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Sample records for angiogenesis inhibitor tnp-470

  1. Structure of a microsporidian methionine aminopeptidase type 2 complexed with fumagillin and TNP-470

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarado, J.; Nemkal, A; Sauder, J; Russell, M; Akiyoshi, D; Shi, W; Almo, S; Weiss, L

    2009-01-01

    Microsporidia are protists that have been reported to cause infections in both vertebrates and invertebrates. They have emerged as human pathogens particularly in patients that are immunosuppressed and cases of gastrointestinal infection, encephalitis, keratitis, sinusitis, myositis and disseminated infection are well described in the literature. While benzimidazoles are active against many species of microsporidia, these drugs do not have significant activity against Enterocytozoon bieneusi. Fumagillin and its analogues have been demonstrated to have activity in vitro and in animal models of microsporidiosis and human infections due to E. bieneusi. Fumagillin and its analogues inhibit methionine aminopeptidase type 2. Encephalitozoon cuniculi MetAP2 (EcMetAP2) was cloned and expressed as an active enzyme using a baculovirus system. The crystal structure of EcMetAP2 was determined with and without the bound inhibitors fumagillin and TNP-470. This structure classifies EcMetAP2 as a member of the MetAP2c family. The EcMetAP2 structure was used to generate a homology model of the E. bieneusi MetAP2. Comparison of microsporidian MetAP2 structures with human MetAP2 provides insights into the design of inhibitors that might exhibit specificity for microsporidian MetAP2.

  2. Structure of a microsporidian methionine aminopeptidase type 2 complexed with fumagillin and TNP-470.

    PubMed

    Alvarado, John Jeff; Nemkal, Anjana; Sauder, J Michael; Russell, Marijane; Akiyoshi, Donna E; Shi, Wuxian; Almo, Steven C; Weiss, Louis M

    2009-12-01

    Microsporidia are protists that have been reported to cause infections in both vertebrates and invertebrates. They have emerged as human pathogens particularly in patients that are immunosuppressed and cases of gastrointestinal infection, encephalitis, keratitis, sinusitis, myositis and disseminated infection are well described in the literature. While benzimidazoles are active against many species of microsporidia, these drugs do not have significant activity against Enterocytozoon bieneusi. Fumagillin and its analogues have been demonstrated to have activity invitro and in animal models of microsporidiosis and human infections due to E. bieneusi. Fumagillin and its analogues inhibit methionine aminopeptidase type 2. Encephalitozoon cuniculi MetAP2 (EcMetAP2) was cloned and expressed as an active enzyme using a baculovirus system. The crystal structure of EcMetAP2 was determined with and without the bound inhibitors fumagillin and TNP-470. This structure classifies EcMetAP2 as a member of the MetAP2c family. The EcMetAP2 structure was used to generate a homology model of the E. bieneusi MetAP2. Comparison of microsporidian MetAP2 structures with human MetAP2 provides insights into the design of inhibitors that might exhibit specificity for microsporidian MetAP2.

  3. Targeting angiogenesis: a review of angiogenesis inhibitors in the treatment of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Sridhar, Srikala S; Shepherd, Frances A

    2003-12-01

    It has now been almost 30 years since Dr J. Folkman first proposed that inhibition of angiogenesis could play a key role in treating cancer; however, it is only recently that anti-angiogenesis agents have entered the clinical setting. The search for novel therapies is particularly important in lung cancer, where the majority of patients succumb to their disease despite aggressive treatments. Several classes of agents now exist that target the different steps involved in angiogenesis. These include drugs inhibiting matrix breakdown, the matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors (MMPIs), such as marimastat, prinomastat, BMS275291, BAY12-9566, and neovastat drugs that block endothelial cell signaling via vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptor (VEGFR) including rhuMAb VEGF, SU5416, SU6668, ZD6474, CP-547,632 and ZD4190. Drugs that are similar to endogenous inhibitors of angiogenesis including endostatin, angiostatin and interferons. There has also been renewed interest in thalidomide. Drugs such as squalamine, celecoxib, ZD6126, TNP-470 and those targeting the integrins are also being evaluated in lung cancer. Despite early enthusiasm for many of these agents, Phase III trials have not yet demonstrated significant increases in overall survival and toxicity remains an issue. It is hoped that as our understanding of the complex process of angiogenesis increases, so will our ability to design more effective targeted therapies. PMID:14611919

  4. Methionine AminoPeptidase Type-2 Inhibitors Targeting Angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ehlers, Tedman; Furness, Scott; Robinson, Thomas Philip; Zhong, Haizhen A; Goldsmith, David; Aribser, Jack; Bowen, J Phillip

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenesis has been identified as a crucial process in the development and spread of cancers. There are many regulators of angiogenesis which are not yet fully understood. Methionine aminiopeptidase is a metalloenzyme with two structurally distinct forms in humans, Type-1 (MetAP-1) and Type-2 (MetAP-2). It has been shown that small molecule inhibitors of MetAP-2 suppress endothelial cell proliferation. The initial discovery by Donald Ingber of MetAP-2 inhibition as a potential target in angiogenesis began with a fortuitous observation similar to the discovery of penicillin activity by Sir Alexander Fleming. From a drug design perspective, MetAP-2 is an attractive target. Fumagillin and ovalicin, known natural products, bind with IC50 values in low nanomolar concentrations. Crystal structures of the bound complexes provide 3-dimensional coordinates for advanced computational studies. More recent discoveries have shown other biological activities for MetAP-2 inhibition, which has generated new interests in the design of novel inhibitors. Semisynthetic fumagillin derivatives such as AGM-1470 (TNP-470) have been shown to have better drug properties, but have not been very successful in clinical trials. The rationale and development of novel multicyclic analogs of fumagillin are reviewed.

  5. Methionine AminoPeptidase Type-2 Inhibitors Targeting Angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ehlers, Tedman; Furness, Scott; Robinson, Thomas Philip; Zhong, Haizhen A; Goldsmith, David; Aribser, Jack; Bowen, J Phillip

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenesis has been identified as a crucial process in the development and spread of cancers. There are many regulators of angiogenesis which are not yet fully understood. Methionine aminiopeptidase is a metalloenzyme with two structurally distinct forms in humans, Type-1 (MetAP-1) and Type-2 (MetAP-2). It has been shown that small molecule inhibitors of MetAP-2 suppress endothelial cell proliferation. The initial discovery by Donald Ingber of MetAP-2 inhibition as a potential target in angiogenesis began with a fortuitous observation similar to the discovery of penicillin activity by Sir Alexander Fleming. From a drug design perspective, MetAP-2 is an attractive target. Fumagillin and ovalicin, known natural products, bind with IC50 values in low nanomolar concentrations. Crystal structures of the bound complexes provide 3-dimensional coordinates for advanced computational studies. More recent discoveries have shown other biological activities for MetAP-2 inhibition, which has generated new interests in the design of novel inhibitors. Semisynthetic fumagillin derivatives such as AGM-1470 (TNP-470) have been shown to have better drug properties, but have not been very successful in clinical trials. The rationale and development of novel multicyclic analogs of fumagillin are reviewed. PMID:26369821

  6. Angiogenesis inhibitors under study for the treatment of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Frances A; Sridhar, Srikala S

    2003-08-01

    Several classes of agents now exist that target the different steps involved in angiogenesis. These include drugs inhibiting matrix breakdown, the matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors (MMPIs), such as marimastat, prinomastat, BMS275291, BAY12-9566, and neovastat. Trials of this class of agents have all been negative to date. Drugs that block endothelial cell signaling via vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptor (VEGFR) including rhuMAb VEGF, SU5416, SU6668, ZD6474, CP-547,632 and ZD4190 are all in earlier stages of clinical trial. Drugs that are similar to endogenous inhibitors of angiogenesis including interferons have also been evaluated without success. Endostatin has been shown to have an acceptable toxicity profile, but clinical evidence of activity has not yet been demonstrated. There has also been renewed interest in thalidomide. Drugs such as squalamine, celecoxib, ZD6126, TNP-470 and those targeting the integrins are also being evaluated in lung cancer. Despite early enthusiasm for many of these agents, Phase III trials have not yet demonstrated significant increases in overall survival and toxicity remains an issue. It is hoped that as our understanding of the complex process of angiogenesis increases, so will our ability to design more effective targeted therapies. PMID:12867064

  7. Influence of levamisole and other angiogenesis inhibitors on angiogenesis and endothelial cell morphology in vitro.

    PubMed

    Friis, Tina; Engel, Anne-Marie; Bendiksen, Christine D; Larsen, Line S; Houen, Gunnar

    2013-01-01

    Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels from existing vessels is required for many physiological processes and for growth of solid tumors. Initiated by hypoxia, angiogenesis involves binding of angiogenic factors to endothelial cell (EC) receptors and activation of cellular signaling, differentiation, migration, proliferation, interconnection and canalization of ECs, remodeling of the extracellular matrix and stabilization of newly formed vessels. Experimentally, these processes can be studied by several in vitro and in vivo assays focusing on different steps in the process. In vitro, ECs form networks of capillary-like tubes when propagated for three days in coculture with fibroblasts. The tube formation is dependent on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and omission of VEGF from the culture medium results in the formation of clusters of undifferentiated ECs. Addition of angiogenesis inhibitors to the coculture system disrupts endothelial network formation and influences EC morphology in two distinct ways. Treatment with antibodies to VEGF, soluble VEGF receptor, the VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor SU5614, protein tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor (PTPI) IV or levamisole results in the formation of EC clusters of variable size. This cluster morphology is a result of inhibited EC differentiation and levamisole can be inferred to influence and block VEGF signaling. Treatment with platelet factor 4, thrombospondin, rapamycin, suramin, TNP-470, salubrinal, PTPI I, PTPI II, clodronate, NSC87877 or non-steriodal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) results in the formation of short cords of ECs, which suggests that these inhibitors have an influence on later steps in the angiogenic process, such as EC proliferation and migration. A humanized antibody to VEGF is one of a few angiogenesis inhibitors used clinically for treatment of cancer. Levamisole is approved for clinical treatment of cancer and is interesting with respect to anti-angiogenic activity

  8. Angiogenesis Inhibitors

    MedlinePlus

    ... of anticancer agents that target the VEGF pathway. Nature Reviews Clinical Oncology 2009; 6(8):465–477. [ ... mechanisms involved in the toxicity of angiogenesis inhibition. Nature Reviews Cancer 2007; 7(6):475–485. [PubMed ...

  9. Tumor suppression by a rationally designed reversible inhibitor of methionine aminopeptidase-2.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jieyi; Sheppard, George S; Lou, Pingping; Kawai, Megumi; BaMaung, Nwe; Erickson, Scott A; Tucker-Garcia, Lora; Park, Chang; Bouska, Jennifer; Wang, Yi-Chun; Frost, David; Tapang, Paul; Albert, Daniel H; Morgan, Sherry J; Morowitz, Michael; Shusterman, Suzanne; Maris, John M; Lesniewski, Rick; Henkin, Jack

    2003-11-15

    Methionine aminopeptidase (MetAP)-2 has been suggested as a novel target for cancer therapy because the anticancer agent TNP-470 irreversibly inactivates the catalytic activity of this enzyme. However, the importance of MetAP2 in cell growth and tumor progression was uncertain because previous data were based on the chemically reactive TNP-470. Here we show that a rationally designed reversible MetAP2 inhibitor, A-357300, suppresses tumor growth preclinically without the toxicities observed with TNP-470. We have synthesized this bestatin-type MetAP2 inhibitor with the aid of crystal structures of the enzyme-inhibitor complexes and parallel synthesis. A-357300 induces cytostasis by cell cycle arrest at the G(1) phase selectively in endothelial cells and in a subset of tumor cells, but not in most primary cells of nonendothelial type. A-357300 inhibits angiogenesis both in vitro and in vivo and shows potent antitumor efficacy in carcinoma, sarcoma, and neuroblastoma murine models. These data affirm that MetAP2 plays a pivotal role in cell growth and establish that reversible MetAP2 inhibitors are promising novel cancer therapeutic agents.

  10. Inhibitors of Angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Büning, H; Hacker, U T

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenesis plays a pivotal role in malignant, ischemic, inflammatory, infectious and immune disorders. The increasing molecular understanding of angiogenic processes fostered the development of strategies to induce or inhibit angiogenesis for therapeutic purposes. Here, we focus on anti-angiogenic therapies, which represent a standard of care in the treatment of different cancer types and in neovascular age-related macular degeneration. Specifically, strategies related to the blockade of angiogenic proteins and receptors will be outlined covering both preclinical and clinical aspects. Finally, examples of gene therapy based anti-angiogenic approaches are presented. PMID:27236560

  11. Role of endogenous angiogenesis inhibitors in Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ryeom, Sandra; Folkman, Judah

    2009-03-01

    New blood vessel growth via angiogenesis is a fundamental process in both physiological and pathological conditions. Physiological angiogenesis is critical during embryogenesis and placental development, whereas pathological angiogenesis plays an important role in the progression of many diseases, most notably tumor growth. Tumor angiogenesis is well accepted to be regulated by a balance of proangiogenic and antiangiogenic factors produced both by tumor cells and surrounding stromal cells. For many years, investigation of antiangiogenic therapies for cancer has focused on the proangiogenic cytokine, vascular endothelial growth factor; its receptors; or downstream signaling pathways. However, more recently with the identification of endogenous angiogenesis inhibitors, studies have turned toward understanding the role of endogenous antiangiogenic proteins in preventing disease progression. Clinical clues have suggested that specific populations may have dysregulated angiogenesis due to differential expression of endogenous angiogenesis regulators. For example, individuals with Down syndrome may possess a systemic antiangiogenic state with a significantly decreased incidence of angiogenesis-dependent diseases. Our work suggests that endogenous angiogenesis inhibitors may be the master regulators controlling progression of angiogenesis-dependent diseases such as vascular anomalies and cancer. The molecular regulation of angiogenesis is not yet fully understood; however, the Down syndrome population may give us insights toward novel therapies for controlling angiogenesis in disease.

  12. Tumour Angiogenesis and Angiogenic Inhibitors: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Lalita; Puri, Naveen; Satpute, Pranali; Sharma, Vandana

    2015-01-01

    Angiogenesis is a complex process depending on the coordination of many regulators and there by activating angiogenic switch. Recent advances in understanding of angiogenic mechanism have lead to the development of several anti-angiogenic and anti-metastatic agents that use the strategy of regulation of angiogenic switch. Antiangiogenic therapy is a form of treatment not cure for cancer and represents a highly effective strategy for destroying tumour because vascular supply is the fundamental requirement for growth of tumour. Because of the quiescent nature of normal adult vasculature, angiogenic inhibitors are expected to confer a degree of specificity when compared to nonspecific modalities of chemo and radiotherapy, so it has the advantage of less toxicities, does not induce drug resistance and deliver a relatively non toxic, long term treatment of tumour. PMID:26266204

  13. Modulation of angiogenesis by tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-4

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, Cecilia A.; Moses, Marsha A. . E-mail: marsha.moses@childrens.harvard.edu

    2006-06-23

    Despite the importance of MMP activity in the regulation of angiogenesis, relatively little is known about the role of TIMP-4, the most recently discovered endogenous MMP inhibitor, in modulating neovascularization. It has largely been assumed that all TIMPs are capable of inhibiting angiogenesis in vivo. However, it is now widely appreciated that TIMPs-1, -2, and -3 differ significantly in their ability to modulate angiogenic processes in vitro and angiogenesis in vivo. In order to study the effect of TIMP-4 in controlling angiogenesis, we have cloned and expressed TIMP-4 in a Pichia pastoris expression system, purified it to homogeneity, and tested its ability to regulate angiogenesis in vivo and in vitro. Our studies demonstrate that TIMP-4 is an inhibitor of capillary endothelial cell migration, but not of proliferation or of angiogenesis in vivo.

  14. Natural product inhibitors of ocular angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Sulaiman, Rania S.; Basavarajappa, Halesha D.; Corson, Timothy W.

    2014-01-01

    Natural products are characterized by high chemical diversity and biochemical specificity; therefore, they are appealing as lead compounds for drug discovery. Given the importance of angiogenesis to many pathologies, numerous natural products have been explored as potential anti-angiogenic drugs. Ocular angiogenesis underlies blinding eye diseases such as retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in children, proliferative diabetic retinopathy (DR) in adults of working age, and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in the elderly. Despite the presence of effective therapy in many cases, these diseases are still a significant health burden. Anti-VEGF biologics are the standard of care, but may cause ocular or systemic side effects after intraocular administration and patients may be refractory. Many anti-angiogenic compounds inhibit tumor growth and metastasis alone or in combination therapy, but a more select subset of them has been tested in the context of ocular neovascular diseases. Here, we review the promise of natural products as anti-angiogenic agents, with a specific focus on retinal and choroidal neovascularization. The multifunctional curcumin and the chalcone isoliquiritigenin have demonstrated promising anti-angiogenic effects in mouse models of DR and choroidal neovascularization (CNV) respectively. The homoisoflavanone cremastranone and the flavonoid deguelin have been shown to inhibit ocular neovascularization in more than one disease model. The isoflavone genistein and the flavone apigenin on the other hand are showing potential in the prevention of retinal and choroidal angiogenesis with long-term administration. Many other products with antiangiogenic potential in vitro such as the lactone withaferin A, the flavonol quercetin, and the stilbenoid combretastatin A4 are awaiting investigation in different ocular disease relevant animal models. These natural products may serve as lead compounds for the design of more specific, efficacious, and affordable

  15. Natural product inhibitors of ocular angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Sulaiman, Rania S; Basavarajappa, Halesha D; Corson, Timothy W

    2014-12-01

    Natural products are characterized by high chemical diversity and biochemical specificity; therefore, they are appealing as lead compounds for drug discovery. Given the importance of angiogenesis to many pathologies, numerous natural products have been explored as potential anti-angiogenic drugs. Ocular angiogenesis underlies blinding eye diseases such as retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in children, proliferative diabetic retinopathy (DR) in adults of working age, and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in the elderly. Despite the presence of effective therapy in many cases, these diseases are still a significant health burden. Anti-VEGF biologics are the standard of care, but may cause ocular or systemic side effects after intraocular administration and patients may be refractory. Many anti-angiogenic compounds inhibit tumor growth and metastasis alone or in combination therapy, but a more select subset of them has been tested in the context of ocular neovascular diseases. Here, we review the promise of natural products as anti-angiogenic agents, with a specific focus on retinal and choroidal neovascularization. The multifunctional curcumin and the chalcone isoliquiritigenin have demonstrated promising anti-angiogenic effects in mouse models of DR and choroidal neovascularization (CNV) respectively. The homoisoflavanone cremastranone and the flavonoid deguelin have been shown to inhibit ocular neovascularization in more than one disease model. The isoflavone genistein and the flavone apigenin on the other hand are showing potential in the prevention of retinal and choroidal angiogenesis with long-term administration. Many other products with anti-angiogenic potential in vitro such as the lactone withaferin A, the flavonol quercetin, and the stilbenoid combretastatin A4 are awaiting investigation in different ocular disease-relevant animal models. These natural products may serve as lead compounds for the design of more specific, efficacious, and affordable

  16. Marine-Derived Angiogenesis Inhibitors for Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying-Qing; Miao, Ze-Hong

    2013-01-01

    Angiogenesis inhibitors have been successfully used for cancer therapy in the clinic. Many marine-derived natural products and their analogues have been reported to show antiangiogenic activities. Compared with the drugs in the clinic, these agents display interesting characteristics, including diverse sources, unique chemical structures, special modes of action, and distinct activity and toxicity profiles. This review will first provide an overview of the current marine-derived angiogenesis inhibitors based on their primary targets and/or mechanisms of action. Then, the marine-derived antiangiogenic protein kinase inhibitors will be focused on. And finally, the clinical trials of the marine-derived antiangiogenic agents will be discussed, with special emphasis on their application potentials, problems and possible coping strategies in their future development as anticancer drugs. PMID:23502698

  17. The development of MetAP-2 inhibitors in cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Yin, S-Q; Wang, J-J; Zhang, C-M; Liu, Z-P

    2012-01-01

    Methionine aminopeptidases (MetAPs), which remove methionine residue from newly synthesized polypeptide chains, are a class of metalloproteases ubiquitously distributed in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. MetAP-2 inhibition can induce G1 cell cycle arrest, cytostasis in tumor cells in vitro and inhibition of tumor growth in vivo. The discovery of fumagillin with potent antiangiogenic and antiproliferative activities promoted the development of fumagillin analogues as a novel class of anticancer agents. Early drug discovery efforts have focused on analogs of fumagillin, which irreversibly inhibit MetAP-2 through covalent modification of an epoxide. Several fumagillin analogs, like CKD-732, TNP-470 and PPI-2458, were found to be potent selective inhibitors of MetAP-2 (proteolytic activity) and endothelial cell proliferation. Further, they have entered in clinical trials for the treatment of different types of tumors. Recently, attention has been paid to reversible human MetAP-2 inhibitors, such as bengamides, 2-hydroxy-3-aminoamides, anthranilic acid sulfonamides and triazole analogs, which have demonstrated their potential to inhibit angiogenesis and tumor growth in vivo as well. This review article mainly discussed the development of MetAP-2 inhibitors in cancer therapy and also summarized their structure-activity relationships. PMID:22229417

  18. Targeting Angiogenesis in Colorectal Cancer: Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Kircher, Sheetal Mehta; Nimeiri, Halla S; Benson, Al B

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is commonly diagnosed throughout the world, and treatment options have greatly expanded over the last 2 decades. Targeting angiogenesis has been a major focus of study in a variety of malignancy types. Targeting angiogenesis has been achieved by several mechanisms in colorectal cancer, including use of antiangiogenic small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). There have been many attempts and failures to prove efficacy of TKIs in the treatment of colorectal cancer including sorafenib, sunitinib, vatalanib, and tivozanib. Regorafenib was the first TKI to demonstrate efficacy and is an orally active inhibitor of angiogenic (including the vascular endothelial growth factor receptors 1, 2, and 3), stromal, and oncogenic receptor tyrosine kinases. There are ongoing investigations of both regorafenib and ninetanib; however, there remains a critical need to better understand novel combinations with TKIs that could prove more efficacious than available options. PMID:27341596

  19. Combining radiotherapy and angiogenesis inhibitors: Clinical trial design

    SciTech Connect

    Citrin, Deborah . E-mail: citrind@mail.nih.gov; Menard, Cynthia; Camphausen, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    Radiotherapy (RT) plays a vital role in the multimodality treatment of cancer. Recent advances in RT have primarily involved improvements in dose delivery. Future improvements in tumor control and disease outcomes will likely involve the combination of RT with targeted therapies. Preclinical evaluations of angiogenesis inhibitors in combination with RT have yielded promising results with increased tumor 'cure.' It remains to be seen whether these improvements in tumor control in the laboratory will translate into improved outcomes in the clinic. Multiple differences between these agents and cytotoxic chemotherapy must be taken into account when designing clinical trials evaluating their effectiveness in combination with RT. We discuss important considerations for designing clinical trials of angiogenesis inhibitors with RT.

  20. Novel glycosaminoglycan biosynthetic inhibitors affect tumor-associated angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Raman, Karthik; Ninomiya, Masayuki; Nguyen, Thao Kim Nu; Tsuzuki, Yasuhiro; Koketsu, Mamoru; Kuberan, Balagurunathan

    2011-01-01

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) are essential players in several steps of tumor-associated angiogenesis. As co-receptors for several pro-angiogenic factors such as VEGF and FGF, HSPGs regulate receptor-ligand interactions and play a vital role in signal transduction. Previously, we have employed an enzymatic strategy to show the importance of cell surface HSPGs in endothelial tube formation in vitro. We have recently found several fluoro-xylosides that can selectively inhibit proteoglycan synthesis in endothelial cells. The current study demonstrates that these fluoro-xylosides are effective inhibitors of endothelial tube formation in vitro using a matrigel based assay to simulate tumor-associated angiogenesis. These first generation scaffolds offer a promising stepping-stone to the discovery of more potent fluoro-xylosides that can effectively neutralize tumor growth. PMID:21094131

  1. Angiogenesis Inhibitors in the treatment of Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kluetz, Paul G.; Figg, William D.; Dahut, William L.

    2009-01-01

    Importance of the Field Prostate carcinoma is the most common non-cutaneous malignancy in American men. The efficacy of docetaxel and prednisone in metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) has been shown to improve overall survival however its effect is not durable highlighting the need for new therapies. Areas covered in this Review We will review the development of some of the leading compounds with direct and indirect anti-angiogenic activity in prostate cancer including antibodies to vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptors, small molecule inhibitors of downstream signaling, immunomodulatory drugs with anti-angiogenic activity, and compounds thought to directly inhibit or destroy vascular endothelial cells. What the reader will gain The reader will gain a basic understanding of the role of angiogenesis in prostate cancer growth and metastasis. Current and potential targets of angiogenesis and their corresponding drugs under development for prostate cancer are discussed. Take Home Message There are now multiple early phase clinical trials of anti-angiogenic agents alone or in combination in prostate cancer. Several of these are now in phase III development. Combined therapy with two or more anti-angiogenic compounds may improve the activity of either compound alone. Multiple targets in the angiogenesis pathway continue to be elucidated and should remain an active area of investigation for the treatment of prostate cancer. PMID:20088745

  2. Polycystin-2 interacts with troponin I, an angiogenesis inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiang; Shen, Patrick Y; Wu, Guanqing; Chen, Xing-Zhen

    2003-01-21

    Polycystin-2 (PC2), encoded by the PKD2 gene, is mutated in 10-15% of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) patients. PC2 is a Ca(2+)-permeable nonselective cation channel and is present in kidney and many other organs. Likewise, PKD2-mutated patients and mice exhibit extrarenal abnormalities. In comparison with cysts in the kidney, liver, and pancreas, abnormalities in the heart, brain, and vascular vessels are less understood. In particular, roles of PC2 in muscle and endothelia remain largely unknown. In the present study, using a yeast two-hybrid screening, we discovered that the PC2 carboxyl terminal domain (D682-V968) interacts with the cardiac troponin I, an important regulatory component of the actin microfilament in cardiac muscle cells. This interaction was demonstrated by GST pull-down and microtiter binding assays. Dose-dependent binding between PC2 and troponin I followed a Michaelis-Menten relationship, indicating a 1:1 binding stoichiometry. The interacting domains were located to the R872-H927 segment of PC2 and the M1-V107 and K106-L158 segments of troponin I. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated that the cardiac and two skeletal isoforms of troponin I were all associated with PC2, when coexpressed in mouse fibroblast NIH 3T3 cells and Xenopus oocytes. Furthermore, reciprocal co-immunoprecipitation verified the interaction between the native polycystin-2 and troponin I in human adult heart tissues. This study thus provides new evidence for a direct attachment of PC2 to the actin microfilament network, in addition to the recently identified association between PC2 and trypomyosin-1. Troponin I functions as an inhibitory subunit of the troponin complex for calcium-dependent regulation of muscle contraction and as an inhibitor of angiogenesis seen in ADPKD. It is possible that altered interaction due to pathogenic polycystin-1 or -2 mutations can account for angiogenesis in ADPKD and may be corrected to some extent by

  3. Angiogenesis inhibitors in cancer therapy: mechanistic perspective on classification and treatment rationales

    PubMed Central

    El-Kenawi, Asmaa E; El-Remessy, Azza B

    2013-01-01

    Angiogenesis, a process of new blood vessel formation, is a prerequisite for tumour growth to supply the proliferating tumour with oxygen and nutrients. The angiogenic process may contribute to tumour progression, invasion and metastasis, and is generally accepted as an indicator of tumour prognosis. Therefore, targeting tumour angiogenesis has become of high clinical relevance. The current review aimed to highlight mechanistic details of anti-angiogenic therapies and how they relate to classification and treatment rationales. Angiogenesis inhibitors are classified into either direct inhibitors that target endothelial cells in the growing vasculature or indirect inhibitors that prevent the expression or block the activity of angiogenesis inducers. The latter class extends to include targeted therapy against oncogenes, conventional chemotherapeutic agents and drugs targeting other cells of the tumour micro-environment. Angiogenesis inhibitors may be used as either monotherapy or in combination with other anticancer drugs. In this context, many preclinical and clinical studies revealed higher therapeutic effectiveness of the combined treatments compared with individual treatments. The proper understanding of synergistic treatment modalities of angiogenesis inhibitors as well as their wide range of cellular targets could provide effective tools for future therapies of many types of cancer. PMID:23962094

  4. Isthmin is a novel secreted angiogenesis inhibitor that inhibits tumour growth in mice.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Wei; Ke, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Yong; Cheng, Grace Ho-Yuet; Irwan, Ishak Darryl; Sulochana, K N; Potturi, Padma; Wang, Zhengyuan; Yang, He; Wang, Jingyu; Zhuo, Lang; Kini, R Manjunatha; Ge, Ruowen

    2011-02-01

    Anti-angiogenesis represents a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of various malignancies. Isthmin (ISM) is a gene highly expressed in the isthmus of the midbrain-hindbrain organizer in Xenopus with no known functions. It encodes a secreted 60 kD protein containing a thrombospondin type 1 repeat domain in the central region and an adhesion-associated domain in MUC4 and other proteins (AMOP) domain at the C-terminal. In this work, we demonstrate that ISM is a novel angiogenesis inhibitor. Recombinant mouse ISM inhibited endothelial cell (EC) capillary network formation on Matrigel through its C-terminal AMOP domain. It also suppressed vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) induced in vivo angiogenesis in mouse. It mitigated VEGF-stimulated EC proliferation without affecting EC migration. Furthermore, ISM induced EC apoptosis in the presence of VEGF through a caspase-dependent pathway. ISM binds to αvβ(5) integrin on EC surface and supports EC adhesion. Overexpression of ISM significantly suppressed mouse B16 melanoma tumour growth through inhibition of tumour angiogenesis without affecting tumour cell proliferation. Knockdown of isthmin in zebrafish embryos using morpholino antisense oligonucleotides led to disorganized intersegmental vessels in the trunk. Our results demonstrate that ISM is a novel endogenous angiogenesis inhibitor with functions likely in physiological as well as pathological angiogenesis.

  5. Isthmin is a novel secreted angiogenesis inhibitor that inhibits tumour growth in mice

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Wei; Ke, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Yong; Ho-Yuet Cheng, Grace; Irwan, Ishak Darryl; Sulochana, K N; Potturi, Padma; Wang, Zhengyuan; Yang, He; Wang, Jingyu; Zhuo, Lang; Kini, R Manjunatha; Ge, Ruowen

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Anti-angiogenesis represents a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of various malignancies. Isthmin (ISM) is a gene highly expressed in the isthmus of the midbrain–hindbrain organizer in Xenopus with no known functions. It encodes a secreted 60 kD protein containing a thrombospondin type 1 repeat domain in the central region and an adhesion-associated domain in MUC4 and other proteins (AMOP) domain at the C-terminal. In this work, we demonstrate that ISM is a novel angiogenesis inhibitor. Recombinant mouse ISM inhibited endothelial cell (EC) capillary network formation on Matrigel through its C-terminal AMOP domain. It also suppressed vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) induced in vivo angiogenesis in mouse. It mitigated VEGF-stimulated EC proliferation without affecting EC migration. Furthermore, ISM induced EC apoptosis in the presence of VEGF through a caspase-dependent pathway. ISM binds to αvβ5 integrin on EC surface and supports EC adhesion. Overexpression of ISM significantly suppressed mouse B16 melanoma tumour growth through inhibition of tumour angiogenesis without affecting tumour cell proliferation. Knockdown of isthmin in zebrafish embryos using morpholino antisense oligonucleotides led to disorganized intersegmen-tal vessels in the trunk. Our results demonstrate that ISM is a novel endogenous angiogenesis inhibitor with functions likely in physiological as well as pathological angiogenesis. PMID:19874420

  6. Black raspberry extract and fractions contain angiogenesis inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhijun; Schwimer, Joshua; Liu, Dong; Greenway, Frank L; Anthony, Catherine T; Woltering, Eugene A

    2005-05-18

    Targeted therapies, such as agents that inhibit angiogenesis, offer hope as complementary agents in cancer therapy. Angiogenesis-inhibiting agents have the potential for inhibiting tumor growth and limiting the dissemination of metastasis, thus keeping cancers in a static growth state for prolonged periods. Black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis) extract was discovered to be antiangiogenic (0.1% w/v) in a novel human tissue-based in vitro fibrin clot angiogenesis assay. Assay-guided fractionation of a crude black raspberry extract resulted in a highly potent antiangiogenic fraction that accounted for only 1% of the fresh weight of whole black raspberries. At 0.075% (w/v), the active fraction completely inhibited angiogenic initiation and angiogenic vessel growth. Further subfractionation of this active fraction revealed the coexistence of multiple antiangiogenic compounds, one of which has been identified as gallic acid. However, the individual subfractions did not outperform the active whole fraction. These findings suggest that an active black raspberry fraction may be a promising complementary cancer therapy. It is natural and potent enough for manageable dosing regimens. These extracts contain multiple active ingredients that may be additive or synergistic in their antiangiogenic effects. These observations warrant further investigations in animals and human trials. PMID:15884816

  7. Stimulation of tumor growth and angiogenesis by low concentrations of RGD-mimetic integrin inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Andrew R; Hart, Ian R; Watson, Alan R; Welti, Jonathan C; Silva, Rita G; Robinson, Stephen D; Da Violante, Georges; Gourlaouen, Morgane; Salih, Mishal; Jones, Matt C; Jones, Dylan T; Saunders, Garry; Kostourou, Vassiliki; Perron-Sierra, Françoise; Norman, Jim C; Tucker, Gordon C; Hodivala-Dilke, Kairbaan M

    2009-04-01

    Inhibitors of alpha(v)beta(3) and alpha(v)beta(5) integrin have entered clinical trials as antiangiogenic agents for cancer treatment but generally have been unsuccessful. Here we present in vivo evidence that low (nanomolar) concentrations of RGD-mimetic alpha(v)beta(3) and alpha(v)beta(5) inhibitors can paradoxically stimulate tumor growth and tumor angiogenesis. We show that low concentrations of these inhibitors promote VEGF-mediated angiogenesis by altering alpha(v)beta(3) integrin and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 trafficking, thereby promoting endothelial cell migration to VEGF. The proangiogenic effects of low concentrations of RGD-mimetic integrin inhibitors could compromise their efficacy as anticancer agents and have major implications for the use of RGD-mimetic compounds in humans.

  8. Treatment of hypertension and renal injury induced by the angiogenesis inhibitor sunitinib: preclinical study.

    PubMed

    Lankhorst, Stephanie; Kappers, Mariëtte H W; van Esch, Joep H M; Smedts, Frank M M; Sleijfer, Stefan; Mathijssen, Ron H J; Baelde, Hans J; Danser, A H Jan; van den Meiracker, Anton H

    2014-12-01

    Common adverse effects of angiogenesis inhibition are hypertension and renal injury. To determine the most optimal way to prevent these adverse effects and to explore their interdependency, the following drugs were investigated in unrestrained Wistar Kyoto rats exposed to the angiogenesis inhibitor sunitinib: the dual endothelin receptor antagonist macitentan; the calcium channel blocker amlodipine; the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor captopril; and the phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor sildenafil. Mean arterial pressure was monitored telemetrically. After 8 days, rats were euthanized and blood samples and kidneys were collected. In addition, 24-hour urine samples were collected. After sunitinib start, mean arterial pressure increased rapidly by ≈30 mm Hg. Coadministration of macitentan or amlodipine largely prevented this rise, whereas captopril or sildenafil did not. Macitentan, captopril, and sildenafil diminished the sunitinib-induced proteinuria and endothelinuria and glomerular intraepithelial protein deposition, whereas amlodipine did not. Changes in proteinuria and endothelinuria were unrelated. We conclude that in our experimental model, dual endothelin receptor antagonism and calcium channel blockade are suitable to prevent angiogenesis inhibition-induced hypertension, whereas dual endothelin receptor antagonism, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, and phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibition can prevent angiogenesis inhibition-induced proteinuria. Moreover, the variable response of hypertension and renal injury to different antihypertensive agents suggests that these side effects are, at least in part, unrelated.

  9. [Isolation and purification of recombinant soluble and non-fusion angiogenesis inhibitor Kringle 5 using chromatography].

    PubMed

    Ma, Lina; Wu, Dan; Bian, Liujiao

    2012-08-01

    The Kringle 5 domain of plasminogen is one of the most potent angiogenesis inhibitors known to date, which can inhibit cell proliferation and migration efficiently. In the study, on the foundation of successful clone and expression of recombinant soluble and non-fusion angiogenesis inhibitor Kringle 5, a two-step chromatographic method, including the use of SP Sepharose Fast Flow cation exchanger and Sephacryl S-100 HR size exclusion chromatography in sequence, was established to separate and purify angiogenesis inhibitor Kringle 5. On the SP Sepharose Fast Flow column, the buffer A consisted of 50.0 mmol/L acetic acid-sodium acetate (pH 5.2), and the buffer B consisted of buffer A with the addition of 0.5 mol/L sodium chloride (pH 5.2); on Sephacryl S-100 HR column, the elution buffer was 5.0 mmol/L phosphate solution (pH 7.0). Through the two-step chromatographic purification process, the purity of the obtained Kringle 5 was more than 98%. In addition, it was found that the obtained Kringle 5 could inhibit the blood vessel growth of chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane effectively. Finally it is concluded that this method can effectively separate active recombinant soluble and non-fusion angiogenesis inhibitor Kringle 5.

  10. New inhibitors of angiogenesis with antitumor activity in vivo.

    PubMed

    Marín-Ramos, Nagore I; Alonso, Dulce; Ortega-Gutiérrez, Silvia; Ortega-Nogales, Francisco J; Balabasquer, Moisés; Vázquez-Villa, Henar; Andradas, Clara; Blasco-Benito, Sandra; Pérez-Gómez, Eduardo; Canales, Ángeles; Jiménez-Barbero, Jesús; Marquina, Ana; del Prado, Jaime Moscoso; Sánchez, Cristina; Martín-Fontecha, Mar; López-Rodríguez, María L

    2015-05-14

    Angiogenesis is a requirement for the sustained growth and proliferation of solid tumors, and the development of new compounds that induce a sustained inhibition of the proangiogenic signaling generated by tumor hypoxia still remains as an important unmet need. In this work, we describe a new antiangiogenic compound (22) that inhibits proangiogenic signaling under hypoxic conditions in breast cancer cells. Compound 22 blocks the MAPK pathway, impairs cellular migration under hypoxic conditions, and regulates a set of genes related to angiogenesis. These responses are mediated by HIF-1α, since the effects of compound 22 mostly disappear when its expression is knocked-down. Furthermore, administration of compound 22 in a xenograft model of breast cancer produced tumor growth reductions ranging from 46 to 55% in 38% of the treated animals without causing any toxic side effects. Importantly, in the responding tumors, a significant reduction in the number of blood vessels was observed, further supporting the mechanism of action of the compound. These findings provide a rationale for the development of new antiangiogenic compounds that could eventually lead to new drugs suitable for the treatment of some types of tumors either alone or in combination with other agents.

  11. Curcumin is an in vivo inhibitor of angiogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Arbiser, J. L.; Klauber, N.; Rohan, R.; van Leeuwen, R.; Huang, M. T.; Fisher, C.; Flynn, E.; Byers, H. R.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Curcumin is a small-molecular-weight compound that is isolated from the commonly used spice turmeric. In animal models, curcumin and its derivatives have been shown to inhibit the progression of chemically induced colon and skin cancers. The genetic changes in carcinogenesis in these organs involve different genes, but curcumin is effective in preventing carcinogenesis in both organs. A possible explanation for this finding is that curcumin may inhibit angiogenesis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Curcumin was tested for its ability to inhibit the proliferation of primary endothelial cells in the presence and absence of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), as well as its ability to inhibit proliferation of an immortalized endothelial cell line. Curcumin and its derivatives were subsequently tested for their ability to inhibit bFGF-induced corneal neovascularization in the mouse cornea. Finally, curcumin was tested for its ability to inhibit phorbol ester-stimulated vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNA production. RESULTS: Curcumin effectively inhibited endothelial cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. Curcumin and its derivatives demonstrated significant inhibition of bFGF-mediated corneal neovascularization in the mouse. Curcumin had no effect on phorbol ester-stimulated VEGF production. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that curcumin has direct antiangiogenic activity in vitro and in vivo. The activity of curcumin in inhibiting carcinogenesis in diverse organs such as the skin and colon may be mediated in part through angiogenesis inhibition. Images Fig. 2 PMID:10780880

  12. Pathophysiology of cardiotoxicity from target therapy and angiogenesis inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Maurea, Nicola; Coppola, Carmela; Piscopo, Giovanna; Galletta, Francesca; Riccio, Gennaro; Esposito, Emanuela; De Lorenzo, Claudia; De Laurentiis, Michelino; Spallarossa, Paolo; Mercuro, Giuseppe

    2016-05-01

    The progress in cancer therapy and the increase in number of long-term survivors reveal the issue of cardiovascular side-effects of anticancer drugs. Cardiotoxicity has become a significant problem, and the risks of adverse cardiac events induced by systemic drugs need to be seriously considered. Potential cardiovascular toxicities linked to anticancer agents include arrhythmias, myocardial ischemia and infarction, hypertension, thromboembolism, left ventricular dysfunction, and heart failure. It has been shown that several anticancer drugs seriously affect the cardiovascular system, such as ErbB2 inhibitors, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitors, multitargeted kinase inhibitors, Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog inhibitors, and others. Each of these agents has a different mechanism through which it affects the cardiovascular system. ErbB2 inhibitors block the ErbB4/ErbB2 heterodimerization pathway triggered by Neuregulin-1, which is essential for cardiomyocyte survival. VEGF signaling is crucial for vascular growth, but it also has a major impact on myocardial function, and the VEGF pathway is also essential for maintenance of cardiovascular homeostasis. Drugs that inhibit the VEGF signaling pathway lead to a net reduction in capillary density and loss of contractile function. Here, we review the mechanisms and pathophysiology of the most significant cardiotoxic effects of ErbB2 inhibitors and antiangiogenic drugs. Moreover, we highlight the role of cardioncology in recognizing these toxicities, developing strategies to prevent or minimize cardiovascular toxicity, and reducing long-term cardiotoxic effects.

  13. Trichostatin A, a histone deacetylase inhibitor suppresses NADPH Oxidase 4-Derived Redox Signalling and Angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Hakami, Nora Y; Dusting, Gregory J; Peshavariya, Hitesh M

    2016-10-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are known to suppress abnormal development of blood vessels. Angiogenic activity in endothelial cells depends upon NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4)-dependent redox signalling. We set out to study whether the HDAC inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) affects Nox4 expression and angiogenesis. Nox4 expression was measured by real time PCR and Western blot analysis in endothelial cells. Hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) was measured by amplex(®) red assay in endothelial cells. Nox4 was knocked down by Nox4 shRNA. In vitro angiogenic activities such migration and tubulogenesis were assessed using wound healing and Matrigel assays, respectively. In vivo angiogenic activity was assessed using subcutaneous sponge assay in C57Bl/6 and Nox4-deficient mice. Trichostatin A reduced Nox4 expression in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Both TSA and Nox4 silencing decreased Nox4 protein and H2 O2 . Mechanistically, TSA reduced expression of Nox4 via ubiquitination of p300- histone acetyltransferase (p300-HAT). Thus, blocking of the ubiquitination pathway using an inhibitor of ubiquitin-activating enzyme E1 (PYR-41) prevented TSA inhibition of Nox4 expression. Trichostatin A also reduced migration and tube formation, and these effects were not observed in Nox4-deficient endothelial cells. Finally, transforming growth factor beta1 (TGFβ1) enhanced angiogenesis in sponge model in C57BL/6 mice. This response to TGFβ1 was substantially reduced in Nox4-deficient mice. Similarly intraperitoneal infusion of TSA (1 mg/kg) also suppressed TGFβ1-induced angiogenesis in C57BL/6 mice. Trichostatin A reduces Nox4 expression and angiogenesis via inhibition of the p300-HAT-dependent pathway. This mechanism might be exploited to prevent aberrant angiogenesis in diabetic retinopathy, complicated vascular tumours and malformations. PMID:27297729

  14. Inhibition of choroidal neovascularization by homoisoflavanone, a new angiogenesis inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeong Hun; Kim, Jin Hyoung; Jun, Hyoung-Oh; Kwon, Ho Jeong; Park, Kyu Hyung; Kim, Kyu-Won

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in elderly. The detailed mechanism of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) leads to severe vision loss in patients with AMD. This study was undertaken to evaluate the inhibitory effect of homoisoflavanone on CNV. Methods Antiangiogenic activity of homoisoflavanone was evaluated by in vitro tube formation assay of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and cell migration assay of HUVECs., Homoisoflavanone or PBS was injected intravitreously into a mouse model of laser-photocoagulation-induced CNV. Fluorescein angiography and vessel counting in cross sections were employed to examine CNV lesions. The toxicity of homoisoflavanone was evaluated through 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay (MTT) assay in HUVECs as well as histological examination and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase biotin-dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining in the retina. Results Homoisoflavanone effectively inhibited in vitro tube formation and cell migration of HUVECs. Interestingly, homoisoflavanone significantly reduced CNV and its leakage in a mouse model of laser-photocoagulation-induced CNV. In addition, homoisoflavanone showed no effect on cell viability of HUVECs and no retinal toxicity in a concentration range of 1-10 μM. Conclusions Our data suggest that homoisoflavanone is a potent inhibitor of CNV and may be applied in the treatment of other vasoproliferative retinopathies and tumor. PMID:18385791

  15. Reduction of Adipose Tissue Mass by the Angiogenesis Inhibitor ALS-L1023 from Melissa officinalis.

    PubMed

    Park, Byung Young; Lee, Hyunghee; Woo, Sangee; Yoon, Miso; Kim, Jeongjun; Hong, Yeonhee; Lee, Hee Suk; Park, Eun Kyu; Hahm, Jong Cheon; Kim, Jin Woo; Shin, Soon Shik; Kim, Min-Young; Yoon, Michung

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that angiogenesis modulates adipogenesis and obesity. This study was undertaken to determine whether ALS-L1023 (ALS) prepared by a two-step organic solvent fractionation from Melissa leaves, which exhibits antiangiogenic activity, can regulate adipose tissue growth. The effects of ALS on angiogenesis and extracellular matrix remodeling were measured using in vitro assays. The effects of ALS on adipose tissue growth were investigated in high fat diet-induced obese mice. ALS inhibited VEGF- and bFGF-induced endothelial cell proliferation and suppressed matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity in vitro. Compared to obese control mice, administration of ALS to obese mice reduced body weight gain, adipose tissue mass and adipocyte size without affecting appetite. ALS treatment decreased blood vessel density and MMP activity in adipose tissues. ALS reduced the mRNA levels of angiogenic factors (VEGF-A and FGF-2) and MMPs (MMP-2 and MMP-9), whereas ALS increased the mRNA levels of angiogenic inhibitors (TSP-1, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2) in adipose tissues. The protein levels of VEGF, MMP-2 and MMP-9 were also decreased by ALS in adipose tissue. Metabolic changes in plasma lipids, liver triglycerides, and hepatic expression of fatty acid oxidation genes occurred during ALS-induced weight loss. These results suggest that ALS, which has antiangiogenic and MMP inhibitory activities, reduces adipose tissue mass in nutritionally obese mice, demonstrating that adipose tissue growth can be regulated by angiogenesis inhibitors.

  16. Reduction of Adipose Tissue Mass by the Angiogenesis Inhibitor ALS-L1023 from Melissa officinalis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Byung Young; Lee, Hyunghee; Woo, Sangee; Yoon, Miso; Kim, Jeongjun; Hong, Yeonhee; Lee, Hee Suk; Park, Eun Kyu; Hahm, Jong Cheon; Kim, Jin Woo; Shin, Soon Shik; Kim, Min-Young; Yoon, Michung

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that angiogenesis modulates adipogenesis and obesity. This study was undertaken to determine whether ALS-L1023 (ALS) prepared by a two-step organic solvent fractionation from Melissa leaves, which exhibits antiangiogenic activity, can regulate adipose tissue growth. The effects of ALS on angiogenesis and extracellular matrix remodeling were measured using in vitro assays. The effects of ALS on adipose tissue growth were investigated in high fat diet-induced obese mice. ALS inhibited VEGF- and bFGF-induced endothelial cell proliferation and suppressed matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity in vitro. Compared to obese control mice, administration of ALS to obese mice reduced body weight gain, adipose tissue mass and adipocyte size without affecting appetite. ALS treatment decreased blood vessel density and MMP activity in adipose tissues. ALS reduced the mRNA levels of angiogenic factors (VEGF-A and FGF-2) and MMPs (MMP-2 and MMP-9), whereas ALS increased the mRNA levels of angiogenic inhibitors (TSP-1, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2) in adipose tissues. The protein levels of VEGF, MMP-2 and MMP-9 were also decreased by ALS in adipose tissue. Metabolic changes in plasma lipids, liver triglycerides, and hepatic expression of fatty acid oxidation genes occurred during ALS-induced weight loss. These results suggest that ALS, which has antiangiogenic and MMP inhibitory activities, reduces adipose tissue mass in nutritionally obese mice, demonstrating that adipose tissue growth can be regulated by angiogenesis inhibitors. PMID:26599360

  17. A Novel Potent Oral Series of VEGFR2 Inhibitors Abrogate Tumor Growth by Inhibiting Angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Bold, Guido; Schnell, Christian; Furet, Pascal; McSheehy, Paul; Brüggen, Josef; Mestan, Jürgen; Manley, Paul W; Drückes, Peter; Burglin, Marion; Dürler, Ursula; Loretan, Jacqueline; Reuter, Robert; Wartmann, Markus; Theuer, Andreas; Bauer-Probst, Beatrice; Martiny-Baron, Georg; Allegrini, Peter; Goepfert, Arnaud; Wood, Jeanette; Littlewood-Evans, Amanda

    2016-01-14

    This paper describes the identification of 6-(pyrimidin-4-yloxy)-naphthalene-1-carboxamides as a new class of potent and selective human vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) tyrosine kinase inhibitors. In biochemical and cellular assays, the compounds exhibit single-digit nanomolar potency toward VEGFR2. Compounds of this series show good exposure in rodents when dosed orally. They potently inhibit VEGF-driven angiogenesis in a chamber model and rodent tumor models at daily doses of less than 3 mg/kg by targeting the tumor vasculature as demonstrated by ELISA for TIE-2 in lysates or by immunohistochemical analysis. This novel series of compounds shows a potential for the treatment of solid tumors and other diseases where angiogenesis plays an important role. PMID:26629594

  18. Inhibition of Corneal Neovascularization by Subconjunctival Injection of Fc-Endostatin, a Novel Inhibitor of Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Junko; Wicks, Robert T.; Zambrano, Andrea I.; Tyler, Betty M.; Javaherian, Kashi; Grossman, Rachel; Daoud, Yassine J.; Gehlbach, Peter; Brem, Henry; Stark, Walter J.

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the antiangiogenic effects of subconjunctival injection of Fc-endostatin (FcE) using a human vascular endothelial growth factor-induced rabbit corneal neovascularization model. Angiogenesis was induced in rabbit corneas through intrastromal implantations of VEGF polymer implanted 2 mm from the limbus. NZW rabbits were separated into groups receiving twice weekly subconjunctival injections of either saline; 25 mg/mL bevacizumab; 2 mg/mL FcE; or 20 mg/mL FcE. Corneas were digitally imaged at 5 time points. An angiogenesis index (AI) was calculated (vessel length (mm) × vessel number score) for each observation. All treatment groups showed a significant decrease in the vessel length and AI compared to saline on all observation days (P < 0.001). By day 15, FcE 2 inhibited angiogenesis significantly better than FcE 20 (P < 0.01). There was no significant difference between FcE 2 and BV, although the values trended towards significantly increased inhibition by BV. BV was a significantly better inhibitor than FcE 20 by day 8 (P < 0.01). FcE was safe and significantly inhibited new vessel growth in a rabbit corneal neovascularization model. Lower concentration FcE 2 exhibited better inhibition than FcE 20, consistent with previous FcE studies referencing a biphasic dose-response curve. Additional studies are necessary to further elucidate the efficacy and clinical potential of this novel angiogenesis inhibitor. PMID:26491546

  19. Determinants for in vivo antitumor effect of angiogenesis inhibitor SU5416 formulated in PEGylated emulsion.

    PubMed

    Ogawara, Ken-Ichi; Abe, Shigeki; Un, Keita; Yoshizawa, Yuta; Kimura, Toshikiro; Higaki, Kazutaka

    2014-08-01

    Angiogenesis, the sprouting of capillaries from preexisting ones, is essential for the sustained growth of solid tumors. In this study, we used SU5416, a hydrophobic molecule with potent tyrosine kinase inhibitor of type 2 receptor for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), as PEGylated emulsion (SU5416-PE), and evaluated the antitumor potency of this formulation in Lewis lung cancer (LLC), Colon-26 (C26), and B16BL6 melanoma (B16) tumor-bearing mice. Intravenous injection of SU5416-PE into tumor-bearing mice significantly suppressed the growth of C26 and B16 tumors, but had no effect on the growth of LLC tumors. MTT assay revealed that SU5416 inhibited the proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells in a concentration-dependent manner but did not show such an inhibitory effect on all types of tumor cells examined, demonstrating the specificity of SU5416 for endothelial cells. Considering that VEGF levels within C26 and B16 tumors were found to be about 10-fold and 20-fold higher than that in LLC tumors, respectively, it was suggested that SU5416-PE would inhibit angiogenesis in certain types of tumor tissue such as C26 and B16 where VEGF plays a major role for promoting angiogenesis, leading to the suppression of in vivo tumor growth.

  20. Endostatin, an inhibitor of angiogenesis, decreases after bidirectional superior cavopulmonary anastamosis.

    PubMed

    Field-Ridley, Aida; Heljasvaara, Ritva; Pihlajaniemi, Taina; Adatia, Ian; Sun, Christine; Keller, Roberta L; Gong, Wen Hui; Datar, Sanjeev; Oishi, Peter; Fineman, Jeffrey R

    2013-02-01

    Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) are a common source of morbidity after bidirectional superior cavopulmonary anastomosis (Glenn). The diversion of hepatic venous effluent away from the pulmonary circulation after Glenn appears to play a significant role in the pathogenesis of PAVMs. Although the liver is known to produce factors that regulate vascular development, specific hepatic inhibitors of angiogenesis have not been described in the post-Glenn population. Endostatin, produced from its precursor collagen XVIII, is a potent inhibitor of angiogenesis produced by the liver. This study aimed to investigate the hypothesis that endostatin levels decrease in patients after Glenn. Levels of endostatin and its precursor, long-type collagen XVIII, were determined by enzyme-linked immunoassay and immunoprecipitation, respectively, for serum samples from 38 patients undergoing Glenn, total cavopulmonary anastomosis (Fontan), or biventricular repair of cardiac defects. Samples were obtained before surgery and 24 h afterward. In patients undergoing a bidirectional Glenn procedure, endostatin levels decreased after surgery (n = 17; 4.42 vs 3.34 ng/ml; p < 0.001), and long type-collagen XVIII levels increased by 200 % (n = 10; p = 0.0001). However, endostatin levels did not change after surgery in patients undergoing Fontan (n = 13) or biventricular repair (n = 8). In patients undergoing Fontan, long-type collagen XVIII increased by 18 % (p < 0.01), whereas in control subjects, the levels were unchanged. These data suggest that the diversion of hepatic blood flow away from the pulmonary circulation in patients after the Glenn procedure inhibits endostatin production from collagen XVIII, resulting in decreased circulating serum endostatin levels. A decrease in endostatin may promote angiogenesis. The mechanism whereby the pulmonary circulation processes endostatin and its potential role in the pathogenesis of PAVMs warrant further study.

  1. Synthesis and preliminary evaluation of 5,7-dimethyl-2-aryl-3H-pyrrolizin-3-ones as angiogenesis inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Kirk, Nicholas S; Bezos, Anna; Willis, Anthony C; Sudta, Pichit; Suksamrarn, Sunit; Parish, Christopher R; Ranson, Marie; Kelso, Michael J

    2016-04-01

    Sunitinib (Sutent®) is a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) and angiogenesis inhibitor approved for the treatment of renal cell carcinomas, gastrointestinal stromal tumours and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours. A key structural motif retained throughout medicinal chemistry efforts during sunitinib's development was the indoline-2-one group. In the search for new anti-angiogenic scaffolds, we previously reported that non-indoline-2-one-based derivatives of semaxanib (SU5416, a structurally simpler sunitinib predecessor that underwent Phase III trials) are active as angiogenesis inhibitors, indicating that the group is not essential for activity. This Letter describes the synthesis and structure-activity relationships of another class of non-indoline-2-one angiogenesis inhibitors related to sunitinib/semaxanib; the 5,7-dimethyl-2-aryl-3H-pyrrolizin-3-ones. A focussed library of 19 analogues was prepared using a simple novel process, wherein commercially available substituted arylacetic acids activated with an amide coupling reagent (HBTU) were reacted with the potassium salt of 3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrrole-2-carbaldehyde in one-pot. Screening of the library using a cell-based endothelial tube formation assay identified 6 compounds with anti-angiogenesis activity. Two of the compounds were advanced to the more physiologically relevant rat aortic ring assay, where they showed similar inhibitory effects to semaxanib at 10μg/mL, confirming that 5,7-dimethyl-2-aryl-3H-pyrrolizin-3-ones represent a new class of angiogenesis inhibitors. PMID:26912111

  2. Binding of angiogenesis inhibitor kringle 5 to its specific ligands by frontal affinity chromatography.

    PubMed

    Bian, Liujiao; Li, Qian; Ji, Xu

    2015-07-01

    The interactions between angiogenesis inhibitor Kringle 5 and its five specific ligands were investigated by frontal affinity chromatography in combination with fluorescence spectra and site-directed molecular docking. The binding constants of trans-4-(aminomethyl) cyclohexane carboxylic acid (AMCHA), epsilon-aminocaproic acid (EACA), benzylamine, 7-aminoheptanoic acid (7-AHA) and L-lysine to Kringle 5 were 19.0×10(3), 7.97×10(3), 6.45×10(3), 6.07×10(3) and 4.04×10(3) L/mol, respectively. The five ligands bound to Kringle 5 on the lysine binding site in equimolar amounts, which was pushed mainly by hydrogen bond and Van der Waals force. This binding affinity was believed to be dependent on the functional group and flexible feature in ligands. This study will provide an important insight into the binding mechanism of angiogenesis inhibitor Kringle 5 to its specific ligands. PMID:25981289

  3. Xanthatin, a novel potent inhibitor of VEGFR2 signaling, inhibits angiogenesis and tumor growth in breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yao; Yu, Jing; Pei, Chong Gang; Li, Yun Yan; Tu, Ping; Gao, Gui Ping; Shao, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Anti-angiogenesis targeting vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) has emerged as an important tool for cancer treatment. In this study, we described a novel VEGFR2 inhibitor, xanthatin, which inhibits tumor angiogenesis and growth. The biochemical profiles of xanthatin were investigated using kinase assay, migration assay, tube formation, Matrigel plug assay, western blot, immunofluorescence and human tumor xenograft model. Xanthatin significantly inhibited growth, migration and tube formation of human umbilical vascular endothelial cell as well as inhibited vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-stimulated angiogenesis. In addition, it inhibited VEGF-induced phosphorylation of VEGFR2 and its downstream signaling regulator. Moreover, xanthatin directly inhibit proliferation of breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231. Oral administration of xanthatin could markedly inhibit human tumor xenograft growth and decreased microvessel densities (MVD) in tumor sections. Taken together, these preclinical evaluations suggest that xanthatin inhibits angiogenesis and may be a promising anticancer drug candidate. PMID:26617743

  4. Comparative VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase modeling for the development of highly specific inhibitors of tumor angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Ulrike; Ahmed, Jessica; Michalsky, Elke; Hoepfner, Michael; Preissner, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor receptors (VEGF-Rs) play a significant role in tumor development and tumor angiogenesis and are therefore interesting targets in cancer therapy. Targeting the VEGF-R is of special importance as the feed of the tumor has to be reduced. In general, this can be carried out by inhibiting the tyrosine kinase function of the VEGF-R. Nevertheless, there arise some problems with the specificity of known kinase inhibitors: they bind to the ATP-binding site and inhibit a number of kinases, moreover the so far most specific inhibitors act at least on these three major types of VEGF-Rs: Flt-1, Flk-1/KDR, Flt-4. The goal is a selective VEGF-R-2 (Flk-1/KDR) inhibitor, because this receptor triggers rather unspecific signals from VEGF-A, -C, -D and -E. Here, we describe a protocol starting from an established inhibitor (Vatalanib) with 2D-/3D-searching and property filtering of the in silico screening hits and the "negative docking approach". With this approach we were able to identify a compound, which shows a fourfold higher reduction of the proliferation rate of endothelial cells compared to the reduction effect of the lead structure.

  5. Suppression of VEGF-induced angiogenesis by the protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor, lavendustin A.

    PubMed Central

    Hu, D E; Fan, T P

    1995-01-01

    1. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a heparin-binding angiogenic factor which specifically acts on endothelial cells via distinct membrane-spanning tyrosine kinase receptors. Here we used the rat sponge implant model to test the hypothesis that the angiogenic activity of VEGF can be suppressed by protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) inhibitors. 2. Neovascular responses in subcutaneous sponge implants were determined by measurements of relative sponge blood flow by use of a 133Xe clearance technique, and confirmed by histological studies and morphometric analysis. 3. Daily local administration of 250 ng VEGF165 accelerated the rate of 133Xe clearance from the sponges and induced an intense neovascularisation. This VEGF165-induced angiogenesis was inhibited by daily co-administration of the selective PTK inhibitor, lavendustin A (10 micrograms), but not its negative control, lavendustin B (10 micrograms). Blood flow measurements and morphometric analysis of 8-day-old sponges showed that lavendustin A reduced the 133Xe clearance of VEGF165-treated sponges from 32.9 +/- 1.5% to 20.9 +/- 1.6% and the total fibrovascular growth area from 62.4 +/- 6.1% to 21.6 +/- 6.8% (n = 12, P < 0.05). 4. Co-injection of suramin (3 mg), an inhibitor of heparin-binding growth factors, also suppressed the VEGF165-elicited neovascular response. In contrast, neither lavendustin A nor suramin produced any effect on the basal sponge-induced angiogenesis. 5. When given alone, low doses of VEGF165 (25 ng) or basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF; 10 ng) did not modify the basal sponge-induced neovascularisation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Figure 2 Figure 2 PMID:7533611

  6. [Possibilities for inhibiting tumor-induced angiogenesis: results with multi-target tyrosine kinase inhibitors].

    PubMed

    Török, Szilvia; Döme, Balázs

    2012-03-01

    Functional blood vasculature is essential for tumor progression. The main signalization pathways that play a key role in the survival and growth of tumor vessels originate from the VEGF-, PDGF- and FGF tyrosine kinase receptors. In the past decade, significant results have been published on receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (RTKIs). In this paper, the mechanisms of action and the results so far available of experimental and clinical studies on multi-target antiangiogenic TKIs are discussed. On the one hand, notable achievements have been made recently and these drugs are already used in clinical practice in some patient populations. On the other hand, the optimal combination and dosage of these drugs, selection of the apropriate biomarker and better understanding of the conflicting role of PDGFR and FGFR signaling in angiogenesis remain future challenges. PMID:22403757

  7. Identification of brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 2 as an interaction partner of glutaminase interacting protein

    SciTech Connect

    Zencir, Sevil; Ovee, Mohiuddin; Dobson, Melanie J.; Banerjee, Monimoy; Topcu, Zeki; Mohanty, Smita

    2011-08-12

    Highlights: {yields} Brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 2 (BAI2) is a new partner protein for GIP. {yields} BAI2 interaction with GIP was revealed by yeast two-hybrid assay. {yields} Binding of BAI2 to GIP was characterized by NMR, CD and fluorescence. {yields} BAI2 and GIP binding was mediated through the C-terminus of BAI2. -- Abstract: The vast majority of physiological processes in living cells are mediated by protein-protein interactions often specified by particular protein sequence motifs. PDZ domains, composed of 80-100 amino acid residues, are an important class of interaction motif. Among the PDZ-containing proteins, glutaminase interacting protein (GIP), also known as Tax Interacting Protein TIP-1, is unique in being composed almost exclusively of a single PDZ domain. GIP has important roles in cellular signaling, protein scaffolding and modulation of tumor growth and interacts with a number of physiological partner proteins, including Glutaminase L, {beta}-Catenin, FAS, HTLV-1 Tax, HPV16 E6, Rhotekin and Kir 2.3. To identify the network of proteins that interact with GIP, a human fetal brain cDNA library was screened using a yeast two-hybrid assay with GIP as bait. We identified brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 2 (BAI2), a member of the adhesion-G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), as a new partner of GIP. BAI2 is expressed primarily in neurons, further expanding GIP cellular functions. The interaction between GIP and the carboxy-terminus of BAI2 was characterized using fluorescence, circular dichroism (CD) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy assays. These biophysical analyses support the interaction identified in the yeast two-hybrid assay. This is the first study reporting BAI2 as an interaction partner of GIP.

  8. A Zebrafish In Vivo Phenotypic Assay to Identify 3-Aminothiophene-2-Carboxylic Acid-Based Angiogenesis Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Papakyriakou, Athanasios; Kefalos, Panagiotis; Sarantis, Panagiotis; Tsiamantas, Christos; Xanthopoulos, Kleanthis P.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Small molecules that inhibit angiogenesis are attractive drug candidates for cancer, retinopathies, and age-related macular degeneration. In vivo, phenotypic screening in zebrafish (Danio rerio) emerges as a powerful methodology to identify and optimize novel compounds with pharmacological activity. Zebrafish provides several advantages for in vivo phenotypic screens especially for angiogenesis, since it develops rapidly, externally, and does not rely on a functional cardiovascular system to survive for several days during development. In this study, we utilize a transgenic line that allows the noninvasive monitoring of angiogenesis at a cellular level. The inhibition of angiogenesis can be observed under a fluorescent stereoscope and quantified. To exemplify the versatility and robustness of the zebrafish screen, we have employed a series of 60 novel compounds that were designed based on a potent VEGFR2 inhibitor. Herein, we report their structure-based design, synthesis, and in vivo zebrafish screening for optimal activity, toxicity, and off-target effects, which revealed six reversible inhibitors of angiogenesis. PMID:25506802

  9. Treatment of medulloblastoma with oncolytic measles viruses expressing the angiogenesis inhibitors endostatin and angiostatin

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Medulloblastoma is the most common type of pediatric brain tumor. Although numerous factors influence patient survival rates, more than 30% of all cases will ultimately be refractory to conventional therapies. Current standards of care are also associated with significant morbidities, giving impetus for the development of new treatments. We have previously shown that oncolytic measles virotherapy is effective against medulloblastoma, leading to significant prolongation of survival and even cures in mouse xenograft models of localized and metastatic disease. Because medulloblastomas are known to be highly vascularized tumors, we reasoned that the addition of angiogenesis inhibitors could further enhance the efficacy of oncolytic measles virotherapy. Toward this end, we have engineered an oncolytic measles virus that express a fusion protein of endostatin and angiostatin, two endogenous and potent inhibitors of angiogenesis. Methods Oncolytic measles viruses encoding human and mouse variants of a secretable endostatin/angiostatin fusion protein were designed and rescued according to established protocols. These viruses, known as MV-hE:A and MV-mE:A respectively, were then evaluated for their anti-angiogenic potential and efficacy against medulloblastoma cell lines and orthotopic mouse models of localized disease. Results Medulloblastoma cells infected by MV-E:A readily secrete endostatin and angiostatin prior to lysis. The inclusion of the endostatin/angiostatin gene did not negatively impact the measles virus’ cytotoxicity against medulloblastoma cells or alter its growth kinetics. Conditioned media obtained from these infected cells was capable of inhibiting multiple angiogenic factors in vitro, significantly reducing endothelial cell tube formation, viability and migration compared to conditioned media derived from cells infected by a control measles virus. Mice that were given a single intratumoral injection of MV-E:A likewise showed reduced numbers

  10. A novel angiogenesis inhibitor impairs lovo cell survival via targeting against human VEGFR and its signaling pathway of phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y M; Dai, B L; Zheng, L; Zhan, Y Z; Zhang, J; Smith, W W; Wang, X L; Chen, Y N; He, L C

    2012-10-11

    Colorectal cancer represents the fourth commonest malignancy, and constitutes a major cause of significant morbidity and mortality among other diseases. However, the chemical therapy is still under development. Angiogenesis plays an important role in colon cancer development. We developed HMQ18-22 (a novel analog of taspine) with the aim to target angiogenesis. We found that HMQ18-22 significantly reduced angiogenesis of chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) and mouse colon tissue, and inhibited cell migration and tube formation as well. Then, we verified the interaction between HMQ18-22 and VEGFR2 by AlphaScreen P-VEGFR assay, screened the targets on angiogenesis by VEGF Phospho Antibody Array, validated the target by western blot and RNAi in lovo cells. We found HMQ18-22 could decrease phosphorylation of VEGFR2(Tyr(1214)), VEGFR1(Tyr(1333)), Akt(Tyr(326)), protein kinase Cα (PKCα) (Tyr(657)) and phospholipase-Cγ-1 (PLCγ-1) (Tyr(771)). Most importantly, HMQ18-22 inhibited proliferation of lovo cell and tumor growth in a human colon tumor xenografted model of athymic mice. Compared with normal lovo cells proliferation, the inhibition on proliferation of knockdown cells (VEGFR2, VEGFR1, Akt, PKCα and PLCγ-1) by HMQ18-22 decreased. These results suggested that HMQ18-22 is a novel angiogenesis inhibitor and can be a useful therapeutic candidate for colon cancer intervention.

  11. Targeting angiogenesis with multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Scagliotti, Giorgio; Govindan, Ramaswamy

    2010-01-01

    It has been >35 years since the link between angiogenesis and the growth of tumors was first reported. Targeting angiogenesis became feasible with the availability of bevacizumab, an anti-vascular endothelial growth factor monoclonal antibody. Initial studies revealed that the combination of bevacizumab and chemotherapy led to longer overall survival times than with chemotherapy alone in patients with advanced colorectal cancer. Since then, drug development strategies have added small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors to the panel of antiangiogenic agents under evaluation; data from numerous trials are now available. The challenge now is to identify the optimal antiangiogenic agent for specific patient groups and to understand not only the mechanistic differences between agents, but also the variability in their antitumor activity across different tumor types and their differing side-effect profiles. As in other solid tumors, angiogenesis contributes to the development of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and this review summarizes the role of angiogenesis in this disease. We review the current developmental status of antiangiogenic tyrosine kinase inhibitors (including vandetanib, sunitinib, axitinib, sorafenib, vatalanib, and pazopanib) in NSCLC and conclude by briefly discussing the need for optimal patient selection and potential future directions. PMID:20427383

  12. XR5967, a novel modulator of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity, suppresses tumor cell invasion and angiogenesis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Teresa D; Wang, Shouming W; Brünner, Nils; Charlton, Peter A

    2004-01-01

    Recent reports suggest that elevated levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 may contribute to tumor progression. We have recently shown that antibodies to PAI-1 block the invasive and migratory potential of human fibrosarcoma cells and suppress angiogenesis in vitro. Here we report the in vitro evaluation of a low-molecular-weight modulator of PAI-1, XR5967, on invasion, migration and angiogenesis. XR5967, a diketopiperazine, dose-dependently inhibited the activity of human and murine PAI-1, towards urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), with IC50 values of 800 nM and 8.3 microM, respectively. This was confirmed by SDS-PAGE, revealing that XR5967 inhibited complex formation between PAI-1 and uPA. This suppression may be caused by XR5967 promoting insertion of the reactive center loop within PAI-1. XR5967 dose-dependently inhibited the invasion of human HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells through Matrigel. Their invasion was reduced by 57% (p<0.001) at 5 microM. HT1080 cell migration was inhibited in a similar manner, indicating that PAI-1 may play an additional role in invasion, which is distinct to its role in the regulation of proteolysis. The potential of XR5967 to inhibit the invasion/migration of human endothelial cells was investigated in an in vitro model of angiogenesis. In this model XR5967 reduced tubule formation by 77% at 5 microM (p<0.001), highlighting a crucial role for PAI-1 in angiogenesis. These data stress the importance of a balanced proteolysis in the processes of invasion, migration and angiogenesis. Our results support the clinical findings and indicate that modulation of PAI-1 activity, with low-molecular-weight inhibitor of PAI-1 activity, may be of therapeutic benefit for the treatment of cancer.

  13. A Novel Angiogenesis Inhibitor Bevacizumab Induces Apoptosis in the Rat Endometriosis Model

    PubMed Central

    Soysal, D; Kızıldağ, S; Saatlı, B; Posacı, C; Soysal, S; Koyuncuoğlu, M; Doğan, ÖE

    2014-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate the effects of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) antibody Bevacizumab on endometrial explants and on apoptotic gene expression levels in the rat endometriosis model. Endometriotic implants were surgically formed, and rats treated with (i) 1 mg/kg single subcutaneous injection of depot leuprolide acetate; (ii) 2.5 mg/kg of single intaperitoneal injection of bevacizumab; (iii) intraperitoneal injection of saline. Histopathologic scores and adhesion scores of endometriotic foci and levels of Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax), Cytochrome c (Cyt-c), B-cell lymphoma/leukemia 2 (Bcl-2) and B-cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-xl) mRNA gene expressions of endometriotic foci. Bevacizumab treatment decreased the endometriotic explant size compared with control. Bevacizumab-treated rats had lower total adhesion scores when compared with the control group. Semi-quantitative evaluation of the persistence of endometrial epithelial cells in the explants showed a lower score in gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist-treated rats compared with control rats. In Bevacizumab increased expression of Bax 3.1-fold, Cyt-c 1.3-fold and decreased expression of Bcl-2 0.4-fold, Bcl-xl 0.8-fold compared with the control group. The GnRH agonist increased expression of Bax 3.0 fold, Cyt-c 1.3 fold and decreased expression of Bcl-2 0.4-fold, Bcl-xl 0.8-fold, compared with the control group. This study suggests that a novel angiogenesis inhibitor, anti-VEGF antibody bevacizumab is as effective as GnRH agonist in the regression of the endometriotic lesions in rat endometriosis model. One possible mechanism of this effect is the induction of apoptosis. PMID:25937801

  14. Regulation of soluble neuropilin 1, an endogenous angiogenesis inhibitor, in liver development and regeneration.

    PubMed

    Panigrahy, Dipak; Adini, Irit; Mamluk, Roni; Levonyak, Nicholas; Bruns, Christiane J; D'Amore, Patricia A; Klagsbrun, Michael; Bielenberg, Diane R

    2014-08-01

    Neuropilin-1 (NRP1) is a receptor for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). A soluble isoform of Nrp1 (sNrp1) has not been described in the mouse. Our goal was to examine the expression of mouse sNrp1 during liver development and regeneration.sNrp1 was cloned from mouse liver. The expression of sNrp1 and VEGF was examined in mouse liver during post-natal development and regeneration using northern blot, western blot, in situ hybridisation, and immunohistochemical analyses. HGF/NRP1 binding was examined in vitro.A novel 588-amino acid sNrp1 isoform was found to contain the ligand binding regions of Nrp1. The adult liver expressed more sNrp1 than full-length Nrp1. In vivo, hepatocytes constitutively expressed VEGF and sNrp1 in the quiescent state. sNrp1 was highly up-regulated at P20, a time point coinciding with a plateau in liver and body weights. Following hepatectomy, endogenous levels of sNrp1 decreased during the rapid growth phase, and VEGF levels were highest just prior to and during the angiogenic phase. sNrp1 levels again rose 5-10 days post-hepatectomy, presumably to control regeneration. HGF protein bound NRP1 and binding was competed with sNRP1.We cloned a novel mouse sNrp1 isoform from liver and provide evidence that this endogenous angiogenesis inhibitor may regulate VEGF or HGF bioavailability during normal physiological growth and development as well as during liver regeneration.

  15. Hsp90 inhibitor celastrol reinstates growth plate angiogenesis in thiram-induced tibial dyschondroplasia.

    PubMed

    Nabi, Fazul; Shahzad, Muhammad; Liu, Jingying; Li, Kun; Han, Zhaoqing; Zhang, Ding; Iqbal, Muhammad Kashif; Li, Jiakui

    2016-01-01

    Tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) is an important long bone defect of broiler chickens that disturbs the proximal growth plate and is characterized by non-vascularized cartilage, a distended growth plate and lameness. Celastrol, a medicinal root extract from the plant Tripterygium wilfordii, is reported widely as a well-known heat-shock protein 90 (Hsp90) inhibitor. Recently, Hsp90 inhibition in chondrocyte differentiation and growth-plate vascularization were effective in restoring the morphology of the growth plate. The present study was aimed at investigating Hsp90 inhibition in TD using celastrol. The broiler chicks were divided into three groups; Control; TD induced (40 mg/kg thiram) and celastrol treatment. Hsp90, vascular endothelial growth factor and Flk-1 expressions were evaluated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and the protein levels of Hsp90 were measured by Western blot analysis. Antioxidant enzymes were determined to assess the liver damage caused by thiram and the protective effects of the medicine were evaluated by levels of serum biomarkers. The expression levels of Hsp90 and vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA transcripts were increased while Flk-1 receptor was decreased in TD-affected chicks. Celastrol therapy inhibited Hsp90 mRNA and protein levels and up-regulated the expressions of receptor Flk-1 in TD-affected tibial growth plates significantly (P < 0.05) in addition to rectifying the damaging effects of thiram on the liver by decreasing the levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and malondialdehyde and correcting the oxidative imbalance. In conclusion, administering celastrol to dyschondroplastic chicks prevented un-vascularized growth plate, lameness and reinstated angiogenesis. Celastrol may be efficacious for the treatment of TD through the inhibition of Hsp90 expression and limiting the liver damage caused by thiram in broiler chickens.

  16. Carbazole is a naturally occurring inhibitor of angiogenesis and inflammation isolated from antipsoriatic coal tar

    SciTech Connect

    Jack L. Arbiser; Baskaran Govindarajan; Traci E. Battle; Rebecca Lynch; David A. Frank; Masuko Ushio-Fukai; Betsy N. Perry; David F. Stern; G. Tim Bowden; Anquan Liu; Eva Klein; Pawel J. Kolodziejski; N. Tony Eissa; Chowdhury F. Hossain; Dale G. Nagle

    2006-06-15

    Coal tar is one of the oldest and an effective treatment for psoriasis. Coal tar has been directly applied to the skin, or used in combination with UV light as part of the Goeckerman treatment. The use of coal tar has caused long-term remissions in psoriasis, but has fallen out of favor because the treatment requires hospitalization and coal tar is poorly acceptable aesthetically to patients. Thus, determining the active antipsoriatic component of coal tar is of considerable therapeutic interest. We fractionated coal tar into its components, and tested them using the SVR angiogenesis inhibitor assay. Treatment of SVR endothelial cells with coal tar fractions resulted in the isolation of a single fraction with antiangiogenic activity. The active antiangiogenic compound in coal tar is carbazole. In addition to antiangiogenic activity, carbazole inhibited the production of inflammatory IL-15 by human mononuclear cells. IL-15 is elevated in psoriasis and is thought to contribute to psoriatic inflammation. Carbazole treatment also reduced activity of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which is proinflammatory and elevated in psoriasis. The effect of carbazole on upstream pathways in human psoriasis was determined, and carbazole was shown to inhibit signal transducer and activator of transcription (stat)3-mediated transcription, which has been shown to be relevant in human psoriasis. IL-15, iNOS, and stat3 activation require the activation of the small GTPase rac for optimal activity. Carbazole was found to inhibit rac activation as a mechanism for its inhibition of downstream inflammatory and angiogenic pathways. Given its antiangiogenic and anti-inflammatory activities, carbazole is likely a major component of the antipsoriatic activity of coal tar. Carbazole and derivatives may be useful in the therapy of human psoriasis.

  17. Brain-specific Angiogenesis Inhibitor-1 Signaling, Regulation, and Enrichment in the Postsynaptic Density*

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, Jason R.; Paavola, Kevin J.; Schaefer, Stacy A.; Kaur, Balveen; Van Meir, Erwin G.; Hall, Randy A.

