Science.gov

Sample records for angiogenesis oxidative stress

  1. Relationships between Cycling Hypoxia, HIF-1, Angiogenesis and Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Dewhirst, Mark W.

    2009-01-01

    This Failla Lecture focused on the inter-relationships between tumor angiogenesis, HIF-1 expression and radiotherapy responses. A common thread that bonds all of these factors together is microenvironmental stress caused by reactive oxygen and nitrogen species formed during tumor growth and angiogenesis or in response to cytotoxic treatment. In this review we focus on one aspect of the crossroad between oxidative stress and angiogenesis, namely cycling hypoxia. Understanding of the relative importance of this feature of the tumor microenvironment has recently expanded; it influences tumor biology in ways that are separate from chronic hypoxia. Cycling hypoxia can influence angiogenesis, treatment responses and metastatic behavior. It represents an important and relatively less well understood feature of tumor biology that requires additional research. PMID:19929412

  2. Xanthohumol modulates inflammation, oxidative stress, and angiogenesis in type 1 diabetic rat skin wound healing.

    PubMed

    Costa, Raquel; Negrão, Rita; Valente, Inês; Castela, Ângela; Duarte, Delfim; Guardão, Luísa; Magalhães, Paulo J; Rodrigues, José A; Guimarães, João T; Gomes, Pedro; Soares, Raquel

    2013-11-22

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus is responsible for metabolic dysfunction, accompanied by chronic inflammation, oxidative stress, and endothelium dysfunction, and is often associated with impaired wound healing. Phenol-rich food improves vascular function, contributing to diabetes prevention. This study has evaluated the effect of phenol-rich beverage consumption in diabetic rats on wound healing, through angiogenesis, inflammation, and oxidative stress modulation. A wound-healing assay was performed in streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats drinking water, 5% ethanol, and stout beer with and without 10 mg/L xanthohumol (1), for a five-week period. Wounded skin microvessel density was reduced to normal values upon consumption of 1 in diabetic rats, being accompanied by decreased serum VEGF-A and inflammatory markers (IL-1β, NO, N-acetylglucosaminidase). Systemic glutathione and kidney and liver H2O2, 3-nitrotyrosine, and protein carbonylation also decreased to healthy levels after treatment with 1, implying an improvement in oxidative stress status. These findings suggest that consumption of xanthohumol (1) by diabetic animals consistently decreases inflammation and oxidative stress, allowing neovascularization control and improving diabetic wound healing.

  3. Alternative Medicine in Diabetes - Role of Angiogenesis, Oxidative Stress, and Chronic Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    El-Refaei, Mohamed F.; Abduljawad, Suha H.; Alghamdi, Ahmed H.

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disorder that is characterized by hyperglycemia due to lack of or resistance to insulin. Patients with diabetes are frequently afflicted with ischemic vascular disease and impaired wound healing. Type 2 diabetes is known to accelerate atherosclerotic processes, endothelial cell dysfunction, glycosylation of extracellular matrix proteins, and vascular denervation. Herbal medicines and naturally occurring substances may positively affect diabetes management, and could thus be utilized as cost-effective means of supporting treatment in developing countries. Natural treatments have been used in these countries for a long time to treat diabetes. The present review analyses the features of aberrant angiogenesis, abnormalities in growth factors, oxidative stress, and metabolic derangements relevant to diabetes, and how herbal substances and their active chemical constituents may counteract these events. Evidence for possible biochemical effectiveness and limitations of herbal medicines are given, as well as details regarding the role of cytokines and nitric oxide. PMID:26177484

  4. ER Stress and Angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Binet, François; Sapieha, Przemyslaw

    2015-10-06

    Proper tissue vascularization is vital for cellular function as it delivers oxygen, nutrients, hormones, and immune cells and helps to clear cellular debris and metabolic waste products. Tissue angiogenesis occurs to satisfy energy requirements and cellular sensors of metabolic imbalance coordinate vessel growth. In this regard, the classical pathways of the unfolded protein response activated under conditions of ER stress have recently been described to generate angiomodulatory or angiostatic signals. This review elaborates on the link between angiogenesis and ER stress and discusses the implications for diseases characterized by altered vascular homeostasis, such as cancer, retinopathies, and atherosclerosis.

  5. Oxidative stress, inflammation and angiogenesis markers in elite female water polo athletes throughout a season.

    PubMed

    Varamenti, Evdokia I; Kyparos, Antonios; Veskoukis, Aristeidis S; Bakou, Maria; Kalaboka, Stavroula; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Kouretas, Dimitrios

    2013-11-01

    Elite athletes undergo heavy training programs throughout the year. The aim of the present study was to evaluate blood biomarkers of redox status, oxidative stress, inflammation and angiogenesis over the course of a competitive season in elite female water polo players. The biomarkers were evaluated in four distinct phases of an athletic season. It was found that the reduced glutathione (GSH) concentration was significantly increased, whereas catalase activity was decreased in erythrocytes in phases 3 and 4 compared to phase 2. Plasma concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) was increased in phases 3 and 4 compared to phases 1 and 2, the concentration of protein carbonyls was increased in phase 4, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was decreased in phases 2 and 3. Plasma monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) was decreased in phases 3 and 4; interleukin-10 (IL-10) was increased in phase 4, whereas no change was observed for adiponectin and endoglin. The findings of this study indicate that oxidative stress and inflammation varies over the season in elite female water polo athletes and this information might be used to apply remedies for optimizing athletic performance and accelerating training recovery.

  6. Role of simvastatin and/or antioxidant vitamins in therapeutic angiogenesis in experimental diabetic hindlimb ischemia: effects on capillary density, angiogenesis markers, and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    El-Azab, Mona F; Hazem, Reem M; Moustafa, Yasser M

    2012-09-05

    Therapeutic angiogenesis has emerged as an attractive approach for the management of peripheral arterial disease in diabetic patients. Oxidative stress generated and aggravated by prolonged hyperglycemia may interfere with and destroy the newly formed blood vessels. Angiogenic effect of simvastatin has been reported; however, its exact mechanism is yet to be evaluated. In addition, the exact role of antioxidant vitamins in diabetic peripheral arterial disease is still controversial. The present study was undertaken to investigate the therapeutic potential of simvastatin and antioxidant vitamins (E and C) and their combined effects on angiogenesis in diabetic hind-limb ischemia. Streptozotocin diabetic rats were treated for 6 weeks with simvastatin either alone or in combination with vitamin E or vitamin C. Parameters of angiogenesis, nitric oxide, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and oxidative stress markers were evaluated. CD31 immunostaining revealed an increased capillary density in ischemic gastrocnemious tissue of diabetic rats treated with either simvastatin or its combination with vitamin C. This effect was accompanied by up-regulated plasma levels of HO-1, nitric oxide, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its intra-muscular receptor type-2 (Flk-1). Tissue reduced glutathione and antioxidant enzymes activities were normalized in groups treated with antioxidant vitamins or their combination with simvastatin with concomitant blunting of lipid peroxidation. Vitamins E and C, through their antioxidant effects, evidently enhanced the angiogenic effect of simvastatin in ischemic diabetic muscle. Hence, the use of antioxidant vitamins combined with statins to induce therapeutic angiogenesis is a promising strategy in the management of diabetes-associated peripheral arterial disease.

  7. D-Amino acid oxidase-induced oxidative stress, 3-bromopyruvate and citrate inhibit angiogenesis, exhibiting potent anticancer effects.

    PubMed

    El Sayed, S M; El-Magd, R M Abou; Shishido, Y; Yorita, K; Chung, S P; Tran, D H; Sakai, T; Watanabe, H; Kagami, S; Fukui, K

    2012-10-01

    Angiogenesis is critical for cancer growth and metastasis. Steps of angiogenesis are energy consuming, while vascular endothelial cells are highly glycolytic. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a highly vascular tumor and this enhances its aggressiveness. D-amino acid oxidase (DAO) is a promising therapeutic protein that induces oxidative stress upon acting on its substrates. Oxidative stress-energy depletion (OSED) therapy was recently reported (El Sayed et al., Cancer Gene Ther, 19, 1-18, 2012). OSED combines DAO-induced oxidative stress with energy depletion caused by glycolytic inhibitors such as 3-bromopyruvate (3BP), a hexokinase II inhibitor that depleted ATP in cancer cells and induced production of hydrogen peroxide. 3BP disturbs the Warburg effect and antagonizes effects of lactate and pyruvate (El Sayed et al., J Bioenerg Biomembr, 44, 61-79, 2012). Citrate is a natural organic acid capable of inhibiting glycolysis by targeting phosphofructokinase. Here, we report that DAO, 3BP and citrate significantly inhibited angiogenesis, decreased the number of vascular branching points and shortened the length of vascular tubules. OSED delayed the growth of C6/DAO glioma cells. 3BP combined with citrate delayed the growth of C6 glioma cells and decreased significantly the number and size of C6 glioma colonies in soft agar. Human GBM cells (U373MG) were resistant to chemotherapy e.g. cisplatin and cytosine arabinoside, while 3BP was effective in decreasing the viability and disturbing the morphology of U373MG cells.

  8. Plgf-/-eNos-/- mice show defective angiogenesis associated with increased oxidative stress in response to tissue ischemia.

    PubMed

    Gigante, Bruna; Morlino, Giulia; Gentile, Maria Teresa; Persico, Maria Graziella; De Falco, Sandro

    2006-05-01

    Neo-angiogenesis is a complex phenomenon modulated by the concerted action of several molecular factors. We have generated a congenic line of knockout mice carrying null mutations of both placental growth factor (PlGF) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), two genes that play a pivotal role in the regulation of pathological angiogenesis. In the present study, we describe the phenotype of this new experimental animal model after surgically induced hind-limb ischemia. Plgf-/-, eNos-/-, Plgf-/- eNos-/-, and wild-type C57BL/6J mice were studied. Plgf-/- eNos-/- mice showed the most severe phenotype: self-amputation, and death occurred in up to 47% of the animals studied; in ischemic legs, capillary density was severely reduced; macrophage infiltration and oxidative stress increased as compared to the other groups of animals. These changes were associated with an up-regulation of both inducible NOS (iNOS) expression and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein levels in ischemic limbs, and to an increased extent of protein nitration. Our results demonstrate that the deletion of these two genes, Plgf, which acts in synergism with VEGF, and eNos, a downstream mediator of VEGF, determines a significant change in the vascular response to an ischemic stimulus and that oxidative stress within the ischemic tissue represents a crucial factor to maintain tissue homeostasis.

  9. Oxidative stress, polarization of macrophages and tumour angiogenesis: Efficacy of caffeic acid.

    PubMed

    Oršolić, Nada; Kunštić, Martina; Kukolj, Marina; Gračan, Romana; Nemrava, Johann

    2016-08-25

    Macrophage polarization is a process when macrophage expresses different functional programs in response to microenvironmental signals and two extreme forms exist; M1 and M2 macrophages. M1 macrophages are highly microbicidal and anticancer with enhanced ability to kill and phagocytose pathogens, upregulate pro-inflammatory cytokines and reactive molecular species, and present antigens; M2 macrophages and the related tumour associated macrophages (TAMs) regulate tissue remodelling and promote tissue repair and angiogenesis and can amplification of metabolic pathways that can suppress adaptive immune responses. It is demonstrated that ROS production, critical for the activation and functions of M1 macrophages, is necessary for the differentiation of M2 macrophages and TAMs, and that antioxidant therapy blocks TAMs differentiation and tumorigenesis in mouse models of cancer. In order to study how caffeic acid (CA), a natural antioxidant, affects macrophage function, polarization, angiogenesis and tumour growth we injected mice with Ehrlich ascites tumour (EAT) cells and treated them for 10 days with CA in a dose of 40 and/or 80 mg kg(-1.) Macrophage polarization was further characterized by quantifying secreted pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, nitric oxide and arginase 1 activity. CA may increase the cytotoxic actions of M1 macrophages and inhibit tumour growth; inhibitory activity on TAMs may be mediated through its antioxidative activity. Taken together, we conclude that the antitumour activity of CA was the result of the synergistic activities of different mechanisms by which CA acts on proliferation, angiogenesis, immunomodulation and survival. The continuous administration of CA efficiently blocked the occurrence of TAMs and markedly suppressed tumorigenesis in mouse cancer models. Targeting TAMs by antioxidants can be a potentially effective method for cancer treatment.

  10. Anthelmintic drug ivermectin inhibits angiogenesis, growth and survival of glioblastoma through inducing mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yingying; Fang, Shanshan; Sun, Qiushi; Liu, Bo

    2016-11-18

    Glioblastoma is one of the most vascular brain tumour and highly resistant to current therapy. Targeting both glioblastoma cells and angiogenesis may present an effective therapeutic strategy for glioblastoma. In our work, we show that an anthelmintic drug, ivermectin, is active against glioblastoma cells in vitro and in vivo, and also targets angiogenesis. Ivermectin significantly inhibits growth and anchorage-independent colony formation in U87 and T98G glioblastoma cells. It induces apoptosis in these cells through a caspase-dependent manner. Ivermectin significantly suppresses the growth of two independent glioblastoma xenograft mouse models. In addition, ivermectin effectively targets angiogenesis through inhibiting capillary network formation, proliferation and survival in human brain microvascular endothelial cell (HBMEC). Mechanistically, ivermectin decreases mitochondrial respiration, membrane potential, ATP levels and increases mitochondrial superoxide in U87, T98G and HBMEC cells exposed to ivermectin. The inhibitory effects of ivermectin are significantly reversed in mitochondria-deficient cells or cells treated with antioxidants, further confirming that ivermectin acts through mitochondrial respiration inhibition and induction of oxidative stress. Importantly, we show that ivermectin suppresses phosphorylation of Akt, mTOR and ribosomal S6 in glioblastoma and HBMEC cells, suggesting its inhibitory role in deactivating Akt/mTOR pathway. Altogether, our work demonstrates that ivermectin is a useful addition to the treatment armamentarium for glioblastoma. Our work also highlights the therapeutic value of targeting mitochondrial metabolism in glioblastoma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The Competence Of 7,8-Diacetoxy-4-Methylcoumarinand Other Polyphenolic Acetates In Mitigating The Oxidative Stress And Their Role In Angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Rini; Arora, Shvetambri; Kumar, Ajit; Manral, Sushma; Rohil, Vishwajeet; Goel, Sanjay; Priya, Nivedita; Singh, Prabhjot; Ponnan, Prija; Chatterji, Suvro; Dwarakanath, Bilikere S; Saluja, Daman; Rawat, Diwan S; Prasad, Ashok K; Saso, Luciano; Kohli, Ekta; DePass, Anthony L; Bracke, Marc E; Parmar, Virinder S; Raj, Hanumantharao G

    2014-12-09

    The potential role of polyphenolic acetate (PA) in causing diverse biological and pharmacological actions has been well studied in our laboratory. Our investigations, for the first time, established the role of calreticulin transacetylase (CRTAase) in catalyzing the acetylation of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) by Pas leading to robust activation of NOS. 7, 8-Diacetoxy-4-methylcoumarin (DAMC) and other acetoxycoumarins augmented the expression of thioredoxin (TRX) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). These findings substantiated our earlier observations that DAMC was a superb inducer of angiogenesis. The enhanced expression of thioredoxin reductase (TRXR) and diminished expression of thioredoxin interacting protein (TRXIP) leading to increased expression and activity of TRX in PBMCs due to the action of DAMC was revealed by real time RT-PCR analysis. The possible activation of TRX due to acetylation was confirmed by the fact that TRX activity of PBMCs was enhanced by variousacetoxycoumarins in tune with their affinities to CRTAase as substrates. DAMC caused enhanced production of NO by way of acetylation of NOS as mentioned above and thereby acted as an inducer of VEGF. Real time RT-PCR and VEGF ELISA results also revealed the overexpression of TRX. DAMC and other PAs were found to reduce the oxidative stress in cells as proved by significant reduction of intracellular ROS levels. Thus, the crucial role of TRX in DAMC-induced angiogenesis with the involvement of VEGF was established.

  12. The Competence of 7,8-Diacetoxy-4-Methylcoumarin and Other Polyphenolic Acetates in Mitigating the Oxidative Stress and their Role in Angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Rini; Arora, Shvetambri; Kumar, Ajit; Manral, Sushma; Rohil, Vishwajeet; Goel, Sanjay; Priya, Nivedita; Singh, Prabhjot; Ponnan, Prija; Chatterji, Suvro; Dwarakanath, Bilikere S; Saluja, Daman; Rawat, Diwan S; Prasad, Ashok K; Saso, Luciano; Kohli, Ekta; DePass, Anthony L; Bracke, Marc E; Parmar, Virinder S; Raj, Hanumantharao G

    2015-01-01

    The potential role of polyphenolic acetate (PA) in causing diverse biological and pharmacological actions has been well studied in our laboratory. Our investigations, for the first time, established the role of calreticulin transacetylase (CRTAase) in catalyzing the acetylation of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) by Pas leading to robust activation of NOS. 7, 8- Diacetoxy-4-methylcoumarin (DAMC) and other acetoxycoumarins augmented the expression of thioredoxin (TRX) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). These findings substantiated our earlier observations that DAMC was a superb inducer of angiogenesis. The enhanced expression of thioredoxin reductase (TRXR) and diminished expression of thioredoxin interacting protein (TRXIP) leading to increased expression and activity of TRX in PBMCs due to the action of DAMC was revealed by real time RT-PCR analysis. The possible activation of TRX due to acetylation was confirmed by the fact that TRX activity of PBMCs was enhanced by various acetoxycoumarins in tune with their affinities to CRTAase as substrates. DAMC caused enhanced production of NO by way of acetylation of NOS as mentioned above and thereby acted as an inducer of VEGF. Real time RT-PCR and VEGF ELISA results also revealed the overexpression of TRX. DAMC and other PAs were found to reduce the oxidative stress in cells as proved by significant reduction of intracellular ROS levels. Thus, the crucial role of TRX in DAMC-induced angiogenesis with the involvement of VEGF was established.

  13. Vitamin E analogues inhibit angiogenesis by selective induction of apoptosis in proliferating endothelial cells: the role of oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Dong, Lan-Feng; Swettenham, Emma; Eliasson, Johanna; Wang, Xiu-Fang; Gold, Mikhal; Medunic, Yasmine; Stantic, Marina; Low, Pauline; Prochazka, Lubomir; Witting, Paul K; Turanek, Jaroslav; Akporiaye, Emmanuel T; Ralph, Stephen J; Neuzil, Jiri

    2007-12-15

    "Mitocans" from the vitamin E group of selective anticancer drugs, alpha-tocopheryl succinate (alpha-TOS) and its ether analogue alpha-TEA, triggered apoptosis in proliferating but not arrested endothelial cells. Angiogenic endothelial cells exposed to the vitamin E analogues, unlike their arrested counterparts, readily accumulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) by interfering with the mitochondrial redox chain and activating the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. The vitamin E analogues inhibited angiogenesis in vitro as assessed using the "wound-healing" and "tube-forming" models. Endothelial cells deficient in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) were resistant to the vitamin E analogues, both in ROS accumulation and apoptosis induction, maintaining their angiogenic potential. alpha-TOS inhibited angiogenesis in a mouse cancer model, as documented by ultrasound imaging. We conclude that vitamin E analogues selectively kill angiogenic endothelial cells, suppressing tumor growth, which has intriguing clinical implications.

  14. Evening primrose oil and celecoxib inhibited pathological angiogenesis, inflammation, and oxidative stress in adjuvant-induced arthritis: novel role of angiopoietin-1.

    PubMed

    El-Sayed, R M; Moustafa, Y M; El-Azab, M F

    2014-10-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by overproduction of inflammatory mediators along with undermined oxidative defensive mechanisms. Pathological angiogenesis was found to play a critical role in the progression of this disease. The current study was carried out to evaluate the anti-angiogenic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidant effects of evening primrose oil (EPO), rich in gamma linolenic acid (GLA), either alone or in combination with aspirin or celecoxib, on adjuvant-induced arthritis. Arthritis was induced by subcutaneous injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) in the right hind paw of male albino rats. All treatments were administered orally from day 0 (EPO, 5 g/kg b.w.) or day 4 (celecoxib, 5 mg/kg; aspirin, 150 mg/kg) till day 27 after CFA injection. In the arthritic group, the results revealed significant decrease in the body weight and increase in ankle circumference, plasma angiopoietin-1 (ANG-1) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) levels. Anti-oxidant status was suppressed as manifested by significant decline in reduced glutathione content along with decreased enzymatic activity of superoxide dismutase and increased lipid peroxidation. Oral administration of EPO exerted normalization of body weight, ANG-1, and TNF-α levels with restoration of activity as shown by reduced malondialdehyde levels. Moreover, histopathological examination demonstrated that EPO significantly reduced the synovial hyperplasia and inflammatory cells invasion in joint tissues, an effect that was enhanced by combination with aspirin or celecoxib. The joint use of GLA-rich natural oils, which possess anti-angiogenic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidant activities, with traditional analgesics represents a promising strategy to restrain the progression of rheumatoid arthritis.

  15. Barley beta-glucan promotes MnSOD expression and enhances angiogenesis under oxidative microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Agostini, Silvia; Chiavacci, Elena; Matteucci, Marco; Torelli, Michele; Pitto, Letizia; Lionetti, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), a foremost antioxidant enzyme, plays a key role in angiogenesis. Barley-derived (1.3) β-d-glucan (β-d-glucan) is a natural water-soluble polysaccharide with antioxidant properties. To explore the effects of β-d-glucan on MnSOD-related angiogenesis under oxidative stress, we tested epigenetic mechanisms underlying modulation of MnSOD level in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Long-term treatment of HUVECs with 3% w/v β-d-glucan significantly increased the level of MnSOD by 200% ± 2% compared to control and by 50% ± 4% compared to untreated H2 O2 -stressed cells. β-d-glucan-treated HUVECs displayed greater angiogenic ability. In vivo, 24 hrs-treatment with 3% w/v β-d-glucan rescued vasculogenesis in Tg (kdrl: EGFP) s843Tg zebrafish embryos exposed to oxidative microenvironment. HUVECs overexpressing MnSOD demonstrated an increased activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), reduced load of superoxide anion (O2 (-) ) and an increased survival under oxidative stress. In addition, β-d-glucan prevented the rise of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)1-α under oxidative stress. The level of histone H4 acetylation was significantly increased by β-d-glucan. Increasing histone acetylation by sodium butyrate, an inhibitor of class I histone deacetylases (HDACs I), did not activate MnSOD-related angiogenesis and did not impair β-d-glucan effects. In conclusion, 3% w/v β-d-glucan activates endothelial expression of MnSOD independent of histone acetylation level, thereby leading to adequate removal of O2 (-) , cell survival and angiogenic response to oxidative stress. The identification of dietary β-d-glucan as activator of MnSOD-related angiogenesis might lead to the development of nutritional approaches for the prevention of ischemic remodelling and heart failure. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and

  16. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein decreases VEGFR2 expression in HUVECs and impairs angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; Jiang, Li

    2016-12-01

    Atherosclerosis (AS), which is triggered by endothelial cell injury, evolves into a chronic inflammatory disease. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) is an important risk factor for the development of atherosclerosis; ox-LDL induces atherosclerotic plaque formation via scavenging receptors. The present study used ox-LDL-treated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) to investigate the effect of ox-LDL on angiogenesis. ox-LDL decreased HUVEC proliferation by MTT, induced apoptosis by Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) staining and markedly suppressed HUVEC tube formation by the Matrigel assay in a dose-dependent manner. Angiogenesis has been correlated with monocyte invasion, plaque instability and atherosclerotic lesion formation. In addition, ox-LDL induced the overproduction of reactive oxygen species using DCFH-DA staining and increased caspase-3 activity. Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) were detected by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis and has previously been observed to have a key role in angiogenesis. Furthermore, the present study demonstrated that the abundance of VEGFR2 was decreased in ox-LDL-treated HUVECs. These results suggested that ox-LDL impairs angiogenesis via VEGFR2 degradation, thus suggesting that VEGFR2 may be involved in adaptation to oxidative stress and AS.

  17. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein decreases VEGFR2 expression in HUVECs and impairs angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Min; Jiang, Li

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerosis (AS), which is triggered by endothelial cell injury, evolves into a chronic inflammatory disease. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) is an important risk factor for the development of atherosclerosis; ox-LDL induces atherosclerotic plaque formation via scavenging receptors. The present study used ox-LDL-treated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) to investigate the effect of ox-LDL on angiogenesis. ox-LDL decreased HUVEC proliferation by MTT, induced apoptosis by Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) staining and markedly suppressed HUVEC tube formation by the Matrigel assay in a dose-dependent manner. Angiogenesis has been correlated with monocyte invasion, plaque instability and atherosclerotic lesion formation. In addition, ox-LDL induced the overproduction of reactive oxygen species using DCFH-DA staining and increased caspase-3 activity. Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) were detected by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis and has previously been observed to have a key role in angiogenesis. Furthermore, the present study demonstrated that the abundance of VEGFR2 was decreased in ox-LDL-treated HUVECs. These results suggested that ox-LDL impairs angiogenesis via VEGFR2 degradation, thus suggesting that VEGFR2 may be involved in adaptation to oxidative stress and AS. PMID:28105106

  18. High shear stress induces atherosclerotic vulnerable plaque formation through angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yi; Qiu, Juhui; Luo, Shisui; Xie, Xiang; Zheng, Yiming; Zhang, Kang; Ye, Zhiyi; Liu, Wanqian; Gregersen, Hans; Wang, Guixue

    2016-01-01

    Rupture of atherosclerotic plaques causing thrombosis is the main cause of acute coronary syndrome and ischemic strokes. Inhibition of thrombosis is one of the important tasks developing biomedical materials such as intravascular stents and vascular grafts. Shear stress (SS) influences the formation and development of atherosclerosis. The current review focuses on the vulnerable plaques observed in the high shear stress (HSS) regions, which localizes at the proximal region of the plaque intruding into the lumen. The vascular outward remodelling occurs in the HSS region for vascular compensation and that angiogenesis is a critical factor for HSS which induces atherosclerotic vulnerable plaque formation. These results greatly challenge the established belief that low shear stress is important for expansive remodelling, which provides a new perspective for preventing the transition of stable plaques to high-risk atherosclerotic lesions. PMID:27482467

  19. Methylene blue inhibits angiogenesis in chick chorioallontic membrane through a nitric oxide-independent mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Zacharakis, N; Tone, P; Flordellis, CS; Maragoudakis, ME; Tsopanoglou, NE

    2006-01-01

    Angiogenesis is the process of generating new blood vessels from preexisting vessels and is considered essential in many pathological conditions. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of methylene blue in chick chorioallantoic membrane angiogenesis model in vivo. In this well characterized model, methylene blue inhibited angiogenesis in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, when methylene blue was combined with sodium nitroprusside, a spontaneous generator of nitric oxide, an inhibition of angiogenesis was evident which was comparable with that observed by the application of methylene blue alone. Sodium nitroprusside, alone, caused a significant inhibition in basal angiogenesis. These results provide evidence that methylene blue inhibits angiogenesis independently of nitric oxide pathway and suggest that methylene blue may be useful for treating angiogenesis-dependent human diseases. PMID:16796814

  20. Oxidative stress and anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Rammal, Hassan; Soulimani, Rachid

    2009-01-01

    High O2 consumption, modest antioxidant defenses and a lipid-rich constitution make the brain highly vulnerable to redox imbalances. Oxidative damage in the brain causes nervous system impairment. Recently, oxidative stress has also been implicated in depression, anxiety disorders and high anxiety levels. The findings which establish a link between oxidative stress and pathological anxiety have inspired a number of other recent studies focusing on the link between oxidative status and normal anxiety and also on a possible causal relationship between cellular oxidative stress and emotional stress. This review examines the recent discoveries made on the link between oxidative status and normal anxiety levels and the putative role of oxidative stress in genesis of anxiety. We discuss the different opinions and questions that exist in the field and review the methodological approaches that are being used to determine a causal relationship between oxidative and emotional stress. PMID:20357926

  1. Oxidative stress and myocarditis.

    PubMed

    Tada, Yuko; Suzuki, Jun-Ichi

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide are produced highly in myocarditis. ROS, which not only act as effectors for pathogen killing but also mediate signal transduction in the stress responsive pathways, are closely related with both innate and adaptive immunity. On the other hand, oxidative stress overwhelming the capacity of anti-oxidative system generated in severe inflammation has been suggested to damage tissues and exacerbate inflammation. Oxidative stress worsens the autoimmunological process of myocarditis, and suppression of the anti-oxidative system and long-lasting oxidative stress could be one of the pathological mechanisms of cardiac remodeling leading to inflammatory cardiomyopathy. Oxidative stress is considered to be one of the promising treatment targets of myocarditis. Evidences of anti-oxidative treatments in myocarditis have not been fully established. Basic strategies of anti-oxidative treatments include inhibition of ROS production, activation of anti-oxidative enzymes and elimination of generated free radicals. ROS are produced by mitochondrial respiratory chain reactions and enzymes including NADPH oxidases, cyclooxygenase, and xanthine oxidase. Other systems involved in inflammation and stress response, such as NF-κB, Nrf2/Keap1, and neurohumoral factors also influence oxidative stress in myocarditis. The efficacy of anti-oxidative treatments could also depend on the etiology and the phases of myocarditis. We review in this article the pathological significance of ROS and oxidative stress, and the potential anti-oxidative treatments in myocarditis.

