93 males, mean age 62.9 years) who had acute posterior circulation cerebral ischemia. The MES monitoring was conducted at the basilar artery through the suboccipital window for a 30-minute period. MES were detected in 18 (12.9%) of the 140 patients. Clinical characteristics and laboratory data did not differ between the MES-positive and MES-negative groups. Intracranial vertebrobasilar artery (VBA) stenosis was independently associated with the presence of MES (odds ratio, 9.85; 95% confidence interval, 1.22-79.48; P=0.032), whereas the patients with vertebral artery stenosis that was limited to the extracranial portion did not show an association. Microembolic signals occurred significantly more frequently in patients with severe degree of VBA stenosis compared to those with nonsignificant stenosis (odds ratio, 9.88; 95% confidence interval, 1.23-79.07; P=0.031). In a subgroup analysis of the 79 patients who had lesions on diffusion-weighted images and relevant VBA stenosis, the MES-positive group showed more frequent embolic infarction (P=0.010) and multiple lesion patterns (P=0.007) than single perforating infarctions. In acute posterior circulation cerebral ischemia, intracranial and severe VBA stenosis is associated with MES and may be its root causes. The presence of MES in VBA stenosis suggests that multiple and embolic type infarctions are the mechanisms of stroke.
Ichijo, Masahiko; Miki, Kazunori; Ishibashi, Satoru; Tomita, Makoto; Kamata, Tomoyuki; Fujigasaki, Hiroto; Mizusawa, Hidehiro
Prominent posterior cerebral artery (PCA) laterality upon 3-dimensional time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography is often encountered in patients with middle cerebral artery occlusion. We hypothesized that this sign is correlated with improved functional outcome in patients with middle cerebral artery occlusion treated with intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator. Fifty acute ischemic stroke patients with middle cerebral artery occlusion were treated with intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator from April 2007 to October 2009. All patients routinely underwent initial (first 3 hours) magnetic resonance scans on admission, and additional follow-up (14-21 days after stroke onset) computed tomography scans. Two film readers blinded to all clinical information assessed the presence or absence of PCA laterality on magnetic resonance angiography. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical and radiologic data on all patients. Out of 50 patients, 20 showed PCA laterality on magnetic resonance angiography. National Institute of Health Stroke Scale score 7 days after stroke onset was significantly lower (P=0.007), and infarct volume on follow-up computed tomography was significantly smaller (P=0.009) in patients with PCA laterality than in patients without this sign. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed an adjusted odds ratio of 8.49 for a favorable outcome (modified Rankin Scale score 0-1 at 6 months) in patients with PCA laterality (95% CI: 1.82 to 55.8, P=0.005). The presence of PCA laterality on magnetic resonance angiography before intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator can be used as a predictor of favorable functional outcome in patients with middle cerebral artery occlusion, probably due to improvement of recanalization rate.
Chung, David Y; Claassen, Jan; Agarwal, Sachin; Schmidt, J Michael; Mayer, Stephan A
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) leads to small- and large-vessel circulatory dysfunction. While aggressive lowering of elevated blood pressure is the usual treatment for PRES, excessive blood pressure reduction may lead to ischemia or infarction, particularly when PRES is accompanied by reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS). Regional cerebral oximetry using near-infrared spectroscopy is a noninvasive modality that is commonly used intraoperatively and in intensive care settings to monitor regional cerebral oxygenation (rSO2) and may be useful in guiding treatment in select cases of PRES and RCVS. We report a case of a patient with PRES complicated by infarction and RCVS where the optimal blood pressure management was unclear. A decision was made to decrease blood pressure which resulted in an improved neurological examination and increase in rSO2 from 40% to 55% in at-risk brain. Infarcted brain as determined by diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography perfusion imaging showed no change in rSO2 during the same time period. Furthermore, there was a qualitative change in the rSO2-mean arterial pressure (MAP) relationship, suggesting an alteration in cerebrovascular autoregulation as a result of lowering blood pressure. Regional cerebral oximetry can provide valuable diagnostic feedback in complicated cases of PRES and RCVS. © The Author(s) 2016.
Ohtonari, Tatsuya; Hashimoto, Masanori; Urasaki, Eiichiro; Yokota, Akira; Araki, Shunsuke; Asayama, Koutaro; Shirahata, Akira
A 9-year-old boy was admitted to our hospital with daytime urinary incontinence for the past one year. MRI showed craniopharyngioma occupying the third ventricle. The tumor was excised by interhemispheric approach. Because hyponatremia and polyuria with high renal loss of sodium were observed on postoperative day 3, hydrocortisone and DDAVP were replaced. On postoperative day 24, successive general convulsions and hyponatremia recurred, and MRI FLAIR imaging showed marked brain edema in the bilateral parieto-occipital lobes. This finding disappeared late in the course of treatment, and the case was diagnosed as posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome. The pathophysiology of cerebral salt wasting and posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome in a craniopharyngioma patient are also discussed in the article.
Johnson, Andrew K.; Lopes, Demetrius K.; Moftakhar, Roham
Progressive deconstruction is an endovascular technique for aneurysm treatment that utilizes flow diverting stents to promote progressive thrombosis by diverting blood flow away from the aneurysm's parent vessel. While the aneurysm thromboses, collateral blood vessels develop over time to avoid infarction that can often accompany acute parent vessel occlusion. We report a 37-year-old woman with a left distal posterior cerebral artery aneurysm that was successfully treated with this strategy. The concept and rationale of progressive deconstruction are discussed in detail. PMID:26958413
Uçeyler, Nurcan; Homola, György A; Guerrero González, Hans; Kramer, Daniela; Wanner, Christoph; Weidemann, Frank; Solymosi, László; Sommer, Claudia
A high load of white matter lesions and enlarged basilar arteries have been shown in selected patients with Fabry disease, a disorder associated with an increased stroke risk. We studied a large cohort of patients with Fabry disease to differentially investigate white matter lesion load and cerebral artery diameters. We retrospectively analyzed cranial magnetic resonance imaging scans of 87 consecutive Fabry patients, 20 patients with ischemic stroke, and 36 controls. We determined the white matter lesion load applying the Fazekas score on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery sequences and measured the diameters of cerebral arteries on 3D-reconstructions of the time-of-flight-MR-angiography scans. Data of different Fabry patient subgroups (males-females; normal-impaired renal function) were compared with data of patients with stroke and controls. A history of stroke or transient ischemic attacks was present in 4/30 males (13%) and 5/57 (9%) females with Fabry disease, all in the anterior circulation. Only one man with Fabry disease showed confluent cerebral white matter lesions in the Fazekas score assessment (1%). Male Fabry patients had a larger basilar artery (p<0.01) and posterior cerebral artery diameter (p<0.05) compared to male controls. This was independent of disease severity as measured by renal function and did not lead to changes in arterial blood flow properties. A basilar artery diameter of >3.2 mm distinguished between men with Fabry disease and controls (sensitivity: 87%, specificity: 86%, p<0.001), but not from stroke patients. Enlarged arterial diameters of the posterior circulation are present only in men with Fabry disease independent of disease severity.
Üçeyler, Nurcan; Homola, György A.; Guerrero González, Hans; Kramer, Daniela; Wanner, Christoph; Weidemann, Frank; Solymosi, László; Sommer, Claudia
A high load of white matter lesions and enlarged basilar arteries have been shown in selected patients with Fabry disease, a disorder associated with an increased stroke risk. We studied a large cohort of patients with Fabry disease to differentially investigate white matter lesion load and cerebral artery diameters. We retrospectively analyzed cranial magnetic resonance imaging scans of 87 consecutive Fabry patients, 20 patients with ischemic stroke, and 36 controls. We determined the white matter lesion load applying the Fazekas score on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery sequences and measured the diameters of cerebral arteries on 3D-reconstructions of the time-of-flight-MR-angiography scans. Data of different Fabry patient subgroups (males – females; normal – impaired renal function) were compared with data of patients with stroke and controls. A history of stroke or transient ischemic attacks was present in 4/30 males (13%) and 5/57 (9%) females with Fabry disease, all in the anterior circulation. Only one man with Fabry disease showed confluent cerebral white matter lesions in the Fazekas score assessment (1%). Male Fabry patients had a larger basilar artery (p<0.01) and posterior cerebral artery diameter (p<0.05) compared to male controls. This was independent of disease severity as measured by renal function and did not lead to changes in arterial blood flow properties. A basilar artery diameter of >3.2 mm distinguished between men with Fabry disease and controls (sensitivity: 87%, specificity: 86%, p<0.001), but not from stroke patients. Enlarged arterial diameters of the posterior circulation are present only in men with Fabry disease independent of disease severity. PMID:24475221
Jang, Jae-Won; Park, Young Ho; Park, So Young; Wang, Min Jeong; Lim, Jae-Sung; Kim, Sung-Hun; Chun, In KooK; Yang, Youngsoon; Kim, SangYun
Background The pathophysiology of transient global amnesia (TGA) is not fully understood. Previous studies using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) have reported inconclusive results regarding cerebral perfusion. This study was conducted to identify the patterns of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in TGA patients via longitudinal SPECT analysis. An association between the observed SPECT patterns and a pathophysiological mechanism was considered. Methods Based on the TGA registry database of Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, 22 TGA patients were retrospectively identified. The subjects underwent initial Tc-99m-ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD) SPECT within 4 days of an amnestic event and underwent follow-up scans approximately 6 months later. The difference in ECD uptake between the two scans was measured via voxel-based whole brain analysis, and the quantified ECD uptake was tested using a paired t-test. Results The TGA patients had significantly decreased cerebral perfusion at the left precuneus (P<0.001, uncorrected) and at the left superior parietal and inferior temporal gyrus according to the voxel-based whole brain analysis (P<0.005, uncorrected). A difference in the quantified ECD uptake between the 2 scans was also found at the left precuneus among the 62 cortical volumes of interest (P = 0.018, Cohen’s d = -0.25). Conclusion We identified left hemispheric lateralized hypoperfusion that may be related to posterior medial network disruption. These findings may be a contributing factor to the pathophysiology of TGA. PMID:26690067
Tanaka, Kei; Matsushima, Miho; Matsuzawa, Yukiko; Wachi, Yuichi; Izawa, Tomoko; Sakai, Keiji; Kobayashi, Yoichi; Iwashita, Mitsutoshi
Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) is characterized by severe headache and diffuse segmental constriction of the cerebral arteries that resolves spontaneously within a few months. Pregnancy is one of the precipitating factors of RCVS and most of the reported cases occurred in the post-partum period. We report a case of RCVS that occurred in a pregnant women with pre-eclampsia during her antepartum period. A 34-year-old woman in full-term pregnancy presented with a severe and acute headache. Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) showed multiple segmental constrictions of the cerebral arteries. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a high-intensity lesion in the left occipital lobe, consistent with reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome, on fluid attenuated inversion recovery sequences. The case was also complicated by severe pre-eclampsia and the patient underwent emergency cesarean section. Although her symptoms resolved rapidly, MRA revealed new lesions of arterial constriction 4 days after onset. The vasoconstriction completely resolved on MRA after 10 days and the patient was discharged without neurological sequelae. © 2015 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
Varelas, Panayiotis N; Brady, Paul; Rehman, Mohammed; Afshinnik, Arash; Mehta, Chandan; Abdelhak, Tamer; Wijdicks, Eelco F
Patients with primary posterior fossa catastrophic lesions may clinically meet brain death criteria, but may retain supratentorial brain function or blood flow. These patients could be declared brain-dead in the United Kingdom (UK), but not in the United States of America (USA). We report the outcome of adult patients with primary posterior fossa lesions without concurrent major supratentorial injury. Henry Ford Hospital database was reviewed over a period of 88 months in order to identify all adult patients with isolated brainstem or posterior fossa lesions. We excluded patients with concurrent significant supratentorial pathology potentially confounding the clinical brain death examination. One more patient from a different hospital meeting these criteria was also included. Three patients out of 161 met inclusion criteria (1.9% of all brain deaths during this period). With the addition of a fourth patient from another hospital, 4 patients were analyzed. All four patients had catastrophic brainstem and cerebellar injuries meeting the clinical criteria of brain death with positive apnea test in the UK. All had preserved supratentorial blood flow, which after a period of 2 h to 6 days disappeared on repeat testing, allowing declaration of brain death by US criteria in all four. One patient became an organ donor. Patients with primary posterior fossa catastrophic lesions, who clinically seem to be brain-dead, evolve from retaining to losing supratentorial blood flow. If absent cerebral blood flow is used as an additional criterion for the declaration of death by neurological criteria, these patients are not different than those who become brain death due to supratentorial lesions.
Chapman, Abbie C; Cipolla, Marilyn J; Chan, Siu-Lung
Hemorrhage during parturition can lower blood pressure beyond the lower limit of cerebral blood flow (CBF) autoregulation that can cause ischemic brain injury. However, the impact of pregnancy on the lower limit of CBF autoregulation is unknown. We measured myogenic vasodilation, a major contributor of CBF autoregulation, in isolated posterior cerebral arteries (PCAs) from nonpregnant and late-pregnant rats (n = 10/group) while the effect of pregnancy on the lower limit of CBF autoregulation was studied in the posterior cerebral cortex during controlled hemorrhage (n = 8). Pregnancy enhanced myogenic vasodilation in PCA and shifted the lower limit of CBF autoregulation to lower pressures. Inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) prevented the enhanced myogenic vasodilation during pregnancy but did not affect the lower limit of CBF autoregulation. The shift in the autoregulatory curve to lower pressures during pregnancy is likely protective of ischemic injury during hemorrhage and appears to be independent of NOS.
Çamlıdağ, İlkay; Cho, Yang-Je; Park, Mina; Lee, Seung Koo
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is usually a reversible clinical and radiological entity associated with typical features on brain MR or CT imaging. However, the not-so-uncommon atypical radiological presentations of the condition are also present and they may go unrecognised as they are confused with other conditions. Here, we report a very rare case of atypical, unilateral PRES in a 49-year-old uremic, post-transplant female patient who presented with seizures. Initial MRI showed high-grade occlusion of the left middle cerebral artery (MCA) and lesions suggestive of subacute infarction in the ipsilateral frontotemporoparietal lobe. Patient symptoms had resolved a day after the onset without any specific treatment but early follow-up CT findings suggested hemorrhagic transformation. Follow-up MRI performed 2 years later showed complete disappearence of the lesions and persisting MCA occlusion.
Bergman, Taylor J.; Saporito, Rachael C.; Hope, Thomas
Bilateral infarction of the superior cerebellar arteries with sparing of the rest of the posterior circulation, particularly the posterior cerebral arteries, is an uncommon finding in neurological practice. Most commonly, the deficits of the superior cerebellar arteries and posterior cerebral arteries occur together due to the close proximity of their origins at the top of the basilar artery. A patient was transferred to the neurological intensive care unit with a history of recent-onset falls from standing, profound hypertension, dizziness, and headaches. The neurological exam revealed cerebellar signs, including dysmetria of the right upper extremity and a decreased level of consciousness. Computed tomography of the head and neck revealed decreased attenuation throughout most of the cerebellar hemispheres suggestive of ischemic injury with sparing of the rest of the brain. Further investigation with a computed tomography angiogram revealed a fetal-type posterior cerebral artery on the right side that was providing collateral circulation to the posterior brain. Due to this embryological anomaly, the patient was spared significant morbidity and mortality that would have likely occurred had the circulation been more typical of an adult male. PMID:28203181
Bergman, Taylor J; Saporito, Rachael C; Hope, Thomas
Bilateral infarction of the superior cerebellar arteries with sparing of the rest of the posterior circulation, particularly the posterior cerebral arteries, is an uncommon finding in neurological practice. Most commonly, the deficits of the superior cerebellar arteries and posterior cerebral arteries occur together due to the close proximity of their origins at the top of the basilar artery. A patient was transferred to the neurological intensive care unit with a history of recent-onset falls from standing, profound hypertension, dizziness, and headaches. The neurological exam revealed cerebellar signs, including dysmetria of the right upper extremity and a decreased level of consciousness. Computed tomography of the head and neck revealed decreased attenuation throughout most of the cerebellar hemispheres suggestive of ischemic injury with sparing of the rest of the brain. Further investigation with a computed tomography angiogram revealed a fetal-type posterior cerebral artery on the right side that was providing collateral circulation to the posterior brain. Due to this embryological anomaly, the patient was spared significant morbidity and mortality that would have likely occurred had the circulation been more typical of an adult male.
Background Ischemic stroke caused by infarction in the territory of the posterior cerebral artery (PCA) has not been studied as extensively as infarctions in other vascular territories. This single centre, retrospective clinical study was conducted a) to describe salient characteristics of stroke patients with PCA infarction, b) to compare data of these patients with those with ischaemic stroke due to middle cerebral artery (MCA) and anterior cerebral artery (ACA) infarctions, and c) to identify predictors of PCA stroke. Findings A total of 232 patients with PCA stroke were included in the "Sagrat Cor Hospital of Barcelona Stroke Registry" during a period of 19 years (1986-2004). Data from stroke patients are entered in the stroke registry following a standardized protocol with 161 items regarding demographics, risk factors, clinical features, laboratory and neuroimaging data, complications and outcome. The characteristics of these 232 patients with PCA stroke were compared with those of the 1355 patients with MCA infarctions and 51 patients with ACA infarctions included in the registry. Infarctions of the PCA accounted for 6.8% of all cases of stroke (n = 3808) and 9.6% of cerebral infarctions (n = 2704). Lacunar infarction was the most frequent stroke subtype (34.5%) followed by atherothrombotic infarction (29.3%) and cardioembolic infarction (21.6%). In-hospital mortality was 3.9% (n = 9). Forty-five patients (19.4%) were symptom-free at hospital discharge. Hemianopia (odds ratio [OR] = 6.43), lacunar stroke subtype (OR = 2.18), symptom-free at discharge (OR = 1.92), limb weakness (OR = 0.10), speech disorders (OR = 0.33) and cardioembolism (OR = 0.65) were independent variables of PCA stroke in comparison with MCA infarction, whereas sensory deficit (OR = 2.36), limb weakness (OR = 0.11) and cardioembolism as stroke mechanism (OR = 0.43) were independent variables associated with PCA stroke in comparison with ACA infarction. Conclusions Lacunar stroke is the
Feil, Katharina; Forbrig, Robert; Thaler, Franziska S; Conrad, Julian; Heck, Suzette; Dorn, Franziska; Pfister, Hans-Walter; Straube, Andreas
Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) and posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) are both rare disorders. The pathophysiology of both diseases is not yet fully understood. We report the unique case of a 19-year-old comatose woman who was brought to the ER after a series of generalized tonic-clonic seizures 6 days post peridural anesthesia for cesarean section. Vital signs and initial laboratory testing including urine analysis and drug screening were unremarkable. Initial cranial CT scan showed an acute small subdural hematoma (17 mm length × 6 mm width × 30 mm height), cerebral edema with slit ventricles, and slight cerebellar tonsillar herniation as signs of intracranial hypotension. CT angiography depicted narrowing of the proximal intracranial vessels consistent with RCVS. MR imaging was also suggestive of both intracranial hypotension and RCVS and showed, in addition, vasogenic edema consistent with PRES. An extensive CSF leakage involving T1 to L2/L3 was confirmed by spinal MRI. The patient underwent conservative therapy for intracranial hypotension (e.g., head-down position) as well as epidural blood patch, which led to regression of the clinical symptoms within a few days. Follow-up MRI showed complete resolution of all radiological changes. In summary, our patient developed clinical and neuroradiological signs of intracranial hypotension and a combination of PRES and RCVS associated with a CSF leakage caused by peridural anesthesia; by treating the intracranial hypotension, the other syndromes resolved. From a clinical point of view, it is important to look for CSF leakage as a treatable possible cause of PRES and/or RCVS triggered by intracranial hypotension as in our patient postpartum. Moreover, it is vital to obtain a good history as, in cases of suspected CSF leakage with classic postural headache, a recent spinal/cranial procedure is typically present.
Kofler, Julia; Bartynski, Walter S; Reynolds, Thomas Q; Lieberman, Frank S; Murdoch, Geoffrey H; Hamilton, Ronald L
The case of a 75-year-old man with a history of lymphoma, recent upper respiratory tract infection, and a protracted course of encephalopathy is presented. Radiologically, findings were consistent with posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome. A brain biopsy revealed evidence of endothelial activation, T-cell trafficking, and vascular endothelial growth factor expression, suggesting that systemic immune system activation may be involved with triggering posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome. In addition, underlying cerebral amyloid angiopathy may have contributed to the initial nonclassical edema distribution by compromising autoregulatory blood flow mechanisms.
Taylor, Daveda; Connor, Justin; Church, Chris; Lennon, Nancy; Henley, John; Niiler, Tim; Miller, Freeman
Crouched gait is common in children with cerebral palsy (CP), and there are various treatment options. This study evaluated the effectiveness of single-event multilevel surgery including posterior knee capsulotomy or distal femoral extension osteotomy to correct knee flexion contracture in children with CP. Gait analyses were carried out to evaluate gait preoperatively and postoperatively. Significant improvements were found in physical examination and kinematic measures, which showed that children with CP and crouched gait who develop knee flexion contractures can be treated effectively using single-event multilevel surgery including a posterior knee capsulotomy or distal femoral extension osteotomy.
Takeshita, Tomonori; Nagamine, Tomoaki; Ishihara, Kohei; Kaku, Yasuhiko
Posterior cerebral artery (PCA) aneurysms are rare, and direct surgery of these is considered difficult. Coil embolization of PCA aneurysms is becoming popular. However, it is difficult to completely obliterate the aneurysm while preserving the flow of the parent artery in large or giant PCA aneurysms with a wide neck with this technique. We report a case of a large and wide-necked PCA aneurysm with multiple recurrences following successful surgical clipping and coil embolization. A 77-year-old man with a large unruptured right PCA (P2) aneurysm was successfully treated by surgical clipping. Postoperative digital subtraction angiography (DSA) showed complete aneurismal occlusion. Four years afterward, the aneurysm recurred and grew toward the contralateral. Surgical retreatment of this complicated aneurysm was considered difficult, with a substantial risk of complications. Therefore, the aneurysm was treated with an endovascular procedure. Because simple coil embolization was not expected to achieve satisfactory obliteration of the aneurysm with preservation of parent artery patency, we used stent-assisted coil embolization. The patient tolerated the treatment well. On DSA obtained six months after the first endovascular treatment, coil compaction and recanalization of the aneurysm were detected. A second coil embolization was successfully performed without any complications. The aneurysm was stable during the next six-month follow-up. Stent-assisted coil embolization may be feasible and effective for such postoperatively complicated aneurysms.
Lee, Won Jae; JO, Kyung-Il; Kim, Jong-Soo; Hong, Seung-Chyul
Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) is a group of syndromes characterized by reversible segmental constriction of cerebral arteries. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is another clinical-radiologic syndrome characterized by reversible, posterior-predominant brain edema. Although the exact causes of these reversible syndromes are poorly understood, these entities may share some common pathophysiologic elements leading to hemorrhagic strokes and rarely, deep intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Recent studies have suggested that endothelial dysfunction is a common pathophysiologic factor associated with these syndromes. We report on two young female patients who presented with deep ICH and were later diagnosed as RCVS and PRES. Both patients suffered from vasoconstriction and delayed ischemic stroke. Early detection of distinguishing clinical-radiologic features associated with these reversible syndromes and removing triggers would facilitate successful treatment with no complications. PMID:26523259
Ueda, Kayo; Hoshi, Takuo; Yorozu, Shinko; Okazaki, Junko; Motomura, Yuji; Masumoto, Tomohiko; Tsubokawa, Tsunehisa; Tanaka, Makoto
A 73-year-old patient developed convulsion and prolonged disturbance of consciousness after clipping surgery for unruptured cerebral aneurysm. The patient's consciousness improved four days after surgery, and radiological findings suggested posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES). The cause of PRES is thought to be dysfunction of blood brain barrier by a sudden increase in blood pressure. In case of unexplained convulsion and decreased level of consciousness, PRES should be considered with radiographic examinations including CT and MRI.
Akazawa, Yohei; Inaba, Yuji; Hachiya, Akira; Motoki, Noriko; Matsuzaki, Satoshi; Minatoya, Kenji; Morisaki, Takayuki; Morisaki, Hiroko; Kosaki, Kenjiro; Kosho, Tomoki; Koike, Kenichi
Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS) is an autosomal dominant connective tissue disorder, caused by heterozygous mutations in TGFBR1 or TGFBR2 and characterized by vascular complications (cerebral, thoracic, and abdominal arterial aneurysms and/or dissections) and skeletal manifestations. We here report the first patient with LDS presenting with reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS), a clinico-radiological condition characterized by recurrent thunderclap headaches, with or without neurological symptoms, and reversible vasoconstriction of cerebral arteries. The patient was a 9-year-old boy with a heterozygous TGFBR2 mutation, manifesting camptodactyly, talipes equinovarus, and lamboid craniosynostosis. He complained of severe recurrent headaches 2 months after total aortic replacement for aortic root dilatation and a massive Stanford type B aortic dissection. A thoracic CT scan revealed a left subclavian artery dissection. Brain MRI and MRA detected bilateral internal carotid artery constriction along with a cortical subarachnoid hemorrhage without intracranial aneurysms. Subsequently, he developed visual disturbance and a generalized seizure associated with multiple legions of cortical and subcortical increased signals including the left posterior lobe, consistent with posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES), a condition characterized by headaches, visual disorders, seizures, altered mentation, consciousness disturbances, focal neurological signs, and vasogenic edema predominantly in the white matter of the posterior lobe. Vasoconstriction of the internal carotid artery was undetectable 2 months later, and he was diagnosed as having RCVS. Endothelial dysfunction, associated with impaired TGF-β signaling, might have been attributable to the development of RCVS and PRES. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Nada, Mohamed; Mahran, Mahmoud A.; Aboud, Ahmed; Mahran, Moustafa G.; Nasef, Marwa A.A.; Gaber, Mohamed; Sabry, Tamer; Ibrahim, Mohamed H.; Taha, Mohamed H.
BACKGROUND: Children with cerebral palsy (CP) can present with severe secondary dystonia with or without associated spasticity of their extremities. OBJECTIVE: To assess the outcomes of combined anterior and posterior lumbar rhizotomy for the treatment of mixed hypertonia in the lower extremities of children with CP. METHODS: Fifty children with CP were subjected to combined anterior and posterior lumbar rhizotomies in a prospective study. Clinical outcome measurements were recorded preoperatively and were evaluated at 2, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. The operative techniques were performed by laminotomy from L1-S1, and intraoperative monitoring was used in all cases. All patients underwent intensive postoperative physiotherapy programs. RESULTS: Changes in muscle tone, joint range of motion, and dystonia were significant (P = .000) at postoperative assessment visits. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated the potential of combined anterior and posterior lumbar rhizotomies to improve activities of daily living in children with CP and with mixed spasticity and dystonia. ABBREVIATIONS: BAD, Barry-Albright Dystonia Scale CAPR, combined anterior and posterior lumbar rhizotomy CP, cerebral palsy ITB, intrathecal baclofen MAS, modified Ashworth Scale ROM, range of motion SDR, selective dorsal rhizotomy PMID:27244465
Naidich, Thomas P; Firestone, Michael I; Blum, Jeffrey T; Abrams, Kevin J; Zimmerman, Robert D
The object of the study was to test the hypotheses that analysis of the anatomic zones affected by single anterior (A), posterior (P), and middle (M) cerebral artery (CA) infarcts, and by dual- and triple-vessel infarcts, will disclose (i) sites most frequently involved by each infarct type (peak sites), (ii) sites most frequently injured by multiple different infarct types (vulnerable zones), and (iii) anatomically overlapping sites in which the relative infarct frequency becomes equal for two or more different infarct types and/or in which infarct frequency shifts greatly between single and multivessel infarcts (potential border zones). Precise definitions of each vascular territory were adopted. CT and MRI studies from 20 ACA, 20 PCA, three dual ACA-PCA, and four triple ACA-PCA-MCA infarcts were mapped onto a standard template (Part I). Relative infarct frequencies in each zone were analyzed within and across infarct types to identify the centers and peripheries of each infarct type, the zones most frequently affected by multiple different infarct types, the zones where relative infarct frequency was equal for different infarcts, and the zones where infarct frequency shifted markedly from single- to multiple-vessel infarcts. Zonal frequency analysis provided quantitative data on the relative infarct frequency in each anatomic zone for each infarct type. It displayed zones of peak infarct frequency for each infarct, zones more vulnerable to diverse types of infarct, peripheral "overlap" zones of equal infarct frequency, and zones where infarct frequency shifted markedly between single- and multiple-vessel infarcts. It is concluded that the hypotheses are correct.
Martinaud, Olivier; Pouliquen, Dorothée; Gérardin, Emmanuel; Loubeyre, Maud; Hirsbein, David; Hannequin, Didier; Cohen, Laurent
Background To evaluate systematically the cognitive deficits following posterior cerebral artery (PCA) strokes, especially agnosic visual disorders, and to study anatomical-clinical correlations. Methods and Findings We investigated 31 patients at the chronic stage (mean duration of 29.1 months post infarct) with standardized cognitive tests. New experimental tests were used to assess visual impairments for words, faces, houses, and objects. Forty-one healthy subjects participated as controls. Brain lesions were normalized, combined, and related to occipitotemporal areas responsive to specific visual categories, including words (VWFA), faces (FFA and OFA), houses (PPA) and common objects (LOC). Lesions were located in the left hemisphere in 15 patients, in the right in 13, and bilaterally in 3. Visual field defects were found in 23 patients. Twenty patients had a visual disorder in at least one of the experimental tests (9 with faces, 10 with houses, 7 with phones, 3 with words). Six patients had a deficit just for a single category of stimulus. The regions of maximum overlap of brain lesions associated with a deficit for a given category of stimuli were contiguous to the peaks of the corresponding functional areas as identified in normal subjects. However, the strength of anatomical-clinical correlations was greater for words than for faces or houses, probably due to the stronger lateralization of the VWFA, as compared to the FFA or the PPA. Conclusions Agnosic visual disorders following PCA infarcts are more frequent than previously reported. Dedicated batteries of tests, such as those developed here, are required to identify such deficits, which may escape clinical notice. The spatial relationships of lesions and of regions activated in normal subjects predict the nature of the deficits, although individual variability and bilaterally represented systems may blur those correlations. PMID:22276198
Martinaud, Olivier; Pouliquen, Dorothée; Gérardin, Emmanuel; Loubeyre, Maud; Hirsbein, David; Hannequin, Didier; Cohen, Laurent
To evaluate systematically the cognitive deficits following posterior cerebral artery (PCA) strokes, especially agnosic visual disorders, and to study anatomical-clinical correlations. We investigated 31 patients at the chronic stage (mean duration of 29.1 months post infarct) with standardized cognitive tests. New experimental tests were used to assess visual impairments for words, faces, houses, and objects. Forty-one healthy subjects participated as controls. Brain lesions were normalized, combined, and related to occipitotemporal areas responsive to specific visual categories, including words (VWFA), faces (FFA and OFA), houses (PPA) and common objects (LOC). Lesions were located in the left hemisphere in 15 patients, in the right in 13, and bilaterally in 3. Visual field defects were found in 23 patients. Twenty patients had a visual disorder in at least one of the experimental tests (9 with faces, 10 with houses, 7 with phones, 3 with words). Six patients had a deficit just for a single category of stimulus. The regions of maximum overlap of brain lesions associated with a deficit for a given category of stimuli were contiguous to the peaks of the corresponding functional areas as identified in normal subjects. However, the strength of anatomical-clinical correlations was greater for words than for faces or houses, probably due to the stronger lateralization of the VWFA, as compared to the FFA or the PPA. Agnosic visual disorders following PCA infarcts are more frequent than previously reported. Dedicated batteries of tests, such as those developed here, are required to identify such deficits, which may escape clinical notice. The spatial relationships of lesions and of regions activated in normal subjects predict the nature of the deficits, although individual variability and bilaterally represented systems may blur those correlations.
Li, Min; Yu, Aixue; Zhang, Fangfang; Dai, Guanghui; Cheng, Hongbin; Wang, Xiaodong; An, Yihua
Cerebral palsy is currently one of the major diseases that cause severe paralysis of the nervous system in children; approximately 9-30% of cerebral palsy patients are also visually impaired, for which no effective treatment is available. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) have very strong self-renewal, proliferation, and pluripotent differentiation potentials. Therefore, autologous BMSC transplantation has become a novel method for treating cerebral palsy. An 11-year-old boy had a clear history of dystocia and asphyxia after birth; at the age of 6 months, the family members observed that his gaze roamed and noted that he displayed a lack of attention. A brain MRI examination at the age of 7 years showed that the child had cerebral palsy with visual impairment (i.e., posterior visual pathway injury). The patient was hospitalized for 20 days and was given four infusions of intravenous autologous BMSCs. Before transplantation and 1, 6, and 12 months after transplantation, a visual evoked potential test, an electrocardiogram, routine blood tests, and liver and kidney function tests were performed. The patient did not have any adverse reactions during hospitalization or postoperative follow-up. After discharge, the patient could walk more smoothly than he could before transplantation; furthermore, his vision significantly improved 6 months after transplantation, which was also supported by the electrophysiological examinations. The clinical application of BMSCs is effective for improving vision in a patient with cerebral palsy combined with visual impairment.
Sosa, Fidel; Bustamante, Jorge; Rodríguez, Facundo; Argañaraz, Romina; Rubino, Pablo; Lambre, Jorge
Resumen Introducción: Los aneurismas asociados a malformaciones arteriovenosas (MAV) son lesiones vasculares que suelen encontrarse hasta en el 15% de los casos, incrementando el riesgo global de hemorragia. La conducta frente a los aneurismas asociados es dicotómica en la literatura, mientras existen reportes de la desaparición de los mismos luego de la exéresis de la MAV, otros artículos enfatizan su tratamiento precoz. El síndrome del acento extranjero es un raro trastorno neurológico en el que el paciente habla su lengua materna como lo haría una persona extranjera y suena con “acento” extranjero a oídos de los oyentes nativos. Objetivo: Presentar un paciente que desarrolla el síndrome del acento extranjero posterior a la exéresis de una MAV y la evolución de un aneurisma asociado. Presentación de caso: Paciente pediátrico que luego de la exéresis de una MAV fronto-opercular posterior izquierda remite por completo un aneurisma de hiperflujo asociado, presentando en el postquirúrgico el síndrome del acento extranjero. Conclusión: Queda reportado el caso de este raro síndrome y la resolución espontánea de un aneurisma proximal luego de la exéresis de una MAV. PMID:28480115
Tanaka, Satoshi; Sagiuchi, Takao; Kobayashi, Ikuo
A 12-year-old boy who had a history of Kawasaki disease 9 years ago experienced a subarachnoid hemorrhage by ruptured right posterior cerebral artery aneurysm. On day 1 operation, as the aneurysm was very fragile and bled easily, two intraoperative ruptures, including a very premature rupture, were encountered. As a result, a left hemiparesis especially severe in the left hand was caused by the right anterior thalamic infarction due to the occlusion of a thalamo-perforating artery arising near the neck of the aneurysm. The histopathological examination of the intraoperative excised aneurysmal dome disclosed the thickening of the endothelial inner due to the endothelial hypertrophy and the invasion of inflammatory cells. This finding of the aneurysm was partially mimicking the finding of the coronary artery of the patients with Kawasaki disease. The combination of cerebral aneurysm and Kawasaki disease has never been reported until now, and the etiology of the aneurysm of this patient is unclear.
Boyajian, R A; Schwend, R B; Wolfe, M M; Bickerton, R E; Otis, S M
Ultrasound-derived volumetric flow analysis may be useful in answering questions of basic physiological interest in the cerebrovascular circulation. Using this technique, the authors have sought to describe quantitatively the complete concurrent flow relations among all four arteries supplying the brain. The aim of this study of normal subjects was to determine the relative flow contributions of the anterior (internal carotid arteries) and posterior (vertebral arteries) cerebral circulation. Comparisons between the observed and theoretically expected anterior and posterior flow distribution would provide an opportunity to assess traditional rheological conceptions in vivo. Pulsed color Doppler ultrasonography was used to measure mean flow rates in the internal carotid and vertebral arteries in 21 normal adults. The anterior circulation (internal carotid arteries bilaterally) carried 82% of the brain's blood supply and comprised 67% of the total vascular cross-sectional area. These values demonstrate precise concordance between observations in vivo and the theoretically derived (Hagen-Poiseuille) expected flow distribution. These cerebrovascular findings support the traditional conception of macroscopic blood flow. Further studies using ultrasound-derived volumetric analysis of the brain's arterial flow relations may illuminate the vascular pathophysiology underlying aging, cerebral ischemia, and dementias.
Kamide, Tomoya; Tsutsui, Taishi; Misaki, Kouichi; Sano, Hiroki; Mohri, Masanao; Uchiyama, Naoyuki; Nakada, Mitsutoshi
Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome occurs predominantly in middle-aged women. Only nine pediatric patients with this syndrome have been reported. We present a ten-year-old boy with reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome with radiographic findings similar to those of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES). He presented with a thunderclap headache without a neurological deficit. Brain magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) revealed multifocal narrowing of the cerebral arteries, whereas magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with diffusion-weighted imaging and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery demonstrated hyperintense lesions in the occipital lobes and the left cerebellum. The patient's symptoms resolved spontaneously after a few hours with no recurrence. MRA on the second day showed a complete normalization of the affected arteries, and MRI after one month demonstrated improvement in the abnormal findings, leading to a diagnosis of RCVS with radiographic findings similar to those of PRES. This child's findings suggests that, RCVS, with or without PRES, may occur in children who present with a thunderclap headache. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Washio, Takuro; Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Ogoh, Shigehiko
We examined whether a change in posterior cerebral artery flow velocity (PCAv) reflected the posterior cerebral blood flow, in healthy subjects, during both static and dynamic exercise. PCAv and vertebral artery (VA) blood flow, as an index of posterior blood flow, were continuously measured during an exercise trial, using transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasonography and Doppler ultrasound, respectively. Static handgrip exercise significantly increased both PCAv and VA blood flow. Increasing intensity of dynamic exercise further increased VA blood flow from moderate exercise, while PCAv decreased to almost resting level. During both static and dynamic exercise, the PCA cerebrovascular conductance (CVC) index significantly decreased from rest (static and high intensity dynamic exercise; -11.5 ± 12.2% and -18.0 ± 16.8%; mean ± SD, respectively), despite no change in the CVC of VA. These results indicate that vasoconstriction occurred at PCA but not VA during exercise-induced hypertension. This discrepancy in vascular response to exercise between PCA and VA may be due to different cerebral arterial characteristics. Therefore, to determine the effect of exercise on posterior cerebral circulation, at least, we need to consider carefully which cerebral artery to measure, regardless of exercise mode.
Bulens, C; Meerwaldt, J D; van der Wildt, G J; Keemink, C J
Contrast sensitivity function was studied in 16 patients with unilateral ischaemic lesions involving the posterior visual pathway. Sixty-two percent of the patients showed contrast sensitivity loss in at least one eye for horizontal or vertical stimulus orientation. Visual perception was distorted in a qualitatively different way according to the anteroposterior site of the lesion. Patients with occipital or occipitotemporal lesions showed high spatial frequency selective losses and patients with temporal or parietal lesions low frequency selective losses. Stimulus orientation selectivity was observed in patients with lesions of the primary visual cortex as well as in patients with lesions anterior to the striate cortex. Contrast sensitivity orientation-selective losses were demonstrated in 14 of the 17 'affected' eyes.
Haraguchi, Koichi; Toyama, Kentaro; Ito, Takeo; Hasunuma, Masahiro; Sakamoto, Yasuo
We report a 34-year-old woman with sudden onset of unilateral migraine-like headache and right homonymous hemianopsia. Fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition (FIESTA) of the posterior cerebral artery captured an intimal flap and a pseudolumen, leading to a diagnosis of posterior cerebral artery dissection. This case was considered a spontaneous posterior cerebral artery dissection causing migraine-like headache. The treatment of migraine-like headache hinges on correct diagnosis. In this case, FIESTA was very useful in diagnosing an intracranial artery dissection.
Pancucci, G; Miranda-Lloret, P; Plaza-Ramírez, M E; López-González, A; Rovira-Lillo, V; Beltrán-Giner, A
Spondylotic cervical mielopathy is a common complication in young patients with Cerebral Child Palsy with an important dystonic and athetoid component. Its surgical treatment is a challenge, due to elevate incidence of early faliure of the arthrodesis, both in anterior and posterior approaches. We report an historical review about the treatment of cervical mielopathy in this subgroup of patients and a clinical case in which we decided to realize decompression and arthtrodesis by a combined anterior and posterior approach, with lateral-mass screw placement, using botulinium toxin injections in the postoperative period, achieving a good clinical outcome.
Choi, Soo-Kyoung; Yeon, Soo-In; Kwon, Youngin; Byeon, Seonhee; Lee, Young-Ho
Hypertension is characterized by increased peripheral vascular resistance which is related with elevated myogenic response. Recent findings have indicated that epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) is involved in mechanotransduction of the myogenic response. The purpose of this study was to investigate the involvement of ENaC in the elevated myogenic response of posterior cerebral arteries (PCAs) from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Sixteen to eighteen weeks old male wistar kyoto rats (WKYs) and SHRs were used in this study. We found that wall to lumen (W/L) ratio was increased in the PCAs from SHRs compared with WKYs at the resting state. Interestingly, amiloride significantly inhibited myogenic response in the PCAs from SHRs and WKYs, however, the magnitude of the blockade was greater in SHRs. The transfection of γENaC-siRNA significantly reduced the expression of γENaC protein and inhibited myogenic response in the PCAs from SHRs. Furthermore, these data were supported by the findings that serum/glucocorticoid-induced kinase (Sgk1) and neural precursor cell-expressed developmentally downregulated gene 4-2 (Nedd4-2) were increased in SHRs compared with WKYs. Our results suggest that γENaC may play an important role in the elevated myogenic response in PCAs from SHRs. PMID:28383056
Kogan, Michael; Natarajan, Sabareesh K.; Kim, Nina; Sawyer, Robert N.; Snyder, Kenneth V.; Siddiqui, Adnan H.
Background: Common causes of oculomotor nerve palsy are diabetes, aneurysmal compression, and uncal herniation. A lesser-known cause of third nerve dysfunction is ischemia, often due to carotid artery dissection. Case Description: An 80-year-old man presented with an acute ischemic stroke with a National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score of >20 from a high cervical internal carotid artery (ICA) dissection and a tandem ICA terminus embolic occlusion with extension of clot into the adjacent fetal posterior cerebral artery (PCA). We used a stentriever to perform selective PCA thrombectomy, with immediate postthrombectomy development of ipsilateral anisocoria. The anisocoria progressed into complete oculomotor nerve palsy over 8 h after the procedure. Conclusions: The clinical course described in this case is consistent with injury to the third nerve due to mechanical injury or occlusion of perforator supply to the nerve during thrombectomy. Oculomotor nerve palsy is a rare but known complication after ischemia; however, to our knowledge, this is the first case after thrombectomy for a PCA embolus. PMID:25525555
Giant intracranial aneurysms account for only about 5% of all intracranial aneurysms. Giant intradural aneurysms are associated with severe natural history, yet remain potentially curable. These aneurysms cause symptoms due to their mass effect, and only 14-35% of cases present with subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). The present case report is an imaging evolution of a giant posterior cerebral artery (PCA) aneurysm in a patient who was lost on follow-up from 1992 to 2008 giving insight into the natural history and morphologic evolution of giant serpentine aneurysms. Attempted surgery 16 years previously for a saccular PCA aneurysm produced encephalomalacia and created a more spacious perianeurysmal environment, preventing any mass effect on vital structures in its vicinity. This allowed the patient to have a long symptom-free period and also allowed the aneurysm to follow a morphologic evolution over a long period without causing symptoms which would have called for intervention. This unusual development gave a unique opportunity to study the evolution of a gaint serpentine aneurysm from a saccular aneurysm and also the clinical and morphologic changes in an aneurysm if it can be prevented from producing mass effect. The Coanda effect, or boundary wall effect, has been considered responsible for the development of the serpentine channel in the original globular aneurysm . However many Authors conclude that giant serpentine aneurysms are not derived from saccular aneurysms.
Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Chanraud, Sandra; Pitel, Anne-Lise; Müller-Oehring, Eva; Shankaranarayanan, Ajit; Alsop, David C.; Rohlfing, Torsten
Functional neuroimaging studies provide converging evidence for existence of intrinsic brain networks activated during resting states and deactivated with selective cognitive demands. Whether task-related deactivation of the default mode network signifies depressed activity relative to the remaining brain or simply lower activity relative to its resting state remains controversial. We employed 3D arterial spin labeling imaging to examine regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) during rest, a spatial working memory task, and a second rest. Change in regional CBF from rest to task showed significant normalized and absolute CBF reductions in posterior cingulate, posterior-inferior precuneus, and medial frontal lobes . A Statistical Parametric Mapping connectivity analysis, with an a priori seed in the posterior cingulate cortex, produced deactivation connectivity patterns consistent with the classic “default mode network” and activation connectivity anatomically consistent with engagement in visuospatial tasks. The large task-related CBF decrease in posterior-inferior precuneus relative to its anterior and middle portions adds evidence for the precuneus' heterogeneity. The posterior cingulate and posterior-inferior precuneus were also regions of the highest CBF at rest and during task performance. The difference in regional CBF between intrinsic (resting) and evoked (task) activity levels may represent functional readiness or reserve vulnerable to diminution by conditions affecting perfusion. PMID:20484322
Bulbul, Erdogan; Yanik, Bahar; Demirpolat, Gulen; Koksal, Vildan
An extraordinary cerebral venous drainage pathway and dilated vein at the left posterior cervical region were detected with routine contrast-enhanced neck computed tomography exam. The left sigmoid sinus was drained by dilated mastoid emissary vein (MEV). The MEV continued as posterior auricular and posterior external jugular veins (PEJVs). The left PEJV directly drained into subclavian vein. Atretic right transverse sinus, left facial vein forming the external jugular vein, atresia and hypoplasia of upper internal jugular veins at the right and left sides, respectively, were the other uncommon findings in our case. Detecting venous variations may prevent complications during surgical and interventional procedures, so the radiologists should examine the superficial cervical veins closely.
Blaszczyk, Izabela; Granström, Anna Cecilia; Wiberg, Mikael
The dyskinetic subtype of cerebral palsy is difficult to manage, and there is no established gold standard for treatment. External rotation of the shoulder(s) is often managed nonsurgically using injections of botulinum toxin A into the external rotator muscles. This article reports a new surgical technique for managing external rotation when botulinum toxin A treatment is not sufficient or possible. Six patients with dyskinetic cerebral palsy underwent denervation of the infraspinatus muscle and release of the posterior part of the deltoid muscle. Postoperative questionnaires were given to the patients/caregivers, and video recordings were made both pre- and postoperatively. Preoperative and postoperative Assisting Hand Assessment was possible in only 1 case. Five patients were very satisfied with their outcome. Four patients' video recordings showed improvement in their condition. One patient developed postoperative complications. The results indicate that denervation of the infraspinatus muscle and posterior deltoid release can be an option for patients with dyskinetic cerebral palsy to manage external rotation of the shoulder when other treatment alternatives are insufficient.
Henderson, Jessica N; Noetzel, Michael J; McKinstry, Robert C; White, Desiree A; Armstrong, Melissa; DeBaun, Michael R
Patients with severe acute chest syndrome (ACS) requiring endotracheal intubation and erythrocytopheresis are at increased risk for neurologic morbidity. This study examines patients with sickle cell disease who developed severe episodes of ACS, leading to endotracheal intubation, ventilatory support for respiratory failure, and erythrocytapheresis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) studies, a neurologic examination by a pediatric neurologist, and cognitive testing were done in all patients. Five consecutive patients, aged 3 to 9 years, were identified with severe ACS. All patients developed neurologic complications resulting from ACS episodes, including seizures (n = 2), silent cerebral infarcts (n = 3), cerebral hemorrhage (n = 2), and reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome (n = 3). Children with severe ACS should have a magnetic resonance image of the brain, neurologic examination by a neurologist, and cognitive testing to detect the presence of neurologic morbidity.
Vasović, Ljiljana; Trandafilović, Milena; Jovanović, Ivan; Antović, Aleksandra; Stojanović, Jovan; Zdravković, Miodrag; Milić, Miroslav
As a continuation of the previous findings in human fetuses, accidental finding of an accessory vascular component in the posterior part of CAC of human adult cadavers inspired the authors to present and compare its posterior part configuration. Examination was carried out on brains of 48 human adult cadavers, routinely dissected at the Institute of Forensic Medicine. The aberrant vessel in the posterior part of four CACs was discovered.Vascular components of the posterior segment of CAC or of the whole CAC were described and photographed. A comparison between fetal and adult cases was also presented. Based on the fact that the age of the four presented cases ranged from 73 to 84 and based on the causes of their death, we concluded that the angioarchitecture of the posterior part of the CAC is a consequence of the embryonic or primitive arterial stabilization and interaction with normal adult vessels.
Aukes, Annet M; Vitullo, Lisa; Zeeman, Gerda G; Cipolla, Marilyn J
Previous studies have demonstrated that pregnancy prevents protective hypertension-induced remodeling of cerebral arteries using nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibition to raise mean arterial pressure (MAP). In the present study, we investigated whether this effect of pregnancy was specific to NOS inhibition by using the Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rat as a model of hypertension. Nonpregnant (n = 16) and late-pregnant (n = 17) Dahl SS rats were fed either a high-salt diet (8% NaCl) to raise blood pressure or a low-salt diet (<0.7% NaCl). Third-order posterior cerebral arteries were isolated and pressurized in an arteriograph chamber to measure active responses to pressure and passive remodeling. Several vessels from each group were stained for protein gene product 9.5 to determine perivascular nerve density. Blood pressure was elevated in both groups on high salt. The elevated MAP was associated with significantly smaller active and passive diameters (P < 0.05) and inward remodeling in the nonpregnant hypertensive group only. Whereas no structural changes were observed in the late-pregnant hypertensive animals, both late-pregnant groups had diminished myogenic reactivity (P < 0.05). Nerve density in both the late-pregnant groups was significantly greater when compared with the nonpregnant groups, suggesting that pregnancy has a trophic influence on perivascular innervation of the posterior cerebral artery. However, hypertension lowered the nerve density in both nonpregnant and late-pregnant animals. It therefore appears that pregnancy has an overall effect to prevent hypertension-induced remodeling regardless of the mode of hypertension. This effect may predispose the brain to autoregulatory breakthrough, hyperperfusion, and eclampsia when MAP is elevated.
Meyns, Pieter; Duysens, Jacques; Desloovere, Kaat
In this observational case-control study we aimed to determine whether altered arm postures in children with unilateral CP (uniCP) are related to gait instability in a specific direction. Antero-posterior and medio-lateral Foot Placement Estimator instability measures and arm posture measures (vertical and antero-posterior hand position, sagittal and frontal upper arm elevation angle) were determined in eleven uniCP (7 years-10 months) and twenty-four typically developing children (9 years-6 months) at two walking speeds. Spearman-rank correlation analyses were made to examine the relationship between antero-posterior and medio-lateral arm posture and gait instability. Arm posture in both planes was related to antero-posterior instability (e.g. sagittal and frontal upper arm elevation angle correlated moderately with antero-posterior instability; R=0.41, p<0.001, R=-0.47, p<0.001). In uniCP, increased antero-posterior instability was associated with a higher (R=-0.62, p=0.002) and more frontal position of the hemiplegic hand (R=-0.58, p=0.005), while the non-hemiplegic upper arm was rotated more backward (R=0.63, p=0.002) and both upper arms rotated more sideways (hemiplegic: R=-0.58, p=0.004; non-hemiplegic: R=-0.55, p=0.008). The altered non-hemiplegic (sagittal and frontal) arm posture in uniCP may be a compensation to reduce antero-posterior gait instability.
Anjos, Rita; Vieira, Luisa; Costa, Livio; Vicente, André; Santos, Arnaldo; Alves, Nuno; Amado, Duarte; Ferreira, Joana; Cunha, João Paulo
ABSTRACT The purpose of this study is to evaluate the macular ganglion cell layer (GCL) and peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thickness in patients with unilateral posterior cerebral artery (PCA) ischaemic lesions using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). A prospective, case-control study of patients with unilateral PCA lesion was conducted in the neuro-ophthalmology clinic of Centro Hospitalar Lisboa Central. Macular and peripapillary SD-OCT scans were performed in both eyes of each patient. Twelve patients with PCA lesions (stroke group) and 12 healthy normal controls were included in this study. Peripapillary RNFL comparison between both eyes of the same subject in the stroke group found a thinning in the superior-temporal (p = 0.008) and inferior-temporal (p = 0.023) sectors of the ipsilateral eye and nasal sector (p = 0.003) of the contralateral eye. Macular GCL thickness comparison showed a reduction temporally in the ipsilateral eye (p = 0.004) and nasally in the contralateral eye (p = 0.002). Peripapillary RNFL thickness was significantly reduced in both eyes of patients with PCA compared with controls, affecting all sectors in the contralateral eye and predominantly temporal sectors in the ipsilateral eye. A statistically significant decrease in macular GCL thickness was found in both hemiretinas of both eyes of stroke patients when compared with controls (p < 0.05). This study shows that TRD may play a role in the physiopathology of lesions of the posterior visual pathway. PMID:27928376
Nothias, F; Fishell, G; Ruiz i Altaba, A
Understanding the compartmentalization of the neocortex (isocortex) of the mammalian brain into functional areas is a challenging problem [1-3] . Unlike pattern formation in the spinal cord and hindbrain, it does not involve the specification of distinct cells types: distinct areas differ in their patterns of connectivity and cytoarchitecture. It has been suggested that signals intrinsic to the neocortical neuroepithelium specify regional fate . Alternatively, spatial patterning might be imposed by extrinsic cues such as thalamocortical projections [4-6]. Recent results highlight the ability of early precursor cells of the telencephalic neuroepithelium to 'remember' their spatial position from times before thalamic innervation [7,8] [9-12]. An influence from the thalamus, however, cannot be ruled out as there is a precise invasion of the correct cortical areas by the corresponding projections [13,14]. Furthermore, cortical neuronal progenitors have been proposed to adopt new connection patterns after transplantation [6,7], as well as when the thalamic input is rerouted [15,16]. Here, we describe the transient expression of the homeobox gene Otx2 in the posterior, prospective visual, neocortex and use it to analyze the establishment of posterior cortical fate. The results suggest that whereas intrinsic cortical information is sufficient to specify regional fate, extrinsic signals from the thalamus are involved in the expansion or maintenance of the population of cells expressing Otx2 but not in regionalization.
deSouza, Ruth-Mary; Shah, Munirih; Koumellis, Panayiotis; Foroughi, Mansoor
To identify the clinical features, rebleed risk, timing and method of diagnosis, complications and outcome for subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) from traumatic intracranial aneurysm (TICA) of the posterior circulation. Subjects included 26 patients aged 3-54 (mean 24.8). Case series and literature search to identify all reported cases. In our series, two of three cases were fatal as a result of rebleed, and one case had a good outcome with no deficit, following prompt diagnosis and embolisation. Our key findings from the literature review were: 30.7 % of patients were age 16 and under; 88 % had an acute drop in consciousness, 46 % in a delayed manner; the mean time to diagnosis was 7.5 days; initial cerebrovascular imaging was normal in 23 %; the rebleed rate was 23 %; 61 % required emergency diversion of cerebrospinal fluid; 11 % developed vasospasm requiring treatment; 19.2 % had deficits that rendered them unable to live independently. The mortality rate was 27 %. SAH from ruptured posterior circulation TICA is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. A high index of suspicion as well as prompt diagnosis, repeat imaging in selected cases, and treatment of any associated TICA can be crucial to a favourable outcome.
Frid, P. E.; Schreiber, S. J.; Pade, O.; Doepp, F.; Valdueza, J.
Purpose: To differentiate PCA segments and cortical branches by means of transcranial color-coded duplex sonography (TCCD) and to measure flow parameters at rest and during visual stimulation. Materials and Methods: 60 healthy subjects with a good acoustic temporal bone window were examined. The main stem of the PCA (P1, P2 and P3) and 4 main cortical branches – the anterior temporal artery (ATA), the occipital temporal artery (OTA), the parietooccipital artery (POA) and the calcarine artery (CA) – were assessed using an axial transtemporal approach. Systolic and diastolic blood flow velocities (BFVs) were recorded at rest and during visual stimulation. Results: Identification of the P1 segment of the PCA was successful in 97.5% (117/120) of cases. The P2 and P3 segments were visualized in all cases. The 4 main cortical branches could be identified to varying degrees: ATA in 88%, OTA in 96%, POA in 69% and CA in 62%. There was an evoked flow response in the P2 main stem and in all cortical branches. The most pronounced increase in diastolic/systolic BFV after visual stimulation test was seen in the CA (42%/35%), followed by P2 (30%/24%), the POA (27%/27%), the OTA (16%/13%) and the ATA (9%/8%). Conclusion: Insonation through the temporal bone window with TCCD confidently allows the assessment of the P1 to P3 segments of the PCA as well as the 2 proximal branches, the ATA and the OTA. An ultrasound-based classification of PCA anatomy and its cortical branches may be used as a noninvasive method for the evaluation of posterior circulation pathology. PMID:27689154
Viski, Sandor; Orgovan, David; Szabo, Katalin; Rosengarten, Bernhard; Csiba, Laszlo; Olah, Laszlo
Neuroimaging studies proved that Braille reading resulted in visual cortex activation in blind people, however, very few data are available about the measure of flow increase in these subjects. Therefore, we investigated the flow response in the posterior cerebral artery (PCA) of eleven early blind and ten sighted subjects induced by reading Braille and print, respectively. Two experimental protocols were used in both groups: PCA flow velocity during reading was compared to the resting phase and "NLC" phase (volunteers "read" non-lexical characters; e.g. .,-.:,-.:...,). The use of these experimental protocols allowed to investigate separately the effect of "light stimulus+print reading" versus "print reading alone" in sighted, and "hand/finger movement+Braille reading" versus "Braille reading alone" in blind subjects. The flow response in the PCA evoked by "Braille reading alone" in blind (10.5±4.5%) and "print reading alone" in sighted subjects (8.1±3.5%) was similar. The flow increase induced by "hand/finger movement+Braille reading" and by "Braille reading alone" did not differ in blind people, however, "light stimulus+print reading" in sighted subjects caused higher PCA flow increase (25.9±6.9%) than "print reading alone" (8.1±3.5%). The similar PCA flow response induced by Braille and print reading alone suggested a similar degree of occipital cortex activation in blind and sighted subjects. In sighted people, the 3-times higher flow velocity increase induced by "light stimulus+print reading" compared with "print reading alone" indicated that 2/3 of PCA flow increase during reading was due to the light stimulus and only 1/3 of flow response was caused by reading alone. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Perez-Arjona, Eimir; Fessler, Richard D
Endovascular reconstruction of basilar artery (BA) apex aneurysms has been augmented by adjunctive techniques such as balloon and stent assistance. We present three cases of a wide-necked BA apex aneurysm involving the bilateral P1 segments of both posterior cerebral arteries (PCAs) treated by placement of BA to PCA stents bilaterally in a 'Y' configuration to reconstruct the BA apex for effective coil embolization. Three patients (aged 70, 65 and 37 years) with wide-necked basilar artery aneurysms presented for endovascular treatment. All aneurysms had necks that involved the bilateral P1 segments. Each patient was deemed an appropriate candidate for endovascular reconstruction. Patients were pretreated with clopidogrel (75 mg) and aspirin (325 mg) each day for 3 days prior to the procedure. Following induction of general anesthesia, access to the right femoral artery was obtained by placement of a 6F sheath. Intravenous heparin was administered to achieve an activated coagulation time (ACT) of approximately 300 seconds. A 6F guide catheter was placed within the left vertebral artery (VA) in two patients, the right VA in a third. Utilizing over-the-wire (OTW) technique, a microcatheter was advanced into the left P2-P3 junction of the PCA. A 300-cm 0.014-inch microwire was passed through the microcatheter into the distal PCA and the microcatheter was removed. In each case, two neuroform stents were prepared (SMART Therapeutics Inc., San Leandro, CA) and advanced OTW into the PCA with the most acute angle relative to the BA. The initial stent placed was 20 mm in length and was deployed from the P1 segment into the BA. The microwire was pulled retrograde into the BA apex, then advanced though the stent struts and into the right PCA. A second stent, 15 mm in length, was advanced OTW through the struts of the previously placed stent. It was then deployed from the P1 into the BA where it overlapped the first stent, resulting in a stent-in-stent 'Y' configuration at the
Olver, T Dylan; McDonald, Matthew W; Klakotskaia, Diana; Richardson, Rachel A; Jasperse, Jeffrey L; Melling, C W James; Schachtman, Todd R; Yang, Hsiao T; Emter, Craig A; Laughlin, M Harold
This study tested the hypotheses that obesity-induced decrements in insulin-stimulated cerebrovascular vasodilation would be normalized with acute endothelin-1a receptor antagonism and that treatment with a physical activity intervention restores vasoreactivity to insulin through augmented nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-dependent dilation. Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats were divided into the following groups: 20 wk old food controlled (CON-20); 20 wk old free food access (model of obesity, OB-20); 40 wk old food controlled (CON-40); 40 wk old free food access (OB-40); and 40 wk old free food access+RUN (RUN-40; wheel-running access from 20 to 40 wk). Rats underwent Barnes maze testing and a euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp (EHC). In the 40-wk cohort, cerebellum and hippocampus blood flow (BF) were examined (microsphere infusion). Vasomotor responses (pressurized myography) to insulin were assessed in untreated, endothelin-1a receptor antagonism, and NOS inhibition conditions in posterior cerebral arteries. Insulin-stimulated vasodilation was attenuated in the OB vs. CON and RUN groups (P ≤ 0.04). Dilation to insulin was normalized with endothelin-1a receptor antagonism in the OB groups (between groups, P ≥ 0.56), and insulin-stimulated NOS-mediated dilation was greater in the RUN-40 vs. OB-40 group (P < 0.01). At 40 wk of age, cerebellum BF decreased during EHC in the OB-40 group (P = 0.02) but not CON or RUN groups (P ≥ 0.36). Barnes maze testing revealed increased entry errors and latencies in the RUN-40 vs. CON and OB groups (P < 0.01). These findings indicate that obesity-induced impairments in vasoreactivity to insulin involve increased endothelin-1 and decreased nitric oxide signaling. Chronic spontaneous physical activity, initiated after disease onset, reversed impaired vasodilation to insulin and decreased Barnes maze performance, possibly because of increased exploratory behavior.NEW & NOTEWORTHY The new and noteworthy findings are that 1) in
Rueckriegel, Stefan M; Bruhn, Harald; Thomale, Ulrich W; Hernáiz Driever, Pablo
Disease and therapy cause brain damage and subsequent functional loss in pediatric patients with posterior fossa tumors. Treatment-related toxicity factors are resection in patients with pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) and, additionally, cranio-spinal irradiation together with chemotherapy in patients with medulloblastoma (MB). We tested whether damage to white matter (WM) as revealed by diffusion tensor MR imaging (DTI) correlated with specific cognitive and motor impairments in survivors of pediatric posterior fossa tumors. Eighteen MB (mean age ± SD, 15.2 ± 4.9 y) and 14 PA (12.6 ± 5.0 y) survivors were investigated with DTI on a 3-Tesla-MR system. We identified fractional anisotropy (FA) of WM, the volume ratio of WM to gray matter and cerebrospinal fluid (WM/GM + CSF), and volume of specific frontocerebellar tracts. Ataxia was assessed using the International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale (ICARS), while the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children determined full-scale intelligence quotients (FSIQ). Amsterdam Neuropsychological Tasks (ANT) was used to assess processing speed. Handwriting automation was analyzed using a digitizing graphic tablet. The WM/GM + CSF ratio correlated significantly with cognitive measures (IQ, P = 0.002; ANT baseline speed, P = 0.04; ANT shifting attention, P = 0.004). FA of skeletonized tracts correlated significantly with FSIQ (P = 0.008), ANT baseline speed (P = 0.028) and ANT shifting attention (P = 0.045). Moreover, frontocerebellar tract volumes correlated with both the FSIQ (P = 0.011) and ICARS (P = 0.007). DTI provides a method for quantification of WM damage by tumor and by therapy-associated effects in survivors of pediatric posterior fossa tumors. DTI-derived WM integrity may be a representative marker for cognitive and motor deterioration. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Benson, W E
Posterior scleritis must be considered in the differential diagnosis of many ocular conditions, including angle closure glaucoma, choroidal folds, optic disk edema, circumscribed fundus mass, choroidal detachment, and exudative retinal detachment. Because it is rare, a high index of suspicion is necessary. Anterior scleritis, pain, or a history of collagen-vascular disease, when present, help to alert the clinician to the correct diagnosis. Posterior scleritis affects women more often than men, but annular ciliochoroidal effusion and choroidal folds are more common in men. Exudative macular detachment and a circumscribed fundus mass are more common in women. This paper reviews the world literature on posterior scleritis and describes findings in a series of 43 patients seen at Wills Eye Hospital. It stresses the clinical features and ancillary diagnostic tests that help to establish the diagnosis.