    2013-01-01

    Brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor-1 (BAI1) is an adhesion G protein-coupled receptor that has been studied primarily for its anti-angiogenic and anti-tumorigenic properties. We found that overexpression of BAI1 results in activation of the Rho pathway via a Gα12/13-dependent mechanism, with truncation of the BAI1 N terminus resulting in a dramatic enhancement in receptor signaling. This constitutive activity of the truncated BAI1 mutant also resulted in enhanced downstream phosphorylation of ERK as well as increased receptor association with β-arrestin2 and increased ubiquitination of the receptor. To gain insights into the regulation of BAI1 signaling, we screened the C terminus of BAI1 against a proteomic array of PDZ domains to identify novel interacting partners. These screens revealed that the BAI1 C terminus interacts with a variety of PDZ domains from synaptic proteins, including MAGI-3. Removal of the BAI1 PDZ-binding motif resulted in attenuation of receptor signaling to Rho but had no effect on ERK activation. Conversely, co-expression with MAGI-3 was found to potentiate signaling to ERK by constitutively active BAI1 in a manner that was dependent on the PDZ-binding motif of the receptor. Biochemical fractionation studies revealed that BAI1 is highly enriched in post-synaptic density fractions, a finding consistent with our observations that BAI1 can interact with PDZ proteins known to be concentrated in the post-synaptic density. These findings demonstrate that BAI1 is a synaptic receptor that can activate both the Rho and ERK pathways, with the N-terminal and C-terminal regions of the receptor playing key roles in the regulation of BAI1 signaling activity. PMID:23782696

  18. In Silico Design and Biological Evaluation of a Dual Specificity Kinase Inhibitor Targeting Cell Cycle Progression and Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Latham, Antony M.; Kankanala, Jayakanth; Fearnley, Gareth W.; Gage, Matthew C.; Kearney, Mark T.; Homer-Vanniasinkam, Shervanthi; Wheatcroft, Stephen B.; Fishwick, Colin W. G.; Ponnambalam, Sreenivasan

    2014-01-01

    Background Protein kinases play a central role in tumor progression, regulating fundamental processes such as angiogenesis, proliferation and metastasis. Such enzymes are an increasingly important class of drug target with small molecule kinase inhibitors being a major focus in drug development. However, balancing drug specificity and efficacy is problematic with off-target effects and toxicity issues. Methodology We have utilized a rational in silico-based approach to demonstrate the design and study of a novel compound that acts as a dual inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) and cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1). This compound acts by simultaneously inhibiting pro-angiogenic signal transduction and cell cycle progression in primary endothelial cells. JK-31 displays potent in vitro activity against recombinant VEGFR2 and CDK1/cyclin B proteins comparable to previously characterized inhibitors. Dual inhibition of the vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A)-mediated signaling response and CDK1-mediated mitotic entry elicits anti-angiogenic activity both in an endothelial-fibroblast co-culture model and a murine ex vivo model of angiogenesis. Conclusions We deduce that JK-31 reduces the growth of both human endothelial cells and human breast cancer cells in vitro. This novel synthetic molecule has broad implications for development of similar multi-kinase inhibitors with anti-angiogenic and anti-cancer properties. In silico design is an attractive and innovative method to aid such drug discovery. PMID:25393739

  19. Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase dependent angiogenesis revealed by a bioengineered macrolide inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Mirando, Adam C; Fang, Pengfei; Williams, Tamara F; Baldor, Linda C; Howe, Alan K; Ebert, Alicia M; Wilkinson, Barrie; Lounsbury, Karen M; Guo, Min; Francklyn, Christopher S

    2015-08-14

    Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (AARSs) catalyze an early step in protein synthesis, but also regulate diverse physiological processes in animal cells. These include angiogenesis, and human threonyl-tRNA synthetase (TARS) represents a potent pro-angiogenic AARS. Angiogenesis stimulation can be blocked by the macrolide antibiotic borrelidin (BN), which exhibits a broad spectrum toxicity that has discouraged deeper investigation. Recently, a less toxic variant (BC194) was identified that potently inhibits angiogenesis. Employing biochemical, cell biological, and biophysical approaches, we demonstrate that the toxicity of BN and its derivatives is linked to its competition with the threonine substrate at the molecular level, which stimulates amino acid starvation and apoptosis. By separating toxicity from the inhibition of angiogenesis, a direct role for TARS in vascular development in the zebrafish could be demonstrated. Bioengineered natural products are thus useful tools in unmasking the cryptic functions of conventional enzymes in the regulation of complex processes in higher metazoans.

  20. Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase dependent angiogenesis revealed by a bioengineered macrolide inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Mirando, Adam C.; Fang, Pengfei; Williams, Tamara F.; Baldor, Linda C.; Howe, Alan K.; Ebert, Alicia M.; Wilkinson, Barrie; Lounsbury, Karen M.; Guo, Min; Francklyn, Christopher S.

    2015-01-01

    Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (AARSs) catalyze an early step in protein synthesis, but also regulate diverse physiological processes in animal cells. These include angiogenesis, and human threonyl-tRNA synthetase (TARS) represents a potent pro-angiogenic AARS. Angiogenesis stimulation can be blocked by the macrolide antibiotic borrelidin (BN), which exhibits a broad spectrum toxicity that has discouraged deeper investigation. Recently, a less toxic variant (BC194) was identified that potently inhibits angiogenesis. Employing biochemical, cell biological, and biophysical approaches, we demonstrate that the toxicity of BN and its derivatives is linked to its competition with the threonine substrate at the molecular level, which stimulates amino acid starvation and apoptosis. By separating toxicity from the inhibition of angiogenesis, a direct role for TARS in vascular development in the zebrafish could be demonstrated. Bioengineered natural products are thus useful tools in unmasking the cryptic functions of conventional enzymes in the regulation of complex processes in higher metazoans. PMID:26271225

  1. The plant alkaloid sanguinarine is a potential inhibitor of follicular angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Basini, Giuseppina; Santini, Suyen Eleonora; Bussolati, Simona; Grasselli, Francesca

    2007-06-01

    Sanguinarine (SA), a phytobiotic from Sanguinaria Canadensis, has been demonstrated to inhibit vessel growth. Current restrictions on the use of antibiotic growth promoters have motivated addition of this alkaloid as a naturally appetizing feed additive for farm animals. However, concern may araise since angiogenesis is a fundamental event in ovarian follicle growth. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the potential negative role of SA in follicular angiogenesis. For this purpose, we studied the effect of 300 nM SA on the production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) by swine granulosa cells from follicles >5 mm and on the activation of Akt, the main effector of the VEGF signalling pathway. In addition, the potential interference of SA in vessel development was tested in an in vitro angiogenesis bioassay. SA inhibited both VEGF production and VEGF-induced Akt activation in swine granulosa cells. Moreover, it was able to block vessel growth induced by VEGF. Taken together, our results suggest that SA could be detrimental to follicular angiogenesis, and therefore supplementation of feed with this alkaloid should be carefully considered.

  2. A novel matrix metalloproteinase-2 inhibitor triazolylmethyl aziridine reduces melanoma cell invasion, angiogenesis and targets ERK1/2 phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Romanchikova, Nadezhda; Trapencieris, Pēteris; Zemītis, Jānis; Turks, Māris

    2014-12-01

    A novel matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) inhibitor JaZ-30, which belongs to the class of C(2)-monosubstituted aziridine - aryl-1,2,3-triazole conjugates, was developed. MTT and crystal violet assays were used to determine cytotoxicity- IC(50) values of compound JaZ-30 on melanoma cell line B16 4A5. Our study proves the anti-cancer properties of JaZ-30 with a wide spectrum of activities. JaZ-30 was revealed as selective inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-2. JaZ-30-mediated decrease of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) secretion results in inhibition of angiogenesis, performed with the human umbilical vein endothelial cell line (HUVEC-2) on Matrigel. A novel inhibitor decreases invasive properties of melanoma cells measured in Matrigel chambers assay. JaZ-30 downregulates phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) in melanoma cells stimulated by phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA). Our findings propose a novel MMP-2 inhibitor JaZ-30 as an attractive potential agent for melanoma treatment.

  3. Image-based high-throughput screening for inhibitors of angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Evensen, Lasse; Link, Wolfgang; Lorens, James B

    2013-01-01

    Automated multicolor fluorescence microscopy facilitates high-throughput quantitation of cellular parameters of complex, organotypic systems. In vitro co-cultured vascular cells form capillary-like networks that model facets of angiogenesis, making it an attractive alternative for anti-angiogenic drug discovery. We have adapted this angiogenesis assay system to a high-throughput format to enable automated image-based high-throughput screening of live primary human vascular cell co-cultures with chemical libraries for anti-angiogenic drug discovery. Protocols are described for setup of a fluorescence-based co-culture assay, live cell image acquisition, image analysis of morphological parameters, and screening data handling. PMID:23027002

  4. Biomaterials and biotechnology: from the discovery of the first angiogenesis inhibitors to the development of controlled drug delivery systems and the foundation of tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Langer, Robert

    2013-09-01

    This paper describes the discovery of the first inhibitors of angiogenesis; the discoveries that led to the development of the first biocompatible controlled release systems for macromolecules, and findings that helped to create the field of tissue engineering. In addition, new paradigms for creating biomaterials, early work on nanotechnology in medicine and intelligent drug delivery systems are discussed.

  5. Enhancement of glioblastoma radioresponse by a selective COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib: Inhibition of tumor angiogenesis with extensive tumor necrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Khong Bee . E-mail: dmskkb@nccs.com.sg; Wang, Ting Ting; Woon, Chow Thai; Cheah, Elizabeth S.; Moore, Xiao Lei; Zhu Congju; Wong, Meng Cheong

    2007-03-01

    Purpose: Toward improved glioblastoma multiforme treatment, we determined whether celecoxib, a selective cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitor, could enhance glioblastoma radiosensitivity by inducing tumor necrosis and inhibiting tumor angiogenesis. Methods and Materials: U-87MG cells treated with celecoxib, irradiation, or both were assayed for clonogenic survival and angiogenic factor protein analysis (angiopoietin-1, angiopoietin-2, and vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF]). In vivo, survival of mice intracranially implanted with U-87MG cells and treated with celecoxib and/or irradiation was monitored. Isolated tumors were assessed for tumor necrosis and tumor microvascular density by von Williebrand's factor (vWF) immunohistochemical staining. Results: Celecoxib (4 and 30 {mu}M; 24, 48, and 72 h) enhanced U-87MG cell radiosensitivity by significantly reducing clonogenic survival of irradiated cells. Angiopoietin-1 and VEGF proteins were decreased, whereas angiopoietin-2 expression increased after 72 h of celecoxib alone and when combined with irradiation. In vivo, median survival of control mice intracranially implanted with U-87MG cells was 18 days. Celecoxib (100 mg/kg/day, 2 weeks) significantly extended median survival of irradiated mice (24 Gy total) from 34 to 41 days, with extensive tumor necrosis [24.5 {+-} 8.6% of tumor region, compared with irradiation alone (2.7 {+-} 1.8%)]. Tumor microvascular density was significantly reduced in combined celecoxib and irradiated tumors (52.5 {+-} 2.9 microvessels per mm{sup 2} tumor region), compared with irradiated tumors alone (65.4 {+-} 4.0 microvessels per mm{sup 2}). Conclusion: Celecoxib significantly enhanced glioblastoma radiosensitivity, reduced clonogenic survival, and prolonged survival of glioblastoma-implanted mice by inhibition of tumor angiogenesis with extensive tumor necr0010os.

  6. Inhibition of endothelial cell functions and of angiogenesis by the metastasis inhibitor NAMI-A

    PubMed Central

    Vacca, A; Bruno, M; Boccarelli, A; Coluccia, M; Ribatti, D; Bergamo, A; Garbisa, S; Sartor, L; Sava, G

    2002-01-01

    NAMI-A is a ruthenium-based compound with selective anti-metastasis activity in experimental models of solid tumours. We studied whether this activity was dependent on anti-angiogenic ability of NAMI-A. We thus investigated its in vitro effects on endothelial cell functions necessary for angiogenesis to develop, as well as its in vivo effects in the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane model. Endothelial cell proliferation, chemotaxis, and secretion of the matrix-degrading enzyme metalloproteinase-2 were inhibited by NAMI-A in a dose-dependent manner, and without morphologic signs of cell apoptosis or necrosis. Lastly, NAMI-A displayed a dose-dependent in vivo anti-angiogenic activity in the chorioallantoic membrane model. These data suggest that the anti-angiogenic activity of NAMI-A can contribute to its anti-metastatic efficacy in mice bearing malignant solid tumours. British Journal of Cancer (2002) 86, 993–998. DOI: 10.1038/sj/bjc/6600176 www.bjcancer.com © 2002 Cancer Research UK PMID:11953835

  7. An endogenous inhibitor of angiogenesis inversely correlates with side population phenotype and function in human lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Han, H; Bourboulia, D; Jensen-Taubman, S; Isaac, B; Wei, B; Stetler-Stevenson, W G

    2014-02-27

    The side population (SP) in human lung cancer cell lines and tumors is enriched with cancer stem cells. An endogenous inhibitor of angiogenesis known as tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2), characterized for its ability to inhibit matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), has been shown by several laboratories to impede tumor progression through MMP-dependent or -independent mechanisms. We recently reported that forced expression of TIMP-2, as well as the modified form Ala+TIMP-2 (that lacks MMP inhibitory activity) significantly blocks growth of A549 human lung cancer cells in vivo. However, the mechanisms underlying TIMP-2 antitumor effects are not fully characterized. Here, we examine the hypothesis that the TIMP-2 antitumor activity may involve regulation of the SP in human lung cancer cells. Indeed, using Hoechst dye efflux assay and flow cytometry, as well as quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis, we found that endogenous TIMP-2 mRNA levels showed a significant inverse correlation with SP fraction size in six non-small cell lung cancer cell lines. In A549 cells expressing increased levels of TIMP-2, a significant decrease in SP was observed, and this decrease was associated with lowered gene expression of ABCG2, ABCB1 and AKR1C1. Functional analysis of A549 cells showed that TIMP-2 overexpression increased chemosensitivity to cytotoxic drugs. The SP isolated from TIMP-2-overexpressing A549 cells also demonstrated impaired migratory capacity compared with the SP from empty vector control. More importantly, our data provide strong evidence that these TIMP-2 functions occur independent of MMP inhibition, as A549 cells overexpressing Ala+TIMP-2 exhibited identical behavior to those overexpressing TIMP-2 alone. Our findings provide the first indication that TIMP-2 modulates SP phenotype and function, and suggests that TIMP-2 may act as an endogenous suppressor of the SP in human lung cancer cells.

  8. The Bromodomain BET Inhibitor JQ1 Suppresses Tumor Angiogenesis in Models of Childhood Sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Bid, Hemant K; Phelps, Doris A; Xaio, Linlin; Guttridge, Denis C; Lin, Jiayuh; London, Cheryl; Baker, Laurence H; Mo, Xiaokui; Houghton, Peter J

    2016-05-01

    The bromodomain and extra-terminal domain inhibitor JQ1 has marked antitumor activity against several hematologic malignancies as well as solid tumor models. Here, we investigated its activity in vitro and in vivo against models of childhood rhabdomyosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma. In vitro, JQ1 (but not the inactive enantiomer JQ1R) inhibited cell proliferation and increased G1 fraction of cells, although there was no correlation between cell line sensitivity and suppression of c-MYC or MYCN. In vivo, xenografts showed significant inhibition of growth during the period of treatment, and rapid regrowth after treatment was stopped, activity typical of antiangiogenic agents. Furthermore, xenografts derived from cell lines intrinsically resistant or sensitive to JQ1 in vitro had similar sensitivity in vivo as xenografts. Further investigation showed that JQ1 reduced tumor vascularization. This was secondary to both drug-induced downregulation of tumor-derived growth factors and direct effects of JQ1 on vascular elements. JQ1 suppressed VEGF-stimulated vascularization of Matrigel plugs in mice, and in vitro suppressed differentiation, proliferation, and invasion of human umbilical cord vascular endothelial cells (HUVEC). In HUVECs, JQ1 partially suppressed c-MYC levels, but dramatically reduced AP-1 levels and activity through suppression of the AP-1-associated protein FOSL1. Our data suggest that the antitumor activity of JQ1 in these sarcoma models is largely a consequence of its antiangiogenic activity. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(5); 1018-28. ©2016 AACR. PMID:26908627

  9. Angiogenesis inhibitors rechallenge in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: a pooled analysis of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Lingdi; Li, Wei; Zhang, Huiying; Hou, Nan; Guo, Lanwei; Gao, Quanli

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Data on the role of angiogenesis inhibitors (AIs) rechallenge in the treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients who previously received bevacizumab remain limited. We aim to investigate the efficacy of AIs in the treatment of advanced NSCLC in this setting. Methods Studies from PubMed, Web of Science, and abstracts presented at American Society of Clinical Oncology meeting up to December 1, 2014 were searched to identify relevant studies. Eligible studies included prospective randomized controlled trials evaluating AIs in advanced NSCLC, with survival data on patients who previously received bevacizumab. The end points were overall survival and progression-free survival. Statistical analyses were conducted by using either random effects or fixed effect models according to the heterogeneity of included studies. Results A total of 452 patients with advanced NSCLC who previously received bevacizumab were identified for analysis. The meta-analysis results demonstrated that AI rechallenge significantly improved progression-free survival (hazard ratio: 0.72, 95% confidence interval: 0.58–0.89, P=0.002) when compared to non-AI containing regimens. Additionally, a nonsignificant improvement in overall survival was also observed in advanced NSCLC in this setting (hazard ratio: 0.82, 95% confidence interval: 0.65–1.03, P=0.087). Similar results were also observed in subgroup analysis according to treatment regimens. Conclusion The findings of this study suggest that NSCLC patients who relapsed after a first-line bevacizumab-containing chemotherapy obtain improved clinical benefits from AI rechallenge. Prospective clinical trials investigating the role of AI rechallenge in this setting are recommended. PMID:26491352

  10. Targeting Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor 2 and Protein Kinase D1 Related Pathways by a Multiple Kinase Inhibitor in Angiogenesis and Inflammation Related Processes In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Varga, Attila; Gyulavári, Pál; Greff, Zoltán; Futosi, Krisztina; Németh, Tamás; Simon-Szabó, Laura; Kerekes, Krisztina; Szántai-Kis, Csaba; Brauswetter, Diána; Kokas, Márton; Borbély, Gábor; Erdei, Anna; Mócsai, Attila; Kéri, György; Vántus, Tibor

    2015-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) and protein kinase D1 (PKD1) signaling axis plays a critical role in normal and pathological angiogenesis and inflammation related processes. Despite all efforts, the currently available therapeutic interventions are limited. Prior studies have also proved that a multiple target inhibitor can be more efficient compared to a single target one. Therefore, development of novel inflammatory pathway-specific inhibitors would be of great value. To test this possibility, we screened our molecular library using recombinant kinase assays and identified the previously described compound VCC251801 with strong inhibitory effect on both VEGFR2 and PKD1. We further analyzed the effect of VCC251801 in the endothelium-derived EA.hy926 cell line and in different inflammatory cell types. In EA.hy926 cells, VCC251801 potently inhibited the intracellular activation and signaling of VEGFR2 and PKD1 which inhibition eventually resulted in diminished cell proliferation. In this model, our compound was also an efficient inhibitor of in vitro angiogenesis by interfering with endothelial cell migration and tube formation processes. Our results from functional assays in inflammatory cellular models such as neutrophils and mast cells suggested an anti-inflammatory effect of VCC251801. The neutrophil study showed that VCC251801 specifically blocked the immobilized immune-complex and the adhesion dependent TNF-α -fibrinogen stimulated neutrophil activation. Furthermore, similar results were found in mast cell degranulation assay where VCC251801 caused significant reduction of mast cell response. In summary, we described a novel function of a multiple kinase inhibitor which strongly inhibits the VEGFR2-PKD1 signaling and might be a novel inhibitor of pathological inflammatory pathways. PMID:25874616

  11. Structure-Based Design of GNE-495, a Potent and Selective MAP4K4 Inhibitor with Efficacy in Retinal Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Diverse biological roles for mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase kinase 4 (MAP4K4) have necessitated the identification of potent inhibitors in order to study its function in various disease contexts. In particular, compounds that can be used to carry out such studies in vivo would be critical for elucidating the potential for therapeutic intervention. A structure-based design effort coupled with property-guided optimization directed at minimizing the ability of the inhibitors to cross into the CNS led to an advanced compound 13 (GNE-495) that showed excellent potency and good PK and was used to demonstrate in vivo efficacy in a retinal angiogenesis model recapitulating effects that were observed in the inducible Map4k4 knockout mice. PMID:26288693

  12. A recommended practical approach to the management of target therapy and angiogenesis inhibitors cardiotoxicity: an opinion paper of the working group on drug cardiotoxicity and cardioprotection, Italian Society of Cardiology

    PubMed Central

    Maurea, Nicola; Spallarossa, Paolo; Cadeddu, Christian; Madonna, Rosalinda; Mele, Donato; Monte, Ines; Novo, Giuseppina; Pagliaro, Pasquale; Pepe, Alessia; Tocchetti, Carlo G.; Zito, Concetta; Mercuro, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    The US National Cancer Institute estimates that cardiotoxicity (CTX) from target therapy refers mostly to four groups of drugs: epidermal growth factor receptor 2 inhibitors, angiogenic inhibitors, directed Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog inhibitors, and proteasome inhibitors. The main cardiotoxic side-effects related to antiepidermal growth factor receptor 2 therapy are left ventricular systolic dysfunction and heart failure. Angiogenesis inhibitors are associated with hypertension, left ventricular dysfunction/heart failure, myocardial ischemia, QT prolongation, and thrombosis. Moreover, other agents may be related to CTX induced by treatment. In this study, we review the guidelines for a practical approach for the management of CTX in patients under anticancer target therapy. PMID:27183530

  13. Pancreatic carcinogenesis: apoptosis and angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Onizuka, Shinya; Kawakami, Shunsuke; Taniguchi, Ken; Fujioka, Hikaru; Miyashita, Kosei

    2004-04-01

    Apoptosis and angiogenesis are critical biologic processes that are altered during carcinogenesis. Both apoptosis and angiogenesis may play an important role in pancreatic carcinogenesis. Despite numerous advances in the diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic cancer, its prognosis remains dismal and a new therapeutic approach is much needed. Recent research has revealed that apoptosis and angiogenesis are closely interrelated. Several reports show that a tumor suppresser gene that is expressed in pancreatic carcinoma and related to malignant potential can induce apoptosis and also inhibit angiogenesis. At present, it is generally accepted that tumor growth in cancers, including pancreatic cancer, depends on angiogenesis. We have identified 2 new angiogenesis inhibitors from a conditioned medium of human pancreatic carcinoma cell line (BxPC-3): antiangiogenic antithrombin III (aaAT-III) and vitamin D binding protein-macrophage activating factor (DBP-maf). These molecules were able to regress tumors in severe combined immunodeficiency disease (SCID) mice, demonstrating potent inhibition of endothelial cell proliferation. Moreover, the angiogenesis inhibitors induced tumor dormancy in the animal model. These results suggest that antiangiogenic therapy using angiogenesis inhibitors may become a new strategy for treatment of pancreatic cancer in the near future. PMID:15084979

  14. Evaluation of Curcumin Capped Copper Nanoparticles as Possible Inhibitors of Human Breast Cancer Cells and Angiogenesis: a Comparative Study with Native Curcumin.

    PubMed

    Kamble, Sonali; Utage, Bhimashankar; Mogle, Pratima; Kamble, Rahul; Hese, Shrikant; Dawane, Bhaskar; Gacche, Rajesh

    2016-10-01

    Synthesis of metal nanoparticles for improving therapeutic index and drug delivery is coming up as an attractive strategy in the mainstream of cancer therapeutic research. In the present study, curcumin-capped copper nanoparticles (CU-NPs) were evaluated as possible inhibitors of in vivo angiogenesis, pro-angiogenic cytokines involved in promoting tumor angiogenesis along with inhibition of cell proliferation and migration of breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231. The antiangiogenic potential was assessed using in vivo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model. 3-(4, 5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT)-based cytotoxicity assay was used to assess the effect of CU-NPs against proliferation of breast cancer cell line. The wound healing migration assay was used to evaluate the effects of CU-NPs on the migration ability of breast cancer cell line. Native curcumin (CU) was used as a reference compound for comparison purpose. The result of the present investigation indicates that CU-NPs could not demonstrate impressive antiangiogenic or anticancer activities significantly as compared to native CU. The possible mechanisms of experimental outcomes are discussed in the light of the methods of nanoparticle synthesis in concert with the current state of the art literature. PMID:26729534

  15. Evaluation of Curcumin Capped Copper Nanoparticles as Possible Inhibitors of Human Breast Cancer Cells and Angiogenesis: a Comparative Study with Native Curcumin.

    PubMed

    Kamble, Sonali; Utage, Bhimashankar; Mogle, Pratima; Kamble, Rahul; Hese, Shrikant; Dawane, Bhaskar; Gacche, Rajesh

    2016-10-01

    Synthesis of metal nanoparticles for improving therapeutic index and drug delivery is coming up as an attractive strategy in the mainstream of cancer therapeutic research. In the present study, curcumin-capped copper nanoparticles (CU-NPs) were evaluated as possible inhibitors of in vivo angiogenesis, pro-angiogenic cytokines involved in promoting tumor angiogenesis along with inhibition of cell proliferation and migration of breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231. The antiangiogenic potential was assessed using in vivo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model. 3-(4, 5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT)-based cytotoxicity assay was used to assess the effect of CU-NPs against proliferation of breast cancer cell line. The wound healing migration assay was used to evaluate the effects of CU-NPs on the migration ability of breast cancer cell line. Native curcumin (CU) was used as a reference compound for comparison purpose. The result of the present investigation indicates that CU-NPs could not demonstrate impressive antiangiogenic or anticancer activities significantly as compared to native CU. The possible mechanisms of experimental outcomes are discussed in the light of the methods of nanoparticle synthesis in concert with the current state of the art literature.

  16. Tumor angiogenesis: insights and innovations.

    PubMed

    Nussenbaum, Fernando; Herman, Ira M

    2010-01-01

    Angiogenesis is a vital process resulting in the formation of new blood vessels. It is normally a highly regulated process that occurs during human development, reproduction, and wound repair. However, angiogenesis can also become a fundamental pathogenic process found in cancer and several other diseases. To date, the inhibition of angiogenesis has been researched at both the bench and the bedside. While several studies have found moderate improvements when treating with angiogenesis inhibitors, greater success is being seen when the inhibition of angiogenesis is combined with other traditional forms of available therapy. This review summarizes several important angiogenic factors, examines new research and ongoing clinical trials for such factors, and attempts to explain how this new knowledge may be applied in the fight against cancer and other angiogenic-related diseases. PMID:20445741

  17. Tumor Angiogenesis: Insights and Innovations

    PubMed Central

    Nussenbaum, Fernando; Herman, Ira M.

    2010-01-01

    Angiogenesis is a vital process resulting in the formation of new blood vessels. It is normally a highly regulated process that occurs during human development, reproduction, and wound repair. However, angiogenesis can also become a fundamental pathogenic process found in cancer and several other diseases. To date, the inhibition of angiogenesis has been researched at both the bench and the bedside. While several studies have found moderate improvements when treating with angiogenesis inhibitors, greater success is being seen when the inhibition of angiogenesis is combined with other traditional forms of available therapy. This review summarizes several important angiogenic factors, examines new research and ongoing clinical trials for such factors, and attempts to explain how this new knowledge may be applied in the fight against cancer and other angiogenic-related diseases. PMID:20445741

  18. Intratumoral expression profiling of genes involved in angiogenesis in colorectal cancer patients treated with chemotherapy plus the VEGFR inhibitor PTK787/ZK 222584 (vatalanib).

    PubMed

    Wilson, P M; Yang, D; Azuma, M; Shi, M M; Danenberg, K D; Lebwohl, D; Sherrod, A; Ladner, R D; Zhang, W; Danenberg, P V; Trarbach, T; Folprecht, G; Meinhardt, G; Lenz, H-J

    2013-10-01

    The phase III CONFIRM clinical trials demonstrated that metastatic colorectal cancer patients with elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) had improved outcome when the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) inhibitor PTK/ZK (Vatalanib) was added to FOLFOX4 chemotherapy. We investigated the hypothesis that high intratumoral expression of genes regulated by hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF1α), namely LDHA, glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1), VEGFA, VEGFR1, and VEGFR2, were predictive of outcome in CONFIRM-1. Tumor tissue was isolated by laser-capture microdissection from 85 CONFIRM-1 tumor specimens; FOLFOX4/placebo n=42, FOLFOX4/PTK/ZK n=43. Gene expression was analyzed using quantitative RT-PCR. In univariate analyses, elevated mRNA expression of LDHA, GLUT-1, and VEGFR1 were associated with response to FOLFOX4/PTK/ZK. In univariate and multivariate analyses, elevated LDHA and VEGFR1 mRNA levels were associated with improved progression-free survival in FOLFOX4/PTK/ZK patients. Furthermore, increased HIF1α and VEGFR2 mRNA levels were associated with decreased survival in FOLFOX/placebo patients but not in patients who received FOLFOX4/PTK/ZK. These are the first data suggesting intratumoral mRNA expression of genes involved in angiogenesis/HIF pathway may predict outcome to VEGFR-inhibitors. Biomarkers that assist in directing VEGFR-inhibitors toward patients with an increased likelihood of benefit will improve the cost-effectiveness of these promising agents. PMID:22664478

  19. Evaluation of the angiogenesis inhibitor KR-31831 in SKOV-3 tumor-bearing mice using (64)Cu-DOTA-VEGF(121) and microPET.

    PubMed

    Lee, Iljung; Yoon, Kwang Yup; Kang, Choong Mo; Lin, Xin; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Kim, Jung Young; Kim, Sung-Min; Ryu, Eun Kyoung; Choe, Yearn Seong

    2012-08-01

    KR-31831 ((2R,3R,4S)-6-amino-4-[N-(4-chloropheyl)-N-(1H-imidazol-2ylmethyl)amino]-3-hydroxyl-2-methyl-2-dimethoxymethyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-1-benzopyran), an angiogenesis inhibitor, was evaluated in tumor-bearing mice using molecular imaging technology. Pre-treatment microPET images were acquired on SKOV-3 cell-implanted nude mice after injection with (64)Cu-DOTA-VEGF(121). KR-31831 (50 mg/kg) was then injected intraperitoneally into the treatment group (n=3), while injection vehicle was injected into the control (n=4) and blocking (n=3) groups. After injections occurred daily for 28 days, all groups of mice underwent post-treatment microPET imaging after injection with (64)Cu-DOTA-VEGF(121). The post-treatment images showed high tumor uptake in the control group and reduced tumor uptake in both the blocking and treatment groups. ROI analysis of the tumor images revealed 6.25%±1.18% ID/g at 1 h, 6.55%±0.69% ID/g at 2 h, and 4.68%±0.63% ID/g at 16 h in the control group; 3.87%±0.45% ID/g at 1 h, 4.50%±0.44% ID/g at 2 h, and 3.63%±0.25% ID/g at 16 h in the blocking group; and 4.03%±0.74% ID/g at 1 h, 4.37%±0.67% ID/g at 2 h, and 3.83%±0.90% ID/g at 16 h in the treatment group. Biodistribution obtained after the post-treatment microPET imaging also demonstrated high tumor uptake (3.74%±0.27% ID/g) in the control group and reduced uptakes in both the blocking group (2.69%±0.73% ID/g, P<.05) and the treatment group (3.11%±0.25% ID/g, P<.05), which correlated well with microPET imaging data. Immunofluorescence analysis showed higher levels of VEGFR2 and CD31 expressions in tumor tissues of the control and blocking groups than in tumor tissues of the treatment group. These results suggest that the antiangiogenic activity of KR-31831 is mediated through VEGFR2 and microPET serves as a useful molecular imaging tool for evaluation of a newly developed angiogenesis inhibitor, KR-31831.

  20. Anti-angiogenesis in neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Ribatti, Domenico

    2013-06-01

    The nature of the angiogenic balance in neuroblastoma is complex, and a spectrum of angiogenesis stimulators and inhibitors have been detected in neuroblastoma tumours. The complex relationships between angiogenic cascade and anti-angiogenic agents in the tumour vascular phase have indicated that anti-angiogenesis can be considered as a strategy for the adjuvant therapy of neuroblastoma. The major goal is to establish if inhibition of angiogenesis is a realistic therapeutic strategy for inhibiting tumour cell dissemination and the formation of metastasis in neuroblastoma.

  1. Mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors induce tumor cell apoptosis in vivo primarily by inhibiting VEGF expression and angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Frost, Patrick; Berlanger, Eileen; Mysore, Veena; Hoang, Bao; Shi, Yijiang; Gera, Joseph; Lichtenstein, Alan

    2013-01-01

    We found that rapalog mTOR inhibitors induce G1 arrest in the PTEN-null HS Sultan B-cell lymphoma line in vitro, but that administration of rapalogs in a HS Sultan xenograft model resulted in significant apoptosis, and that this correlated with induction of hypoxia and inhibition of neoangiogenesis and VEGF expression. Mechanistically, rapalogs prevent cap-dependent translation, but studies have shown that cap-independent, internal ribosome entry site (IRES)-mediated translation of genes, such as c-myc and cyclin D, can provide a fail-safe mechanism that regulates tumor survival. Therefore, we tested if IRES-dependent expression of VEGF could likewise regulate sensitivity of tumor cells in vivo. To achieve this, we developed isogenic HS Sultan cell lines that ectopically express the VEGF ORF fused to the p27 IRES, an IRES sequence that is insensitive to AKT-mediated inhibition of IRES activity and effective in PTEN-null tumors. Mice challenged with p27-VEGF transfected tumor cells were more resistant to the antiangiogenic and apoptotic effects of the rapalog, temsirolimus, and active site mTOR inhibitor, pp242. Our results confirm the critical role of VEGF expression in tumors during treatment with mTOR inhibitors and underscore the importance of IRES activity as a resistance mechanism to such targeted therapy.

  2. A Novel Small Molecular STAT3 Inhibitor, LY5, Inhibits Cell Viability, Cell Migration, and Angiogenesis in Medulloblastoma Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Hui; Bid, Hemant Kumar; Jou, David; Wu, Xiaojuan; Yu, Wenying; Li, Chenglong; Houghton, Peter J.; Lin, Jiayuh

    2015-01-01

    Signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling is persistently activated and could contribute to tumorigenesis of medulloblastoma. Numerous studies have demonstrated that inhibition of the persistent STAT3 signaling pathway results in decreased proliferation and increased apoptosis in human cancer cells, indicating that STAT3 is a viable molecular target for cancer therapy. In this study, we investigated a novel non-peptide, cell-permeable small molecule, named LY5, to target STAT3 in medulloblastoma cells. LY5 inhibited persistent STAT3 phosphorylation and induced apoptosis in human medulloblastoma cell lines expressing constitutive STAT3 phosphorylation. The inhibition of STAT3 signaling by LY5 was confirmed by down-regulating the expression of the downstream targets of STAT3, including cyclin D1, bcl-XL, survivin, and micro-RNA-21. LY5 also inhibited the induction of STAT3 phosphorylation by interleukin-6 (IL-6), insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, IGF-2, and leukemia inhibitory factor in medulloblastoma cells, but did not inhibit STAT1 and STAT5 phosphorylation stimulated by interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and EGF, respectively. In addition, LY5 blocked the STAT3 nuclear localization induced by IL-6, but did not block STAT1 and STAT5 nuclear translocation mediated by IFN-γ and EGF, respectively. A combination of LY5 with cisplatin or x-ray radiation also showed more potent effects than single treatment alone in the inhibition of cell viability in human medulloblastoma cells. Furthermore, LY5 demonstrated a potent inhibitory activity on cell migration and angiogenesis. Taken together, these findings indicate LY5 inhibits persistent and inducible STAT3 phosphorylation and suggest that LY5 is a promising therapeutic drug candidate for medulloblastoma by inhibiting persistent STAT3 signaling. PMID:25313399

  3. A targeted inhibitor of the complement alternative pathway reduces RPE injury and angiogenesis in models of age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Rohrer, Bärbel; Long, Qin; Coughlin, Beth; Renner, Brandon; Huang, Yuxiang; Kunchithapautham, Kannan; Ferreira, Viviana P; Pangburn, Michael K; Gilkeson, Gary S; Thurman, Joshua M; Tomlinson, Stephen; Holers, V Michael

    2010-01-01

    Genetic variations in complement factor H (fH), an inhibitor of the complement alternative pathway (CAP), and oxidative stress are associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Recently, novel complement therapeutics have been created with the capacity to be "targeted" to sites of complement activation. One example is our recombinant form of fH, CR2-fH, which consists of the N-terminus of mouse fH that contains the CAP-inhibitory domain, linked to a complement receptor 2 (CR2) targeting fragment that binds complement activation products. CR2-fH was investigated in vivo in the mouse model of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) and in vitro in oxidatively stressed RPE cell monolayers. RPE deterioration and CNV development were found to require CAP activation, and specific CAP inhibition by CR2-fH reduced the loss of RPE integrity and angiogenesis in CNV. In both the in vivo and in vitro paradigm of RPE damage, a model requiring molecular events known to be involved in AMD, complement-dependent VEGF production, was confirmed. These data may open new avenues for AMD treatment strategies.

  4. Light-responsive nanoparticle depot to control release of a small molecule angiogenesis inhibitor in the posterior segment of the eye

    PubMed Central

    Anh Nguyen Huu, Viet; Luo, Jing; Zhu, Jie; Zhu, Jing; Patel, Sherrina; Boone, Alexander; Mahmoud, Enas; McFearin, Cathryn; Olejniczak, Jason; de Gracia Lux, Caroline; Lux, Jacques; Fomina, Nadezda; Huynh, Michelle; Zhang, Kang; Almutairi, Adah

    2015-01-01

    Therapies for macular degeneration and diabetic retinopathy require intravitreal injections every 4-8 weeks. Injections are uncomfortable, time-consuming, and carry risks of infection and retinal damage. However, drug delivery via noninvasive methods to the posterior segment of the eye has been a major challenge due to the eye's unique anatomy and physiology. Here we present a novel nanoparticle depot platform for on-demand drug delivery using a far ultraviolet (UV) light-degradable polymer, which allows noninvasively triggered drug release using brief, low-power light exposure. Nanoparticles stably retain encapsulated molecules in the vitreous, and can release cargo in response to UV exposure up to 30 weeks post-injection. Light-triggered release of nintedanib (BIBF 1120), a small molecule angiogenesis inhibitor, 10 weeks post-injection suppresses choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in rats. Light-sensitive nanoparticles are biocompatible and cause no adverse effects on the eye as assessed by electroretinograms (ERG), corneal and retinal tomography, and histology. PMID:25571784

  5. A targeted inhibitor of the complement alternative pathway reduces RPE injury and angiogenesis in models of age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Rohrer, Bärbel; Long, Qin; Coughlin, Beth; Renner, Brandon; Huang, Yuxiang; Kunchithapautham, Kannan; Ferreira, Viviana P; Pangburn, Michael K; Gilkeson, Gary S; Thurman, Joshua M; Tomlinson, Stephen; Holers, V Michael

    2010-01-01

    Genetic variations in complement factor H (fH), an inhibitor of the complement alternative pathway (CAP), and oxidative stress are associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Recently, novel complement therapeutics have been created with the capacity to be "targeted" to sites of complement activation. One example is our recombinant form of fH, CR2-fH, which consists of the N-terminus of mouse fH that contains the CAP-inhibitory domain, linked to a complement receptor 2 (CR2) targeting fragment that binds complement activation products. CR2-fH was investigated in vivo in the mouse model of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) and in vitro in oxidatively stressed RPE cell monolayers. RPE deterioration and CNV development were found to require CAP activation, and specific CAP inhibition by CR2-fH reduced the loss of RPE integrity and angiogenesis in CNV. In both the in vivo and in vitro paradigm of RPE damage, a model requiring molecular events known to be involved in AMD, complement-dependent VEGF production, was confirmed. These data may open new avenues for AMD treatment strategies. PMID:20711712

  6. Impact of meriolins, a new class of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, on malignant glioma proliferation and neo-angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Jarry, Marie; Lecointre, Céline; Malleval, Céline; Desrues, Laurence; Schouft, Marie-Thérèse; Lejoncour, Vadim; Liger, François; Lyvinec, Gildas; Joseph, Benoît; Loaëc, Nadège; Meijer, Laurent; Honnorat, Jérôme; Gandolfo, Pierrick; Castel, Hélène

    2014-01-01

    Background Glioblastomas are the most frequent and most aggressive primary brain tumors in adults. The median overall survival is limited to a few months despite surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. It is now clearly established that hyperactivity of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) is one of the processes underlying hyperproliferation and tumoral growth. The marine natural products meridianins and variolins, characterized as CDK inhibitors, display a kinase-inhibitory activity associated with cytotoxic effects. In order to improve selectivity and efficiency of these CDK inhibitors, a series of hybrid compounds called meriolins have been synthesized. Methods The potential antitumoral activity of meriolins was investigated in vitro on glioma cell lines (SW1088 and U87), native neural cells, and a human endothelial cell line (HUV-EC-C). The impact of intraperitoneal or intratumoral administrations of meriolin 15 was evaluated in vivo on 2 different nude mice-xenografted glioma models. Results Meriolins 3, 5, and 15 exhibited antiproliferative properties with nanomolar IC50 and induced cell-cycle arrest and CDK inhibition associated with apoptotic events in human glioma cell lines. These meriolins blocked the proliferation rate of HUV-EC-C through cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. In vivo, meriolin 15 provoked a robust reduction in tumor volume in spite of toxicity for highest doses, associated with inhibition of cell division, activation of caspase 3, reduction of CD133 cells, and modifications of the vascular architecture. Conclusion Meriolins, and meriolin 15 in particular, exhibit antiproliferative and proapoptotic activities on both glioma and intratumoral endothelial cells, constituting key promising therapeutic lead compounds for the treatment of glioblastoma. PMID:24891448

  7. Inhibitor of growth 4 suppresses colorectal cancer growth and invasion by inducing G1 arrest, inhibiting tumor angiogenesis and reversing epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Qu, Hui; Yin, Hong; Yan, Su; Tao, Min; Xie, Yufeng; Chen, Weichang

    2016-05-01

    Previous studies have found that inhibitor of growth 4 (ING4), a tumor suppressor, is reduced in human colorectal cancer (CRC), and is inversely correlated with clinical Dukes' stage, histological grade, lymph node metastasis and microvessel density (MVD). However, its underlying mechanism remains undetermined. In the present study, we analyzed ING4 expression in a panel of human CRC cells using low (LS174T and SW480) and high (LoVo and SW620) metastatic cell lines. We demonstrated that both the low and high metastatic CRC cells exhibited a lower level of ING4 compared to the level in normal human colorectal mucous epithelial FHC cells. Furthermore, ING4 expression in high metastatic CRC cells was less than that in low metastatic CRC cells. We then generated a lentivirus construct expressing ING4 and green fluorescent protein (GFP), established a ING4-stably transgenic LoVo CRC cell line, and investigated the effect of lentiviral-mediated ING4 expression on high metastatic LoVo CRC cells. Gain-of-function studies revealed that ING4 significantly inhibited LoVo CRC cell growth and invasion in vitro and induced cell cycle G1 phase arrest. Moreover, ING4 obviously suppressed LoVo CRC subcutaneously xenografted tumor growth and reduced tumor MVD in vivo in athymic BALB/c nude mice. Mechanistically, ING4 markedly upregulated P21 and E-cadherin but downregulated cyclin E, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), Snail1, N-cadherin and vimentin in the LoVo CRC cells. Our data provide compelling evidence that i) ING4 suppresses CRC growth possibly via induction of G1 phase arrest through upregulation of P21 cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor and downregulation of cyclin E as well as inhibition of tumor angiogenesis through reduction of IL-6, IL-8 and VEGF proangiogenic factors; ii) ING4 inhibits CRC invasion and metastasis probably via a switch from mesenchymal marker N-cadherin to epithelial marker E-cadherin through downregulation of

  8. The impact of histological types on the efficacy of angiogenesis inhibitors in the treatment of advanced NSCLC: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jian; Liu, Jie; Chen, Huiguo; Wu, Weibin; Li, Xiaojun; Wu, Yonghui; Zhang, Kai; Gu, Lijia

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We aimed at assessing the overall efficacy of angiogenesis inhibitor (AI)-containing regimens in the treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) according to histological types. Methods Studies from PubMed and Web of Science, and abstracts presented at American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) meeting up to October 31, 2014 were searched to identify relevant studies. Eligible studies included prospective randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating AIs in advanced NSCLC with survival data according to patients’ histologies. The endpoints were overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). Statistical analyses were conducted by using either random effects or fixed effect models according to the heterogeneity of included studies. Results A total of 10,035 patients with advanced NSCLC from 13 RCTs were identified for analysis. The pooled results demonstrated that AI-containing regimens significantly improved the PFS (HR, 0.84, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.78–0.91, P<0.001) and OS (HR, 0.92, 95% CI: 0.85–0.99, P=0.017) in lung adenocarcinoma when compared to non-AI-containing regimens. Additionally, there was a significantly improved PFS (HR, 0.87, 95% CI: 0.77–0.98, P=0.027) for AI-containing regimens in squamous cell lung carcinoma, but it did not translated into OS benefit (HR, 1.02, 95% CI: 0.92–1.15, P=0.68). For NSCLC patients with other histological types, the use of AIs did not significantly improve PFS (HR, 0.90, 95% CI: 0.75–1.09, P=0.27) and OS (HR, 0.90, 95% CI: 0.76–1.08, P=0.19). Conclusion The findings of this study suggest that the addition of AIs to the treatment therapies for patients with lung adenocarcinoma offers improved survival benefits. Prospective clinical trials investigating the role of AIs in this setting are recommended. PMID:26366091

  9. The effects of PTK787/ZK222584, an inhibitor of VEGFR and PDGFRβ pathways, on intussusceptive angiogenesis and glomerular recovery from Thy1.1 nephritis.

    PubMed

    Wnuk, Monika; Hlushchuk, Ruslan; Tuffin, Gérald; Huynh-Do, Uyen; Djonov, Valentin

    2011-04-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the phenomenon of intussusceptive angiogenesis with a focus on its molecular regulation by vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)/platelet-derived growth factor receptor β (PDGFRβ) pathways and biological significance for glomerular recovery after acute injury. Glomerular healing by intussusception was examined in a particular setting of Thy1.1 nephritis, where the lysis of mesangial cells results in an initial collapse and successive rebuilding of glomerular capillary structure. Restoration of capillary structure after induction of Thy1.1 nephritis occurred by intussusceptive angiogenesis resulting in i) rapid expansion of the capillary plexus with reinstatement of the glomerular filtration surface and ii) restoration of the archetypical glomerular vascular pattern. Glomerular capillaries of nephritic rats after combined VEGFR2 and PDGFRβ inhibition by PTK787/ZK222584 (PTK/ZK) were tortuous and irregular. However, the onset of intussusceptive angiogenesis was influenced only after long-term PTK/ZK treatment, providing an important insight into differential molecular regulation between sprouting and intussusceptive angiogenesis. PTK/ZK treatment abolished α-smooth muscle actin and tensin expression by injured mesangial cells, impaired glomerular filtration of microspheres, and led to the reduction of glomerular volume and the presence of multiple hemorrhages detectable in the tubular system. Collectively, treatment of nephritic patients with PTK/ZK compound is not recommended. PMID:21435466

  10. Inhibitors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Community Counts Blood Safety Inhibitors Articles & Key Findings Free Materials Videos Starting the Conversation Playing it Safe A Look at Hemophilia Joint Range of Motion My Story Links to Other Websites ...

  11. Pazopanib, a multikinase angiogenesis inhibitor, in patients with relapsed or refractory advanced soft tissue sarcoma: a phase II study from the European organisation for research and treatment of cancer-soft tissue and bone sarcoma group (EORTC study 62043).

    PubMed

    Sleijfer, Stefan; Ray-Coquard, Isabelle; Papai, Zsuzsa; Le Cesne, Axel; Scurr, Michelle; Schöffski, Patrick; Collin, Françoise; Pandite, Lini; Marreaud, Sandrine; De Brauwer, Annick; van Glabbeke, Martine; Verweij, Jaap; Blay, Jean-Yves

    2009-07-01

    PURPOSE Given the importance of angiogenesis in soft tissue sarcoma (STS), pazopanib, an oral angiogenesis inhibitor that targets vascular endothelial growth factor receptor and platelet-derived growth factor receptor, was explored in patients with advanced STS. PATIENTS AND METHODS Patients with intermediate- or high-grade advanced STS who were ineligible for chemotherapy or who had received no more than two prior cytotoxic agents for advanced disease, who had documented progression, who had adequate performance status, and who had good organ function were eligible. Pazopanib 800 mg was given daily. The primary end point was progression-free rate at 12 weeks (PFR(12 weeks)). Secondary end points were response, safety, and overall survival. Four different strata were studied: adipocytic STS, leiomyosarcomas, synovial sarcomas, and other STS types. A Simon two-stage design was applied (P1 = 40%; P0 = 20%; alpha = beta = .1) for each stratum. Results One hundred forty-two patients were enrolled. The adipocytic STS stratum was closed after the first stage, given insufficient activity (PFR(12 weeks), five [26%] of19). PFR(12 weeks) was 18 (44%) of 41 patients in the leiomyosarcoma cohort, 18 (49%) of 37 in the synovial sarcomas, and 16 (39%) of 41 in the other STS types. Compared with historical controls who were treated with second-line chemotherapy, progression-free and overall survivals were prolonged in the three cohorts in which the primary end point was reached. The most frequent drug-related toxicities were hypertension, fatigue, hypopigmentation, and nausea. Other toxicities included liver enzyme elevations, myelosuppression, and proteinuria, all of which were mostly grades 1 to 2. The most frequent grades 3 to 4 toxicities were hyperbilirubinemia (6.3%), hypertension (7.7%), and fatigue (7.7%). CONCLUSION Pazopanib is well tolerated in patients with relapsed, advanced STS and demonstrates interesting activity that warrants additional study in patients with

  12. Antitumor effect of a selective COX-2 inhibitor, celecoxib, may be attributed to angiogenesis inhibition through modulating the PTEN/PI3K/Akt/HIF-1 pathway in an H₂₂ murine hepatocarcinoma model.

    PubMed

    Sui, Wenwen; Zhang, Yueying; Wang, Zhaopeng; Wang, Zhaoxia; Jia, Qing; Wu, Licun; Zhang, Weidong

    2014-05-01

    Celecoxib, a selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor, has recently been shown to affect the development of different types of cancer. The present study utilized a murine H22 hepatocarcinoma model to investigate the molecular mechanisms involved in celecoxib-induced inhibition of tumor angiogenesis. Tumor-bearing mice were randomly divided into five groups: i) control; ii) low-dose celecoxib (50 mg/kg); iii) high-dose celecoxib (200 mg/kg); iv) 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), (20 mg/kg) and v) combination of 5-FU and celecoxib (50 mg/kg). The antitumor effect of celecoxib was determined by measuring tumor volume. Tumor angiogenesis was evaluated by microvessel density (MVD). Tumor histology and immunostaining for CD34 in endothelial cells were performed to detect MVD. The expression levels of phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted from chromosome 10 (PTEN), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), phospho‑Akt (P-Akt), COX-2, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) were detected by ELISA, immunohistochemistry and western blotting, respectively. We discovered substantial growth delay in murine H22 hepatoma as a result of celecoxib treatment. The inhibition rate of tumor growth induced by high-dose and low-dose celecoxib was 49.3 and 37.0%, respectively (P<0.05). The expression of PI3K, P-Akt, COX-2, HIF-1α, VEGF-A and PTEN in tumor tissues treated with celecoxib was demonstrated by immunohistochemistry, and the MVD was decreased in a dose-dependent manner (P<0.05). Reduced PI3K and P-Akt was particularly apparent in the high-dose celecoxib group (P<0.05). ELISA and western blotting data showed that the expression of PI3K, P-Akt, COX-2, HIF-1α and VEGF-A were reduced and PTEN was increased after treatment with celecoxib. In conclusion, the impact of celecoxib-induced tumor growth delay of murine H22 hepatocarcinoma may correlate with the inhibition of angiogenesis by reducing PI3K, P-Akt, COX-2, HIF-1α and VEGF

  13. Effects of tyrosine kinase inhibitors and CXCR4 antagonist on tumor growth and angiogenesis in rat glioma model: MRI and protein analysis study.

    PubMed

    Ali, Meser M; Kumar, Sanath; Shankar, Adarsh; Varma, Nadimpalli R S; Iskander, A S M; Janic, Branislava; Chwang, Wilson B; Jain, Rajan; Babajeni-Feremi, Abbas; Borin, Thaiz F; Bagher-Ebadian, Hassan; Brown, Stephen L; Ewing, James R; Arbab, Ali S

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the antiangiogenic efficacy of vatalanib, sunitinib, and AMD3100 in an animal model of human glioblastoma (GBM) by using dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) and tumor protein expression analysis. Orthotopic GBM-bearing animals were randomly assigned either to control group or vatalanib, sunitinib, and AMD3100 treatment groups. Following 2 weeks of drug treatment, tumor growth and vascular parameters were measured using DCE-MRI. Expression of different angiogenic factors in tumor extracts was measured using a membrane-based human antibody array kit. Tumor angiogenesis and invasion were determined by immunohistochemistry. DCE-MRI showed a significant increase in tumor size after vatalanib treatment. AMD3100-treated group showed a significant decrease in a number of vascular parameters determined by DCE-MRI. AMD3100 significantly decreased the expression of different angiogenic factors compared to sunitinib or vatalanib; however, there were no significant changes in vascular density among the groups. Sunitinib-treated animals showed significantly higher migration of the invasive cells, whereas in both vatalanib- and AMD3100-treated animals the invasive cell migration distance was significantly lower compared to that of control. Vatalanib and sunitinib resulted in suboptimal therapeutic effect, but AMD3100 treatment resulted in a significant reduction in tumor growth, permeability, interstitial space volume, and invasion of tumor cells in an animal model of GBM. PMID:24466368

  14. Dietary Proteins and Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Medina, Miguel Ángel; Quesada, Ana R.

    2014-01-01

    Both defective and persistent angiogenesis are linked to pathological situations in the adult. Compounds able to modulate angiogenesis have a potential value for the treatment of such pathologies. Several small molecules present in the diet have been shown to have modulatory effects on angiogenesis. This review presents the current state of knowledge on the potential modulatory roles of dietary proteins on angiogenesis. There is currently limited available information on the topic. Milk contains at least three proteins for which modulatory effects on angiogenesis have been previously demonstrated. On the other hand, there is some scarce information on the potential of dietary lectins, edible plant proteins and high protein diets to modulate angiogenesis. PMID:24445377

  15. A novel integrin {alpha}5{beta}1 antagonistic peptide, A5-1, screened by Protein Chip system as a potent angiogenesis inhibitor

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Eung-Yoon; Bang, Ji Young; Chang, Soo-Ik; Kang, In-Cheol

    2008-12-26

    Integrin {alpha}5{beta}1 immobilized on a ProteoChip was used to screen new antagonistic peptides from multiple hexapeptide sub-libraries of the positional scanning synthetic peptide combinatorial library (PS-SPCL). The integrin {alpha}5{beta}1-Fibronectin interaction was demonstrated on the chip. A novel peptide ligand, A5-1 (VILVLF), with high affinity to integrin {alpha}5{beta}1 was identified from the hexapeptide libraries with this chip-based screening method on the basis of a competitive inhibition assay. A5-1 inhibits the integrin-fibronectin interaction in a dose-dependent manner (IC{sub 50}; 1.56 {+-} 0.28 {mu}M. In addition, it inhibits human umbilical vein endothelial cell proliferation, migration, adhesion, tubular network formation, and bFGF-induced neovascularization in a chick chorioallantoic membrane. These results suggest that A5-1 will be a potent inhibitor of neovascularization.

  16. Soliton driven angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Bonilla, L. L.; Carretero, M.; Terragni, F.; Birnir, B.

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenesis is a multiscale process by which blood vessels grow from existing ones and carry oxygen to distant organs. Angiogenesis is essential for normal organ growth and wounded tissue repair but it may also be induced by tumours to amplify their own growth. Mathematical and computational models contribute to understanding angiogenesis and developing anti-angiogenic drugs, but most work only involves numerical simulations and analysis has lagged. A recent stochastic model of tumour-induced angiogenesis including blood vessel branching, elongation, and anastomosis captures some of its intrinsic multiscale structures, yet allows one to extract a deterministic integropartial differential description of the vessel tip density. Here we find that the latter advances chemotactically towards the tumour driven by a soliton (similar to the famous Korteweg-de Vries soliton) whose shape and velocity change slowly. Analysing these collective coordinates paves the way for controlling angiogenesis through the soliton, the engine that drives this process. PMID:27503562

  17. Soliton driven angiogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonilla, L. L.; Carretero, M.; Terragni, F.; Birnir, B.

    2016-08-01

    Angiogenesis is a multiscale process by which blood vessels grow from existing ones and carry oxygen to distant organs. Angiogenesis is essential for normal organ growth and wounded tissue repair but it may also be induced by tumours to amplify their own growth. Mathematical and computational models contribute to understanding angiogenesis and developing anti-angiogenic drugs, but most work only involves numerical simulations and analysis has lagged. A recent stochastic model of tumour-induced angiogenesis including blood vessel branching, elongation, and anastomosis captures some of its intrinsic multiscale structures, yet allows one to extract a deterministic integropartial differential description of the vessel tip density. Here we find that the latter advances chemotactically towards the tumour driven by a soliton (similar to the famous Korteweg-de Vries soliton) whose shape and velocity change slowly. Analysing these collective coordinates paves the way for controlling angiogenesis through the soliton, the engine that drives this process.

  18. Soliton driven angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Bonilla, L L; Carretero, M; Terragni, F; Birnir, B

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenesis is a multiscale process by which blood vessels grow from existing ones and carry oxygen to distant organs. Angiogenesis is essential for normal organ growth and wounded tissue repair but it may also be induced by tumours to amplify their own growth. Mathematical and computational models contribute to understanding angiogenesis and developing anti-angiogenic drugs, but most work only involves numerical simulations and analysis has lagged. A recent stochastic model of tumour-induced angiogenesis including blood vessel branching, elongation, and anastomosis captures some of its intrinsic multiscale structures, yet allows one to extract a deterministic integropartial differential description of the vessel tip density. Here we find that the latter advances chemotactically towards the tumour driven by a soliton (similar to the famous Korteweg-de Vries soliton) whose shape and velocity change slowly. Analysing these collective coordinates paves the way for controlling angiogenesis through the soliton, the engine that drives this process. PMID:27503562

  19. Shared mechanism of teratogenicity of anti-angiogenic drugs identified in the chicken embryo model

    PubMed Central

    Beedie, Shaunna L.; Mahony, Chris; Walker, Heather M.; Chau, Cindy H.; Figg, William D.; Vargesson, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels, is essential for tumor growth, stabilization and progression. Angiogenesis inhibitors are now widely used in the clinic; however, there are relatively few published studies on the mechanism of their presumed teratogenic effects. To address this issue, we screened a variety of angiogenesis inhibitors in developing zebrafish and chicken embryo models to assess for developmental defects and potential teratogenic effects. We confirmed previous reports that sunitinib, sorafenib and TNP-470 are teratogenic and demonstrate that axitinib, pazopanib, vandetanib, and everolimus are also teratogens in these models. A dose response study identified the drugs inhibit HUVEC cell proliferation in vitro, and also target the developing blood vessels of embryos in vivo. This provides further evidence for the potential risk of fetal toxicity when using these drugs in a clinical setting, and emphasizes the importance of the development and maintenance of the vasculature in the embryo. We conclude that angiogenesis inhibitors, regardless of the molecular target, are teratogenic when exposed to chicken embryos. PMID:27443489

  20. Phase II trial of pazopanib (GW786034), an oral multi-targeted angiogenesis inhibitor, for adults with recurrent glioblastoma (North American Brain Tumor Consortium Study 06-02)

    PubMed Central

    Iwamoto, Fabio M.; Lamborn, Kathleen R.; Robins, H. Ian; Mehta, Minesh P.; Chang, Susan M.; Butowski, Nicholas A.; DeAngelis, Lisa M.; Abrey, Lauren E.; Zhang, Wei-Ting; Prados, Michael D.; Fine, Howard A.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this phase II single-arm study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of pazopanib, a multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor, against vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-1, -2, and -3, platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α and -β, and c-Kit, in recurrent glioblastoma. Patients with ≤2 relapses and no prior anti-VEGF/VEGFR therapy were treated with pazopanib 800 mg daily on 4-week cycles without planned interruptions. Brain magnetic resonance imaging and clinical reassessment were made every 8 weeks. The primary endpoint was efficacy as measured by 6-month progression-free survival (PFS6). Thirty-five GBM patients with a median age of 53 years and median Karnofsky performance scale of 90 were accrued. Grade 3/4 toxicities included leukopenia (n = 1), lymphopenia (n = 2), thrombocytopenia (n = 1), ALT elevation (n = 3), AST elevation (n = 1), CNS hemorrhage (n = 1), fatigue (n = 1), and thrombotic/embolic events (n = 3); 8 patients required dose reduction. Two patients had a partial radiographic response by standard bidimensional measurements, whereas 9 patients (6 at the 8-week point and 3 only within the first month of treatment) had decreased contrast enhancement, vasogenic edema, and mass effect but <50% reduction in tumor. The median PFS was 12 weeks (95% confidence interval [CI]: 8–14 weeks) and only 1 patient had a PFS time ≥6 months (PFS6 = 3%). Thirty patients (86%) had died and median survival was 35 weeks (95% CI: 24–47 weeks). Pazopanib was reasonably well tolerated with a spectrum of toxicities similar to other anti-VEGF/VEGFR agents. Single-agent pazopanib did not prolong PFS in this patient population but showed in situ biological activity as demonstrated by radiographic responses. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00459381. PMID:20200024

  1. Endothelial Heparan Sulfate in Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Fuster, Mark M.; Wang, Lianchun

    2013-01-01

    Heparan sulfate (HS) is a linear polysaccharide composed of 50–200 glucosamine and uronic acid (glucuronic acid or iduronic acid) disaccharide repeats with epimerization and various sulfation modifications. HS is covalently attached to core proteins to form HS-proteoglycans. Most of the functions of HS-proteoglycans are mediated by their HS moieties. The biosynthesis of HS is initiated by chain polymerization and is followed by stepwise modification reactions, including sulfation and epimerization. These modifications generate ligand-binding sites that modulate cell functions and activities of proteinases and/or proteinase inhibitors. HS is abundantly expressed in developing and mature vasculature, and understanding its roles in vascular biology and related human diseases is an area of intense investigation. In this chapter, we summarize the significant recent advances in our understanding of the roles of HS in developmental and pathological angiogenesis with a major focus on studies using transgenic as well as gene knockout/knockdown models in mice and zebrafish. These studies have revealed that HS critically regulates angiogenesis by playing a proangiogenic role, and this regulatory function critically depends on HS fine structure. The latter is responsible for facilitating cell-surface binding of various proangiogenic growth factors that in turn mediate endothelial growth signaling. In cancer, mouse studies have revealed important roles for endothelial cell-surface HS as well as matrix-associated HS, wherein signaling by multiple growth factors as well as matrix storage of growth factors may be regulated by HS. We also discuss important mediators that may fine-tune such regulation, such as heparanase and sulfatases; and models wherein targeting HS (or core protein) biosynthesis may affect tumor growth and vascularization. Finally, the importance of targeting HS in other human diseases wherein angiogenesis may play pathophysiologic (or even therapeutic) roles

  2. Clock controls angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Lasse Dahl; Cao, Yihai

    2013-01-01

    Circadian rhythms control multiple physiological and pathological processes, including embryonic development in mammals and development of various human diseases. We have recently, in a developing zebrafish embryonic model, discovered that the circadian oscillation controls developmental angiogenesis. Disruption of crucial circadian regulatory genes, including Bmal1 and Period2, results in marked impairment or enhancement of vascular development in zebrafish. At the molecular level, we show that the circadian regulator Bmal1 directly targets the promoter region of the vegf gene in zebrafish, leading to an elevated expression of VEGF. These findings can reasonably be extended to developmental angiogenesis in mammals and even pathological angiogenesis in humans. Thus, our findings, for the first time, shed new light on mechanisms that underlie circadian clock-regulated angiogenesis. PMID:23324349

  3. Adipose tissue angiogenesis assay.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Rodriguez, Raziel; Gealekman, Olga; Kruse, Maxwell E; Rosenthal, Brittany; Rao, Kishore; Min, Soyun; Bellve, Karl D; Lifshitz, Lawrence M; Corvera, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Changes in adipose tissue mass must be accompanied by parallel changes in microcirculation. Investigating the mechanisms that regulate adipose tissue angiogenesis could lead to better understanding of adipose tissue function and reveal new potential therapeutic strategies. Angiogenesis is defined as the formation of new capillaries from existing microvessels. This process can be recapitulated in vitro, by incubation of tissue in extracellular matrix components in the presence of pro-angiogenic factors. Here, we describe a method to study angiogenesis from adipose tissue fragments obtained from mouse and human tissue. This assay can be used to define effects of diverse factors added in vitro, as well as the role of endogenously produced factors on angiogenesis. We also describe approaches to quantify angiogenic potential for the purpose of enabling comparisons between subjects, thus providing information on the role of physiological conditions of the donor on adipose tissue angiogenic potential.

  4. Advances in understanding angiogenesis through molecular studies

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, Mijung; Libutti, Steven K. . E-mail: steven_libutti@nih.gov

    2006-01-01

    Tumors, in most cases, need angiogenesis for their sustained growth. A great deal of evidence has suggested that the process of angiogenesis is regulated by the balance between proangiogenic and antiangiogenic factors. Thus, the inhibition of tumor angiogenesis has been considered to be one of the key targets in anticancer therapy, and more than 60 antiangiogenic compounds are currently under clinical evaluation in cancer patients. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for the activity of many of these antiangiogenic compounds are still not well understood. The recent development of microarray technology has allowed us to investigate the mechanism of action of these inhibitors more rapidly and extensively. With the use of microarray technology, novel molecules and pathways are shown to play a role in angiogenesis. This article also reviews new experimental approaches combined with microarray analysis to identify the molecular pathways involved in tumor-host interactions. Elucidation of the pathways that mediate both angiogenic and antiangiogenic responses will help us to develop better anticancer therapies.

  5. REGULATION OF VASCULOGENESIS AND ANGIOGENESIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Regulation of vasculogenesis and angiogenesis.
    B.D. Abbott
    Reproductive Toxicology Division, Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA
    Vasculogenesis and angiogenesis are regulated by a complex, interactive family of receptors and lig...

  6. From angiogenesis to neuropathology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenberg, David A.; Jin, Kunlin

    2005-12-01

    Angiogenesis - the growth of new blood vessels - is a crucial force for shaping the nervous system and protecting it from disease. Recent advances have improved our understanding of how the brain and other tissues grow new blood vessels under normal and pathological conditions. Angiogenesis factors, especially vascular endothelial growth factor, are now known to have roles in the birth of new neurons (neurogenesis), the prevention or mitigation of neuronal injury (neuroprotection), and the pathogenesis of stroke, Alzheimer's disease and motor neuron disease. As our understanding of pathophysiology grows, these developments may point the way towards new molecular and cell-based therapies.

  7. ER Stress and Angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Binet, François; Sapieha, Przemyslaw

    2015-10-01

    Proper tissue vascularization is vital for cellular function as it delivers oxygen, nutrients, hormones, and immune cells and helps to clear cellular debris and metabolic waste products. Tissue angiogenesis occurs to satisfy energy requirements and cellular sensors of metabolic imbalance coordinate vessel growth. In this regard, the classical pathways of the unfolded protein response activated under conditions of ER stress have recently been described to generate angiomodulatory or angiostatic signals. This review elaborates on the link between angiogenesis and ER stress and discusses the implications for diseases characterized by altered vascular homeostasis, such as cancer, retinopathies, and atherosclerosis.

  8. Assessment methods for angiogenesis and current approaches for its quantification

    PubMed Central

    AlMalki, Waleed Hassan; Shahid, Imran; Mehdi, Abeer Yousaf; Hafeez, Muhammad Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Angiogenesis is a physiological process which describes the development of new blood vessels from the existing vessels. It is a common and the most important process in the formation and development of blood vessels, so it is supportive in the healing of wounds and granulation of tissues. The different assays for the evaluation of angiogenesis have been described with distinct advantages and some limitations. In order to develop angiogenic and antiangiogenic techniques, continuous efforts have been resulted to give animal models for more quantitative analysis of angiogenesis. Most of the studies on angiogenic inducers and inhibitors rely on various models, both in vitro, in vivo and in ova, as indicators of efficacy. The angiogenesis assays are very much helpful to test efficacy of both pro- and anti- angiogenic agents. The development of non-invasive procedures for quantification of angiogenesis will facilitate this process significantly. The main objective of this review article is to focus on the novel and existing methods of angiogenesis and their quantification techniques. These findings will be helpful to establish the most convenient methods for the detection, quantification of angiogenesis and to develop a novel, well tolerated and cost effective anti-angiogenic treatment in the near future. PMID:24987169

  9. Novel angiogenesis inhibitory activity in cinnamon extract blocks VEGFR2 kinase and downstream signaling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    VEGF is one of the most critical factors that induce angiogenesis, and has thus become an attractive target for anti-angiogenesis treatment. However, most of the current anti-VEGF agents that often cause side effects cannot be recommended for long term use. Identification of natural VEGF inhibitors...

  10. How phototherapy affects angiogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyson, Mary

    2007-02-01

    Angiogenesis is essential for normal growth, tissue repair and regeneration. Its stimulation accelerates repair and regeneration including wound healing where these processes are delayed. Its inhibition can reduce the rate of growth of solid tumors. Phototherapy can accelerate the resolution of acute inflammation with the result that the proliferative phase of tissue repair, when angiogenesis occurs, begins earlier than in sham-irradiated controls. Evidence that angiogenesis is enhanced in dermal repair, tendon repair and bone regeneration in rodents is presented. The cellular mechanisms that control angiogenesis involve the interaction of endothelial cells, macrophages, pericytes and other cells in response, for example, to changes in the availability of oxygen in the local environment. Pericytes and macrophages modulate endothelial cell proliferation; pericytes guide endothelial cell migration. The stimulation of endothelial cell proliferation in vitro following exposure to red (660 nm) and infrared (820 nm) radiation, 15 mW, at 2-8 J/cm2 is presented. 1J/cm2 was ineffective. 820 nm irradiation, 15 mW, at 8 J/cm2 was observed to inhibit pericyte proliferation in vitro. Indirect effects on endothelial cell and pericyte proliferation followed stimulation of soluble mediator production by macrophages following exposure to red and infrared radiation. The potential clinical significance of the results obtained is discussed and the necessity of clinical trials emphasized.

  11. The Harvard angiogenesis story.

    PubMed

    Miller, Joan W

    2014-01-01

    I shall discuss the work of researchers at Harvard Medical School who came together in the early 1990s. Scattered across various Harvard-affiliated hospitals and research centers, these individuals were unified by their interest in ocular neovascularization. Together and separately, they investigated models of ocular neovascularization, exploring tumor angiogenesis in eye development and disease.

  12. Angiogenesis: a curse or cure?

    PubMed

    Gupta, K; Zhang, J

    2005-04-01

    Angiogenesis, the growth of new blood vessels is essential during fetal development, female reproductive cycle, and tissue repair. In contrast, uncontrolled angiogenesis promotes the neoplastic disease and retinopathies, while inadequate angiogenesis can lead to coronary artery disease. A balance between pro-angiogenic and antiangiogenic growth factors and cytokines tightly controls angiogenesis. Considerable progress has been made in identifying these molecular components to develop angiogenesis based treatments. One of the most specific and critical regulators of angiogenesis is vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which regulates endothelial proliferation, permeability, and survival. Several VEGF based treatments including anti-VEGF and anti-VEGF receptor antibodies/agents are in clinical trials along with several other antiangiogenic treatments. While bevacizumab (anti-VEGF antibody) has been approved for clinical use in colorectal cancer, the side effects of antiangiogenic treatment still remain a challenge. The pros and cons of angiogenesis based treatment are discussed.

  13. Glycobiology of ocular angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Markowska, Anna I; Cao, Zhiyi; Panjwani, Noorjahan

    2014-12-01

    Ocular neovascularization can affect almost all the tissues of the eye: the cornea, the iris, the retina, and the choroid. Pathological neovascularization is the underlying cause of vision loss in common ocular conditions such as diabetic retinopathy, retinopathy of prematurity and age-related macular neovascularization. Glycosylation is the most common covalent posttranslational modification of proteins in mammalian cells. A growing body of evidence demonstrates that glycosylation influences the process of angiogenesis and impacts activation, proliferation, and migration of endothelial cells as well as the interaction of angiogenic endothelial cells with other cell types necessary to form blood vessels. Recent studies have provided evidence that members of the galectin class of β-galactoside-binding proteins modulate angiogenesis by novel carbohydrate-based recognition systems involving interactions between glycans of angiogenic cell surface receptors and galectins. This review discusses the significance of glycosylation and the role of galectins in the pathogenesis of ocular neovascularization. PMID:25108228

  14. Soy and breast cancer: focus on angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Varinska, Lenka; Gal, Peter; Mojzisova, Gabriela; Mirossay, Ladislav; Mojzis, Jan

    2015-05-22

    Epidemiological studies have revealed that high consumption of soy products is associated with low incidences of hormone-dependent cancers, including breast and prostate cancer. Soybeans contain large amounts of isoflavones, such as the genistein and daidzain. Previously, it has been demonstrated that genistein, one of the predominant soy isoflavones, can inhibit several steps involved in carcinogenesis. It is suggested that genistein possesses pleiotropic molecular mechanisms of action including inhibition of tyrosine kinases, DNA topoisomerase II, 5α-reductase, galectin-induced G2/M arrest, protein histidine kinase, and cyclin-dependent kinases, modulation of different signaling pathways associated with the growth of cancer cells (e.g., NF-κB, Akt, MAPK), etc. Moreover, genistein is also a potent inhibitor of angiogenesis. Uncontrolled angiogenesis is considered as a key step in cancer growth, invasion, and metastasis. Genistein was found to inhibit angiogenesis through regulation of multiple pathways, such as regulation of VEGF, MMPs, EGFR expressions and NF-κB, PI3-K/Akt, ERK1/2 signaling pathways, thereby causing strong antiangiogenic effects. This review focuses on the antiangiogenic properties of soy isoflavonoids and examines their possible underlying mechanisms.

  15. Statins and angiogenesis: Is it about connections?

    SciTech Connect

    Khaidakov, Magomed; Wang, Wenze; Khan, Junaid A.; Kang, Bum-Yong; Hermonat, Paul L.; Mehta, Jawahar L.

    2009-09-25

    Statins, inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A reductase, have been shown to induce both angiogenic and angiostatic responses. We attempted to resolve this controversy by studying the effects of two different statins, rosuvastatin and simvastatin, in two different assay systems. In the matrigel angiogenesis assay, both statins enhanced tube formation by human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs, p < 0.01 vs. control). In the ex vivo mouse aortic ring sprouting assay, both statins virtually abolished new vessel formation (p < 0.01). As a basic difference between the two models of angiogenesis is dispersed state of endothelial cells vs. compact monolayer, we analyzed influence of statins on endothelial junction proteins. RT-PCR analysis and cytoimmunostaining of HUVECs treated with simvastatin revealed increased expression of VE-cadherin (p < 0.05). The blockade of VE-cadherin with a specific antibody reversed simvastatin-induced tube formation (p < 0.002). These data suggest that statins through VE-cadherin stimulation modulate cell-cell adhesion and diminish the ability of cells to proliferate and migrate. The observations of reduced angiogenesis in the intact vessel may relate to anti-atherosclerotic and anti-cancer effects of statins, and provide a feasible explanation for conflicting data under different experimental conditions.

  16. Soy and Breast Cancer: Focus on Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Varinska, Lenka; Gal, Peter; Mojzisova, Gabriela; Mirossay, Ladislav; Mojzis, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have revealed that high consumption of soy products is associated with low incidences of hormone-dependent cancers, including breast and prostate cancer. Soybeans contain large amounts of isoflavones, such as the genistein and daidzain. Previously, it has been demonstrated that genistein, one of the predominant soy isoflavones, can inhibit several steps involved in carcinogenesis. It is suggested that genistein possesses pleiotropic molecular mechanisms of action including inhibition of tyrosine kinases, DNA topoisomerase II, 5α-reductase, galectin-induced G2/M arrest, protein histidine kinase, and cyclin-dependent kinases, modulation of different signaling pathways associated with the growth of cancer cells (e.g., NF-κB, Akt, MAPK), etc. Moreover, genistein is also a potent inhibitor of angiogenesis. Uncontrolled angiogenesis is considered as a key step in cancer growth, invasion, and metastasis. Genistein was found to inhibit angiogenesis through regulation of multiple pathways, such as regulation of VEGF, MMPs, EGFR expressions and NF-κB, PI3-K/Akt, ERK1/2 signaling pathways, thereby causing strong antiangiogenic effects. This review focuses on the antiangiogenic properties of soy isoflavonoids and examines their possible underlying mechanisms. PMID:26006245

  17. Cryptotanshinone, a novel tumor angiogenesis inhibitor, destabilizes tumor necrosis factor-α mRNA via decreasing nuclear-cytoplasmic translocation of RNA-binding protein HuR.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhijie; Zhao, Yang; Li, Junbo; Tao, Li; Shi, Peiliang; Wei, Zhonghong; Sheng, Xiaobo; Shen, Dandan; Liu, Zhaoguo; Zhou, Liang; Tian, Chao; Fan, Fangtian; Shen, Cunsi; Zhu, Pingting; Wang, Aiyun; Chen, Wenxing; Zhao, Qingshun; Lu, Yin

    2016-10-01

    Cryptotanshinone (CT), one major lipophilic component isolated from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, has shown to possess chemopreventive properties against various types of cancer cells. In this study, CT was shown to be a potent anti-angiogenic agent in zebrafish, and mouse models and could limit tumor growth by inhibiting tumor angiogenesis. We further found that CT could inhibit the proliferation, migration, angiogenic sprouting, and tube formation of HUVECs. In addition, we demonstrated that CT could lower the level of TNF-α due to the destabilization of TNF-α mRNA, which associated with regulating 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of TNF-α and preventing the translocation of RNA binding protein, HuR, from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Moreover, the underlying mechanism responsible for the regulation in angiogenesis by CT was partially related to the suppression of NF-κB, and STAT3 activity. Based on the abilities of CT in targeting tumor cells, inhibiting angiogenesis, and destroying tumor vasculature, CT is worthy of further investigation for preventive, and therapeutic purposes in cancer. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Angiogenesis in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Alkim, Canan; Alkim, Huseyin; Koksal, Ali Riza; Boga, Salih; Sen, Ilker

    2015-01-01

    Angiogenesis is an important component of pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Chronic inflammation and angiogenesis are two closely related processes. Chronic intestinal inflammation is dependent on angiogenesis and this angiogenesis is modulated by immune system in IBD. Angiogenesis is a very complex process which includes multiple cell types, growth factors, cytokines, adhesion molecules, and signal transduction. Lymphangiogenesis is a new research area in the pathogenesis of IBD. While angiogenesis supports inflammation via leukocyte migration, carrying oxygen and nutrients, on the other hand, it has a major role in wound healing. Angiogenic molecules look like perfect targets for the treatment of IBD, but they have risk for serious side effects because of their nature. PMID:26839731

  19. Stabilized epoxygenated fatty acids regulate inflammation, pain, angiogenesis and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guodong; Kodani, Sean; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2014-01-01

    Epoxygenated fatty acids (EpFAs), which are lipid mediators produced by cytochrome P450 epoxygenases from polyunsaturated fatty acids, are important signaling molecules known to regulate various biological processes including inflammation, pain and angiogenesis. The EpFAs are further metabolized by soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) to form fatty acid diols which are usually less-active. Pharmacological inhibitors of sEH that stabilize endogenous EpFAs are being considered for human clinical uses. Here we review the biology of ω-3 and ω-6 EpFAs on inflammation, pain, angiogenesis and tumorigenesis. PMID:24345640

  20. Novel role of lactosylceramide in vascular endothelial growth factor-mediated angiogenesis in human endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Rajesh, Mohanraj; Kolmakova, Antonina; Chatterjee, Subroto

    2005-10-14

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been implicated in angiogenesis associated with coronary heart disease, vascular complications in diabetes, inflammatory vascular diseases, and tumor metastasis. The mechanism of VEGF-driven angiogenesis involving glycosphingolipids such as lactosylceramide (LacCer), however, is not known. To demonstrate the involvement of LacCer in VEGF-induced angiogenesis, we used small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated silencing of LacCer synthase expression (GalT-V) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. This gene silencing markedly inhibited VEGF-induced platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) expression and angiogenesis. Second, we used D-threo-1-phenyl-2-decanoylamino-3-morpholino-1-propanol (D-PDMP), an inhibitor of LacCer synthase and glucosylceramide synthase, that significantly mitigated VEGF-induced PECAM-1 expression and angiogenesis. Interestingly, these phenotypic changes were reversed by LacCer but not by structurally related compounds such as glucosylceramide, digalactosylceramide, and ceramide. In a human mesothelioma cell line (REN) that lacks the endogenous expression of PECAM-1, VEGF/LacCer failed to stimulate PECAM-1 expression and tube formation/angiogenesis. In REN cells expressing human PECAM-1 gene/protein, however, both VEGF and LacCer-induced PECAM-1 protein expression and tube formation/angiogenesis. In fact, VEGF-induced but not LacCer-induced angiogenesis was mitigated by SU-1498, a VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Also, VEGF/LacCer-induced PECAM-1 expression and angiogenesis was mitigated by protein kinase C and phospholipase A2 inhibitors. These results indicate that LacCer generated in VEGF-treated endothelial cells may serve as an important signaling molecule for PECAM-1 expression and in angiogenesis. This finding and the reagents developed in our report may be useful as anti-angiogenic drugs for further studies in vitro and in vivo. PMID:16151023

  1. Expression of hyaluronidase by tumor cells induces angiogenesis in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Liu, D; Pearlman, E; Diaconu, E; Guo, K; Mori, H; Haqqi, T; Markowitz, S; Willson, J; Sy, M S

    1996-01-01

    Hyaluronic acid is a proteoglycan present in the extracellular matrix and is important for the maintenance of tissue architecture. Depolymerization of hyaluronic acid may facilitate tumor invasion. In addition, oligosaccharides of hyaluronic acid have been reported to induce angiogenesis. We report here that a hyaluronidase similar to the one on human sperm is expressed by metastatic human melanoma, colon carcinoma, and glioblastoma cell lines and by tumor biopsies from patients with colorectal carcinomas, but not by tissues from normal colon. Moreover, angiogenesis is induced by hyaluronidase+ tumor cells but not hyaluronidase- tumor cells and can be blocked by an inhibitor of hyaluronidase. Tumor cells thus use hyaluronidase as one of the "molecular saboteurs" to depolymerize hyaluronic acid to facilitate invasion. As a consequence, breakdown products of hyaluronic acid can further promote tumor establishment by inducing angiogenesis. Hyaluronidase on tumor cells may provide a target for anti-neoplastic drugs. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:8755562

  2. Brassinosteroids inhibit in vitro angiogenesis in human endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Rárová, Lucie; Zahler, Stefan; Liebl, Johanna; Kryštof, Vladimír; Sedlák, David; Bartůněk, Petr; Kohout, Ladislav; Strnad, Miroslav

    2012-11-01

    Antiangiogenic activity of the brassinosteroid plant hormones (BRs) and their derivative cholestanon was investigated in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and in human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1). 24-Epibrassinolide and 28-homocastasterone from group of 21 tested natural BRs inhibited migration of HUVEC cells. Seven tested BRs decreased the number of tubes significantly. Synthetic analogue cholestanon inhibited angiogenesis in vitro more effectively than natural BRs. Because of the similarity of BRs to human steroids, we have also studied interactions of BRs with human steroid receptors. Synthetic BRs cholestanon showed agonistic effects on estrogen-receptor-α, estrogen-receptor-β and androgen receptor. Of the natural BRs, 24-epibrassinolide was found to be a weak antagonist of estrogen-receptor-α (ERα). Our results provide the first evidence that large group of BRs can inhibit in vitro angiogenesis of primary endothelial cells. BRs constitute a novel group of human steroid receptor activators or inhibitors with capacity to inhibit angiogenesis.