  2. The induction of angiogenesis by cerium oxide nanoparticles through the modulation of oxygen in intracellular environments

    PubMed Central

    Das, Soumen; Singh, Sanjay; Dowding, Janet M.; Oommen, Saji; Kumar, Amit; Sayle, Thi X. T.; Saraf, Shashank; Patra, Chitta Ranjan; Vlahakis, Nicholas E.; Sayle, Dean C.; Self, William T.; Seal, Sudipta

    2012-01-01

    Angiogenesis is the formation of new blood vessels from existing blood vessels and is critical for many physiological and pathophysiological processes. In this study we have shown the unique property of cerium oxide nanoparticle (CNPs) to induce angiogenesis, observed using both in vitro and in vivo model systems. In particular, CNPs trigger angiogenesis by modulating the intracellular oxygen environment and stabilizing hypoxia inducing factor 1α endogenously. Furthermore, correlations between angiogenesis induction and CNPs physicochemical properties including: surface Ce3+/Ce4+ ratio, surface charge, size, and shape were also explored. High surface area and increased Ce3+/Ce4+ ratio make CNPs more catalytically active towards regulating intracellular oxygen, which in turn led to more robust induction of angiogenesis. Atomistic simulation was also used, in partnership with in vitro and in vivo experimentation, to reveal that the surface reactivity of CNPs and facile oxygen transport promotes pro-angiogenesis. PMID:22858004

  3. Oxidative Stress in Placenta: Health and Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Fan; Tian, Fu-Ju; Lin, Yi

    2015-01-01

    During pregnancy, development of the placenta is interrelated with the oxygen concentration. Embryo development takes place in a low oxygen environment until the beginning of the second trimester when large amounts of oxygen are conveyed to meet the growth requirements. High metabolism and oxidative stress are common in the placenta. Reactive oxidative species sometimes harm placental development, but they are also reported to regulate gene transcription and downstream activities such as trophoblast proliferation, invasion, and angiogenesis. Autophagy and apoptosis are two crucial, interconnected processes in the placenta that are often influenced by oxidative stress. The proper interactions between them play an important role in placental homeostasis. However, an imbalance between the protective and destructive mechanisms of autophagy and apoptosis seems to be linked with pregnancy-related disorders such as miscarriage, preeclampsia, and intrauterine growth restriction. Thus, potential therapies to hold oxidative stress in leash, promote placentation, and avoid unwanted apoptosis are discussed. PMID:26693479

  4. Molecular regulation of tumour angiogenesis by nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Ziche, Marina; Morbidelli, Lucia

    2009-12-01

    As tumors grow, their original vasculature can be insufficient to supply the growing tissue mass, and consequently local hypoxia develops. Thus neovascularisation is a key feature determining growth and metastasis of malignant tumors. This is, at least in part, mediated by humoral factors known to stimulate angiogenesis, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2). Among the multiple angiogenic modulators released by tumor and stromal cells, a key role is played by nitric oxide (NO). Beside its capacity to regulate permeability and blood flow, NO has been reported to exert angiogenic properties in various tumor models. The focus of this review will be the proangiogenic role of NO in the tumor microenvironment and its multiple mechanism of action on vascular endothelium. Particular attention will be devoted to the role of NO in regulating metalloproteinase activity on cultured microvascular endothelium and in the in vivo rabbit cornea assay. Finally, the potential clinical outcomes and expectations related to this topic will be discussed.

  5. Long term effect of curcumin in regulation of glycolytic pathway and angiogenesis via modulation of stress activated genes in prevention of cancer.

    PubMed

    Das, Laxmidhar; Vinayak, Manjula

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress, an important factor in modulation of glycolytic pathway and induction of stress activated genes, is further augmented due to reduced antioxidant defense system, which promotes cancer progression via inducing angiogenesis. Curcumin, a naturally occurring chemopreventive phytochemical, is reported to inhibit carcinogenesis in various experimental animal models. However, the underlying mechanism involved in anticarcinogenic action of curcumin due to its long term effect is still to be reported because of its rapid metabolism, although metabolites are accumulated in tissues and remain for a longer time. Therefore, the long term effect of curcumin needs thorough investigation. The present study aimed to analyze the anticarcinogenic action of curcumin in liver, even after withdrawal of treatment in Dalton's lymphoma bearing mice. Oxidative stress observed during lymphoma progression reduced antioxidant enzyme activities, and induced angiogenesis as well as activation of early stress activated genes and glycolytic pathway. Curcumin treatment resulted in activation of antioxidant enzyme super oxide dismutase and down regulation of ROS level as well as activity of ROS producing enzyme NADPH:oxidase, expression of stress activated genes HIF-1α, cMyc and LDH activity towards normal level. Further, it lead to significant inhibition of angiogenesis, observed via MMPs activity, PKCα and VEGF level, as well as by matrigel plug assay. Thus findings of this study conclude that the long term effect of curcumin shows anticarcinogenic potential via induction of antioxidant defense system and inhibition of angiogenesis via down regulation of stress activated genes and glycolytic pathway in liver of lymphoma bearing mice.

  6. Staphylococcal response to oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Gaupp, Rosmarie; Ledala, Nagender; Somerville, Greg A.

    2012-01-01

    Staphylococci are a versatile genus of bacteria that are capable of causing acute and chronic infections in diverse host species. The success of staphylococci as pathogens is due in part to their ability to mitigate endogenous and exogenous oxidative and nitrosative stress. Endogenous oxidative stress is a consequence of life in an aerobic environment; whereas, exogenous oxidative and nitrosative stress are often due to the bacteria's interaction with host immune systems. To overcome the deleterious effects of oxidative and nitrosative stress, staphylococci have evolved protection, detoxification, and repair mechanisms that are controlled by a network of regulators. In this review, we summarize the cellular targets of oxidative stress, the mechanisms by which staphylococci sense oxidative stress and damage, oxidative stress protection and repair mechanisms, and regulation of the oxidative stress response. When possible, special attention is given to how the oxidative stress defense mechanisms help staphylococci control oxidative stress in the host. PMID:22919625

  7. Erythropoietin and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Maiese, Kenneth; Chong, Zhao Zhong; Hou, Jinling; Shang, Yan Chen

    2008-05-01

    Unmitigated oxidative stress can lead to diminished cellular longevity, accelerated aging, and accumulated toxic effects for an organism. Current investigations further suggest the significant disadvantages that can occur with cellular oxidative stress that can lead to clinical disability in a number of disorders, such as myocardial infarction, dementia, stroke, and diabetes. New therapeutic strategies are therefore sought that can be directed toward ameliorating the toxic effects of oxidative stress. Here we discuss the exciting potential of the growth factor and cytokine erythropoietin for the treatment of diseases such as cardiac ischemia, vascular injury, neurodegeneration, and diabetes through the modulation of cellular oxidative stress. Erythropoietin controls a variety of signal transduction pathways during oxidative stress that can involve Janus-tyrosine kinase 2, protein kinase B, signal transducer and activator of transcription pathways, Wnt proteins, mammalian forkhead transcription factors, caspases, and nuclear factor kappaB. Yet, the biological effects of erythropoietin may not always be beneficial and may be poor tolerated in a number of clinical scenarios, necessitating further basic and clinical investigations that emphasize the elucidation of the signal transduction pathways controlled by erythropoietin to direct both successful and safe clinical care.

  8. In Silico Investigation of Angiogenesis with Growth and Stress Generation Coupled to Local Extracellular Matrix Density

    PubMed Central

    Edgar, Lowell T.; Hoying, James B.; Weiss, Jeffrey A.

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical interactions during angiogenesis, i.e., traction applied by neovessels to the extracellular matrix and the corresponding deformation, are important regulators of growth and neovascularization. We have previously designed, implemented, and validated a coupled model of angiogenesis in which a discrete microvessel growth model interacts with a continuous finite element mesh through the application of local remodeling sprout stresses (Edgar et al. in Biomech Model Mechanobiol, 2014). However, the initial implementation of this framework does not take matrix density into account when determined these remodeling stresses and is therefore insufficient for the study of angiogenesis within heterogeneous matrix environments such as those found in vivo. The objective of this study was to implement sensitivity to matrix density in the active stress generation within AngioFE in order to allow the study of angiogenic growth within a heterogeneous density environment. We accomplished this by scaling active sprout stresses relative to local matrix density using a scaling factor previously determined from experimental data. We then exercised the new functionality of the model by simulating angiogenesis within four different scenarios: homogeneous density, a narrow gap model, and matrix density gradient, and a construct subjected to repeated loading/unloading and preconditioning. These numerical experiments predicted heterogeneous matrix density in the initially homogeneous case, the closure and alignment of microvessels along a low-density gap, the formation of a unique cap-like structure during angiogenesis within a density gradient, and the alignment of microvessels in the absence of applied load due to preconditioning. The result of these in silico investigations demonstrate how matrix heterogeneity affects neovascularization and matrix deformation and provides a platform for studying angiogenesis in complicated and multi-faceted mechanical environments that

  9. Oxidative stress and diabetic complications

    PubMed Central

    Giacco, Ferdinando; Brownlee, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in the development of diabetes complications, both microvascular and cardiovascular. The metabolic abnormalities of diabetes cause mitochondrial superoxide overproduction in endothelial cells of both large and small vessels, and also in the myocardium. This increased superoxide production causes the activation of five major pathways involved in the pathogenesis of complications: polyol pathway flux, increased formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), increased expression of the receptor for AGEs and its activating ligands, activation of protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms, and overactivity of the hexosamine pathway. It also directly inactivates two critical antiatherosclerotic enzymes, eNOS and prostacyclin synthase. Through these pathways, increased intracellular ROS cause defective angiogenesis in response to ischemia, activate a number of pro-inflammatory pathways, and cause long-lasting epigenetic changes which drive persistent expression of proinflammatory genes after glycemia is normalized (‘hyperglycemic memory’). Atherosclerosis and cardiomyopathy in type 2 diabetes are caused in part by pathway-selective insulin resistance, which increases mitochondrial ROS production from free fatty acids and by inactivation of anti-atherosclerosis enzymes by ROS. Overexpression of superoxide dismutase in transgenic diabetic mice prevents diabetic retinopathy, nephropathy, and cardiomyopathy. The aim of this review is to highlight advances in understanding the role of metabolite-generated ROS in the development of diabetic complications. PMID:21030723

  10. Oxidative Stress and Psychological Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Salim, Samina

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress is an imbalance between cellular production of reactive oxygen species and the counteracting antioxidant mechanisms. The brain with its high oxygen consumption and a lipid-rich environment is considered highly susceptible to oxidative stress or redox imbalances. Therefore, the fact that oxidative stress is implicated in several mental disorders including depression, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, is not surprising. Although several elegant studies have established a link between oxidative stress and psychiatric disorders, the causal relationship between oxidative stress and psychiatric diseases is not fully determined. Another critical aspect that needs much attention and effort is our understanding of the association between cellular oxidative stress and emotional stress. This review examines some of the recent discoveries that link oxidative status with anxiety, depression, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. A discussion of published results and questions that currently exist in the field regarding a causal relationship between oxidative and emotional stress is also provided. PMID:24669208

  11. Oxidative stress & male infertility.

    PubMed

    Makker, Kartikeya; Agarwal, Ashok; Sharma, Rakesh

    2009-04-01

    The male factor is considered a major contributory factor to infertility. Apart from the conventional causes for male infertility such as varicocoele, cryptorchidism, infections, obstructive lesions, cystic fibrosis, trauma, and tumours, a new and important cause has been identified: oxidative stress. Oxidative stress is a result of the imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidants in the body. It is a powerful mechanism that can lead to sperm damage, deformity and eventually, male infertility. This review discusses the physiological need for ROS and their role in normal sperm function. It also highlights the mechanism of production and the pathophysiology of ROS in relation to the male reproductive system and enumerate the benefits of incorporating antioxidants in clinical and experimental settings.

  12. Oxidative Stress in Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Percário, Sandro; Moreira, Danilo R.; Gomes, Bruno A. Q.; Ferreira, Michelli E. S.; Gonçalves, Ana Carolina M.; Laurindo, Paula S. O. C.; Vilhena, Thyago C.; Dolabela, Maria F.; Green, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Malaria is a significant public health problem in more than 100 countries and causes an estimated 200 million new infections every year. Despite the significant effort to eradicate this dangerous disease, lack of complete knowledge of its physiopathology compromises the success in this enterprise. In this paper we review oxidative stress mechanisms involved in the disease and discuss the potential benefits of antioxidant supplementation as an adjuvant antimalarial strategy. PMID:23208374

  13. CVD and Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Cervantes Gracia, Karla; Llanas-Cornejo, Daniel; Husi, Holger

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, it is known that oxidative stress plays at least two roles within the cell, the generation of cellular damage and the involvement in several signaling pathways in its balanced normal state. So far, a substantial amount of time and effort has been expended in the search for a clear link between cardiovascular disease (CVD) and the effects of oxidative stress. Here, we present an overview of the different sources and types of reactive oxygen species in CVD, highlight the relationship between CVD and oxidative stress and discuss the most prominent molecules that play an important role in CVD pathophysiology. Details are given regarding common pharmacological treatments used for cardiovascular distress and how some of them are acting upon ROS-related pathways and molecules. Novel therapies, recently proposed ROS biomarkers, as well as future challenges in the field are addressed. It is apparent that the search for a better understanding of how ROS are contributing to the pathophysiology of CVD is far from over, and new approaches and more suitable biomarkers are needed for the latter to be accomplished. PMID:28230726

  14. Oxidative stress in myopia.

    PubMed

    Francisco, Bosch-Morell; Salvador, Mérida; Amparo, Navea

    2015-01-01

    Myopia affected approximately 1.6 billion people worldwide in 2000, and it is expected to increase to 2.5 billion by 2020. Although optical problems can be corrected by optics or surgical procedures, normal myopia and high myopia are still an unsolved medical problem. They frequently predispose people who have them to suffer from other eye pathologies: retinal detachment, glaucoma, macular hemorrhage, cataracts, and so on being one of the main causes of visual deterioration and blindness. Genetic and environmental factors have been associated with myopia. Nevertheless, lack of knowledge in the underlying physiopathological molecular mechanisms has not permitted an adequate diagnosis, prevention, or treatment to be found. Nowadays several pieces of evidence indicate that oxidative stress may help explain the altered regulatory pathways in myopia and the appearance of associated eye diseases. On the one hand, oxidative damage associated with hypoxia myopic can alter the neuromodulation that nitric oxide and dopamine have in eye growth. On the other hand, radical superoxide or peroxynitrite production damage retina, vitreous, lens, and so on contributing to the appearance of retinopathies, retinal detachment, cataracts and so on. The objective of this review is to suggest that oxidative stress is one of the key pieces that can help solve this complex eye problem.

  15. Oxidative Stress in Myopia

    PubMed Central

    Francisco, Bosch-Morell; Salvador, Mérida; Amparo, Navea

    2015-01-01

    Myopia affected approximately 1.6 billion people worldwide in 2000, and it is expected to increase to 2.5 billion by 2020. Although optical problems can be corrected by optics or surgical procedures, normal myopia and high myopia are still an unsolved medical problem. They frequently predispose people who have them to suffer from other eye pathologies: retinal detachment, glaucoma, macular hemorrhage, cataracts, and so on being one of the main causes of visual deterioration and blindness. Genetic and environmental factors have been associated with myopia. Nevertheless, lack of knowledge in the underlying physiopathological molecular mechanisms has not permitted an adequate diagnosis, prevention, or treatment to be found. Nowadays several pieces of evidence indicate that oxidative stress may help explain the altered regulatory pathways in myopia and the appearance of associated eye diseases. On the one hand, oxidative damage associated with hypoxia myopic can alter the neuromodulation that nitric oxide and dopamine have in eye growth. On the other hand, radical superoxide or peroxynitrite production damage retina, vitreous, lens, and so on contributing to the appearance of retinopathies, retinal detachment, cataracts and so on. The objective of this review is to suggest that oxidative stress is one of the key pieces that can help solve this complex eye problem. PMID:25922643

  16. MiR-590-5p Inhibits Oxidized- LDL Induced Angiogenesis by Targeting LOX-1

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Yao; Zhang, Zhigao; Cao, Yongxiang; Mehta, Jawahar L.; Li, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) is, at least in part, responsible for angiogenesis in atherosclerotic regions. This effect of ox-LDL has been shown to be mediated through a specific receptor LOX-1. Here we describe the effect of miR-590-5p on ox-LDL-mediated angiogenesis in in vitro and in vivo settings. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were transfected with miR-590-5p mimic or inhibitor followed by treatment with ox-LDL. In other experiments, Marigel plugs were inserted in the mice subcutaneous space. Both in vitro and in vivo studies showed that miR-590-5p mimic (100 nM) inhibited the ox-LDL-mediated angiogenesis (capillary tube formation, cell proliferation and migration as well as pro-angiogenic signals- ROS, MAPKs, pro-inflammatory cytokines and adhesion-related proteins). Of note, miR-590-5p inhibitor (200 nM) had the opposite effects. The inhibitory effect of miR-590-5p on angiogenesis was mediated by inhibition of LOX-1 at translational level. The inhibition of LOX-1 by miR-590-5p was confirmed by luciferase assay. In conclusion, we show that MiR-590-5p inhibits angiogenesis by targeting LOX-1 and suppressing redox-sensitive signals. PMID:26932825

  17. MiR-590-5p Inhibits Oxidized- LDL Induced Angiogenesis by Targeting LOX-1.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yao; Zhang, Zhigao; Cao, Yongxiang; Mehta, Jawahar L; Li, Jun

    2016-03-02

    Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) is, at least in part, responsible for angiogenesis in atherosclerotic regions. This effect of ox-LDL has been shown to be mediated through a specific receptor LOX-1. Here we describe the effect of miR-590-5p on ox-LDL-mediated angiogenesis in in vitro and in vivo settings. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were transfected with miR-590-5p mimic or inhibitor followed by treatment with ox-LDL. In other experiments, Marigel plugs were inserted in the mice subcutaneous space. Both in vitro and in vivo studies showed that miR-590-5p mimic (100 nM) inhibited the ox-LDL-mediated angiogenesis (capillary tube formation, cell proliferation and migration as well as pro-angiogenic signals- ROS, MAPKs, pro-inflammatory cytokines and adhesion-related proteins). Of note, miR-590-5p inhibitor (200 nM) had the opposite effects. The inhibitory effect of miR-590-5p on angiogenesis was mediated by inhibition of LOX-1 at translational level. The inhibition of LOX-1 by miR-590-5p was confirmed by luciferase assay. In conclusion, we show that MiR-590-5p inhibits angiogenesis by targeting LOX-1 and suppressing redox-sensitive signals.

  18. Oxidative stress and ageing.

    PubMed

    Birch-Machin, M A; Bowman, A

    2016-10-01

    Oxidative stress is the resultant damage due to redox imbalances (increase in destructive free radicals [reactive oxygen species (ROS)] and reduction in antioxidant protection/pathways) and is linked to ageing in many tissues including skin. In ageing skin there are bioenergetic differences between keratinocytes and fibroblasts which provide a potential ageing biomarker. The differences in skin bioenergy are part of the mitochondrial theory of ageing which remains one of the most widely accepted ageing theories describing subsequent increasing free radical generation. Mitochondria are the major source of cellular oxidative stress and form part of the vicious cycle theory of ageing. External and internal sources of oxidative stress include UVR/IR, pollution (environment), lifestyle (exercise and diet), alcohol and smoking all of which may potentially impact on skin although many exogenous actives and endogenous antioxidant defence systems have been described to help abrogate the increased stress. This also links to differences in skin cell types in terms of the UVR action spectrum for nuclear and mitochondrial DNA damage (the latter a previously described UVR biomarker in skin). Recent work associates bioenergy production and oxidative stress with pigment production thereby providing another additional potential avenue for targeted anti-ageing intervention in skin. This new data supporting the detrimental effects of the numerous wavelengths of UVR may aid in the development of cosmetic/sunscreen design to reduce the effects of photoageing. Recently, complex II of the mitochondrial electron transport chain appears to be more important than previously thought in the generation of free radicals (suggested predominantly by non-human studies). We investigated the relationship between complex II and ageing using human skin as a model tissue. The rate of complex II activity per unit of mitochondria was determined in fibroblasts and keratinocytes cultured from skin covering

  19. Oxidative stress, nitric oxide, and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Pitocco, Dario; Zaccardi, Francesco; Di Stasio, Enrico; Romitelli, Federica; Santini, Stefano A; Zuppi, Cecilia; Ghirlanda, Giovanni

    2010-01-01

    In the recent decades, oxidative stress has become focus of interest in most biomedical disciplines and many types of clinical research. Increasing evidence from research on several diseases show that oxidative stress is associated with the pathogenesis of diabetes, obesity, cancer, ageing, inflammation, neurodegenerative disorders, hypertension, apoptosis, cardiovascular diseases, and heart failure. Based on this research, the emerging concept is that oxidative stress is the "final common pathway", through which risk factors of several diseases exert their deleterious effects. Oxidative stress causes a complex dysregulation of cell metabolism and cell-cell homeostasis. In this review, we discuss the role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and beta-cell dysfunction. These are the two most relevant mechanisms in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes, and in the pathogenesis of diabetic vascular complications, the leading cause of death in diabetic patients.

  20. Oxidative Stress, Nitric Oxide, and Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Pitocco, Dario; Zaccardi, Francesco; Di Stasio, Enrico; Romitelli, Federica; Santini, Stefano A.; Zuppi, Cecilia; Ghirlanda, Giovanni

    2010-01-01

    In the recent decades, oxidative stress has become focus of interest in most biomedical disciplines and many types of clinical research. Increasing evidence from research on several diseases show that oxidative stress is associated with the pathogenesis of diabetes, obesity, cancer, ageing, inflammation, neurodegenerative disorders, hypertension, apoptosis, cardiovascular diseases, and heart failure. Based on this research, the emerging concept is that oxidative stress is the “final common pathway”, through which risk factors of several diseases exert their deleterious effects. Oxidative stress causes a complex dysregulation of cell metabolism and cell-cell homeostasis. In this review, we discuss the role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and beta-cell dysfunction. These are the two most relevant mechanisms in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes, and in the pathogenesis of diabetic vascular complications, the leading cause of death in diabetic patients. PMID:20703435

  1. [Magnesium and the oxidative stress].

    PubMed

    Spasov, A A; Zheltova, A A; Kharitonov, M V

    2012-07-01

    Magnesium deficiency has been shown to result in alterations of cellular functions and biological activity of molecules. The review discusses possible relationship between Mg2+ deficiency and development of oxidative stress. Decrease of Mg2+ concentration in tissues and blood is accompanied with elevation of the oxidative stress markers, including products of the oxidative modification of lipids, proteins and DNA. The reduction in antioxidant defenses is synchronous with oxidative stress markers elevation. Different mechanisms including systemic reactions (hyperactivation of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction) and cellular changes (mitochondrial dysfunction and excessive production of fatty acids) are supposed to be involved in development and maintenance of the oxidative stress due to Mg2+ deficiency. Therefore the facts consolidated into the review evidence clear relation between Mg2+ deficiency and the oxidative stress development.

  2. BRCA1 and Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Yong Weon; Kang, Hyo Jin; Bae, Insoo

    2014-01-01

    The breast cancer susceptibility gene 1 (BRCA1) has been well established as a tumor suppressor and functions primarily by maintaining genome integrity. Genome stability is compromised when cells are exposed to oxidative stress. Increasing evidence suggests that BRCA1 regulates oxidative stress and this may be another mechanism in preventing carcinogenesis in normal cells. Oxidative stress caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) is implicated in carcinogenesis and is used strategically to treat human cancer. Thus, it is essential to understand the function of BRCA1 in oxidative stress regulation. In this review, we briefly summarize BRCA1’s many binding partners and mechanisms, and discuss data supporting the function of BRCA1 in oxidative stress regulation. Finally, we consider its significance in prevention and/or treatment of BRCA1-related cancers. PMID:24704793

  3. Magnesium Corrosion Triggered Spontaneous Generation of H2O2 on Oxidized Titanium for Promoting Angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Park, Jimin; Du, Ping; Jeon, Jin-Kyung; Jang, Gun Hyuk; Hwang, Mintai Peter; Han, Hyung-Seop; Park, Kwideok; Lee, Kwan Hyi; Lee, Jee-Wook; Jeon, Hojeong; Kim, Yu-Chan; Park, Jong Woong; Seok, Hyun-Kwang; Ok, Myoung-Ryul

    2015-12-01

    Although the use of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been extensively studied, current systems employ external stimuli such as light or electrical energy to produce ROS, which limits their practical usage. In this report, biocompatible metals were used to construct a novel electrochemical system that can spontaneously generate H2O2 without any external light or voltage. The corrosion of Mg transfers electrons to Au-decorated oxidized Ti in an energetically favorable process, and the spontaneous generation of H2O2 in an oxygen reduction reaction was revealed to occur at titanium by combined spectroscopic and electrochemical analyses. The controlled release of H2O2 noticeably enhanced in vitro angiogenesis even in the absence of growth factors. Finally, a new titanium implant prototype was developed by Mg incorporation, and its potential for promoting angiogenesis was demonstrated. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Anticonvulsant drugs, oxidative stress and nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Vega Rasgado, L A; Ceballos Reyes, G M; Vega-Diaz, M F

    2011-01-01

    Nitric Oxide (NO) is thought to play a fundamental role in the genesis and the spreading of epileptiform hyperactivity, although its function is unclear and controversial. As a free radical, NO may cause oxidative stress, which is emerging as an important mechanism in the etiology of seizure-induced neuronal death. Here we investigated the role of NO in seizure mechanisms through oxidative stress generation by studying the effect of anticonvulsant drugs such as amino oxyacetic acid (AAOA), valproate (VALP), diazepam (DIAZ) and gabapentin (GBPTNA) on oxidative stress in the brain, estimated as free carbonyls by the method of Dalle and Rossi, and by measuring NO by the indirect method based on the Griess reaction. Results show that, except for AAOA and VALP, anticonvulsants did not significantly affect or decreased free carbonyls, but reversed the oxidative stress produced by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) induced convulsions. Anticonvulsants except AAOA diminished NO levels and with the exception of VALP, counteracted the increase in NO generated by PTZ. Anticonvulsants decreased oxidative stress and NO especially in hippocampus (HI) and cortex (CX), and reversed PTZ effects on both parameters. PTZ diminished NO in HI, which could be explained since PTZ caused an increase on endothelial NO synthase but a decrease in neuronal NOS expression in this brain area. Since the drugs studied are modulating GABA levels, our results suggest that seizures generated by alterations in GABAergic transmission produce oxidative stress caused by NO, which can be reversed by anticonvulsants. The effects described differ among the brain regions studied and the NO synthase isoform affected.

  5. Oxidative stress in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Nikam, Shashikant; Nikam, Padmaja; Ahaley, S K; Sontakke, Ajit V

    2009-01-01

    Oxidative stress contributes to the cascade, leading to dopamine cell degeneration in Parkinson's disease. However, oxidative stress is intimately linked to other components of the degenerative process, such as mitochondrial dysfunction, excitotoxicity, nitric oxide toxicity and inflammation. It is therefore difficult to determine whether oxidative stress leads to or is a consequence of, these events. Oxidative stress was assessed by estimating lipid peroxidation product in the form of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, nitric oxide in the form of nitrite & nitrate. Enzymatic antioxidants in the form of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, ceruloplasmin and non enzymatic antioxidant vitamins e.g. vitamin E and C in either serum or plasma or erythrocyte in 40 patients of Parkinson's disease in the age group 40-80 years. Trace elements e.g. copper, zinc and selenium were also estimated. Plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and nitric oxide levels were Significantly high but superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, ceruloplasmin, vitamin-E, vitamin-C, copper, zinc and selenium levels were significantly low in Parkinson's disease when compared with control subjects. Present study showed that elevated oxidative stress may be playing a role in dopaminergic neuronal loss in substentia nigra pars compacta and involved in pathogenesis of the Parkinson's disease.

  6. Oxidative stress and hypertension.

    PubMed

    Harrison, David G; Gongora, Maria Carolina

    2009-05-01

    This review has summarized some of the data supporting a role of ROS and oxidant stress in the genesis of hypertension. There is evidence that hypertensive stimuli, such as high salt and angiotensin II, promote the production of ROS in the brain, the kidney, and the vasculature and that each of these sites contributes either to hypertension or to the untoward sequelae of this disease. Although the NADPH oxidase in these various organs is a predominant source, other enzymes likely contribute to ROS production and signaling in these tissues. A major clinical challenge is that the routinely used antioxidants are ineffective in preventing or treating cardiovascular disease and hypertension. This is likely because these drugs are either ineffective or act in a non-targeted fashion, such that they remove not only injurious ROS Fig. 5. Proposed role of T cells in the genesis of hypertension and the role of the NADPH oxidase in multiple cells/organs in modulating this effect. In this scenario, angiotensin II stimulates an NADPH oxidase in the CVOs of the brain, increasing sympathetic outflow. Sympathetic nerve terminals in lymph nodes activate T cells, and angiotensin II also directly activates T cells. These stimuli also activate expression of homing signals in the vessel and likely the kidney, which attract T cells to these organs. T cells release cytokines that stimulate the vessel and kidney NADPH oxidases, promoting vasoconstriction and sodium retention. SFO, subfornical organ. 630 Harrison & Gongora but also those involved in normal cell signaling. A potentially important and relatively new direction is the concept that inflammatory cells such as T cells contribute to hypertension. Future studies are needed to understand the interaction of T cells with the CNS, the kidney, and the vasculature and how this might be interrupted to provide therapeutic benefit.