Petrović, Branko; Kostić, Vladimir; Sternić, Nadezda; Kolar, Jovo; Tasić, Nebojsa
Reversible Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome was introduced into clinical practice in 1996 in order to describe unique syndrome, clinically expressed during hypertensive and uremic encephalopathy, eclampsia and during immunosuppressive therapy . First clinical investigations showed that leucoencephalopathy is major characteristic of the syndrome, but further investigations showed no significant destruction in white cerebral tissue [2, 3, 4]. In majority of cases changes are localise in posterior irrigation area of the brain and in the most severe cases anterior region is also involved. Taking into consideration all above mentioned facts, the suggested term was Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome (PRES) for the syndrome clinically expressed by neurological manifestations derived from cortical and subcortical changes localised in posterior regions of cerebral hemispheres, cerebral trunk and cerebellum . Patient, aged 53 years, was re-hospitalized in Cardiovascular Institute "Dediwe" two months after successful aorto-coronary bypass performed in June 2001 due to the chest bone infection. During the treatment of the infection (according to the antibiogram) in September 2001, patient in evening hours developed headache and blurred vision. The recorded blood pressure was 210/120 mmHg so antihypertensive treatment was applied (Nifedipin and Furosemid). After this therapy there was no improvement and intensive headache with fatigue and loss of vision developed. Neurological examination revealed cortical blindness and left hemiparesis. Manitol (20%, 60 ccm every 3 hours) and i.v. Nytroglicerin (high blood pressure). Brain CT revealed oedema of parieto-occipital regions of both hemispheres, more emphasized on the right. (Figure 1a, b, c). There was no sign of focal ischemia even in deeper sections (Figure 1d, e, f). Following three days enormous high blood pressure values were registered. On the fourth day the significant clinical improvement occurred
Spehl, Timo S; Hellwig, Sabine; Amtage, Florian; Weiller, Cornelius; Bormann, Tobias; Weber, Wolfgang A; Hüll, Michael; Meyer, Philipp T; Frings, Lars
Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) is a rare neurodegenerative syndrome with visuospatial deficits. PET studies have identified hypometabolism of the occipital cortex in PCA. There is, however, a huge overlap in clinical presentation and involvement of the occipital cortex between PCA, dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Syndrome-specific patterns of metabolism have not yet been demonstrated that allow for a reliable differentiation with [F-18]-FDG-PET. A total of 33 dementia patients (PCA n = 6, DLB n = 12, AD n = 15) who underwent [F-18]-FDG-PET imaging and a neuropsychological examination were retrospectively analyzed. Group comparisons of regional cerebral glucose metabolism were calculated with statistical parametric mapping. Extracted clusters were used to evaluate discrimination accuracy by logistic regression. PCA patients showed a syndrome-specific area of hypometabolism in the right lateral temporooccipital cortex. DLB patients showed specific hypometabolism predominantly in the left occipital cortex. Logistic regression based on these two regions correctly separated patients with a sensitivity/specificity of 83/93% for PCA, 75/86% for DLB and 67/78% for AD. Overall accuracy was 73%. [F-18]-FDG-PET could reveal syndrome-specific patterns of glucose metabolism in PCA and DLB. Accurate group discrimination in the differential diagnosis of dementia with visuospatial impairment is feasible. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.
Solyga, Volker Moræus; Western, Elin; Solheim, Hanne; Hassel, Bjørnar; Kerty, Emilia
Posterior cortical atrophy is a neurodegenerative condition with atrophy of posterior parts of the cerebral cortex, including the visual cortex and parts of the parietal and temporal cortices. It presents early, in the 50s or 60s, with nonspecific visual disturbances that are often misinterpreted as ophthalmological, which can delay the diagnosis. The purpose of this article is to present current knowledge about symptoms, diagnostics and treatment of this condition. The review is based on a selection of relevant articles in PubMed and on the authors' own experience with the patient group. Posterior cortical atrophy causes gradually increasing impairment in reading, distance judgement, and the ability to perceive complex images. Examination of higher visual functions, neuropsychological testing, and neuroimaging contribute to diagnosis. In the early stages, patients do not have problems with memory or insight, but cognitive impairment and dementia can develop. It is unclear whether the condition is a variant of Alzheimer's disease, or whether it is a separate disease entity. There is no established treatment, but practical measures such as the aid of social care workers, telephones with large keypads, computers with voice recognition software and audiobooks can be useful. Currently available treatment has very limited effect on the disease itself. Nevertheless it is important to identify and diagnose the condition in its early stages in order to be able to offer patients practical assistance in their daily lives.
Decompressive hemicraniectomy for malignant middle cerebral artery infarction including patients with additional involvement of the anterior and/or posterior cerebral artery territory-outcome analysis and definition of prognostic factors.
Kürten, Sven; Munoz, Christopher; Beseoglu, Kerim; Fischer, Igor; Perrin, Jason; Steiger, Hans-Jakob
According to current evidence, adding decompressive craniectomy (DC) to best medical therapy reduces case fatality rate of malignant middle cerebral artery infarction by 50-75%. There is currently little information available regarding the outcome of subgroups, in particular of patients with extensive infarctions exceeding the territory of the middle cerebral artery. The records of 101 patients with large hemispheric infarctions undergoing DC were retrospectively reviewed. Twenty-seven patients had additional ACA and/or PCA infarcts. Sequential CTs were used for postoperative follow-up. Intracranial pressure (ICP) was monitored via a ventricular catheter in comatose patients. The main aim of treatment was to keep midline shift below 10 mm and ICP below 20 mmHg. If midline shift increased despite preceding DC, repeat surgery with removal of clearly necrotic tissue was considered. For the current analysis, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) at 14 days and modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at 3 months were used as outcome parameters. mRS 2 and 3 were defined as "moderate disability", mRS 4 as "severe disability", and mRS 5 and 6 as "poor outcome". These outcome parameters were correlated to age, gender, side, vascular territory, and time delay after stroke, GCS at the time of decompression, maximum ICP, maximum midline shift, and delay of maximum shift. The median age of the 39 female and 62 male patients was 56 years (range, 5-79 years). Overall, 12 patients died in the acute stage (11.9%). Twenty-three (22.8%) patients recovered to moderate disability at 3 months (mRS ≤ 3), 45 (44.6%) to severe disability and 33 (32.6%) suffered a poor outcome (mRS 5 or 6). Twenty patients (19.8%) required additional necrosectomy due to secondary increasing midline shift and/or intracranial hypertension. Patients recovering to moderate disability at 3 months were in the median 10 years younger than patients with less favorable outcome (P < 0.001) and had a higher GCS prior to surgery
Giannini, Sandro; Buda, Roberto; Mosca, Massimiliano; Parma, Alessandro; Di Caprio, Francesco
Posterior ankle impingement is a common cause of chronic ankle pain and results from compression of bony or soft tissue structures during ankle plantar flexion. Bony impingement is most commonly related to an os trigonum or prominent trigonal process. Posteromedial soft tissue impingement generally arises from an inversion injury, with compression of the posterior tibiotalar ligament between the medial malleolus and talus. Posterolateral soft tissue impingement is caused by an accessory ligament, the posterior intermalleolar ligament, which spans the posterior ankle between the posterior tibiofibular and posterior talofibular ligaments. Finally, anomalous muscles have also been described as a cause of posterior impingement.
Koh, Masaki; Tsuboi, Yoshifumi; Fukuda, Osamu
A 19-year-old woman had a thunderclap headache, followed by left hemiparesis and left homonymous hemianopsia. Laboratory tests showed no signs of infection and immunological test results were unremarkable. MRI revealed a cerebral infarction in the right posterior cerebral artery territory, and digital subtraction angiography(DSA)showed right posterior cerebral artery stenosis on day 2. The first follow-up DSA demonstrated an irregular, bead-like appearance on day 9, but the stenotic lesion returned to normal on day 21. Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome should be suspected in cases of rapid resolution of symptoms.
Lui, Tun Hing
Different types of posterior calcaneal osteotomy are used for calcaneal realignment in the management of hindfoot deformity. We describe a percutaneous technique of posterior calcaneal osteotomy that can be either a Dwyer-type closing wedge osteotomy or displacement osteotomy.
Feuillet, L; Milandre, L; Kaphan, E; Ali Cherif, A
Thrombolytic treatment in the early stage of ischemic cerebral attacks requires rapid confirmation of the diagnosis and topographic localization. Unusual clinical features can lead to misdiagnosis with the risk of delaying optimal therapeutic management. We report the cases of two patients who experienced acute tetraparesis without any associated encephalic sign, consistent with the diagnosis of spinal cord injury. Cervical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was normal. Conversely, cerebral MRI displayed in both cases bilateral hemispheric infarction. Two ischemic lesions were revealed in the territory of both anterior cerebral arteries in the first patient, while the second patient had a bilateral infarction in the posterior arms of both internal capsules. In case of tetraparesis, emergency spinal cord MRI should be performed to rule out neurosurgical etiologies and ischemia. If negative, cerebral MRI should be performed at the same time to look for early cerebral infarction in both hemispheres and determine the indication for thrombolysis.
Noorbakhsh-Sabet, Nariman; Pulakanti, Varun Chandi; Zand, Ramin
Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) are small and round perivascular hemosiderin depositions detectable by gradient echo sequences or susceptibility-weighted imaging. Cerebral microbleeds are common among patients with hypertension, cerebral ischemia, or cerebral amyloid angiopathy. In this article, we describe uncommon causes of CMBs. We searched Pubmed with the keyword CMBs for relevant studies and looked for different uncommon causes of CMBs. CMBs have several uncommon etiologies including posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, infective endocarditis, brain radiation therapy, cocaine abuse, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, traumatic brain injury, intravascular lymphomatosis or proliferating angio-endotheliomatosis, moyamoya disease, sickle cell anemia/β-thalassemia, cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy subcortical infarcts, and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL), genetic syndromes, or obstructive sleep apnea. Understanding the uncommon causes of CMBs is not only helpful in diagnosis and prognosis of some of these rare diseases, but can also help in better understanding different pathophysiology involved in the development of CMBs. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Grossbach, Andrew J; Abel, Taylor J; Hodis, Brendan; Wassef, Shafik N; Greenlee, Jeremy D W
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a well characterized entity resulting from the inability of cerebral autoregulation to adequately protect the brain from uncontrolled hypertension. It primarily affects the occipital lobes, but can also involve the structures in the posterior fossa including the brainstem and cerebellum. Treatment usually consists of strict blood pressure control, but more aggressive management may be indicated with acutely worsening neurological status. We present a patient with hypertensive encephalopathy that resulted in hydrocephalus and brainstem compression necessitating surgical decompression requiring ventriculostomy and suboccipital craniectomy. In rare cases, PRES can present with severe brainstem compression requiring emergent posterior fossa decompression. When brainstem signs are present on exam, emergent posterior fossa decompression may be safer than ventriculostomy alone. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
... cerebral aneurysm may be required to restore deteriorating respiration and reduce abnormally high pressure within the brain. ... cerebral aneurysm may be required to restore deteriorating respiration and reduce abnormally high pressure within the brain. ...
... ol (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Cerebral palsy (CP) is a group of disorders that affect ... resource—it highlights the ADDM Network’s data on cerebral palsy in a way that is useful for stakeholders ...
Cerebral palsy is a group of disorders that affect a person's ability to move and to maintain balance ... do not get worse over time. People with cerebral palsy may have difficulty walking. They may also have ...
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a recently described variant of hypertensive encephalopathy characterized by headache, visual disturbances and altered mental function. Its causes are diverse and in contrast to hypertensive encephalopathy, it can develop without significant elevation of blood pressure. This syndrome is mostly reversible when correctly managed; however, failure to recognize it can lead to cerebral infarction and death.
Thirty-two patients whose first stroke was due to double infarct in one cerebral hemisphere were identified among 1,911 consecutive patients from the Lausanne Stroke Registry. The double infarct involved territories of the superficial middle cerebral artery, superficial posterior cerebral artery, lenticulostriate, anterior choroidal artery, or borderzone. The most common combination involved territories of the anterior middle cerebral artery plus the posterior middle cerebral artery. In the patients with the double infarct, the prevalence of potential cardiac sources of embolism (19%) was similar to that found in the registry in general, but the double infarct was closely associated with tight (greater than or equal to 90% of the lumen diameter) stenosis or occlusion (75%) of the internal carotid artery. The most common neurological picture mimicked large infarction in the middle cerebral artery territory, but nearly half of the patients with double infarct in one cerebral hemisphere had a specific clinical syndrome, which was not found in the 1,879 remaining patients from the registry, including hemianopia-hemiplegia (in 6), acute conduction aphasia-hemiparesis (in 2), and acute transcortical mixed aphasia (in 6), in relation to characteristic combinations of infarcts. These unique clinical and etiological correlates warrant the recognition of double infarct in one cerebral hemisphere from other acute ischemic strokes.
Posterior ankle impingement syndrome is a clinical disorder characterized by posterior ankle pain that occurs in forced plantar flexion. The pain may be acute as a result of trauma or chronic from repetitive stress. Pathology of the os trigonum-talar process is the most common cause of this syndrome, but it also may result from flexor hallucis longus tenosynovitis, ankle osteochondritis, subtalar joint disease, and fracture. Patients usually report chronic or recurrent posterior ankle pain caused or exacerbated by forced plantar flexion or push-off maneuvers, such as may occur during dancing, kicking, or downhill running. Diagnosis of posterior ankle impingement syndrome is based primarily on clinical history and physical examination. Radiography, scintigraphy, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging depict associated bone and soft-tissue abnormalities. Symptoms typically improve with nonsurgical management, but surgery may be required in refractory cases.
... tear. Contact sports. Athletes in sports such as football and soccer can tear their posterior cruciate ligament ... vehicle accident and participating in sports such as football and soccer are the most common risk factors ...
Rénia, Laurent; Wu Howland, Shanshan; Claser, Carla; Charlotte Gruner, Anne; Suwanarusk, Rossarin; Hui Teo, Teck; Russell, Bruce; Ng, Lisa
Cerebral malaria is the most severe pathology caused by the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. The pathogenic mechanisms leading to cerebral malaria are still poorly defined as studies have been hampered by limited accessibility to human tissues. Nevertheless, histopathology of post-mortem human tissues and mouse models of cerebral malaria have indicated involvement of the blood-brain barrier in cerebral malaria. In contrast to viruses and bacteria, malaria parasites do not infiltrate and infect the brain parenchyma. Instead, rupture of the blood-brain barrier occurs and may lead to hemorrhages resulting in neurological alterations. Here, we review the most recent findings from human studies and mouse models on the interactions of malaria parasites and the blood-brain barrier, shedding light on the pathogenesis of cerebral malaria, which may provide directions for possible interventions. PMID:22460644
Hypertensive encephalopathy is one cause of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome. Hypertensive encephalopathy and cerebral infarction have only been reported in a few individual case reports. A 51-year-old woman presented with hypertensive encephalopathy. T2-weighted images from magnetic resonance imaging showed hyperintense lesions in both occipital and parietal lobes. Diffusion-weighted imaging showed that this represented cytotoxic oedema and perfusion magnetic resonance imaging revealed reduced blood volume and flow. The magnetic resonance imaging was repeated 5 months later and subtotal regression of theT2-hyperintensity had occurred. However, small bilateral infarcts were seen on T1-weighted images. Perfusion magnetic resonance imaging presented reduced blood volume and flow on the right side. The patient in this report had posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome caused by hypertensive encephalopathy. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed bilateral cytotoxic oedema that partially resolved and resulted in small infarcts. The imaging findings are compatible with posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome with subtotal resolution and infarct evolution. The case report suggests that the presence of hypertensive encephalopathy and posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome should alert clinicians and lead to prompt treatment in order to prevent cerebral damage.
The tibialis posterior tendon is the largest and anteriormost tendon in the medial ankle. It produces plantar flexion and supination of the ankle and stabilizes the plantar vault. Sonographic assessment of this tendon is done with high-frequency, linear-array transducers; an optimal examination requires transverse retromalleolar, longitudinal retromalleolar, and distal longitudinal scans, as well as dynamic studies. Disorders of the posterior tibial tendon include chronic tendinopathy with progressive rupture, tenosynovitis, acute rupture, dislocation and instability, enthesopathies. The most common lesion is a progressive "chewing gum" lesion that develops in a setting of chronic tendinopathy; it is usually seen in overweight women over 50 years of age with valgus flat feet. Medial ankle pain must also be carefully investigated, and the presence of instability assessed with dynamic maneuvers (forced inversion, or dorsiflexion) of the foot. Sonography plays an important role in the investigation of disorders involving the posterior tibial tendon.
Thimons, J J
Posterior vitreous detachment is an expected consequence of aging, but it can also be the initiating cause of a retinal detachment. To understand the mechanism of posterior vitreous detachment and its sequelae, it is necessary to appreciate the anatomy of the vitreous, its development, and the pathogenesis of vitreous degeneration. This paper is a discussion of these considerations, the types of complications that may result from vitreous detachment, the proper examination of patients who present with the symptoms of vitreous detachment, and appropriate patient management.
Zhu, J F; Crevoisier, R; King, D L; Henry, R; Mills, C M
Posterior crossbite, the most common malocclusion in young children, can be caused by a variety of skeletal, muscular, or dental factors. This condition produces insufficient maxillary arch width and is frequently associated with various oral sucking and postural habits. If left untreated, this problem can result in adverse skeletal growth changes. Various mechanical treatment modalities designed to expand the posterior maxillary arch width are available to correct this problem. The appropriate treatment method depends on the patient's age and level of cooperation as well as the determined etiology of the constriction.
Brandão, Lara A; Young Poussaint, Tina
Pediatric brain tumors are the leading cause of death from solid tumors in childhood. The most common posterior fossa tumors in children are medulloblastoma, atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor, cerebellar pilocytic astrocytoma, ependymoma, and brainstem glioma. Location, and imaging findings on computed tomography (CT) and conventional MR (cMR) imaging may provide important clues to the most likely diagnosis. Moreover, information obtained from advanced MR imaging techniques increase diagnostic confidence and help distinguish between different histologic tumor types. Here we discuss the most common posterior fossa tumors in children, including typical imaging findings on CT, cMR imaging, and advanced MR imaging studies.
Tokugawa, Joji; Cho, Narisumi; Suzuki, Hiroharu; Sugiyama, Natsuki; Akiyama, Osamu; Nakao, Yasuaki; Yamamoto, Takuji
Purpose To investigate the length variation of the posterior auricular artery and propose a novel classification of the posterior auricular artery based on angiographical appearance. Patients and Methods A series of 234 consecutive patients who had undergone conventional cerebral angiography was analyzed. The posterior auricular artery was examined on the lateral projection of the external carotid or common carotid arteriography. The posterior auricular artery was classified into four groups by length, using the external auditory canal and the top of the helix as radiographical landmarks. Our proposed classification is as follows: Type A, posterior auricular artery terminates between its origin and the center of the external auditory canal; Type B, posterior auricular artery terminates between the center of the external auditory canal and the top of the helix; Type C, posterior auricular artery terminates between the top of the helix and the vertex; and Type D, posterior auricular artery reaches up to the vertex. Results A total of 424 (right, 214; left, 210) posterior auricular arteries were analyzed in 111 men and 123 women aged 11 to 91 years (mean, 61.0 years) examined for aneurysms in 78 cases, occlusive vascular diseases in 56, intracranial hemorrhages in 41, tumors in 35, and others in 24. Types A, B, C, and D were found in 15.1%, 34.9%, 48.8%, and 1.2% of the patients, respectively. Conclusion A novel classification of the posterior auricular artery identifies four types based on its length on cerebral angiography. PMID:26030595
Fantry, Amanda; Lareau, Craig; Vopat, Bryan; Blankenhorn, Brad
Management of posterior malleolus fractures continues to be controversial, with respect to both need for fixation and fixation methods. Fixation methods include an open posterior approach to the ankle as well as percutaneous reduction and fixation with or without arthroscopy for visualization of the articular surface. Plain radiographs are unreliable in identifying fracture pattern and intraoperative reduction, making arthroscopy a valuable adjunct to posterior malleolus fracture management. In this article, we report a case of tibialis posterior tendon entrapment within a posterior malleolus fracture, as identified by arthroscopy and managed with open reduction. Tibialis posterior tendon entrapment within a posterior malleolus has not been previously reported. Ankle arthroscopy for posterior malleolus fractures provides an opportunity to identify soft-tissue or tendinous entrapment, articular surface reduction, and articular cartilage injuries unlikely to be identified with fluoroscopy alone and should be considered in reduction and fixation of posterior malleolus fractures.
Chai, Ho Lam; Lui, Tun Hing
Introduction: The posterior portion of the knee joint, which includes the tibial attachment of the posterior cruciate ligament and the posterior horn of the menisci, has been called a “blind spot” because it is difficult to observe this area under arthroscopy through standard anterior portals. Posteromedial, posterolateral, and posterior transseptal portals have been developed for visualization and instrumentation of the posteromedial and posterolateral compartments of the knee joint. Case Report: A 57-year-old man presented of persistent left posterior knee pain for 1 year. Radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging showed posterior knee encapsulated loose bodies. The symptoms did not respond to physiotherapy and analgesics. The loose bodies were removed via posterior knee arthroscopy. The symptoms subsided afterward. Conclusion: Lateral portal of the knee allows establishment of the posterolateral portal under endoscopic visualization, and the loose bodies of the posterior compartment of the knee can be effectively removed via the posterior knee arthroscopy. PMID:28819604
Poma, S.; Delmonte, M. P.; Gigliuto, C.; Imberti, R.; Delmonte, M.; Arossa, A.; Iotti, G. A.
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a neurological syndrome associated with a number of conditions including preeclampsia. It is characterized by seizures, alteration of consciousness, visual disturbances, and symmetric white matter abnormalities, typically in the posterior parietooccipital regions of the cerebral hemispheres, at computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MRI). We report three new cases of PRES in preeclamptic patients and describe the management of these patients. We present a brief review of other cases in the literature, with particular attention to the anesthetic management. PMID:25506009
The first case of cerebral paragonimiasis was reported by Otani in Japan in 1887. This was nine years after Kerbert's discovery of the fluke in the lungs of Bengal tigers and seven years after a human pulmonary infection by the fluke was demonstrated by Baelz and Manson. The first case was a 26-year-old man who had been suffering from cough and hemosputum for one year. The patient developed convulsive seizures with subsequent coma and died. The postmortem examination showed cystic lesions in the right frontal and occipital lobes. An adult fluke was found in the occipital lesion and another was seen in a gross specimen of normal brain tissue around the affected occipital lobe. Two years after Otani's discovery, at autopsy a 29-year-old man with a history of Jacksonian seizure was reported as having cerebral paragonimiasis. Some time later, however, it was confirmed that the case was actually cerebral schistosomiasis japonica. Subsequently, cases of cerebral paragonimiasis were reported. However, the majority of these cases were not confirmed histologically. It was pointed out that some of these early cases were probably not Paragonimus infection. After World War II, reviews as well as case reports were published. Recently, investigations have been reported from Korea, with a clinicla study on 62 cases of cerebral paragonimiasis seen at the Neurology Department of the National Medical Center, Seoul, between 1958 and 1964. In 1971 Higashi described a statistical study on 105 cases of cerebral paragonimiasis that had been treated surgically in Japan.
Kapina, Viktoria; Vargas, Maria-Isabel; Wohlrab, Gabriele; Vulliemoz, Serge; Fluss, Joel; Seeck, Margitta
Chronic epilepsy has rarely been reported after posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) and the association with hippocampal sclerosis has been suggested only once before. We report the case of a girl admitted at the age of 8 years with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome. On the second day of admission, she presented with focal complex seizures and cerebral MRI showed posterior encephalopathy and no hippocampal sclerosis. MRI after one month confirmed the diagnosis of PRES. The seizures recurred and the girl developed pharmacoresistant epilepsy and was admitted to our hospital for further investigation. Cerebral MRI three years after the diagnosis of PRES showed hippocampal sclerosis which was not present on the initial MRI. We conclude that there is a triggering role of PRES in the development of hippocampal sclerosis. Hippocampal sclerosis may have resulted from seizure-associated damage, alternatively, hypertensive encephalopathy may have led to hippocampal damage via a vascular mechanism.
... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Cerebral Palsy KidsHealth > For Parents > Cerebral Palsy A A A ... kids who are living with the condition. About Cerebral Palsy Cerebral palsy is one of the most common ...
Resources - cerebral palsy ... The following organizations are good resources for information on cerebral palsy : National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke -- www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/cerebral_palsy/cerebral_palsy. ...
... Right Sport for You Healthy School Lunch Planner Cerebral Palsy KidsHealth > For Teens > Cerebral Palsy Print A A ... do just what everyone else does. What Is Cerebral Palsy? Cerebral palsy (CP) is a disorder of the ...
Approximately 20-25% of all acute strokes occur in the posterior circulation. These strokes can be rather difficult to diagnose because they present in such diverse ways, and can easily be mistaken for more benign entities. A fastidious history, physical exam, high clinical suspicion, and appropriate use of imaging are essential for the emergency physician to properly diagnose and treat these patients. Expert stroke neurologist consultation should be utilized liberally.
Brelin, Alaina; Dickens, Jonathan F
Posterior shoulder instability is a relatively uncommon condition, occurring in ∼10% of those with shoulder instability. Because of the rarity of the condition and the lack of knowledge in treatment, it is often misdiagnosed or patients experience a delay in diagnosis. Posterior instability typically affects athletes participating in contact or overhead sports and is usually the result of repetitive microtrauma or blunt force with the shoulder in the provocative position of flexion, adduction, and internal rotation, leading to recurrent subluxation events. Acute traumatic posterior dislocations are rare injuries with an incidence rate of 1.1 per 100,000 person years. This rate is ∼20 times lower than that of anterior shoulder dislocations. Risk factors for recurrent instability are: (1) age below 40 at time of first instability; (2) dislocation during a seizure; (3) a large reverse Hill-Sachs lesion; and (4) glenoid retroversion. A firm understanding of the pathoanatomy, along with pertinent clinical and diagnostic modalities is required to accurately diagnosis and manage this condition.
Barth, William H
Persistent occiput posterior (OP) is associated with increased rates of maternal and newborn morbidity. Its diagnosis by physical examination is challenging but is improved with bedside ultrasonography. Occiput posterior discovered in the active phase or early second stage of labor usually resolves spontaneously. When it does not, prophylactic manual rotation may decrease persistent OP and its associated complications. When delivery is indicated for arrest of descent in the setting of persistent OP, a pragmatic approach is suggested. Suspected fetal macrosomia, a biparietal diameter above the pelvic inlet or a maternal pelvis with android features should prompt cesarean delivery. Nonrotational operative vaginal delivery is appropriate when the maternal pelvis has a narrow anterior segment but ample room posteriorly, like with anthropoid features. When all other conditions are met and the fetal head arrests in an OP position in a patient with gynecoid pelvic features and ample room anteriorly, options include cesarean delivery, nonrotational operative vaginal delivery, and rotational procedures, either manual or with the use of rotational forceps. Recent literature suggests that maternal and fetal outcomes with rotational forceps are better than those reported in older series. Although not without significant challenges, a role remains for teaching and practicing selected rotational forceps operations in contemporary obstetrics.
Colver, Allan; Fairhurst, Charles; Pharoah, Peter O D
The syndrome of cerebral palsy encompasses a large group of childhood movement and posture disorders. Severity, patterns of motor involvement, and associated impairments such as those of communication, intellectual ability, and epilepsy vary widely. Overall prevalence has remained stable in the past 40 years at 2-3·5 cases per 1000 livebirths, despite changes in antenatal and perinatal care. The few studies available from developing countries suggest prevalence of comparable magnitude. Cerebral palsy is a lifelong disorder; approaches to intervention, whether at an individual or environmental level, should recognise that quality of life and social participation throughout life are what individuals with cerebral palsy seek, not improved physical function for its own sake. In the past few years, the cerebral palsy community has learned that the evidence of benefit for the numerous drugs, surgery, and therapies used over previous decades is weak. Improved understanding of the role of multiple gestation in pathogenesis, of gene environment interaction, and how to influence brain plasticity could yield significant advances in treatment of the disorder. Reduction in the prevalence of post-neonatal cerebral palsy, especially in developing countries, should be possible through improved nutrition, infection control, and accident prevention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Calic, Z; Cappelen-Smith, C; Zagami, A S
Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) is a clinical-radiological syndrome characterised by severe thunderclap headaches with or without other neurological symptoms and multifocal constriction of cerebral arteries that usually resolves spontaneously within 3 months. Most patients recover completely, but up to 10% have a permanent neurological disability and some even die. Previously RCVS has been described in many clinical contexts and under different names with the term RCVS first being suggested in 2007 to unify the group. The condition may be spontaneous, but in up to 60% of cases it is secondary to another cause, including vasoactive substances (medications and illicit drugs), blood products and the post-partum state. It is believed to have a similar pathophysiological mechanism to the posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES), and both can occur in similar clinical contexts and are frequently associated. Treatment options include calcium channel antagonists. RCVS occurs in a broad range of clinical situations making it an increasingly recognised condition about which doctors in various specialties need to be aware. © 2014 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.
Teive, H A; Brandi, I V; Camargo, C H; Bittencourt, M A; Bonfim, C M; Friedrich, M L; de Medeiros, C R; Werneck, L C; Pasquini, R
Reversible posterior leucoencephalopathy syndrome (RPLS) has previously been described in patients who have renal insufficiency, eclampsia, hypertensive encephalopathy and patients receiving immunosuppressive therapy. The mechanism by which immunosuppressive agents can cause this syndrome is not clear, but it is probably related with cytotoxic effects of these agents on the vascular endothelium. We report eight patients who received cyclosporine A (CSA) after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation or as treatment for severe aplastic anemia (SSA) who developed posterior leucoencephalopathy. The most common signs and symptoms were seizures and headache. Neurological dysfunction occurred preceded by or concomitant with high blood pressure and some degree of acute renal failure in six patients. Computerized tomography studies showed low-density white matter lesions involving the posterior areas of cerebral hemispheres. Symptoms and neuroimaging abnormalities were reversible and improvement occurred in all patients when given lower doses of CSA or when the drug was withdrawn. RPLS may be considered an expression of CSA neurotoxicity.
Kele, Henrich; Xia, Annie; Weiler, Markus; Schwarz, Daniel; Bendszus, Martin; Pham, Mirko
Objective: To investigate the spatial pattern of lesion dispersion in posterior interosseous neuropathy syndrome (PINS) by high-resolution magnetic resonance neurography. Methods: This prospective study was approved by the local ethics committee and written informed consent was obtained from all patients. In 19 patients with PINS and 20 healthy controls, a standardized magnetic resonance neurography protocol at 3-tesla was performed with coverage of the upper arm and elbow (T2-weighted fat-saturated: echo time/repetition time 52/7,020 milliseconds, in-plane resolution 0.27 × 0.27 mm2). Lesion classification of the radial nerve trunk and its deep branch (which becomes the posterior interosseous nerve) was performed by visual rating and additional quantitative analysis of normalized T2 signal of radial nerve voxels. Results: Of 19 patients with PINS, only 3 (16%) had a focal neuropathy at the entry of the radial nerve deep branch into the supinator muscle at elbow/forearm level. The other 16 (84%) had proximal radial nerve lesions at the upper arm level with a predominant lesion focus 8.3 ± 4.6 cm proximal to the humeroradial joint. Most of these lesions (75%) followed a specific somatotopic pattern, involving only those fascicles that would form the posterior interosseous nerve more distally. Conclusions: PINS is not necessarily caused by focal compression at the supinator muscle but is instead frequently a consequence of partial fascicular lesions of the radial nerve trunk at the upper arm level. Neuroimaging should be considered as a complementary diagnostic method in PINS. PMID:27683851
Néel, A; Guillon, B; Auffray-Calvier, E; Hello, M; Hamidou, M
The reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) is an under-estimated transient acute cerebrovascular disorder. It has long been mistaken as central nervous system vasculitis whereas it is now believed to result from an acute but prolonged vasospasm of cerebral arteries. This disorder can be precipitated by postpartum or vasoactive drug. However, it occurs spontaneously in a significant number of cases. The characteristic clinico-radiological presentation and disease course of the RCVS has been delineated only recently. Mean age at onset is 40-45 years, with a female predominance. A provocative factor can be identified in 12-60% out of the patients. Clinical presentation is predominantly marked by recurrent thunderclap headaches, but can be complicated with focal neurological deficit or seizures. Brain imaging is normal in most cases, but can reveal hemorrhagic or ischemic complications. Cortical subarachnoid hemorrhage is a suggestive finding. A posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) can be seen occasionally. Cerebral angiography reveals multifocal arterial narrowing with string and bead appearance. Cerebrospinal fluid reveals no or mild abnormalities. The disease resumes spontaneously within several days to weeks, whereas vasoconstriction reverses within 1 to 3 months. This clinico-radiological presentation should be promptly recognized in order to avoid unnecessary investigations and aggressive treatment, and lead to search for a triggering factor. Further studies are required in order to clarify the precipitating role of several drugs, and clinical trials are needed to reduce the occurrence of strokes. Copyright © 2012 Société nationale française de médecine interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.
Zarranz, J J; Lasa, A; Fernández, M; Lezcano, E; Pérez Bas, M; Varona, L; Ruiz, J; Beristain, X
Interest in progressive focal cerebral syndromes associated with classical degenerative diseases has increased in recent years. Descriptions of posterior cortical atrophy with progressive visual agnosia are relatively rare. We present 5 patients (2 women) ranging in age between 57 and 72 years old. In all cases symptoms began and progressed with no known etiology. All cases were sporadic. The main clinical signs are difficulty in recognizing objects, colors, persons or places; topographical disorientation and visual memory alterations; alexia, simultagnosia, loss of ocular fixing and optic ataxia. Some patients presented other disturbances of praxis or memory and 2 progressed to global dementia. Language function was preserved and behavioral disturbances did not develop. The amplitude of the P100 visual evoked potential was low but latency was normal in 4 patients and prolonged in 1. Brain images showed atrophy and hypoperfusion in the parieto-occipital area. The neuropathology status of these patients is unknown.
Abenza-Abildua, Maria Jose; Fuentes, Blanca; Diaz, Domingo; Royo, Aranzazu; Olea, Teresa; Aguilar-Amat, Maria Jose; Diez-Tejedor, Exuperio
Reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome (RPLS) is a clinical radiological syndrome, characterised by acute headache, altered consciousness, seizures and hypertension. The most frequent causes are hypertensive encephalopathy, eclampsia and some immunosuppressive therapies. The pathogenesis remains unclear, but it appears to be related to altered cerebral circulation, producing oedema that can be seen on MRI, and it resolves in 2 or 3 weeks. In the present report, a possible first reported case of cyclophosphamide-induced RPLS in a 27-year-old man with high blood pressure (HBP) and glomerulonephritis caused by Goodpasture syndrome, treated with cyclophosphamide during the last month and prednisone for glomerulonephritis resulting from Goodpasture syndrome without other immunosuppressive drugs, is described.Symptoms appeared during a hypertensive crisis, but when cyclophosphamide was replaced by rituximab and hypertension was controlled, the patient did not have neurological symptoms. Almost all reported cases induced by immunosuppressive therapy or other causes were associated with hypertension as well.
Abenza-Abildua, Maria Jose; Fuentes, Blanca; Diaz, Domingo; Royo, Aranzazu; Olea, Teresa; Aguilar-Amat, Maria Jose; Diez-Tejedor, Exuperio
Reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome (RPLS) is a clinical radiological syndrome, characterised by acute headache, altered consciousness, seizures and hypertension. The most frequent causes are hypertensive encephalopathy, eclampsia and some immunosuppressive therapies. The pathogenesis remains unclear, but it appears to be related to altered cerebral circulation, producing oedema that can be seen on MRI, and it resolves in 2 or 3 weeks. In the present report, a possible first reported case of cyclophosphamide-induced RPLS in a 27-year-old man with high blood pressure (HBP) and glomerulonephritis caused by Goodpasture syndrome, treated with cyclophosphamide during the last month and prednisone for glomerulonephritis resulting from Goodpasture syndrome without other immunosuppressive drugs, is described. Symptoms appeared during a hypertensive crisis, but when cyclophosphamide was replaced by rituximab and hypertension was controlled, the patient did not have neurological symptoms. Almost all reported cases induced by immunosuppressive therapy or other causes were associated with hypertension as well. PMID:21686794
I, Hoseok; Jeong, Yeon Joo; Choi, Kyung Un; Kim, Yeong-Dae
We report a case of a symptomatic angioleiomyoma in the left posterior mediastinum. A 66-year-old woman presented with left back and flank pain for 6 months. Chest computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a well-circumscribed 4.3 cm round mass. The mass was initially diagnosed as nerve sheath tumor, because of her symptoms and its close location to the sympathetic trunk and intercostal nerve. It was uneventfully removed through video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery. The pathology revealed an angioleiomyoma.
Gelman, Joel; Wisenbaugh, Eric S.
Pelvic fracture urethral injuries are typically partial and more often complete disruptions of the most proximal bulbar and distal membranous urethra. Emergency management includes suprapubic tube placement. Subsequent primary realignment to place a urethral catheter remains a controversial topic, but what is not controversial is that when there is the development of a stricture (which is usually obliterative with a distraction defect) after suprapubic tube placement or urethral catheter removal, the standard of care is delayed urethral reconstruction with excision and primary anastomosis. This paper reviews the management of patients who suffer pelvic fracture urethral injuries and the techniques of preoperative urethral imaging and subsequent posterior urethroplasty. PMID:26691883
Wu, Teddy Y; Wei, Diana Y; Jordan, Anthony; Kenedi, Chris; Smith, Andrew D; Kilfoyle, Dean H
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is characterised clinically by encephalopathy, headache, visual disturbance and/or focal neurological symptoms. Bilateral cerebral oedema on T2 MRI sequences within the posterior cerebral white matter is the radiological hallmark, although involvement of the frontal lobe, basal ganglia and brainstem can occur. PRES with spinal cord involvement has been rarely reported and is under-recognised due to lack of myelopathic features in nearly half of the reported cases. We report a patient with PRES with spinal cord involvement and review the literature.
hemiparesis that appeared shortly after her older sister had accidentally dropped the edge of a mattress on the top of her head. There was no loss of...the emergency department, he had a right homonymous hemianopsia and a mild right hemiparesis . Noncontrast brain CT showed hypoattenuation in the left...aspirin per day throughout his hospital course and showed mild improvement of his hemiparesis and a decrease in his visual field deficit. The patient did
Chi, John H; Lawton, Michael T
To review an experience with the posterior interhemispheric approach applied to vascular lesions in the posterior midline, to examine the effects of patient position and gravity retraction of the occipital lobe, and to identify circumstances requiring increased exposure by sectioning the falx and tentorium. During a 6.5-year period, 46 posterior interhemispheric approaches were performed to treat 28 arteriovenous malformations, 10 dural arteriovenous fistulae, seven cavernous malformations, and one posterior cerebral artery aneurysm. Twenty-three patients were positioned prone and 23 patient were positioned laterally. A standard posterior interhemispheric approach was used in 38 patients, and the occipital bitranstentorial/falcine approach was used in seven patients. A contralateral occipital transfalcine approach was used with one thalamic cavernous malformation. All lesions were resected completely and/or obliterated angiographically, with good neurological outcomes in 83% of patients and no operative mortality. Blood loss was lower, operative durations were shorter, postoperative cerebral edema was decreased, and visual outcomes were improved in patients positioned laterally. The posterior interhemispheric approach, without additional dural cuts, is appropriate for most vascular lesions in the posterior midline. Gravity retracts the occipital lobes when patients are positioned laterally, enhancing operative exposure and reducing morbidity. Extension of the posterior interhemispheric approach to a transtentorial or transfalcine approach is required for falcotentorial dural arteriovenous fistulae and vein of Galen arteriovenous malformations, but is not usually necessary with cavernous malformations or other arteriovenous malformations.
Marsden, P D; Bruce-Chwatt, L J
Cerebral malaria is an acute diffuse encephalopathy associated only with Plasmodium falciparum. It is probably a consequence of the rapid proliferation of the parasites in the body of man in relation to red cell invasion, and results in stagnation of blood flow in cerebralcapillaries with thromobotic occlusion of large numbers of cerebral capillaries. The subsequent cerebral pathology is cerebral infarction with haemorrhage and cerebral oedema. The wide prevalence of P. falciparum in highly endemic areas results in daily challenges to patients from several infected mosquitoes. It is thus important to understand the characteristics of P. falciparum, since this is one of the most important protozoan parasites of man and severe infection from it constitutes one of the few real clinical emergencies in tropical medicine. One of the more important aspects of the practice of medicine in the tropics is to establish a good understanding of the pattern of medical practice in that area. This applies to malaria as well as to other diseases. The neophyte might be somewhat surprised to learn, for example that an experienced colleague who lives in a holoendemic malarious area such as West Africa, sees no cerebral malaria. But the explanation is simple when the doctor concerned has a practice which involves treating adults only. Cerebral malaria is rare in adults, because in highly endemic areas, by the age of 1 year most of the infants in a group under study have already experienced their first falciparum infection. By the time they reach adult life, they have a solid immunity against severe falciparum infections. In fact, "clinical malaria" could occur in such a group under only two circumstances: 1) in pregnancy, a patent infection with P. falciparum might develop, probably due to an IgG drain across the placenta to the foetus;2) in an individual who has constantly taken antimalarials and who may have an immunity at such a low level that when antimalarial therapy is interrupted
Crutch, Sebastian J; Lehmann, Manja; Schott, Jonathan M; Rabinovici, Gil D; Rossor, Martin N; Fox, Nick C
Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) is a neurodegenerative syndrome that is characterized by a progressive decline in visuospatial, visuoperceptual, literacy and praxic skills. The progressive neurodegeneration affecting parietal, occipital and occipito-temporal cortices which underlies PCA is attributable to Alzheimer's disease (AD) in the majority of patients. However, alternative underlying aetiologies including Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB), corticobasal degeneration (CBD) and prion disease have also been identified, and not all PCA patients have atrophy on clinical imaging. This heterogeneity has led to diagnostic and terminological inconsistencies, caused difficulty comparing studies from different centres, and limited the generalizability of clinical trials and investigations of factors driving phenotypic variability. Significant challenges remain in identifying the factors associated with both the selective vulnerability of posterior cortical regions and the young age of onset seen in PCA. Greater awareness of the syndrome and agreement over the correspondence between syndrome-and disease-level classifications are required in order to improve diagnostic accuracy, research study design and clinical management. PMID:22265212
Saleh, Essam A.; Taibah, Abdel Kader; Achilli, Vittorio; Aristegui, Miguel; Mazzoni, Antonio; Sanna, Mario
Posterior fossa meningioma is the second most common tumor in the cerebellopontine angle. It has a higher rate of postoperative morbidity and mortality compared to acoustic neuroma. Forty posterior fossa meningioma patients managed in our centers were reviewed. Thirty-nine patients were managed surgically with 42 surgical procedures. The approaches used were the translabyrinthine approach in 18 patients (43%), the modified transcochlear in 11 cases (26%), the petro-occipital transsigmoid in 5 cases (12%), the suboccipital in 4 cases (10%), the petro-occipital trassigmoid transcervical in 2 cases (5%), the petro-occipital transsigmoid transtentorial in 1 case (2%), and a subtemporal transtentorial for another case (2%). Facial nerve anatomical integrity was preserved in 87% of procedures but was interrupted in 5 cases, with 4 of the latter subsequently repaired. Total tumor removal was accomplished in 38 cases. A second-stage total tumor removal is planned for the remaining case. There was only one case of perioperative death and no cases of radiological recurrence so far. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4p206-bFigure 5p207-bFigure 5 PMID:17171173
Davidson, Laurence; Krieger, Mark D; McComb, J Gordon
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the posterior interhemispheric retrocallosal approach (PIRA) for its safety and efficacy in the resection of pineal region and posterior fossa lesions in children. Twenty-nine PIRAs were performed in 26 children between March 1997 and March 2009, and these cases were retrospectively reviewed. There were 15 girls and 11 boys in the series. The median age at the time of surgery was 7 years (range 7 months-17 years). Twenty-seven cases were treated for tumor, 1 for loculated hydrocephalus, and 1 for an aneurysm. Of the 27 cases treated for tumor, there were 20 (74%) gross-total resections, 5 (19%) subtotal resections, and 2 (7%) biopsies. One bridging vein was sacrificed in 6 cases and 2 bridging veins were divided in 1 case, whereas in 3 cases there was sacrifice of a single deep cerebral vein. No patient developed radiographic evidence of venous infarction. Approach-related complications were low, and included 2 cases of transient homonymous hemianopia. There were no surgery-related deaths. This approach allows for ample access to pineal region and posterior fossa lesions, with low postoperative morbidity.
The keratoprosthesis is the last solution for corneally blind patients that cannot benefit from corneal transplants. Keratoprostheses that have been designed to be affixed anteriorly usually necessitate multi-step surgical procedures and are continuously subjected to the extrusion forces generated by the positive intraocular pressure; therefore, clinical results in patients prove inconsistent. We proposed a novel keratoprosthesis concept that utilizes posterior corneal fixation which `a priori' minimizes the risk of aqueous leakage and expulsion. This prosthesis is implanted in a single procedure thereby reducing the number of surgical complications normally associated with anterior fixation devices. In addition, its novel design makes this keratoprosthesis implantable in phakic eyes. With an average follow-up of 13 months (range 3 to 25 months), our results on 21 cases are encouraging. Half of the keratoprostheses were implanted in severe burn cases, with the remainder in cases of pseudo- pemphigus. Good visual results and cosmetic appearance were obtained in 14 of 21 eyes.
Ou, Judy I; Wheeler, Sharon M; O'Brien, Joan M
This chapter focuses on the diagnosis and management of choroidal melanoma in light of recent findings from the COMS. Retinoblastoma is emphasized to describe recent trends in primary treatment away from EBRT and toward chemoreduction with local therapy. In addition, vascular and glial tumors of the retina and tumors of the retinal pigment epithelium are described because of the association between these lesions and systemic disease. Recent advances in treatment and genetic testing for these diseases are discussed. Finally, ocular metastasis, intraocular lymphoid tumors, and intraocular leukemia are included because of their importance in determining systemic treatment and prognosis. The chapter gives an overview of important posterior pole tumors and highlights recent developments in the management of each intraocular disease process.
Newton, C.; Hien, T. T.; White, N.
Cerebral malaria may be the most common non-traumatic encephalopathy in the world. The pathogenesis is heterogenous and the neurological complications are often part of a multisystem dysfunction. The clinical presentation and pathophysiology differs between adults and children. Recent studies have elucidated the molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis and raised possible interventions. Antimalarial drugs, however, remain the only intervention that unequivocally affects outcome, although increasing resistance to the established antimalarial drugs is of grave concern. Artemisinin derivatives have made an impact on treatment, but other drugs may be required. With appropriate antimalarial drugs, the prognosis of cerebral malaria often depends on the management of other complications—for example, renal failure and acidosis. Neurological sequelae are increasingly recognised, but further research on the pathogenesis of coma and neurological damage is required to develop other ancillary treatments. PMID:10990500
Voljevica, Alma; Kulenović, Amela; Kapur, Eldan; Vucković, Ilvana
Cerebral-vascular diseases present one of the leading problems of the modern mankind. They are followed by the risk of high mortality rate, and as such cause high level of disability with people who survive cerebral-vascular incident (stroke, apoplexy). Researches done so far proved that beginning, course and result of the cerebral-vascular diseases depend immensely of the possibility to establish collateral blood circulation and first of all on so called tertian level that is actually the circle of Willis. The circle of Willis, thanks to communicating segments, provide detour way to procure parts of the brain which, due to insufficiency, do not get enough quantity of blood. In this particular study by the analysis of 150 MRI patient's angiographies of the circle of Willis that had been processed at the Radiology Institute of the Clinic Center of University in Sarajevo, we tried to present the most common variations of the posterior segment of the circle of Willis with patients who did not have signs of the cerebral-vascular diseases. The analysis included two target groups (above 60 years old and younger than 34 years old) and both genders. By the analysis of the angiographies of the circle of Willis we reached following results: complete posterior configuration of the circle of Willis has been found with all patients in 54% of cases, but in some slightly higher percentage complete posterior configuration is noted with younger category of patients compared to elderly patients, and in some higher percentage with female compared to male patients. Out of variations that damage the posterior segment of the circle of Willis the first one, according to the frequency of occurring, is the variation of the type of unilateral fetal sort of posterior cerebral artery, and then the variation marked as unilateral aplasia or hypoplasia of the posterior communicating artery.
... 10 Tips for Parents Healthy Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Cerebral ... cerebral Cerebral palsy (CP) is a disorder that affects muscle tone, movement, and motor skills (the ability to move in a coordinated and ...
Petrov, Irene Y.; Wynne, Karon E.; Petrov, Yuriy; Esenaliev, Rinat O.; Richardson, C. Joan; Prough, Donald S.
Cerebral ischemia after birth and during labor is a major cause of death and severe complications such as cerebral palsy. In the USA alone, cerebral palsy results in permanent disability of 10,000 newborns per year and approximately 500,000 of the total population. Currently, no technology is capable of direct monitoring of cerebral oxygenation in newborns. This study proposes the use of an optoacoustic technique for noninvasive cerebral ischemia monitoring by probing the superior sagittal sinus (SSS), a large central cerebral vein. We developed and built a multi-wavelength, near-infrared optoacoustic system suitable for noninvasive monitoring of cerebral ischemia in newborns with normal weight (NBW), low birth-weight (LBW, 1500 - 2499 g) and very low birth-weight (VLBW, < 1500 g). The system was capable of detecting SSS signals through the open anterior and posterior fontanelles as well as through the skull. We tested the system in NBW, LBW, and VLBW newborns (weight range: from 675 g to 3,000 g) admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit. We performed single and continuous measurements of the SSS blood oxygenation. The data acquisition, processing and analysis software developed by our group provided real-time, absolute SSS blood oxygenation measurements. The SSS blood oxygenation ranged from 60% to 80%. Optoacoustic monitoring of the SSS blood oxygenation provides valuable information because adequate cerebral oxygenation would suggest that no therapy was necessary; conversely, evidence of cerebral ischemia would prompt therapy to increase cerebral blood flow.
Crowley, Julie P.; Arnold, Sandra H.; McEwen, Irene R.; James, Shirley
This case report describes the use of treadmill training without body weight support to improve walking speed in a child with diplegic cerebral palsy. The child was a six-year-old girl with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy. She walked short distances independently using a posterior support walker but was unable to keep up with her peers walking…
Crowley, Julie P.; Arnold, Sandra H.; McEwen, Irene R.; James, Shirley
This case report describes the use of treadmill training without body weight support to improve walking speed in a child with diplegic cerebral palsy. The child was a six-year-old girl with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy. She walked short distances independently using a posterior support walker but was unable to keep up with her peers walking…
Laborda, Alicia; Tejero, Carlos; Fredes, Arturo; Cebrian, Luis; Guelbenzu, Santiago; Gregorio, Miguel Angel de
Bronchial artery embolization (BAE) is the treatment of choice for massive hemoptysis with rare complications that generally are mild and transient. There are few references in the medical literature with acute cerebral embolization as a complication of BAE. We report a case of intracranial posterior territory infarctions as a complication BAE in a patient with hemoptysis due to bronchiectasis.
Cooke, Daniel L; Stout, Charles E; Kim, Warren T; Kansagra, Akash P; Yu, John Paul; Gu, Amy; Jewell, Nicholas P; Hetts, Steven W; Higashida, Randall T; Dowd, Christopher F; Halbach, Van V
Summary Arterial fenestrations are an anatomic variant with indeterminate significance. Given the controversy surrounding fenestrations we sought their prevalence within our practice along with their association with other cerebrovascular anomalies. We retrospectively reviewed 10,927 patients undergoing digital subtraction angiography between 1992 and 2011. Dictated reports were searched for the terms “fenestration” or “fenestrated” with images reviewed for relevance, yielding 228 unique cases. A Medline database search from February 1964 to January 2013 generated 304 citations, 127 cases of which were selected for analysis. Cerebral arterial fenestrations were identified in 228 patients (2.1%). At least one aneurysm was noted in 60.5% of patients, with an aneurysm arising from the fenestration in 19.6% of patients. Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage or non-aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage were present in 60.1% and 15.8%, respectively. For the subset of patients with an aneurysm arising directly from a fenestration relative to those patients with an aneurysm not immediately associated with a fenestration, the prevalence of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage was 66.7% vs. 58.6% (p = 0.58). Fenestrations were more often within the posterior circulation (73.2%) than the anterior circulation (24.6%), though there was no difference in the prevalence of aneurysms within these groups (61.1% vs. 60.7%, p = 1.0). Cerebral arterial fenestrations are an anatomic variant more often manifesting at the anterior communicating arterial complex and basilar artery and with no definite pathological relationship with aneurysms. PMID:24976087
Hanson, K.M.; Cunningham, G.S.
The Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) technique provides a means to generate a random sequence of model realizations that sample the posterior probability distribution of a Bayesian analysis. That sequence may be used to make inferences about the model uncertainties that derive from measurement uncertainties. This paper presents an approach to improving the efficiency of the Metropolis approach to MCMC by incorporating an approximation to the covariance matrix of the posterior distribution. The covariance matrix is approximated using the update formula from the BFGS quasi-Newton optimization algorithm. Examples are given for uncorrelated and correlated multidimensional Gaussian posterior distributions.
Held, R; Eckardt, C; Brix, F; Feller, A C
A diagnostic vitrectomy was performed on three patients with posterior uveitis of unknown origin and whose vitrous body was markedly affected. In all cases, cells of high-grade B-cell lymphoma (earlier referred to as reticulum cell sarcoma) were identified by cytological analysis of the specimen. In addition to the ocular findings, one of the three patients showed clinical and radiological evidence of a tumorous mass in the area of the right thalamus at the time of diagnosis. This was interpreted as a cerebral manifestation of the lymphoma. Initially, the other two patients did not show any cerebral involvement. One of them, however, developed clinical symptoms 9 months after diagnosis, which were radiologically verified as tumor infiltration of the cerebellum and the diencephalon. Under radiation therapy, the ocular findings disappeared within a few weeks.
Porcello Marrone, Luiz Carlos; Marrone, Bianca Fontana; Neto, Felipe Kalil; Costa, Francisco Cosme; Thomé, Gustavo Gomes; Aramburu, Martin Brandolt; Schilling, Lucas Porcello; Pascoal, Tharick Ali; Gadonski, Giovani; Huf Marrone, Antônio Carlos; da Costa, Jaderson Costa
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a clinicoradiologic entity not yet understood, that is present with transient neurologic symptoms and particular radiological findings. The most common imaging pattern in PRES is the presence of edema in the white matter of the posterior portions of both cerebral hemispheres. The cause of PRES is unclear. We report a case of 13-year-old male who was stung by a scorpion and developed a severe headache, visual disturbance, and seizures and had the diagnosis of PRES with a good outcome. Numerous factors can trigger this syndrome, most commonly: acute elevation of blood pressure, abnormal renal function, and immunosuppressive therapy. There are many cases described showing the relationship between PRES and eclampsia, transplantation, neoplasia and chemotherapy treatment, systemic infections, renal disease acute, or chronic. However, this is the first case of PRES following a scorpion sting.
Lee, Ji Yeoun; Choi, Young-Hun; Cheon, Jung-Eun; Paeng, Jin Chul; Ryu, Hye Won; Kim, Ki Joong; Phi, Ji Hoon; Wang, Kyu-Chang; Cho, Byung-Kyu; Chae, Jong-Hee; Kim, Seung-Ki
Approximately 30% of patients with moyamoya disease (MMD) have presented with involvement of the posterior circulation, mainly the posterior cerebral artery (PCA). Diagnosis of delayed progression of PCA stenosis in MMD may be difficult due to the diversity in clinical features. The goal of this study was to evaluate pediatric MMD patients with delayed PCA involvement after completion of revascularization of the anterior circulation. Forty-one pediatric MMD patients who underwent revascularization of the PCA territory due to delayed posterior circulation insufficiency MMD from 2006 to 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. The average interval between the initial operation and the occipital artery (OA) procedure was 5.0 years. Common symptoms were headaches and transient visual symptoms. The decision to operate was made based on a combination of diagnostic tools. The results obtained with perfusion MRI, SPECT, MR angiography, and EEG supported posterior circulation insufficiency in 78, 41, 73, and 71% of patients, respectively. Encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis (EDAS) using the OA was performed in 15 patients, and 26 patients received multiple burr hole trephination of the occipital area. All patients showed clinical improvement. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of delayed involvement of the PCA in pediatric MMD patients. The clinical decision regarding treatment should be based on a combination of symptomatology and the results obtained with various tools to assess whether the blood flow in the PCA territory is insufficient. Surgical treatment using indirect revascularization appears to be effective for patients with delayed PCA involvement.
Bro, Søren Pauli; Bille, Jesper; Petersen, Kristian Bruun
30% of the patients presenting with epistaxis at emergency wards and otorhinolaryngeal specialist departments have posterior bleeding. Traditional treatment with packing often leads to initial treatment failure, and many patients experience recurrent bleeding within the following month. Recurrent posterior epistaxis should be treated with local electrocautery or endoscopic ligation of the sphenopalatine artery to reduce patient discomfort, hospital stay, risk of treatment failure and recurrence.
Malagón Valdez, Jorge
The term cerebral palsy (CP), is used for a great number of clinical neurological syndromes. The syndromes are characterized by having a common cause, motor defects. It is important, because they can cause a brain damage by presenting motor defects and some associated deficiencies, such as mental deficiency, epilepsy, language and visual defects and pseudobulbar paralysis, with the non-evolving fact. Some authors prefer using terms such as "non-evolving encephalopathies". In the treatment the utility of prevention programs of early stimulation and special rehabilitation methods, and treatment of associated deficiencies such as epilepsy, mental deficiency, language, audition and visual problems, and the attention deficit improve the prognosis in an important way. The prognosis depends on the severity of the disease and the associated manifestations.
Yamamoto, Y; Satoh, T; Asari, S; Sadamoto, K
Cranial computed tomography has been mainly used for detection of the parenchymal space-occupying lesion, and has had the limitation of detection of the cerebrovascular lesion itself because of low CT resolution. However, high resolution CT scanners have recently brought us the possibility of definition of fine cerebral vessels on CT images using an appropriate injection method of contrast agents (cerebral computed angiotomography). This paper concerns the normal anatomy of the cerebral vasculature on CT images using 9 fresh cadavers with normal intracranial structures. They received the postmortem injection of contrast agents through bilateral common carotid and vertebral arteries, and were undertaken the multiplane CT scanning with the axial, modified coronal, Towne (half-axial) and the semisagittal projections using GE-CT/T 8800 (9.6 sec scanning time, 320 x 320 matrices). The normal anatomy of cerebral vessels on the axial plane, obtained at the levels 10 to 90 mm above the canthomeatal line, is presented in this paper. Main visualized vessels in the posterior fossa were the basilar artery, the cranial loop of the PICA, the AICA from the origin to the hemispheric branches including the meatal loop in the cerebellopontine angle cistern, and the SCA from the ambient and quadrigeminal segments to the lateral marginal and superior hemispheric branches. The circle of Willis and other main cerebral arteries were clearly visualized with their small branches, for example, the posterior communicating, the anterior choroidal and the lenticulostriate arteries. Deep cerebral veins were also visualized at the levels of the midbrain, the middle and the roof of third ventricle, and the body of lateral ventricle. Postmortem cerebral computed angiotomography provided us not only the precise anatomy of the cerebral vasculatures, but also their anatomic relations with the surrounding structures such as cerebral parenchyma, ventricles, cisterns and other subarachnoid spaces. On
Wagner, Jan; Elger, Christian E; Urbach, Horst; Bien, Christian G
Gray matter heterotopia are a common cause of pharmacoresistant epilepsy. Recently, several case studies have addressed the question of whether heterotopia can contribute to physiological cerebral functions. We describe two cases that demonstrate a functional role for periventricular heterotopia in higher cognitive processes. During presurgical diagnostics, two patients underwent electric stimulation of both the periventricular heterotopia and the overlying cortex. This revealed a functional role of periventricular heterotopia in higher cerebral functions such as language and complex visual and acoustic processing. Furthermore, stimulation of the overlying cortex led to unusually intense positive phenomena, including complex acoustic and gustatory hallucinations and language production. These cases illustrate that periventricular heterotopic neurons can contribute to higher cerebral functions. Interestingly, the anterior-to-posterior representation of these functions is comparable to the normal anterior-to-posterior representation in a normal neocortex (similar to a periventricular "minicortex" in early developmental stages).
Levine, S.R.; Welch, K.M.; Ewing, J.R.; Joseph, R.; D'Andrea, G.
Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) asymmetries were studied in controls and patients with common and classic/complicated migraine using /sup 133/Xe inhalation with 8 homologously situated external collimators over each cerebral hemisphere. Migraine patients as a group more frequently had posterior rCBF asymmetries than controls (p less than 0.03). Although there were no differences in the number of anterior rCBF asymmetries, migraine patients had 2 or more asymmetric probe pairs more often than controls (p less than 0.02). The posterior rCBF asymmetries, consistent with the site of activation of many migraine attacks, may be related to more labile control of the cerebral circulation.
Hill, J David; Lovejoy, John F; Kelly, Robert A
Recurrent posterior glenohumeral instability is uncommon and is often misdiagnosed. Damage to the posterior capsule, posteroinferior glenohumeral ligament, and posterior labrum have all been implicated as sources of traumatic posterior instability. We describe a case of traumatic recurrent posterior instability resulting from a posterior Bankart lesion accompanied by posterior humeral avulsion of the glenohumeral ligaments. The Bankart lesion was repaired using a single arthroscopic suture anchor at the glenoid articular margin. The posterior humeral avulsion of the glenohumeral ligaments was addressed with 3 suture anchors placed at the capsular origin at the posterior humeral head. Using these anchors, the posterior capsule was advanced laterally and superiorly for a secure repair. Arthroscopic anatomic reconstruction of both lesions resulted in an excellent clinical outcome.