  3. FAK-heterozygous mice display enhanced tumour angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kostourou, Vassiliki; Lechertier, Tanguy; Reynolds, Louise E.; Lees, Delphine M.; Baker, Marianne; Jones, Dylan T.; Tavora, Bernardo; Ramjaun, Antoine R.; Birdsey, Graeme M.; Robinson, Stephen D.; Parsons, Maddy; Randi, Anna M.; Hart, Ian R; Hodivala-Dilke, Kairbaan

    2013-01-01

    Genetic ablation of endothelial Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) can inhibit pathological angiogenesis, suggesting that loss of endothelial FAK is sufficient to reduce neovascularisation. Here we show that reduced stromal-FAK expression in FAK-heterozygous mice unexpectedly enhances both B16F0 and CMT19T tumour growth and angiogenesis. We further demonstrate that cell proliferation and microvessel sprouting, but not migration, are increased in serum-stimulated FAK-heterozygous endothelial cells. FAK-heterozygous endothelial cells display an imbalance in FAK phosphorylation at pY397 and pY861 without changes in Pyk2 or Erk1/2 activity. By contrast, serum-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt is enhanced in FAK-heterozygous endothelial cells and these cells are more sensitive to Akt inhibition. Additionally, low doses of a pharmacological FAK inhibitor, although too low to affect FAK autophosphorylation in vitro, can enhance angiogenesis ex vivo and tumor growth in vivo. Our results highlight a potential novel role for FAK as a non-linear, dose-dependent regulator of angiogenesis where heterozygous levels of FAK enhance angiogenesis. PMID:23799510

  4. 20-HETE contributes to ischemia-induced angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li; Joseph, Gregory; Zhang, Frank F; Nguyen, Huyen; Jiang, Houli; Gotlinger, Katherine H; Falck, John R; Yang, Jing; Schwartzman, Michal L; Guo, Austin M

    2016-08-01

    Angiogenesis is an important adaptation for recovery from peripheral ischemia. Here, we determined whether 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) contributes to ischemia-induced angiogenesis and assessed its underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms using a mouse hindlimb-ischemia angiogenesis model. Hindlimb blood flow was measured by Laser Doppler Perfusion Imaging and microvessel density was determined by CD31 and tomato lectin staining. We found that systemic and local administration of a 20-HETE synthesis inhibitor, DDMS, or a 20-HETE antagonist, 6,15-20-HEDGE significantly reduced blood flow recovery and microvessel formation in response to ischemia. 20-HETE production, measured by LC/MS/MS, was markedly increased in ischemic muscles (91±11 vs. 8±2pg/mg in controls), which was associated with prominent upregulation of the 20-HETE synthase, CYP4A12. Immunofluorescence co-localized increased CYP4A12 expression in response to ischemia to CD31-positive EC in the ischemic hindlimb microvessels. We further showed that ischemia increased HIF-1α, VEGF, and VEGFR2 expression in gracilis muscles and that these increases were negated by DDMS and 6,15-20-HEDGE. Lastly, we showed that ERK1/2 of MAPK is a component of 20-HETE regulated ischemic angiogenesis. Taken together, these data indicate that 20-HETE is a critical contributor of ischemia-induced angiogenesis in vivo. PMID:27084395

  5. Immune cells and angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ribatti, Domenico; Crivellato, Enrico

    2009-09-01

    Both innate and adaptive immune cells are involved in the mechanisms of endothelial cell proliferation, migration and activation, through the production and release of a large spectrum of pro-angiogenic mediators. These may create the specific microenvironment that favours an increased rate of tissue vascularization. In this review, we will focus on the immune cell component of the angiogenic process in inflammation and tumour growth. As angiogenesis is the result of a net balance between the activities exerted by positive and negative regulators, we will also provide information on some antiangiogenic properties of immune cells that may be utilized for a potential pharmacological use as antiangiogenic agents in inflammation as well as in cancer.

  6. Interleukin 32 promotes angiogenesis1

    PubMed Central

    Nold-Petry, Claudia A.; Rudloff, Ina; Baumer, Yvonne; Ruvo, Menotti; Marasco, Daniela; Botti, Paolo; Farkas, Laszlo; Cho, Steven X.; Zepp, Jarod A.; Azam, Tania; Dinkel, Hannah; Palmer, Brent E.; Boisvert, William A.; Cool, Carlyne D.; Taraseviciene-Stewart, Laima; Heinhuis, Bas; Joosten, Leo A. B.; Dinarello, Charles A.; Voelkel, Norbert F.; Nold, Marcel F.

    2013-01-01

    IL-32 is a multi-faceted cytokine with a role in infections, autoimmune diseases, and cancer, and it exerts diverse functions, including aggravation of inflammation and inhibition of virus propagation. We previously identified IL-32 as a critical regulator of endothelial cell (EC) functions, and now reveal that IL-32 also possesses angiogenic properties. The hyperproliferative EC of human pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and glioblastoma multiforme exhibited a markedly increased abundance of IL-32, and, significantly, the cytokine colocalized with integrin αVβ3. VEGF receptor blockade, which resulted in EC hyperproliferation, increased IL-32 threefold. siRNA-mediated silencing of IL-32 negated the 58% proliferation of EC that occurred within 24h in scrambled-transfected controls. Reduction of IL-32 neither affected apoptosis (insignificant changes in Bak-1, Bcl-2, Bcl-XL, LDH, annexin V, and propidium iodide) nor VEGF or TGF-β levels, but siIL-32-transfected adult and neonatal EC produced up to 61% less NO, IL-8, and MMP-9, and up to 3-fold more activin A and endostatin. In co-culture-based angiogenesis assays, IL-32γ dose-dependently increased tube formation up to 3-fold; an αVβ3 inhibitor prevented this activity, and reduced IL-32γ-induced IL-8 by 85%. In matrigel plugs loaded with IL-32γ, VEGF, or vehicle, and injected into live mice, we observed the anticipated VEGF-induced increase in neocapillarization (8-fold vs vehicle), but unexpectedly, IL-32γ was equally angiogenic. A second signal such as IFNγ was required to render cells responsive to exogenous IL-32γ; importantly, this was confirmed using a completely synthetic preparation of IL-32γ. In summary, we add angiogenic properties that are mediated by integrin αVβ3 but VEGF-independent, to the portfolio of IL-32, implicating a role for this versatile cytokine in PAH and neoplastic diseases. PMID:24337385

  7. Enhanced angiogenesis, hypoxia and neutrophil recruitment during Myc-induced liver tumorigenesis in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ye; Huang, Xiaoqian; Ding, Tony Weixi; Gong, Zhiyuan

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenesis, hypoxia and immune cells are important components in tumor microenvironment affecting tumor growth. Here we employed a zebrafish liver tumor model to investigate the effect of Myc expression on angiogenesis, hypoxia and tumor-infiltrated neutrophils during the tumor initiation stage. We found that induced Myc expression in the liver caused a dramatic increase of liver size with neoplastic features. The tumorigenic liver was accompanied by enhanced angiogenesis and inhibition of angiogenesis by an inhibitor (SU5416 or sunitinib) hindered the tumorigenic growth, suggesting an essential role of angiogenesis in tumorigenic growth of liver tumor in this zebrafish model. Myc induction also caused hypoxia, which could be further enhanced by hypoxia activator, ML228, to lead to a further enlargement of tumorigenic liver. Furthermore, Myc overexpression incurred an increase of liver-infiltrated neutrophils and the increase could be suppressed by angiogenesis inhibitors or by morpholino knockdown inhibition of neutrophil differentiation, leading to a suppression of growth of tumorigenic livers. Finally, the enhanced angiogenesis, hypoxia and tumor-infiltrated neutrophils by Myc overexpression were validated by RT-qPCR examination of expression of relevant biomarker genes. In sum, the current study demonstrated that the Myc-induced liver tumor model in zebrafish provides an excellent platform for study of tumor microenvironment. PMID:27549025

  8. Redox signaling in vascular angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Maulik, Nilanjana; Das, Dipak K

    2002-10-15

    Angiogenesis is thought to be regulated by several growth factors (EGF, TGF-alpha, beta-FGF, VEGF). Induction of these angiogenic factors is triggered by various stresses. For instance, tissue hypoxia exerts its pro-angiogenic action through various angiogenic factors, the most notable being vascular endothelial growth factor, which has been mainly associated with initiating the process of angiogenesis through the recruitment and proliferation of endothelial cells. Recently, reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been found to stimulate angiogenic response in the ischemic reperfused hearts. Short exposure to hypoxia/reoxygenation, either directly or indirectly, produces ROS that induce oxidative stress which is associated with angiogenesis or neovascularization. ROS can cause tissue injury in one hand and promote tissue repair in another hand by promoting angiogenesis. It thus appears that after causing injury to the cells, ROS promptly initiate the tissue repair process by triggering angiogenic response.

  9. Human Arterial Ring Angiogenesis Assay.

    PubMed

    Seano, Giorgio; Primo, Luca

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter we describe a model of human angiogenesis where artery explants from umbilical cords are embedded in gel matrices and subsequently produce capillary-like structures. The human arterial ring (hAR) assay is an innovative system that enables three-dimensional (3D) and live studies of human angiogenesis. This ex vivo model has the advantage of recapitulating several steps of angiogenesis, including endothelial sprouting, migration, and differentiation into capillaries. Furthermore, it can be exploited for (1) identification of new genes regulating sprouting angiogenesis, (2) screening for pro- or anti-angiogenic drugs, (3) identification of biomarkers to monitor the efficacy of anti-angiogenic regimens, and (4) dynamic analysis of tumor microenvironmental effects on vessel formation. PMID:27172955

  10. Ceruloplasmin, copper ions, and angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Raju, K S; Alessandri, G; Ziche, M; Gullino, P M

    1982-11-01

    The ability to induce new formation of capillaries in the cornea was tested for ceruloplasmin, the copper carrier of serum, for fragments of the ceruloplasmin molecule with and without copper, for heparin, and for glycyl-L-histidyl-L-lysine, bound or not bound to copper ions. Male or female 2- to 3-kg New Zealand White rabbits were used. These experiments were prompted by the previous observation of copper accumulation in the cornea during angiogenesis and by the inability of copper-deficient rabbits to mount an angiogenic response. The results showed that the three different molecules were all able to induce angiogenesis provided that they were bound to copper. Fragments of the ceruloplasmin molecule also induced angiogenesis but only when copper was bound to the peptides. The data are interpreted to indicate that copper ions are involved in the sequence of events leading to angiogenesis and that the carrier molecules may be of quite a different nature. PMID:6182332

  11. Compensatory angiogenesis and tumor refractoriness.

    PubMed

    Gacche, R N

    2015-01-01

    Since the establishment of tumor angiogenesis as a therapeutic target, an excitement in developing the anti-angiogenic agents was resulted in tailoring a humanized monoclonal antibody (Bevacizumab) against vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF): a key factor in recruiting angiogenesis. The past three decades' research in the area of angiogenesis also invented a series of novel and effective anti-angiogenic agents targeting the VEGF signaling axis. Despite the demonstrable clinical benefits of anti-angiogenic therapy, the preclinical and clinical data of the current therapeutic settings clearly indicate the transient efficacy, restoration of tumor progression and aggressive recurrence of tumor invasion after the withdrawal of anti-angiogenic therapy. Therefore, the impact of this therapeutic regime on improving overall survival of patients has been disappointing in clinic. The recent advances in pathophysiology of tumor angiogenesis and related molecular and cellular underpinnings attributed the conspiracy of compensatory angiogenic pathways in conferring evasive and intrinsic tumor resistance to anti-angiogenic agents. The understandings of how these pathways functionally cross-talk for sustaining tumor angiogenesis during VEGF blockade is essential and perhaps may act as a basic prerequisite for designing novel therapeutic strategies to combat the growing arrogance of tumors toward anti-angiogenic agents. The present review offers a discourse on major compensatory angiogenic pathways operating at cellular and molecular levels and their attributes with resistance to anti-angiogenic agents along with strategic opinions on future setting in targeting tumor angiogenesis. PMID:26029827

  12. Targeting Angiogenesis in Metastatic Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Sangeetha; Raffin, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Angiogenesis has become an important target in the treatment of several solid tumors, including breast cancer. As monotherapy, antiangiogenic agents have demonstrated limited activity in metastatic breast cancer (MBC); therefore, they have generally been developed for use in combination with chemotherapies. Thus far, the experience with antiangiogenic agents for MBC has been mixed. The results from one study assessing addition of the monoclonal antibody bevacizumab to paclitaxel led to approval of bevacizumab for MBC. However, the modest improvement of progression-free survival rates in subsequent MBC studies has led to reappraisal of bevacizumab. Phase III studies have not produced evidence supporting use of the multikinase inhibitor sunitinib alone or in combination with MBC chemotherapy. Experience with sorafenib in a phase IIb program indicates potential when used in select combinations, particularly with capecitabine; however, phase III confirmatory data are needed. Although antiangiogenic therapies combined with chemotherapy have increased progression-free survival rates for patients with MBC, increases in overall survival times have not been observed. Some studies have tried to combine antiangiogenic agents such as bevacizumab and sunitinib or sorafenib, but that approach has been limited because of toxicity concerns. Sequential use of antiangiogenic agents with differing mechanisms of action may be an effective approach. Despite setbacks, angiogenesis will likely remain an important target of treatment for selected patients with MBC. PMID:22843553

  13. Positron emission tomography tracers for imaging angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Beer, Ambros J.; Wang, Hui; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2013-01-01

    Position emission tomography imaging of angiogenesis may provide non-invasive insights into the corresponding molecular processes and may be applied for individualized treatment planning of antiangiogenic therapies. At the moment, most strategies are focusing on the development of radiolabelled proteins and antibody formats targeting VEGF and its receptor or the ED-B domain of a fibronectin isoform as well as radiolabelled matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors or αvβ3 integrin antagonists. Great efforts are being made to develop suitable tracers for different target structures. All of the major strategies focusing on the development of radiolabelled compounds for use with positron emission tomography are summarized in this review. However, because the most intensive work is concentrated on the development of radiolabelled RGD peptides for imaging αvβ3 expression, which has successfully made its way from bench to bedside, these developments are especially emphasized. PMID:20559632

  14. Angiogenesis and experimental hepatic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Lemos, Queli Teixeira; Andrade, Zilton A

    2010-08-01

    Angiogenesis is a basic change occurring during repair by granulation tissue. This process seems to precede fibrosis formation in most types of chronic liver disease. To examine its presence and significance in different types of hepatic insults, this paper sought to identify the presence, evolution and peculiarities of angiogenesis in the most common experimental models of hepatic fibrosis. The characterization of cells, vessels and extracellular matrix and the identification of factors associated with endothelium (factor VIII RA), vascular basement membrane, other components of the vascular walls (actin, elastin) and the presence of the vascular-endothelial growth factor were investigated. The models examined included Capillaria hepatica septal fibrosis, whole pig serum injections, carbon tetrachloride administration, main bile duct ligation and Schistosoma mansoni infection. The first four models were performed in rats, while the last used mice. All models studied exhibited prominent angiogenesis. The most evident relationship between angiogenesis and fibrosis occurred with the C. hepatica model due to circumstances to be discussed. Special attention was paid to the presence of pericytes and to their tendency to become detached from the vascular wall and be transformed into myofibroblasts, which is a sequence of events that explains the decisive role angiogenesis plays in fibrosis.

  15. Photoperiod-induced differential expression of angiogenesis genes in testes of adult Peromyscus leucopus.

    PubMed

    Pyter, Leah M; Hotchkiss, Andrew K; Nelson, Randy J

    2005-02-01

    Non-pathological angiogenesis in adults is rare and is largely thought to be restricted to wound healing and female reproductive cycles. Adult male rodents, however, display seasonal angiogenesis to support seasonal changes in reproductive tissue morphology. Non-tropical rodents use photoperiod (day length) to determine the time of year. During short days, the reproductive system undergoes involution and mating behaviours stop, adaptations which presumably allow energy resources to be shifted to processes necessary for winter survival. We compared the patterns of gene expression involved in angiogenesis in testes of white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) following 7, 14, 21 or 34 weeks of long or short day lengths. Short days decreased body mass, reproductive tract mass and seminiferous tubule diameter. Potential genes involved in seasonal angiogenesis were screened by hybridizing testicular RNA from each group to angiogenesis-specific microarrays. Genes that were > or =6-fold different between long- and short-day testes (i.e. hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha(Hif1alpha), plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (Serpine1), transforming growth factor beta receptor 3 (Tgfbetar3) and tumour necrosis factor (Tnf )) were sequenced and expression differences were compared throughout gonadal regression and recrudescence using quantitative RT-PCR. Our results suggest that short days trigger expression of Hif1alpha, Serpine1, and Tgfbetar3 to inhibit angiogenesis or promote apoptosis during testicular regression, and also trigger expression of Tnf to promote angiogenesis during testicular recrudescence.

  16. Inhibition of insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-IR) using NVP-AEW541, a small molecule kinase inhibitor, reduces orthotopic pancreatic cancer growth and angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Moser, Christian; Schachtschneider, Philipp; Lang, Sven A; Gaumann, Andreas; Mori, Akira; Zimmermann, Johann; Schlitt, Hans J; Geissler, Edward K; Stoeltzing, Oliver

    2008-07-01

    The insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-IR) is frequently overexpressed and constitutively activated in pancreatic cancer, thus representing a promising target for therapy. We investigated the impact of a novel inhibitor of IGF-IR (NVP-AEW541) on signalling and growth of pancreatic cancer. Human pancreatic cancer cells and endothelial cells were employed, and effects of NVP-AEW541 on signalling pathways investigated by Western blotting. NVP-AEW541 diminished the activation of IGF-IR, IRS-1, Erk, Akt and STAT3. Furthermore, NVP-AEW541 reduced cancer cell proliferation and abrogated migratory effects of IGF-I. NVP-AEW541 elicited a direct effect on endothelial cells in terms of reducing endothelial cell migration. In vivo, treatment of mice with NVP-AEW541 significantly reduced orthotopic pancreatic tumour growth, vascularisation, and VEGF expression. Interestingly, NVP-AEW541 lowered serum levels of IGF-binding-protein-3 (IGFBP-3). In conclusion, the IGF-IR inhibitor NVP-AEW541 effectively disrupts IGF-I signalling and reduces pancreatic tumour growth. Hence, blocking IGF-IR could prove valuable for targeted therapy of pancreatic cancer.

  17. Ramucirumab (IMC-1121B): a novel attack on angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Spratlin, Jennifer L; Mulder, Karen E; Mackey, John R

    2010-07-01

    Angiogenesis is a critical hallmark of malignancy, and attempts to inhibit this process have characterized the age of biologic anticancer therapies for solid tumors. VEGF receptor-2 is the premier receptor responsible for many of the cancer-driven VEGF-induced spectrum of biologic changes, including modification of blood vessel structure and function, proliferation and migration. Unlike all clinically approved angiogenesis inhibitors, the fully human monoclonal antibody ramucirumab (IMC-1121B) specifically and potently inhibits VEGF receptor-2. Phase I clinical trials have shown safety across a wide range of ramucirumab doses with impressive, albeit early, evidence of both stable disease and partial responses in a variety of tumor types. In this article, we review the current data on ramucirumab and make comparisons with commercially available antiangiogenic agents.

  18. Shed syndecan-2 inhibits angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    De Rossi, Giulia; Evans, Alun R.; Kay, Emma; Woodfin, Abigail; McKay, Tristan R.; Nourshargh, Sussan; Whiteford, James R.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Angiogenesis is essential for the development of a normal vasculature, tissue repair and reproduction, and also has roles in the progression of diseases such as cancer and rheumatoid arthritis. The heparan sulphate proteoglycan syndecan-2 is expressed on mesenchymal cells in the vasculature and, like the other members of its family, can be shed from the cell surface resulting in the release of its extracellular core protein. The purpose of this study was to establish whether shed syndecan-2 affects angiogenesis. We demonstrate that shed syndecan-2 regulates angiogenesis by inhibiting endothelial cell migration in human and rodent models and, as a result, reduces tumour growth. Furthermore, our findings show that these effects are mediated by the protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor CD148 (also known as PTPRJ) and this interaction corresponds with a decrease in active β1 integrin. Collectively, these data demonstrate an unexplored pathway for the regulation of new blood vessel formation and identify syndecan-2 as a therapeutic target in pathologies characterised by angiogenesis. PMID:25179601

  19. Celecoxib Nanoparticles for Therapeutic Angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Margulis, Katherine; Neofytou, Evgenios A; Beygui, Ramin E; Zare, Richard N

    2015-09-22

    Controllable induction of blood vessel formation (angiogenesis) presents an important therapeutic goal in ischemic diseases and is also beneficial in various normal physiological processes. In this study, we have shown that nanoparticles of celecoxib, a lipophilic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, effectively evoke therapeutic angiogenesis in animal models, in both normal and ischemic organs. Celecoxib is widely considered to inhibit angiogenesis, although a recent study suggests that it can instead promote blood vessel growth in cancer cell lines. The hydrophobic nature of this drug necessitates its administration in nanoparticulate form in order to elicit a perceivable pharmacological response. We developed a facile method for nanoparticle formation by solvent extraction from microemulsions in supercritical carbon dioxide. This method exploits a spontaneous formation of nanometric domains within the microemulsion system and their rapid conversion to nanoparticles by supercritical fluid. The resultant nanoparticles were administered subcutaneously to mice in a biocompatible hydrogel, and caused a 4-fold increase in blood vessel count in normally perfused skin compared with drug-free particles. They were at least as effective in inducing angiogenesis as nanoparticles of deferoxamine, a well-established neovascularization promoter. Next, we evaluated their effect on ischemic tissues in murine model of myocardial infarction. We found that celecoxib nanoparticles were able to induce a significant vascularization of ischemic myocardium and hamper the progression of heart failure, which points toward a new approach for treating ischemia.

  20. Inhibition of angiogenesis by a synthetic fusion protein VTF derived from vasostatin and tumstatin.

    PubMed

    Gu, Quliang; Sun, Cihuang; Luo, Jinxian; Zhang, Tianyuan; Wang, Lijing

    2014-10-01

    The inhibition of angiogenesis represents a potential strategy for antitumor therapy. A novel synthetic fusion protein VTF, composed of bioactive fragments from two different angiogenesis inhibitors, vasostatin and tumstatin with a (Gly-Ser-Gly)2 bridge, was generated using the pET-15b expression vector. The fusion protein VTF showed significantly enhanced efficacy in inhibiting human endothelial cell proliferation and tube formation and neovascularization on chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane. Moreover, VTF suppressed the growth of B16 melanoma and the formation of tumor blood vessels potently in vivo. These results indicated that the fusion protein containing the bioactive fragments of multiple angiogenesis inhibitors might be a promising therapeutic agent for tumor treatment. PMID:24942148

  1. HIF-2alpha-dependent PAI-1 induction contributes to angiogenesis in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Geis, Theresa; Döring, Claudia; Popp, Rüdiger; Grossmann, Nina; Fleming, Ingrid; Hansmann, Martin-Leo; Dehne, Nathalie; Brüne, Bernhard

    2015-02-01

    Hypoxia promotes progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), not only affecting tumor cell proliferation and invasion, but also angiogenesis and thus, increasing the risk of metastasis. Hypoxia inducible factors (HIF)-1α and -2α cause adaptation of tumors to hypoxia, still with uncertainties towards the angiogenic switch. We created a stable knockdown of HIF-1α and HIF-2α in HepG2 cells and generated cocultures of HepG2 spheroids with embryonic bodies as an in vitro tumor model mimicking the cancer microenvironment. The naturally occuring oxygen and nutrient gradients within the cocultures allow us to question the role of distinct HIF isoforms in regulating HCC angiogenesis. In cocultures with a HIF-2α knockdown, angiogenesis was attenuated, while the knockdown of HIF-1α was without effect. Microarray analysis identified plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) as a HIF-2α target gene in HepG2 cells. The knockdown of PAI-1 in HepG2 cells also lowered angiogenesis. Blocking plasmin, the downstream target of PAI-1, with aprotinin in HIF-2α knockdown (k/d) cells proved a cause-effect relation and restored angiogenesis, with no effect on control cocultures. Suggestively, HIF-2α increases PAI-1 to lower concentrations of active plasmin, thereby supporting angiogenesis. We conclude that the HIF-2α target gene PAI-1 favors the angiogenic switch in HCC. PMID:25489981

  2. HIF-2alpha-dependent PAI-1 induction contributes to angiogenesis in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Geis, Theresa; Döring, Claudia; Popp, Rüdiger; Grossmann, Nina; Fleming, Ingrid; Hansmann, Martin-Leo; Dehne, Nathalie; Brüne, Bernhard

    2015-02-01

    Hypoxia promotes progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), not only affecting tumor cell proliferation and invasion, but also angiogenesis and thus, increasing the risk of metastasis. Hypoxia inducible factors (HIF)-1α and -2α cause adaptation of tumors to hypoxia, still with uncertainties towards the angiogenic switch. We created a stable knockdown of HIF-1α and HIF-2α in HepG2 cells and generated cocultures of HepG2 spheroids with embryonic bodies as an in vitro tumor model mimicking the cancer microenvironment. The naturally occuring oxygen and nutrient gradients within the cocultures allow us to question the role of distinct HIF isoforms in regulating HCC angiogenesis. In cocultures with a HIF-2α knockdown, angiogenesis was attenuated, while the knockdown of HIF-1α was without effect. Microarray analysis identified plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) as a HIF-2α target gene in HepG2 cells. The knockdown of PAI-1 in HepG2 cells also lowered angiogenesis. Blocking plasmin, the downstream target of PAI-1, with aprotinin in HIF-2α knockdown (k/d) cells proved a cause-effect relation and restored angiogenesis, with no effect on control cocultures. Suggestively, HIF-2α increases PAI-1 to lower concentrations of active plasmin, thereby supporting angiogenesis. We conclude that the HIF-2α target gene PAI-1 favors the angiogenic switch in HCC.

  3. A differential role for CD248 (Endosialin) in PDGF-mediated skeletal muscle angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Naylor, Amy J; McGettrick, Helen M; Maynard, William D; May, Philippa; Barone, Francesca; Croft, Adam P; Egginton, Stuart; Buckley, Christopher D

    2014-01-01

    CD248 (Endosialin) is a type 1 membrane protein involved in developmental and pathological angiogenesis through its expression on pericytes and regulation of PDGFRβ signalling. Here we explore the function of CD248 in skeletal muscle angiogenesis. Two distinct forms of capillary growth (splitting and sprouting) can be induced separately by increasing microcirculatory shear stress (chronic vasodilator treatment) or by inducing functional overload (extirpation of a synergistic muscle). We show that CD248 is present on pericytes in muscle and that CD248-/- mice have a specific defect in capillary sprouting. In contrast, splitting angiogenesis is independent of CD248 expression. Endothelial cells respond to pro-sprouting angiogenic stimulus by up-regulating gene expression for HIF1α, angiopoietin 2 and its receptor TEK, PDGF-B and its receptor PDGFRβ; this response did not occur following a pro-splitting angiogenic stimulus. In wildtype mice, defective sprouting angiogenesis could be mimicked by blocking PDGFRβ signalling using the tyrosine kinase inhibitor Imatinib mesylate. We conclude that CD248 is required for PDGFRβ-dependant capillary sprouting but not splitting angiogenesis, and identify a new role for CD248 expressed on pericytes in the early stages of physiological angiogenesis during muscle remodelling.

  4. Uncovering a new role for peroxidase enzymes as drivers of angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Panagopoulos, Vasilios; Zinonos, Irene; Leach, Damien A; Hay, Shelley J; Liapis, Vasilios; Zysk, Aneta; Ingman, Wendy V; DeNichilo, Mark O; Evdokiou, Andreas

    2015-11-01

    Peroxidases are heme-containing enzymes released by activated immune cells at sites of inflammation. To-date their functional role in human health has mainly been limited to providing a mechanism for oxidative defence against invading bacteria and other pathogenic microorganisms. Our laboratory has recently identified a new functional role for peroxidase enzymes in stimulating fibroblast migration and collagen biosynthesis, offering a new insight into the causative association between inflammation and the pro-fibrogenic events that mediate tissue repair and regeneration. Peroxidases are found at elevated levels within and near blood vessels however, their direct involvement in angiogenesis has never been reported. Here we report for the first time that myeloperoxidase (MPO) and eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) are readily internalised by human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) where they promote cellular proliferation, migration, invasion, and stimulate angiogenesis both in vitro and in vivo. These pro-angiogenic effects were attenuated using the specific peroxidase inhibitor 4-ABAH, indicating the enzyme's catalytic activity is essential in mediating this response. Mechanistically, we provide evidence that MPO and EPO regulate endothelial FAK, Akt, p38 MAPK, ERK1/2 phosphorylation and stabilisation of HIF-2α, culminating in transcriptional regulation of key angiogenesis pathways. These findings uncover for the first time an important and previously unsuspected role for peroxidases as drivers of angiogenesis, and suggest that peroxidase inhibitors may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of angiogenesis related diseases driven by inflammation.

  5. MiR-590-5p Inhibits Oxidized- LDL Induced Angiogenesis by Targeting LOX-1.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yao; Zhang, Zhigao; Cao, Yongxiang; Mehta, Jawahar L; Li, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) is, at least in part, responsible for angiogenesis in atherosclerotic regions. This effect of ox-LDL has been shown to be mediated through a specific receptor LOX-1. Here we describe the effect of miR-590-5p on ox-LDL-mediated angiogenesis in in vitro and in vivo settings. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were transfected with miR-590-5p mimic or inhibitor followed by treatment with ox-LDL. In other experiments, Marigel plugs were inserted in the mice subcutaneous space. Both in vitro and in vivo studies showed that miR-590-5p mimic (100 nM) inhibited the ox-LDL-mediated angiogenesis (capillary tube formation, cell proliferation and migration as well as pro-angiogenic signals- ROS, MAPKs, pro-inflammatory cytokines and adhesion-related proteins). Of note, miR-590-5p inhibitor (200 nM) had the opposite effects. The inhibitory effect of miR-590-5p on angiogenesis was mediated by inhibition of LOX-1 at translational level. The inhibition of LOX-1 by miR-590-5p was confirmed by luciferase assay. In conclusion, we show that MiR-590-5p inhibits angiogenesis by targeting LOX-1 and suppressing redox-sensitive signals. PMID:26932825

  6. MiR-590-5p Inhibits Oxidized- LDL Induced Angiogenesis by Targeting LOX-1

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Yao; Zhang, Zhigao; Cao, Yongxiang; Mehta, Jawahar L.; Li, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) is, at least in part, responsible for angiogenesis in atherosclerotic regions. This effect of ox-LDL has been shown to be mediated through a specific receptor LOX-1. Here we describe the effect of miR-590-5p on ox-LDL-mediated angiogenesis in in vitro and in vivo settings. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were transfected with miR-590-5p mimic or inhibitor followed by treatment with ox-LDL. In other experiments, Marigel plugs were inserted in the mice subcutaneous space. Both in vitro and in vivo studies showed that miR-590-5p mimic (100 nM) inhibited the ox-LDL-mediated angiogenesis (capillary tube formation, cell proliferation and migration as well as pro-angiogenic signals- ROS, MAPKs, pro-inflammatory cytokines and adhesion-related proteins). Of note, miR-590-5p inhibitor (200 nM) had the opposite effects. The inhibitory effect of miR-590-5p on angiogenesis was mediated by inhibition of LOX-1 at translational level. The inhibition of LOX-1 by miR-590-5p was confirmed by luciferase assay. In conclusion, we show that MiR-590-5p inhibits angiogenesis by targeting LOX-1 and suppressing redox-sensitive signals. PMID:26932825

  7. The Marine Fungal Metabolite, AD0157, Inhibits Angiogenesis by Targeting the Akt Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    García-Caballero, Melissa; Cañedo, Librada; Fernández-Medarde, Antonio; Medina, Miguel Ángel; Quesada, Ana R.

    2014-01-01

    In the course of a screening program for the inhibitors of angiogenesis from marine sources, AD0157, a pyrrolidinedione fungal metabolite, was selected for its angiosupressive properties. AD0157 inhibited the growth of endothelial and tumor cells in culture in the micromolar range. Our results show that subtoxic doses of this compound inhibit certain functions of endothelial cells, namely, differentiation, migration and proteolytic capability. Inhibition of the mentioned essential steps of in vitro angiogenesis is in agreement with the observed antiangiogenic activity, substantiated by using two in vivo angiogenesis models, the chorioallantoic membrane and the zebrafish embryo neovascularization assays, and by the ex vivo mouse aortic ring assay. Our data indicate that AD0157 induces apoptosis in endothelial cells through chromatin condensation, DNA fragmentation, increases in the subG1 peak and caspase activation. The data shown here altogether indicate for the first time that AD0157 displays antiangiogenic effects, both in vitro and in vivo, that are exerted partly by targeting the Akt signaling pathway in activated endothelial cells. The fact that these effects are carried out at lower concentrations than those required for other inhibitors of angiogenesis makes AD0157 a new promising drug candidate for further evaluation in the treatment of cancer and other angiogenesis-related pathologies. PMID:24441613

  8. Involvement of {gamma}-secretase in postnatal angiogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, Hiroki; Nakagami, Hironori Takami, Yoichi; Sato, Naoyuki; Saito, Yukihiro; Nishikawa, Tomoyuki; Mori, Masaki; Koriyama, Hiroshi; Tamai, Katsuto; Morishita, Ryuichi; Kaneda, Yasufumi

    2007-11-23

    {gamma}-Secretase cleaves the transmembrane domains of several integral membrane proteins involved in vasculogenesis. Here, we investigated the role of {gamma}-secretase in the regulation of postnatal angiogenesis using {gamma}-secretase inhibitors (GSI). In endothelial cell (EC), {gamma}-secretase activity was up-regulated under hypoxia or the treatment of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The treatment of GSI significantly attenuated growth factor-induced EC proliferation and migration as well as c-fos promoter activity in a dose-dependent manner. In vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC), treatment of GSI significantly attenuated growth factor-induced VEGF and fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) expression. Indeed, GSI attenuated VEGF-induced tube formation and inhibited FGF-2-induced angiogenesis on matrigel in mice as quantified by FITC-lectin staining of EC. Overall, we demonstrated that {gamma}-secretase may be key molecule in postnatal angiogenesis which may be downstream molecule of growth factor-induced growth and migration in EC, and regulate the expression of angiogenic growth factors in VSMC.

  9. Matairesinol inhibits angiogenesis via suppression of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Boram; Kim, Ki Hyun; Jung, Hye Jin; Kwon, Ho Jeong

    2012-04-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Matairesinol suppresses mitochondrial ROS generation during hypoxia. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Matairesinol exhibits potent anti-angiogenic activity both in vitro and in vivo. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Matairesinol could be a basis for the development of novel anti-angiogenic agents. -- Abstract: Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mROS) are involved in cancer initiation and progression and function as signaling molecules in many aspects of hypoxia and growth factor-mediated signaling. Here we report that matairesinol, a natural small molecule identified from the cell-based screening of 200 natural plants, suppresses mROS generation resulting in anti-angiogenic activity. A non-toxic concentration of matairesinol inhibited the proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. The compound also suppressed in vitro angiogenesis of tube formation and chemoinvasion, as well as in vivo angiogenesis of the chorioallantoic membrane at non-toxic doses. Furthermore, matairesinol decreased hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha} in hypoxic HeLa cells. These results demonstrate that matairesinol could function as a novel angiogenesis inhibitor by suppressing mROS signaling.

  10. Involvement of gamma-secretase in postnatal angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Hiroki; Nakagami, Hironori; Takami, Yoichi; Sato, Naoyuki; Saito, Yukihiro; Nishikawa, Tomoyuki; Mori, Masaki; Koriyama, Hiroshi; Tamai, Katsuto; Morishita, Ryuichi; Kaneda, Yasufumi

    2007-11-23

    gamma-Secretase cleaves the transmembrane domains of several integral membrane proteins involved in vasculogenesis. Here, we investigated the role of gamma-secretase in the regulation of postnatal angiogenesis using gamma-secretase inhibitors (GSI). In endothelial cell (EC), gamma-secretase activity was up-regulated under hypoxia or the treatment of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The treatment of GSI significantly attenuated growth factor-induced EC proliferation and migration as well as c-fos promoter activity in a dose-dependent manner. In vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC), treatment of GSI significantly attenuated growth factor-induced VEGF and fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) expression. Indeed, GSI attenuated VEGF-induced tube formation and inhibited FGF-2-induced angiogenesis on matrigel in mice as quantified by FITC-lectin staining of EC. Overall, we demonstrated that gamma-secretase may be key molecule in postnatal angiogenesis which may be downstream molecule of growth factor-induced growth and migration in EC, and regulate the expression of angiogenic growth factors in VSMC. PMID:17888873

  11. Angiogenic Factor AGGF1 Activates Autophagy with an Essential Role in Therapeutic Angiogenesis for Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zhenkun; Hu, Changqing; Song, Qixue; Ye, Jian; Xu, Chengqi; Wang, Annabel Z.; Wang, Qing Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    AGGF1 is an angiogenic factor with therapeutic potential to treat coronary artery disease (CAD) and myocardial infarction (MI). However, the underlying mechanism for AGGF1-mediated therapeutic angiogenesis is unknown. Here, we show for the first time that AGGF1 activates autophagy, a housekeeping catabolic cellular process, in endothelial cells (ECs), HL1, H9C2, and vascular smooth muscle cells. Studies with Atg5 small interfering RNA (siRNA) and the autophagy inhibitors bafilomycin A1 (Baf) and chloroquine demonstrate that autophagy is required for AGGF1-mediated EC proliferation, migration, capillary tube formation, and aortic ring-based angiogenesis. Aggf1+/- knockout (KO) mice show reduced autophagy, which was associated with inhibition of angiogenesis, larger infarct areas, and contractile dysfunction after MI. Protein therapy with AGGF1 leads to robust recovery of myocardial function and contraction with increased survival, increased ejection fraction, reduction of infarct areas, and inhibition of cardiac apoptosis and fibrosis by promoting therapeutic angiogenesis in mice with MI. Inhibition of autophagy in mice by bafilomycin A1 or in Becn1+/- and Atg5 KO mice eliminates AGGF1-mediated angiogenesis and therapeutic actions, indicating that autophagy acts upstream of and is essential for angiogenesis. Mechanistically, AGGF1 initiates autophagy by activating JNK, which leads to activation of Vps34 lipid kinase and the assembly of Becn1-Vps34-Atg14 complex involved in the initiation of autophagy. Our data demonstrate that (1) autophagy is essential for effective therapeutic angiogenesis to treat CAD and MI; (2) AGGF1 is critical to induction of autophagy; and (3) AGGF1 is a novel agent for treatment of CAD and MI. Our data suggest that maintaining or increasing autophagy is a highly innovative strategy to robustly boost the efficacy of therapeutic angiogenesis. PMID:27513923

  12. Tumor angiogenesis and anti-angiogenic therapy.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Yoshiaki

    2012-01-01

    Anti-angiogenic therapy is an anti-cancer strategy that targets the new vessels that grow to provide oxygen and nutrients to actively proliferating tumor cells. Most of the current anti-cancer reagents used in the clinical setting indiscriminately target all rapidly dividing cells, resulting in severe adverse effects such as immunosuppression, intestinal problems and hair loss. In comparison, anti-angiogenic reagents theoretically have fewer side effects because, except in the uterine endometrium, neoangiogenesis rarely occurs in healthy adults. Currently, the most established approach for limiting tumor angiogenesis is blockade of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway. In line with the results of preclinical studies, significant therapeutic effects of VEGF blockers have been reported in various types of human cancers, even in patients with progressive/recurrent cancer who could not otherwise be treated. However, some patients are refractory to this treatment or acquire resistance to VEGF inhibitors. Moreover, several studies have shown that VEGF blockade damages healthy vessels and results in adverse effects such as hemorrhagic and thrombotic events. In recent research that indicated possible ways to overcome these problems, several VEGF-independent and tumor-selective pro-angiogenic mechanisms were discovered that could be targeted in combination with or without conventional VEGF blockade. These findings offer opportunities to greatly improve current anti-angiogenic treatment for cancer.

  13. Activation of alternative pathways of angiogenesis and involvement of stem cells following anti-angiogenesis treatment in glioma.

    PubMed

    Arbab, Ali S

    2012-05-01

    Malignant gliomas are hypervascular tumors that are highly resistant to all the currently available multimodal treatments. Therefore, anti-angiogenic therapies targeting VEGF or VEGF receptors (VEGFRs) were designed and thought to be an effective tool for controlling the growth of malignant gliomas. However, recent results of early clinical trials using humanized monoclonal antibodies against VEGF (Bevacizumab), as well as small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors that target different VEGF receptors (VEGFRs) (Vatalanib, Vandetanib, Sunitinib, Sorafenib, etc) alone or in combination with other therapeutic agents demonstrated differing outcomes, with the majority of reports indicating that glioma developed resistance to the employed anti-angiogenic treatments. It has been noted that continued anti-angiogenic therapy targeting only the VEGF-VEGFR system might affect pro-angiogenic factors other than VEGF, such as basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), stromal derived factor 1 (SDF-1) and Tie-2. These factors may in turn stimulate angiogenesis by mobilizing bone marrow derived precursor cells, such as endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), which are known to promote angiogenesis and vasculogenesis. In this short review, the current antiangiogenic treatments, possible mechanisms of activation of alternative pathways of angiogenesis, and possible involvement of bone marrow derived progenitor cells in the failure of anti-angiogenic treatments are discussed. PMID:22419019

  14. Dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase: a new therapeutic target for the modulation of nitric oxide and angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Jai Pal

    2007-09-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has a key role in promoting angiogenesis by increasing vasodilation, vascular permeability, endothelial cell proliferation and migration, and by modifying the activities of angiogenic mediators. NO is also critical for the mobilization of endothelial progenitor cells from the bone marrow which promotes vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. Studies have shown that the enzymes catalyzing NO synthesis are inhibited by the endogenously generated inhibitor asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA). Pharmacological agents targeted to modulate dimethyl-arginine dimethylaminohydrolase, the key enzyme metabolizing ADMA, may offer a potential strategy for developing novel pro- and anti-angiogenic therapies. PMID:17729185

  15. Role of heparin and non heparin binding serpins in coagulation and angiogenesis: A complex interplay.

    PubMed

    Bhakuni, Teena; Ali, Mohammad Farhan; Ahmad, Irshad; Bano, Shadabi; Ansari, Shoyab; Jairajpuri, Mohamad Aman

    2016-08-15

    Pro-coagulant, anti-coagulant and fibrinolytic pathways are responsible for maintaining hemostatic balance under physiological conditions. Any deviation from these pathways would result in hypercoagulability leading to life threatening diseases like myocardial infarction, stroke, portal vein thrombosis, deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE). Angiogenesis is the process of sprouting of new blood vessels from pre-existing ones and plays a critical role in vascular repair, diabetic retinopathy, chronic inflammation and cancer progression. Serpins; a superfamily of protease inhibitors, play a key role in regulating both angiogenesis and coagulation. They are characterized by the presence of highly conserved secondary structure comprising of 3 β-sheets and 7-9 α-helices. Inhibitory role of serpins is modulated by binding to cofactors, specially heparin and heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) present on cell surfaces and extracellular matrix. Heparin and HSPGs are the mainstay of anti-coagulant therapy and also have therapeutic potential as anti-angiogenic inhibitors. Many of the heparin binding serpins that regulate coagulation cascade are also potent inhibitors of angiogenesis. Understanding the molecular mechanism of the switch between their specific anti-coagulant and anti-angiogenic role during inflammation, stress and regular hemostasis is important. In this review, we have tried to integrate the role of different serpins, their interaction with cofactors and their interplay in regulating coagulation and angiogenesis.

  16. Role of heparin and non heparin binding serpins in coagulation and angiogenesis: A complex interplay.

    PubMed

    Bhakuni, Teena; Ali, Mohammad Farhan; Ahmad, Irshad; Bano, Shadabi; Ansari, Shoyab; Jairajpuri, Mohamad Aman

    2016-08-15

    Pro-coagulant, anti-coagulant and fibrinolytic pathways are responsible for maintaining hemostatic balance under physiological conditions. Any deviation from these pathways would result in hypercoagulability leading to life threatening diseases like myocardial infarction, stroke, portal vein thrombosis, deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE). Angiogenesis is the process of sprouting of new blood vessels from pre-existing ones and plays a critical role in vascular repair, diabetic retinopathy, chronic inflammation and cancer progression. Serpins; a superfamily of protease inhibitors, play a key role in regulating both angiogenesis and coagulation. They are characterized by the presence of highly conserved secondary structure comprising of 3 β-sheets and 7-9 α-helices. Inhibitory role of serpins is modulated by binding to cofactors, specially heparin and heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) present on cell surfaces and extracellular matrix. Heparin and HSPGs are the mainstay of anti-coagulant therapy and also have therapeutic potential as anti-angiogenic inhibitors. Many of the heparin binding serpins that regulate coagulation cascade are also potent inhibitors of angiogenesis. Understanding the molecular mechanism of the switch between their specific anti-coagulant and anti-angiogenic role during inflammation, stress and regular hemostasis is important. In this review, we have tried to integrate the role of different serpins, their interaction with cofactors and their interplay in regulating coagulation and angiogenesis. PMID:27372899

  17. Curcumin inhibition of angiogenesis and adipogenesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The growth of new blood vessels or angiogenesis is necessary for the growth of adipose tissue. Adipokines produced by fat cells stimulate this process. Some dietary polyphenols with antiangiogenic activity may suppress adipose tissue growth not only by inhibiting angiogenesis, but also by interferin...

  18. Preclinical Molecular Imaging of Tumor Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Lei; Niu, Gang; Fang, Xuexun; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2010-01-01

    Angiogenesis, a course that new blood vessels grow from the existing vasculature, plays important roles both physiologically and pathologically. Angiogenesis can be switched on by growth factors secreted by tumor cells, and in turn supplies more oxygen and nutrition to the tumor. More and more preclinical studies and clinical trials have shown that inhibition of angiogenesis is an effective way to inhibit tumor growth, substantiating the development of anti-angiogenesis therapeutics. Imaging technologies accelerate the translation of preclinical research to the clinic. In oncology, various imaging modalities are widely applied to drug development, tumor early detection and therapy response monitoring. So far, several angiogenesis related imaging agents are promising in cancer diagnosis. However, more effective imaging agents with less side-effect still need to be pursued to visualize angiogenesis process non-invasively. The main purpose of this review is to summarize the recent progresses in preclinical molecular imaging of angiogenesis and to discuss the potential of the current preclinical probes specific to various angiogenesis targets including vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptors (VEGF/VEGFRs), integrin αvβ3 and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). It is predicable that related investigations in the field will benefit cancer research and quicken the anti-angiogenic drug development. PMID:20639815

  19. Hydrogels for therapeutic cardiovascular angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Rufaihah, Abdul Jalil; Seliktar, Dror

    2016-01-15

    Acute myocardial infarction (MI) caused by ischemia is the most common cause of cardiac dysfunction. While growth factor or cell therapy is promising, the retention of bioactive agents in the highly vascularized myocardium is limited and prevents sustained activation needed for adequate cellular responses. Various types of biomaterials with different physical and chemical properties have been developed to improve the localized delivery of growth factor and/or cells for therapeutic angiogenesis in ischemic tissues. Hydrogels are particularly advantageous as carrier systems because they are structurally similar to the tissue extracellular matrix (ECM), they can be processed under relatively mild conditions and can be delivered in a minimally invasive manner. Moreover, hydrogels can be designed to degrade in a timely fashion that coincides with the angiogenic process. For these reasons, hydrogels have shown great potential as pro-angiogenic matrices. This paper reviews a few of the hydrogel systems currently being applied together with growth factor delivery and/or cell therapy to promote therapeutic angiogenesis in ischemic tissues, with emphasis on myocardial applications.

  20. Diesel exhaust exposure induces angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiaohua; Kherada, Nisharahmed; Hong, Xinru; Quan, Chunli; Zheng, Ling; Wang, Aixia; Wold, Loren; Lippmann, Morton; Chen, Lung Chi; Rajagopalan, Sanjay; Sun, Qinghua

    2009-01-01

    Our aim was to test the hypothesis that exposure to whole diesel exhaust (WDE) would enhance angiogenesis/vasculogenesis. Male apolipoprotein E-deficient mice, with either scaffold implantation subcutaneously or hindlimb ischemia, were exposed to either WDE (containing diesel exhaust particle [DEP] at a concentration of about 1 mg/m3) or filtered air 6 hours/day, 5 days/week in a whole body exposure chamber for 2, 5, or 8 weeks, respectively. WDE exposure significantly increased total cell counts in the scaffolds, aortic, and perivascular fat tissues. Macrophage infiltration was enhanced and CD31 expression increased in the scaffolds, which was coupled by increased α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) expression. WDE exposure led to increased CD31 expression, while decreasing endothelial nitric oxide synthase in the aortic wall. The vessel volume measured by micro-CT was increased in ischemic and non-ischemic hindlimbs in response to WDE exposure. DEP exposure induced capillary-like tube formation in endothelial cells in vitro, and caused capillary sprouting from aortic rings ex vivo. In addition, WDE exposure significantly increased mRNA expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α, while decreasing prolylhydroxylase (PHD) 2 expression. WDE exposure increases inflammatory cell infiltration, enhances the vessel volume/flow, and increases capillary tube formation and sprouting, thereby inducing angiogenesis and vasculogenesis. The angiogenic effects may occur through increasing HIF-1α and VEGF while decreasing PHD2 expression. PMID:19683567

  1. P2y receptor-mediated angiogenesis via vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 signaling.

    PubMed

    Rumjahn, Sharif M; Baldwin, Karla A; Buxton, Iain L O

    2007-01-01

    Pathological as well as physiological angiogenesis is known to be regulated by such factors as nucleotides and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF). Activated P2Y nucleotide receptors have been observed to associate and transactivate VEGF Receptor 2 (VEGFR2), suggesting a cooperation between nucleotide and VEGF signaling in angiogenesis. P2YR mediated VEGFR2 signaling therefore may be important in describing the angiogenic signaling of nucleotides such as ATP. Here, we provide evidence that supports the notion of P2YR-VEGFR2 signaling. The significant angiogenic effect of P2Y1/2 receptor agonists (100 microM ATP and 10 microM 2MS-ATP) on endothelial cell tubulogenesis was suppressed back to near control levels upon addition of 1 microM SU1498 (specific VEGFR2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor). We believe that this P2YR-VEFGR2 signaling is an important component of pathological, as well as physiological angiogenesis.

  2. Participation of WNT and β-Catenin in Physiological and Pathological Endometrial Changes: Association with Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kiewisz, Jolanta; Wasniewski, Tomasz; Kmiec, Zbigniew

    2015-01-01

    WNT proteins are involved in embryonic development, sex determination, stem cell recruitment, angiogenesis, and cancer. They take part in morphological changes in the endometrium during development, regulate processes of endometrial proliferation and differentiation. This review presents current knowledge about implication of WNT proteins and β-catenin in physiological endometrial functions as well as their involvement in uterine carcinogenesis. Influence of WNT proteins on the formation of blood vessel, taking place both under healthy and pathological conditions, is also considered. Participation of WNT proteins, β-catenin, and inhibitors and inducers of WNT signaling in the process of endometrial angiogenesis is largely unknown. Thus, confirmation of their local and systemic participation in the process of endometrial angiogenesis may in the long term help to establish new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches in conditions associated with the pathology of the female reproductive system. PMID:26366420

  3. Angiogenesis inhibitors in gastric and gastroesophageal junction cancer.

    PubMed

    Roviello, Giandomenico; Petrioli, Roberto; Marano, Luigi; Polom, Karol; Marrelli, Daniele; Perrella, Armando; Roviello, Franco

    2016-01-01

    Despite significant improvements in systemic chemotherapy during the past two decades, the prognosis of patients with advanced gastric and gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma remains poor. Because of molecular heterogeneity, it is essential to classify tumors based on the underlying oncogenic pathways and to develop targeted therapies acting on individual tumors. Unfortunately, although a number of molecular targets have been studied, very few of these agents can be used in a clinical setting. In this review, we summarize the available data on anti-angiogenic agents in advanced/metastatic gastric cancer. PMID:26329368

  4. HIF-2alpha-dependent PAI-1 induction contributes to angiogenesis in hepatocellular carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Geis, Theresa; Döring, Claudia; Popp, Rüdiger; Grossmann, Nina; Fleming, Ingrid; Hansmann, Martin-Leo; Dehne, Nathalie; Brüne, Bernhard

    2015-02-01

    Hypoxia promotes progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), not only affecting tumor cell proliferation and invasion, but also angiogenesis and thus, increasing the risk of metastasis. Hypoxia inducible factors (HIF)-1α and -2α cause adaptation of tumors to hypoxia, still with uncertainties towards the angiogenic switch. We created a stable knockdown of HIF-1α and HIF-2α in HepG2 cells and generated cocultures of HepG2 spheroids with embryonic bodies as an in vitro tumor model mimicking the cancer microenvironment. The naturally occuring oxygen and nutrient gradients within the cocultures allow us to question the role of distinct HIF isoforms in regulating HCC angiogenesis. In cocultures with a HIF-2α knockdown, angiogenesis was attenuated, while the knockdown of HIF-1α was without effect. Microarray analysis identified plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) as a HIF-2α target gene in HepG2 cells. The knockdown of PAI-1 in HepG2 cells also lowered angiogenesis. Blocking plasmin, the downstream target of PAI-1, with aprotinin in HIF-2α knockdown (k/d) cells proved a cause–effect relation and restored angiogenesis, with no effect on control cocultures. Suggestively, HIF-2α increases PAI-1 to lower concentrations of active plasmin, thereby supporting angiogenesis. We conclude that the HIF-2α target gene PAI-1 favors the angiogenic switch in HCC. - Highlights: • HepG2 were cocultured with stem cells to mimic a cancer microenvironment in vitro. • A knockdown of HIF-2α reduces angiogenesis. • PAI-1 was identified as a HIF-2α target gene in HCC by microarray analysis. • HIF-2α induces the angiogenic switch via inhibition of plasmin.

  5. Characterization of zofenoprilat as an inducer of functional angiogenesis through increased H2S availability

    PubMed Central

    Terzuoli, E; Monti, M; Vellecco, V; Bucci, M; Cirino, G; Ziche, M; Morbidelli, L

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), an endogenous volatile mediator with pleiotropic functions, promotes vasorelaxation, exerts anti-inflammatory actions and regulates angiogenesis. Previously, the SH-containing angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI), zofenopril, was identified as being effective in preserving endothelial function and inducing angiogenesis among ACEIs. Based on the H2S donor property of its active metabolite zofenoprilat, the objective of this study was to evaluate whether zofenoprilat-induced angiogenesis was due to increased H2S availability. Experimental Approach HUVECs were used for in vitro studies of angiogenesis, whereas the Matrigel plug assay was used for in vivo assessments. Key Results Zofenoprilat-treated HUVECs showed an increase in all functional features of the angiogenic process in vitro. As zofenoprilat induced the expression of CSE (cystathionine-γ-lyase) and the continuous production of H2S, CSE inhibition or silencing blocked the ability of zofenoprilat to induce angiogenesis, both in vitro and in vivo. The molecular mechanisms underlying H2S/zofenoprilat-induced angiogenesis were dependent on Akt, eNOS and ERK1/2 cascades. ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels, the molecular target that mediates part of the vascular functions of H2S, were shown to be involved in the upstream activation of Akt and ERK1/2. Moreover, the up-regulation of fibroblast growth factor-2 was dependent on CSE-derived H2S response to H2S and KATP activation. Conclusions and Implications Zofenoprilat induced a constant production of H2S that stimulated the angiogenic process through a KATP channel/Akt/eNOS/ERK1/2 pathway. Thus, zofenopril can be considered as a pro-angiogenic drug acting through H2S release and production, useful in cardiovascular pathologies where vascular functions need to be re-established and functional angiogenesis induced. PMID:25631232

  6. Angiogenesis in refractory depression: A possible phenotypic target to avoid the blood brain barrier.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Maki K

    2016-01-01

    Major depressive syndrome (so-called depression) is a common but serious mental disease that causes low mood. Most patients are treatable, mainly because of high response rates for medicines such as selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). However, there are still a considerable number of patients with refractory or drug-resistant depression. On the other hand, recent findings suggest that angiogenesis, i.e., making new blood vessels, could have an important role in the recovery from depressive disorders, at least in part. It has been reported that the brain capillaries are physiologically capable of undergoing angiogenesis upon stimuli such as exercise and SSRIs seem to accelerate brain angiogenesis. Drugs targeting angiogenesis may possibly be another good concept. In addition, the blood brain barrier (BBB), which is a major obstacle for drug development for the central nervous system, would be circumvented. Here I summarize the reports that relate angiogenesis to a cure for major depression and discuss some of the potential molecular targets.

  7. Mast cells, angiogenesis and cancer.

    PubMed

    Ribatti, Domenico; Crivellato, Enrico

    2011-01-01

    Mast cells (MCs) were first described by Paul Ehrlich 1 in his doctoral thesis. MCs have long been implicated in the pathogenesis of allergic reactions and certain protective responses to parasites. As most tumors contain inflammatory cell infiltrates, which often include plentiful MCs, the question as to the possible contribution of MCs to tumor development has progressively been emerging. In this chapter, the specific involvement of MCs in tumor biology and tumor fate will be considered, with particular emphasis on the capacity of these cells to stimulate tumor growth by promoting angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis. Data from experimental carcinogenesis and from different tumor settings in human pathology will be summarized. Information to be presented will suggest that MCs may serve as a novel therapeutic target for cancer treatment. PMID:21713661

  8. Increased shear stress inhibits angiogenesis in veins and not arteries during vascular development.

    PubMed

    Chouinard-Pelletier, Guillaume; Jahnsen, Espen D; Jones, Elizabeth A V

    2013-01-01

    Vascular development is believed to occur first by vasculogenesis followed by angiogenesis. Though angiogenesis is the formation of new vessels, we found that vascular density actually decreases during this second stage. The onset of the decrease coincided with the entry of erythroblasts into circulation. We therefore measured the level of shear stress at various developmental stages and found that it was inversely proportional to vascular density. To investigate whether shear stress was inhibitory to angiogenesis, we altered shear stress levels either by preventing erythroblasts from entering circulation ("low" shear stress) or by injection of a starch solution to increase the blood plasma viscosity ("high" shear stress). By time-lapse microscopy, we show that reverse intussusception (merging of two vessels) is inversely proportional to the level of shear stress. We also found that angiogenesis (both sprouting and splitting) was inversely proportional to shear stress levels. These effects were specific to the arterial or venous plexus however, such that the effect on reverse intussusception was present only in the arterial plexus and the effect on sprouting only in the venous plexus. We cultured embryos under altered shear stress in the presence of either DAPT, a Notch inhibitor, or DMH1, an inhibitor of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathway. DAPT treatment phenocopied the inhibition of erythroblast circulation ("low" shear stress) and the effect of DAPT treatment could be partially rescued by injection of starch. Inhibition of the BMP signaling prevented the reduction in vascular density that was observed when starch was injected to increase shear stress levels.

  9. Overexpression of osteopontin induces angiogenesis of endothelial progenitor cells via the avβ3/PI3K/AKT/eNOS/NO signaling pathway in glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yingyi; Yan, Wei; Lu, Xiaoming; Qian, Chunfa; Zhang, Junxia; Li, Ping; Shi, Lei; Zhao, Peng; Fu, Zhen; Pu, Peiyu; Kang, Chunshen; Jiang, Tao; Liu, Ning; You, Yongping

    2011-08-01

    Angiogenesis, a hallmark of tumor growth, is regulated by various angiogenic factors. Recent studies have shown that osteopontin (OPN) is a secreted, integrin-binding protein that contributes to glioma progression. However, its effect on the angiogenesis of gliomas is not fully understood. To elucidate the role of OPN in the process of glioma angiogenesis, endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) were treated with conditioned media of human glioma SHG44 cells overexpressing OPN. Here, we identified that OPN secreted by glioma cells accelerated EPCs angiogenesis in vitro, including proliferation, migration, and tube formation. OPN also induced the activation of AKT and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and increased NO production without affecting the expression of VEGF, VEGFR-1, or VEGFR-2. Moreover, the avβ3 antibody, the PI3-K inhibitor LY294002 and the eNOS inhibitor NMA suppressed the OPN-mediated increase in NO production and angiogenesis in EPCs. Taken together, these results demonstrate that OPN directly stimulates angiogenesis via the avβ3/PI3-K/AKT/eNOS/NO signaling pathway and may play an important role in tumorigenesis by enhancing angiogenesis in gliomas.

  10. Microfluidic multiculture assay to analyze biomolecular signaling in angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Theberge, Ashleigh B; Yu, Jiaquan; Young, Edmond W K; Ricke, William A; Bushman, Wade; Beebe, David J

    2015-03-17

    Angiogenesis (the formation of blood vessels from existing blood vessels) plays a critical role in many diseases such as cancer, benign tumors, and macular degeneration. There is a need for cell culture methods capable of dissecting the intricate regulation of angiogenesis within the microenvironment of the vasculature. We have developed a microscale cell-based assay that responds to complex pro- and antiangiogenic soluble factors with an in vitro readout for vessel formation. The power of this system over traditional techniques is that we can incorporate the whole milieu of soluble factors produced by cells in situ into one biological readout (vessel formation), even if the identity of the factors is unknown. We have currently incorporated macrophages, endothelial cells, and fibroblasts into the assay, with the potential to include additional cell types in the future. Importantly, the microfluidic platform is simple to operate and multiplex to test drugs targeting angiogenesis in a more physiologically relevant context. As a proof of concept, we tested the effect of an enzyme inhibitor (targeting matrix metalloproteinase 12) on vessel formation; the triculture microfluidic assay enabled us to capture a dose-dependent effect entirely missed in a simplified coculture assay (p < 0.0001). This result underscores the importance of cell-based assays that capture chemical cross-talk occurring between cell types. The microscale dimensions significantly reduce cell consumption compared to conventional well plate platforms, enabling the use of limited primary cells from patients in future investigations and offering the potential to screen therapeutic approaches for individual patients in vitro.

  11. HDAC Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Olzscha, Heidi; Bekheet, Mina E; Sheikh, Semira; La Thangue, Nicholas B

    2016-01-01

    Lysine acetylation in proteins is one of the most abundant posttranslational modifications in eukaryotic cells. The dynamic homeostasis of lysine acetylation and deacetylation is dictated by the action of histone acetyltransferases (HAT) and histone deacetylases (HDAC). Important substrates for HATs and HDACs are histones, where lysine acetylation generally leads to an open and transcriptionally active chromatin conformation. Histone deacetylation forces the compaction of the chromatin with subsequent inhibition of transcription and reduced gene expression. Unbalanced HAT and HDAC activity, and therefore aberrant histone acetylation, has been shown to be involved in tumorigenesis and progression of malignancy in different types of cancer. Therefore, the development of HDAC inhibitors (HDIs) as therapeutic agents against cancer is of great interest. However, treatment with HDIs can also affect the acetylation status of many other non-histone proteins which play a role in different pathways including angiogenesis, cell cycle progression, autophagy and apoptosis. These effects have led HDIs to become anticancer agents, which can initiate apoptosis in tumor cells. Hematological malignancies in particular are responsive to HDIs, and four HDIs have already been approved as anticancer agents. There is a strong interest in finding adequate biomarkers to predict the response to HDI treatment. This chapter provides information on how to assess HDAC activity in vitro and determine the potency of HDIs on different HDACs. It also gives information on how to analyze cellular markers following HDI treatment and to analyze tissue biopsies from HDI-treated patients. Finally, a protocol is provided on how to detect HDI sensitivity determinants in human cells, based on a pRetroSuper shRNA screen upon HDI treatment. PMID:27246222

  12. Therapeutic angiogenesis: controlled delivery of angiogenic factors

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Hunghao; Wang, Yadong

    2013-01-01

    Therapeutic angiogenesis aims at treating ischemic diseases by generating new blood vessels from existing vasculature. It relies on delivery of exogenous factors to stimulate neovasculature formation. Current strategies using genes, proteins and cells have demonstrated efficacy in animal models. However, clinical translation of any of the three approaches has proved to be challenging for various reasons. Administration of angiogenic factors is generally considered safe, according to accumulated trials, and offers off-the-shelf availability. However, many hurdles must be overcome before therapeutic angiogenesis can become a true human therapy. This article will highlight protein-based therapeutic angiogenesis, concisely review recent progress and examine critical challenges. We will discuss growth factors that have been widely utilized in promoting angiogenesis and compare their targets and functions. Lastly, since bolus injection of free proteins usually result in poor outcomes, we will focus on controlled release of proteins. PMID:22838066

  13. Galectins in angiogenesis: consequences for gestation.

    PubMed

    Blois, Sandra M; Conrad, Melanie L; Freitag, Nancy; Barrientos, Gabriela

    2015-04-01

    Members of the galectin family have been shown to exert several roles in the context of reproduction. They contribute to placentation, maternal immune regulation and facilitate angiogenesis encompassing decidualisation and placenta formation during pregnancy. In the context of neo-vascularisation, galectins have been shown to augment signalling pathways that lead to endothelial cell activation, cell proliferation, migration and tube formation in vitro in addition to angiogenesis in vivo. Angiogenesis during gestation ensures not only proper foetal growth and development, but also maternal health. Consequently, restriction of placental blood flow has major consequences for both foetus and mother, leading to pregnancy diseases. In this review we summarise both the established and the emerging roles of galectin in angiogenesis and discuss the possible implications during healthy and pathological gestation.

  14. Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Induces the Migration and Angiogenesis of Epcs Through the Akt Signaling Pathway via Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Receptor 3/Platelet-Derived Growth Factor Receptor-β.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hang; Cai, Ke-Yin; Li, Wei; Huang, Hao

    2015-12-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) play a fundamental role in neoangiogenesis and tumor angiogenesis. Through the sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 3 (S1PR3), sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) can stimulate the functional capacity of EPCs. Platelet-derived growth factor receptor-beta (PDGFR-β) contributes to the migration and angiogenesis of EPCs. This study aimed to investigate whether S1P induces the migration and angiogenesis of EPCs through the S1PR3/PDGFR-β/Akt signaling pathway. We used the Transwell system and the Chemicon In Vitro Angiogenesis Assay Kit with CAY10444 (an S1PR3 antagonist), AG1295 (a PDGFR kinase inhibitor) and sc-221226 (an Akt inhibitor) to examine the role of the S1PR3/PDGFR-β/Akt pathway in the S1Pinduced migration and angiogenesis of EPCs.

  15. Purinergic regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor signaling in angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Rumjahn, S M; Yokdang, N; Baldwin, K A; Thai, J; Buxton, I L O

    2009-01-01

    P2Y purine nucleotide receptors (P2YRs) promote endothelial cell tubulogenesis through breast cancer cell-secreted nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK). We tested the hypothesis that activated P2Y1 receptors transactivate vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR-2) in angiogenic signaling. P2Y1R stimulation (10 μM 2-methyl-thio-ATP (2MS-ATP)) of angiogenesis is suppressed by the VEGFR-2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor, SU1498 (1 μM). Phosphorylation of VEGFR-2 by 0.0262 or 2.62 nM VEGF was comparable with 0.01 or 10 μM 2MS-ATP stimulation of the P2Y1R. 2MS-ATP, and VEGF stimulation increased tyrosine phosphorylation at tyr1175. 2MS-ATP (0.1–10 μM) also stimulated EC tubulogenesis in a dose-dependent manner. The addition of sub-maximal VEGF (70 pM) in the presence of increasing concentrations of 2MS-ATP yielded additive effects at 2MS-ATP concentrations <3 μM, whereas producing saturated and less than additive effects at ⩾3 μM. We propose that the VEGF receptor can be activated in the absence of VEGF, and that the P2YR–VEGFR2 interaction and resulting signal transduction is a critical determinant of vascular homoeostasis and tumour-mediated angiogenesis. PMID:19367276

  16. Wogonin inhibits LPS-induced tumor angiogenesis via suppressing PI3K/Akt/NF-κB signaling.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Kai; Song, Xiuming; Huang, Yujie; Yao, Jing; Zhou, Mi; Li, Zhiyu; You, Qidong; Guo, Qinglong; Lu, Na

    2014-08-15

    Wogonin has been shown to have anti-angiogenesis and anti-tumor effects. However, whether wogonin inhibits LPS-induced tumor angiogenesis is not well known. In this study, we investigated the effect of wogonin on inhibiting LPS-induced tumor angiogenesis and further probed the underlying mechanisms. ELISA results revealed that wogonin could suppress LPS-induced VEGF secretion from tumor cells. Transwell assay, tube formation assay, rat aortic ring assay and CAM model were used to evaluate the effect of wogonin on angiogenesis induced by MCF-7 cell (treated with LPS) in vitro and in vivo. The inhibitory effect of wogonin on angiogenesis in LPS-treated MCF-7 cells was then confirmed by the above in vitro and in vivo assays. The study of the molecular mechanism showed that wogonin could suppress PI3K/Akt signaling activation. Moreover, wogonin inhibited nuclear translocation of NF-κB and its binding to DNA. The result of real-time PCR and luciferase reporter assay suggested that VEGF expression was down-regulated by wogonin primarily at the transcriptional level. IGF-1 and p65 expression plasmid were used to activate PI3K/Akt and NF-κB pathways, and to observe the effect of wogonin on the simualtion of PI3K/Akt/NF-κB signaling. Taken together, the result suggested that wogonin was a potent inhibitor of tumor angiogenesis and provided a new insight into the mechanisms of wogonin against cancer.

  17. Role of Moesin in Advanced Glycation End Products-Induced Angiogenesis of Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qian; Fan, Aihui; Yuan, Yongjun; Chen, Lixian; Guo, Xiaohua; Huang, Xuliang; Huang, Qiaobing

    2016-01-01

    Disorders of angiogenesis are related to microangiopathies during the development of diabetic vascular complications, but the effect of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) on angiogenesis and the mechanism has not been completely unveiled. We previous demonstrated that moesin belonging to the ezrin-radixin-moesin (ERM) protein family protein played a critical role in AGE-induced hyper-permeability in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Here, we investigated the impact of moesin on AGE-induced HUVEC proliferation, migration, and tubulogenesis. Silencing of moesin decreased cell motility and tube formation but not cell proliferation. It also attenuated cellular F-actin reassembly. Further, phosphorylation of threonine at the 558 amino acid residue (Thr 558) in moesin suppressed AGE-induced HUVEC proliferation, migration, and tube formation, while the activating mutation of moesin at Thr 558 enhanced HUVEC angiogenesis. Further, the inhibition of either RhoA activity by adenovirus or ROCK activation with inhibitor Y27632 decreased AGE-induced moesin phosphorylation and subsequently suppressed HUVEC angiogenesis. These results indicate that the Thr 558 phosphorylation in moesin mediates endothelial angiogenesis. AGEs promoted HUVEC angiogenesis by inducing moesin phosphorylation via RhoA/ROCK pathway. PMID:26956714

  18. Salinomycin exerts anti-angiogenic and anti-tumorigenic activities by inhibiting vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2-mediated angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Li, Tao; Liu, Xiaoxia; Shen, Qin; Yang, Wenjun; Huo, Zhenghao; Liu, Qilun; Jiao, Haiyan; Chen, Jing

    2016-05-01

    Anti-angiogenesis targeting VEGFR2 has been an attractive strategy for cancer therapy for its role in promoting cancer growth and metastasis. However, the currently available drugs have unexpected side effects. Therefore, development of novel VEGFR2 inhibitors with less toxicity would be of great value. In this study, we describe a novel and safely VEGFR2 inhibitor, Salinomycin (Sal), which was screened from the drug libraries of Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and prohibited the binding of the ATP at its binding pocket of VEGFR2 using molecular docking model. Sal could interfere a series of VEGF-induced angiogenesis processes including proliferation, migration, and tube formation in HUVECS in vitro. Matrigel plug model demonstrated Sal strongly inhibited angiogenesis in vivo. We found that Sal significantly decreased VEGF-induced phosphorylation of VEGFR2 and its downstream STAT3 in dose- and time-dependent manner in HUVECs. Besides, Sal could directly reduce the cell viability and induce apoptosis in SGC-7901 cancer cells in vitro. Sal inhibited constitutive STAT3 activation by blocking its DNA binding and reduced various gene products including Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and VEGF both at mRNA and protein levels. Intra-peritoneal injection of Sal at doses of 3 and 5 mg/kg/day markedly suppressed human gastric cancer xenografts angiogenesis and growth without causing obvious toxicities. Taken together, Sal inhibits tumor angiogenesis and growth of gastric cancer; our results reveal unique characteristics of Sal as a promising anticancer drug candidate. PMID:27058891

  19. Salinomycin exerts anti-angiogenic and anti-tumorigenic activities by inhibiting vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2-mediated angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Qin; Yang, Wenjun; Huo, Zhenghao; Liu, Qilun; Jiao, Haiyan; Chen, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Anti-angiogenesis targeting VEGFR2 has been an attractive strategy for cancer therapy for its role in promoting cancer growth and metastasis. However, the currently available drugs have unexpected side effects. Therefore, development of novel VEGFR2 inhibitors with less toxicity would be of great value. In this study, we describe a novel and safely VEGFR2 inhibitor, Salinomycin (Sal), which was screened from the drug libraries of Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and prohibited the binding of the ATP at its binding pocket of VEGFR2 using molecular docking model. Sal could interfere a series of VEGF-induced angiogenesis processes including proliferation, migration, and tube formation in HUVECS in vitro. Matrigel plug model demonstrated Sal strongly inhibited angiogenesis in vivo. We found that Sal significantly decreased VEGF-induced phosphorylation of VEGFR2 and its downstream STAT3 in dose- and time-dependent manner in HUVECs. Besides, Sal could directly reduce the cell viability and induce apoptosis in SGC-7901 cancer cells in vitro. Sal inhibited constitutive STAT3 activation by blocking its DNA binding and reduced various gene products including Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and VEGF both at mRNA and protein levels. Intra-peritoneal injection of Sal at doses of 3 and 5 mg/kg/day markedly suppressed human gastric cancer xenografts angiogenesis and growth without causing obvious toxicities. Taken together, Sal inhibits tumor angiogenesis and growth of gastric cancer; our results reveal unique characteristics of Sal as a promising anticancer drug candidate. PMID:27058891

  20. Xylitol inhibits in vitro and in vivo angiogenesis by suppressing the NF-κB and Akt signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Yi, Eui-Yeun; Kim, Yung-Jin

    2013-07-01

    Angiogenesis is an important process involved in tumor growth and metastasis. Many studies have investigated the use of natural compounds such as angiogenic inhibitors. Xylitol is a 5-carbon sugar alcohol and is an artificial sweetener that has been used in chewing gums to prevent tooth decay. Xylitol has been also known to inhibit inflammatory cytokine expression induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Since angiogenesis and inflammation share a common signaling pathway, we investigated the role of xylitol in angiogenesis. Xylitol inhibited the migration, invasion and tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Xylitol also inhibited in vivo angiogenesis in a mouse Matrigel plug assay. Furthermore, mRNA expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), VEGFR-II (KDR), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), bFGFR-II, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9 of HUVECs decreased following treatment with xylitol. These anti-angiogenic effects of xylitol are exerted through inhibition of NF-κB and Akt activation. Taken together, these results suggest that xylitol acts as a beneficial angiogenesis inhibitor.

  1. Interleukin-6 stimulates defective angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Gopinathan, Ganga; Milagre, Carla; Pearce, Oliver M.T.; Reynolds, Louise E.; Hodivala-Dilke, Kairbaan; Leinster, David A.; Zhong, Haihong; Hollingsworth, Robert E.; Thompson, Richard; Whiteford, James R.; Balkwill, Frances

    2015-01-01

    The cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) has a number of tumor-promoting activities in human and experimental cancers, but its potential as an angiogenic agent has not been fully investigated. Here we show that IL-6 can directly induce vessel sprouting in the ex vivo aortic ring model, as well as endothelial cell proliferation and migration, with similar potency to VEGF. However, IL-6-stimulated aortic ring vessel sprouts had defective pericyte coverage compared to VEGF-stimulated vessels. The mechanism of IL-6 action on pericytes involved stimulation of the Notch ligand Jagged1 as well as Angiopoietin2 (Ang2). When peritoneal xenografts of ovarian cancer were treated with an anti-IL-6 antibody, pericyte coverage of vessels was restored. In addition, in human ovarian cancer biopsies there was an association between levels of IL-6mRNA, Jagged1 and Ang2. Our findings have implications for the use of cancer therapies that target VEGF or IL-6 and for understanding abnormal angiogenesis in cancers, chronic inflammatory disease and stroke. PMID:26081809

  2. Downregulation of tetrahydrobiopterin inhibits tumor angiogenesis in BALB/c-nu mice with hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Youguo; Cui, Jin; Gan, Ping; Li, Weiming

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a highly vascular tumor, and treatment options for patients of advanced-stage are limited. Nitric oxide (NO), which is derived from endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), provides crucial signals for angiogenesis in the tumor microenvironment. Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is an essential cofactor eNOS and represents a critical determinant of NO production. To examine whether treatment of 2,4-diamino-6-hydroxypyrimidine (DAHP) inhibits angiogenesis of HCC, BALB/c-nu mice were injected with HepG-2 cells with DAHP. Supplemental DAHP treatment decreased K-ras mRNA transcripts, inhibition of phosphorylation of eNOS and Akt, inhibition of guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase (GTPCH), and decreased significantly NO synthesis, and then inhibited angiogenesis, compared with the results observed in the saline group. Histopathology demonstrated angiogenesis and tumor formation were significantly inhibited in HCC. DAHP downregulates GTPCH protein expression, corresponding to decreased levels of BH4 and the contents of NO. In addition, DAHP downregulates eNOS and Akt protein expression, corresponding to decreased eNOS phosphorylation at Ser1177 and Akt phosphorylation, compared with the saline control. We suggest that DAHP, recognized as a specific competitive inhibitor of GTPCH, can decrease tumor BH4 and NO by the inhibition of the wild-type Ras-PI3K/Akt pathway, and then inhibiting angiogenesis, and may provide a novel and promising way to target BH4 synthetic pathways to inhibit angiogenesis and to control potential progression of HCC. Whether DAHP has a therapeutic potential will require more direct testing in humans. PMID:27279530

  3. Heparanase—A Link between Coagulation, Angiogenesis, and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Nadir, Yona; Brenner, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    Heparanase that was cloned from and is abundant in the placenta is implicated in cell invasion, tumor metastasis, and angiogenesis. Recently we have demonstrated that heparanase may also affect the hemostatic system in a non-enzymatic manner. Heparanase was shown to up-regulate tissue factor (TF) expression and interact with tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) on the cell surface, leading to dissociation of TFPI from the cell membrane of endothelial and tumor cells, resulting in increased cell surface coagulation activity. More recently, we have shown that heparanase directly enhances TF activity, resulting in increased factor Xa production and activation of the coagulation system. Data indicate increased levels and possible involvement of heparanase in vascular complications in pregnancy. Taking into account the prometastatic and proangiogenic functions of heparanase, overexpression in human malignancies, and abundance in platelets and placenta, its involvement in the coagulation machinery is an intriguing novel arena for further research. PMID:23908827

  4. Anti-Angiogenic Therapy: Strategies to Develop Potent VEGFR-2 Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors and Future Prospect.

    PubMed

    Shi, Leilei; Zhou, Jianfeng; Wu, Jifeng; Shen, Yuemao; Li, Xun

    2016-01-01

    Tumor angiogenesis has always been a major gap for effective cancer therapy. Interruption of aberrant angiogenesis by specific inhibitors targeting receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) has been of great interests to medicinal chemists. Among the factors that are involved in tumor angiogenesis, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) is validated as the most closely related factor which can drive angiogenesis through binding with its natural ligand VEGF. The well-validated VEGF-driven VEGFR-2 signaling pathway can stimulate many endothelial responses, including increasing vessel permeability and enhancing endothelial cell proliferation, migration and differentiation. Consequently, circumventing angiogenesis by VEGFR-2 inhibitors represents a promising strategy for counteracting various VEGFR-2-mediated disorders as well as drug resistance. Over the past decades, a considerable number of novel small molecular VEGFR-2 inhibitors have been exploited with diverse chemical scaffolds. Especially, recent frequently launched inhibitors have declared their research values and therapeutic potentials in oncology. Still, the antiangiogenesis based treatment remains an ongoing challenge. In this review, a comprehensive retrospective of newly emerged VEGFR-2 inhibitors have been summarized, with the emphasis on the structure-activity relationship (SAR) investigation, and also binding patterns of representative inhibitors with biotargets. On the basis of all of this information, varied strategies for developing potent VEGFR-2 inhibitors and the future prospect of the clinical application of antiangiogenic inhibitors are discussed hereby.