  7. Cavin-2 regulates the activity and stability of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Boopathy, Gandhi T K; Kulkarni, Madhura; Ho, Sze Yuan; Boey, Adrian; Chua, Edmond Wei Min; Barathi, Veluchamy A; Carney, Tom J; Wang, Xiaomeng; Hong, Wanjin

    2017-09-14

    Angiogenesis is a highly regulated process for formation of new blood vessels from pre-existing ones. Angiogenesis is dysregulated in various pathologies, including age-related macular degeneration, arthritis, and cancer. Inhibiting pathological angiogenesis therefore represents a promising therapeutic strategy for treating these disorders, highlighting the need to study angiogenesis in more detail. To this end, identifying the genes essential for blood vessel formation and elucidating their function are crucial for a complete understanding of angiogenesis. Here, focusing on potential candidate genes for angiogenesis, we performed a morpholino-based genetic screen in zebrafish and identified Cavin-2, a membrane-bound phosphatidylserine-binding protein and critical organizer of caveolae (small microdomains in the plasma membrane), as a regulator of angiogenesis. Using endothelial cells, we show that Cavin-2 is required for in vitro angiogenesis and also for endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. We noted a high level of Cavin-2 expression in the neovascular tufts in the mouse model of oxygen-induced retinopathy, suggesting a role for Cavin-2 in pathogenic angiogenesis. Interestingly, we also found that Cavin-2 regulates the production of nitric oxide (NO) in endothelial cells by controlling the stability and activity of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and that Cavin-2 knockdown cells produce much less NO than WT cells. Also, mass spectrometry, flow cytometry, and electron microscopy analyses indicated that Cavin-2 is secreted in endothelial microparticles (EMPs) and is required for EMP biogenesis. Taken together, our results indicate that in addition to its function in caveolae biogenesis, Cavin-2 plays a critical role in endothelial cell maintenance and function by regulating eNOS activity. Copyright © 2017, The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  8. The metabolomics of oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Noctor, Graham; Lelarge-Trouverie, Caroline; Mhamdi, Amna

    2015-04-01

    Oxidative stress resulting from increased availability of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a key component of many responses of plants to challenging environmental conditions. The consequences for plant metabolism are complex and manifold. We review data on small compounds involved in oxidative stress, including ROS themselves and antioxidants and redox buffers in the membrane and soluble phases, and we discuss the wider consequences for plant primary and secondary metabolism. While metabolomics has been exploited in many studies on stress, there have been relatively few non-targeted studies focused on how metabolite signatures respond specifically to oxidative stress. As part of the discussion, we present results and reanalyze published datasets on metabolite profiles in catalase-deficient plants, which can be considered to be model oxidative stress systems. We emphasize the roles of ROS-triggered changes in metabolites as potential oxidative signals, and discuss responses that might be useful as markers for oxidative stress. Particular attention is paid to lipid-derived compounds, the status of antioxidants and antioxidant breakdown products, altered metabolism of amino acids, and the roles of phytohormone pathways.

  9. Cuprous oxide nanoparticles inhibit angiogenesis via down regulation of VEGFR2 expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Hongyuan; Wang, Wenbo; Zhao, Ping; Qi, Zhongtian; Zhao, Shihong

    2014-02-01

    Angiogenesis is a process that forms new blood capillaries from existing vessels, which is of great physiological and pathological significance. Although recent studies provide evidence that cuprous oxide nanoparticles (CO-NPs) may have biomedical potential, the mechanisms of CO-NPs in angiogenesis have not been investigated to date. We have studied the anti-angiogenic properties of CO-NPs on primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). We found that CO-NPs were able to induce cell morphology changes and suppress cell proliferation, migration and tube formation in vitro and in vivo dose dependently. Furthermore, CO-NPs could induce cell apoptosis both at the early and late apoptotic stage and induce cell cycle arrest at S phase in a dose dependent manner. As signalling via the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR2) is critical for angiogenic responses, we further explored the expression of VEGFR2 after the treatment of CO-NPs. They were found to inhibit VEGFR2 expression dose and time dependently both at the protein and mRNA level while had no effect on VEGF and VEGFR1 expression. Together, we report for the first time that CO-NPs can act as an anti-angiogenic agent by suppressing VEGFR2 expression, which may be a potential nanomedicine for angiogenesis therapy.Angiogenesis is a process that forms new blood capillaries from existing vessels, which is of great physiological and pathological significance. Although recent studies provide evidence that cuprous oxide nanoparticles (CO-NPs) may have biomedical potential, the mechanisms of CO-NPs in angiogenesis have not been investigated to date. We have studied the anti-angiogenic properties of CO-NPs on primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). We found that CO-NPs were able to induce cell morphology changes and suppress cell proliferation, migration and tube formation in vitro and in vivo dose dependently. Furthermore, CO-NPs could induce cell apoptosis both at the early and

  10. Ultrastrong trapping of VEGF by graphene oxide: Anti-angiogenesis application.

    PubMed

    Lai, Pei-Xin; Chen, Chung-Wein; Wei, Shih-Chun; Lin, Tzu-Yu; Jian, Hong-Jyuan; Lai, Irving Po-Jung; Mao, Ju-Yi; Hsu, Pang-Hung; Lin, Han-Jia; Tzou, Wen-Shyong; Chen, Shiow-Yi; Harroun, Scott G; Lai, Jui-Yang; Huang, Chih-Ching

    2016-12-01

    Angiogenesis is the process of formation of new blood vessels, which is essential to human biology, and also plays a crucial role in several pathologies such as tumor growth and metastasis, exudative age-related macular degeneration, and ischemia. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), in particular, VEGF-A165 is the most important pro-angiogenic factor for angiogenesis. Thus, blocking the interaction between VEGFs and their receptors is considered an effective anti-angiogenic strategy. We demonstrate for that first time that bovine serum albumin-capped graphene oxide (BSA-GO) exhibits high stability in physiological saline solution and possesses ultrastrong binding affinity towards VEGF-A165 [dissociation constant (Kd) ∼3 × 10(-12) M], which is at least five orders of magnitude stronger than that of high-abundant plasma proteins such as human serum albumin, fibrinogen, transferrin, and immunoglobulin G. Due to the surprising binding specificity of BSA-GO for VEGF-A165 in complex plasma fluid, we have also studied the anti-angiogenic effects in vitro and in vivo. Results show that BSA-GO not only effectively inhibits the proliferation, migration and tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells, but also strongly disturbs the physiological process of angiogenesis in chick chorioallantoic membrane and blocks VEGF-A165-induced blood vessel formation in rabbit corneal neovascularization. Our findings indicate that GO nanomaterials can potentially act as therapeutic anti-angiogenic agents via ultrastrong VEGF adsorption and its activity suppression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. [Vitamins and oxidative stress].

    PubMed

    Kodentsova, V M; Vrzhesinskaia, O A; Mazo, V K

    2013-01-01

    The central and local stress limiting systems, including the antioxidant defense system involved in defending the organism at the cellular and systemic levels from excess activation response to stress influence, leading to damaging effects. The development of stress, regardless of its nature [cold, increased physical activity, aging, the development of many pathologies (cardiovascular, neurodegenerative diseases, diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, ischemia, the effects of burns), immobilization, hypobaric hypoxia, hyperoxia, radiation effects etc.] leads to a deterioration of the vitamin status (vitamins E, A, C). Damaging effect on the antioxidant defense system is more pronounced compared to the stress response in animals with an isolated deficiency of vitamins C, A, E, B1 or B6 and the combined vitamins deficiency in the diet. Addition missing vitamin or vitamins restores the performance of antioxidant system. Thus, the role of vitamins in adaptation to stressors is evident. However, vitamins C, E and beta-carotene in high doses, significantly higher than the physiological needs of the organism, may be not only antioxidants, but may have also prooxidant properties. Perhaps this explains the lack of positive effects of antioxidant vitamins used in extreme doses for a long time described in some publications. There is no doubt that to justify the current optimal doses of antioxidant vitamins and other dietary antioxidants specially-designed studies, including biochemical testing of initial vitamin and antioxidant status of the organism, as well as monitoring their change over time are required.

  12. [Oxidative stress in Crohn's disease].

    PubMed

    Moret, Inés; Cerrillo, Elena; Navarro-Puche, Ana; Iborra, Marisa; Rausell, Francisco; Tortosa, Luis; Beltrán, Belén

    2014-01-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) is characterized by transmural inflammation that is most frequently located in the region of the terminal ileum. Although the physiopathological mechanisms of the disease are not yet well defined, the unregulated immune response is associated with high production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). These elements are associated with complex systems known as antioxidant defenses, whose function is ROS regulation, thereby preventing the harmful effects of these elements. However, the presence of an imbalance between ROS production and ROS elimination by antioxidants has been widely described and leads to oxidative stress. In this article, we describe the most significant findings on oxidative stress in the intestinal mucosa and peripheral blood.

  13. Oxidative Stress in Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Hongxiu; Li, Xiao-Kang

    2016-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic pruritic skin disorder affecting many people especially young children. It is a disease caused by the combination of genetic predisposition, immune dysregulation, and skin barrier defect. In recent years, emerging evidence suggests oxidative stress may play an important role in many skin diseases and skin aging, possibly including AD. In this review, we give an update on scientific progress linking oxidative stress to AD and discuss future treatment strategies for better disease control and improved quality of life for AD patients. PMID:27006746

  14. Role of oxidative stress in female reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Ashok; Gupta, Sajal; Sharma, Rakesh K

    2005-01-01

    labour and preeclampsia and gestational diabetes. The review also addresses the growing literature on the role of nitric oxide species in female reproduction. The involvement of nitric oxide species in regulation of endometrial and ovarian function, etiopathogenesis of endometriosis, and maintenance of uterine quiescence, initiation of labour and ripening of cervix at parturition is discussed. Complex interplay between cytokines and oxidative stress in the etiology of female reproductive disorders is discussed. Oxidant status of the cell modulates angiogenesis, which is critical for follicular growth, corpus luteum formation endometrial differentiation and embryonic growth is also highlighted in the review. Strategies to overcome oxidative stress and enhance fertility, both natural and assisted are delineated. Early interventions being investigated for prevention of preeclampsia are enumerated. Trials investigating combination intervention strategy of vitamin E and vitamin C supplementation in preventing preeclampsia are highlighted. Antioxidants are powerful and there are few trials investigating antioxidant supplementation in female reproduction. However, before clinicians recommend antioxidants, randomized controlled trials with sufficient power are necessary to prove the efficacy of antioxidant supplementation in disorders of female reproduction. Serial measurement of oxidative stress biomarkers in longitudinal studies may help delineate the etiology of some of the diosorders in female reproduction such as preeclampsia. PMID:16018814

  15. Nitric oxide mediates bleomycin-induced angiogenesis and pulmonary fibrosis via regulation of VEGF.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Anand Krishnan V; Ramesh, Vani; Castro, Carlos A; Kaushik, Vivek; Kulkarni, Yogesh M; Wright, Clayton A; Venkatadri, Rajkumar; Rojanasakul, Yon; Azad, Neelam

    2015-11-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive lung disease hallmarked by increased fibroblast proliferation, amplified levels of extracellular matrix deposition and increased angiogenesis. Although dysregulation of angiogenic mediators has been implicated in pulmonary fibrosis, the specific rate-limiting angiogenic markers involved and their role in the progression of pulmonary fibrosis remains unclear. We demonstrate that bleomycin treatment induces angiogenesis, and inhibition of the central angiogenic mediator VEGF using anti-VEGF antibody CBO-P11 significantly attenuates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in vivo. Bleomycin-induced nitric oxide (NO) was observed to be the key upstream regulator of VEGF via the PI3k/Akt pathway. VEGF regulated other important angiogenic proteins including PAI-1 and IL-8 in response to bleomycin exposure. Inhibition of NO and VEGF activity significantly mitigated bleomycin-induced angiogenic and fibrogenic responses. NO and VEGF are key mediators of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis, and could serve as important targets against this debilitating disease. Overall, our data suggests an important role for angiogenic mediators in the pathogenesis of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis.

  16. Nitric Oxide Mediates Bleomycin-Induced Angiogenesis and Pulmonary Fibrosis via Regulation of VEGF

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Anand Krishnan V.; Ramesh, Vani; Castro, Carlos A.; Kaushik, Vivek; Kulkarni, Yogesh M.; Wright, Clayton A.; Venkatadri, Rajkumar; Rojanasakul, Yon; Azad, Neelam

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive lung disease hallmarked by increased fibroblast proliferation, amplified levels of extracellular matrix deposition and increased angiogenesis. Although dysregulation of angiogenic mediators has been implicated in pulmonary fibrosis, the specific rate-limiting angiogenic markers involved and their role in the progression of pulmonary fibrosis remains unclear. We demonstrate that bleomycin treatment induces angiogenesis, and inhibition of the central angiogenic mediator VEGF using anti-VEGF antibody CBO-P11 significantly attenuates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in vivo. Bleomycin-induced nitric oxide (NO) was observed to be the key upstream regulator of VEGF via the PI3k/Akt pathway. VEGF regulated other important angiogenic proteins including PAI-1 and IL-8 in response to bleomycin exposure. Inhibition of NO and VEGF activity significantly mitigated bleomycin-induced angiogenic and fibrogenic responses. NO and VEGF are key mediators of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis, and could serve as important targets against this debilitating disease. Overall, our data suggests an important role for angiogenic mediators in the pathogenesis of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:25919965

  17. Peroxisomes, oxidative stress, and inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Terlecky, Stanley R; Terlecky, Laura J; Giordano, Courtney R

    2012-01-01

    Peroxisomes are intracellular organelles mediating a wide variety of biosynthetic and biodegradative reactions. Included among these are the metabolism of hydrogen peroxide and other reactive species, molecules whose levels help define the oxidative state of cells. Loss of oxidative equilibrium in cells of tissues and organs potentiates inflammatory responses which can ultimately trigger human disease. The goal of this article is to review evidence for connections between peroxisome function, oxidative stress, and inflammation in the context of human health and degenerative disease. Dysregulated points in this nexus are identified and potential remedial approaches are presented. PMID:22649571

  18. Oxidative stress in cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Latifi, Amel; Ruiz, Marion; Zhang, Cheng-Cai

    2009-03-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are byproducts of aerobic metabolism and potent agents that cause oxidative damage. In oxygenic photosynthetic organisms such as cyanobacteria, ROS are inevitably generated by photosynthetic electron transport, especially when the intensity of light-driven electron transport outpaces the rate of electron consumption during CO(2) fixation. Because cyanobacteria in their natural habitat are often exposed to changing external conditions, such as drastic fluctuations of light intensities, their ability to perceive ROS and to rapidly initiate antioxidant defences is crucial for their survival. This review summarizes recent findings and outlines important perspectives in this field.

  19. Oxidized antithrombin is a dual inhibitor of coagulation and angiogenesis: Importance of low heparin affinity.

    PubMed

    Azhar, Asim; Khan, Mohammad Sazzad; Swaminathan, Akila; Naseem, Asma; Chatterjee, Suvro; Jairajpuri, Mohamad Aman

    2016-01-01

    Endogenous proteins that promote vascular endothelial cell based inhibition of angiogenesis are an attractive option for antitumor therapy. Inactive cleaved and latent conformations of antithrombin (AT) are antiangiogenic, but not its native form which is an inhibitor of proteases involved in blood coagulation. Unlike native, the cleaved and latent conformations are reactive center loop inserted conformations which binds heparin with very low affinity. We use a sulfoxy modified AT to assess the role of reactive center loop insertion and heparin affinity in antiangiogenic function. Chorioallantoic membrane assay (CAM) shows that antiangiogenic activity of latent and oxidized AT are better than thalidomide, a potent antiangiogenic drug. Wound healing experiments suggest that latent and oxidized conformations can influence endothelial cell migration. Latent and cleaved conformations of AT shows an increase in α-helical content in the presence of unfractionated heparin, but not the oxidized AT. Unlike the loop inserted polymer, cleaved and latent conformations, oxidized AT has factor Xa inhibitory activity indicating that loop insertion is not necessary for antiangiogenic role. The results of our study establish that active conformation of AT can become antiangiogenic while maintaining its anticoagulant activity possibly through chelation of low affinity heparin in the vicinity of endothelial cell. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Oxidative Stress and Neurodegenerative Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jie; O, Wuliji; Li, Wei; Jiang, Zhi-Gang; Ghanbari, Hossein A.

    2013-01-01

    Living cells continually generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) through the respiratory chain during energetic metabolism. ROS at low or moderate concentration can play important physiological roles. However, an excessive amount of ROS under oxidative stress would be extremely deleterious. The central nervous system (CNS) is particularly vulnerable to oxidative stress due to its high oxygen consumption, weakly antioxidative systems and the terminal-differentiation characteristic of neurons. Thus, oxidative stress elicits various neurodegenerative diseases. In addition, chemotherapy could result in severe side effects on the CNS and peripheral nervous system (PNS) of cancer patients, and a growing body of evidence demonstrates the involvement of ROS in drug-induced neurotoxicities as well. Therefore, development of antioxidants as neuroprotective drugs is a potentially beneficial strategy for clinical therapy. In this review, we summarize the source, balance maintenance and physiologic functions of ROS, oxidative stress and its toxic mechanisms underlying a number of neurodegenerative diseases, and the possible involvement of ROS in chemotherapy-induced toxicity to the CNS and PNS. We ultimately assess the value for antioxidants as neuroprotective drugs and provide our comments on the unmet needs. PMID:24351827

  1. Oxidative stress in obstructive nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Dendooven, Amélie; Ishola, David A; Nguyen, Tri Q; Van der Giezen, Dionne M; Kok, Robbert Jan; Goldschmeding, Roel; Joles, Jaap A

    2011-06-01

    Unilateral ureteric obstruction (UUO) is one of the most commonly applied rodent models to study the pathophysiology of renal fibrosis. This model reflects important aspects of inflammation and fibrosis that are prominent in human kidney diseases. In this review, we present an overview of the factors contributing to the pathophysiology of UUO, highlighting the role of oxidative stress.

  2. Oxidative stress in obstructive nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Dendooven, Amélie; Ishola, David A; Nguyen, Tri Q; Van der Giezen, Dionne M; Kok, Robbert Jan; Goldschmeding, Roel; Joles, Jaap A

    2011-01-01

    Unilateral ureteric obstruction (UUO) is one of the most commonly applied rodent models to study the pathophysiology of renal fibrosis. This model reflects important aspects of inflammation and fibrosis that are prominent in human kidney diseases. In this review, we present an overview of the factors contributing to the pathophysiology of UUO, highlighting the role of oxidative stress. PMID:20804541

  3. Space flight and oxidative stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, T. P.

    2002-01-01

    Space flight is associated with an increase in oxidative stress after return to 1g. The effect is more pronounced after long-duration space flight. The effects lasts for several weeks after landing. In humans there is increased lipid peroxidation in erythrocyte membranes, reduction in some blood antioxidants, and increased urinary excretion of 8-iso-prostaglandin F(2alpha) and 8-oxo-7,8 dihydro-2 deoxyguanosine. Isoprostane 8-iso-prostaglandin F(2alpha) and 8-oxo-7,8 dihydro-2 deoxyguanosine are markers for oxidative damage to lipids and DNA, respectively. The changes have been attributed to a combination of the energy deficiency that occurs during flight and substrate competition for amino acids occurring between repleting muscle and other tissues during the recovery phase. The observations in humans have been complemented by rodent studies. Most rodent studies showed increased production of lipid peroxidation products postflight and decreased antioxidant enzyme activity postflight. The rodent observations were attributed to the stress associated with reentry into Earth's gravity. Decreasing the imbalance between the production of endogenous oxidant defenses and oxidant production by increasing the supply of dietary antioxidants may lessen the severity of the postflight increase in oxidative stress.

  4. Space flight and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Stein, T P

    2002-10-01

    Space flight is associated with an increase in oxidative stress after return to 1g. The effect is more pronounced after long-duration space flight. The effects lasts for several weeks after landing. In humans there is increased lipid peroxidation in erythrocyte membranes, reduction in some blood antioxidants, and increased urinary excretion of 8-iso-prostaglandin F(2alpha) and 8-oxo-7,8 dihydro-2 deoxyguanosine. Isoprostane 8-iso-prostaglandin F(2alpha) and 8-oxo-7,8 dihydro-2 deoxyguanosine are markers for oxidative damage to lipids and DNA, respectively. The changes have been attributed to a combination of the energy deficiency that occurs during flight and substrate competition for amino acids occurring between repleting muscle and other tissues during the recovery phase. The observations in humans have been complemented by rodent studies. Most rodent studies showed increased production of lipid peroxidation products postflight and decreased antioxidant enzyme activity postflight. The rodent observations were attributed to the stress associated with reentry into Earth's gravity. Decreasing the imbalance between the production of endogenous oxidant defenses and oxidant production by increasing the supply of dietary antioxidants may lessen the severity of the postflight increase in oxidative stress.

  5. Space flight and oxidative stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, T. P.

    2002-01-01

    Space flight is associated with an increase in oxidative stress after return to 1g. The effect is more pronounced after long-duration space flight. The effects lasts for several weeks after landing. In humans there is increased lipid peroxidation in erythrocyte membranes, reduction in some blood antioxidants, and increased urinary excretion of 8-iso-prostaglandin F(2alpha) and 8-oxo-7,8 dihydro-2 deoxyguanosine. Isoprostane 8-iso-prostaglandin F(2alpha) and 8-oxo-7,8 dihydro-2 deoxyguanosine are markers for oxidative damage to lipids and DNA, respectively. The changes have been attributed to a combination of the energy deficiency that occurs during flight and substrate competition for amino acids occurring between repleting muscle and other tissues during the recovery phase. The observations in humans have been complemented by rodent studies. Most rodent studies showed increased production of lipid peroxidation products postflight and decreased antioxidant enzyme activity postflight. The rodent observations were attributed to the stress associated with reentry into Earth's gravity. Decreasing the imbalance between the production of endogenous oxidant defenses and oxidant production by increasing the supply of dietary antioxidants may lessen the severity of the postflight increase in oxidative stress.

  6. Estradiol and neurodegenerative oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Nilsen, Jon

    2008-10-01

    Estradiol is a potent preventative against neurodegenerative disease, in part, by activating antioxidant defense systems scavenging reactive oxygen species, limiting mitochondrial protein damage, improving electron transport chain activity and reducing mitochondrial DNA damage. Estradiol also increases the activity of complex IV of the electron transport chain, improving mitochondrial respiration and ATP production under normal and stressful conditions. However, the high oxidative cellular environment present during neurodegeneration makes estradiol a poor agent for treatment of existing disease. Oxidative stress stimulates the production of the hydroperoxide-dependent hydroxylation of estradiol to the catecholestrogen metabolites, which can undergo reactive oxygen species producing redox cycling, setting up a self-generating toxic cascade offsetting any antioxidant/antiapoptotic effects generated by the parent estradiol. Additional disease-induced factors can further perpetuate this cycle. For example dysregulation of the catecholamine system could alter catechol-O-methyltransferase-catalyzed methylation, preventing removal of redox cycling catecholestrogens from the system enhancing pro-oxidant effects of estradiol.

  7. Nitric Oxide-Driven Hypoxia Initiates Synovial Angiogenesis, Hyperplasia and Inflammatory Lesions in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Fei; Wu, Pei; Xiao, Na; Qiu, Frank; Zeng, Qing-Ping

    2012-01-01

    Background Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an inflammatory articular disease with cartilage and bone damage due to hyperplasic synoviocyte invasion and subsequent matrix protease digestion. Although monoclonal antibodies against tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) have been approved for clinical use in patients with RA, desired therapeutic regimens suitable for non-responders are still unavailable because etiological initiators leading to RA remain enigmatic and unidentified. Methodology/Principal Findings Bacteria-induced arthritis (BIA) that simulates collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) is developed in mice upon daily live bacterial feeding. The morphological lesions of paw erythema and edema together with the histological alterations of synovial hyperplasia and lymphocytic infiltration emerge as the early-phase manifestations of BIA and CIA. Bacteria- or collagen-mediated global upregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines is accompanied by the burst of nitric oxide (NO). Elevation of the serum NO level is correlated with decline of the blood oxygen saturation percentage (SpO2), reflecting a hypoxic consequence during development towards arthritis. NO-driven hypoxia is further evident from a positive relationship between NO and lactic acid (LA), an end product from glycolysis. Upregulation of hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) validates hypoxia-induced angiogenesis in the inflamed synovium of modeling mice. Administration of the NO donor compound sodium nitroprusside (SNP) causes articular inflammation by inducing synovial hypoxia. Anti-bacteria by the antibiotic cefotaxime and/or the immunosuppressant rapamycin or artesunate that also inhibits nitric oxide synthase (NOS) can abrogate NO production, mitigate hypoxia, and considerably ameliorate or even completely abort synovitis, hence highlighting that NO may serve as an initiator of inflammatory arthritis. Conclusions/Significance Like collagen, bacteria also

  8. Haemophilus influenzae and oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Alistair; Bakaletz, Lauren O.; Munson, Robert S.

    2012-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae is a commensal of the human upper respiratory tract. H. influenzae can, however, move out of its commensal niche and cause multiple respiratory tract diseases. Such diseases include otitis media in young children, as well as exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), sinusitis, conjunctivitis, and bronchitis. During the course of colonization and infection, H. influenzae must withstand oxidative stress generated by multiple reactive oxygen species produced endogenously, by other co-pathogens and by host cells. H. influenzae has, therefore, evolved multiple mechanisms that protect the cell against oxygen-generated stresses. In this review, we will describe these systems relative to the well-described systems in Escherichia coli. Moreover, we will compare how H. influenzae combats the effect of oxidative stress as a necessary phenotype for its roles as both a successful commensal and pathogen. PMID:22919631

  9. Hemoglobin oxidative stress in cancer.

    PubMed

    Della Rovere, F; Granata, A; Broccio, M; Zirilli, A; Broccio, G

    1995-01-01

    The role played by free radicals in carcinogenesis and their relationships with antioxidant pool and cancer have already been shown. Free radicals induce increased membrane permeability through membrane lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and histamine release from mast cells. Free radicals also cause oxyhemoglobin oxidative stress which increases methemoglobin and hemichromes. For this reason, we studied the in vitro formation of methemoglobin at 0' and 90', dosed following the HPLC method, after oxidative stress of blood by means of acetylphenylhydrazine in 40 subjects with cancer and 40 healthy donors. The results showed that methemoglobin formation was highly significant in tumors as compared to controls (P < 0.0001). The statistical analyses we carried out showed that metHb formation is not affected by age, sex, smoking habit, red blood cell number, Hb, Ht or tumor staging. This makes us believe that free radicals alter erythrocyte membrane permeability and predenaturate oxyhemoglobin so that erythrocyte membrane becomes more susceptible to new oxidative stress. This caused the abnormal response we found. Our results clearly underline the role played by free radicals in tumorous disease and provide a successful and easy method to detect early, even in a pre-clinical stage, the presence of tumorous alterations in the human body.

  10. Lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1 is an enhancer of tumor angiogenesis in human prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    González-Chavarría, Iván; Cerro, Rita P; Parra, Natalie P; Sandoval, Felipe A; Zuñiga, Felipe A; Omazábal, Valeska A; Lamperti, Liliana I; Jiménez, Silvana P; Fernandez, Edelmira A; Gutiérrez, Nicolas A; Rodriguez, Federico S; Onate, Sergio A; Sánchez, Oliberto; Vera, Juan C; Toledo, Jorge R

    2014-01-01

    Altered expression and function of lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) has been associated with several diseases such as endothelial dysfunction, atherosclerosis and obesity. In these pathologies, oxLDL/LOX-1 activates signaling pathways that promote cell proliferation, cell motility and angiogenesis. Recent studies have indicated that olr1 mRNA is over-expressed in stage III and IV of human prostatic adenocarcinomas. However, the function of LOX-1 in prostate cancer angiogenesis remains to be determined. Our aim was to analyze the contribution of oxLDL and LOX-1 to tumor angiogenesis using C4-2 prostate cancer cells. We analyzed the expression of pro-angiogenic molecules and angiogenesis on prostate cancer tumor xenografts, using prostate cancer cell models with overexpression or knockdown of LOX-1 receptor. Our results demonstrate that the activation of LOX-1 using oxLDL increases cell proliferation, and the expression of the pro-angiogenic molecules VEGF, MMP-2, and MMP-9 in a dose-dependent manner. Noticeably, these effects were prevented in the C4-2 prostate cancer model when LOX-1 expression was knocked down. The angiogenic effect of LOX-1 activated with oxLDL was further demonstrated using the aortic ring assay and the xenograft model of tumor growth on chorioallantoic membrane of chicken embryos. Consequently, we propose that LOX-1 activation by oxLDL is an important event that enhances tumor angiogenesis in human prostate cancer cells.

  11. Lectin-Like Oxidized LDL Receptor-1 Is an Enhancer of Tumor Angiogenesis in Human Prostate Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    González-Chavarría, Iván; Cerro, Rita P.; Parra, Natalie P.; Sandoval, Felipe A.; Zuñiga, Felipe A.; Omazábal, Valeska A.; Lamperti, Liliana I.; Jiménez, Silvana P.; Fernandez, Edelmira A.; Gutiérrez, Nicolas A.; Rodriguez, Federico S.; Onate, Sergio A.; Sánchez, Oliberto; Vera, Juan C.; Toledo, Jorge R.

    2014-01-01

    Altered expression and function of lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) has been associated with several diseases such as endothelial dysfunction, atherosclerosis and obesity. In these pathologies, oxLDL/LOX-1 activates signaling pathways that promote cell proliferation, cell motility and angiogenesis. Recent studies have indicated that olr1 mRNA is over-expressed in stage III and IV of human prostatic adenocarcinomas. However, the function of LOX-1 in prostate cancer angiogenesis remains to be determined. Our aim was to analyze the contribution of oxLDL and LOX-1 to tumor angiogenesis using C4-2 prostate cancer cells. We analyzed the expression of pro-angiogenic molecules and angiogenesis on prostate cancer tumor xenografts, using prostate cancer cell models with overexpression or knockdown of LOX-1 receptor. Our results demonstrate that the activation of LOX-1 using oxLDL increases cell proliferation, and the expression of the pro-angiogenic molecules VEGF, MMP-2, and MMP-9 in a dose-dependent manner. Noticeably, these effects were prevented in the C4-2 prostate cancer model when LOX-1 expression was knocked down. The angiogenic effect of LOX-1 activated with oxLDL was further demonstrated using the aortic ring assay and the xenograft model of tumor growth on chorioallantoic membrane of chicken embryos. Consequently, we propose that LOX-1 activation by oxLDL is an important event that enhances tumor angiogenesis in human prostate cancer cells. PMID:25170920

  12. Intrauterine pulmonary hypertension impairs angiogenesis in vitro: role of vascular endothelial growth factor nitric oxide signaling.