Padia, Reema; Smith, Marshall E
Dysphonia secondary to posterior glottic insufficiency (PGI) can be difficult to identify and correct. Inadequate arytenoid approximation from medial arytenoid erosion results in a breathy, soft voice. The anatomical location of the gap is difficult to correct by vocal fold injection laryngoplasty. This study reviews the presentation, evaluation, and treatment for pediatric patients who were identified with PGI. An Institutional Review Board-approved chart review was performed on all patients who were diagnosed with PGI at our institution from 2013 to 2015. We studied the presentation, workup, and treatment for these patients, including laryngoscopy, parent or patient-based voice impairment ratings, and response to treatment. Seven patients were identified. Erosion of the medial arytenoid was identified on microlaryngoscopy for all of these patients. The patients had suboptimal improvement from injection laryngoplasty. Three patients underwent surgical correction with an endoscopic posterior cricoid reduction laryngoplasty (EPCRL) with significant improvement in voice, assessed by perceptual, laryngoscopic, and patient-based measures. The key diagnostic procedures to identify posterior glottic insufficiency include laryngoscopic findings of a posterior glottal gap, microlaryngoscopy with close inspection of the posterior glottis and medial arytenoids, and suboptimal response to injection laryngoplasty. The EPCRL is an effective procedure to treat dysphonia from PGI.
Granata, Guido; Greco, Antonio; Iannella, Giannicola; Granata, Massimo; Manno, Alessandra; Savastano, Ersilia; Magliulo, Giuseppe
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome is a rare clinicoradiological entity characterized by typical MRI findings located in the occipital and parietal lobes, caused by subcortical vasogenic edema. It was first described as a distinctive syndrome by Hinchey in 1996. Etiopathogenesis is not clear, although it is known that it is an endotheliopathy of the posterior cerebral vasculature leading to failed cerebral autoregulation, posterior edema and encephalopathy. A possible pathological activation of the immune system has been recently hypothesized in its pathogenesis. At clinical onset, the most common manifestations are seizures, headache and visual changes. Besides, tinnitus and acute vertigo have been frequently reported. Symptoms can be reversible but cerebral hemorrhage or ischemia may occur. Diagnosis is based on magnetic resonance imaging, in the presence of acute development of clinical neurologic symptoms and signs and arterial hypertension and/or toxic associated conditions with possible endotheliotoxic effects. Mainstay on the treatment is removal of the underlying cause. Further investigation and developments in endothelial cell function and in neuroimaging of cerebral blood flow are needed and will help to increase our understanding of pathophysiology, possibly suggesting novel therapies.
Lochner, Piergiorgio; Golaszewski, Stefan; Caleri, Francesca; Ladurner, Gunther; Tezzon, Frediano; Zuccoli, Giulio; Nardone, Raffaele
Little attention has been given to the fetal-type posterior circle of Willis (FTP) in the literature; also symptomatic basilar artery (BA) hypoplasia has been rarely reported. We aimed to illustrate that the association of a hypoplastic vertebrobasilar system (VBS) with the FTP may lead to posterior circulation ischemia. Magnetic resonance imaging and three-dimensional time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography were performed in 88 consecutive patients with ischemic stroke or TIA in the VBS. Thirteen patients were identified with either stroke or TIA in the context of a hypoplastic VBS and a fetal origin of the posterior cerebral arteries. All patients had unilateral or bilateral FTP, hypoplastic BA and at least one hypoplastic vertebral artery. Transcranial color-coded duplex revealed decreased flow velocity and increased pulsatility index along the BA. A hypoplastic VBS may be accompanied by the FTP and its simultaneous occurrence can predispose to ischemic events in the posterior circulation.
Douglas, Pamela Sylvia
Currently, many clinicians who help with breastfeeding problems are diagnosing "posterior" tongue-tie in infants and performing or referring for frenotomy. In this "Speaking Out" article, I argue that the diagnosis of "posterior" tongue-tie has successfully raised awareness of the importance of impaired tongue function in breastfeeding difficulty. However, the diagnosis of "posterior" tongue-tie also applies a reductionist, medicalized theoretical frame to the complex problem of impaired tongue function, risking unintended outcomes. Impaired tongue function arises out of multiple interacting and co-evolving factors, including the interplay between social behaviors concerning breastfeeding and mother-infant biology. Consideration of theoretical frames is vital if we are to build an evidence base through efficient use of the scarce resources available for clinical breastfeeding research and minimize unintended outcomes.
Petrov, Yuriy; Prough, Donald S.; Petrov, Irene Y.; Richardson, C. Joan; Fonseca, Rafael A.; Robertson, Claudia S.; Esenaliev, Rinat O.
Noninvasive, transcranial mapping, monitoring, and imaging are highly important for detection and management of cerebral abnormalities and neuroscience research. Mapping, imaging, and monitoring of cerebral blood oxygenation are necessary for diagnostics and management of patients with traumatic brain injury, stroke, and other neurological conditions. We proposed to use optoacoustic technology for noninvasive, transcranial monitoring and imaging. In this work, we developed optoacoustic systems for mapping of cerebral blood oxygenation in humans and tested them in adults and neonates. The systems provide noninvasive, transcranial optoacoustic measurements in the transmission (forward) and reflection (backward) modes in the near infrared spectral range. Novel, ultra-sensitive probes were built for detection of optoacoustic signals and measurement of blood oxygenation in neonates and adults. Cerebral oxygenation was measured at different lateral sites from the superior sagittal sinus (SSS), a large central cerebral vein, located immediately beneath the midline of the human skull. In neonates, cerebral oxygenation was measured through open anterior and posterior fontanelles. Optoacoustic signal detection at different locations allowed for mapping of cerebral blood oxygenation. Our future studies will be focused on 3D mapping of cerebral blood oxygenation.
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Khan, Nadia; Lober, Robert M; Ostergren, Lauren; Petralia, Jacob; Bell-Stephens, Teresa; Navarro, Ramon; Feroze, Abdullah; Steinberg, Gary K
Moyamoya disease causes progressive occlusion of the supraclinoidal internal carotid artery, and middle, anterior, and less frequently the posterior cerebral arteries, carrying the risk of stroke. Blood flow is often partially reconstituted by compensatory moyamoya collaterals and sometimes the posterior circulation. Cerebral revascularization can further augment blood flow. These changes to blood flow within the cerebral vessels, however, are not well characterized. To evaluate blood flow changes resulting from the disease process and revascularization surgery using quantitative magnetic resonance angiography with noninvasive optimal vessel analysis (NOVA). We retrospectively analyzed 190 preoperative and postoperative imaging scans in 66 moyamoya patients after revascularization surgery. Images were analyzed for blood flow using NOVA and compared with preoperative angiographic staging and postoperative blood flow. Blood flow rates within superficial temporal artery grafts were compared based on angiographic evidence of patency. Diseased vessels had lower blood flow, correlating with angiographic staging. Flow in posterior cererbal and basilar arteries increased with disease severity, particularly when both the anterior and middle cerebral arteries were occluded. Basilar artery flow and ipsilateral internal carotid artery flow decreased after surgery. Flow rates were different between angiographically robust and poor direct bypass grafts, as well as between robust and patent grafts. Preoperative changes in cerebral vessel flow as measured by NOVA correlated with angiographic disease progression. NOVA demonstrated that preoperative augmentation of the posterior circulation decreased after surgery. This report is the first to quantify the shift in collateral supply from the posterior circulation to the bypass graft.
Golshani, Kiarash; Ferrell, Andrew; Zomorodi, Ali; Smith, Tony P.; Britz, Gavin W.
Background: Technical advancements have significantly improved surgical and endovascular treatment of cerebral aneurysms. In this paper, we review the literature with regard to treatment of one of the most common intra-cranial aneurysms encountered by neurosurgeons and interventional radiologists. Conclusions: Anterior clinoidectomy, temporary clipping, adenosine-induced cardiac arrest, and intraoperative angiography are useful adjuncts during surgical clipping of these aneurysms. Coil embolization is also an effective treatment alternative particularly in the elderly population. However, coiled posterior communicating artery aneurysms have a particularly high risk of recurrence and must be followed closely. Posterior communicating artery aneurysms with an elongated fundus, true posterior communicating artery aneurysms, and aneurysms associated with a fetal posterior communicating artery may have better outcome with surgical clipping in terms of completeness of occlusion and preservation of the posterior communicating artery. However, as endovascular technology improves, endovascular treatment of posterior communicating artery aneurysms may become equivalent or preferable in the near future. One in five patients with a posterior communicating artery aneurysm present with occulomotor nerve palsy with or without subarachnoid hemorrhage. Factors associated with a higher likelihood of recovery include time to treatment, partial third nerve deficit, and presence of subarachnoid hemorrhage. Both surgical and endovascular therapy offer a reasonable chance of recovery. Based on level 2 evidence, clipping appears to offer a higher chance of occulomotor nerve palsy recovery; however, coiling will remain as an option particularly in elderly patients or patients with significant comorbidity. PMID:21206898
Cavadas, Pedro C; Thione, Alessandro; Rubí, Carlos
Several technical modifications have been described to avoid complications and simplify dissection. The authors describe some technical tips that make posterior interosseous flap dissection safer and more straightforward. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Girotto, Vittorio; Gonzalez, Michael
Do young children have a basic intuition of posterior probability? Do they update their decisions and judgments in the light of new evidence? We hypothesized that they can do so extensionally, by considering and counting the various ways in which an event may or may not occur. The results reported in this paper showed that from the age of five,…
Girotto, Vittorio; Gonzalez, Michael
Do young children have a basic intuition of posterior probability? Do they update their decisions and judgments in the light of new evidence? We hypothesized that they can do so extensionally, by considering and counting the various ways in which an event may or may not occur. The results reported in this paper showed that from the age of five,…
Agner, Celso; Dujovny, Manuel; Evenhouse, Raymond; Charbel, Fady T.; Sadler, Lewis
Posterior fossa cranioplasty has been suggested for improvement of neurological symptoms following craniectomy. However, there is no particular recommendation in the literature about techniques for prosthesis manufacture and implantation. We report our experience using rapid prototyping technology and stereolithography for pre-surgical implant design and production of cranioplasties. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5 PMID:17171056
... CPR: A Real Lifesaver Kids Talk About: Coaches Cerebral Palsy KidsHealth > For Kids > Cerebral Palsy Print A A A What's in this article? ... the first word you spoke? For kids with cerebral palsy, called CP for short, taking a first step ...
This special edition of "The Networker" contains several articles focusing on aging and cerebral palsy (CP). "Aging and Cerebral Palsy: Pathways to Successful Aging" (Jenny C. Overeynder) reports on the National Invitational Colloquium on Aging and Cerebral Palsy held in April 1993. "Observations from an Observer" (Kathleen K. Barrett) describes…
Gocmen, Rahsan; Ardicli, Didem; Erarslan, Yasin; Duzova, Ali; Anlar, Banu
The posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a well-known clinical and radiologic entity mainly affecting the territory of the posterior cerebral circulation. Spinal cord involvement is extremely rare, and as of yet, only a few cases have been reported in the literature. The present case describes a reversible, longitudinal spinal cord lesion in a patient with high blood pressure. We discuss the differential diagnosis of longitudinal myelopathy and focus on the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management of the "spinal cord variant of PRES." Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
O'Shaughnessy, Brian A; Getch, Christopher C; Bendok, Bernard R; Batjer, H Hunt
Intracranial aneurysms arising from the posterior wall of the supraclinoid carotid artery are extremely common lesions. The aneurysm dilation typically occurs in immediate proximity to the origin of the posterior communicating artery and, less commonly, the anterior choroidal artery (AChA). Because of the increasingly widespread use of noninvasive neuroimaging methods to evaluate patients believed to harbor cerebral lesions, many of these carotid artery aneurysms are now documented in their unruptured state, prior to occurrence of subarachnoid hemorrhage. Based on these factors, the management of unruptured posterior carotid artery (PCA) wall aneurysms is an important element of any neurosurgical practice. Despite impressive recent advances in endovascular therapy, the placement of microsurgical clips to exclude aneurysms with preservation of all afferent and efferent vasculature remains the most efficacious and durable therapy. To date, an optimal outcome is only achieved when the neurosurgeon is able to combine systematic preoperative neurovascular assessment with meticulous operative technique. In this report, the authors review their surgical approach to PCA wall aneurysms, which is greatly based on the extensive neurovascular experience of the senior author. Focus is placed on their methods of preoperative evaluation and operative technique, with emphasis on neurovascular anatomy and the significance of oculomotor nerve compression. They conclude by discussing surgery-related complications, with a particular focus on intraoperative rupture of aneurysms and their management, and the postoperative ischemic AChA syndrome.
Ichikawa, Yoshikazu; Takanashi, Taiji; Mihara, Etsuko; Shoji, Takuro; Kinoshita, Kaori; Shimizu, Yasutaka
Alexia with agraphia usually represents damage in angular gyrus. We report an unusual case of alexia with agraphia caused by a posterior inferior temporal lesion. A 82-year-old, right-handed man was admitted because of reading disorder. Visual acuity was 0.7 OD and 0.7 OS. Goldmann perimetry revealed right homonymous upper quadrantanopsia. Standard Language Test of Aphasia revealed mild anomia and severe alexia with agraphia for kanji. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated left temporal and posterior infarction in the posterior cerebral artery region. Single photon emission computed tomography revealed decreased blood flow in the left inferior temporal, parahippocampal, fusiform, lingual and inferior occipital gyri. There were no significant lesions nor any decreased of blood flow in the angular gyrus. It is suggested that reading and writing of ideograms such as Kanji is related not only to the angular gyrus but also to the posterior inferior temporal lobe and medial posterior lobe of the visual cortex.
Langguth, Berthold; Juttner, Martin; Landis, Theodor; Regard, Marianne; Rentschler, Ingo
Hemispheric differences in the learning and generalization of pattern categories were explored in two experiments involving sixteen patients with unilateral posterior, cerebral lesions in the left (LH) or right (RH) hemisphere. In each experiment participants were first trained to criterion in a supervised learning paradigm to categorize a set of…
Langguth, Berthold; Juttner, Martin; Landis, Theodor; Regard, Marianne; Rentschler, Ingo
Hemispheric differences in the learning and generalization of pattern categories were explored in two experiments involving sixteen patients with unilateral posterior, cerebral lesions in the left (LH) or right (RH) hemisphere. In each experiment participants were first trained to criterion in a supervised learning paradigm to categorize a set of…
Reinhard, Matthias; Schork, Joscha; Allignol, Arthur; Weiller, Cornelius; Kaube, Holger
Silent ischemic brain lesions frequently occur in migraine with aura and are most often located in cerebellar border zones. This may imply an impairment of cerebellar blood flow autoregulation. This study investigated the characteristics of interictal cerebellar autoregulation in migraine with and without aura. Thirty-four patients (n=17, migraine without aura; n=17, migraine with aura) and 35 age- and sex-matched controls were studied. Triple simultaneous transcranial Doppler monitoring of one posterior inferior cerebellar artery, right posterior cerebral artery, and left middle cerebral artery was performed. Autoregulation dynamics were assessed from spontaneous blood pressure fluctuations (correlation coefficient index Dx) and from respiratory-induced 0.1-Hz blood pressure oscillations (phase and gain). Compared with controls, the autoregulatory index Dx was higher (indicating less autoregulation) in the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (P=0.0062) and middle cerebral artery (P=0.0078) in migraine with aura, but not in migraine without aura. Phase and gain did not significantly differ between migraine patients and controls. No significant associations of autoregulation with clinical factors were found, including frequency of migraine attacks and orthostatic intolerance. This first-time analysis of cerebellar autoregulation in migraine did not show a specific cerebellar dysautoregulation in the interictal period. More static autoregulatory properties (index Dx) are, however, impaired in persons with migraine with aura both in the cerebellar and anterior circulation. The cerebellar predilection of ischemic lesions in migraine with aura might be a combination of altered autoregulation and additional factors, such as the end artery cerebellar angioarchitecture.
Lenzi, G.L.; Frackowiak, R.S.; Jones, T.
Fifteen patients with acute cerebral hemispheric infarcts have been studied with positron emission tomography and the /sup 15/O steady-state inhalation technique. Thirteen follow-up studies were also performed. The values of cerebral oxygen metabolism (CMRO/sub 2/), cerebral blood flow (CBF), and oxygen extraction ration (OER) have been calculated for the infarcted regions, their borders, the symmetrical regions in contralateral cerebral hemispheres, and the cerebellar hemispheres. This study demonstrates that in the completed stroke there are thresholds for regional CMRO/sub 2/ and regional CBF below which the general clinical outcome of the patients is usually poor. The ischaemic lesions invariably produce an uncoupling between the greatly decreased metabolic demand and the less affected blood supply, with very frequent instances of relative hyperperfusion. Remote effects of the hemispheric infarcts have been demonstrated, such as crossed cerebellar diaschisis and contralateral transhemispheric depression. The level of consciousness correlates with oxygen uptake and blood flow both in the posterior fossa and in the contralateral cerebral hemispheres. The follow-up studies of individual patients underline the high variability of metabolism-to-flow balance during the acute phase of the illness, and stress the need for more studies focused on repeated assessments of homogeneous patient populations.
Sextro, F; Erceg, J; Hamann, G F
In a 40-year-old man with delirium, right-sided facial palsy and anisocoria (right > left) were noticed. He had been suffering from headaches for four weeks prior to admission. The patient's HI-virus status was positive and he used illicit drugs regularly. Therefore, the symptoms were initially thought to be drug-induced. EXAMINATION AND DIAGNOSIS: Laboratory tests showed a pleocytosis of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) with 929 cells/µl. The MRI of the brain revealed several ischemic strokes in the territories of the middle cerebral artery and posterior cerebral artery in the left hemisphere. A highly positive IgG CSF/serum index confirmed the diagnosis of neurosyphilis. An antibiotic regime with penicillin was administered, during which the clinical symptoms remitted and the liquor pleocytosis nearly normalized. The intracranial stenoses persisted for three months even after therapy with nimodipine, atorvastatin, and antibiotics. Therefore they are presumed to be a result of the lues-associated vasculitis. In patients with delirium the initially suspected underlying condition needs to be challenged. Early cerebral MRI, lumbar puncture and ultrasound of the cerebral arteries are mandatory to exclude menigoencephalitis. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Chi, Ying; Lu, Zu-Neng
Objective To examine patency of the cerebral anterior and posterior communicating arteries in patients with ischaemic stroke with or without diabetes mellitus. Methods This retrospective study included patients with acute ischaemic stroke treated between July 2011 and May 2016. Cerebral infarction was evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging. Anterior and posterior communicating-artery patency was determined using magnetic resonance angiography. Vessels were defined as patent or occluded. Results Out of 1 406 patients, incidence of vertebral basilar artery brain infarction and posterior cerebral artery brain infarction were significantly higher in patients with diabetes versus those without diabetes (35.5% versus 22.3% and 11.7% versus 6.8%, respectively). Among patients with posterior cerebral artery brain infarction, anterior and posterior communicating-artery patency rates were higher in patients with diabetes versus those without diabetes (66.7 versus 23.5% and 33.3% versus 5.9% [bilateral], respectively). Among patients with vertebral basilar artery infarction and posterior cerebral artery P1 segment infarction, patency rate of the anterior communicating artery was higher in patients with diabetes versus those without diabetes (55.7% versus 45.9%). Conclusion Among patients with ischaemic stroke, patency rate of the circle of Willis may be higher in patients with diabetes than those without diabetes.
Kulenović, Amela; Dilberović, Faruk; Ovcina, Fehim
We used injection and corrosion method to study path, caliber and branching of anterior and middle cerebral artery, which supplies anterior two thirds of medial and external surface of cerebral hemispheres and associated subcortical structures. When we studied our specimens, we observed that internal carotid artery always bifurcates and gives anterior and middle cerebral artery. Precommunicant segment of anterior cerebral artery has variable appearance. In 65 percent this path of anterior cerebral artery is arch shaped with convexity laterally and forward, but in 44 percent it is straight and oblique in direction. We observer that in 1 percent of cases precommunicant segment of anterior cerebral artery has wavey path. In one percent of the cases anterior third of pericallosal artery is branching from anterior communicating artery. This third pericallosal artery is smaller than the other pair of pericallosal arteries branching from anterior cerebral artery. Initial segment of middle cerebral artery(pars sphenoidalis) is 2.5 cm long. In 70 percent of cases terminal part of sphenidal segment of middle cerebral artery bifurcates, in 30 percent of cases we studied this segment trifucates. Insular segment of the middle cerebral artery branches into several segments which are narrower. When we studied our specimens we found one rare variation branching from middle cerebral artery where it bifurcated into anterior smaller and posterior larger branch, than they divide into multiple smaller branches in periinsular segment.
Chen, Xiaofang; Bi, Hongye; Zhang, Meiyun; Liu, Haiyan; Wang, Xueying; Zu, Ruonan
The purpose of this study is to investigate the incidence of sleep disorders (SD), characteristic of cerebral infarction patients with different parts affected. The research selected 101 patients with a first occurrence of acute cerebral infarction as the experimental group, and 86 patients without cerebral infarction as controls. Polysomnography, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, and US National Stroke Scale were assessed. Compared with control group, the incidence of SD was higher in experimental group (P < .05), and the incidence of SD in women was more frequent in experimental group (P < .05). There was no significant difference in the types of SD patients with acute cerebral infarction. In addition, the sleep quality of cerebral infarction patients with different parts affected was different: the sleep quality of left hemisphere infarction patients was poor compared with the right one, and the sleep quality of anterior circulation patients was poor compared with posterior circulation patients. Patients with thalamus infarction had a longer sleep time and a shorter sleep latency and stage 2 of non-rapid eye movement sleep compared with non-thalamus infarction group. The prevalence of SD was relatively high in acute cerebral infarction patients, and the detailed classification of acute cerebral infarction may provide a more effective therapeutic method and therefore relieve patients' pain and supply a better quality of sleep. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ishi, Yukitomo; Sugiyama, Taku; Echizenya, Sumire; Yokoyama, Yuka; Asaoka, Katsuyuki; Itamoto, Koji
Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome(RCVS)is characterized by severe headache and diffuse segmental constriction of cerebral arteries that resolves spontaneously within a few months. Although manifestations of stroke are not included in diagnostic criteria of RCVS, it is known that some cases may be associated with stroke, including intracerebral hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage, or cerebral infarction. We present three cases of RCVS associated with various types of stroke, and then review the literature. Case 1:A 49-year-old woman presented with a headache followed by left hemiparesis and dysarthria. One month before the onset, she was transfused for severe anemia caused by uterus myoma. CT images revealed intracerebral hemorrhages in the right putamen and right occipital lobe. Angiography revealed multiple segmental constrictions of the cerebral arteries. One month after the onset, these vasoconstrictions improved spontaneously. Case 2:A postpartum 38-year-old woman who had a history of migraine presented with thunderclap headache. Imaging revealed a focal subarachnoid hemorrhage in the right postcentral sulcus and segmental vasoconstriction of the right middle cerebral artery. One week after the onset, this vasoconstriction improved spontaneously. Case 3:A 32-year-old woman who had a history of migraine presented with headache followed by left homonymous hemianopsia. Imaging revealed a cerebral infarction of the right occipital lobe and multiple constrictions of the right posterior cerebral artery. These vasoconstrictions gradually improved spontaneously.
Phillips, Flip; Voshell, Martin G
The study of spatial vision is a long and well traveled road (which, of course, converges to a vanishing point at the horizon). Its various distortions have been widely investigated empirically, and most concentrate, pragmatically, on the space anterior to the observer. The visual world behind the observer has received relatively less attention and it is this perspective the current experiments address. Our results show systematic perceptual distortions in the posterior visual world when viewed statically. Under static viewing conditions, observer's perceptual representation was consistently 'spread' in a hyperbolic fashion. Directions to distant, peripheral locations were consistently overestimated by about 11 degrees from the ground truth and this variability increased as the target was moved toward the center of the observer's back. The perceptual representation of posterior visual space is, no doubt, secondary to the more immediate needs of the anterior visual world. Still, it is important in some domains including certain sports, such as rowing, and in vehicular navigation.
Moore, D F; Herscovitch, P; Schiffmann, R
Fabry disease is an X-linked recessive deficiency of lysosomal alpha-galactosidase A associated with an increased risk of early onset cerebrovascular disease. The disorder is reported to affect the posterior circulation predominantly. This hypothesis was investigated directly by the measurement of regional cerebral blood flow with positron emission tomography (PET). Resting regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in 26 hemizygous patients with Fabry disease and 10 control participants was examined using H(2)15O and PET. Statistical parametric mapping (SPM(t), SPM99) and PET images of patients and controls were produced. Significantly increased SPM(t) clusters were then color coded and blended with a coregistered T1 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) template. Cerebral arterial territory maps were digitized and rescaled. Custom OpenGL and ImageVision Library C++ code was written to allow a first-order affine transformation of the blended SPM(t) and MRI template onto the arterial territory map. The affine transformation was constrained by choosing corresponding cerebral landmark "tie points" between the SPM(t) [symbol: see text] MRI template images and the cerebral arterial territory maps. The data demonstrated that the posterior circulation is the predominant arterial territory with a significantly increased rCBF in Fabry disease. No arterial distribution had a decreased rCBF.
Herrmann, Stephen; Petrov, Irene Y.; Petrov, Yuriy; Richardson, C. Joan; Fonseca, Rafael A.; Prough, Donald S.; Esenaliev, Rinat O.
Cerebral hypoxia is a major contributor to neonatal/infant mortality and morbidity including severe neurological complications such as mental retardation, cerebral palsy, motor impairment, and epilepsy. Currently, no technology is capable of accurate monitoring of neonatal cerebral oxygenation. We proposed to use optoacoustics for this application by probing the superior sagittal sinus (SSS), a large central cerebral vein. We developed and built a multi-wavelength, optical parametric oscillator (OPO) and laser diode optoacoustic systems for measurement of SSS blood oxygenation in the reflection mode through open anterior or posterior fontanelles and in the transmission mode through the skull in the occipital area. In this paper we present results of initial tests of the laser diode system for neonatal cerebral oxygenation measurements. First, the system was tested in phantoms simulating neonatal SSS. Then, using the data obtained in the phantoms, we optimized the system's hardware and software and tested it in neonates admitted in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. The laser diode system was capable of detecting SSS signals in the reflection mode through the open anterior and posterior fontanelles as well as in the transmission mode through the skull with high signal-to-noise ratio. Using the signals measured at different wavelengths and algorithms developed for oxygenation measurements, the laser diode system provided real-time, continuous oxygenation monitoring with high precision at all these locations.
Zeppa, Pio; Fonio, Paolo; Giganti, Melchiore; Cotroneo, Antonio Raffaele; Genovese, Eugenio Annibale; Stabile Ianora, Antonio Amato
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a well recognized neurotoxic state coupled with a unique neuroradiological appearance. This syndrome is associated with a broad spectrum of complex conditions (preeclampsia/eclampsia, bone marrow/organ transplantation, chemotherapy, autoimmune disease). We report the case of a female patient who developed PRES in the setting of severe infection, and we discuss the possible mechanisms underlying the development of cerebral edema by describing the inherent neuroradiological features.
Delgado, Miguel E.; Del Brutto, Oscar H.
An 18-year-old man developed posterior reversible leukoencephalopaty after being bitten by a venomous snake (Bothrops asper). It is possible that this previously unrecognized neurological complication of snake bite envenoming occurred as the result of endothelial dysfunction induced by the venom of the offending snake. This pathogenetic mechanism has also been implicated as the cause of cerebral infarctions in snake bite victims. Alternatively, the leukoencephalopathy might have been a complication of antivenom therapy. PMID:22403325
Vergura, Michele; Prencipe, Michele; Del Giudice, Antonio Maria; Grifa, Rachele; Miscio, Filomena; Pennelli, Anna Maria; Popolizio, Teresa; Simeone, Anna; Ferrara, Mariangela; Leone, Maurizio; Aucella, Filippo
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a clinical-radiological syndrome, usually reversible, characterized by vasogenic oedema in cerebral posterior regions in patients with autoimmune diseases, nephropathies, hypertensive crisis, eclampsia and exposure to cytotoxic drugs. The main symptoms are: headache, nausea, vomiting, seizures, visual disturbance and altered consciousness. Complications as cerebral hemorrhage and recurrences are rare. We describe a case of a 65 years old woman, affected by chronic kidney disease, recently exacerbated, diabetes and hypertension in treatment, who showed an heterogeneous clinical presentation with vomiting, headache, blurred vision and impaired consciousness during an episode of acute hypertension. After an adjustement of the antihypertensive treatment we observed a regression of symptoms in one week. FLAIR sequences on MRI showed cerebral bilateral vasogenic oedema in posterior regions, typical for PRES. This case was suggestive for PRES and a prompt adjustement of the antihypertensive treatment was critical for clinical recovery. Brain MRI was crucial for diagnosis. It is important for clinicians to recognize PRES as a possible complication of renal disease and hypertensive crisis. Copyright by Società Italiana di Nefrologia SIN, Rome, Italy.
Drazin, Doniel; Alexander, Michael J
Drug abuse represents a significant health issue. Evidence suggests that recreational drug use has a direct effect on the cerebral vasculature and is of greater concern in those with undiagnosed aneurysms or vascular malformations. The authors report a case of thunderclap headache with a negative head CT and equivocal lumbar puncture after a drug-fueled weekend. The patient underwent diagnostic cerebral angiogram which demonstrated multisegmental, distal areas of focal narrowing of the middle, anterior, posterior, and posterior inferior cerebral artery and an incidental aneurysm. It is often difficult to determine the exact origin of symptoms; thus we were left with a bit of a chicken or the egg debate, trying to decipher which part came first. Either the aneurysm ruptured with associated concomitant vasospasm or it is a case of Call-Fleming syndrome (reversible cerebral artery vasoconstriction) with an incidental aneurysm. The authors proposed their management and rationale of this complex case.
Hatab, Mustapha R; Zeeman, Gerda G; Twickler, Diane M
To determine the effect of a 6 gram intravenous bolus of magnesium sulfate on maternal cerebral blood flow in women with preeclampsia. Velocity-encoded phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging studies were performed on twelve preeclamptic women prior to and immediately after infusion of a 6 gram magnesium sulfate loading dose. Cerebral blood flow was determined at the bilateral proximal middle and posterior cerebral arteries. Study participants returned 6 weeks postpartum for a non-pregnant measurement of cerebral blood flow. The Wilcoxon paired-sample test was used with statistical significance defined as p<0.05. There was no significant difference in cerebral vessel diameter nor blood flow for any of the examined arteries between the pre- and post magnesium sulfate therapy states. The absence of a significant difference in cerebral blood flow of the middle and posterior cerebral arteries before and after infusion of a 6 gram loading dose of magnesium sulfate in women with preeclampsia could suggest the absence of vasoconstriction of the large cerebral arteries in preeclampsia and question the role of magnesium sulfate as a vasodilator of these arteries.
Ruiz-Juretschke, Fernando; Arístegui, Miguel; García-Leal, Roberto; Fernández-Carballal, Carlos; Lowy, Alejandro; Martin-Oviedo, Carlos; Panadero, Teresa
Cerebral salt wasting (CSW) is a rare complication in posterior fossa tumour surgery. We present two patients with cerebellopontine angle (CPA) tumours who developed cerebral salt wasting postoperatively. Both patients deteriorated in spite of intensive fluid and salt replacement. On CT scan the patients presented mild to moderate ventricular dilation, which was treated with an external ventricular drainage. After the resolution of hydrocephalus, fluid balance rapidly returned to normal in both patients and the clinical status improved. Identification and treatment of secondary obstructive hydrocephalus may contribute to the management of CSW associated to posterior fossa tumour surgery.
Nas, Omer Fatih; Ozturk, Kerem; Gokalp, Gokhan; Hakyemez, Bahattin
Management options for brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are surgery, radiosurgery, and endovascular embolization. The aim of partial embolization in endovascular treatment is to make total resection possible. However, increased risk of bleeding in partial embolization creates some controversies about treatment options. Spontaneous total occlusion of cerebral AVMs following partial obliteration with embolization agents is a rarely seen condition. We present a case with an AVM vanishing from right posterior cerebral artery which spontaneously occluded following partial embolization with Onyx liquid agent.
Laakso, Elina; Pekkola, Johanna; Soinne, Lauri; Putaala, Jukka
Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) is increasingly recognized. The condition is characterized by multifocal vasoconstriction lesions in cerebral arteries. Headache is the central symptom, with an acute onset and paroxysmal occurrence. Some of the patients develop intracranial hemorrhage, ischemic disturbance of the cerebral circulation, hypertensive encephalopathy (PRES) or epileptic seizures as complications. The disease is most common in middle-aged women. Most patients have an underlying predisposing factor, most commonly vasoactive medications, drugs or puerperium. There is no evidence-based practice.
Tucker, John A; Tucker, Sean T
The existence of the posterior commissure (PC) of the human larynx has been disputed (Hirano M, Sato K, et al. The posterior glottis. Trans Am Laryngol Assoc. 1986;107:70-75). "The term posterior commissure has no relevance to anatomical structure. The term commissure means a joining together. The bilateral vocal folds never join at their posterior ends. The posterior aspect of the glottis is a wall. The posterior lateral aspect of the posterior glottis is also the lateral wall of the posterior glottis" (Hirano M, Sato K, et al. The posterior glottis. Trans Am Laryngol Assoc. 1986;107:70-75). This study is intended to clarify the development of anatomical and morphological aspects of the PC in conjunction with a clinical classification of the larynx in sagittal view. This study uses human embryo and fetal laryngeal sections from the Carnegie Collection of Human Embryos (the world standard) and whole organ laryngeal sections from the Tucker Laryngeal Fetal Collection. Correlation of histologic and gross anatomical structure is made with the Hirano et al atlas, the Vidić Photographic Atlas of the Human Body, and the O'Rahilly Embryonic Atlas. Embryologic data clearly describe and illustrate the posterior union of the cricoid cartilage with formation of the PC. The anatomical functional aspects of the posterior lateral cricoid lamina as the supporting buttress of the articulating arytenoid cartilages are illustrated.
Giannopoulos, Sotirios; Katsanos, Aristeidis H; Tsivgoulis, Georgios; Marshall, Randolph S
HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) are associated with improved stroke outcome. This observation has been attributed in part to the palliative effect of statins on cerebral hemodynamics and cerebral autoregulation (CA), which are mediated mainly through the upregulation of endothelium nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). Several animal studies indicate that statin pretreatment enhances cerebral blood flow after ischemic stroke, although this finding is not further supported in clinical settings. Cerebral vasomotor reactivity, however, is significantly improved after long-term statin administration in most patients with severe small vessel disease, aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, or impaired baseline CA. PMID:22929438
Koukoulias, Nikolaos E; Papastergiou, Stergios G
The authors present a case of calcified posterior cruciate ligament (PCL). A 61-year-old female presented in our department reporting 12 months history of knee pain that was getting worse during the night. The patient was under medication for epileptic seizure, osteoporosis and hyperthyroidism. X-rays demonstrated calcification of the PCL. CT and MRI excluded any other intra-articular and extra-articular pathology. Arthroscopic debridement of the calcium deposits was performed and the symptoms resolved immediately, while the postoperative x-rays were normal. Histological examination confirmed the calcium nature of the lesion. Two years postoperatively the patient remains asymptomatic. PMID:22669889
Kuriyama, Shinichi; Ishikawa, Masahiro; Nakamura, Shinichiro; Furu, Moritoshi; Ito, Hiromu; Matsuda, Shuichi
During cruciate-retaining total knee arthroplasty, surgeons sometimes encounter increased tension of the posterior cruciate ligament. This study investigated the effects of femoral size, posterior tibial slope, and rotational alignment of the femoral and tibial components on forces at the posterior cruciate ligament in cruciate-retaining total knee arthroplasty using a musculoskeletal computer simulation. Forces at the posterior cruciate ligament were assessed with the standard femoral component, as well as with 2-mm upsizing and 2-mm downsizing in the anterior-posterior dimension. These forces were also determined with posterior tibial slope angles of 5°, 7°, and 9°, and lastly, were measured in 5° increments when the femoral (tibial) components were positioned from 5° (15°) of internal rotation to 5° (15°) of external rotation. Forces at the posterior cruciate ligament increased by up to 718N with the standard procedure during squatting. The 2-mm downsizing of the femoral component decreased the force at the posterior cruciate ligament by up to 47%. The 2° increment in posterior tibial slope decreased the force at the posterior cruciate ligament by up to 41%. In addition, posterior cruciate ligament tension increased by 11% during internal rotation of the femoral component, and increased by 18% during external rotation of the tibial component. These findings suggest that accurate sizing and bone preparation are very important to maintain posterior cruciate ligament forces in cruciate-retaining total knee arthroplasty. Care should also be taken regarding malrotation of the femoral and tibial components because this increases posterior cruciate ligament tension. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Semple, Ruth; Murley, George S; Woodburn, James; Turner, Deborah E
Tibialis posterior has a vital role during gait as the primary dynamic stabiliser of the medial longitudinal arch; however, the muscle and tendon are prone to dysfunction with several conditions. We present an overview of tibialis posterior muscle and tendon anatomy with images from cadaveric work on fresh frozen limbs and a review of current evidence that define normal and abnormal tibialis posterior muscle activation during gait. A video is available that demonstrates ultrasound guided intra-muscular insertion techniques for tibialis posterior electromyography. Current electromyography literature indicates tibialis posterior intensity and timing during walking is variable in healthy adults and has a disease-specific activation profile among different pathologies. Flat-arched foot posture and tibialis posterior tendon dysfunction are associated with greater tibialis posterior muscle activity during stance phase, compared to normal or healthy participants, respectively. Cerebral palsy is associated with four potentially abnormal profiles during the entire gait cycle; however it is unclear how these profiles are defined as these studies lack control groups that characterise electromyographic activity from developmentally normal children. Intervention studies show antipronation taping to significantly decrease tibialis posterior muscle activation during walking compared to barefoot, although this research is based on only four participants. However, other interventions such as foot orthoses and footwear do not appear to systematically effect muscle activation during walking or running, respectively. This review highlights deficits in current evidence and provides suggestions for the future research agenda. PMID:19691828
Knopman, D.S.; Rubens, A.B.; Selnes, O.A.; Klassen, A.C.; Meyer, M.W.
In 21 patients who suffered aphasia resulting from left hemisphere ischemic infarction, the xenon 133 inhalation cerebral blood flow technique was used to measure cerebral blood flow within 3 months and 5 to 12 months after stroke. In addition to baseline measurements, cerebral blood flow measurements were also carried out while the patients were performing purposeful listening. In patients with incomplete recovery of comprehension and left posterior temporal-inferior parietal lesions, greater cerebral blood flow occurred with listening in the right inferior frontal region in the late studies than in the early studies. In patients with nearly complete recovery of comprehension and without left posterior temporal-inferior parietal lesions, early listening studies showed diffuse right hemisphere increases in cerebral blood flow. Later listening studies in this latter patient group showed greater cerebral blood flow in the left posterior temporal-inferior parietal region. The study provides evidence for participation of the right hemisphere in language comprehension in recovering aphasics, and for later return of function in left hemisphere regions that may have been functionally impaired early during recovery.
Pollok, Bettina; Gross, Joachim; Dirks, Martin; Timmermann, Lars; Schnitzler, Alfons
It has recently been shown that resting tremor in Parkinson's disease is associated with oscillatory neural coupling in an extensive cerebral network comprising a cerebello–diencephalic–cortical loop and cortical motor, somatosensory and posterior parietal areas contralateral to the tremor hand. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether this oscillatory brain network exclusively reflects a pathophysiological state in parkinsonian resting tremor or whether it constitutes a fundamental feature of physiological motor control. We investigated cerebro-muscular and cerebro-cerebral coupling in 11 healthy subjects imitating typical antagonistic parkinsonian tremor. We recorded brain activity with a 122-channel whole-head neuromagnetometer and surface EMGs of the forearm extensor. Analysis of cerebro-muscular and cerebro-cerebral coherence revealed oscillatory coupling in the same brain structures that comprise the oscillatory network of parkinsonian resting tremor. Interestingly, similar to parkinsonian resting tremor, cerebro-cerebral coherences often showed a significant peak at twice the simulated tremor frequency. The most striking differences between parkinsonian patients, as investigated in a previous study and healthy subjects imitating the antagonistic resting tremor were a reduction of the coupling between primary sensorimotor cortex and a diencephalic structure – most likely the thalamus – and an enhancement of the coupling between premotor and primary sensorimotor cortex. Our results indicate that the coupling of oscillatory activity within a cerebello–diencephalic–cortical loop constitutes a basic feature of physiological motor control. Thus, our data are consistent with the hypothesis that parkinsonian resting tremor involves oscillatory cerebro-cerebral coupling in a physiologically pre-existing network. PMID:14645449
Pirozzolo, Francis J.
Reviewed are historical developments regarding the concepts of cerebral localization, and analyzed are implications of current research on the role of the cerebral hemispheres in reading disorders. (CL)
Dos Santos, Manuel Filipe Dias; de Santa Barbara, Rita de Cassia
Congenital encephalocele is a neural tube defect characterized by a sac-like protrusion of the brain, meninges, and other intracranial structures through the skull, which is caused by an embryonic development abnormality. The most common location is at the occipital bone, and its incidence varies according to different world regions. We report a case of an 1-month and 7-day-old male child with a huge interparietal-posterior fontanel meningohydroencephalocele, a rare occurrence. Physical examination and volumetric computed tomography were diagnostic. The encephalocele was surgically resected. Intradural and extradural approaches were performed; the bone defect was not primarily closed. Two days after surgery, the patient developed hydrocephaly requiring ventriculoperitoneal shunting. The surgical treatment of the meningohydroencephalocele of the interparietal-posterior fontanel may be accompanied by technical challenges and followed by complications due to the presence of large blood vessels under the overlying skin. In these cases, huge sacs herniate through large bone defects including meninges, brain, and blood vessels. The latter present communication with the superior sagittal sinus and ventricular system. A favorable surgical outcome generally follows an accurate strategy taking into account individual features of the lesion. PMID:26484324
Opdam, N.J.M.; van de Sande, F.H.; Bronkhorst, E.; Cenci, M.S.; Bottenberg, P.; Pallesen, U.; Gaengler, P.; Lindberg, A.; Huysmans, M.C.D.N.J.M.; van Dijken, J.W.
The aim of this meta-analysis, based on individual participant data from several studies, was to investigate the influence of patient-, materials-, and tooth-related variables on the survival of posterior resin composite restorations. Following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, we conducted a search resulting in 12 longitudinal studies of direct posterior resin composite restorations with at least 5 years’ follow-up. Original datasets were still available, including placement/failure/censoring of restorations, restored surfaces, materials used, reasons for clinical failure, and caries-risk status. A database including all restorations was constructed, and a multivariate Cox regression method was used to analyze variables of interest [patient (age; gender; caries-risk status), jaw (upper; lower), number of restored surfaces, resin composite and adhesive materials, and use of glass-ionomer cement as base/liner (present or absent)]. The hazard ratios with respective 95% confidence intervals were determined, and annual failure rates were calculated for subgroups. Of all restorations, 2,816 (2,585 Class II and 231 Class I) were included in the analysis, of which 569 failed during the observation period. Main reasons for failure were caries and fracture. The regression analyses showed a significantly higher risk of failure for restorations in high-caries-risk individuals and those with a higher number of restored surfaces. PMID:25048250
Choi, Hyun Ah; Lee, Mi Ji; Chung, Chin-Sang
The aim of this study is to investigate cerebral endothelial dysfunction in patients with reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS). We prospectively recruited patients with RCVS, age-matched controls with episodic migraine, and age-matched healthy controls at Samsung Medical Center from Apr 2015 to Jul 2016. All participants underwent transcranial Doppler evaluation, with a breath-holding maneuver, for the evaluation of bilateral middle cerebral arteries (MCAs), posterior cerebral arteries (PCAs), and the basilar artery (BA). The breath-holding index (BHI) was used to measure cerebral endothelium-dependent vasodilation. Follow-up BHIs were recorded in selected patients with RCVS after 3 months. A total of 84 subjects were recruited for this study (n = 28 in each group of RCVS, episodic migraine, and healthy control; mean age, 49.8 years). The RCVS group showed lower BHIs in all basal arteries, in comparison to healthy controls (p < 0.001, 0.009 for bilateral MCAs, p < 0.001 and 0.028 for bilateral PCAs, and p = 0.060 for the BA). Compared to migraineurs, RCVS patients had lower BHIs only in the anterior circulation (p = 0.002 and 0.038 for bilateral MCAs; p = 0.069 and 0.247 for bilateral PCAs; p = 0.120 for the BA). Of the 10 patients who had follow-up BHIs at 3 months, 7 showed complete normalization, while three did not. Cerebral endothelial function is impaired in a widespread distribution in RCVS. Its role in the pathogenesis and clinical outcome of RCVS should be determined in further studies.
Unilateral fetal-type circle of Willis anatomy causes right-left asymmetry in cerebral blood flow with pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling: A limitation of arterial spin labeling-based cerebral blood flow measurements?
Barkeij Wolf, Jurriaan Jh; Foster-Dingley, Jessica C; Moonen, Justine Ef; van Osch, Matthias Jp; de Craen, Anton Jm; de Ruijter, Wouter; van der Mast, Roos C; van der Grond, Jeroen
The accuracy of cerebral blood flow measurements using pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling can be affected by vascular factors other than cerebral blood flow, such as flow velocity and arterial transit time. We aimed to elucidate the effects of common variations in vascular anatomy of the circle of Willis on pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling signal. In addition, we investigated whether possible differences in pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling signal could be mediated by differences in flow velocities. Two hundred and three elderly participants underwent magnetic resonance angiography of the circle of Willis and pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling scans. Mean pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling-cerebral blood flow signal was calculated for the gray matter of the main cerebral flow territories. Mean cerebellar gray matter pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling-cerebral blood flow was significantly lower in subjects having a posterior fetal circle of Willis variant with an absent P1 segment. The posterior fetal circle of Willis variants also showed a significantly higher pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling-cerebral blood flow signal in the ipsilateral flow territory of the posterior cerebral artery. Flow velocity in the basilar artery was significantly lower in these posterior fetal circle of Willis variants. This study indicates that pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling measurements underestimate cerebral blood flow in the posterior flow territories and cerebellum of subjects with a highly prevalent variation in circle of Willis morphology. Additionally, our data suggest that this effect is mediated by concomitant differences in flow velocity between the supplying arteries. © The Author(s) 2016.
Johnson, Jeremiah; Patel, Shnehal; Saraf-Lavi, Efrat; Aziz-Sultan, Mohammad Ali; Yavagal, Dileep R
Posterior spinal artery (PSA) aneurysms are a rare cause of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The commonly abused street drug 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) or 'Ecstasy' has been linked to both systemic and neurological complications. A teenager presented with neck stiffness, headaches and nausea after ingesting 'Ecstasy'. A brain CT was negative for SAH but a CT angiogram suggested cerebral vasculitis. A lumbar puncture showed SAH but a cerebral angiogram was negative. After a spinal MR angiogram identified abnormalities on the dorsal surface of the cervical spinal cord, a spinal angiogram demonstrated a left PSA 2 mm fusiform aneurysm. The patient underwent surgery and the aneurysmal portion of the PSA was excised without postoperative neurological sequelae. 'Ecstasy' can lead to neurovascular inflammation, intracranial hemorrhage, SAH and potentially even de novo aneurysm formation and subsequent rupture. PSA aneurysms may be treated by endovascular proximal vessel occlusion or open surgical excision. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Gordan, Gilbert S.; Adams, John E.; Bentinck, Richard C.; Eisenberg, Eugene; Harper, Harold; Hobson, Quentin J. G.
In numerous clinical observations, it has been noted that steroid hormones have effects upon the central nervous system. Earlier interpretations of this relationship were largely speculative until newer methods permitted quantitation of actions of hormones and hormonal deficiencies on cerebral metabolism. The present studies indicate that certain steroids which affect behavior also influence cerebral metabolism. PMID:13019600
Lee, R; Ramadan, H; Bamford, J
Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) is an underdiagnosed condition which usually presents as severe headache with or without neurological deficit. We report the case of a 55-year-old woman who presented with headache and multifocal intracerebral haemorrhage. We review the literature regarding the presentation, pathophysiology and management of RCVS and discuss how to differentiate it from cerebral vasculitis.
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Shrontz, C; Dujovny, M; Ausman, J I; Diaz, F G; Pearce, J E; Berman, S K; Hirsch, E; Mirchandani, H G
The development of revascularization for vertebrobasilar ischemic events has created a need to identify the best sites at which to perform bypass procedures. Since the occlusive process may selectively affect various levels of the vertebrobasilar tree, sites in different vessels must be used to reestablish flow distal to the area of occlusion. Twenty-seven unfixed human brains were obtained 4 to 8 hours post mortem, and the vertebrobasilar system was injected with polyester resin. Under a surgical microscope the outer diameter, length, and site of origin of major branches were recorded for the following arteries: vertebral, basilar, posterior inferior cerebellar (PICA), anterior inferior cerebellar (AICA), superior cerebellar (SCA), and posterior cerebral (PCA). The ideal sites for an anastomosis were identified as the pretonsillar segment of the PICA, the second portion of the AICA, the perimesencephalic segment of the SCA, and the perimesencephalic part of the PCA. Based on the anatomical observations reported here, these were the best sites because of their outer diameter, degree of mobility, least number of branches, and frequency of occurrence. Use of two of these arteries, however, may pose potential problems: although the PCA has an ideal outer diameter, it also has numerous branches to the brain stem in its most accessible site in the perimesencephalic area; and the PICA is not consistently present, being found in only 75% of the 27 specimens studied.
Sugimoto, Azusa; Midorikawa, Akira; Koyama, Shinichi; Futamura, Akinori; Hieda, Sotaro; Kawamura, Mitsuru
Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) is a degenerative disease characterized by progressive visual agnosia with posterior cerebral atrophy. We examine the role of the picture naming test and make a number of suggestions with regard to diagnosing PCA as atypical dementia. We investigated 3 cases of early-stage PCA with 7 control cases of Alzheimer disease (AD). The patients and controls underwent a naming test with real objects and colored photographs of familiar objects. We then compared rates of correct answers. Patients with early-stage PCA showed significant inability to recognize photographs compared to real objects (F = 196.284, p = 0.0000) as measured by analysis of variants. This difficulty was also significant to AD controls (F = 58.717, p = 0.0000). Picture agnosia is a characteristic symptom of early-stage PCA, and the picture naming test is useful for the diagnosis of PCA as atypical dementia at an early stage. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Probert, Rebecca; Saunders, Dawn E; Ganesan, Vijeya
Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) is a clinicoradiological diagnosis comprising 'thunderclap' headaches and reversible segmental vasoconstriction of cerebral arteries, occasionally complicated by ischaemic or haemorrhagic stroke. We report a case of RCVS in a 13-year-old male with severe thunderclap headaches and no focal neurological signs. Brain imaging showed multiple posterior circulation infarcts; cerebral computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and catheter angiography showed multifocal irregularity and narrowing, but in different arterial segments. Laboratory studies did not support a diagnosis of vasculitis. Symptoms resolved over 3 weeks; magnetic resonance angiography 3 months later was normal and remained so after 2 years. We highlight the typical clinical features of RCVS in this case and suggest that the diagnosis should be considered in children with thunderclap headaches or stroke syndromes where headache is a prominent feature, especially if cerebrovascular imaging studies appear to be evolving or discrepant. © The Authors. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology © 2012 Mac Keith Press.
Rubenstein, W.A.; Auh, Y.H.; Zirinsky, K.; Kneeland, J.B.; Whalen, J.P.; Kazam, E.
Intraperitoneal compartments may extend posteriorly to the level of known retroperitoneal structures at several locations within the abdomen. These locations include the posterior subhepatic or hepatorenal space, the splenorenal space, the retropancreatic recess, the paracolic gutters, and the pararectal fossae. Because of their posterior location, fluid collections within these compartments may be mistaken radiologically for retroperitoneal masses. The sectional anatomy of these spaces and particularly their appearance on computed tomographic scans, are illustrated in this paper.
Moser, Brad R
Dancers spend a lot of time in the relevé position in demi-pointe and en pointe in their training and their careers. Pain from both osseous and soft tissue causes may start to occur in the posterior aspect of their ankle. This article reviews the potential causes of posterior ankle impingement in dancers. It will discuss the clinical evaluation of a dancer and the appropriate workup and radiographic studies needed to further evaluate a dancer with suspected posterior ankle impingement.
Job, Joici; Branstetter, Barton F
The posterior skull base can be involved by a variety of pathologic processes. They can be broadly classified as: traumatic, neoplastic, vascular, and inflammatory. Pathology in the posterior skull base usually involves the lower cranial nerves, either as a source of pathology or a secondary source of symptoms. This review will categorize pathology arising in the posterior skull base and describe how it affects the skull base itself and surrounding structures. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Subudhi, Andrew W; Fan, Jui-Lin; Evero, Oghenero; Bourdillon, Nicolas; Kayser, Bengt; Julian, Colleen G; Lovering, Andrew T; Roach, Robert C
Cerebral hypoxaemia associated with rapid ascent to high altitude can be life threatening; yet, with proper acclimatization, cerebral function can be maintained well enough for humans to thrive. We investigated adjustments in global and regional cerebral oxygen delivery (DO2) as 21 healthy volunteers rapidly ascended and acclimatized to 5260 m. Ultrasound indices of cerebral blood flow in internal carotid and vertebral arteries were measured at sea level, upon arrival at 5260 m (ALT1; atmospheric pressure 409 mmHg) and after 16 days of acclimatization (ALT16). Cerebral DO2 was calculated as the product of arterial oxygen content and flow in each respective artery and summed to estimate global cerebral blood flow. Vascular resistances were calculated as the quotient of mean arterial pressure and respective flows. Global cerebral blood flow increased by ∼70% upon arrival at ALT1 (P < 0.001) and returned to sea-level values at ALT16 as a result of changes in cerebral vascular resistance. A reciprocal pattern in arterial oxygen content maintained global cerebral DO2 throughout acclimatization, although DO2 to the posterior cerebral circulation was increased by ∼25% at ALT1 (P = 0.032). We conclude that cerebral DO2 is well maintained upon acute exposure and acclimatization to hypoxia, particularly in the posterior and inferior regions of the brain associated with vital homeostatic functions. This tight regulation of cerebral DO2 was achieved through integrated adjustments in local vascular resistances to alter cerebral perfusion during both acute and chronic exposure to hypoxia. © 2013 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2013 The Physiological Society.
Sanjay, K Mandal; Partha, P Chakraborty
The posterior/potentially reversible encephalopathy syndrome is a unique syndrome encountered commonly in hypertensive encephalopathy. A 13-year-old boy presented with of intermittent high grade fever, throbbing headache and non-projective vomiting for 5 days. The patient had a blood pressure of 120/80 mmHg but fundoscopy documented grade 3 hypertensive retinopathy. The patient improved symptomatically following conservative management. However, on the 5(th) post-admission day headache reappeared, and blood pressure measured at that time was 240/120 mmHg. Neuroimaging suggested white matter abnormalities. Search for the etiology of secondary hypertension led to the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma. Repeated MRI after successful surgical excision of the tumor patient showed reversal of white matter abnormalities. Reversible leucoencephalopathy due to pheochromocytoma have not been documented in literature previously.
Yamamoto, Y; Satoh, T; Asari, S; Sadamoto, K
In order to obtain a detailed knowledge of the cerebral vasculature on computed tomographic (CT) images, multiplane CT scannings on the axial, coronal, Towne and sagittal planes are required. Previous reports have concerned only the axial CT images of the cerebral vasculature, and no mention has been made about the vasculature on the coronal, Towne or sagittal images. This paper concerns the normal anatomy of the cerebral vessels on the modified coronal, Towne (half-axial) and semisagittal CT planes using 9 fresh cadavers. They received postmortem injection of contrast agents and were scanned by GE-CT/T 8800 as mentioned in Part I. Scanning planes were the modified 50-60 degrees coronal, Towne (40-45 degrees off the canthomeatal line), and the semisagittal (45 degrees toward the sagittal plane). The main vascular structures visualized on the modified coronal CT plane resembled the antero-posterior view of the carotid angiogram, and they were as follows: internal carotid arteries (supra-clinoid portion), posterior communicating arteries, anterior choroidal arteries, anterior cerebral arteries (horizontal and ascending portions, pericallosal and callosomarginal arteries and other cortical branches), middle cerebral arteries (horizontal, insular, opercular and terminal portions with identification of the angiographic Sylvian point), lenticulostriate arteries, posterior cerebral arteries, basal vein of Rosenthal (BVR), internal cerebral veins (ICV), subependymal veins which drain into BVR and ICV, choroid veins, vein of Galen, and venous sinuses. As for the demonstration of the lenticulostriate arteries or the Moyamoya vessels in clinical cases, the modified coronal plane is preferred to the axial one. On Towne plane, the vertebro-basilar arteries and the ascending portion of anterior cerebral artery were demonstrated as linear densities, which were demonstrated as spotty densities on the axial plane. On the semisagittal plane, the median or paramedian vasculatures of
Lang, Yi; Cui, Fang-yuan; Li, Kuang-shi; Tan, Zhong-jian; Zou, Yi-huai
To study features of brain gray matter injury in cerebral infarction patients and intervention of scalp acupuncture by using voxel-based morphology. A total of 16 cerebral infarction patients were recruited in this study, and assigned to the scalp acupuncture group and the control group, 8 in each group. Another 16 healthy volunteers were recruited as a normal group. All patients received scanning of T1 structure. Images were managed using VBM8 Software package. Difference of the gray matter structure was compared among the scalp acupuncture group, the control group, and the healthy volunteers. Compared with healthy volunteers, gray matter injury of cerebral infarction patients mainly occurred in 14 brain regions such as cingulate gyrus, precuneus, cuneus, anterior central gyrus, insular lobe, and so on. They were mainly distributed in affected side. Two weeks after treatment when compared with healthy volunteers, gray matter injury of cerebral infarction patients in the scalp acupuncture group still existed in 8 brain regions such as bilateral lingual gyrus, posterior cingulate gyrus, left cuneus, right precuneus, and so on. New gray matter injury occurred in lingual gyrus and posterior cingulate gyrus. Two weeks after treatment when compared with healthy volunteers, gray matter injury of cerebral infarction patients in the control group existed in 23 brain regions: bilateral anterior cingulum, caudate nucleus, cuneate lobe, insular lobe, inferior frontal gyrus, medial frontal gyrus, precuneus, paracentral lobule, superior temporal gyrus, middle temporal gyrus, lingual gyrus, right postcentral gyrus, posterior cingulate gyrus, precentral gyrus, middle frontal gyrus, and so on. New gray matter injury still existed in 9 cerebral regions such as lingual gyrus, posterior cingulate gyrus, postcentral gyrus, and so on. Brain gray matter structure is widely injured after cerebral infarction. Brain gray matter volume gradually decreased as time went by. Combined use of
Bakarcić, Danko; Lajnert, Vlatka; Maricić, Barbara Mady; Jokić, Nataga Ivancić; Vrancić, Zlatka Roksandić; Grzić, Renata; Prpić, Igor
This study sets out to examine the prevalence of malocclusion and habits in a group of children with cerebral palsy and to compare it with a control group of healthy children. The presence of an anterior open bite was statistically significantly higher in the cerebral palsied group. The presence of aposterior crossbite was not significantly different between the examined groups, as was the case for a lingual crossbite. The occurrence of visceral swallowing, incompetent lips and oral respiration was significantly higher in the cerebral palsied group. The current study cannot satisfactorily sustain the issue of a higher prevalence of posterior and lingual crossbite in children with cerebral palsy because of no significant differences between groups, but it certainly can for an anterior openbite. The present study also adds to the evidence that there is an increased prevalence of oral breathing, visceral swallowing and lip incompetence in children with cerebral palsy.
Cianfoni, Alessandro; Pravatà, Emanuele; De Blasi, Roberto; Tschuor, Costa Silvia; Bonaldi, Giuseppe
Presentation of a cerebral aneurysm can be incidental, discovered at imaging obtained for unrelated causes, can occur in the occasion of imaging obtained for symptoms possibly or likely related to the presence of an unruptured aneurysm, or can occur with signs and symptoms at the time of aneurismal rupture. Most unruptured intracranial aneurysms are thought to be asymptomatic, or present with vague or non-specific symptoms like headache or dizziness. Isolated oculomotor nerve palsies, however, may typically indicate the presence of a posterior circulation aneurysm. Ruptured intracranial aneurysms are by far the most common cause of non-traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage and represent a neurological emergency with potentially devastating consequences. Subarachnoid hemorrhage may be easily suspected in the presence of sudden and severe headache, vomiting, meningism signs, and/or altered mental status. However, failure to recognize milder and more ambiguous clinical pictures may result in a delayed or missed diagnosis. In this paper we will describe the clinical spectrum of unruptured and ruptured intracranial aneurysms by discussing both typical and uncommon clinical features emerging from the literature review. We will additionally provide the reader with descriptions of the underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms, and main diagnostic pitfalls.
Salami, Alireza; Wåhlin, Anders; Kaboodvand, Neda; Lundquist, Anders; Nyberg, Lars
Neuroimaging studies of spontaneous signal fluctuations as measured by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging have revealed age-related alterations in the functional architecture of brain networks. One such network is located in the medial temporal lobe (MTL), showing structural and functional variations along the anterior–posterior axis. Past cross-sectional studies of MTL functional connectivity (FC) have yielded discrepant findings, likely reflecting the fact that specific MTL subregions are differentially affected in aging. Here, using longitudinal resting-state data from 198 participants, we investigated 5-year changes in FC of the anterior and posterior MTL. We found an opposite pattern, such that the degree of FC within the anterior MTL declined after age 60, whereas elevated FC within the posterior MTL was observed along with attenuated posterior MTL-cortical connectivity. A significant negative change–change relation was observed between episodic-memory decline and elevated FC in the posterior MTL. Additional analyses revealed age-related cerebral blood flow (CBF) increases in posterior MTL at the follow-up session, along with a positive relation of elevated FC and CBF, suggesting that elevated FC is a metabolically demanding alteration. Collectively, our findings indicate that elevated FC in posterior MTL along with increased local perfusion is a sign of brain aging that underlie episodic-memory decline. PMID:27522073
Zhang, Changqing; Wang, Yilong; Zhao, Xingquan; Liu, Liping; Wang, ChunXue; Pu, Yuehua; Zou, Xinying; Pan, Yuesong; Wong, Ka Sing; Wang, Yongjun
Posterior circulation ischemic stroke (IS) is generally considered an illness with a poor prognosis. However, there are no effective rating scales to predict recurrent stroke following it. Therefore, our aim was to identify clinical or radiological measures that could assist in predicting recurrent cerebral ischemic episodes. We prospectively enrolled 723 noncardiogenic posterior circulation IS patients with onset of symptoms <7 days. Stroke risk factors, admission symptoms and signs, topographical distribution and responsible cerebral artery of acute infarcts, and any recurrent IS or transient ischemic attack (TIA) within 1 year were assessed. Cox regression was used to identify risk factors associated with recurrent IS or TIA within the year after posterior circulation IS. A total of 40 patients (5.5%) had recurrent IS or TIA within 1 year of posterior circulation IS. Multivariate Cox regression identified chief complaint with dysphagia (hazard ratio [HR], 4.16; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.69-10.2; P=0.002), repeated TIAs within 3 months before the stroke (HR, 15.4; 95% CI, 5.55-42.5; P<0.0001), responsible artery stenosis ≥70% (HR, 7.91; 95% CI, 1.00-62.6; P=0.05), multisector infarcts (HR, 5.38; 95% CI, 1.25-23.3; P=0.02), and not on antithrombotics treatment at discharge (HR, 3.06; 95% CI, 1.09-8.58; P=0.03) as independent predictors of recurrent IS or TIA. Some posterior circulation IS patients are at higher risk for recurrent IS or TIA. Urgent assessment and preventive treatment should be offered to these patients as soon as possible. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.