  5. Advances and challenges in skeletal muscle angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Baum, Oliver; Hellsten, Ylva; Egginton, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    The role of capillaries is to serve as the interface for delivery of oxygen and removal of metabolites to/from tissues. During the past decade there has been a proliferation of studies that have advanced our understanding of angiogenesis, demonstrating that tissue capillary supply is under strict control during health but poorly controlled in disease, resulting in either excessive capillary growth (pathological angiogenesis) or losses in capillarity (rarefaction). Given that skeletal muscle comprises nearly 40% of body mass in humans, skeletal muscle capillary density has a significant impact on metabolism, endocrine function, and locomotion and is tightly regulated at many different levels. Skeletal muscle is also high adaptable and thus one of the few organ systems that can be experimentally manipulated (e.g., by exercise) to study physiological regulation of angiogenesis. This review will focus on the methodological concerns that have arisen in determining skeletal muscle capillarity and highlight the concepts that are reshaping our understanding of the angio-adaptation process. We also summarize selected new findings (physical influences, molecular changes, and ultrastructural rearrangement of capillaries) that identify areas of future research with the greatest potential to expand our understanding of how angiogenesis is normally regulated, and that may also help to better understand conditions of uncontrolled (pathological) angiogenesis. PMID:26608338

  6. Angiogenesis inhibition as a therapeutic strategy in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Richard D.; Le, Tri M.; Haggstrom, Daniel E.

    2015-01-01

    In many cancers, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), tumor angiogenesis pathways have been identified as important therapeutic targets. Angiogenesis is essential in the process of primary tumor growth, proliferation and metastasis. One of the best characterized group of protein factors for angiogenesis include the members of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family, consisting of VEGF-(A-D), and placenta growth factor (PIGF). Targeting tumor angiogenesis has been approached through two primary methods, monoclonal antibodies that block VEGF-vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) binding or small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) that inhibit the downstream VEGFR mediated signaling. Many TKIs inhibit multiple pro-angiogenic and pro-proliferative pathways such as the mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway. Bevacizumab and ramucirumab, monoclonal antibodies targeting VEGF and the VEGFR, respectively, have each led to improvements in overall survival (OS) for NSCLC when added to standard first and second line chemotherapy, respectively. Small incremental gains seen with both bevacizumab and ramucirumab may be further improved upon by incorporating novel agents and treatment strategies, and many additional trials are ongoing. PMID:26629420

  7. Inhibitory effects of Yangzheng Xiaoji on angiogenesis and the role of the focal adhesion kinase pathway.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wen G; Ye, Lin; Ji, Ke; Frewer, Natasha; Ji, Jiafu; Mason, Malcolm D

    2012-11-01

    Angiogenesis is an essential event during the excessive growth and metastatic spread of solid tumours. Anti-angiogenic agents have become a new choice of therapy for patients with cancer. In the present study, we investigated the potential effect of Yangzheng Xiaoji, a traditional Chinese medicinal formula presently used in the treatment of several solid tumours including liver cancer and gastric cancer, on angiogenesis, in vitro. The human vascular endothelial cell line HECV was used. A Matrigel-based sandwich tubule formation assay was employed to assess in vitro angiogenesis, a colorimetric method for assessing in vitro cell growth. Electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) was used to evaluate the adhesion and migration of endothelial cells. The effects on activation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) were evaluated using western blotting and immunofluorescence methods. Yangzhen Xiaoji extract DME25 significantly inhibited tube formation (p=0.046 vs control). This was seen together with a concentration-dependent inhibition on cell-matrix adhesion and cellular migration. It was demonstrated that the focal adhesion kinase (FAK) inhibitor PF557328 had a significant synergistic effect on DME25-induced inhibition of cell adhesion, migration and tube formation. The study showed that DME25 inhibited the phosphorylation of FAK in endothelial cells. In conclusion, Yangzhen Xiaoji has a marked effect on angiogenesis, in vitro and that this effect is at least partly mediated by the focal adhesion kinase (FAK) pathway. PMID:22971748

  8. SARI inhibits angiogenesis and tumour growth of human colon cancer through directly targeting ceruloplasmin

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Lei; Cui, Xueliang; Zhang, Xin; Cheng, Lin; Liu, Yi; Yang, Yang; Fan, Ping; Wang, Qingnan; Lin, Yi; Zhang, Junfeng; Li, Chunlei; Mao, Ying; Wang, Qin; Su, Xiaolan; Zhang, Shuang; Peng, Yong; Yang, Hanshuo; Hu, Xun; Yang, Jinliang; Huang, Meijuan; Xiang, Rong; Yu, Dechao; Zhou, Zongguang; Wei, Yuquan; Deng, Hongxin

    2016-01-01

    SARI, also called as BATF2, belongs to the BATF family and has been implicated in cancer cell growth inhibition. However, the role and mechanism of SARI in tumour angiogenesis are elusive. Here we demonstrate that SARI deficiency facilitates AOM/DSS-induced colonic tumorigenesis in mice. We show that SARI is a novel inhibitor of colon tumour growth and angiogenesis in mice. Antibody array and HUVEC-related assays indicate that VEGF has an essential role in SARI-controlled inhibition of angiogenesis. Furthermore, Co-IP/PAGE/mass spectrometry indicates that SARI directly targets ceruloplasmin (Cp), and induces protease degradation of Cp, thereby inhibiting the activity of the HIF-1α/VEGF axis. Tissue microarray results indicate that SARI expression inversely correlates with poor clinical outcomes in colon cancer patients. Collectively, our results indicate that SARI is a potential target for therapy by inhibiting angiogenesis through the reduction of VEGF expression and is a prognostic indicator for patients with colon cancer. PMID:27353863

  9. The role of perlecan and endorepellin in the control of tumor angiogenesis and endothelial cell autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Douglass, Stephen; Goyal, Atul; Iozzo, Renato V.

    2016-01-01

    During tumor growth and angiogenesis there is a dynamic remodelling of tissue architecture often accompanied by the release of extracellular matrix constituents full of biological activity. One of the key constituents of the tumor microenvironment is the large heparan sulfate proteoglycan perlecan. This proteoglycan, strategically located at cell surfaces and within basement membranes, is a well-defined pro-angiogenic molecule when intact. However, when partially processed by proteases released during cancer remodelling and invasion, the C-terminal fragment of perlecan, known as endorepellin, has opposite effects than its parent molecule. Endorepellin is a potent inhibitor of angiogenesis by exerting a dual receptor antagonism by simultaneously engaging VEGFR2 and α2β1 integrin. Signaling through the α2β1 integrin leads to actin disassembly and block of endothelial cell migration, necessary for capillary morphogenesis. Signaling through the VEGFR2 induces dephosphorylation of the receptor via activation of SHP-1 and suppression of downstream proangiogenic effectors, especially attenuating VEGFA expression. A novel and emerging role of endorepellin is its ability to evoke autophagy by activating Peg3 and various canonical autophagic markers. This effect is specific for endothelial cells as these are the primary cells expressing both VEGFR2 and α2β1 integrin. Thus, an endogenous fragment of a ubiquitous proteoglycan can regulate both angiogenesis and autophagy through a dual receptor antagonism. The biological properties of this natural endogenous protein place endorepellin as a potential therapeutic agent against cancer or diseases where angiogenesis is prominent. PMID:26181327

  10. Mucosally transplanted mesenchymal stem cells stimulate intestinal healing by promoting angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Manieri, Nicholas A.; Mack, Madison R.; Himmelrich, Molly D.; Worthley, Daniel L.; Hanson, Elaine M.; Eckmann, Lars; Wang, Timothy C.; Stappenbeck, Thaddeus S.

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy is an emerging field of regenerative medicine; however, it is often unclear how these cells mediate repair. Here, we investigated the use of MSCs in the treatment of intestinal disease and modeled abnormal repair by creating focal wounds in the colonic mucosa of prostaglandin-deficient mice. These wounds developed into ulcers that infiltrated the outer intestinal wall. We determined that penetrating ulcer formation in this model resulted from increased hypoxia and smooth muscle wall necrosis. Prostaglandin I2 (PGI2) stimulated VEGF-dependent angiogenesis to prevent penetrating ulcers. Treatment of mucosally injured WT mice with a VEGFR inhibitor resulted in the development of penetrating ulcers, further demonstrating that VEGF is critical for mucosal repair. We next used this model to address the role of transplanted colonic MSCs (cMSCs) in intestinal repair. Compared with intravenously injected cMSCs, mucosally injected cMSCs more effectively prevented the development of penetrating ulcers, as they were more efficiently recruited to colonic wounds. Importantly, mucosally injected cMSCs stimulated angiogenesis in a VEGF-dependent manner. Together, our results reveal that penetrating ulcer formation results from a reduction of local angiogenesis and targeted injection of MSCs can optimize transplantation therapy. Moreover, local MSC injection has potential for treating diseases with features of abnormal angiogenesis and repair. PMID:26280574

  11. Ghrelin stimulates angiogenesis in human microvascular endothelial cells: Implications beyond GH release

    SciTech Connect

    Li Aihua; Cheng Guangli; Zhu Genghui; Tarnawski, Andrzej S. . E-mail: atarnawski@yahoo.com

    2007-02-09

    Ghrelin, a peptide hormone isolated from the stomach, releases growth hormone and stimulates appetite. Ghrelin is also expressed in pancreas, kidneys, cardiovascular system and in endothelial cells. The precise role of ghrelin in endothelial cell functions remains unknown. We examined the expression of ghrelin and its receptor (GHSR1) mRNAs and proteins in human microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC) and determined whether ghrelin affects in these cells proliferation, migration and in vitro angiogenesis; and whether MAPK/ERK2 signaling is important for the latter action. We found that ghrelin and GHSR1 are constitutively expressed in HMVEC. Treatment of HMVEC with exogenous ghrelin significantly increased in these cells proliferation, migration, in vitro angiogenesis and ERK2 phosphorylation. MEK/ERK2 inhibitor, PD 98059 abolished ghrelin-induced in vitro angiogenesis. This is First demonstration that ghrelin and its receptor are expressed in human microvascular endothelial cells and that ghrelin stimulates HMVEC proliferation, migration, and angiogenesis through activation of ERK2 signaling.

  12. Increased expression of CYP4Z1 promotes tumor angiogenesis and growth in human breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Wei; Chai, Hongyan; Li, Ying; Zhao, Haixia; Xie, Xianfei; Zheng, Hao; Wang, Chenlong; Wang, Xue; Yang, Guifang; Cai, Xiaojun; Falck, John R.; Yang, Jing

    2012-10-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 4Z1, a novel CYP4 family member, is over-expressed in human mammary carcinoma and associated with high-grade tumors and poor prognosis. However, the precise role of CYP4Z1 in tumor progression is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that CYP4Z1 overexpression promotes tumor angiogenesis and growth in breast cancer. Stable expression of CYP4Z1 in T47D and BT-474 human breast cancer cells significantly increased mRNA expression and production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, and decreased mRNA levels and secretion of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2), without affecting cell proliferation and anchorage-independent cell growth in vitro. Notably, the conditioned medium from CYP4Z1-expressing cells enhanced proliferation, migration and tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells, and promoted angiogenesis in the zebrafish embryo and chorioallantoic membrane of the chick embryo. In addition, there were lower levels of myristic acid and lauric acid, and higher contents of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) in CYP4Z1-expressing T47D cells compared with vector control. CYP4Z1 overexpression significantly increased tumor weight and microvessel density by 2.6-fold and 1.9-fold in human tumor xenograft models, respectively. Moreover, CYP4Z1 transfection increased the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt, while PI3K or ERK inhibitors and siRNA silencing reversed CYP4Z1-mediated changes in VEGF-A and TIMP-2 expression. Conversely, HET0016, an inhibitor of the CYP4 family, potently inhibited the tumor-induced angiogenesis with associated changes in the intracellular levels of myristic acid, lauric acid and 20-HETE. Collectively, these data suggest that increased CYP4Z1 expression promotes tumor angiogenesis and growth in breast cancer partly via PI3K/Akt and ERK1/2 activation. -- Highlights: ► CYP4Z1 overexpression promotes human breast cancer growth and angiogenesis. ► The pro-angiogenic effects of CYP4Z1 have

  13. Role of angiogenesis in urothelial bladder carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Górnicka, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Bladder cancer is the most common urinary tract malignancy in western countries. In recent years, extensive research has suggested that angiogenesis plays an important role in bladder cancer biology, contributing to tumor growth and progression. Material and methods In this review, we discuss general mechanisms of angiogenesis and highlight the influence of pro- and anti-angiogenic factors, and cancer stem cells on bladder cancer biology, their relation to disease progression, and potential use in novel targeted therapies. Results Expression of a number of proangiogenic factors, including HIF-1, VEGF, bFGF, IL-8 and MMPs, as well as anti-angiogenic factor TSP-1, was found to be altered in bladder tumors. Involvement of cancer stem cells in bladder cancer development was also proposed. Conclusions High expression of most pro-angiogenic factors correlated with disease progression and shorter patient survival, but discrepancies between studies urge us to continue evaluating the significance of angiogenesis in bladder cancer. PMID:27729991

  14. KSHV-Mediated Angiogenesis in Tumor Progression

    PubMed Central

    Purushothaman, Pravinkumar; Uppal, Timsy; Sarkar, Roni; Verma, Subhash C.

    2016-01-01

    Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), also known as Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), is a malignant human oncovirus belonging to the gamma herpesvirus family. HHV-8 is closely linked to the pathogenesis of Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS) and two other B-cell lymphoproliferative diseases: primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) and a plasmablastic variant of multicentric Castleman’s disease (MCD). KS is an invasive tumor of endothelial cells most commonly found in untreated HIV-AIDS or immuno-compromised individuals. KS tumors are highly vascularized and have abnormal, excessive neo-angiogenesis, inflammation, and proliferation of infected endothelial cells. KSHV directly induces angiogenesis in an autocrine and paracrine fashion through a complex interplay of various viral and cellular pro-angiogenic and inflammatory factors. KS is believed to originate due to a combination of KSHV’s efficient strategies for evading host immune systems and several pro-angiogenic and pro-inflammatory stimuli. In addition, KSHV infection of endothelial cells produces a wide array of viral oncoproteins with transforming capabilities that regulate multiple host-signaling pathways involved in the activation of angiogenesis. It is likely that the cellular-signaling pathways of angiogenesis and lymph-angiogenesis modulate the rate of tumorigenesis induction by KSHV. This review summarizes the current knowledge on regulating KSHV-mediated angiogenesis by integrating the findings reported thus far on the roles of host and viral genes in oncogenesis, recent developments in cell-culture/animal-model systems, and various anti-angiogenic therapies for treating KSHV-related lymphoproliferative disorders. PMID:27447661

  15. Laser and LED phototherapies on angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Ana Paula Cavalcanti; Paraguassú, Gardênia Matos; Silveira, Nara Tayene Teixeira; de Souza, José; Cangussú, Maria Cristina Teixeira; dos Santos, Jean Nunes; Pinheiro, Antonio Luiz Barbosa

    2013-05-01

    Angiogenesis is a key process for wound healing. There are few reports of LED phototherapy on angiogenesis, mainly in vivo. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate histologically the angiogenesis on dorsal cutaneous wounds treated with laser (660 and 790 nm) or LEDs (700, 530, and 460 nm) in a rodent model. Twenty-four young adult male Wistar rats weighting between 200 and 250 g were used on the present study. Under general anesthesia, one excisional wound was created on the dorsum of each animal that were then randomly distributed into six groups with four animals each: G0-control; G1-laser λ660 nm (60 mW, ϕ ∼2 mm, 10 J/cm(2)); G2-laser λ790 nm (50 mW, ϕ ∼2 mm, 10 J/cm(2)); G3-LED λ700 ± 20 nm (15 mW, ϕ ∼16 mm, 10 J/cm(2)); G4-LED λ530 ± 20 nm (8 mW, ϕ ∼16 mm, 10 J/cm(2)); G5-LED λ460 ± 20 nm (22 mW, ϕ ∼16 mm, 10 J/cm(2)). Irradiation started immediately after surgery and was repeated every other day for 7 days. Animal death occurred at the eighth day after surgery. The specimens were removed, routinely processed to wax, cut and stained with HE. Angiogenesis was scored by blood vessel counting in the wounded area. Quantitative results showed that green LED (λ530 ± 20 nm), red LED (λ700 ± 20 nm), λ790 nm laser and λ660 nm laser caused significant increased angiogenesis when compared to the control group. It is concluded that both laser and LED light are capable of stimulating angiogenesis in vivo on cutaneous wounds and that coherence was not decisive on the outcome of the treatment.

  16. Endothelial TWIST1 Promotes Pathological Ocular Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jie; Liu, Chi-Hsiu; Sun, Ye; Gong, Yan; Fu, Zhongjie; Evans, Lucy P.; Tian, Katherine T.; Juan, Aimee M.; Hurst, Christian G.; Mammoto, Akiko; Chen, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Pathological neovessel formation impacts many blinding vascular eye diseases. Identification of molecular signatures distinguishing pathological neovascularization from normal quiescent vessels is critical for developing new interventions. Twist-related protein 1 (TWIST1) is a transcription factor important in tumor and pulmonary angiogenesis. This study investigated the potential role of TWIST1 in modulating pathological ocular angiogenesis in mice. Methods. Twist1 expression and localization were analyzed in a mouse model of oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR). Pathological ocular angiogenesis in Tie2-driven conditional Twist1 knockout mice were evaluated in both OIR and laser-induced choroidal neovascularization models. In addition, the effects of TWIST1 on angiogenesis and endothelial cell function were analyzed in sprouting assays of aortic rings and choroidal explants isolated from Twist1 knockout mice, and in human retinal microvascular endothelial cells treated with TWIST1 small interfering RNA (siRNA). Results. TWIST1 is highly enriched in pathological neovessels in OIR retinas. Conditional Tie2-driven depletion of Twist1 significantly suppressed pathological neovessels in OIR without impacting developmental retinal angiogenesis. In a laser-induced choroidal neovascularization model, Twist1 deficiency also resulted in significantly smaller lesions with decreased vascular leakage. In addition, loss of Twist1 significantly decreased vascular sprouting in both aortic ring and choroid explants. Knockdown of TWIST1 in endothelial cells led to dampened expression of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) and decreased endothelial cell proliferation. Conclusions. Our study suggests that TWIST1 is a novel regulator of pathologic ocular angiogenesis and may represent a new molecular target for developing potential therapeutic treatments to suppress pathological neovascularization in vascular eye diseases. PMID:25414194

  17. Functional inhibition of UQCRB suppresses angiogenesis in zebrafish

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Yoon Sun; Jung, Hye Jin; Seok, Seung Hyeok; Payumo, Alexander Y.; Chen, James K.; Kwon, Ho Jeong

    2013-04-19

    Highlights: ► This is the first functional characterization of UQCRB in vivo model. ► Angiogenesis is inhibited with UQCRB loss of function in zebrafish. ► UQCRB is introduced as a prognostic marker for mitochondria- and angiogenesis-related diseases. -- Abstract: As a subunit of mitochondrial complex III, UQCRB plays an important role in complex III stability, electron transport, and cellular oxygen sensing. Herein, we report UQCRB function regarding angiogenesis in vivo with the zebrafish (Danio rerio). UQCRB knockdown inhibited angiogenesis in zebrafish leading to the suppression of VEGF expression. Moreover, the UQCRB-targeting small molecule terpestacin also inhibited angiogenesis and VEGF levels in zebrafish, supporting the role of UQCRB in angiogenesis. Collectively, UQCRB loss of function by either genetic and pharmacological means inhibited angiogenesis, indicating that UQCRB plays a key role in this process and can be a prognostic marker of angiogenesis- and mitochondria-related diseases.

  18. CCL5 promotes VEGF-dependent angiogenesis by down-regulating miR-200b through PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in human chondrosarcoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guan-Ting; Chen, Hsien-Te; Tsou, Hsi-Kai; Tan, Tzu-Wei; Fong, Yi-Chin; Chen, Po-Chen; Yang, Wei-Hung; Wang, Shih-Wei; Chen, Jui-Chieh; Tang, Chih-Hsin

    2014-01-01

    Chondrosarcoma is the second most common primary malignant bone cancer, with potential for local invasion and distant metastasis. Chemokine CCL5 (formerly RANTES) of the CC-chemokine family plays a crucial role in metastasis. Angiogenesis is essential for the cancer metastasis. However, correlation of CCL5 with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and angiogenesis in human chondrosarcoma is still unknown. CCL5-mediated VEGF expression was assessed by qPCR, ELISA, and Western blotting. CCL5-induced angiogenesis was examined by migration and tube formation in endothelial progenitor cells in vitro. CCL5 increased VEGF expression and also promoted chondrosarcoma conditional medium-mediated angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Stimulation of chondrosarcoma with CCL5 augmented PI3K and Akt phosphorylation, while PI3K and Akt inhibitor or siRNA abolished CCL5-induced VEGF expression and angiogenesis. We also demonstrated CCL5 inhibiting miR-200b expression and miR-200b mimic reversing the CCL5-enhanced VEGF expression and angiogenesis. Moreover, in chondrosarcoma patients showed the positive correlation between CCL5 and VEGF; negative correlation between CCL5 and miR-200b. Taken together, results demonstrate CCL5 promoting VEGF-dependent angiogenesis in human chondrosarcoma cells by down-regulating miR-200b through PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. PMID:25301739

  19. PF-04691502 triggers cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and inhibits the angiogenesis in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng-Ze; Peng-Jiao; Yang, Na-Na; Chuang-Yuan; Zhao, Ya-Li; Liu, Qiang-Qiang; Fei, Hong-Rong; Zhang, Ji-Guo

    2013-07-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the world. The aim of the present study is to determine the antitumor effect of PF-04691502, a potent inhibitor of PI3K and mTOR kinases, on the apoptosis and angiogenesis of the hepatoma cancer cells. Our results indicate that treatment of cancer cells with PF-04691502 reduces cell viability and inhibits cell growth in a dose-dependent manner. PF-04691502 triggers apoptosis via a mitochondrial pathway, accompanied by activation of caspase-3, caspase-9, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Pre-treatment of hepatoma cells with the caspase-3 inhibitor (z-DEVD-fmk) blocks the PF-04691502-induced death of these cells. In addition, growth factors-induced tube formation and the migration of HUVECs are markedly inhibited by PF-04691502 treatment. The mechanisms of anti-angiogenesis of PF-04691502 are associated with inhibiting the expression of VEGF and HIF-1α. Based on the overall results, we suggest that PF-04691502 reduces hepatocellular carcinoma cell viability, induces cell apoptosis, and inhibits cell growth and tumor angiogenesis, implicating its potential therapeutic value in the treatment of HCC.

  20. Angiogenesis opens a way for Chinese medicine to treat stroke.

    PubMed

    Yang, A-li; Liang, Qing-hua; Cui, Han-jin; Zhou, Hua-jun; Luo, Jie-kun; Tang, Tao

    2013-11-01

    Based on the pathophysiology of the brain, advance in angiogenesis induced by stroke, and evidences of Chinese-medicine-mediated angiogenesis, the possibility to study the stroke-treating mechanism of Chinese medicine in angiogenesis was discussed. And regarding our previous work on angiogenesis modulated by qi-tonifying and stasis-eliminating therapy following intracerebral hemorrhage, we proposed some questions, which should be taken into account in the further work. PMID:24170630

  1. Novel Etoposide Analogue Modulates Expression of Angiogenesis Associated microRNAs and Regulates Cell Proliferation by Targeting STAT3 in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Srinivas, Chatla; Ramaiah, M. Janaki; Lavanya, A.; Yerramsetty, Suresh; Kavi Kishor, P. B; Basha, Shaik Anver; Kamal, Ahmed; Bhadra, Utpal; Bhadra, Manika-Pal

    2015-01-01

    Tumor microenvironment play role in angiogenesis and carcinogenesis. Etoposide, a known topoisomerase II inhibitor induces DNA damage resulting in cell cycle arrest. We developed a novel Etoposide analogue, Quinazolino-4β-amidopodophyllotoxin (C-10) that show better efficacy in regulating cell proliferation and angiogenesis. We evaluated its role on expression of microRNAs-15, 16, 17 and 221 and its targets Bcl-2, STAT3 and VEGF that dictate cell proliferation and angiogenesis. Docking studies clearly demonstrated the binding of Etoposide and C-10 to STAT3. We conclude that combination of Etoposide or C-10 with miR-15, 16, 17 and 221 as a new approach to induce apoptosis and control angiogenesis in breast cancer. PMID:26551008

  2. Regulation of Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 Activity by COX-2-PGE2-pAKT Axis Promotes Angiogenesis in Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Amlan K.; DasMahapatra, Pramathes; Swarnakar, Snehasikta

    2016-01-01

    Endometriosis is characterized by the ectopic development of the endometrium which relies on angiogenesis. Although studies have identified the involvement of different matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in endometriosis, no study has yet investigated the role of MMP-2 in endometriosis-associated angiogenesis. The present study aims to understand the regulation of MMP-2 activity in endothelial cells and on angiogenesis during progression of ovarian endometriosis. Histological and biochemical data showed increased expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), VEGF receptor-2, cycloxygenase (COX)-2, von Willebrand factor along with angiogenesis during endometriosis progression. Women with endometriosis showed decreased MMP-2 activity in eutopic endometrium as compared to women without endometriosis. However, ectopic ovarian endometrioma showed significantly elevated MMP-2 activity with disease severity. In addition, increased MT1MMP and decreased tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMP)-2 expressions were found in the late stages of endometriosis indicating more MMP-2 activation with disease progression. In vitro study using human endothelial cells showed that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) significantly increased MMP-2 activity as well as tube formation. Inhibition of COX-2 and/or phosphorylated AKT suppressed MMP-2 activity and endothelial tube formation suggesting involvement of PGE2 in regulation of MMP-2 activity during angiogenesis. Moreover, specific inhibition of MMP-2 by chemical inhibitor significantly reduced cellular migration, invasion and tube formation. In ovo assay showed decreased angiogenic branching upon MMP-2 inhibition. Furthermore, a significant reduction of lesion numbers was observed upon inhibition of MMP-2 and COX-2 in mouse model of endometriosis. In conclusion, our study establishes the involvement of MMP-2 activity via COX-2-PGE2-pAKT axis in promoting angiogenesis during endometriosis progression. PMID:27695098

  3. Vascular endothelial growth factor as a key inducer of angiogenesis in the asthmatic airways.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Norbert; Akdis, Cezmi A

    2013-02-01

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways characterized by structural airway changes, which are known as airway remodeling, including smooth muscle hypertrophy, goblet cell hyperplasia, subepithelial fibrosis, and angiogenesis. Vascular remodeling in asthmatic lungs results from increased angiogenesis, which is mainly mediated by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). VEGF is a key regulator of blood vessel growth in the airways of asthma patients by promoting proliferation and differentiation of endothelial cells and inducing vascular leakage and permeability. In addition, VEGF induces allergic inflammation, enhances allergic sensitization, and has a role in Th2 type inflammatory responses. Specific inhibitors of VEGF and blockers of its receptors might be useful to control chronic airway inflammation and vascular remodeling, and might be a new therapeutic approach for chronic inflammatory airway disease like asthma.

  4. Buyanghuanwu decoction promotes angiogenesis after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury: mechanisms of brain tissue repair

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhen-qiang; Song, Jun-ying; Jia, Ya-quan; Zhang, Yun-ke

    2016-01-01

    Buyanghuanwu decoction has been shown to protect against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, rats were intragastrically given Buyanghuanwu decoction, 15 mL/kg, for 3 days. A rat model of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury was established by middle cerebral artery occlusion. In rats administered Buyanghuanwu decoction, infarct volume was reduced, serum vascular endothelial growth factor and integrin αvβ3 levels were increased, and brain tissue vascular endothelial growth factor and CD34 expression levels were increased compared with untreated animals. These effects of Buyanghuanwu decoction were partially suppressed by an angiogenesis inhibitor (administered through the lateral ventricle for 7 consecutive days). These data suggest that Buyanghuanwu decoction promotes angiogenesis, improves cerebral circulation, and enhances brain tissue repair after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. PMID:27127482

  5. Endometrial stem cells repair injured endometrium and induce angiogenesis via AKT and ERK pathways.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanling; Lin, Xiaona; Dai, Yongdong; Hu, Xiaoxiao; Zhu, Haiyan; Jiang, Yinshen; Zhang, Songying

    2016-11-01

    Intrauterine adhesions are common acquired endometrial syndromes secondary to endometrial injury, with limited effective therapies. Recently, several studies have reported that bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) could repair injured endometrium in animal experiments. However, the role of stem cells in endometrial injury repair and its therapeutic mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we established mouse endometrial injury model and examined the benefit of human endometrial mesenchymal stem cells derived from menstrual blood (MenSCs) in restoration of injured endometrium. Injured endometrium exhibited significantly accelerated restoration at Day 7 after MenSCs transplantation, with increased endometrial thickness and microvessel density. Moreover, the fertility of mice with injured endometrium was improved, with higher conception rate (53.57% vs 14.29%, P = 0.014) and larger embryo number (3.1 ± 0.6 vs 0.9 ± 0.7, P = 0.030) in MenSCs group than control group, while no difference was found in undamaged horns between two groups. Conditioned medium from MenSCs (MenSCs-CM) could decrease H2O2-induced apoptosis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and promote proliferation, migration and angiogenesis. Angiogenesis effect of MenSCs-CM was also confirmed in Matrigel plug assay in mice. Furthermore, we discovered that MenSCs-CM could activate AKT and ERK pathways and induce the overexpression of eNOS, VEGFA, VEGFR1, VEGFR2 and TIE2 in HUVECs, which are critical in MenSCs-CM-induced angiogenesis. Angiogenesis induced by MenSCs-CM could be reversed by inhibitors of AKT and/or ERK. Taken together, we concluded that MenSCs could restore injured endometrium and improve the fertility of the endometrial injury mice, which was partially attributed to angiogenesis induced by MenSCs. PMID:27486270

  6. Prostanoids regulate angiogenesis acting primarily on IP and EP4 receptors.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Khuyen Gia; Allison, Sarah; Murray, Michael; Petrovic, Nenad

    2015-09-01

    Angiogenesis is regulated by numerous activators and inhibitors, including prostanoids. Although many studies have identified their roles in inflammation, regulatory functions of prostanoids in angiogenesis are poorly understood. Here, we compared the activation of angiogenesis in vitro by two prostanoids with important vascular roles: prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) - thought to be the most important prostanoid activator of angiogenesis - and prostaglandin I2 (prostacyclin or PGI2), whose receptors are predominantly expressed in endothelial cells. Both of these prostanoids activate G-protein coupled receptors: EP1, EP2, EP3 and EP4 by PGE2 and IP by prostacyclin. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were used to characterize two pivotal pro-angiogenic processes in vitro: cell migration (using the matrigel droplet assay developed in our laboratory) and "tube formation" (a widely accepted method of assessing formation of blood vessel precursors). The suppression of cell migration and tube formation by the IP-specific antagonist CAY10441 was more extensive (~80%) than by the EP4-specific antagonist L-161,982 (~20%). AH6809, an antagonist of EP1, EP2 and EP3 receptors did not significantly suppress angiogenesis. Expression of the pro-angiogenic receptors KDR and Tie-2 in HUVECs was preferentially suppressed by antagonism of IP and EP4 receptors, respectively. EP4 and IP receptor agonists elicited biphasic actions on angiogenic processes in which there was activation at low concentration, and rapid desensitization at high concentrations - a characteristic common to many G-protein coupled receptors. Together these findings suggest that the prostacyclin-IP pathway plays a major role in the regulation of pro-angiogenic processes in HUVECs.

  7. Inhibiting NF-κB in the developing lung disrupts angiogenesis and alveolarization.

    PubMed

    Iosef, Cristiana; Alastalo, Tero-Pekka; Hou, Yanli; Chen, Chihhsin; Adams, Eloa S; Lyu, Shu-Chen; Cornfield, David N; Alvira, Cristina M

    2012-05-15

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), a chronic lung disease of infancy, is characterized by arrested alveolar development. Pulmonary angiogenesis, mediated by the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway, is essential for alveolarization. However, the transcriptional regulators mediating pulmonary angiogenesis remain unknown. We previously demonstrated that NF-κB, a transcription factor traditionally associated with inflammation, plays a unique protective role in the neonatal lung. Therefore, we hypothesized that constitutive NF-κB activity is essential for postnatal lung development. Blocking NF-κB activity in 6-day-old neonatal mice induced the alveolar simplification similar to that observed in BPD and significantly reduced pulmonary capillary density. Studies to determine the mechanism responsible for this effect identified greater constitutive NF-κB in neonatal lung and in primary pulmonary endothelial cells (PEC) compared with adult. Moreover, inhibiting constitutive NF-κB activity in the neonatal PEC with either pharmacological inhibitors or RNA interference blocked PEC survival, decreased proliferation, and impaired in vitro angiogenesis. Finally, by chromatin immunoprecipitation, NF-κB was found to be a direct regulator of the angiogenic mediator, VEGF-receptor-2, in the neonatal pulmonary vasculature. Taken together, our data identify an entirely novel role for NF-κB in promoting physiological angiogenesis and alveolarization in the developing lung. Our data suggest that disruption of NF-κB signaling may contribute to the pathogenesis of BPD and that enhancement of NF-κB may represent a viable therapeutic strategy to promote lung growth and regeneration in pulmonary diseases marked by impaired angiogenesis.

  8. Foxc2 regulates osteogenesis and angiogenesis of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Forkhead/Fox transcription factor Foxc2 is a critical regulator of osteogenesis and angiogenesis of cells. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) have the capacity to differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes, adipocytes, myocytes and fibroblasts. The present study investigates the role of Foxc2 overexpression in osteogenesis and angiogenesis of BMSCs in vitro. Methods BMSCs were isolated from SD rat femurs and tibias, and characterized by cell surface antigen identification and osteoblasts and adipocytes differentiation. The cells were transfected with lentiviral Foxc2 (Lv-Foxc2) or green fluorescent protein (Lv-GFP). Seventy hours later, Foxc2 expression was observed using real time-PCR and Western blot. The transfected cells were stained with Alizarin red S or alkaline phosphatase (ALP) after osteogenic induction. Meanwhile, the expression levels of osteocalcin (OCN), Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and platelet-derived growth factor-β (PDGF-β) were measured by real time-PCR, Western blot and immunostaining. Results Results of cell characterization showed that the cells were positive to CD44 (99.56%) and negative to CD34 (0.44%), and could differentiate into osteoblasts and adipocytes. Foxc2 overexpression not only increased the numbers of mineralized nodes and ALP activity, but also enhanced the expressions of Runx2, OCN, VEGF and PDGF-β in transfected BMSCs after osteogenic induction. The effects of Foxc2 on osteogenesis and angiogenesis were significantly different between Lv-Foxc2 transfected BMSCs and Lv-GFP transfected BMSCs (P<0.05). In addition, the MAPK-specific inhibitors, PD98059 and LY294002, blocked the Foxc2-induced regulation of BMSC differentiation. Conclusions Foxc2 gene is successfully transfected into BMSCs with stable and high expression. The overexpression of Foxc2 acts on BMSCs to stimulate osteogenesis and angiogenesis. The effect of Foxc2 on angiogenesis of

  9. Inhibiting NF-κB in the developing lung disrupts angiogenesis and alveolarization

    PubMed Central

    Iosef, Cristiana; Alastalo, Tero-Pekka; Hou, Yanli; Chen, Chihhsin; Adams, Eloa S.; Lyu, Shu-Chen; Cornfield, David N.

    2012-01-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), a chronic lung disease of infancy, is characterized by arrested alveolar development. Pulmonary angiogenesis, mediated by the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway, is essential for alveolarization. However, the transcriptional regulators mediating pulmonary angiogenesis remain unknown. We previously demonstrated that NF-κB, a transcription factor traditionally associated with inflammation, plays a unique protective role in the neonatal lung. Therefore, we hypothesized that constitutive NF-κB activity is essential for postnatal lung development. Blocking NF-κB activity in 6-day-old neonatal mice induced the alveolar simplification similar to that observed in BPD and significantly reduced pulmonary capillary density. Studies to determine the mechanism responsible for this effect identified greater constitutive NF-κB in neonatal lung and in primary pulmonary endothelial cells (PEC) compared with adult. Moreover, inhibiting constitutive NF-κB activity in the neonatal PEC with either pharmacological inhibitors or RNA interference blocked PEC survival, decreased proliferation, and impaired in vitro angiogenesis. Finally, by chromatin immunoprecipitation, NF-κB was found to be a direct regulator of the angiogenic mediator, VEGF-receptor-2, in the neonatal pulmonary vasculature. Taken together, our data identify an entirely novel role for NF-κB in promoting physiological angiogenesis and alveolarization in the developing lung. Our data suggest that disruption of NF-κB signaling may contribute to the pathogenesis of BPD and that enhancement of NF-κB may represent a viable therapeutic strategy to promote lung growth and regeneration in pulmonary diseases marked by impaired angiogenesis. PMID:22367785

  10. Inhibitory Effect of Endostar on Specific Angiogenesis Induced by Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Qing; Qin, Shukui; Liu, Yanhong; Feng, Jundong; Wu, Qiong; Qu, Wenshu; Yin, Xiaojin

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effect of endostar on specific angiogenesis induced by human hepatocellular carcinoma, this research systematically elucidated the inhibitory effect on HepG2-induced angiogenesis by endostar from 50 ng/mL to 50000 ng/mL. We employed fluorescence quantitative Boyden chamber analysis, wound-healing assay, flow cytometry examination using a coculture system, quantitative analysis of tube formation, and in vivo Matrigel plug assay induced by HCC conditioned media (HCM) and HepG2 compared with normal hepatocyte conditioned media (NCM) and L02. Then, we found that endostar as a tumor angiogenesis inhibitor could potently inhibit human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) migration in response to HCM after four- to six-hour action, inhibit HCM-induced HUVEC migration to the lesion part in a dose-dependent manner between 50 ng/mL and 5000 ng/mL at 24 hours, and reduce HUVEC proliferation in a dose-dependent fashion. Endostar inhibited HepG2-induced tube formation of HUVECs which peaked at 50 ng/mL. In vivo Matrigel plug formation was also significantly reduced by endostar in HepG2 inducing system rather than in L02 inducing system. It could be concluded that, at cell level, endostar inhibited the angiogenesis-related biological behaviors of HUVEC in response to HCC, including migration, adhesion proliferation, and tube formation. At animal level, endostar inhibited the angiogenesis in response to HCC in Matrigel matrix. PMID:25983751

  11. Endothelial FAK is required for tumour angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Tavora, Bernardo; Batista, Silvia; Reynolds, Louise E; Jadeja, Shalini; Robinson, Stephen; Kostourou, Vassiliki; Hart, Ian; Fruttiger, Marcus; Parsons, Maddy; Hodivala-Dilke, Kairbaan M

    2010-01-01

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase that plays a fundamental role in integrin and growth factor mediated signalling and is an important player in cell migration and proliferation, processes vital for angiogenesis. However, the role of FAK in adult pathological angiogenesis is unknown. We have generated endothelial-specific tamoxifen-inducible FAK knockout mice by crossing FAK-floxed (FAKfl/fl) mice with the platelet derived growth factor b (Pdgfb)-iCreER mice. Tamoxifen-treatment of Pdgfb-iCreER;FAKfl/fl mice results in FAK deletion in adult endothelial cells (ECs) without any adverse effects. Importantly however, endothelial FAK-deletion in adult mice inhibited tumour growth and reduced tumour angiogenesis. Furthermore, in in vivo angiogenic assays FAK deletion impairs vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced neovascularization. In addition, in vitro deletion of FAK in ECs resulted in reduced VEGF-stimulated Akt phosphorylation and correlating reduced cellular proliferation as well as increased cell death. Our data suggest that FAK is required for adult pathological angiogenesis and validates FAK as a possible target for anti-angiogenic therapies. PMID:21154724

  12. Endothelial FAK is required for tumour angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Tavora, Bernardo; Batista, Silvia; Reynolds, Louise E; Jadeja, Shalini; Robinson, Stephen; Kostourou, Vassiliki; Hart, Ian; Fruttiger, Marcus; Parsons, Maddy; Hodivala-Dilke, Kairbaan M

    2010-12-01

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase that plays a fundamental role in integrin and growth factor mediated signalling and is an important player in cell migration and proliferation, processes vital for angiogenesis. However, the role of FAK in adult pathological angiogenesis is unknown. We have generated endothelial-specific tamoxifen-inducible FAK knockout mice by crossing FAK-floxed (FAKfl/fl) mice with the platelet derived growth factor b (Pdgfb)-iCreER mice. Tamoxifen-treatment of Pdgfb-iCreER;FAKfl/fl mice results in FAK deletion in adult endothelial cells (ECs) without any adverse effects. Importantly however, endothelial FAK-deletion in adult mice inhibited tumour growth and reduced tumour angiogenesis. Furthermore, in in vivo angiogenic assays FAK deletion impairs vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced neovascularization. In addition, in vitro deletion of FAK in ECs resulted in reduced VEGF-stimulated Akt phosphorylation and correlating reduced cellular proliferation as well as increased cell death. Our data suggest that FAK is required for adult pathological angiogenesis and validates FAK as a possible target for anti-angiogenic therapies.

  13. Endothelial Angiogenesis and Barrier Function in Response to Thrombin Require Ca2+ Influx through the Na+/Ca2+ Exchanger*

    PubMed Central

    Andrikopoulos, Petros; Kieswich, Julius; Harwood, Steven M.; Baba, Akemichi; Matsuda, Toshio; Barbeau, Olivier; Jones, Keith; Eccles, Suzanne A.; Yaqoob, Muhammad M.

    2015-01-01

    Thrombin acts on the endothelium by activating protease-activated receptors (PARs). The endothelial thrombin-PAR system becomes deregulated during pathological conditions resulting in loss of barrier function and a pro-inflammatory and pro-angiogenic endothelial phenotype. We reported recently that the ion transporter Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) operating in the Ca2+-influx (reverse) mode promoted ERK1/2 activation and angiogenesis in vascular endothelial growth factor-stimulated primary human vascular endothelial cells. Here, we investigated whether Ca2+ influx through NCX was involved in ERK1/2 activation, angiogenesis, and endothelial barrier dysfunction in response to thrombin. Reverse-mode NCX inhibitors and RNAi-mediated NCX1 knockdown attenuated ERK1/2 phosphorylation in response to thrombin or an agonist of PAR-1, the main endothelial thrombin receptor. Conversely, promoting reverse-mode NCX by suppressing Na+-K+-ATPase activity enhanced ERK1/2 activation. Reverse-mode NCX inhibitors and NCX1 siRNA suppressed thrombin-induced primary human vascular endothelial cell angiogenesis, quantified as proliferation and tubular differentiation. Reverse-mode NCX inhibitors or NCX1 knockdown preserved barrier integrity upon thrombin stimulation in vitro. Moreover, the reverse-mode NCX inhibitor SEA0400 suppressed Evans' blue albumin extravasation to the lung and kidneys and attenuated edema formation and ERK1/2 activation in the lungs of mice challenged with a peptide activator of PAR-1. Mechanistically, thrombin-induced ERK1/2 activation required NADPH oxidase 2-mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and reverse-mode NCX inhibitors and NCX1 siRNA suppressed thrombin-induced ROS production. We propose that reverse-mode NCX is a novel mechanism contributing to thrombin-induced angiogenesis and hyperpermeability by mediating ERK1/2 activation in a ROS-dependent manner. Targeting reverse-mode NCX could be beneficial in pathological conditions involving

  14. CCL3 promotes angiogenesis by dysregulation of miR-374b/ VEGF-A axis in human osteosarcoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Pei-Yu; Wang, Shih-Wei; Chen, Hsien-Te; Lin, Yu-Min; Chiang, I-Ping; Chang, Tzu-Ming; Hsu, Shao-Keh; Chou, Ming-Chih; Tang, Chih-Hsin; Fong, Yi-Chin

    2016-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is the most frequent bone tumor, characterized by a high metastatic potential. However, the crosstalk between chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 3 (CCL3), which facilitates tumor progression and metastasis. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A), an angiogenesis inducer and a highly specific mitogen for endothelial cells, has not been well explored in human osteosarcoma. Here we demonstrate the correlation of CCL3 and VEGF-A expressions, quantified by immunohistochemistry, with the tumor stage of human osteosarcoma tissues. Furthermore, CCL3 promotes VEGF-A expression in human osteosarcoma cells that subsequently induces human endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) migration and tube formation. Phosphorylation of JNK, ERK, and p38 was found after CCL3 stimulation. In addition, JNK, ERK, and p38 inhibitors also abolished CCL3-induced VEGF-A expression and angiogenesis. We noted that CCL3 reduces the expression of miR-374b and miR-374b mimic by reversing CCL3-promoted VEGF-A expression and angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. This study shows that CCL3 promotes VEGF-A expression and angiogenesis in human osteosarcoma cells by down-regulating miR-374b expression via JNK, ERK, and p38 signaling pathways. Thus, CCL3 may be a new molecular therapeutic target in osteosarcoma angiogenesis and metastasis. PMID:26713602

  15. Evidence of angiogenesis and microvascular regression in autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease kidneys: a corrosion cast study.

    PubMed

    Wei, W; Popov, V; Walocha, J A; Wen, J; Bello-Reuss, E

    2006-10-01

    Autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) accounts for about 10% of all cases of chronic renal failure requiring dialysis. The disease is characterized by proliferation of renal epithelial cells and formation of cysts that expand over years and replace the normal parenchyma of the kidney. As the cysts grow, the volume of the kidney can increase by more than 10-fold, implying that remodeling and expansion of the vasculature must occur to provide oxygenation and nutrition to the cyst cells. Our previous studies support the notion that there is angiogenesis in ADPKD. We report here results from resin casting of ADPKD kidneys vasculature. In this study, the corrosion-casting method was used in conjunction with scanning electron microscopy to study the vascular architecture and the evidence for angiogenesis in ADPKD kidneys. We found a well-defined vascular network around the cysts forming a 'vascular capsule' somewhat similar to that described in avascular leiomyomata. We also found that the normal vascular architecture is lost and replaced by an assortment of capillaries of larger size than those in the normal kidney, mixed with flattened and spiral arterioles, damaged glomeruli, and atresic venules, indicative of regression of the microvasculature. In the same areas, there was capillary sprouting, considered the hallmark of angiogenesis. The present study documents regression changes of the vasculature and confirms the existence of angiogenesis in ADPKD kidneys, and suggests the use of inhibitors of angiogenesis as a possible avenue for the treatment of the disease. PMID:16883324

  16. Exosomes secreted by mesenchymal stem cells promote endothelial cell angiogenesis by transferring miR-125a.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xiaolei; Zhang, Lina; Wang, Shihua; Han, Qin; Zhao, Robert Chunhua

    2016-06-01

    Angiogenesis plays crucial roles in various physiological processes including wound healing and tissue repair. It requires a tight interaction between endothelial cells and their surrounding environment. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), one of the non-endothelial cell types present in the perivascular environment, have been shown to secret exosomes to modulate intercellular communications between MSCs and their target cells. In this study, we initially isolated exosomes secreted by human adipose-derived MSCs (adMSC-Exo) and examined their roles in angiogenesis. We found that adMSC-Exo could be taken up by endothelial cells and significantly promote angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo Further study showed that miR-125a was enriched in adMSC-Exo, and repressed the expression of the angiogenic inhibitor delta-like 4 (DLL4) by targeting its 3' untranslated region. Additionally, adMSC-Exo and its exosomal transferred miR-125a could repress DLL4 expression and modulate endothelial cell angiogenesis through promoting formation of endothelial tip cells. In conclusion, our study indicates that adMSC-Exo can transfer miR-125a to endothelial cells and promote angiogenesis by repressing DLL4. adMSC-Exo, as a pro-angiogenic factor, might be a promising candidate for therapeutical tissue repair. PMID:27252357

  17. Fibromodulin Enhances Angiogenesis during Cutaneous Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Zhong; Jian, Jia; Velasco, Omar; Hsu, Ching-yun; Zhang, Kermit; Levin, Andrew; Murphy, Maxwell; Zhang, Xinli

    2014-01-01

    Background: Fibromodulin (FMOD) plays a critical role in the wound-healing process. Our previous studies revealed that FMOD deficiency led to marked alterations in adult wound healing characterized by delayed dermal cell migration, postponed wound closure, and increased scar formation, all accompanied by impeded angiogenesis. Therefore, the aim of this study was to reveal the effect of FMOD on angiogenesis during the wound-healing process. Methods: In vivo angiogenic effects of FMOD were assessed by a chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane assay, a Matrigel (BD Bioscience, Franklin Lakes, N.J.) plug implant assay, and rodent primary closure wound models. In vitro angiogenic effects of FMOD were recorded by cell invasion and dimensional and topological parameters of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Results: We provided evidence that FMOD significantly enhanced vascularization: first, FMOD boosted blood vessel formation on the chorioallantoic membrane; second, FMOD markedly stimulated capillary infiltration into Matrigel plugs subcutaneously implanted in adult mice; and finally, FMOD robustly promoted angiogenesis in multiple adult rodent cutaneous wound models. Furthermore, FMOD administration restored the vascularity of fmod−/− mouse wounds. In support of this, FMOD endorsed an angiogenesis-favored microenvironment in adult rodent wounds not only by upregulating angiogenic genes but also by downregulating angiostatic genes. In addition, FMOD significantly enhanced human umbilical vein endothelial cell invasion and tube-like structure formation in vitro. Conclusions: Altogether, we demonstrated that in addition to reducing scar formation, FMOD also promotes angiogenesis. As blood vessels organize and regulate wound healing, its potent angiogenic properties will further expand the clinical application of FMOD for cutaneous healing of poorly vascularized wounds. PMID:25587509

  18. Relationship of Angiogenesis and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Marla, V; Hegde, V; Shrestha, A

    2015-01-01

    Angiogenesis is an important aspect of a variety of physiological and pathological processes; and depends on the alteration of the balance between pro-angiogenic and anti-angiogenic factors. The role of angiogenesis in the progression and metastasis of neoplasm is a well established phenomenon. With regards to oral squamous cell carcinoma, it is a field of ongoing research and requires validation for it being used as a mode of anti-cancer therapy. This review focuses on the concept of angiogenesis, the factors associated with it, the relationship of angiogenesis with oral epithelial dysplasia and oral squamous cell carcinoma; the methods of studying angiogenesis and anti angiogenic therapy. PMID:26643840

  19. Beta-Adrenoceptor Activation Reduces Both Dermal Microvascular Endothelial Cell Migration via a cAMP-Dependent Mechanism and Wound Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    O'Leary, Andrew P; Fox, James M; Pullar, Christine E

    2015-01-01

    Angiogenesis is an essential process during tissue regeneration; however, the amount of angiogenesis directly correlates with the level of wound scarring. Angiogenesis is lower in scar-free foetal wounds while angiogenesis is raised and abnormal in pathophysiological scarring such as hypertrophic scars and keloids. Delineating the mechanisms that modulate angiogenesis and could reduce scarring would be clinically useful. Beta-adrenoceptors (β-AR) are G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) expressed on all skin cell-types. They play a role in wound repair but their specific role in angiogenesis is unknown. In this study, a range of in vitro assays (single cell migration, scratch wound healing, ELISAs for angiogenic growth factors and tubule formation) were performed with human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMEC) to investigate and dissect mechanisms underpinning β-AR-mediated modulation of angiogenesis in chick chorioallantoic membranes (CAM) and murine excisional skin wounds. β-AR activation reduced HDMEC migration via cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent and protein kinase A (PKA)-independent mechanisms as demonstrated through use of an EPAC agonist that auto-inhibited the cAMP-mediated β-AR transduced reduction in HDMEC motility; a PKA inhibitor was, conversely, ineffective. ELISA studies demonstrated that β-AR activation reduced pro-angiogenic growth factor secretion from HDMECs (fibroblast growth factor 2) and keratinocytes (vascular endothelial growth factor A) revealing possible β-AR-mediated autocrine and paracrine anti-angiogenic mechanisms. In more complex environments, β-AR activation delayed HDMEC tubule formation and decreased angiogenesis both in the CAM assay and in murine excisional skin wounds in vivo. β-AR activation reduced HDMEC function in vitro and angiogenesis in vivo; therefore, β-AR agonists could be promising anti-angiogenic modulators in skin. J. Cell. Physiol. 230: 356–365, 2015. © 2014 The Authors. Journal

  20. Intracellular Expression of PAI-1 Specific Aptamers Alters Breast Cancer Cell Migration, Invasion and Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Fortenberry, Yolanda M.; Brandal, Stephanie M.; Carpentier, Gilles; Hemani, Malvi; Pathak, Arvind P.

    2016-01-01

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is elevated in various cancers, where it has been shown to effect cell migration and invasion and angiogenesis. While, PAI-1 is a secreted protein, its intercellular levels are increased in cancer cells. Consequently, intracellular PAI-1 could contribute to cancer progression. While various small molecule inhibitors of PAI-1 are currently being investigated, none specifically target intracellular PAI-1. A class of inhibitors, termed aptamers, has been used effectively in several clinical applications. We previously generated RNA aptamers that target PAI-1 and demonstrated their ability to inhibit extracellular PAI-1. In the current study we explored the effect of these aptamers on intracellular PAI-1. We transiently transfected the PAI-1 specific aptamers into both MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells, and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and studied their effects on cell migration, invasion and angiogenesis. Aptamer expressing MDA-MB-231 cells exhibited a decrease in cell migration and invasion. Additionally, intracellular PAI-1 and urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) protein levels decreased, while the PAI-1/uPA complex increased. Moreover, a significant decrease in endothelial tube formation in HUVECs transfected with the aptamers was observed. In contrast, conditioned media from aptamer transfected MDA-MB-231 cells displayed a slight pro-angiogenic effect. Collectively, our study shows that expressing functional aptamers inside breast and endothelial cells is feasible and may exhibit therapeutic potential. PMID:27755560

  1. Therapeutic Angiogenesis in Critical Limb Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Ouma, Geoffrey O.; Zafrir, Barak; Mohler, Emile R.; Flugelman, Moshe Y.

    2013-01-01

    Critical limb ischemia (CLI) is a severe form of peripheral artery disease associated with high morbidity and mortality. The primary therapeutic goals in treating CLI are to reduce the risk of adverse cardiovascular events, relieve ischemic pain, heal ulcers, prevent major amputation, and improve quality of life (QoL) and survival. These goals may be achieved by medical therapy, endovascular intervention, open surgery, or amputation and require a multidisciplinary approach including pain management, wound care, risk factors reduction, and treatment of comorbidities. No-option patients are potential candidates for the novel angiogenic therapies. The application of genetic, molecular, and cellular-based modalities, the so-called therapeutic angiogenesis, in the treatment of arterial obstructive diseases has not shown consistent efficacy. This article summarizes the current status related to the management of patients with CLI and discusses the current findings of the emerging modalities for therapeutic angiogenesis. PMID:23129733

  2. Neuropeptide Y-induced angiogenesis in aging.

    PubMed

    Kitlinska, Joanna; Lee, Edward W; Movafagh, Sharareh; Pons, Jennifer; Zukowska, Zofia

    2002-01-01

    Age-related changes in NPY-driven angiogenesis were investigated using Matrigel and aortic sprouting assays in young (2 months.) and aged (18 months.) mice. In both assays, NPY-induced vessel growth decreased significantly with age. In parallel, aged mice showed reduced expression (RT-PCR) of Y2 receptors and the NPY converting enzyme, dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV), in spleens. Aging of human microvascular endothelial cells in vitro led to a loss of their mitogenic responses to NPY accompanied by a lack of NPY receptor mRNAs. Thus, NPY-dependent angiogenesis is impaired with age, which is associated with a decreased expression of endothelial NPY receptors (Y2) and DPPIV.

  3. Targeting angiogenesis in small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Matikas, Alexios; Voutsina, Alexandra; Mavroudis, Dimitrios; Georgoulias, Vassilis

    2016-01-01

    Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a highly aggressive and lethal malignancy. Despite high initial response rates to systemic chemotherapy, the disease eventually relapses; further treatment only modestly improves outcomes and overall survival (OS) for patients with extensive stage disease is less than one year. Little progress has been made during the past decades, with no new drugs approved. Consequently, the development of novel strategies is an unmet need. The inhibition of angiogenesis, a defining characteristic of cancer, has demonstrated modest efficacy in several human malignancies, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, results from clinical trials in SCLC have been disappointing, and no anti-angiogenic agent has received regulatory approval due to lack of clinical efficacy. The elucidation of underlying mechanisms responsible for tumor resistance to angiogenic therapy and the simultaneous blockade of multiple elements that play a role in angiogenesis need to be further explored. PMID:27652203

  4. Targeting angiogenesis in small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Matikas, Alexios; Voutsina, Alexandra; Mavroudis, Dimitrios; Georgoulias, Vassilis

    2016-01-01

    Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a highly aggressive and lethal malignancy. Despite high initial response rates to systemic chemotherapy, the disease eventually relapses; further treatment only modestly improves outcomes and overall survival (OS) for patients with extensive stage disease is less than one year. Little progress has been made during the past decades, with no new drugs approved. Consequently, the development of novel strategies is an unmet need. The inhibition of angiogenesis, a defining characteristic of cancer, has demonstrated modest efficacy in several human malignancies, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, results from clinical trials in SCLC have been disappointing, and no anti-angiogenic agent has received regulatory approval due to lack of clinical efficacy. The elucidation of underlying mechanisms responsible for tumor resistance to angiogenic therapy and the simultaneous blockade of multiple elements that play a role in angiogenesis need to be further explored.

  5. Targeting angiogenesis in small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Stratigos, Michalis; Matikas, Alexios; Voutsina, Alexandra; Mavroudis, Dimitrios; Georgoulias, Vassilis

    2016-08-01

    Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a highly aggressive and lethal malignancy. Despite high initial response rates to systemic chemotherapy, the disease eventually relapses; further treatment only modestly improves outcomes and overall survival (OS) for patients with extensive stage disease is less than one year. Little progress has been made during the past decades, with no new drugs approved. Consequently, the development of novel strategies is an unmet need. The inhibition of angiogenesis, a defining characteristic of cancer, has demonstrated modest efficacy in several human malignancies, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, results from clinical trials in SCLC have been disappointing, and no anti-angiogenic agent has received regulatory approval due to lack of clinical efficacy. The elucidation of underlying mechanisms responsible for tumor resistance to angiogenic therapy and the simultaneous blockade of multiple elements that play a role in angiogenesis need to be further explored. PMID:27652203

  6. Low-molecular-weight heparins and angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Norrby, Klas

    2006-02-01

    The involvement of the vascular system in malignancy encompasses not only angiogenesis, but also systemic hypercoagulability and a pro-thrombotic state, and there is increasing evidence that pathways of blood coagulation and angiogenesis are reciprocally linked. In fact, cancer atients often display hypercoagulability resulting in markedly increased thromboembolism, which requires anti-coagulant treatment using heparins, for example. Clinical trials reveal that treatment with various low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs) improves the survival time in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy compared with those receiving unfractionated standard heparin (UFH) or no heparin treatment, as well as in cancer patients receiving LMWH as thrombosis prophylaxis during primary surgery. This anti-tumor effect of the heparins appears to be unrelated to their anti-coagulant activity, but the mechanisms involved are not fully understood. Tumor growth and spread are dependent on angiogenesis and it is noteworthy that the most potent endogenous pro- and anti-angiogenic factors are heparin-binding proteins that may be affected by systemic treatment with heparins. Heparin and other glycosaminoglycans play a role in vascular endothelial cell function, as they are able to modulate the activities of angiogenic growth factors by facilitating the interaction with their receptor and promoting receptor activation. To date, preclinical studies have demonstrated that only LMWH fragments produced by the heparinase digestion of UFH, i.e. tinzaparin, exert anti-angiogenic effects in any type of tissue in vivo. These effects are fragment-mass-specific and angiogenesis-type-specific. Data on the effect of various LMWHs and UFH on endothelial cell capillary tube formation and proliferation in vitro are also presented. We hope that this paper will stimulate and facilitate future research designed to elucidate whether the anti-angiogenic or anti-tumor effects of commercial LMWHs in their own right are

  7. Inhibition of angiogenesis by S-adenosylmethionine

    SciTech Connect

    Sahin, Mehmet; Sahin, Emel; Guemueslue, Saadet; Erdogan, Abdullah; Gueltekin, Meral

    2011-04-29

    Highlights: {yields} Effects of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) were investigated in endothelial cells. {yields} Our results showed that SAM decreased proliferation of endothelial cells. {yields} SAM influentially inhibited the percentage of cell migration. {yields} SAM probably stopped migration as independent from its effects on proliferation. {yields} SAM was shown to suppress in vitro angiogenesis. -- Abstract: Metastasis is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in cancer. One of the steps in metastasis process is the formation of new blood vessels. Aberrant DNA methylation patterns are common in cancer cells. In recent studies, S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), which is a DNA methylating agent, has been found to have inhibitory effects on some carcinoma cells in vivo and in vitro. In the present study, we have used SAM to investigate whether it is effective against angiogenesis in vitro. Our results have shown that SAM can reduce the formation and organization of capillary-like structures of endothelial cells in tumoral environment. Besides, we have found SAM can block endothelial cell proliferation and the migration of cells towards growth factors-rich media. In conclusion, our study suggests that SAM may be used against angiogenesis as a natural bio-product.

  8. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Biscetti, F; Straface, G; Pitocco, D; Zaccardi, F; Ghirlanda, G; Flex, A

    2009-12-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are a group of three nuclear receptor isoforms, PPARalpha, PPARgamma and PPARdelta, encoded by different genes, and they form a subfamily of the nuclear receptor superfamily. The clinical interest in PPARs originates with fibrates and thiazolidinediones, which, respectively, act on PPARalpha and PPARgamma and are used to ameliorate hyperlipidaemia and hyperglycaemia in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). PPARs play a central role in these patients due to their ability to regulate the expression of numerous genes involved in glycaemic control, lipid metabolism, vascular tone and inflammation. Abnormal angiogenesis is implicated in several of the long-term complications of diabetes mellitus, characterized by vasculopathy associated with aberrant growth of new blood vessels. This pathological process plays a crucial role in diabetic retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy, impaired wound healing and impaired coronary collateral vessel development. In recent years, there has been increasing appreciation of the fact that PPARs might be involved in the molecular mechanisms that regulate angiogenesis through the action of growth factors and cytokines that stimulate migration, proliferation and survival of endothelial cells. During the last few years direct comparative analyses have been performed, using selective PPARs agonists, to clarify the angiogenic properties of the different members of the PPAR family. Lately, the findings provide new information to order to understand the biological, clinical and therapeutic effects of PPARs, and the role of these nuclear receptors in angiogenesis, with potentially important implications for the management of subjects affected by T2DM. PMID:19628379

  9. Microvascular Repair: Post-Angiogenesis Vascular Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    LeBlanc, Amanda J.; Krishnan, Laxminarayanan; Sullivan, Christopher J.; Williams, Stuart K.; Hoying, James B.

    2013-01-01

    Vascular compromise and the accompanying perfusion deficits cause or complicate a large array of disease conditions and treatment failures. This has prompted the exploration of therapeutic strategies to repair or regenerate vasculatures thereby establishing more competent microcirculatory beds. Growing evidence indicates that an increase in vessel numbers within a tissue does not necessarily promote an increase in tissue perfusion. Effective regeneration of a microcirculation entails the integration of new stable microvessel segments into the network via neovascularization. Beginning with angiogenesis, neovascularization entails an integrated series of vascular activities leading to the formation of a new mature microcirculation and includes vascular guidance and inosculation, vessel maturation, pruning, arterio-venous specification, network patterning, structural adaptation, intussusception, and microvascular stabilization. While the generation of new vessel segments is necessary to expand a network, without the concomitant neovessel remodeling and adaptation processes intrinsic to microvascular network formation, these additional vessel segments give rise to a dysfunctional microcirculation. While many of the mechanisms regulating angiogenesis have been detailed, a thorough understanding of the mechanisms driving post-angiogenesis activities specific to neovascularization has yet to be fully realized, but is necessary in order to develop effective therapeutic strategies for repairing compromised microcirculations as a means to treat disease. PMID:22734666

  10. CREG1 promotes angiogenesis and neovascularization.

    PubMed

    Yan, Chenghui; Fang, Pu; Zhang, Huimin; Tao, Jie; Tian, Xiaoxiang; Li, Yang; Zhang, Jian; Sun, Mingyu; Li, Shaohua; Wang, Hong; Han, Yaling

    2014-01-01

    Angiogenesis has long been considered as an important strategy for ischemic injury. It has been reported that cellular repressor of E1A-stimulated genes (CREG1) promotes human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) proliferation, migration, and protects endothelial cell (EC) from apoptosis. However, its potential effect on angiogenesis remains undefined. In the present study, we investigated the role and mechanisms of CREG1 in promoting angiogenesis. We found that adenovirus-transduced CREG1 expression in HUVECs increases EC tube formation in matrigel and promotes neovascularization in matrigel plugs grafted into wild type mice. In addition, adenoviral CREG1 expression enhances filopodia formation, which is accompanied by increased expression of integrin-linked kinase (ILK) and activation of its downstream effector Cdc42. Hindlimb perfusion was significantly reduced after femoral artery ligation in CREG1 heterozygous knockout mice. Finally, adenoviral CREG1 was injected intramuscularly in gastrochemius and partially restores ischemic hindlimb perfusion. Our results demonstrated that CREG1 increases EC filopodia formation and vascular assembly via ILK-Cdc42 activation and promotes neovascularization, which might be a therapeutic target for ischemic injury. PMID:24896341

  11. PEDF and 34-mer inhibit angiogenesis in the heart by inducing tip cells apoptosis via up-regulating PPAR-γ to increase surface FasL.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao; Wei, Tengteng; Jiang, Xia; Li, Zhimin; Cui, Huazhu; Pan, Jiajun; Zhuang, Wei; Sun, Teng; Liu, Zhiwei; Zhang, Zhongming; Dong, Hongyan

    2016-01-01

    Pigment epithelial-derived factor (PEDF) is a potent anti-angiogenic factor whose effects are partially mediated through the induction of endothelial cell apoptosis. However, the underlying mechanism for PEDF and the functional PEDF peptides 34-mer and 44-mer to inhibit angiogenesis in the heart has not been fully established. In the present study, by constructing adult Sprague-Dawley rat models of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and in vitro myocardial angiogenesis, we showed that PEDF and 34-mer markedly inhibits angiogenesis by selectively inducing tip cells apoptosis rather than quiescent cells. Peptide 44-mer on the other hand exhibits no such effects. Next, we identified Fas death pathway as essential downstream regulators of PEDF and 34-mer activities in inhibiting angiogenesis. By using peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR-γ) siRNA and PPAR-γ inhibitor, GW9662, we found the effects of PEDF and 34-mer were extensively blocked. These data suggest that PEDF and 34-mer inhibit angiogenesis via inducing tip cells apoptosis at least by means of up-regulating PPAR-γ to increase surface FasL in the ischemic heart, which might be a novel mechanism to understanding cardiac angiogenesis after AMI. PMID:26519036

  12. Diallyl trisulfide inhibits migration, invasion and angiogenesis of human colon cancer HT-29 cells and umbilical vein endothelial cells, and suppresses murine xenograft tumour growth

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Kuang-Chi; Hsu, Shu-Chun; Yang, Jai-Sing; Yu, Chien-Chih; Lein, Jin-Cherng; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2015-01-01

    Angiogenesis inhibitors are beneficial for the prevention and treatment of angiogenesis-dependent diseases including cancer. We examined the cytotoxic, anti-metastatic, anti-cancer and anti-angiogenic effects of diallyl trisulfide (DATS). In HT29 cells, DATS inhibited migration and invasion through the inhibition of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38 which was associated with inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases-2, -7 and -9 and VEGF. In human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), DATS inhibited the migration and angiogenesis through FAK, Src and Ras. DATS also inhibited the secretion of VEGF. The capillary-like tube structure formation and migration by HUVEC was inhibited by DATS. The chicken egg chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay indicated that DATS treatment inhibited ex-vivo angiogenesis. We investigated the anti-tumour effects of DATS against human colon cancer xenografts in BALB/cnu/nu mice and its anti-angiogenic activity in vivo. In this in-vivo study, DATS also inhibited the tumour growth, tumour weight and angiogenesis (decreased the levels of haemoglobin) in HT29 cells. In conclusion, the present results suggest that the inhibition of angiogenesis may be an important mechanism in colon cancer chemotherapy by DATS. PMID:25403643

  13. A new anti-angiogenic small molecule, G0811, inhibits angiogenesis via targeting hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1α signal transduction

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Ki Hyun; Jung, Hye Jin; Kwon, Ho Jeong

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •G0811 suppresses HIF-1α expression without cell toxicity. •G0811 exhibits anti-angiogenic activity both in vitro and in vivo. •G0811 provides a new molecular scaffold for the development of therapeutics targeting angiogenesis. -- Abstract: Regulation of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1α stabilization, which in turn contributes to adaptation of tumor cells to hypoxia has been highlighted as a promising therapeutic target in angiogenesis-related diseases. We have identified a new small molecule, G0811, as a potent angiogenesis inhibitor that targets HIF-1α signal transduction. G0811 suppressed HIF-1α stability in cancer cells and inhibited in vitro and in vivo angiogenesis, as validated by tube formation, chemoinvasion, and chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assays. In addition, G0811 effectively decreased the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which is one of target genes of HIF-1α. However, G0811 did not exhibit anti-proliferative activities or toxicity in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) at effective doses. These results demonstrate that G0811 could be a new angiogenesis inhibitor that acts by targeting HIF-1α signal transduction pathway.

  14. Thiram inhibits angiogenesis and slows the development of experimental tumours in mice.

    PubMed

    Marikovsky, M

    2002-03-01

    Thiram-tetramethylthiuram disulphide--a chelator of heavy metals, inhibited DNA synthesis and induced apoptosis in cultured bovine capillary endothelial cells. Bovine capillary endothelial cells were 10-60-fold more sensitive to thiram than other cell types. These effects were prevented by addition of antioxidants, indicating involvement of reactive oxygen species. Exogenously added Cu2+ impeded specifically and almost completely the inhibitory effect of thiram for bovine capillary endothelial cells. Moreover, thiram had markedly inhibited human recombinant Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase enzymatic activity (85%) in vitro. Moreover, PC12-SOD cells with elevated Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase were less sensitive to thiram treatment than control cells. These data indicate that the effects of thiram are mediated by inhibition of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase activity. Oral administration of thiram (13-30 microg mouse(-1)), inhibited angiogenesis in CD1 nude mice. Tumour development is known to largely depend on angiogenesis. We found that oral administration of thiram (30 microg) to mice caused significant inhibition of C6 glioma tumour development (60%) and marked reduction (by 3-5-fold) in metastatic growth of Lewis lung carcinoma. The data establish thiram as a potential inhibitor of angiogenesis and raise the possibility for its use as therapy in pathologies in which neovascularisation is involved, including neoplasia.

  15. Green fluorescent protein: new light to visualize metastasis and angiogenesis in cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Meng; Chishima, Takashi; Baranov, Eugene; Shimada, Hiroshi; Moossa, A. R.; Hoffman, Robert M.

    1999-07-01

    Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing cell-lines have been established by our laboratory that permit the visualization and imaging of primary tumors and micrometastases in live tissue and live animals. Hamster and human cancer cell-lines were transfected with vectors containing the humanized GFP cDNA. Stable high-level expression of GFP was maintained in subcutaneously and orthotopically growing tumors in nude or SCID mice. Subsequent micro-metastases were visualized by GFP fluorescence in live tissue of systematic organs down to the single-cell level. GFP-expressing lung and prostate cancer were visualized to metastasize widely throughout the skeleton when implanted orthotopically in nude mice. With these GFP-cell lines, we have developed models that closely mimic the clinic situation. We have now developed a mean to visualize the onset and progression of angiogenesis of growing and spreading tumors by injecting a fluorescent rhodamine dye to the GFP-tumor-bearing mice indicate that the onset and extent of tumor angiogenesis depends on the site and type of tumor growing in the animal. These models are ideal for studying the mechanisms of cancer metastasis and for discovery of angiogenesis and metastasis inhibitors.

  16. Amentoflavone inhibits angiogenesis of endothelial cells and stimulates apoptosis in hypertrophic scar fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinli; Liu, Zhihe; Cao, Wenjuan; Chen, Liying; Xiong, Xifeng; Qin, Shengnan; Zhang, Zhi; Li, Xiaojian; Hu, Chien-an A

    2014-08-01

    Amentoflavone (8-[5-(5,7-dihydroxy-4-oxo-chromen-2-yl)-2-hydroxy-phenyl]-5,7-dihydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl) chromen-4-one; AF) is a biflavonoid derived from the extracts of Selaginella tamariscina. It has been shown that AF has diverse biological effects such as antitumour, etc. It is well known that high cell proliferation, viability, angiogenesis and low apoptosis are key factors in hypertrophic scar formation. In this study, we report that AF inhibited viability and stimulated apoptosis in hypertrophic scar fibroblasts (HSFBs). Incubation of HSFBs with AF showed its inhibitory effect on cell viability and the exhibition of a series of cellular changes that were consistent with apoptosis. By Western-blot analysis, our data indicated significant increases in the amounts of cleaved caspases 3, 8, 9 and Bax, several apoptotic promoters and a significant decrease in translationally controlled tumour protein (TCTP), an apoptotic inhibitor, in HSFBs treated with AF. Furthermore, AF showed significant inhibitions on the viability, migration and tube formation of endothelial cells, which are associated with angiogenesis. In conclusion, this study suggests that AF stimulates apoptosis in HSFBs and inhibits angiogenesis of endothelial cells. Therefore, AF is a promising molecule that can be used in hypertrophic scar treatment.

  17. Corneal angiogenesis modulation by cysteine cathepsins: In vitro and in vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Coppini, Larissa P; Visniauskas, Bruna; Costa, Elaine F; Filho, Milton N; Rodrigues, Eduardo B; Chagas, Jair R; Farah, Michel E; Barros, Nilana M T; Carmona, Adriana K

    2015-05-01

    Corneal avascularization is essential for normal vision. Several antiangiogenic factors were identified in cornea such as endostatin and angiostatin. Cathepsin V, which is highly expressed in the cornea, can hydrolyze human plasminogen to release angiostatin fragments. Herein, we describe a detailed investigation of the expression profile of cathepsins B, L, S and V in the human cornea and the role of cysteine peptidases in modulating angiogenesis both in vitro and in vivo. We used various methodological tools for this purpose, including real-time PCR, SDS-PAGE, western blotting, catalytic activity assays, cellular assays and induction of corneal neovascularity in rabbit eyes. Human corneal enzymatic activity assays revealed the presence of cysteine proteases that were capable of processing endogenous corneal plasminogen to produce angiostatin-like fragments. Comparative real-time analysis of cathepsin B, L, S and V expression revealed that cathepsin V was the most highly expressed, followed by cathepsins L, B and S. However, cathepsin V depletion revealed that this enzyme is not the major cysteine protease responsible for plasminogen degradation under non-pathological conditions. Furthermore, western blotting analysis indicated that only cathepsins B and S were present in their enzymatically active forms. In vivo analysis of angiogenesis demonstrated that treatment with the cysteine peptidase inhibitor E64 caused a reduction in neovascularization. Taken together, our results show that human corneal cysteine proteases are critically involved in angiogenesis.

  18. Hemangiomas, angiosarcomas, and vascular malformations represent the signaling abnormalities of pathogenic angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Arbiser, J L; Bonner, M Y; Berrios, R L

    2009-11-01

    Angiogenesis is a major factor in the development of benign, inflammatory, and malignant processes of the skin. Endothelial cells are the effector cells of angiogenesis, and understanding their response to growth factors and inhibitors is critical to understanding the pathogenesis and treatment of skin disease. Hemangiomas, benign tumors of endothelial cells, represent the most common tumor of childhood. In our previous studies, we have found that tumor vasculature in human solid tumors expresses similarities in signaling to that of hemangiomas, making the knowledge of signaling in hemangiomas widely applicable. These similarities include expression of reactive oxygen, NFkB and akt in tumor vasculature. Furthermore, we have studied malignant vascular tumors, including hemangioendothelioma and angiosarcoma and have shown distinct signaling abnormalities in these tumors. The incidence of these tumors is expected to rise due to environmental insults, such as radiation and lumpectomy for breast cancer, dietary and industrial carcinogens (hepatic angiosarcoma), and chronic ultraviolet exposure and potential Agent Orange exposure. I hypothesize that hemangiomas, angiosarcomas, and vascular malformations represent the extremes of signaling abnormalities seen in pathogenic angiogenesis. PMID:19925405

  19. P2y Receptor-Mediated Angiogenesis via Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor 2 Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Rumjahn, Sharif M.; Baldwin, Karla A; Buxton, Iain L. O.

    2011-01-01

    Pathological as well as physiological angiogenesis is known to be regulated by such factors as nucleotides and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF). Activated P2Y nucleotide receptors have been observed to associate and transactivate VEGF Receptor 2 (VEGFR2), suggesting a cooperation between nucleotide and VEGF signaling in angiogenesis. P2YR mediated VEGFR2 signaling therefore may be important in describing the angiogenic signaling of nucleotides such as ATP. Here, we provide evidence that supports the notion of P2YR-VEGFR2 signaling. The significant angiogenic effect of P2Y1/2 receptor agonists (100 μM ATP and 10 μM 2MS-ATP) on endothelial cell tubulogenesis was suppressed back to near control levels upon addition of 1 μM SU1498 (specific VEGFR2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor). We believe that this P2YR-VEFGR2 signaling is an important component of pathological, as well as physiological angiogenesis. PMID:18605230

  20. Tumor suppressor XAF1 induces apoptosis, inhibits angiogenesis and inhibits tumor growth in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Li Ming; Shi, Dong Mei; Dai, Qiang; Cheng, Xiao Jiao; Yao, Wei Yan; Sun, Ping Hu; Ding, Yanfei; Qiao, Min Min; Wu, Yun Lin; Jiang, Shi Hu; Tu, Shui Ping

    2014-07-30

    X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP)-associated factor 1 (XAF1), a XIAP-binding protein, is a tumor suppressor gene. XAF1 was silent or expressed lowly in most human malignant tumors. However, the role of XAF1 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the effect of XAF1 on tumor growth and angiogenesis in hepatocellular cancer cells. Our results showed that XAF1 expression was lower in HCC cell lines SMMC-7721, Hep G2 and BEL-7404 and liver cancer tissues than that in paired non-cancer liver tissues. Adenovirus-mediated XAF1 expression (Ad5/F35-XAF1) significantly inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in HCC cells in dose- and time- dependent manners. Infection of Ad5/F35-XAF1 induced cleavage of caspase -3, -8, -9 and PARP in HCC cells. Furthermore, Ad5/F35-XAF1 treatment significantly suppressed tumor growth in a xenograft model of liver cancer cells. Western Blot and immunohistochemistry staining showed that Ad5/F35-XAF1 treatment suppressed expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which is associated with tumor angiogenesis, in cancer cells and xenograft tumor tissues. Moreover, Ad5/F35-XAF1 treatment prolonged the survival of tumor-bearing mice. Our results demonstrate that XAF1 inhibits tumor growth by inducing apoptosis and inhibiting tumor angiogenesis. XAF1 may be a promising target for liver cancer treatment.

  1. Monomeric C-reactive protein and Notch-3 co-operatively increase angiogenesis through PI3K signalling pathway.

    PubMed

    Boras, Emhamed; Slevin, Mark; Alexander, M Yvonne; Aljohi, Ali; Gilmore, William; Ashworth, Jason; Krupinski, Jerzy; Potempa, Lawrence A; Al Abdulkareem, Ibrahim; Elobeid, Adila; Matou-Nasri, Sabine

    2014-10-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is the most acute-phase reactant serum protein of inflammation and a strong predictor of cardiovascular disease. Its expression is associated with atherosclerotic plaque instability and the formation of immature micro-vessels. We have previously shown that CRP upregulates endothelial-derived Notch-3, a key receptor involved in vascular development, remodelling and maturation. In this study, we investigated the links between the bioactive monomeric CRP (mCRP) and Notch-3 signalling in angiogenesis. We used in vitro (cell counting, wound-healing and tubulogenesis assays) and in vivo (chorioallantoic membrane) angiogenic assays and Western blotting to study the angiogenic signalling pathways induced by mCRP and Notch-3 activator chimera protein (Notch-3/Fc). Our results showed an additive effect on angiogenesis of mCRP stimulatory effect combined with Notch-3/Fc promoting bovine aortic endothelial cell (BAEC) proliferation, migration, tube formation in Matrigel(TM) with up-regulation of phospho-Akt expression. The pharmacological blockade of PI3K/Akt survival pathway by LY294002 fully inhibited in vitro and in vivo angiogenesis induced by mCRP/Notch-3/Fc combination while blocking Notch signalling by gamma-secretase inhibitor (DAPT) partially inhibited mCRP/Notch-3/Fc-induced angiogenesis. Using a BAEC vascular smooth muscle cell co-culture sprouting angiogenesis assay and transmission electron microscopy, we showed that activation of both mCRP and Notch-3 signalling induced the formation of thicker sprouts which were shown later by Western blotting to be associated with an up-regulation of N-cadherin expression and a down-regulation of VE-cadherin expression. Thus, mCRP combined with Notch-3 activator promote angiogenesis through the PI3K/Akt pathway and their therapeutic combination has potential to promote and stabilize vessel formation whilst reducing the risk of haemorrhage from unstable plaques. PMID:24972386

  2. Fucoidan/FGF-2 induces angiogenesis through JNK- and p38-mediated activation of AKT/MMP-2 signalling.

    PubMed

    Kim, Beom Su; Park, Ji-Yun; Kang, Hyo-Jin; Kim, Hyung-Jin; Lee, Jun

    2014-08-01

    Angiogenesis is an important biological process in tissue development and repair. Fucoidan has previously been shown to potentiate in vitro tube formation in the presence of basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2). However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains largely unknown. This study was designed to investigate the action of fucoidan in angiogenesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and to explore fucoidan-signalling pathways. First, we evaluated the effect of fucoidan on cell proliferation. Matrigel-based tube formation and wound healing assays were performed to investigate angiogenesis. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) mRNA expression and activity levels were analysed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and zymography, respectively. Additionally, phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and protein kinase B (AKT) was detected by Western blot. The results indicate that fucoidan treatment significantly increased cell proliferation in the presence of FGF-2. Moreover, compared to the effect of FGF-2 alone, fucoidan and FGF-2 had a greater effect on tube formation and cell migration, and this effect was found to be synergistic. Furthermore, fucoidan enhanced the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38, and AKT. MMP-2 activation was also significantly increased. Specific inhibitors of p38 (SB203580) and JNK (SP600125) inhibited tube formation and wound healing, while an ERK inhibitor (PD98059) did not. MMP-2 activation and AKT phosphorylation were also attenuated and associated with the suppression of p38 and JNK phosphorylation, but not with that of ERK. These results indicate that fucoidan, in the presence of FGF-2, induces angiogenesis through AKT/MMP-2 signalling by activating p38 and JNK. These findings provide basic molecular information on the effect of fucoidan on angiogenesis in the presence of FGF-2.