    PubMed

    Gien, Jason; Seedorf, Gregory J; Balasubramaniam, Vivek; Markham, Neil; Abman, Steven H

    2007-12-01

    Mechanisms that impair angiogenesis in neonatal persistent pulmonary hypertension (PPHN) are poorly understood. To determine if PPHN alters fetal pulmonary artery endothelial cell (PAEC) phenotype and impairs growth and angiogenesis in vitro, and if altered vascular endothelial growth factor-nitric oxide (VEGF-NO) signaling contributes to this abnormal phenotype. Proximal PAECs were harvested from fetal sheep that had undergone partial ligation of the ductus arteriosus in utero (PPHN) and age-matched control animals. Growth and tube formation +/- VEGF and NO stimulation and inhibition were studied in normal and PPHN PAECs. Western blot analysis was performed for VEGF, VEGF receptor-2 (VEGF-R2), and endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) protein content. NO production with VEGF administration was measured in normal and PPHN PAECs. PPHN PAECs demonstrate decreased growth and tube formation in vitro. VEGF and eNOS protein expression were decreased in PPHN PAECs, whereas VEGF-R2 protein expression was not different. VEGF and NO increased PPHN PAEC growth and tube formation to values achieved in normal PAECs. VEGF inhibition decreased growth and tube formation in normal and PPHN PAECs. NOS inhibition decreased growth in normal and PPHN PAECs, but tube formation was only reduced in normal PAECs. NO reversed the inhibitory effects of VEGF-R2 inhibition on tube formation in normal and PPHN PAECs. VEGF increased NO production in normal and PPHN PAECs. PPHN in utero causes sustained impairment of PAEC phenotype in vitro, with reduced PAEC growth and tube formation and down-regulation of VEGF and eNOS protein. VEGF and NO enhanced growth and tube formation of PPHN PAECs.

  13. Neurodegenerative diseases and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Emerit, J; Edeas, M; Bricaire, F

    2004-01-01

    Oxidative stress is now recognized as accountable for redox regulation involving reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). Its role is pivotal for the modulation of critical cellular functions, notably for neurons astrocytes and microglia, such as apoptosis program activation, and ion transport, calcium mobilization, involved in excitotoxicity. Excitotoxicity and apoptosis are the two main causes of neuronal death. The role of mitochondria in apoptosis is crucial. Multiple apoptotic pathways emanate from the mitochondria. The respiratory chain of mitochondria that by oxidative phosphorylation, is the fount of cellular energy, i.e. ATP synthesis, is responsible for most of ROS and notably the first produced, superoxide anion (O(2)(;-)). Mitochondrial dysfunction, i.e. cell energy impairment, apoptosis and overproduction of ROS, is a final common pathogenic mechanism in aging and in neurodegenerative disease such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Nitric oxide (NO(;)), an RNS, which can be produced by three isoforms of NO-synthase in brain, plays a prominent role. The research on the genetics of inherited forms notably ALS, AD, PD, has improved our understanding of the pathobiology of the sporadic forms of neurodegenerative diseases or of aging of the brain. ROS and RNS, i.e. oxidative stress, are not the origin of neuronal death. The cascade of events that leads to neurons, death is complex. In addition to mitochondrial dysfunction (apoptosis), excitotoxicity, oxidative stress (inflammation), the mechanisms from gene to disease involve also protein misfolding leading to aggregates and proteasome dysfunction on ubiquinited material.

  14. Oxidative stress and glycemic regulation.

    PubMed

    Ceriello, A

    2000-02-01

    Oxidative stress is an acknowledged pathogenetic mechanism in diabetic complications. Hyperglycemia is a widely known cause of enhanced free radical concentration, whereas oxidative stress involvement in glycemic regulation is still debated. Glucose transport is a cascade of events starting from the interaction of insulin with its own receptor at the plasma membrane and ending with intracellular glucose metabolism. In this complex series of events, each step plays an important role and can be inhibited by a negative effect of oxidative stress. Several studies show that an acute increase in the blood glucose level may impair the physiological homeostasis of many systems in living organisms. The mechanisms through which acute hyperglycemia exerts these effects may be identified in the production of free radicals. It has been suggested that insulin resistance may be accompanied by intracellular production of free radicals. In adipocytes cultured in vitro, insulin increases the production of hydrogen peroxide, which has been shown to mimic the action of insulin. These data allow us to hypothesize that a vicious circle between hyperinsulinemia and free radicals could be operating: insulin resistance might cause elevated plasma free radical concentrations, which, in turn, might be responsible for a deterioration of insulin action, with hyperglycemia being a contributory factor. Data supporting this hypothesis are available. Vitamin E improves insulin action in healthy, elderly, and non-insulin-dependent diabetic subjects. Similar results can be obtained by vitamin C administration.

  15. [Oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction].

    PubMed

    Jarasūniene, Dalia; Simaitis, Audrius

    2003-01-01

    Growing numbers of morbidity and mortality due to the Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) is recognized as the more increasing challenge in the world. The initial stage of atherosclerosis, early diagnosis and treatment of CHD are the main objectives of current research. Endothelium dysfunction, the earliest expression of the atherosclerotic process is associated with subtle biochemical changes that gradually are transformed into the structural changes of the arterial wall. The theory of free radicals is the most common among the atherosclerosis explanations. Overproduction or impaired neutralization of the free radicals accounts for oxidative stress that is causing substantial damage to the low density lipoproteins, nitric oxyde (NO), endothelium cells, tissue cells and finally leads to the endothelium dysfuction. Pathophysiology of oxidative stress and its role in the endothelium dysfunction are discussed in this paper. Positive role of various medications (statins, angiotensin converting enzym inhibitors, aldosteron antagonists, estrogens, antioxidants, b-blockers with vasodilatative properties) to the oxidative stress and consequently to the endothelium dysfuction are discussed as well.

  16. Laboratory tests for oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Ashok; Majzoub, Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative stress (OS) is considered a significant contributor to male infertility. A number of laboratory techniques have been developed to evaluate oxidative stress in the semen. We review these tests and their current use. A literature review was performed utilizing the PubMed search engine for articles studying OS etiology and impact on male fertility, and the laboratory tests used in its assessment. The state of OS results from exaggerated production of oxygen-derived free radicals, also known as reactive oxygen species, to an extent overwhelming the body's antioxidant defense mechanisms. Several laboratory tests have been utilized in OS measurement during male fertility evaluation. These tests are classified into direct assays which measure the degree of oxidation within a sperm cell and indirect assays which estimate the detrimental effects of OS. The chemiluminescence assay, flow cytometry, nitroblue tetrazolium assay, and cytochrome c reduction are examples of direct assays while the myeloperoxidase test and measurements of lipid peroxidation, oxidation-reduction potential, and total antioxidant capacity are examples of the indirect assays. OS measurement is an important tool that may help in understanding the pathophysiology of male infertility and provide valuable information that would guide treatment decisions and patient follow-up.

  17. p53, Oxidative Stress, and Aging

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dongping

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Mammalian aging is associated with elevated levels of oxidative damage of DNA, proteins, and lipids as a result of unbalanced prooxidant and antioxidant activities. Accumulating evidence indicates that oxidative stress is a major physiological inducer of aging. p53, the guardian of the genome that is important for cellular responses to oxidative stresses, might be a key coordinator of oxidative stress and aging. In response to low levels of oxidative stresses, p53 exhibits antioxidant activities to eliminate oxidative stress and ensure cell survival; in response to high levels of oxidative stresses, p53 exhibits prooxidative activities that further increase the levels of stresses, leading to cell death. p53 accomplishes these context-dependent roles by regulating the expression of a panel of genes involved in cellular responses to oxidative stresses and by modulating other pathways important for oxidative stress responses. The mechanism that switches p53 function from antioxidant to prooxidant remains unclear, but could account for the findings that increased p53 activities have been linked to both accelerated aging and increased life span in mice. Therefore, a balance of p53 antioxidant and prooxidant activities in response to oxidative stresses could be important for longevity by suppressing the accumulation of oxidative stresses and DNA damage. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 15, 1669–1678. PMID:21050134

  18. Sepiapterin improves angiogenesis of pulmonary artery endothelial cells with in utero pulmonary hypertension by recoupling endothelial nitric oxide synthase

    PubMed Central

    Du, Jianhai; Xu, Hao; Bakhutashvili, Ivane; Eis, Annie; Shi, Yang; Pritchard, Kirkwood A.; Konduri, Girija G.

    2011-01-01

    Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) is associated with decreased blood vessel density that contributes to increased pulmonary vascular resistance. Previous studies showed that uncoupled endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS) activity and increased NADPH oxidase activity resulted in marked decreases in NO bioavailability and impaired angiogenesis in PPHN. In the present study, we hypothesize that loss of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), a critical cofactor for eNOS, induces uncoupled eNOS activity and impairs angiogenesis in PPHN. Pulmonary artery endothelial cells (PAEC) isolated from fetal lambs with PPHN (HTFL-PAEC) or control lambs (NFL-PAEC) were used to investigate the cellular mechanisms impairing angiogenesis in PPHN. Cellular mechanisms were examined with respect to BH4 levels, GTP-cyclohydrolase-1 (GCH-1) expression, eNOS dimer formation, and eNOS-heat shock protein 90 (hsp90) interactions under basal conditions and after sepiapterin (Sep) supplementation. Cellular levels of BH4, GCH-1 expression, and eNOS dimer formation were decreased in HTFL-PAEC compared with NFL-PAEC. Sep supplementation decreased apoptosis and increased in vitro angiogenesis in HTFL-PAEC and ex vivo pulmonary artery sprouting angiogenesis. Sep also increased cellular BH4 content, NO production, eNOS dimer formation, and eNOS-hsp90 association and decreased the superoxide formation in HTFL-PAEC. These data demonstrate that Sep improves NO production and angiogenic potential of HTFL-PAEC by recoupling eNOS activity. Increasing BH4 levels via Sep supplementation may be an important therapy for improving eNOS function and restoring angiogenesis in PPHN. PMID:21622842

  19. Morinda citrifolia leaf enhanced performance by improving angiogenesis, mitochondrial biogenesis, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory & stress responses.

    PubMed

    Mohamad Shalan, Nor Aijratul Asikin; Mustapha, Noordin M; Mohamed, Suhaila

    2016-12-01

    Morinda citrifolia fruit, (noni), enhanced performances in athletes and post-menopausal women in clinical studies. This report shows the edible noni leaves water extract enhances performance in a weight-loaded swimming animal model better than the fruit or standardized green tea extract. The 4weeks study showed the extract (containing scopoletin and epicatechin) progressively prolonged the time to exhaustion by threefold longer than the control, fruit or tea extract. The extract improved (i) the mammalian antioxidant responses (MDA, GSH and SOD2 levels), (ii) tissue nutrient (glucose) and metabolite (lactate) management, (iii) stress hormone (cortisol) regulation; (iv) neurotransmitter (dopamine, noradrenaline, serotonin) expressions, transporter or receptor levels, (v) anti-inflammatory (IL4 & IL10) responses; (v) skeletal muscle angiogenesis (VEGFA) and (v) energy and mitochondrial biogenesis (via PGC, UCP3, NRF2, AMPK, MAPK1, and CAMK4). The ergogenic extract helped delay fatigue by enhancing energy production, regulation and efficiency, which suggests benefits for physical activities and disease recovery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Role of oxidative stress in pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mahjoub, Soleiman; Masrour-Roudsari, Jila

    2012-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MS) recognized as a major cause of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases, has become one of the major public health challenges worldwide. The pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome is multiple and still poorly understood. No single factor has yet been identified as an underlying causal factor. There is a growing belief, however, that obesity, especially visceral obesity, may play an important role in the development of the syndrome. Visceral adiposity seems to be an independent predictor of insulin sensitivity, impaired glucose tolerance, dyslipidemia and elevated blood pressure. An increasing number of studies confirm that oxidative stress, chronic inflammation and angiogenesis all play important roles in the pathogenesis of MS. Chronic hyperglycemia causes oxidative stress in tissues prone to complications in patients with diabetes. Oxidative stress occurs in a cellular system when the production of free radical moieties exceeds the antioxidant capacity of that system. If cellular antioxidants do not remove free radicals, radicals attack and damage proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. The oxidized or nitrosylated products of free radical attack have decreased biological activity, leading to loss of energy metabolism, cell signaling, transport, and other major functions. These altered products are also targeted for proteosome degradation, further decreasing cellular function. Accumulation of such injury ultimately leads a cell to die through necrotic or apoptotic mechanisms. In conclusion, a puzzle of many pieces of evidence suggests that free radical overgeneration may be considered the key in the generation of insulin resistance, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. PMID:26557292

  1. Periodontal treatment decreases plasma oxidized LDL level and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Tamaki, Naofumi; Tomofuji, Takaaki; Ekuni, Daisuke; Yamanaka, Reiko; Morita, Manabu

    2011-12-01

    Periodontitis induces excessive production of reactive oxygen species in periodontal lesions. This may impair circulating pro-oxidant/anti-oxidant balance and induce the oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in blood. The purpose of this study was to monitor circulating oxidized LDL and oxidative stress in subjects with chronic periodontitis following non-surgical periodontal treatment. Plasma levels of oxidized LDL and oxidative stress in 22 otherwise healthy non-smokers with chronic periodontitis (mean age 44.0 years) were measured at baseline and at 1 and 2 months after non-surgical periodontal treatment. At baseline, chronic periodontitis patients had higher plasma levels of oxidized LDL and oxidative stress than healthy subjects (p < 0.001). Periodontal treatment was associated with a significant reduction in plasma levels of oxidized LDL (oxLDL)(p < 0.001) and oxidative stress (p < 0.001). At 2 months after periodontal treatment, the degree of change in the oxLDL was positively correlated with that in the oxidative stress (r = 0.593, p = 0.004). These observations indicate that periodontitis patients showed higher levels of circulating oxLDL and oxidative stress than healthy subjects. In addition, improved oral hygiene and non-surgical periodontal treatment were effective in decreasing oxLDL, which was positively associated with a reduction in circulating oxidative stress.

  2. VEGF-loaded graphene oxide as theranostics for multi-modality imaging-monitored targeting therapeutic angiogenesis of ischemic muscle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhongchan; Huang, Peng; Tong, Guang; Lin, Jing; Jin, Albert; Rong, Pengfei; Zhu, Lei; Nie, Liming; Niu, Gang; Cao, Feng; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2013-07-01

    Herein we report the design and synthesis of multifunctional VEGF-loaded IR800-conjugated graphene oxide (GO-IR800-VEGF) for multi-modality imaging-monitored therapeutic angiogenesis of ischemic muscle. The as-prepared GO-IR800-VEGF positively targets VEGF receptors, maintains an elevated level of VEGF in ischemic tissues for a prolonged time, and finally leads to remarkable therapeutic angiogenesis of ischemic muscle. Although more efforts are required to further understand the in vivo behaviors and the long-term toxicology of GO, our work demonstrates the success of using GO for efficient VEGF delivery in vivo by intravenous administration and suggests the great promise of using graphene oxide in theranostic applications for treating ischemic disease.Herein we report the design and synthesis of multifunctional VEGF-loaded IR800-conjugated graphene oxide (GO-IR800-VEGF) for multi-modality imaging-monitored therapeutic angiogenesis of ischemic muscle. The as-prepared GO-IR800-VEGF positively targets VEGF receptors, maintains an elevated level of VEGF in ischemic tissues for a prolonged time, and finally leads to remarkable therapeutic angiogenesis of ischemic muscle. Although more efforts are required to further understand the in vivo behaviors and the long-term toxicology of GO, our work demonstrates the success of using GO for efficient VEGF delivery in vivo by intravenous administration and suggests the great promise of using graphene oxide in theranostic applications for treating ischemic disease. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr01573d

  3. Hypoxia. 1. Intracellular sensors for oxygen and oxidative stress: novel therapeutic targets.

    PubMed

    Miyata, Toshio; Takizawa, Shunya; van Ypersele de Strihou, Charles

    2011-02-01

    A variety of human disorders, e.g., ischemic heart disease, stroke, kidney disease, eventually share the deleterious consequences of a common, hypoxic and oxidative stress pathway. In this review, we utilize recent information on the cellular defense mechanisms against hypoxia and oxidative stress with the hope to propose new therapeutic tools. The hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) is a key player as it activates a broad range of genes protecting cells against hypoxia. Its level is determined by its degradation rate by intracellular oxygen sensors prolyl hydroxylases (PHDs). There are three different PHD isoforms (PHD1-3). Small molecule PHD inhibitors improve hypoxic injury in experimental animals but, unfortunately, may induce adverse effects associated with PHD2 inhibition, e.g., angiogenesis. As yet, no inhibitor specific for a distinct PHD isoform is currently available. Still, the specific disruption of the PHD1 gene is known to induce hypoxic tolerance, without angiogenesis and erythrocytosis, by reprogramming basal oxygen metabolism with an attendant decreased oxidative stress in hypoxic mitochondria. A specific PHD1 inhibitor might therefore offer a novel therapy against hypoxia. The nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2) regulates the basal and inducible expression of numerous antioxidant stress genes. Disruption of its gene exacerbates oxidative tissue injury. Nrf2 activity is modulated by Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1), an intracellular sensor for oxidative stress. Inhibitors of Keap 1 may prove therapeutic against oxidative tissue injury.

  4. Oxidative stress in androgenetic alopecia

    PubMed Central

    Prie, BE; Iosif, L; Tivig, I; Stoian, I; Giurcaneanu, C

    2016-01-01

    Rationale:Androgenetic alopecia is not considered a life threatening disease but can have serious impacts on the patient’s psychosocial life. Genetic, hormonal, and environmental factors are considered responsible for the presence of androgenetic alopecia. Recent literature reports have proved the presence of inflammation and also of oxidative stress at the level of dermal papilla cells of patients with androgenetic alopecia Objective:We have considered of interest to measure the oxidative stress parameters in the blood of patients with androgenetic alopecia Methods and results:27 patients with androgenetic alopecia and 25 age-matched controls were enrolled in the study. Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC), malondialdehyde (MDA) and total thiols levels were measured on plasma samples. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) activities, and also non protein thiols levels together with TEAC activity were determined on erythrocytes samples No statistically significant changes were observed for TEAC erythrocytes, non-protein thiols, GPx and CAT activities. Significantly decreased (p<0.01) SOD activity was found in patients with androgenetic alopecia. For plasma samples decreased TEAC activity (p<0.001), increased MDA levels (p<0.001) and no change in total thiols concentration were found in patients when compared with the controls. Discussions:Decreased total antioxidant activity and increased MDA levels found in plasma samples of patients with androgenetic alopecia are indicators of oxidative stress presence in these patients. Significantly decreased SOD activity but no change in catalase, glutathione peroxidase, non protein thiols level and total antioxidant activity in erythrocytes are elements which suggest the presence of a compensatory mechanism for SOD dysfunction in red blood cells of patients with androgenetic alopecia. Abbreviations: AAG = androgenetic alopecia, MDA = malondialdehyde, SOD = superoxide dismutase

  5. Oxidative stress in androgenetic alopecia.

    PubMed

    Prie, B E; Iosif, L; Tivig, I; Stoian, I; Giurcaneanu, C

    2016-01-01

    Rationale:Androgenetic alopecia is not considered a life threatening disease but can have serious impacts on the patient's psychosocial life. Genetic, hormonal, and environmental factors are considered responsible for the presence of androgenetic alopecia. Recent literature reports have proved the presence of inflammation and also of oxidative stress at the level of dermal papilla cells of patients with androgenetic alopecia Objective:We have considered of interest to measure the oxidative stress parameters in the blood of patients with androgenetic alopecia Methods and results:27 patients with androgenetic alopecia and 25 age-matched controls were enrolled in the study. Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC), malondialdehyde (MDA) and total thiols levels were measured on plasma samples. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) activities, and also non protein thiols levels together with TEAC activity were determined on erythrocytes samples No statistically significant changes were observed for TEAC erythrocytes, non-protein thiols, GPx and CAT activities. Significantly decreased (p<0.01) SOD activity was found in patients with androgenetic alopecia. For plasma samples decreased TEAC activity (p<0.001), increased MDA levels (p<0.001) and no change in total thiols concentration were found in patients when compared with the controls. Discussions:Decreased total antioxidant activity and increased MDA levels found in plasma samples of patients with androgenetic alopecia are indicators of oxidative stress presence in these patients. Significantly decreased SOD activity but no change in catalase, glutathione peroxidase, non protein thiols level and total antioxidant activity in erythrocytes are elements which suggest the presence of a compensatory mechanism for SOD dysfunction in red blood cells of patients with androgenetic alopecia.

  6. Nitric oxide mediates angiogenesis induced in vivo by platelet-activating factor and tumor necrosis factor-alpha.

    PubMed Central

    Montrucchio, G.; Lupia, E.; de Martino, A.; Battaglia, E.; Arese, M.; Tizzani, A.; Bussolino, F.; Camussi, G.

    1997-01-01

    We evaluated the role of an endogenous production of nitric oxide (NO) in the in vitro migration of endothelial cells and in the in vivo angiogenic response elicited by platelet-activating factor (PAF), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF), and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). The NO synthase inhibitor, N omega-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester (L-NAME), but not its enantiomer D-NAME, prevented chemotaxis of endothelial cells induced in vitro by PAF and by TNF. The motogenic activity of TNF was also inhibited by WEB 2170, a specific PAF-receptor antagonist. In contrast, chemotaxis induced by bFGF was not prevented by L-NAME or by WEB 2170. Angiogenesis was studied in vivo in a murine model in which Matrigel was used as a vehicle for the delivery of mediators. In this model, the angiogenesis induced by PAF and TNF was inhibited by WEB 2170 and L-NAME but not by D-NAME. In contrast, angiogenesis induced by bFGF was not affected by L-NAME or by WEB 2170. TNF, but not bFGF, induced PAF synthesis within Matrigel. These results suggest that NO mediates the angiogenesis induced by PAF as well as that induced by TNF, which is dependent on the production of PAF. In contrast, the angiogenic effect of bFGF appears to be both PAF and NO independent. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:9250168

  7. Oxidative Stress in Inherited Mitochondrial Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Genki; Cortopassi, Gino

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria are a source of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Mitochondrial diseases are the result of inherited defects in mitochondrially-expressed genes. One potential pathomechanism for mitochondrial disease is oxidative stress. Oxidative stress can occur as the result of increased ROS production, or decreased ROS protection. The role of oxidative stresses in the five most common inherited mitochondrial diseases; Friedreich's ataxia (FA), LHON, MELAS, MERRF and Leigh Syndrome (LS) is discussed. Published reports for oxidative stress involvement in pathomechanism in these five mitochondrial diseases are reviewed. The strongest for oxidative stress pathomechanism among the five diseases was in Friedreich's ataxia. In addition, a meta-analysis was carried out to provide an unbiased evaluation of the role of oxidative stress in the five diseases, by searching for oxidative stress citation count frequency within each disease. Of the five most common mitochondrial diseases, the strongest support for oxidative stress is in Friedreich's ataxia (6.42%), followed by LHON (2.45%), MELAS (2.18%), MERRF (1.71%), and LS (1.03%). The increased frequency of oxidative stress citations was significant relative to the mean of the total pool of five diseases (p<0.01) and the mean of the four non-Friedreich's diseases (p<0.0001). Thus there is support for oxidative stress in all five most common mitochondrial diseases, but the strongest, significant support is for Friedreich's ataxia. PMID:26073122

  8. Association of Oxidative Stress with Psychiatric Disorders.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Waseem; Noreen, Hamsa; Castro-Gomes, Vitor; Mohammadzai, Imdadullah; da Rocha, Joao Batista Teixeira; Landeira-Fernandez, J

    2016-01-01

    When concentrations of both reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species exceed the antioxidative capability of an organism, the cells undergo oxidative impairment. Impairments in membrane integrity and lipid and protein oxidation, protein mutilation, DNA damage, and neuronal dysfunction are some of the fundamental consequences of oxidative stress. The purpose of this work was to review the associations between oxidative stress and psychological disorders. The search terms were the following: "oxidative stress and affective disorders," "free radicals and neurodegenerative disorders," "oxidative stress and psychological disorders," "oxidative stress, free radicals, and psychiatric disorders," and "association of oxidative stress." These search terms were used in conjunction with each of the diagnostic categories of the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and World Health Organization's International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. Genetic, pharmacological, biochemical, and preclinical therapeutic studies, case reports, and clinical trials were selected to explore the molecular aspects of psychological disorders that are associated with oxidative stress. We identified a broad spectrum of 83 degenerative syndromes and psychiatric disorders that were associated with oxidative stress. The multi-dimensional information identified herein supports the role of oxidative stress in various psychiatric disorders. We discuss the results from the perspective of developing novel therapeutic interventions.

  9. Oxidative Stress in Oral Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kesarwala, Aparna H.; Krishna, Murali C.; Mitchell, James B.

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative species, including reactive oxygen species (ROS), are components of normal cellular metabolism and are required for intracellular processes as varied as proliferation, signal transduction, and apoptosis. In the situation of chronic oxidative stress, however, ROS contribute to various pathophysiologies and are involved in multiple stages of carcinogenesis. In head and neck cancers specifically, many common risk factors contribute to carcinogenesis via ROS-based mechanisms, including tobacco, areca quid, alcohol, and viruses. Given their widespread influence on the process of carcinogenesis, ROS and their related pathways are attractive targets for intervention. The effects of radiation therapy, a central component of treatment for nearly all head and neck cancers, can also be altered via interfering with oxidative pathways. These pathways are also relevant to the development of many benign oral diseases. In this review, we outline how ROS contribute to pathophysiology with a focus toward head and neck cancers and benign oral diseases, describing potential targets and pathways for intervention that exploit the role of oxidative species in these pathologic processes. PMID:25417961

  10. Oxidative Stress in Diabetic Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Kashihara, N.; Haruna, Y.; Kondeti, V.K.; Kanwar, Y.S.

    2013-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is a leading cause of end-stage renal failure worldwide. Its morphologic characteristics include glomerular hypertrophy, basement membrane thickening, mesangial expansion, tubular atrophy, interstitial fibrosis and arteriolar thickening. All of these are part and parcel of microvascular complications of diabetes. A large body of evidence indicates that oxidative stress is the common denominator link for the major pathways involved in the development and progression of diabetic micro- as well as macrovascular complications of diabetes. There are a number of macromolecules that have been implicated for increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as, NAD(P)H oxidase, advanced glycation end products (AGE), defects in polyol pathway, uncoupled nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and mitochondrial respiratory chain via oxidative phosphorylation. Excess amounts of ROS modulate activation of protein kinase C, mitogen-activated protein kinases, and various cytokines and transcription factors which eventually cause increased expression of extracellular matrix (ECM) genes with progression to fibrosis and end stage renal disease. Activation of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) further worsens the renal injury induced by ROS in diabetic nephropathy. Buffering the generation of ROS may sound a promising therapeutic to ameliorate renal damage from diabetic nephropathy, however, various studies have demonstrated minimal reno-protection by these agents. Interruption in the RAS has yielded much better results in terms of reno-protection and progression of diabetic nephropathy. In this review various aspects of oxidative stress coupled with the damage induced by RAS are discussed with the anticipation to yield an impetus for designing new generation of specific antioxidants that are potentially more effective to reduce reno-vascular complications of diabetes. PMID:20939814

  11. Oxidative Stress and HPV Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    De Marco, Federico

    2013-01-01

    Extensive experimental work has conclusively demonstrated that infection with certain types of human papillomaviruses, the so-called high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV), represent a most powerful human carcinogen. However, neoplastic growth is a rare and inappropriate outcome in the natural history of HPV, and a number of other events have to concur in order to induce the viral infection into the (very rare) neoplastic transformation. From this perspective, a number of putative viral, host, and environmental co-factors have been proposed as potential candidates. Among them oxidative stress (OS) is an interesting candidate, yet comparatively underexplored. OS is a constant threat to aerobic organisms being generated during mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, as well as during inflammation, infections, ionizing irradiation, UV exposure, mechanical and chemical stresses. Epithelial tissues, the elective target for HPV infection, are heavily exposed to all named sources of OS. Two different types of cooperative mechanisms are presumed to occur between OS and HPV: I) The OS genotoxic activity and the HPV-induced genomic instability concur independently to the generation of the molecular damage necessary for the emergence of neoplastic clones. This first mode is merely a particular form of co-carcinogenesis; and II) OS specifically interacts with one or more molecular stages of neoplastic initiation and/or progression induced by the HPV infection. This manuscript was designed to summarize available data on this latter hypothesis. Experimental data and indirect evidences on promoting the activity of OS in viral infection and viral integration will be reviewed. The anti-apoptotic and pro-angiogenetic role of NO (nitric oxide) and iNOS (inducible nitric oxide synthase) will be discussed together with the OS/HPV cooperation in inducing cancer metabolism adaptation. Unexplored/underexplored aspects of the OS interplay with the HPV-driven carcinogenesis will be

  12. Inflammation, oxidative stress, and obesity.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Sánchez, Alba; Madrigal-Santillán, Eduardo; Bautista, Mirandeli; Esquivel-Soto, Jaime; Morales-González, Angel; Esquivel-Chirino, Cesar; Durante-Montiel, Irene; Sánchez-Rivera, Graciela; Valadez-Vega, Carmen; Morales-González, José A

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is a chronic disease of multifactorial origin and can be defined as an increase in the accumulation of body fat. Adipose tissue is not only a triglyceride storage organ, but studies have shown the role of white adipose tissue as a producer of certain bioactive substances called adipokines. Among adipokines, we find some inflammatory functions, such as Interleukin-6 (IL-6); other adipokines entail the functions of regulating food intake, therefore exerting a direct effect on weight control. This is the case of leptin, which acts on the limbic system by stimulating dopamine uptake, creating a feeling of fullness. However, these adipokines induce the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), generating a process known as oxidative stress (OS). Because adipose tissue is the organ that secretes adipokines and these in turn generate ROS, adipose tissue is considered an independent factor for the generation of systemic OS. There are several mechanisms by which obesity produces OS. The first of these is the mitochondrial and peroxisomal oxidation of fatty acids, which can produce ROS in oxidation reactions, while another mechanism is over-consumption of oxygen, which generates free radicals in the mitochondrial respiratory chain that is found coupled with oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria. Lipid-rich diets are also capable of generating ROS because they can alter oxygen metabolism. Upon the increase of adipose tissue, the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), was found to be significantly diminished. Finally, high ROS production and the decrease in antioxidant capacity leads to various abnormalities, among which we find endothelial dysfunction, which is characterized by a reduction in the bioavailability of vasodilators, particularly nitric oxide (NO), and an increase in endothelium-derived contractile factors, favoring atherosclerotic disease.