Reijmer, Yael D.; Fotiadis, Panagiotis; Riley, Grace A.; Xiong, Li; Charidimou, Andreas; Boulouis, Gregoire; Ayres, Alison M.; Schwab, Kristin; Rosand, Jonathan; Gurol, M. Edip; Viswanathan, Anand; Greenberg, Steven M.
Background and Purpose We recently showed that cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is associated with functionally relevant brain network impairments, in particular affecting posterior white matter connections. Here we examined how these brain network impairments progress over time. Methods Thirty-three patients with probable CAA underwent multimodal brain MRI at two time points (mean follow-up time: 1.3±0.4 years). Brain networks of the hemisphere free of intracerebral hemorrhages were reconstructed using fiber tractography and graph theory. The global efficiency of the network and mean fractional anisotropies (FA) of posterior-posterior, frontal-frontal, and posterior-frontal network connections were calculated. Patients with moderate vs. severe CAA were defined based on microbleed count, dichotomized at the median (median=35). Results Global efficiency of the ICH-free hemispheric network declined from baseline to follow up (−0.008 ± 0.003, p=0.029). The decline in global efficiency was most pronounced for patients with severe CAA (group × time interaction p=0.03). The decline in global network efficiency was associated with worse executive functioning (Beta=0.46, p=0.03). Examination of subgroups of network connections revealed a decline in FA of posterior-posterior connections at both levels of CAA severity (−0.006 ± 0.002, p=0.017; group × time interaction p=0.16). The FA of posterior-frontal and frontal-frontal connections declined in patients with severe but not moderate CAA (group × time interaction: p=0.007 and p=0.005). Associations were independent of change in white matter hyperintensity volume. Conclusions Brain network impairment in patients with CAA worsens measurably over just 1.3-year follow-up and appear to progress from posterior to frontal connections with increasing disease severity. PMID:27576378
Crawley, J; Smith, S; Muthinji, P; Marsh, K; Kirkham, F
BACKGROUND—Seizures are a prominent feature of childhood cerebral malaria, and are associated with an increased risk of death and neurological sequelae. We present the electroencephalographic (EEG) findings from a detailed clinical and electrophysiological study. METHODS—Children with cerebral malaria had EEGs recorded within six hours of admission, and at 12 hourly intervals until recovery of consciousness. Ten deeply comatose children underwent intracranial pressure monitoring. Children were not mechanically ventilated, which made it possible to directly correlate the clinical and EEG findings. RESULTS—Of 65 children aged 9 months and above, 40 had one or more seizures, and 18 had an episode of status epilepticus. Most seizures were partial motor, and spike wave activity consistently arose from the posterior temporo-parietal region, a border zone area lying between territories supplied by the carotid and vertebrobasilar circulations. Fifteen children had seizures that were clinically subtle or electrographic. Clinical seizures were associated with an abrupt rise in intracranial pressure. Fifty children recovered fully, seven died, and eight had persistent neurological sequelae. Initial EEG recordings of very slow frequency, or with background asymmetry, burst suppression, or interictal discharges, were associated with an adverse outcome. CONCLUSIONS—Serial EEG recording has uncovered a range of clinical, subtle, and electrographic seizures complicating childhood cerebral malaria, and has emphasised their importance in the pathogenesis of coma. Further work is required to determine the most appropriate regimen for the prophylaxis and treatment of seizures in cerebral malaria, in order to improve outcome. PMID:11207176
Hale, Douglass S; Fenner, Dee
Posterior vaginal wall prolapse is one of the most common prolapses encountered by gynecological surgeons. What appears to be a straightforward condition to diagnose and treat surgically for physicians has proven to be frustratingly unpredictable with regard to symptom relief for patients. Functional disorders such as dyssynergic defecation and constipation are often attributed to posterior vaginal wall prolapse. Little scientific evidence supports this assumption, emphasizing that structure and function are not synonymous when treating posterior vaginal wall prolapse. Rectoceles, enteroceles, sigmoidoceles, peritoneoceles, rectal and intraanal intussusception, rectal prolapse, and descending perineal syndrome are all conditions that have an impact on the posterior vaginal wall. All too often these different anatomic conditions are treated with the same surgical approach, addressing a posterior vaginal wall bulge with a traditional posterior colporrhaphy. Studies that examine the correlation between stage of posterior wall prolapse and patient symptoms have failed to reliably do so. Surgical outcomes measured by prolapse staging appear successful, yet patient expectations are often not met. As increasing attention is being placed on patient satisfaction outcomes concerning surgical treatments, this fact will need to be addressed. Surgeons will have to clearly communicate what can and what cannot be expected with surgical repair of posterior vaginal wall prolapse. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
di Iorgi, Natascia; Secco, Andrea; Napoli, Flavia; Calandra, Erika; Rossi, Andrea; Maghnie, Mohamad
While the molecular mechanisms of anterior pituitary development are now better understood than in the past, both in animals and in humans, little is known about the mechanisms regulating posterior pituitary development. The posterior pituitary gland is formed by the evagination of neural tissue from the floor of the third ventricle. It consists of the distal axons of the hypothalamic magnocellular neurones that shape the neurohypophysis. After its downward migration, it is encapsulated together with the ascending ectodermal cells of Rathke's pouch which form the anterior pituitary. By the end of the first trimester, this development is completed and vasopressin and oxytocin can be detected in neurohypophyseal tissue. Abnormal posterior pituitary migration such as the ectopic posterior pituitary lobe appearing at the level of median eminence or along the pituitary stalk have been reported in idiopathic GH deficiency or in subjects with HESX1, LHX4 and SOX3 gene mutations. Another intriguing feature of abnormal posterior pituitary development involves genetic forms of posterior pituitary neurodegeneration that have been reported in autosomal-dominant central diabetes insipidus and Wolfram disease. Defining the phenotype of the posterior pituitary gland can have significant clinical implications for management and counseling, as well as providing considerable insight into normal and abnormal mechanisms of posterior pituitary development in humans.
Bellis, Michael D. De; Hooper, Stephen R.; Chen, Steven D.; Provenzale, James M.; Boyd, Brian D.; Glessner, Christopher E.; MacFall, James R.; Payne, Martha E.; Rybczynski, Robert; Woolley, Donald P
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of maltreated children with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) suggest that maltreatment-related PTSD is associated with adverse brain development. Maltreated youth resilient to chronic PTSD were not previously investigated and may elucidate neuro-mechanisms of the stress diathesis that leads to resilience to chronic PTSD. In this cross-sectional study, anatomical volumetric and corpus callosum diffusion tensor imaging measures were examined using MRI in maltreated youth with chronic PTSD (N=38), without PTSD (N=35), and non-maltreated participants (n=59). Groups were sociodemographically similar. Participants underwent assessments for strict inclusion/exclusion criteria and psychopathology. Maltreated youth with PTSD were psychobiologically different from maltreated youth without PTSD and non-maltreated controls. Maltreated youth with PTSD had smaller posterior cerebral and cerebellar gray matter volumes than maltreated youth without PTSD and non-maltreated participants. Cerebral and cerebellar gray matter volumes inversely correlated with PTSD symptoms. Posterior corpus callosum microstructure in pediatric maltreatment-related PTSD differed compared to maltreated youth without PTSD and controls. The group differences remained significant when controlling for psychopathology, numbers of Axis I disorders, and trauma load. Alterations of these posterior brain structures may result from a shared trauma related-mechanism or an inherent vulnerability that mediates the pathway from chronic PTSD to co-morbidity. PMID:26535944
Rilo, Benito; da Silva, José Luis; Mora, María Jesús; Cadarso-Suárez, Carmen; Santana, Urbano
This study was designed to characterize masticatory-cycle morphology, and distance of the contact glide in the closing masticatory stroke, in adult subjects with uncorrected unilateral posterior crossbite (UPXB), comparing the results obtained with those obtained in a parallel group of normal subjects. Mandibular movements (masticatory movements and laterality movements with dental contact) were registered using a gnathograph (MK-6I Diagnostic System) during unilateral chewing of a piece of gum. Traces were recorded on the crossbite and non-crossbite sides in the crossbite group, and likewise on both sides in the non-crossbite group. Mean contact glide distance on the crossbite side in the UPXB group was significantly lower than in the control group (p<0.001), and mean contact glide distance on the non-crossbite side in the UPXB group was significantly lower than in the control group (p=0.042). Cycle morphology was abnormal during chewing on the crossbite side, with the frequency distribution of cycle types differing significantly from that for the noncrossbite side and that for the control group (p<0.001). Patients with crossbite showed alterations in both contact glide distances and masticatory cycle morphology. These alterations are probably adaptive responses allowing maintenance of adequate masticatory function despite the crossbite.
Ness, T; Virchow, J C
To demonstrate the difficulties of the differential diagnosis between tuberculosis and sarcoidosis as the cause of posterior uveitis. A 56-year-old woman suffered from bilateral anterior uveitis, snow-ball like infiltrates in the vitreous, and peripheral retinochoroidal granulomas with marked exudation shown in fluorescein angiography. Angiotensin-converting enzyme, as a marker of sarcoidosis, was elevated; the tuberculin test, however, was negative. Chest X-ray revealed an infiltrate and numerous smaller granulomas. The presumptive diagnosis was sarcoidosis. Surprisingly, in the biopsy of the pulmonal lesion tubercle bacilli were detected by Ziehl-Neelsen staining. Thus, a diagnosis of pulmonal and also retinochoroidal tuberculosis was made. After tuberculostatic therapy the choroidal lesions healed off. In a second case, a 30-year-old man suffered from bilateral panuveitis with candle wax exudates near the retinal vessels. Chest X-ray revealed lymphomas in the hilus, and the lymph node biopsy showed granulomas with epitheloid cells, indicating sarcoidosis. Detection of mycobacterium tuberculosis by culture or histological criteria was negative. Only in the PCR was mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA detectable. Tuberculostatic therapy had no benefit. Under therapy with steroids, however, pulmonal and ophthalmologic findings rapidly disappeared. The difficult differential diagnosis between sarcoidosis and tuberculosis cannot always be made by laboratory tests or diagnostic imaging alone. Clinical manifestations, including response to therapy, are essential.
Komesu, Yuko M.; Rogers, Rebecca G.; Kammerer-Doak, Dorothy N.; Barber, Matthew D.; Olsen, Ambre L.
OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of posterior repair (PR) on sexual function in patients who have undergone incontinence and/or pelvic reconstructive surgery. STUDY DESIGN A cohort study of women who underwent incontinence and/or prolapse surgery was performed. Participants completed the pelvic organ prolapse urinary incontinence sexual questionnaire (PISQ) before and after the operation. PISQ scores were compared between women who underwent PR and women who did not. RESULTS Of 73 study participants, 30 women underwent PR; 43 women did not (no PR). Although there was no difference in dyspareunia between groups pre-op, dyspareunia prevalence post-op was significantly lower in the no PR group. Preoperative PISQ scores were similar between groups. After the operation, both groups significantly improved their PISQ scores, without a difference between groups. CONCLUSION Although the incidence of dyspareunia differed between PR and no PR groups, overall improvement in sexual function was reflected in improved total PISQ scores that occurred irrespective of PR performance. PMID:17618777
Ramasastry, S S; Schlechter, B; Cohen, M
A high rate of success can be expected in the management of posterior trunk defects with muscle flaps. The surgeon has to adhere closely to the basic reconstructive principles of adequate debridement of all necrotic or devitalized tissues; management of infection with local wound care and appropriate antibiotic therapy; and coverage with well-vascularized tissue to obliterate any residual dead space and to cover bone grafts, orthopedic hardware, and vital structures such as the dura and spinal cord. Flap selection is also of paramount importance for success, and only muscles with appropriate arc of rotation, vascularity (vascular pedicles outside the field of radiation injury, or intact vascularity following previous procedures) and bulk should be used. Adequate flap mobilization to obtain a tension-free closure and judicious use of drains and perioperative antibiotic agents are essential. Occasionally, microvascular free-tissue transfer may be necessary if local flaps are unavailable. The complications of flap reconstruction include partial flap loss, persistent dead space for lack of adequate muscle bulk, and persistent infection. Debridement and re-advancement of the flap is adequate in most cases. If there is significant or total flap loss, however, a second flap reconstruction is often necessary to obliterate the dead space and protect vital structures.
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Bigler, Erin D., Ed.
The article summarizes a series of articles concerning acquired cerebral trauma. Reviewed are technological advances, treatment, assessment, potential innovative therapies, long-term outcome, family impact of chronic brain injury, and prevention. (DB)
... 911) if you have sudden loss of movement , sensation, vision, or speech. Alternative Names Amyloidosis - cerebral; CAA; Congophilic angiopathy Images Amyloidosis on the fingers Arteries of the brain References Kase CS, Shoamanesh A. Intracerebral hemorrhage. In: Daroff ...
AlDarrab, Abdulrahman; Alrajeh, Mohammed; Alsuhaibani, Adel H
To study the effect of posterior blepharitis on meibomian glands using infrared meibography and to correlate the results with tear film parameters. This is a prospective cohort study. The study included eyes from two groups: 86 eyes of healthy volunteers' eyes and 72 eyes with posterior blepharitis. Participants were examined, and diagnosis of posterior blepharitis was achieved clinically based on signs of posterior blepharitis. Clinical assessment of dryness was performed including slit lamp examination looking for signs of posterior blepharitis, tear breakup time (TBUT), superficial punctate keratopathy (SPK), Schirmer II test (with anesthesia) and meibum score. Non-contact meibography was performed for both upper and lower eyelids using the meibo-grade system which involved distortion of meibomian gland, shortening and dropout. Lid margin abnormalities (Telangiectasia, lid margin swelling and hyperemia) were all significantly higher in the posterior blepharitis group. SPK, meibum score, meibography dropout, distortion, shortening, and total meibography were all significantly higher in the posterior blepharitis group as well as meibum score (P value < 0.001). TBUT was significantly shorter in the posterior blepharitis group (P value < 0.001). There was no significant difference between the two groups in Schirmer's II test. Meibography can be a helpful non-invasive tool for the clinical evaluation of the extent of the anatomical damage in patients having meibomian glands loss due to posterior blepharitis. Knowing the extent of damage in meibomian glands may help in selecting the appropriate treatment modality and expect the response to treatment in patients with posterior blepharitis.
Ren, Yuan; Chen, Qiang; Li, Zhi-Yong
The Circle of Willis (CoW) is the most important collateral pathway of the cerebral artery. The present study aims to investigate the collateral capacity of CoW with anatomical variation when unilateral internalcarotid artery (ICA) is occluded. Basing on MRI data, we have reconstructed eight 3D models with variations in the posterior circulation of the CoW and set four different degrees of stenosis in the right ICA, namely 24%, 43%, 64% and 79%, respectively. Finally, a total of 40 models are performed with computational fluid dynamics simulations. All of the simulations share the same boundary condition with static pressure and the volume flow rate (VFR) are obtained to evaluate their collateral capacity. As for the middle cerebral artery (MCA) and the anterior cerebral artery (ACA), the transitional-type model possesses the best collateral capacity. But for the posterior cerebral artery (PCA), unilateral stenosis of ICA has the weakest influence on the unilateral posterior communicating artery (PCoA) absent model. We also find that the full fetal-type posterior circle of Willis is an utmost dangerous variation which must be paid more attention. The results demonstrate that different models have different collateral capacities in coping stenosis of unilateral ICA and these differences can be reflected by different outlets. The study could be used as a reference for neurosurgeon in choosing the best treatment strategy.
Balakrishnan, Bindu; Nance, Elizabeth; Johnston, Michael V; Kannan, Rangaramanujam; Kannan, Sujatha
Cerebral palsy is a chronic childhood disorder that can have diverse etiologies. Injury to the developing brain that occurs either in utero or soon after birth can result in the motor, sensory, and cognitive deficits seen in cerebral palsy. Although the etiologies for cerebral palsy are variable, neuroinflammation plays a key role in the pathophysiology of the brain injury irrespective of the etiology. Currently, there is no effective cure for cerebral palsy. Nanomedicine offers a new frontier in the development of therapies for prevention and treatment of brain injury resulting in cerebral palsy. Nanomaterials such as dendrimers provide opportunities for the targeted delivery of multiple drugs that can mitigate several pathways involved in injury and can be delivered specifically to the cells that are responsible for neuroinflammation and injury. These materials also offer the opportunity to deliver agents that would promote repair and regeneration in the brain, resulting not only in attenuation of injury, but also enabling normal growth. In this review, the current advances in nanotechnology for treatment of brain injury are discussed with specific relevance to cerebral palsy. Future directions that would facilitate clinical translation in neonates and children are also addressed. PMID:24204146
Balakrishnan, Bindu; Nance, Elizabeth; Johnston, Michael V; Kannan, Rangaramanujam; Kannan, Sujatha
Cerebral palsy is a chronic childhood disorder that can have diverse etiologies. Injury to the developing brain that occurs either in utero or soon after birth can result in the motor, sensory, and cognitive deficits seen in cerebral palsy. Although the etiologies for cerebral palsy are variable, neuroinflammation plays a key role in the pathophysiology of the brain injury irrespective of the etiology. Currently, there is no effective cure for cerebral palsy. Nanomedicine offers a new frontier in the development of therapies for prevention and treatment of brain injury resulting in cerebral palsy. Nanomaterials such as dendrimers provide opportunities for the targeted delivery of multiple drugs that can mitigate several pathways involved in injury and can be delivered specifically to the cells that are responsible for neuroinflammation and injury. These materials also offer the opportunity to deliver agents that would promote repair and regeneration in the brain, resulting not only in attenuation of injury, but also enabling normal growth. In this review, the current advances in nanotechnology for treatment of brain injury are discussed with specific relevance to cerebral palsy. Future directions that would facilitate clinical translation in neonates and children are also addressed.
Dunås, Tora; Wåhlin, Anders; Ambarki, Khalid; Zarrinkoob, Laleh; Birgander, Richard; Malm, Jan; Eklund, Anders
In order to introduce 4D flow magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a standard clinical instrument for studying the cerebrovascular system, new and faster postprocessing tools are necessary. The objective of this study was to construct and evaluate a method for automatic identification of individual cerebral arteries in a 4D flow MRI angiogram. Forty-six elderly individuals were investigated with 4D flow MRI. Fourteen main cerebral arteries were manually labeled and used to create a probabilistic atlas. An automatic atlas-based artery identification method (AAIM) was developed based on vascular-branch extraction and the atlas was used for identification. The method was evaluated by comparing automatic with manual identification in 4D flow MRI angiograms from 67 additional elderly individuals. Overall accuracy was 93%, and internal carotid artery and middle cerebral artery labeling was 100% accurate. Smaller and more distal arteries had lower accuracy; for posterior communicating arteries and vertebral arteries, accuracy was 70 and 89%, respectively. The AAIM enabled fast and fully automatic labeling of the main cerebral arteries. AAIM functionality provides the basis for creating an automatic and powerful method to analyze arterial cerebral blood flow in clinical routine.
Pollock, R G; Bigliani, L U
Recurrent posterior glenohumeral instability is regarded as a difficult problem to diagnose and treat. A careful history and physical examination are the most helpful tools in making this diagnosis. A positive posterior stress test, demonstrable posterior subluxation, and a sulcus sign are frequently present on examination. Special roentgenographic studies, such as the computerized arthrotomography (arthro-CT) scan, may be used in cases in which plain roentgenographs suggest bony glenoid abnormalities. When conservative therapy fails, there is no consensus on the operative treatment. Procedures that address the soft tissues, such as capsulorrhaphy and posterior labral repair, as well as those that alter the bony geometry of the joint, such as posterior bone blocks and glenoid or humeral osteotomies, have been described. Capsular laxity is the most common pathologic finding in the authors' experience, and they favor the use of a posterior-inferior capsular shift procedure to correct this problem. Augmentation of the repair with a posterior bone block is reserved for unusual cases, such as when glenoid hypoplasia is present or in certain revision situations.
Mair, S D; Zarzour, R H; Speer, K P
Nine athletes (seven football offensive linemen, one defensive lineman, and one lacrosse player) were found at arthroscopy to have posterior labral detachment from the glenoid. In our series, this lesion is specific to contact athletes who engage their opponents with arms in front of the body. All patients had pain with bench pressing and while participating in their sport, diminishing their ability to play effectively. Conservative measures were ineffective in relieving their symptoms. Examination under anesthesia revealed symmetric glenohumeral translation bilaterally, without evidence of posterior instability. Treatment consisted of glenoid rim abradement and posterior labral repair with a bioabsorbable tack. All patients returned to complete at least one full season of contact sports and weightlifting without pain (minimum follow-up, > or = 2 years). Although many injuries leading to subluxation of the glenohumeral joint occur when an unanticipated force is applied, contact athletes ready their shoulder muscles in anticipation of impact with opponents. This leads to a compressive force at the glenohumeral joint. We hypothesize that, in combination with a posteriorly directed force at impact, the resultant vector is a shearing force to the posterior labrum and articular surface. Repeated exposure leads to posterior labral detachment without capsular injury. Posterior labral reattachment provides consistently good results, allowing the athlete to return to competition.
Cotes, Claudia; Bonfante, Eliana; Lazor, Jillian; Jadhav, Siddharth; Caldas, Maria; Swischuk, Leonard
The classification of posterior fossa congenital anomalies has been a controversial topic. Advances in genetics and imaging have allowed a better understanding of the embryologic development of these abnormalities. A new classification schema correlates the embryologic, morphologic, and genetic bases of these anomalies in order to better distinguish and describe them. Although they provide a better understanding of the clinical aspects and genetics of these disorders, it is crucial for the radiologist to be able to diagnose the congenital posterior fossa anomalies based on their morphology, since neuroimaging is usually the initial step when these disorders are suspected. We divide the most common posterior fossa congenital anomalies into two groups: 1) hindbrain malformations, including diseases with cerebellar or vermian agenesis, aplasia or hypoplasia and cystic posterior fossa anomalies; and 2) cranial vault malformations. In addition, we will review the embryologic development of the posterior fossa and, from the perspective of embryonic development, will describe the imaging appearance of congenital posterior fossa anomalies. Knowledge of the developmental bases of these malformations facilitates detection of the morphological changes identified on imaging, allowing accurate differentiation and diagnosis of congenital posterior fossa anomalies. PMID:26246090
Ramaswamy, Vijay; Taylor, Michael D
Posterior fossa ependymoma comprises two distinct molecular entities, ependymoma_posterior fossa A (EPN_PFA) and ependymoma_posterior fossa B (EPN_PFB), with differentiable gene expression profiles. As yet, the response of the two entities to treatment is unclear. To determine the relationship between the two molecular subgroups of posterior fossa ependymoma and treatment, we studied a cohort of 820 patients with molecularly profiled, clinically annotated posterior fossa ependymomas. We found that the strongest predictor of poor outcome in patients with posterior fossa ependymoma across the entire age spectrum was molecular subgroup EPN_PFA, which was recently reported in the paper entitled "Therapeutic impact of cytoreductive surgery and irradiation of posterior fossa ependymoma in the molecular era: a retrospective multicohort analysis" in the Journal of Clinical Oncology. Patients with incompletely resected EPN_PFA tumors had a very poor outcome despite receiving adjuvant radiation therapy, whereas a substantial proportion of patients with EPN_PFB tumors can be cured with surgery alone.
Gallagher, Anne; Tanaka, Naoaki; Suzuki, Nao; Liu, Hesheng; Thiele, Elizabeth A.; Stufflebeam, Steven M.
Introduction Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a multisystem genetic disorder affecting multiple organs, including the brain, and very often associated with epileptic activity. Language acquisition and development seems to be altered in a significant proportion of patients with TSC. In the present study, we used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to investigate spatiotemporal cerebral language processing in subjects with TSC and epilepsy during a reading semantic decision task, compared to healthy control participants. Methods Fifteen patients with TSC and 31 healthy subjects performed a lexico-semantic decision task during MEG recording. Minimum-norm estimates (MNE) were computed allowing identification of cerebral generators of language evoked fields (EF) in each subject. Results Source analysis of the language EF demonstrated early bilateral medial occipital activation (125ms) followed by a fusiform gyrus activation around 135ms. At 270ms post stimuli presentation, a strong cerebral activation was recorded in the left basal temporal language area. Finally, cerebral activations were measured in Wernicke’s area followed by Broca’s area. The healthy control group showed larger and earlier language activations in Broca and Wernicke’s areas compared to TSC patients. Moreover, cerebral activation from Broca’s area was greater than activation from Wernicke’s area in both groups, but this difference between anterior and posterior regions was smaller in the TSC group. Finally, the activation latency difference between Broca and Wernicke’s areas was greater in healthy controls than in TSC patients, which shows that activations in these areas are more serial in control subjects compared to TSC patients in whom activations occur more simultaneously. Conclusions This is the first study to investigate cerebral language pattern in patients with TSC. Compared to healthy controls, atypical neuromagnetic language responses may reflect cerebral reorganization in these
Jiwanlal, Aneel; Jeray, Kyle James
Isolated posterior tibial plateau fractures are rare injuries that encompass a wide variety of fracture patterns. Based on the variation in fracture pattern, the surgical approach varies, with both anterior and posterior approaches described for surgical fixation. Postoperative protocol also varies among studies. The aim of this article is to summarize the outcomes related to posterior column tibial plateau fractures. The papers reviewed, primarily small retrospective case series, showed functional knee range of motion is preserved, a low incidence of wound complications, and patient outcome scores comparable to other reported lower extremity injury outcome scores. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
Van Overbeeke, J J; Hillen, B; Tulleken, C A
The configuration of the posterior bifurcation of the posterior communicating artery is commonly described as the 'adult configuration' if the diameter of the precommunicating part of the posterior cerebral artery (P1) is larger than the diameter of the posterior communicating artery itself (PCA). In these cases the blood supply to the occipital lobes is mainly from the vertebro-basilar system. Only in a minority of cases is the fetal or embryonic configuration found. Here the diameter of the PCA is larger than the diameter of the P1 and the blood supply to the occipital lobes is mainly from the internal carotid artery via the posterior communicating artery. In order to track the origin of these different configurations, 53 complete circles of Willis (106 sides) in brains of fetuses and infants aged from 12 weeks to 60 weeks after conception were examined with the aid of an operating microscope, and measurements were made of the diameters of the PCA, P1 and P2. It is concluded that the variations of this part of the circle of Willis are the result of developmental modifications. This is confirmed by a statistical analysis that shows a relation between the stage of development of the brain and the occurrence of the different configurations. The frequencies of the adult and fetal configurations gradually increase at the expense of the transitional configurations. This configuration is found early in development and is characterised by the equality of the diameters of the PCA and P1. These findings contradict the views, found in the literature, that the variations either exist early in development as a consequence of genetic factors or arise after birth as a consequence of mechanical genetic factors. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:1917674
McDade, Eric; Kim, Albert; James, Jeffrey; Sheu, Lei K; Kuan, Dora Chieh-Hsin; Minhas, Davneet; Gianaros, Peter J; Ikonomovic, Snezana; Lopez, Oscar; Snitz, Beth; Price, Julie; Becker, Jim; Mathis, Chet; Klunk, William
To evaluate alterations in cerebral blood flow (CBF) using arterial spin-labeled MRI in autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease (ADAD) mutation carriers (MCs) in relation to cerebral amyloid and compared with age-matched healthy controls. Recent work has identified alterations in CBF in elderly subjects with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer dementia using MRI. However, similar studies are lacking in ADAD. Subjects with ADAD are generally free of significant vascular disease and offer the opportunity to measure CBF early in the pathologic process before significant symptom onset when unique markers might be identified. Fourteen MCs (presenilin-1 and amyloid beta precursor protein) (Clinical Dementia Rating [CDR] 0 = 9, CDR 0.5 = 4, CDR 1 = 1) and 50 controls underwent 3-tesla pulsed arterial spin-labeled MRI. SPM8 was used to test the effect of MC status at the voxel level on CBF before and after controlling for age and CDR. MCs had decreased perfusion in the caudate and inferior striatum bilaterally even after controlling for age and CDR. In MCs, separate areas of decreased CBF were associated with increasing cerebral amyloid and to decreased performance of attention and executive function. Early CBF changes were identified in asymptomatic and mildly symptomatic subjects with ADAD, particularly in the anterior striatum. Furthermore, amyloid deposition was associated with decreased CBF in a number of regions including anterior and posterior cortical areas. Both amyloid and decreased CBF were associated with declines primarily in executive cognitive function. © 2014 American Academy of Neurology.
Kim, Albert; James, Jeffrey; Sheu, Lei K.; Kuan, Dora Chieh-Hsin; Minhas, Davneet; Gianaros, Peter J.; Ikonomovic, Snezana; Lopez, Oscar; Snitz, Beth; Price, Julie; Becker, Jim; Mathis, Chet; Klunk, William
Objective: To evaluate alterations in cerebral blood flow (CBF) using arterial spin-labeled MRI in autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease (ADAD) mutation carriers (MCs) in relation to cerebral amyloid and compared with age-matched healthy controls. Background: Recent work has identified alterations in CBF in elderly subjects with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer dementia using MRI. However, similar studies are lacking in ADAD. Subjects with ADAD are generally free of significant vascular disease and offer the opportunity to measure CBF early in the pathologic process before significant symptom onset when unique markers might be identified. Methods: Fourteen MCs (presenilin-1 and amyloid beta precursor protein) (Clinical Dementia Rating [CDR] 0 = 9, CDR 0.5 = 4, CDR 1 = 1) and 50 controls underwent 3-tesla pulsed arterial spin-labeled MRI. SPM8 was used to test the effect of MC status at the voxel level on CBF before and after controlling for age and CDR. Results: MCs had decreased perfusion in the caudate and inferior striatum bilaterally even after controlling for age and CDR. In MCs, separate areas of decreased CBF were associated with increasing cerebral amyloid and to decreased performance of attention and executive function. Conclusions: Early CBF changes were identified in asymptomatic and mildly symptomatic subjects with ADAD, particularly in the anterior striatum. Furthermore, amyloid deposition was associated with decreased CBF in a number of regions including anterior and posterior cortical areas. Both amyloid and decreased CBF were associated with declines primarily in executive cognitive function. PMID:25031286
Warnert, Esther AH; Murphy, Kevin; Hall, Judith E; Wise, Richard G
A noninvasive method of assessing cerebral arterial compliance (AC) is introduced in which arterial spin labeling (ASL) is used to measure changes in arterial blood volume (aBV) occurring within the cardiac cycle. Short inversion time pulsed ASL (PASL) was performed in healthy volunteers with inversion times ranging from 250 to 850 ms. A model of the arterial input function was used to obtain the cerebral aBV. Results indicate that aBV depends on the cardiac phase of the arteries in the imaging volume. Cerebral AC, estimated from aBV and brachial blood pressure measured noninvasively in systole and diastole, was assessed in the flow territories of the basal cerebral arteries originating from the circle of Willis: right and left middle cerebral arteries (RMCA and LMCA), right and left posterior cerebral arteries (RPCA and LPCA), and the anterior cerebral artery (ACA). Group average AC values calculated for the RMCA, LMCA, ACA, RPCA, and LPCA were 0.56%±0.2%, 0.50%±0.3%, 0.4%±0.2%, 1.1%±0.5%, and 1.1%±0.3% per mm Hg, respectively. The current experiment has shown the feasibility of measuring AC of cerebral arteries with short inversion time PASL. PMID:25515216
Karhu, J; Hari, R; Lu, S T; Paetau, R; Rif, J
We recorded cerebral magnetic fields to electric stimulation of the tongue in 7 healthy adults. The two main deflections of the response peaked around 55 msec (P55m) and 140 msec (N140m). During both of them the magnetic field pattern, determined with a 7- or 24-channel SQUID magnetometer, suggested a dipolar current source. The topography of P55m can be explained by a tangential dipole at the first somatosensory cortex (SI) in the posterior wall of the central sulcus. The equivalent source of N140m is, on average, about 1 cm lateral to the source of P55m. The reported method allows non-invasive determination of the cortical tongue representation area.
Ergün, Tarkan; Lakadamyali, Hatice; Yilmaz, Aynur
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a clinical and radiologic entity characterized by headache, variable mental status, epilepsy, visual disturbances, and typical transient changes in the posterior cerebral perfusion. Recurrence of PRES is not common, but increasingly in recent years, studies demonstrate recurrence of this syndrome in populations with different diseases. In this report, we describe recurrent PRES in a hypertensive patient with end-stage renal disease, and discuss recurrence as the least-characterized feature of PRES. This condition can cause neurological sequelae such as persistent brain damage and epilepsy, arising from delays in diagnosis and therapy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating recurrent PRES in a patient on hemodialysis for end-stage renal disease.
Sivrioglu, Ali Kemal; Incedayi, Mehmet; Mutlu, Hakan; Meral, Cihan
Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP) is a small vessel vasculitis that affects the gastrointestinal and central nervous systems and the kidneys. The disease primarily affects children, but may occur in elderly children with allergic purpura and also in adults. Central nervous system involvement may be the first sign; however, it is rarely encountered. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a clinical syndrome of encephalopathy, headache, visual disturbance and seizures. Its radiological signs can be observed in grey and white matter at the posterior region of the cerebral hemispheres. HSP should be considered in children with PRES in the presence of rash, joint and gastrointestinal symptoms. We reported a 5-year-old patient who developed acute renal failure and PRES by reason of HSP. PMID:23946524
Ocek, Levent; Sener, Ufuk; Demirtas, Burcu S; Ozcelik, Metin M; Oztekin, Ozgur; Zorlu, Yasar
To report a rare case with central-variant posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome due to sulfasalazine. A 55-year-old female patient presented with seizure and acute-onset hemiparesia. Thirty days earlier, treatment with sulfasalazine was commenced in response to a diagnosis of psoriatic arthritis. Laboratory examinations were normal. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed symmetric edema within basal ganglia and thalami with sparing of the cerebral cortices. After stopping the treatment of sulfasalazine, clinical and radiological findings regressed dramatically. This was a case of central-variant posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome due to sulfasalazine, and atypical imaging findings should be kept in mind for early diagnosis. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Alkan, Alpay; Aralasmak, Ayse; Kocakoc, Ercan
Pheochromocytoma is a rare cause of hypertension in children. Hypertension is one of the common reasons of posterior reversible encephalopathy. Intracerebral hemorrhage is a serious and unexpected complication of hypertensive encephalopathy due to pheochromocytoma, and very rarely seen in the childhood. Intracerebral hemorrhages should be searched if there are hypertensive reversible signal changes on the brain. Susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) is a more sensitive method than conventional MRI when demonstrating cerebral microhemorrhagic foci. This is the first report of SWI findings on intracerebral hemorrhages in basal ganglia, brain stem and periventricular white matter due to hypertensive encephalopathy in a child with pheochromocytoma. PMID:24043985
Nopoulos, Peggy C.; Aylward, Elizabeth H.; Ross, Christopher A.; Johnson, Hans J.; Magnotta, Vincent A.; Juhl, Andrew R.; Pierson, Ronald K.; Mills, James; Langbehn, Douglas R.; Paulsen, Jane S.
Neuroimaging studies of subjects who are gene-expanded for Huntington Disease, but not yet diagnosed (termed prodromal HD), report that the cortex is “spared,” despite the decrement in striatal and cerebral white-matter volume. Measurement of whole-cortex volume can mask more subtle, but potentially clinically relevant regional changes in volume, thinning, or surface area. The current study addressed this limitation by evaluating cortical morphology of 523 prodromal HD subjects. Participants included 693 individuals enrolled in the PREDICT-HD protocol. Of these participants, 523 carried the HD gene mutation (prodromal HD group); the remaining 170 were non gene-expanded and served as the comparison group. Based on age and CAG repeat length, gene-expanded subjects were categorized as “Far from onset,” “Midway to onset,” “Near onset,” and “already diagnosed.” MRI scans were processed using FreeSurfer. Cortical volume, thickness, and surface area were not significantly different between the Far from onset group and controls. However, beginning in the Midway to onset group, the cortex showed significant volume decrement, affecting most the posterior and superior cerebral regions. This pattern progressed when evaluating the groups further into the disease process. Areas that remained mostly unaffected included ventral and medial regions of the frontal and temporal cortex. Morphologic changes were mostly in thinning as surface area did not substantially change in most regions. Early in the course of HD, the cortex shows changes that are manifest as cortical thinning and are most robust in the posterior and superior regions of the cerebrum. PMID:20688164
Lotti, Marco; Giulii Capponi, Michela
Differently from transperitoneal adrenalectomy, with the posterior retroperitoneoscopic approach adrenal arteries are dissected first [1, 2]. Knowledge of their position is pivotal as they are covered by peri-adrenal fat [3, 4]. Four posterior retroperitoneoscopic adrenalectomies were selected, in which adrenal arteries are dissected to show their path and how they can be localized among peri-adrenal fat. A video is presented herein, which focuses on surgical anatomy of adrenal arteries when approached during a posterior retroperitoneoscopic adrenalectomy. Details about relative positions between adrenal arteries and adjacent structures are considered and shown during their dissection. The posterior retroperitoneoscopic approach offers a direct view of adrenal arteries and allows for their exposure and safe division in the early steps of adrenalectomy.
Adib F, Curtis C, Bienkowski P Micheli LJ. Posterior cruciate ligament sprain. In: Frontera WR, Silver JK, Rizzo TD Jr, eds. Essentials of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation: Musculoskeletal Disorders, ...
Frank, Rachel M.; Slabaugh, Mark A.; Grumet, Robert C.; Virkus, Walter W.; Bush-Joseph, Charles A.; Nho, Shane J.
Context: Posterior hip pain is a relatively uncommon but increasingly recognized complaint in the orthopaedic community. Patient complaints and presentations are often vague or nonspecific, making diagnosis and subsequent treatment decisions difficult. The purposes of this article are to review the anatomy and pathophysiology related to posterior hip pain in the athletic patient population. Evidence Acquisition: Data were collected through a thorough review of the literature via a MEDLINE search of all relevant articles between 1980 and 2010. Results: Many patients who complain of posterior hip pain actually have pain referred from another part of the body—notably, the lumbar spine or sacroiliac joint. Treatment options for posterior hip pain are typically nonoperative; however, surgery is warranted in some cases. Conclusions: Recent advancements in the understanding of hip anatomy, pathophysiology, and treatment options have enabled physicians to better diagnosis athletic hip injuries and select patients for appropriate treatment. PMID:23015944
Otsuki, M; Soma, Y; Tanaka, M; Tanaka, K; Tanno, Y; Uesugi, Y; Tsuji, S
We report a patient of posterior cortical atrophy with progressive visual agnosia, Bálint's syndrome and dementia in which posterior cortical atrophy with similar characteristics on CT and progressive dementia were found in a sister. The patient was a 75-year-old woman who noted the onset of a progressive visual disorder at the age of 70, and whose family first noticed disoriented behavior at around the same period. Ophthalmologic examinations revealed mild cataract but no evidence of peripheral optic nerve or retinal lesions. Neuropsychological examination showed right homonymous hemianopia, visual agnosia, Bálint's syndrome, mild transcortical sensory aphasia, Gerstmann's syndrome, constructional apraxia, mild ideomotor apraxia and memory disorder. MRI showed marked dilatation of both lateral ventricles, especially the posterior horns, and severe atrophy of the occipital lobes, hippocampus, and the parahippocampal gyrus. Assessment of regional cerebral blood flow by IMP-SPECT revealed a generalized decrease in the temporo-parieto-occipital region bilaterally. The patient's sister began to show evidence of progressive dementia at 80 years of age and CT of the brain revealed marked atrophy, predominantly in the occipital lobes, similar to that of the patient. We believe this to be the first report of posterior cortical atrophy with a positive family history, suggesting the possibility of a hereditary syndrome.
Reep, Roger L; Corwin, James V
A rodent model of directed attention has been developed based upon behavioral analysis of contralateral neglect, pharmacological manipulations, and anatomical analysis of neural circuitry. In each of these three domains the rodent model exhibits striking similarities to humans. We hypothesize that there is a specific thalamo-cortical-basal ganglia network that subserves spatial attentional functions. Key components of this network are medial agranular and posterior parietal cortex, dorsocentral striatum, and the lateral posterior thalamic nucleus. Several issues need to be addressed before we can hope to realistically understand or model the functions of this network. Among these are the roles of medial versus lateral posterior parietal cortex; cholinergic mechanisms in attention; interhemispheric interactions; the role of synchronous firing at the cortical, striatal, and thalamic levels; interactions between cortical and thalamic projections to the striatum; interactions between cortical and nigral inputs to the thalamus; the role of collicular inputs to the lateral posterior thalamic nucleus; the role of cerebral cortex versus superior colliculus in driving the motor output expressed as orienting behavior during directed attention; the extent to which the circuitry we describe for directed attention also plays a role in other forms of attention.
Goerlitz, Johannes; Wenz, Holger; Al-Zghloul, Mansour; Kerl, Hans U; Groden, Christoph; Förster, Alex
To characterize relations between configurations of the posterior part of the Circle of Willis (CoW) and the occurrence of unilateral thalamic infarction. From a magnetic resonance imaging report database, we identified and analyzed 111 patients with acute isolated unilateral thalamic infarction on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). Vascular pathologies were noted on magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and the diameter of the posterior communicating artery (PComA) and the P1 and P2 segments of the posterior cerebral artery determined. Most infarctions were observed in the territory of the inferolateral arteries (70.2%), followed by the paramedian (16.3%), tuberothalamic (8.7%), and posterior choroidal arteries (4.8%). Relevant vascular pathologies included stenosis of the basilar artery (4.5%), P1 segment stenosis (4.5%)/occlusion (.9%), and P2 segment stenosis (14.4%)/occlusion (4.5%). Paramedian thalamic infarction was associated with ipsilateral P1 segment hypoplasia/absence (P < .001); tuberothalamic infarction with ipsilateral PComA hypoplasia/absence (P = .08). Furthermore, the diameter of the relevant CoW segment was smaller in patients with ipsilateral thalamic infarction. Assessment of CoW configuration on MRA may be helpful to understand the appearance of unilateral thalamic stroke independent from stroke etiology. A smaller diameter of the relevant CoW segment might be a risk factor for ipsilateral thalamic stroke in the corresponding thalamic vascular territory. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.
Magno Pereira, Vítor; Marote Correia, Luís; Rodrigues, Tiago; Serrão Faria, Gorete
The posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome is a neurological syndrome characterized by headache, confusion, visual disturbances and seizures associated with identifiable areas of cerebral edema on imaging studies. The authors report the case of a man, 33 years-old, leukodermic with a history of chronic alcohol and tobacco consumption, who is admitted to the emergency department for epigastric pain radiating to the back and vomiting with about six hours of evolution and an intense holocranial headache for two hours. His physical examination was remarkable for a blood pressure of 190/100 mmHg and tenderness in epigastrium. His analytical results revealed emphasis on amylase 193 U/L and lipase 934 U/L. During the observation in the emergency department,he presented a generalized tonic-clonic seizure. Abdominal ultrasonography was performed and suggestive of pancreatitis withoutgallstones signals. Head computed tomography showed subarachnoid haemorrhage and a small right frontal cortical haemorrhage. The brain magnetic resonance imaging done one week after admission showed areas of a bilateral and symmetrical T2 / FLAIR hyperintensities in the subcortical white matter of the parietal and superior frontal regions, suggesting a diagnosis of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome. Abdominal computed tomography (10 days after admission) demonstrated a thickened pancreas in connection with inflammation and two small hypodense foci in the anterior part of the pancreas body, translating small foci of necrosis. The investigation of a thrombophilic defect revealed a heterozygous G20210A prothrombin gene mutation. The patient was discharged without neurological sequelae and asymptomatic. The follow-up brain magnetic resonance imaging confirmed the reversal of the lesions, confirming the diagnosis.
Califano, L; Salafia, F; Mazzone, S; Melillo, M G; Califano, M
therapeutic manoeuvres, the authors propose a grading system for diagnosis of AC and APC: "certain" when a canalar conversion in ipsilateral typical posterior canal BPPV is obtained; "probable" when APC or AC are directly resolved; "possible" when disease is not resolved and cerebral neuroimaging is negative for neurological diseases. Our results show that the oculomotor patterns proposed in the literature are effective in diagnosing APC and AC, and that APC is more frequent than AC. Both of these rare forms of vertical canal BPPV can be treated effectively with liberatory manoeuvres.
Zhu, Wei; Wang, Ya-Fang; Dong, Xiao-Feng; Feng, Hong-Xuan; Zhao, He-Qing; Liu, Chun-Feng
Vertebral artery dominance (VAD), which is a common congenital variation of vertebral artery, may be associated with an increased risk of cerebral posterior circulation infarction (PCI). The aims of this study were to investigate the correlation of VAD with incidence and laterality of PCI, and oblige the correlation of VAD and basilar artery (BA) curvature. Incidence of separate territory infarction in posterior circulation and incidence of BA curvature were compared between 78 VAD patients and 68 controls. VA dominance, laterality of BA curvature and separate territory infarction, and their directional relationships were observed in VAD group. The incidence of BA curvature in VAD group was significantly higher than that in controls (P = 0.000). 89.7 % (35/39) of patients had an opposite directional relationship between dominant VA and BA curvature. The total incidence of PCI in VAD group was significantly higher than that in controls (P = 0.001). The incidences of posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) and BA territory infarction were both significantly higher than those in controls [11.5 % (9/78) vs. 1.5 % (1/68), P = 0.016; 20.5 % (16/78) vs. 7.4 % (5/68), P = 0.024]. No differences were found in superior cerebellar artery and posterior cerebral artery territory infarction between two groups. 77.8 % (7/9) of PICA infarction were on the opposite side of dominant VA. 75.0 % (12/16) of BA infarction were on the side of dominant VA. The incidence of PCI in BA curvature patients was significantly higher than that in BA straight patients. The incidence of BA curvature is higher in VAD patients, and BA usually bends to the opposite side of dominant VA. The incidence of PCI is higher in VAD patients, especially in PICA infarction and BA infarction patients.
Rózsa, Anikó; Szilvássy, Ildikó; Kovács, Krisztina; Boór, Krisztina; Gács, Gyula
We present the characteristics of posterior cortical atrophy--a very rare cortical dementia--in a 69 year old woman's case. Our patient's symptoms began with a visual problem which was initially explained by ophthalmological disorder. After neurological exam visual agnosia was diagnosed apart from other cognitive disorder (alexia without agraphia, acalculia, prosopagnosia, constructional disorder, clock-time recognition disorder, dressing apraxia, visuospatial disorientation). The brain MRI showed bilateral asymmetric parieto-occipital atrophy which is characteristic of posterior cortical atrophy.
Achcar and Smith (1989) shows that performance of the Laplace method is often very sensitive to parametrization. Morris (1988) offers expansions based on...Berkeley Symp. 1, 453-468. Lindley, D.V. (1980). "Approximate Bayesian Methods" in Bayesian Statistics, J.M. Bernardo, M.H. DeGroot , D.V. Lindley...A.F.M. Smith, University Press, Valencia, Spain. Morris , C. "Approximating Posterior Distributions and Posterior Moments" In: Bayesian Statistics 3, J.M
Poonkhum, R; Pongmayteegul, S; Meeratana, W; Pradidarcheep, W; Thongpila, S; Mingsakul, T; Somana, R
The vascularization of the cerebrum (cerebral cortex and basal ganglia) in the common tree shrew (Tupaia glis) has been studied in detail using vinyl injection and vascular corrosion cast/SEM techniques. It is found that the arterial supply of the cerebral cortex are from cortical branches of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) and of the anterior cerebral artery (ACA). These arteries are in turn branches of the internal carotid artery (ICA). In addition, the cerebral cortex receives the blood from the cortical branches of the posterior cerebral artery (PCA) that originates from the basilar artery (BA). These cortical arteries gives rise to rectilinear orientated intracortical arteries that are divided into dense capillary networks to supply the cerebral cortex. The capillary networks drain the blood into intracortical veins and then into the tributaries of major superficial cerebral veins. The basal ganglia (caudate and lentiform nuclei) are supplied by central or perforating branches of the ACA and MCA. These central or medullary arteries give rise to arterioles that ramify into dense capillary plexuses. The venous blood from both nuclei drains into venules and finally into the tributaries of internal cerebral veins. It is obvious that on the ventral aspect, the diameter of the lateral striate artery (LSA) and of the penetrating arterioles from the MCA are much smaller than that of the MCA. These arterioles have few side branches while the peripheral branches of the superficial cerebral arteries exhibit several series of branches that are gradually reduced in diameter before branching into intracortical arteries. This could be one of the reasons why the rupture of cerebral arteries in man mostly occurs in the those originating from the ventral surface rather than from the dorsolateral surface.
Sureda-Gómez, Miquel; Pascual-Carreras, Eudald; Adell, Teresa
The wnt signaling pathway is an intercellular communication mechanism essential in cell-fate specification, tissue patterning and regional-identity specification. A βcatenin-dependent signal specifies the AP (Anteroposterior) axis of planarians, both during regeneration of new tissues and during normal homeostasis. Accordingly, four wnts (posterior wnts) are expressed in a nested manner in central and posterior regions of planarians. We have analyzed the specific role of each posterior wnt and the possible cooperation between them in specifying and patterning planarian central and posterior regions. We show that each posterior wnt exerts a distinct role during re-specification and maintenance of the central and posterior planarian regions, and that the integration of the different wnt signals (βcatenin dependent and independent) underlies the patterning of the AP axis from the central region to the tip of the tail. Based on these findings and data from the literature, we propose a model for patterning the planarian AP axis.
Kim, Ji Soo; Lee, Hyung
Stroke in the distribution of the posterior circulation may present as acute onset spontaneous vertigo and imbalance. Although vertigo due to posterior circulation stroke is usually associated with other neurologic symptoms or signs, small infarcts in the cerebellum or brainstem can present with vertigo without other localizing symptoms. Approximately 17% of patients with isolated posterior inferior cerebellar artery territory infarction presented with isolated vertigo, nystagmus, and postural unsteadiness. A head impulse test can differentiate acute isolated vertigo associated with cerebellar stroke from more benign disorders involving the inner ear. Sometimes acute isolated audiovestibular loss can be the initial symptom of impending posterior circulation ischemic stroke (particularly within the territory of the anterior inferior cerebellar artery). In this case, evaluation of isolated audiovestibular loss may prevent the progression of acute vertigo and hearing loss into more widespread areas of infarction in the posterior circulation. In this article, the clinical syndromes and signs of acute vestibular syndrome due to posterior circulation stroke involving the brainstem and cerebellum are summarized.
Cerebral ischemia induces excess release of glutamate and an increase in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration, which provoke catastrophic enzymatic processes leading to irreversible neuronal injury. Histamine plays the role of neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, and histaminergic fibers are widely distributed in the brain. In cerebral ischemia, release of histamine from nerve endings has been shown to be enhanced by facilitation of its activity. An inhibition of the histaminergic activity in ischemia aggravates the histologic outcome. In contrast, intracerebroventricular administration of histamine improves the aggravation, whereas blockade of histamine H2 receptors aggravates ischemic injury. Furthermore, H2 blockade enhances ischemic release of glutamate and dopamine. These findings suggest that central histamine provides beneficial effects against ischemic neuronal damage by suppressing release of excitatory neurotransmitters. However, histaminergic H2 action facilitates the permeability of the blood-brain barrier and shows deleterious effects on cerebral edema.
Taylor, W. H.
Six patients are described in whom cerebral damage was associated with raised plasma sodium and chloride concentrations and with extremely low urinary outputs of sodium and chloride. The patients were not clinically dehydrated and direct determinations showed that the blood and plasma volumes, the endogenous creatinine clearance, and the urinary output of antidiuretic hormone were normal. For these and other reasons it is concluded that the metabolic picture results not from diminished circulatory volume, water deficiency, sodium deficiency, undetected diabetes insipidus or osmotic diuresis, but from the cerebral damage itself. In these and other cited cases, the cerebral damage was localized chiefly in the frontal lobes, hypothalamus or lower brain-stem, thus suggesting a descending pathway, the relationship of which to the pineal area controlling aldosterone secretion requires clarification. Images PMID:13920001
Perez, Jesus; Machado, Calixto; Scherle, Claudio; Hierro, Daniel
Duplicated middle cerebral artery (DMCA) is an anomalous vessel arising from the internal carotid artery. The incidence DMCA is relatively law, and an association between this anomaly and cerebral aneurysms has been documented. There is a controversy whether DMCA may have perforating arteries. This is an important fact to consider in aneurysm surgery. We report the case of a 34-year-old black woman who suffered a subarachnoid hemorrhage and the angiography a left DMCA, and an aneurysm in an inferior branch of the main MCA. The DMCA and the MCA had perforating arteries. The aneurysm was clipped without complications. The observation of perforating arteries in our patient confirms that the DMCA may have perforating arteries. This is very important to be considered in cerebral aneurysms surgery. Moreover, the DMCA may potentially serve as a collateral blood supply to the MCA territory in cases of MCA occlusion.
Munekata, K; Omori, H; Kanazawa, Y; Miyazaki, S; Fukushima, H; Kamata, K
A case of accessory middle cerebral artery associated with internal carotid artery aneurysm was reported. A 50-year-old female was admitted to our hospital with complaints of headache, nausea, vomiting and conciousness disturbance. Lumbar puncture showed bloody CSF. Right carotid angiogram revealed saccular aneurysm of the internal carotid-posterior communicating artery and accessory middle cerebral artery originating from the horizontal portion of the right anterior cerebral artery. No other vascular lesion was observed on other angiograms. Operation was performed 2 days after admission. The neck of the aneurysm was clipped. Postoperative aseptic meningitis was cured by frequent lumbar punctures, and her course was uneventful. The etiological hypothesis of these cerebral vascular anomalies was briefly discussed.
Ghosh, Partha S; Rothner, A David; Zahka, Kenneth G; Friedman, Neil R
Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome is characterized by a reversible segmental and multifocal vasoconstriction of cerebral arteries, and severe headaches with or without focal neurologic deficits or seizures. A 15-year-old boy presented with thunderclap headache. He had severe hypertension, although his neurologic examination was normal. Initial workup for thunderclap headache to exclude subarachnoid or intracranial hemorrhage, meningitis, pituitary apoplexy, or venous sinus thrombosis was negative. Brain magnetic resonance angiography and cerebral angiography demonstrated bilateral anterior and posterior circulation diffuse, multifocal, vascular irregularities (beading and stenosis) suggestive of underlying vasculopathy or vasculitis. He was started on verapamil. There was complete reversal of the vascular abnormalities in 6 weeks evident by magnetic resonance angiography, with resolution of headache and normalization of blood pressure. Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome has been rarely reported in children. This case report highlights the diagnostic dilemma and management of the rare childhood presentation of this condition.
Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) is characterized by recurrent thunderclap headaches with reversible cerebral vasoconstriction, and often precipitated by the postpartum state and vasoactive medications. We describe a case of a patient with RCVS induced by amezinium metilsulfate, a sympathomimetic drug, in whom magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) initially revealed diffusely dilated cerebral arteries. A 34-year-old woman was prescribed amezinium metilsulfate for hypotension. Twelve days later, she suffered from abrupt severe headaches and was referred to our department. She had no neurological deficits; however, MRA revealed diffusely dilated anterior, middle, and posterior cerebral arteries with vasoconstriction. She was tentatively diagnosed with RCVS and successfully treated with verapamil for headache. Nevertheless, follow-up MRAs disclosed widespread segmental vasoconstriction that resolved in two months. Diffuse cerebrovascular dilation has not been addressed but may be associated with RCVS pathophysiology. In addition, physicians should bear in mind that amezinium metilsulfate can potentially induce RCVS. © International Headache Society 2015.
Benson, P.J.; Sung, J.H.
Three patients, two males and one female aged 21, 14, and 31 years, respectively, developed cerebral saccular aneurysms several years after undergoing radiotherapy for cerebellar medulloblastoma at 2, 5, and 14 years of age, respectively. Following surgery, all three received combined cobalt-60 irradiation and intrathecal colloidal radioactive gold (/sup 198/Au) therapy, and died from rupture of the aneurysm 19, 9, and 17 years after the radiotherapy, respectively. Autopsy examination revealed no recurrence of the medulloblastoma, but widespread radiation-induced vasculopathy was found at the base of the brain and in the spinal cord, and saccular aneurysms arose from the posterior cerebral arteries at the basal cistern or choroidal fissure. The aneurysms differed from the ordinary saccular aneurysms of congenital type in their location and histological features. Their locations corresponded to the areas where intrathecally administered colloidal /sup 198/Au is likely to pool, and they originated directly from a segment of the artery rather than from a branching site as in congenital saccular aneurysms. It is, therefore, concluded that the aneurysms in these three patients were most likely radiation-induced.
Nie, Quanmin; Guo, Pin; Ge, Jianwei; Qiu, Yongming
Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) rarely induces cerebral hemorrhage, and CVST with cerebral hemorrhage during early pregnancy is extremely rare. Upon literature review, we are able to find only one case of CVST with cerebral hemorrhage in early pregnancy. In this paper, we report another case of a 27-year-old patient who developed CVST with cerebral hemorrhage in her fifth week of pregnancy. Although the optimal treatment for this infrequent condition remains controversial, we adopted anticoagulation as the first choice of treatment and obtained favorable results. PMID:25630781
Kesan, Krushnakumar V; Gupta, Rahul Kumar; Kothari, Paras; Gupta, Abhaya; Mudkhedkar, Kedar; Kamble, Ravikiran; Dikshit, K Vishesh
Urethral polyp is a rare cause of bladder outlet obstruction, voiding dysfunction, and hematuria in the pediatric age group. Urethral polyps are rarely associated with other congenital urinary tract anomalies. In this study, we report a case of solitary posterior urethral polyp with type I posterior urethral valve in a 7-day-old neonate presented with urinary retention and deranged renal function. The polyp was diagnosed on cystoscopy. Transurethral resection of the polyp with posterior urethral valve fulguration was performed. Pathologic assessment revealed a fibroepithelial lesion, which was consistent with congenital posterior urethral polyp.
Nourissat, G; Radier, C; Aim, F; Lacoste, S
We performed a prospective arthroscopic study to explore the variability of the posterior labrum glenoid insertion. We aimed to classify the insertions and to explore whether these insertions can be identified by pre-operative arthro-CT scan. From January to December 2011, 86 patients were prospectively included in the current study. During arthroscopy, anterior labrum was evaluated and posterior labrum was assessed in 3 different locations: superior, medial, and inferior. For each segment, the labrum was considered normally inserted (directly to the glenoid cartilage), medialized (inserted at the posterior part of the glenoid bone, without direct contact with the cartilage), torn (macroscopic degenerative changes, tears, fragments) or absent (agenesis). Imaging was analyzed segment by segment by an experienced osteoarticular radiologist, using the same classification. Four types of posterior labrum insertions were identified. Type 1, 60% of the cases, corresponded to a posterior labrum totally inserted in the glenoid, with direct contact with the cartilage. Type 2, 20% of the cases, represented medialized insertion of the superior segment. Type 3, 15% of the cases, represented an associated medialization of the superior and medial segment of the posterior labrum. Type 4 is a medialized insertion of the all-posterior labrum. Fifty-six shoulders were used for arthro-CT and arthroscopy correlation: for the superior segment (n=22/56), the sensitivity of arthro-CT to identify an abnormal insertion when the labrum is medialized was 68.18%, specificity 70.59%, positive predictive value (PPV) 60%, and negative predictive value (NPV) 77.42%. For the medial segment (n=16/56), the sensitivity of arthro-CT to identify an abnormal insertion when the labrum is medialized was 81.25%, specificity 57.50%, PPV 43.33% and NPV 88.46%. For the inferior segment (n=5/56), the sensitivity was 100%, specificity 47.60%, PPV 15.63% and NPV 100%. The current study points out the high
Segawa, H; Kimura, K; Ueda, Y; Nagai, M; Yoshimasu, N; Nakagomi, T; Tamura, A; Sano, K; Takakura, K
Cerebral perfusion was examined in various types of occlusive disease by computed tomographic CBF method. The method utilized has several advantages over conventional studies using isotope, providing high resolution images in a direct relation to CT anatomy. Ten representative cases were presented from 25 consecutive cases of occlusive disease studied by this method. The method included inhalation of 40 to 60% xenon with serial CT scanning for 25 min. K (build-up rate), lambda (partition coefficient) and CBF values were calculated from HU for each pixel and Xe in expired air, based on Fick's principle, and displayed on CRT as K-, lambda- and CBF-map separately. CBF for gray matter of normal control was 82 +/- 11 ml/100 gm/min and that for white matter was 24 +/- 5 ml/100 gm/min. The ischemic threshold for gray matter appeared to be approximately 20 ml/100 gm/min, as blood flow in focus of complete infarction was below this level. Blood flow between 20-30 ml/100 gm/min caused some change on CT, such as localized atrophy, cortical thinning, loss of distinction between gray and white matter and decreased or increased density, which were considered to be compatible with pathological changes of laminar necrosis or gliosis with neuronal loss. In a case with occlusion of middle cerebral artery with subsequent recanalization, causing hemorrhagic infarct, hyperemia was observed in the infarcted cortex that was enhanced by iodine. Periventricular lucency observed in two cases, where blood flow was decreased below threshold, could be classified as "watershed infarction" mainly involving white matter. In moyamoya disease, blood flow in the anterior circulation was decreased near ischemic level, whereas that in basal ganglia and territory of posterior cerebral artery was fairly preserved, which was compatible with general angiographic finding of this disease.
Cappelen-Smith, Cecilia; Calic, Zeljka; Cordato, Dennis
Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) is a rare but increasingly recognized disorder with over 500 cases published in the literature. The condition is characterized by recurrent severe thunderclap headaches with or without other neurological symptoms and diffuse segmental narrowing of the cerebral arteries which is reversible within 3 months. RCVS may occur spontaneously but in over 50% of cases, it is associated with various other conditions, including vasoactive medications or illicit drugs and the post-partum state. One third to a half of cases develop hemorrhagic or ischemic brain lesions or a combination of both. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) often occurs in association with RCVS and the conditions are likely to share a common pathophysiology. The pathogenesis of RCVS remains uncertain but autonomic dysregulation, oxidative stress, and genetic predisposition are postulated. Significant differential diagnoses include subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) due to aneurysmal rupture, cervical artery dissection, and primary angiitis of the central nervous system (PACNS). Although there is no proven treatment, calcium channel antagonists including nimodipine and verapamil have been administered with reported reduction of headache intensity but without effect on the time course of cerebral vasoconstriction. Glucocorticoids have been reported as an independent predictor of worse outcome and should be avoided. The cornerstone of RCVS management remains largely supportive with bed rest and analgesics and removal of precipitating factors. Invasive neurointerventional techniques should be reserved for severe deteriorating cases. The condition is usually benign and self-limited and the majority of patients have a favorable outcome but around 5-10% are left with permanent neurological deficits and rare cases may die. This review details the importance of the early recognition of this increasingly described condition and current treatment
Chaaban, Mohamad R; Conger, Bryant; Riley, Kristen O; Woodworth, Bradford A
Conventional treatment of frontal sinus posterior table fractures has included osteoplastic flap or cranialization procedures despite considerable advances in endoscopic technique and experience. The objective of the current study was to evaluate outcomes of frontal sinus fractures involving the posterior table managed using endoscopic approaches. Prospective cohort. Tertiary care, academic university hospital. Prospective evaluation of patients with posterior table fractures was performed. Data were collected regarding demographics, etiology, technique, operative site, length involving the posterior table, size of the skull base defect, complications, and clinical follow-up. Thirteen patients (average age 37 years) with posterior table fractures were treated using endoscopic techniques from 2008 to 2012. Mean follow-up time was 68 weeks (range, 2-206 weeks). Patients were primarily managed using Draf IIb frontal sinusotomies with 1 individual requiring a concomitant trephine. A Draf III procedure was performed in 1 patient. Average fracture defect (length vs width) was 13 × 4.5 mm, and average length involving the posterior table was 9.7 mm (1-30 mm). Skull base defects were covered with a septal flap and/or free tissue grafts. Although 1 individual required a revision frontal sinusotomy and follow-up was short in several patients, all sinuses remained patent on last clinical examination. Management of frontal sinus posterior table fractures using minimally invasive endoscopic techniques provides excellent outcomes in selected cases. Fractures of up to 30 mm in length were adequately managed in this series and indicate this approach can be a viable alternative in the treatment of these fractures.