  3. Impact of breast cancer surgery on angiogenesis circulating biomarkers: a prospective longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Debate about the potential effects that surgery might have on cancer cells dormancy and angiogenesis prompted us to investigate the impact of breast surgery on circulating angiogenesis modulating gene transcripts and proteins. Methods Blood samples from 10 female patients diagnosed with breast cancer and 6 with fibroadenoma were collected before surgery and post-operatively on days 3 and 7 (breast cancer patients only). A set of 84 angiogenesis-associated transcripts were assessed using quantitative PCR arrays, and circulating protein levels (vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), IL8 and fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) were measured using ELISA in the same samples. The results were investigated against clinicopathological data and patient outcome. Results Plasma levels of VEGFA and IL8 after surgery were significantly elevated in the breast cancer group compared to the control group (P = 0.038 and P = 0.021, respectively). In the cohort of breast cancer patients, VEGFA increased on day 3 (P = 0.038) and declined on day 7 (P= 0.017), while IL8 did not change on day 3 but showed a significant decline on day 7 (P = 0.02). FGF2 levels did not change significantly over time. Regarding gene transcripts, we detected upregulation of a significant number of angiogenesis-specific genes in patients with breast cancer versus controls: sphingosine kinase 1(SPHK1), epidermal growth factor (EGF), vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGFC), neuropilin 1 (NRP1), fibroblast growth factor (FGF1), laminin alpha 5 (LAMA5), collagen type IV alpha 3 (COL4A3), IL8, ephrin B2 (EFNB2), ephrin A3 (EFNA3), tyrosine endothelial kinase (TEK), integrin beta 3 (ITGB3), AKT1, thrombospondin 1 (THBS1), chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 11 (CCL11) and TIMP metallopeptidase inhibitor 3 (TIMP3). Surgery induced an altered expression in several keygenes in breast cancer patients. We identified an upregulation of COL4A3 and downregulation of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 9 (CXCL9

  4. Investigation of the Lack of Angiogenesis in the Formation of Lymph Node Metastases

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Han-Sin; Jones, Dennis; Liao, Shan; Wattson, Daniel A.; Cui, Cheryl H.; Duda, Dan G.; Willett, Christopher G.; Jain, Rakesh K.

    2015-01-01

    targets of clinically approved angiogenesis inhibitors are not active during early cancer progression in the lymph node, suggesting that inhibitors of sprouting angiogenesis as a class will not be effective in treating lymph node metastases. PMID:26063793

  5. Stimulation of angiogenesis by cilostazol accelerates fracture healing in mice.

    PubMed

    Herath, Steven C; Lion, Thorsten; Klein, Moritz; Stenger, David; Scheuer, Claudia; Holstein, Jörg H; Mörsdorf, Philipp; Rollmann, Mika F R; Pohlemann, Tim; Menger, Michael D; Histing, Tina

    2015-12-01

    Cilostazol, a selective phosphodiesterase-3 inhibitor, is known to control cyclic adenosine monophosphate (c-AMP) and to stimulate angiogenesis through upregulation of pro-angiogenic factors. There is no information, however, whether cilostazol affects fracture healing. We, therefore, studied the effect of cilostazol on callus formation and biomechanics during fracture repair. Bone healing was analyzed in a murine femur fracture stabilized with an intramedullary screw. Radiological, biomechanical, histomorphometric, histochemical, and protein biochemical analyses were performed at 2 and 5 weeks after fracture. Twenty-five mice received 30 mg/kg body weight cilostazol p.o. daily. Controls (n=24) received equivalent amounts of vehicle. In cilostazol-treated animals radiological analysis at 2 weeks showed an improved healing with an accelerated osseous bridging compared to controls. This was associated with a significantly higher amount of bony tissue and a smaller amount of cartilage tissue within the callus. Western blot analysis showed a higher expression of cysteine-rich protein 61 (CYR61), bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-4, and receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL). At 5 weeks, improved fracture healing after cilostazol treatment was indicated by biomechanical analyses, demonstrating a significant higher bending stiffness compared to controls. Thus, cilostazol improves fracture healing by accelerating both bone formation and callus remodeling.

  6. Biomarkers in Tumor Angiogenesis and Anti-Angiogenic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Pircher, Andreas; Hilbe, Wolfgang; Heidegger, Isabel; Drevs, Joachim; Tichelli, André; Medinger, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Tumor angiogenesis has been identified to play a critical role in tumor growth and tumor progression, and is regulated by a balance of angiogenic and anti-angiogenic cytokines. Among them VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) and its signaling through its receptors are of crucial relevance. Inhibition of VEGF signaling by monoclonal antibodies or small molecules (kinase inhibitors) has already been successfully established for the treatment of different cancer entities and multiple new drugs are being tested in clinical trials. However not all patients are likely to respond to these therapies, but to date there are no reliable biomarkers available to predict therapy response. Many studies integrated biomarker programs in their study protocols, thus several potential biomarkers have been identified which are currently under clinical investigation in prospective randomized studies. This review intends to give an overview of the described potential biomarkers as well as different imaging techniques such as ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging that can indicate benefit, resistance and toxicity to anti-angiogenic therapies. PMID:22072937

  7. Context-Dependent Role of Angiopoietin-1 Inhibition in the Suppression of Angiogenesis and Tumor Growth: Implications for AMG 386, an Angiopoietin-1/2–Neutralizing Peptibody

    PubMed Central

    Coxon, Angela; Bready, James; Min, Hosung; Kaufman, Stephen; Leal, Juan; Yu, Dongyin; Lee, Tani Ann; Sun, Ji-Rong; Estrada, Juan; Bolon, Brad; McCabe, James; Wang, Ling; Rex, Karen; Caenepeel, Sean; Hughes, Paul; Cordover, David; Kim, Haejin; Han, Seog Joon; Michaels, Mark L.; Hsu, Eric; Shimamoto, Grant; Cattley, Russell; Hurh, Eunju; Nguyen, Linh; Wang, Shao Xiong; Ndifor, Anthony; Hayward, Isaac J.; Falcón, Beverly L.; McDonald, Donald M.; Li, Luke; Boone, Tom; Kendall, Richard; Radinsky, Robert; Oliner, Jonathan D.

    2015-01-01

    AMG 386 is an investigational first-in-class peptide-Fc fusion protein (peptibody) that inhibits angiogenesis by preventing the interaction of angiopoietin-1 (Ang1) and Ang2 with their receptor, Tie2. Although the therapeutic value of blocking Ang2 has been shown in several models of tumorigenesis and angiogenesis, the potential benefit of Ang1 antagonism is less clear. To investigate the consequences of Ang1 neutralization, we have developed potent and selective peptibodies that inhibit the interaction between Ang1 and its receptor, Tie2. Although selective Ang1 antagonism has no independent effect in models of angiogenesis-associated diseases (cancer and diabetic retinopathy), it induces ovarian atrophy in normal juvenile rats and inhibits ovarian follicular angiogenesis in a hormone-induced ovulation model. Surprisingly, the activity of Ang1 inhibitors seems to be unmasked in some disease models when combined with Ang2 inhibitors, even in the context of concurrent vascular endothelial growth factor inhibition. Dual inhibition of Ang1 and Ang2 using AMG 386 or a combination of Ang1- and Ang2-selective peptibodies cooperatively suppresses tumor xenograft growth and ovarian follicular angiogenesis; however, Ang1 inhibition fails to augment the suppressive effect of Ang2 inhibition on tumor endothelial cell proliferation, corneal angiogenesis, and oxygen-induced retinal angiogenesis. In no case was Ang1 inhibition shown to (a) confer superior activity to Ang2 inhibition or dual Ang1/2 inhibition or (b) antagonize the efficacy of Ang2 inhibition. These results imply that Ang1 plays a context-dependent role in promoting postnatal angiogenesis and that dual Ang1/2 inhibition is superior to selective Ang2 inhibition for suppression of angiogenesis in some postnatal settings. Mol Cancer Ther; 9(10); 2641–51. PMID:20937592

  8. Insufficient Radiofrequency Ablation Promotes Angiogenesis of Residual Hepatocellular Carcinoma via HIF-1α/VEGFA

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Bing; Ke, Shan; Dong, Shuying; Li, Xiuli; Zhou, Aimin; Zheng, Lemin; Sun, Wen-bing

    2012-01-01

    Background The mechanism of rapid growth of the residual tumor after radiofrequency (RF) ablation is poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the effect of hyperthermia on HepG2 cells and generated a subline with enhanced viability and dys-regulated angiogenesis in vivo, which was used as a model to further determine the molecular mechanism of the rapid growth of residual HCC after RF ablation. Methodology/Principal Findings Heat treatment was used to establish sublines of HepG2 cells. A subline (HepG2 k) with a relatively higher viability and significant heat tolerance was selected. The cellular protein levels of VEGFA, HIF-1α and p-Akt, VEGFA mRNA and secreted VEGFA were measured, and all of these were up-regulated in this subline compared to parental HepG2 cells. HIF-1α inhibitor YC-1 and VEGFA siRNA inhibited the high viability of the subline. The conditioned media from the subline exerted stronger pro-angiogenic effects. Bevacizumab, VEGFA siRNA and YC-1 inhibited proangiogenic effects of the conditioned media of HepG2 k cells and abolished the difference between parental HepG2 cells and HepG2 k cells. For in vivo studies, a nude mouse model was used, and the efficacy of bavacizumab was determined. HepG2 k tumor had stronger pro-angiogenic effects than parental HepG2 tumor. Bevacizumab could inhibit the tumor growth and angiogenesis, and also eliminate the difference in tumor growth and angiogenesis between parental HepG2 tumor and HepG2 k tumor in vivo. Conclusions/Significance The angiogenesis induced by HIF1α/VEGFA produced by altered cells after hyperthermia treatment may play an important role in the rapid growth of residual HCC after RF ablation. Bevacizumab may be a good candidate drug for preventing and treating the process. PMID:22615958

  9. The effects of cryopreservation on angiogenesis modulation activity of human amniotic membrane.

    PubMed

    Yazdanpanah, Ghasem; Paeini-Vayghan, Ghodsieh; Asadi, Samira; Niknejad, Hassan

    2015-12-01

    Amniotic membrane (AM), as the innermost layer of placenta, has side dependent effects on the angiogenesis. Cryopreservation is a necessary process to avoid the challenging problems of fresh tissues; a procedure which makes the AM ready-to-use. Since the cryopreservation can influence the AM characteristics for experimental and clinical purposes, in this study the effects of cryopreservation were evaluated on angiogenesis modulation activity of the AM compared to fresh tissues in an animal model. The AM was implanted mesenchymal side up or epithelial side up in a rat dorsal skinfold chamber. The length and number of branches of formed capillaries were measured via intravital microscopy after 7 days. The amount of IL-8 (interleukin-8) and TIMP-2 (Tissue Inhibitor of Matrix Metalloproteinase-2) as two factors in amniotic cells which have great impacts on angiogenesis were evaluated using ELISA assay. The epithelial surface of cryopreserved AM had inhibitory effects on vessel formation. The cryopreserved amniotic mesenchymal side increased the vessel length and sprout. The result of cryopreserved AM on angiogenesis was similar to that of fresh tissues. The levels of IL-8 and TIMP-2 in cryopreserved samples were significantly less than fresh AMs which shows that angio-modulatory properties are not limited to the effects of amnion epithelial and mesenchymal stem cells and the other components such as extracellular matrix may contribute in angio-modulatory effects. These promising results show that inducing and inhibitory effects of the AM, which make it an appropriate candidate for different clinical situations, were maintained after cryopreservation.

  10. Dynamic Regulation of Integrin α6β4 During Angiogenesis: Potential Implications for Pathogenic Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Diana; Singh, Purva; Van De Water, Livingston; LaFlamme, Susan E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Angiogenesis is an essential component of normal cutaneous wound repair, but is altered in pathogenic forms of wound healing, such as chronic wounds and fibrosis. We previously reported that endothelial expression of integrin α6β4 is developmentally regulated, with α6β4 expression correlating with tissue maturation and further showed that endothelial α6β4 is downregulated in explant angiogenesis assays. These data support the hypothesis that dynamic regulation of α6β4 may play an important role during new vessel formation in healing wounds. Approach To test this hypothesis, we examined the endothelial expression of α6β4 using a murine model of cutaneous wound healing and in vitro cultures of primary human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMECs). Results Expression of α6β4 is downregulated during early stages of wound healing; angiogenic vessels in day 7 wounds do not express α6β4. Endothelial expression of α6β4 is resumed in day 14 wounds. Moreover, explanted HDMECs do not express α6β4, but expression is induced by treatment with histone deacetylase inhibitors. Innovation We provide in vivo data supporting a role for the dynamic regulation of α6β4 during vessel formation and remodeling during cutaneous wound repair and in vitro findings that suggest endothelial β4 expression is regulated transcriptionally, providing an important foundation for future studies to understand the transcriptional mechanisms involved in endothelial cell maturation during normal wound repair. Conclusion Our data indicate that α6β4 is dynamically regulated during angiogenesis and vessel maturation and suggest that disruption of this regulation may contribute to defective angiogenesis associated with diabetic wounds or cutaneous fibrosis. PMID:24527356

  11. ATP-sensitive potassium channel activation induces angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Umaru, Bukar; Pyriochou, Anastasia; Kotsikoris, Vasileios; Papapetropoulos, Andreas; Topouzis, Stavros

    2015-07-01

    Intense research is conducted to identify new molecular mechanisms of angiogenesis. Previous studies have shown that the angiogenic effects of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) depend on the activation of ATP-sensitive potassium channels (KATP) and that C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP), which can act through KATP, promotes endothelial cell growth. We therefore investigated whether direct KATP activation induces angiogenic responses and whether it is required for the endothelial responses to CNP or vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) angiogenesis was similarly enhanced by the direct KATP channel activator 2-nicotinamidoethyl acetate (SG-209) and by CNP or VEGF. The KATP inhibitors glibenclamide and 5-hydroxydecanoate (5-HD) reduced basal and abolished CNP-induced CAM angiogenesis. In vitro, the direct KATP openers nicorandil and SG-209 and the polypeptides VEGF and CNP increased proliferation and migration in bEnd.3 mouse endothelial cells. In addition, VEGF and CNP induced cord-like formation on Matrigel by human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). All these in vitro endothelial responses were effectively abrogated by glibenclamide or 5-HD. In HUVECs, a small-interfering RNA-mediated decrease in the expression of the inwardly rectifying potassium channel (Kir) 6.1 subunit impaired cell migration and network morphogenesis in response to either SG-209 or CNP. We conclude that 1) direct pharmacologic activation of KATP induces angiogenic effects in vitro and in vivo, 2) angiogenic responses to CNP and VEGF depend on KATP activation and require the expression of the Kir6.1 KATP subunit, and 3) KATP activation may underpin angiogenesis to a variety of vasoactive stimuli, including H2S, VEGF, and CNP. PMID:25977483

  12. Regulation of angiogenesis, mural cell recruitment and adventitial macrophage behavior by Toll-like receptors.

    PubMed

    Aplin, Alfred C; Ligresti, Giovanni; Fogel, Eric; Zorzi, Penelope; Smith, Kelly; Nicosia, Roberto F

    2014-01-01

    The angiogenic response to injury can be studied by culturing rat or mouse aortic explants in collagen gels. Gene expression studies show that aortic angiogenesis is preceded by an immune reaction with overexpression of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and TLR-inducible genes. TLR1, 3, and 6 are transiently upregulated at 24 h whereas TLR2, 4, and 8 expression peaks at 24 h but remains elevated during angiogenesis and vascular regression. Expression of TLR5, 7 and 9 steadily increases over time and is highest during vascular regression. Studies with isolated cells show that TLRs are expressed at higher levels in aortic macrophages compared to endothelial or mural cells with the exception of TLR2 and TLR9 which are more abundant in the aortic endothelium. LPS and other TLR ligands dose dependently stimulate angiogenesis and vascular endothelial growth factor production. TLR9 ligands also influence the behavior of nonendothelial cell types by blocking mural cell recruitment and inducing formation of multinucleated giant cells by macrophages. TLR9-induced mural cell depletion is associated with reduced expression of the mural cell recruiting factor PDGFB. The spontaneous angiogenic response of the aortic rings to injury is reduced in cultures from mice deficient in myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88), a key adapter molecule of TLRs, and following treatment with an inhibitor of the NFκB pathway. These results suggest that the TLR system participates in the angiogenic response of the vessel wall to injury and may play an important role in the regulation of inflammatory angiogenesis in reactive and pathologic processes.

  13. Matrilin-1 Is an Inhibitor of Neovascularization*

    PubMed Central

    Foradori, Matthew J.; Chen, Qian; Fernandez, Cecilia A.; Harper, Jay; Li, Xin; Tsang, Paul C. W.; Langer, Robert; Moses, Marsha A.

    2014-01-01

    In the course of conducting a series of studies whose goal was to discover novel endogenous angiogenesis inhibitors, we have purified matrilin-1 (MATN-1) and have demonstrated, for the first time, that it inhibits neovascularization both in vitro and in vivo. Proteins were extracted from cartilage using a 2 m NaCl, 0.01 m HEPES buffer at 4 °C, followed by concentration of the extract. The concentrate was fractionated by size exclusion chromatography, and fractions were then screened for their ability to inhibit capillary endothelial cell (EC) proliferation in vitro. Fractions containing EC inhibitory activity were pooled and further purified by cation exchange chromatography. The resulting fractions from this step were then screened to isolate the antiangiogenic activity in vitro. This activity was identified by tandem mass spectrometry as being MATN-1. Human MATN-1 was cloned and expressed in Pichia pastoris and purified to homogeneity. Purified recombinant MATN-1, along with purified native protein, was shown to inhibit angiogenesis in vivo using the chick chorioallantoic membrane assay by the inhibition of capillary EC proliferation and migration. Finally, using a MATN-1-deficient mouse, we showed that angiogenesis during fracture healing was significantly higher in MATN-1−/− mice compared with the wild type mice as demonstrated by in vivo imaging and by elevated expression of angiogenesis markers including PECAM1, VEGFR, and VE-cadherin. PMID:24692560

  14. Characterization of thimet oligopeptidase and neurolysin activities in B16F10-Nex2 tumor cells and their involvement in angiogenesis and tumor growth

    PubMed Central

    Paschoalin, Thaysa; Carmona, Adriana K; Rodrigues, Elaine G; Oliveira, Vitor; Monteiro, Hugo P; Juliano, Maria A; Juliano, Luiz; Travassos, Luiz R

    2007-01-01

    Background Angiogenesis is a fundamental process that allows tumor growth by providing nutrients and oxygen to the tumor cells. Beyond the oxygen diffusion limit from a capillary blood vessel, tumor cells become apoptotic. Angiogenesis results from a balance of pro- and anti-angiogenic stimuli. Endogenous inhibitors regulate enzyme activities that promote angiogenesis. Tumor cells may express pro-angiogenic factors and hydrolytic enzymes but also kinin-degrading oligopeptidases which have been investigated. Results Angiogenesis induced by B16F10-Nex2 melanoma cells was studied in a co-culture with HUVEC on Matrigel. A stimulating effect on angiogenesis was observed in the presence of B16F10-Nex2 lysate and plasma membrane. In contrast, the B16F10-Nex2 culture supernatant inhibited angiogenesis in a dose-dependent manner. This effect was abolished by the endo-oligopeptidase inhibitor, JA-2. Thimet oligopeptidase (TOP) and neurolysin activities were then investigated in B16F10-Nex2 melanoma cells aiming at gene sequencing, enzyme distribution and activity, influence on tumor development, substrate specificity, hydrolytic products and susceptibility to inhibitors. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) peptides as well as neurotensin and bradykinin were used as substrates. The hydrolytic activities in B16F10-Nex2 culture supernatant were totally inhibited by o-phenanthrolin, JA-2 and partially by Pro-Ile. Leupeptin, PMSF, E-64, Z-Pro-Prolinal and captopril failed to inhibit these hydrolytic activities. Genes encoding M3A enzymes in melanoma cells were cloned and sequenced being highly similar to mouse genes. A decreased proliferation of B16F10-Nex2 cells was observed in vitro with specific inhibitors of these oligopeptidases. Active rTOP but not the inactive protein inhibited melanoma cell development in vivo increasing significantly the survival of mice challenged with the tumor cells. On Matrigel, rTOP inhibited the bradykinin – induced angiogenesis. A

  15. Fucoidan/FGF-2 induces angiogenesis through JNK- and p38-mediated activation of AKT/MMP-2 signalling

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Beom Su; Park, Ji-Yun; Kang, Hyo-Jin; Kim, Hyung-Jin; Lee, Jun

    2014-08-08

    ), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38, and AKT. MMP-2 activation was also significantly increased. Specific inhibitors of p38 (SB203580) and JNK (SP600125) inhibited tube formation and wound healing, while an ERK inhibitor (PD98059) did not. MMP-2 activation and AKT phosphorylation were also attenuated and associated with the suppression of p38 and JNK phosphorylation, but not with that of ERK. These results indicate that fucoidan, in the presence of FGF-2, induces angiogenesis through AKT/MMP-2 signalling by activating p38 and JNK. These findings provide basic molecular information on the effect of fucoidan on angiogenesis in the presence of FGF-2.

  16. Ginsenoside-Rg{sub 1} induces angiogenesis by the inverse regulation of MET tyrosine kinase receptor expression through miR-23a

    SciTech Connect

    Kwok, Hoi-Hin; Chan, Lai-Sheung; Poon, Po-Ying; Yue, Patrick Ying-Kit; Wong, Ricky Ngok-Shun

    2015-09-15

    Therapeutic angiogenesis has been implicated in ischemic diseases and wound healing. Ginsenoside-Rg{sub 1} (Rg{sub 1}), one of the most abundant active components of ginseng, has been demonstrated as an angiogenesis-stimulating compound in different models. There is increasing evidence implicating microRNAs (miRNAs), a group of non-coding RNAs, as important regulators of angiogenesis, but the role of microRNAs in Rg{sub 1}-induced angiogenesis has not been fully explored. In this report, we found that stimulating endothelial cells with Rg{sub 1} could reduce miR-23a expression. In silico experiments predicted hepatocyte growth factor receptor (MET), a well-established mediator of angiogenesis, as the target of miR-23a. Transfection of the miR-23a precursor or inhibitor oligonucleotides validated the inverse relationship of miR-23a and MET expression. Luciferase reporter assays further confirmed the interaction between miR-23a and the MET mRNA 3′-UTR. Intriguingly, ginsenoside-Rg{sub 1} was found to increase MET protein expression in a time-dependent manner. We further demonstrated that ginsenoside-Rg{sub 1}-induced angiogenic activities were indeed mediated through the down-regulation of miR-23a and subsequent up-regulation of MET protein expression, as confirmed by gain- and loss-of-function angiogenic experiments. In summary, our results demonstrated that ginsenoside-Rg{sub 1} could induce angiogenesis by the inverse regulation of MET tyrosine kinase receptor expression through miR-23a. This study has broadened our understanding of the non-genomic effects of ginsenoside-Rg{sub 1,} and provided molecular evidence that warrant further development of natural compound as novel angiogenesis-promoting therapy. - Highlights: • Therapeutic angiogenesis has been implicated in ischemic diseases and wound healing. • Ginsenoside-Rg{sub 1} (Rg{sub 1}) has been demonstrated as an angiogenesis-stimulating compound. • We found that Rg{sub 1} induces angiogenesis by

  17. Effects of celecoxib on prostanoid biosynthesis and circulating angiogenesis proteins in familial adenomatous polyposis.

    PubMed

    Dovizio, Melania; Tacconelli, Stefania; Ricciotti, Emanuela; Bruno, Annalisa; Maier, Thorsten Jürgen; Anzellotti, Paola; Di Francesco, Luigia; Sala, Paola; Signoroni, Stefano; Bertario, Lucio; Dixon, Dan A; Lawson, John A; Steinhilber, Dieter; FitzGerald, Garret A; Patrignani, Paola

    2012-04-01

    Vascular cyclooxygenase (COX)-2-dependent prostacyclin (PGI(2)) may affect angiogenesis by preventing endothelial activation and platelet release of angiogenic factors present in platelet α-granules. Thus, a profound inhibition of COX-2-dependent PGI(2) might be associated with changes in circulating markers of angiogenesis. We aimed to address this issue by performing a clinical study with celecoxib in familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). In nine patients with FAP and healthy controls, pair-matched for gender and age, we compared systemic biosynthesis of PGI(2), thromboxane (TX) A(2), and prostaglandin (PG) E(2), assessing their urinary enzymatic metabolites, 2,3-dinor-6-keto PGF(1α) (PGI-M), 11-dehydro-TXB(2) (TX-M), and 11-α-hydroxy-9,15-dioxo-2,3,4,5-tetranor-prostane-1,20-dioic acid (PGE-M), respectively. The impact of celecoxib (400 mg b.i.d. for 7 days) on prostanoid biosynthesis and 14 circulating biomarkers of angiogenesis was evaluated in FAP. Intestinal tumorigenesis was associated with enhanced urinary TX-M levels, but unaffected by celecoxib, suggesting the involvement of a COX-1-dependent pathway, presumably from platelets. This was supported by the finding that in cocultures of a human colon adenocarcinoma cell line (HT-29) and platelets enhanced TXA(2) generation was almost completely inhibited by pretreatment of platelets with aspirin, a preferential inhibitor of COX-1. In FAP, celecoxib profoundly suppressed PGE(2) and PGI(2) biosynthesis that was associated with a significant increase in circulating levels of most proangiogenesis proteins but also the antiangiogenic tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 2. Urinary PGI-M, but not PGE-M, was negatively correlated with circulating levels of fibroblast growth factor 2 and angiogenin. In conclusion, inhibition of tumor COX-2-dependent PGE(2) by celecoxib may reduce tumor progression. However, the coincident depression of vascular PGI(2), in a context of enhanced TXA(2) biosynthesis, may modulate

  18. RhoB controls coordination of adult angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis following injury by regulating VEZF1-mediated transcription

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerald, Damien; Adini, Irit; Shechter, Sharon; Perruzzi, Carole; Varnau, Joseph; Hopkins, Benjamin; Kazerounian, Shiva; Kurschat, Peter; Blachon, Stephanie; Khedkar, Santosh; Bagchi, Mandrita; Sherris, David; Prendergast, George C.; Klagsbrun, Michael; Stuhlmann, Heidi; Rigby, Alan C.; Nagy, Janice A.; Benjamin, Laura E.

    2013-11-01

    Mechanisms governing the distinct temporal dynamics that characterize post-natal angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis elicited by cutaneous wounds and inflammation remain unclear. RhoB, a stress-induced small GTPase, modulates cellular responses to growth factors, genotoxic stress and neoplastic transformation. Here we show, using RhoB null mice, that loss of RhoB decreases pathological angiogenesis in the ischaemic retina and reduces angiogenesis in response to cutaneous wounding, but enhances lymphangiogenesis following both dermal wounding and inflammatory challenge. We link these unique and opposing roles of RhoB in blood versus lymphatic vasculatures to the RhoB-mediated differential regulation of sprouting and proliferation in primary human blood versus lymphatic endothelial cells. We demonstrate that nuclear RhoB-GTP controls expression of distinct gene sets in each endothelial lineage by regulating VEZF1-mediated transcription. Finally, we identify a small-molecule inhibitor of VEZF1-DNA interaction that recapitulates RhoB loss in ischaemic retinopathy. Our findings establish the first intra-endothelial molecular pathway governing the phased response of angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis following injury.

  19. RhoB controls coordination of adult angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis following injury by regulating VEZF1-mediated transcription.

    PubMed

    Gerald, Damien; Adini, Irit; Shechter, Sharon; Perruzzi, Carole; Varnau, Joseph; Hopkins, Benjamin; Kazerounian, Shiva; Kurschat, Peter; Blachon, Stephanie; Khedkar, Santosh; Bagchi, Mandrita; Sherris, David; Prendergast, George C; Klagsbrun, Michael; Stuhlmann, Heidi; Rigby, Alan C; Nagy, Janice A; Benjamin, Laura E

    2013-01-01

    Mechanisms governing the distinct temporal dynamics that characterize post-natal angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis elicited by cutaneous wounds and inflammation remain unclear. RhoB, a stress-induced small GTPase, modulates cellular responses to growth factors, genotoxic stress and neoplastic transformation. Here we show, using RhoB null mice, that loss of RhoB decreases pathological angiogenesis in the ischaemic retina and reduces angiogenesis in response to cutaneous wounding, but enhances lymphangiogenesis following both dermal wounding and inflammatory challenge. We link these unique and opposing roles of RhoB in blood versus lymphatic vasculatures to the RhoB-mediated differential regulation of sprouting and proliferation in primary human blood versus lymphatic endothelial cells. We demonstrate that nuclear RhoB-GTP controls expression of distinct gene sets in each endothelial lineage by regulating VEZF1-mediated transcription. Finally, we identify a small-molecule inhibitor of VEZF1-DNA interaction that recapitulates RhoB loss in ischaemic retinopathy. Our findings establish the first intra-endothelial molecular pathway governing the phased response of angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis following injury. PMID:24280686

  20. Expression of Ets-1, Ang-2 and maspin in ovarian cancer and their role in tumor angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Various angiogenic regulators are involved in angiogenesis cascade. Transcription factor Ets-1 plays important role in angiogenesis, remodeling of extracellular matrix, and tumor metastasis. Ets-1 target genes involved in various stages of new blood vessel formation include angiopoietin, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and the protease inhibitor maspin. Methods We used immunohistochemistry (IHC) to detect the expression of Ets-1, angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) and maspin in ovarian tumor and analyzed the relationship between the expression of these proteins and the clinical manifestation of ovarian cancer. Results Ets-1 expression was much stronger in ovarian cancer compared to benign tumors, but had no significant correlation with other pathological parameters of ovarian cancer. However, Ang-2 and maspin expression had no obvious correlation with pathological parameters of ovarian cancer. Ets-1 had a positive correlation with Ang-2 which showed their close relationship in angiogenesis. Although microvessel density (MVD) value had no significant correlation with the expression of Ets-1, Ang-2 or maspin, strong nuclear expression of maspin appeared to be correlated with high grade and MVD. Conclusions The expression of Ets-1, Ang2 and maspin showed close relationship with angiogenesis in ovarian cancer and expression of maspin appeared to be correlated with high grade and MVD. The mechanisms underlying the cross-talk of the three factors need further investigations. PMID:21439064

  1. Inhibition of tumor angiogenesis using a soluble receptor establishes a role for Tie2 in pathologic vascular growth.

    PubMed

    Lin, P; Polverini, P; Dewhirst, M; Shan, S; Rao, P S; Peters, K

    1997-10-15

    Tie2 is a novel receptor tyrosine kinase that is expressed almost exclusively by vascular endothelium. Disruption of Tie2 function in transgenic mice resulted in embryonic lethality secondary to characteristic vascular defects; similar defects occurred after disruption of the Tie2 ligand. These findings indicate that the Tie2/Tie2 ligand pathway plays important roles during development of the embryonic vasculature. To determine whether the Tie2 pathway was involved in pathologic angiogenesis in adult tissues, a soluble form of the extracellular domain of murine Tie2 (ExTek.6His) was developed and used as a Tie2 inhibitor. After a single application of the ExTek.6His protein into a rat cutaneous window chamber, growth of a mammary tumor inside the chamber was reduced by > 75% (P < 0.005), and tumor vascular length density was reduced by 40% when compared with control-treated tumors (P < 0.01). In the rat cornea, ExTek.6His blocked angiogenesis stimulated by tumor cell conditioned media. ExTek.6His protein did not affect the viability of cultured tumor cells, indicating that the antitumor effect of ExTek.6His was due to the inhibition of tumor angiogenesis. These data demonstrate a role for the Tie2 pathway in pathologic angiogenesis, suggesting that targeting this pathway may yield effective antiangiogenic agents for treatment of cancer and other angiogenic diseases.

  2. Nitric oxide mediates angiogenesis induced in vivo by platelet-activating factor and tumor necrosis factor-alpha.

    PubMed Central

    Montrucchio, G.; Lupia, E.; de Martino, A.; Battaglia, E.; Arese, M.; Tizzani, A.; Bussolino, F.; Camussi, G.

    1997-01-01

    We evaluated the role of an endogenous production of nitric oxide (NO) in the in vitro migration of endothelial cells and in the in vivo angiogenic response elicited by platelet-activating factor (PAF), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF), and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). The NO synthase inhibitor, N omega-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester (L-NAME), but not its enantiomer D-NAME, prevented chemotaxis of endothelial cells induced in vitro by PAF and by TNF. The motogenic activity of TNF was also inhibited by WEB 2170, a specific PAF-receptor antagonist. In contrast, chemotaxis induced by bFGF was not prevented by L-NAME or by WEB 2170. Angiogenesis was studied in vivo in a murine model in which Matrigel was used as a vehicle for the delivery of mediators. In this model, the angiogenesis induced by PAF and TNF was inhibited by WEB 2170 and L-NAME but not by D-NAME. In contrast, angiogenesis induced by bFGF was not affected by L-NAME or by WEB 2170. TNF, but not bFGF, induced PAF synthesis within Matrigel. These results suggest that NO mediates the angiogenesis induced by PAF as well as that induced by TNF, which is dependent on the production of PAF. In contrast, the angiogenic effect of bFGF appears to be both PAF and NO independent. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:9250168

  3. Chemopreventive apigenin controls UVB-induced cutaneous proliferation and angiogenesis through HuR and thrombospondin-1.

    PubMed

    Tong, Xin; Mirzoeva, Salida; Veliceasa, Dorina; Bridgeman, Bryan B; Fitchev, Philip; Cornwell, Mona L; Crawford, Susan E; Pelling, Jill C; Volpert, Olga V

    2014-11-30

    Plant flavonoid apigenin prevents and inhibits UVB-induced carcinogenesis in the skin and has strong anti-proliferative and anti-angiogenic properties. Here we identify mechanisms, by which apigenin controls these oncogenic events. We show that apigenin acts, at least in part, via endogenous angiogenesis inhibitor, thrombospondin-1 (TSP1). TSP1 expression by the epidermal keratinocytes is potently inhibited by UVB. It inhibits cutaneous angiogenesis and UVB-induced carcinogenesis. We show that apigenin restores TSP1 in epidermal keratinocytes subjected to UVB and normalizes proliferation and angiogenesis in UVB-exposed skin. Importantly, reconstituting TSP1 anti-angiogenic function in UVB-irradiated skin with a short bioactive peptide mimetic representing exclusively its anti-angiogenic domain reproduced the anti-proliferative and anti-angiogenic effects of apigenin. Cox-2 and HIF-1α are important mediators of angiogenesis. Both apigenin and TSP1 peptide mimetic attenuated their induction by UVB. Finally we identified the molecular mechanism, whereby apigenin did not affect TSP1 mRNA, but increased de novo protein synthesis. Knockdown studies implicated the RNA-binding protein HuR, which controls mRNA stability and translation. Apigenin increased HuR cytoplasmic localization and physical association with TSP1 mRNA causing de novo TSP1 synthesis. HuR cytoplasmic localization was, in turn, dependent on CHK2 kinase. Together, our data provide a new mechanism, by which apigenin controls UVB-induced carcinogenesis. PMID:25526033

  4. Protein farnesyltransferase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Ayral-Kaloustian, Semiramis; Salaski, Edward J

    2002-05-01

    Specific mutations in the ras gene impair the guanosine triphophatase (GTPase) activity of Ras proteins, which play a fundamental role in the signaling cascade, leading to uninterrupted growth signals and to the transformation of normal cells into malignant phenotypes. It has been shown that normal cells transfected with mutant ras gene become cancerous and that unfarnesylated, cytosolic mutant Ras protein does not anchor onto cell membranes and cannot induce this transformation. Posttranslational modification and plasma membrane association of mutant Ras is necessary for this transforming activity. Since its identification, the enzyme protein farnesyltransferase (FTase) that catalyzes the first and essential step of the three Ras-processing steps has emerged as the most promising target for therapeutic intervention. FTase has been implicated as a potential target in inhibiting the prenylation of a variety of proteins, thus in controlling varied disease states (e.g. cancer, neurofibromatosis, restenosis, viral hepatitis, bone resorption, parasitic infections, corneal inflammations, and diabetes) associated with prenyl modifications of Ras and other proteins. Furthermore, it has been suggested that FTase inhibitors indirectly help in inhibiting tumors via suppression of angiogenesis and induction of apoptosis. Major milestones have been achieved with small-molecule FTase inhibitors that show efficacy without toxicity in vitro, as well as in mouse models bearing ras-dependent tumors. With the determination of the crystal structure of mammalian FTase, existent leads have been fine-tuned and new potent molecules of diverse structural classes have been designed. A few of these molecules are currently in the clinic, with at least three drug candidates in Phase II studies and one in Phase III. This article will review the progress that has been reported with FTase inhibitors in drug discovery and in the clinic. PMID:12733981

  5. Angiogenesis: from plants to blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Fan, Tai-Ping; Yeh, Ju-Ching; Leung, Kar Wah; Yue, Patrick Y K; Wong, Ricky N S

    2006-06-01

    Angiogenesis is a major pathological component of diseases such as cancer and coronary heart disease. Although major advances have been made and encouraging clinical results obtained, safer and more effective approaches are required. The identification of new drugs from plants has a long and successful history, and certain proangiogenic and antiangiogenic plant components have been used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for thousands of years. Similar to Western combination therapy, TCM uses mixtures of plant extracts, termed fufang, to maximize efficacy and minimize adverse effects or toxicity. More evidence-based research and chemical optimization of these compounds could further enhance the effectiveness of these plant-based medicines in angiotherapy.

  6. alpha-Chaconine inhibits angiogenesis in vitro by reducing matrix metalloproteinase-2.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ming-Kun; Chen, Pei-Hsieng; Shih, Yuan-Wei; Chang, Ya-Ting; Huang, En-Tze; Liu, Cheng-Ruei; Chen, Pin-Shern

    2010-01-01

    alpha-Chaconine, a naturally occurring steroidal glycoalkaloid in potato sprouts, was found to possess anti-carcinogenic properties, such as inhibiting proliferation, migration, invasion, and inducing apoptosis of tumor cells. However, the effect of alpha-chaconine on tumor angiogenesis remains unclear. In the present study, we examined the effect of alpha-chaconine on angiogenesis in vitro. Data demonstrated that alpha-chaconine inhibited proliferation of bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs) in a dose-dependent manner. When treated with non-toxic doses of alpha-chaconine, cell migration, invasion and tube formation were markedly suppressed. Furthermore, alpha-chaconine reduced the expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), which is involved in angiogenesis. Our biochemical assays indicated that alpha-chaconine potently suppressed the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), phosphatidylinositide-3 kinase (PI3K) and Akt, while it did not affect phosphorylation of extracellular signal regulating kinase (ERK) and p38. In addition, alpha-chaconine significantly increased the cytoplasmic level of inhibitors of kappaBalpha (IkappaBalpha) and decreased the nuclear level of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB), suggesting that alpha-chaconine could inhibit NF-kappaB activity. Furthermore, the treatment of inhibitors specific for JNK (SP600125), PI3K (LY294002) or NF-kappaB (pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate) to BAECs reduced tube formation. Taken together, the results suggested that alpha-chaconine inhibited migration, invasion and tube formation of BAECs by reducing MMP-2 activities, as well as JNK and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways and inhibition of NF-kappaB activity. These findings reveal a new therapeutic potential for alpha-chaconine on anti-angiogenic therapy.

  7. Akt regulates Progesterone Receptor B dependent transcription and angiogenesis in endometrial cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Irene I.; Maniar, Kruti; Lydon, John P.; Kim, J. Julie

    2016-01-01

    Progestins have long been used clinically for the treatment of endometrial cancers, however, the response rates to progestin therapy vary and the molecular mechanisms behind progestin insensitivity are poorly understood. We hypothesized that in PTEN mutated endometrial cancers, hyperactive Akt signaling downregulates Progesterone Receptor B (PRB) transcriptional activity, leading to overall impaired progestin responses. We report that inhibition of Akt with the Akt inhibitor, MK-2206 (MK), in conjunction with progestin (R5020) treatment, is sufficient to upregulate a subset of PRB target genes in Ishikawa cells stably expressing PRB (PRB-Ishikawa). Through gene ontology analysis of Akt-regulated PRB target genes, angiogenesis was found to be the principle process regulated by Akt-PRB. To further interrogate the mechanism by which Akt modulates PRB transcriptional activity, ChIP-Mass Spectrometry was performed to identify potential cofactors that differentially interact with PRB in the presence of the R5020 and MK+R5020. 14-3-3σ was identified as a protein enriched in the MK+R5020 dataset, and it was demonstrated that 14-3-3σ is required for the upregulation in PRB target gene expression following inhibition of Akt. In order to determine the ramifications of MK+R5020 treatment on angiogenesis, in vitro assays were performed and combinatorial MK+R5020 treatment significantly decreased endothelial cell invasion and tube formation more than MK or R5020 treatment alone. Furthermore, we found that combinatorial MK-2206+Progesterone treatments decreased angiogenesis and proliferation in the Ptend/d conditional mouse model of endometrial cancer. Taken together, these findings suggest that a combinatorial therapeutic approach utilizing Akt inhibitors with progestins may improve the efficacy of progestin therapy for the treatment of endometrial cancer. PMID:26996671

  8. Proteasome inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Teicher, Beverly A; Tomaszewski, Joseph E

    2015-07-01

    Proteasome inhibitors have a 20 year history in cancer therapy. The first proteasome inhibitor, bortezomib (Velcade, PS-341), a break-through multiple myeloma treatment, moved rapidly through development from bench in 1994 to first approval in 2003. Bortezomib is a reversible boronic acid inhibitor of the chymotrypsin-like activity of the proteasome. Next generation proteasome inhibitors include carfilzomib and oprozomib which are irreversible epoxyketone proteasome inhibitors; and ixazomib and delanzomib which are reversible boronic acid proteasome inhibitors. Two proteasome inhibitors, bortezomib and carfilzomib are FDA approved drugs and ixazomib and oprozomib are in late stage clinical trials. All of the agents are potent cytotoxics. The disease focus for all the proteasome inhibitors is multiple myeloma. This focus arose from clinical observations made in bortezomib early clinical trials. Later preclinical studies confirmed that multiple myeloma cells were indeed more sensitive to proteasome inhibitors than other tumor cell types. The discovery and development of the proteasome inhibitor class of anticancer agents has progressed through a classic route of serendipity and scientific investigation. These agents are continuing to have a major impact in their treatment of hematologic malignancies and are beginning to be explored as potential treatment agent for non-cancer indications. PMID:25935605

  9. Nobiletin, a citrus polymethoxyflavonoid, suppresses multiple angiogenesis-related endothelial cell functions and angiogenesis in vivo.

    PubMed

    Kunimasa, Kazuhiro; Ikekita, Masahiko; Sato, Mayumi; Ohta, Toshiro; Yamori, Yukio; Ikeda, Megumi; Kuranuki, Sachi; Oikawa, Tsutomu

    2010-11-01

    Nobiletin is a citrus polymethoxyflavonoid that suppresses tumor growth and metastasis, both of which depend on angiogenesis. We recently identified nobiletin as a cell differentiation modulator. Because cell differentiation is a critical event in angiogenesis, it might be possible that nobiletin could exhibit antiangiogenic activity, resulting in suppression of these tumor malignant properties. To verify this possibility, we examined the antiangiogenic effects of nobiletin in vitro and in vivo. Nobiletin had concentration-dependent inhibitory effects on multiple functions of angiogenesis-related endothelial cells (EC); it suppressed the proliferation, migration and tube formation on matrigel of human umbilical vein EC (HUVEC) stimulated with endothelial cell growth supplement (ECGS), a mixture of acidic and basic fibroblast growth factors (FGFs). Gelatin zymography and northern blotting revealed that nobiletin suppressed pro-matrix metalloproteinase-2 (proMMP-2) production and MMP-2 mRNA expression in ECGS-stimulated HUVEC. Nobiletin also downregulated cell-associated plasminogen activator (PA) activity and urokinase-type PA mRNA expression. Furthermore, nobiletin inhibited angiogenic differentiation induced by vascular endothelial growth factor and FGF, an in vitro angiogenesis model. This inhibition was accompanied by downregulation of angiogenesis-related signaling molecules, such as extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and transcriptional factors (c-Jun and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3), and activation of the caspase pathway. In a chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane assay, nobiletin showed an antiangiogenic activity, the ID(50) value being 10μg (24.9nmol) per egg. These results indicate that nobiletin is a novel antiangiogenic compound that exhibits its activity through combined inhibition of multiple angiogenic EC functions.

  10. Identification of potent inhibitors of the chicken soluble epoxide hydrolase

    PubMed Central

    Shihadih, Diyala S.; Harris, Todd R.; Yang, Jun; Merzlikin, Oleg; Lee, Kin Sing S.; Hammock, Bruce D.; Morisseau, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    In vertebrates, soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) hydrolyzes natural epoxy-fatty acids (EpFAs), which are chemical mediators modulating inflammation, pain, and angiogenesis. Chick embryos are used to study angiogenesis, particularly its role in cardiovascular biology and pathology. To find potent and bio-stable inhibitors of the chicken sEH (chxEH) a library of human sEH inhibitors was screened. Derivatives of 1(adamantan-1-yl)-3-(trans-4-phenoxycyclohexyl) urea were found to be very potent tight binding inhibitors (KI < 150 pM) of chxEH while being relatively stable in chicken liver microsomes, suggesting their usefulness to study the role of EpFAs in chickens. PMID:25479771

  11. An amino-bisphosphonate targets MMP-9-expressing macrophages and angiogenesis to impair cervical carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Giraudo, Enrico; Inoue, Masahiro; Hanahan, Douglas

    2004-09-01

    A mouse model involving the human papillomavirus type-16 oncogenes develops cervical cancers by lesional stages analogous to those in humans. In this study the angiogenic phenotype was characterized, revealing intense angiogenesis in high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasias (CIN-3) and carcinomas. MMP-9, a proangiogenic protease implicated in mobilization of VEGF, appeared in the stroma concomitant with the angiogenic switch, expressed by infiltrating macrophages, similar to what has been observed in humans. Preclinical trials sought to target MMP-9 and angiogenesis with a prototypical MMP inhibitor and with a bisphosphonate, zoledronic acid (ZA), revealing both to be antiangiogenic, producing effects comparable to a Mmp9 gene KO in impairing angiogenic switching, progression of premalignant lesions, and tumor growth. ZA therapy increased neoplastic epithelial and endothelial cell apoptosis without affecting hyperproliferation, indicating that ZA was not antimitotic. The analyses implicated cellular and molecular targets of ZA's actions: ZA suppressed MMP-9 expression by infiltrating macrophages and inhibited metalloprotease activity, reducing association of VEGF with its receptor on angiogenic endothelial cells. Given its track record in clinical use with limited toxicity, ZA holds promise as an "unconventional" MMP-9 inhibitor for antiangiogenic therapy of cervical cancer and potentially for additional cancers and other diseases where MMP-9 expression by infiltrating macrophages is evident.

  12. Control of Angiogenesis by AIBP-mediated Cholesterol Efflux

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Longhou; Choi, Soo-Ho; Baek, Ji Sun; Liu, Chao; Almazan, Felicidad; Ulrich, Florian; Wiesner, Philipp; Taleb, Adam; Deer, Elena; Pattison, Jennifer; Torres-Vázquez, Jesús; Li, Andrew C.; Miller, Yury I.

    2013-01-01

    Cholesterol is a structural component of the cell, indispensable for normal cellular function, but its excess often leads to abnormal proliferation, migration, inflammatory responses and/or cell death. To prevent cholesterol overload, ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters mediate cholesterol efflux from the cells to apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) and to the ApoA-I-containing high-density lipoprotein (HDL)1-3. Maintaining efficient cholesterol efflux is essential for normal cellular function4-6. However, the role of cholesterol efflux in angiogenesis and the identity of its local regulators are poorly understood. Here we show that ApoA-I binding protein (AIBP) accelerates cholesterol efflux from endothelial cells (EC) to HDL and thereby regulates angiogenesis. AIBP/HDL-mediated cholesterol depletion reduces lipid rafts, interferes with VEGFR2 dimerization and signaling, and inhibits VEGF-induced angiogenesis in vitro and mouse aortic neovascularization ex vivo. Remarkably, Aibp regulates the membrane lipid order in embryonic zebrafish vasculature and functions as a non-cell autonomous regulator of zebrafish angiogenesis. Aibp knockdown results in dysregulated sprouting/branching angiogenesis, while forced Aibp expression inhibits angiogenesis. Dysregulated angiogenesis is phenocopied in Abca1/Abcg1-deficient embryos, and cholesterol levels are increased in Aibp-deficient and Abca1/Abcg1-deficient embryos. Our findings demonstrate that secreted AIBP positively regulates cholesterol efflux from EC and that effective cholesterol efflux is critical for proper angiogenesis. PMID:23719382

  13. The thin red line: angiogenesis in normal and malignant hematopoiesis.

    PubMed

    Bertolini, F; Mancuso, P; Gobbi, A; Pruneri, G

    2000-09-01

    This review describes the current knowledge about cell subsets involved in vasculogenesis (i.e., differentiation of endothelial cells from mesodermal precursors) and angiogenesis (i.e., blood vessel generation from pre-existing vessels), together with recent findings about angiogenesis and antiangiogenic therapies in hematopoietic malignancies such as leukemia, lymphoma, myeloma, and myelodysplastic syndromes. PMID:11008011

  14. Mechanoregulation of Angiogenesis in Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Lancerotto, Luca; Orgill, Dennis P.

    2014-01-01

    Significance: Mechanical forces are important regulators of cell and tissue function. Endothelial cells proliferate in response to tissue stretch and the mechanical properties of the environment direct capillary sprouting and growth. As the vascular network is a key factor in physiology and disease, control of the vascularity by means of mechanical forces could lead to the development of innovative therapeutic strategies. Recent Advances: Increased understanding of mechanobiology has stimulated translational research and allowed the development and optimization of clinical devices that exploit mechanical forces for the treatment of diseases, in particular in the field of wound healing. Stretching in distraction osteogenesis and tissue expansion induces neogenesis of well-vascularized tissues. In micro-deformational wound therapy, micro-mechanical distortions of the wound bed stimulate cell proliferation and angiogenesis by stretching resident cells to improve healing of difficult wounds. Relief from tension antagonizes proliferation and angiogenesis in primarily closed wounds allowing for better scar quality. Critical Issues: The integration of mechanobiology into traditional cell biology and pathophysiology in general is not yet complete and further research is needed to fill existing gaps, in particular in the complexity of in vivo conditions. Future Directions: Still largely unexplored approaches based on mechanical perturbation of the micro-/macro-environment can be devised to overcome the limits of current strategies in a broad spectrum of clinical conditions. PMID:25302137

  15. The Mechanics of Angiogenesis in Collagen Tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breaux, Jolie; de La Pena, Abigail; Suaris, Melanie; Zehnder, Steven; Angelini, Thomas

    2013-03-01

    Cells in all types of tissue are sensitive to their mechanical environment. Understanding cell mechanics in tissue growth can lead to advancements in important medical applications, like technologies that enhance angiogenesis during wound healing. Great progress has been made in understanding the mechanics of angiogenesis with assays performed in flat bottomed culture dishes. Here we present results from an in vitro study of collective endothelial cell mechanics in a 3D culture system that mimics the geometry of a real endothelium. Human Aortic Endothelial Cells were grown inside of a collagen tube supported by a rigid cylindrical scaffold. We developed a time-lapse small angle light scattering method to directly measure the radial distribution of cells in the 3D matrix over time. Accompanying live-cell time-lapse microscopy was performed to monitor the cells' collective movement and organization. We find that the cells generate sufficient contractile force to detach the collagen matrix from the support scaffold while maintaining a macroscopic cylindrical arrangement, creating a fiber. Cell sensitivity to scaffold material properties, curvature, and symmetry will be discussed.

  16. Safrole oxide inhibits angiogenesis by inducing apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing; Miao, Junying; Zhao, Baoxiang; Zhang, Shangli; Yin, Deling

    2005-06-01

    Our previous studies indicate that 3, 4-(methylenedioxy)-1-(2', 3'-epoxypropyl)-benzene (safrole oxide), a newly synthesized compound, induces apoptosis in vascular endothelial cells (VECs) and A549 lung cancer cells. To our knowledge, the inhibition of angiogenesis by safrole oxide has not been reported yet. We report here that cultured rat aorta treated with safrole oxide exhibited a significant microvessel reduction as determined by counting the number of microvessels in a phase contrast microscope. There were more microvessels formed in the presence of A549 lung cancer cells in rat aorta model, while a dramatic inhibition of angiogenesis was obtained by adding 220-450 micromol l(-1) of safrole oxide to the growth medium (P<.01). The culture of rat aorta treated with safrole oxide produced only some abortive endothelial cells but not microvessels. Furthermore, safrole oxide induced antiangiogenic effect in the chorioallantoic membranes (CAM) as a dose dependent manner. Eggs treated with 2-11 micromol 100 microl(-1) per egg of the safrole oxide for 48 h exhibited a significant reduction in blood vessel area of the CAM, a process likely mediated by apoptosis as demonstrated by DNA fragmentation. Our results suggest that safrole oxide has antiangiogenic activity and this effect might occur by induction of cellular apoptosis.

  17. Wars2 is a determinant of angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mao; Sips, Patrick; Khin, Ester; Rotival, Maxime; Sun, Ximing; Ahmed, Rizwan; Widjaja, Anissa Anindya; Schafer, Sebastian; Yusoff, Permeen; Choksi, Pervinder Kaur; Ko, Nicole Shi Jie; Singh, Manvendra K.; Epstein, David; Guan, Yuguang; Houštěk, Josef; Mracek, Tomas; Nuskova, Hana; Mikell, Brittney; Tan, Jessie; Pesce, Francesco; Kolar, Frantisek; Bottolo, Leonardo; Mancini, Massimiliano; Hubner, Norbert; Pravenec, Michal; Petretto, Enrico; MacRae, Calum; Cook, Stuart A

    2016-01-01

    Coronary flow (CF) measured ex vivo is largely determined by capillary density that reflects angiogenic vessel formation in the heart in vivo. Here we exploit this relationship and show that CF in the rat is influenced by a locus on rat chromosome 2 that is also associated with cardiac capillary density. Mitochondrial tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase (Wars2), encoding an L53F protein variant within the ATP-binding motif, is prioritized as the candidate at the locus by integrating genomic data sets. WARS2(L53F) has low enzyme activity and inhibition of WARS2 in endothelial cells reduces angiogenesis. In the zebrafish, inhibition of wars2 results in trunk vessel deficiencies, disordered endocardial-myocardial contact and impaired heart function. Inhibition of Wars2 in the rat causes cardiac angiogenesis defects and diminished cardiac capillary density. Our data demonstrate a pro-angiogenic function for Wars2 both within and outside the heart that may have translational relevance given the association of WARS2 with common human diseases. PMID:27389904

  18. Angiogenesis and mineralization during distraction osteogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Choi, In Ho; Chung, Chin Youb; Cho, Tae-Joon; Yoo, Won Joon

    2002-01-01

    Distraction osteogenesis is currently a standard method of bone lengthening. It is a viable method for the treatment of short extremities as well as extensive bone defects, because large amounts of bone can be regenerated in the distraction gap. Mechanical stimulation by distraction induces biological responses of skeletal regeneration that is accomplished by a cascade of biologic processes that may include differentiation of pluripotential tissue, angiogenesis, mineralization, and remodeling. There are complex interactions between bone-forming osteoblasts and other cells present within the bone microenvironment, particularly vascular endothelial cells that may be pivotal members of a complex interactive communication network in bone. Regenerate bone forms by three modes of ossification, which include intramembranous, enchondral, and transchondroid ossifications, although intramembraneous bone formation is the predominant mechanism of ossification. In this review we discussed the coupling between angiogenesis and mineralization, the biological and mechanical factors affecting them, the cellular and molecular events occurring during distraction osteogenesis, and the emerging modalities to accelerate regenerate bone healing and remodeling. PMID:12172035

  19. Platelet Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Shifrin, Megan M; Widmar, S Brian

    2016-03-01

    Antithrombotic medications have become standard of care for management of acute coronary syndrome. Platelet adhesion, activation, and aggregation are essential components of platelet function; platelet-inhibiting medications interfere with these components and reduce incidence of thrombosis. Active bleeding is a contraindication for administration of platelet inhibitors. There is currently no reversal agent for platelet inhibitors, although platelet transfusion may be used to correct active bleeding after administration of platelet inhibitors. PMID:26897422

  20. A mutation in the mitochondrial protein UQCRB promotes angiogenesis through the generation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Junghwa; Jung, Hye Jin; Jeong, Seung Hun; Kim, Hyoung Kyu; Han, Jin; Kwon, Ho Jeong

    2014-12-12

    Highlights: • We constructed mitochondrial protein UQCRB mutant stable cell lines on the basis of a human case report. • These mutant cell lines exhibit pro-angiogenic activity with enhanced VEGF expression. • Proliferation of mutant cell lines was regulated by UQCRB inhibitors. • UQCRB may have a functional role in angiogenesis. - Abstract: Ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase binding protein (UQCRB) is one of the subunits of mitochondrial complex III and is a target protein of the natural anti-angiogenic small molecule terpestacin. Previously, the biological role of UQCRB was thought to be limited to the maintenance of complex III. However, the identification and validation of UQCRB as a target protein of terpestacin enabled the role of UQCRB in oxygen sensing and angiogenesis to be elucidated. To explore the biological role of this protein further, UQCRB mutant stable cell lines were generated on the basis of a human case report. We demonstrated that these cell lines exhibited glycolytic and pro-angiogenic activities via mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mROS)-mediated HIF1 signal transduction. Furthermore, a morphological abnormality in mitochondria was detected in UQCRB mutant stable cell lines. In addition, the proliferative effect of the UQCRB mutants was significantly regulated by the UQCRB inhibitors terpestacin and A1938. Collectively, these results provide a molecular basis for UQCRB-related biological processes and reveal potential key roles of UQCRB in angiogenesis and mitochondria-mediated metabolic disorders.

  1. Suppression of tumor angiogenesis by metformin treatment via a mechanism linked to targeting of HER2/HIF-1α/VEGF secretion axis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jichang; Li, Guangyue; Wang, Yaochun; Tang, Shouching; Sun, Xin; Feng, Xuefei; Li, Yan; Bao, Gang; Li, Pingping; Mao, Xiaona; Wang, Maode; Liu, Peijun

    2015-12-29

    Anti-angiogenesis is currently considered as one of the major antitumor strategies for its protective effects against tumor emergency and later progression. The anti-diabetic drug metformin has been demonstrated to significantly inhibit tumor angiogenesis based on recent studies. However, the mechanism underlying this anti-angiogenic effect still remains an enigma. In this study, we investigated metformin-induced inhibitory effect on tumor angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Metformin pretreatment significantly suppressed tumor paracrine signaling-induced angiogenic promotion even in the presence of heregulin (HRG)-β1 (a co-activator of HER2) pretreatment of HER2+ tumor cells. Similar to that of AG825, a specific inhibitor of HER2 phosphorylation, metformin treatment decreased both total and phosphorylation (Tyr 1221/1222) levels of HER2 protein and significantly reduced microvessel density and the amount of Fitc-conjugated Dextran leaking outside the vessel. Furthermore, our results of VEGF-neutralizing and -rescuing tests showed that metformin markedly abrogated HER2 signaling-induced tumor angiogenesis by inhibiting VEGF secretion. Inhibition of HIF-1α signaling by using RNAi or YC-1, a specific inhibitor of HIF-1α synthesis, both completely diminished mRNA level of VEGF and greatly inhibited endothelial cell proliferation promoted by HER2+ tumor cell-conditioned medium in both the absence and presence of HRG-β1 pretreatment. Importantly, metformin treatment decreased the number of HIF-1α nucleus positive cells in 4T1 tumors, accompanied by decreased microvessel density. Our data thus provides novel insight into the mechanism underlying the metformin-induced inhibition of tumor angiogenesis and indicates possibilities of HIF-1α-VEGF signaling axis in mediating HER2-induced tumor angiogenesis. PMID:26625311

  2. Suppression of tumor angiogenesis by metformin treatment via a mechanism linked to targeting of HER2/HIF-1α/VEGF secretion axis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jichang; Li, Guangyue; Wang, Yaochun; Tang, Shouching; Sun, Xin; Feng, Xuefei; Li, Yan; Bao, Gang; Li, Pingping; Mao, Xiaona; Wang, Maode; Liu, Peijun

    2015-12-29

    Anti-angiogenesis is currently considered as one of the major antitumor strategies for its protective effects against tumor emergency and later progression. The anti-diabetic drug metformin has been demonstrated to significantly inhibit tumor angiogenesis based on recent studies. However, the mechanism underlying this anti-angiogenic effect still remains an enigma. In this study, we investigated metformin-induced inhibitory effect on tumor angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Metformin pretreatment significantly suppressed tumor paracrine signaling-induced angiogenic promotion even in the presence of heregulin (HRG)-β1 (a co-activator of HER2) pretreatment of HER2+ tumor cells. Similar to that of AG825, a specific inhibitor of HER2 phosphorylation, metformin treatment decreased both total and phosphorylation (Tyr 1221/1222) levels of HER2 protein and significantly reduced microvessel density and the amount of Fitc-conjugated Dextran leaking outside the vessel. Furthermore, our results of VEGF-neutralizing and -rescuing tests showed that metformin markedly abrogated HER2 signaling-induced tumor angiogenesis by inhibiting VEGF secretion. Inhibition of HIF-1α signaling by using RNAi or YC-1, a specific inhibitor of HIF-1α synthesis, both completely diminished mRNA level of VEGF and greatly inhibited endothelial cell proliferation promoted by HER2+ tumor cell-conditioned medium in both the absence and presence of HRG-β1 pretreatment. Importantly, metformin treatment decreased the number of HIF-1α nucleus positive cells in 4T1 tumors, accompanied by decreased microvessel density. Our data thus provides novel insight into the mechanism underlying the metformin-induced inhibition of tumor angiogenesis and indicates possibilities of HIF-1α-VEGF signaling axis in mediating HER2-induced tumor angiogenesis.

  3. Corrosion inhibitor

    SciTech Connect

    Wisotsky, M.J.; Metro, S.J.

    1989-10-31

    A corrosion inhibitor for use in synthetic ester lubricating oils is disclosed. It comprises an effective amount of: at least one aromatic amide; and at least one hydroxy substituted aromatic compound. The corrosion inhibitor thus formed is particularly useful in synthetic ester turbo lubricating oils.

  4. Involvement of Protein Kinase CK2 in Angiogenesis and Retinal Neovascularization

    PubMed Central

    Ljubimov, Alexander V.; Caballero, Sergio; Aoki, Annette M.; Pinna, Lorenzo A.; Grant, Maria B.; Castellon, Raquel

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the study was to characterize signaling intermediates involved in angiogenic responses of retinal endothelial cells (RECs) to the extracellular matrix and growth factors, by using specific inhibitors. Methods Tubelike structure formation and the development of secondary sprouts on a basement membrane (BM) matrix, cell proliferation, and cell migration were studied in cultures of bovine and human RECs. Specific inhibitors were tested for inhibition of retinal neovascularization in a mouse model of oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR). Results In initial experiments, the broad-spectrum protein kinase inhibitors, H7 and H89, stabilized REC tubes on BM matrix and inhibited secondary sprouting, cell migration, and cell proliferation. Among more specific kinase inhibitors tested, only inhibitors of protein kinase CK2 (formerly, casein kinase II), such as emodin and DRB, were able to duplicate the effects of H7 and H89. Actinomycin D caused only minor changes in angiogenic assays, suggesting that CK2’s effects on REC did not involve its known impact on transcription. The extent of retinal neovascularization in a mouse OIR model was reduced >70% (versus untreated or vehicle-treated groups) after treatment with emodin (6 days at 60 mg/kg per day) and by approximately 60% after treatment at the same dose with TBB, the most specific CK2 inhibitor known. In the treated retinas, the main vascular tree had minimal changes, but the neovascular tufts were greatly reduced in number or absent. Conclusions This is the first demonstration of the involvement of ubiquitous protein kinase CK2 in angiogenesis. Naturally derived CK2 inhibitors may be useful for treatment of proliferative retinopathies. PMID:15557471

  5. Single chain precursor prohaptoglobin promotes angiogenesis by upregulating expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and VEGF receptor2.

    PubMed

    Oh, Mi-Kyung; Park, Hyo-Jung; Lee, Joo-Hyun; Bae, Hyun-Mi; Kim, In-Sook

    2015-04-13

    Prohaptoglobin (proHp) is processed into mature haptoglobin via site-specific cleavage. Although haptoglobin has been well studied, the functions of proHp remain unclear. We investigated the angiogenic action of proHp in endothelial cells, demonstrating that proHp upregulated vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) expression and endothelial sprouting and branching. ProHp-induced sprouting was attenuated by a VEGFR2 inhibitor. Moreover, proHp was detected in sera of cancer patients by immunoprecipitation and Western blot. These findings indicate that proHp promotes angiogenesis via VEGF/VEGFR2 signalling, and serum proHp level may be a useful biomarker for diseases associated with angiogenesis. PMID:25775978

  6. Extracellular matrix as a solid-state regulator in angiogenesis: identification of new targets for anti-cancer therapy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingber, D. E.

    1992-01-01

    Angiogenesis, the growth of blood capillaries, is regulated by soluble growth factors and insoluble extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules. Soluble angiogenic mitogens act over large distances to initiate capillary growth whereas changes in ECM govern whether individual cells will grow, differentiate, or involute in response to these stimuli in the local tissue microenvironment. Analysis of this local control mechanism has revealed that ECM molecules switch capillary endothelial cells between differentiation and growth by both binding specific transmembrane integrin receptors and physically resisting cell-generated mechanical loads that are applied to these receptors. Control of capillary endothelial cell form and function therefore may be exerted by altering the mechanical properties of the ECM as well as its chemical composition. Understanding of this mechanochemical control mechanism has led to the development of new angiogenesis inhibitors that may be useful for the treatment of cancer.

  7. Targeting angiogenesis with integrative cancer therapies.

    PubMed

    Yance, Donald R; Sagar, Stephen M

    2006-03-01

    An integrative approach for managing a patient with cancer should target the multiple biochemical and physiological pathways that support tumor development while minimizing normal tissue toxicity. Angiogenesis is a key process in the promotion of cancer. Many natural health products that inhibit angiogenesis also manifest other anticancer activities. The authors will focus on natural health products (NHPs) that have a high degree of antiangiogenic activity but also describe some of their many other interactions that can inhibit tumor progression and reduce the risk of metastasis. NHPs target various molecular pathways besides angiogenesis, including epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), the HER-2/neu gene, the cyclooxygenase-2 enzyme, the NF-kB transcription factor, the protein kinases, Bcl-2 protein, and coagulation pathways. The herbalist has access to hundreds of years of observational data on the anticancer activity of many herbs. Laboratory studies are confirming the knowledge that is already documented in traditional texts. The following herbs are traditionally used for anticancer treatment and are antiangiogenic through multiple interdependent processes that include effects on gene expression, signal processing, and enzyme activities: Artemisia annua (Chinese wormwood), Viscum album (European mistletoe), Curcuma longa (turmeric), Scutellaria baicalensis (Chinese skullcap), resveratrol and proanthocyanidin (grape seed extract), Magnolia officinalis (Chinese magnolia tree), Camellia sinensis (green tea), Ginkgo biloba, quercetin, Poria cocos, Zingiber officinale (ginger), Panax ginseng, Rabdosia rubescens (rabdosia), and Chinese destagnation herbs. Quality assurance of appropriate extracts is essential prior to embarking on clinical trials. More data are required on dose response, appropriate combinations, and potential toxicities. Given the multiple effects of these agents, their future use for cancer therapy probably lies in synergistic combinations

  8. Discovery and Optimization of N-Substituted 2-(4-pyridinyl)thiazole carboxamides against Tumor Growth through Regulating Angiogenesis Signaling Pathways.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wenbo; Tang, Wenshu; Sun, Zhenliang; Li, Yunqi; Dong, Yanmin; Pei, Haixiang; Peng, Yangrui; Wang, Jinhua; Shao, Ting; Jiang, Zhenran; Yi, Zhengfang; Chen, Yihua

    2016-01-01

    Inhibition of angiogenesis is considered as one of the desirable pathways for the treatment of tumor growth and metastasis. Herein we demonstrated that a series of pyridinyl-thiazolyl carboxamide derivatives were designed, synthesized and examined against angiogenesis through a colony formation and migration assays of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in vitro. A structure-activity relationship (SAR) study was carried out and optimization toward this series of compounds resulted in the discovery of N-(3-methoxyphenyl)-4-methyl-2-(2-propyl-4-pyridinyl)thiazole-5-carboxamide (3k). The results indicated that compound 3k showed similar or better effects compared to Vandetanib in suppressing HUVECs colony formation and migration as well as VEGF-induced angiogenesis in the aortic ring spreading model and chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model. More importantly, compound 3k also strongly blocked tumor growth with the dosage of 30 mg/kg/day, and subsequent mechanism exploration suggested that this series of compounds took effect mainly through angiogenesis signaling pathways. Together, these results suggested compound 3k may serve as a lead for a novel class of angiogenesis inhibitors for cancer treatments. PMID:27633259

  9. BET Bromodomain Suppression Inhibits VEGF-induced Angiogenesis and Vascular Permeability by Blocking VEGFR2-mediated Activation of PAK1 and eNOS.

    PubMed

    Huang, Mingcheng; Qiu, Qian; Xiao, Youjun; Zeng, Shan; Zhan, Mingying; Shi, Maohua; Zou, Yaoyao; Ye, Yujin; Liang, Liuqin; Yang, Xiuyan; Xu, Hanshi

    2016-01-01

    The tyrosine kinase receptor vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) is a critical modulator of angiogenesis. Increasing evidence indicate the important role of bromodomain and extra-terminal domain (BET) of chromatin adaptors in regulating tumor growth and inflammatory response. However, whether BET proteins have a role in angiogenesis and endothelial permeability is unclear. In this study, we observed that treatment with JQ1, a specific BET inhibitor, suppressed in vitro tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and in vivo angiogenesis in a Matrigel plug and oxygen-induced retinopathy neovascularization. JQ1 attenuated the VEGF-induced decrease in TEER in HUVECs and prevented Evans blue dye leakage in the VEGF-induced Miles assay in athymic Balb/c nude mice. BET inhibition with JQ1 or shRNA for Brd2 or Brd4 suppressed VEGF-induced migration, proliferation, and stress fiber formation of HUVECs. Furthermore, BET inhibition suppressed phosphorylation of VEGFR2 and PAK1, as well as eNOS activation in VEGF-stimulated HUVECs. Inhibition with VEGFR2 and PAK1 also reduced migration and proliferation, and attenuated the VEGF-induced decrease in TEER. Thus, our observations suggest the important role of BET bromodomain in regulating VEGF-induced angiogenesis. Strategies that target the BET bromodomain may provide a new therapeutic approach for angiogenesis-related diseases. PMID:27044328

  10. BET Bromodomain Suppression Inhibits VEGF-induced Angiogenesis and Vascular Permeability by Blocking VEGFR2-mediated Activation of PAK1 and eNOS

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Mingcheng; Qiu, Qian; Xiao, Youjun; Zeng, Shan; Zhan, Mingying; Shi, Maohua; Zou, Yaoyao; Ye, Yujin; Liang, Liuqin; Yang, Xiuyan; Xu, Hanshi

    2016-01-01

    The tyrosine kinase receptor vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) is a critical modulator of angiogenesis. Increasing evidence indicate the important role of bromodomain and extra-terminal domain (BET) of chromatin adaptors in regulating tumor growth and inflammatory response. However, whether BET proteins have a role in angiogenesis and endothelial permeability is unclear. In this study, we observed that treatment with JQ1, a specific BET inhibitor, suppressed in vitro tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and in vivo angiogenesis in a Matrigel plug and oxygen-induced retinopathy neovascularization. JQ1 attenuated the VEGF-induced decrease in TEER in HUVECs and prevented Evans blue dye leakage in the VEGF-induced Miles assay in athymic Balb/c nude mice. BET inhibition with JQ1 or shRNA for Brd2 or Brd4 suppressed VEGF-induced migration, proliferation, and stress fiber formation of HUVECs. Furthermore, BET inhibition suppressed phosphorylation of VEGFR2 and PAK1, as well as eNOS activation in VEGF-stimulated HUVECs. Inhibition with VEGFR2 and PAK1 also reduced migration and proliferation, and attenuated the VEGF-induced decrease in TEER. Thus, our observations suggest the important role of BET bromodomain in regulating VEGF-induced angiogenesis. Strategies that target the BET bromodomain may provide a new therapeutic approach for angiogenesis-related diseases. PMID:27044328

  11. Discovery and Optimization of N-Substituted 2-(4-pyridinyl)thiazole carboxamides against Tumor Growth through Regulating Angiogenesis Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Wenbo; Tang, Wenshu; Sun, Zhenliang; Li, Yunqi; Dong, Yanmin; Pei, Haixiang; Peng, Yangrui; Wang, Jinhua; Shao, Ting; Jiang, Zhenran; Yi, Zhengfang; Chen, Yihua

    2016-01-01

    Inhibition of angiogenesis is considered as one of the desirable pathways for the treatment of tumor growth and metastasis. Herein we demonstrated that a series of pyridinyl-thiazolyl carboxamide derivatives were designed, synthesized and examined against angiogenesis through a colony formation and migration assays of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in vitro. A structure-activity relationship (SAR) study was carried out and optimization toward this series of compounds resulted in the discovery of N-(3-methoxyphenyl)-4-methyl-2-(2-propyl-4-pyridinyl)thiazole-5-carboxamide (3k). The results indicated that compound 3k showed similar or better effects compared to Vandetanib in suppressing HUVECs colony formation and migration as well as VEGF-induced angiogenesis in the aortic ring spreading model and chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model. More importantly, compound 3k also strongly blocked tumor growth with the dosage of 30 mg/kg/day, and subsequent mechanism exploration suggested that this series of compounds took effect mainly through angiogenesis signaling pathways. Together, these results suggested compound 3k may serve as a lead for a novel class of angiogenesis inhibitors for cancer treatments. PMID:27633259

  12. Mechanisms of angiogenesis in a Curculigoside A-treated rat model of cerebral ischemia and reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Haibo; He, Jie; Ye, Liang; Lin, Fei; Hou, Jian; Zhong, Yan; Jiang, Wanglin

    2015-11-01

    Curculigoside A has shown protective effects against rat cortical neuron damage in vivo. However, the molecular mechanisms through which Curculigoside A affords this protection are unclear. In the present study, we sought to elucidate the mechanisms of angiogenesis in rat aortic endothelial cells (RAEC), rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMC) as well as a rat model of cerebral ischemia and reperfusion injury following treatment with Curculigoside A. We examined the role of Curculigoside A on RAEC and RASMC proliferation, migration, and tube formation in vitro and in a cerebral ischemia and reperfusion injury rat model. We used the recombinant Dickkopf (DKK)-1 protein, a Wnt/β-catenin inhibitor, and the recombinant WIF-1 protein, a Wnt5a antagonist to determine mechanisms. In addition, we measured leakage of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and tested for angiogenesis associated proteins. Our data suggest that Curculigoside A induces angiogenesis in vitro by increasing proliferation, migration and tube formation in RAEC and RASMC. The increase in Curculigoside A-induced proliferation and tube formation was counteracted by DKK-1 and WIF-1. Curculigoside A increased expression of VEGF, p-VEGFR, p-CREB, Egr-3, VCAM-1, Ang1 and Tie2 while prohibiting BBB leakage in cerebral ischemia and reperfusion injured rats. However, Cyclosporine A, a CREB inhibitor, reduced the expression of p-CREB, Egr-3, VCAM-1, Ang1 and Tie2. These data suggest that Curculigoside A induces cell proliferation and angiogenesis through the Wnt5a/β-catenin and VEGF/CREB/Egr-3/VCAM-1 signaling axis and promotes maturation and stability of new blood vessels via increasing Ang1 and Tie-2 expression.

  13. Glycolytic regulation of cell rearrangement in angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Cruys, Bert; Wong, Brian W; Kuchnio, Anna; Verdegem, Dries; Cantelmo, Anna Rita; Conradi, Lena-Christin; Vandekeere, Saar; Bouché, Ann; Cornelissen, Ivo; Vinckier, Stefan; Merks, Roeland M H; Dejana, Elisabetta; Gerhardt, Holger; Dewerchin, Mieke; Bentley, Katie; Carmeliet, Peter

    2016-01-01

    During vessel sprouting, endothelial cells (ECs) dynamically rearrange positions in the sprout to compete for the tip position. We recently identified a key role for the glycolytic activator PFKFB3 in vessel sprouting by regulating cytoskeleton remodelling, migration and tip cell competitiveness. It is, however, unknown how glycolysis regulates EC rearrangement during vessel sprouting. Here we report that computational simulations, validated by experimentation, predict that glycolytic production of ATP drives EC rearrangement by promoting filopodia formation and reducing intercellular adhesion. Notably, the simulations correctly predicted that blocking PFKFB3 normalizes the disturbed EC rearrangement in high VEGF conditions, as occurs during pathological angiogenesis. This interdisciplinary study integrates EC metabolism in vessel sprouting, yielding mechanistic insight in the control of vessel sprouting by glycolysis, and suggesting anti-glycolytic therapy for vessel normalization in cancer and non-malignant diseases. PMID:27436424

  14. Hybrid modeling of tumor-induced angiogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonilla, L. L.; Capasso, V.; Alvaro, M.; Carretero, M.

    2014-12-01

    When modeling of tumor-driven angiogenesis, a major source of analytical and computational complexity is the strong coupling between the kinetic parameters of the relevant stochastic branching-and-growth of the capillary network, and the family of interacting underlying fields. To reduce this complexity, we take advantage of the system intrinsic multiscale structure: we describe the stochastic dynamics of the cells at the vessel tip at their natural mesoscale, whereas we describe the deterministic dynamics of the underlying fields at a larger macroscale. Here, we set up a conceptual stochastic model including branching, elongation, and anastomosis of vessels and derive a mean field approximation for their densities. This leads to a deterministic integropartial differential system that describes the formation of the stochastic vessel network. We discuss the proper capillary injecting boundary conditions and include the results of relevant numerical simulations.

  15. Glycolytic regulation of cell rearrangement in angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Cruys, Bert; Wong, Brian W.; Kuchnio, Anna; Verdegem, Dries; Cantelmo, Anna Rita; Conradi, Lena-Christin; Vandekeere, Saar; Bouché, Ann; Cornelissen, Ivo; Vinckier, Stefan; Merks, Roeland M. H.; Dejana, Elisabetta; Gerhardt, Holger; Dewerchin, Mieke; Bentley, Katie; Carmeliet, Peter

    2016-01-01

    During vessel sprouting, endothelial cells (ECs) dynamically rearrange positions in the sprout to compete for the tip position. We recently identified a key role for the glycolytic activator PFKFB3 in vessel sprouting by regulating cytoskeleton remodelling, migration and tip cell competitiveness. It is, however, unknown how glycolysis regulates EC rearrangement during vessel sprouting. Here we report that computational simulations, validated by experimentation, predict that glycolytic production of ATP drives EC rearrangement by promoting filopodia formation and reducing intercellular adhesion. Notably, the simulations correctly predicted that blocking PFKFB3 normalizes the disturbed EC rearrangement in high VEGF conditions, as occurs during pathological angiogenesis. This interdisciplinary study integrates EC metabolism in vessel sprouting, yielding mechanistic insight in the control of vessel sprouting by glycolysis, and suggesting anti-glycolytic therapy for vessel normalization in cancer and non-malignant diseases. PMID:27436424

  16. Angiogenesis and autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jennifer L; Woolf, Adrian S; Long, David A

    2013-09-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is characterized by the growth of multiple cysts that in many cases result in end-stage renal disease. Current strategies to reduce cyst progression in ADPKD focus on modulating cell turnover, fluid secretion, and vasopressin signalling; but an alternative approach may be to target pathways providing "general support" for cyst growth, such as surrounding blood vessels. This could be achieved by altering the expression of growth factors involved in vascular network formation, such as the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and angiopoietin families. We highlight the evidence that blood vessels and vascular growth factors play a role in ADPKD progression. Recent experiments manipulating VEGF in ADPKD are described, and we discuss how alternative strategies to manipulate angiogenesis may be used in the future as a novel treatment for ADPKD. PMID:22990303

  17. Tumor angiogenesis in mice and men.

    PubMed

    Alani, Rhoda M; Silverthorn, Courtney F; Orosz, Kate

    2004-06-01

    Over the past decade much research has focused on understanding the molecular pathways that regulate the development of a tumor-associated vasculature. In 1999, Lyden and colleagues showed that mice deficient in one to three Id1 or Id3 alleles could not support the growth of tumor xenografts due to defects in tumor-associated angiogenesis. Three recently published manuscripts have now re-examined the role of Id genes in the development of a tumor-associated vasculature using more clinically relevant tumor model systems. Remarkably, all three studies have found strikingly different results compared to the original xenograft data published in 1999. Below we review the current understanding of the role of Id genes in the development of a tumor-associated vasculature given the most recent data and suggest ways in which animal tumor model systems might be put to better use to provide more clinically relevant information.