  13. Inflammation, Oxidative Stress, and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Sánchez, Alba; Madrigal-Santillán, Eduardo; Bautista, Mirandeli; Esquivel-Soto, Jaime; Morales-González, Ángel; Esquivel-Chirino, Cesar; Durante-Montiel, Irene; Sánchez-Rivera, Graciela; Valadez-Vega, Carmen; Morales-González, José A.

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is a chronic disease of multifactorial origin and can be defined as an increase in the accumulation of body fat. Adipose tissue is not only a triglyceride storage organ, but studies have shown the role of white adipose tissue as a producer of certain bioactive substances called adipokines. Among adipokines, we find some inflammatory functions, such as Interleukin-6 (IL-6); other adipokines entail the functions of regulating food intake, therefore exerting a direct effect on weight control. This is the case of leptin, which acts on the limbic system by stimulating dopamine uptake, creating a feeling of fullness. However, these adipokines induce the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), generating a process known as oxidative stress (OS). Because adipose tissue is the organ that secretes adipokines and these in turn generate ROS, adipose tissue is considered an independent factor for the generation of systemic OS. There are several mechanisms by which obesity produces OS. The first of these is the mitochondrial and peroxisomal oxidation of fatty acids, which can produce ROS in oxidation reactions, while another mechanism is over-consumption of oxygen, which generates free radicals in the mitochondrial respiratory chain that is found coupled with oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria. Lipid-rich diets are also capable of generating ROS because they can alter oxygen metabolism. Upon the increase of adipose tissue, the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), was found to be significantly diminished. Finally, high ROS production and the decrease in antioxidant capacity leads to various abnormalities, among which we find endothelial dysfunction, which is characterized by a reduction in the bioavailability of vasodilators, particularly nitric oxide (NO), and an increase in endothelium-derived contractile factors, favoring atherosclerotic disease. PMID:21686173

  14. Etiologies of sperm oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Sabeti, Parvin; Pourmasumi, Soheila; Rahiminia, Tahereh; Akyash, Fatemeh; Talebi, Ali Reza

    2016-01-01

    Sperm is particularly susceptible to reactive oxygen species (ROS) during critical phases of spermiogenesis. However, the level of seminal ROS is restricted by seminal antioxidants which have beneficial effects on sperm parameters and developmental potentials. Mitochondria and sperm plasma membrane are two major sites of ROS generation in sperm cells. Besides, leukocytes including polymer phonuclear (PMN) leukocytes and macrophages produce broad category of molecules including oxygen free radicals, non-radical species and reactive nitrogen species. Physiological role of ROS increase the intracellular cAMP which then activate protein kinase in male reproductive system. This indicates that spermatozoa need small amounts of ROS to acquire the ability of nuclear maturation regulation and condensation to fertilize the oocyte. There is a long list of intrinsic and extrinsic factors which can induce oxidative stress to interact with lipids, proteins and DNA molecules. As a result, we have lipid peroxidation, DNA fragmentation, axonemal damage, denaturation of the enzymes, over generation of superoxide in the mitochondria, lower antioxidant activity and finally abnormal spermatogenesis. If oxidative stress is considered as one of the main cause of DNA damage in the germ cells, then there should be good reason for antioxidant therapy in these conditions. PMID:27351024

  15. Oxidative stress in neonatology: a review.

    PubMed

    Mutinati, M; Pantaleo, M; Roncetti, M; Piccinno, M; Rizzo, A; Sciorsci, R L

    2014-02-01

    Free radicals are highly reactive oxidizing agents containing one or more unpaired electrons. Both in human and veterinary neonathology, it is generally accepted that oxidative stress functions as an important catalysator of neonatal disease. Soon after birth, many sudden physiological and environmental conditions make the newborn vulnerable for the negative effects of oxidative stress, which potentially can impair neonatal vitality. As a clinician, it is important to have in depth knowledge about factors affecting maternal/neonatal oxidative status and the cascades of events that enrol when the neonate is subjected to oxidative stress. This report aims at providing clinicians with an up-to-date review about oxidative stress in neonates across animal species. It will be emphasized which handlings and treatments that are applied during neonatal care or resuscitation can actually impose oxidative stress upon the neonate. Views and opinions about maternal and/or neonatal antioxydative therapy will be shared.

  16. Impact of oxidative stress in fetal programming.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Loren P; Al-Hasan, Yazan

    2012-01-01

    Intrauterine stress induces increased risk of adult disease through fetal programming mechanisms. Oxidative stress can be generated by several conditions, such as, prenatal hypoxia, maternal under- and overnutrition, and excessive glucocorticoid exposure. The role of oxidant molecules as signaling factors in fetal programming via epigenetic mechanisms is discussed. By linking oxidative stress with dysregulation of specific target genes, we may be able to develop therapeutic strategies that protect against organ dysfunction in the programmed offspring.

  17. A differential role for nitric oxide in two forms of physiological angiogenesis in mouse

    PubMed Central

    Williams, James L; Cartland, David; Hussain, Arif; Egginton, Stuart

    2006-01-01

    NO plays a role in a variety of in vitro models of angiogenesis, although confounding effects of NO on non-endothelial tissues make its role during in vivo angiogenesis unclear. We therefore examined the effects of NO on two physiological models of angiogenesis in mouse skeletal muscle: (1) administration of prazosin (50 mg l−1) thereby increasing blood flow; and (2) muscle overload from surgical ablation of a functional synergist. These models induce angiogenesis via longitudinal splitting and capillary sprouting, respectively. Administration of NG-nitro-l-arginine (l-NNA) abolished the increase in capillary to fibre ratio (C:F) in response to prazosin administration, along with the increases in luminal filopodia and large endothelial vacuoles. l-NNA prevented luminal filopodia and vacuolisation in response to extirpation, but had no effect on abluminal sprouting, and little effect on C:F. Comparison of mice lacking endothelial (eNOS−/−) and neuronal NO synthase (nNOS−/−) showed that longitudinal splitting is eNOS-dependent, and Western blotting demonstrated an increase in eNOS but not inducible NOS (iNOS) expression. These data show that there are two pathways of physiological angiogenesis in skeletal muscle characterised by longitudinal splitting and capillary sprouting, respectively. NO generated by eNOS plays an essential role in splitting but not in sprouting angiogenesis, which has important implications for angiogenic therapies that target NO. PMID:16293647

  18. Do the serum oxidative stress biomarkers provide a reasonable index of the general oxidative stress status?

    PubMed

    Argüelles, Sandro; García, Sonia; Maldonado, Mariam; Machado, Alberto; Ayala, Antonio

    2004-11-01

    The oxidant status of an individual is assessed by determining a group of markers in noninvasive samples. One limitation when measuring these biomarkers is that they do not give information about tissue localization of oxidative stress. The present study was undertaken to establish whether the serum oxidative stress biomarkers are indicative of oxidative stress in tissues of an individual. To accomplish this, we determined a few generic markers of oxidation in serum and tissues of six groups of rats treated experimentally, to modulate their oxidative stress status. The correlation between serum and tissue levels was calculated for each marker. Also, for each tissue, the correlation between the values of these oxidative stress biomarkers was analysed. Our results show that only lipid peroxides in serum could be useful to predict the oxidative stress in tissues. No correlation was found between any of the oxidative stress markers in serum.

  19. Metals, toxicity and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Valko, M; Morris, H; Cronin, M T D

    2005-01-01

    . Antioxidants (both enzymatic and non-enzymatic) provide protection against deleterious metal-mediated free radical attacks. Vitamin E and melatonin can prevent the majority of metal-mediated (iron, copper, cadmium) damage both in vitro systems and in metal-loaded animals. Toxicity studies involving chromium have shown that the protective effect of vitamin E against lipid peroxidation may be associated rather with the level of non-enzymatic antioxidants than the activity of enzymatic antioxidants. However, a very recent epidemiological study has shown that a daily intake of vitamin E of more than 400 IU increases the risk of death and should be avoided. While previous studies have proposed a deleterious pro-oxidant effect of vitamin C (ascorbate) in the presence of iron (or copper), recent results have shown that even in the presence of redox-active iron (or copper) and hydrogen peroxide, ascorbate acts as an antioxidant that prevents lipid peroxidation and does not promote protein oxidation in humans in vitro. Experimental results have also shown a link between vanadium and oxidative stress in the etiology of diabetes. The impact of zinc (Zn) on the immune system, the ability of zinc to act as an antioxidant in order to reduce oxidative stress and the neuroprotective and neurodegenerative role of zinc (and copper) in the etiology of Alzheimer's disease is also discussed. This review summarizes recent findings in the metal-induced formation of free radicals and the role of oxidative stress in the carcinogenicity and toxicity of metals.

  20. Pim1 kinase promotes angiogenesis through phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase at Ser-633

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ming; Yi, Bing; Zhu, Ni; Wei, Xin; Zhang, Guan-Xin; Huang, Shengdong; Sun, Jianxin

    2016-01-01

    Aims Posttranslational modification, such as phosphorylation, plays an essential role in regulating activation of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS). In the present study, we aim to determine whether eNOS could be phosphorylated and regulated by a novel serine/threonine–protein kinase Pim1 in vascular endothelial cells (ECs). Methods and results Using immunoprecipitation and protein kinase assays, we demonstrated that Pim1 specifically interacts with eNOS, which leads to a marked phosphorylation of eNOS at Ser-633 and increased production of nitric oxide (NO). Intriguingly, in response to VEGF stimulation, eNOS phosphorylation at Ser-633 exhibits two distinct phases: transient phosphorylation occurring between 0 and 60 min and sustained phosphorylation occurring between 2 and 24 h, which are mediated by the protein kinase A (PKA) and Pim1, respectively. Inhibiting Pim1 by either pharmacological inhibitor SMI-4a or the dominant-negative form of Pim1 markedly attenuates VEGF-induced tube formation, while Pim1 overexpression significantly increases EC tube formation and migration in an NO-dependent manner. Importantly, Pim1 expression and eNOS phosphorylation at Ser-633 were substantially decreased in high glucose-treated ECs and in the aorta of db/db diabetic mice. Increased Pim1 expression ameliorates impaired vascular angiogenesis in diabetic mice, as determined by an ex vivo aortic ring assay. Conclusion Our findings demonstrate Pim1 as a novel kinase that is responsible for the phosphorylation of eNOS at Ser-633 and enhances EC sprouting of aortic rings from diabetic mice, suggesting that Pim1 could potentially serve as a novel therapeutic target for revascularization strategies. PMID:26598507

  1. Intracerebral Hemorrhage, Oxidative Stress, and Antioxidant Therapy.

    PubMed

    Duan, Xiaochun; Wen, Zunjia; Shen, Haitao; Shen, Meifen; Chen, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Hemorrhagic stroke is a common and severe neurological disorder and is associated with high rates of mortality and morbidity, especially for intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Increasing evidence demonstrates that oxidative stress responses participate in the pathophysiological processes of secondary brain injury (SBI) following ICH. The mechanisms involved in interoperable systems include endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, neuronal apoptosis and necrosis, inflammation, and autophagy. In this review, we summarized some promising advances in the field of oxidative stress and ICH, including contained animal and human investigations. We also discussed the role of oxidative stress, systemic oxidative stress responses, and some research of potential therapeutic options aimed at reducing oxidative stress to protect the neuronal function after ICH, focusing on the challenges of translation between preclinical and clinical studies, and potential post-ICH antioxidative therapeutic approaches.

  2. Intracerebral Hemorrhage, Oxidative Stress, and Antioxidant Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Xiaochun; Wen, Zunjia; Shen, Haitao; Shen, Meifen

    2016-01-01

    Hemorrhagic stroke is a common and severe neurological disorder and is associated with high rates of mortality and morbidity, especially for intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Increasing evidence demonstrates that oxidative stress responses participate in the pathophysiological processes of secondary brain injury (SBI) following ICH. The mechanisms involved in interoperable systems include endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, neuronal apoptosis and necrosis, inflammation, and autophagy. In this review, we summarized some promising advances in the field of oxidative stress and ICH, including contained animal and human investigations. We also discussed the role of oxidative stress, systemic oxidative stress responses, and some research of potential therapeutic options aimed at reducing oxidative stress to protect the neuronal function after ICH, focusing on the challenges of translation between preclinical and clinical studies, and potential post-ICH antioxidative therapeutic approaches. PMID:27190572

  3. Oxidative Stress and Pulmonary Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Cheresh, Paul; Kim, Seok-Jo; Tulasiram, Sandhya; Kamp, David W.

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress is implicated as an important molecular mechanism underlying fibrosis in a variety of organs, including the lungs. However, the causal role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) released from environmental exposures and inflammatory / interstitial cells in mediating fibrosis as well as how best to target an imbalance in ROS production in patients with fibrosis are not firmly established. We focus on the role of ROS in pulmonary fibrosis and, where possible, highlight overlapping molecular pathways in other organs. The key origins of oxidative stress in pulmonary fibrosis (e.g. environmental toxins, mitochondria / NADPH oxidase of inflammatory and lung target cells, and depletion of antioxidant defenses) are reviewed. The role of alveolar epithelial cell (AEC) apoptosis by mitochondria- and p53-regulated death pathways are examined. We emphasize an emerging role for the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in pulmonary fibrosis. After briefly summarizing how ROS trigger a DNA damage response, we concentrate on recent studies implicating a role for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage and repair mechanisms focusing on 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (Ogg1) as well as crosstalk between ROS production, mtDNA damage, p53, Ogg1, and mitochondrial aconitase (ACO2). Finally, the association between ROS and TGF-β1-induced fibrosis is discussed. Novel insights into the molecular basis of ROS-induced pulmonary diseases and, in particular, lung epithelial cell death may promote the development of unique therapeutic targets for managing pulmonary fibrosis as well as fibrosis in other organs and tumors, and in aging; diseases for which effective management is lacking. PMID:23219955

  4. Oxidants and antioxidants relevance in rats' pulmonary induced oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Zamfir, C; Eloaie Zugun, F; Cojocaru, E; Tocan, L

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Even if the reactive oxygen species were discovered, described and detailed a long time ago, there is still little data about the mechanisms of oxidative stress, their tissular effects and about an efficient antioxidant strategy, involving animal experimental models. It has been shown that the lung is one of the most exposed organs to the oxidative stress. The particular effects of different types of oxidative stress on lungs were investigated in this experimental study, in order to quantify the intensity and the extent of the pulmonary damage, featuring the antioxidant enzymatic protective role. Methods: The study of lung injury was performed on four distinct groups of Wistar rats: a control group versus a group exposed to continuous light deprivation versus a group exposed to nitrofurantoin versus a group exposed to continuous light deprivation, to nitrofurantoin and vitamin C. Pulmonary samples were taken and treated for microscopic analysis. A qualitative immunohistochemical estimation of pulmonary superoxide dismutase 1(SOD 1) was performed. Blood tests were used in order to reveal the presence and intensity of oxidative stress. Results: Continuous light deprivation and the chronic administration of nitrofurantoin acted as oxidants with a certain involvement in lung damage– vascular and alveolar wall disturbances. Adding an antioxidant, such as vitamin C, considerably improved lung reactivity to oxidative stress. Conclusion: The chronic exposure to oxidants in the induced oxidative stress sustains the development of specific lung alterations. SOD 1 positive reaction underlines the complex enzymatic defense in oxidative stress. PMID:22567046

  5. Retinal Diseases Associated with Oxidative Stress and the Effects of a Free Radical Scavenger (Edaravone)

    PubMed Central

    Hara, Hideaki

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in developing and accelerating retinal diseases including age-related macular degeneration (AMD), glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy (DR), and retinal vein occlusion (RVO). An excess amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS) can lead to functional and morphological impairments in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), endothelial cells, and retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Here we demonstrate that edaravone, a free radical scavenger, decreased apoptotic cell death, oxidative damage to DNA and lipids, and angiogenesis through inhibiting JNK and p38 MAPK pathways in AMD, glaucoma, DR, and RVO animal models. These data suggest that the therapeutic strategy for targeting oxidative stress may be important for the treatment of these ocular diseases, and edaravone may be useful for treating retinal diseases associated with oxidative stress. PMID:28194256

  6. Oxidative Stress Adaptation with Acute, Chronic and Repeated Stress

    PubMed Central

    Pickering, Andrew M.; Vojtovich, Lesya; Tower, John; Davies, Kelvin J. A.

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative stress adaptation or hormesis is an important mechanism by which cells and organisms respond to, and cope with, environmental and physiological shifts in the level of oxidative stress. Most studies of oxidative stress adaption have been limited to adaptation induced by acute stress. In contrast, many if not most environmental and physiological stresses are either repeated or chronic. In this study we find that both cultured mammalian cells, and the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, are capable of adapting to chronic or repeated stress by up-regulating protective systems, such as their proteasomal proteolytic capacity to remove oxidized proteins. Repeated stress adaptation resulted in significant extension of adaptive responses. Repeated stresses must occur at sufficiently long intervals, however (12 hours or more for MEF cells and 7 days or more for flies), for adaptation to be successful, and the level of both repeated and chronic stress must be lower than is optimal for adaptation to acute stress. Regrettably, regimens of adaptation to both repeated and chronic stress that were successful for short-term survival in Drosophila, nevertheless also caused significant reductions in lifespan for the flies. Thus, although both repeated and chronic stress can be tolerated, they may result in a shorter life. PMID:23142766

  7. Induction of Oxidative Stress in Kidney

    PubMed Central

    Ozbek, Emin

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress has a critical role in the pathophysiology of several kidney diseases, and many complications of these diseases are mediated by oxidative stress, oxidative stress-related mediators, and inflammation. Several systemic diseases such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and hypercholesterolemia; infection; antibiotics, chemotherapeutics, and radiocontrast agents; and environmental toxins, occupational chemicals, radiation, smoking, as well as alcohol consumption induce oxidative stress in kidney. We searched the literature using PubMed, MEDLINE, and Google scholar with “oxidative stress, reactive oxygen species, oxygen free radicals, kidney, renal injury, nephropathy, nephrotoxicity, and induction”. The literature search included only articles written in English language. Letters or case reports were excluded. Scientific relevance, for clinical studies target populations, and study design, for basic science studies full coverage of main topics, are eligibility criteria for articles used in this paper. PMID:22577546

  8. Oxidized LDL-induced angiogenesis involves sphingosine 1-phosphate: prevention by anti-S1P antibody

    PubMed Central

    Camaré, Caroline; Trayssac, Magali; Garmy-Susini, Barbara; Mucher, Elodie; Sabbadini, Roger; Salvayre, Robert; Negre-Salvayre, Anne

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Neovascularization occurring in atherosclerotic lesions may promote plaque expansion, intraplaque haemorrhage and rupture. Oxidized LDL (oxLDL) are atherogenic, but their angiogenic effect is controversial; both angiogenic and anti-angiogenic effects have been reported. The angiogenic mechanism of oxLDL is partly understood, but the role of the angiogenic sphingolipid, sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), in this process is not known. Thus, we investigated whether S1P is involved in the oxLDL-induced angiogenesis and whether an anti-S1P monoclonal antibody can prevent this effect. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Angiogenesis was assessed by capillary tube formation by human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1) cultured on Matrigel and in vivo by the Matrigel plug assay in C57BL/6 mice. KEY RESULTS Human oxLDL exhibited a biphasic angiogenic effect on HMEC-1; low concentrations were angiogenic, higher concentrations were cytotoxic. The angiogenic response to oxLDL was blocked by the sphingosine kinase (SPHK) inhibitor, dimethylsphingosine, by SPHK1-siRNA and by an anti-S1P monoclonal antibody. Moreover, inhibition of oxLDL uptake and subsequent redox signalling by anti-CD36 and anti-LOX-1 receptor antibodies and by N-acetylcysteine, respectively, blocked SPHK1 activation and tube formation. In vivo, in the Matrigel plug assay, low concentrations of human oxLDL or murine oxVLDL also triggered angiogenesis, which was prevented by i.p. injection of the anti-S1P antibody. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS These data highlight the role of S1P in angiogenesis induced by oxLDL both in HMEC-1 cultured on Matrigel and in vivo in the Matrigel plug model in mice, and demonstrate that the anti-S1P antibody effectively blocks the angiogenic effect of oxLDL. PMID:25176316

  9. Clinical Relevance of Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Frijhoff, Jeroen; Winyard, Paul G.; Zarkovic, Neven; Davies, Sean S.; Stocker, Roland; Cheng, David; Knight, Annie R.; Taylor, Emma Louise; Oettrich, Jeannette; Ruskovska, Tatjana; Gasparovic, Ana Cipak; Cuadrado, Antonio; Weber, Daniela; Poulsen, Henrik Enghusen; Grune, Tilman; Schmidt, Harald H.H.W.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Oxidative stress is considered to be an important component of various diseases. A vast number of methods have been developed and used in virtually all diseases to measure the extent and nature of oxidative stress, ranging from oxidation of DNA to proteins, lipids, and free amino acids. Recent Advances: An increased understanding of the biology behind diseases and redox biology has led to more specific and sensitive tools to measure oxidative stress markers, which are very diverse and sometimes very low in abundance. Critical Issues: The literature is very heterogeneous. It is often difficult to draw general conclusions on the significance of oxidative stress biomarkers, as only in a limited proportion of diseases have a range of different biomarkers been used, and different biomarkers have been used to study different diseases. In addition, biomarkers are often measured using nonspecific methods, while specific methodologies are often too sophisticated or laborious for routine clinical use. Future Directions: Several markers of oxidative stress still represent a viable biomarker opportunity for clinical use. However, positive findings with currently used biomarkers still need to be validated in larger sample sizes and compared with current clinical standards to establish them as clinical diagnostics. It is important to realize that oxidative stress is a nuanced phenomenon that is difficult to characterize, and one biomarker is not necessarily better than others. The vast diversity in oxidative stress between diseases and conditions has to be taken into account when selecting the most appropriate biomarker. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 23, 1144–1170. PMID:26415143

  10. Oxidative stress in the neonate.

    PubMed

    Robles, R; Palomino, N; Robles, A

    2001-11-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the oxidative state of term and preterm neonates at the moment of birth and during the first days of life, and the influence of exposure to oxygen on the premature neonates.A total of 20 neonates were selected. Group A: 10 healthy full-term neonates, and Group B: 10 preterm neonates with no other pathology associated, requiring oxygen therapy. Venous samples were taken in cord at 3 and 72 h in Group A, and in cord at 3, 24 and 72 h and 7 days in Group B.Hydroperoxides, Q10 coenzyme (Co Q10) and alpha-tocopherol were measured within the erythrocyte membrane. Levels of hydroperoxides present in erythrocyte membrane were higher than normal both in Group A and in Group B at birth. This increase was greater in the group of premature neonates. Levels of alpha-tocopherol at birth increase significantly at 72 h in term neonates. Among the premature newborns, alpha-tocopherol levels are two to three times lower at birth and do not rise to higher levels as in the term neonate group. Fall in levels of Co Q10 in erythrocyte membranes is observed, and perhaps is due to the role of Co Q10 in maintaining the pool of reduced tocopherol. At birth, the neonate presents an increase of markers of oxidative stress and a decrease of their antioxidant defenses. This difference is greater as gestational age decreases. The application of oxygen therapy resulted in these levels which remain low throughout the study period.

  11. NADPH oxidase-4 mediates protection against chronic load-induced stress in mouse hearts by enhancing angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Min; Brewer, Alison C.; Schröder, Katrin; Santos, Celio X. C.; Grieve, David J.; Wang, Minshu; Anilkumar, Narayana; Yu, Bin; Dong, Xuebin; Walker, Simon J.; Brandes, Ralf P.; Shah, Ajay M.

    2010-01-01

    Cardiac failure occurs when the heart fails to adapt to chronic stresses. Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent signaling is implicated in cardiac stress responses, but the role of different ROS sources remains unclear. Here we report that NADPH oxidase-4 (Nox4) facilitates cardiac adaptation to chronic stress. Unlike other Nox proteins, Nox4 activity is regulated mainly by its expression level, which increases in cardiomyocytes under stresses such as pressure overload or hypoxia. To investigate the functional role of Nox4 during the cardiac response to stress, we generated mice with a genetic deletion of Nox4 or a cardiomyocyte-targeted overexpression of Nox4. Basal cardiac function was normal in both models, but Nox4-null animals developed exaggerated contractile dysfunction, hypertrophy, and cardiac dilatation during exposure to chronic overload whereas Nox4-transgenic mice were protected. Investigation of mechanisms underlying this protective effect revealed a significant Nox4-dependent preservation of myocardial capillary density after pressure overload. Nox4 enhanced stress-induced activation of cardiomyocyte hypoxia inducible factor 1 and the release of vascular endothelial growth factor, resulting in increased paracrine angiogenic activity. These data indicate that cardiomyocyte Nox4 is a unique inducible regulator of myocardial angiogenesis, a key determinant of cardiac adaptation to overload stress. Our results also have wider relevance to the use of nonspecific antioxidant approaches in cardiac disease and may provide an explanation for the failure of such strategies in many settings. PMID:20921387

  12. Proteostasis, oxidative stress and aging.

    PubMed

    Korovila, Ioanna; Hugo, Martín; Castro, José Pedro; Weber, Daniela; Höhn, Annika; Grune, Tilman; Jung, Tobias

    2017-10-01

    The production of reactive species is an inevitable by-product of metabolism and thus, life itself. Since reactive species are able to damage cellular structures, especially proteins, as the most abundant macromolecule of mammalian cells, systems are necessary which regulate and preserve a functional cellular protein pool, in a process termed "proteostasis". Not only the mammalian protein pool is subject of a constant turnover, organelles are also degraded and rebuild. The most important systems for these removal processes are the "ubiquitin-proteasomal system" (UPS), the central proteolytic machinery of mammalian cells, mainly responsible for proteostasis, as well as the "autophagy-lysosomal system", which mediates the turnover of organelles and large aggregates. Many age-related pathologies and the aging process itself are accompanied by a dysregulation of UPS, autophagy and the cross-talk between both systems. This review will describe the sources and effects of oxidative stress, preservation of cellular protein- and organelle-homeostasis and the effects of aging on proteostasis in mammalian cells. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. PARTICULATE MATTER, OXIDATIVE STRESS AND ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Particulate matter (PM), a component of air pollution has been epidemiologically associated with sudden deaths, cardiovascular and respiratory illnesses. The effects are more pronounced in patients with pre-existing conditions such as asthma, diabetes or obstructive pulmonary disorders. Clinical and experimental studies have historically focused on the cardiopulmonary effects of PM. However, since PM particles carry numerous biocontaminants that are capable of triggering free radical production and cytokine release, the possibility that PM may affect organs systems sensitive to oxidative stress must be considered. Four independent studies that summarize the neurochemical and neuropathological changes found in the brains of PM exposed animals are described here. These were recently presented at two 2007 symposia sponsored by the Society of Toxicology (Charlotte, NC) and the International Neurotoxicology Association (Monterey, CA). Particulates are covered with biocontaminants (e.g., endotoxins, mold, pollen) which convey free radical activity that can damage the lipids, nucleic acids, and proteins of target cells on contact and stimulate inflammatory cytokine release. Although, the historical focus of PM toxicity has been cardiopulmonary targets, it is now appreciated that inhaled nano-size (<100 nm) particles quickly exit the lungs and enter the circulation where they distribute to various organ systems (l.e., liver, kidneys, testes, lymph nodes) (Takenaka et aI

  14. Oxidative Stress Related Diseases in Newborns

    PubMed Central

    Aykac, Kubra

    2016-01-01

    We review oxidative stress-related newborn disease and the mechanism of oxidative damage. In addition, we outline diagnostic and therapeutic strategies and future directions. Many reports have defined oxidative stress as an imbalance between an enhanced reactive oxygen/nitrogen species and the lack of protective ability of antioxidants. From that point of view, free radical-induced damage caused by oxidative stress seems to be a probable contributing factor to the pathogenesis of many newborn diseases, such as respiratory distress syndrome, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, periventricular leukomalacia, necrotizing enterocolitis, patent ductus arteriosus, and retinopathy of prematurity. We share the hope that the new understanding of the concept of oxidative stress and its relation to newborn diseases that has been made possible by new diagnostic techniques will throw light on the treatment of those diseases. PMID:27403229

  15. Ageing, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial uncoupling.

    PubMed

    Harper, M-E; Bevilacqua, L; Hagopian, K; Weindruch, R; Ramsey, J J

    2004-12-01

    Mitochondria are a cell's single greatest source of reactive oxygen species. Reactive oxygen species are important for many life sustaining processes of cells and tissues, but they can also induce cell damage and death. If their production and levels within cells is not effectively controlled, then the detrimental effects of oxidative stress can accumulate. Oxidative stress is widely thought to underpin many ageing processes, and the oxidative stress theory of ageing is one of the most widely acknowledged theories of ageing. As well as being the major source of reactive oxygen species, mitochondria are also a major site of oxidative damage. The purpose of this review is a concise and current review of the effects of oxidative stress and ageing on mitochondrial function. Emphasis is placed upon the roles of mitochondrial proton leak, the uncoupling proteins, and the anti-ageing effects of caloric restriction.

  16. Oxidative stress and oxidative damage in chemical carcinogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Klaunig, James E. Wang Zemin; Pu Xinzhu; Zhou Shaoyu

    2011-07-15

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are induced through a variety of endogenous and exogenous sources. Overwhelming of antioxidant and DNA repair mechanisms in the cell by ROS may result in oxidative stress and oxidative damage to the cell. This resulting oxidative stress can damage critical cellular macromolecules and/or modulate gene expression pathways. Cancer induction by chemical and physical agents involves a multi-step process. This process includes multiple molecular and cellular events to transform a normal cell to a malignant neoplastic cell. Oxidative damage resulting from ROS generation can participate in all stages of the cancer process. An association of ROS generation and human cancer induction has been shown. It appears that oxidative stress may both cause as well as modify the cancer process. Recently association between polymorphisms in oxidative DNA repair genes and antioxidant genes (single nucleotide polymorphisms) and human cancer susceptibility has been shown.

  17. Oxidative stress and chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Brown, Scott A

    2008-01-01

    Slowing the rate of progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a critical part of the management of affected dogs and cats. Renal oxidant stress is a previously unrecognized factor in the progression of canine CKD and is likely to be similarly important in feline CKD. Renin-angiotensin antagonism, calcium channel antagonism, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, and antihypertensive and antiproteinuric therapy are commonly recommended for dogs and cats with CKD. These therapies would be expected to reduce renal oxidant stress by decreasing reactive oxygen species generation. Newer data indicate that dietary supplementation with specific antioxidants is an important consideration for limiting renal oxidant stress and progression of CKD.