Han, Yung; Shin, Jin-Hyup; Seok, Chang-Woo; Lee, Chang-Hyun; Kim, Seung-Ho
The purposes of this study were (1) to examine whether posterior delamination is hidden to the most commonly used posterior viewing portal compared with differential rotator cuff portals and (2) to observe posterior delamination patterns so that a treatment-based classification system may be proposed. One-hundred thirty consecutive patients undergoing arthroscopic rotator cuff repair by 4 different surgeons were evaluated for the presence of posterior delamination viewable through the posterior, posterolateral, and lateral portals. Randomized arthroscopic pictures were viewed by 2 independent blinded observers, and the Fleiss κ was used to assess inter-reliability agreement. In addition, patterns of posterior delamination and surgical treatment were assessed. The incidence of posterior delamination was 88%. Only 11% of cases were visualized through the posterior portal, whereas 70% and 100% were visualized through the posterolateral and lateral portals, respectively. The Fleiss κ was 0.78 (95% confidence interval, 0.73 to 0.83), indicating substantial agreement. Three general patterns of posterior delamination with specific surgical repair strategies were identified and subclassified into 5 types: type A1, full-thickness tears with extensive posterior delamination separating the rotator cuff into 2 layers and sometimes with dissociation of the rotator cable; type A2, bursal-sided partial-thickness tears with posterior delamination; type B1, delamination with an L-shaped bursal layer tear and crescent-shaped articular layer tear; type B2, a partial-thickness articular-sided tear with extensive posterior delamination; and type C, extensive degeneration with multiple longitudinal bursal-sided tears. The incidence of posterior delamination is extremely high, and most of these lesions are missed if one is viewing from just the posterior portal. Differential rotator cuff portals are needed to appreciate and treat posterior delamination. Patterns of delamination can be
Cuny, M L; Pallone, M; Piana, H; Boddaert, N; Sainte-Rose, C; Vaivre-Douret, L; Piolino, P; Puget, S
Posterior fossa arachnoid cysts (PFAC) are mostly considered as benign lesions of the cerebellum. Although many studies have shown the major role of the cerebellum in modulating movement, language, cognition, and social interaction, there are few studies on the cognitive impact and surgical decompression of PFAC. We present the cases of two brothers successively diagnosed with PFAC and neuropsychological delay. After multidisciplinary discussion with the boys' parents, it was decided to drain these lesions. Clinical signs, cerebral images, and neuropsychological status were assessed on admission and then 1 and 3 years after surgery. At presentation, both children had mild cerebellar signs, associated with cognitive and visual-motor impairments and academic regression. CT scans revealed retrovermian cysts, which were shunted. Post-operatively, both brothers demonstrated improved visual-motor skills and behavior. At follow-up, we observed disappearance of dysarthria and academic delay and significant improvement in cognition especially at the intelligence scale and in language. Fine motor skills had improved but remained slower than the average and writing skills appeared limited. Except for PFAC which impair cerebrospinal fluid circulation or which are responsible for a significant mass effect, most PFAC are usually considered as "asymptomatic" and do not require surgical treatment. The two cases reported herein suggest that these lesions might be responsible for some associated but potentially reversible neuropsychological impairment. In the future, clinical assessment should include neuropsychological evaluation to help inform decision for surgical decompression in these children with PFAC.
Cerebral folate deficiency (CFD) is associated with low levels of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) with normal folate levels in the plasma and red blood cells. The onset of symptoms caused by the deficiency of folates in the brain is at around 4 to 6 months of age. This is followed by delayed development, with deceleration…
Noriega, L; Villarreal, F
The tuberculosis is a disease that continues being important cause of morbidity and mortality at worldwide level. Its presentation as tuberculomas cerebral manifold at level of the central nervous system is little frequent in immunocompetent patients and can be confused with other etiology. An indigenous young man, immunocompetent consulted for history of headache, nausea, vomits, convulsions, double vision and hemiparesia left side, which in the cerebral tomography of revenue was showing injuries compatible with cerebral abscesses; for which he received treatment with antibiotics without improvement for what there takes biopsy of the injuries that reported tuberculomas, specific treatment being initiated later and the primary area being investigated without the same one be detecting. After the first procedural step with evident clinical and radiographic improvement. The tuberculosis in anyone of their forms of presentation must be included within the diagnosis differential of the patients in our endemic countries for this disease. The clinical and radiological diagnosis of cerebral injuries is difficult and single usually it obtains to the diagnosis during a pathology study that shows tuberculomas with caseosa necrosis, epiteliodes cell and the acid alcohol bacilli resistant.
Cerebral folate deficiency (CFD) is associated with low levels of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) with normal folate levels in the plasma and red blood cells. The onset of symptoms caused by the deficiency of folates in the brain is at around 4 to 6 months of age. This is followed by delayed development, with deceleration…
... brain is affected and which parts of the body that section of the brain controls. If CP affects both arms and both legs, ... the case of spastic CP) or to help control seizures. And some might have special surgeries to keep their arms or legs straighter and more ... Coping With Cerebral Palsy Puberty can ...
Recurrent thunderclap headaches, seizures, strokes, and non-aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage can all reveal reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome. This increasingly recognised syndrome is characterised by severe headaches, with or without other symptoms, and segmental constriction of cerebral arteries that resolves within 3 months. Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome is supposedly due to a transient disturbance in the control of cerebrovascular tone. More than half the cases occur post partum or after exposure to adrenergic or serotonergic drugs. Manifestations have a uniphasic course, and vary from pure cephalalgic forms to rare catastrophic forms associated with several haemorrhagic and ischaemic strokes, brain oedema, and death. Diagnosis can be hampered by the dynamic nature of clinicoradiological features. Stroke can occur a few days after initial normal imaging, and cerebral vasoconstriction is at a maximum on angiograms 2-3 weeks after clinical onset. The calcium channel blocker nimodipine seems to reduce thunderclap headaches within 48 h of administration, but has no proven effect on haemorrhagic and ischaemic complications. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome is characterized by severe headaches with or without focal neurologic deficits and/or seizures, and segmental constriction of cerebral arteries that resolves within 3 months. This increasingly recognized syndrome is supposedly due to a transient disturbance in the control of cerebral vascular tone with sympathetic overactivity. It can cause stroke in the young. It affects mainly middle-aged women. More than half the cases occur after exposure to vasoactive substances or during postpartum. The manifestations have a monophasic course, without new clinical symptom after 4 weeks, and range from pure cephalalgic forms with recurrent thunderclap headaches over 1-2 weeks to rare catastrophic forms with multiple hemorrhagic and ischemic strokes, brain edema and death. Diagnosis may be hampered by the dynamic nature of clinicoradiological features. Convexity subarachnoid hemorrhage or stroke may occur a few days after initial normal imaging, and cerebral vasoconstriction is maximal on angiography 2-3 weeks after clinical onset. Symptomatic treatment includes rest and removal of vasoactive substances. Nimodipine has been proposed to reduce thunderclap headaches within 48 hours, but has no proven effect on the hemorrhagic and ischemic complications. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Sartwelle, Thomas P.
The cardinal driver of cerebral palsy litigation is electronic fetal monitoring, which has continued unabated for 40 years. Electronic fetal monitoring, however, is based on 19th-century childbirth myths, a virtually nonexistent scientific foundation, and has a false positive rate exceeding 99%. It has not affected the incidence of cerebral palsy. Electronic fetal monitoring has, however, increased the cesarian section rate, with the expected increase in mortality and morbidity risks to mothers and babies alike. This article explains why electronic fetal monitoring remains endorsed as efficacious in the worlds’ labor rooms and courtrooms despite being such a feeble medical modality. It also reviews the reasons professional organizations have failed to condemn the use of electronic fetal monitoring in courtrooms. The failures of tort reform, special cerebral palsy courts, and damage limits to stem the escalating litigation are discussed. Finally, the authors propose using a currently available evidence rule—the Daubert doctrine that excludes “junk science” from the courtroom—as the beginning of the end to cerebral palsy litigation and electronic fetal monitoring’s 40-year masquerade as science. PMID:25183322
Amans, Matthew R; Stout, Charles; Fox, Christine; Narvid, Jared; Hetts, Steven W; Cooke, Daniel L; Higashida, Randall T; Dowd, Christopher F; McSwain, Hugh; Halbach, Van V
ACTA2 mutations have recently been shown to cause a multisystem smooth muscle dysfunction syndrome that may result in pediatric stroke. We report a case of ACTA2 mutation in a 3-year-old girl presenting with acute ischemic stroke and provide high resolution imaging of the cerebral arteries demonstrating novel findings of multiple tiny aneurysms (particularly in the posterior circulation), as well as the more characteristic imaging phenotype of straightened and narrowed proximal intracranial vessels, dilated cervical vessels and occlusion of the M1 MCA segment without lenticulostriate collateral formation. This newly identified disease should be added to the differential diagnosis of pediatric stroke and cerebral vasculopathy. Neuroradiologists, interventionalists, surgeons and neurologists should become familiar with this rare disease and its clinical sequelae. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Isahaya, Kenji; Shinohara, Kensuke; Akamatu, Masashi; Shimizu, Takahiro; Sakurai, Kenzo; Shiraishi, Makoto; Akiyama, Hisanao; Hasegawa, Yasuhiro
A 65-year-old man who had been diagnosed with transient global amnesia (TGA) 15 years previously was admitted to hospital with complaints of amnesia and headache. His symptoms improved on day-2. The initial brain MRI and electroencephalography findings were normal. He was diagnosed with a recurrence of TGA and discharged. However, he returned with right leg weakness and complained of a thunderclap headache. MRI demonstrated subarachnoid hemorrhage and multifocal segmental narrowing of the left posterior cerebral artery (PCA) and large intracranial arteries, and he was diagnosed with reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS). He was discharged on day-30 without any neurological deficits. This case suggested that TGA should be interpreted as one of the symptoms of RCVS or a prodromal symptom of RCVS. PMID:28626186
Amans, Matthew R; Stout, Charles; Fox, Christine; Narvid, Jared; Hetts, Steven W; Cooke, Daniel L; Higashida, Randall T; Dowd, Christopher F; McSwain, Hugh; Halbach, Van V
ACTA2 mutations have recently been shown to cause a multisystem smooth muscle dysfunction syndrome that may result in pediatric stroke. We report a case of ACTA2 mutation in a 3-year-old girl presenting with acute ischemic stroke and provide high resolution imaging of the cerebral arteries demonstrating novel findings of multiple tiny aneurysms (particularly in the posterior circulation), as well as the more characteristic imaging phenotype of straightened and narrowed proximal intracranial vessels, dilated cervical vessels and occlusion of the M1 MCA segment without lenticulostriate collateral formation. This newly identified disease should be added to the differential diagnosis of pediatric stroke and cerebral vasculopathy. Neuroradiologists, interventionalists, surgeons and neurologists should become familiar with this rare disease and its clinical sequelae. PMID:24293535
Barinagarrementeria, F; González-Duarte, A; Cantú-Brito, C
Hematological disorders per se represent unusual causes of cerebral ischemia, explaining in young people 4% of strokes. Hematological disorders that induce a thrombotic tendency contribute to overall ischemic stroke risk and may directly cause cerebral ischemia in patients without other risk factors. The frequency of cerebral infarctions caused by prothrombotic states is not known. This review will focus on disorders such as prothrombotic coagulopaties, including resistance to activated protein C and antiphospholipid syndrome as cause of cerebral infarction. Cerebral venous thrombosis and cerebral infarction from arterial origin are the most common form of neurological involvement. Pathophysiological mechanism of stroke in these patients are multiple and can include as in antiphospholipid syndrome embolism from valves abnormalities related to hematological disturbance, as well as thrombosis of extracranial or intracranial vessels. Is clear, however, that prothrombotic states could explains a high percentage of cases of those so called cryptogenic cerebral infarction in young people.
Shimoda, M; Oda, S; Hirayama, A; Imai, M; Komatsu, F; Hoshikawa, K; Shigematsu, H; Nishiyama, J; Osada, T
Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome is characterized by thunderclap headache and diffuse segmental vasoconstriction that resolves spontaneously within 3 months. Previous reports have proposed that vasoconstriction first involves small distal arteries and then progresses toward major vessels at the time of thunderclap headache remission. The purpose of this study was to confirm centripetal propagation of vasoconstriction on MRA at the time of thunderclap headache remission compared with MRA at the time of reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome onset. Of the 39 patients diagnosed with reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome at our hospital during the study period, participants comprised the 16 patients who underwent MR imaging, including MRA, within 72 hours of reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome onset (initial MRA) and within 48 hours of thunderclap headache remission. In 14 of the 16 patients (87.5%), centripetal propagation of vasoconstriction occurred from the initial MRA to remission of thunderclap headache, with typical segmental vasoconstriction of major vessels. These mainly involved the M1 portion of the MCA (10 cases), P1 portion of the posterior cerebral artery (10 cases), and A1 portion of the anterior cerebral artery (5 cases). This study found evidence of centripetal propagation of vasoconstriction on MRA obtained at the time of thunderclap headache remission, compared with MRA obtained at the time of reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome onset. If clinicians remain unsure of the diagnosis during early-stage reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome, this time point represents the best opportunity to diagnose reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome with confidence. © 2016 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.
Sassi, Samia Ben; Touati, Nahla; Baccouche, Hela; Drissi, Cyrine; Romdhane, Neila Ben; Hentati, Fayçal
Data regarding cerebral venous thrombosis in North Africa are scarce. This study aims to identify the clinical features, risk factors, outcome, and prognosis of cerebral venous thrombosis in Tunisia. Data of 160 patients with radiologically confirmed cerebral venous thrombosis, hospitalized in Mongi Ben Hmida National Institute of Neurology (Tunis, Tunisia), were retrospectively collected and analyzed. The mean age was 37.3 years with a female predominance (83.1%). The mode of onset was subacute in most cases (56.2%). Headache was the most common symptom (71.3%), and focal neurologic symptoms were the main clinical presentation (41.8%). The most common sites of thrombosis were the superior sagittal sinus (65%) and the lateral sinus (60.6%). More than 1 sinus was involved in 114 (71.2%) patients. Parenchymal lesions observed in 85 (53.1%) patients did not correlate with cerebral venous thrombosis extent. Major risk factors were obstetric causes (pregnancy and puerperium) found in 46 (38.6% of women aged <50 years) patients, followed by anemia (28.1%) and congenital or acquired thrombophilia (16.2%). Mortality rate was of 6.6%. Good outcome at 6 months (modified Rankin Scale ≤2) was observed in 105 (87.5%)of 120 patients available for follow-up. Predictors of poor outcome were altered consciousness and elevated plasma C-reactive protein levels. Clinical and radiologic presentation of cerebral venous thrombosis in Tunisia was quite similar to other parts of the world with, however, a particularly high frequency of obstetric causes. Plasma C-reactive protein level should be considered as a prognostic factor in CVT.
Schmahmann, Jeremy D.; Smith, Eric E.; Eichler, Florian S.; Filley, Christopher M.
Lesions of the cerebral white matter (WM) result in focal neurobehavioral syndromes, neuropsychiatric phenomena, and dementia. The cerebral WM contains fiber pathways that convey axons linking cerebral cortical areas with each other and with subcortical structures, facilitating the distributed neural circuits that subserve sensorimotor function, intellect, and emotion. Recent neuroanatomical investigations reveal that these neural circuits are topographically linked by five groupings of fiber tracts emanating from every neocortical area: (1) cortico-cortical association fibers; (2) corticostriatal fibers; (3) commissural fibers; and cortico-subcortical pathways to (4) thalamus and (5) pontocerebellar system, brain stem, and/or spinal cord. Lesions of association fibers prevent communication between cortical areas engaged in different domains of behavior. Lesions of subcortical structures or projection/striatal fibers disrupt the contribution of subcortical nodes to behavior. Disconnection syndromes thus result from lesions of the cerebral cortex, subcortical structures, and WM tracts that link the nodes that make up the distributed circuits. The nature and the severity of the clinical manifestations of WM lesions are determined, in large part, by the location of the pathology: discrete neurological and neuropsychiatric symptoms result from focal WM lesions, whereas cognitive impairment across multiple domains—WM dementia—occurs in the setting of diffuse WM disease. We present a detailed review of the conditions affecting WM that produce these neurobehavioral syndromes, and consider the pathophysiology, clinical effects, and broad significance of the effects of aging and vascular compromise on cerebral WM, in an attempt to help further the understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of these disorders. PMID:18990132
Cromie, Melinda J; Siston, Robert A; Giori, Nicholas J; Delp, Scott L
Abnormal anterior translation of the femur on the tibia has been observed in mid flexion (20-60 degrees ) following posterior stabilized total knee arthroplasty. The underlying biomechanical causes of this abnormal motion remain unknown. The purpose of this study was to isolate the effects of posterior cruciate ligament removal on knee motion after total knee arthroplasty. We posed two questions: Does removing the posterior cruciate ligament introduce abnormal anterior femoral translation? Does implanting a posterior stabilized prosthesis change the kinematics from the cruciate deficient case? Using a navigation system, we measured passive knee kinematics of ten male osteoarthritic patients during surgery after initial exposure, after removing the anterior cruciate ligament, after removing the posterior cruciate ligament, and after implanting the prosthesis. Passively flexing and extending the knee, we calculated anterior femoral translation and the flexion angle at which femoral rollback began. Removing the posterior cruciate ligament doubled anterior translation (from 5.1 +/- 4.3 mm to 10.4 +/- 5.1 mm) and increased the flexion angle at which femoral rollback began (from 31.2 +/- 9.6 degrees to 49.3 +/- 7.3 degrees). Implanting the prosthesis increased the amount of anterior translation (to 16.1 +/- 4.4 mm), and did not change the flexion angle at which femoral rollback began. Abnormal anterior translation was observed in low and mid flexion (0-60 degrees) after removing the posterior cruciate ligament, and normal motion was not restored by the posterior stabilized prosthesis.
Previgliano, Ignacio; Cortese, Silvia; Di Nardo, Victoria; Lara, Enrique; Da Ré, Sabrina; Villareal, Orlando; Poliszuk, Julieta; Fernández, María E; Quinteros, Mónica; Damín, Carlos; Nuñez, Myriam
To assess if there are changes in brain hemodynamics evaluated by means of transcranial doppler's flow velocity, pulsatile index and cerebral perfusion pressure, between cocaine chronic abusers and healthy volunteers. Prospective, case and control, observational study. Sex, age, user history, vital signs and transcranial doppler findings.Statistical analysis was performed by means of normality test, Wilcoxon's test for non parametric samples and T Student test. Fifty-three abusers and 35 healthy volunteers were studied. Statistical differences were found for a diminish in age(p=0.008) and cerebral perfusion pressure in all cerebral arteries (p
Chen, Shih-Pin; Fuh, Jong-Ling; Lirng, Jiing-Feng; Wang, Shuu-Jiun
To study the frequency and significance of distal hyperintense vessels (HVs) on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) imaging in patients with reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS). Patients with RCVS were recruited during 2002 through 2009. Prominence and location of HVs on FLAIR images during the acute and recovery stages were documented. Clinical profiles, vasoconstriction scores, mean flow velocities of the middle cerebral artery (V(MCA)) and posterior cerebral artery (V(PCA)), and the Lindegaard index (LI) were collected for analysis. Ninety-five patients with RCVS (11M/84F, mean age 47.8 ± 10.9 years) were recruited. Twenty-one (22.1%) had FLAIR HVs, which were noted at a mean of 14.3 ± 12.7 days and resolved by 44.9 ± 18.8 days. Compared with patients without HVs, patients with this finding had higher vasoconstriction scores for all arterial segments; higher V(MCA) (121.0 ± 39.5 cm/s vs. 93.3 ± 27.8, p = 0.002), V(PCA) (73.3 ± 35.0 vs. 50.5 ± 17.8 cm/s, p = 0.010), and LI (2.8 ± 1.2 vs. 1.9 ± 0.5, p = 0.018), and complications such as posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) [8/21 (38%) vs. 0/74 (0%), p < 0.001] or ischemic stroke [5/21 (24%) vs. 1/74 (1%), p = 0.002]. HVs in patients with RCVS might be attributed to the failure of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) signal nulling on FLAIR imaging due to severe cerebral hemodynamic derangements and were associated with more frequent ischemic complications.
Downing, J E
The incidence of secondary capsulotomy was studied in a group of 757 posterior chamber intraocular lenses placed with the convex surface posterior within the capsular bag. Minimum follow-up was 12 months and ranged up to 61 months, with a mean of 33 months. In the first year, only 2.9% of cases required discission, but this rose to 15.7% at five years. The need for capsulotomy with angled-haptic lenses was 7.9% at three years; it was 15.0% with uniplanar lenses (P = .04). This difference appeared to be due to better apposition of the optic to the posterior capsule in the angled lenses, creating a more effective barrier to epithelial pearl migration. Capsulotomy carries significant risks and lens designs that minimize the long-term need for capsulotomy should be sought. Convex posterior lenses with angled haptics have a low incidence of posterior capsule opacification.
Nowinski, Wieslaw L
The existing classifications of cerebral veins have certain problems, including limited adequacy to uniquely describe neurovascular networks in three dimensions (3D), mixture of deep and superficial veins, and ambiguity of territories-based parcellations as veins may course on multiple territories. Classification discrepancies exist in subdivision, region drained, and parcellation criteria. Recent developments in diagnostic imaging and computers enable to acquire, create, and manipulate complete vascular networks, which also call for a new classification of cerebral veins. We propose a new classification suitable for the description of the complete cerebral veins, providing a clear separation of the superficial cortical veins from deep veins, and facilitating presentation and exploration of cerebral veins in 3D with respect to surrounding neuroanatomy. It is based on terminating vascular subsystems (rather than draining regions). It divides the cerebral veins into cortical, deep, and posterior fossa veins. The cortical veins are subdivided into two groups: terminating in dural sinuses and terminating in deep veins. The posterior fossa veins are subdivided also into two groups: terminating in dural sinuses and terminating in deep veins. This classification was illustrated with a cerebrovascular model containing over 1,300 vessels. This new classification has many advantages. It is simple, clear and didactically useful; avoids mixture of superficial and deep veins; shows overall hierarchical structure and topographical relationships including tributaries; is useful in analysis of 3D vascular trees extracted from imaging; and may be used in conjunction with the existing parcellations.
Jensen, Karin B; Petzke, Frank; Carville, Serena; Choy, Ernest; Fransson, Peter; Gracely, Richard H; Vitton, Olivier; Marcus, Hanke; Williams, Steven C R; Ingvar, Martin; Kosek, Eva
Antidepressant drugs are commonly used to treat fibromyalgia, but there is little knowledge about their mechanisms of action. The aim of this study was to compare the cerebral and behavioral response to positive treatment effects of antidepressants or placebo. Ninety-two fibromyalgia patients participated in a 12-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial with milnacipran, a serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor. Before and after treatment, measures of cerebral pain processing were obtained using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Also, there were stimulus response assessments of pressure pain, measures of weekly pain, and fibromyalgia impact. Following treatment, milnacipran responders exhibited significantly higher activity in the posterior cingulum compared with placebo responders. The mere exposure to milnacipran did not explain our findings because milnacipran responders exhibited increased activity also in comparison to milnacipran nonresponders. Stimulus response assessments revealed specific antihyperalgesic effects in milnacipran responders, which was also correlated with reduced clinical pain and with increased activation of the posterior cingulum. A short history of pain predicted positive treatment response to milnacipran. We report segregated neural mechanisms for positive responses to treatment with milnacipran and placebo, reflected in the posterior cingulum. The increase of pain-evoked activation in the posterior cingulum may reflect a normalization of altered default mode network processing, an alteration implicated in fibromyalgia pathophysiology. This study presents neural and psychophysical correlates to positive treatment responses in patients with fibromyalgia, treated with either milnacipran or placebo. The comparison between placebo responders and milnacipran responders may shed light on the specific mechanisms involved in antidepressant treatment of chronic pain. Copyright © 2014 American Pain Society. Published by
Biswas, J; Mittal, S; Ganesh, S K; Shetty, N S; Gopal, L
Posterior scleritis is relatively uncommon and is often misdiagnosed due to its protean manifestations. We report eight cases of posterior scleritis to analyse the clinical profile, ultrasonographic and computed tomography (CT) scan features of this rare disorder. Fundus findings included serous retinal detachment, choroidal folds, retinal folds, subretinal mass, choroidal detachment, disc edema, and macular edema. There was associated anterior scleritis and anterior uveitis in the majority of the cases. In all cases ultrasound with or without CT scan confirmed the clinical diagnosis. All patients responded to systemic steroids except one who required immunosuppressive therapy. This paper describes the clinical profile of a series of posterior scleritis cases highlighting varied clinical presentation, and the role of ultrasound and CT scan findings in the diagnosis.
Durrani, Khayyam; Foster, C Stephen
Although the phenomenon of fundus autofluorescence has been known for decades, it has only recently been recognized as a measure of retinal pigment epithelial function and health. Characteristic fundus autofluorescence patterns have been described in eyes affected by inflammation of the posterior segment, and these patterns have provided insights into the pathogenesis of posterior uveitis entities. In addition, preliminary data indicate that fundus autofluorescence characteristics may serve as markers of disease activity, allow prediction of visual prognosis, and may help determine the adequacy of therapy. We provide an overview of the current state of fundus autofluorescence imaging technology and review our current knowledge of fundus autoflourescence findings and their clinical use in the posterior uveitis entities.
Lewis, Stephen J; David, Kenny; Singer, Syndie; Bacon, Sarah A; Kopka, Michaela; Gray, Randolph; Magana, Sofia
Case report. To describe a novel technique to remove anterior instrumentation from a posterior approach while performing posterior-based osteotomies for spinal deformities. Posterior-based osteotomies such as pedicle subtraction osteotomies (PSOs) and vertebral column resections are performed to restore sagittal alignment. The removal of previously placed anterior implants at the desired osteotomy level can often be challenging. We propose a technique for the removal of anterior instrumentation through a posterior approach to facilitate osteotomy closure and deformity correction, while avoiding the need for an anterior incision. A 34-year-old woman presented with a residual deformity after several anterior and posterior procedures. The residual coronal Cobb angle measured 60 degrees between T7 and L2, with a 46 degrees thoracolumbar kyphosis between T10 and L2. The screw head at the desired osteotomy level was in close proximity to the liver after the previous right-sided thoracoabdominal approach. Therefore, the T11 anterior screw was accessed through a posterior costotransversectomy approach and disconnected from the rod proximally and distally with a high-speed side-cutting burr. A portion of the right lateral vertebral body of T11 was removed to expose the neck of the screw, which was separated from the shaft with the same burr. A PSO was performed at T11 and the remaining screw shank was removed with the posterior-based osteotomy. No major complications were encountered during the procedure. The anterior screw at T11 was removed from posteriorly, and the PSO was completed successfully. Postoperative recovery was without incident, and the patient was very satisfied with her results. This technique describes a novel, safe, and effective method to deal with anterior instrumentation from the posterior approach while performing posterior-based osteotomies for rigid spinal deformities.
Xu, Hai-lin; Li, Xuan; Zhang, Dian-ying; Fu, Zhong-guo; Wang, Tian-bing; Zhang, Pei-xun; Jiang, Bao-guo; Shen, Hui-liang; Wang, Gang; Wang, Guang-lin; Wu, Xin-bao
In this retrospective study, we evaluated the treatment effect of ankle joint fracture surgery involving the posterior malleolus, and discuss relevant factors influencing the occurrence of traumatic arthritis of the ankle joint. A total of 102 cases of ankle joint fractures involving the posterior malleolus in five large-scale skeletal trauma centres in China, from January 2000 to July 2009, were retrospectively analysed in terms of surgical treatment and complete follow-up. Ankle joint mobility, posterior malleolus fragment size, articular surface evenness, Ankle-Hindfoot Scale of the American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) score, and imaging scale score for arthritis were recorded. The degree of fracture pain during rest, active movement, and weight-bearing walking, and satisfaction with treatment were evaluated using a visual analogue scale (VAS). The average AOFAS score was 95.9, excellence rate was 92.2 %, and average VAS scores for degree of fracture pain during rest, active movement, and weight-bearing walking were 0.15, 0.31, and 0.68, respectively. Thirty-six cases showed arthritic manifestations. Ankle joint mobility along all directions on the injured side was lower than that on the unaffected side. There was no obvious difference in treatment effect between the fixed and unfixed posterior malleolus fragment groups for all and for fragment size of < 25 %; between fixing the posterior malleolus fragment from front to back or from back to front; or between elderly patients (≥ 60 years old) and young patients (< 60 years old). There was a distinct difference in the treatment effect between articular surface evenness and unevenness for all and for fragment size of ≥ 25 %. For all 102 cases of ankle joint fracture involving the posterior malleolus, the treatment effect was satisfactory. Restoration of an even articular surface, especially when fragment size ≥ 25 %, should be attempted during treatment.
Nguyen, Cattram D; Lee, Katherine J; Carlin, John B
Multiple imputation is gaining popularity as a strategy for handling missing data, but there is a scarcity of tools for checking imputation models, a critical step in model fitting. Posterior predictive checking (PPC) has been recommended as an imputation diagnostic. PPC involves simulating "replicated" data from the posterior predictive distribution of the model under scrutiny. Model fit is assessed by examining whether the analysis from the observed data appears typical of results obtained from the replicates produced by the model. A proposed diagnostic measure is the posterior predictive "p-value", an extreme value of which (i.e., a value close to 0 or 1) suggests a misfit between the model and the data. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of the posterior predictive p-value as an imputation diagnostic. Using simulation methods, we deliberately misspecified imputation models to determine whether posterior predictive p-values were effective in identifying these problems. When estimating the regression parameter of interest, we found that more extreme p-values were associated with poorer imputation model performance, although the results highlighted that traditional thresholds for classical p-values do not apply in this context. A shortcoming of the PPC method was its reduced ability to detect misspecified models with increasing amounts of missing data. Despite the limitations of posterior predictive p-values, they appear to have a valuable place in the imputer's toolkit. In addition to automated checking using p-values, we recommend imputers perform graphical checks and examine other summaries of the test quantity distribution. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Kirshner, Howard S; Lavin, Patrick J M
Posterior cortical atrophy is a striking clinical syndrome in which a dementing illness begins with visual symptoms. Initially, the problem may seem to be loss of elementary vision, but over time the patient develops features of visual agnosia, topographical difficulty, optic ataxia, simultanagnosia, ocular apraxia (Balint's syndrome), alexia, acalculia, right-left confusion, and agraphia (Gerstmann's syndrome), and later a more generalized dementia. Occasional patients have visual hallucinations and signs of Parkinson's disease or Lewy body dementia. A number of different neuropathologic disorders are associated with posterior cortical atrophy.
Ushikoshi, Satoshi; Honma, Toshimi; Uchida, Kazuki; Yasuda, Hiroshi; Ajiki, Minoru
A 76-year-old man presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Selective angiography revealed a dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) at the right anterior clinoid process, draining into the superficial middle cerebral vein in a retrograde fashion. Two internal carotid artery aneurysms were also demonstrated at the origin of the posterior communicating artery and the anterior choroidal artery on the same side. The patient underwent craniotomy, and all lesions were treated simultaneously. Rupture of the anterior choroidal artery aneurysm was confirmed. DAVF draining directly into the superficial middle cerebral vein is extremely rare. The precise location of the shunt, the anatomical features, and venous drainage must be evaluated to consider treatment.
Li, Shengli; Zhang, Aiyu; Xu, Min; Jin, Taiyi
Using the Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS), the noninvasive measurement of cerebral oxygen concentration can be achieved in vivo based on the Lambert-Beer Law. In this paper, we discuss the possibility of studying higher brain functions through combining cerebral oxygen saturation and cerebral function measurement. Event-related experiments are introduced to measure the cerebral phronetal function. Time domain curves show sight differences among these experiment results. However, with the aid of DFT, experiment data of all five human volunteers show the frequency near 20 Hz or 40 Hz is evoked depending on the difficulty of the mental tasks. The results demonstrate the feasibility of cerebral functions study by means of cerebral oxygen saturation measurement analyzed in the frequency domain.
Torres, Moisés Ulises; Delgado, Ligia Victoria; Giraldo, Natalia; Urueña, Piedad; Franco, Sergio; Hernández, Olga Helena
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome is an illness with multiple causes and distinctive clinicalradiological characteristics that should be known by intensivists and emergency room physicians for a timely diagnosis and treatment. A fatal case of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome is presented, and the risk factors related to the outcome are identified.A 60-year-old man without a relevant medical history arrived at the emergency room presenting with depressed consciousness, seizures, and high blood pressure. Tomographic images revealed a posterior cerebellar hematoma. Resonance images showed ischemic zones, vasogenic edema from the thalamus to the brain stem, middle cerebellar peduncles, deep white matter of the cerebral hemispheres, and zones of hemorrhagic transformation. Despite medical-surgical management, the patient died. The risk factors described as the cause of the fatal outcome were identified. This case demonstrates that posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome can occur without triggering risk factors and highlights the need for early recognition to establish an appropriate intervention to avoid injury or a fatal outcome. Cases of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome provide opportunities to investigate the susceptibility for the development of this condition and to establish appropriate preventive measures.
Sahuquillo, Juan; Sheth, Kevin N.; Kahle, Kristopher T.; Walcott, Brian P.
Opinion statement Managing patients with malignant cerebral infarction remains one of the foremost challenges in medicine. These patients are at high risk for progressive neurologic deterioration and death due to malignant cerebral edema, and they are best cared for in the intensive care unit of a comprehensive stroke center. Careful initial assessment of neurologic function and of findings on MRI, coupled with frequent reassessment of clinical and radiologic findings using CT or MRI are mandatory to promote the prompt initiation of treatments that will ensure the best outcome in these patients. Significant deterioration in either neurologic function or radiologic findings or both demand timely treatment using the best medical management, which may include osmotherapy (mannitol or hypertonic saline), endotracheal intubation, and mechanical ventilation. Under appropriate circumstances, decompressive craniectomy may be warranted to improve outcome or to prevent death. PMID:21190097
Using a pressure gradient to drive the blood flow, and the external pressure induced by a blast wave through the surrounding brain elements, an...unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Many numerical models for the brain do not include the vascular structures within the brain and thus...are incapable of predicting damage to the cerebral vasculature. The presence of the vasculature within the brain produces a reinforcing effect and
Zijlmans, M; Huibers, C J A; Huiskamp, G J; de Kort, G A P; Alpherts, W C J; Leijten, F S S; Hendrikse, J
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the contribution of posterior circulation to memory function by comparing memory scores between patients with and without a foetal-type posterior cerebral artery (FTP) during the intracarotid amobarbital procedure (IAP) in epilepsy patients. Patients undergoing bilateral IAP between January 2004 and January 2010 were retrospectively included. Pre-test angiograms were assessed for the presence of a FTP. Memory function scores (% correct) after right and left injections were obtained. Functional significance of FTP was affirmed by relative occipital versus parietal EEG slow-wave increase during IAP. Memory and EEG scores were compared between patients with and without FTP (Mann-Whitney U test). A total of 106 patients were included, 73 with posterior cerebral arteries (PCA) without FTP ('non-FTP'), 28 patients with unilateral FTP and 5 with a bilateral FTP. Memory scores were lower when amytal was injected to the hemisphere contralateral to the presumed seizure focus (on the right decreasing from 98.3 to 59.1, and on the left decreasing from 89.1 to 72.4; p < 0.001). When IAP was performed on the side of FTP memory scores were significantly lower (70.8) compared to non-FTP (82.0; p = 0.02). Relative occipital EEG changes were 0.44 for FTP cases and 0.36 for non-FTP patients (p = 0.01). A relationship between vasculature and brain function was demonstrated by lower memory scores and more slow-wave activity on occipital EEG during IAP in patients with foetal-type PCA compared to patients with non-FTP. This suggests an important contribution of brain areas supplied by the PCA to memory function.
Roussel, T J; Coster, D J
We report a case of intractable glaucoma following an uncomplicated secondary posterior capsulotomy in a 48-year-old male with Fuchs's heterochromic cyclitis. The patient had been free of inflammation and glaucoma since cataract extraction 27 years previously. We also report the results of phenotypic analysis of lymphocytes removed from the anterior chamber. Images PMID:3859323
Fligner, Michael A.; Verducci, Joseph S.
The concept of consensus ordering is defined, and formulas for exact and approximate posterior probabilities for consensus ordering are developed under the assumption of a generalized Mallows' model with a diffuse conjugate prior. These methods are applied to a data set concerning 98 college students. (SLD)
This simulation study compared the utility of various discrepancy measures within a posterior predictive model checking (PPMC) framework for detecting different types of data-model misfit in multidimensional Bayesian network (BN) models. The investigated conditions were motivated by an applied research program utilizing an operational complex…
This simulation study compared the utility of various discrepancy measures within a posterior predictive model checking (PPMC) framework for detecting different types of data-model misfit in multidimensional Bayesian network (BN) models. The investigated conditions were motivated by an applied research program utilizing an operational complex…
Fligner, Michael A.; Verducci, Joseph S.
The concept of consensus ordering is defined, and formulas for exact and approximate posterior probabilities for consensus ordering are developed under the assumption of a generalized Mallows' model with a diffuse conjugate prior. These methods are applied to a data set concerning 98 college students. (SLD)
Kang, Richard W; Mahony, Gregory T; Harris, Thomas C; Dines, Joshua S
In summary, batter’s shoulder is a rare and only recently recognized entity. This condition is posterior shoulder instability caused by a missed attempt at hitting a pitch, especially with an outside pitch. The lack of counterforce from hitting a ball produces increased forces imparted on the posterior capsulolabral complex of the lead shoulder during batting. If the player fails conservative management, she or he can undergo an arthroscopic posterior labral repair instead of debridement. After treatment, the player can expect to return to play after approximately 6 to 7 months. Initial results from a small, retrospective series demonstrate greater than 90% excellent results. These findings are similar to current literature for arthroscopic treatment of posterior instability, which reports success rates that range from 75% to 91%. Longer-term follow-up will be needed to determine the natural history and prognosis or batter’s shoulder. Based on initial results, the authors predict good to excellent results for most players with batter’s shoulder who undergo proper treatment. Additionally, with the exception of switch hitters, the nonthrowing arm is affected. This can also improve the athlete’s return to play. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Silvestri, A R; Singh, I
The four types of fractures most frequently encountered in posterior teeth--obliquely directed complete fractures, vertically directed complete fractures, obliquely directed incomplete fractures, and vertically directed incomplete fractures--have been described. A detailed treatment approach for each type has been presented.
Enatsu, Rei; Bulacio, Juan; Nair, Dileep R; Bingaman, William; Najm, Imad; Gonzalez-Martinez, Jorge
Posterior cingulate epilepsy (PCE) is misleading because the seizure onset is located in an anatomically deep and semiologically silent area. This type of epilepsy is rare and has not been well described yet. Knowledge of the characteristics of PCE is important for the interpretation of presurgical evaluation and better surgical strategy. The purpose of this study was to better characterise the clinical and neurophysiological features of PCE. This retrospective analysis included seven intractable PCE patients. Six patients had postcingulate ictal onset identified by stereotactic EEG (SEEG) evaluations. One patient had a postcingulate tumour. We analysed clinical semiology, the scalp EEG/SEEG findings and cortico-cortical evoked potential (CCEP). The classifications of scalp EEG were various, including non-localisible, lateralised to the seizure onset side, regional parieto-occipital, regional frontocentral and regional temporal. Three of seven patients showed motor manifestations, including bilateral asymmetric tonic seizures and hypermotor seizures. In these patients, ictal activities spread to frontal (lateral premotor area, orbitofrontal cortex, supplementary motor area, anteior cingulate gyrus) and parietal (precuneus, posterior cingulate gyrus, inferior parietal lobule (IPL), postcentral gyrus) areas. Four patients showed dialeptic seizures or automotor seizures, with seizure spread to medial temporal or IPL areas. CCEP was performed in four patients, suggesting electrophysiological connections from the posterior cingulate gyrus to parietal, temporal, mesial occipital and mesial frontal areas. This study revealed that the network from the posterior cingulate gyrus and the semiology of PCE (motor manifestation vs dialeptic/automotor seizure) varies depending upon the seizure spread patterns.
Bzdok, Danilo; Heeger, Adrian; Langner, Robert; Laird, Angela R.; Fox, Peter T.; Palomero-Gallagher, Nicola; Vogt, Brent A.; Zilles, Karl; Eickhoff, Simon B.
The posterior medial cortex (PMC) is particularly poorly understood. Its neural activity changes have been related to highly disparate mental processes. We therefore investigated PMC properties with a data-driven exploratory approach. First, we subdivided the PMC by whole-brain coactivation profiles. Second, functional connectivity of the ensuing PMC regions was compared by task-constrained meta-analytic coactivation mapping (MACM) and task-unconstrained resting-state correlations (RSFC). Third, PMC regions were functionally described by forward/reverse functional inference. A precuneal cluster was mostly connected to the intraparietal sulcus, frontal eye fields, and right temporo-parietal junction; associated with attention and motor tasks. A ventral posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) cluster was mostly connected to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and middle left inferior parietal cortex (IPC); associated with facial appraisal and language tasks. A dorsal PCC cluster was mostly connected to the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, anterior/posterior IPC, posterior midcingulate cortex, and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex; associated with delay discounting. A cluster in the retrosplenial cortex was mostly connected to the anterior thalamus and hippocampus. Furthermore, all PMC clusters were congruently coupled with the default mode network according to task-constrained but not task-unconstrained connectivity. We thus identified distinct regions in the PMC and characterized their neural networks and functional implications. PMID:25462801
Bzdok, Danilo; Heeger, Adrian; Langner, Robert; Laird, Angela R; Fox, Peter T; Palomero-Gallagher, Nicola; Vogt, Brent A; Zilles, Karl; Eickhoff, Simon B
The posterior medial cortex (PMC) is particularly poorly understood. Its neural activity changes have been related to highly disparate mental processes. We therefore investigated PMC properties with a data-driven exploratory approach. First, we subdivided the PMC by whole-brain coactivation profiles. Second, functional connectivity of the ensuing PMC regions was compared by task-constrained meta-analytic coactivation mapping (MACM) and task-unconstrained resting-state correlations (RSFC). Third, PMC regions were functionally described by forward/reverse functional inference. A precuneal cluster was mostly connected to the intraparietal sulcus, frontal eye fields, and right temporo-parietal junction; associated with attention and motor tasks. A ventral posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) cluster was mostly connected to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and middle left inferior parietal cortex (IPC); associated with facial appraisal and language tasks. A dorsal PCC cluster was mostly connected to the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, anterior/posterior IPC, posterior midcingulate cortex, and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex; associated with delay discounting. A cluster in the retrosplenial cortex was mostly connected to the anterior thalamus and hippocampus. Furthermore, all PMC clusters were congruently coupled with the default mode network according to task-unconstrained but not task-constrained connectivity. We thus identified distinct regions in the PMC and characterized their neural networks and functional implications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Samilson, R L; Prieto, V
Although posterior dislocation of the shoulder is a rare injury in athletes, failure to recognize and properly manage acute dislocation may have serious consequences. The article discusses the incidence, mechanism of injury, classification, pathologic findings, clinical and radiologic diagnosis, and management.
Van Cauwenberge, F.; Rakic, J.; Galand, A.
BACKGROUND—A 1 year retrospective analysis of 650 patients, who underwent a posterior capsulorhexis on their intact capsules, was performed to examine the incidence of complications, their aetiologies, and the outcome. METHODS—Data were analysed on 32 patients with complicated capsulorhexis for type of surgery, preoperative and postoperative factors, and relative risk factors for vitreous issue. RESULTS—There were six patients with vitreous loss. The posterior capsulorhexis was uncontrolled in 14 cases and difficult to perform in 12 cases. Implantation into the capsular bag was possible in all cases. Systemic vascular hazard and old age (over 80 years) were found to be statistically significant risk factors for vitreous loss (p=0.002 and p=0.03 respectively). The mean follow up was 13.5 months (range 4-25 months). One patient developed a retinal detachment and two had a transient clinical cystoid macular oedema. Visual acuity of ≥ 20/40 was obtained in 93% of the patients. CONCLUSION—Loss of control of the posterior capsulorhexis has a low incidence but can lead to serious problems during surgery. A good knowledge of the technique is necessary to complete the procedure with a posterior capsulorhexis of the optimum size without vitreous loss. PMID:9135382
Shields, Christopher B.; Shields, Lisa B. E.; Jiang, Yi Dan; Yao, Tom; Zhang, Yi Ping; Sun, David A.
Background: Intraoperative monitoring with brainstem auditory evoked responses (BAER) provides an early warning signal of potential neurological injury and may avert tissue damage to the auditory pathway or brainstem. Unexplained loss of the BAER signal in the operating room may present a dilemma to the neurosurgeon. Methods: This paper documents two patients who displayed a unique mechanism of suppression of the BAER apparent within minutes following dural opening for resection of a posterior fossa meningioma. Results: In two patients with anterior cerebellopontine angle and clival meningiomas, there was a significant deterioration of the BAER soon after durotomy but prior to cerebellar retraction and tumor removal. Intracranial structures in the posterior fossa lying between the tumor and dural opening were shifted posteriorly after durotomy. Conclusion: We hypothesized that the cochlear nerve and vessels entering the acoustic meatus were compressed or stretched when subjected to tissue shift. This movement caused cochlear nerve dysfunction that resulted in BAER suppression. BAER was partially restored after the tumor was decompressed, dura repaired, and bone replaced. BAER was not suppressed following durotomy for removal of a meningioma lying posterior to the cochlear complex. Insight into the mechanisms of durotomy-induced BAER inhibition would allay the neurosurgeon's anxiety during the operation. PMID:25883849
Tang, Kai; Kong, Xiangyi; Mao, Gengsheng; Qiu, Ming; Zhu, Haibo; Zhou, Lei; Nie, Qingbin; Xu, Yi; Du, Shiwei
Abstract Primary intracranial melanomas are uncommon and constitute approximately 1% of all melanoma cases and 0.07% of all brain tumors. In nature, these primary melanomas are very aggressive and can spread to other organs. We report an uncommon case of primary cerebral malignant melanoma—a challenging diagnosis guided by clinical presentations, radiological features, and surgical biopsy results, aiming to emphasize the importance of considering primary melanoma when making differential diagnoses of intracranial lesions. We present a rare case of a primary cerebral melanoma in the left temporal lobe. The mass appeared iso-hypodense on brain computed tomography (CT), short signal on T1-weighted magnetic resonance images (T1WI) and long signal on T2WI. It was not easy to make an accurate diagnosis before surgery. We showed the patient's disease course and reviewed related literatures, for readers’ reference. Written informed consent was obtained from the patient for publication of this case report and any accompanying images. Because of this, there is no need to conduct special ethic review and the ethical approval is not necessary. After surgery, the pathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of melanoma. The patient was discharged without any complications and went on to receive adjuvant radiochemotherapy. It is difficult to diagnose primary cerebral melanoma in the absence of any cutaneous melanosis. A high index of clinical suspicion along with good pathology reporting is the key in diagnosing these extremely rare tumors. PMID:28121927
Bain, Anthony R.; Morrison, Shawnda A.; Ainslie, Philip N.
Hyperthermia is associated with marked reductions in cerebral blood flow (CBF). Increased distribution of cardiac output to the periphery, increases in alveolar ventilation and resultant hypocapnia each contribute to the fall in CBF during passive hyperthermia; however, their relative contribution remains a point of contention, and probably depends on the experimental condition (e.g., posture and degree of hyperthermia). The hyperthermia-induced hyperventilatory response reduces arterial CO2 pressure (PaCO2) causing cerebral vasoconstriction and subsequent reductions in flow. During supine passive hyperthermia, the majority of recent data indicate that reductions in PaCO2 may be the primary, if not sole, culprit for reduced CBF. On the other hand, during more dynamic conditions (e.g., hemorrhage or orthostatic challenges), an inability to appropriately decrease peripheral vascular conductance presents a condition whereby adequate cerebral perfusion pressure may be compromised secondary to reductions in systemic blood pressure. Although studies have reported maintenance of pre-frontal cortex oxygenation (assessed by near-infrared spectroscopy) during exercise and severe heat stress, the influence of cutaneous blood flow is known to contaminate this measure. This review discusses the governing mechanisms associated with changes in CBF and oxygenation during moderate to severe (i.e., 1.0°C to 2.0°C increase in body core temperature) levels of hyperthermia. Future research directions are provided. PMID:24624095
Sampaio Rocha Filho, Pedro Augusto; Santos Barbosa, Janayna; Melo Correa-Lima, Ana Rosa
Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome is characterized by thunderclap headache associated with multifocal vasoconstriction of cerebral arteries in patients without aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The vasoconstriction reverts within three months. We report a 44-year-old man who had a thunderclap headache during sexual intercourse. A similar episode occurred at rest 36 hours later. The patient had already experienced a thunderclap headache 10 years earlier, during coitus. There were no abnormalities on examination. His brain computed tomography scan was normal and cerebrospinal fluid analysis showed no xanthochromia, 15 WBC/mm³ and 10 RBC/mm³. Lumbar puncture was repeated two days later (WBC = 3/mm³ and RBC = 43/mm³). An initial digital cerebral angiography showed a diffuse segmental intracerebral vasospasm. A new angiography after 15 days was normal. He remains headache-free after twenty six months. In conclusion, patients who have thunderclap headache with normal brain CT and cerebrospinal fluid without xantochromia should be investigated for this syndrome.
Ivanov, Dmitry; Dol, Aleksandr; Polienko, Asel
Approximately 5% of the adult population has one or more cerebral aneurysm. Aneurysms are one of the most dangerous cerebral vascular pathologies. Aneurysm rupture leads to a subarachnoid hemorrhage with a very high mortality rate of 45-50%. Despite the high importance of this disease there are no criteria for assessing the probability of aneurysm rupture. Moreover, mechanisms of aneurysm development and rupture are not fully understood until now. Biomechanical and numerical computer simulations allow us to estimate the behavior of vessels in normal state and under pathological conditions as well as to make a prediction of their postoperative state. Biomechanical studies may help clinicians to find and investigate mechanical factors which are responsible for the initiation, growth and rupture of the cerebral aneurysms. In this work, biomechanical and numerical modeling of healthy and pathological cerebral arteries was conducted. Patient-specific models of the basilar and posterior cerebral arteries and patient-specific boundary conditions at the inlet were used in numerical simulations. A comparative analysis of the three vascular wall models (rigid, perfectly elastic, hyperelastic) was performed. Blood flow and stress-strain state of the two posterior cerebral artery aneurysm models was compared. Numerical simulations revealed that hyperelastic material most adequately and realistically describes the behavior of the cerebral vascular walls. The size and shape of the aneurysm have a significant impact on the blood flow through the affected vessel and on the effective stress distribution in the aneurysm dome. It was shown that large aneurysm is more likely to rupture than small aneurysm.
Jang, Sung Ho; Kwon, Hyeok Gyu
Little is known about the neural connectivity of the fornix in the human brain. In the current study, using diffusion tensor imaging, we attempted to investigate the neural connectivity of the posterior body of the fornix in the normal human brain. A total of 43 healthy subjects were recruited for this study. DTIs were acquired using a sensitivity-encoding head coil at 1.5T. For connectivity of the posterior body of the fornix, a seed region of interest was used on the posterior body of the fornix. Connectivity was defined as the incidence of connection between the posterior body of the fornix and any neural structure of the brain at the threshold of 5, 25, and 50 streamline. At the threshold of 5, 25, and 50, the posterior body of the fornix showed connectivity to the precentral gyrus (37%, 19%, and 15%), the postcentral gyrus (25%, 11.5%, and 7%), the posterior parietal cortex (16.5%, 5%, and 5%), the brainstem (12%, 4.5%, and 3.5%), the crus of the fornix (34%, 10.5%, and 7%), the contralateral splenium of the corpus callosum (12.5%, 5%, and 0%), and the ipsilateral splenium of the CC (69.8%%, 33.7%, and 23.3%), respectively. Findings of this study showed that the posterior body of the fornix had connectivity with the cerebral cortex, the brainstem, the fornical crus, and the contralateral splenium through the splenium of the corpus callosum in normal subjects. We believe that the results of this study would be helpful in investigation of the neural network related to memory and recovery mechanisms following fornical injury in the human brain. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lin, Chih-Ta; Riva-Cambrin, Jay K
Most pediatric patients that present with a posterior fossa tumor have concurrent hydrocephalus. There is significant debate over the best management strategy of hydrocephalus in this situation. The objectives of this paper were to review the pathophysiology model of posterior fossa tumor hydrocephalus, describe the individual risks factors of persistent hydrocephalus, and discuss the current management options. Specifically, the debate over preresection cerebrospinal fluid diversion is discussed. Only 10-40 % demonstrate persistent hydrocephalus after posterior fossa tumor resection. It appears that young age, moderate to severe hydrocephalus, transependymal edema, the presence of cerebral metastases, and tumor pathology (medulloblastoma and ependymoma) on presentation predict postresection or persistent hydrocephalus. The Canadian Preoperative Prediction Rule for Hydrocephalus (CPPRH), a validated prediction model, can be used to stratify patients at point of first contact into high and low risk for persistent hydrocephalus. A protocol is proposed for managing hydrocephalus that utilizes the CPPRH. Low-risk patients can be monitored conservatively with or without an intraoperative extraventricular drain, while high-risk patients require the use of an intraoperative extraventricular drain, higher postoperative hydrocephalus surveillance, and even consideration for a preoperative endoscopic third ventriculostomy.
Castrillo-Sanz, Ana; Mendoza, Amelia; Gutiérrez-Ríos, Raúl; Zamora, M Isabel; Morollón, Noemí; Rodríguez-Sanz, M Fernanda; Duarte, Jacinto
Introduccion. El sindrome de encefalopatia posterior reversible (SEPR) es un sindrome clinico-radiologico de presentacion aguda o subaguda que se caracteriza por la presencia de cefalea, vomitos, crisis epilepticas, trastornos visuales y alteracion del nivel de conciencia asociado a lesiones localizadas fundamentalmente en la sustancia blanca de regiones posteriores cerebrales. Caso clinico. Mujer de 32 años que desarrollo un SEPR en el periodo posparto secundario a eclampsia tardia. La paciente presento 10 dias despues del parto un cuadro clinico consistente en cefalea, crisis epilepticas, ceguera y deterioro del nivel de conciencia. El estudio de imagen con resonancia magnetica confirmo la afectacion de la sustancia blanca de predominio posterior. Conclusiones. Aunque la eclampsia es una entidad tipica del embarazo y puerperio inmediato, es necesario recordar que tambien puede producirse de forma tardia tras el parto y que puede ser la causa de otros sindromes, como el SEPR. Aunque en estos casos el pronostico suele ser favorable, el tratamiento debe ser precoz, efectuando un rapido control de la tension arterial y las convulsiones con el fin de evitar un daño cerebral permanente. Es necesario considerar siempre este sindrome en mujeres con crisis epilepticas u otros sintomas neurologicos durante el posparto.
Memedyarov, A M; Namazova-Baranova, L S; Ermolina, Y V; Anikin, A V; Maslova, O I; Karkashadze, M Z; Klochkova, O A
Diffusion tensor tractography--a new method of magnetic resonance imaging, that allows to visualize the pathways of the brain and to study their structural-functional state. The authors investigated the changes in motor and sensory pathways of brain in children with cerebral palsy using routine magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion-tensor tractography. The main group consisted of 26 patients with various forms of cerebral palsy and the comparison group was 25 people with normal psychomotor development (aged 2 to 6 years) and MR-picture of the brain. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed on the scanner with the induction of a magnetic field of 1,5 Tesla. Coefficients of fractional anisotropy and average diffusion coefficient estimated in regions of the brain containing the motor and sensory pathways: precentral gyrus, posterior limb of the internal capsule, thalamus, posterior thalamic radiation and corpus callosum. Statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) values of fractional anisotropy and average diffusion coefficient in patients with cerebral palsy in relation to the comparison group. All investigated regions, the coefficients of fractional anisotropy in children with cerebral palsy were significantly lower, and the average diffusion coefficient, respectively, higher. These changes indicate a lower degree of ordering of the white matter tracts associated with damage and subsequent development of gliosis of varying severity in children with cerebral palsy. It is shown that microstructural damage localized in both motor and sensory tracts that plays a leading role in the development of the clinical picture of cerebral palsy.
Gerzanich, Volodymyr; Simard, J Marc
Advancements in molecular biology have led to a greater understanding of the individual proteins responsible for generating cerebral edema. In large part, the study of cerebral edema is the study of maladaptive ion transport. Following acute CNS injury, cells of the neurovascular unit, particularly brain endothelial cells and astrocytes, undergo a program of pre- and post-transcriptional changes in the activity of ion channels and transporters. These changes can result in maladaptive ion transport and the generation of abnormal osmotic forces that, ultimately, manifest as cerebral edema. This review discusses past models and current knowledge regarding the molecular and cellular pathophysiology of cerebral edema. PMID:26661240
Stokum, Jesse A; Gerzanich, Volodymyr; Simard, J Marc
Advancements in molecular biology have led to a greater understanding of the individual proteins responsible for generating cerebral edema. In large part, the study of cerebral edema is the study of maladaptive ion transport. Following acute CNS injury, cells of the neurovascular unit, particularly brain endothelial cells and astrocytes, undergo a program of pre- and post-transcriptional changes in the activity of ion channels and transporters. These changes can result in maladaptive ion transport and the generation of abnormal osmotic forces that, ultimately, manifest as cerebral edema. This review discusses past models and current knowledge regarding the molecular and cellular pathophysiology of cerebral edema.
KAGEYAMA, Hiroto; YOSHIMURA, Shinichi; IIDA, Tomoko; SHIRAKAWA, Manabu; UCHIDA, Kazutaka; TOMOGANE, Yusuke; MIYAJI, Yuki
We report two cases of juvenile cerebral infarction caused by bow hunter’s syndrome (BHS) during sport. Case 1 was a 17-year-old male who developed a partial visual field defect after playing basketball. BHS was diagnosed because cervical ultrasonography demonstrated occlusion of the vertebral artery when the neck was rotated. After C1–2 posterior fixation was performed, his symptoms resolved. Case 2 was an 18-year-old male with recurrent visual disturbance after playing handball. Cerebral infarction occurred repeatedly despite antiplatelet therapy. After 3 years, vertebral artery dissection was diagnosed and stenting was performed, but his symptoms did not resolve. BHS was diagnosed when he was examined at our department. C1–2 posterior fixation was performed and his symptoms resolved. In these two cases, BHS was caused by sporting activity. For accurate diagnosis and treatment of BHS, neuroimaging with cervical rotation is mandatory. PMID:27053329
I, Cristea; C, Popa
The article represents a case of a young patient with atypical clinical and paraclinical presentation of vertebral artery dissection by multiple cerebral infarcts, localized at the supratentorial and infratentorial levels in the posterior circulation. A case of a 21-year-old man, without a history of trauma in the cervical area or at the cranial level, without recent chiropractic maneuvers or practicing a sport, which required rapid, extreme, rotational movements of the neck, was examined. He presented to the emergency room with nausea, numbness of the left limbs, dysarthria, and incoordination of walking, with multiple objective signs at the neurological examination, which revealed right vertebral artery subacute dissection after the paraclinical investigations. The case was particular due to the atypical debut symptomatology, through the installation of the clinical picture in stages, during 4 hours and by multiple infarcts through the artery-to-artery embolic mechanism in the posterior cerebral territory. Abbreviations: PICA = posterior inferior cerebellar artery, CT = computed tomography, MRI = magnetic resonance imaging, angio MRI = mangnetic resonance angiography, FLAIR = fluid attenuated inversion recovery, FS = fat suppression, ADC = apparent diffusion coefficient, DWI = diffusion weighted imaging, T1/ T2 = T1/ T2 weighted image-basic pulse sequences in MRI, VA = vertebral artery, 3D-TOF = 3D Time of Flight.
Cristea, I; Popa, C
The article represents a case of a young patient with atypical clinical and paraclinical presentation of vertebral artery dissection by multiple cerebral infarcts, localized at the supratentorial and infratentorial levels in the posterior circulation. A case of a 21-year-old man, without a history of trauma in the cervical area or at the cranial level, without recent chiropractic maneuvers or practicing a sport, which required rapid, extreme, rotational movements of the neck, was examined. He presented to the emergency room with nausea, numbness of the left limbs, dysarthria, and incoordination of walking, with multiple objective signs at the neurological examination, which revealed right vertebral artery subacute dissection after the paraclinical investigations. The case was particular due to the atypical debut symptomatology, through the installation of the clinical picture in stages, during 4 hours and by multiple infarcts through the artery-to-artery embolic mechanism in the posterior cerebral territory. Abbreviations: PICA = posterior inferior cerebellar artery, CT = computed tomography, MRI = magnetic resonance imaging, angio MRI = mangnetic resonance angiography, FLAIR = fluid attenuated inversion recovery, FS = fat suppression, ADC = apparent diffusion coefficient, DWI = diffusion weighted imaging, T1/ T2 = T1/ T2 weighted image-basic pulse sequences in MRI, VA = vertebral artery, 3D-TOF = 3D Time of Flight PMID:27974938
Taylor, Curtis R.; Hanna, Mina; Behnke, Bradley J.; Stabley, John N.; McCullough, Danielle J.; Davis, Robert T.; Ghosh, Payal; Papadopoulos, Anthony; Muller-Delp, Judy M.; Delp, Michael D.
Evidence indicates that cerebral blood flow is both increased and diminished in astronauts on return to Earth. Data from ground-based animal models simulating the effects of microgravity have shown that decrements in cerebral perfusion are associated with enhanced vasoconstriction and structural remodeling of cerebral arteries. Based on these results, the purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that 13 d of spaceflight [Space Transportation System (STS)-135 shuttle mission] enhances myogenic vasoconstriction, increases medial wall thickness, and elicits no change in the mechanical properties of mouse cerebral arteries. Basilar and posterior communicating arteries (PCAs) were isolated from 9-wk-old female C57BL/6 mice for in vitro vascular and mechanical testing. Contrary to that hypothesized, myogenic vasoconstrictor responses were lower and vascular distensibility greater in arteries from spaceflight group (SF) mice (n=7) relative to ground-based control group (GC) mice (n=12). Basilar artery maximal diameter was greater in SF mice (SF: 236±9 μm and GC: 215±5 μm) with no difference in medial wall thickness (SF: 12.4±1.6 μm; GC: 12.2±1.2 μm). Stiffness of the PCA, as characterized via nanoindentation, was lower in SF mice (SF: 3.4±0.3 N/m; GC: 5.4±0.8 N/m). Collectively, spaceflight-induced reductions in myogenic vasoconstriction and stiffness and increases in maximal diameter of cerebral arteries signify that elevations in brain blood flow may occur during spaceflight. Such changes in cerebral vascular control of perfusion could contribute to increases in intracranial pressure and an associated impairment of visual acuity in astronauts during spaceflight.—Taylor, C. R., Hanna, M., Behnke, B. J., Stabley, J. N., McCullough, D. J., Davis III, R. T., Ghosh, P., Papadopoulos, A., Muller-Delp, J. M., Delp, M. D. Spaceflight-induced alterations in cerebral artery vasoconstrictor, mechanical, and structural properties: implications for elevated
Koraszewska-Matuszewska, B; Samochowiec-Donocik, E; Pieczara, E
Evaluation of the posterior capsule transparency in children after congenital cataract surgery with posterior intraocular lens implantation. Examination comprised 41 eyes of 29 patients with posterior IOLS, aged 5-17 years (mean 10.3). In all cases, posterior capsule was unimpaired during surgery. During follow-up, (mean 27 months), 36.6% the eyes showed posterior capsule opacity of various degree. Neodymium YAG laser capsulotomy was performed in 13 cases and instrumental capsulotomy in 2. Opacity of the posterior capsule caused a decrease of visual acuity below 0.4. It improved after capsulotomy in all cases. No serious complications were observed.