  18. Induction of angiogenesis by normal and malignant plasma cells.

    PubMed

    Hose, Dirk; Moreaux, Jérôme; Meissner, Tobias; Seckinger, Anja; Goldschmidt, Hartmut; Benner, Axel; Mahtouk, Karène; Hillengass, Jens; Rème, Thierry; De Vos, John; Hundemer, Michael; Condomines, Maud; Bertsch, Uta; Rossi, Jean-François; Jauch, Anna; Klein, Bernard; Möhler, Thomas

    2009-07-01

    Abundant bone marrow angiogenesis is present in almost all myeloma patients requiring therapy and correlated to treatment response and survival. We assessed the expression of 402 angiogenesis-associated genes by Affymetrix DNA microarrays in 466 samples, including CD138-purified myeloma cells (MMCs) from 300 previously untreated patients, in vivo microcirculation by dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging, and in vitro angiogenesis (AngioKit-assay). Normal bone marrow plasma cells (BMPCs) express a median of 39 proangiogenic (eg, VEGFA, ADM, IGF-1) and 28 antiangiogenic genes (eg, TIMP1, TIMP2). Supernatants of BMPCs unlike those of memory B cells induce angiogenesis in vitro. MMCs do not show a significantly higher median number of expressed proangiogenic (45) or antiangiogenic (31) genes, but 97% of MMC samples aberrantly express at least one of the angiogenic factors HGF, IL-15, ANG, APRIL, CTGF, or TGFA. Supernatants of MMCs and human myeloma cell lines induce significantly higher in vitro angiogenesis compared with BMPCs. In conclusion, BMPCs express a surplus of proangiogenic over antiangiogenic genes transmitting to the ability to induce in vitro angiogenesis. Aberrant expression of proangiogenic and down-regulation of antiangiogenic genes by MMCs further increases the angiogenic stimulus, together leading to bone marrow angiogenesis at various degrees in all myeloma patients.

  19. Angiogenesis is repressed by ethanol exposure during chick embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guang; Zhong, Shan; Zhang, Shi-yao; Ma, Zheng-lai; Chen, Jian-long; Lu, Wen-hui; Cheng, Xin; Chuai, Manli; Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho; Lu, Da-xiang; Yang, Xuesong

    2016-05-01

    It is now known that excess alcohol consumption during pregnancy can cause fetal alcohol syndrome to develop. However, it is not known whether excess ethanol exposure could directly affect angiogenesis in the embryo or angiogenesis being indirectly affected because of ethanol-induced fetal alcohol syndrome. Using the chick yolk sac membrane (YSM) model, we demonstrated that ethanol exposure dramatically inhibited angiogenesis in the YSM of 9-day-old chick embryos, in a dose-dependent manner. Likewise, the anti-angiogenesis effect of ethanol could be seen in the developing vessel plexus (at the same extra-embryonic regions) during earlier stages of embryo development. The anti-angiogenic effect of ethanol was found associated with excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) production; as glutathione peroxidase activity increased while superoxide dismutase 1 and 2 activities decreased in the YSMs. We further validated this observation by exposing chick embryos to 2,2'-azobis-amidinopropane dihydrochloride (a ROS inducer) and obtained a similar anti-angiogenesis effect as ethanol treatment. Semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis of the experimental YSMs revealed that expression of angiogenesis-related genes, vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptor, fibroblast growth factor 2 and hypoxia-inducible factor, were all repressed following ethanol and 2,2'-azobis-amidinopropane dihydrochloride treatment. In summary, our results suggest that excess ethanol exposure inhibits embryonic angiogenesis through promoting superfluous ROS production during embryo development. PMID:26177723

  20. Inhibition of arachidonic acid metabolism and its implication on cell proliferation and tumour-angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Hyde, C A C; Missailidis, S

    2009-06-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA) and its metabolites have recently generated a heightened interest due to growing evidence of their significant role in cancer biology. Thus, inhibitors of the AA cascade, first and foremost COX inhibitors, which have originally been of interest in the treatment of inflammatory conditions and certain types of cardiovascular disease, are now attracting attention as an arsenal against cancer. An increasing number of investigations support their role in cancer chemoprevention, although the precise molecular mechanisms that link levels of AA, and its metabolites, with cancer progression have still to be elucidated. This article provides an overview of the AA cascade and focuses on the roles of its inhibitors and their implication in cancer treatment. In particular, emphasis is placed on the inhibition of cell proliferation and neo-angiogenesis through inhibition of the enzymes COX-2, 5-LOX and CYP450. Downstream effects of inhibition of AA metabolites are analysed and the molecular mechanisms of action of a selected number of inhibitors of catalytic pathways reviewed. Lastly, the benefits of dietary omega-3 fatty acids and their mechanisms of action leading to reduced cancer risk and impeded cancer cell growth are mentioned. Finally, a proposal is put forward, suggesting a novel and integrated approach in viewing the molecular mechanisms and complex interactions responsible for the involvement of AA metabolites in carcinogenesis and the protective effects of omega-3 fatty acids in inflammation and tumour prevention. PMID:19239926

  1. Ephrin-A1 Is Up-Regulated by Hypoxia in Cancer Cells and Promotes Angiogenesis of HUVECs through a Coordinated Cross-Talk with eNOS

    PubMed Central

    Song, Kai; Shang, Zheng-Jun

    2013-01-01

    Hypoxia, ephrin-A1 and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) have been proved to play critical roles in tumor angiogenesis. However, how ephrin-A1 is regulated by hypoxia and whether ephrin-A1 cooperates with eNOS in modulation of angiogenesis remain to be addressed in details. Here we demonstrated that both ephrin-A1 in squamous cell carcinoma cells (SCC-9) and especially soluble ephrin-A1 in the supernatants were up-regulated under hypoxic condition. An increased nitric oxide (NO) production in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) was observed in ephrin-A1-induced angiogenesis which was reversed after co-culture with eNOS specific inhibitor, N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME). Western blot analysis confirmed that both phosphorylation of AktSer473 and eNOSSer1177 were up-regulated in ephrin-A1-stimulated HUVECs, with the total eNOS expression unchanged. The specific inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), LY294002, significantly down-regulated ephrin-A1-induced expression of phosphorylated AktSer473 as well as phosphorylation of eNOSSer1177. These results revealed a possible novel mechanism whereby ephrin-A1 is regulated in tumor microenvironment and promotes angiogenesis through a coordinated cross-talk with PI3K/Akt-dependent eNOS activation which may relate to normal vascular development and tumor neovascularization. PMID:24040255

  2. Human Urinary Kallidinogenase Promotes Angiogenesis and Cerebral Perfusion in Experimental Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yanting; Zhang, Meijuan; Qian, Lai; Chen, Yan; Wu, Zhengzheng; Xu, Yun; Li, Jingwei

    2015-01-01

    Angiogenesisis a key restorative mechanism in response to ischemia, and pro-angiogenic therapy could be beneficial in stroke. Accumulating experimental and clinical evidence suggest that human urinary kallidinogenase (HUK) improves stroke outcome, but the underlying mechanisms are not clear. The aim of current study was to verify roles of HUK in post-ischemic angiogenesis and identify relevant mediators. In rat middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model, we confirmed that HUK treatment could improve stroke outcome, indicated by reduced infarct size and improved neurological function. Notably, the 18F-FDG micro-PET scan indicated that HUK enhanced cerebral perfusion in rats after MCAO treatment. In addition, HUK promotespost-ischemic angiogenesis, with increased vessel density as well as up-regulated VEGF andapelin/APJ expression in HUK-treated MCAO mice. In endothelial cell cultures, induction of VEGF and apelin/APJ expression, and ERK1/2 phosphorylation by HUK was further confirmed. These changes were abrogated by U0126, a selective ERK1/2 inhibitor. Moreover, F13A, a competitive antagonist of APJ receptor, significantly suppressed HUK-induced VEGF expression. Furthermore, angiogenic functions of HUK were inhibited in the presence of selective bradykinin B1 or B2 receptor antagonist both in vitro and in vivo. Our findings indicate that HUK treatment promotes post-ischemic angiogenesis and cerebral perfusion via activation of bradykinin B1 and B2 receptors, which is potentially due to enhancement expression of VEGF and apelin/APJ in ERK1/2 dependent way. PMID:26222055

  3. Diet-derived polyphenols inhibit angiogenesis by modulating the interleukin-6/STAT3 pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Lamy, Sylvie; Akla, Naoufal; Ouanouki, Amira; Lord-Dufour, Simon; Beliveau, Richard

    2012-08-01

    Several epidemiological studies have indicated that abundant consumption of foods from plant origin is associated with a reduced risk of developing several types of cancers. This chemopreventive effect is related to the high content of these foods in phytochemicals, such as polyphenols, that interfere with several processes involved in cancer progression including tumor cell growth, survival and angiogenesis. In addition to the low intake of plant-based foods, increased body mass and physical inactivity have recently emerged as other important lifestyle factors influencing cancer risk, leading to the generation of low-grade chronic inflammatory conditions which are a key process involved in tumor progression. The objectives of the current study are to investigate the inhibitory effects of these polyphenols on angiogenesis triggered by an inflammatory cytokine (IL-6) and to determine the mechanisms underlying this action. We found that, among the tested polyphenols, apigenin and luteolin were the most potent angiogenesis inhibitors through their inhibitory effect on the inflammatory cytokine IL-6/STAT3 pathway. These effects resulted in modulation of the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 signaling triggered by IL-6, as well as in a marked reduction in the proliferation, migration and morphogenic differentiation of endothelial cells. Interestingly, these polyphenols also modulated the expression of IL-6 signal transducing receptor (IL-6R{alpha}) and the secretion of the extracellular matrix degrading enzyme MMP-2 as well as the expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS3) protein. Overall, these results may provide important new information on the role of diet in cancer prevention.

  4. R-Spondin 1/Dickkopf-1/Beta-Catenin Machinery Is Involved in Testicular Embryonic Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Caruso, Maria; Ferranti, Francesca; Corano Scheri, Katia; Dobrowolny, Gabriella; Ciccarone, Fabio; Grammatico, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Testicular vasculogenesis is one of the key processes regulating male gonad morphogenesis. The knowledge of the molecular cues underlining this phenomenon is one of today’s most challenging issues and could represent a major contribution toward a better understanding of the onset of testicular morphogenetic disorders. R-spondin 1 has been clearly established as a candidate for mammalian ovary determination. Conversely, very little information is available on the expression and role of R-spondin 1 during testicular morphogenesis. This study aims to clarify the distribution pattern of R-spondin 1 and other partners of its machinery during the entire period of testicular morphogenesis and to indicate the role of this system in testicular development. Our whole mount immunofluorescence results clearly demonstrate that R-spondin 1 is always detectable in the testicular coelomic partition, where testicular vasculature is organized, while Dickkopf-1 is never detectable in this area. Moreover, organ culture experiments of embryonic male UGRs demonstrated that Dickkopf-1 acted as an inhibitor of testis vasculature formation. Consistent with this observation, real-time PCR analyses demonstrated that DKK1 is able to slightly but significantly decrease the expression level of the endothelial marker Pecam1. The latter experiments allowed us to observe that DKK1 administration also perturbs the expression level of the Pdgf-b chain, which is consistent with some authors’ observations relating this factor with prenatal testicular patterning and angiogenesis. Interestingly, the DKK1 induced inhibition of testicular angiogenesis was rescued by the co-administration of R-spondin 1. In addition, R-spondin 1 alone was sufficient to enhance, in culture, testicular angiogenesis. PMID:25910078

  5. Inhibition of endothelial Cdk5 reduces tumor growth by promoting non-productive angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Merk, Henriette; Zhang, Siwei; Lehr, Thorsten; Müller, Christoph; Ulrich, Melanie; Bibb, James A; Adams, Ralf H; Bracher, Franz; Zahler, Stefan; Vollmar, Angelika M; Liebl, Johanna

    2016-02-01

    Therapeutic success of VEGF-based anti-angiogenic tumor therapy is limited due to resistance. Thus, new strategies for anti-angiogenic cancer therapy based on novel targets are urgently required. Our previous in vitro work suggested that small molecule Cdk5 inhibitors affect angiogenic processes such as endothelial migration and proliferation. Moreover, we recently uncovered a substantial role of Cdk5 in the development of lymphatic vessels. Here we pin down the in vivo impact of endothelial Cdk5 inhibition in angiogenesis and elucidate the underlying mechanism in order to judge the potential of Cdk5 as a novel anti-angiogenic and anti-cancer target. By the use of endothelial-specific Cdk5 knockout mouse models and various endothelial and tumor cell based assays including human tumor xenograft models, we show that endothelial-specific knockdown of Cdk5 results in excessive but non-productive angiogenesis during development but also in tumors, which subsequently leads to inhibition of tumor growth. As Cdk5 inhibition disrupted Notch function by reducing the generation of the active Notch intracellular domain (NICD) and Cdk5 modulates Notch-dependent endothelial cell proliferation and sprouting, we propose that the Dll4/Notch driven angiogenic signaling hub is an important and promising mechanistic target of Cdk5. In fact, Cdk5 inhibition can sensitize tumors to conventional anti-angiogenic treatment as shown in tumor xenograft models. In summary our data set the stage for Cdk5 as a drugable target to inhibit Notch-driven angiogenesis condensing the view that Cdk5 is a promising target for cancer therapy. PMID:26755662

  6. Inhibition of experimental angiogenesis by the somatostatin analogue octreotide acetate (SMS 201-995).

    PubMed

    Danesi, R; Agen, C; Benelli, U; Paolo, A D; Nardini, D; Bocci, G; Basolo, F; Campagni, A; Tacca, M D

    1997-02-01

    The present study investigates the effect of the somatostatin analogue octreotide acetate (SMS 201-995) on experimental angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Octreotide reduced the proliferation of human HUV-EC-C endothelial cells (mean, -45.8% versus controls at 10(-9) M; P < 0.05) as well as the density of the vascular network of the chick chorioallantoic membrane (mean, -35.7% versus controls at 50 microgram; P < 0.05). Furthermore, octreotide significantly inhibited chick chorioallantoic membrane neovascularization by the human MCF-10Aint-2 mammary cells secreting the angiogenic protein FGF-3. The proliferation of endothelial and smooth muscle cells from rat aorta explants on fibronectin was reduced by octreotide 10(-8) M (mean, -32.6% versus controls; P < 0.05), and a similar effect was produced on cells sprouting from explants cultured in fibrin (mean, -52.9% versus controls; P < 0.05). Topical administration of octreotide 10 microgram/day for 6 days inhibited rat cornea neovascularization induced by AgNO3/KNO3 (mean, -50.6% versus controls; P < 0.05). Octreotide 40 microgram/day i.p was tested on angiogenesis in rat mesentery obtained by i.p. injections of compound 48/80, a mast cell degranulating agent, or conditioned medium from MCF-10Aint-2 cells and was able to reduce the extent of neovascularization (mean, -45.6 and -64.1%, respectively, versus controls; P < 0.05). These data provide evidence that octreotide is an inhibitor of experimental angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo.

  7. Lysine demethylase 2A promotes stemness and angiogenesis of breast cancer by upregulating Jagged1

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jing-Yi; Li, Chien-Feng; Chu, Pei-Yi; Lai, You-Syuan; Chen, Chung-Hsing; Jiang, Shih Sheng; Hou, Ming-Feng; Hung, Wen-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Alterations of histone methylation dynamically regulated by methyltransferases and demethylases are frequently found in human cancers. Here, we showed that expression of lysine demethylase 2A (KDM2A) is markedly increased in human breast cancer and its overexpression is associated with tumor progression and poor prognosis. Knockdown of KDM2A in breast cancer cells reduced proliferation but not viability. Gene set enrichment analysis revealed that inhibition of KDM2A down-regulates angiogenic genes with concurrent reduction of Jagged1 (JAG1), NOTCH1 and HEY1 in the NOTCH signaling. Chromatin immunoprecipitation- quantitative polymerase chain reaction (ChIP-qPCR) demonstrated the binding of KDM2A to the JAG1 promoter and the increase of methylation of Lys-36 of histone H3 (H3K36) in KDM2A-depleted MDA-MB-231 cells. Tumorsphere formation was significantly reduced in KDM2A-depleted cells which could be reversed by ectopic expression of JAG1. A selective KDM2A inhibitor daminozide also decreased the number of tumorsphere and the number of CD24−/CD44hi cells. In addition, daminozide acted synergistically with cisplatin in cell killing. We identified SOX2 as a direct transcriptional target of KDM2A to promote cancer stemness. Depletion of KDM2A in MDA-MB-231 cells attenuated NOTCH activation and tube formation in co-cultured endothelial cells. Two pro-angiogenic factors JAG1 and PDGFA are key mediators for KDM2A to enhance angiogenesis. Finally, inhibition of KDM2A significantly decreased tumor growth and angiogenesis in orthotopic animal experiments. Collectively, we conclude that KDM2A functions as an oncogene in breast cancer by upregulating JAG1 to promote stemness, chemoresistance and angiogenesis. PMID:27029061

  8. Thymidine phosphorylase induces angiogenesis in vivo and in vitro: an evaluation of possible mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Sengupta, Shiladitya; Sellers, Lynda A; Matheson, Hugh B; Fan, Tai-Ping D

    2003-01-01

    Thymidine phosphorylase (TP) is elevated in the plasma of cancer patients, and has been implicated in pathophysiological angiogenesis. However, the downstream signals underlying this implication remain obscure. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of TP on the neovascularisation response in vitro and in vivo. Both TP and its catalytic product, 2-deoxy-D-ribose-1-phosphate, and downstream 2-deoxy-D-ribose (2-DDR) promoted endothelial tubulogenesis in vitro, and the regeneration of a wounded monolayer of endothelial cells without exerting any mitogenic effect. In vivo, both TP and 2-DDR promoted the development of functional vasculature into an avascular sponge. A TP inhibitor, 6-amino-5-chlorouracil, was able to partially reverse the effects of TP, but had no effect on the 2-DDR-induced angiogenesis. Enhanced monolayer regeneration was observed with TP-cDNA-transfected bladder carcinoma cells. The transfection of TP-cDNA, however, did not confer any proliferative advantage. The regeneration of TP overexpressing cells was associated with a time-dependent expression of the enzyme haeme-oxygenase (HO-1). The present study demonstrates that both TP and its ribose-sugar metabolites induce angiogenesis by mediating a cohesive interplay between carcinoma and endothelial cells. The induction of HO-1 in TP-transfected cells suggests that it could be a possible downstream signal for the angiogenic effects of TP. Furthermore, reducing sugars have been shown to induce oxidative stress, and ribose could be a possible cause for the upregulation of HO-1, which has been implicated in the release of angiogenic factors. Therefore, we postulate that 2-DDR could be mediating the angiogenic effects of TP possibly through an oxidative stress mechanism and additionally getting integrated in the endothelial metabolic machinery. PMID:12770927

  9. 3D-printed dimethyloxallyl glycine delivery scaffolds to improve angiogenesis and osteogenesis.

    PubMed

    Min, Zhu; Shichang, Zhao; Chen, Xin; Yufang, Zhu; Changqing, Zhang

    2015-08-01

    Angiogenesis-osteogenesis coupling processes are vital in bone tissue engineering. Normal biomaterials implanted in bone defects have issues in the sufficient formation of blood vessels, especially in the central part. Single delivery of vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF) to foci in previous studies did not show satisfactory results due to low loading doses, a short protein half-life and low efficiency. Development of a hypoxia-mimicking microenvironment for cells by local prolyl-4-hydroxylase inhibitor release, which can stabilize hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) expression, is an alternative method. The aim of this study was to design a dimethyloxallyl glycine (DMOG) delivering scaffold composed of mesoporous bioactive glasses and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) polymers (MPHS scaffolds), so as to investigate whether the sustained release of DMOG promotes local angiogenesis and bone healing. The morphology and microstructure of composite scaffolds were characterized. The DMOG release patterns from scaffolds loaded with different DMOG dosages were evaluated, and the effects of DMOG delivery on human bone marrow stromal cell (hBMSC) adhesion, viability, proliferation, osteogenic differentiation and angiogenic-relative gene expressions with scaffolds were also investigated. In vivo studies were carried out to observe vascular formations and new bone ingrowth with DMOG-loaded scaffolds. The results showed that DMOG could be released in a sustained manner over 4 weeks from MPHS scaffolds and obviously enhance the angiogenesis and osteogenesis in the defects. Microfil perfusion showed a significantly increased formation of vessels in the defects with DMOG delivery. Furthermore, micro-CT imaging and fluorescence labeling indicated larger areas of bone formation for DMOG-loaded scaffolds. It is concluded that MPHS-DMOG scaffolds are promising for enhancing bone healing of osseous defects. PMID:26222039

  10. Inhibition of endothelial Cdk5 reduces tumor growth by promoting non-productive angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Merk, Henriette; Zhang, Siwei; Lehr, Thorsten; Müller, Christoph; Ulrich, Melanie; Bibb, James A.; Adams, Ralf H.; Bracher, Franz; Zahler, Stefan; Vollmar, Angelika M.; Liebl, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic success of VEGF-based anti-angiogenic tumor therapy is limited due to resistance. Thus, new strategies for anti-angiogenic cancer therapy based on novel targets are urgently required. Our previous in vitro work suggested that small molecule Cdk5 inhibitors affect angiogenic processes such as endothelial migration and proliferation. Moreover, we recently uncovered a substantial role of Cdk5 in the development of lymphatic vessels. Here we pin down the in vivo impact of endothelial Cdk5 inhibition in angiogenesis and elucidate the underlying mechanism in order to judge the potential of Cdk5 as a novel anti-angiogenic and anti-cancer target. By the use of endothelial-specific Cdk5 knockout mouse models and various endothelial and tumor cell based assays including human tumor xenograft models, we show that endothelial-specific knockdown of Cdk5 results in excessive but non-productive angiogenesis during development but also in tumors, which subsequently leads to inhibition of tumor growth. As Cdk5 inhibition disrupted Notch function by reducing the generation of the active Notch intracellular domain (NICD) and Cdk5 modulates Notch-dependent endothelial cell proliferation and sprouting, we propose that the Dll4/Notch driven angiogenic signaling hub is an important and promising mechanistic target of Cdk5. In fact, Cdk5 inhibition can sensitize tumors to conventional anti-angiogenic treatment as shown in tumor xenograft models. In summary our data set the stage for Cdk5 as a drugable target to inhibit Notch-driven angiogenesis condensing the view that Cdk5 is a promising target for cancer therapy. PMID:26755662

  11. Inhibition of endothelial Cdk5 reduces tumor growth by promoting non-productive angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Merk, Henriette; Zhang, Siwei; Lehr, Thorsten; Müller, Christoph; Ulrich, Melanie; Bibb, James A; Adams, Ralf H; Bracher, Franz; Zahler, Stefan; Vollmar, Angelika M; Liebl, Johanna

    2016-02-01

    Therapeutic success of VEGF-based anti-angiogenic tumor therapy is limited due to resistance. Thus, new strategies for anti-angiogenic cancer therapy based on novel targets are urgently required. Our previous in vitro work suggested that small molecule Cdk5 inhibitors affect angiogenic processes such as endothelial migration and proliferation. Moreover, we recently uncovered a substantial role of Cdk5 in the development of lymphatic vessels. Here we pin down the in vivo impact of endothelial Cdk5 inhibition in angiogenesis and elucidate the underlying mechanism in order to judge the potential of Cdk5 as a novel anti-angiogenic and anti-cancer target. By the use of endothelial-specific Cdk5 knockout mouse models and various endothelial and tumor cell based assays including human tumor xenograft models, we show that endothelial-specific knockdown of Cdk5 results in excessive but non-productive angiogenesis during development but also in tumors, which subsequently leads to inhibition of tumor growth. As Cdk5 inhibition disrupted Notch function by reducing the generation of the active Notch intracellular domain (NICD) and Cdk5 modulates Notch-dependent endothelial cell proliferation and sprouting, we propose that the Dll4/Notch driven angiogenic signaling hub is an important and promising mechanistic target of Cdk5. In fact, Cdk5 inhibition can sensitize tumors to conventional anti-angiogenic treatment as shown in tumor xenograft models. In summary our data set the stage for Cdk5 as a drugable target to inhibit Notch-driven angiogenesis condensing the view that Cdk5 is a promising target for cancer therapy.

  12. Wogonin inhibits tumor angiogenesis via degradation of HIF-1α protein

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Xiuming; Yao, Jing; Wang, Fei; Zhou, Mi; Zhou, Yuxin; Wang, Hu; Wei, Libin; Zhao, Li; Li, Zhiyu; Lu, Na Guo, Qinglong

    2013-09-01

    Wogonin, a plant-derived flavone, has been shown recently to have antitumor effects. However, the mechanisms that wogonin inhibits tumor angiogenesis are not well known. In this study, we investigated the effects of wogonin on expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in tumor cells. We found that wogonin decreased the expression of HIF-1α by affecting its stability and reduced the secretion of VEGF, which suppressed angiogenesis in cancer. Wogonin promoted the degradation of HIF-1α by increasing its prolyl hydroxylation, which depended on prolyl hydroxylase (PHD) and the von Hippel–Lindau tumor suppressor (VHL). Intriguingly, wogonin impeded the binding between heat-shock protein 90 (Hsp90) and HIF-1α. In addition, wogonin down-regulated the Hsp90 client proteins EGFR, Cdk4 and survivin, but did not affect the level of Hsp90. Wogonin also increased ubiquitination of HIF-1α and promoted its degradation in proteasome. We also found that wogonin could inhibit nuclear translocation of HIF-1α. Electrophoresis mobility shift assay (EMSA) showed that wogonin decreased the binding activity of exogenous consensus DNA oligonucleotide with HIF-1α in nuclear extracts from MCF-7 cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay also revealed that HIF-1α directly binded to endogenous hypoxia-responsive element (HRE) and this binding was significantly decreased in MCF-7 cells treated with wogonin. Preliminary results indicated in vivo activity of wogonin against xenograft-induced angiogenesis in nude mice. Taken together, the results suggested that wogonin was a potent inhibitor of HIF-1α and provided a new insight into the mechanisms of wogonin against cancers. - Highlights: • Wogonin is an all around inhibitor of VEGF signaling. • We firstly demonstrate that wogonin inhibits secretion of VEGF by decreasing HIF-1α. • Wogonin enhances PDH and VHL expression and inhibits Hsp90 function.

  13. Molecular Imaging of Angiogenesis and Vascular Remodeling in Cardiovascular Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Golestani, Reza; Jung, Jae-Joon; Sadeghi, Mehran M.

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenesis and vascular remodeling are involved in a wide array of cardiovascular diseases, from myocardial ischemia and peripheral arterial disease, to atherosclerosis and aortic aneurysm. Molecular imaging techniques to detect and quantify key molecular and cellular players in angiogenesis and vascular remodeling (e.g., vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptors, αvβ3 integrin, and matrix metalloproteinases) can advance vascular biology research and serve as clinical tools for early diagnosis, risk stratification, and selection of patients who would benefit most from therapeutic interventions. To target these key mediators, a number of molecular imaging techniques have been developed and evaluated in animal models of angiogenesis and vascular remodeling. This review of the state of the art molecular imaging of angiogenesis and vascular (and valvular) remodeling, will focus mostly on nuclear imaging techniques (positron emission tomography and single photon emission tomography) that offer high potential for clinical translation. PMID:27275836

  14. Developmental and pathological angiogenesis in the central nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Vallon, Mario; Chang, Junlei; Zhang, Haijing

    2014-01-01

    Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels from pre-existing vessels, in the central nervous system (CNS) is seen both as a normal physiological response as well as a pathological step in disease progression. Formation of the blood–brain barrier (BBB) is an essential step in physiological CNS angiogenesis. The BBB is regulated by a neurovascular unit (NVU) consisting of endothelial and perivascular cells as well as vascular astrocytes. The NVU plays a critical role in preventing entry of neurotoxic substances and regulation of blood flow in the CNS. In recent years, research on numerous acquired and hereditary disorders of the CNS has increasingly emphasized the role of angiogenesis in disease pathophysiology. Here, we discuss molecular mechanisms of CNS angiogenesis during embryogenesis as well as various pathological states including brain tumor formation, ischemic stroke, arteriovenous malformations, and neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:24760128

  15. Brain angiogenesis: Mechanism and Therapeutic Intervention in Brain Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Woo-Young; Lee, Ho-Young

    2010-01-01

    Summary Formation of new blood vessels is required for growth and metastasis of all solid tumors. New blood vessels are established in tumors mainly through angiogenesis. Brain tumors in particular are highly angiogenic. Therefore, interventions designed to prevent angiogenesis may be effective at controlling brain tumors. Indeed, many recent findings from preclinical and clinical studies of antiangiogenic therapy for brain tumors showed that it is a promising approach to managing this deadly disease, especially when combined with other cytotoxic treatments. In this review, we summarize the basic characteristics of brain tumor angiogenesis and role of known angiogenic factors in regulating this angiogenesis, which can be targets of antiangiogenic therapy. We also discuss the current status of antiangiogenic therapy for brain tumors, the suggested mechanisms of this therapy, and the limitations of this strategy. PMID:19664069

  16. Prostanoids in tumor angiogenesis: therapeutic intervention beyond COX-2.

    PubMed

    Salvado, M Dolores; Alfranca, Arántzazu; Haeggström, Jesper Z; Redondo, Juan Miguel

    2012-04-01

    Prostanoids regulate angiogenesis in carcinoma and chronic inflammatory disease progression. Although prostanoid biosynthetic enzymes and signaling have been extensively analyzed in inflammation, little is known about how prostanoids mediate tumor-induced angiogenesis. Targeted cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibition in tumor, stromal and endothelial cells is an attractive antiangiogenic strategy; however, the associated cardiovascular side effects have led to the development of a new generation of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) acting downstream of COX. These agents target terminal prostanoid synthases and prostanoid receptors, which may also include several peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). Here, we discuss the role of prostanoids as modulators of tumor angiogenesis and how prostanoid metabolism reflects complex cell-cell crosstalk that determines tumor growth. Finally, we discuss the potential of new NSAIDs for the treatment of angiogenesis-dependent tumor development.

  17. Schizophrenia and cancer: is angiogenesis a missed link?

    PubMed

    Lopes, Rui; Soares, Raquel; Figueiredo-Braga, Margarida; Coelho, Rui

    2014-03-01

    Cancer prevalence and risk in schizophrenia (SZ) patients, as well as their implicated molecular pathways, is a debate that has become increasingly appreciated, despite lacking evidence. Since angiogenesis is imbalanced in both conditions, a non-systematic review of the existing literature using the PubMed database was performed to summarize current knowledge and to elucidate hypothesis regarding the reduced incidence of cancer in SZ, exploring possible angiogenesis biology aspects that can be interrelated both with SZ and cancer. Some lines of evidence based in epidemiology, genetic, molecular and biochemical studies suggest a putative interplay between SZ pathophysiology and angiogenesis, involving different molecular pathways and also influencing cancer biology. Studying angiogenesis in SZ and its implications to cancer is an unexplored field that could provide more insightful knowledge regarding its pathophysiology and promote the development of treatment applications.

  18. Relationships between Cycling Hypoxia, HIF-1, Angiogenesis and Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Dewhirst, Mark W.

    2009-01-01

    This Failla Lecture focused on the inter-relationships between tumor angiogenesis, HIF-1 expression and radiotherapy responses. A common thread that bonds all of these factors together is microenvironmental stress caused by reactive oxygen and nitrogen species formed during tumor growth and angiogenesis or in response to cytotoxic treatment. In this review we focus on one aspect of the crossroad between oxidative stress and angiogenesis, namely cycling hypoxia. Understanding of the relative importance of this feature of the tumor microenvironment has recently expanded; it influences tumor biology in ways that are separate from chronic hypoxia. Cycling hypoxia can influence angiogenesis, treatment responses and metastatic behavior. It represents an important and relatively less well understood feature of tumor biology that requires additional research. PMID:19929412

  19. Leptin and its cardiovascular effects: Focus on angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Tahergorabi, Zoya; Khazaei, Majid

    2015-01-01

    Leptin is an endocrine hormone synthesized by adipocytes. It plays a key role in the energy homeostasis in central and peripheral tissues and has additional roles are attributed to it, such as the regulation of reproduction, immune function, bone homeostasis, and angiogenesis. The plasma concentration of leptin significantly increases in obese individuals. In the present review, we give an introduction concerning leptin, its receptors, signaling pathways, and its effect on cardiovascular system, especially on angiogenesis. PMID:26015905

  20. Adipose tissue angiogenesis: impact on obesity and type-2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Corvera, Silvia; Gealekman, Olga

    2014-03-01

    The growth and function of tissues are critically dependent on their vascularization. Adipose tissue is capable of expanding many-fold during adulthood, therefore requiring the formation of new vasculature to supply growing and proliferating adipocytes. The expansion of the vasculature in adipose tissue occurs through angiogenesis, where new blood vessels develop from those pre-existing within the tissue. Inappropriate angiogenesis may underlie adipose tissue dysfunction in obesity, which in turn increases type-2 diabetes risk. In addition, genetic and developmental factors involved in vascular patterning may define the size and expandability of diverse adipose tissue depots, which are also associated with type-2 diabetes risk. Moreover, the adipose tissue vasculature appears to be the niche for pre-adipocyte precursors, and factors that affect angiogenesis may directly impact the generation of new adipocytes. Here we review recent advances on the basic mechanisms of angiogenesis, and on the role of angiogenesis in adipose tissue development and obesity. A substantial amount of data points to a deficit in adipose tissue angiogenesis as a contributing factor to insulin resistance and metabolic disease in obesity. These emerging findings support the concept of the adipose tissue vasculature as a source of new targets for metabolic disease therapies. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Modulation of Adipose Tissue in Health and Disease.

  1. Angiogenesis in the degeneration of the lumbar intervertebral disc

    PubMed Central

    David, Gh; Iencean, SM; Mohan, A

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the study is to show the histological and biochemical changes that indicate the angiogenesis of the intervertebral disc in lumbar intervertebral disc hernia and the existence of epidemiological correlations between these changes and the risk factors of lumbar intervertebral disc hernia, as well as the patient's quality of life (QOL). We have studied 50 patients aged between 18 and 73 years old, who have undergone lumbar intervertebral disc hernia surgery, making fibroblast growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor level measurements, as elements in the process of appreciating the disc angiogenesis. Also, pre–surgery and post–surgery QOL has been measured, as well as the intensity of the pain syndrome. We have identified factors capable of stimulating vascular endothelial growth (VEGF, FGF–2) for the examined disc material, but histological examination did not show angiogenesis. The process of angiogenesis at the degenerated intervertebral disc level affects the patient's quality of life both pre and postoperatively, and may be a predictive factor for the post–operative results. Patients can prevent the appearance of angiogenesis type degenerative processes of the intervertebral disc by avoiding angiogenesis correlated factors (weight control, physical effort, and smoking). PMID:20968201

  2. Emerging Roles of ADAMTSs in Angiogenesis and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Saran; Rao, Nithya; Ge, Ruowen

    2012-01-01

    A Disintegrin-like And Metalloproteinase with ThromboSpondin motifs—ADAMTSs—are a multi-domain, secreted, extracellular zinc metalloproteinase family with 19 members in humans. These extracellular metalloproteinases are known to cleave a wide range of substrates in the extracellular matrix. They have been implicated in various physiological processes, such as extracellular matrix turnover, melanoblast development, interdigital web regression, blood coagulation, ovulation, etc. ADAMTSs are also critical in pathological processes such as arthritis, atherosclerosis, cancer, angiogenesis, wound healing, etc. In the past few years, there has been an explosion of reports concerning the role of ADAMTS family members in angiogenesis and cancer. To date, 10 out of the 19 members have been demonstrated to be involved in regulating angiogenesis and/or cancer. The mechanism involved in their regulation of angiogenesis or cancer differs among different members. Both angiogenesis-dependent and -independent regulation of cancer have been reported. This review summarizes our current understanding on the roles of ADAMTS in angiogenesis and cancer and highlights their implications in cancer therapeutic development. PMID:24213506

  3. Cerebral insulin, insulin signaling pathway, and brain angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yi; Zhang, Le; Hu, Zhiping

    2016-01-01

    Insulin performs unique non-metabolic functions within the brain. Broadly speaking, two major areas of these functions are those related to brain endothelial cells and the blood-brain barrier (BBB) function, and those related to behavioral effects, like cognition in disease states (Alzheimer's disease, AD) and in health. Recent studies showed that both these functions are associated with brain angiogenesis. These findings raise interesting questions such as how they are linked to each other and whether modifying brain angiogenesis by targeting certain insulin signaling pathways could be an effective strategy to treat dementia as in AD, or even to help secure healthy longevity. The two canonical downstream pathways involved in mediating the insulin signaling pathway, the phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K), and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades, in the brain are supposed to be similar to those in the periphery. PI3K and MAPK pathways play important roles in angiogenesis. Both are involved in stimulating hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) in angiogenesis and could be activated by the insulin signaling pathway. This suggests that PI3K and MAPK pathways might act as cross-talk between the insulin signaling pathway and the angiogenesis pathway in brain. But the cerebral insulin, insulin signaling pathway, and the detailed mechanism in the connection of insulin signaling pathway, brain angiogenesis pathway, and healthy aging or dementias are still mostly not clear and need further studies.

  4. Factors regulating capillary remodeling in a reversible model of inflammatory corneal angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Mukwaya, Anthony; Peebo, Beatrice; Xeroudaki, Maria; Ali, Zaheer; Lennikov, Anton; Jensen, Lasse; Lagali, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Newly formed microcapillary networks arising in adult organisms by angiogenic and inflammatory stimuli contribute to pathologies such as corneal and retinal blindness, tumor growth, and metastasis. Therapeutic inhibition of pathologic angiogenesis has focused on targeting the VEGF pathway, while comparatively little attention has been given to remodeling of the new microcapillaries into a stabilized, functional, and persistent vascular network. Here, we used a novel reversible model of inflammatory angiogenesis in the rat cornea to investigate endogenous factors rapidly invoked to remodel, normalize and regress microcapillaries as part of the natural response to regain corneal avascularity. Rapid reversal of an inflammatory angiogenic stimulus suppressed granulocytic activity, enhanced recruitment of remodelling macrophages, induced capillary intussusception, and enriched pathways and processes involving immune cells, chemokines, morphogenesis, axonal guidance, and cell motility, adhesion, and cytoskeletal functions. Whole transcriptome gene expression analysis revealed suppression of numerous inflammatory and angiogenic factors and enhancement of endogenous inhibitors. Many of the identified genes function independently of VEGF and represent potentially new targets for molecular control of the critical process of microvascular remodeling and regression in the cornea. PMID:27561355

  5. Caspase 3 in dying tumor cells mediates post-irradiation angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhengxiang; Yu, Yang; Cheng, Jin; Gong, Yanping; Li, Chuan-Yuan; Huang, Qian

    2015-01-01

    Cytotoxic radiotherapy unfavorably induces tumor cells to generate various proangiogenic substances, promoting post-irradiation angiogenesis (PIA), which is one of major causes of radiotherapy failure. Though several studies have reported some mechanisms behind PIA, they have not yet described the beginning proangiogenic motivator buried in the irradiated microenvironment. In this work, we revealed that dying tumor cells induced by irradiation prompted PIA via a caspase 3 dependent mechanism. Proteolytic inactivation of caspase 3 in dying tumor cells by transducing a dominant-negative version weakened proangiogenic effects in vitro and in vivo. In addition, inhibition of caspase 3 activity suppressed tumor angiogenesis and tumorigenesis in xenograft mouse model. Importantly, we identified vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A as a downstream proangiogenic factor regulated by caspase 3 possibly through Akt signaling. Collectively, these findings indicated that besides acting as a key executioner in apoptosis, caspase 3 in dying tumor cells may play a central role in driving proangiogenic response after irradiation. Thus, radiotherapy in combination with caspase 3 inhibitors may be a novel promising therapeutic strategy to reduce tumor recurrence due to restrained PIA. PMID:26431328

  6. Solena amplexicaulis induces cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and inhibits angiogenesis in hepatocarcinoma cells and HUVECs.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jie; Xu, Yuan Yuan; Jiang, He Fei; Yang, Meng; Huang, Qian Hui; Yang, Jie; Hu, Kun; Wei, Kun

    2014-01-01

    Solena amplexicaulis (Lam.) Gandhi (SA) has been used as a traditional medicine for the treatment of dysentery, multiple abscess, gastralgia, urethritis, and eczema in the minority area of China. This study was aimed to examine the cell proliferation inhibitory activity of the SA extract (SACE) and its mechanism of action in human hepatoma cell line (HepG2) and evaluate its anti-angiogenesis activity in human umbilical vein endothelial cell line (HUVEC). SACE could inhibit the growth of HepG2 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. FCM analysis showed that SACE could induce G2/M phase arrest, cell apoptosis, the mitochondrial membrane potential loss (ΔΨm) and increase the production of intracellular ROS of HepG2 cells. After treatment with SACE, topical morphological changes of apoptotic body formation, obvious increase of apoptosis-related protein expressions, such as Bax, cytochrome c, caspase-3, PARP-1, and decrease of Bcl-2, procaspase-9 protein expressions were observed at the same time. Moreover, SACE caused the significant inhibition of endothelial cell migration and tube formation in HUVEC cells. The results suggested that SACE could act as an angiogenesis inhibitor and induce cell apoptosis via a caspase-dependent mitochondrial pathway. Therefore, SACE could be a potent candidate for the prevention and treatment of liver cancer. PMID:25547924

  7. Synergistic Inhibition of Angiogenesis by Artesunate and Captopril In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Krusche, Benjamin; Arend, Joachim; Efferth, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Inhibition of angiogenesis represents one major strategy of cancer chemotherapy. In the present investigation, we investigated the synergism of artesunate and captopril to inhibit angiogenesis. Artesunate is an antimalarial derivative of artemisinin from the Chinese medicinal plant, Artemisia annua L., which also reveals profound anticancer activity in vitro and in vivo. Captopril is an angiotensin I-converting (ACE) inhibitor, which is well established in Western academic medicine. Both compounds inhibited migration of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in vitro. The combination of both drugs resulted in synergistically inhibited migration. Whereas artesunate inhibited HUVEC growth in the XTT assay, captopril did not, indicating independent modes of action. We established a chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay of quail embryos (Coturnix coturnix L.) and a computer-based evaluation routine for quantitative studies on vascularization processes in vivo. Artesunate and captopril inhibited blood vessel formation and growth. For the first time, we demonstrated that both drugs revealed synergistic effects when combined. These results may also have clinical impact, since cardiovascular diseases and cancer frequently occur together in older cancer patients. Therefore, comorbid patients may take advantage, if they take captopril to treat cardiovascular symptoms and artesunate to treat cancer. PMID:24223058

  8. Angiogenesis in cervical cancer is mediated by HeLa metabolites through endothelial cell tissue kallikrein.

    PubMed

    Naidoo, Strinivasen; Raidoo, Deshandra Munsamy

    2009-08-01

    High vascularity correlates with poor clinical outcome in cancer of the uterine cervix. We investigated whether human cervical cancer cell (HeLa) metabolites influenced endothelial cell proliferation through the serine protease, tissue kallikrein. The angiogenic potential of tissue kallikrein is proposed due to its proteolytic, mitogenic and invasive properties. Under pre-defined conditions, we examined the regulation of tissue kallikrein simultaneously in both endothelial and HeLa cells using immunochemistry, ELISA, cell proliferation assays and in situ RT-PCR. In an endothelial-cervical carcinoma conditioned-medium model, HeLa metabolites caused a dramatic decrease in endothelial cellular tissue kallikrein and a concomitant proliferation of endothelial cells. ELISA on the conditioned media showed a dose-dependent increase of tissue kallikrein, while in situ RT-PCR demonstrated no change in tissue kallikrein mRNA in both endothelial and HeLa cells when challenged with each other's metabolites. This demonstration of the ability of cervical cancer to simultaneously manipulate both tissue kallikrein processing within endothelial cells and angiogenesis is novel. Should this occur in vivo, the tissue kallikrein released from the endothelial cells into the microenvironment may simultaneously degrade the matrix and elicit a mitogenic effect by promoting angiogenesis. Pre-treatment with TK inhibitors and/or anti-angiogenic therapies may prove to benefit future cervical cancer patients. PMID:19578768

  9. Inhibition of metastasis by HEXIM1 through effects on cell invasion and angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Ketchart, Wannarasmi; Smith, Kerri M.; Krupka, Tianyi; Wittmann, Bryan M.; Hu, Yanduan; Rayman, Patricia A.; Doughman, Yong Qiu; Albert, Jeffrey M.; Bai, Xiadong; Finke, James H.; Xu, Yan; Exner, Agata A.; Montano, Monica M.

    2012-01-01

    We report on the role of Hexamethylene-bis-acetamide-inducible protein 1 (HEXIM1) as an inhibitor of metastasis. HEXIM1 expression is decreased in human metastatic breast cancers when compared to matched primary breast tumors. Similarly we observed decreased expression of HEXIM1 in lung metastasis when compared to primary mammary tumors in a mouse model of metastatic breast cancer, the Polyoma Middle-T antigen (PyMT) transgenic mouse. Re-expression of HEXIM1 (through transgene expression or localized delivery of a small molecule inducer of HEXIM1 expression, Hexamethylene-bis-acetamide) in PyMT mice resulted in inhibition of metastasis to the lung. Our present studies indicate that HEXIM1 downregulation of HIF-1α protein allows not only for inhibition of VEGF-regulated angiogenesis, but also inhibition of compensatory pro-angiogenic pathways and recruitment of bone marrow derived cells (BMDCs). Another novel finding is that HEXIM1 inhibits cell migration and invasion, that can be partly attributed to decreased membrane localization of the 67kDa laminin receptor, 67LR, and inhibition of the functional interaction of 67LR with laminin. Thus HEXIM1 re-expression in breast cancer has therapeutic advantages by simultaneously targeting more than one pathway involved in angiogenesis and metastasis. Our results also support the potential for HEXIM1 to indirectly act on multiple cell types to suppress metastatic cancer. PMID:22964639

  10. Factors regulating capillary remodeling in a reversible model of inflammatory corneal angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Mukwaya, Anthony; Peebo, Beatrice; Xeroudaki, Maria; Ali, Zaheer; Lennikov, Anton; Jensen, Lasse; Lagali, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Newly formed microcapillary networks arising in adult organisms by angiogenic and inflammatory stimuli contribute to pathologies such as corneal and retinal blindness, tumor growth, and metastasis. Therapeutic inhibition of pathologic angiogenesis has focused on targeting the VEGF pathway, while comparatively little attention has been given to remodeling of the new microcapillaries into a stabilized, functional, and persistent vascular network. Here, we used a novel reversible model of inflammatory angiogenesis in the rat cornea to investigate endogenous factors rapidly invoked to remodel, normalize and regress microcapillaries as part of the natural response to regain corneal avascularity. Rapid reversal of an inflammatory angiogenic stimulus suppressed granulocytic activity, enhanced recruitment of remodelling macrophages, induced capillary intussusception, and enriched pathways and processes involving immune cells, chemokines, morphogenesis, axonal guidance, and cell motility, adhesion, and cytoskeletal functions. Whole transcriptome gene expression analysis revealed suppression of numerous inflammatory and angiogenic factors and enhancement of endogenous inhibitors. Many of the identified genes function independently of VEGF and represent potentially new targets for molecular control of the critical process of microvascular remodeling and regression in the cornea. PMID:27561355

  11. Synergistic inhibition of angiogenesis by artesunate and captopril in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Krusche, Benjamin; Arend, Joachim; Efferth, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Inhibition of angiogenesis represents one major strategy of cancer chemotherapy. In the present investigation, we investigated the synergism of artesunate and captopril to inhibit angiogenesis. Artesunate is an antimalarial derivative of artemisinin from the Chinese medicinal plant, Artemisia annua L., which also reveals profound anticancer activity in vitro and in vivo. Captopril is an angiotensin I-converting (ACE) inhibitor, which is well established in Western academic medicine. Both compounds inhibited migration of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in vitro. The combination of both drugs resulted in synergistically inhibited migration. Whereas artesunate inhibited HUVEC growth in the XTT assay, captopril did not, indicating independent modes of action. We established a chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay of quail embryos (Coturnix coturnix L.) and a computer-based evaluation routine for quantitative studies on vascularization processes in vivo. Artesunate and captopril inhibited blood vessel formation and growth. For the first time, we demonstrated that both drugs revealed synergistic effects when combined. These results may also have clinical impact, since cardiovascular diseases and cancer frequently occur together in older cancer patients. Therefore, comorbid patients may take advantage, if they take captopril to treat cardiovascular symptoms and artesunate to treat cancer. PMID:24223058

  12. Tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced angiogenesis depends on in situ platelet-activating factor biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha, a potent inhibitor of endothelial cell growth in vitro, is angiogenic in vivo. Therefore, it was suggested that the angiogenic properties of this agent might be consequent to the production of secondary mediators. Since TNF-alpha stimulates the synthesis of platelet-activating factor (PAF) by monocytes and endothelial cells, we investigated the possible involvement of PAF in the angiogenic effect of TNF-alpha. Angiogenesis was studied in a murine model in which Matrigel was used as a vehicle for the delivery of mediators. In this model the angiogenesis induced by TNF-alpha was shown to be inhibited by WEB 2170, a specific PAF receptor antagonist. Moreover, in mice injected with TNF-alpha, PAF was detected within the Matrigel, 6 and 24 h after TNF-alpha injection. The synthesis of PAF within the Matrigel was concomitant with the early migration of endothelial cells and infiltration of monocytes. No infiltration of lymphocytes or polymorphonuclear leukocytes was observed. Synthetic PAF as well as PAF extracted and purified from mice challenged with TNF-alpha induced a rapid angiogenic response, inhibited by WEB 2170. These results suggest that the angiogenic effect of TNF-alpha is, at least in part, mediated by PAF synthesized from monocytes and/or endothelial cells infiltrating the Matrigel plug. PMID:7516414

  13. CEACAM6 promotes tumor angiogenesis and vasculogenic mimicry in gastric cancer via FAK signaling.

    PubMed

    Zang, Mingde; Zhang, Yunqiang; Zhang, Baogui; Hu, Lei; Li, Jianfang; Fan, Zhiyuan; Wang, Hexiao; Su, Liping; Zhu, Zhenggang; Li, Chen; Yan, Chao; Gu, Qinlong; Liu, Bingya; Yan, Min

    2015-05-01

    CEACAM6 is a member of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked immunoglobulin superfamily that is implicated in a variety of human cancers. In our previous study, we reported that CEACAM6 was overexpressed in gastric cancer tissues and promoted cancer metastasis. The purpose of this study is to determine the role of CEACAM6 in tumor angiogenesis and mimicry formation. We found that overexpressed CEACAM6 promoted tubule formation dependent on HUVEC cells and vasculogenic mimicry formation of gastric cancer cells; opposing results were achieved in CEACAM6-silenced groups. Moreover, we found that mosaic vessels formed by HUVEC cells and gastric cancer cells were observed in vitro by 3D-culture assay. Overexpressed CEACAM6 in gastric cancer cells promoted tumor growth, VEGF expression and vasculogenic mimicry structures formation in vivo. In accordance with these observations, we found that phosphorylation of FAK and phosphorylation of paxillin were up-regulated in CEACAM6-overexpressing gastric cancer cells, and FAK inhibitor Y15 could reduce tubule and vasculogenic mimicry formation. These findings suggest that CEACAM6 promotes tumor angiogenesis and vasculogenic mimicry formation via FAK signaling in gastric cancer and CEACAM6 may be a new target for cancer anti-vascular treatment.

  14. In situ calcium mapping in the mouse retina via time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry: modulation of retinal angiogenesis by calcium ion in development and oxygen-induced retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong Hun; Kim, Jin Hyoung; Yu, Young Suk; Kim, Dong Hun; Lee, Tae Geol; Moon, Dae Won; Kim, Kyu-Won

    2008-10-01

    Pathological angiogenesis in the eye is the most common cause of blindness in all age groups. In physiological and pathological cellular processes including angiogenesis, ion homeostasis is greatly affected. This study is to investigate the role of calcium ion in physiological and pathological angiogenesis in the retina, which is based on the results of ion mapping by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS). We provided that calcium distribution is the most accordant to change with physiological vessel formation of development in the retina and pathological angiogenesis of oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR), which is supported by ion mapping in retinal tissue using TOF-SIMS. In addition to anti-proliferative and anti-angiogenic activity of the calcium inhibitor on endothelial cells, retinal neovascularization of OIR was effectively inhibited by the calcium inhibitor. Calcium ion could play a crucial role in physiological and pathological angiogenesis in the retina. Moreover, TOF-SIMS could be a good method to simultaneously evaluate the changes of variable ions of the retina in biological processes.

  15. Mast cells, angiogenesis, and tumour growth.

    PubMed

    Ribatti, Domenico; Crivellato, Enrico

    2012-01-01

    Accumulation of mast cells (MCs) in tumours was described by Ehrlich in his doctoral thesis. Since this early account, ample evidence has been provided highlighting participation of MCs to the inflammatory reaction that occurs in many clinical and experimental tumour settings. MCs are bone marrow-derived tissue-homing leukocytes that are endowed with a panoply of releasable mediators and surface receptors. These cells actively take part to innate and acquired immune reactions as well as to a series of fundamental functions such as angiogenesis, tissue repair, and tissue remodelling. The involvement of MCs in tumour development is debated. Although some evidence suggests that MCs can promote tumourigenesis and tumour progression, there are some clinical sets as well as experimental tumour models in which MCs seem to have functions that favour the host. One of the major issues linking MCs to cancer is the ability of these cells to release potent pro-angiogenic factors. This review will focus on the most recent acquisitions about this intriguing field of research. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Mast cells in inflammation.

  16. Smad4 transcriptional pathways and angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Schwarte-Waldhoff, Irmgard; Schmiegel, Wolff

    2002-01-01

    Smad4/DPC4 is a tumor suppressor gene frequently inactivated in gastrointestinal carcinomas. Smad4 encodes a key intracellular transmitter for signals of the TGF-beta superfamily of cytokines. TGF-beta potently inhibits the growth of normal epithelial cells but tumor cells are frequently resistant; thus, it has been assumed that loss of Smad4 during tumor progression relieves this inhibition. Mediating TGF-beta responses is only one of the many putative functions of Smad4 as a signaling molecule. Smad proteins are versatile transcriptional co-modulators whose activities depend on the genetic makeup of a cell. We have used restoration of Smad4 in deficient cancer cells as an unbiased approach to decipher Smad4's tumor suppressor functions. Stable reexpression of Smad4 in human colon and pancreatic cancer cells potently suppressed tumor growth in vivo in nude mice. Surprisingly, it was not adequate to suppress tumor cell growth in vitro, nor did it restore TGF-beta responsiveness. Rather, Smad4 restoration influenced angiogenesis, decreasing expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and increasing expression of thrombospondin-1. These findings suggest that the acquisition of TGF-beta resistance and loss of Smad4 may be independent consecutive events in the tumorigenic process. They define the control of an angiogenic switch as a novel alternative mechanism of tumor suppression for Smad4.

  17. The effects of radiation on angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Grabham, Peter; Sharma, Preety

    2013-01-01

    The average human body contains tens of thousands of miles of vessels that permeate every tissue down to the microscopic level. This makes the human vasculature a prime target for an agent like radiation that originates from a source and passes through the body. Exposure to radiation released during nuclear accidents and explosions, or during cancer radiotherapy, is well known to cause vascular pathologies because of the ionizing effects of electromagnetic radiations (photons) such as gamma rays. There is however, another type of less well-known radiation - charged ion particles, and these atoms stripped of electrons, have different physical properties to the photons of electromagnetic radiation. They are either found in space or created on earth by particle collider facilities, and are of significant recent interest due to their enhanced effectiveness and increasing use in cancer radiotherapy, as well as a health risk to the growing number of people spending time in the space environment. Although there is to date, relatively few studies on the effects of charged particles on the vascular system, a very different picture of the biological effects of these particles compared to photons is beginning to emerge. These under researched biological effects of ion particles have a large impact on the health consequences of exposure. In this short review, we will discuss the effects of charged particles on an important biological process of the vascular system, angiogenesis, which creates and maintains the vasculature and is highly important in tumor vasculogenesis. PMID:24160185

  18. JSI-124 (Cucurbitacin I) inhibits tumor angiogenesis of human breast cancer through reduction of STAT3 phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Qi, Jia; Xia, Ge; Huang, Cheng Rong; Wang, Jian Xia; Zhang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is the most frequently diagnosed type of cancer all over the world. Angiogenesis, a physiological or pathological process characterized by the sprouting of new blood vessels from existing vessels, plays a vital role in tumor nutrition. In this work, we used JSI-124 (Cucurbitacin I), a selective JAK/STAT3 signaling pathway inhibitor, to investigate the role of STAT3 in tumor angiogenesis of a human BC cell line in vitro. JSI-124 inhibited cell viability, proliferation, adhesion, migration and tube formation of a human BC cell line MDA-MB-468. After transfection with pMXs-Stat3C, a dominant active mutant, the inhibitory effects of JSI-124 on MDA-MB-468 were abolished. Furthermore, JSI-124 reduced the phosphorylation of STAT3. These results suggested that JSI-124 inhibited tumor angiogenesis of the human BC cell line in vitro through the reduction of STAT3 phosphorylation. In addition, JSI-124 could reduce VEGF transcription and secretion, suggesting that JSI-124 is also involved in the inhibition of the VEGF autocrine loop in the tumor microenvironment. PMID:25787299

  19. Inhibition of endothelial cell activation by bHLH protein E2-2 and its impairment of angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Aya; Itoh, Fumiko; Nishiyama, Koichi; Takezawa, Toshiaki; Kurihara, Hiroki; Itoh, Susumu; Kato, Mitsuyasu

    2010-05-20

    E2-2 belongs to the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) family of transcription factors. E2-2 associates with inhibitor of DNA binding (Id) 1, which is involved in angiogenesis. In this paper, we demonstrate that E2-2 interacts with Id1 and provide evidence that this interaction potentiates angiogenesis. Mutational analysis revealed that the HLH domain of E2-2 is required for the interaction with Id1 and vice versa. In addition, Id1 interfered with E2-2-mediated effects on luciferase reporter activities. Interestingly, injection of E2-2-expressing adenoviruses into Matrigel plugs implanted under the skin blocked in vivo angiogenesis. In contrast, the injection of Id1-expressing adenoviruses rescued E2-2-mediated inhibition of in vivo angiogenic reaction. Consistent with the results of the Matrigel plug assay, E2-2 could inhibit endothelial cell (EC) migration, network formation, and proliferation. On the other hand, knockdown of E2-2 in ECs increased EC migration. The blockade of EC migration by E2-2 was relieved by exogenous expression of Id1. We also demonstrated that E2-2 can perturb VEGFR2 expression via inhibition of VEGFR2 promoter activity. This study suggests that E2-2 can maintain EC quiescence and that Id1 can counter this effect. PMID:20231428

  20. Sphingosine-1-phosphate induces human endothelial VEGF and MMP-2 production via transcription factor ZNF580: Novel insights into angiogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Hui-Yan; Wei, Shu-Ping; Xu, Rui-Cheng; Xu, Peng-Xiao; Zhang, Wen-Cheng

    2010-05-07

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P)-induced migration and proliferation of endothelial cells are critical for angiogenesis. C2H2-zinc finger (ZNF) proteins usually play an essential role in altering gene expression and regulating the angiogenesis. The aim of this study is to investigate whether a novel human C2H2-zinc finger gene ZNF580 (Gene ID: 51157) is involved in the migration and proliferation of endothelial cells stimulated by S1P. Our study shows that EAhy926 endothelial cells express S1P1, S1P3 and S1P5 receptors. Furthermore, S1P upregulates both ZNF580 mRNA and protein levels in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. SB203580, the specific inhibitor of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) pathway, blocks the S1P-induced upregulation of ZNF580. Moreover, overexpression/downexpression of ZNF580 in EAhy926 cells leads to the enhancement/decrease of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression as well as the migration and proliferation of EAhy926 endothelial cells. These results elucidate the important role that ZNF580 plays in the process of migration and proliferation of endothelial cells, which provides a foundation for a novel approach to regulate angiogenesis.

  1. Synergistic inhibition of angiogenesis and glioma cell-induced angiogenesis by the combination of temozolomide and enediyne antibiotic lidamycin

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xing-qi; Ouyang, Zhi-gang; Zhang, Sheng-hua; Liu, Hong; Shang, Yue; Li, Yi; Zhen, Yong-su

    2014-01-01

    Present work mainly evaluated the inhibitory effects of lidamycin (LDM), an enediyne antibiotic, on angiogenesis or glioma-induced angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo, especially its synergistic anti-angiogenesis with temozolomide (TMZ). LDM alone efficiently inhibited proliferations and induced apoptosis of rat brain microvessel endothelial cells (rBMEC). LDM also interrupted the tube formation of rat brain microvessel endothelial cells (rBMEC) and rat aortic ring spreading. The blockade of rBMEC invasion and C6 cell-induced rBMEC migration by LDM was associated with decrease of VEGF secretion in a co-culture system. TMZ dramatically potentiated the effects of LDM on anti-proliferation, apoptosis induction, and synergistically inhibited angiogenesis events. As determined by western blot and ELISA, the interaction of tumor cells and the rBMEC was markedly interrupted by LDM plus TMZ with synergistic regulations of VEGF induced angiogenesis signal pathway, tumor cell invasion/migration, and apoptosis signal pathway. Immunofluorohistochemistry of CD31 and VEGF showed that LDM plus TMZ resulted in synergistic decrease of microvessel density (MVD) and VEGF expression in human glioma U87 cell subcutaneous xenograft. This study indicates that the high efficacy of LDM and the synergistic effects of LDM plus TMZ against glioma are mediated, at least in part, by the potentiated anti-angiogenesis. PMID:24424202

  2. SPARC overexpression combined with radiation retards angiogenesis by suppressing VEGF-A via miR‑410 in human neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Boyineni, Jerusha; Tanpure, Smita; Gnanamony, Manu; Antony, Reuben; Fernández, Karen S; Lin, Julian; Pinson, David; Gondi, Christopher S

    2016-10-01

    Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most common extra-cranial solid tumor in children and despite aggressive therapy survival rates remain low. One of the contributing factors for low survival rates is aggressive tumor angiogenesis, which is known to increase due to radiation, one of the standard therapies for neuroblastoma. Therefore, targeting tumor angiogenesis can be a viable add-on therapy for the treatment of neuroblastomas. In the present study, we demonstrate that overexpression of secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) suppresses radiation induced angiogenesis in SK-N‑BE(2) and NB1691 neuroblastoma cells. We observed that overexpression of SPARC in SK-N-BE(2) and NB1691 cells reduced radiation induced angiogenesis in an in vivo mouse dorsal skin model and an ex vivo chicken CAM (chorioallantoic-membrane) model and also reduced tumor size in subcutaneous mouse tumor models of NB. We also observed that SPARC overexpression reduces VEGF-A expression, in SK-N-BE(2) and NB1691 NB cells via miR-410, a VEGF-A targeting microRNA. SPARC overexpression alone or in combination with miR-410 and radiation was shown to be effective at reducing angiogenesis. Moreover, addition of miR-410 inhibitors reversed SPARC mediated inhibition of VEGF-A in NB1691 cells but not in SK-N-BE(2) NB cells. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that the overexpression of SPARC in combination with radiation reduced tumor angiogenesis by downregulating VEGF-A via miR-410.

  3. SPARC overexpression combined with radiation retards angiogenesis by suppressing VEGF-A via miR-410 in human neuroblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Boyineni, Jerusha; Tanpure, Smita; Gnanamony, Manu; Antony, Reuben; Fernández, Karen S.; Lin, Julian; Pinson, David; Gondi, Christopher S.

    2016-01-01

    Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most common extracranial solid tumor in children and despite aggressive therapy survival rates remain low. One of the contributing factors for low survival rates is aggressive tumor angiogenesis, which is known to increase due to radiation, one of the standard therapies for neuroblastoma. Therefore, targeting tumor angiogenesis can be a viable add-on therapy for the treatment of neuroblastomas. In the present study, we demonstrate that overexpression of secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) suppresses radiation induced angiogenesis in SK-N-BE(2) and NB1691 neuroblastoma cells. We observed that overexpression of SPARC in SK-N-BE(2) and NB1691 cells reduced radiation induced angiogenesis in an in vivo mouse dorsal skin model and an ex vivo chicken CAM (chorioallantoic-membrane) model and also reduced tumor size in subcutaneous mouse tumor models of NB. We also observed that SPARC overexpression reduces VEGF-A expression, in SK-N-BE(2) and NB1691 NB cells via miR-410, a VEGF-A targeting microRNA. SPARC overexpression alone or in combination with miR-410 and radiation was shown to be effective at reducing angiogenesis. Moreover, addition of miR-410 inhibitors reversed SPARC mediated inhibition of VEGF-A in NB1691 cells but not in SK-N-BE(2) NB cells. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that the over-expression of SPARC in combination with radiation reduced tumor angiogenesis by downregulating VEGF-A via miR-410. PMID:27498840

  4. SPARC overexpression combined with radiation retards angiogenesis by suppressing VEGF-A via miR‑410 in human neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Boyineni, Jerusha; Tanpure, Smita; Gnanamony, Manu; Antony, Reuben; Fernández, Karen S; Lin, Julian; Pinson, David; Gondi, Christopher S

    2016-10-01

    Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most common extra-cranial solid tumor in children and despite aggressive therapy survival rates remain low. One of the contributing factors for low survival rates is aggressive tumor angiogenesis, which is known to increase due to radiation, one of the standard therapies for neuroblastoma. Therefore, targeting tumor angiogenesis can be a viable add-on therapy for the treatment of neuroblastomas. In the present study, we demonstrate that overexpression of secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) suppresses radiation induced angiogenesis in SK-N‑BE(2) and NB1691 neuroblastoma cells. We observed that overexpression of SPARC in SK-N-BE(2) and NB1691 cells reduced radiation induced angiogenesis in an in vivo mouse dorsal skin model and an ex vivo chicken CAM (chorioallantoic-membrane) model and also reduced tumor size in subcutaneous mouse tumor models of NB. We also observed that SPARC overexpression reduces VEGF-A expression, in SK-N-BE(2) and NB1691 NB cells via miR-410, a VEGF-A targeting microRNA. SPARC overexpression alone or in combination with miR-410 and radiation was shown to be effective at reducing angiogenesis. Moreover, addition of miR-410 inhibitors reversed SPARC mediated inhibition of VEGF-A in NB1691 cells but not in SK-N-BE(2) NB cells. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that the overexpression of SPARC in combination with radiation reduced tumor angiogenesis by downregulating VEGF-A via miR-410. PMID:27498840

  5. The Role of Anti-angiogenesis in Non-small-cell Lung Cancer: an Update

    PubMed Central

    Socinski, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    Recognition of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway as a key mediator of angiogenesis has led to the clinical study of several VEGF and VEGF receptor (VEGFR) targeted therapies in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). These targeted therapies include neutralizing antibodies to VEGF (bevacizumab and aflibercept) and VEGFR-2 (ramucirumab) and tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) with selectivity for the VEGFRs. Bevacizumab and ramucirumab are associated with survival advantages in the treatment of advanced NSCLC: bevacizumab in the first-line setting in combination with carboplatin/paclitaxel and ramucirumab in combination with docetaxel in the second-line setting. The VEGFR-2 TKIs have been associated with responses and improved progression-free survival in selected NSCLC settings; however, this level of activity has thus far been insufficient to confer significant survival advantages. This review will focus on the current state of VEGF targeted therapies in NSCLC. PMID:25947099

  6. Relationship between angiogenesis and inflammation in experimental arthritis.

    PubMed

    Clavel, Gaelle; Valvason, Chiara; Yamaoka, Kunio; Lemeiter, Delphine; Laroche, Liliane; Boissier, Marie-Christophe; Bessis, Natacha

    2006-09-01

    Background. Angiogenesis is involved in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) leading to leucocyte recruitment and inflammation in the synovium. Furthermore, synovial inflammation itself further potentiates endothelial proliferation and angiogenesis. In this study, we aimed at evaluating the reciprocical relationship between synovial inflammation and angiogenesis in a RA model, namely collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). Methods. CIA was induced by immunization of DBA/1 mice with collagen type II in adjuvant. Endothelial cells were detected using a GSL-1 lectin-specific immunohistochemical staining on knee joint sections. Angiogenesis, clinical scores and histological signs of arthritis were evaluated from the induction of CIA until the end of the experiment. Angiogenesis was quantified by counting both the isolated endothelial cells and vessels stained on each section. To evaluate the effect of increased angiogenesis on CIA, VEGF gene transfer was performed using an adeno-associated virus encoding VEGF (AAV-VEGF), by intra-muscular or intra-articular injection in mice with CIA. Results. We showed an increase in synovial angiogenesis from day 6 to day 55 after CIA induction, and, moreover, joint vascularization and clinical scores of arthritis were correlated (p < 0.0001, r = 0.61). Vascularization and histological scores were also correlated (p = 0.0006, r = 0.51). Systemic VEGF overexpression in mice with CIA was followed by an aggravation of arthritis as compared to AAV-lacZ control group (p < 0.0001). In contrast, there was no difference in clinical scores between control mice and mice injected within the knee with AAV-VEGF, even if joint vascularization was higher in this group than in all other groups (p = 0,05 versus non-injected group). Intra-articular AAV-VEGF injections induced more severe signs of histological inflammation and bone destruction than AAV-Lac Z or no injection. Conclusion. Angiogenesis and joint inflammation evolve in parallel during collagen

  7. Molecular Interplay between microRNA-34a and Sirtuin1 in Hyperglycemia-Mediated Impaired Angiogenesis in Endothelial Cells: Effects of Metformin.

    PubMed

    Arunachalam, Gnanapragasam; Lakshmanan, Arun Prasath; Samuel, Samson Mathews; Triggle, Chris R; Ding, Hong

    2016-02-01

    Impaired angiogenesis is a prominent risk factor that contributes to the development of diabetes-associated cardiovascular disease. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), small noncoding RNAs, are implicated as important regulators of vascular function, including endothelial cell differentiation, proliferation, and angiogenesis. In silico analysis and in vitro studies indicate that silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1) is a potential target for endothelial cell-specific miRNAs. In this study, we investigated the molecular crosstalk between miR-34a, the protein product of SIRT1 (sirtuin1), and the antidiabetic drug, metformin, in hyperglycemia-mediated impaired angiogenesis in mouse microvascular endothelial cells (MMECs). MMECs were cultured, transfected with either a miR-34a inhibitor or mimic in normal glucose (11 mM) or high glucose (HG, 40 mM) in the presence or absence of metformin. The expression of miR-34a, sirtuin1, and their signaling targets was evaluated. miR-34a expression is upregulated in a hyperglycemic milieu and parallels changes in the expression of sirtuin1, post-translational modification of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (phospho/acetylation), as well as an impairment in angiogenesis. The presence of metformin, or the inhibition of miR-34a using an anti-miR-34a inhibitor, increases the expression of sirtuin1 and attenuates the impairment in angiogenesis in HG-exposed MMECs. In contrast, overexpression of a miR-34a mimic prevents metformin-mediated protection. These data indicate that miR-34a, via the regulation of sirtuin1 expression, has an anti-angiogenic action in MMECs, which can be modulated by metformin. In summary, miR-34a represents both a target whereby metformin mediates its vasculoprotective actions and also a potential therapeutic target for the prevention/treatment of diabetic vascular disease.

  8. Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 in Cancer: Rationale and Insight for Future Therapeutic Testing.

    PubMed

    Placencio, Veronica R; DeClerck, Yves A

    2015-08-01

    Despite its function as an inhibitor of urokinase and tissue-type plasminogen activator (PA), PA inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) has a paradoxical protumorigenic role in cancer, promoting angiogenesis and tumor cell survival. In this review, we summarize preclinical evidence in support of the protumorigenic function of PAI-1 that has led to the testing of small-molecule PAI-1 inhibitors, initially developed as antithrombotic agents, in animal models of cancer. The review discusses the challenges and the opportunities that lay ahead to the development of efficacious and nontoxic PAI-1 inhibitors as anticancer agents.

  9. Copper and angiogenesis: unravelling a relationship key to cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Finney, Lydia; Vogt, Stefan; Fukai, Tohru; Glesne, David

    2009-01-01

    1. Angiogenesis, the formation of new capillaries from existing vasculature, is a critical process in normal physiology as well as several physiopathologies. A desire to curb the supportive role angiogenesis plays in the development and metastasis of cancers has driven exploration into anti-angiogenic strategies as cancer therapeutics. Key to this, angiogenesis additionally displays an exquisite sensitivity to bioavailable copper. Depletion of copper has been shown to inhibit angiogenesis in a wide variety of cancer cell and xenograft systems. Several clinical trials using copper chelation as either an adjuvant or primary therapy have been conducted. Yet, the biological basis for the sensitivity of angiogenesis remains unclear. Numerous molecules important to angiogenesis regulation have been shown to be either directly or indirectly influenced by copper, yet a clear probative answer to the connection remains elusive. 2. Measurements of copper in biological systems have historically relied on techniques that, although demonstrably powerful, provide little or no information as to the spatial distribution of metals in a cellular context. Therefore, several new approaches have been developed to image copper in a biological context. One such approach relies on synchrotron-derived X-rays from third-generation synchrotrons and the technique of high resolution X-ray fluorescence microprobe (XFM) analysis. 3. Recent applications of XFM approaches to the role of copper in regulating angiogenesis have provided unique insight into the connection between copper and cellular behaviour. Using XFM, copper has been shown to be highly spatially regulated, as it is translocated from perinuclear areas of the cell towards the tips of extending filopodia and across the cell membrane into the extracellular space during angiogenic processes. Such findings may explain the heightened sensitivity of this cellular process to this transition metal and set a new paradigm for the kinds of

  10. Autophagy triggered by magnolol derivative negatively regulates angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, S; Guru, S K; Pathania, A S; Kumar, A; Bhushan, S; Malik, F

    2013-01-01

    Angiogenesis has a key role in the tumor progression and metastasis; targeting endothelial cell proliferation has emerged as a promising therapeutic strategy for the prevention of cancer. Previous studies have revealed a complex association between the process of angiogenesis and autophagy and its outcome on tumorigenesis. Autophagy, also known as type-II cell death, has been identified as an alternative way of cell killing in apoptotic-resistant cancer cells. However, its involvement in chemoresistance and tumor promotion is also well known. In this study, we used a derivate of natural product magnolol (Ery5), a potent autophagy inducer, to study the association between the autophagy and angiogenesis in both in vitro and in vivo model system. We found that the robust autophagy triggered by Ery5, inhibited angiogenesis and caused cell death independent of the apoptosis in human umbilical cord vein endothelial cells and PC-3 cells. Ery5 induced autophagy effectively inhibited cell proliferation, migration, invasion and tube formation. We further demonstrated that Ery5-mediated autophagy and subsequent inhibition of angiogenesis was reversed when autophagy was inhibited through 3-methyl adenine and knocking down of key autophagy proteins ATG7 and microtubule-associated protein light chain 3. While evaluating the negative regulation of autophagy on angiogenesis, it was interesting to find that angiogenic environment produced by the treatment of VEGF and CoCl2 remarkably downregulated the autophagy and autophagic cell death induced by Ery5. These studies, while disclosing the vital role of autophagy in the regulation of angiogenesis, also suggest that the potent modulators of autophagy can lead to the development of effective therapeutics in apoptosis-resistant cancer. PMID:24176847

  11. Increased angiogenesis in portal hypertensive rats: role of nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Sumanovski, L T; Battegay, E; Stumm, M; van der Kooij, M; Sieber, C C

    1999-04-01

    Systemic and especially splanchnic arterial vasodilation accompany chronic portal hypertension. Different soluble mediators causing this vasodilation have been proposed, the strongest evidence being for nitric oxide (NO). No data exist if structural vascular changes may partly account for this vasodilatory state. Here, we developed a new in vivo quantitative angiogenesis assay in the abdominal cavity and determined if: 1) portal hypertensive rats show increased angiogenesis; and 2) angiogenesis is altered by inhibiting NO formation. Portal hypertension was induced by partial portal vein ligation (PVL). Sham-operated rats served as controls (CON). During the index operation (day 0), a teflon ring filled with collagen I (Vitrogen 100) was sutured in the mesenteric cavity. After 16 days, rings were explanted, embedded in paraffin, and ingrown vessels counted using a morphometry system. The role of NO was tested by adding an antagonist of NO formation (Nomega-nitro-L-arginine [NNA], 3.3 mg/kg/d) into the drinking water. The mean number of ingrown vessels per implant was significantly higher in PVL rats compared with CON rats, i.e., 1,453 +/- 187 versus 888 +/- 116, respectively (P <.05; N = 5 per group). NNA significantly (P <.01) inhibited angiogenesis in PVL (202 +/- 124; N = 5) and in CON (174 +/- 25; N = 6) rats, respectively. In contrast, the beta-adrenergic blocker, propranolol, did not prevent angiogenesis either in PVL or CON rats in a separate set of experiments (data not shown). The conclusions drawn from this study are that: 1) rats with portal hypertension show increased angiogenesis; and 2) inhibition of NO formation significantly prevents angiogenesis in both PVL and CON rats. Therefore, splanchnic vasodilation in chronic portal hypertension may also be a result of structural changes.

  12. Angiogenesis-regulating microRNAs and Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Yin, Ke-Jie; Hamblin, Milton; Chen, Y Eugene

    2015-01-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Ischemic stroke is the dominant subtype of stroke and results from focal cerebral ischemia due to occlusion of major cerebral arteries. Thus, the restoration or improvement of reduced regional cerebral blood supply in a timely manner is very critical for improving stroke outcomes and poststroke functional recovery. The recovery from ischemic stroke largely relies on appropriate restoration of blood flow via angiogenesis. Newly formed vessels would allow increased cerebral blood flow, thus increasing the amount of oxygen and nutrients delivered to affected brain tissue. Angiogenesis is strictly controlled by many key angiogenic factors in the central nervous system, and these molecules have been well-documented to play an important role in the development of angiogenesis in response to various pathological conditions. Promoting angiogenesis via various approaches that target angiogenic factors appears to be a useful treatment for experimental ischemic stroke. Most recently, microRNAs (miRs) have been identified as negative regulators of gene expression in a post-transcriptional manner. Accumulating studies have demonstrated that miRs are essential determinants of vascular endothelial cell biology/angiogenesis as well as contributors to stroke pathogenesis. In this review, we summarize the knowledge of stroke-associated angiogenic modulators, as well as the role and molecular mechanisms of stroke-associated miRs with a focus on angiogenesis-regulating miRs. Moreover, we further discuss their potential impact on miR-based therapeutics in stroke through targeting and enhancing post-ischemic angiogenesis.

  13. Copper and angiogenesis : unravelling a relationship key to cancer progression.

    SciTech Connect

    Finney, L. A.; Vogt, S.; Fukai, T.; Glesne, D.; Univ. of Illinois

    2009-01-01

    Angiogenesis, the formation of new capillaries from existing vasculature, is a critical process in normal physiology as well as several physiopathologies. A desire to curb the supportive role angiogenesis plays in the development and metastasis of cancers has driven exploration into anti-angiogenic strategies as cancer therapeutics. Key to this, angiogenesis additionally displays an exquisite sensitivity to bioavailable copper. Depletion of copper has been shown to inhibit angiogenesis in a wide variety of cancer cell and xenograft systems. Several clinical trials using copper chelation as either an adjuvant or primary therapy have been conducted. Yet, the biological basis for the sensitivity of angiogenesis remains unclear. Numerous molecules important to angiogenesis regulation have been shown to be either directly or indirectly influenced by copper, yet a clear probative answer to the connection remains elusive. Measurements of copper in biological systems have historically relied on techniques that, although demonstrably powerful, provide little or no information as to the spatial distribution of metals in a cellular context. Therefore, several new approaches have been developed to image copper in a biological context. One such approach relies on synchrotron-derived X-rays from third-generation synchrotrons and the technique of high resolution X-ray fluorescence microprobe (XFM) analysis. Recent applications of XFM approaches to the role of copper in regulating angiogenesis have provided unique insight into the connection between copper and cellular behaviour. Using XFM, copper has been shown to be highly spatially regulated, as it is translocated from perinuclear areas of the cell towards the tips of extending filopodia and across the cell membrane into the extracellular space during angiogenic processes. Such findings may explain the heightened sensitivity of this cellular process to this transition metal and set a new paradigm for the kinds of regulatory

  14. Copper and angiogenesis : unraveling a relationship key to cancer progression.

    SciTech Connect

    Finney, L. F.; Vogt, S. V.; Fukai, TF; Glesne, DG; Univ. of Illinois at Chicago

    2009-01-01

    Angiogenesis, the formation of new capillaries from existing vasculature, is a critical process in normal physiology as well as several physiopathologies. A desire to curb the supportive role angiogenesis plays in the development and metastasis of cancers has driven exploration into anti-angiogenic strategies as cancer therapeutics. Key to this, angiogenesis additionally displays an exquisite sensitivity to bioavailable copper. Depletion of copper has been shown to inhibit angiogenesis in a wide variety of cancer cell and xenograft systems. Several clinical trials using copper chelation as either an adjuvant or primary therapy have been conducted. Yet, the biological basis for the sensitivity of angiogenesis remains unclear. Numerous molecules important to angiogenesis regulation have been shown to be either directly or indirectly influenced by copper, yet a clear probative answer to the connection remains elusive. Measurements of copper in biological systems have historically relied on techniques that, although demonstrably powerful, provide little or no information as to the spatial distribution of metals in a cellular context. Therefore, several new approaches have been developed to image copper in a biological context. One such approach relies on synchrotron-derived X-rays from third-generation synchrotrons and the technique of high resolution X-ray fluorescence microprobe (XFM) analysis. Recent applications of XFM approaches to the role of copper in regulating angiogenesis have provided unique insight into the connection between copper and cellular behaviour. Using XFM, copper has been shown to be highly spatially regulated, as it is translocated from perinuclear areas of the cell towards the tips of extending filopodia and across the cell membrane into the extracellular space during angiogenic processes. Such findings may explain the heightened sensitivity of this cellular process to this transition metal and set a new paradigm for the kinds of regulatory

  15. Heme oxygenase-1 accelerates tumor angiogenesis of human pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Sunamura, Makoto; Duda, Dan G; Ghattas, Maivel H; Lozonschi, Lucian; Motoi, Fuyuhiko; Yamauchi, Jun-Ichiro; Matsuno, Seiki; Shibahara, Shigeki; Abraham, Nader G

    2003-01-01

    Angiogenesis is necessary for the continued growth of solid tumors, invasion and metastasis. Several studies clearly showed that heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) plays an important role in angiogenesis. In this study, we used the vital microscope system, transparent skinfold model, lung colonization model and transduced pancreatic cancer cell line (Panc-1)/human heme oxygenase-1 (hHO-1) cells, to precisely analyze, for the first time, the effect of hHO-1 gene on tumor growth, angiogenesis and metastasis. Our results revealed that HO-1 stimulates angiogenesis of pancreatic carcinoma in severe combined immune deficient mice. Overexpression of human hHO-1 after its retroviral transfer into Panc-1 cells did not interfere with tumor growth in vitro. While in vivo the development of tumors was accelerated upon transfection with hHO-1. On the other hand, inhibition of heme oxygenase (HO) activity by stannous mesoporphyrin was able transiently to delay tumor growth in a dose dependent manner. Tumor angiogenesis was markedly increased in Panc-1/hHO-1 compared to mock transfected and wild type. Lectin staining and Ki-67 proliferation index confirmed these results. In addition hHO-1 stimulated in vitro tumor angiogenesis and increased endothelial cell survival. In a lung colonization model, overexpression of hHO-1 increased the occurrence of metastasis, while inhibition of HO activity by stannous mesoporphyrin completely inhibited the occurrence of metastasis. In conclusion, overexpression of HO-1 genes potentiates pancreatic cancer aggressiveness, by increasing tumor growth, angiogenesis and metastasis and that the inhibition of the HO system may be of useful benefit for the future treatment of the disease.