  18. Relationships between Stress Granules, Oxidative Stress, and Neurodegenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Cytoplasmic stress granules (SGs) are critical for facilitating stress responses and for preventing the accumulation of misfolded proteins. SGs, however, have been linked to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, in part because SGs share many components with neuronal granules. Oxidative stress is one of the conditions that induce SG formation. SGs regulate redox levels, and SG formation in turn is differently regulated by various types of oxidative stress. These associations and other evidences suggest that SG formation contributes to the development of neurodegenerative diseases. In this paper, we review the regulation of SG formation/assembly and discuss the interactions between oxidative stress and SG formation. We then discuss the links between SGs and neurodegenerative diseases and the current therapeutic approaches for neurodegenerative diseases that target SGs. PMID:28194255

  19. Genistein, the dietary-derived angiogenesis inhibitor, prevents LDL oxidation and protects endothelial cells from damage by atherogenic LDL.

    PubMed

    Kapiotis, S; Hermann, M; Held, I; Seelos, C; Ehringer, H; Gmeiner, B M

    1997-11-01

    There is now growing evidence that the oxidative modification of LDL plays a potential role in atherosclerosis. In this study, genistein, a compound derived from a soy diet with a flavonoid chemical structure (4',5,7-trihydroxyisoflavone), which was found to inhibit angiogenesis, has been evaluated for its ability to act as an LDL antioxidant and a vascular cell protective agent against oxidized LDL. The results showed that genistein was able to inhibit the oxidation of LDL in the presence of copper ions or superoxide/nitric oxide radicals as measured by thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance formation, alteration in electrophoretic mobility, and lipid hydroperoxides. Bovine aortic endothelial cell- and human endothelial cell-mediated LDL oxidation was also inhibited in the presence of genistein. The 7-O-glucoside of genistein, genistin, was much less effective in inhibiting LDL oxidation in the cell-free and cell-mediated lipoprotein-oxidating systems. Incubating human endothelial cells in the absence or presence of genistein and challenging the cells with already oxidized lipoprotein revealed that in addition to its antioxidative potential during LDL oxidating processes, genistein effectively protected the vascular cells from damage by oxidized lipoproteins. The tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein was found to block upregulation of two tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins of 132 and 69 kDa in endothelial cells induced by oxidized LDL. Parallel experiments with the inactive analogue daidzein, however, showed that the cytoprotective effect of the isoflavones seems not to be dependent on tyrosine phosphorylation. Our findings will support the suggested and documented beneficial action of a soy diet in preventing chronic vascular diseases and early atherogenic events.

  20. Oxidative stress and the ageing endocrine system.

    PubMed

    Vitale, Giovanni; Salvioli, Stefano; Franceschi, Claudio

    2013-04-01

    Ageing is a process characterized by a progressive decline in cellular function, organismal fitness and increased risk of age-related diseases and death. Several hundred theories have attempted to explain this phenomenon. One of the most popular is the 'oxidative stress theory', originally termed the 'free radical theory'. The endocrine system seems to have a role in the modulation of oxidative stress; however, much less is known about the role that oxidative stress might have in the ageing of the endocrine system and the induction of age-related endocrine diseases. This Review outlines the interactions between hormones and oxidative metabolism and the potential effects of oxidative stress on ageing of endocrine organs. Many different mechanisms that link oxidative stress and ageing are discussed, all of which converge on the induction or regulation of inflammation. All these mechanisms, including cell senescence, mitochondrial dysfunction and microRNA dysregulation, as well as inflammation itself, could be targets of future studies aimed at clarifying the effects of oxidative stress on ageing of endocrine glands.

  1. Fipronil insecticide toxicology: oxidative stress and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu; Martínez, María Aránzazu; Wu, Qinghua; Ares, Irma; Martínez-Larrañaga, María Rosa; Anadón, Arturo; Yuan, Zonghui

    2016-11-01

    Fipronil (FIP) is widely used across the world as a broad-spectrum phenylpyrazole insecticide and veterinary drug. FIP was the insecticide to act by targeting the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor and has favorable selective toxicity towards insects rather than mammals. However, because of accidental exposure, incorrect use of FIP or widespread FIP use leading to the contamination of water and soil, there is increasing evidence that FIP could cause a variety of toxic effects on animals and humans, such as neurotoxic, hepatotoxic, nephrotoxic, reproductive, and cytotoxic effects on vertebrate and invertebrates. In the last decade, oxidative stress has been suggested to be involved in the various toxicities induced by FIP. To date, few reviews have addressed the toxicity of FIP in relation to oxidative stress. The focus of this article is primarily intended to summarize the progress in research associated with oxidative stress as a possible mechanism for FIP-induced toxicity as well as metabolism. The present review reports that studies have been conducted to reveal the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress as a result of FIP treatment and have correlated them with various types of toxicity. Furthermore, the metabolism of FIP was also reviewed, and during this process, various CYP450 enzymes were involved and oxidative stress might occur. The roles of various compounds in protecting against FIP-induced toxicity based on their anti-oxidative effects were also summarized to further understand the role of oxidative stress in FIP-induced toxicity.

  2. Reactive oxygen species and synthetic antioxidants as angiogenesis modulators: Clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Radomska-Leśniewska, Dorota M; Hevelke, Agata; Skopiński, Piotr; Bałan, Barbara; Jóźwiak, Jarosław; Rokicki, Dariusz; Skopińska-Różewska, Ewa; Białoszewska, Agata

    2016-04-01

    Angiogenesis is important for normal functioning of organism and its disturbances are observed in many diseases, called angiogenesis-related states. Reactive oxygen species (ROSs) play an important role in physiology, but high level of cellular ROSs is cytotoxic and mutagenic for the cells, i.e. it can lead to oxidative stress. In this review we discuss close relationship between ROSs and angiogenesis process. Substances counteracting free radicals or their action and oxidative stress are known as antioxidants. We postulate that antioxidants, by affecting angiogenesis, may modulate therapy results in the case of angiogenesis-related disease. Herein, we present some antioxidant preparations of synthetic (N-acetylcysteine, curcumin and its analogs, Probucol, oleane tripertenoid, EGCG synthetic analogs) and nature-identical (vitamin E and C) origin. Then, we analyze their angiogenic properties and their multidirectional molecular effect on angiogenesis. Most preparations reduce neovascularization and diminish the level of proangiogenic molecules, downregulating signaling pathways related to angiogenesis. Moreover, we discuss studies concerning anticancer properties of presented synthetic antioxidants and their application in several angiogenesis-related diseases. We conclude that therapy in angiogenesis-related diseases should be planned with consideration of the angiogenic status of the patient.

  3. Modulation of mitochondrial capacity and angiogenesis by red wine polyphenols via estrogen receptor, NADPH oxidase and nitric oxide synthase pathways.

    PubMed

    Duluc, Lucie; Jacques, Caroline; Soleti, Raffaella; Iacobazzi, Francesco; Simard, Gilles; Andriantsitohaina, Ramaroson

    2013-04-01

    Red wine polyphenolic compounds (RWPC) are reported to exert vasculoprotective properties on endothelial cells, involving nitric oxide (NO) release via a redox-sensitive pathway. This NO release involves the activation of the estrogen receptor-alpha (ERα). Paradoxical effects of a RWPC treatment occur in a rat model of post-ischemic neovascularization, where a low-dose is pro-angiogenic while a higher dose is anti-angiogenic. NO and ERα are key regulators of mitochondrial capacity, and angiogenesis is a highly energetic process associated with mitochondrial biogenesis. However, whether RWPC induces changes in mitochondrial capacity has never been addressed. We investigated the effects of RWPC at low (10(-4)g/l, LCP) and high concentration (10(-2)g/l, HCP) in human endothelial cells. Mitochondrial respiration, expression of mitochondrial biogenesis factors and mitochondrial DNA content were assessed using oxygraphy and quantitative PCR respectively. In vitro capillary formation using ECM gel(®) was also performed. Treatment with LCP increased mitochondrial respiration, with a maximal effect achieved at 48h. LCP also increased expression of several mitochondrial biogenesis factors and mitochondrial DNA content. In contrast, HCP did not affect these parameters. Furthermore, LCP modulated both mitochondrial capacity and angiogenesis through mechanisms sensitive to ER, NADPH oxidase and NO-synthase inhibitors. Finally, the inhibition of mitochondrial protein synthesis abolished the pro-angiogenic capacity of LCP. These results suggest a possible association between the modulation of mitochondrial capacity by LCP and its pro-angiogenic activity. These data provide evidence for a role of mitochondria in the regulation of angiogenesis by RWPC.

  4. Proteomics, oxidative stress and male infertility.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Ashok; Durairajanayagam, Damayanthi; Halabi, Jacques; Peng, Jason; Vazquez-Levin, Monica

    2014-07-01

    Oxidative stress has been established as one of the main causes of male infertility and has been implicated in many diseases associated with infertile men. It results from high concentrations of free radicals and suppressed antioxidant potential, which may alter protein expression in seminal plasma and/or spermatozoa. In recent years, proteomic analyses have been performed to characterize the protein profiles of seminal ejaculate from men with different clinical conditions, such as high oxidative stress. The aim of the present review is to summarize current findings on proteomic studies performed in men with high oxidative stress compared with those with physiological concentrations of free radicals, to better understand the aetiology of oxidative stress-induced male infertility. Each of these studies has suggested candidate biomarkers of oxidative stress, among them are DJ-1, PIP, lactotransferrin and peroxiredoxin. Changes in protein concentrations in seminal plasma samples with oxidative stress conditions were related to stress responses and to regulatory pathways, while alterations in sperm proteins were mostly associated to metabolic responses (carbohydrate metabolism) and stress responses. Future studies should include assessment of post-translational modifications in the spermatozoa as well as in seminal plasma proteomes of men diagnosed with idiopathic infertility. Oxidative stress, which occurs due to a state of imbalance between free radicals and antioxidants, has been implicated in most cases of male infertility. Cells that are in a state of oxidative stress are more likely to have altered protein expression. The aim of this review is to better understand the causes of oxidative stress-induced male infertility. To achieve this, we assessed proteomic studies performed on the seminal plasma and spermatozoa of men with high levels of oxidative stress due to various clinical conditions and compared them with men who had physiological concentrations of free

  5. Diabetic retinopathy: hyperglycaemia, oxidative stress and beyond.

    PubMed

    Hammes, Hans-Peter

    2017-09-24

    Diabetic retinopathy remains a relevant clinical problem. In parallel with diagnostic and therapeutic improvements, the role of glycaemia and reactive metabolites causing cell stress and biochemical abnormalities as treatment targets needs continuous re-evaluation. Furthermore, the basic mechanisms of physiological angiogenesis, remodelling and pruning give important clues about the origins of vasoregression during the very early stages of diabetic retinopathy and can be modelled in animals. This review summarises evidence supporting a role for the neurovascular unit-composed of neuronal, glial and vascular cells-as a responder to the biochemical changes imposed by reactive metabolites and high glucose. Normoglycaemic animal models developing retinal degeneration, provide valuable information about common pathways downstream of progressive neuronal damage that induce vasoregression, as in diabetic models. These models can serve to assess novel treatments addressing the entire neurovascular unit for the benefit of early diabetic retinopathy.

  6. Cell-specific impact of nitric oxide-dependent guanylyl cyclase on arteriogenesis and angiogenesis in mice.

    PubMed

    Bettaga, Noomen; Jäger, Ronald; Dünnes, Sarah; Groneberg, Dieter; Friebe, Andreas

    2015-07-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) acts as essential regulator of vasculogenesis and angiogenesis and is critical for arteriogenesis. Whether NO's effects in vivo are mediated through NO-sensitive guanylyl cyclase (NO-GC) and thus by cGMP-dependent mechanisms has been only poorly addressed. Mice lacking NO-GC globally or specifically in smooth muscle cells (SMC) or endothelial cells (EC) were subjected to two established models for arteriogenesis and angiogenesis, namely hindlimb ischemia and oxygen-induced retinopathy. Our data clearly show the involvement of NO-GC in the recovery of blood flow after hindlimb ischemia, and this effect could be attributed to NO-GC in SMC. In the retina, global deletion of NO-GC led to reduced oxygen-induced vessel loss and hypoxia-induced capillary regrowth, whereas pathological neovascularization was increased. These effects were also seen in mice with SMC-specific NO-GC deletion but not in animals lacking NO-GC in EC. Intriguingly, NO-GC was found to be strongly expressed in retinal pericytes. Our data prove the involvement of NO-GC in growth and plasticity of hindlimb and retinal vasculature after ischemic/hypoxic insult.

  7. Oxidative stress in aging human skin.

    PubMed

    Rinnerthaler, Mark; Bischof, Johannes; Streubel, Maria Karolin; Trost, Andrea; Richter, Klaus

    2015-04-21

    Oxidative stress in skin plays a major role in the aging process. This is true for intrinsic aging and even more for extrinsic aging. Although the results are quite different in dermis and epidermis, extrinsic aging is driven to a large extent by oxidative stress caused by UV irradiation. In this review the overall effects of oxidative stress are discussed as well as the sources of ROS including the mitochondrial ETC, peroxisomal and ER localized proteins, the Fenton reaction, and such enzymes as cyclooxygenases, lipoxygenases, xanthine oxidases, and NADPH oxidases. Furthermore, the defense mechanisms against oxidative stress ranging from enzymes like superoxide dismutases, catalases, peroxiredoxins, and GSH peroxidases to organic compounds such as L-ascorbate, α-tocopherol, beta-carotene, uric acid, CoQ10, and glutathione are described in more detail. In addition the oxidative stress induced modifications caused to proteins, lipids and DNA are discussed. Finally age-related changes of the skin are also a topic of this review. They include a disruption of the epidermal calcium gradient in old skin with an accompanying change in the composition of the cornified envelope. This modified cornified envelope also leads to an altered anti-oxidative capacity and a reduced barrier function of the epidermis.

  8. Oxidative Stress in Aging Human Skin

    PubMed Central

    Rinnerthaler, Mark; Bischof, Johannes; Streubel, Maria Karolin; Trost, Andrea; Richter, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress in skin plays a major role in the aging process. This is true for intrinsic aging and even more for extrinsic aging. Although the results are quite different in dermis and epidermis, extrinsic aging is driven to a large extent by oxidative stress caused by UV irradiation. In this review the overall effects of oxidative stress are discussed as well as the sources of ROS including the mitochondrial ETC, peroxisomal and ER localized proteins, the Fenton reaction, and such enzymes as cyclooxygenases, lipoxygenases, xanthine oxidases, and NADPH oxidases. Furthermore, the defense mechanisms against oxidative stress ranging from enzymes like superoxide dismutases, catalases, peroxiredoxins, and GSH peroxidases to organic compounds such as L-ascorbate, α-tocopherol, beta-carotene, uric acid, CoQ10, and glutathione are described in more detail. In addition the oxidative stress induced modifications caused to proteins, lipids and DNA are discussed. Finally age-related changes of the skin are also a topic of this review. They include a disruption of the epidermal calcium gradient in old skin with an accompanying change in the composition of the cornified envelope. This modified cornified envelope also leads to an altered anti-oxidative capacity and a reduced barrier function of the epidermis. PMID:25906193

  9. Oxidative Stress, Prooxidants, and Antioxidants: The Interplay

    PubMed Central

    Rahal, Anu; Kumar, Amit; Singh, Vivek; Yadav, Brijesh

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a normal phenomenon in the body. Under normal conditions, the physiologically important intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are maintained at low levels by various enzyme systems participating in the in vivo redox homeostasis. Therefore, oxidative stress can also be viewed as an imbalance between the prooxidants and antioxidants in the body. For the last two decades, oxidative stress has been one of the most burning topics among the biological researchers all over the world. Several reasons can be assigned to justify its importance: knowledge about reactive oxygen and nitrogen species production and metabolism; identification of biomarkers for oxidative damage; evidence relating manifestation of chronic and some acute health problems to oxidative stress; identification of various dietary antioxidants present in plant foods as bioactive molecules; and so on. This review discusses the importance of oxidative stress in the body growth and development as well as proteomic and genomic evidences of its relationship with disease development, incidence of malignancies and autoimmune disorders, increased susceptibility to bacterial, viral, and parasitic diseases, and an interplay with prooxidants and antioxidants for maintaining a sound health, which would be helpful in enhancing the knowledge of any biochemist, pathophysiologist, or medical personnel regarding this important issue. PMID:24587990

  10. Mammalian Metallothionein-2A and Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Xue-Bin; Wei, Hong-Wei; Wang, Jun; Kong, Yue-Qiong; Wu, Yu-You; Guo, Jun-Li; Li, Tian-Fa; Li, Ji-Ke

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian metallothionein-2A (MT2A) has received considerable attention in recent years due to its crucial pathophysiological role in anti-oxidant, anti-apoptosis, detoxification and anti-inflammation. For many years, most studies evaluating the effects of MT2A have focused on reactive oxygen species (ROS), as second messengers that lead to oxidative stress injury of cells and tissues. Recent studies have highlighted that oxidative stress could activate mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and MT2A, as a mediator of MAPKs, to regulate the pathogenesis of various diseases. However, the molecule mechanism of MT2A remains elusive. A deeper understanding of the functional, biochemical and molecular characteristics of MT2A would be identified, in order to bring new opportunities for oxidative stress therapy. PMID:27608012

  11. Oxidative stress in IgA nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Coppo, R; Camilla, R; Amore, A; Peruzzi, L

    2010-01-01

    IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is characterized by mesangial deposits of IgA1, likely due to accumulation of IgA immune complexes. The activation of intracellular signaling mostly results in oxidative stress, as detected in mesangial cells cultured with aberrantly glycosylated IgA or IgA aggregates and in renal biopsies of patients with IgAN. Signs of altered oxidation/antioxidation balance have been detected in sera and/or in erythrocytes of patients with IgAN, including increased levels of lipoperoxide or malondialdehyde and reduced activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase. Moreover, increased levels of a marker of oxidative stress, advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs), have been reported to be significantly associated with proteinuria and disease progression in patients with IgAN. AOPPs are often carried by albumin and can in turn enhance the oxidative stress in the circulation. Recent research suggests that the nephrotoxicity of aberrantly glycosylated IgA1 in IgAN is enhanced in the presence of systemic signs of oxidative stress, and it is tempting to hypothesize that the level of the oxidative milieu conditions the different expression and progression of IgAN.

  12. Oxidative stress in severe acute illness

    PubMed Central

    Bar-Or, David; Bar-Or, Raphael; Rael, Leonard T.; Brody, Edward N.

    2015-01-01

    The overall redox potential of a cell is primarily determined by oxidizable/reducible chemical pairs, including glutathione–glutathione disulfide, reduced thioredoxin–oxidized thioredoxin, and NAD+–NADH (and NADP–NADPH). Current methods for evaluating oxidative stress rely on detecting levels of individual byproducts of oxidative damage or by determining the total levels or activity of individual antioxidant enzymes. Oxidation–reduction potential (ORP), on the other hand, is an integrated, comprehensive measure of the balance between total (known and unknown) pro-oxidant and antioxidant components in a biological system. Much emphasis has been placed on the role of oxidative stress in chronic diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease and atherosclerosis. The role of oxidative stress in acute diseases often seen in the emergency room and intensive care unit is considerable. New tools for the rapid, inexpensive measurement of both redox potential and total redox capacity should aid in introducing a new body of literature on the role of oxidative stress in acute illness and how to screen and monitor for potentially beneficial pharmacologic agents. PMID:25644686

  13. Role of oxidative stress on platelet hyperreactivity during aging.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Eduardo; Palomo, Iván

    2016-03-01

    Thrombotic events are common causes of morbidity and mortality in the elderly. Age-accelerated vascular injury is commonly considered to result from increased oxidative stress. There is abundant evidence that oxidative stress regulate several components of thrombotic processes, including platelet activation. Thus oxidative stress can trigger platelet hyperreactivity by decreasing nitric oxide bioavailability. Therefore oxidative stress measurement may help in the early identification of asymptomatic subjects at risk of thrombosis. In addition, oxidative stress inhibitors and platelet-derived nitric oxide may represent a novel anti-aggregation/-activation approach. In this article the relative contribution of oxidative stress and platelet activation in aging is explored.

  14. Effect of increasing body condition on oxidative stress and mitochondrial biogenesis in subcutaneous adipose tissue depot of nonlactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Laubenthal, L; Ruda, L; Sultana, N; Winkler, J; Rehage, J; Meyer, U; Dänicke, S; Sauerwein, H; Häussler, S

    2017-06-01

    With the onset of lactation, dairy cows with a body condition score >3.5 are sensitive to oxidative stress and metabolic disorders. Adipose tissue (AT) can adapt to varying metabolic demands and energy requirements by the plasticity of its size during lactation. In AT, angiogenesis is necessary to guarantee sufficient oxygen and nutrient supply for adipocytes. Cellular energy metabolism is reflected mainly by mitochondria, which can be quantified by the mitochondrial DNA copy number per cell. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effect of overconditioning on angiogenesis and mitochondrial biogenesis in AT of nonlactating cows, irrespective of the physiological influences of lactation and pregnancy. Eight nonpregnant, nonlactating cows received a ration of increasing energy density for 15 wk, during which body weight and body condition increased substantially. Subcutaneous AT was biopsied every 8 wk, and blood was sampled monthly. The blood concentrations of indicators of oxidative stress increased continuously throughout the experimental period, possibly damaging mitochondrial DNA. Concomitantly, HIF-1α, a major marker for hypoxia, increased until wk 8, indicating insufficient angiogenesis in the rapidly expanding AT. Based on the observation that the number of apoptotic cells decreased with increasing hypoxia, the increasing mitochondrial DNA copy numbers might compensate for the hypoxia, reinforcing the production of oxidative stressors. Key transcription factors of mitochondrial biogenesis were largely unaffected. Thus, increased oxidative stress does not impair mitochondrial DNA. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Oxidative Stress Resistance in Deinococcus radiodurans†

    PubMed Central

    Slade, Dea; Radman, Miroslav

    2011-01-01

    Summary: Deinococcus radiodurans is a robust bacterium best known for its capacity to repair massive DNA damage efficiently and accurately. It is extremely resistant to many DNA-damaging agents, including ionizing radiation and UV radiation (100 to 295 nm), desiccation, and mitomycin C, which induce oxidative damage not only to DNA but also to all cellular macromolecules via the production of reactive oxygen species. The extreme resilience of D. radiodurans to oxidative stress is imparted synergistically by an efficient protection of proteins against oxidative stress and an efficient DNA repair mechanism, enhanced by functional redundancies in both systems. D. radiodurans assets for the prevention of and recovery from oxidative stress are extensively reviewed here. Radiation- and desiccation-resistant bacteria such as D. radiodurans have substantially lower protein oxidation levels than do sensitive bacteria but have similar yields of DNA double-strand breaks. These findings challenge the concept of DNA as the primary target of radiation toxicity while advancing protein damage, and the protection of proteins against oxidative damage, as a new paradigm of radiation toxicity and survival. The protection of DNA repair and other proteins against oxidative damage is imparted by enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant defense systems dominated by divalent manganese complexes. Given that oxidative stress caused by the accumulation of reactive oxygen species is associated with aging and cancer, a comprehensive outlook on D. radiodurans strategies of combating oxidative stress may open new avenues for antiaging and anticancer treatments. The study of the antioxidation protection in D. radiodurans is therefore of considerable potential interest for medicine and public health. PMID:21372322

  16. A Molecular Web: Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress, Inflammation, and Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhari, Namrata; Talwar, Priti; Parimisetty, Avinash; Lefebvre d’Hellencourt, Christian; Ravanan, Palaniyandi

    2014-01-01

    Execution of fundamental cellular functions demands regulated protein folding homeostasis. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an active organelle existing to implement this function by folding and modifying secretory and membrane proteins. Loss of protein folding homeostasis is central to various diseases and budding evidences suggest ER stress as being a major contributor in the development or pathology of a diseased state besides other cellular stresses. The trigger for diseases may be diverse but, inflammation and/or ER stress may be basic mechanisms increasing the severity or complicating the condition of the disease. Chronic ER stress and activation of the unfolded-protein response (UPR) through endogenous or exogenous insults may result in impaired calcium and redox homeostasis, oxidative stress via protein overload thereby also influencing vital mitochondrial functions. Calcium released from the ER augments the production of mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS). Toxic accumulation of ROS within ER and mitochondria disturbs fundamental organelle functions. Sustained ER stress is known to potentially elicit inflammatory responses via UPR pathways. Additionally, ROS generated through inflammation or mitochondrial dysfunction could accelerate ER malfunction. Dysfunctional UPR pathways have been associated with a wide range of diseases including several neurodegenerative diseases, stroke, metabolic disorders, cancer, inflammatory disease, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and others. In this review, we have discussed the UPR signaling pathways, and networking between ER stress-induced inflammatory pathways, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial signaling events, which further induce or exacerbate ER stress. PMID:25120434

  17. Radical-free biology of oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Dean P.

    2008-01-01

    Free radical-induced macromolecular damage has been studied extensively as a mechanism of oxidative stress, but large-scale intervention trials with free radical scavenging antioxidant supplements show little benefit in humans. The present review summarizes data supporting a complementary hypothesis for oxidative stress in disease that can occur without free radicals. This hypothesis, which is termed the “redox hypothesis,” is that oxidative stress occurs as a consequence of disruption of thiol redox circuits, which normally function in cell signaling and physiological regulation. The redox states of thiol systems are sensitive to two-electron oxidants and controlled by the thioredoxins (Trx), glutathione (GSH), and cysteine (Cys). Trx and GSH systems are maintained under stable, but nonequilibrium conditions, due to a continuous oxidation of cell thiols at a rate of about 0.5% of the total thiol pool per minute. Redox-sensitive thiols are critical for signal transduction (e.g., H-Ras, PTP-1B), transcription factor binding to DNA (e.g., Nrf-2, nuclear factor-κB), receptor activation (e.g., αIIbβ3 integrin in platelet activation), and other processes. Nonradical oxidants, including peroxides, aldehydes, quinones, and epoxides, are generated enzymatically from both endogenous and exogenous precursors and do not require free radicals as intermediates to oxidize or modify these thiols. Because of the nonequilibrium conditions in the thiol pathways, aberrant generation of nonradical oxidants at rates comparable to normal oxidation may be sufficient to disrupt function. Considerable opportunity exists to elucidate specific thiol control pathways and develop interventional strategies to restore normal redox control and protect against oxidative stress in aging and age-related disease. PMID:18684987

  18. Roles of Oxidative Stress in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Zuo, Tao; Zhu, Minghui; Xu, Wenming

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress (OS) has received extensive attention in the last two decades, because of the discovery that abnormal oxidation status was related to patients with chronic diseases, such as diabetes, cardiovascular, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), cancer, and neurological diseases. OS is considered as a potential inducing factor in the pathogenesis of PCOS, which is one of the most common complex endocrine disorders and a leading cause of female infertility, affecting 4%–12% of women in the world, as OS has close interactions with PCOS characteristics, just as insulin resistance (IR), hyperandrogenemia, and chronic inflammation. It has also been shown that DNA mutations and alterations induced by OS are involved in cancer pathogenesis, tumor cell survival, proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis, and so on. Furthermore, recent studies show that the females with PCOS are reported to have an increasing risk of cancers. As a result, the more serious OS in PCOS is regarded as an important potential incentive for the increasing risk of cancers, and this study aims to analyze the possibility and potential pathogenic mechanism of the above process, providing insightful thoughts and evidences for preventing cancer potentially caused by PCOS in clinic. PMID:26770659

  19. Roles of Oxidative Stress in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Cancers.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Tao; Zhu, Minghui; Xu, Wenming

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress (OS) has received extensive attention in the last two decades, because of the discovery that abnormal oxidation status was related to patients with chronic diseases, such as diabetes, cardiovascular, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), cancer, and neurological diseases. OS is considered as a potential inducing factor in the pathogenesis of PCOS, which is one of the most common complex endocrine disorders and a leading cause of female infertility, affecting 4%-12% of women in the world, as OS has close interactions with PCOS characteristics, just as insulin resistance (IR), hyperandrogenemia, and chronic inflammation. It has also been shown that DNA mutations and alterations induced by OS are involved in cancer pathogenesis, tumor cell survival, proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis, and so on. Furthermore, recent studies show that the females with PCOS are reported to have an increasing risk of cancers. As a result, the more serious OS in PCOS is regarded as an important potential incentive for the increasing risk of cancers, and this study aims to analyze the possibility and potential pathogenic mechanism of the above process, providing insightful thoughts and evidences for preventing cancer potentially caused by PCOS in clinic.

  20. Oxidative stress in patients with nongenital warts.

    PubMed

    Sasmaz, Sezai; Arican, Ozer; Kurutas, Ergul Belge

    2005-08-31

    Comparison of oxidative stress status between subjects with or without warts is absent in the literature. In this study, we evaluated 31 consecutive patients with warts (15 female, 16 male) and 36 control cases with no evidence of disease to determine the effects of oxidative stress in patients with warts. The patients were classified according to the wart type, duration, number, and location of lesions. We measured the indicators of oxidative stress such as catalase (CAT), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and malondialdehyde (MDA) in the venous blood by spectrophotometry. There was a statistically significant increase in levels of CAT, G6PD, SOD activities and MDA in the patients with warts compared to the control group (P< .05). However, we could not define a statistically significant correlation between these increased enzyme activities and MDA levels and the type, the duration, the number, and the location of lesions. We determined possible suppression of T cells during oxidative stress that might have a negative effect on the prognosis of the disease. Therefore, we propose an argument for the appropriateness to give priority to immunomodulatory treatment alternatives instead of destructive methods in patients with demonstrated oxidative stress.