Harreld, Julie H.; Helton, Kathleen J.; Kaddoum, Roland N.; Reddick, Wilburn E.; Li, Yimei; Glass, John O.; Sansgiri, Rakhee; Ji, Qing; Feng, Tianshu; Parish, Mary Edna; Gajjar, Amar; Patay, Zoltan
Introduction The effects of anesthesia are infrequently considered when interpreting pediatric perfusion MRI. The objectives of this study were to test for measurable differences in MR measures of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral blood volume (CBV) between non-sedated and propofol-sedated children, and to identify influential factors. Methods Supratentorial cortical CBF and CBV measured by dynamic susceptibility contrast perfusion MRI in 37 children (1.8–18 years) treated for infratentorial brain tumors receiving propofol (IV, n=19) or no sedation (NS, n=18) were compared between groups and correlated with age, hematocrit, end-tidal CO2 (ETCO2), dose, weight, and history of radiation therapy (RT). The model most predictive of CBF and CBV was identified by multiple linear regression. Results Anterior cerebral artery (ACA) and middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory CBF were significantly lower, and MCA territory CBV greater (p=0.03), in IV than NS patients (p=0.01, 0.04). The usual trend of decreasing CBF with age was reversed with propofol in ACA and MCA territories (r=0.53, r=0.47; p<0.05). ACA and MCA CBF (r=0.59, 0.49; p<0.05) and CBV in ACA, MCA and posterior cerebral artery (PCA) territories (r=0.73, 0.80, 0.52; p<0.05) increased with weight in propofol-sedated children, with no significant additional influence from age, ETCO2, hematocrit, or RT. Conclusion In propofol-sedated children, usual age-related decreases in CBF were reversed, and increases in CBF and CBV were weight-dependent, not previously described. Weight-dependent increases in propofol clearance may diminish suppression of CBF and CBV. Prospective study is required to establish anesthetic-specific models of CBF and CBV in children. PMID:23673874
Singh, Kiranjit; Mittal, Vikas; Kaur, Harmit
We describe use of an oval capsulorhexis rather than the conventional circular capsulorhexis for phacoemulsification in posterior polar cataract with preexisting posterior capsule rupture. An oval capsulorhexis minimizes the turbulence in the capsular bag by increasing the area available for efflux of fluid. It also enables end-to-end nuclear sculpting, removal of the nuclear fragment from the bag, intraocular lens (IOL) implantation, and vitrectomy without stretching the capsular bag. The smaller axis of the oval capsulorhexis facilitates optic capture of a sulcus-fixated IOL. The oval capsulorhexis can be used safely for phacoemulsification of all grades of nuclear sclerosis in posterior polar cataract with preexisting posterior capsule rupture. Copyright © 2011 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kobayashi, Yasutaka; Muramatsu, Tomoko; Sato, Mamiko; Hayashi, Hiromi; Miura, Toyoaki
A 68-year-old man was admitted to our hospital for rehabilitation of topographical disorientation. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed infarction in the right medial side of the occipital lobe. On neuropsychological testing, he scored low for the visual information-processing task; however, his overall cognitive function was retained. He could identify parts of the picture while describing the context picture of the Visual Perception Test for Agnosia but could not explain the contents of the entire picture, representing so-called simultanagnosia. Further, he could morphologically perceive both familiar and new scenes, but could not identify them, representing so-called scene agnosia. We report this case because simultanagnosia associated with a right occipital lobe lesion is rare.
Rueckriegel, Stefan M.; Driever, Pablo Hernaiz; Bruhn, Harald
Purpose: Therapy and tumor-related effects such as hypoperfusion, internal hydrocephalus, chemotherapy, and irradiation lead to significant motor and cognitive sequelae in pediatric posterior fossa tumor survivors. A distinct proportion of those factors related to the resulting late effects is hitherto poorly understood. This study aimed at separating the effects of neurotoxic factors on central nervous system metabolism by using H-1 MR spectroscopy to quantify cerebral metabolite concentrations in these patients in comparison to those in age-matched healthy peers. Methods and Materials: Fifteen patients with World Health Organization (WHO) I pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) treated by resection only, 24 patients with WHO IV medulloblastoma (MB), who additionally received chemotherapy and craniospinal irradiation, and 43 healthy peers were investigated using single-volume H-1 MR spectroscopy of parietal white matter and gray matter. Results: Concentrations of N-acetylaspartate (NAA) were significantly decreased in white matter (p < 0.0001) and gray matter (p < 0.0001) of MB patients and in gray matter (p = 0.005) of PA patients, compared to healthy peers. Decreased creatine concentrations in parietal gray matter correlated significantly with older age at diagnosis in both patient groups (MB patients, p = 0.009, r = 0.52; PA patients, p = 0.006, r = 0.7). Longer time periods since diagnosis were associated with lower NAA levels in white matter of PA patients (p = 0.008, r = 0.66). Conclusions: Differently decreased NAA concentrations were observed in both PA and MB groups of posterior fossa tumor patients. We conclude that this reflects a disturbance of the neurometabolic steady state of normal-appearing brain tissue due to the tumor itself and to the impact of surgery in both patient groups. Further incremental decreases of metabolite concentrations in MB patients may point to additional harm caused by irradiation and chemotherapy. The stronger decrease of NAA in MB
Cromie, Melinda J.; Siston, Robert A.; Giori, Nicholas J.; Delp, Scott L.
Abnormal anterior translation of the femur on the tibia has been observed in mid flexion (20–60°) following posterior stabilized total knee arthroplasty. The underlying biomechanical causes of this abnormal motion remain unknown. The purpose of this study was to isolate the effects of posterior cruciate ligament removal on knee motion after total knee arthroplasty. We posed two questions: Does removing the posterior cruciate ligament introduce abnormal anterior femoral translation? Does implanting a posterior stabilized prosthesis change the kinematics from the cruciate deficient case? Using a navigation system, we measured passive knee kinematics of ten male osteoarthritic patients during surgery after initial exposure, after removing the anterior cruciate ligament, after removing the posterior cruciate ligament, and after implanting the prosthesis. Passively flexing and extending the knee, we calculated anterior femoral translation and the flexion angle at which femoral rollback began. Removing the posterior cruciate ligament doubled anterior translation (from 5.1±4.3 mm to 10.4±5.1 mm) and increased the flexion angle at which femoral rollback began (from 31.2±9.6° to 49.3±7.3°). Implanting the prosthesis increased the amount of anterior translation (to 16.1±4.4 mm), and did not change the flexion angle at which femoral rollback began. Abnormal anterior translation was observed in low and mid flexion (0–60°) after removing the posterior cruciate ligament, and normal motion was not restored by the posterior stabilized prosthesis. PMID:18464260
Sureda-Gómez, Miquel; Pascual-Carreras, Eudald; Adell, Teresa
The wnt signaling pathway is an intercellular communication mechanism essential in cell-fate specification, tissue patterning and regional-identity specification. A βcatenin-dependent signal specifies the AP (Anteroposterior) axis of planarians, both during regeneration of new tissues and during normal homeostasis. Accordingly, four wnts (posterior wnts) are expressed in a nested manner in central and posterior regions of planarians. We have analyzed the specific role of each posterior wnt and the possible cooperation between them in specifying and patterning planarian central and posterior regions. We show that each posterior wnt exerts a distinct role during re-specification and maintenance of the central and posterior planarian regions, and that the integration of the different wnt signals (βcatenin dependent and independent) underlies the patterning of the AP axis from the central region to the tip of the tail. Based on these findings and data from the literature, we propose a model for patterning the planarian AP axis. PMID:26556349
Manske, Mary Claire; McKeon, Kathleen E; Johnson, Jeffrey E; McCormick, Jeremy J; Klein, Sandra E
Tibialis posterior tendon dysfunction is a common disorder leading to pain, deformity, and disability, although its pathogenesis is unclear. A vascular etiology has been proposed, but there is controversy regarding the existence of a hypovascular region that may render the tendon vulnerable. The purpose of this study was to provide a description of the arterial anatomy supplying the tibialis posterior tendon. Sixty adult cadaveric lower extremities were obtained from a university-affiliated body donation program. Thirty specimens obtained within 72 hours of death were used for microscopic analysis. Thirty specimens were previously frozen and used for macroscopic analysis. The tibialis anterior, tibialis posterior, and peroneal arteries were injected with India Ink and Ward's Blue Latex. The specimens used for macroscopic analysis were debrided with sodium hypochlorite to expose the extratendinous anatomy. For the microscopic analysis, the tendon was cleared using a modified Spälteholz technique to expose the intratendinous vascular anatomy. Macroscopically, an average of 2.5 ± 0.7 vessels entered the tendon proximal to the navicular insertion. In all, 28/30 (93.3%) specimens had a vessel entering 4.1 ± 0.6 cm proximal to the medial malleolus and 24/30 (80.0%) specimens had a vessel entering 1.7 ± 0.9 cm distal to the medial malleolus. Microscopically, an average of 1.9 ± 0.3 vessels entered each tendon proximal to the navicular insertion. In total, 27/30 (90%) specimens had a vessel entering the tendon 4.8 ± 0.8 cm proximal to the medial malleolus and 30/30 (100%) specimens had a vessel entering the tendon 1.9 ± 0.8 cm distal to the medial malleolus. In all specimens, a hypovascular region was observed, starting 2.2 ± 0.8 cm proximal to the medial malleolus and ending 0.6 ± 0.6 cm proximal to the medial malleolus with an average length of 1.5 ± 1.0 cm. The insertion of the tendon was well vascularized both on microscopic and macroscopic specimens. The
Cremers, Charlotte H P; van der Schaaf, Irene C; Dankbaar, Jan Willem; Velthuis, Birgitta K; Rinkel, Gabriel J E
The cause of perimesencephalic hemorrhage is unknown, but a venous source is suggested. If perimesencephalic hemorrhage is of venous origin, less elevation of the intracranial pressure and less perfusion deficits are expected than after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. We compared perfusion in the acute stage after perimesencephalic hemorrhage and aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. We included 45 perimesencephalic hemorrhage patients and 45 aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage patients, who were matched on clinical condition at admission and underwent computerized tomographic scanning <72 h after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Cerebral blood flow was assessed in 12 predefined regions of interest. Differences in cerebral blood flow values with corresponding 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Sub-group analyses were performed stratified on comparable amounts of blood and location of blood (posterior circulation aneurysms and additionally in infratentorial and supratentorial aneurysms). Cerebral blood flow was higher in perimesencephalic hemorrhage patients (mean: 63·8) than in aneurysmal sub-arachnoid hemorrhage patients (mean: 55·9; difference of means: -7·9 [95% confidence interval: -10·7 to -5·2]) and also in the sub-group with comparable amounts of blood (mean cerebral blood flow: 56·4; difference of means: -7·4 [95% confidence interval: -10·4 to -4·3]). Cerebral blood flow was comparable with perimesencephalic hemorrhage patients for the sub-group with posterior circulation aneurysms (difference of means: -0·7 [95% confidence interval: -5·2 to 3·8]); however, differences diverged after stratifying posterior circulation aneurysms into supratentorial (difference of means -3·9 [95% confidence interval: -9·3 to 1·4]) and infratentorial aneurysms (difference of means 3·0 [95% confidence interval: -2·8 to 8·8]). Perimesencephalic hemorrhage patients have a higher cerebral blood flow than aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage patients. The findings
Amin-Hanjani, Sepideh; Du, Xinjian; Pandey, Dilip K; Thulborn, Keith R; Charbel, Fady T
Measurement of volume flow rates in major cerebral vessels can be used to evaluate the hemodynamic effects of cerebrovascular disease. However, both age and vascular anatomy can affect flow rates independent of disease. We prospectively evaluated 325 healthy adult volunteers using phase contrast quantitative magnetic resonance angiography to characterize these effects on cerebral vessel flow rates and establish clinically useful normative reference values. Flows were measured in the major intracranial and extracranial vessels. The cohort ranged from 18 to 84 years old, with 157 (48%) females. All individual vessel flows and total cerebral blood flow (TCBF) declined with age, at 2.6 mL/minute per year for TCBF. Basilar artery (BA) flow was significantly decreased in individuals with one or both fetal posterior cerebral arteries (PCAs). Internal carotid artery flows were significantly higher with a fetal PCA and decreased with a hypoplastic anterior cerebral artery. Indexing vessel flows to TCBF neutralized the age effect, but anatomic variations continued to impact indexed flow in the BA and internal carotid artery. Variability in normative flow ranges were reduced in distal vessels and by examining regional flows. Cerebral vessel flows are affected by age and cerebrovascular anatomy, which has important implications for interpretation of flows in the disease state.
Wang, Danhong; Buckner, Randy L.
Asymmetry of the human cerebellum was investigated using intrinsic functional connectivity. Regions of functional asymmetry within the cerebellum were identified during resting-state functional MRI (n = 500 subjects) and replicated in an independent cohort (n = 500 subjects). The most strongly right lateralized cerebellar regions fell within the posterior lobe, including crus I and crus II, in regions estimated to link to the cerebral association cortex. The most strongly left lateralized cerebellar regions were located in lobules VI and VIII in regions linked to distinct cerebral association networks. Comparison of cerebellar asymmetry with independently estimated cerebral asymmetry revealed that the lateralized regions of the cerebellum belong to the same networks that are strongly lateralized in the cerebrum. The degree of functional asymmetry of the cerebellum across individuals was significantly correlated with cerebral asymmetry and varied with handedness. In addition, cerebellar asymmetry estimated at rest predicted cerebral lateralization during an active language task. These results demonstrate that functional lateralization is likely a unitary feature of large-scale cerebrocerebellar networks, consistent with the hypothesis that the cerebellum possesses a roughly homotopic map of the cerebral cortex including the prominent asymmetries of the association cortex. PMID:23076113
Kao, Hung-Wen; Liou, Michelle; Chung, Hsiao-Wen; Liu, Hua-Shan; Tsai, Ping-Huei; Chiang, Shih-Wei; Chou, Ming-Chung; Peng, Giia-Sheun; Huang, Guo-Shu; Hsu, Hsian-He; Chen, Cheng-Yu
Abstract Calcification of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) is uncommon in the healthy elderly. Whether calcification of the MCA is associated with cerebral ischemic stroke remains undetermined. We intended to investigate the association using Agatston calcium scoring of the MCA. This study retrospectively included 354 subjects with ischemic stroke in the MCA territory and 1518 control subjects who underwent computed tomography (CT) of the brain. We recorded major known risk factors for ischemic stroke, including age, gender, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoking, hyperlipidemia, and obesity, along with the MCA calcium burden, measured with the Agatston calcium scoring method. Univariate and modified logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the association between the MCA calcification and ischemic stroke. The univariate analyses showed significant associations of ischemic stroke with age, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoking, total MCA Agatston score, and the presence of calcification on both or either side of the MCA. Subjects with the presence of MCA calcification on both or either side of the MCA were 8.46 times (95% confidence interval, 4.93–14.53; P < 0.001) more likely to have a cerebral infarct than subjects without MCA calcification after adjustment for the major known risk factors, including age, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and smoking. However, a higher degree of MCA calcification reflected by the Agatston score was not associated with higher risk of MCA ischemic stroke after adjustment for the confounding factors and presence of MCA calcification. These results suggest that MCA calcification is associated with ischemic stroke in the MCA territory. Further prospective studies are required to verify the clinical implications of the MCA calcification. PMID:26683969
Lieber, Justus; Zundel, Sabine M; Luithle, Tobias; Fuchs, Jörg; Kirschner, Hans-Joachim
Traumatic posterior dislocation of the elbow is often associated with significant morbidity and incomplete recovery. The aim of this study was to retrospectively analyse the outcome of 33 children (median age 10.8 years). Patients underwent reduction and assessment of stability under general anaesthesia. Pure dislocations (n=10) were immobilized, whereas unstable fractures (n=23) were stabilized. Refixation of ligaments was performed if stability was not achieved by fracture stabilization alone. Immobilization was continued for 26 (pure dislocations) or 35 days (associated injuries), respectively. Results were excellent (n=9) or good (n=1) after pure dislocation. Results were excellent (n=15), good (n=7) or poor (n=1) in children with associated injuries. Accurate diagnosis, concentric stable reduction of the elbow as well as stable osteosynthesis of displaced fractures are associated with good results in children with acute posterior elbow dislocations.
Bohara, Manoj; Yonezawa, Hajime; Karki, Prasanna; Bakhtiar, Yuriz; Hirano, Hirofumi; Kitazono, Ikumi; Matsuyama, Nozomu; Arita, Kazunori
We describe a very rare case of mature posterior fossa teratoma in an adult who presented with clinico-radiological findings consistent with a dermoid cyst. A computed tomography scan showed a hypodense mass in the cistern magna with calcification and a sinus tract in the occipital bone. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a hypo- to hyperintense mass without contrast enhancement. The intraoperative picture showed a dermal sinus and a cyst containing lipid, keratin and hair. Histopathological examination showed a tumor with components of all the three germ layers; thereby, a diagnosis of mature teratoma was made. The histopathological differentiation between teratoma and dermoid cyst is very valuable for ruling out the presence of immature/malignant or germinomatous components that would require further adjuvant therapies. Thus, we here present a rare case of posterior fossa teratoma mimicking dermoid cyst and emphasize the importance of histopathological differentiation between these entities.
Le Ray, C; Goffinet, F
Delivery in occiput posterior position is associated with a higher risk of cesarean section, operative vaginal delivery and severe perineal tears. We report the technic of manual rotation described by Tarnier and Chantreuil and used daily in our maternity center. Only five studies were published on this topic; all of them demonstrate that manual rotation decreases the risk of cesarean section. Moreover, it could decrease the risk of prolonged second stage, chorioamnionitis and third and fourth degree tears in comparison with expectant management. However, manual rotation is associated with a two-fold higher risk of cervical and vaginal lacerations. Manual rotation performed with an adequate technic is an efficient and safe manœuvre to avoid complications associated with occiput posterior vaginal delivery.
da Silva, Mari N. Maia; Millington, Rebecca S.; Bridge, Holly; James-Galton, Merle; Plant, Gordon T.
Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) is a syndromic diagnosis. It is characterized by progressive impairment of higher (cortical) visual function with imaging evidence of degeneration affecting the occipital, parietal, and posterior temporal lobes bilaterally. Most cases will prove to have Alzheimer pathology. The aim of this review is to summarize the development of the concept of this disorder since it was first introduced. A critical discussion of the evolving diagnostic criteria is presented and the differential diagnosis with regard to the underlying pathology is reviewed. Emphasis is given to the visual dysfunction that defines the disorder, and the classical deficits, such as simultanagnosia and visual agnosia, as well as the more recently recognized visual field defects, are reviewed, along with the evidence on their neural correlates. The latest developments on the imaging of PCA are summarized, with special attention to its role on the differential diagnosis with related conditions. PMID:28861031
Cugat, Ramon; Ares, Oscar; Cuscó, Xavier; Garcia, Montserrat; Samitier, Gonzalo; Seijas, Roberto
Ankle arthroscopy provides a minimally invasive approach to the diagnosis and treatment of certain ankle disorders. Neurological complications resulting from ankle arthroscopy have been well documented in orthopaedic and podiatric literature. Owing to the superficial location of the ankle joint and the abundance of overlying periarticular neurovascular structures, complications reported in ankle arthroscopy are greater than those reported for other joints. In particular, all reported neurovascular injuries following ankle arthroscopy have been the direct result of distractor pin or portal placement. The standard posteromedial portal has recognized risks because of the proximity of the posterior neurovascular structures. There can be considerable variability in the course of these portals and their proximity to the neurovascular structures. We found one report of intra-articular damage to the posterior tibial nerve as a result of ankle arthroscopy in the English-language literature and we report this paper as a second case described in the literature.
Legriel, Stephane; Schraub, Olivier; Azoulay, Elie; Hantson, Philippe; Magalhaes, Eric; Coquet, Isaline; Bretonniere, Cedric; Gilhodes, Olivier; Anguel, Nadia; Megarbane, Bruno; Benayoun, Laurent; Schnell, David; Plantefeve, Gaetan; Charpentier, Julien; Argaud, Laurent; Mourvillier, Bruno; Galbois, Arnaud; Chalumeau-Lemoine, Ludivine; Rivoal, Michel; Durand, François; Geffroy, Arnaud; Simon, Marc; Stoclin, Annabelle; Pallot, Jean-Louis; Arbelot, Charlotte; Nyunga, Martine; Lesieur, Olivier; Troché, Gilles; Bruneel, Fabrice; Cordoliani, Yves-Sébastien; Bedos, Jean-Pierre; Pico, Fernando
Objective Few outcome data are available about posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES). We studied 90-day functional outcomes and their determinants in patients with severe PRES. Design 70 patients with severe PRES admitted to 24 ICUs in 2001–2010 were included in a retrospective cohort study. The main outcome measure was a Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) of 5 (good recovery) on day 90. Main Results Consciousness impairment was the most common clinical sign, occurring in 66 (94%) patients. Clinical seizures occurred in 57 (81%) patients. Median mean arterial pressure was 122 (105–143) mmHg on scene. Cerebral imaging abnormalities were bilateral (93%) and predominated in the parietal (93%) and occipital (86%) white matter. Median number of brain areas involved was 4 (3–5). Imaging abnormalities resolved in 43 (88%) patients. Ischaemic and/or haemorrhagic complications occurred in 7 (14%) patients. The most common causes were drug toxicity (44%) and hypertensive encephalopathy (41%). On day 90, 11 (16%) patients had died, 26 (37%) had marked functional impairments (GOS, 2 to 4), and 33 (56%) had a good recovery (GOS, 5). Factors independently associated with GOS<5 were highest glycaemia on day 1 (OR, 1.22; 95%CI, 1.02–1.45, p = 0.03) and time to causative-factor control (OR, 3.3; 95%CI, 1.04–10.46, p = 0.04), whereas GOS = 5 was associated with toxaemia of pregnancy (preeclampsia/eclampsia) (OR, 0.06; 95%CI, 0.01–0.38, p = 0.003). Conclusions By day 90 after admission for severe PRES, 44% of survivors had severe functional impairments. Highest glycaemia on day 1 and time to causative-factor control were strong early predictors of outcomes, suggesting areas for improvement. PMID:23024751
Alkhotani, Ashjan; Shirah, Bader
Background and Purpose Acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy (APMPPE) is an immune-mediated chorioretinal disease that causes acute visual symptoms with characteristic ophthalmoscopic findings. Neurological complications are rarely reported in the literature. Here we report two new cases of APMPPE that presented with neurological manifestations, one of which was associated with peripheral neuropathy, which has not been described before. Methods A retrospective database review of all patients with a diagnosis of APMPPE was performed. Clinical, ophthalmological, and neurological data were analyzed, and only cases of APMPPE with neurological complications were included. A literature review of several databases was also performed, and previous case reports were reviewed and analyzed in detail. Results In total, 56 cases of APMPPE-associated neurological complications were included in the analyses: 54 from the literature and 2 from our own practice. The most common complication was cerebral vasculitis, which affected 28 patients (50%), followed by headaches in 15 patients (26.8%). The other complications include sixth-cranial-nerve palsy, transient hearing loss, meningoencephalitis, cavernous sinus thrombosis, and viral meningitis. Conclusions This report adds to the literature of a novel association of APMPPE with peripheral neuropathy, and comprehensively reviews the neurological manifestations of this disease. A high level of suspicion should be applied when dealing with a case of APMPPE. We recommend applying detailed clinical neurological examinations and magnetic resonance imaging to APMPPE patients, and then early steroid treatment if the examination is positive or even suspicious. Early treatment with steroids and long-term treatment with immunosuppressive azathioprine with interval neurological evaluations will contribute positively to the outcomes and avoid fatal complications, namely strokes. PMID:27819416
Orthostatic dizziness without orthostatic hypotension is common but underlying pathophysiology is poorly understood. This study describes orthostatic cerebral hypoperfusion syndrome (OCHOs). OCHOs is defined by (1) abnormal orthostatic drop of cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFv) during the tilt test and (2) absence of orthostatic hypotension, arrhythmia, vascular abnormalities, or other causes of abnormal orthostatic CBFv. This retrospective study included patients referred for evaluation of unexplained orthostatic dizziness. Patients underwent standardized autonomic testing, including 10 min of tilt test. The following signals were monitored: heart rate, end tidal CO2, blood pressure, and CBFv from the middle cerebral artery using transcranial Doppler. Patients were screened for OCHOs. Patients who fulfilled the OCHOs criteria were compared to age- and gender-matched controls. From 1279 screened patients, 102 patients (60/42 women/men, age 51.1 ± 14.9, range 19-84 years) fulfilled criteria of OCHOs. There was no difference in baseline supine hemodynamic variables between OCHOs and the control group. During the tilt, mean CBFv decreased 24.1 ± 8.2% in OCHOs versus 4.2 ± 5.6% in controls (p < 0.0001) without orthostatic hypotension in both groups. Supine mean blood pressure (OCHOs/controls, 90.5 ± 10.6/91.1 ± 9.4 mmHg, p = 0.62) remained unchanged during the tilt (90.4 ± 9.7/92.1 ± 9.6 mmHg, p = 0.2). End tidal CO2 and heart rate responses to the tilt were normal and equal in both groups. OCHOs is a novel syndrome of low orthostatic CBFv. Two main pathophysiological mechanisms are proposed, including active cerebral vasoconstriction and passive increase of peripheral venous compliance. OCHOs may be a common cause of orthostatic dizziness.
Dore, Vincent; Smith, Geof
Neurologic diseases of the cerebrum are relatively common in cattle. In calves, the primary cerebral disorders are polioencephalomalacia, meningitis, and sodium toxicity. Because diagnostic testing is not always readily available, the practitioner must often decide on a course of treatment based on knowledge of the likely disease, as well as his or her own clinical experience. This is particularly true with neurologic diseases in which the prognosis is often poor and euthanasia may be the most humane outcome. This article reviews the most common diseases affecting the cerebrum of calves with a focus on pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment.
Ances, B M.; Sisti, D; Vaida, F; Liang, C L.; Leontiev, O; Perthen, J E.; Buxton, R B.; Benson, D; Smith, D M.; Little, S J.; Richman, D D.; Moore, D J.; Ellis, R J.
Objective: HIV enters the brain soon after infection causing neuronal damage and microglial/astrocyte dysfunction leading to neuropsychological impairment. We examined the impact of HIV on resting cerebral blood flow (rCBF) within the lenticular nuclei (LN) and visual cortex (VC). Methods: This cross-sectional study used arterial spin labeling MRI (ASL-MRI) to measure rCBF within 33 HIV+ and 26 HIV− subjects. Nonparametric Wilcoxon rank sum test assessed rCBF differences due to HIV serostatus. Classification and regression tree (CART) analysis determined optimal rCBF cutoffs for differentiating HIV serostatus. The effects of neuropsychological impairment and infection duration on rCBF were evaluated. Results: rCBF within the LN and VC were significantly reduced for HIV+ compared to HIV− subjects. A 2-tiered CART approach using either LN rCBF ≤50.09 mL/100 mL/min or LN rCBF >50.09 mL/100 mL/min but VC rCBF ≤37.05 mL/100 mL/min yielded an 88% (29/33) sensitivity and an 88% (23/26) specificity for differentiating by HIV serostatus. HIV+ subjects, including neuropsychologically unimpaired, had reduced rCBF within the LN (p = 0.02) and VC (p = 0.001) compared to HIV− controls. A temporal progression of brain involvement occurred with LN rCBF significantly reduced for both acute/early (<1 year of seroconversion) and chronic HIV-infected subjects, whereas rCBF in the VC was diminished for only chronic HIV-infected subjects. Conclusion: Resting cerebral blood flow (rCBF) using arterial spin labeling MRI has the potential to be a noninvasive neuroimaging biomarker for assessing HIV in the brain. rCBF reductions that occur soon after seroconversion possibly reflect neuronal or vascular injury among HIV+ individuals not yet expressing neuropsychological impairment. GLOSSARY AEH = acute/early HIV infection; ANOVA = analysis of variance; ASL-MRI = arterial spin labeling MRI; CART = classification and regression tree; CBF = cerebral blood flow; CH = chronic HIV
Zhang, Ruilan; Chopp, Michael; Zhang, Zheng Gang
Neural stem cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricle of adult rodent brain generate oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) that disperse throughout the corpus callosum and striatum where some of OPCs differentiate into mature oligodendrocytes. Studies in animal models of stroke demonstrate that cerebral ischemia induces oligodendrogenesis during brain repair processes. This article will review evidence of stroke-induced proliferation and differentiation of OPCs that are either resident in white matter or are derived from SVZ neural progenitor cells and of therapies that amplify endogenous oligodendrogenesis in ischemic brain. PMID:24194700
Voulgaris, Spyridon; Mihos, Evaggelos; Karagiorgiadis, Dimitrios; Zigouris, Andreas; Fotakopoulos, George; Drosos, Dimitrios; Pahaturidis, Dimitrios
For the resection of anteriorly located meningiomas, various approaches have been used. Posterior approach is less invasive and demanding; however, it has been associated with increased risk of spinal cord injury. We evaluated ten consecutive patients that underwent surgery for spinal meningiomas. All patients were preoperative assessed by neurological examination, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. All tumors were ventrally located and removed via a posterior approach. Transcranial motor-evoked potentials (TcMEPs), somatosensory-evoked potential (SSEP) and free running electromyography (EMG) were monitored intraoperative. Postoperative all patients had regular follow-up examinations. There were four males and six females. The mean age was 68.2 years (range 39–82 years). In nine out of ten cases, the tumor was located in the thoracic spine. A case of a lumbar meningioma was recorded. The most common presenting symptom was motor and sensory deficits and unsteady gait, whereas no patient presented with paraplegia. All meningiomas were operated using a microsurgical technique via a posterior approach. During the operation, free running EMG monitoring prompted a surgical alert in case of irritation, whereas TcMEP and SSEP amplitudes remained unchanged. Histopathology revealed the presence of typical (World Health Organisation grade I) meningiomas. The mean Ki-67/MIB-1 index was 2.75% (range 0.5–7). None of our patients sustained a transient or permanent motor deficit. After a mean follow-up period of 26 months (range 56–16 months), no tumor recurrence and no instability were found. Posterior approach for anteriorly located meningiomas is a safe procedure with the use of intraoperative monitoring, less invasive and well-tolerated especially in older patients. Complete tumor excision can be performed with satisfactory results. PMID:20127494
Grytz, Rafael; Fazio, Massimo A.; Girard, Michael J.A.; Libertiaux, Vincent; Bruno, Luigi; Gardiner, Stuart; Girkin, Christopher A.; Downs, J. Crawford
To characterize the material properties of posterior and peripapillary sclera from human donors, and to investigate the macro- and micro-scale strains as potential control mechanisms governing mechanical homeostasis. Posterior scleral shells from 9 human donors aged 57–90 years were subjected to IOP elevations from 5 to 45 mmHg and the resulting full-field displacements were recorded using laser speckle interferometry. Eye-specific finite element models were generated based on experimentally measured scleral shell surface geometry and thickness. Inverse numerical analyses were performed to identify material parameters for each eye by matching experimental deformation measurements to model predictions using a microstructure-based constitutive formulation that incorporates the crimp response and anisotropic architecture of scleral collagen fibrils. The material property fitting produced models that fit both the overall and local deformation responses of posterior scleral shells very well. The nonlinear stiffening of the sclera with increasing IOP was well reproduced by the uncrimping of scleral collagen fibrils, and a circumferentially-aligned ring of collagen fibrils around the scleral canal was predicted in all eyes. Macroscopic in-plane strains were significantly higher in peripapillary region then in the mid-periphery. In contrast, the meso- and micro-scale strains at the collagen network and collagen fibril level were not significantly different between regions. The elastic response of the posterior human sclera can be characterized by the anisotropic architecture and crimp response of scleral collagen fibrils. The similar collagen fibril strains in the peripapillary and mid-peripheral regions support the notion that the scleral collagen architecture including the circumpapillary ring of collagen fibrils evolved to establish optimal load bearing conditions at the collagen fibril level. PMID:23684352
Mizuno, M; Sartori, G; Liccione, D; Battelli, L; Campo, R
A patient of posterior cortical atrophy characterized by early signs of progressive visual agnosia documented by repeated neuropsychological tests, is reported. SPECT and MRI findings showed left unilateral parieto-occipital involvement in the earlier stage. A PET study executed eight months later showed bilateral parieto-occipital hypometabolism, but predominantly in the left hemisphere. This suggests that the degeneration may have developed asymmetrically, progressing from left unilateral to bilateral.
Davis, Kristin L; Murro, Anthony M; Park, Yong D; Lee, Gregory P; Cohen, Morris J; Smith, Joseph R
To identify predictors of seizure recurrence following posterior quadrant epilepsy surgery. Between 1983 and 2008, 43 medically refractory epilepsy patients underwent posterior quadrant epilepsy surgery. Epilepsy surgery involved the occipital lobe in all cases; some cases also included resection of the adjacent parietal or temporal cortex. Using a logistic regression model, we evaluated the relationship between outcome (Engel class I-IV) and 5 outcome predictors: absence of a visual aura, a temporal lobe type aura, versive head movement unaccompanied by a visual aura, non-focal interictal scalp EEG, and surgical pathology other than low grade tumor or cortical dysplasia. We also determined the relative risk for significant post-operative cognitive decline of Wechsler intelligence test score among those receiving complete lobectomies compared to those receiving partial lobectomies. Overall, outcome was favorable at 1 year following surgery: 22 (51.2%) patients Engel class I, 10 (24%) patients Engel class II, 5 (12%) patients Engel class III, and 6 (14%) patients Engel class IV. The 3 best univariate predictors of seizure recurrence were versive head movement unaccompanied by visual aura, non-focal interictal scalp EEG, and pathology other than low grade tumor or cortical dysplasia. A multivariate predictor combining temporal lobe type aura, versive head movement unaccompanied by visual aura, non-focal interictal scalp EEG, and pathology other than low grade tumor or cortical dysplasia was optimum. Complete lobectomy significantly increased the risk of post-operative decline of Wechsler intelligence score. These findings indicate that posterior quadrant epilepsy surgery may provide sustained seizure control. A multivariate model combining temporal lobe type aura, versive head movement unaccompanied by a visual aura, non-focal interictal scalp EEG, and pathology other than low grade tumor or cortical dysplasia may contribute to predicting seizure recurrence following
Yazdani-Abyaneh, Alireza; Djalilian, Ali R; Fard, Masoud Aghsaei
We introduce a technique for iris fixation of a posterior chamber intraocular lens (IOL) in which most of the procedure is done outside the eye. This minimizes intraocular manipulation, maximizes corneal endothelial preservation, and avoids the risk for IOL drop into the vitreous cavity intraoperatively. The IOL is fixated to the most peripheral part of the iris, resulting in a rounder pupil. Sutures are placed at exact positions on the haptics, resulting in a well-centered IOL.
Yolas, Coskun; Ozdemir, Nuriye Guzin; Okay, Hilmi Onder; Kanat, Ayhan; Senol, Mehmet; Atci, Ibrahim Burak; Yilmaz, Hakan; Coban, Mustafa Kemal; Yuksel, Mehmet Onur; Kahraman, Umit
Objective: The most common used technique for posterolateral cervical disc herniations is anterior approach. However, posterior cervical laminotoforaminomy can provide excellent results in appropriately selected patients with foraminal stenosis in either soft disc prolapse or cervical spondylosis. The purpose of this study was to present the clinical outcomes following posterior laminoforaminotomy in patients with radiculopathy. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively evaluated 35 patients diagnosed with posterolateral cervical disc herniation and cervical spondylosis with foraminal stenosis causing radiculopathy operated by the posterior cervical keyhole laminoforaminotomy between the years 2010 and 2015. Results: The file records and the radiographic images of the 35 patients were assessed retrospectively. The mean age was 46.4 years (range: 34-66 years). Of the patients, 19 were males and 16 were females. In all of the patients, the neurologic deficit observed was radiculopathy. The posterolaterally localized disc herniations and the osteophytic structures were on the left side in 18 cases and on the right in 17 cases. In 10 of the patients, the disc level was at C5-6, in 18 at C6-7, in 2 at C3-4, in 2 at C4-5, in 1 at C7-T1, in 1 patient at both C5-6 and C6-7, and in 1 at both C4-5 and C5-6. In 14 of these 35 patients, both osteophytic structures and protruded disc herniation were present. Intervertebral foramen stenosis was present in all of the patients with osteophytes. Postoperatively, in 31 patients the complaints were relieved completely and four patients had complaints of neck pain and paresthesia radiating to the arm (the success of operation was 88.5%). On control examinations, there was no finding of instability or cervical kyphosis. Conclusion: Posterior cervical laminoforaminotomy is an alternative appropriate choice in both cervical soft disc herniations and cervical stenosis. PMID:27217655
Sood, Sandeep; Asano, Eishi; Altinok, Deniz; Luat, Aimee
Traditionally corpus callosotomy is done through a craniotomy centered at the coronal suture, with the aid of a microscope. This involves dissecting through the interhemispheric fissure below the falx to reach the corpus callosum. The authors describe a posterior interhemispheric approach to complete corpus callosotomy with an endoscope, which bypasses the need to perform interhemispheric dissection because the falx is generally close to the corpus callosum in this region.
Voulgaris, Spyridon; Alexiou, George A; Mihos, Evaggelos; Karagiorgiadis, Dimitrios; Zigouris, Andreas; Fotakopoulos, George; Drosos, Dimitrios; Pahaturidis, Dimitrios
For the resection of anteriorly located meningiomas, various approaches have been used. Posterior approach is less invasive and demanding; however, it has been associated with increased risk of spinal cord injury. We evaluated ten consecutive patients that underwent surgery for spinal meningiomas. All patients were preoperative assessed by neurological examination, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. All tumors were ventrally located and removed via a posterior approach. Transcranial motor-evoked potentials (TcMEPs), somatosensory-evoked potential (SSEP) and free running electromyography (EMG) were monitored intraoperative. Postoperative all patients had regular follow-up examinations. There were four males and six females. The mean age was 68.2 years (range 39-82 years). In nine out of ten cases, the tumor was located in the thoracic spine. A case of a lumbar meningioma was recorded. The most common presenting symptom was motor and sensory deficits and unsteady gait, whereas no patient presented with paraplegia. All meningiomas were operated using a microsurgical technique via a posterior approach. During the operation, free running EMG monitoring prompted a surgical alert in case of irritation, whereas TcMEP and SSEP amplitudes remained unchanged. Histopathology revealed the presence of typical (World Health Organisation grade I) meningiomas. The mean Ki-67/MIB-1 index was 2.75% (range 0.5-7). None of our patients sustained a transient or permanent motor deficit. After a mean follow-up period of 26 months (range 56-16 months), no tumor recurrence and no instability were found. Posterior approach for anteriorly located meningiomas is a safe procedure with the use of intraoperative monitoring, less invasive and well-tolerated especially in older patients. Complete tumor excision can be performed with satisfactory results.
Karnath, Hans-Otto; Johannsen, Leif; Broetz, Doris; Küker, Wilhelm
Recent findings argue for a pathway in humans for sensing the orientation of gravity and controlling upright body posture, separate from the one for orientation perception of the visual world. Stroke patients with contraversive pushing were shown to experience their body as oriented upright when actually tilted about 20 degrees to the ipsilesional side, in spite of normal visual-vestibular functioning. A recent study suggested the involvement of posterolateral thalamus typically associated with the disorder. To evaluate the relationship between pushing behavior and thalamic function. Over a 3-year period the authors prospectively investigated 40 patients with left- or right-sided thalamic strokes. Twenty-eight percent showed contraversive pushing. The authors found a strong relationship between etiology, vascular territory, lesion size, and neurologic disorders associated with contraversive pushing. Pusher patients had larger lesions that typically were caused by hemorrhage (vs infarcts) located in the posterior thalamus (vs anterior thalamic lesions in those patients without pushing behavior). A paresis of the contralesional extremities was more frequent and more severe in pusher patients. Further, these patients showed more additional spatial neglect with right thalamic lesions, while they tended to be more aphasic with left thalamic lesions. Posterior thalamus seems to be fundamentally involved in our control of upright body posture. Higher pressure, swelling, and other secondary pathologic processes associated with posterior thalamic hemorrhage (vs thalamic infarction) may provoke contraversive pushing in combination with additional neurologic symptoms.
Sakassegawa-Naves, Fernando Eiji; Ricci, Helena Maria Moraes; Moscovici, Bernardo Kaplan; Miyamoto, Daniela Akemi; Chiacchio, Brenda Biagio; Holzchuh, Ricardo; Santo, Ruth Muyuki; Hida, Richard Yudi
This prospective, randomized, double-blind interventional case series was designed to evaluate the short-term efficacy of 0.03% tacrolimus ointment as a new therapeutic approach for refractory cases of posterior blepharitis. Forty eyes (20 patients) with posterior blepharitis refractory to previous treatment were randomized. Eighteen eyes (9 patients) were treated with 0.03% tacrolimus ointment and 20 eyes (10 patients) with placebo ointment twice daily. Patients were evaluated with a questionnaire and slit-lamp examination 14 days and 28 days after treatment, and symptoms and signs of blepharitis were compared to those observed at baseline. We could observe statistical difference in the outcome measurements of meibomian gland secretion, conjunctival hyperemia, telangiectasia of inferior lid, Rose Bengal, and fluorescein scoring for the study group. As for the symptoms score, we observed statistical difference in the symptoms scoring for pruritus and dry eye sensation in the tacrolimus group. This study suggests that topical administration of 0.03% tacrolimus ointment can improve some symptoms and some ocular surface status in patients with refractory posterior blepharitis.
Agrawal, Rupesh V; Biswas, Jyotirmay; Gunasekaran, Dinesh
Literature review for indocyanine green angiography and evaluate the role of indocyanine green angiogram (ICGA) in patients with posterior uveitis seen at a tertiary referral eye care centre. Detailed review of the literature on ICGA was performed. Retrospective review of medical records of patients with posterior uveitis and dual fundus and ICGA was done after institutional board approval. Eighteen patients (26 eyes) had serpiginous choroiditis out of which 12 patients had active choroiditis and six patients had healed choroiditis, six patients (12 eyes) had ampiginous choroiditis, six patients (12 eyes) had acute multifocal posterior placoid pigment epitheliopathy, eight patients (10 eyes) had multifocal choroiditis, four patients (eight eyes) had presumed ocular histoplasmosis syndrome, four patients (eight eyes) had presumed tuberculous choroiditis, two patients (four eyes) had multiple evanescent white dot syndrome and two patients (four eyes) had Vogt Koyanagi Harada (VKH) syndrome. The most characteristic feature noted on ICGA was the presence of different patterns of hypofluorescent dark spots, which were present at different stages of the angiogram. ICGA provides the clinician with a powerful adjunctive tool in choroidal inflammatory disorders. It is not meant to replace already proven modalities such as the fluorescein angiography, but it can provide additional information that is useful in establishing a more definitive diagnosis in inflammatory chorioretinal diseases associated with multiple spots. It still needs to be determined if ICGA can prove to be a follow up parameter to evaluate disease progression.
Agrawal, Rupesh V; Biswas, Jyotirmay; Gunasekaran, Dinesh
Literature review for indocyanine green angiography and evaluate the role of indocyanine green angiogram (ICGA) in patients with posterior uveitis seen at a tertiary referral eye care centre. Detailed review of the literature on ICGA was performed. Retrospective review of medical records of patients with posterior uveitis and dual fundus and ICGA was done after institutional board approval. Eighteen patients (26 eyes) had serpiginous choroiditis out of which 12 patients had active choroiditis and six patients had healed choroiditis, six patients (12 eyes) had ampiginous choroiditis, six patients (12 eyes) had acute multifocal posterior placoid pigment epitheliopathy, eight patients (10 eyes) had multifocal choroiditis, four patients (eight eyes) had presumed ocular histoplasmosis syndrome, four patients (eight eyes) had presumed tuberculous choroiditis, two patients (four eyes) had multiple evanescent white dot syndrome and two patients (four eyes) had Vogt Koyanagi Harada (VKH) syndrome. The most characteristic feature noted on ICGA was the presence of different patterns of hypofluorescent dark spots, which were present at different stages of the angiogram. ICGA provides the clinician with a powerful adjunctive tool in choroidal inflammatory disorders. It is not meant to replace already proven modalities such as the fluorescein angiography, but it can provide additional information that is useful in establishing a more definitive diagnosis in inflammatory chorioretinal diseases associated with multiple spots. It still needs to be determined if ICGA can prove to be a follow up parameter to evaluate disease progression. PMID:23685486
Cho, Jae-Ho; Chung, Nam-Su; Song, Hyung-Keun; Lee, Doo-Hyung
Rifle shooting produces a sudden counterforce against the body thorough the anterior shoulder, which may produce a traumatic injury in soldiers. Posterior instability of the shoulder can occur in soldiers who practice rifle shooting. To the authors' knowledge, few reports have examined shooting-related injuries in soldiers. This article describes the case of a 27-year-old male soldier who presented with left shoulder pain and instability after rifle training. He developed symptoms, and presented radiographic findings consistent with a posterior Bankart lesion. Intraoperatively, while in the lateral decubitus position, a posterior portal was created 3 cm inferior and 2 cm lateral to the posterolateral corner of acromion for making a proper angle for inserting anchors. A reverse bony Bankart lesion and adjacent cartilage breakdown at the glenoid rim were noted. An arthroscopic capsulolabral repair was performed with 3-mm bioabsorbable anchors to the glenoid rim. No gross reverse Hill-Sachs lesion or hyaline cartilage lesion was noted. Postoperatively, the arm was supported in a sling with an abduction pillow for 5 weeks. Codman's exercises, scapular protraction exercises, and elbow and wrist exercises were started. Physical therapy focused on reestablishing glenohumeral range of motion and rotator cuff and periscapular muscle strength. Six months postoperatively, the patient had normal scapular kinesis and reported no shoulder pain or symptoms of instability associated with a reverse bony Bankart lesion. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.
Wahab, Salima S.; Hettige, Samantha; Mankad, Kshtij
Posterior fossa syndrome (PFS), or cerebellar mutism syndrome (CMS), is a collection of neurological symptoms that occur following surgical resection of a posterior fossa tumour, and is characterised by either a reduction or an absence of speech. Some authors suggest that CM is only one symptom of the CMS complex that also includes ataxia, hypotonia and irritability as well as cranial nerve deficits, neurobehavioral changes and urinary retention or incontinence. It is seen almost exclusively in children. In 1985 Rekate et al. published the first work describing CM as a clinical entity, occurring as a consequence of bilateral cerebellar injury. Other associated symptoms include visual impairment, altered mood, impaired swallowing and significant gross and fine motor deficits. The effects of this can have a devastating impact on both the patient and their carers, posing a significant clinical challenge to neurorehabilitation services. The reported incidence was between 8% and 31% of children undergoing surgery for posterior fossa tumour. The underlying pathologies include vasospasm, oedema, and axonal/neuronal injury. Neuroimaging has contributed to a better understanding of the anatomical location of postoperative injury. There have been a number of suggestions for treatment interventions for PFS. However, apart from some individual reports, there have been no clinical trials indicating possible benefit. Occupational therapy, speech and language therapy, as well as neurocognitive support, contribute to the recovery of these patients. PMID:27942479
de Notaris, Matteo; Enseñat, Joaquim; Alobid, Isam; San Molina, Joan; Berenguer, Joan; Cappabianca, Paolo
Introduction. The purpose of the present contribution is to perform a detailed anatomic and virtual reality three-dimensional stereoscopic study in order to test the effectiveness of the extended endoscopic endonasal approaches for selected anterior and posterior circulation aneurysms. Methods. The study was divided in two main steps: (1) simulation step, using a dedicated Virtual Reality System (Dextroscope, Volume Interactions); (2) dissection step, in which the feasibility to reach specific vascular territory via the nose was verified in the anatomical laboratory. Results. Good visualization and proximal and distal vascular control of the main midline anterior and posterior circulation territory were achieved during the simulation step as well as in the dissection step (anterior communicating complex, internal carotid, ophthalmic, superior hypophyseal, posterior cerebral and posterior communicating, basilar, superior cerebellar, anterior inferior cerebellar, vertebral, and posterior inferior cerebellar arteries). Conclusion. The present contribution is intended as strictly anatomic study in which we highlighted some specific anterior and posterior circulation aneurysms that can be reached via the nose. For clinical applications of these approaches, some relevant complications, mainly related to the endonasal route, such as proximal and distal vascular control, major arterial bleeding, postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leak, and olfactory disturbances must be considered. PMID:24575410
Shaik, S.; Chhetri, S. K.; Roberts, G.; Wuppalapati, S.
A 44-year-old woman presented with recurrent episodes of thunderclap headache. Neurological examination and computed tomography brain imaging were unremarkable. Cerebrospinal fluid findings were consistent with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Computed tomography angiography of the circle of Willis showed multiple areas of segmental vasoconstriction. This finding was confirmed on cerebral catheter angiography, with segmental vasoconstriction involving bilateral internal carotid, posterior cerebral, and external carotid branches. No aneurysm or other vascular abnormality was identified. She received treatment with nimodipine. A selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, started 4 weeks earlier, was discontinued. Follow-up angiography after 3 months demonstrated complete resolution of the segmental vasoconstriction, confirming the diagnosis of reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS). She remained headache free at follow-up. To our knowledge, external carotid artery branch involvement in RCVS has been described only in one previous occasion. PMID:24982719
Jansen, G; Mertzlufft, F; Bach, F
Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) is a disease of unclear incidence frequently affecting middle aged women and is usually associated with use of adrenergic or serotoninergic substances. The exclusion of relevant differential diagnoses, such as aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, primary cerebral angiitis, posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome and carotid artery dissection is critical in terms of time and significance. Thunderclap headache as well as multiple and multilocular vasospasms with direct or indirect angiography without substantial findings in cerebrospinal fluid diagnostics are typical symptoms. The necessity for intensive care treatment is often justified by initial acute impairment of vital functions and possible development of cerebral or extracerebral complications. Because the exact pathophysiology remains unknown, a specific therapy does not exist. This poses significant challenges in intensive care medicine, which are illustrated on the basis of the case study presented.
Ozturk, Hakan A; Sanli, Emine C; Kurtoglu, Zeliha
During the cerebral dissection of a 67-year-old male cadaver, a unique combination of variations at the circle of Willis and anterior cerebral artery (ACA) distribution were encountered. The A1 segment of both ACA were fused without an anterior communicating artery (ACoA), forming an X shape and giving rise to a common pericallosal artery (CPA), an incomplete distal ACA, and an incomplete distal anterior cerebral artery (IACA). The IACA had an unusual course, which may be important from the surgical point of view. The CPA continued as the A2 and A3 segments, and bifurcated into 2 pericallosal arteries. Branching patterns of the varied arteries to the interhemispheric region were evaluated, and results were discussed. Additionally, both posterior communicating arteries were hypoplastic. There was no aneurysm formation at the circle of Willis and its branches.
Ashraf, V V; Bhasi, Ramesh; Ramakrishnan, K G; Praveenkumar, R; Girija, A S
A 42-year-old woman, a diagnosed case of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), developed severe headache followed by left hemiparesis and cortical blindness. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of brain demonstrated right parieto-occipital infarct and the patient was initiated on high-dose steroids and antiplatelet agents with which the patient had clinical and radiological deterioration. Magnetic Resonance angiography showed severe narrowing of bilateral anterior, middle, and posterior cerebral arteries (PCA) suggestive of reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS). Patient was treated with IV nimodipine and she recovered over a period of 2 weeks. Repeat MR-angiography done on day-30 was normal. The diagnosis of RCVS in patients with SLE is of practical importance, because treatment and prognosis for SLE-associated cerebral vasculitis differ strongly from the treatment of RCVS. Empirical high-dose glucocorticoid therapy should be avoided in patients with typical features of RCVS.
Rich, M.W.; Imburgia, M.; King, T.R.; Fischer, K.C.; Kovach, K.L. )
The accuracy of four electrocardiographic criteria for diagnosing remote posterior myocardial infarction was assessed prospectively in 369 patients undergoing exercise treadmill testing with thallium scintigraphy. Criteria included the following: (1) R-wave width greater than or equal to 0.04 s and R-wave greater than or equal to S-wave in V1; (2) R-wave greater than or equal to S-wave in V2; (3) T-wave voltage in V2 minus V6 greater than or equal to 0.38 mV (T-wave index); (4) Q-wave greater than or equal to 0.04 s in left paraspinal lead V9. Twenty-seven patients (7.3 percent) met thallium criteria for posterior myocardial infarction, defined as a persistent perfusion defect in the posterobase of the left ventricle. Sensitivities for the four criteria ranged from 4 to 56 percent, and specificities ranged from 64 to 99 percent. Posterior paraspinal lead V9 provided the best overall predictive accuracy (94 percent), positive predictive value (58 percent), and ability to differentiate patients with and without posterior myocardial infarction of any single criterion (p less than .0001). Combining the T-wave index with lead V9 further enhanced the diagnostic yield: the sensitivity for detecting posterior infarction by at least one of these criteria was 78 percent, and when both criteria were positive, specificity was 98.5 percent. It is concluded that a single, unipolar posterior lead in the V9 position is superior to standard 12-lead electrocardiographic criteria in diagnosing remote posterior myocardial infarction, and that combining V9 with the T-wave index maximizes the diagnostic yield.
Lin, K-C; Tarng, Y-W; Lin, G-Y; Yang, S-W; Hsu, C-J; Renn, J-H
The three-column fixation concept is becoming popular in orthopedic practice. Posterior column fracture is an uncommon type of tibial plateau fracture. The supine position for the surgical approach is familiar to most surgeons; however, it is difficult to achieve good reduction and fixation in posterior column fracture. The prone position and direct posterior approach can achieve proper reduction and fixation for posterior column tibial plateau fracture, yielding good functional outcome. Between January 2010 and January 2012, 184 tibial plateau fractures were diagnosed and operated on in our institution. Sixteen posterior column tibial plateau fractures (10 male and 6 female patients, with a mean age of 41.5 ± 14.3 years) were diagnosed by preoperative plain films and CT scans. Ten patients presented with fracture-dislocation of the knee joint. A direct posterior approach in prone position was used to reduce the tibial condyle and fix it with an anti-glide buttress plate. Radiographic evaluation included reduction quality and bone union. Functional evaluation included Lysholm score and Tegner activity score. All fractures healed within 6 months, without secondary displacement. Ten knees had postoperative anatomic reduction (0mm step-off) and 6 had acceptable reduction (< 2mm step-off). At 34.4 ± 9.6 months, median extension was 3 (5-10) and flexion 135 (100-145). The mean Lysholm score was 95 (75-100) and the mean Tegner activity score was 6 (5-8). All patients were satisfied with the operation. No cases of post-traumatic osteoarthritis of the knee occurred during follow-up. The prone position and direct posterior approach has great advantages in terms of reduction and stable fixation, yielding good results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Chang, Feiyan; Li, Zhongshi; Xie, Sheng; Liu, Hui; Wang, Wu
A prospective study using magnetic resonance imaging on a consecutive cohort of patients with cervical vertigo. To quantitatively investigate the cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes associated with cervical vertigo by using 3-dimensional pseudocontinuous arterial spin labeling. Previous studies reported blood flow velocity reduction in posterior circulation during vertigo. However, the detailed information of CBF related to cervical vertigo has not been provided. A total of 33 patients with cervical vertigo and 14 healthy volunteers were recruited in this study. Three-dimensional pseudocontinuous arterial spin labeling was performed on each subject to evaluate the CBF before and after the cervical hyperextension-hyperflexion movement tests, which was used to induce cervical vertigo. Repeated-measures analysis of variance was conducted to assess the effect of subjects and tests. There were time effects of CBF in the territory of bilateral superior cerebellar artery, bilateral posterior cerebral artery, bilateral middle cerebral artery, and right anterior cerebral artery, but no group effect was observed. The analysis of CBF revealed a significant main effect of tests (P=0.024) and participants (P=0.038) in the dorsal pons. Cervical vertigo onset may be related to CBF reduction in the dorsal pons, which sequentially evokes the vestibular nuclei. 2.
Shi, Zhihong; Cai, Li; Liu, Shuai; Liu, Shuling; Han, Tong; Wang, Ying; Zhou, Yuying; Wang, Xinping; Gao, Shuo; Ji, Yong
Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) is a clinicoradiologic neurodegenerative syndrome characterized by predominant impairment of higher visual functions. Neuroimaging and neuropathological studies show that PCA is probably an atypical presentation of Alzheimer’s disease. However, in China PCA has rarely been studied and remains largely unknown. Our study therefore aimed to analyze the clinical manifestations and patterns of cerebral atrophy, amyloid beta deposition and regional glucose metabolism in Chinese PCA patients, comparing them directly with those of typical Alzheimer’s disease (TAD). Seven PCA patients, 6 TAD patients and 5 controls underwent neuropsychological assessment, MRI scan, 11C-PIB PET scan and 18F-FDG PET scan. Cerebral atrophy including ventricular enlargement, posterior atrophy and medial temporal lobe atrophy were evaluated with MRI. The uptake of 11C-PIB was quantified at the voxel level using the standardized uptake value ratio. Comparisons of regional cerebral glucose metabolism were calculated with statistical parametric mapping. PCA patients showed significant impairment on visuospatial function in neuropsychological assessment. And PCA patients showed more severe posterior atrophy and less severe left medial temporal lobe atrophy compared with TAD patients. The data from 11C-PIB PET scanning showed that amyloid beta deposition in PCA was comparable to TAD. Moreover, in PCA the results from 18F-FDG PET scanning revealed significant hypometabolism in the temporoparietooccipital region and identified specific hypometabolism in the right occipital lobe, compared with TAD. Our study thus provides a preliminary view of PCA in Chinese patients. A further study with a larger number of subjects would be recommended to confirm these findings. PMID:26267071
Hijikata, Yasuhiro; Watanabe, Hirohisa; Ito, Mizuki; Yoneyama, Noritaka; Atsuta, Naoki; Sobue, Gen
We present a case of a patient with reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) triggered by nicotine patches. A-50-year-old woman had no medical history and no regular medication. She smoked 20 cigarettes a day for 30 years. Six days after using nicotine patches, she had recurrent severe headaches of sudden onset (thunderclap headaches). On examination, the blood pressure was 142/88 mmHg. Her neurological and general examination, laboratory serum investigations, and cerebrospinal fluid examination were normal. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) on admission, day 10 after the first episode showed severe multifocal segmental narrowing of the bilateral posterior cerebral artery (PCA). Cessation of nicotine patches and administration of calcium-channel antagonist amlodipine 5 mg daily ameliorated her headache. Follow-up MRA, 37 days after the first episode, showed improvement of PCA stenosis. We diagnosed her as reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) due to nicotine patches. It is important to recognize nicotine patches as a trigger of RCVS.
Baron, Joel; Mastrolia, Salvatore Andrea; Shelef, Ilan; Tirosh, Dan; Daniel-Spiegel, Etty; Hershkovitz, Reli
The dilation of the fetal cerebral veins is a rare phenomena that may be associated to a bad obstetric outcome, and is usually connected to antenatal thrombosis of the posterior dural venous sinuses. There are several descriptions of cerebral vein distension on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), but all of them are detected postnatally. We present herein two cases of fetal antenatal cerebral dilation of the venous system, without any association to any sign of vein thrombosis, and a systematic review of literature regarding pathogenesis, diagnosis and outcomes associated to the antenatal detection of this condition with the use of MRI. To identify potentially eligible studies, we searched PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Library (all from inception to October 20(th), 2016) and applied no language restrictions. The electronic database search provided a total of 22843 results. After the exclusion of duplicates, manuscripts that resulted not relevant to the review based on title and abstract screening, and analysis of manuscripts eligible for full-text assessment, no papers were found related to the subject reported in the present manuscript.
Scholten, P E; Sierevelt, I N; van Dijk, C N
The surgical treatment of posterior ankle impingement is associated with a high rate of complications and a substantial time to recover. An endoscopic approach to the posterior ankle (hindfoot endoscopy) may lack these disadvantages. We hypothesized that hindfoot endoscopy causes less morbidity and facilitates a quick recovery compared with open surgery. Fifty-five consecutive patients with posterior ankle impingement were treated with an endoscopic removal of bone fragments and/or scar tissue. The symptoms were caused by trauma (65%) or overuse (35%). All patients were enrolled in a prospective protocol. At baseline, the age, sex, work and sports activities, American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) hindfoot scores, and preinjury Tegner scores were determined for all patients. At the time of follow-up, AOFAS hindfoot scores and Tegner scores were assessed and the time to return to work and sports activities was determined. Complications were recorded. Patients scored the overall result as poor, fair, good, or excellent by means of a 4-point Likert scale. The median duration of follow-up was thirty-six months, and no patient was lost to follow-up. The median AOFAS hindfoot score increased from 75 points preoperatively to 90 points at the time of final follow-up. The median time to return to work and sports activities was two and eight weeks, respectively. At the time of follow-up, patients in the overuse group were more satisfied than those in the posttraumatic group, and the AOFAS hindfoot scores were higher in patients in the overuse group (median, 100 points) compared with patients in the posttraumatic group (median, 90 points). A complication occurred in one patient who had a temporary loss of sensation of the posteromedial aspect of the heel. The outcome after endoscopic treatment of posterior ankle impingement compares favorably with the results of open surgery reported in the literature. Hindfoot endoscopy appears to cause less morbidity than open
Cheong, Jin Hwan; Kim, Jae Min; Kim, Choong Hyun
Traumatic intracranial aneurysms are rare, comprising 1% or less of all cerebral aneurysms. The majority of these aneurysms arise at the skull base or in the distal anterior and middle cerebral arteries or their branches following direct mural injury or acceleration-induced shearing force. We present a 50-year-old patient in whom subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) was developed as a result of traumatic aneurysm rupture after a closed craniofacial injury. Through careful evaluation of the three-dimensional computed tomography and conventional angiographies, the possible mechanism of the traumatic internal carotid artery trunk aneurysm is correlated with a hit injury by the bony protuberances on the anterior and posterior clinoid processes. This traumatic aneurysm was successfully obliterated with clipping and wrapping technique. The possibility of a traumatic intracranial aneurysm should be considered when patient with SAH demonstrates bony protuberances on the clinoid process as a traumatic aneurysm may result from mechanical injury by the sharp bony edges.