  16. Inhibition of APE1/Ref-1 redox activity with APX3330 blocks retinal angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Aihua; Gao, Hua; Kelley, Mark R; Qiao, Xiaoxi

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the role of APE1/Ref-1 in the retina and its potential as a therapeutic target for inhibiting retinal angiogenesis. APE1/Ref-1 expression was quantified by Western blot. The role of APE1/Ref-1 redox function in endothelial cell in vitro angiogenesis was examined by treating retinal vascular endothelial cells (RVECs) with APX3330, a small molecule inhibitor of APE1/Ref-1 redox activity. In vitro methods included a proliferation assay, a transwell migration assay, a Matrigel tube formation assay, and a Real-Time Cell Analysis (RTCA) using the xCELLigence System. In vivo functional studies of APE1/Ref-1 were carried out by treating very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) receptor knockout mice (Vldlr(-/-)) with intravitreal injection of APX3330, and subsequent measurement of retinal angiomatous proliferation (RAP)-like neovascularization for one week. APE1/Ref-1 was highly expressed in the retina and in RVECs and pericytes in mice. APX3330 (1-10 μM) inhibited proliferation, migration and tube formation of RVECs in vitro in a dose-dependent manner. Vldlr(-/-) RVECs were more sensitive to APX3330 than wild-type RVECs. In Vldlr(-/-) mice, a single intravitreal injection of APX3330 at the onset of RAP-like neovascularization significantly reduced RAP-like neovascularization development. APE1/Ref-1 is expressed in retinal vascular cells. APX3330 inhibits RVEC angiogenesis in vitro and significantly reduces RAP-like neovascularization in Vldlr(-/-) mice. These data support the conclusion that APE1/Ref-1 redox function is required for retinal angiogenesis. Thus, APE1/Ref-1 may have potential as a therapeutic target for treating neovascular age-related macular degeneration and other neovascular diseases.

  17. Cyclosporin A differentially inhibits multiple steps in VEGF induced angiogenesis in human microvascular endothelial cells through altered intracellular signaling

    PubMed Central

    Rafiee, Parvaneh; Heidemann, Jan; Ogawa, Hitoshi; Johnson, Nathan A; Fisher, Pamela J; Li, Mona S; Otterson, Mary F; Johnson, Christopher P; Binion, David G

    2004-01-01

    The immunosuppressive agent cyclosporin A (CsA), a calcineurin inhibitor which blocks T cell activation has provided the pharmacologic foundation for organ transplantation. CsA exerts additional effects on non-immune cell populations and may adversely effect microvascular endothelial cells, contributing to chronic rejection, a long-term clinical complication and significant cause of mortality in solid-organ transplants, including patients with small bowel allografts. Growth of new blood vessels, or angiogenesis, is a critical homeostatic mechanism in organs and tissues, and regulates vascular populations in response to physiologic requirements. We hypothesized that CsA would inhibit the angiogenic capacity of human gut microvessels. Primary cultures of human intestinal microvascular endothelial cells (HIMEC) were used to evaluate CsA's effect on four in vitro measures of angiogenesis, including endothelial stress fiber assembly, migration, proliferation and tube formation, in response to the endothelial growth factor VEGF. We characterized the effect of CsA on intracellular signaling mechanisms following VEGF stimulation. CsA affected all VEGF induced angiogenic events assessed in HIMEC. CsA differentially inhibited signaling pathways which mediated distinct steps of the angiogenic process. CsA blocked VEGF induced nuclear translocation of the transcription factor NFAT, activation of p44/42 MAPK, and partially inhibited JNK and p38 MAPK. CsA differentially affected signaling cascades in a dose dependent fashion and completely blocked expression of COX-2, which was integrally linked to HIMEC angiogenesis. These data suggest that CsA inhibits the ability of microvascular endothelial cells to undergo angiogenesis, impairing vascular homeostatic mechanisms and contributing to the vasculopathy associated with chronic rejection. PMID:15175101

  18. Fucosyltransferase 1 mediates angiogenesis in rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Isozaki, Takeo; Amin, Mohammad A.; Ruth, Jeffrey H.; Campbell, Phillip L.; Tsou, Pei-Suen; Ha, Christine M.; Stinson, W. Alex; Domino, Steven E.; Koch, Alisa E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to determine the role of α(1,2)-linked fucosylation of proteins by fucosyltransferase1 (fut1) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) angiogenesis. Methods Analysis of α(1,2)-linked fucosylated proteins in synovial tissues (STs) was performed by immunohistological staining. α(1,2)-linked fucosylated angiogenic chemokine expression in synovial fluids (SFs) was determined by immunoprecipitation and lectin blotting. To determine the angiogenic role of α(1,2)-linked fucosylated proteins in RA, we performed human dermal microvascular endothelial cell (HMVEC) chemotaxis and Matrigel assays using nondepleted and α(1,2)-linked fucosylated protein depleted RA SFs. To examine the production of proangiogenic chemokines by fucosyltransferase 1 (fut1) in HMVECs, cells were transfected with fut1 sense or antisense oligonucleotides, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed. We then studied mouse lung endothelial cell (MLEC) chemotaxis using wild type and fut1 gene deficient MLECs. Results α(1,2)-linked fucosylated proteins on RA ST endothelial cells (ECs) were highly expressed compared to normal ST. α(1,2)-linked fucosylated monocyte chemoattract protein-1 (MCP-1)/CCL2 was present in RA SFs, and was significantly elevated compared to osteoarthritis SFs. Depletion of α(1,2)-linked fucosylated proteins in RA SFs induced less HMVEC migration and tube formation compared to nondepleted RA SFs. We found that blocking fut1 expression in ECs resulted in decreased MCP-1/CCL2 and regulated upon activation and normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES)/CCL5 production. Finally, we showed that fut1 regulates EC migration in response to vascular endothelial cell growth factor. Conclusions α(1,2)-linked fucosylation by fut1 may be an important new target for angiogenic diseases like RA. PMID:24692243

  19. Drug delivery strategies for therapeutic angiogenesis and antiangiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Bhise, Nupura S; Shmueli, Ron B; Sunshine, Joel C; Tzeng, Stephany Y; Green, Jordan J

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Angiogenesis is essential to human biology and of great clinical significance. Excessive or reduced angiogenesis can result in, or exacerbate, several disease states, including tumor formation, exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and ischemia. Innovative drug delivery systems can increase the effectiveness of therapies used to treat angiogenesis-related diseases. Areas covered This paper reviews the basic biology of angiogenesis, including current knowledge about its disruption in diseases, with the focus on cancer and AMD. Anti- and proangiogenic drugs available for clinical use or in development are also discussed, as well as experimental drug delivery systems that can potentially improve these therapies to enhance or reduce angiogenesis in a more controlled manner. Expert opinion Laboratory and clinical results have shown pro- or antiangiogenic drug delivery strategies to be effective in drastically slowing disease progression. Further research in this area will increase the efficacy, specificity and duration of these therapies. Future directions with composite drug delivery systems may make possible targeting of multiple factors for synergistic effects. PMID:21338327

  20. Robo 4 Counteracts Angiogenesis in Herpetic Stromal Keratitis

    PubMed Central

    Gimenez, Fernanda; Bhela, Siddheshvar; Rouse, Barry T.

    2015-01-01

    The cornea is a complex tissue that must preserve its transparency to maintain optimal vision. However, in some circumstances, damage to the eye can result in neovascularization that impairs vision. This outcome can occur when herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) causes the immunoinflammatory lesion stromal keratitis (SK). Potentially useful measures to control the severity of SK are to target angiogenesis which with herpetic SK invariably involves VEGF. One such way to control angiogenesis involves the endothelial receptor Robo4 (R4), which upon interaction with another protein activates an antiangiogenic pathway that counteracts VEGF downstream signaling. In this study we show that mice unable to produce R4 because of gene knockout developed significantly higher angiogenesis after HSV-1 ocular infection than did infected wild type (WT) controls. Moreover, providing additional soluble R4 (sR4) protein by subconjunctival administration to R4 KO HSV-1 infected mice substantially rescued the WT phenotype. Finally, administration of sR4 to WT HSV-1 infected mice diminished the extent of corneal angiogenesis compared to WT control animals. Our results indicate that sR4 could represent a useful therapeutic tool to counteract corneal angiogenesis and help control the severity of SK. PMID:26720197

  1. Computational Flow Dynamics in a Geometric Model of Intussusceptive Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Filipovic, Nenad; Tsuda, Akira; Lee, Grace S.; Miele, Lino F.; Lin, Miao; Konerding, Moritz A.; Mentzer, Steven J.

    2009-01-01

    Intussusceptive angiogenesis is a process that forms new blood vessels by the intraluminal division of a single blood vessel into two lumens. Referred to as nonsprouting or intussusceptive angiogenesis, this angiogenic process has been described in morphogenesis and chronic inflammation. Mechanical forces are relevant to the structural changes associated with intussusceptive angiogenesis because of the growing evidence that physiologic forces influence gene transcription. To provide a detailed analysis of the spatial distribution of physiologic shear stresses, we developed a 3D finite element model of the intraluminal intussusceptive pillar. Based on geometries observed in adult intussusceptive angiogenesis, physiologic shear stress distribution was studied at pillar sizes ranging from 1μm to 10μm. The wall shear stress calculations demonstrated a marked spatial dependence with discrete regions of high shear stress on the intraluminal pillar and lateral vessel wall. Further, the intussusceptive pillar created a “dead zone” of low wall shear stress between the pillar and vessel bifurcation apex. We conclude that the intraluminal flow fields demonstrate sufficient spatial resolution and dynamic range to participate in the regulation of intussusceptive angiogenesis by intraluminal flow fields. PMID:19715707

  2. Thymidine phosphorylase, 2-deoxy-D-ribose and angiogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, N S; Bicknell, R

    1998-01-01

    Angiogenesis is the term used to describe the formation of new blood vessels from the existing vasculature. In order to attract new vessels, a tissue must release an endothelial-cell chemoattractant. 2-Deoxy-D-ribose is produced in vivo by the catalytic action of thymidine phosphorylase (TP) on thymidine and has recently been identified as an endothelial-cell chemoattractant and angiogenesis-inducing factor. TP, previously known only for its role in nucleotide salvage, is now known to be angiogenic. TP expression is elevated in many solid tumours and in chronically inflamed tissues, both known areas of active angiogenesis. There is evidence that TP is also involved in physiological angiogenesis such as endometrial angiogenesis during the menstrual cycle. The majority of known endothelial-cell chemoattractants are polypeptides that bind to endothelial-cell-surface receptors. In contrast, 2-deoxy-D-ribose appears to lack a cell-surface receptor. Glucose is another sugar that acts as an endothelial-cell chemoattractant. The migratory activity of glucose is blocked by ouabain. It is possible that 2-deoxy-D-ribose and glucose stimulate endothelial-cell migration via a similar mechanistic pathway. PMID:9693094

  3. Folate Deficiency Could Restrain Decidual Angiogenesis in Pregnant Mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yanli; Gao, Rufei; Liu, Xueqing; Chen, Xuemei; Liao, Xinggui; Geng, Yanqing; Ding, Yubin; Wang, Yingxiong; He, Junlin

    2015-01-01

    The mechanism of birth defects induced by folate deficiency was focused on mainly in fetal development. Little is known about the effect of folate deficiency on the maternal uterus, especially on decidual angiogenesis after implantation which establishes vessel networks to support embryo development. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of folate deficiency on decidual angiogenesis. Serum folate levels were measured by electrochemiluminescence. The status of decidual angiogenesis was examined by cluster designation 34 (CD34) immunohistochemistry and the expression of angiogenic factors, including vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), placental growth factor (PLGF), and VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) were also tested. Serum levels of homocysteine (Hcy), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin (PRL), progesterone (P4), and estradiol (E2) were detected by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The folate-deficient mice had a lower folate level and a higher Hcy level. Folate deficiency restrained decidual angiogenesis with significant abnormalities in vascular density and the enlargement and elongation of the vascular sinus. It also showed a reduction in the expressions of VEGFA, VEGFR2, and PLGF. In addition, the serum levels of P4, E2, LH, and PRL were reduced in folate-deficient mice, and the expression of progesterone receptor (PR) and estrogen receptor α (ERα) were abnormal. These results indicated that folate deficiency could impaire decidual angiogenesis and it may be related to the vasculotoxic properties of Hcy and the imbalance of the reproductive hormone. PMID:26247969

  4. Characterization of a chemoattractant for endothelium induced by angiogenesis effectors.

    PubMed

    Raju, K S; Alessandri, G; Gullino, P M

    1984-04-01

    The mechanism of neovascularization was further explored by the use of chemically defined angiogenesis effectors. The vascularization of the rabbit cornea was selected as an experimental approach that permits comparison of one cornea treated by the angiogenesis effector with the contralateral cornea of the same subject treated by the same molecule deprived of angiogenic capacity. Under these conditions, we observed that neovascularization was initiated by the appearance of a chemoattractant for the bovine capillary endothelium only in the cornea treated by the angiogenesis effector. The chemoattractant was purified about 150-fold by a single-step procedure, using gelatin:Sepharose affinity chromatography. Chemoattraction resulted from the combined effect of a chemotactic factor(s) and an activating factor(s). The association of the two enhanced 5- to 8-fold the motility of the capillary endothelium in a concentration-dependent manner with optimum at 0.2 mg/ml. The activating factor(s) does not have chemotactic capacity, but without it, chemotaxis is reduced to about one half. The chemotactic complex was present in the cornea regardless of the nature of the angiogenesis effector used as the triggering device. Heat and proteases eliminated chemotaxis and destroyed the chemotactic complex. Thus, neovascularization may be triggered by effectors able to induce in the cornea proteins, normally not present, that influence angiogenesis via mobilization of capillary endothelium. PMID:6200213

  5. Anti-cancer activity of an osthole derivative, NBM-T-BMX-OS01: targeting vascular endothelial growth factor receptor signaling and angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hung-Yu; Hsu, Ya-Fen; Chiu, Pei-Ting; Ho, Shiau-Jing; Wang, Chi-Han; Chi, Chih-Chin; Huang, Yu-Han; Lee, Cheng-Feng; Li, Ying-Shiuan; Ou, George; Hsu, Ming-Jen

    2013-01-01

    Angiogenesis occurs during tissue growth, development and wound healing. It is also required for tumor progression and represents a rational target for therapeutic intervention. NBM-T-BMX-OS01 (BMX), derived from the semisynthesis of osthole, an active ingredient isolated from Chinese herb Cnidium monnieri (L.) Cuss., was recently shown to enhance learning and memory in rats. In this study, we characterized the anti-angiogenic activities of NBM-T-BMX-OS01 (BMX) in an effort to develop novel inhibitors to suppress angiogenesis and tumor growth. BMX inhibited vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced proliferation, migration and endothelial tube formation in human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVECs). BMX also attenuated VEGF-induced microvessel sprouting from aortic rings ex vivo and reduced HCT116 colorectal cancer cells-induced angiogenesis in vivo. Moreover, BMX inhibited the phosphorylation of VEGFR2, FAK, Akt and ERK in HUVECs exposed to VEGF. BMX was also shown to inhibit HCT116 cell proliferation and to suppress the growth of subcutaneous xenografts of HCT116 cells in vivo. Taken together, this study provides evidence that BMX modulates vascular endothelial cell remodeling and leads to the inhibition of tumor angiogenesis. These results also support the role of BMX as a potential drug candidate and warrant the clinical development in the treatment of cancer. PMID:24312323

  6. Hexachlorobenzene promotes angiogenesis in vivo, in a breast cancer model and neovasculogenesis in vitro, in the human microvascular endothelial cell line HMEC-1.

    PubMed

    Pontillo, Carolina; Español, Alejandro; Chiappini, Florencia; Miret, Noelia; Cocca, Claudia; Alvarez, Laura; Kleiman de Pisarev, Diana; Sales, María Elena; Randi, Andrea Silvana

    2015-11-19

    Exposure to environmental pollutants may alter proangiogenic ability and promotes tumor growth. Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) is an organochlorine pesticide found in maternal milk and in lipid foods, and a weak ligand of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). HCB induces migration and invasion in human breast cancer cells, as well as tumor growth and metastasis in vivo. In this study, we examined HCB action on angiogenesis in mammary carcinogenesis. HCB stimulates angiogenesis and increases vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in a xenograft model with the human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231. Human microvascular endothelial cells HMEC-1 exposed to HCB (0.005, 0.05, 0.5 and 5μM) showed an increase in cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and VEGF protein expression involving AhR. In addition, we found that HCB enhances VEGF-Receptor 2 (VEGFR2) expression, and activates its downstream pathways p38 and ERK1/2. HCB induces cell migration and neovasculogenesis in a dose-dependent manner. Cells pretreatment with AhR, COX-2 and VEGFR2 selective inhibitors, suppressed these effects. In conclusion, our results show that HCB promotes angiogenesis in vivo and in vitro. HCB-induced cell migration and tubulogenesis are mediated by AhR, COX-2 and VEGFR2 in HMEC-1. These findings may help to understand the association among HCB exposure, angiogenesis and mammary carcinogenesis. PMID:26358519

  7. Inhibitory effects of artesunate on angiogenesis and on expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor and VEGF receptor KDR/flk-1.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huan-Huan; Zhou, Hui-Jun; Wu, Guo-Dong; Lou, Xiao-E

    2004-05-01

    Artesunate (ART) is a semi-synthetic derivative of artemisinin extracted from the plant Artemisia annua is a safe and effective antimalarial drug. In the present investigation, ART was found also to inhibit angiogenesis in vivo and in vitro. The anti-angiogenic effect in vivo was evaluated in nude mice by means of human ovarian cancer HO-8910 implantation and immunohistochemical stainings for microvessel (CD(31)), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and VEGF receptor KDR/flk-1. Tumor growth was decreased and microvessel density was reduced following drug treatment with no apparent toxicity to the animals. ART also remarkably lowered VEGF expression on tumor cells and KDR/flk-1 expression on endothelial cells as well as tumor cells. The in vitro effect of ART was tested on models of angiogenesis, namely, proliferation, migration and tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). The results showed that ART significantly inhibited angiogenesis in a dose-dependent form in the range of 0.5 approximately 50 micromol/l. Additionally, the inhibitory effect of ART on HVUEC proliferation was stronger than that on Hela, JAR, HO-8910 cancer cells, NIH-3T3 fibroblast cells and human endometrial cells, indicating that ART was selectively against HUVEC. These findings and the known low toxicity of ART are clues that ART may be a promising angiogenesis inhibitor. PMID:15051917

  8. Rolipram stimulates angiogenesis and attenuates neuronal apoptosis through the cAMP/cAMP-responsive element binding protein pathway following ischemic stroke in rats

    PubMed Central

    HU, SHOUYE; CAO, QINGWEN; XU, PENG; JI, WENCHEN; WANG, GANG; ZHANG, YUELIN

    2016-01-01

    Rolipram, a phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor, can activate the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)/cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB) pathway to facilitate functional recovery following ischemic stroke. However, to date, the effects of rolipram on angiogenesis and cerebral ischemia-induced neuronal apoptosis are yet to be fully elucidated. In this study, the aim was to reveal the effect of rolipram on the angiogenesis and neuronal apoptosis following brain cerebral ischemia. Rat models of ischemic stroke were established following transient middle cerebral artery occlusion and rolipram was administered for three, seven and 14 days. The results were examined using behavioral tests, triphenyl tetrazolium chloride staining, immunostaining and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) to evaluate the effects of rolipram therapy on functional outcome, angiogenesis and apoptosis. Western blot analysis was used to show the phosphorylated- (p-)CREB protein level in the ischemic hemisphere. The rolipram treatment group exhibited a marked reduction in infarct size and modified neurological severity score compared with the vehicle group, and rolipram treatment significantly promoted the microvessel density in the ischemic boundary region and increased p-CREB protein levels in the ischemic hemisphere. Furthermore, a significant reduction in the number of TUNEL-positive cells was observed in the rolipram group compared with the vehicle group. These findings suggest that rolipram has the ability to attenuate cerebral ischemic injury, stimulate angiogenesis and reduce neuronal apoptosis though the cAMP/CREB pathway. PMID:26998028

  9. An amino-bisphosphonate targets MMP-9–expressing macrophages and angiogenesis to impair cervical carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Giraudo, Enrico; Inoue, Masahiro; Hanahan, Douglas

    2004-01-01

    A mouse model involving the human papillomavirus type-16 oncogenes develops cervical cancers by lesional stages analogous to those in humans. In this study the angiogenic phenotype was characterized, revealing intense angiogenesis in high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasias (CIN-3) and carcinomas. MMP-9, a proangiogenic protease implicated in mobilization of VEGF, appeared in the stroma concomitant with the angiogenic switch, expressed by infiltrating macrophages, similar to what has been observed in humans. Preclinical trials sought to target MMP-9 and angiogenesis with a prototypical MMP inhibitor and with a bisphosphonate, zoledronic acid (ZA), revealing both to be antiangiogenic, producing effects comparable to a Mmp9 gene KO in impairing angiogenic switching, progression of premalignant lesions, and tumor growth. ZA therapy increased neoplastic epithelial and endothelial cell apoptosis without affecting hyperproliferation, indicating that ZA was not antimitotic. The analyses implicated cellular and molecular targets of ZA’s actions: ZA suppressed MMP-9 expression by infiltrating macrophages and inhibited metalloprotease activity, reducing association of VEGF with its receptor on angiogenic endothelial cells. Given its track record in clinical use with limited toxicity, ZA holds promise as an “unconventional” MMP-9 inhibitor for antiangiogenic therapy of cervical cancer and potentially for additional cancers and other diseases where MMP-9 expression by infiltrating macrophages is evident. PMID:15343380

  10. "Decoding" Angiogenesis: New Facets Controlling Endothelial Cell Behavior.

    PubMed

    Sewduth, Raj; Santoro, Massimo M

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels, is a unique and crucial biological process occurring during both development and adulthood. A better understanding of the mechanisms that regulates such process is mandatory to intervene in pathophysiological conditions. Here we highlight some recent argument on new players that are critical in endothelial cells, by summarizing novel discoveries that regulate notorious vascular pathways such as Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF), Notch and Planar Cell Polarity (PCP), and by discussing more recent findings that put metabolism, redox signaling and hemodynamic forces as novel unforeseen facets in angiogenesis. These new aspects, that critically regulate angiogenesis and vascular homeostasis in health and diseased, represent unforeseen new ground to develop anti-angiogenic therapies. PMID:27493632

  11. “Decoding” Angiogenesis: New Facets Controlling Endothelial Cell Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Sewduth, Raj; Santoro, Massimo M.

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels, is a unique and crucial biological process occurring during both development and adulthood. A better understanding of the mechanisms that regulates such process is mandatory to intervene in pathophysiological conditions. Here we highlight some recent argument on new players that are critical in endothelial cells, by summarizing novel discoveries that regulate notorious vascular pathways such as Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF), Notch and Planar Cell Polarity (PCP), and by discussing more recent findings that put metabolism, redox signaling and hemodynamic forces as novel unforeseen facets in angiogenesis. These new aspects, that critically regulate angiogenesis and vascular homeostasis in health and diseased, represent unforeseen new ground to develop anti-angiogenic therapies. PMID:27493632

  12. Extracellular Matrix Modulates Angiogenesis in Physiological and Pathological Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Neve, Anna; Cantatore, Francesco Paolo; Maruotti, Nicola; Corrado, Addolorata; Ribatti, Domenico

    2014-01-01

    Angiogenesis is a multistep process driven by a wide range of positive and negative regulatory factors. Extracellular matrix (ECM) plays a crucial role in the regulation of this process. The degradation of ECM, occurring in response to an angiogenic stimulus, leads to degradation or partial modification of matrix molecules, release of soluble factors, and exposure of cryptic sites with pro- and/or antiangiogenic activity. ECM molecules and fragments, resulting from proteolysis, can also act directly as inflammatory stimuli, and this can explain the exacerbated angiogenesis that drives and maintains several inflammatory diseases. In this review we have summarized some of the more recent literature data concerning the molecular control of ECM in angiogenesis in both physiological and pathological conditions. PMID:24949467

  13. Loss of phospholipase D2 impairs VEGF-induced angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chang Sup; Ghim, Jaewang; Song, Parkyong; Suh, Pann-Ghill; Ryu, Sung Ho

    2016-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a key mediator of angiogenesis and critical for normal embryonic development and repair of pathophysiological conditions in adults. Although phospholipase D (PLD) activity has been implicated in angiogenic processes, its role in VEGF signaling during angiogenesis in mammals is unclear. Here, we found that silencing of PLD2 by siRNA blocked VEGF-mediated signaling in immortalized human umbilical vein endothelial cells (iHUVECs). Also, VEGF-induced endothelial cell survival, proliferation, migration, and tube formation were inhibited by PLD2 silencing. Furthermore, while Pld2-knockout mice exhibited normal development, loss of PLD2 inhibited VEGF-mediated ex vivo angiogenesis. These findings suggest that PLD2 functions as a key mediator in the VEGF-mediated angiogenic functions of endothelial cells. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(3): 191-196] PMID:26818087

  14. Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Sprouting Angiogenesis: Proteases Pave the Way.

    PubMed

    Laurenzana, A; Fibbi, G; Margheri, F; Biagioni, A; Luciani, C; Del Rosso, M; Chillà, A

    2015-01-01

    Sprouting angiogenesis consists of the expansion and remodelling of existing vessels, where the vascular sprouts connect each other to form new vascular loops. Endothelial Progenitor Cells (EPCs) are a subtype of stem cells, with high proliferative potential, able to differentiate into mature Endothelial Cells (ECs) during the neovascularization process. In addition to this direct structural role EPCs improve neovascularization, also secreting numerous pro-angiogenic factors able to enhance the proliferation, survival and function of mature ECs, and other surrounding progenitor cells. While sprouting angiogenesis by mature ECs involves resident ECs, the vasculogenic contribution of EPCs is a high hurdle race. Bone marrowmobilized EPCs have to detach from the stem cell niche, intravasate into bone marrow vessels, reach the hypoxic area or tumour site, extravasate and incorporate into the new vessel lumen, thus complementing the resident mature ECs in sprouting angiogenesis. The goal of this review is to highlight the role of the main protease systems able to control each of these steps. The pivotal protease systems here described, involved in vascular patterning in sprouting angiogenesis, are the matrix-metalloproteinases (MMPs), the serineproteinases urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) associated with its receptor (uPAR) and receptorassociated plasminogen/plasmin, the neutrophil elastase and the cathepsins. Since angiogenesis plays a critical role not only in physiological but also in pathological processes, such as in tumours, controlling the contribution of EPCs to the angiogenic process, through the regulation of the protease systems involved, could yield new opportunities for the therapeutic prospect of efficient control of pathological angiogenesis. PMID:26321757

  15. Roles of pleiotrophin in tumor growth and angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Papadimitriou, Evangelia; Mikelis, Constantinos; Lampropoulou, Evgenia; Koutsioumpa, Marina; Theochari, Katerina; Tsirmoula, Sotiria; Theodoropoulou, Christina; Lamprou, Margarita; Sfaelou, Evanthia; Vourtsis, Dionyssios; Boudouris, Panagiotis

    2009-12-01

    Pleiotrophin (PTN) is a heparin-binding growth factor with diverse biological activities, the most studied of these being those related to the nervous system, tumor growth and angiogenesis. Although interest in the involvement of PTN in tumor growth is increasing, many questions remain unanswered, particularly concerning the receptors and the signaling pathways involved. In this review, we briefly introduce PTN, and summarize data on its involvement in tumor growth and angiogenesis, and on what is known to date concerning the receptors and pathways involved.

  16. Chemical approaches to angiogenesis in development and regeneration.

    PubMed

    Zhao, H; Huang, H; Lin, S

    2016-01-01

    Vascular endothelial cells are essential building blocks of angiogenesis, which is required for normal embryonic development and tissue regeneration. In this chapter, we describe how to use transgenic zebrafish embryos expressing vascular-specific green fluorescent protein to evaluate differentiation, growth, and morphogenesis of endothelial cells. When combined with instrument automation and computational analysis, this method allows high-throughput screening for biologically active small chemical molecules that are effective in promoting angiogenesis. These molecules can be validated in mammalian endothelial cell differentiation and proliferation assays. These studies provide new reagents and therapeutic candidates for regenerative medicine studies. PMID:27312498

  17. A core human primary tumor angiogenesis signature identifies the endothelial orphan receptor ELTD1 as a key regulator of angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Masiero, Massimo; Simões, Filipa Costa; Han, Hee Dong; Snell, Cameron; Peterkin, Tessa; Bridges, Esther; Mangala, Lingegowda S; Wu, Sherry Yen-Yao; Pradeep, Sunila; Li, Demin; Han, Cheng; Dalton, Heather; Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel; Tuynman, Jurriaan B; Mortensen, Neil; Li, Ji-Liang; Patient, Roger; Sood, Anil K; Banham, Alison H; Harris, Adrian L; Buffa, Francesca M

    2013-08-12

    Limited clinical benefits derived from anti-VEGF therapy have driven the identification of new targets involved in tumor angiogenesis. Here, we report an integrative meta-analysis to define the transcriptional program underlying angiogenesis in human cancer. This approach identified ELTD1, an orphan G-protein-coupled receptor whose expression is induced by VEGF/bFGF and repressed by DLL4 signaling. Extensive analysis of multiple cancer types demonstrates significant upregulation of ELTD1 in tumor-associated endothelial cells, with a higher expression correlating with favorable prognosis. Importantly, ELTD1 silencing impairs endothelial sprouting and vessel formation in vitro and in vivo, drastically reducing tumor growth and greatly improving survival. Collectively, these results provide insight into the regulation of tumor angiogenesis and highlight ELTD1 as key player in blood vessel formation. PMID:23871637

  18. A core human primary tumor angiogenesis signature identifies the endothelial orphan receptor ELTD1 as a key regulator of angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Masiero, Massimo; Simões, Filipa Costa; Han, Hee Dong; Snell, Cameron; Peterkin, Tessa; Bridges, Esther; Mangala, Lingegowda S; Wu, Sherry Yen-Yao; Pradeep, Sunila; Li, Demin; Han, Cheng; Dalton, Heather; Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel; Tuynman, Jurriaan B; Mortensen, Neil; Li, Ji-Liang; Patient, Roger; Sood, Anil K; Banham, Alison H; Harris, Adrian L; Buffa, Francesca M

    2013-08-12

    Limited clinical benefits derived from anti-VEGF therapy have driven the identification of new targets involved in tumor angiogenesis. Here, we report an integrative meta-analysis to define the transcriptional program underlying angiogenesis in human cancer. This approach identified ELTD1, an orphan G-protein-coupled receptor whose expression is induced by VEGF/bFGF and repressed by DLL4 signaling. Extensive analysis of multiple cancer types demonstrates significant upregulation of ELTD1 in tumor-associated endothelial cells, with a higher expression correlating with favorable prognosis. Importantly, ELTD1 silencing impairs endothelial sprouting and vessel formation in vitro and in vivo, drastically reducing tumor growth and greatly improving survival. Collectively, these results provide insight into the regulation of tumor angiogenesis and highlight ELTD1 as key player in blood vessel formation.

  19. Extracellular nonmitogenic angiogenesis factor and method of isolation thereof from wound fluid

    DOEpatents

    Banda, Michael J.; Werb, Zena; Knighton, David R.; Hunt, Thomas K.

    1985-01-01

    A nonmitogenic angiogenesis factor is isolated from wound fluid by dialysis to include materials in the molecular size range of 2,000 to 14,000, lyophilization, and chromatography. The nonmitogenic angiogenesis factor is identified by activity by corneal implant assay and by cell migration assay. The angiogenesis factor is also characterized by inactivity by mitogenesis assay.

  20. Extracellular nonmitogenic angiogenesis factor and method of isolation thereof from wound fluid

    DOEpatents

    Banda, M.J.; Werb, Z.; Knighton, D.R.; Hunt, T.K.

    1985-03-05

    A nonmitogenic angiogenesis factor is isolated from wound fluid by dialysis to include materials in the molecular size range of 2,000 to 14,000, lyophilization, and chromatography. The nonmitogenic angiogenesis factor is identified by activity by corneal implant assay and by cell migration assay. The angiogenesis factor is also characterized by inactivity by mitogenesis assay. 3 figs.

  1. MicroRNA-26a Regulates Pathological and Physiological Angiogenesis by Targeting BMP/SMAD1 Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Icli, Basak; Wara, A.K.M.; Moslehi, Javid; Sun, Xinghui; Plovie, Eva; Cahill, Meghan; Marchini, Julio F.; Schissler, Andrew; Padera, Robert F.; Shi, Jianru; Cheng, Hui-Wen; Raghuram, Srilatha; Arany, Zoltan; Liao, Ronglih; Croce, Kevin; MacRae, Calum; Feinberg, Mark W.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale The rapid induction and orchestration of new blood vessels are critical for tissue repair in response to injury, such as myocardial infarction, and for physiological angiogenic responses, such as embryonic development and exercise. Objective We aimed to identify and characterize microRNAs (miR) that regulate pathological and physiological angiogenesis. Methods and Results We show that miR-26a regulates pathological and physiological angiogenesis by targeting endothelial cell (EC) bone morphogenic protein/SMAD1 signaling in vitro and in vivo. MiR-26a expression is increased in a model of acute myocardial infarction in mice and in human subjects with acute coronary syndromes. Ectopic expression of miR-26a markedly induced EC cycle arrest and inhibited EC migration, sprouting angiogenesis, and network tube formation in matrigel, whereas blockade of miR-26a had the opposite effects. Mechanistic studies demonstrate that miR-26a inhibits the bone morphogenic protein/SMAD1 signaling pathway in ECs by binding to the SMAD1 3′-untranslated region, an effect that decreased expression of Id1 and increased p21WAF/CIP and p27. In zebrafish, miR-26a overexpression inhibited formation of the caudal vein plexus, a bone morphogenic protein-responsive process, an effect rescued by ectopic SMAD1 expression. In mice, miR-26a overexpression inhibited EC SMAD1 expression and exercise-induced angiogenesis. Furthermore, systemic intravenous administration of an miR-26a inhibitor, locked nucleic acid-anti–miR-26a, increased SMAD1 expression and rapidly induced robust angiogenesis within 2 days, an effect associated with reduced myocardial infarct size and improved heart function. Conclusions These findings establish miR-26a as a regulator of bone morphogenic protein/SMAD1-mediated EC angiogenic responses, and that manipulating miR-26a expression could provide a new target for rapid angiogenic therapy in ischemic disease states. PMID:24047927

  2. Hyperactivated FRS2α-mediated signaling in prostate cancer cells promotes tumor angiogenesis and predicts poor clinical outcome of patients

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Junchen; You, Pan; Chen, Guo; Fu, Xin; Zeng, Xiangfeng; Wang, Cong; Huang, Yanqing; An, Lei; Wan, Xinhai; Navone, Nora; Wu, Chin-Lee; McKeehan, Wallace L.; Zhang, Zhongying; Zhong, Weide; Wang, Fen

    2016-01-01

    Metastasis of tumors requires angiogenesis, which is comprised of multiple biological processes that are regulated by angiogenic factors. The fibroblast growth factor (FGF) is a potent angiogenic factor and aberrant FGF signaling is a common property of tumors. Yet, how the aberration in cancer cells contributes to angiogenesis in the tumor is not well understood. Most studies of its angiogenic signaling mechanisms have been in endothelial cells. FRS2α is an FGF receptor (FGFR)-associated protein required for activation of downstream signaling molecules that include those in the MAP and AKT kinase pathways. Herein we demonstrated that overactivation and hyperactivity of FRS2α, as well as overexpression of cJUN and HIF1α, were positively correlated with vessel density and progression of human prostate cancer (PCa) toward malignancy. We also demonstrate that FGF upregulated production of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) mainly through increasing expression of cJUN and HIF1α. This then promoted recruitment of endothelial cells and vessel formation for the tumor. Tumor angiogenesis in mouse PCa tissues was compromised by tissue specific ablation of Frs2α in prostate epithelial cells. Depletion of Frs2α expression in human PCa cells and in a preclinical xenograft model, MDA PCa 118b, also significantly suppressed tumor angiogenesis accompanied with decreased tumor growth in the bone. The results underscore the angiogenic role of FRS2α-mediated signaling in tumor epithelial cells in angiogenesis. They provide a rationale for treating PCa with inhibitors of FGF signaling. They also demonstrate the potential of overexpressed FRS2α as a biomarker for PCa diagnosis, prognosis, and response to therapies. PMID:26096936

  3. Advances in the cellular and molecular biology of angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Egginton, Stuart; Bicknell, Roy

    2011-12-01

    Capillaries have been recognized for over a century as one of the most important components in regulating tissue oxygen transport, and their formation or angiogenesis a pivotal element of tissue remodelling during development and adaptation. Clinical interest stems from observations that both excessive and inadequate vascular growth plays a major role in human diseases, and novel developments in treatments for cancer and eye disease increasingly rely on anti-angiogenic therapies. Although the discovery of VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) provided the first clue for specificity of signalling in endothelial cell activation, understanding the integrative response that drives angiogenesis requires a much broader perspective. The Advances in the Cellular and Molecular Biology of Angiogenesis meeting brought together researchers at the forefront of this rapidly moving field to provide an update on current understanding, and the most recent insights into molecular and cellular mechanisms of vascular growth. The plenary lecture highlighted the integrative nature of the angiogenic process, whereas invited contributions from basic and clinician scientists described fundamental mechanisms and disease-associated issues of blood vessel formation, grouped under a number of themes to aid discussion. These articles will appeal to academic, clinical and pharmaceutical scientists interested in the molecular and cellular basis of angiogenesis, their modulation or dysfunction in human diseases, and application of these findings towards translational medicine. PMID:22103485

  4. The angiogenesis in decellularized scaffold-mediated the renal regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Li, Miaozhong; Xi, Shanshan; Zhang, Sixiao; Liu, Xiaolin; Jiang, Junqun; Wang, Zhibin; Zhang, Jianse; Ding, Yuqiang; Lou, Xinfa; Tang, Maolin

    2016-01-01

    There are increasing numbers of patients underwent partial nephrectomy, and recovery of disturbed renal function is imperative post partial nephrectomy. We previously have demonstrated the decellularized (DC) scaffolds could mediate the residual kidney regeneration and thus improve disturbed renal function after partial nephrectomy. However, the cellular changes including the angiogenesis in the implanted DC scaffold has not yet been elaborated. In this study, we observed that the scaffold promoted the proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) that adhered to the DC scaffold in vitro. We next examined the pathological changes of the implanted DC graft in vivo, and found a decreased volume of the scaffold and a dramatic angiogenesis within the scaffold. The average microvessel density (aMVD) increased at the early stage, while decreased at the later stage post transplantation. Expression level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) showed similar dynamic changes. In addition, many endothelial cells (ECs) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) were distributed in the region which contained active angiogenesis in the scaffold. However, the implanted graft became fibrosis and the angiogenesis degraded at final stage roughly 8 weeks post transplantation. Our data indicate that DC scaffold can be vascularized in vivo and possible mechanisms are discussed. PMID:27058889

  5. Protein Structure in Context: The Molecular Landscape of Angiogenesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Span, Elise A.; Goodsell, David S.; Ramchandran, Ramani; Franzen, Margaret A.; Herman, Tim; Sem, Daniel S.

    2013-01-01

    A team of students, educators, and researchers has developed new materials to teach cell signaling within its cellular context. Two nontraditional modalities are employed: physical models, to explore the atomic details of several of the proteins in the angiogenesis signaling cascade, and illustrations of the proteins in their cellular environment,…

  6. Aspartame induces angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo models.

    PubMed

    Yesildal, F; Aydin, F N; Deveci, S; Tekin, S; Aydin, I; Mammadov, R; Fermanli, O; Avcu, F; Acikel, C H; Ozgurtas, T

    2015-03-01

    Angiogenesis is the process of generating new blood vessels from preexisting vessels and is considered essential in many pathological conditions. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the effect of aspartame on angiogenesis in vivo chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) and wound-healing models as well as in vitro 2,3-bis-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT) and tube formation assays. In CAM assay, aspartame increased angiogenesis in a concentration-dependent manner. Compared with the control group, aspartame has significantly increased vessel proliferation (p < 0.001). In addition, in vivo rat model of skin wound-healing study showed that aspartame group had better healing than control group, and this was statistically significant at p < 0.05. There was a slight proliferative effect of aspartame on human umbilical vein endothelial cells on XTT assay in vitro, but it was not statistically significant; and there was no antiangiogenic effect of aspartame on tube formation assay in vitro. These results provide evidence that aspartame induces angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo; so regular use may have undesirable effect on susceptible cases.

  7. Coupling of Neurogenesis and Angiogenesis After Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Linhui; Wang, Brian; ZhuGe, Qichuan; Jin, Kunlin

    2015-01-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of mortality and severe long-term disability worldwide. Development of effective treatment or new therapeutic strategies for ischemic stroke patients is therefore crucial. Ischemic stroke promotes neurogenesis by several growth factors including FGF-2, IGF-1, BDNF, VEGF and chemokines including SDF-1, MCP-1. Stroke-induced angiogenesis is similarly regulated by many factors most notably, eNOS and CSE, VEGF/VEGFR2, and Ang-1/Tie2. Important findings in the last decade have revealed that neurogenesis is not the stand-alone consideration in the fight for full functional recovery from stroke. Angiogenesis has been also shown to be critical in improving post-stroke neurological functional recovery. More than that, recent evidence has shown a highly possible interplay or dependence between stroke-induced neurogenesis and angiogenesis. Moving forward, elucidating the underlying mechanisms of this coupling between stroke-induced neurogenesis and angiogenesis will be of great importance, which will provide the basis for neurorestorative therapy. PMID:25736182

  8. Ischemia-induced Angiogenesis is Attenuated in Aged Rats.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yaohui; Wang, Liuqing; Wang, Jixian; Lin, Xiaojie; Wang, Yongting; Jin, Kunlin; Yang, Guo-Yuan

    2016-08-01

    To study whether focal angiogenesis is induced in aged rodents after permanent distal middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), young adult (3-month-old) and aged (24-month-old) Fisher 344 rats underwent MCAO and sacrificed up to two months after MCAO. Immunohistochemistry and synchrotron radiation microangiography were performed to examine the number of newly formed blood vessels in both young adult and aged rats post-ischemia. We found that the number of capillaries and small arteries in aged brain was the same as young adult brain. In addition, we found that after MCAO, the number of blood vessels in the peri-infarct region of ipsilateral hemisphere in aged ischemic rats was significantly increased compared to the aged sham rats (p<0.05). We also confirmed that ischemia-induced focal angiogenesis occurred in young adult rat brain while the blood vessel density in young adult ischemic brain was significantly higher than that in the aged ischemic brain (p<0.05). Our data suggests that focal angiogenesis in aged rat brain can be induced in response to ischemic brain injury, and that aging impedes brain repairing and remodeling after ischemic stroke, possible due to the limited response of angiogenesis. PMID:27493831

  9. Breast tumor angiogenesis analysis using 3D power Doppler ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Ruey-Feng; Huang, Sheng-Fang; Lee, Yu-Hau; Chen, Dar-Ren; Moon, Woo Kyung

    2006-03-01

    Angiogenesis is the process that correlates to tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. Breast cancer angiogenesis has been the most extensively studied and now serves as a paradigm for understanding the biology of angiogenesis and its effects on tumor outcome and patient prognosis. Most studies on characterization of angiogenesis focus on pixel/voxel counts more than morphological analysis. Nevertheless, in cancer, the blood flow is greatly affected by the morphological changes, such as the number of vessels, branching pattern, length, and diameter. This paper presents a computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) system that can quantify vascular morphology using 3-D power Doppler ultrasound (US) on breast tumors. We propose a scheme to extract the morphological information from angiography and to relate them to tumor diagnosis outcome. At first, a 3-D thinning algorithm helps narrow down the vessels into their skeletons. The measurements of vascular morphology significantly rely on the traversing of the vascular trees produced from skeletons. Our study of 3-D assessment of vascular morphological features regards vessel count, length, bifurcation, and diameter of vessels. Investigations into 221 solid breast tumors including 110 benign and 111 malignant cases, the p values using the Student's t-test for all features are less than 0.05 indicating that the proposed features are deemed statistically significant. Our scheme focuses on the vascular architecture without involving the technique of tumor segmentation. The results show that the proposed method is feasible, and have a good agreement with the diagnosis of the pathologists.

  10. Therapeutic Angiogenesis Using Local Perivascular and Pericardial Delivery.

    PubMed

    Laham; Post; Sellke; Simons

    2000-08-01

    Therapeutic angiogenesis is a potential new treatment strategy that promises to grow new blood vessels to the ischemic myocardium in patients with ischemic heart disease. Despite its investigation in more than 550 patients with ischemic heart disease, the concept of clinical therapeutic angiogenesis remains a theoretic one with more questions than answers. This is due in part to a poor understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of adult collateralization and growth factor-induced angiogenesis, a poor understanding of the relative importance of large epicardial feeding collaterals versus intramyocardial neovascularization, and limited data concerning the best angiogenic cytokine, the best delivery modality, and the need for sustained exposure to that cytokine. This article discusses the available data on local perivascular delivery and pericardial delivery as they pertain to therapeutic angiogenesis. These delivery strategies have several characteristics that may make them ideal as adjuncts for coronary artery bypass surgery (local perivascular delivery) or in noninstrumented pericardium (pericardial delivery). They also have the theoretic advantage of affecting epicardial vessels and potentially promoting epicardial feeding collaterals.

  11. Angiopoietin-4 Inhibits Angiogenesis and Reduces Interstitial Fluid Pressure1

    PubMed Central

    Junker, Nanna; Hansen, Anker J; Lund, Eva L; Kristjansen, Paul E G

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Angiopoietins (Ang) are involved in the remodeling, maturation, and stabilization of the vascular network. Ang-4 was discovered more recently; thus, its effect on angiogenesis and its interplay with other angiogenic factors have not been equivocally established. The role of Ang-4 in angiogenesis was tested in Matrigel chambers implanted into the subcutaneous space of nude mice. Ang-4 inhibited the angiogenic response of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and GLC19 tumor cells. In Matrigel chambers with Ang-4-transfected cells, the mean response was significantly lower than that of mock cells. Subcutaneous tumor interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) was significantly lower in Ang-4-transfected GLC19 tumors than in mock-transfected tumors. IFP reduction in Ang-4-transfected tumors was comparable to the reduction seen after bevacizumab treatment. In vitro, we examined the effect of recombinant Ang-4 on endothelial cell migration in Boyden chambers. Human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) migration induced by bFGF and VEGF was inhibited by Ang-4 to control levels. In conclusion, we show that rhAng-4, as well as transfection with Ang-4, inhibits angiogenesis induced by GLC19 tumor cells and that Ang-4 expression reduces elevated tumor IFP. In addition, we demonstrate that rhAng-4 inhibits HUVEC migration and growth factor-induced angiogenesis. PMID:16790085

  12. Lanthanide Hydroxide Nanoparticles Induce Angiogenesis via ROS-Sensitive Signaling.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Haishan; Osborne, Olivia J; Lin, Sijie; Ji, Zhaoxia; Damoiseux, Robert; Wang, Yuqiang; Nel, André E; Lin, Shuo

    2016-08-01

    Recent studies suggest that the nanorods consisting of europium hydroxide could promote angiogenesis. In this study, it is sought to determine if additional types of nanoparticles are capable of enhancing angiogenesis and in addition, understand the underlying mechanisms. For this reason, a method is employed that combines a high throughput in vitro cell based screen coupled with an in vivo validation using vascular specific green fluorescent protein reporter transgenic zebrafish for examining proangiogenesis activity. After screening multiple types of nanoparticles, it is discovered that four of them, Eu(III) (OH)3 rods (Eu rods), Eu(III) (OH)3 spheres (Eu spheres), Tb(III) (OH)3 rods (Tb rods), and Tb(III) (OH)3 spheres (Tb spheres), are the most effective in promoting angiogenesis. It is also showed that ionic forms of europium nitrate [Eu(NO3 )3 ] (Eu) and terbium nitrate [Tb(NO3 )3 ] (Tb), the two lanthanide elements for these four nanoparticles, are also capable of enhancing angiogenesis. However, this effect is further enhanced by nanoparticle synthesis. Finally, it is demonstrated that reactive oxygen species H2 O2 is a key factor in the process of proangiogenesis by lanthanide elemental nanoparticles. PMID:27383397

  13. Imaging Cancer Angiogenesis and Metastasis in a Zebrafish Embryo Model.

    PubMed

    Tulotta, C; He, S; van der Ent, W; Chen, L; Groenewoud, A; Spaink, H P; Snaar-Jagalska, B E

    2016-01-01

    Tumor angiogenesis and metastasis are key steps of cancer progression. In vitro and animal model studies have contributed to partially elucidating the mechanisms involved in these processes and in developing therapies. Besides the improvements in fundamental research and the optimization of therapeutic regimes, cancer still remains a major health threatening condition and therefore the development of new models is needed. The zebrafish is a powerful tool to study tumor angiogenesis and metastasis, because it allows the visualization of fluorescently labelled tumor cells inducing vessel remodeling, disseminating and invading surrounding tissues in a whole transparent embryo. The embryo model has also been used to address the contribution of the tumor stroma in sustaining tumor angiogenesis and spreading. Simultaneously, new anti-angiogenic drugs and compounds affecting malignant cell survival and migration can be tested by simply adding the compound into the water of living embryos. Therefore the zebrafish model offers the opportunity to gain more knowledge on cancer angiogenesis and metastasis in vivo with the final aim of providing new translational insights into therapeutic approaches to help patients. PMID:27165357

  14. Galectin-8: a matricellular lectin with key roles in angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Troncoso, María F; Ferragut, Fátima; Bacigalupo, María L; Cárdenas Delgado, Víctor M; Nugnes, Lorena G; Gentilini, Lucas; Laderach, Diego; Wolfenstein-Todel, Carlota; Compagno, Daniel; Rabinovich, Gabriel A; Elola, María T

    2014-10-01

    Galectin-8 (gal-8) is a "tandem-repeat"-type galectin, containing two carbohydrate recognition domains connected by a linker peptide. gal-8 is expressed both in the cytoplasm and nucleus in vascular endothelial cells (ECs) from normal and tumor-associated blood vessels, and in lymphatic endothelial cells. Herein, we describe a novel role for gal-8 in the regulation of vascular and lymphatic angiogenesis and provide evidence of its critical implications in tumor biology. Functional assays revealed central roles for gal-8 in the control of capillary-tube formation, EC migration and in vivo angiogenesis. So far, two endothelial ligands have been described for gal-8, namely podoplanin in lymphatic vessels and CD166 (ALCAM, activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule) in vascular ECs. Other related gal-8 functions are also summarized here, including cell adhesion and migration, which collectively demonstrate the multi-functionality of this complex lectin. Thus, gal-8 is an important component of the angiogenesis network, and an essential molecule in the extracellular matrix by providing molecular anchoring to this surrounding matrix. The implications of gal-8 in tumor angiogenesis remain to be further explored, but it is exciting to speculate that modulating gal-8-glycan interactions could be used to block lymphatic-vascular connections vital for metastasis.

  15. [Cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitors and colorectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Bernardeau-Mozer, Marianne; Chaussade, Stanislas

    2004-05-01

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox2) is an inductible isoenzyme of cyclooxygenase undetectable in normal colonic mucosa and overexpressed in 80% colonic tumor. Several works in vitro and in vivo showed that Cox2 plays a key role in the multistep process of colorectal tumorigenesis such apoptosis inhibition of cellular proliferation and angiogenesis induction. So that Cox2 represent a potential molecular target in colorectal management and specific Cox2 inhibitors may be useful as chemopreventive as well as therapeutic agent in humans. In animals study Cox2 inhibitors was shown to be effective and in humans Cox2 inhibitors are approved by the Food and Drug Administration as an adjunct to endoscopic surveillance and surgery in patients with Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP). The purpose of this article is to review the relationship between Cox2/Cox2 inhibitors and differents signaling pathways of colorectal carcinogenesis and to precise their possible molecular mechanisms of action. This work although review clinicals data of their efficacy as chemopreventive agent as well as therapeutic in the differents group at risk for colorectal cancer. PMID:15239336

  16. Compound C inhibits in vitro angiogenesis and ameliorates thrombin-induced endothelial barrier failure.

    PubMed

    Gündüz, Dursun; Klewer, Matthias; Bauer, Pascal; Tanislav, Christian; Sedding, Daniel; Rohrbach, Susanne; Schulz, Rainer; Aslam, Muhammad

    2015-12-01

    Compound C (comp. C) is a cell-permeable pyrrazolopyrimidine derivative and widely used as adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibitor to characterise the role of AMPK in various physiological processes. However, its AMPK-independent effects have also been reported. In the present study we investigated the effects of moderate dose (1-10μM) comp. C on endothelial cell (EC) proliferation, in vitro angiogenesis, and endothelial barrier function. Comp. C was unable to inhibit AMPK phosphorylation (activation) induced by metformin and A-769662 in ECs even at concentration of 10μM. At lower concentration (1μM), comp. C inhibited and potentiated the inhibitory effects of metformin and A-769662 on EC proliferation, migration, tube formation, and sprouting without inducing apoptosis. However, at higher concentration (10μM), it strongly induced apoptosis as measured by enhanced caspase 3/7 activity. Moreover, comp. C antagonised thrombin-induced EC hyperpermeability accompanied by activation of Rac1 and strengthening of adherens junctions (AJs). This EC barrier protective effect was not affected by the presence of AMPK activators. The data of the present study demonstrate that long-term treatment of ECs with low concentration comp. C inhibits EC proliferation and angiogenesis without induction of apoptosis. While short-term incubation antagonises thrombin-induced EC hyperpermeability presumably via Rac1-dependent strengthening of AJs. Furthermore, higher concentration of comp. C (10μM or above) is toxic for ECs and warns that this agent should be used with caution to demonstrate the AMPK-mediated effects. PMID:26522925

  17. Morphine Suppresses Tumor Angiogenesis through a HIF-1α/p38MAPK Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Koodie, Lisa; Ramakrishnan, Sundaram; Roy, Sabita

    2010-01-01

    Morphine, a highly potent analgesic agent, is frequently prescribed for moderate to severe cancer pain. In this study, morphine was administered at a clinically relevant analgesic dose to assess tumor cell-induced angiogenesis and subcutaneous tumor growth in nude mice using mouse Lewis lung carcinoma cells (LLCs). Implantation of mice with a continuous slow-release morphine pellet achieved morphine plasma levels within 250–400 ng/ml (measured using a radioimmunoassay, Coat-A-Count Serum Morphine) and was sufficient to significantly reduce tumor cell-induced angiogenesis and tumor growth when compared with placebo treatment. Morphometric analysis for blood vessel formation further confirmed that morphine significantly reduced blood vessel density (P < 0.003), vessel branching (P < 0.05), and vessel length (P < 0.002) when compared with placebo treatment. Morphine’s effect was abolished in mice coadministered the classical opioid receptor antagonist, naltrexone, and in mu-opioid receptor knockout mice, supporting the involvement of the classical opioid receptors in vivo. Morphine’s inhibitory effect is mediated through the suppression of the hypoxia-induced mitochondrial p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Our results suggest that in vitro morphine treatment of LLCs inhibits the hypoxia-induced nuclear translocation of hypoxia-inducible transcription factor 1α to reduce vascular endothelial growth factor transcription and secretion, in a manner similar to pharmacological blockade with the p38 MAPK-specific inhibitor, SB203585. These studies indicate that morphine, in addition to its analgesic function, may be exploited for its antiangiogenic potential. PMID:20616349

  18. (2-Hydroxypropyl)-β-Cyclodextrin Is a New Angiogenic Molecule for Therapeutic Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Xun; Yuan, Yonghui; Zhang, Zhen; Zhai, Huan; Guan, Gefei; Yu, Guibo

    2015-01-01

    Background Peripheral artery disease (PAD), which is caused by atherosclerosis, results in progressive narrowing and occlusion of the peripheral arteries and inhibits blood flow to the lower extremities. Therapeutic angiogenesis is a promising strategy for treating ischemia caused by PAD. Nitric oxide (NO) has been shown to be a key mediator of angiogenesis. It has been demonstrated that β-cyclodextrincan stimulate vessel growth in rabbit corneas. In this study, we assessed the mechanism of action and therapeutic potential of a new angiogenic molecule, (2-hydroxypropyl)-β-cyclodextrin (2HP-β-CD). Methods and Results 2HP-β-CD significantly increased vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) and platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB) peptides in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and also increased basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) peptide in human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs). 2HP-β-CD stimulated both proliferation and migration of HUVECs in an endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)/NO-dependent manner, whereas NO was found to be involved in proliferation, but not migration, of HASMCs. In a unilateral hindlimb ischemia model in mice, 2HP-β-CD injections not only promoted blood flow recovery and increased microvessel densities in ischemic muscle, but also promoted coverage of the vessels with smooth muscle cells, thus stabilizing the vessels. Administration of 2HP-β-CD increased the expression of several angiogenic factors, including VEGF-A, PDGF-BB and transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1) in ischemic muscle. Injections of 2HP-β-CD also stimulated protein kinase B and extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK), leading to an increase in phosphorylation of eNOS in ischemic muscle. Treatment with the NOS inhibitor, Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), showed that stimulation of blood flow induced by 2HP-β-CD was partially dependent on NO. Conclusions Therapeutic angiogenesis by 2HP-β-CD may be beneficial to

  19. Angiogenesis Dysregulation in Term Asphyxiated Newborns Treated with Hypothermia

    PubMed Central

    Shaikh, Henna; Boudes, Elodie; Khoja, Zehra; Shevell, Michael; Wintermark, Pia

    2015-01-01

    Background Neonatal encephalopathy following birth asphyxia is a major predictor of long-term neurological impairment. Therapeutic hypothermia is currently the standard of care to prevent brain injury in asphyxiated newborns but is not protective in all cases. More robust and versatile treatment options are needed. Angiogenesis is a demonstrated therapeutic target in adult stroke. However, no systematic study examines the expression of angiogenesis-related markers following birth asphyxia in human newborns. Objective This study aimed to evaluate the expression of angiogenesis-related protein markers in asphyxiated newborns developing and not developing brain injury compared to healthy control newborns. Design/Methods Twelve asphyxiated newborns treated with hypothermia were prospectively enrolled; six developed eventual brain injury and six did not. Four healthy control newborns were also included. We used Rules-Based Medicine multi-analyte profiling and protein array technologies to study the plasma concentration of 49 angiogenesis-related proteins. Mean protein concentrations were compared between each group of newborns. Results Compared to healthy newborns, asphyxiated newborns not developing brain injury showed up-regulation of pro-angiogenic proteins, including fatty acid binding protein-4, glucose-6-phosphate isomerase, neuropilin-1, and receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB-3; this up-regulation was not evident in asphyxiated newborns eventually developing brain injury. Also, asphyxiated newborns developing brain injury showed a decreased expression of anti-angiogenic proteins, including insulin-growth factor binding proteins -1, -4, and -6, compared to healthy newborns. Conclusions These findings suggest that angiogenesis pathways are dysregulated following birth asphyxia and are putatively involved in brain injury pathology and recovery. PMID:25996847

  20. Type I Collagen and Collagen Mimetics as Angiogenesis Promoting Superpolymers

    SciTech Connect

    Twardowski, T.; Fertala, A.; Orgel, J.P.R.O.; San Antonio, J.D.

    2008-07-18

    Angiogenesis, the development of blood vessels from the pre-existing vasculature, is a key component of embryogenesis and tissue regeneration. Angiogenesis also drives pathologies such as tumor growth and metastasis, and hemangioma development in newborns. On the other hand, promotion of angiogenesis is needed in tissues with vascular insufficiencies, and in bioengineering, to endow tissue substitutes with appropriate microvasculatures. Therefore, much research has focused on defining mechanisms of angiogenesis, and identifying pro- and anti-angiogenic molecules. Type I collagen, the most abundant protein in humans, potently stimulates angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Crucial to its angiogenic activity appears to be ligation and possibly clustering of endothelial cell (EC) surface {alpha}1{beta}1/{alpha}2{beta}1 integrin receptors by the GFPGER502-507 sequence of the collagen fibril. However, additional aspects of collagen structure and function that may modulate its angiogenic properties are discussed. Moreover, type I collagen and fibrin, another angiogenic polymer, share several structural features. These observations suggest strategies for creating 'angiogenic superpolymers', including: modifying type I collagen to influence its biological half-life, immunogenicity, and integrin binding capacity; genetically engineering fibrillar collagens to include additional integrin binding sites or angiogenic determinants, and remove unnecessary or deleterious sequences without compromising fibril integrity; and exploring the suitability of poly(ortho ester), PEG-lysine copolymer, tubulin, and cholesteric cuticle as collagen mimetics, and suggesting means of modifying them to display ideal angiogenic properties. The collagenous and collagen mimetic angiogenic superpolymers described here may someday prove useful for many applications in tissue engineering and human medicine.

  1. Fucoidan inhibits angiogenesis induced by multiple myeloma cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fen; Luo, Guoping; Xiao, Qing; Chen, Liping; Luo, Xiaohua; Lv, Jinglong; Chen, Lixue

    2016-10-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) remains an incurable hematological neoplasms. Our previous studies showed that Fucoidan possessed anti-myeloma effect by inducing apoptosis and inhibiting invasion of myeloma cells. In this study, we evaluated the effect of Fucoidan on angiogenesis induced by human myeloma cells and elucidated its possible mechanisms. Multiple myeloma cells were treated with Fucoidan at different concentrations, then the conditioned medium (CM) was collected. The levels of VEGF in the CM were tested by ELISA. The results showed that Fucoidan significantly decreased VEGF secretion by RPMI-8226 and U266 cells. The tube formation assay and migration test on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were used to examine the effect of Fucoidan on angiogenesis induced by human myeloma cells. The results showed that Fucoidan decreased HUVECs formed tube structures and inhibited HUVECs migration, and suppressed the angiogenic ability of multiple myeloma RPMI-8226 and U266 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The study also showed that Fucoidan downregulated the expression of several kinds of proteins, which may be correlated with the reduction of angiogenesis induced by myeloma cells. Moreover, results were compared from normoxic and hypoxic conditions, they showed that Fucoidan had anti-angiogenic activity. Furthermore, in a multiple myeloma xenograft mouse model, it indicated that Fucoidan negatively affected tumor growth and angiogenesis in vivo. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that Fucoidan was able to interfere with angiogenesis of multiple myeloma cells both in vitro and in vivo and may have a substantial potential in the treatment of MM.

  2. Effect of α-asarone on angiogenesis and matrix metalloproteinase.

    PubMed

    Park, Hye-Jung; Lee, Soo-Jin; Kim, Moon-Moo

    2015-05-01

    α-Asarone is a main component of Acorus gramineus widely known as an oriental traditional medicinal stuff. A. gramineus has been known to have a variety of medicinal efficacies such as anti-gastric ulcer and anti-allergic activities, inhibition of histamine release and antioxidant effect. However, its effect on angiogenesis remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of α-asarone on induction of angiogenesis through modulation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP). First of all, MTT assay was performed to evaluate the effect of α-asarone on cell viability using MTT assay, and then tube formation assay with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) in vitro and rat aorta ring assay ex vivo were carried out to elucidate its effect on angiogenesis. Treatment with α-asarone below 6μM showed no cytotoxicity in human fibrosarcoma cells (HT1080) and HUVEC. It was observed that α-asarone not only promotes tube formation of HUVEC but also induces angiogenesis of rat aorta. In addition, the effects of α-asarone on the expressions of protein and gene were evaluated using western blot analysis and RT-PCR assay. α-Asarone increased the expression levels of MMP-2 and MMP-9 stimulated by phenazine methosulfate (PMS) and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) in HT1080. Especially, the expression level of antioxidant enzyme such as glutathione reductase was increased in the presence of α-asarone. Therefore, above findings suggest that α-asarone may play an important role in pathological diseases related to MMP and angiogenesis. PMID:25912851

  3. Intra-Laboratory Pre-Validation of a Human Cell Based in vitro Angiogenesis Assay for Testing Angiogenesis Modulators

    PubMed Central

    Sarkanen, Jertta-Riina; Mannerström, Marika; Vuorenpää, Hanna; Uotila, Jukka; Ylikomi, Timo; Heinonen, Tuula

    2010-01-01

    The developed standardized human cell based in vitro angiogenesis assay was intra-laboratory pre-validated to verify that the method is reliable and relevant for routine testing of modulators of angiogenesis, e.g., pharmaceuticals and industrial chemicals. This assay is based on the earlier published method but it was improved and shown to be more sensitive and rapid than the previous assay. The performance of the assay was assessed by using six reference chemicals, which are widely used pharmaceuticals that inhibit angiogenesis: acetyl salicylic acid, erlotinib, 2-methoxyestradiol, levamisole, thalidomide, and anti-vascular endothelial growth factor. In the intra-laboratory pre-validation, the sensitivity of the assay (upper and lower limits of detection and linearity of response in tubule formation), batch to batch variation in tubule formation between different Master cell bank batches, and precision as well as the reliability of the assay (reproducibility and repeatability) were tested. The pre-set acceptance criteria for the intra-laboratory pre-validation study were met. The relevance of the assay in man was investigated by comparing the effects of reference chemicals and their concentrations to the published human data. The comparison showed a good concordance, which indicates that this human cell based angiogenesis model predicts well the effects in man and has the potential to be used to supplement and/or replace of animal tests. PMID:21779245

  4. [Considerations for angiogenesis inhibitors: pharmacoeconomics: blessing or curse for medical care?].

    PubMed

    Schöffski, Oliver; Cremers, Yvonne

    2007-01-01

    Innovative neue Arzneimittel wie die Angiogenesehemmer verursachen im Gesundheitssystem hohe Kosten. In diesem Beitrag soll dargestellt werden, wie sich die Gesundheitsökonomie diesem Thema nähert, wie sie versucht Kennzahlen zu ermitteln, durch die eine effiziente Steuerung des Gesundheitswesens möglich wird. Es ist aber nicht zu beschönigen: Es geht im Endeffekt um Rationierung und damit um ein unangenehmes Thema.

  5. Sanguinarine is a novel VEGF inhibitor involved in the suppression of angiogenesis and cell migration

    PubMed Central

    XU, JIA-YING; MENG, QING-HUI; CHONG, YU; JIAO, YANG; ZHAO, LIN; ROSEN, ELIOT M.; FAN, SAIJUN

    2013-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a main angiogenic factor which is known to be upregulated in lung cancer. In the present study, it was demonstrated that sanguinarine, an alkaloid obtained from the bloodroot plant, markedly repressed the VEGF-induced tube formation of human microvascular endothelial cells (HMVECs) and the migration of human A549 lung cancer cells. Furthermore, sanguinarine decreased VEGF secretion and expression in HMVECs and A549 lung cancer cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Additionally, sanguinarine inhibited the activation of serum starvation- and hypoxia-induced VEGF promoter activity. Sanguinarine also inhibited the VEGF-mediated Akt and p38 activation, as well as VE-cadherin protein phosphorylation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating that VEGF inhibition appears to be an important mechanism involved in the antiangiogenic and anti-invasive activities of sanguinarine in lung cancer treatment. PMID:24649171

  6. PTP1B inhibitor promotes endothelial cell motility by activating the DOCK180/Rac1 pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuan; Yan, Feng; Ye, Qing; Wu, Xiao; Jiang, Fan

    2016-01-01

    Promoting endothelial cell (EC) migration is important not only for therapeutic angiogenesis, but also for accelerating re-endothelialization after vessel injury. Several recent studies have shown that inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) may promote EC migration and angiogenesis by enhancing the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR2) signalling. In the present study, we demonstrated that PTP1B inhibitor could promote EC adhesion, spreading and migration, which were abolished by the inhibitor of Rac1 but not RhoA GTPase. PTP1B inhibitor significantly increased phosphorylation of p130Cas, and the interactions among p130Cas, Crk and DOCK180; whereas the phosphorylation levels of focal adhesion kinase, Src, paxillin, or Vav2 were unchanged. Gene silencing of DOCK180, but not Vav2, abrogated the effects of PTP1B inhibitor on EC motility. The effects of PTP1B inhibitor on EC motility and p130Cas/DOCK180 activation persisted in the presence of the VEGFR2 antagonist. In conclusion, we suggest that stimulation of the DOCK180 pathway represents an alternative mechanism of PTP1B inhibitor-stimulated EC motility, which does not require concomitant VEGFR2 activation as a prerequisite. Therefore, PTP1B inhibitor may be a useful therapeutic strategy for promoting EC migration in cardiovascular patients in which the VEGF/VEGFR functions are compromised. PMID:27052191

  7. Cucurbitacin B inhibits breast cancer metastasis and angiogenesis through VEGF-mediated suppression of FAK/MMP-9 signaling axis.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Sonam; Khan, Sajid; Shukla, Samriddhi; Lakra, Amar Deep; Kumar, Sudhir; Das, Gunjan; Maurya, Rakesh; Meeran, Syed Musthapa

    2016-08-01

    Available breast cancer therapeutic strategies largely target the primary tumor but are ineffective against tumor metastasis and angiogenesis. In our current study, we determined the effect of Cucurbitacin B (CuB), a plant triterpenoid, on the metastatic and angiogenic potential of breast cancer cells. CuB was found to inhibit cellular proliferation and induce apoptosis in breast cancer cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Further, CuB-treatment significantly inhibited the migratory and invasive potential of highly metastatic breast cancer MDA-MB-231 and 4T1 cells at sub-IC50 concentrations, where no significant apoptosis was observed. CuB was also found to inhibit migratory, invasive and tube-forming capacities of HUVECs in vitro. In addition, inhibition of pre-existing vasculature in chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane ex vivo further supports the anti-angiogenic effect of CuB. CuB-mediated anti-metastatic and anti-angiogenic effects were associated with the downregulation of VEGF/FAK/MMP-9 signaling, which has been validated by using FAK-inhibitor (FI-14). CuB-treatment resulted in a significant inhibition of VEGF-induced phosphorylation of FAK and MMP-9 expressions similar to the action of FI-14. CuB was also found to decrease the micro-vessel density as evidenced by the decreased expression of CD31, a marker for neovasculature. Further, CuB-treatment inhibited tumor growth, lung metastasis and angiogenesis in a highly metastatic 4T1-syngeneic mouse mammary cancer. Collectively, our findings suggest that CuB inhibited breast cancer metastasis and angiogenesis, at least in part, through the downregulation of VEGF/FAK/MMP-9 signaling. PMID:27210504

  8. Regulation of Pathologic Retinal Angiogenesis in Mice and Inhibition of VEGF-VEGFR2 Binding by Soluble Heparan Sulfate

    PubMed Central

    Nishiguchi, Koji M.; Kataoka, Keiko; Kachi, Shu; Komeima, Keiichi; Terasaki, Hiroko

    2010-01-01

    Development of the retinal vascular network is strictly confined within the neuronal retina, allowing the intraocular media to be optically transparent. However, in retinal ischemia, pro-angiogenic factors (including vascular endothelial growth factor-A, VEGF-A) induce aberrant guidance of retinal vessels into the vitreous. Here, we show that the soluble heparan sulfate level in murine intraocular fluid is high particularly during ocular development. When the eyes of young mice with retinal ischemia were treated with heparan sulfate-degrading enzyme, the subsequent aberrant angiogenesis was greatly enhanced compared to PBS-injected contralateral eyes; however, increased angiogenesis was completely antagonized by simultaneous injection of heparin. Intraocular injection of heparan sulfate or heparin alone in these eyes resulted in reduced neovascularization. In cell cultures, the porcine ocular fluid suppressed the dose-dependent proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) mediated by VEGF-A. Ocular fluid and heparin also inhibited the migration and tube formation by these cells. The binding of VEGF-A and HUVECs was reduced under a high concentration of heparin or ocular fluid compared to lower concentrations of heparin. In vitro assays demonstrated that the ocular fluid or soluble heparan sulfate or heparin inhibited the binding of VEGF-A and immobilized heparin or VEGF receptor 2 but not VEGF receptor 1. The recognition that the high concentration of soluble heparan sulfate in the ocular fluid allows it to serve as an endogenous inhibitor of aberrant retinal vascular growth provides a platform for modulating heparan sulfate/heparin levels to regulate angiogenesis. PMID:20975989

  9. Arsenic induces the expressions of angiogenesis-related factors through PI3K and MAPK pathways in SV-HUC-1 human uroepithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Liu, Shengnan; Xi, Shuhua; Yan, Ling; Wang, Huihui; Song, Yingli; Sun, Guifan

    2013-10-01

    Arsenic, a well-established human carcinogen, can cause various types of cancers, including bladder cancer. Angiogenesis is a key event for tumor initiation. In this study, several important angiogenesis related factors, including cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), were up-regulated and PI3K/AKT and MAPK signal pathways were activated in human uroepithelial cell line (SV-HUC-1) treated with NaAsO2 (0, 1, 2, 4, 8 or 10μM) for 24h. Arsenite-induced HIF-1α, VEGF and COX-2 expressions were decreased by PI3K inhibitors. Blockage of the ERK1/2, p38 and JNK down-regulated the VEGF level, while ERK1/2 and p38 inhibitors were more effective than JNK in attenuating arsenite-induced COX-2 expression. HIF-1α expression was only decreased by ERK1/2 inhibitor. It was found that superoxide (O2(-)) generation was involved in arsenite-induced the activation of MAPK and PI3K pathways, which led to the HIF-1α, COX-2 and VEGF overexpressions. In conclusion, arsenite-induced COX-2, VEGF and HIF-1α expressions, mediated partially by reactive oxygen species (ROS), were regulated by MAPK and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways in human uroepithelial cells.

  10. Arsenic induces the expressions of angiogenesis-related factors through PI3K and MAPK pathways in SV-HUC-1 human uroepithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Liu, Shengnan; Xi, Shuhua; Yan, Ling; Wang, Huihui; Song, Yingli; Sun, Guifan

    2013-10-01

    Arsenic, a well-established human carcinogen, can cause various types of cancers, including bladder cancer. Angiogenesis is a key event for tumor initiation. In this study, several important angiogenesis related factors, including cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), were up-regulated and PI3K/AKT and MAPK signal pathways were activated in human uroepithelial cell line (SV-HUC-1) treated with NaAsO2 (0, 1, 2, 4, 8 or 10μM) for 24h. Arsenite-induced HIF-1α, VEGF and COX-2 expressions were decreased by PI3K inhibitors. Blockage of the ERK1/2, p38 and JNK down-regulated the VEGF level, while ERK1/2 and p38 inhibitors were more effective than JNK in attenuating arsenite-induced COX-2 expression. HIF-1α expression was only decreased by ERK1/2 inhibitor. It was found that superoxide (O2(-)) generation was involved in arsenite-induced the activation of MAPK and PI3K pathways, which led to the HIF-1α, COX-2 and VEGF overexpressions. In conclusion, arsenite-induced COX-2, VEGF and HIF-1α expressions, mediated partially by reactive oxygen species (ROS), were regulated by MAPK and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways in human uroepithelial cells. PMID:23968725

  11. Curcumin inhibited HGF-induced EMT and angiogenesis through regulating c-Met dependent PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathways in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Demin; Wang, Jian; Lu, Wei; Tang, Xiali; Chen, Jun; Mou, Hao; Chen, Qing-Yong

    2016-01-01

    The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and angiogenesis have emerged as two pivotal events in cancer progression. Curcumin has been extensively studied in preclinical models and clinical trials of cancer prevention due to its favorable toxicity profile. However, the possible involvement of curcumin in the EMT and angiogenesis in lung cancer remains unclear. This study found that curcumin inhibited hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)-induced migration and EMT-related morphological changes in A549 and PC-9 cells. Moreover, pretreatment with curcumin blocked HGF-induced c-Met phosphorylation and downstream activation of Akt, mTOR, and S6. These effects mimicked that of c-Met inhibitor SU11274 or PI3 kinase inhibitor LY294002 or mTOR inhibitor rapamycin treatment. c-Met gene overexpression analysis further demonstrated that curcumin suppressed lung cancer cell EMT by inhibiting c-Met/Akt/mTOR signaling pathways. In human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), we found that curcumin also significantly inhibited PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling and induced apoptosis and reduced migration and tube formation of HGF-treated HUVEC. Finally, in the experimental mouse model, we showed that curcumin inhibited HGF-stimulated tumor growth and induced an increase in E-cadherin expression and a decrease in vimentin, CD34, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression. Collectively, these findings indicated that curcumin could inhibit HGF-promoted EMT and angiogenesis by targeting c-Met and blocking PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathways. PMID:27525306

  12. Curcumin inhibited HGF-induced EMT and angiogenesis through regulating c-Met dependent PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathways in lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Demin; Wang, Jian; Lu, Wei; Tang, Xiali; Chen, Jun; Mou, Hao; Chen, Qing-yong

    2016-01-01

    The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and angiogenesis have emerged as two pivotal events in cancer progression. Curcumin has been extensively studied in preclinical models and clinical trials of cancer prevention due to its favorable toxicity profile. However, the possible involvement of curcumin in the EMT and angiogenesis in lung cancer remains unclear. This study found that curcumin inhibited hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)-induced migration and EMT-related morphological changes in A549 and PC-9 cells. Moreover, pretreatment with curcumin blocked HGF-induced c-Met phosphorylation and downstream activation of Akt, mTOR, and S6. These effects mimicked that of c-Met inhibitor SU11274 or PI3 kinase inhibitor LY294002 or mTOR inhibitor rapamycin treatment. c-Met gene overexpression analysis further demonstrated that curcumin suppressed lung cancer cell EMT by inhibiting c-Met/Akt/mTOR signaling pathways. In human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), we found that curcumin also significantly inhibited PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling and induced apoptosis and reduced migration and tube formation of HGF-treated HUVEC. Finally, in the experimental mouse model, we showed that curcumin inhibited HGF-stimulated tumor growth and induced an increase in E-cadherin expression and a decrease in vimentin, CD34, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression. Collectively, these findings indicated that curcumin could inhibit HGF-promoted EMT and angiogenesis by targeting c-Met and blocking PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathways. PMID:27525306

  13. Muscle weakness during aging: a deficiency state involving declining angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ambrose, Charles

    2015-09-01

    This essay begins by proposing that muscle weakness of old age from sarcopenia is due in large part to reduced capillary density in the muscles, as documented in 9 reports of aged persons and animals. Capillary density (CD) is determined by local levels of various angiogenic factors, which also decline in muscles with aging, as reported in 7 studies of old persons and animals. There are also numerous reports of reduced CD in the aged brain and other studies showing reduced CD in the kidney and heart of aged animals. Thus a waning angiogenesis throughout the body may be a natural occurrence in later years and may account significantly for the lesser ailments (physical and cognitive) of elderly people. Old age is regarded here as a deficiency state which may be corrected by therapeutic angiogenesis, much as a hormonal deficiency can be relieved by the appropriate hormone therapy. Such therapy could employ recombinant angiogenic factors which are now commercially available. PMID:26093038

  14. Lung cancer and angiogenesis imaging using synchrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaoxia; Zhao, Jun; Sun, Jianqi; Gu, Xiang; Xiao, Tiqiao; Liu, Ping; Xu, Lisa X.

    2010-04-01

    Early detection of lung cancer is the key to a cure, but a difficult task using conventional x-ray imaging. In the present study, synchrotron radiation in-line phase-contrast imaging was used to study lung cancer. Lewis lung cancer and 4T1 breast tumor metastasis in the lung were imaged, and the differences were clearly shown in comparison to normal lung tissue. The effect of the object-detector distance and the energy level on the phase-contrast difference was investigated and found to be in good agreement with the theory of in-line phase-contrast imaging. Moreover, 3D image reconstruction of lung tumor angiogenesis was obtained for the first time using a contrast agent, demonstrating the feasibility of micro-angiography with synchrotron radiation for imaging tumor angiogenesis deep inside the body.