  1. Oxidative Stress in Patients With Nongenital Warts

    PubMed Central

    Sasmaz, Sezai; Arican, Ozer; Belge Kurutas, Ergul

    2005-01-01

    Comparison of oxidative stress status between subjects with or without warts is absent in the literature. In this study, we evaluated 31 consecutive patients with warts (15 female, 16 male) and 36 control cases with no evidence of disease to determine the effects of oxidative stress in patients with warts. The patients were classified according to the wart type, duration, number, and location of lesions. We measured the indicators of oxidative stress such as catalase (CAT), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and malondialdehyde (MDA) in the venous blood by spectrophotometry. There was a statistically significant increase in levels of CAT, G6PD, SOD activities and MDA in the patients with warts compared to the control group (P < .05). However, we could not define a statistically significant correlation between these increased enzyme activities and MDA levels and the type, the duration, the number, and the location of lesions. We determined possible suppression of T cells during oxidative stress that might have a negative effect on the prognosis of the disease. Therefore, we propose an argument for the appropriateness to give priority to immunomodulatory treatment alternatives instead of destructive methods in patients with demonstrated oxidative stress. PMID:16192674

  2. Repression of gene expression by oxidative stress.

    PubMed Central

    Morel, Y; Barouki, R

    1999-01-01

    Gene expression is modulated by both physiological signals (hormones, cytokines, etc.) and environmental stimuli (physical parameters, xenobiotics, etc.). Oxidative stress appears to be a key pleiotropic modulator which may be involved in either pathway. Indeed, reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been described as second messengers for several growth factors and cytokines, but have also been shown to rise following cellular insults such as xenobiotic metabolism or enzymic deficiency. Extensive studies on the induction of stress-response genes by oxidative stress have been reported. In contrast, owing to the historical focus on gene induction, less attention has been paid to gene repression by ROS. However, a growing number of studies have shown that moderate (i.e. non-cytotoxic) oxidative stress specifically down-regulates the expression of various genes. In this review, we describe the alteration of several physiological functions resulting from oxidative-stress-mediated inhibition of gene transcription. We will then focus on the repressive oxidative modulation of various transcription factors elicited by ROS. PMID:10477257

  3. Diabetic Cardiovascular Disease Induced by Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Kayama, Yosuke; Raaz, Uwe; Jagger, Ann; Adam, Matti; Schellinger, Isabel N.; Sakamoto, Masaya; Suzuki, Hirofumi; Toyama, Kensuke; Spin, Joshua M.; Tsao, Philip S.

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). DM can lead to multiple cardiovascular complications, including coronary artery disease (CAD), cardiac hypertrophy, and heart failure (HF). HF represents one of the most common causes of death in patients with DM and results from DM-induced CAD and diabetic cardiomyopathy. Oxidative stress is closely associated with the pathogenesis of DM and results from overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS overproduction is associated with hyperglycemia and metabolic disorders, such as impaired antioxidant function in conjunction with impaired antioxidant activity. Long-term exposure to oxidative stress in DM induces chronic inflammation and fibrosis in a range of tissues, leading to formation and progression of disease states in these tissues. Indeed, markers for oxidative stress are overexpressed in patients with DM, suggesting that increased ROS may be primarily responsible for the development of diabetic complications. Therefore, an understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms mediated by oxidative stress is crucial to the prevention and treatment of diabetes-induced CVD. The current review focuses on the relationship between diabetes-induced CVD and oxidative stress, while highlighting the latest insights into this relationship from findings on diabetic heart and vascular disease. PMID:26512646

  4. Diabetic Neuropathy and Oxidative Stress: Therapeutic Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Asieh; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Diabetic neuropathy (DN) is a widespread disabling disorder comprising peripheral nerves' damage. DN develops on a background of hyperglycemia and an entangled metabolic imbalance, mainly oxidative stress. The majority of related pathways like polyol, advanced glycation end products, poly-ADP-ribose polymerase, hexosamine, and protein kinase c all originated from initial oxidative stress. To date, no absolute cure for DN has been defined; although some drugs are conventionally used, much more can be found if all pathophysiological links with oxidative stress would be taken into account. In this paper, although current therapies for DN have been reviewed, we have mainly focused on the links between DN and oxidative stress and therapies on the horizon, such as inhibitors of protein kinase C, aldose reductase, and advanced glycation. With reference to oxidative stress and the related pathways, the following new drugs are under study such as taurine, acetyl-L-carnitine, alpha lipoic acid, protein kinase C inhibitor (ruboxistaurin), aldose reductase inhibitors (fidarestat, epalrestat, ranirestat), advanced glycation end product inhibitors (benfotiamine, aspirin, aminoguanidine), the hexosamine pathway inhibitor (benfotiamine), inhibitor of poly ADP-ribose polymerase (nicotinamide), and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (trandolapril). The development of modern drugs to treat DN is a real challenge and needs intensive long-term comparative trials. PMID:23738033

  5. Oxidative Stress Marker and Pregnancy Induced Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Draganovic, Dragica; Lucic, Nenad; Jojic, Dragica

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH) is a state of extremely increased oxidative stress. Hence, research and test of role and significance of oxidative stress in hypertensive disturbance in pregnancy is very important. Aim: Aims of this research were to determine a level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) as oxidative stress marker in blood of pregnant woman with pregnancy induced hypertension and to analyze correlation of TBARS values with blood pressure values in pregnancy induced hypertensive pregnant women. Patients and methods: Research has been performed at the Clinic of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Clinical Centre in the Republic of Srpska. It covered 100 pregnant women with hypertension and 100 healthy pregnant women of gestation period from 28 to 40 weeks. Level of TBARS is determined as an equivalent of malondialdehyde standard, in accordance with recommendations by producer (Oxi Select TBARS Analisa Kit). Results: Pregnancy induced hypertension is a state of extremely increased oxidative stress. All pregnant women experiencing hypertension had increased TBARS values in medium value interval over 20 µmol, 66%, whereas in group of healthy pregnant women, only 1% experienced increased TBARS value. Pregnant women with difficult preeclampsia (32%) had high TBARS values, over 40 µmol, and with mild PIH, only 4.9% pregnant women. Conclusion: Pregnant women with pregnancy induced hypertension have extremely increased degree of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation. TBARS values are in positive correlation with blood pressure values, respectively the highest TBARS value were present in pregnant women with the highest blood pressure values. PMID:28210016

  6. Contribution of mitochondrial oxidative stress to hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Dikalov, Sergey I.; Dikalova, Anna E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review In 1954 Harman proposed the free radical theory of aging, and in 1972 he suggested that mitochondria are both the source and the victim of toxic free radicals. Interestingly, hypertension is age-associated disease and clinical data show that by age 70, 70% of the population has hypertension and this is accompanied by oxidative stress. Antioxidant therapy however is not currently available and common antioxidants like ascorbate and vitamin E are ineffective in preventing hypertension. The present review focuses on molecular mechanisms of mitochondrial oxidative stress and therapeutic potential of targeting mitochondria in hypertension. Recent findings In the past several years, we have shown that the mitochondria become dysfunctional in hypertension and have defined novel role of mitochondrial superoxide radicals in this disease. We have shown that genetic manipulation of mitochondrial antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD2) affects blood pressure and have developed mitochondria-targeted therapies such as SOD2 mimetics that effectively lower blood pressure. The specific mechanism of mitochondrial oxidative stress in hypertension, however, remains unclear. Recent animal and clinical studies have demonstrated several hormonal, metabolic, inflammatory, and environmental pathways contributing to mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. Summary Nutritional supplements, calorie restriction, and life style change are the most effective preventive strategies to improve mitochondrial function and reduce mitochondrial oxidative stress. Aging associated mitochondrial dysfunction, however, reduces efficacy of these strategies. Therefore, we propose that new classes of mitochondria-targeted antioxidants can provide high therapeutic potential to improve endothelial function and reduce hypertension. PMID:26717313

  7. The impact of oxidative stress on hair.

    PubMed

    Trüeb, R M

    2015-12-01

    Oxidative stress reflects an imbalance between the systemic manifestation of reactive oxygen species and a biological system's ability to detoxify the reactive intermediates or to repair the resulting damage. Reactive oxygen species or free radicals are highly reactive molecules that can directly damage lipids, proteins, and DNA. They are generated by a multitude of endogenous and environmental challenges, while the body possesses endogenous defense mechanisms. With age, production of free radicals increases, while the endogenous defense mechanisms decrease. This imbalance leads to progressive damage of cellular structures, presumably resulting in the aging phenotype. While the role of oxidative stress has been widely discussed in skin aging, little focus has been placed on its impact on hair condition. Moreover, most literature on age-related hair changes focuses on alopecia, but it is equally important that the hair fibers that emerge from the scalp exhibit significant age-related changes that have equal impact on the overall cosmetic properties of hair. Sources of oxidative stress with impact on the pre-emerging fiber include: oxidative metabolism, smoking, UVR, and inflammation from microbial, pollutant, or irritant origins. Sources of oxidative stress with impact on the post-emerging fiber include: UVR (enhanced by copper), chemical insults, and oxidized scalp lipids. The role of the dermatologist is recognition and treatment of pre- and post-emerging factors for lifetime scalp and hair health. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  8. Potential markers of oxidative stress in stroke.

    PubMed

    Cherubini, Antonio; Ruggiero, Carmelinda; Polidori, M Cristina; Mecocci, Patrizia

    2005-10-01

    Free radical production is increased in ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, leading to oxidative stress that contributes to brain damage. The measurement of oxidative stress in stroke would be extremely important for a better understanding of its pathophysiology and for identifying subgroups of patients that might receive targeted therapeutic intervention. Since direct measurement of free radicals and oxidized molecules in the brain is difficult in humans, several biological substances have been investigated as potential peripheral markers. Among lipid peroxidation products, malondialdehyde, despite its relevant methodological limitations, is correlated with the size of ischemic stroke and clinical outcome, while F2-isoprostanes appear to be promising, but they have not been adequately evaluated. 8-Hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine has been extensively investigated as markers of oxidative DNA damage but no study has been done in stroke patients. Also enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants have been proposed as indirect markers. Among them ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol, uric acid, and superoxide dismutase are related to brain damage and clinical outcome. After a critical evaluation of the literature, we conclude that, while an ideal biomarker is not yet available, the balance between antioxidants and by-products of oxidative stress in the organism might be the best approach for the evaluation of oxidative stress in stroke patients.

  9. Oxidative stress inhibits calpain activity in situ.

    PubMed

    Guttmann, R P; Johnson, G V

    1998-05-22

    In this study, the effects of oxidative stress on calpain-mediated proteolysis and calpain I autolysis in situ were examined. Calpain activity was stimulated in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells with the calcium ionophore, ionomycin. Calpain-mediated proteolysis of the membrane-permeable fluorescent substrate N-succinyl-L-leucyl-L-leucyl-L-valyl-L-tyrosine-7-amido-4-methylcouma rin, as well as the endogenous protein substrates microtubule-associated protein 2, tau and spectrin, was measured. Oxidative stress, induced by addition of either doxorubicin or 2-mercaptopyridine N-oxide, resulted in a significant decrease in the extent of ionophore-stimulated calpain activity of both the fluorescent compound and the endogenous substrates compared with control, normoxic conditions. Addition of glutathione ethyl ester, as well as other antioxidants, resulted in the retention/recovery of calpain activity, indicating that oxidation-induced calpain inactivation was preventable/reversible. The rate of autolytic conversion of the large subunit of calpain I from 80 to 78 to 76 kDa was decreased during oxidative stress; however, the extent of calpain autolysis was not altered. These data indicate that oxidative stress may reversibly inactivate calpain I in vivo.

  10. Inhibitory Effects of Red Wine on Lipid Oxidation in Fish Oil Emulsion and Angiogenesis in Zebrafish Embryo.

    PubMed

    Sun, Haiyan; Zhang, Yulin; Shen, Yixiao; Zhu, Yongchao; Wang, Hua; Xu, Zhimin

    2017-03-01

    The capabilities of red wine against lipid oxidation and angiogenesis were evaluated by using a fish oil emulsion system and an in vivo zebrafish embryos model, respectively. The red wine contained 12 different antioxidant phenolics which levels were led by anthocyanins (140.46 mg/L), catechin (55.08 mg/L), and gallic acid (46.76 mg/L). The diversity of the phenolics in red wine was greater than the tea, coffee, or white wine selected as a peer control in this study. The total phenolics concentration of red wine was 305.53 mg/L, although the levels of tea, coffee, and white wine were 85.59, 76.85, and 26.57 mg/L, respectively. The activity of red wine in scavenging DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) free radicals was approximately 4 times higher than the tea and 8 times than the coffee or white wine. The red wine showed the highest capability in preventing long chain PUFA oxidation in the fish oil emulsion. Because of the outstanding antioxidant activity of red wine, the red wine dried extract was used to monitor its inhibitory effect against angiogenesis by using transgenic zebrafish embryos (Tg[fli1:egfp](y1) ) with fluorescent blood vessels. After incubated in 100 μg/mL of the extract solution for 26 h pf, each of the embryos had a lower number of intersegmental vessel than the control embryo. The inhibition rate of red wine extract against growing of angiogenic blood vessel reached 100%. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  11. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in sepsis.

    PubMed

    Galley, H F

    2011-07-01

    Sepsis-related organ dysfunction remains the most common cause of death in the intensive care unit (ICU), despite advances in healthcare and science. Marked oxidative stress as a result of the inflammatory responses inherent with sepsis initiates changes in mitochondrial function which may result in organ damage. Normally, a complex system of interacting antioxidant defences is able to combat oxidative stress and prevents damage to mitochondria. Despite the accepted role that oxidative stress-mediated injury plays in the development of organ failure, there is still little conclusive evidence of any beneficial effect of systemic antioxidant supplementation in patients with sepsis and organ dysfunction. It has been suggested, however, that antioxidant therapy delivered specifically to mitochondria may be useful.

  12. Drug-Induced Oxidative Stress and Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Deavall, Damian G.; Martin, Elizabeth A.; Horner, Judith M.; Roberts, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are a byproduct of normal metabolism and have roles in cell signaling and homeostasis. Species include oxygen radicals and reactive nonradicals. Mechanisms exist that regulate cellular levels of ROS, as their reactive nature may otherwise cause damage to key cellular components including DNA, protein, and lipid. When the cellular antioxidant capacity is exceeded, oxidative stress can result. Pleiotropic deleterious effects of oxidative stress are observed in numerous disease states and are also implicated in a variety of drug-induced toxicities. In this paper, we examine the nature of ROS-induced damage on key cellular targets of oxidative stress. We also review evidence implicating ROS in clinically relevant, drug-related side effects including doxorubicin-induced cardiac damage, azidothymidine-induced myopathy, and cisplatin-induced ototoxicity. PMID:22919381

  13. Oxidative stress as a mechanism of teratogenesis.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Jason M

    2006-12-01

    Emerging evidence shows that redox-sensitive signal transduction pathways are critical for developmental processes, including proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. As a consequence, teratogens that induce oxidative stress (OS) may induce teratogenesis via the misregulation of these same pathways. Many of these pathways are regulated by cellular thiol redox couples, namely glutathione/glutathione disulfide, thioredoxinred/thioredoinox, and cysteine/cystine. This review outlines oxidative stress as a mechanism of teratogenesis through the disruption of thiol-mediated redox signaling. Due to the ability of many known and suspected teratogens to induce oxidative stress and the many signaling pathways that have redox-sensitive components, further research is warranted to fully understand these mechanisms.

  14. Mild Heat Stress Enhances Angiogenesis in a Co-culture System Consisting of Primary Human Osteoblasts and Outgrowth Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Fuchs, Sabine; Böse, Thomas; Schmidt, Harald; Hofmann, Alexander; Tonak, Marcus; Unger, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    The repair and regeneration of large bone defects, including the formation of functional vasculature, represents a highly challenging task for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Recent studies have shown that vascularization and ossification can be stimulated by mild heat stress (MHS), which would offer the option to enhance the bone regeneration process by relatively simple means. However, the mechanisms of MHS-enhanced angiogenesis and osteogenesis, as well as potential risks for the treated cells are unclear. We have investigated the direct effect of MHS on angiogenesis and osteogenesis in a co-culture system of human outgrowth endothelial cells (OECs) and primary osteoblasts (pOBs), and assessed cytotoxic effects, as well as the levels of various heat shock proteins (HSPs) synthesized under these conditions. Enhanced formation of microvessel-like structures was observed in co-cultures exposed to MHS (41°C, 1 h), twice per week, over a time period of 7–14 days. As shown by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1), angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha was up-regulated in MHS-treated co-cultures 24 h post-treatment. At the protein level, significantly elevated VEGF and Ang-1 concentrations were observed in MHS-treated co-cultures and pOB mono-cultures compared with controls, indicating paracrine effects associated with MHS-induced angiogenesis. MHS-stimulated co-cultures and OEC mono-cultures released higher levels of Ang-2 than untreated cultures. On the other hand MHS treatment of co-cultures did not result in a clear effect regarding osteogenesis. Nevertheless, real-time PCR demonstrated that MHS increased the expression of mitogen-activated protein kinase, interleukin-6, and bone morphogenetic protein 2, known as HSP-related molecules in angiogenic and osteogenic regulation pathways. In agreement with these observations, the expression of

  15. Mild heat stress enhances angiogenesis in a co-culture system consisting of primary human osteoblasts and outgrowth endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Fuchs, Sabine; Böse, Thomas; Schmidt, Harald; Hofmann, Alexander; Tonak, Marcus; Unger, Ronald; Kirkpatrick, Charles James

    2014-04-01

    The repair and regeneration of large bone defects, including the formation of functional vasculature, represents a highly challenging task for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Recent studies have shown that vascularization and ossification can be stimulated by mild heat stress (MHS), which would offer the option to enhance the bone regeneration process by relatively simple means. However, the mechanisms of MHS-enhanced angiogenesis and osteogenesis, as well as potential risks for the treated cells are unclear. We have investigated the direct effect of MHS on angiogenesis and osteogenesis in a co-culture system of human outgrowth endothelial cells (OECs) and primary osteoblasts (pOBs), and assessed cytotoxic effects, as well as the levels of various heat shock proteins (HSPs) synthesized under these conditions. Enhanced formation of microvessel-like structures was observed in co-cultures exposed to MHS (41°C, 1 h), twice per week, over a time period of 7-14 days. As shown by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1), angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha was up-regulated in MHS-treated co-cultures 24 h post-treatment. At the protein level, significantly elevated VEGF and Ang-1 concentrations were observed in MHS-treated co-cultures and pOB mono-cultures compared with controls, indicating paracrine effects associated with MHS-induced angiogenesis. MHS-stimulated co-cultures and OEC mono-cultures released higher levels of Ang-2 than untreated cultures. On the other hand MHS treatment of co-cultures did not result in a clear effect regarding osteogenesis. Nevertheless, real-time PCR demonstrated that MHS increased the expression of mitogen-activated protein kinase, interleukin-6, and bone morphogenetic protein 2, known as HSP-related molecules in angiogenic and osteogenic regulation pathways. In agreement with these observations, the expression of some

  16. Oxidative stress drivers and modulators in obesity and cardiovascular disease: from biomarkers to therapeutic approach.

    PubMed

    Santilli, F; Guagnano, M T; Vazzana, N; La Barba, S; Davi, G

    2015-01-01

    This review article is intended to describe how oxidative stress regulates cardiovascular disease development and progression. Epigenetic mechanisms related to oxidative stress, as well as more reliable biomarkers of oxidative stress, are emerging over the last years as potentially useful tools to design therapeutic approaches aimed at modulating enhanced oxidative stress "in vivo", thereby mitigating the consequent atherosclerotic burden. As a paradigm, we describe the case of obesity, in which the intertwining among oxidative stress, due to caloric overload, chronic low-grade inflammation induced by adipose tissue dysfunction, and platelet activation represents a vicious cycle favoring the progression of atherothrombosis. Oxidative stress is a major player in the pathobiology of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Reactive oxygen species (ROS)- dependent signaling pathways prompt transcriptional and epigenetic dysregulation, inducing chronic low-grade inflammation, platelet activation and endothelial dysfunction. In addition, several oxidative biomarkers have been proposed with the potential to improve current understanding of the mechanisms underlying CVD. These include ROS-generating and/or quenching molecules, and ROS-modified compounds, such as F2-isoprostanes. There is also increasing evidence that noncoding micro- RNA (mi-RNA) are critically involved in post- transcriptional regulation of cell functions, including ROS generation, inflammation, regulation of cell proliferation, adipocyte differentiation, angiogenesis and apoptosis. These molecules have promising translational potential as both markers of disease and site of targeted interventions. Finally, oxidative stress is a critical target of several cardioprotective drugs and nutraceuticals, including antidiabetic agents, statins, renin-angiotensin system blockers, polyphenols and other antioxidants. Further understanding of ROS-generating mechanisms, their biological role as well as potential therapeutic

  17. Markers of Oxidative Stress during Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Brahm Kumar; Pandey, Kanti Bhooshan; Abidi, A. B.; Rizvi, Syed Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus is rising all over the world. Uncontrolled state of hyperglycemia due to defects in insulin secretion/action leads to a variety of complications including peripheral vascular diseases, nephropathy, neuropathy, retinopathy, morbidity, and/or mortality. Large body of evidence suggests major role of reactive oxygen species/oxidative stress in development and progression of diabetic complications. In the present paper, we have discussed the recent researches on the biomarkers of oxidative stress during type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:26317014

  18. Oxidative Stress, Molecular Inflammation and Sarcopenia

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Si-Jin; Yu, Long-Jiang

    2010-01-01

    Sarcopenia is the decline of muscle mass and strength with age. Evidence suggests that oxidative stress and molecular inflammation play important roles in age-related muscle atrophy. The two factors may interfere with the balance between protein synthesis and breakdown, cause mitochondrial dysfunction, and induce apoptosis. The purpose of this review is to discuss some of the major signaling pathways that are activated or inactivated during the oxidative stress and molecular inflammation seen in aged skeletal muscle. Combined interventions that may be required to reverse sarcopenia, such as exercise, caloric restriction, and nutrition, will also be discussed. PMID:20480032

  19. Oxidative stress in development: nature or nurture?

    PubMed

    Dennery, Phyllis A

    2010-10-15

    An unavoidable consequence of aerobic respiration is the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). These may negatively impact development. Nevertheless, a certain amount of oxidative stress is required to allow for the normal progression of embryonic and fetal growth. Alterations in placental oxidative stress results in altered placental function and ultimately altered fetal growth and/or developmental programming leading to long-term consequences into adulthood. This article reviews the role of redox in fetal development and will focus on how developmental programming is influenced by the fetal and placental redox state as well as discuss potential therapeutic interventions.

  20. Nitric oxide and oxidative stress in placental explant cultures.

    PubMed

    Goncalves, Juvic M; Casart, Ysabel C; Camejo, María I

    2016-01-01

    Placental explant culture, and cellular cytolysis and cellular differentiation have been previously studied. However, oxidative stress and nitric oxide profiles have not been evaluated in these systems. The aim of this study was to determine the release of lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide from placental explants cultured over a seven day period. Placental explants were maintained for seven days in culture and the medium was changed every 24 hours. The response was assessed in terms of syncytiotrophoblast differentiation (human chorionic gonadotropin, hCG), cellular cytolysis (lactate dehydrogenase, LDH), oxidative stress (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, TBARS), and nitric oxide (NO). Levels of hCG increased progressively from day two to attain its highest level on days four and five after which it decreased gradually. In contrast, the levels of LDH, TBARS, and NO were elevated in the early days of placental culture when new syncytiotrophoblast from cytotrophoblast were forming and also in the last days of culture when tissue was declining. In conclusion, the levels of NO and lipid peroxidation follow a pattern similar to LDH and contrary to hCG. Future placental explant studies to evaluate oxidative stress and NO should consider the physiological changes inherent during the time of culture.

  1. Oxidative Stress in Schizophrenia: An Integrated Approach

    PubMed Central

    Bitanihirwe, Byron K.Y.; Woo, Tsung-Ung W.

    2010-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been suggested to contribute to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. In particular, oxidative damage to lipids, proteins, and DNA as observed in schizophrenia is known to impair cell viability and function, which may subsequently account for the deteriorating course of the illness. Currently available evidence points towards an alteration in the activities of enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant systems in schizophrenia. In fact, experimental models have demonstrated that oxidative stress induces behavioural and molecular anomalies strikingly similar to those observed in schizophrenia. These findings suggest that oxidative stress is intimately linked to a variety of pathophysiological processes, such as inflammation, oligodendrocyte abnormalities, mitochondrial dysfunction, hypoactive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors and the impairment of fast-spiking gamma-aminobutyric acid interneurons.[bkyb1] Such self-sustaining mechanisms may progressively worsen producing the functional and structural consequences associated with schizophrenia. Recent clinical studies have shown antioxidant treatment to be effective in ameliorating schizophrenic symptoms. Hence, identifying viable therapeutic strategies to tackle oxidative stress and the resulting physiological disturbances provide an exciting opportunity for the treatment and ultimately prevention of schizophrenia. PMID:20974172

  2. Involvement of oxidative stress in Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Nunomura, Akihiko; Castellani, Rudy J; Zhu, Xiongwei; Moreira, Paula I; Perry, George; Smith, Mark A

    2006-07-01

    Genetic and lifestyle-related risk factors for Alzheimer disease (AD) are associated with an increase in oxidative stress, suggesting that oxidative stress is involved at an early stage of the pathologic cascade. Moreover, oxidative stress is mechanistically and chronologically associated with other key features of AD, namely, metabolic, mitochondrial, metal, and cell-cycle abnormalities. Contrary to the commonly held notion that pathologic hallmarks of AD signify etiology, several lines of evidence now indicate that aggregation of amyloid-beta and tau is a compensatory response to underlying oxidative stress. Therefore, removal of proteinaceous accumulations may treat the epiphenomenon rather than the disease and may actually enhance oxidative damage. Although some antioxidants have been shown to reduce the incidence of AD, the magnitude of the effect may be modified by individual factors such as genetic predisposition (e.g. apolipoprotein E genotype) and habitual behaviors. Because caloric restriction, exercise, and intellectual activity have been experimentally shown to promote neuronal survival through enhancement of endogenous antioxidant defenses, a combination of dietary regimen of low total calorie and rich antioxidant nutrients and maintaining physical and intellectual activities may ultimately prove to be one of the most efficacious strategies for AD prevention.

  3. Oxidative stress parameters in localized scleroderma patients.

    PubMed

    Kilinc, F; Sener, S; Akbaş, A; Metin, A; Kirbaş, S; Neselioglu, S; Erel, O

    2016-11-01

    Localized scleroderma (LS) (morphea) is a chronic, inflammatory skin disease with unknown cause that progresses with sclerosis in the skin and/or subcutaneous tissues. Its pathogenesis is not completely understood. Oxidative stress is suggested to have a role in the pathogenesis of localized scleroderma. We have aimed to determine the relationship of morphea lesions with oxidative stress. The total oxidant capacity (TOC), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), paroxonase (PON) and arylesterase (ARES) activity parameters of PON 1 enzyme levels in the serum were investigated in 13 LS patients (generalized and plaque type) and 13 healthy controls. TOC values of the patient group were found higher than the TOC values of the control group (p < 0.01). ARES values of the patient group was found to be higher than the control group (p < 0.0001). OSI was significantly higher in the patient group when compared to the control (p < 0.005). Oxidative stress seems to be effective in the pathogenesis. ARES levels have increased in morphea patients regarding to the oxidative stress and its reduction. Further controlled studies are required in wider series.

  4. Oxidative stress in brain ischemia.

    PubMed

    Love, S

    1999-01-01

    Brain ischemia initiates a complex cascade of metabolic events, several of which involve the generation of nitrogen and oxygen free radicals. These free radicals and related reactive chemical species mediate much of damage that occurs after transient brain ischemia, and in the penumbral region of infarcts caused by permanent ischemia. Nitric oxide, a water- and lipid-soluble free radical, is generated by the action of nitric oxide synthases. Ischemia causes a surge in nitric oxide synthase 1 (NOS 1) activity in neurons and, possibly, glia, increased NOS 3 activity in vascular endothelium, and later an increase in NOS 2 activity in a range of cells including infiltrating neutrophils and macrophages, activated microglia and astrocytes. The effects of ischemia on the activity of NOS 1, a Ca2+-dependent enzyme, are thought to be secondary to reversal of glutamate reuptake at synapses, activation of NMDA receptors, and resulting elevation of intracellular Ca2+. The up-regulation of NOS 2 activity is mediated by transcriptional inducers. In the context of brain ischemia, the activity of NOS 1 and NOS 2 is broadly deleterious, and their inhibition or inactivation is neuroprotective. However, the production of nitric oxide in blood vessels by NOS 3, which, like NOS 1, is Ca2+-dependent, causes vasodilatation and improves blood flow in the penumbral region of brain infarcts. In addition to causing the synthesis of nitric oxide, brain ischemia leads to the generation of superoxide, through the action of nitric oxide synthases, xanthine oxidase, leakage from the mitochondrial electron transport chain, and other mechanisms. Nitric oxide and superoxide are themselves highly reactive but can also combine to form a highly toxic anion, peroxynitrite. The toxicity of the free radicals and peroxynitrite results from their modification of macromolecules, especially DNA, and from the resulting induction of apoptotic and necrotic pathways. The mode of cell death that prevails probably

  5. Potential Modulation of Sirtuins by Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Leonardo; Escande, Carlos; Denicola, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Sirtuins are a conserved family of NAD-dependent protein deacylases. Initially proposed as histone deacetylases, it is now known that they act on a variety of proteins including transcription factors and metabolic enzymes, having a key role in the regulation of cellular homeostasis. Seven isoforms are identified in mammals (SIRT1–7), all of them sharing a conserved catalytic core and showing differential subcellular localization and activities. Oxidative stress can affect the activity of sirtuins at different levels: expression, posttranslational modifications, protein-protein interactions, and NAD levels. Mild oxidative stress induces the expression of sirtuins as a compensatory mechanism, while harsh or prolonged oxidant conditions result in dysfunctional modified sirtuins more prone to degradation by the proteasome. Oxidative posttranslational modifications have been identified in vitro and in vivo, in particular cysteine oxidation and tyrosine nitration. In addition, oxidative stress can alter the interaction with other proteins, like SIRT1 with its protein inhibitor DBC1 resulting in a net increase of deacetylase activity. In the same way, manipulation of cellular NAD levels by pharmacological inhibition of other NAD-consuming enzymes results in activation of SIRT1 and protection against obesity-related pathologies. Nevertheless, further research is needed to establish the molecular mechanisms of redox regulation of sirtuins to further design adequate pharmacological interventions. PMID:26788256

  6. Oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Victor, Victor M; Rocha, Milagros; Solá, Eva; Bañuls, Celia; Garcia-Malpartida, Katherine; Hernández-Mijares, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    This review focuses on the role of oxidative processes in atherosclerosis and the cardiovascular diseases (CVD) that can arise as a result. Atherosclerosis represents a state of heightened oxidative stress characterized by lipid and protein oxidation in the vascular wall. Overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) under pathophysiologic conditions forms an integral part of the development of CVD, and in particular atherosclerosis. Endothelial dysfunction, characterized by a loss of nitric oxide (NO) bioactivity, occurs early on in the development of atherosclerosis, and determines future vascular complications. Although the molecular mechanisms responsible for mitochondria-mediated disease processes are not clear, oxidative stress seems to play an important role. In general, ROS are essential to the functions of cells, but adequate levels of antioxidant defenses are required in order to avoid the harmful effects of excessive ROS production. In this review, we will provide a summary of the cellular metabolism of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and its role in pathophysiological processes such as atherosclerosis; and currently available antioxidants and possible reasons for their efficacy and inefficacy in ameliorating oxidative stress-mediated diseases.