Jouvet, M; Albarede, J L; Lubin, S; Meyrignac, C
The central functions of norepinephrine (NE) are a recent discovery: regulation of alertness and of the wakefulness-sleep cycle, maintenance of attention, memory and learning, cerebral plasticity and neuro-protection. The anatomical, histological, biochemical and physiological properties of the central noradrenergic system: extreme capacity for ramification and arborization; slow conduction, non-myelinized axons with extrasynaptic varicosities producing and releasing NE; frequency of co-transmission phenomena, and; neuromodulation with fiber effect responsible for improvement in the signal over background noise ratio and selection of significant stimuli form a true interface between the outside world and the central nervous system, notably for the neocortex in the context of the cognitive treatment of information. This central noradrenergic system is involved in the neurophysiology and the clinical features of cerebral aging (ideation-motor and cognitive function slowing down, loss of behavioral adjustment), neuro-degenerative disorders (SDAT, Parkinson's disease), certain aspects of depression and less obvious conditions (head injuries, sequelae of cerebrovascular accidents, sub-cortical dementia). The recent development of medications improving alertness (adrafinil, modafinil) with a pure central action and specifically noradrenergic, may contribute to an improvement in these multifactorial disorders.
Cerebral cartography and connectomics pursue similar goals in attempting to create maps that can inform our understanding of the structural and functional organization of the cortex. Connectome maps explicitly aim at representing the brain as a complex network, a collection of nodes and their interconnecting edges. This article reflects on some of the challenges that currently arise in the intersection of cerebral cartography and connectomics. Principal challenges concern the temporal dynamics of functional brain connectivity, the definition of areal parcellations and their hierarchical organization into large-scale networks, the extension of whole-brain connectivity to cellular-scale networks, and the mapping of structure/function relations in empirical recordings and computational models. Successfully addressing these challenges will require extensions of methods and tools from network science to the mapping and analysis of human brain connectivity data. The emerging view that the brain is more than a collection of areas, but is fundamentally operating as a complex networked system, will continue to drive the creation of ever more detailed and multi-modal network maps as tools for on-going exploration and discovery in human connectomics. PMID:25823870
Cerebral cartography and connectomics pursue similar goals in attempting to create maps that can inform our understanding of the structural and functional organization of the cortex. Connectome maps explicitly aim at representing the brain as a complex network, a collection of nodes and their interconnecting edges. This article reflects on some of the challenges that currently arise in the intersection of cerebral cartography and connectomics. Principal challenges concern the temporal dynamics of functional brain connectivity, the definition of areal parcellations and their hierarchical organization into large-scale networks, the extension of whole-brain connectivity to cellular-scale networks, and the mapping of structure/function relations in empirical recordings and computational models. Successfully addressing these challenges will require extensions of methods and tools from network science to the mapping and analysis of human brain connectivity data. The emerging view that the brain is more than a collection of areas, but is fundamentally operating as a complex networked system, will continue to drive the creation of ever more detailed and multi-modal network maps as tools for on-going exploration and discovery in human connectomics. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.
Czosnyka, Marek; Miller, Chad
Pressure autoregulation is an important hemodynamic mechanism that protects the brain against inappropriate fluctuations in cerebral blood flow in the face of changing cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP). Static autoregulation represents how far cerebrovascular resistance changes when CPP varies, and dynamic autoregulation represents how fast these changes happen. Both have been monitored in the setting of neurocritical care to aid prognostication and contribute to individualizing CPP targets in patients. Failure of autoregulation is associated with a worse outcome in various acute neurological diseases. Several studies have used transcranial Doppler ultrasound, intracranial pressure (ICP with vascular reactivity as surrogate measure of autoregulation), and near-infrared spectroscopy to continuously monitor the impact of spontaneous fluctuations in CPP on cerebrovascular physiology and to calculate derived variables of autoregulatory efficiency. Many patients who undergo such monitoring demonstrate a range of CPP in which autoregulatory efficiency is optimal. Management of patients at or near this optimal level of CPP is associated with better outcomes in traumatic brain injury. Many of these studies have utilized the concept of the pressure reactivity index, a correlation coefficient between ICP and mean arterial pressure. While further studies are needed, these data suggest that monitoring of autoregulation could aid prognostication and may help identify optimal CPP levels in individual patients.
Morris, J G; Grattan-Smith, P; Panegyres, P K; O'Neill, P; Soo, Y S; Langlands, A O
The clinical features and long-term outcome of seven patients with delayed cerebral radiation necrosis (DCRN) are described. Radiotherapy had been given for pituitary tumour (1), astrocytoma (2), pinealoma (2), craniopharyngioma (1) and parotid carcinoma (1). The mean latency to onset of the first neurological symptoms was 22 months (range 6-40 months), and mean duration of follow-up was 86 months (range 60-126). Three patients died at a mean of 84 months after radiotherapy (range 62-98). A fourth patient probably died from metastatic disease. Three patients remain alive, albeit severely disabled, after 5-10 years. The illness typically ran a stepwise course, with fits and stroke-like episodes occurring against a background of progressive dementia and somnolence. CT and MRI scans showed progressive ventricular dilatation associated with cerebral atrophy and diffuse or focal changes in the white matter. Four patients had had two or more neurosurgical procedures after the radiotherapy. In only one of the seven patients was the diagnosis made at presentation. DCRN produces a distinctive clinical picture, yet remains a poorly recognized complication of cranial irradiation.
Meberg, Alf; Broch, Harald
To register the prevalence of cerebral palsy (CP) and determine etiological factors for the condition. Population based study with registration of CP-cases in children born during the 30-year period 1970-99. Cases with postneonatal etiology were excluded. 166 CP-cases were registered among 70 824 children, a prevalence of 2.3 per 1000 live born infants. The prevalence did not change significantly during the period. 66 (40%) were low birthweight infants (LBWIs; <2500 g), and 100 (60%) normal birthweight infants (NBWIs; > or = 2500 g). The origin was classified as prenatal in 37 (22%), perinatal/neonatal in 78 (47%) and unclassifiable in 51 (31 %). In LBWIs 39/66 (59%) had a perinatal/neonatal etiology, most frequently intra- or periventricular hemorrhages (IVH/PVH) and/or periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) or cerebral infarctions (CI) (17; 44%). In NBWIs 39/100 (39%) had a perinatal etiology, most frequently hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) (31; 79%). In a substantial percentage of CP-cases perinatal/neonatal brain injury was classified as the cause. Among these IVH/PVH/PVL/CI dominated in LBWIs, while HIE dominated in NBWIs. Our data may point to preventability of a larger part of CP than earlier suggested.
Alvis-Miranda, Hernando Raphael; Milena Castellar-Leones, Sandra; Alcala-Cerra, Gabriel; Rafael Moscote-Salazar, Luis
Cerebral sinus venous thrombosis (CSVT) is a rare phenomenon that can be seen with some frequency in young patients. CSVT is a multifactorial condition with gender-related specific causes, with a wide clinical presentation, the leading causes differ between developed and developing countries, converting CSVT in a condition characterized by a highly variable clinical spectra, difficult diagnosis, variable etiologies and prognosis that requires fine medical skills and a high suspicious index. Patients who presents with CSVT should underwent to CT-scan venography (CVT) and to the proper inquiry of the generating cause. This disease can affect the cerebral venous drainage and related anatomical structure. The symptoms may appear in relation to increased intracranial pressure imitating a pseudotumorcerebri. Prognosis depends on the early detection. Correcting the cause, generally the complications can be prevented. Mortality trends have diminished, and with the new technologies, surely it will continue. This work aims to review current knowledge about CSVT including its pathogenesis, etiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment. PMID:24347950
van Mook, Walther N K A; Rennenberg, Roger J M W; Schurink, Geert Willem; van Oostenbrugge, Robert Jan; Mess, Werner H; Hofman, Paul A M; de Leeuw, Peter W
Cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome (CHS) after carotid endarterectomy is characterised by ipsilateral headache, hypertension, seizures, and focal neurological deficits. If not treated properly it can result in severe brain oedema, intracerebral or subarachnoid haemorrhage, and death. Knowledge of CHS among physicians is limited. Most studies report incidences of CHS of 0-3% after carotid endarterectomy. CHS is most common in patients with increases of more than 100% in perfusion compared with baseline after carotid endarterectomy and is rare in patients with increases in perfusion less than 100% compared with baseline. The most important risk factors in CHS are diminished cerebrovascular reserve, postoperative hypertension, and hyperperfusion lasting more than several hours after carotid endarterectomy. Impaired autoregulation as a result of endothelial dysfunction mediated by generation of free oxygen radicals is implicated in the pathogenesis of CHS. Treatment strategies are directed towards regulation of blood pressure and limitation of rises in cerebral perfusion. Complete recovery happens in mild cases, but disability and death can occur in more severe cases. More information about CHS and early institution of adequate treatment are of paramount importance in order to prevent these potentially severe complications.
Sakai, Kenji; Yamada, Masahito
Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is a disorder characterized by the accumulation of amyloid proteins in the small and medium-sized blood vessels of the leptomeninges and central nervous system. Amyloid β protein (Aβ), immunoglobulin light chains, cystatin C, prion protein (PrP), ABri/ADan, transthyretin, and gelsoline, are all associated with CAA. While most CAA patients demonstrated sporadic Aβ-type amyloid deposition, a small number of patients present with familial forms, e.g. Dutch-type hereditary cerebral hemorrhage with amyloidosis (HCHWA-D), Icelandic-type HCHWA (HCHWA-I), familial British dementia (FBD), familial Danish dementia (FDD), and PrP-CAA. Deposited amyloid proteins damage smooth muscle cells in blood vessel walls leading to pathological appearances calling 'double-barreled' changes, fibrinoid necrosis, and microaneurysms. These structural abnormalities result in microinfarcts and hemorrhages in the central nervous system. Recurrent hemorrhage is a common clinical manifestation in patients with CAA; however, small multiple infarctions, progressive dementia, transient neurological symptoms, and CAA-related inflammation can also occur. The pathomechanisms of CAA remain unknown. Although improvements in imaging techniques have allowed us to identify patients with CAA more readily, pathological examination is still essential for a definite diagnosis. There have been no curative treatments for CAA so far.
Yip, James; Geng, Xiaokun; Shen, Jiamei; Ding, Yuchuan
The gluconeogenesis pathway, which has been known to normally present in the liver, kidney, intestine, or muscle, has four irreversible steps catalyzed by the enzymes: pyruvate carboxylase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase, and glucose 6-phosphatase. Studies have also demonstrated evidence that gluconeogenesis exists in brain astrocytes but no convincing data have yet been found in neurons. Astrocytes exhibit significant 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase-3 activity, a key mechanism for regulating glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. Astrocytes are unique in that they use glycolysis to produce lactate, which is then shuttled into neurons and used as gluconeogenic precursors for reduction. This gluconeogenesis pathway found in astrocytes is becoming more recognized as an important alternative glucose source for neurons, specifically in ischemic stroke and brain tumor. Further studies are needed to discover how the gluconeogenesis pathway is controlled in the brain, which may lead to the development of therapeutic targets to control energy levels and cellular survival in ischemic stroke patients, or inhibit gluconeogenesis in brain tumors to promote malignant cell death and tumor regression. While there are extensive studies on the mechanisms of cerebral glycolysis in ischemic stroke and brain tumors, studies on cerebral gluconeogenesis are limited. Here, we review studies done to date regarding gluconeogenesis to evaluate whether this metabolic pathway is beneficial or detrimental to the brain under these pathological conditions. PMID:28101056
Gedik, Gonca Kara; Sari, Oktay; Köktekir, Ender; Akdemir, Gökhan
Cerebellar mutism is a transient period of speechlessness that evolves after posterior fossa surgery in children. Although direct cerebellar and brain stem injury and supratentorial dysfunction have been implicated in the mediation of mutism, the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the evolution of this kind of mutism remain unclear. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed dentatothalamocortical tract injuries and single photon emission computed tomography showed cerebellar and cerebral hypoperfusion in patients with cerebellar mutism. However, findings with (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT) in this group of patients have not been documented previously. In this clinical case, we report a patient who experienced cerebellar mutism after undergoing a posterior fossa surgery. Right cerebellar and left frontal lobe hypometabolism was shown using FDG PET/CT. The FDG metabolism of both the cerebellum and the frontal lobe returned to normal levels after the resolution of the mutism symptoms. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.
Yi, Ji Hwan; Ha, Sang Hee; Kim, Yong Kook
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is an unfamiliar term to anesthesiologists, and this is characterized by neurologic symptoms that include mental change, headache, seizure and visual disturbance and also abnormal neuroimaging finding. A 71-year-old female patient was operated on for posterior decompression and total laminectomy under general anesthesia for the spinal stenosis. After the operation, she developed generalized tonic-clonic seizure and a stuporous mentality in the recovery room. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed swelling and increased signal intensity at the deep gray nuclei, cerebral cortex and cerebellum. After one week, she returned to an alert mentality and then she was diagnosed with PRES. She was discharged without any neurologic deficit on postoperative day 20. This report describes our experience with PRES after spinal surgery was performed under general anesthesia on a suspected untreated hypertensive patient. PMID:21716568
Gordon Perue, Gillian L; Narayan, Ram; Zangiabadi, Amir H; Romano, Jose G; Rundek, Tatjana; Sacco, Ralph L; Koch, Sebastian
Vertebral artery origin stenosis is an important etiology for stroke in the posterior circulation. Data from the Oxford Vascular Study and New England Registry show a prevalence of vertebral artery origin disease of 26-32%. These populations are largely comprised of Caucasians. The prevalence of vertebral artery origin disease in multirace-ethnic stroke population is unknown. The study aims to assess the prevalence of vertebral artery origin stenosis in a multirace population with posterior circulation stroke. The Miami Stroke Registry is a prospective registry which offers enrollment to consecutive patients admitted with a diagnosis of stroke/transient ischemic attack. Baseline demographics, vascular risk factors, and stroke topography in the posterior circulation were analyzed. All vascular imaging studies were reviewed for the presence of vertebral artery origin stenosis, and stroke etiology was adjudicated by TOAST classification. Mean age of the population was 63 ± 13 years; 149 (70%) were men. Among cases, 123 were Hispanic (58%), almost one third 70 (32%) were of African descent, and 15 (7%) were white. The most common stroke etiology was small vessel occlusion (27%), followed by large artery intracranial disease 25% (posterior cerebral arteries, basilar and vertebral arteries), cardioembolic 19%, and cryptogenic 16%. Vertebral artery origin stenosis/occlusion was present in 28 (13.1%) patients, of whom only 2 (0.9%) were bilateral; it was attributed as the direct cause of stroke in 11 (5.2%) patients. We found a lower prevalence of vertebral artery origin stenosis in a predominately non-white population with posterior circulation stroke than previously reported. Vertebral artery origin stenosis was a direct cause of posterior circulation stroke in only 5.2% of patients. © 2014 World Stroke Organization.
Ono, Hideaki; Inoue, Tomohiro; Suematsu, Shinya; Tanishima, Takeo; Tamura, Akira; Saito, Isamu; Saito, Nobuhito
Spontaneous intracranial arterial dissection (IAD) is an increasingly important cause of stroke, such as subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and hemodynamic or thromboembolic cerebral ischemia. IAD usually occurs in the posterior circulation, and is relatively rare in the anterior circulation including the middle cerebral artery (MCA). Various surgical and endovascular methods to reduce blood flow in the dissected lesion have been proposed, but no optimum treatment has been established. An 80-year-old woman with dissection in the M1 portion of the MCA manifesting as SAH presented with repeated hemorrhage and cerebral infarction in the area of the inferior trunk of the MCA. High-flow bypass to the MCA was performed and the dissecting lesion was trapped. Prevention of repeated hemorrhage was achieved, and blood flow was preserved to the lenticulostriate artery as well as the MCA area distal to the lesion. Treatment strategy for IAD of the MCA should be planned for each patient and condition, and surgery should be performed promptly to prevent critical rebleeding given the high recurrence rate. In addition, preventing re-rupture of the IAD, and preserving important perforators around the lesion and blood flow distal to the dissection should be targeted by the treatment strategy.
Bartoli, Andrea; Kotowski, Marc; Pereira, Vitor Mendes; Schaller, Karl
We describe an unusual presentation of a ruptured aneurysm of the posterior communicating artery with an acute intracranial hematoma between the dural layers associated with an acute spinal epidural hematoma descending to L1. A 35-year-old woman presented 3 hours after ictus with a postcoital headache, neck stiffness, and bilateral abducens cranial nerve palsy. No other neurological deficits were present. Clinically, she had a subarachnoid hemorrhage World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies grade 1. CT scan demonstrates an acute subdural hematoma, extending from the right parasellar region, around the clivus, tentorium, and falx. Angio-CT showed a posterior communicating artery aneurysm and an anterior communicating artery aneurysm and an extension of the hematoma to the cervical spine. This justified a spinal and cerebral MRI that confirmed an extension of the hematoma to the epidural space at the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar levels. Three-dimensional digital subtraction angiography confirmed aneurysms on the right posterior communicating artery and on the anterior communicating artery. Both aneurysms were completely occluded by coiling. With reference to the concept of the cranial subdural compartment described in studies conducted using an electron microscope, this group of hematomas was classified as interdural. Ruptured aneurysm of the posterior communicating artery may cause cranial acute interdural hematoma with a typical subarachnoid hemorrhage clinical presentation, and it rarely can extend to spinal epidural space.
Rigby, Brandon Rhett; Gloeckner, Adam Robert; Sessums, Suzanne; Lanning, Beth Anne; Grandjean, Peter Walter
The purpose of this study was to characterize pelvic displacement and cardiorespiratory responses to simulated horseback riding and walking in youth with cerebral palsy and to compare responses to youth without cerebral palsy before and after 8 weeks of hippotherapy. Eight youth with cerebral palsy (Mage = 10 ± 4 years; Mheight = 137 ± 24 cm; Mweight = 32 ± 16 kg) and 8 youth without cerebral palsy (Mage = 11 ± 2 years; Mheight = 149 ± 14 cm; Mweight = 48 ± 15 kg) underwent a hippotherapy intervention. Participants completed simulated horseback riding at an intensity approximating a fast walk (0.65 Hz) and walked on a treadmill (1 mph, 0% grade) before and after hippotherapy. Pelvic displacement along the anterior-posterior, vertical, and medial-lateral axes, heart rate, oxygen consumption, ventilation, and blood pressure were measured at rest and during steady-state exercise in both exercise modes. Kinematics and cardiorespiratory responses were similar between the 2 groups during simulated horseback riding (p > .05 for all) before the intervention. Significantly greater cardiorespiratory responses were observed in the youth with cerebral palsy compared with the group without cerebral palsy while walking before and after the intervention (p < .05, effect sizes 26% to 237% greater). Eight weeks of hippotherapy did not alter responses, but anecdotal improvements in gait, balance, posture, and range of motion were observed in those with cerebral palsy. These results contribute to our understanding regarding the efficacy of hippotherapy as an intervention to improve functional abilities in those with cerebral palsy.
Haubrich, Christina; Czosnyka, Marek; Diehl, Rolf; Smielewski, Peter; Czosnyka, Zofia
Several studies have shown that the progression of communicating hydrocephalus is associated with diminished cerebral perfusion and microangiopathy. If communicating hydrocephalus similarly alters the cerebrospinal fluid circulation and cerebral blood flow, both may be related to intracranial mechanoelastic properties as, for instance, the volume pressure compliance. Twenty-three shunted patients with communicating hydrocephalus underwent intraventricular constant-flow infusion with Hartmann’s solution. The monitoring included transcranial Doppler (TCD) flow velocities (FV) in the middle (MCA) and posterior cerebral arteries (PCA), intracranial pressure (ICP), and systemic arterial blood pressure (ABP). The analysis covered cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP), the index of pressure-volume compensatory reserve (RAP), and phase shift angles between Mayer waves (3 to 9 cpm) in ABP and MCA-FV or PCA-FV. Due to intraventricular infusion, the pressure-volume reserve was exhausted (RAP) 0.84+/-0.1 and ICP was increased from baseline 11.5+/-5.6 to plateau levels of 20.7+/-6.4 mmHg. The ratio dRAP/dICP distinguished patients with large 0.1+/-0.01, medium 0.05+/-0.02, and small 0.02+/-0.01 intracranial volume compliances. Both M wave phase shift angles (r = 0.64; p<0.01) and CPP (r = 0.36; p<0.05) displayed a gradual decline with decreasing dRAP/dICP gradients. This study showed that in communicating hydrocephalus, CPP and dynamic cerebral autoregulation in particular, depend on the volume-pressure compliance. The results suggested that the alteration of mechanoelastic characteristics contributes to a reduced cerebral perfusion and a loss of autonomy of cerebral blood flow regulation. Results warrant a prospective TCD follow-up to verify whether the alteration of dynamic cerebral autoregulation may indicate a progression of communicating hydrocephalus. PMID:27415784
Woo, Y. Joseph; MacArthur, John W.
OBJECTIVES Mitral valve repair techniques for degenerative disease typically entail leaflet resection or neochordal construction, which may require extensive resection, leaflet detachment/reattachment, reliance on diseased native chords or precise neochordal measuring. Occasionally, impaired leaflet mobility, reduced coaptation surface and systolic anterior motion (SAM) may result. We describe a novel technique for addressing posterior leaflet prolapse/flail, which both simplifies repair and addresses these issues. METHODS Fifty-four patients (age 62 ± 11 years) with degenerative MR underwent this new repair, 36 of whom minimally-invasively. A CV5 Gore-Tex suture was placed into the posterior left ventricular myocardium underneath the prolapsing segment as an anchor. This suture was then used to imbricate a portion of the prolapsed segment into the ventricle, creating a smooth, broad, non-prolapsed coapting surface on a leaflet with preserved mobility, additional neochordal support and posteriorly positioned enough to preclude SAM. RESULTS Repair was successful in all patients. The mean MR grade was reduced from +3.8 to +0.1 with 50 of 54 patients having zero MR and 4 of the 54 having trace or mild MR. All patients had proper antero-posterior location of the coaptation line of a mean length of 10.2 mm, and preserved posterior leaflet mobility. No patients had SAM or mitral stenosis. All patients were discharged and are currently doing well. CONCLUSION This new technique facilitated efficient single-suture repair of the prolapsed posterior leaflet mitral regurgitation without the need for resection or sliding annuloplasty. It precluded the need for precise neochordal measurement and preserved the leaflet coaptation surface. PMID:23449863
Ercin, Ersin; Bilgili, Mustafa Gokhan; Gamsizkan, Mehmet; Avsar, Serdar
Osteochondromas are the most common benign bone tumors. They are usually asymptomatic and found incidentally. When symptomatic, the symptoms are usually due to its location and size. Fracture of an osteochondroma presenting as posterior ankle impingement is a rare condition. We describe a 22-year-old man with solitary exostosis who presented with a posterior ankle mass and posterior ankle impingement with 2 years of follow-up. Surgical intervention was the treatment of choice in this patient, and histologic examination revealed a benign osteochondroma. Osteochondromas found in the posterior aspect of the talus can be complicated by fracture due to persistent motion of the ankle. Talar osteochondroma should be included in the differential diagnosis of posterior ankle impingement causes. Posterior talar osteochondromas, especially when a stalk is present, should be treated surgically before it is more complicated by a fracture and posterior ankle impingement.
Wellmann, Mathias; Bobrowitsch, Evgenij; Khan, Nicklas; Patzer, Thilo; Windhagen, Henning; Petersen, Wolf; Bohnsack, Michael
The most effective surgical treatment for traumatic posterior shoulder instability remains unclear. An arthroscopic posterior Bankart repair is as effective as an open posterior bone block-capsulorrhaphy procedure regarding the restoration of humeral displacement with posterior and inferior forces. Controlled laboratory study. Biomechanical testing of 16 human shoulders was performed in 3 testing conditions: after ventilation (intact joint), after creation of a posteroinferior Bankart lesion with an additional cut of the posterior band of the inferior glenohumeral ligament, and after surgical shoulder stabilization. The shoulder stabilization was performed either by an open posterior bone block procedure and glenoid-based T-capsulorrhaphy or by an arthroscopic Bankart repair. Testing was performed in 2 positions-the sulcus test position and the jerk test position-with a passive humerus load of 50 N applied in the posterior, posteroinferior, and inferior directions. After the arthroscopic repair, there was no significant difference between the translation and the intact state for all tested directions. The bone block repair-capsulorrhaphy caused a significant decrease of posterior translation (sulcus test and jerk test positions) and posteroinferior translation (jerk test position). But the resulting posterior and posteroinferior translation was even significantly lower than the translation measured for the intact joints. However, the reduction of inferior translation, compared with that of the defect condition, was not significant after the bone block repair (sulcus test and jerk test positions). Compared with that of the intact joint, inferior translation after the bone block repair was significantly higher. The posterior bone block repair-capsulorrhaphy overcorrects posterior translation and does not effectively restore inferior stability, whereas the arthroscopic posterior Bankart repair restores posterior and inferior laxity of the intact joint. An arthroscopic
Sunderland, Geraint J; Jenkinson, Michael D; Zakaria, Rasheed
The diagnosis of brain metastases is associated with a poor prognosis reflecting uncontrolled primary disease that has spread to the relative sanctuary of the central nervous system. 20 % of brain metastases occur in the posterior fossa and are associated with significant morbidity. The risk of acute hydrocephalus and potential for sudden death means these metastases are often dealt with as emergency cases. This approach means a full pre-operative assessment and staging of underlying disease may be neglected and a proportion of patients undergo comparatively high risk surgery with little or no survival benefit. This study aimed to assess outcomes in patients to identify factors that may assist in case selection. We report a retrospective case series of 92 consecutive patients operated for posterior fossa metastases between 2007 and 2012. Routine demographic data was collected plus data on performance status, primary cancer site, details of surgery, adjuvant treatment and survival. The only independent positive prognostic factors identified on multivariate analysis were good performance status (if Karnofsky performance score >70, hazard ratio (HR) for death 0.36, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.18-0.69), adjuvant whole brain radiotherapy (HR 0.37, 95 % CI 0.21-0.65) and adjuvant chemotherapy where there was extracranial disease and non-synchronous presentation (HR 0.51, 95 % CI 0.31-0.82). Patients presenting with posterior fossa metastases may not be investigated as thoroughly as those with supratentorial tumours. Staging and assessment is essential however, and in the meantime emergencies related to tumour mass effect should be managed with steroids and cerebrospinal fluid diversion as required.
Igami, Thais Zamudio; Holzchuh, Ricardo; Osaki, Tammy Hentona; Santo, Ruth Miyuki; Kara-Jose, Newton; Hida, Richard Y
To evaluate the effects of oral azithromycin in patients with posterior blepharitis. Twenty-six eyes of 13 patients with posterior blepharitis diagnosed by a qualified ophthalmologist were enrolled in this study. Patients were instructed to use oral azithromycin 500 mg per day for 3 days in 3 cycles with 7-day intervals. Subjective clinical outcomes were graded and scored 1 day before and 30 days after the end of the treatment (53 days after initiating the treatment) based on severity scores of: (1) eyelid debris; (2) eyelid telangiectasia; (3) swelling of the eyelid margin; (4) redness of the eyelid margin; and (5) ocular mucus secretion. For the assessment of global efficacy, patients were asked by the investigator to rate the subjective symptoms (eyelid itching, ocular itching, eyelid hyperemia, ocular hyperemia, ocular mucus secretion, photophobia, foreign body sensation, and dry eye sensation) on a scale of 0 (no symptoms) to 5 (severe symptoms). Break-up time, Schirmer I test, corneal fluorescein staining score, and rose bengal staining score were also performed in all patients. All clinical outcomes scoring showed statistically significant improvement after oral azithromycin, except for eyelid swelling. Average subjective symptom grading improved statistically after treatment with oral azithromycin, except for eyelid hyperemia, photophobia, and foreign body sensation. Average tear film break-up time values showed statistically significant improvement after the treatment with oral azithromycin. No statistically significant improvement was observed on average values of Schirmer I test, corneal fluorescein staining score, and rose bengal staining score. The combination of multiple clinical parameters shown in this study supports the clinical efficacy of pulsed oral azithromycin therapy for the management of posterior blepharitis.
Lengert, R; Charles, Y P; Walter, A; Schuller, S; Godet, J; Steib, J-P
High-grade L5-S1 spondylolisthesis alters sagittal spinopelvic balance, which can cause low back pain and progressive neurologic disorder. The present study assessed spondylolisthesis reduction and maintenance over time with L4-S1 versus L5-S1 fusion using a lever-arm system and posterior fusion combined with lumbosacral graft. Forty patients were operated on for symptomatic high-grade spondylolisthesis, 34 of whom had full pre- and post-operative radiological analysis, with a mean follow-up of 5.4years. There were 9 L5-S1 and 25 L4-S1 instrumentations. Analysis of spinopelvic and slipping parameters and the evolution of segmental lordosis compared results between L5-S1 and L4-S1 instrumentation. Mean Taillard spondylolisthesis index decreased from 64% to 37% (P=0.0001). Overall sagittal spinopelvic balance was not significantly changed. Overall L1-S1 and segmental L4-L5 lordosis were not affected by instrumentation. Mean L5-S1 segmental lordosis increased from 11° to 18°. There was loss of reduction from 19° to 14° with L5-S1 instrumentation, in contrast to maintained reduction with L4-S1 instrumentation (P=0.006). The lever-arm system provided anterior-posterior reduction of spondylolisthesis and corrected slippage. Postoperative change in overall sagittal spinopelvic balance was slight and constant. Posterior L4-S1 fusion provided better long-term control of L5-S1 lordosis reduction than the shorter L5-S1 fusion. Retrospective study of level IV. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Vargas, Jan; Spiotta, Alex M; Fargen, Kyle; Turner, Raymond D; Chaudry, Imran; Turk, Aquilla
Thromboembolic occlusion of distal branches in anterior and posterior circulation may produce severe clinical deficits. A Direct Aspiration at first Pass Technique (ADAPT) is a simple, fast method for achieving good angiographic and clinical outcomes using large-bore catheters in large vessel occlusions. We present our results using ADAPT with distal cerebral artery occlusions. ADAPT was used to treat 35 patients (14 women, 21 men; average age 65.5 years ± 12.6) with acute ischemic stroke with thrombus in the distal middle cerebral artery, anterior cerebral artery, or posterior cerebral artery. Patients presented with a mean National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score of 14.1 ± 6.9; 15 patients received intravenous tissue plasminogen activator. Mean time from onset to puncture was 7.1 hours ± 5.1. Of patients, 28 (80%) presented with isolated M2 segment occlusions, 1 (2.9%) presented with isolated A3 segment occlusion, and 6 (17.1%) presented with tandem occlusions. Mean time to recanalization was 35.7 minutes ± 26.4. A thrombolysis in cerebral infarction grade 2B or better was achieved in 34 patients (97.1%), with 15 achieving a thrombolysis in cerebral infarction 3. Aspiration alone was successful in 26 cases (77.1%), whereas 7 (20%) required additional techniques. A 90-day modified Rankin Scale score was available in 32 patients; 59.4% had a 90-day score of 0-2. No patients had a modified Rankin Scale score of 6. Acute distal anterior circulation thromboembolic occlusions may be treated safely with intraarterial thrombectomy. Prior studies have demonstrated the success of ADAPT in proximal large vessel occlusions. This series suggests that ADAPT is an effective, safe method for performing thrombectomy in distal branches of anterior and posterior circulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Su, Tsung-Ming; Cheng, Ching-Hsiao; Chen, Wu-Fu; Hsu, Shih-Wei
A 7-month-old baby presented with a 4-day history of drowsiness and vomiting after a falling accident. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated diffuse subarachnoid hemorrhage, intraventricular hemorrhage, and variable stages of subdural hematoma in bilateral occipital and left temporal subdural spaces. A partially thrombosed aneurysm was noted in the right craniocervical junction. Ophthalmological examination revealed bilateral retinal petechial hemorrhages. Conventional cerebral angiography revealed a dissecting aneurysm in the right posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA). Endovascular embolization was suggested, but the family refused. After conservative treatment, follow-up MRI revealed that the PICA aneurysm had remodeled and ultimately disappeared completely at the 10th month. This case illustrates the relatively plastic nature of intracranial aneurysms in pediatric patients. More studies are necessary to clarify the natural history of spontaneously thrombosed aneurysms to assist in their overall management.
Mäkinen, Tatu; Madanat, Rami; Heinänen, Mikko; Brinck, Tuomas; Pajarinen, Jarkko
Posterior dislocation of the sternoclavicular joint is a rare injury. It can be associated with life-threatening complications. Computed tomography is the imaging modality of choice with which possible associated injuries can be detected. Acute injuries are managed with closed reduction under general anaesthesia. A fracture-dislocation is inherently more unstable than an isolated dislocation. Surgical treatment is advocated in cases of delayed diagnosis or failed closed reduction. With early diagnosis and treatment, the long-term outcome of this injury is good.
Ayadi-Kaddour, A; Chaabouni, N; Smati, B; Mehouachi, R; Djilani, H; El Mezni, F
Fibromatosis are uncommon connective tissue tumours arising from musculo-aponeurotic tissue and characterised by spindle cell fibroblastic and myofibroblastic proliferation. The exact aetiology is unknown but several factors are considered to be positively correlated with their development and growth (genetic and hormonal factors and trauma). Although they are considered histologically benign they behave aggressively locally and relapse repeatedly after surgical excision. Mediastinal localisation is very rare. We describe a case of de novo fibromatosis of the posterior mediastinum in a 61 year old man with no history of thoracotomy or trauma. Although mediastinal fibromatosis is very uncommon physicians should be aware of this disease in order to ensure appropriate surgical treatment.
ibutio;. T I..... i~it c..... 1 Q ELECTE JUL23 1992 Dist U S , D A0 This document ha beon approsd for publc release and sa* its distribution Is unlimitd...uniform, and Hastings (1970) and explored further by Peskun (1973). dmrwal . a t disto n frewa, 1989)rmayTo dfin Hatins vesio ofthealgoith, lt Qbe t...that direction, van Dijk, H. K., 3. P. Ilop, and A. S . Louter (1978). An algorithm for the computation of posterior moments and densities using simple
Janković, Ana; Nadrljanski, Mirjan; Karapandzić, Vesna Plesinac; Ivanović, Nebojsa; Radojicić, Zoran; Milosević, Zorica
Posterior breast cancers are located in the prepectoral region of the breast. Owing to this distinctive anatomical localization, physical examination and mammographic or ultrasonographic evaluation can be difficult. The purpose of the study was to assess possibilities of diagnostic mammography and breast ultrasonography in detection and differentiation of posterior breast cancers. The study included 40 women with palpable, histopathological confirmed posterior breast cancer. Mammographic and ultrasonographic features were defined according to Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) lexicon. Based on standard two-view mammography 87.5%, of the cases were classified as BI-RADS 4 and 5 categories, while after additional mammographic views all the cases were defined as BI-RADS 4 and 5 categories. Among 96 mammographic descriptors, the most frequent were: spiculated mass (24.0%), architectural distortion (16.7%), clustered micro-calcifications (12.6%) and focal asymmetric density (12.6%). The differentiation of the spiculated mass was significantly associated with the possibility to visualize the lesion at two-view mammography (p = 0.009), without the association with lesion diameter (p = 0.083) or histopathological type (p = 0.055). Mammographic signs of invasive lobular carcinoma were significantly different from other histopathological types (architectural distortion, p = 0.003; focal asymmetric density, p = 0.019; association of four or five subtle signs of malignancy, p = 0.006). All cancers were detectable by ultrasonography. Mass lesions were found in 82.0% of the cases. Among 153 ultrasonographic descriptors, the most frequent were: irregular mass (15.7%), lobulated mass (7.2%), abnormal color Doppler signals (20.3%), posterior acoustic attenuation (18.3%). Ultrasonographic BI-RADS 4 and 5 categories were defined in 72.5% of the cases, without a significant difference among various histopathological types (p = 0.109). Standard two-view mammography
Heinrichs, Christian H; Schmoelz, Werner; Mayr, Raul; Keiler, Alexander; Schöttle, Philip B; Attal, René
Use of a rigid brace or cast immobilization is recommended in conservative treatment or postoperative rehabilitation after a posterior cruciate ligament injury. To prevent the loss of knee joint function and muscle activity often associated with this, a flexible knee brace has been developed that allows an adjustable anteriorly directed force to be applied to the calf in order to prevent posterior tibial translation. The purpose of this biomechanical study was to evaluate the impact of this novel dynamic brace on posterior tibial translation after posterior cruciate ligament injury and reconstruction. A Telos stress device was used to provoke posterior tibial translation in seven human lower limb specimens, and stress radiographs were taken at 90° of knee flexion. Posterior tibial translation was measured in the native knees with an intact posterior cruciate ligament; after arthroscopic posterior cruciate ligament dissection with and without a brace; and after posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with and without a brace. The force applied with the brace was measured using a pressure sensor. Posterior tibial translation was significantly reduced (P=0.032) after application of the brace with an anteriorly directed force of 50N to the knees with the dissected posterior cruciate ligament. The brace also significantly reduced posterior tibial translation after posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in comparison with reconstructed knees without a brace (P=0.005). Posterior tibial translation was reduced to physiological values using this dynamic brace system that allows an anteriorly directed force to be applied to the calf. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lui, Tun Hing
Posterior ankle endoscopy is a safe and effective approach for treatment of posterior ankle impingement. This is usually performed with the patient in prone position. The purpose of this technical note is to describe an arthroscopic approach of decompression of posterior ankle impingement with the patient in supine position. This is indicated if there is posterior ankle impingement together with other ankle pathology requiring anterior ankle arthroscopy. This approach allows treatment of both anterior ankle and posterior ankle pathology with the patient in the supine position. Concomitant anterior ankle arthroscopy can be performed with the usual orientation without the need of change of patient's position.
Bao, Lam Quoc; Nhi, Dang My; Huy, Nguyen Tien; Hamano, Shinjiro; Hirayama, Kenji
Tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil are immunosuppressants frequently used in human organ transplantation. Tacrolimus is also reported to inhibit Plasmodium falciparum growth in vitro. Here, we report that tacrolimus prevented the death from cerebral malaria of Plasmodium berghei ANKA-infected C57BL/6J mice, but not their death from malaria due to the high parasitaemia and severe anaemia. The mycophenolate mofetil-treated mice showed higher mortality from cerebral malaria and succumbed to malaria earlier than tacrolimus-treated littermates. Tacrolimus attenuated the infiltration of mononuclear cells including pathogenic CD8(+) T cells into the brain. It appears to prevent murine cerebral malaria through the inhibition of cerebral infiltration of CD8(+) T cells. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Jones, H R; Caplan, L R; Come, P C; Swinton, N W; Breslin, D J
A diagnosis of paradoxical cerebral embolus (PCE) was made in five patients aged 31 to 62 years who sustained eight cerebral ischemic events. No patient had evidence of primary carotid system or left heart disease. A probe-patent foramen ovale was the presumed mechanism in four patients, and an unsuspected congenital atrial septal defect was found in the fifth patient. Clinically apparent pulmonary emboli or venous thrombosis preceded the cerebral event in only one instance. Review of the literature reveals a high mortality with PCE. However, careful clinical search for this lesion may be rewarding: four of our five patients survived. One should consider PCE in any patient with cerebral embolus in whom there is no demonstrable left-sided circulatory source. This principle applies particularly if there is concomitant venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, or enhanced potential for venous thrombosis due to, for example, morbid obesity, use of hormonal birth control pills, prolonged bed rest (especially postoperatively), or systemic carcinoma.
Anderson, Milne; Bickerstaff, Edwin R.; Hamilton, J. G.
Two cases of cerebral hydatid disease are described. This condition, acquired by Britons in Britain, is extremely rare as only two similar cases have been reported before. Details of clinical presentation, investigation and treatment are described. Images PMID:1206419
Blackard, Douglas; Sampson, Jo-Ann
Objective: To present a case of an uncomplicated posterior elbow dislocation in a US World Cup athlete and discuss her rehabilitation. Background: Traditional protocol for management of this injury has been splint immobilization for several weeks, but research suggests a shortened duration of immobilization and early active motion. Differential Diagnosis: Elbow dislocation with possible fracture. Treatment: The dislocation was reduced and a compression bandage and sling were applied. The sports medicine staff and athlete determined that rehabilitation would involve limited immobilization with a posterior splint. Also, active range-of- motion exercises were to be incorporated early in the range-of- motion program to decrease pain at the articulation. Uniqueness: The athlete was not immobilized and her aggressive five-phase rehabilitation program progressed according to decrease in inflammation and increase in range of motion and strength. Conclusions: Shortened immobilization and return to World Championship competition 6 weeks postinjury had no longterm adverse effects on the athlete. ImagesFig 1.Fig 2.Fig 3.Fig 4.Fig. 5. PMID:16558436
Sudulagunta, Sreenivasa Rao; Sodalagunta, Mahesh Babu; Kumbhat, Monica; Settikere Nataraju, Aravinda
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a clinico-radiological syndrome characterized by a headache, seizures, altered mental status and visual loss and characterized by white matter vasogenic edema affecting the posterior occipital and parietal lobes of the brain predominantly. This clinical syndrome is increasingly recognized due to improvement and availability of brain imaging specifically magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A 35-year-old female with the history of unsafe abortion and massive blood transfusion 10 days ago was brought to the emergency room with three episodes of generalized tonic-clonic seizures, urinary incontinence and altered sensorium since 3 hours. MRI brain showed bilateral occipital, parietal, frontal cortex and subcortical white matter T2/Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery hyperintensities, suggestive of PRES. The patient improved after management with intravenous fluids, antibiotics, antiepileptics and monitoring of blood pressure. If recognized and treated early, the clinical syndrome commonly resolves within a week. PRES can be a major problem in rapid and massive blood transfusion. A high index of suspicion and prompt treatment can reduce morbidity, mortality and pave the path for early recovery.
Bartoníček, J; Rammelt, S; Tuček, M; Naňka, O
Despite an increasing awareness of injuries to PM in ankle fracture-dislocations, there are still many open questions. The mere presence of a posterior fragment leads to significantly poorer outcomes. Adequate diagnosis, classification and treatment require preoperative CT examination, preferably with 3D reconstructions. The indication for surgical treatment is made individually on the basis of comprehensive assessment of the three-dimensional outline of the PM fracture and all associated injuries to the ankle including syndesmotic instability. Anatomic fixation of the avulsed posterior tibiofibular ligament will contribute to syndesmotic stability and restore the integrity of the incisura tibiae thus facilitating anatomic reduction of the distal fibula. A necessary prerequisite is mastering of posterolateral and posteromedial approaches and the technique of direct reduction and internal fixation. Further clinical studies with higher numbers of patients treated by similar methods and evaluation of pre- and postoperative CT scans will be necessary to determine reliable prognostic factors associated with certain types of PM fractures and associated injuries to the ankle.
Taylor, G Bernard; Moore, Robert D; Miklos, John R; Mattox, T Fleming
To compare postoperative vaginal incision separation and healing in patients undergoing posterior repair with perforated porcine dermal grafts with those that received grafts without perforations. Secondarily, the tensile properties of the perforated and non-perforated grafts were measured and compared. This was a non-randomized retrospective cohort analysis of women with stage II or greater rectoceles who underwent posterior repair with perforated and non-perforated porcine dermal grafts (Pelvicol(TM) CR Bard Covington, GA USA). The incidence of postoperative vaginal incision separation (dehiscence) was compared. A secondary analysis to assess graft tensile strength, suture pull out strength, and flexibility after perforation was performed using standard test method TM 0133 and ASTM bending and resistance protocols. Seventeen percent of patients (21/127) who received grafts without perforations developed vaginal incision dehiscence compared to 7% (5/71) of patients who received perforated grafts (p = 0.078). Four patients with vaginal incision dehiscence with non-perforated grafts required surgical revision to facilitate healing. Neither tensile strength or suture pull out strength were significantly different between perforated and non-perforated grafts (p = 0.81, p = 0.29, respectively). There was no difference in the flexibility of the two grafts (p = 0.20). Perforated porcine dermal grafts retain their tensile properties and are associated with fewer vaginal incision dehiscences.
Quail, Jacob F; Gramins, Daniel L; Dutton, William D
Introduction Cystic echinococcus (CE) is an endemic zoonosis secondary to infection by the larval form of the cestode Echinococcus granulosus. An intermediate host, humans enter the organism’s life cycle by exposure to infected canid feces. The liver is the most common location of CE while mediastinal hydatid cysts are rarely reported. Presentation of case We report a case of synchronous CE of the liver and posterior mediastinum treated sequentially using chemotherapy, percutaneous aspiration with injection of a scolicidal agent and re-aspiration (PAIR) and then staged minimally-invasive surgeries. Discussion Synchronous CE involving the liver and posterior mediastinum is rare. The treatment of hydatid liver and mediastinal disease is multimodal including chemotherapy, percutaneous and laparoscopic or open surgical interventions. One option for controlled puncture of hepatic and mediastinal CE includes PAIR followed by surgery. Conclusion The sequential use of chemotherapy and PAIR followed by surgery provides another treatment strategy for management of CE. We believe this strategy may be used safely in locations without endemic CE, including most regions of the United States. PMID:25562598
Quail, Jacob F; Gramins, Daniel L; Dutton, William D
Cystic echinococcus (CE) is an endemic zoonosis secondary to infection by the larval form of the cestode Echinococcus granulosus. An intermediate host, humans enter the organism's life cycle by exposure to infected canid feces. The liver is the most common location of CE while mediastinal hydatid cysts are rarely reported. We report a case of synchronous CE of the liver and posterior mediastinum treated sequentially using chemotherapy, percutaneous aspiration with injection of a scolicidal agent and re-aspiration (PAIR) and then staged minimally-invasive surgeries. Synchronous CE involving the liver and posterior mediastinum is rare. The treatment of hydatid liver and mediastinal disease is multimodal including chemotherapy, percutaneous and laparoscopic or open surgical interventions. One option for controlled puncture of hepatic and mediastinal CE includes PAIR followed by surgery. The sequential use of chemotherapy and PAIR followed by surgery provides another treatment strategy for management of CE. We believe this strategy may be used safely in locations without endemic CE, including most regions of the United States. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Kutty, S; Thornes, B; Curtin, W A; Gilmore, M F
Traumatic posterior dislocation of the hip joint in children is an uncommon injury. It constitutes a true orthopedic emergency. It makes up over 80% of pediatric hip dislocations. In children, it can occur as a result of minimal trauma, which is attributed to a soft pliable acetabulum and ligamentous laxity. In skeletally mature adolescents, a greater force is required to dislocate the hip joint. Delay in reduction is associated with long-term complications such as avascular necrosis and degenerative arthritis. Avascular necrosis is related to the duration of dislocation. A poorer prognosis is associated with delay in reduction beyond 6 hours, advanced skeletal maturity, or multiple traumas. Prompt reduction minimizes complications. We report two cases of traumatic posterior dislocation of hip in children aged 3 and 14 years. Both were reduced within 6 hours of dislocation, and review at 6 months revealed normal examination and no evidence of any post-traumatic changes. Post-reduction treatment remains without a consensus. This review highlights the clinical presentation, management, and time-sensitive complications of the injury.
Matsuno, H; Rhoton, A L; Peace, D
The microsurgical anatomy of the posterior fossa cisterns was examined in 15 cadavers using 3X to 40X magnification. Liliequist's membrane was found to split into two arachnoidal sheets as it spreads upward from the dorsum sellae: an upper sheet, called the diencephalic membrane, which attaches to the diencephalon at the posterior edge of the mamillary bodies, and a lower sheet, called the mesencephalic membrane, which attaches along the junction of the midbrain and pons. Several other arachnoidal membranes that separate the cisterns were identified. These include the anterior pontine membrane, which separates the prepontine and cerebellopontine cisterns; the lateral pontomesencephalic membrane, which separates the ambient and cerebellopontine cisterns; the medial pontomedullary membrane, which separates the premedullary and prepontine cisterns; and the lateral pontomedullary membrane, which separates the cerebellopontine and cerebellomedullary cisterns. The three cisterns in which the arachnoid trabeculae and membranes are the most dense and present the greatest obstacle at operation are the interpeduncular and quadrigeminal cisterns and the cisterna magna. Numerous arachnoid membranes were found to intersect the oculomotor nerves. The neural and vascular structures in each cistern are reviewed.
Timmermann, Lars; Gross, Joachim; Dirks, Martin; Volkmann, Jens; Freund, Hans-Joachim; Schnitzler, Alfons
Data from experiments in MPTP monkeys as well as from invasive and non-invasive recordings in patients with Parkinson's disease suggest an abnormal synchronization of neuronal activity in the generation of resting tremor in Parkinson's disease. In six patients with tremor-dominant idiopathic Parkinson's disease, we recorded simultaneously surface electromyograms (EMGs) of hand muscles, and brain activity with a whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG) system. Using a recently developed analysis tool (Dynamic Imaging of Coherent Sources; DICS), we determined cerebro-muscular and cerebro-cerebral coherence as well as the partial coherence between cerebral areas and muscle, and localized coherent sources within the individual MRI scans. The phase lag between the EMG and cerebral activity was determined by means of a Hilbert transform of both signals. After overnight withdrawal from medication, patients showed typical Parkinson's disease resting tremor (4-6 Hz). This tremor was associated with strong coherence between the EMG of forearm muscles and activity in the contralateral primary motor cortex (M1) at tremor frequency but also at double tremor frequency. Phase lags between M1 activity and EMG were between 15 and 25 ms (M1 activity leading) at single, but also at double tremor frequency, corresponding well to the corticomuscular conduction time. Furthermore, significant coherence was observed between M1 and medial wall areas (cingulate/supplementary motor area; CMA/SMA), lateral premotor cortex (PM), diencephalon, secondary somatosensory cortex (SII), posterior parietal cortex (PPC) and the contralateral cerebellum at single tremor and, even stronger at double tremor frequency. Spectra of coherence between thalamic activity and cerebellum as well as several brain areas revealed additional broad peaks around 20 Hz. Power spectral analysis of activity in all central areas indicated the strongest frequency components at double tremor frequency. Partial coherence
Ferrer, I; Ribalta, T; Digon, E; Acebes, J
The morphological characteristics of neurons revealed by Golgi's method are reported in a case of cerebral ganglioglioma. Spindle-shaped (leptodendritic) neurons and radiated type I neurons form the bulk of this tumour. According to Ramon-Moliner (1968) isodendritic neurons (both leptodendritic and radiate type I) are philogenetically primitive cells and differ greatly from those observed in most of the deep cerebral nuclei of the mammalian's brain.
of this multiple-resources view. EXTENSION OF THE THEORY TO THE TWO CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES Since the anatomical division of the brain invites...performance differences between the hemispheres (e.g., right-handed males with no familial history of left- handedness who use a normal rather than an...G. Beaumont (Eds.), Hemisphere function in the human rain.. New York: Halstead Press, 1974. Kinsbourne, M. The cerebral basis of lateral asymmetries
Frak, Victor; Paulignan, Yves; Jeannerod, Marc; Michel, Francois; Cohen, Henri
Prehension movements of the right hand were recorded in a right-handed man (AC), with an injury to the left posterior parietal cortex (PPC) and with a section of the left half of the splenium. The kinematic analysis of AC's grasping movements in direct and perturbed conditions was compared to that of five control subjects. A novel effect in…
Wu, Zemin; Bian, Shaofeng
GNSS integer ambiguity validation is considered to be a challenge task for decades. Several kinds of validation tests are developed and widely used in these years, but theoretical basis is their weakness. Ambiguity validation theoretically is an issue of hypothesis test. In the frame of Bayesian hypothesis testing, posterior probability is the canonical standard that statistical decision should be based on. In this contribution, (i) we derive the posterior probability of the fixed ambiguity based on the Bayesian principle and modify it for practice ambiguity validation. (ii) The optimal property of the posterior probability test is proved based on an extended Neyman-Pearson lemma. Since validation failure rate is the issue users most concerned about, (iii) we derive the failure rate upper bound of the posterior probability test, so the user can use the posterior probability test either in the fixed posterior probability or in the fixed failure rate way. Simulated as well as real observed data are used for experimental validations. The results show that (i) the posterior probability test is the most effective within the R-ratio test, difference test, ellipsoidal integer aperture test and posterior probability test, (ii) the posterior probability test is computational efficient and (iii) the failure rate estimation for posterior probability test is useful.
Allen, Annette E.; Procyk, Christopher A.; Howarth, Michael; Walmsley, Lauren
Key points The lateral posterior and posterior thalamic nuclei have been implicated in aspects of visually guided behaviour and reflex responses to light, including those dependent on melanopsin photoreception.Here we investigated the extent and basic properties of visually evoked activity across the mouse lateral posterior and posterior thalamus.We show that a subset of retinal projections to these regions derive from melanopsin‐expressing retinal ganglion cells and find many cells that exhibit melanopsin‐dependent changes in firing.We also show that subsets of cells across these regions integrate signals from both eyes in various ways and that, within the lateral posterior thalamus, visual responses are retinotopically ordered. Abstract In addition to the primary thalamocortical visual relay in the lateral geniculate nuclei, a number of other thalamic regions contribute to aspects of visual processing. Thus, the lateral posterior thalamic nuclei (LP/pulvinar) appear important for various functions including determining visual saliency, visually guided behaviours and, alongside dorsal portions of the posterior thalamic nuclei (Po), multisensory processing of information related to aversive stimuli. However, despite the growing importance of mice as a model for understanding visual system organisation, at present we know very little about the basic visual response properties of cells in the mouse LP or Po. Prompted by earlier suggestions that melanopsin photoreception might be important for certain functions of these nuclei, we first employ specific viral tracing to show that a subset of retinal projections to the LP derive from melanopsin‐expressing retinal ganglion cells. We next use multielectrode electrophysiology to demonstrate that LP and dorsal Po cells exhibit a variety of responses to simple visual stimuli including two distinct classes that express melanopsin‐dependent changes in firing (together comprising ∼25% of neurons we recorded). We also
Allen, Annette E; Procyk, Christopher A; Howarth, Michael; Walmsley, Lauren; Brown, Timothy M
The lateral posterior and posterior thalamic nuclei have been implicated in aspects of visually guided behaviour and reflex responses to light, including those dependent on melanopsin photoreception. Here we investigated the extent and basic properties of visually evoked activity across the mouse lateral posterior and posterior thalamus. We show that a subset of retinal projections to these regions derive from melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion cells and find many cells that exhibit melanopsin-dependent changes in firing. We also show that subsets of cells across these regions integrate signals from both eyes in various ways and that, within the lateral posterior thalamus, visual responses are retinotopically ordered. In addition to the primary thalamocortical visual relay in the lateral geniculate nuclei, a number of other thalamic regions contribute to aspects of visual processing. Thus, the lateral posterior thalamic nuclei (LP/pulvinar) appear important for various functions including determining visual saliency, visually guided behaviours and, alongside dorsal portions of the posterior thalamic nuclei (Po), multisensory processing of information related to aversive stimuli. However, despite the growing importance of mice as a model for understanding visual system organisation, at present we know very little about the basic visual response properties of cells in the mouse LP or Po. Prompted by earlier suggestions that melanopsin photoreception might be important for certain functions of these nuclei, we first employ specific viral tracing to show that a subset of retinal projections to the LP derive from melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion cells. We next use multielectrode electrophysiology to demonstrate that LP and dorsal Po cells exhibit a variety of responses to simple visual stimuli including two distinct classes that express melanopsin-dependent changes in firing (together comprising ∼25% of neurons we recorded). We also show that subgroups of LP
Abdi, Mohsen; Pishbin, Esmail; Karimi, Alireza; Navidbakhsh, Mahdi
In this study, a novel fluidic concept was presented to resemble the cerebral microvascular in four types to assess its complexity by using centrifugal platform. The setup consisted of a microstructured disk with a round mixing chamber rotating on a macroscopic drive unit. The left and right internal carotid arteries (L.ICA and R.ICA) and basilar artery (BA) are two isolated vascular system supplying circle of Willis (CoW). The left and right middle cerebral arteries (L.MCA and R.MCA), left and right anterior cerebral arteries (L.ACA and R.ACA), and finally left and right posterior cerebral arteries (L.PCA and R.PCA) constitute efferent arteries of CoW. In this study, cerebral microvascular was investigated by microfluidics approach. The results revealed that a more complex mixing chamber provides normal pixel percentage distribution with respect to the other ones. The outcomes of this study may have implications not only for perception of the intracranial vascular hemodynamic in healthy circumstance, but also for diagnosing the diseases in the blood circulatory system of the human body.
Sundseth, Jarle; Sundseth, Antje; Jacobsen, Eva Astrid; Pripp, Are Hugo; Sorteberg, Wilhelm; Altmann, Marianne; Lindegaard, Karl-Fredrik; Berg-Johnsen, Jon; Thommessen, Bente
Swollen middle cerebral artery infarction is a life-threatening disease and decompressive craniectomy is improving survival significantly. Despite decompressive surgery, however, many patients are not discharged from the hospital alive. We therefore wanted to search for predictors of early in-hospital death after craniectomy in swollen middle cerebral artery infarction. All patients operated with decompressive craniectomy due to swollen middle cerebral artery infarction at the Department of Neurosurgery, Oslo University Hospital Rikshospitalet, Oslo, Norway, between May 1998 and October 2010, were included. Binary logistic regression analyses were performed and candidate variables were age, sex, time from stroke onset to decompressive craniectomy, NIHSS on admission, infarction territory, pineal gland displacement, reduction of pineal gland displacement after surgery, and craniectomy size. Fourteen out of 45 patients (31%) died during the primary hospitalization (range, 3-44 days). In the multivariate logistic regression model, middle cerebral artery infarction with additional anterior and/or posterior cerebral artery territory involvement was found as the only significant predictor of early in-hospital death (OR, 12.7; 95% CI, 0.01-0.77; p = 0.029). The present study identified additional territory infarction as a significant predictor of early in-hospital death. The relatively small sample size precludes firm conclusions.
Huang, Kuo-Lun; Lin, Kun-Ju; Ho, Meng-Yang; Chang, Yeu-Jhy; Chang, Chien-Hung; Wey, Shiaw-Pyng; Hsieh, Chia-Ju; Yen, Tzu-Chen; Hsiao, Ing-Tsung; Lee, Tsong-Hai
Animal studies have shown that cerebral hypoperfusion may be associated with amyloid plaque accumulation. Amyloid plaque is known to be associated with dementia and [(18)F]AV-45 is a positron emission tomography (PET) ligand that binds to extracelluar plaques. We hypothesized that demented patients with cerebral hypoperfusion may have increased [(18)F]AV-45 uptake. Five demented patients with cerebral hypoperfusion due to unilateral carotid artery stenosis (CAS) were examined with [(18)F]AV-45 PET, and the results were compared with six elderly controls. The standard uptake value ratio (SUVR) of each region of interest (ROI) was created using whole cerebellum as the reference region. All subjects underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for obtaining structural information. Patients with dementia and unilateral CAS had a higher global [(18)F]AV-45 SUVR (1.34 ± 0.06) as compared with controls (1.10 ± 0.04, p=0.0043), especially over the frontal, temporal, precuneus, anterior cingulate and occipital regions. The statistical distribution maps revealed a significantly increased [(18)F]AV-45 SUVR in the medial frontal, caudate, thalamus, posterior cingulate, occipital and middle and superior temporal regions ipsilateral to the side of CAS (p<0.01). The present study found that cerebral [(18)F]AV-45 binding is increased in demented patients with CAS, and its distribution is lateralized to the CAS side, suggesting that amyloid-related dementia may occur under cerebral hypoperfusion.
Shi, Xiaojun; Shen, Bin; Kang, Pengde; Yang, Jing; Zhou, Zongke; Pei, Fuxing
To evaluate and quantify the effect of the tibial slope on the postoperative maximal knee flexion and stability in the posterior-stabilized total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Fifty-six patients (65 knees) who had undergone TKA with the posterior-stabilized prostheses were divided into the following 3 groups according to the measured tibial slopes: Group 1: ≤4°, Group 2: 4°-7° and Group 3: >7°. The preoperative range of the motion, the change in the posterior condylar offset, the elevation of the joint line, the postoperative tibiofemoral angle and the preoperative and postoperative Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS) scores were recorded. The tibial anteroposterior translation was measured using the Kneelax 3 Arthrometer at both the 30° and the 90° flexion angles. The mean values of the postoperative maximal knee flexion were 101° (SD 5), 106° (SD 5) and 113° (SD 9) in Groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively. A significant difference was found in the postoperative maximal flexion between the 3 groups (P < 0.001). However, no significant differences were found between the 3 groups in the postoperative HSS scores, the changes in the posterior condylar offset, the elevation of the joint line or the tibial anteroposterior translation at either the 30° or the 90° flexion angles. A 1° increase in the tibial slope resulted in a 1.8° flexion increment (r = 1.8, R (2) = 0.463, P < 0.001). An increase in the posterior tibial slope can significantly increase the postoperative maximal knee flexion. The tibial slope with an appropriate flexion and extension gap balance during the operation does not affect the joint stability.
Westerhausen, René; Fjell, Anders M; Krogsrud, Stine K; Rohani, Darius A; Skranes, Jon S; Håberg, Asta K; Walhovd, Kristine B
Establishing an efficient functional and structural connectivity between the two cerebral hemispheres is an important developmental task during childhood, and alterations in this development have accordingly been linked to a series of neurodevelopmental and pediatric disorders. The corpus callosum, the major white-matter structure connecting the hemispheres, has been shown to increase in size throughout the three first decades of life. However, behavioral studies indicate that adult-like performance levels of functional hemispheric interaction are already reached during middle and late childhood. Thus, here we specifically examine the structural development of the corpus callosum during the functionally relevant time period by for the first time (a) selectively addressing prospective childhood development and (b) analyzing a sample in which also younger children are well represented. Corpus callosum anatomy was assessed from 732 T1-weighted MRI datasets acquired from 428 children (213 boys, 215 girls) aged of 4.1 and 10.9years, of which 304 were scanned at two time points. Regional callosal thickness was determined from an outline-based segmentation of the mid-sagittal cross-sectional surface area. Linear-mixed model analyses revealed a significant increase in thickness with age (effect size: up to 15% explained variance) equivalent to a growth in callosal thickness of up to 0.19mm per year in the posterior corpus callosum. The age effect was found to be stronger in posterior segments (i.e., splenium) than in other callosal subregions. Also, the age effect was found to be comparable between boys and girls, and was detected irrespective of whether developmental or individual differences in overall brain size where accounted for or not. Our results demonstrate a selective increase in posterior corpus-callosum thickness during middle and late childhood. Since axons crossing the midline in the splenium mainly connect occipital and parietal cortices, the accentuated
Rathnasamy, Gurugirijha; Ling, Eng-Ang; Kaur, Charanjit
Cerebral edema/brain edema refers to the accumulation of fluid in the brain and is one of the fatal conditions that require immediate medical attention. Cerebral edema develops as a consequence of cerebral trauma, cerebral infarction, hemorrhages, abscess, tumor, hypoxia, and other toxic or metabolic factors. Based on the causative factors cerebral edema is differentiated into cytotoxic cerebral edema, vasogenic cerebral edema, osmotic and interstitial cerebral edema. Treatment of cerebral edema depends on timely diagnosis and medical assistance. Pragmatic treatment strategies such as antihypertensive medications, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, barbiturates, steroids, glutamate and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists and trometamol are used in clinical practice. Although the above mentioned treatment approaches are being used, owing to the complexity of the mechanisms involved in cerebral edema, a single therapeutic strategy which could ameliorate cerebral edema is yet to be identified. However, recent experimental studies have suggested that melatonin, a neurohormone produced by the pineal gland, could be an effective alternative for treating cerebral edema. In animal models of stroke, melatonin was not only shown to reduce cerebral edema but also preserved the blood brain barrier. Melatonin's beneficial effects were attributed to its properties, such as being a potent anti-oxidant, and its ability to cross the blood brain barrier within minutes after its administration. This review summarizes the beneficial effects of melatonin when used for treating cerebral edema.