  15. Portal myofibroblasts connect angiogenesis and fibrosis in liver.

    PubMed

    Lemoinne, Sara; Thabut, Dominique; Housset, Chantal

    2016-09-01

    Liver fibrogenesis is a dynamic process including quantitative and qualitative changes of the extracellular matrix, of which the most prominent is the deposition of type I collagen. These changes progressively disrupt normal liver architecture and result in cirrhosis formation. In the fibrotic liver, as in all other fibrotic tissues, the extracellular matrix is produced by cells usually characterized by the de novo expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin and known as myofibroblasts. Portal myofibroblasts (PMFs) appear to be critical in pathological angiogenesis, which constantly occurs in advanced liver fibrosis. Whereas the association between angiogenesis and fibrosis during the progression of liver diseases remains to be elucidated, we suggest that collagen-type-XV-alpha1-producing PMFs could provide an important link both by stabilizing newly formed vessels and by forming a scaffold for the deposition of interstitial collagen.

  16. Examining cerebral angiogenesis in response to physical exercise.

    PubMed

    Berggren, Kiersten L; Kay, Jacob J M; Swain, Rodney A

    2014-01-01

    Capillary growth and expansion (angiogenesis) is a prerequisite for many forms of neural and behavioral plasticity. It is commonly observed in both brain and muscle of aerobically exercising animals. As such, several histological methods have been used to quantify capillary density, including perfusion with India ink, various Nissl stains, and immunohistochemistry. In this chapter, we will describe these histological procedures and describe the stereological analysis used to quantify vessel growth in response to aerobic exercise. PMID:24510862

  17. Microvascular Plasticity: Angiogenesis in Health and Disease--Preface.

    PubMed

    Secomb, Timothy W; Pries, Axel R

    2016-02-01

    This Special Topic Issue is concerned with the mechanisms that determine the structure of microvascular networks. The vast number of vessels and the highly plastic character of the microcirculation give evidence that microvascular network structures emerge as a result of responses of individual vessels and cells to the local stimuli that they experience, through a combination of angiogenesis, remodeling and pruning. The articles in this issue of Microcirculation address a range of cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in these processes. PMID:26639099

  18. VEGF blockade inhibits angiogenesis and reepithelialization of endometrium

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Xiujun; Krieg, Sacha; Kuo, Calvin J.; Wiegand, Stanley J.; Rabinovitch, Marlene; Druzin, Maurice L.; Brenner, Robert M.; Giudice, Linda C.; Nayak, Nihar R.

    2008-01-01

    Despite extensive literature on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and regulation by steroid hormones, the lack of clear understanding of the mechanisms of angiogenesis in the endometrium is a major limitation for use of antiangiogenic therapy targeting endometrial vessels. In the current work, we used the rhesus macaque as a primate model and the decidualized mouse uterus as a murine model to examine angiogenesis during endometrial breakdown and regeneration. We found that blockade of VEGF action with VEGF Trap, a potent VEGF blocker, completely inhibited neovascularization during endometrial regeneration in both models but had no marked effect on preexisting or newly formed vessels, suggesting that VEGF is essential for neoangiogenesis but not survival of mature vessels in this vascular bed. Blockade of VEGF also blocked reepithelialization in both the postmenstrual endometrium and the mouse uterus after decidual breakdown, evidence that VEGF has pleiotropic effects in the endometrium. In vitro studies with a scratch wound assay showed that the migration of luminal epithelial cells during repair involved signaling through VEGF receptor 2–neuropilin 1 (VEGFR2-NP1) receptors on endometrial stromal cells. The leading front of tissue growth during endometrial repair was strongly hypoxic, and this hypoxia was the local stimulus for VEGF expression and angiogenesis in this tissue. In summary, we provide novel experimental data indicating that VEGF is essential for endometrial neoangiogenesis during postmenstrual/postpartum repair.—Fan, X., Krieg, S., Kuo, C. J., Wiegand, S. J., Rabinovitch, M., Druzin, M. L., Brenner, R. M., Giudice, L. C., Nayak, N. R. VEGF blockade inhibits angiogenesis and reepithelialization of endometrium. PMID:18606863

  19. A mutation in the mitochondrial protein UQCRB promotes angiogenesis through the generation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Chang, Junghwa; Jung, Hye Jin; Jeong, Seung Hun; Kim, Hyoung Kyu; Han, Jin; Kwon, Ho Jeong

    2014-12-12

    Ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase binding protein (UQCRB) is one of the subunits of mitochondrial complex III and is a target protein of the natural anti-angiogenic small molecule terpestacin. Previously, the biological role of UQCRB was thought to be limited to the maintenance of complex III. However, the identification and validation of UQCRB as a target protein of terpestacin enabled the role of UQCRB in oxygen sensing and angiogenesis to be elucidated. To explore the biological role of this protein further, UQCRB mutant stable cell lines were generated on the basis of a human case report. We demonstrated that these cell lines exhibited glycolytic and pro-angiogenic activities via mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mROS)-mediated HIF1 signal transduction. Furthermore, a morphological abnormality in mitochondria was detected in UQCRB mutant stable cell lines. In addition, the proliferative effect of the UQCRB mutants was significantly regulated by the UQCRB inhibitors terpestacin and A1938. Collectively, these results provide a molecular basis for UQCRB-related biological processes and reveal potential key roles of UQCRB in angiogenesis and mitochondria-mediated metabolic disorders.

  20. αvβ3 Integrin Limits the Contribution of Neuropilin-1 to Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-induced Angiogenesis*

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Stephen D.; Reynolds, Louise E.; Kostourou, Vassiliki; Reynolds, Andrew R.; da Silva, Rita Graça; Tavora, Bernardo; Baker, Marianne; Marshall, John F.; Hodivala-Dilke, Kairbaan M.

    2009-01-01

    Both vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFR) and integrins are major regulators of VEGF-induced angiogenesis. Previous work has shown that β3 integrin can regulate negatively VEGFR2 expression. Here we show that β3 integrin can regulate negatively VEGF-mediated angiogenesis by limiting the interaction of the co-receptor NRP1 (neuropilin-1) with VEGFR2. In the presence of αvβ3 integrin, NRP1 contributed minimally to VEGF-induced angiogenic processes in vivo, ex vivo, and in vitro. Conversely, when β3 integrin expression is absent or low or its function is blocked with RGD-mimetic inhibitors, VEGF-mediated responses became NRP1-dependent. Indeed, combined inhibition of β3 integrin and NRP1 decreased VEGF-mediated angiogenic responses further than individual inhibition of these receptors. We also show that αvβ3 integrin can associate with NRP1 in a VEGF-dependent fashion. Our data suggest that β3 integrin may, in part, negatively regulate VEGF signaling by sequestering NRP1 and preventing it from interacting with VEGFR2. PMID:19837659

  1. Migration-inducing gene 7 promotes tumorigenesis and angiogenesis and independently predicts poor prognosis of epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Bihui; Yin, Mingzhu; Li, Xia; Cao, Guosheng; Qi, Jin; Lou, Ge; Sheng, Shijie; Kou, Junping; Chen, Kang; Yu, Boyang

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian carcinomas (EOC) cause more mortality than any other cancer of the female reproductive system. New therapeutic approaches to reduce EOC mortality have been largely unsuccessful due to the poor understanding of the mechanisms underlying EOC proliferation and metastasis. Progress in EOC treatment is further hampered by a lack of reliable prognostic biomarkers for early risk assessment. In this study, we identify that Migration-Inducting Gene 7 (MIG-7) is specifically induced in human EOC tissues but not normal ovaries or ovarian cyst. Ovarian MIG-7 expression strongly correlated with EOC progression. Elevated MIG-7 level at the time of primary cytoreductive surgery was a strong and independent predictor of poor survival of EOC patients. Cell and murine xenograft models showed that MIG-7 was required for EOC proliferation and invasion, and MIG-7 enhanced EOC-associated angiogenesis by promoting the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor. Inhibiting MIG-7 by RNA interference in grafted EOC cells retarded tumor growth, angiogenesis and improved host survival, and suppressing MIG-7 expression with a small molecule inhibitor D-39 identified from the medicinal plant Liriope muscari mitigated EOC growth and invasion and specifically abrogated the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor. Our data not only reveal a critical function of MIG-7 in EOC growth and metastasis and support MIG-7 as an independent prognostic biomarker for EOC, but also demonstrate that therapeutic targeting of MIG-7 is likely beneficial in the treatment of EOC. PMID:27050277

  2. Markers of angiogenesis and epidermal growth factor receptor signalling in patients with pancreatic and gastroesophageal junction cancer.

    PubMed

    Rohrberg, Kristoffer Staal; Skov, Birgit Guldhammer; Lassen, Ulrik; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Høyer-Hansen, Gunilla; Buysschaert, Ian; Pappot, Helle

    2010-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and angiogenesis are well established targets in anti-cancer therapy. Several targeted anti-cancer therapies are in clinical trials in pancreatic and gastroesophageal (GEJ) cancer. However, many patients do not respond to these targeted therapies and there is therefore an increasing need for biomarkers for selection of patients to these therapies. We investigated the expression of EGFR, vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A), and VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR-2) in tumour tissue by immunohistochemistry, and soluble EGFR (sEGFR), soluble VEGFR-2 (sVEGFR-2), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), placental growth factor (PlGF), plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1), and different forms of the urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR): uPAR (I), uPAR (I-III), and uPAR (I-III)+(II-III) in plasma by quantitative immunoassays in 14 patients with pancreatic and GEJ cancer. We found expression in tumour tissue and the plasma levels to be similar to those found in patients with other tumour types. No correlation was found between the blood levels of soluble receptors and the corresponding tumour tissue levels. We conclude that these markers are present in pancreatic and GEJ cancer patients, and could be investigated further as predictive biomarkers in such patients treated with EGFR or angiogenesis targeted therapies.

  3. Effects of topical administration of 12-methyl tetradecanoic acid (12-MTA) on the development of corneal angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Cole, Nerida; Hume, Emma B H; Jalbert, Isabelle; Vijay, Ajay Kumar; Krishnan, Ravi; Willcox, Mark D P

    2007-01-01

    Corneal vascularisation is a potentially devastating occurrence that can cause blindness. Currently, treatments for this condition are limited. In these studies, we have investigated a novel inhibitor of angiogenesis, 12-methyl tetradecanoic acid (12-MTA), to treat corneal vascularisation in mouse models of corneal alkali injury and corneal Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. The effectiveness of 12-MTA was compared to treatment with dexamethasone. 12-MTA was found to be at least as effective as dexamethasone in reducing the angiogenesis that occurs following alkali injury or P. aeruginosa infection of the cornea. The major effect of both 12-MTA and dexamethasone in these models was to reduce the linear incursion of new blood vessels into the central cornea. A significantly better result was obtained at 14 days post-alkali injury when treatment was not delayed. A major advantage of treatment of alkali injury with 12-MTA compared to that with dexamethasone was the finding that there was a 5-fold less level of PMN infiltration and no persistent epithelial defects in corneas treated with 12-MTA compared to 50% of those treated with dexamethasone. Our studies indicate that 12-MTA may provide clinically significant advantages over conventional steroids for the treatment of vessel growth in the cornea. PMID:17295090

  4. Gramicidin A blocks tumor growth and angiogenesis through inhibition of hypoxia-inducible factor in renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    David, Justin M; Owens, Tori A; Inge, Landon J; Bremner, Ross M; Rajasekaran, Ayyappan K

    2014-04-01

    Ionophores are hydrophobic organic molecules that disrupt cellular transmembrane potential by permeabilizing membranes to specific ions. Gramicidin A is a channel-forming ionophore that forms a hydrophilic membrane pore that permits the rapid passage of monovalent cations. Previously, we found that gramicidin A induces cellular energy stress and cell death in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cell lines. RCC is a therapy-resistant cancer that is characterized by constitutive activation of the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF). Here, we demonstrate that gramicidin A inhibits HIF in RCC cells. We found that gramicidin A destabilized HIF-1α and HIF-2α proteins in both normoxic and hypoxic conditions, which in turn diminished HIF transcriptional activity and the expression of various hypoxia-response genes. Mechanistic examination revealed that gramicidin A accelerates O(2)-dependent downregulation of HIF by upregulating the expression of the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor protein, which targets hydroxylated HIF for proteasomal degradation. Furthermore, gramicidin A reduced the growth of human RCC xenograft tumors without causing significant toxicity in mice. Gramicidin A-treated tumors also displayed physiologic and molecular features consistent with the inhibition of HIF-dependent angiogenesis. Taken together, these results demonstrate a new role for gramicidin A as a potent inhibitor of HIF that reduces tumor growth and angiogenesis in VHL-expressing RCC.

  5. Injectable fibroblast growth factor-2 coacervate for persistent angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Chu, Hunghao; Gao, Jin; Chen, Chien-Wen; Huard, Johnny; Wang, Yadong

    2011-08-16

    Enhancing the maturity of the newly formed blood vessels is critical for the success of therapeutic angiogenesis. The maturation of vasculature relies on active participation of mural cells to stabilize endothelium and a basal level of relevant growth factors. We set out to design and successfully achieved robust angiogenesis using an injectable polyvalent coacervate of a polycation, heparin, and fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2). FGF2 was loaded into the coacervate at nearly 100% efficiency. In vitro assays demonstrated that the matrix protected FGF2 from proteolytic degradations. FGF2 released from the coacervate was more effective in the differentiation of endothelial cells and chemotaxis of pericytes than free FGF2. One injection of 500 ng of FGF2 in the coacervate elicited comprehensive angiogenesis in vivo. The number of endothelial and mural cells increased significantly, and the local tissue contained more and larger blood vessels with increased circulation. Mural cells actively participated during the whole angiogenic process: Within 7 d of the injection, pericytes were recruited to close proximity of the endothelial cells. Mature vasculature stabilized by vascular smooth muscle cells persisted till at least 4 wk. On the other hand, bolus injection of an identical amount of free FGF2 induced weak angiogenic responses. These results demonstrate the potential of polyvalent coacervate as a new controlled delivery platform.

  6. Angiogenesis and osteogenesis in an orthopedically expanded suture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, H. N.; Garetto, L. P.; Potter, R. H.; Katona, T. R.; Lee, C. H.; Roberts, W. E.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the angiogenic and the subsequent osteogenic responses during a 96-hour time-course after sutural expansion. Fifty rats were divided into: (1) a control group that received only angiogenic induction through injection of 5 ng/gm recombinant human endothelial cell growth factor (rhECGF); (2) an experimental group that received orthopedic expansion and rhECGF; (3) a sham group that received expansion and sodium chloride (NaCl) injection; and (4) a baseline group that received no expansion or injection. All rats were injected with 3H-thymidine (1.0 microCi/gm) 1 hour before death to label the DNA of S-phase cells. Demineralized sections (4 microm thick) were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Angiogenesis and cell migration were analyzed with a previously established cell kinetics model. Analysis of variance was used to test the hypothesis that enhancement of angiogenesis stimulates reestablishment of osteogenic capability. Blood vessel number, area, and endothelial cell-labeled index significantly increased in experimental groups, but no difference was found between control and baseline groups. Labeled-pericyte index and activated pericyte numbers in the experimental group were also higher than in the sham groups. These results show that supplemental rhECGF enhances angiogenesis in expanded sutures but not in nonexpanded sutures. Data also suggest that pericytes are the source of osteoblasts in an orthopedically expanded suture.

  7. Targeting prion-like protein doppel selectively suppresses tumor angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hilal, Taslim A.; Chung, Seung Woo; Choi, Jeong Uk; Kim, Seong Who; Kim, Sang Yoon; Ahsan, Fakhrul; Kim, In-San

    2016-01-01

    Controlled and site-specific regulation of growth factor signaling remains a major challenge for current antiangiogenic therapies, as these antiangiogenic agents target normal vasculature as well tumor vasculature. In this article, we identified the prion-like protein doppel as a potential therapeutic target for tumor angiogenesis. We investigated the interactions between doppel and VEGFR2 and evaluated whether blocking the doppel/VEGFR2 axis suppresses the process of angiogenesis. We discovered that tumor endothelial cells (TECs), but not normal ECs, express doppel; tumors from patients and mouse xenografts expressed doppel in their vasculatures. Induced doppel overexpression in ECs enhanced vascularization, whereas doppel constitutively colocalized and complexed with VEGFR2 in TECs. Doppel inhibition depleted VEGFR2 from the cell membrane, subsequently inducing the internalization and degradation of VEGFR2 and thereby attenuating VEGFR2 signaling. We also synthesized an orally active glycosaminoglycan (LHbisD4) that specifically binds with doppel. We determined that LHbisD4 concentrates over the tumor site and that genetic loss of doppel in TECs decreases LHbisD4 binding and targeting both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, LHbisD4 eliminated VEGFR2 from the cell membrane, prevented VEGF binding in TECs, and suppressed tumor growth. Together, our results demonstrate that blocking doppel can control VEGF signaling in TECs and selectively inhibit tumor angiogenesis. PMID:26950422

  8. The Pathogenic Role of Angiogenesis in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Elshabrawy, Hatem A.; Chen, Zhenlong; Volin, Michael V.; Ravella, Shalini; Virupannavar, Shanti; Shahrara, Shiva

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenesis is the formation of new capillaries from pre-existing vasculature, which plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), spondyloarthropathies, psoriasis, systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic sclerosis and atherosclerosis. In RA, excessive migration of circulating leukocytes into the inflamed joint necessitates formation of new blood vessels to provide nutrients and oxygen to the hypertrophic joint. The dominance of the pro-angiogenic factors over the endogenous angiostatic mediators triggers angiogenesis. In this review article, we highlight the underlying mechanisms by which cells present in the RA synovial tissue are modulated to secrete pro-angiogenic factors. We focus on the significance of pro-angiogenic factors such as growth factors, hypoxia inducible factors, cytokines, chemokines, matrix metalloproteinase and adhesion molecules on RA pathogenesis. As pro-angiogenic factors are primarily produced from RA synovial tissue macrophages and fibroblasts, we emphasize the key role of RA synovial tissue lining layer in maintaining synovitis through neovascularization. Lastly, we summarize the specific approaches utilized to target angiogenesis. We conclude that the formation of new blood vessels plays an indispensable role in RA progression. However since the function of several pro-angiogenic mediators is cross regulated, discovering novel approaches to target multiple cascades or selecting an upstream cascade that impairs the activity of a number of pro-angiogenic factors may provide a promising strategy for RA therapy. PMID:26198292

  9. Endothelial Notch activity promotes angiogenesis and osteogenesis in bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramasamy, Saravana K.; Kusumbe, Anjali P.; Wang, Lin; Adams, Ralf H.

    2014-03-01

    Blood vessel growth in the skeletal system and osteogenesis seem to be coupled, suggesting the existence of molecular crosstalk between endothelial and osteoblastic cells. Understanding the nature of the mechanisms linking angiogenesis and bone formation should be of great relevance for improved fracture healing or prevention of bone mass loss. Here we show that vascular growth in bone involves a specialized, tissue-specific form of angiogenesis. Notch signalling promotes endothelial cell proliferation and vessel growth in postnatal long bone, which is the opposite of the well-established function of Notch and its ligand Dll4 in the endothelium of other organs and tumours. Endothelial-cell-specific and inducible genetic disruption of Notch signalling in mice not only impaired bone vessel morphology and growth, but also led to reduced osteogenesis, shortening of long bones, chondrocyte defects, loss of trabeculae and decreased bone mass. On the basis of a series of genetic experiments, we conclude that skeletal defects in these mutants involved defective angiocrine release of Noggin from endothelial cells, which is positively regulated by Notch. Administration of recombinant Noggin, a secreted antagonist of bone morphogenetic proteins, restored bone growth and mineralization, chondrocyte maturation, the formation of trabeculae and osteoprogenitor numbers in endothelial-cell-specific Notch pathway mutants. These findings establish a molecular framework coupling angiogenesis, angiocrine signals and osteogenesis, which may prove significant for the development of future therapeutic applications.

  10. Endothelial Notch activity promotes angiogenesis and osteogenesis in bone.

    PubMed

    Ramasamy, Saravana K; Kusumbe, Anjali P; Wang, Lin; Adams, Ralf H

    2014-03-20

    Blood vessel growth in the skeletal system and osteogenesis seem to be coupled, suggesting the existence of molecular crosstalk between endothelial and osteoblastic cells. Understanding the nature of the mechanisms linking angiogenesis and bone formation should be of great relevance for improved fracture healing or prevention of bone mass loss. Here we show that vascular growth in bone involves a specialized, tissue-specific form of angiogenesis. Notch signalling promotes endothelial cell proliferation and vessel growth in postnatal long bone, which is the opposite of the well-established function of Notch and its ligand Dll4 in the endothelium of other organs and tumours. Endothelial-cell-specific and inducible genetic disruption of Notch signalling in mice not only impaired bone vessel morphology and growth, but also led to reduced osteogenesis, shortening of long bones, chondrocyte defects, loss of trabeculae and decreased bone mass. On the basis of a series of genetic experiments, we conclude that skeletal defects in these mutants involved defective angiocrine release of Noggin from endothelial cells, which is positively regulated by Notch. Administration of recombinant Noggin, a secreted antagonist of bone morphogenetic proteins, restored bone growth and mineralization, chondrocyte maturation, the formation of trabeculae and osteoprogenitor numbers in endothelial-cell-specific Notch pathway mutants. These findings establish a molecular framework coupling angiogenesis, angiocrine signals and osteogenesis, which may prove significant for the development of future therapeutic applications.

  11. IL-17 contributes to angiogenesis in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Pickens, Sarah R; Volin, Michael V; Mandelin, Arthur M; Kolls, Jay K; Pope, Richard M; Shahrara, Shiva

    2010-03-15

    Angiogenesis is an early and a critical event in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Neovascularization is dependent on endothelial cell activation, migration and proliferation, and inhibition of angiogenesis may provide a novel therapeutic approach in RA. In this study, we document a novel role of IL-17 in mediating angiogenesis. Local expression of IL-17 in mouse ankles increases vascularity. We further demonstrate that IL-17 is angiogenic by showing its ability to promote blood vessel growth in Matrigel plugs in vivo. Additionally, IL-17, in concentrations present in the RA joint, induces human lung microvascular endothelial cell (HMVEC) migration mediated through the PI3K/AKT1 pathway. Furthermore, suppression of the PI3K pathway markedly reduces IL-17-induced tube formation. We also show that both IL-17-induced HMVEC chemotaxis and tube formation are mediated primarily through IL-17 receptor C. Neutralization of either IL-17 in RA synovial fluids or IL-17 receptor C on HMVECs significantly reduces the induction of HMVEC migration by RA synovial fluid. Finally, RA synovial fluid immunoneutralized with anti-IL-17 and antivascular endothelial growth factor does not reduce HMVEC migration beyond the effect detected by immunodepleting each factor alone. These observations identify a novel function for IL-17 as an angiogenic mediator in RA, supporting IL-17 as a therapeutic target in RA.

  12. Photoacoustic imaging of angiogenesis in subdermal islet transplant sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Wei; Pawlick, Rena; Bruni, Antonio; Rafiei, Yasmin; Pepper, Andrew R.; Gala-Lopez, Boris; Choi, Min; Malcolm, Andrew; Zemp, Roger J.; Shapiro, A. M. James

    2016-03-01

    Exogenous insulin administration is the mainstay treatment therapy for patients with Type-1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). However, for select patients, clinical islet transplantation is an alternative therapeutic treatment. In this procedure, islets are transplanted into the hepatic portal vein, and despite improved success within the last decade, obstacles are still associated with this approach. It has been discovered that the subcutaneous space may be an effective alternative site for islet transplantation, and may provide advantages of easy access and potential for simple monitoring. The ability to monitor islet viability and the transplant microenvironment may be key to future success in islet transplantation. A subcutaneous device-less technique has been developed to facilitate angiogenesis in the islet transplant site, however, a method for monitoring the potential engraftment site have yet to be explored fully. Here we demonstrate the ability to track angiogenesis in mice with 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks post-catheter implant on both sides of the abdomen using a FujiFilm VisualSonics Vevo-LAZR system. Quantitative analysis on vessel densities exhibited gradual vessel growth successfully induced by catheter implantation. Our study demonstrates the ability of employing photoacoustic and micro-ultrasound imaging to track angiogenesis around the catheter site prior to islet transplantation.

  13. Tumour angiogenesis as a chemo-mechanical surface instability

    PubMed Central

    Giverso, Chiara; Ciarletta, Pasquale

    2016-01-01

    The hypoxic conditions within avascular solid tumours may trigger the secretion of chemical factors, which diffuse to the nearby vasculature and promote the formation of new vessels eventually joining the tumour. Mathematical models of this process, known as tumour angiogenesis, have mainly investigated the formation of the new capillary networks using reaction-diffusion equations. Since angiogenesis involves the growth dynamics of the endothelial cells sprouting, we propose in this work an alternative mechanistic approach, developing a surface growth model for studying capillary formation and network dynamics. The model takes into account the proliferation of endothelial cells on the pre-existing capillary surface, coupled with the bulk diffusion of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The thermo-dynamical consistency is imposed by means of interfacial and bulk balance laws. Finite element simulations show that both the morphology and the dynamics of the sprouting vessels are controlled by the bulk diffusion of VEGF and the chemo-mechanical and geometric properties at the capillary interface. Similarly to dendritic growth processes, we suggest that the emergence of tree-like vessel structures during tumour angiogenesis may result from the free boundary instability driven by competition between chemical and mechanical phenomena occurring at different length-scales. PMID:26948692

  14. Hospicells (ascites-derived stromal cells) promote tumorigenicity and angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Pasquet, Marlene; Golzio, Muriel; Mery, Eliane; Rafii, Arash; Benabbou, Nadia; Mirshahi, Pezhman; Hennebelle, Isabelle; Bourin, Philippe; Allal, Ben; Teissie, Justin; Mirshahi, Massoud; Couderc, Bettina

    2010-05-01

    The microenvironment is known to play a dominant role in cancer progression. Cells closely associated with tumoral cells, named hospicells, have been recently isolated from the ascites of ovarian cancer patients. Whilst these cells present no specific markers from known cell lineages, they do share some homology with bone marrow-derived or adipose tissue-derived human mesenchymal stem cells (CD9, CD10, CD29, CD146, CD166, HLA-1). We studied the role of hospicells in ovarian carcinoma progression. In vitro, these cells had no effect on the growth of human ovarian carcinoma cell lines OVCAR-3, SKOV-1 and IGROV-1. In vivo, their co-injection with adenocarcinoma cells enhanced tumor growth whatever the tumor model used (subcutaneous and intraperitoneally established xenografts in athymic mice). In addition, their injection increased the development of ascites in tumor-bearing mice. Fluorescent macroscopy revealed an association between hospicells and ovarian adenocarcinoma cells within the tumor mass. Tumors obtained by coinjection of hospicells and human ovarian adenocarcinoma cells presented an increased microvascularization indicating that the hospicells could promote tumorigenicity of ovarian tumor cells in vivovia their action on angiogenesis. This effect on angiogenesis could be attributed to the increased HIF1alpha and VEGF expression associated with the presence of the hospicells. Collectively, these data indicate a role for these ascite-derived stromal cells in promoting tumor growth by increasing angiogenesis.

  15. Fibromodulin promoted in vitro and in vivo angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kermit; Rackohn, Todd Matthew; Hsu, Chingyun; Levin, Andrew; Enjamuri, Dwarak Reddy; Zhang, Xinli; Ting, Kang; Soo, Chia

    2013-01-01

    Fibromodulin (FMOD) is an extracellular matrix (ECM) small leucine-rich proteoglycan (SLRP) that plays an important role in cell fate determination. Previous studies revealed that not only is FMOD critical in fetal-type scarless wound healing, but it also promotes adult wound closure and reduces scar formation. In addition, FMOD-deficient mice exhibit significantly reduced blood vessel regeneration in granulation tissues during wound healing. In this study, we investigated the effects of FMOD on angiogenesis, which is an important event in wound healing as well as embryonic development and tumorigenesis. We found that FMOD accelerated human umbilical vein endothelial HUVEC-CS cell adhesion, spreading, actin stress fiber formation, and eventually tube-like structure (TLS) network establishment in vitro. On a molecular level, by increasing expression of collagen I and III, angiopoietin (Ang)-2, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), as well as reducing the ratio of Ang-1/Ang-2, FMOD provided a favorable network to mobilize quiescent endothelial cells to an angiogenic phenotype. Moreover, we also confirmed that FMOD enhanced angiogenesis in vivo by using an in ovo chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. Therefore, our data demonstrate that FMOD is a pro-angiogenic and suggest a potential therapeutic role of FMOD in the treatment of conditions related to impaired angiogenesis. PMID:23770359

  16. Pyrazoles as potential anti-angiogenesis agents: a contemporary overview

    PubMed Central

    Kasiotis, Konstantinos M.; Tzanetou, Evangelia N.; Haroutounian, Serkos A.

    2014-01-01

    Angiogenesis is a mulit-step process by which new blood vessels are formed from preexisting vasculature. It is a key rate limiting factor in tumor growth since new blood vessels are necessary to increase tumor size. In this context it has been shown that anti-angiogenic factors can be used in cancer therapy. Among the plethora of heterocyclic compounds administered as anti-angiogenesis agents, pyrazoles constitute one of the bottlenecks of this category. Currently, several pyrazole based compounds are administered or are in Phase II and III trials and new targets emerge. It is highly possible that the advent of the next two decades will lead to the discovery and use of additional pyrazoles whose anti-angiogenic profile will position them in the forefront of the battle of various malignancies. The present review is an attempt to focus on those pyrazoles that arise as anti-angiogenesis agents commenting both on the chemistry and bioactivity that these exhibit aiming to contribute to the perspectives that they hold for future research. PMID:25250310

  17. Bioelectric impact of pathological angiogenesis on vascular function

    PubMed Central

    Puro, Donald G.; Kohmoto, Ryohsuke; Fujita, Yasushi; Gardner, Thomas W.; Padovani-Claudio, Dolly A.

    2016-01-01

    Pathological angiogenesis, as seen in many inflammatory, immune, malignant, and ischemic disorders, remains an immense health burden despite new molecular therapies. It is likely that further therapeutic progress requires a better understanding of neovascular pathophysiology. Surprisingly, even though transmembrane voltage is well known to regulate vascular function, no previous bioelectric analysis of pathological angiogenesis has been reported. Using the perforated-patch technique to measure vascular voltages in human retinal neovascular specimens and rodent models of retinal neovascularization, we discovered that pathological neovessels generate extraordinarily high voltage. Electrophysiological experiments demonstrated that voltage from aberrantly located preretinal neovascular complexes is transmitted into the intraretinal vascular network. With extensive neovascularization, this voltage input is substantial and boosts the membrane potential of intraretinal blood vessels to a suprahyperpolarized level. Coincident with this suprahyperpolarization, the vasomotor response to hypoxia is fundamentally altered. Instead of the compensatory dilation observed in the normal retina, arterioles constrict in response to an oxygen deficiency. This anomalous vasoconstriction, which would potentiate hypoxia, raises the possibility that the bioelectric impact of neovascularization on vascular function is a previously unappreciated pathophysiological mechanism to sustain hypoxia-driven angiogenesis. PMID:27551068

  18. Zebrafish models of dyslipidemia: Relevance to atherosclerosis and angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Longhou; Liu, Chao; Miller, Yury I.

    2013-01-01

    Lipid and lipoprotein metabolism in zebrafish and in humans are remarkably similar. Zebrafish express all major nuclear receptors, lipid transporters, apolipoproteins and enzymes involved in lipoprotein metabolism. Unlike mice, zebrafish express cetp and the Cetp activity is detected in zebrafish plasma. Feeding zebrafish a high cholesterol diet, without any genetic intervention, results in significant hypercholesterolemia and robust lipoprotein oxidation, making zebrafish an attractive animal model to study mechanisms relevant to early development of human atherosclerosis. These studies are facilitated by the optical transparency of zebrafish larvae and the availability of transgenic zebrafish expressing fluorescent proteins in endothelial cells and macrophages. Thus, vascular processes can be monitored in live animals. In this review article we discuss recent advances in using dyslipidemic zebrafish in atherosclerosis-related studies. We also summarize recent work connecting lipid metabolism with regulation of angiogenesis, the work that considerably benefited from using the zebrafish model. These studies uncovered the role of aibp, abca1, abcg1, mtp, apoB and apoC2 in regulation of angiogenesis in zebrafish and paved the way for future studies in mammals, which may suggest new therapeutic approaches to modulation of excessive or diminished angiogenesis contributing to the pathogenesis of human disease. PMID:24095954

  19. Vascular grading of angiogenesis: prognostic significance in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, S; Grabau, D A; Sørensen, F B; Bak, M; Vach, W; Rose, C

    2000-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of angiogenesis by vascular grading of primary breast tumours, and to evaluate the prognostic impact of adding the vascular grade to the Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI). The investigation included 836 patients. The median follow-up time was 11 years and 4 months. The microvessels were immunohistochemically stained by antibodies against CD34. Angiogenesis was graded semiquantitatively by subjective scoring into three groups according to the expected number of microvessels in the most vascular tumour area. The vascular grading between observers was moderately reproduced (κ = 0.59). Vascular grade was significantly associated with axillary node involvement, tumour size, malignancy grade, oestrogen receptor status and histological type. In univariate analyses vascular grade significantly predicted recurrence free survival and overall survival for all patients (P< 0.0001), node-negative patients (P< 0.0001) and node-positive patients (P< 0.0001). Cox multivariate regression analysis showed that vascular grading contributed with independent prognostic value in all patients (P< 0.0001). A prognostic index including the vascular grade had clinical impact for 24% of the patients, who had a shift in prognostic group, as compared to NPI, and implied a better prognostic dissemination. We concluded that the angiogenesis determined by vascular grading has independent prognostic value of clinical relevance for patients with breast cancer. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10646886

  20. Targeting prion-like protein doppel selectively suppresses tumor angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Al-Hilal, Taslim A; Chung, Seung Woo; Choi, Jeong Uk; Alam, Farzana; Park, Jooho; Kim, Seong Who; Kim, Sang Yoon; Ahsan, Fakhrul; Kim, In-San; Byun, Youngro

    2016-04-01

    Controlled and site-specific regulation of growth factor signaling remains a major challenge for current antiangiogenic therapies, as these antiangiogenic agents target normal vasculature as well tumor vasculature. In this article, we identified the prion-like protein doppel as a potential therapeutic target for tumor angiogenesis. We investigated the interactions between doppel and VEGFR2 and evaluated whether blocking the doppel/VEGFR2 axis suppresses the process of angiogenesis. We discovered that tumor endothelial cells (TECs), but not normal ECs, express doppel; tumors from patients and mouse xenografts expressed doppel in their vasculatures. Induced doppel overexpression in ECs enhanced vascularization, whereas doppel constitutively colocalized and complexed with VEGFR2 in TECs. Doppel inhibition depleted VEGFR2 from the cell membrane, subsequently inducing the internalization and degradation of VEGFR2 and thereby attenuating VEGFR2 signaling. We also synthesized an orally active glycosaminoglycan (LHbisD4) that specifically binds with doppel. We determined that LHbisD4 concentrates over the tumor site and that genetic loss of doppel in TECs decreases LHbisD4 binding and targeting both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, LHbisD4 eliminated VEGFR2 from the cell membrane, prevented VEGF binding in TECs, and suppressed tumor growth. Together, our results demonstrate that blocking doppel can control VEGF signaling in TECs and selectively inhibit tumor angiogenesis. PMID:26950422

  1. Tumour angiogenesis as a chemo-mechanical surface instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giverso, Chiara; Ciarletta, Pasquale

    2016-03-01

    The hypoxic conditions within avascular solid tumours may trigger the secretion of chemical factors, which diffuse to the nearby vasculature and promote the formation of new vessels eventually joining the tumour. Mathematical models of this process, known as tumour angiogenesis, have mainly investigated the formation of the new capillary networks using reaction-diffusion equations. Since angiogenesis involves the growth dynamics of the endothelial cells sprouting, we propose in this work an alternative mechanistic approach, developing a surface growth model for studying capillary formation and network dynamics. The model takes into account the proliferation of endothelial cells on the pre-existing capillary surface, coupled with the bulk diffusion of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The thermo-dynamical consistency is imposed by means of interfacial and bulk balance laws. Finite element simulations show that both the morphology and the dynamics of the sprouting vessels are controlled by the bulk diffusion of VEGF and the chemo-mechanical and geometric properties at the capillary interface. Similarly to dendritic growth processes, we suggest that the emergence of tree-like vessel structures during tumour angiogenesis may result from the free boundary instability driven by competition between chemical and mechanical phenomena occurring at different length-scales.

  2. [Angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis in primary cutaneous T-cell lymphomas].

    PubMed

    Jankowska-Konsur, Alina; Kobierzycki, Christopher; Dzięgiel, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Primary cutaneous T-cell lymphomas are a group of rare hematologic malignancies, derived from mature T lymphocytes and initially developing only in the skin. The most common lymphomas representing this group are mycosis fungoides and Sezary syndrome. Mycosis fungoides is an indolent disease with a chronic course and characteristic evolution of the skin lesions from erythematous patches, through plaques to tumors. Sezary syndrome is characterized by an aggressive course and a triad of symptoms (erythroderma, generalized lymphadenopathy, and the presence of atypical cells in the skin, lymph nodes and peripheral blood). The etiopathogenesis of cutaneous lymphomas is not fully understood, but a few studies on angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis in these malignancies indicate a significant role in their development and progression. Angiogenesis is a process of formation of new blood vessels from existing ones. Lymphangiogenesis is a similar process concerning lymphatic vasculature. Development of new vessels is a complex process composed of several successive stages: migration, proliferation, and differentiation of endothelial cells, extracellular matrix degradation and formation and stabilization of new vessels, regulated by growth factors, cytokines and other proteins. Both phenomena are essential in the development and progression of solid tumors and hematological malignancies. Therapeutic strategies involving the inhibition of tumor angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis are a promising new direction of studies in antitumor therapy, requiring further experiments. PMID:26561847

  3. DNA containing CpG motifs induces angiogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Mei; Klinman, Dennis M.; Gierynska, Malgorzata; Rouse, Barry T.

    2002-06-01

    New blood vessel formation in the cornea is an essential step in the pathogenesis of a blinding immunoinflammatory reaction caused by ocular infection with herpes simplex virus (HSV). By using a murine corneal micropocket assay, we found that HSV DNA (which contains a significant excess of potentially bioactive "CpG" motifs when compared with mammalian DNA) induces angiogenesis. Moreover, synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides containing CpG motifs attract inflammatory cells and stimulate the release of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which in turn triggers new blood vessel formation. In vitro, CpG DNA induces the J774A.1 murine macrophage cell line to produce VEGF. In vivo CpG-induced angiogenesis was blocked by the administration of anti-mVEGF Ab or the inclusion of "neutralizing" oligodeoxynucleotides that specifically oppose the stimulatory activity of CpG DNA. These findings establish that DNA containing bioactive CpG motifs induces angiogenesis, and suggest that CpG motifs in HSV DNA may contribute to the blinding lesions of stromal keratitis.

  4. Pyrazoles as potential anti-angiogenesis agents: A contemporary overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasiotis, Konstantinos; Tzanetou, Evangelia; Haroutounian, Serkos

    2014-09-01

    Angiogenesis is a mulit-step process by which new blood vessels are formed from preexisting vasculature. It is a key rate limiting factor in tumor growth since new blood vessels are necessary to increase tumor size. In this context it has been shown that anti-angiogenic factors can be used in cancer therapy. Among the plethora of heterocyclic compounds administered as anti-angiogenesis agents, pyrazoles constitute one of the bottlenecks of this category. Currently several pyrazole based compounds are administered or are in Phase II and III trials and new targets emerge. It is highly possible that the advent of the next two decades will lead to the discovery and use of additional pyrazoles whose anti-angiogenic profile will position them in the forefront of the battle of various malignancies. The present review is an attempt to focus on those pyrazoles that arise as anti-angiogenesis agents commenting both on the chemistry and bioactivity that these exhibit aiming to contribute to the perspectives that they hold for future research.

  5. Intrinsic FGF2 and FGF5 promotes angiogenesis of human aortic endothelial cells in 3D microfluidic angiogenesis system

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Ha-Rim; Jeong, Hyo Eun; Joo, Hyung Joon; Choi, Seung-Cheol; Park, Chi-Yeon; Kim, Jong-Ho; Choi, Ji-Hyun; Cui, Long-Hui; Hong, Soon Jun; Chung, Seok; Lim, Do-Sun

    2016-01-01

    The human body contains different endothelial cell types and differences in their angiogenic potential are poorly understood. We compared the functional angiogenic ability of human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) using a three-dimensional (3D) microfluidic cell culture system. HAECs and HUVECs exhibited similar cellular characteristics in a 2D culture system; however, in the 3D microfluidic angiogenesis system, HAECs exhibited stronger angiogenic potential than HUVECs. Interestingly, the expression level of fibroblast growth factor (FGF)2 and FGF5 under vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A stimulation was significantly higher in HAECs than in HUVECs. Moreover, small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of FGF2 and FGF5 more significantly attenuated vascular sprouting induced from HAECs than HUVECs. Our results suggest that HAECs have greater angiogenic potential through FGF2 and FGF5 upregulation and could be a compatible endothelial cell type to achieve robust angiogenesis. PMID:27357248

  6. Korean red ginseng (Panax ginseng) prevents obesity by inhibiting angiogenesis in high fat diet-induced obese C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyunghee; Park, Dongmin; Yoon, Michung

    2013-03-01

    Adipose tissue growth and development are thought to be associated with angiogenesis and extracellular matrix remodeling. Because ginseng has been shown to inhibit angiogenesis and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity, we hypothesized that adipose tissue growth and obesity can be regulated by Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer). Wild-type C57BL/6J mice were fed for 8 weeks with a low fat diet, a high fat diet (HFD), or HFD supplemented with 0.5% or 5% Korean red ginseng extract. We measured body weight, adipose tissue mass, food intake, MMP activity, and the expression of genes involved in angiogenesis and MMPs. Administering ginseng to HFD-induced obese mice produced reductions in body weight and adipose tissue mass compared with untreated counterparts. Ginseng treatment decreased blood vessel density and MMP activity in adipose tissues. Ginseng also reduced mRNA levels of angiogenic factors (e.g., VEGF-A and FGF-2) and MMPs (e.g., MMP-2 and MMP-9), whereas it increased mRNA levels of angiogenic inhibitors (e.g., TSP-1, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2) in adipose tissues. These results demonstrate that ginseng effectively reduces adipose tissue mass and prevents obesity in diet-induced obese mice and that this process may be mediated in part through the anti-angiogenic actions of ginseng.

  7. Astaxanthin Inhibits JAK/STAT-3 Signaling to Abrogate Cell Proliferation, Invasion and Angiogenesis in a Hamster Model of Oral Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kowshik, J.; Baba, Abdul Basit; Giri, Hemant; Deepak Reddy, G.; Dixit, Madhulika; Nagini, Siddavaram

    2014-01-01

    Identifying agents that inhibit STAT-3, a cytosolic transcription factor involved in the activation of various genes implicated in tumour progression is a promising strategy for cancer chemoprevention. In the present study, we investigated the effect of dietary astaxanthin on JAK-2/STAT-3 signaling in the 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis model by examining the mRNA and protein expression of JAK/STAT-3 and its target genes. Quantitative RT-PCR, immunoblotting and immunohistochemical analyses revealed that astaxanthin supplementation inhibits key events in JAK/STAT signaling especially STAT-3 phosphorylation and subsequent nuclear translocation of STAT-3. Furthermore, astaxanthin downregulated the expression of STAT-3 target genes involved in cell proliferation, invasion and angiogenesis, and reduced microvascular density, thereby preventing tumour progression. Molecular docking analysis confirmed inhibitory effects of astaxanthin on STAT signaling and angiogenesis. Cell culture experiments with the endothelial cell line ECV304 substantiated the role of astaxanthin in suppressing angiogenesis. Taken together, our data provide substantial evidence that dietary astaxanthin prevents the development and progression of HBP carcinomas through the inhibition of JAK-2/STAT-3 signaling and its downstream events. Thus, astaxanthin that functions as a potent inhibitor of tumour development and progression by targeting JAK/STAT signaling may be an ideal candidate for cancer chemoprevention. PMID:25296162

  8. Augmented anti-angiogenesis activity of polysulfated heparin-endostatin and polyethylene glycol-endostatin in alkali burn-induced corneal ulcers in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    LI, ZHAO-NA; YUAN, ZHONG-FANG; MU, GUO-YING; HU, MING; CAO, LI-JUN; ZHANG, YA-LI; GE, MING-XU

    2015-01-01

    Endostatin (ES) is an endogenous angiogenesis inhibitor that has the ability to inhibit tumor growth and metastasis. However, its clinical application is limited by a number of disadvantages, such as poor stability, short half-life and the requirement of high doses to maintain its efficacy. The chemical modification on ES may offer a solution to these disadvantages. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of ES, polysulfated heparin-endostatin (PSH-ES) and polyethylene glycol-endostatin (PEG-ES) on the endothelial cell proliferation and angiogenesis associated with corneal neovascularization (CNV) and to determine their mechanisms of action. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) was used to study the effects of ES and its derivatives on endothelial cell proliferation in vitro, and rabbits were used to evaluate the effects of ES and its derivatives on CNV in vivo. In the evaluation of CNV, the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in the cornea was measured via immunohistochemistry and microvessels were counted. ES and its derivatives significantly inhibited endothelial cell proliferation in vitro (P<0.05) and suppressed CNV in vivo. Among the compounds examined, ES most effectively inhibited endothelial cell proliferation in vitro (P<0.05); however, PSH-ES and PEG-ES most effectively inhibited CNV in vivo (P<0.05). These results indicate that PSH-ES and PEG-ES are candidate anti-angiogenesis drugs. PMID:26622410

  9. Enhanced anti-angiogenesis and anti-tumor activity of endostatin by chemical modification with polyethylene glycol and low molecular weight heparin.

    PubMed

    Tan, Haining; Yang, Shenglin; Liu, Chunhui; Cao, Jichao; Mu, Guoying; Wang, Fengshan

    2012-12-01

    Endostatin (ES), a potent endogenous angiogenesis inhibitor found in 1997 by O'Reilly, can effectively inhibit angiogenesis, inhibit the growth and metastasis of tumors. ES can also decrease drug resistance in long term and repeated treatment when it is used in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents. But there are still lots of obstacles on its clinical application, such as the need of a high dose to maintain its efficacy short half-life, poor stability, expensive, and some other shortcomings just like other protein drugs. Chemical modification on ES by polyethylene glycol (PEG) and low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) were successfully carried out in order to obtain a better ES derivative. Several classic experimental models were employed to study the bioactivity of ES and modified ES, including chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay, corneal neovascularization (CNV) assay and Sarcoma 180 tumor bearing mice assay. The results showed that PEG-ES and LMWH-ES had better anti-angiogenesis and anti-tumor activity than ES, which indicates that LMWH was also a good protein modifier.

  10. The insect repellent N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET) induces angiogenesis via allosteric modulation of the M3 muscarinic receptor in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Legeay, Samuel; Clere, Nicolas; Hilairet, Grégory; Do, Quoc-Tuan; Bernard, Philippe; Quignard, Jean-François; Apaire-Marchais, Véronique; Lapied, Bruno; Faure, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    The insect repellent N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET) has been reported to inhibit AChE (acetylcholinesterase) and to possess potential carcinogenic properties with excessive vascularization. In the present paper, we demonstrate that DEET specifically stimulates endothelial cells that promote angiogenesis which increases tumor growth. DEET activates cellular processes that lead to angiogenesis including proliferation, migration and adhesion. This is associated with an enhancement of NO production and VEGF expression in endothelial cells. M3 silencing or the use of a pharmacological M3 inhibitor abrogates all of these effects which reveals that DEET-induced angiogenesis is M3 sensitive. The experiments involving calcium signals in both endothelial and HEK cells overexpressing M3 receptors, as well as binding and docking studies demonstrate that DEET acts as an allosteric modulator of the M3 receptor. In addition, DEET inhibited AChE which increased acetylcholine bioavailability and binding to M3 receptors and also strengthened proangiogenic effects by an allosteric modulation. PMID:27345502

  11. The insect repellent N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET) induces angiogenesis via allosteric modulation of the M3 muscarinic receptor in endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Legeay, Samuel; Clere, Nicolas; Hilairet, Grégory; Do, Quoc-Tuan; Bernard, Philippe; Quignard, Jean-François; Apaire-Marchais, Véronique; Lapied, Bruno; Faure, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    The insect repellent N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET) has been reported to inhibit AChE (acetylcholinesterase) and to possess potential carcinogenic properties with excessive vascularization. In the present paper, we demonstrate that DEET specifically stimulates endothelial cells that promote angiogenesis which increases tumor growth. DEET activates cellular processes that lead to angiogenesis including proliferation, migration and adhesion. This is associated with an enhancement of NO production and VEGF expression in endothelial cells. M3 silencing or the use of a pharmacological M3 inhibitor abrogates all of these effects which reveals that DEET-induced angiogenesis is M3 sensitive. The experiments involving calcium signals in both endothelial and HEK cells overexpressing M3 receptors, as well as binding and docking studies demonstrate that DEET acts as an allosteric modulator of the M3 receptor. In addition, DEET inhibited AChE which increased acetylcholine bioavailability and binding to M3 receptors and also strengthened proangiogenic effects by an allosteric modulation. PMID:27345502

  12. Low Concentration of Sodium Butyrate from Ultrabraid+NaBu suture, Promotes Angiogenesis and Tissue Remodelling in Tendon-bones Injury

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Donghui; Andrade, Silvia Passos; Castro, Pollyana Ribeiro; Treacy, John; Ashworth, Jason; Slevin, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Sodium butyrate (NaBu), a form of short-chain fatty acid (SCFA), acts classically as a potent anti-angiogenic agent in tumour angiogenesis models, some authors demonstrated that low concentrations of NaBu may contribute to healing of tendon-bone injury in part at least through promotion of tissue remodelling. Here, we investigated the effects of low-range concentrations of NaBu using in vitro and in vivo assays using angiogenesis as the primary outcome measure and the mechanisms through which it acts. We demonstrated that NaBu, alone or perfused from the UltraBraid+NaBu suture was pro-angiogenic at very low-range doses promoting migration, tube formation and cell invasion in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs). Furthermore, cell exposure to low NaBu concentrations increased expression of proteins involved in angiogenic cell signalling, including p-PKCβ1, p-FAK, p-ERK1/2, p-NFκβ, p-PLCγ1 and p-VEGFR2. In addition, inhibitors of both VEGFR2 and PKCβ1 blocked the angiogenic response. In in vivo assays, low concentrations of NaBu induced neovascularization in sponge implants in mice, evidenced by increased numbers of vessels and haemoglobin content in these implants. The findings in this study indicate that low concentrations of NaBu could be an important compound to stimulate angiogenesis at a site where vasculature is deficient and healing is compromised. PMID:27694930

  13. Mathematical modeling of capillary formation and development in tumor angiogenesis: penetration into the stroma.

    PubMed

    Levine, H A; Pamuk, S; Sleeman, B D; Nilsen-Hamilton, M

    2001-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a mathematical model for the tumor vascularization theory of tumor growth proposed by Judah Folkman in the early 1970s and subsequently established experimentally by him and his coworkers [Ausprunk, D. H. and J. Folkman (1977) Migration and proliferation of endothelial cells in performed and newly formed blood vessels during tumor angiogenesis, Microvasc Res., 14, 53-65; Brem, S., B. A. Preis, ScD. Langer, B. A. Brem and J. Folkman (1997) Inhibition of neovascularization by an extract derived from vitreous Am. J. Opthalmol., 84, 323-328; Folkman, J. (1976) The vascularization of tumors, Sci. Am., 234, 58-64; Gimbrone, M. A. Jr, R. S. Cotran, S. B. Leapman and J. Folkman (1974) Tumor growth and neovascularization: an experimental model using the rabbit cornea, J. Nat. Cancer Inst., 52, 413-419]. In the simplest version of this model, an avascular tumor secretes a tumor growth factor (TGF) which is transported across an extracellular matrix (ECM) to a neighboring vasculature where it stimulates endothelial cells to produce a protease that acts as a catalyst to degrade the fibronectin of the capillary wall and the ECM. The endothelial cells then move up the TGF gradient back to the tumor, proliferating and forming a new capillary network. In the model presented here, we include two mechanisms for the action of angiostatin. In the first mechanism, substantiated experimentally, the angiostatin acts as a protease inhibitor. A second mechanism for the production of protease inhibitor from angiostatin by endothelial cells is proposed to be of Michaelis-Menten type. Mathematically, this mechanism includes the former as a subcase. Our model is different from other attempts to model the process of tumor angiogenesis in that it focuses (1) on the biochemistry of the process at the level of the cell; (2) the movement of the cells is based on the theory of reinforced random walks; (3) standard transport equations for the diffusion of

  14. In vitro angiogenesis on the human amniotic membrane: requirement for basic fibroblast growth factor-induced proteinases

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    The role of basic fibroblast growth factor-(bFGF) induced proteinases in basement membrane (BM) invasion by bovine capillary endothelial (BCE) cells was studied using a quantitative in vitro assay previously described (Mignatti et al., 1986). 125I-iododeoxyuridine-labeled BCE cells were grown for 72 h on the human amnion BM, and cell invasion was determined by measuring the radioactivity associated with the tissue after removal of the noninvasive cell layer. BCE cells were noninvasive under normal conditions. Addition of human bFGF to either the BM or to the stromal aspect of the amnion induced BCE cell invasion with a dose- dependent response. This effect was maximal in the presence of 70 ng/ml bFGF, and was inhibited by anti-FGF antibody. Transforming growth factor beta, as well as plasmin inhibitors and anti-tissue type plasminogen activator antibody inhibited BCE cell invasion. The tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases, 1-10 phenanthroline, anti-type IV and anti-interstitial collagenase antibodies had the same effect. On the contrary, anti-stromelysin antibody and Eglin, an inhibitor of elastase, were ineffective. The results obtained show that both the plasminogen activator-plasmin system and specific collagenases are involved in the invasive process occurring during angiogenesis. PMID:2465298

  15. [Key enzymes of degradation and angiogenesis as a factors of tumor progression in squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix].

    PubMed

    Solov'eva, N I; Timoshenko, O S; Kugaevskaia, E V; Andreeva, Iu Iu; Zavalishina, L E

    2014-01-01

    A key role in tumor progression play two processes--the destruction and angiogenesis. Matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) play a leading role during tissue degradation. Tissue collagenase--MMP-1 and MT1-MMP hydrolyze fibrillar collagens, which are the basis of connective tissue matrix, and ensure the development of an invasive process. Gelatinase A and B (MMP-2 and MMP-9) hydrolyze collagen type IV, which is the basis of the basal membrane, and facilitate the development of metastasis. Endogenous tissue inhibitors TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 are involved in the regulation of MMP expression and activity. It has been established that MMP-9 release vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) associated with the STM--the primary inductor angiogenesis. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) participates in the induction of VEGF synthesis. ACE--a key enzyme of the renin-angiotensin system, forms angiotensin II, which interactes with the receptor ATIR and induces VEGF synthesis, as well as stimulates endothelial cell proliferation. Our experimental studies devoted to the study of particularity expression of key enzymes of destruction and angiogenesis in squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix (SCC). It was studied: MMP-1, MT1-MMP, MMP-2 and MMP-9 and their endogenous regulators: TIMP-1, TIMP-2, and as well as ACE. Work was performed on clinical specimens containing the tumor tissue, taking into account the presence or absence of metastasis to regional lymph nodes and the specimens of adjacent morphologically normal tissue. It was shown that the increase of MMP-1, MT1-MMP and MMP-9 expression and low of TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 expression makes the main contribution to the destructive (invasive) potential of SCC. The change of MMP-2 expression is not so significant and it is less influenced to the destructive potential. It was shown dramatic increasing of MMP-1 and MMP-9 activity in metastasizing tumor tissue ACE activity in a tumor in most of the samples was higher than the activity in normal tissues

  16. The induction of angiogenesis by cerium oxide nanoparticles through the modulation of oxygen in intracellular environments

    PubMed Central

    Das, Soumen; Singh, Sanjay; Dowding, Janet M.; Oommen, Saji; Kumar, Amit; Sayle, Thi X. T.; Saraf, Shashank; Patra, Chitta Ranjan; Vlahakis, Nicholas E.; Sayle, Dean C.; Self, William T.; Seal, Sudipta

    2012-01-01

    Angiogenesis is the formation of new blood vessels from existing blood vessels and is critical for many physiological and pathophysiological processes. In this study we have shown the unique property of cerium oxide nanoparticle (CNPs) to induce angiogenesis, observed using both in vitro and in vivo model systems. In particular, CNPs trigger angiogenesis by modulating the intracellular oxygen environment and stabilizing hypoxia inducing factor 1α endogenously. Furthermore, correlations between angiogenesis induction and CNPs physicochemical properties including: surface Ce3+/Ce4+ ratio, surface charge, size, and shape were also explored. High surface area and increased Ce3+/Ce4+ ratio make CNPs more catalytically active towards regulating intracellular oxygen, which in turn led to more robust induction of angiogenesis. Atomistic simulation was also used, in partnership with in vitro and in vivo experimentation, to reveal that the surface reactivity of CNPs and facile oxygen transport promotes pro-angiogenesis. PMID:22858004

  17. Amino and carboxy functionalized modified nucleosides: a potential class of inhibitors for angiogenin.

    PubMed

    Debnath, Joy; Dasgupta, Swagata; Pathak, Tanmaya

    2014-02-01

    The 3'-amino and carboxy functionalize thymidines execute their ribonucleolytic inhibition activity for angiogenin. These modified nucleosidic molecules inhibit the ribonucleolytic activity of angiogenin in a competitive manner like the other conventional nucleotidic inhibitors, which have been confirmed from kinetic experiments. The improved inhibition constant (Ki) values 427 ± 7, 775 ± 6 μM clearly indicate modified nucleosides are an obvious option for the designing of inhibitors of angiogenesis process. The chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay qualitatively suggests that amino functionalized nucleosides have an effective potency to inhibited angiogenin-induced angiogenesis. Docking studies further demonstrate the interaction of their polar amino group with the P1 site residues of angiogenin, i.e., His-13 and His-114 residues.

  18. Survivin expression promotes VEGF-induced tumor angiogenesis via PI3K/Akt enhanced β-catenin/Tcf-Lef dependent transcription.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Jaime G; Rodríguez, Diego A; Valenzuela, Manuel; Calderon, Claudia; Urzúa, Ulises; Munroe, David; Rosas, Carlos; Lemus, David; Díaz, Natalia; Wright, Mathew C; Leyton, Lisette; Tapia, Julio C; Quest, Andrew Fg

    2014-09-09

    Early in cancer development, tumour cells express vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a secreted molecule that is important in all stages of angiogenesis, an essential process that provides nutrients and oxygen to the nascent tumor and thereby enhances tumor-cell survival and facilitates growth. Survivin, another protein involved in angiogenesis, is strongly expressed in most human cancers, where it promotes tumor survival by reducing apoptosis as well as favoring endothelial cell proliferation and migration. The mechanisms by which cancer cells induce VEGF expression and angiogenesis upon survivin up-regulation remain to be fully established. Since the PI3K/Akt signalling and β-catenin-Tcf/Lef dependent transcription have been implicated in the expression of many cancer-related genes, including survivin and VEGF, we evaluated whether survivin may favor VEGF expression, release from tumor cells and induction of angiogenesis in a PI3K/Akt-β-catenin-Tcf/Lef-dependent manner. Here, we provide evidence linking survivin expression in tumor cells to increased β-catenin protein levels, β-catenin-Tcf/Lef transcriptional activity and expression of several target genes of this pathway, including survivin and VEGF, which accumulates in the culture medium. Alternatively, survivin downregulation reduced β-catenin protein levels and β-catenin-Tcf/Lef transcriptional activity. Also, using inhibitors of PI3K and the expression of dominant negative Akt, we show that survivin acts upstream in an amplification loop to promote VEGF expression. Moreover, survivin knock-down in B16F10 murine melanoma cells diminished the number of blood vessels and reduced VEGF expression in tumors formed in C57BL/6 mice. Finally, in the chick chorioallantoid membrane assay, survivin expression in tumor cells enhanced VEGF liberation and blood vessel formation. Importantly, the presence of neutralizing anti-VEGF antibodies precluded survivin-enhanced angiogenesis in this assay. These

  19. Suppression of alpha-tocopherol ether-linked acetic acid in VEGF-induced angiogenesis and the possible mechanisms in human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, Cheng-Hung; Liu, Chia-Hua; Lu, Ta-Jung; Hu, Miao-Lin

    2014-12-15

    Alpha-tocopherol ether-linked acetic acid (α-TEA) has been reported to exhibit both anti-tumor and anti-metastatic activities in cell culture and animal studies. However, it is unclear whether α-TEA possesses anti-angiogenic effects. In this study, we investigated the effect of α-TEA on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced angiogenesis and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression both in vitro and ex vivo. We found that the α-TEA inhibited tube formation, invasion, and migration in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and that such actions were accompanied by reduced expression of MMP-2. α-TEA also inhibited ex vivo angiogenesis, as indicated by chicken egg chorioallantoic membrane assay. We further showed that α-TEA attenuated protein expression of VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2)-mediated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38), phosphorylated p38, and focal adhesion kinase (FAK). Moreover, α-TEA (30 μM) significantly up-regulated protein expression of tissue inhibitors of MMP (TIMP)-2 (by 138%) and the metastasis suppressor gene nm23-H1 (by 54%). These results demonstrate that the anti-angiogenic effect of α-TEA both in vitro and ex vivo and its possible mechanistic action appears to involve the inhibition of MMP-2 level through VEGFR-2-mediated FAK and p38 signaling pathways and through up-regulation of TIMP-2 and nm23-H1 expression. - Graphical abstract: Possible mechanisms of α-TEA on inhibited angiogenesis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Brief summary In the present study, we have demonstrated that VEGF-mediated angiogenesis is significantly inhibited by α-TEA, and that this effect involves inhibition of MMP-2 level through VEGFR-2-mediated FAK and p38 signaling pathways related to invasion and migration. - Highlights: • The anti-angiogenic effect and the mechanistic action of α-TEA were investigated. • α-TEA significantly inhibited VEGF-mediated angiogenesis both in vitro and ex vivo. • α-TEA down

  20. Survivin expression promotes VEGF-induced tumor angiogenesis via PI3K/Akt enhanced β-catenin/Tcf-Lef dependent transcription.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Jaime G; Rodríguez, Diego A; Valenzuela, Manuel; Calderon, Claudia; Urzúa, Ulises; Munroe, David; Rosas, Carlos; Lemus, David; Díaz, Natalia; Wright, Mathew C; Leyton, Lisette; Tapia, Julio C; Quest, Andrew Fg

    2014-01-01

    Early in cancer development, tumour cells express vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a secreted molecule that is important in all stages of angiogenesis, an essential process that provides nutrients and oxygen to the nascent tumor and thereby enhances tumor-cell survival and facilitates growth. Survivin, another protein involved in angiogenesis, is strongly expressed in most human cancers, where it promotes tumor survival by reducing apoptosis as well as favoring endothelial cell proliferation and migration. The mechanisms by which cancer cells induce VEGF expression and angiogenesis upon survivin up-regulation remain to be fully established. Since the PI3K/Akt signalling and β-catenin-Tcf/Lef dependent transcription have been implicated in the expression of many cancer-related genes, including survivin and VEGF, we evaluated whether survivin may favor VEGF expression, release from tumor cells and induction of angiogenesis in a PI3K/Akt-β-catenin-Tcf/Lef-dependent manner. Here, we provide evidence linking survivin expression in tumor cells to increased β-catenin protein levels, β-catenin-Tcf/Lef transcriptional activity and expression of several target genes of this pathway, including survivin and VEGF, which accumulates in the culture medium. Alternatively, survivin downregulation reduced β-catenin protein levels and β-catenin-Tcf/Lef transcriptional activity. Also, using inhibitors of PI3K and the expression of dominant negative Akt, we show that survivin acts upstream in an amplification loop to promote VEGF expression. Moreover, survivin knock-down in B16F10 murine melanoma cells diminished the number of blood vessels and reduced VEGF expression in tumors formed in C57BL/6 mice. Finally, in the chick chorioallantoid membrane assay, survivin expression in tumor cells enhanced VEGF liberation and blood vessel formation. Importantly, the presence of neutralizing anti-VEGF antibodies precluded survivin-enhanced angiogenesis in this assay. These

  1. Tumor recovery by angiogenic switch from sprouting to intussusceptive angiogenesis after treatment with PTK787/ZK222584 or ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    Hlushchuk, Ruslan; Riesterer, Oliver; Baum, Oliver; Wood, Jeanette; Gruber, Guenther; Pruschy, Martin; Djonov, Valentin

    2008-10-01

    Inhibitors of angiogenesis and radiation induce compensatory changes in the tumor vasculature both during and after treatment cessation. To assess the responses to irradiation and vascular endothelial growth factor-receptor tyrosine kinase inhibition (by the vascular endothelial growth factor tyrosine kinase inhibitor PTK787/ZK222854), mammary carcinoma allografts were investigated by vascular casting; electron, light, and confocal microscopy; and immunoblotting. Irradiation and anti-angiogenic therapy had similar effects on the tumor vasculature. Both treatments reduced tumor vascularization, particularly in the tumor medulla. After cessation of therapy, the tumor vasculature expanded predominantly by intussusception with a plexus composed of enlarged sinusoidal-like vessels containing multiple transluminal tissue pillars. Tumor revascularization originated from preserved alpha-smooth muscle actin-positive vessels in the tumor cortex. Quantification revealed that recovery was characterized by an angiogenic switch from sprouting to intussusception. Up-regulated alpha-smooth muscle actin-expression during recovery reflected the recruitment of alpha-smooth muscle actin-positive cells for intussusception as part of the angio-adaptive mechanism. Tumor recovery was associated with a dramatic decrease (by 30% to 40%) in the intratumoral microvascular density, probably as a result of intussusceptive pruning and, surprisingly, with only a minimal reduction of the total microvascular (exchange) area. Therefore, the vascular supply to the tumor was not severely compromised, as demonstrated by hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha expression. Both irradiation and anti-angiogenic therapy cause a switch from sprouting to intussusceptive angiogenesis, representing an escape mechanism and accounting for the development of resistance, as well as rapid recovery, after cessation of therapy.

  2. Comparing protein VEGF inhibitors: In vitro biological studies

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Lanlan; Liang, Xiao Huan; Ferrara, Napoleone

    2011-05-06

    Highlights: {yields} VEGF is a mediator of angiogenesis. {yields} VEGF inhibitors have clinical applications in cancer and eye disorders. {yields} Five protein VEGF inhibitors were compared for their ability to inhibit. {yields} VEGF-induced activities in cultured endothelial cells. -- Abstract: VEGF inhibitors are widely used as a therapy for tumors and intravascular neovascular disorders, but limited and conflicting data regarding their relative biological potencies are available. The purpose of the study is to compare different protein VEGF inhibitors for their ability to inhibit VEGF-stimulated activities. We tested ranibizumab, the full-length variant of ranibizumab (Mab Y0317), bevacizumab, the VEGF-TrapR1R2 and Flt(1-3)-IgG in bioassays measuring VEGF-stimulated proliferation of bovine retinal microvascular endothelial cells or chemotaxis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). The inhibitors were also compared for their ability to inhibit MAP kinase activation in HUVECs following VEGF addition. Ranibizumab, VEGF-TrapR1R2 and Flt(1-3)-IgG had very similar potencies in the bioassays tested. Bevacizumab was over 10-fold less potent than these molecules. Mab Y0317 was over 30-fold more potent than bevacizumab. The findings reported in this manuscript describe important intrinsic characteristics of several VEGF inhibitors that may be useful to design and interpret preclinical or clinical studies.

  3. Imaging of Tumor Angiogenesis for Radiologists--Part 2: Clinical Utility.

    PubMed

    García-Figueiras, Roberto; Padhani, Anwar R; Beer, Ambros J; Baleato-González, Sandra; Vilanova, Joan C; Luna, Antonio; Oleaga, Laura; Gómez-Caamaño, Antonio; Koh, Dow-Mu

    2015-01-01

    Angiogenesis is a key cancer hallmark involved in tumor growth and metastasis development. Angiogenesis and tumor microenvironment significantly influence the response of tumors to therapies. Imaging techniques have changed our understanding of the process of angiogenesis, the resulting vascular performance, and the tumor microenvironment. This article reviews the status and potential clinical value of the imaging modalities used to assess the status of tumor vasculature in vivo, before, during, and after treatment.

  4. Anticancer activity of MPT0G157, a derivative of indolylbenzenesulfonamide, inhibits tumor growth and angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Mehndiratta, Samir; Lai, Ssu-Chia; Liou, Jing-Ping; Yang, Chia-Ron

    2015-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) display multifaceted functions by coordinating the interaction of signal pathways with chromatin structure remodeling and the activation of non-histone proteins; these epigenetic regulations play an important role during malignancy progression. HDAC inhibition shows promise as a new strategy for cancer therapy; three HDAC inhibitors have been approved. We previously reported that N-hydroxy-3-{4-[2-(2-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl)-ethylsulfamoyl]-phenyl}-acrylamide (MPT0G157), a novel indole-3-ethylsulfamoylphenylacrylamide compound, demonstrated potent HDAC inhibition and anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we evaluated its anti-cancer activity in vitro and in vivo. MPT0G157 treatment significantly inhibited different tumor growth at submicromolar concentration and was particularly potent in human colorectal cancer (HCT116) cells. Apoptosis and inhibited HDACs activity induced by MPT0G157 was more potent than that by the marketed drugs PXD101 (Belinostat) and SAHA (Vorinostat). In an in vivo model, MPT0G157 markedly inhibited HCT116 xenograft tumor volume and reduced matrigel-induced angiogenesis. The anti-angiogenetic effect of MPT0G157 was found to increase the hyperacetylation of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) and promote hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) degradation followed by down-regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression. Our results demonstrate that MPT0G157 has potential as a new drug candidate for cancer therapy. PMID:26087180

  5. Hypoxia-induced mitogenic factor enhances angiogenesis by promoting proliferation and migration of endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tong Qiangsong; Zheng Liduan; Li Bo; Wang Danming; Huang Chuanshu; Matuschak, George M.; Li Dechun . E-mail: dli2@slu.edu

    2006-11-01

    Our previous studies have indicated that hypoxia-induced mitogenic factor (HIMF) has angiogenic properties in an in vivo matrigel plug model and HIMF upregulates expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in mouse lungs and cultured lung epithelial cells. However, whether HIMF exerts angiogenic effects through modulating endothelial cell function remains unknown. In this study, mouse aortic rings cultured with recombinant HIMF protein resulted in enhanced vascular sprouting and increased endothelial cell spreading as confirmed by Dil-Ac-LDL uptake, von Willebrand factor and CD31 staining. In cultured mouse endothelial cell line SVEC 4-10, HIMF dose-dependently enhanced cell proliferation, in vitro migration and tubulogenesis, which was not attenuated by SU1498, a VEGFR2/Flk-1 receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Moreover, HIMF stimulation resulted in phosphorylation of Akt, p38 and ERK1/2 kinases in SVEC 4-10 cells. Treatment of mouse aortic rings and SVEC 4-10 cells with LY294002, but not SB203580, PD098059 or U0126, abolished HIMF-induced vascular sprouting and angiogenic responses. In addition, transfection of a dominant-negative mutant of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI-3K), {delta}p85, blocked HIMF-induced phosphorylation of Akt, endothelial activation and tubulogenesis. These results indicate that HIMF enhances angiogenesis by promoting proliferation and migration of endothelial cells via activation of the PI-3K/Akt pathways.

  6. The role of vascular endothelial growth factor in pulmonary arterial hypertension. The angiogenesis paradox.

    PubMed

    Voelkel, Norbert F; Gomez-Arroyo, Jose

    2014-10-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by dysfunctional angiogenesis leading to lung vessel obliteration. PAH is widely considered a proangiogenic disease; however, the role of angiogenic factors, such as the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptors, in the pathobiology of PAH remains incompletely understood. This Review attempts to untangle some of the complex multilayered actions of VEGF to provide a VEGF-centered perspective of PAH. Furthermore, we provide a cogent explanation for the paradox of VEGF receptor blockade-induced pulmonary hypertension that characterizes the SU5416-hypoxia rat model of PAH, and attempt to translate the knowledge gained from the experimental model to the human disease by postulating the potential role of endogenous (SU5416-like) VEGF inhibitors. The main objective of this Review is to promote discussion and investigation of the opposing and complementary actions of VEGF in PAH. Understanding the balance between angiogenic and antiangiogenic factors and their role in the pathogenesis of PAH will be necessary before antiangiogenic drugs can be considered for the treatment of PAH.

  7. Effects of epinephrine on angiogenesis-related gene expressions in cultured rat cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Henry; Sangkum, Lisa; Liu, Geoffrey; Green, Michael; Li, Marilyn; Kaye, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Epinephrine is often used for the treatment of patients with heart failure, low cardiac output and cardiac arrest. It can acutely improve hemodynamic parameters; however, it does not seem to improve longer term clinical outcomes. Therefore, we hypothesized that epinephrine may induce unfavorable changes in gene expression of cardiomyocyte. Thus, we investigated effects of epinephrine exposure on the mediation or modulation of gene expression of cultured cardiomyocytes at a genome-wide scale. Our investigation revealed that exposure of cardiomyocytes to epinephrine in an in vitro environment can up-regulate the expression of angiopoietin-2 gene (+2.1 times), and down-regulate the gene expression of neuregulin 1 (−3.7 times), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (−2.4 times) and SPARC-related modular calcium-binding protein-2 (−4.5 times). These changes suggest that epinephrine exposure may induce inhibition of angiogenesis-related gene expressions in cultured rat cardiomyocytes. The precise clinical significance of these changes in gene expression, which was induced by epinephrine exposure, warrants further experimental and clinical investigations.

  8. Tumor-derived endothelial cells exhibit aberrant Rho-mediated mechanosensing and abnormal angiogenesis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Kaustabh; Thodeti, Charles K; Dudley, Andrew C; Mammoto, Akiko; Klagsbrun, Michael; Ingber, Donald E

    2008-08-12

    Tumor blood vessels exhibit abnormal structure and function that cause disturbed blood flow and high interstitial pressure, which impair delivery of anti-cancer agents. Past efforts to normalize the tumor vasculature have focused on inhibition of soluble angiogenic factors, such as VEGF; however, capillary endothelial (CE) cell growth and differentiation during angiogenesis are also influenced by mechanical forces conveyed by the extracellular matrix (ECM). Here, we explored the possibility that tumor CE cells form abnormal vessels because they lose their ability to sense and respond to these physical cues. These studies reveal that, in contrast to normal CE cells, tumor-derived CE cells fail to reorient their actin cytoskeleton when exposed to uniaxial cyclic strain, exhibit distinct shape sensitivity to variations in ECM elasticity, exert greater traction force, and display an enhanced ability to retract flexible ECM substrates and reorganize into tubular networks in vitro. These behaviors correlate with a constitutively high level of baseline activity of the small GTPase Rho and its downstream effector, Rho-associated kinase (ROCK). Moreover, decreasing Rho-mediated tension by using the ROCK inhibitor, Y27632, can reprogram the tumor CE cells so that they normalize their reorientation response to uniaxial cyclic strain and their ability to form tubular networks on ECM gels. Abnormal Rho-mediated sensing of mechanical cues in the tumor microenvironment may therefore contribute to the aberrant behaviors of tumor CE cells that result in the development of structural abnormalities in the cancer microvasculature.

  9. Myocardial hypertrophy in the absence of external stimuli is induced by angiogenesis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Tirziu, Daniela; Chorianopoulos, Emmanuel; Moodie, Karen L.; Palac, Robert T.; Zhuang, Zhen W.; Tjwa, Marc; Roncal, Carmen; Eriksson, Ulf; Fu, Qiangwei; Elfenbein, Arye; Hall, Amy E.; Carmeliet, Peter; Moons, Lieve; Simons, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Although studies have suggested a role for angiogenesis in determining heart size during conditions demanding enhanced cardiac performance, the role of EC mass in determining the normal organ size is poorly understood. To explore the relationship between cardiac vasculature and normal heart size, we generated a transgenic mouse with a regulatable expression of the secreted angiogenic growth factor PR39 in cardiomyocytes. A significant change in adult mouse EC mass was apparent by 3 weeks following PR39 induction. Heart weight; cardiomyocyte size; vascular density normalization; upregulation of hypertrophy markers including atrial natriuretic factor, β-MHC, and GATA4; and activation of the Akt and MAP kinase pathways were observed at 6 weeks post-induction. Treatment of PR39-induced mice with the eNOS inhibitor l-NAME in the last 3 weeks of a 6-week stimulation period resulted in a significant suppression of heart growth and a reduction in hypertrophic marker expression. Injection of PR39 or another angiogenic growth factor, VEGF-B, into murine hearts during myocardial infarction led to induction of myocardial hypertrophy and restoration of myocardial function. Thus stimulation of vascular growth in normal adult mouse hearts leads to an increase in cardiac mass. PMID:17975666

  10. Smad4/DPC4-mediated tumor suppression through suppression of angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Schwarte-Waldhoff, I; Volpert, O V; Bouck, N P; Sipos, B; Hahn, S A; Klein-Scory, S; Lüttges, J; Klöppel, G; Graeven, U; Eilert-Micus, C; Hintelmann, A; Schmiegel, W

    2000-08-15

    Smad4/DPC4 (deleted in pancreatic carcinoma, locus 4) is a tumor suppressor gene lost at high frequency in cancers of the pancreas and other gastrointestinal organs. Smad4 encodes a key intracellular messenger in the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) signaling cascade. TGF-beta is a potent inhibitor of the growth of epithelial cells; thus, it has been assumed that loss of Smad4 during tumor progression relieves this inhibition. Herein, we show that restoration of Smad4 to human pancreatic carcinoma cells suppressed tumor formation in vivo, yet it did not restore sensitivity to TGF-beta. Rather, Smad4 restoration influenced angiogenesis, decreasing expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and increasing expression of thrombospondin-1. In contrast to the parental cell line and to control transfectants that produced rapidly growing tumors in vivo, Smad4 revertants induced small nonprogressive tumors with reduced vascular density. These data define the control of an angiogenic switch as an alternative, previously unknown mechanism of tumor suppression for Smad4 and identify the angiogenic mediators vascular endothelial growth factor and thrombospondin-1 as key target genes.

  11. Lack of endothelial cell survivin causes embryonic defects in angiogenesis, cardiogenesis, and neural tube closure

    PubMed Central

    Zwerts, Femke; Lupu, Florea; De Vriese, Astrid; Pollefeyt, Saskia; Moons, Lieve; Altura, Rachel A.; Jiang, Yuying; Maxwell, Patrick H.; Hill, Peter; Oh, Hideyasu; Rieker, Claus; Collen, Désiré; Conway, Simon J.

    2007-01-01

    We explored the physiologic role of endothelial cell apoptosis during development by generating mouse embryos lacking the inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) survivin in endothelium. This was accomplished by intercrossing survivinlox/lox mice with mice expressing cre recombinase under the control of the endothelial cell specific tie1 promoter (tie1-cre mice). Lack of endothelial cell survivin resulted in embryonic lethality. Mutant embryos had prominent and diffuse hemorrhages from embryonic day 9.5 (E9.5) and died before E13.5. Heart development was strikingly abnormal. Survivin-null endocardial lineage cells could not support normal epithelial-mesenchymal transformation (EMT), resulting in hypoplastic endocardial cushions and in utero heart failure. In addition, 30% of mutant embryos had neural tube closure defects (NTDs) that were not caused by bleeding or growth retardation, but were likely due to alterations in the release of soluble factors from endothelial cells that otherwise support neural stem cell proliferation and neurulation. Thus, regulation of endothelial cell survival, and maintenance of vascular integrity by survivin are crucial for normal embryonic angiogenesis, cardiogenesis, and neurogenesis. PMID:17299096

  12. Increased Umbilical Cord PAI-1 Levels in Placental Insufficiency Are Associated with Fetal Hypoxia and Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Seferovic, Maxim D.; Gupta, Madhulika B.

    2016-01-01

    In intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), a subset of pregnancies undergoes placental vascular dysregulation resulting in restricted blood flow and fetal hypoxemia. Altered transcription of hypoxic regulated plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) has been associated with pregnancy complications and angiogenic regulation. Here we assessed circulating PAI-1 as an indicator of placental insufficiency. Venous umbilical PAI-1 of hypoxemic (VpO2 20 versus 35 mmHg, p < 0.0001) placental insufficient pregnancies (resistance index 0.9 versus 0.63, p < 0.05) (n = 18) was compared to controls (n = 12). PAI-1 was increased (~10-fold, p < 0.001) and had a positive predictive ratio of 6.7. Further, PAI-1 levels correlated to blood oxygen (r = −0.68, p < 0.0001). The plasma's angiogenic potency measured in vitro was associated with umbilical cord blood PAI-1 levels (r = 0.65, p < 0.01). This association was attenuated by PAI-1 inhibiting antibody (p < 0.001). The results demonstrate PAI-1 as a potential marker of placental insufficiency and identify its close association with pathological hypoxia and angiogenesis in a subset of growth restricted pregnancies. PMID:26903689

  13. Kalkitoxin Inhibits Angiogenesis, Disrupts Cellular Hypoxic Signaling, and Blocks Mitochondrial Electron Transport in Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, J. Brian; Liu, Yang; Coothankandaswamy, Veena; Mahdi, Fakhri; Jekabsons, Mika B.; Gerwick, William H.; Valeriote, Frederick A.; Zhou, Yu-Dong; Nagle, Dale G.

    2015-01-01

    The biologically active lipopeptide kalkitoxin was previously isolated from the marine cyanobacterium Moorea producens (Lyngbya majuscula). Kalkitoxin exhibited N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)-mediated neurotoxicity and acted as an inhibitory ligand for voltage-sensitive sodium channels in cultured rat cerebellar granule neurons. Subsequent studies revealed that kalkitoxin generated a delayed form of colon tumor cell cytotoxicity in 7-day clonogenic cell survi