Ebrahem, Rawaa; Cooper, Scott; Manlove, Emily; Lee, Ricky
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a neurological condition characterized by headaches, visual disturbances, and seizures. A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan of an affected brain typically shows symmetrical white matter edema in the posterior cerebral hemispheres. The onset of PRES can constitute a medical emergency, especially when accompanied by status epilepticus. If promptly recognized and treated, the clinical syndrome and associated radiological findings are usually resolved in a matter of weeks or months. Carfilzomib is a proteasome inhibitor that is newly approved for relapsing myeloma in a patient who has received one or more lines of therapy. In this paper, we report on a 52-year-old female on carfilzomib for multiple myeloma who developed PRES following her second dose of treatment. She was admitted for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbation, and while she was in the hospital, she developed a severe headache, blindness, and status epilepticus. A brain MRI showed signs consistent with PRES. After carfilzomib was discontinued, her symptoms resolved within three days. Unfortunately, the patient passed away shortly after being discharged, so there was no opportunity to perform a repeat MRI. PMID:28357173
Fidan, Kibriya; Kandur, Yasar; Ucar, Murat; Gucuyener, Kivilcim; Soylemezoglu, Oguz
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a clinico-radiological syndrome, composed of symptoms such as headache, seizures, visual disturbances, lethargy, confusion, stupor, focal neurologic findings and radiological findings of bilateral gray and white matter abnormalities suggestive of edema in the posterior regions of the cerebral hemispheres. PRES is associated with significant morbidity and mortality if it is not expeditiously recognized. Magnetic resonance image (MRI) represents the most sensitive imaging technique for recognizing PRES. PRES has been seen in various clinical settings including renal disorders such as acute glomerulonephritis, lupus nephritis, nephrotic syndrome, and drug usage such as calcineurin inhibitors. We aimed to present two study cases for such clinical setting. In this report, we present two patients with PRES in whom the primary diagnosis was hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) and Henoch-Schonlein purpura (HSP). Both of them were treated with anticonvulsant and proper antihypertensive drugs. A repeated MRI scan of the head, an ophthalmologic assessment, and a follow-up electroencephalogram produced normal results with no sequelae. Early recognition of PRES as a complication during different diseases and therapies in childhood may facilitate the appropriate treatment, so that intensive treatment should be performed as soon as possible to avoid neurological sequelae. PMID:27298664
Fidan, Kibriya; Kandur, Yasar; Ucar, Murat; Gucuyener, Kivilcim; Soylemezoglu, Oguz
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a clinico-radiological syndrome, composed of symptoms such as headache, seizures, visual disturbances, lethargy, confusion, stupor, focal neurologic findings and radiological findings of bilateral gray and white matter abnormalities suggestive of edema in the posterior regions of the cerebral hemispheres. PRES is associated with significant morbidity and mortality if it is not expeditiously recognized. Magnetic resonance image (MRI) represents the most sensitive imaging technique for recognizing PRES. PRES has been seen in various clinical settings including renal disorders such as acute glomerulonephritis, lupus nephritis, nephrotic syndrome, and drug usage such as calcineurin inhibitors. We aimed to present two study cases for such clinical setting. In this report, we present two patients with PRES in whom the primary diagnosis was hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) and Henoch-Schonlein purpura (HSP). Both of them were treated with anticonvulsant and proper antihypertensive drugs. A repeated MRI scan of the head, an ophthalmologic assessment, and a follow-up electroencephalogram produced normal results with no sequelae. Early recognition of PRES as a complication during different diseases and therapies in childhood may facilitate the appropriate treatment, so that intensive treatment should be performed as soon as possible to avoid neurological sequelae.
Hayakawa, I; Kuroiwa, A; Takemura, N; Fujiwara, K; Tsuchida, T; Yanagihashi, K
Case 1. A seven-year-old boy was admitted to our hospital shortly after developing right hemiplegia and motor aphasia during rope-jumping play. Neither cervical trauma nor signs of cervical and pharyngeal inflammation were present. The physical examination was negative. The carotid angiogram on the day of admission gave poor visualization of the middle cerebral artery group, although the computerized tomographic finding was not remarkable. His neurological status gradually got better, while the routine laboratory studies gave only a slight increase of ESR (26 mm/hour) and positive CRP(I+). There were no particular findings of CSF from lumbar tap or of serological studies. The second computerized tomographic scan 42 hours after clinical onset showed a wide low dense area with obscure margin in the left parieto-temporal region, which was enhanced variously with intravenous contrast media. In about ten days his clinical state was remarkably improved. The second carotid angiogram one month after admission showed a poor filling of the middle cerebral artery territory and beaded appearance of the artery. The patient was discharged on the 46th day with a minimum right hemiparesis. Case 2. A ten-year-old boy was admitted with complaint of right hemiparesis and motor aphasia developing at night. The physical examination was negative. The laboratory studies were also negative. The computerized tomographic scan five days after onset showed a low dense area in size of 2 x 1.5 x 2 cm in the region of the left Nucleus lentiformis. No enhancement effect was seen. The left carotid angiogram on the same day revealed stenotic lesions at the M1 and the posterior temporal artery.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Heit, Jeremy J; Faisal, Abigail G S; Telischak, Nicholas A; Choudhri, Omar; Do, Huy M
Cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are uncommon vascular lesions, and hemorrhage secondary to AVM rupture results in significant morbidity and mortality. AVMs may be treated by endovascular embolization, and technical advances in microcatheter design are likely to improve the success and safety of endovascular embolization of cerebral AVMs. To describe our early experience with the Headway Duo microcatheter for embolization of cerebral AVMs with n-butyl-cyanoacrylate (n-BCA). Consecutive patients treated by endovascular embolization of a cerebral AVM with n-BCA delivered intra-arterially through the Headway Duo microcatheter (167 cm length) were identified. Patient demographic information, procedural details, and patient outcome were determined from electronic medical records. Ten consecutive patients undergoing cerebral AVM embolization using n-BCA injected through the Headway Duo microcatheter were identified. Presenting symptoms included headache, hemorrhage, seizures, and weakness. Spetzler Martin grades ranged from 1 to 5, and AVMs were located in the basal ganglia (2 patients), parietal lobe (4 patients), frontal lobe (1 patient), temporal lobe (1 patient), an entire hemisphere (1 patient), and posterior fossa (1 patient). 50 arterial pedicles were embolized, and all procedures were technically successful. There was one post-procedural hemorrhage that was well tolerated by the patient, and no other complications occurred. Additional AVM treatment was performed by surgery and radiation therapy. The Headway Duo microcatheter is safe and effective for embolization of cerebral AVMs using n-BCA. The trackability and high burst pressure of the Headway Duo make it an important and useful tool for the neurointerventionalist during cerebral AVM embolization. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Keltner, John R; Connolly, Colm G; Vaida, Florin; Jenkinson, Mark; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Archibald, Sarah; Akkari, Cherine; Schlein, Alexandra; Lee, Jisu; Wang, Dongzhe; Kim, Sung; Li, Han; Rennels, Austin; Miller, David J; Kesidis, George; Franklin, Donald R; Sanders, Chelsea; Corkran, Stephanie; Grant, Igor; Brown, Gregory G; Atkinson, J Hampton; Ellis, Ronald J
. Despite modern antiretroviral therapy, HIV-associated neuropathy is one of the most prevalent, disabling and treatment-resistant complications of HIV disease. The presence and intensity of distal neuropathic pain is not fully explained by the degree of peripheral nerve damage. A better understanding of brain structure in HIV distal neuropathic pain may help explain why some patients with HIV neuropathy report pain while the majority does not. Previously, we reported that more intense distal neuropathic pain was associated with smaller total cerebral cortical gray matter volumes. The objective of this study was to determine which parts of the cortex are smaller. . HIV positive individuals with and without distal neuropathic pain enrolled in the multisite (N = 233) CNS HIV Antiretroviral Treatment Effects (CHARTER) study underwent structural brain magnetic resonance imaging. Voxel-based morphometry was used to investigate regional brain volumes in these structural brain images. . Left ventral posterior cingulate cortex was smaller for HIV positive individuals with versus without distal neuropathic pain (peak P = 0.017; peak t = 5.15; MNI coordinates x = -6, y = -54, z = 20). Regional brain volumes within cortical gray matter structures typically associated with pain processing were also smaller for HIV positive individuals having higher intensity ratings of distal neuropathic pain. . The posterior cingulate is thought to be involved in inhibiting the perception of painful stimuli. Mechanistically a smaller posterior cingulate cortex structure may be related to reduced anti-nociception contributing to increased distal neuropathic pain.
Ho, Christine; Skaggs, David L; Weiss, Jennifer M; Tolo, Vernon T
Case series retrospective review. To identify what factors predict successful eradication of infection after I&D of an infected posterior spinal fusion with instrumentation. The treatment of infection of instrumented spine fusions in children has few clear guidelines in the literature. The medical records of patients who required a surgical irrigation and debridement (I&D) for infection after posterior spinal fusion and instrumentation for scoliosis from 1995 to 2002 were retrospectively reviewed. Fifty-three patients were identified with the following underlying diagnoses: 21 patients (40%) idiopathic scoliosis, 10 patients (23%) cerebral palsy, 3 patients (6%) spina bifida, 1 patient (2%) congenital scoliosis, and 17 patients (32%) other. There were 31 patients (58%) with surgery <6 months from initial fusion, and 22 (42%) patients >6 months. Of the 43 patients with implant retained at the time of the first I&D, 20 patients required a second I&D (47%). Of the 10 patients with complete implant removal, 2 patients required a second I&D (20%). Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus was the most prevalent organism, growing in 25 (47%) of the cultures. Of patients with idiopathic scoliosis, 8 of 21 (38%) required a second I & D; of the patients with other diagnoses, 14 of 32 (44%) required a second I&D, which was not a significant difference (P > 0.05). To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest reported series of spinal implant infections. When children with an infection after posterior spinal fusion with instrumentation undergo irrigation and debridement, there is a nearly 50% chance that the infection will remain if all spinal implants are not removed. As nearly 50% of the infections were caused by coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, we recommend that prophylactic antibiotic coverage for this organism is used at the time of the initial spinal fusion.
Dix, Laura Marie Louise; van Bel, Frank; Lemmers, Petra Maria Anna
Cerebral oxygenation is not always reflected by systemic arterial oxygenation. Therefore, regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rScO2) monitoring with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is of added value in neonatal intensive care. rScO2 represents oxygen supply to the brain, while cerebral fractional tissue oxygen extraction, which is the ratio between rScO2 and systemic arterial oxygen saturation, reflects cerebral oxygen utilization. The balance between oxygen supply and utilization provides insight in neonatal cerebral (patho-)physiology. This review highlights the potential and limitations of cerebral oxygenation monitoring with NIRS in the neonatal intensive care unit. PMID:28352624
Boddaert, N; Desguerre, I; Bahi-Buisson, N; Romano, S; Valayannopoulos, V; Saillour, Y; Seidenwurm, D; Grevent, D; Berteloot, L; Lebre, A-S; Zilbovicius, M; Puget, S; Salomon, R; Attie-Bitach, T; Munnich, A; Brunelle, F; de Lonlay, P
To propose a MRI cerebellar algorithm that may be applied to guide genetic/malformative or biochemical investigations for patients with cerebellar ataxia. Cerebral MRI of 158 patients with cerebellar ataxia and no supratentorial abnormality were examined according to a new categorization system based on posterior fossa imaging. The clinical and radiological findings were confronted to biochemical and/or genetic results using the MR cerebellar algorithm. Seven groups of cerebellar MRI pattern were described: vermian dysgenesis (n=27), cerebellar hypoplasia (n=15), hemispheric cerebellar dysgenesis (n=6), unilateral hemispheric atrophy (n=5), global cerebellar atrophy (n=84), signal abnormalities (n=11) and normal MRI (n=10). Cerebellar hypoplasia, vermian dysgenesis and hemispheric cerebellar dysgenesis groups were classified as malformative disorders. Global atrophy and signal abnormality groups were classified as metabolic disorders. In the vermian dysgenesis group, a specific genetic diagnosis was obtained in eight children (8/27) and all of the mutated genes (AHI1 (JBS3), CEP290 (JBS5), TMEM67 (JBS6), and RPGRIP1L (JBS7)) are involved in primary cilia function. In the group of pontocerebellar hypoplasia specific genetic diagnosis was obtained in one patient (PCH2) (1/15). Thus, nine of 42 children classified as malformative disorder had a molecular diagnosis. Global atrophy and signal abnormality groups were classified as metabolic disorders, specific biochemical was obtained in 46/95 children. In global atrophy group, respiratory chain deficiency was diagnosed in 18 children (18/84). In 21 children a congenital disorders of glycosylation type 1a (CDG Ia) was diagnosed (21/84) and infantile neuroaxonale dystrophy (INAD) was diagnosed in one child. In signal abnormalities group, specific biochemical diagnosis was obtained in six out of 11 children, five children with respiratory chain deficiency and one child with sulphite oxidase deficiency. In hemispheric
Harteveld, Anita A; van der Kolk, Anja G; van der Worp, H Bart; Dieleman, Nikki; Zwanenburg, Jaco J M; Luijten, Peter R; Hendrikse, Jeroen
Vessel wall magnetic resonance imaging sequences have been developed to directly visualize the intracranial vessel wall, enabling detection of vessel wall changes, including those that have not yet caused luminal narrowing. In this study, vessel wall lesion burden was assessed in patients with recent posterior circulation ischemia using 7T-magnetic resonance imaging and compared with matched healthy controls. Fifty subjects (25 patients and 25 matched healthy controls) underwent 7T-magnetic resonance imaging with an intracranial vessel wall sequence before and after contrast administration. Two raters scored the presence and contrast enhancement of arterial wall lesions in individual segments of the circle of Willis and its primary branches. Total burden and distribution of vessel wall lesions and lesion characteristics (configuration, thickening pattern, and contrast enhancement) were compared both between and within both groups. Overall, vessel wall lesion burden and distribution were comparable between patients and controls. Regarding individual arterial segments, only vessel wall lesions in the posterior cerebral artery were more frequently observed in patients (18.0%) than in controls (5.4%; P=0.003). Many of these lesions showed enhancement, both in patients (48.9%) and in controls (43.5%; P=0.41). In patients, the proportion of enhancing lesions was higher in the posterior circulation (53.3%) than in the anterior circulation (20.6%; P=0.008). Although overall intracranial vessel wall lesion burden and contrast enhancement were comparable between patients with recent posterior circulation ischemia and healthy controls, this study also revealed significant differences between the 2 groups, suggesting an association between posterior circulation lesion burden/enhancement and ischemic events. URL: http://www.trialregister.nl. Unique identifier: NTR5688. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.
Burke, D; Gandevia, S C; McKeon, B; Skuse, N F
In order to demonstrate interactions between cutaneous and muscle afferent volleys in the ascending somatosensory pathways, different nerves of the lower limb were stimulated together in a conditioning-test paradigm, the changes in the earliest component of the cerebral potential evoked by the test stimulus being taken to indicate such an interaction. It was first confirmed that the cerebral potential evoked by stimulation of the posterior tibial nerve at the ankle is derived from muscle afferents in the mixed nerve and has shorter latencies than the cerebral potential evoked by purely cutaneous volleys in the sural nerve (see Burke et al. 1981). Complete suppression of the cerebral potential evoked by stimulation of muscle or cutaneous afferents was produced by conditioning volleys in a different nerve or in a different fascicle of the same nerve. The major factors determining the degree of suppression were found to be the relative sizes of the conditioning and test volleys and their timing, rather than whether the volleys were of cutaneous or muscular origin. It is concluded that the transmission of cutaneous or muscle afferent volleys to cortex can be profoundly altered in normal subjects by conditioning activity. The possibility that normal background afferent activity can similarly modify afferent transmission has implications for diagnostic studies, particularly when they are performed under non-standard conditions, such as in the operating theatre or intensive care unit. It is also concluded that, although a subject may perceive cutaneous paraesthesiae when the posterior tibial nerve is stimulated at the ankle, there may be no cutaneous component to the evoked cerebral potential.
Lazzaro, Marc A; Ouyang, Bichun; Chen, Michael
Limited data exist to guide patient selection for preventive treatment of unruptured cerebral aneurysms. Cerebral aneurysms have been associated with circle of Willis anomalies but whether this association is also related to aneurysm rupture is not known. The occurrence of cerebral aneurysm rupture when a circle of Willis anomaly was present or absent was compared. Patients admitted over a 2 year period with a diagnosis of a cerebral aneurysm and an anterior communicating artery (ACoA) or posterior communicating artery (PCoA) aneurysm were included in the analysis. Brain vascular imaging was reviewed for aneurysm size, morphology and presence of circle of Willis anomaly. Relevant medical history and demographics were obtained from the medical records. Of the 113 patients with ACoA or PCoA aneurysms, 85 (75.2%) cases were ruptured. There were 49 (43.4%) PCoA aneurysms and 64 (56.6%) ACoA aneurysms. Mean aneurysm size was 5.65 mm (SD 3.31). A circle of Willis anomaly was identified in 46 (40.7%) of all patients. Circle of Willis anomalies were present in 38 (46.9%) ruptured aneurysm cases and eight (29.6%) unruptured aneurysm cases. Multivariate analysis revealed a higher risk of aneurysm rupture when a circle of Willis anomaly was present (p=0.0245, OR 3.72 (CI 1.18 to 11.66)). This series shows that circle of Willis anomalies are more commonly found in ruptured as opposed to unruptured cerebral aneurysms of the anterior and posterior communicating arteries. The presence of a circle of Willis anomaly may be an important characteristic for selecting patients for preventive aneurysm treatment.
Boruah, Deb K; Sanyal, Shantiranjan; Prakash, Arjun; Achar, Sashidhar; Yadav, Rajanikant R; Pravakaran, T; Dhingani, Dhaval D; Sarmah, Barun K
Context: Ectopic neurohypophysis (EN) refers to an interrupted, nonvisualized, and thinned out pituitary stalk with ectopic location of the posterior pituitary gland. Concurrent extra-pituitary cerebral and extra-cranial anomalies have been rarely reported in patients of EN. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of extra-pituitary cerebral anomalies in pediatric patients of EN. Settings and Design: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted in a tertiary care center. Subjects and Methods: The study group comprised eight pediatric patients of EN associated with extra-pituitary cerebral or vascular anomalies. Clinical and biochemical assessment was done in all patients. Results: Out of the total eight patients with EN, MRI showed interrupted pituitary stalk in five patients (62.5%) and nonvisible pituitary stalk in three patients (37.5%). Ectopic posterior pituitary bright spot was demonstrated in median eminence in six patients (75%), faintly visualized in one patient (12.5%) and nonvisualized in another one patient. Statistical significant association was noted between pituitary gland height and patient's body height with the pituitary gland volume (P < 0.001). Varied extra-pituitary cerebral anomalies encountered in our patients ranged from isolated anomalies such as optic nerve hypoplasia in three patients (37.5%), corpus callosum dysplasia in four patients (50%), agyria-pachygyria complex in two patients (25%), and intracranial vascular anomalies in two patients to syndromic association of tuberous sclerosis in one patient. Conclusion: Identifying and reporting of associated extra-pituitary cerebral anomalies in patients with EN are crucial in assessing the overall neurological outcome of such patients. PMID:28584686
Twenty-eight cases of posterior choroidal melanoma were treated with iodine-125 in gold eye plaques. Eleven cases were located within 3.0 mm of the optic nerve (group A), nine were within 3.0 mm of the fovea (group B), and eight were within 3.0 mm of the optic nerve and fovea (group C). The mean follow-up of group A was 46.3 months; group B, 25.5 months; and group C, 42.7 months. Complications included macular edema, cataract and tumor growth. Visual acuity remained within two lines of that tested preoperatively for 4 of 11 patients in group A, 4 of 9 in group B, and 5 of 8 in group C. These results with iodine-125 suggest it as an appropriate treatment for patients with choroidal melanoma located near optic nerve and/or macula.
Kiziltan, M; Sahin, R; Uzun, N; Kiziltan, G
We aimed to investigate to which extent posterior auricular muscle (PAM) was affected and whether it contributed to the reflex activity in hemifacial spasm (HFS) patients. 19 HFS patients' spasm activities were recorded from facial muscles. Spasm activity of PAM was recorded synchronously on the symptomatic side in all patients. Lateral spread of blink reflex to orbicularis oris and PAMs were recorded in all but two patients. Botulinum toxin was applied to the PAM with the 14 patients presenting tinnitus, "clicking" or a "ticking" sound on the sane side and other positive auricular symptoms. After treatment, there was symptomatic improvement in 9 of 14 patients. The patients presenting with auricular symptoms and showing spasm activity in their PAMs can be thought as a candidate for botulinum toxin treatment scheme.
Ganesan, Suganeswari; Raman, Rajiv; Sharma, Tarun
A 44-year-old male patient presented with features suggestive of transient central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) followed by permanent CRAO and lateral posterior ciliary artery occlusion. He had diagnostic features of polycythemia vera (PV). When presented for the first time, the patient had features of ocular ischemia such as ocular pain, conjunctival congestion, and retinal opacification but with normal arm-to-retina time and normal arteriovenous transit time. During the second presentation, he had ocular pain, congested conjunctiva, retinal opacification, cherry red spot with box-carrying of retinal vessels, and choroidal infarct (Amalric's sign). He had lost light perception in that eye. Patients with polycythemia are prone to multifocal vascular occlusions and this can be the presenting feature in PV. A timely diagnosis and prompt management can prevent these repeated thromboembolic occlusive episodes. PMID:28298862
Zappella, Nathalie; Perier, François; Pico, Fernando; Palette, Catherine; Muret, Alexandre; Merceron, Sybille; Girbovan, Andrei; Marquion, Fabien; Legriel, Stephane
Abstract Background: Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) has well-established links with several drugs. Whether a link also exists with serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor such as duloxetine is unclear. Methods: We report on a patient who developed PRES with a coma and myoclonus related to hypertensive encephalopathy a few days after starting duloxetine treatment. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed and catecholamine metabolites assayed. Results: The patient achieved a full recovery after aggressive antihypertensive therapy and intravenous anticonvulsant therapy. Conclusions: The clinical history, blood and urinary catecholamine and serotonin levels, and response to treatment strongly suggest that PRES was induced by duloxetine. Duloxetine should be added to the list of causes of PRES. PMID:27537580
Kono, Kenichi; Terada, Tomoaki
Cerebral proliferative angiopathy (CPA) is a rare clinical entity. This disorder is characterized by diffuse vascular abnormalities with intermingled normal brain parenchyma, and is differentiated from classic arteriovenous malformations. The management of CPA in patients presenting with nonhemorrhagic neurological deficits due to cerebral ischemia is challenging and controversial. The authors report a case of adult CPA with cerebral ischemia in which neurological deficits were improved after encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis (EDAS). A 28-year-old man presented with epilepsy. Magnetic resonance imaging and angiography showed a diffuse vascular network (CPA) in the right hemisphere. Antiepileptic medications were administered. Four years after the initial onset of epilepsy, the patient's left-hand grip strength gradually decreased over the course of 1 year. The MRI studies showed no infarcts, but technetium-99m-labeled ethyl cysteinate dimer ((99m)Tc-ECD) SPECT studies obtained with acetazolamide challenge demonstrated hypoperfusion and severely impaired cerebrovascular reactivity over the affected hemisphere. This suggested that the patient's neurological deficits were associated with cerebral ischemia. The authors performed EDAS for cerebral ischemia, and the patient's hand grip strength gradually improved after the operation. Follow-up angiography studies obtained 7 months after the operation showed profound neovascularization through the superficial temporal artery and the middle meningeal artery. A SPECT study showed slight improvement of hypoperfusion at the focal region around the right motor area, indicating clinical improvement from the operation. The authors conclude that EDAS may be a treatment option for CPA-related hypoperfusion.
Krägeloh-Mann, Ingeborg; Cans, Christine
A common language on CP has been developed for the European registers by the SCPE (Surveillance of Cerebral Palsy in Europe) working group and the common database allows prevalence analyses on a larger basis. CP prevalence increases with lower birthweight and higher immaturity. Increase of survival after preterm birth has first also increased CP rates. But already in the 80s this trend was reversed for LBW infants, and in the 90 s also for VLBW or very immature infants. The outcome with respect to CP in the group of extremely LBW or immature infants remains a matter of specific concern, as prevalence seems to be rather stable on a high level. CP is caused in more than 80% by brain lesions or maldevelopments which can be attributed to different timing periods of the developing brain. Extent and topography determine the clinical subtype of CP and are related also to the presence and severity of associated disabilities. CP, thus, offers a model to study plasticity of the developing brain. Reorganisation following unilateral lesions is mainly interhemispheric and homotopic. In the motor system, it involves the recruitment of ipsilateral tracts; functionality seems to be limited and decreases already towards the end of gestation. There is no clear evidence for substantial reorganisation in the sensory system. The best compensatory potential is described concerning language function following left hemispheric lesions. Language function reorganized to the right hemisphere eventually seems not to be impaired, this occurs, however, on the expense of primary right hemispheric functions.
Yamada, Masahito; Naiki, Hironobu
Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is cerebrovascular amyloid deposition. It is classified into several types according to the cerebrovascular amyloid proteins involved [amyloid β-protein (Aβ), cystatin C (ACys), prion protein (APrP), transthyretin (ATTR), gelsolin (AGel), ABri/ADan, and AL]. Sporadic Aβ-type CAA is commonly found in elderly individuals and patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). CAA-related disorders include hemorrhagic and ischemic brain lesions and dementia. It has been proposed that cerebrovascular Aβ originates mainly from the brain and is transported to the vascular wall through a perivascular drainage pathway, where it polymerizes into fibrils on vascular basement membrane through interactions with extracellular components. CAA would be promoted by overproduction of Aβ40 (a major molecular species of cerebrovascular Aβ), a decrease of Aβ degradation, or reduction of Aβ clearance due to impairment of perivascular drainage pathway. Further understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of CAA would lead to development of disease-modifying therapies for CAA and CAA-related disorders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Koraitim, Mamdouh M.
The finding of an incompetent bladder neck (BN) at the time of posterior urethroplasty will necessarily exacerbate the already difficult situation. In such cases the aim of the treatment is not only to restore urethral continuity by end-to-end urethral anastomosis, but also to restore the function of the BN to maintain urinary continence. Fortunately, the incidence of incompetence of the BN at posterior urethroplasty is uncommon, usually ≈4.5%. It seems that pelvic fracture-related BN injuries, in contrast to urethral injuries which result from a shearing force, are due to direct injury by the sharp edge of the fractured and displaced pubic bone. The risk of injuries to the BN is greater in children, in patients with a fracture involving both superior and inferior pubic rami on the same side, and in those managed initially by primary realignment. An incompetent BN is suspected by finding an open rectangular BN on cystography, and a fixedly open BN on suprapubic cystoscopy. An incompetent BN can be treated either subsequent to or concomitant with the urethral repair, according to whether a perineal or a perineo-abdominal urethroplasty is used, respectively. Several options have been reported to treat pelvic fracture-related BN incompetence, including reconstructing the BN, forming a new sphincter by tubularisation of a rectangular flap of the anterior bladder wall, and mechanical occlusion by an artificial sphincter or collagen injection. Reconstruction of the BN by the Young-Dees-Leadbetter∗∗ procedure probably provides the most successful results. PMID:26019982
Zaiem, Maher; Zaiem, Feras
Posterior sagittal anorectoplasty (PSARP) published by DeVries and Peña in 1982 had become the preferred surgical technique for the management of anorectal malformations (ARM). The original technique is based upon complete exposure of the anorectal region by means of a median sagittal incision that runs from the sacrum to the anal dimple, cutting through all muscle structures behind the rectum by dividing the levator muscle and the muscle complex. Then, the rectum is located in front of the levator and within the limits of the muscle complex. In this review, we described Muscle Complex Saving-Posterior Sagittal Anorectoplasty (MCS-PSARP), which is a less invasive technique that consists of keeping this funnel-shaped muscle complex completely intact and not divided, and pulling the rectum through this funnel, toward fixing the new anus to the skin. This technique aimed both to respect the lower part of the sphincter mechanism consisting of the muscle complex, and to avoid the disturbance of this important structure by dividing and resuturing it. We presented six cases of male patients who were born with anorectal malformation (ARM) and underwent MCS-PSARP. The surgical technique proved to be feasible to achieve the dissection of the rectal pouch and the division of the rectourethral fistula in all patients, by opening only the upper part of the sphincter mechanism, the levator muscle, and keeping the lower part consisting of intact muscle complex. The early results in our series are encouraging; however, long-term functional outcomes of these patients are awaited. The surgical tips were also discussed. This proposed approach in the management of anorectal malformation cases provides an opportunity to maximize preservation of the existing continence mechanisms. It preserves the muscle complex components of the levator muscle intact, allowing a better function of the continence mechanism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Under normal physiological conditions, the osmolarity of extracellular fluids (ECFs) and natremia are controlled by two regulatory mechanisms modulating the water balance and sodium outflow from information collected by the osmoreceptors and baroreceptors, respectively. As well, under normal physiological conditions, water and electrolytes of brain ECFs are secreted by the endothelial cells of brain capillaries. Furthermore, isotonicity is present on both sides of the blood-brain barrier. In the event of systemic osmolarity disorders, water transport subject to osmosis laws occurs at the level of the blood-brain barrier. In the case of plasmatic hyperosmolarity cerebral dehydration is observed, while cerebral edema occurs in the contrary case. However, plasmatic osmolarity disorders have less effect on the cerebral volume when their introduction is slow. Experimentation in acute conditions shows that measured variations of the cerebral water content are lower than calculated variations, thus suggesting the existence of an adaptive mechanism, that is, the cerebral osmoregulation which limits the variation of the volume of brain cells by modulating their osmoactive molecule content. These osmoactive molecules are, on the one hand, the electrolytes, which are early and rapidly mobilized, and, on the other hand, the organic osmoles (amino acids, etc.), whose secretion is slower and delayed. This phenomenon should be taken into account in the treatment of osmolarity disorders. Thus, the related-risk of treatment for natremia disorders is therapeutic reversal of the osmotic gradient at the level of the blood-brain barrier. This reversal, which corresponds to a second osmotic stress, requires the implementation of a new procedure of cerebral osmoregulation in the opposite direction of the preceding one. As successive osmotic stresses decrease the effectiveness of brain osmoregulation, the risk for cerebral dehydration and pontine myelinolysis increases when the treatment
Volpe, J.J.; Herscovitch, P.; Perlman, J.M.; Raichle, M.E.
Positron emission tomography (PET) now provides the capability of measuring regional cerebral blood flow with high resolution and little risk. In this study, we utilized PET in six premature infants (920 to 1,200 g) with major intraventricular hemorrhage and hemorrhagic intracerebral involvement to measure regional cerebral blood flow during the acute period (5 to 17 days of age). Cerebral blood flow was determined after intravenous injection of H/sub 2/O, labeled with the positron-emitting isotope, /sup 15/O. Findings were similar and dramatic in all six infants. In the area of hemorrhagic intracerebral involvement, little or no cerebral blood flow was detected. However, in addition, surprisingly, a marked two- to fourfold reduction in cerebral blood flow was observed throughout the affected hemisphere, well posterior and lateral to the intracerebral hematoma, including cerebral white matter and, to a lesser extent, frontal, temporal, and parietal cortex. In the one infant studied a second time, ie, at 3 months of age, the extent and severity of the decreased cerebral blood flows in the affected hemisphere were similar to those observed on the study during the neonatal period. At the three autopsies, the affected left hemisphere showed extensive infarction, corroborating the PET scans. These observations, the first demonstration of the use of PET in the determination of regional cerebral blood flow in the newborn, show marked impairments in regional cerebral blood flow in the hemisphere containing an apparently restricted intracerebral hematoma, indicating that the hemorrhagic intracerebral involvement is only a component of a much larger lesion, ischemic in basic nature, ie, an infarction. This large ischemic lesion explains the poor neurologic outcome in infants with intraventricular hemorrhage and hemorrhagic intracerebral involvement.
Dorn, Sebastian; Oppermann, Niels; Ensslin, Torsten A
We present an error-diagnostic validation method for posterior distributions in Bayesian signal inference, an advancement of a previous work. It transfers deviations from the correct posterior into characteristic deviations from a uniform distribution of a quantity constructed for this purpose. We show that this method is able to reveal and discriminate several kinds of numerical and approximation errors, as well as their impact on the posterior distribution. For this we present four typical analytical examples of posteriors with incorrect variance, skewness, position of the maximum, or normalization. We show further how this test can be applied to multidimensional signals.
Johnson, D L; Wiebe, J S; Gold, S M; Andreasen, N C; Hichwa, R D; Watkins, G L; Boles Ponto, L L
This study sought to describe brain regions associated with the personality dimension of introversion/extraversion. Measures of cerebral blood flow (CBF) were obtained from 18 healthy subjects by means of H20 positron emission tomography. Correlations of regional CBF with introversion/extraversion were calculated, and a three-dimensional map of those correlations was generated. Overall, introversion was associated with increased blood flow in the frontal lobes and in the anterior thalamus. Regions in the anterior cingulate gyrus, the temporal lobes, and the posterior thalamus were found to be correlated with extraversion. The findings of the study lend support to the notion that introversion is associated with increased activity in frontal lobe regions. Moreover, the study suggests that individual differences in introversion and extraversion are related to differences in a fronto-striato-thalamic circuit.
Kubo, Yoshitaka; Ogasawara, Kuniaki; Kurose, Akira; Kakino, Shunsuke; Tomitsuka, Nobuhiko; Ogawa, Akira
Although aortic or cardiac complications are common in patients with Marfan syndrome, the presence of an intracranial aneurysm is comparatively rare. In this study, the authors report on their experience with resection of a ruptured fusiform aneurysm of the posterior cerebral artery in a 30-year-old woman with Marfan syndrome. Microscopic examination of the resected tissue showed many Alcian blue-staining deposits, consistent with the presence of mucopolysaccharide in the tunica media and focal fragmentation of the internal elastic lamina.
Du, Yan; Yang, Xiaoxia; Song, Hong; Chen, Bo; Li, Lin; Pan, Yue; Wu, Qiong; Li, Jia
Objective: To identify global research trends in neuroimaging diagnosis for cerebral infarction using a bibliometric analysis of the Web of Science. Data Retrieval: We performed a bibliometric analysis of data retrieval for neuroimaging diagnosis for cerebral infarction containing the key words “CT, magnetic resonance imaging, MRI, transcranial Doppler, transvaginal color Doppler, digital subtraction angiography, and cerebral infarction” using the Web of Science. Selection Criteria: Inclusion criteria were: (a) peer-reviewed articles on neuroimaging diagnosis for cerebral infarction which were published and indexed in the Web of Science; (b) original research articles and reviews; and (c) publication between 2004–2011. Exclusion criteria were: (a) articles that required manual searching or telephone access; and (b) corrected papers or book chapters. Main Outcome Measures: (1) Annual publication output; (2) distribution according to country; (3) distribution according to institution; (4) top cited publications; (5) distribution according to journals; and (6) comparison of study results on neuroimaging diagnosis for cerebral infarction. Results: Imaging has become the predominant method used in diagnosing cerebral infarction. The most frequently used clinical imaging methods were digital subtraction angiography, CT, MRI, and transcranial color Doppler examination. Digital subtraction angiography is used as the gold standard. However, it is a costly and time-consuming invasive diagnosis that requires some radiation exposure, and is poorly accepted by patients. As such, it is mostly adopted in interventional therapy in the clinic. CT is now accepted as a rapid, simple, and reliable non-invasive method for use in diagnosis of cerebrovascular disease and preoperative appraisal. Ultrasonic Doppler can be used to reflect the hardness of the vascular wall and the nature of the plaque more clearly than CT and MRI. Conclusion: At present, there is no unified standard of
Hu, W.T.; Wang, Z.; Lee, V.M.-Y.; Trojanowski, J.Q.; Detre, J.A.; Grossman, M.
Objective: We examined the utility of distinguishing between patients with frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and Alzheimer disease (AD) using quantitative cerebral blood flow (CBF) imaging with arterial spin labeled (ASL) perfusion MRI. Methods: Forty-two patients with FTLD and 18 patients with AD, defined by autopsy or CSF-derived biomarkers for AD, and 23 matched controls were imaged with a continuous ASL method to quantify CBF maps covering the entire brain. Results: Patients with FTLD and AD showed distinct patterns of hypoperfusion and hyperperfusion. Compared with controls, patients with FTLD showed significant hypoperfusion in regions of the frontal lobe bilaterally, and hyperperfusion in posterior cingulate and medial parietal/precuneus regions. Compared with controls, patients with AD showed significant hypoperfusion in the medial parietal/precuneus and lateral parietal cortex, and hyperperfusion in regions of the frontal lobe. Direct comparison of patient groups showed significant inferior, medial, and dorsolateral frontal hypoperfusion in FTLD, and significant hypoperfusion in bilateral lateral temporal-parietal and medial parietal/precuneus regions in AD. Conclusions: Doubly dissociated areas of hypoperfusion in FTLD and AD are consistent with areas of significant histopathologic burden in these groups. ASL is a potentially useful biomarker for distinguishing patients with these neurodegenerative diseases. GLOSSARY Aβ42 = β-amyloid1-42; AD = Alzheimer disease; ASL = arterial spin labeling; bvFTD = behavioral-variant frontotemporal dementia; cASL = continuous arterial spin labeling; CBS = corticobasal syndrome; CBF = cerebral blood flow; dACC = dorsal anterior cingulate cortex; dlPFC = dorsolateral prefrontal cortex; FDR = false detection rate; FTLD = frontotemporal lobar degeneration; GM = gray matter; iFC = inferior frontal cortex; MCI = mild cognitive impairment; MNI = Montreal Neurological Institute; mTC = middle temporal cortex; OFC
Calandrelli, Rosalinda; D'Apolito, Gabriella; Marco, Panfili; Zampino, Giuseppe; Tartaglione, Tommaso; Colosimo, Cesare
This study aimed to assess changes in the posterior cranial fossa (PCF) to shed light on the mechanism of cerebellar herniation in children with Costello syndrome (CS) and posterior fossa crowding. We performed a morphovolumetric PCF analysis on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in seven children with CS (mean age 31 ± 16 months) comparing the MRI scans with those of seven age-matched healthy subjects.PCF volume (PCFV), PCF brain volume (PCFBV) and cerebellar volume (CeV) were assessed on axial T2-weighted MRI. Morphometric parameters (diameters of the foramen magnum, tentorial angle, basiocciput, supraocciput, basisphenoid and exocciput lengths) were measured on sagittal T1-weighted MRI. The volume of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) spaces was calculated as PCFV minus PCFBV.Five out of seven CS children showed tonsillar herniation in the upper cervical canal; no child had hydrocephalus but three out of seven children showed ventriculomegaly. In addition, the PCFV/PCFBV ratio, PCFV, CSF spaces volume, basiocciput, basisphenoid and exocciput lengths and latero-lateral and antero-posterior diameters of the foramen magnum were significantly reduced, whereas no significant changes were found in supraocciput length, PCFBV, CeV or hindbrain volume. The volumetric reduction of the PCF due to bony posterior fossa hypoplasia is a predisposing factor for developing cerebellar tonsillar herniation through the foramen magnum in children with CS. The altered anatomy of the foramen magnum and upward expansion of the PCF secondary to an increased tentorial slope serves to explain the possible mechanism of cerebellar herniation in patients with CS.
D’Apolito, Gabriella; Panfili, Marco; Zampino, Giuseppe; Tartaglione, Tommaso; Colosimo, Cesare
This study aimed to assess changes in the posterior cranial fossa (PCF) to shed light on the mechanism of cerebellar herniation in children with Costello syndrome (CS) and posterior fossa crowding. We performed a morphovolumetric PCF analysis on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in seven children with CS (mean age 31 ± 16 months) comparing the MRI scans with those of seven age-matched healthy subjects. PCF volume (PCFV), PCF brain volume (PCFBV) and cerebellar volume (CeV) were assessed on axial T2-weighted MRI. Morphometric parameters (diameters of the foramen magnum, tentorial angle, basiocciput, supraocciput, basisphenoid and exocciput lengths) were measured on sagittal T1-weighted MRI. The volume of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) spaces was calculated as PCFV minus PCFBV. Five out of seven CS children showed tonsillar herniation in the upper cervical canal; no child had hydrocephalus but three out of seven children showed ventriculomegaly. In addition, the PCFV/PCFBV ratio, PCFV, CSF spaces volume, basiocciput, basisphenoid and exocciput lengths and latero-lateral and antero-posterior diameters of the foramen magnum were significantly reduced, whereas no significant changes were found in supraocciput length, PCFBV, CeV or hindbrain volume The volumetric reduction of the PCF due to bony posterior fossa hypoplasia is a predisposing factor for developing cerebellar tonsillar herniation through the foramen magnum in children with CS. The altered anatomy of the foramen magnum and upward expansion of the PCF secondary to an increased tentorial slope serves to explain the possible mechanism of cerebellar herniation in patients with CS. PMID:26246091
Gonul, Yucel; Songur, Ahmet; Uzun, Ibrahim; Uygur, Ramazan; Alkoc, Ozan Alper; Caglar, Veli; Kucuker, Hudaverdi
The cerebral sulci are known as main microanatomical borders that serve as a gateway and surgical passage to reach the ventricles or to the deeper lesions. It is a matter of curiosity that whether there is a convergence between the morphological asymmetry and the functional asymmetry, and also its significance in surgery. The aim of this study is make morphometric measurements and evaluate asymmetry of several sulci on the lateral aspects of the cerebrum in regard to main sulci and related reference key points. A total of 100 cerebral hemispheres from 50 autopsy cadavers were examined. The lengths of several sulci on the superolateral aspect of the hemispheres and the distances between the sulci and nearby sulci and the reference key points were measured. Encountered variations were examined and photographed. Evaluation of the variations: superior frontal sulcus (SFS), inferior frontal sulcus, superior temporal sulcus (STS), precentral sulcus and postcentral sulcus were found to be discontinuous in 60, 46, 41, 84 and 70 % of the hemispheres, respectively. Evaluation of the asymmetry: the distances between SFS posterior end and longitudinal fissure, STS posterior end and lateral sulcus posterior end, as well as lengths of external occipital fissure (EOF), and discontinuous course of STS were significantly different between left and right hemispheres. There is usually a morphological partial asymmetry between the right and left hemispheres for any individual. Also, some of our measurements were found to be compatible with the ones in the literature, while others were incompatible.
Reading impairments of three alexia patients, two pure alexia and one alexia with agraphia, due to different lesions were examined quantitatively, using Kanji (Japanese morphogram) words, Kana (Japanese phonetic writing) words and Kana nonwords. Kana nonword reading was impaired in all three patients, suggesting that widespread areas in the affected occipital and occipitotemporal cortices were recruited in reading Kana characters (corresponding to European syllables). In addition, the findings in patient 1 (pure alexia for Kanji and Kana from a fusiform and lateral occipital gyri lesion) and patient 2 (pure alexia for Kana from a posterior occipital gyri lesion) suggested that pure alexia could be divided into two types, i.e. ventromedial type in which whole-word reading, together with letter identification, is primarily impaired because of a disconnection of word-form images from early visual analysis, and posterior type in which letter identification is cardinally impaired. Another type of alexia, alexia with agraphia for Kanji from a posterior inferior temporal cortex lesion (patient 3), results from deficient whole-word images of words per se, and thus should be designated “orthographic alexia with agraphia”. To account for these impairments, a weighted dual-route hypothesis for reading is suggested. PMID:15201492
Overbeck, S; Wermuth, L
The case-history of a man aged 31 years with systemic lupus erythematosus and cerebral infarction is presented. Although patients with active disease are young, cerebral infarcts are strikingly frequent among them.
... processing SSI file 11 Things to Know about Cerebral Palsy Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Cerebral palsy (CP) is the most common motor disability in ...
Bernard, Kenneth R L; Rivera, Morris
Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) is an underappreciated and poorly understood cause of thunderclap headache (TCH). Although self-limited in the majority of patients, incidence is increasing, with presentations overlapping considerably with life-threatening conditions, such as aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage and stroke. In addition, radiographic findings seen in RCVS are also present in primary angiitis of the central nervous system (PACNS). Misdiagnosis of RCVS might subject patients to unnecessary invasive testing and immunosuppressive therapy. Furthermore, the recommended treatment of glucocorticoids used in PACNS can be harmful in RCVS. RCVS is not a benign condition, as patients can have ischemic or hemorrhagic complications leading to persistent neurologic deficits and even death. Current treatments, guided only by expert consensus, have no proven effect on these complications, which argues the need for accurate identification of patients with RCVS and prospective studies to validate treatment and inform prognoses. We describe a previously healthy male who presented to the emergency department after 2 episodes of TCH and angiography consistent with RCVS. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: RCVS is a common but underappreciated cause of TCH. The likelihood of misdiagnosing RCVS following the accepted diagnostic algorithm of acute headache in the emergency department is high due to a lack of clinical awareness and common features shared with other headache syndromes. Emergency department physicians must broaden the differential in patients presenting to the emergency department with TCH to include RCVS and be familiar with the accepted treatments and appropriate follow-up. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bourvis, Nadège; Franc, Julie; Szatmary, Zoltan; Chabriat, Hugues; Crassard, Isabelle; Ducros, Anne
Reversible cerebral constriction syndrome and cerebral venous thrombosis are two rare conditions. Reversible cerebral constriction syndrome affects the cerebral arteries and the pathology is still largely unknown. To date, no physiological link with cerebral venous thrombosis has been reported. We report here the case of a 24-year-old woman who presented a reversible cerebral constriction syndrome in the setting of a cerebral venous thrombosis. Cerebral venous thrombosis had developed in her left lateral venous sinus, within the stent placed one year before, in order to treat an idiopathic intracranial hypertension. The co-occurrence of cerebral venous thrombosis and reversible cerebral constriction syndrome in the same patient raises the issue of a potential link between them. We discuss the potential common trigger factors in this case: recent hormonal therapy; intracranial hypotension iatrogenically induced by lumbar puncture. © International Headache Society 2015.
Pseudo-asymmetry of cerebral blood flow in arterial spin labeling caused by unilateral fetal-type circle of Willis: Technical limitation or a way to better understanding physiological variations of cerebral perfusion and improving arterial spin labeling acquisition?
Law-Ye, B; Geerts, B; Galanaud, D; Dormont, D; Pyatigorskaya, N
In the recently published article, "Unilateral fetal-type circle of Willis anatomy causes right-left asymmetry in cerebral blood flow with pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling: A limitation of arterial spin labeling-based cerebral blood flow measurements?", it was shown by the method of arterial spin labeling (ASL) that unilateral fetal-type circle of Willis could induce variation of blood flow in cerebellar and posterior cerebral artery territory. We believe that the reported observation, rather than being a limitation, gives several interesting cues for understanding the ASL sequence. In this commentary, we formulate some suggestions regarding the use of ASL in clinical practice, discuss the potential causes of the above-mentioned pseudo-asymmetry and consider future improvements of the ASL technique. © The Author(s) 2016.
Sola, Daniele; Rossi, Luca; Sainaghi, Pier Paolo; Pirisi, Mario
DRESS (drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms) syndrome is a severe reaction triggered by drugs that manifests as pyrexia and eosinophilia with involvement of the skin and internal organs. We herein describe the case of a patient who developed hyperuricemia after receiving treatment for tuberculosis, then took allpurinol and developed DRESS syndrome with a contextual coma and right hemisyndrome. This report describes for the first time the presence of vasculitic cerebral involvement in a patient with DRESS syndrome. The cerebral vasculitis responded to treatment, showing clinical and instrumental remission. In cases such as this, allergic cerebral vasculitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis because it can be treated if recognized early, thus leading to remission without the development of any sequelae.
Saunders, Natasha Ruth; Hellmann, Jonathan; Farine, Dan
Assisted reproductive technologies have been widely used over the past 30 years, and 1% to 4% of births worldwide are products of these technologies. However, adverse health outcomes related to assisted reproductive technologies, including cerebral palsy, have been reported. We extracted and reviewed all relevant studies cited by Medline from 1996 to 2010 evaluating the role of assisted reproductive technologies as a causative factor for cerebral palsy and poor long-term neurologic outcome. The research suggests that multiple pregnancy, preterm delivery, and babies small for gestational age are factors in the development of cerebral palsy. The vanishing embryo syndrome may also play a role. We review the evidence for these potentially causative factors, as well as their implications for embryo transfer policies.
Mylonas, Anastassios I; Tzerbos, Fotios H; Mihalaki, Maria; Rologis, Dimitrios; Boutsikakis, Iossif
Cerebral abscess is a rare but serious and life-threatening infection. Dental infections have occasionally been reported as the source of bacteria for such an abcess. A 54-year-old man was admitted with a right hemiparesis and epileptic fits. After clinical, laboratory and imaging examination, the diagnosis of a cerebral abscess of the left parietal lobe was made. The intraoral clinical examination as well as a panoramic radiograph confirmed the presence of generalized periodontal disease, multiple dental caries, and periapical pathology. The treatment included: (i) Immediate administration of high-dose intravenous antibiotics and (ii) surgical procedures consisting of craniotomy and resection of the abscess cavity first, and secondly removal of the periodontal, decayed and periapically involved teeth of the patient, in an effort to eradicate all the possible septic foci, presuming the cerebral abscess to be of odontogenic infection. The patient made an uneventful recovery, and 29 months postoperatively he had completely recovered from the hemiparesis.
Driver, Brian E; Shroff, Gautam R; Smith, Stephen W
Reperfusion after coronary occlusion (myocardial infarction, MI), as in Wellens' syndrome, is often represented on ECG as T-wave inversion in the leads overlying the affected myocardial wall(s). As an extension of this logic, reperfusion of the posterior wall should manifest on right precordial leads (which are opposite the posterior wall) as enlarged T-waves. We sought to determine whether T-wave amplitude (TWa) in leads V2 and V3 after reperfusion in posterior MI (PMI) is greater than in patients without PMI. Review of ECGs from patients with ST elevation MI of the left circumflex or right coronary artery with post-procedure thrombolysis in MI (TIMI) flow >0 between 2007 and 2009. Blinded experts reviewed admission ECGs to determine the presence of PMI and measure TWa before and after reperfusion. Maximum TWa in V2 and V3 and the difference between maximum and admission V2 and V3 TWa were compared between those with and without PMI. Of 72 patients, 48 had PMI. Values expressed are medians and IQRs. Maximum TWa after reperfusion was greater in PMI than in non-PMI in V2 (5.00 mm (3.5 to 8.25) vs 3.9 mm (2.75 to 5.5), p=0.04), but not in V3 (4.0 mm (2 to 5.5) vs 3.0 mm (1.75 to 4), p=0.09). The increase in TWa in V2 and V3 after reperfusion was greater in PMI compared with non-PMI: (V2, 3.4 mm (2 to 5.25) vs 1.25 mm (-0.25 to 2), p=0.0005; V3, 2 mm (-0.5 to 3.25) vs 0.25 mm (-1 to 1.75), p=0.03). Reperfusion of the posterior wall results in higher right precordial TWa, and an even greater increase in TWa, as measured in leads V2 and V3. This observation has important implications for emergency physicians to accurately identify recent posterior infarction in patients who may be symptom free on presentation but at risk of reocclusion. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Introduction Regeneration is a widespread phenomenon in the animal kingdom, but the capacity to restore damaged or missing tissue varies greatly between different phyla and even within the same phylum. However, the distantly related Acoelomorpha and Platyhelminthes share a strikingly similar stem-cell system and regenerative capacity. Therefore, comparing the underlying mechanisms in these two phyla paves the way for an increased understanding of the evolution of this developmental process. To date, Isodiametra pulchra is the most promising candidate as a model for the Acoelomorpha, as it reproduces steadily under laboratory conditions and is amenable to various techniques, including the silencing of gene expression by RNAi. In order to provide an essential framework for future studies, we report the succession of regeneration events via the use of cytochemical, histological and microscopy techniques, and specify the total number of cells in adult individuals. Results Isodiametra pulchra is not capable of regenerating a new head, but completely restores all posterior structures within 10 days. Following amputation, the wound closes via the contraction of local muscle fibres and an extension of the dorsal epidermis. Subsequently, stem cells and differentiating cells invade the wound area and form a loosely delimited blastema. After two days, the posterior end is re-patterned with the male (and occasionally the female) genital primordium being apparent. Successively, these primordia differentiate into complete copulatory organs. The size of the body and also of the male and female copulatory organs, as well as the distance between the copulatory organs, progressively increase and by nine days copulation is possible. Adult individuals with an average length of 670 μm consist of approximately 8100 cells. Conclusion Isodiametra pulchra regenerates through a combination of morphallactic and epimorphic processes. Existing structures are “re-modelled” and provide a
Young, Ki Won; Kim, Jin-su; Cho, Jae Ho; Kim, Hyung Seuk; Cho, Hun Ki; Lee, Kyung Tai
We assessed the frequency and types of ankle fractures that frequently occur during parachute landings of special operation unit personnel and analyzed the causes. Fifty-six members of the special force brigade of the military who had sustained ankle fractures during parachute landings between January 2005 and April 2010 were retrospectively analyzed. The injury sites and fracture sites were identified and the fracture types were categorized by the Lauge-Hansen and Weber classifications. Follow-up surveys were performed with respect to the American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society ankle-hindfoot score, patient satisfaction, and return to preinjury activity. The patients were all males with a mean age of 23.6 years. There were 28 right and 28 left ankle fractures. Twenty-two patients had simple fractures and 34 patients had comminuted fractures. The average number of injury and fractures sites per person was 2.07 (116 injuries including a syndesmosis injury and a deltoid injury) and 1.75 (98 fracture sites), respectively. Twenty-three cases (41.07%) were accompanied by posterior malleolar fractures. Fifty-five patients underwent surgery; of these, 30 had plate internal fixations. Weber type A, B, and C fractures were found in 4, 38, and 14 cases, respectively. Based on the Lauge-Hansen classification, supination-external rotation injuries were found in 20 cases, supination-adduction injuries in 22 cases, pronation-external rotation injuries in 11 cases, tibiofibular fractures in 2 cases, and simple medial malleolar fractures in 2 cases. The mean follow-up period was 23.8 months, and the average follow-up American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society ankle-hindfoot score was 85.42. Forty-five patients (80.36%) reported excellent or good satisfaction with the outcome. Posterior malleolar fractures occurred in 41.07% of ankle fractures sustained in parachute landings. Because most of the ankle fractures in parachute injuries were compound fractures, most cases had to
Young, Ki Won; Cho, Jae Ho; Kim, Hyung Seuk; Cho, Hun Ki; Lee, Kyung Tai
Background We assessed the frequency and types of ankle fractures that frequently occur during parachute landings of special operation unit personnel and analyzed the causes. Methods Fifty-six members of the special force brigade of the military who had sustained ankle fractures during parachute landings between January 2005 and April 2010 were retrospectively analyzed. The injury sites and fracture sites were identified and the fracture types were categorized by the Lauge-Hansen and Weber classifications. Follow-up surveys were performed with respect to the American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society ankle-hindfoot score, patient satisfaction, and return to preinjury activity. Results The patients were all males with a mean age of 23.6 years. There were 28 right and 28 left ankle fractures. Twenty-two patients had simple fractures and 34 patients had comminuted fractures. The average number of injury and fractures sites per person was 2.07 (116 injuries including a syndesmosis injury and a deltoid injury) and 1.75 (98 fracture sites), respectively. Twenty-three cases (41.07%) were accompanied by posterior malleolar fractures. Fifty-five patients underwent surgery; of these, 30 had plate internal fixations. Weber type A, B, and C fractures were found in 4, 38, and 14 cases, respectively. Based on the Lauge-Hansen classification, supination-external rotation injuries were found in 20 cases, supination-adduction injuries in 22 cases, pronation-external rotation injuries in 11 cases, tibiofibular fractures in 2 cases, and simple medial malleolar fractures in 2 cases. The mean follow-up period was 23.8 months, and the average follow-up American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society ankle-hindfoot score was 85.42. Forty-five patients (80.36%) reported excellent or good satisfaction with the outcome. Conclusions Posterior malleolar fractures occurred in 41.07% of ankle fractures sustained in parachute landings. Because most of the ankle fractures in parachute injuries were
Glaser, Nicole; Ngo, Catherine; Anderson, Steven; Yuen, Natalie; Trifu, Alexandra; O’Donnell, Martha
Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) may cause brain injuries in children. The mechanisms responsible are difficult to elucidate because DKA involves multiple metabolic derangements. We aimed to determine the independent effects of hyperglycemia and ketosis on cerebral metabolism, blood flow, and water distribution. We used magnetic resonance spectroscopy to measure ratios of cerebral metabolites (ATP to inorganic phosphate [Pi], phosphocreatine [PCr] to Pi, N-acetyl aspartate [NAA] to creatine [Cr], and lactate to Cr) and diffusion-weighted imaging and perfusion-weighted imaging to assess cerebral water distribution (apparent diffusion coefficient [ADC] values) and cerebral blood flow (CBF) in three groups of juvenile rats (hyperglycemic, ketotic, and normal control). ATP-to-Pi ratio was reduced in both hyperglycemic and ketotic rats in comparison with controls. PCr-to-Pi ratio was reduced in the ketotic group, and there was a trend toward reduction in the hyperglycemic group. No significant differences were observed in NAA-to-Cr or lactate-to-Cr ratio. Cortical ADC was reduced in both groups (indicating brain cell swelling). Cortical CBF was also reduced in both groups. We conclude that both hyperglycemia and ketosis independently cause reductions in cerebral high-energy phosphates, CBF, and cortical ADC values. These effects may play a role in the pathophysiology of DKA-related brain injury. PMID:22498698
Glaser, Nicole; Ngo, Catherine; Anderson, Steven; Yuen, Natalie; Trifu, Alexandra; O'Donnell, Martha
Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) may cause brain injuries in children. The mechanisms responsible are difficult to elucidate because DKA involves multiple metabolic derangements. We aimed to determine the independent effects of hyperglycemia and ketosis on cerebral metabolism, blood flow, and water distribution. We used magnetic resonance spectroscopy to measure ratios of cerebral metabolites (ATP to inorganic phosphate [Pi], phosphocreatine [PCr] to Pi, N-acetyl aspartate [NAA] to creatine [Cr], and lactate to Cr) and diffusion-weighted imaging and perfusion-weighted imaging to assess cerebral water distribution (apparent diffusion coefficient [ADC] values) and cerebral blood flow (CBF) in three groups of juvenile rats (hyperglycemic, ketotic, and normal control). ATP-to-Pi ratio was reduced in both hyperglycemic and ketotic rats in comparison with controls. PCr-to-Pi ratio was reduced in the ketotic group, and there was a trend toward reduction in the hyperglycemic group. No significant differences were observed in NAA-to-Cr or lactate-to-Cr ratio. Cortical ADC was reduced in both groups (indicating brain cell swelling). Cortical CBF was also reduced in both groups. We conclude that both hyperglycemia and ketosis independently cause reductions in cerebral high-energy phosphates, CBF, and cortical ADC values. These effects may play a role in the pathophysiology of DKA-related brain injury.
Limeira, Adriana Bezerra; Aguiar, Carlos Menezes; de Lima Bezerra, Niedje Siqueira; Câmara, Andréea Cruz
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between breast-feeding duration and the subsequent occurrence of posterior crossbite in Brazilian children. A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 714 six- to nine-year-old children. A questionnaire was completed by mothers or guardians of the children concerning the length of time they were exclusively breast-fed and the breast-feeding duration. A clinical examination of each child was conducted to detect posterior crossbite. Data were analyzed using Pearson's chi-square test at a five percent significance level. There was a posterior crossbite prevalence of approximately 15 percent. There was no statistically significant association between posterior crossbite and age or gender ( P >.05). The prevalence of posterior crossbite was higher among children who were not breast-fed (28 percent) than among breast-fed children (13 percent). There was a significant association between posterior crossbite and the length of time that children were exclusively breast-fed and the breast-feeding duration ( P <.05 percent). The prevalence of posterior crossbite gradually decreased as exclusive breast-feeding duration increased, and there was a relationship between breast-feeding duration and the occurrence of posterior crossbite.
Monteiro, Douglas R; Silva, Emily V F; Pellizzer, Eduardo P; Filho, Osvaldo Magro; Goiato, Marcelo C
To discuss important characteristics of the use of dental implants in posterior quadrants and the rehabilitation planning. An electronic search of English articles was conducted on MEDLINE (PubMed) from 1990 up to the period of March 2014. The key terms were dental implants and posterior jaws, dental implants/treatment planning and posterior maxilla, and dental implants/treatment planning and posterior mandible. No exclusion criteria were used for the initial search. Clinical trials, randomized and non randomized studies, classical and comparative studies, multicenter studies, in vitro and in vivo studies, case reports, longitudinal studies and reviews of the literature were included in this review. One hundred and fifty-two articles met the inclusion criteria of treatment planning of dental implants in posterior jaw and were read in their entirety. The selected articles were categorized with respect to their context on space for restoration, anatomic considerations (bone quantity and density), radiographic techniques, implant selection (number, position, diameter and surface), tilted and pterygoid implants, short implants, occlusal considerations, and success rates of implants placed in the posterior region. The results derived from the review process were described under several different topic headings to give readers a clear overview of the literature. In general, it was observed that the use of dental implants in posterior region requires a careful treatment plan. It is important that the practitioner has knowledge about the theme to evaluate the treatment parameters. The use of implants to restore the posterior arch presents many challenges and requires a detailed treatment planning.
Terra, Bernardo Barcellos; Sassine, Tannus Jorge; Lima, Guilherme de Freitas; Rodrigues, Leandro Marano; Padua, David Victoria Hoffmann; Nadai, Anderson de
Fractures of the radial head and radial neck correspond to 1.7-5.4% of all fractures and approximately 30% may present associated injuries. In the literature, there are few reports of radial head fracture with posterior interosseous nerve injury. This study aimed to report a case of radial head fracture associated with posterior interosseous nerve injury.
Fiebai, Bassey; Padhi, Tapas Ranjan; Panda, Krushna Gopal; Modi, Rohit Ramesh
Posterior scleritis is a great mimicker and can cause irreversible visual loss because of late or misdiagnosis. We report a case of retinal pigment epithelial rip in the event of nodular posterior scleritis that is hardly reported in the literature. The authors hypothesize the rip to be a result of inflammation, exudation and continuing pressure by the fluid or granuloma on the pigment epithelium.
Kaye, B.R.; Fainstat, M.
A case of cerebral vasculitis in a previously healthy 22-year-old man with a history of cocaine abuse is described. Cerebral angiograms showed evidence of vasculitis. A search for possible causes other than cocaine produced no results. The authors include cocaine with methamphetamines, heroin, and ephedrine as illicit drugs that can cause cerebral vasculitis.
Mysak, Edward D.
Intended for cerebral palsy specialists, the book emphasizes the contribution that a neuroevolutional approach to therapy can make to habilitation goals of the child with cerebral palsy and applies the basic principles of the Bobath approach to therapy. The first section discusses cerebral palsy as a reflection of disturbed neuro-ontogenisis and…
Based on 6 years of work with cerebral palsied children, the thesis considers types and causes of cerebral palsy, the life pattern of the child with cerebral palsy from early years to adolescence, and the effect of the handicapped child on his parents and family. Literature on behavior disorders is reviewed, and kinds of behavior problems are…
Mysak, Edward D.
Intended for cerebral palsy specialists, the book emphasizes the contribution that a neuroevolutional approach to therapy can make to habilitation goals of the child with cerebral palsy and applies the basic principles of the Bobath approach to therapy. The first section discusses cerebral palsy as a reflection of disturbed neuro-ontogenisis and…