  7. Potential Modulation of Sirtuins by Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Santos, Leonardo; Escande, Carlos; Denicola, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Sirtuins are a conserved family of NAD-dependent protein deacylases. Initially proposed as histone deacetylases, it is now known that they act on a variety of proteins including transcription factors and metabolic enzymes, having a key role in the regulation of cellular homeostasis. Seven isoforms are identified in mammals (SIRT1-7), all of them sharing a conserved catalytic core and showing differential subcellular localization and activities. Oxidative stress can affect the activity of sirtuins at different levels: expression, posttranslational modifications, protein-protein interactions, and NAD levels. Mild oxidative stress induces the expression of sirtuins as a compensatory mechanism, while harsh or prolonged oxidant conditions result in dysfunctional modified sirtuins more prone to degradation by the proteasome. Oxidative posttranslational modifications have been identified in vitro and in vivo, in particular cysteine oxidation and tyrosine nitration. In addition, oxidative stress can alter the interaction with other proteins, like SIRT1 with its protein inhibitor DBC1 resulting in a net increase of deacetylase activity. In the same way, manipulation of cellular NAD levels by pharmacological inhibition of other NAD-consuming enzymes results in activation of SIRT1 and protection against obesity-related pathologies. Nevertheless, further research is needed to establish the molecular mechanisms of redox regulation of sirtuins to further design adequate pharmacological interventions.

  8. Oxidative stress status in patients with melasma.

    PubMed

    Seçkin, Havva Yıldız; Kalkan, Göknur; Baş, Yalçın; Akbaş, Ali; Önder, Yalçın; Özyurt, Hüseyin; Sahin, Mehmet

    2014-09-01

    Melasma is an acquired skin disease characterized clinically by development of gray-brown macules or patches. The lesions have geographic borders and most often seen on face and less frequently on the neck and forearms. Pathogenesis has not been completely understood yet. Although the disease constitutes a very disturbing cosmetic problem, it has not obtained an efficient treatment. There were not any studies in the literature that evaluates the role of oxidative stress in melasma. The evaluation of the role of oxidative stress in melasma. Fifty melasma patients and 50 healthy volunteers were included in the study. The diagnosis was made clinically and the patients were evaluated by Melasma Area Severity Index. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) enzyme activities and malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, protein carbonyl levels were measured both in the melasma group and the control group. SOD and GSH-Px enzyme activities were significantly higher in the patient group in comparison with the control group (p < 0.001). Protein carbonyl levels were significantly lower in the patient group (p < 0.001). The results show that the balance between oxidant and anti-oxidants was disrupted and the oxidative stress increased in melasma. These results improve the understanding of etiology-pathogenesis of the disease and its treatment.

  9. Role of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in chronic stress-promoted tumour growth

    PubMed Central

    Barbieri, Antonio; Palma, Giuseppe; Rosati, Alessandra; Giudice, Aldo; Falco, Antonia; Petrillo, Antonella; Petrillo, Mario; Bimonte, Sabrina; Benedetto, Maria Di; Esposito, Giuseppe; Stiuso, Paola; Abbruzzese, Alberto; Caraglia, Michele; Arra, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Accumulating evidence suggests that chronic stress can be a cofactor for the initiation and progression of cancer. Here we evaluated the role of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in stress-promoted tumour growth of murine B16F10 melanoma cell line in C57BL/6 mice. Animals subjected to restraint stress showed increased levels adrenocorticotropic hormone, enlarged adrenal glands, reduced thymus weight and a 3.61-fold increase in tumour growth in respect to no-stressed animals. Tumour growth was significantly reduced in mice treated with the β-antagonist propranolol. Tumour samples obtained from stressed mice displayed high levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein in immunohistochemistry. Because VEGF can induce eNOS increase, and nitric oxide is a relevant factor in angiogenesis, we assessed the levels of eNOS protein by Western blot analysis. We found a significant increase in eNOS levels in tumour samples from stressed mice, indicating an involvement of this enzyme in stress-induced tumour growth. Accordingly, chronic stress did not promote tumour growth in eNOS−/− mice. These results disclose for the first time a pivotal role for eNOS in chronic stress-induced initiation and promotion of tumour growth. PMID:21722303

  10. Oxidative Stress Promotes Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Vital, Paz; Castro, Patricia; Ittmann, Michael

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is characterized by increased tissue mass in the transition zone of the prostate, which leads to obstruction of urine outflow and significant morbidity in the majority of older men. Plasma markers of oxidative stress are increased in men with BPH but it is unclear whether oxidative stress and/or oxidative DNA damage are causal in the pathogenesis of BPH. METHODS Levels of 8-OH deoxyguanosine (8-OH dG), a marker of oxidative stress, were measured in prostate tissues from normal transition zone and BPH by ELISA. 8-OH dG was also detected in tissues by immunohistochemistry and staining quantitated by image analysis. Nox4 promotes the formation of reactive oxygen species. We therefore created and characterized transgenic mice with prostate specific expression of Nox4 under the control of the prostate specific ARR2PB promoter. RESULTS Human BPH tissues contained significantly higher levels of 8-OH dG than control transition zone tissues and the levels of 8-OH dG were correlated with prostate weight. Cells with 8-OH dG staining were predominantly in the epithelium and were present in a patchy distribution. The total fraction of epithelial staining with 8-OH dG was significantly increased in BPH tissues by image analysis. The ARR2PB-Nox4 mice had increased oxidative DNA damage in the prostate, increased prostate weight, increased epithelial proliferation, and histological changes including epithelial proliferation, stromal thickening, and fibrosis when compared to wild type controls. CONCLUSIONS Oxidative stress and oxidative DNA damage are important in the pathogenesis of BPH. PMID:26417670

  11. Oxidative stress promotes benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Vital, Paz; Castro, Patricia; Ittmann, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is characterized by increased tissue mass in the transition zone of the prostate, which leads to obstruction of urine outflow and significant morbidity in the majority of older men. Plasma markers of oxidative stress are increased in men with BPH but it is unclear whether oxidative stress and/or oxidative DNA damage are causal in the pathogenesis of BPH. Levels of 8-OH deoxyguanosine (8-OH dG), a marker of oxidative stress, were measured in prostate tissues from normal transition zone and BPH by ELISA. 8-OH dG was also detected in tissues by immunohistochemistry and staining quantitated by image analysis. Nox4 promotes the formation of reactive oxygen species. We therefore created and characterized transgenic mice with prostate specific expression of Nox4 under the control of the prostate specific ARR2PB promoter. Human BPH tissues contained significantly higher levels of 8-OH dG than control transition zone tissues and the levels of 8-OH dG were correlated with prostate weight. Cells with 8-OH dG staining were predominantly in the epithelium and were present in a patchy distribution. The total fraction of epithelial staining with 8-OH dG was significantly increased in BPH tissues by image analysis. The ARR2PB-Nox4 mice had increased oxidative DNA damage in the prostate, increased prostate weight, increased epithelial proliferation, and histological changes including epithelial proliferation, stromal thickening, and fibrosis when compared to wild type controls. Oxidative stress and oxidative DNA damage are important in the pathogenesis of BPH. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. VEGF-Iron Oxide Conjugate for Dual MR and PET Imaging of Breast Cancer Angiogenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    iron oxide nanoparticles conjugated with macrocyclic chelating agent DOTA for 64Cu-labeling and cyclic RGD peptide for integrin alpha (v)beta(3...Nanoparticles We have developed two types of novel superparamagentic iron oxide nanoparticles (USPIO), namely, PVP -IO and PASP-IO...Polyvinylpyrrolidone ( PVP )-coated iron oxide ( PVP -IO) nanoparticles were synthesized by a one-step thermal decomposition method (Fig. 3). The overall size of the

  13. 4-Hydroxy-7-oxo-5-heptenoic Acid Lactone Induces Angiogenesis through Several Different Molecular Pathways.

    PubMed

    Guo, Junhong; Linetsky, Mikhail; Yu, Annabelle O; Zhang, Liang; Howell, Scott J; Folkwein, Heather J; Wang, Hua; Salomon, Robert G

    2016-12-19

    Oxidative stress and angiogenesis have been implicated not only in normal phenomena such as tissue healing and remodeling but also in many pathological processes. However, the relationships between oxidative stress and angiogenesis still remain unclear, although oxidative stress has been convincingly demonstrated to influence the progression of angiogenesis under physiological and pathological conditions. The retina is particularly susceptible to oxidative stress because of its intensive oxygenation and high abundance of polyunsaturated fatty acyls. In particular, it has high levels of docosahexanoates, whose oxidative fragmentation produces 4-hydroxy-7-oxo-5-heptenoic acid lactone (HOHA-lactone). Previously, we found that HOHA-lactone is a major precursor of 2-(ω-carboxyethyl)pyrrole (CEP) derivatives, which are tightly linked to age-related macular degeneration (AMD). CEPs promote the pathological angiogenesis of late-stage AMD. We now report additional mechanisms by which HOHA-lactone promotes angiogenesis. Using cultured ARPE-19 cells, we observed that HOHA-lactone induces secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which is correlated to increases in reactive oxygen species and decreases in intracellular glutathione (GSH). Wound healing and tube formation assays provided, for the first time, in vitro evidence that HOHA-lactone induces the release of VEGF from ARPE-19 cells, which promotes angiogenesis by human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) in culture. Thus, HOHA-lactone can stimulate vascular growth through a VEGF-dependent pathway. In addition, results from MTT and wound healing assays as well as tube formation experiments showed that GSH-conjugated metabolites of HOHA-lactone stimulate HUVEC proliferation and promote angiogenesis in vitro. Previous studies demonstrated that HOHA-lactone, through its CEP derivatives, promotes angiogenesis in a novel Toll-like receptor 2-dependent manner that is independent of the VEGF receptor or VEGF

  14. Genetics of oxidative stress in obesity.

    PubMed

    Rupérez, Azahara I; Gil, Angel; Aguilera, Concepción M

    2014-02-20

    Obesity is a multifactorial disease characterized by the excessive accumulation of fat in adipose tissue and peripheral organs. Its derived metabolic complications are mediated by the associated oxidative stress, inflammation and hypoxia. Oxidative stress is due to the excessive production of reactive oxygen species or diminished antioxidant defenses. Genetic variants, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms in antioxidant defense system genes, could alter the efficacy of these enzymes and, ultimately, the risk of obesity; thus, studies investigating the role of genetic variations in genes related to oxidative stress could be useful for better understanding the etiology of obesity and its metabolic complications. The lack of existing literature reviews in this field encouraged us to gather the findings from studies focusing on the impact of single nucleotide polymorphisms in antioxidant enzymes, oxidative stress-producing systems and transcription factor genes concerning their association with obesity risk and its phenotypes. In the future, the characterization of these single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in obese patients could contribute to the development of controlled antioxidant therapies potentially beneficial for the treatment of obesity-derived metabolic complications.

  15. Oxidative Stress Control by Apicomplexan Parasites

    PubMed Central

    Izui, Natália M.; Schettert, Isolmar; Liebau, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Apicomplexan parasites cause infectious diseases that are either a severe public health problem or an economic burden. In this paper we will shed light on how oxidative stress can influence the host-pathogen relationship by focusing on three major diseases: babesiosis, coccidiosis, and toxoplasmosis. PMID:25722976

  16. Oxidative stress markers in affective disorders.

    PubMed

    Siwek, Marcin; Sowa-Kućma, Magdalena; Dudek, Dominika; Styczeń, Krzysztof; Szewczyk, Bernadeta; Kotarska, Katarzyna; Misztakk, Paulina; Pilc, Agnieszka; Wolak, Małgorzata; Nowak, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    Affective disorders are a medical condition with a complex biological pattern of etiology, involving genetic and epigenetic factors, along with different environmental stressors. Increasing numbers of studies indicate that induction of oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS) pathways, which is accompanied by immune-inflammatory response, might play an important role in the pathogenic mechanisms underlying many major psychiatric disorders, including depression and bipolar disorder. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species have been shown to impair the brain function by modulating activity of principal neurotransmitter (e.g., glutamatergic) systems involved in the neurobiology of depression. Both preclinical and clinical studies revealed that depression is associated with altered levels of oxidative stress markers and typically reduced concentrations of several endogenous antioxidant compounds, such as glutathione, vitamin E, zinc and coenzyme Q10, or enzymes, including glutathione peroxidase, and with an impairment of the total antioxidant status. These oxidative stress parameters can be normalized by successful antidepressant therapy. On the other hand, some antioxidants (zinc, N-acetylcysteine, omega-3 free fatty acids) may exhibit antidepressant properties or enhance standard antidepressant therapy. These observations introduce new potential targets for the development of therapeutic interventions based on antioxidant compounds. The present paper reviews selected animal and human studies providing evidence that oxidative stress is implicated in the pathophysiology and treatment of depression and bipolar disorder.

  17. Genetics of Oxidative Stress in Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Rupérez, Azahara I.; Gil, Angel; Aguilera, Concepción M.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a multifactorial disease characterized by the excessive accumulation of fat in adipose tissue and peripheral organs. Its derived metabolic complications are mediated by the associated oxidative stress, inflammation and hypoxia. Oxidative stress is due to the excessive production of reactive oxygen species or diminished antioxidant defenses. Genetic variants, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms in antioxidant defense system genes, could alter the efficacy of these enzymes and, ultimately, the risk of obesity; thus, studies investigating the role of genetic variations in genes related to oxidative stress could be useful for better understanding the etiology of obesity and its metabolic complications. The lack of existing literature reviews in this field encouraged us to gather the findings from studies focusing on the impact of single nucleotide polymorphisms in antioxidant enzymes, oxidative stress-producing systems and transcription factor genes concerning their association with obesity risk and its phenotypes. In the future, the characterization of these single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in obese patients could contribute to the development of controlled antioxidant therapies potentially beneficial for the treatment of obesity-derived metabolic complications. PMID:24562334

  18. p38 MAPK activity is stimulated by vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 activation and is essential for shear stress-induced angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Gee, Eric; Milkiewicz, Malgorzata; Haas, Tara L

    2010-01-01

    Increased capillary shear stress induces angiogenesis in skeletal muscle, but the signaling mechanisms underlying this response are not known. We hypothesize that shear stress-dependent activation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) causes p38 and ERK1/2 phosphorylation, which contribute to shear stress-induced angiogenesis. Skeletal muscle microvascular endothelial cells were sheared (12 dynes/cm(2), 0.5-24 h). VEGFR2-Y1214 phosphorylation increased in response to elevated shear stress and VEGF stimulation. p38 and ERK1/2 phosphorylation increased at 2 h of shear stress but only p38 remained phosphorylated at 6 and 24 h of shear stress. VEGFR2 inhibition abrogated p38, but not ERK1/2 phosphorylation. VEGF production was increased in response to shear stress at 6 h, and this increased production was abolished by p38 inhibition. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered prazosin (50 mg/L drinking water, 1, 2, 4, or 7 days) to induce chronically elevated capillary shear stress in skeletal muscle. In some experiments, mini-osmotic pumps were used to dispense p38 inhibitor SB203580 or its inactive analog SB202474, to the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) of control and prazosin-treated rats. Immunostaining and Western blotting showed increases in p38 phosphorylation in capillaries from rats treated with prazosin for 2 days but returned to basal levels at 4 and 7 days. p38 inhibition abolished the increase in capillary to muscle fiber ratio seen after 7 days of prazosin treatment. Our data suggest that p38 activation is necessary for shear stress-dependent angiogenesis.

  19. Interdependence of tetrapyrrole metabolism, the generation of oxidative stress and the mitigative oxidative stress response

    PubMed Central

    Busch, Andrea W.U.; Montgomery, Beronda L.

    2015-01-01

    Tetrapyrroles are involved in light harvesting and light perception, electron-transfer reactions, and as co-factors for key enzymes and sensory proteins. Under conditions in which cells exhibit stress-induced imbalances of photosynthetic reactions, or light absorption exceeds the ability of the cell to use photoexcitation energy in synthesis reactions, redox imbalance can occur in photosynthetic cells. Such conditions can lead to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) associated with alterations in tetrapyrrole homeostasis. ROS accumulation can result in cellular damage and detrimental effects on organismal fitness, or ROS molecules can serve as signals to induce a protective or damage-mitigating oxidative stress signaling response in cells. Induced oxidative stress responses include tetrapyrrole-dependent and -independent mechanisms for mitigating ROS generation and/or accumulation. Thus, tetrapyrroles can be contributors to oxidative stress, but are also essential in the oxidative stress response to protect cells by contributing to detoxification of ROS. In this review, we highlight the interconnection and interdependence of tetrapyrrole metabolism with the occurrence of oxidative stress and protective oxidative stress signaling responses in photosynthetic organisms. PMID:25618582

  20. Interdependence of tetrapyrrole metabolism, the generation of oxidative stress and the mitigative oxidative stress response.

    PubMed

    Busch, Andrea W U; Montgomery, Beronda L

    2015-01-01

    Tetrapyrroles are involved in light harvesting and light perception, electron-transfer reactions, and as co-factors for key enzymes and sensory proteins. Under conditions in which cells exhibit stress-induced imbalances of photosynthetic reactions, or light absorption exceeds the ability of the cell to use photoexcitation energy in synthesis reactions, redox imbalance can occur in photosynthetic cells. Such conditions can lead to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) associated with alterations in tetrapyrrole homeostasis. ROS accumulation can result in cellular damage and detrimental effects on organismal fitness, or ROS molecules can serve as signals to induce a protective or damage-mitigating oxidative stress signaling response in cells. Induced oxidative stress responses include tetrapyrrole-dependent and -independent mechanisms for mitigating ROS generation and/or accumulation. Thus, tetrapyrroles can be contributors to oxidative stress, but are also essential in the oxidative stress response to protect cells by contributing to detoxification of ROS. In this review, we highlight the interconnection and interdependence of tetrapyrrole metabolism with the occurrence of oxidative stress and protective oxidative stress signaling responses in photosynthetic organisms.

  1. Good Stress, Bad Stress and Oxidative Stress: Insights from Anticipatory Cortisol Reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Aschbacher, Kirstin; O'Donovan, Aoife; Wolkowitz, Owen M.; Dhabhar, Firdaus S.; Su, Yali; Epel, Elissa

    2014-01-01

    Chronic psychological stress appears to accelerate biological aging, and oxidative damage is an important potential mediator of this process. However, the mechanisms by which psychological stress promotes oxidative damage are poorly understood. This study investigates the theory that cortisol increases in response to an acutely stressful event have the potential to either enhance or undermine psychobiological resilience to oxidative damage, depending on the body's prior exposure to chronic psychological stress. In order to achieve a range of chronic stress exposure, forty-eight post-menopausal women were recruited in a case-control design that matched women caring for spouses with dementia (a chronic stress model) with similarly aged control women whose spouses were healthy. Participants completed a questionnaire assessing perceived stress over the previous month and provided fasting blood. Three markers of oxidative damage were assessed: 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (IsoP), lipid peroxidation, 8-hydroxyguanosine (8-OxoG) and 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), reflecting oxidative damage to RNA/DNA respectively. Within approximately one week, participants completed a standardized acute laboratory stress task while salivary cortisol responses were measured. The increase from 0 to 30 min was defined as “peak” cortisol reactivity, while the increase from 0 to 15 min was defined as “anticipatory” cortisol reactivity, representing a cortisol response that began while preparing for the stress task. Women under chronic stress had higher 8-oxoG, oxidative damage to RNA (p<.01). A moderated mediation model was tested, in which it was hypothesized that heightened anticipatory cortisol reactivity would mediate the relationship between perceived stress and elevated oxidative stress damage, but only among women under chronic stress. Consistent with this model, bootstrapped path analysis found significant indirect paths from perceived stress to 8-OxoG and IsoP (but not

  2. Good stress, bad stress and oxidative stress: insights from anticipatory cortisol reactivity.

    PubMed

    Aschbacher, Kirstin; O'Donovan, Aoife; Wolkowitz, Owen M; Dhabhar, Firdaus S; Su, Yali; Epel, Elissa

    2013-09-01

    Chronic psychological stress appears to accelerate biological aging, and oxidative damage is an important potential mediator of this process. However, the mechanisms by which psychological stress promotes oxidative damage are poorly understood. This study investigates the theory that cortisol increases in response to an acutely stressful event have the potential to either enhance or undermine psychobiological resilience to oxidative damage, depending on the body's prior exposure to chronic psychological stress. In order to achieve a range of chronic stress exposure, forty-eight post-menopausal women were recruited in a case-control design that matched women caring for spouses with dementia (a chronic stress model) with similarly aged control women whose spouses were healthy. Participants completed a questionnaire assessing perceived stress over the previous month and provided fasting blood. Three markers of oxidative damage were assessed: 8-iso-prostaglandin F(2α) (IsoP), lipid peroxidation, 8-hydroxyguanosine (8-oxoG) and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), reflecting oxidative damage to RNA/DNA respectively. Within approximately one week, participants completed a standardized acute laboratory stress task while salivary cortisol responses were measured. The increase from 0 to 30 min was defined as "peak" cortisol reactivity, while the increase from 0 to 15 min was defined as "anticipatory" cortisol reactivity, representing a cortisol response that began while preparing for the stress task. Women under chronic stress had higher 8-oxoG, oxidative damage to RNA (p<.01). A moderated mediation model was tested, in which it was hypothesized that heightened anticipatory cortisol reactivity would mediate the relationship between perceived stress and elevated oxidative stress damage, but only among women under chronic stress. Consistent with this model, bootstrapped path analysis found significant indirect paths from perceived stress to 8-oxoG and IsoP (but not 8-OHd

  3. Oxidative stress in benign prostate hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Zabaiou, N; Mabed, D; Lobaccaro, J M; Lahouel, M

    2016-02-01

    To assess the status of oxidative stress in benign prostate hyperplasia, a very common disease in older men which constitutes a public health problem in Jijel, prostate tissues were obtained by transvesical adenomectomy from 10 men with benign prostate hyperplasia. We measured the cytosolic levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) and cytosolic enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione S-transferase. The development of benign prostate hyperplasia is accompanied by impaired oxidative status by increasing levels of MDA, depletion of GSH concentrations and a decrease in the activity of all the antioxidant enzymes studied. These results have allowed us to understand a part of the aetiology of benign prostate hyperplasia related to oxidative stress.

  4. Oxidative stress, phototherapy and the neonate.

    PubMed

    Gathwala, G; Sharma, S

    2000-11-01

    Phototherapy is the most widely used form of therapy for unconjugated hyperbilirubinaemia. Its non-invasive nature and few side effects reported earlier have led to the assumption that it is innocuous. Recent research has revealed that phototherapy is a photodynamic stress and can induce lipid peroxidation. There is increasing evidence that many severe diseases of the neonate are caused by oxidative injury and lipid peroxidation. In the present communique, we review the oxidative susceptibility of the neonate and the evidence now available that phototherapy induces oxidative stress. Although intensive phototherapy (up to 40 mwatt/cm2/nm) has been reported to be increasingly effective, a little caution, we believe is warranted, till more definite data in the human neonate, help resolve the issue.

  5. Thiol specific oxidative stress response in Mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Dosanjh, Nirpjit S; Rawat, Mamta; Chung, Ji-Hae; Av-Gay, Yossef

    2005-08-01

    The cellular response of mycobacteria to thiol specific oxidative stress was studied in Mycobacterium bovis BCG cultures. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis revealed that upon diamide treatment at least 60 proteins were upregulated. Fourteen of these proteins were identified by MALDI-MS; four proteins, AhpC, Tpx, GroEL2, and GroEL1 are functionally related to oxidative stress response; eight proteins, LeuC, LeuD, Rv0224c, Rv3029c, AsnB, Rv2971, PheA and HisH are classified as part of the bacterial intermediary metabolism and respiration pathways; protein EchA14 belong to lipid metabolism, and NrdE, belongs to the mycobacterial information pathway category. Reverse transcription followed by quantitative real time PCR in response to diamide stress demonstrated that protein expression is directly proportional to the corresponding gene transcription.

  6. Piracetam improves mitochondrial dysfunction following oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Keil, Uta; Scherping, Isabel; Hauptmann, Susanne; Schuessel, Katin; Eckert, Anne; Müller, Walter E

    2005-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction including decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential and reduced ATP production represents a common final pathway of many conditions associated with oxidative stress, for example, hypoxia, hypoglycemia, and aging. Since the cognition-improving effects of the standard nootropic piracetam are usually more pronounced under such pathological conditions and young healthy animals usually benefit little by piracetam, the effect of piracetam on mitochondrial dysfunction following oxidative stress was investigated using PC12 cells and dissociated brain cells of animals treated with piracetam. Piracetam treatment at concentrations between 100 and 1000 μM improved mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP production of PC12 cells following oxidative stress induced by sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and serum deprivation. Under conditions of mild serum deprivation, piracetam (500 μM) induced a nearly complete recovery of mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP levels. Piracetam also reduced caspase 9 activity after SNP treatment. Piracetam treatment (100–500 mg kg−1 daily) of mice was also associated with improved mitochondrial function in dissociated brain cells. Significant improvement was mainly seen in aged animals and only less in young animals. Moreover, the same treatment reduced antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase) in aged mouse brain only, which are elevated as an adaptive response to the increased oxidative stress with aging. In conclusion, therapeutically relevant in vitro and in vivo concentrations of piracetam are able to improve mitochondrial dysfunction associated with oxidative stress and/or aging. Mitochondrial stabilization and protection might be an important mechanism to explain many of piracetam's beneficial effects in elderly patients. PMID:16284628

  7. Piracetam improves mitochondrial dysfunction following oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Keil, Uta; Scherping, Isabel; Hauptmann, Susanne; Schuessel, Katin; Eckert, Anne; Müller, Walter E

    2006-01-01

    1.--Mitochondrial dysfunction including decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential and reduced ATP production represents a common final pathway of many conditions associated with oxidative stress, for example, hypoxia, hypoglycemia, and aging. 2.--Since the cognition-improving effects of the standard nootropic piracetam are usually more pronounced under such pathological conditions and young healthy animals usually benefit little by piracetam, the effect of piracetam on mitochondrial dysfunction following oxidative stress was investigated using PC12 cells and dissociated brain cells of animals treated with piracetam. 3.--Piracetam treatment at concentrations between 100 and 1000 microM improved mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP production of PC12 cells following oxidative stress induced by sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and serum deprivation. Under conditions of mild serum deprivation, piracetam (500 microM) induced a nearly complete recovery of mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP levels. Piracetam also reduced caspase 9 activity after SNP treatment. 4.--Piracetam treatment (100-500 mg kg(-1) daily) of mice was also associated with improved mitochondrial function in dissociated brain cells. Significant improvement was mainly seen in aged animals and only less in young animals. Moreover, the same treatment reduced antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase) in aged mouse brain only, which are elevated as an adaptive response to the increased oxidative stress with aging. 5.--In conclusion, therapeutically relevant in vitro and in vivo concentrations of piracetam are able to improve mitochondrial dysfunction associated with oxidative stress and/or aging. Mitochondrial stabilization and protection might be an important mechanism to explain many of piracetam's beneficial effects in elderly patients.

  8. Oxidative stress in kidney transplant biopsies.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Avneesh; Hammad, Abdul; Sharma, Ajay K; Mc-Cardle, Frank; Rustom, Rana; Christmas, Steve E

    2015-04-01

    Kidney allograft biopsies are performed after kidney transplant to determine graft dysfunction. We aimed to define and measure the oxidative stress occurring in these biopsies and compared these biopsies with donor pretransplant biopsies. The biopsy procedure was done according to the unit protocol. A core of tissue was taken for research purposes only when it was safe enough to proceed for an extra core. Common indications for biopsy were acute or chronic graft dysfunction, delayed graft function, acute cellular rejection, and calcineurin toxicity. There were 17 pretransplant biopsies taken from deceased-donor kidneys. Biopsy specimens were snap frozen immediately in liquid nitrogen and stored at -70 °C. Samples were processed for Western blot and tested for markers of oxidative stress. There were 61 biopsies analyzed. Oxidative stress enzymes were evaluated by Western blot including catalase, manganese superoxide dismutase, copper zinc superoxide dismutase, thioredoxin reductase, and thioredoxin. Upregulation of most antioxidant enzymes was observed in pretransplant biopsies. Increased expression of manganese superoxide dismutase was observed in donor kidneys and kidneys with acute cellular rejection and calcineurin toxicity. Copper zinc superoxide dismutase and catalase were elevated in donor and acute cellular rejection biopsies. Thioredoxin was elevated in donor biopsies and thioredoxin reductases were elevated in donor biopsies and biopsies with acute cellular rejection and calcineurin toxicity. The kidney allograft biopsies showed that oxidative stress levels were elevated during allograft dysfunction in all biopsies regardless of diagnosis, but not significantly. The levels also were elevated in pretransplant biopsies. The study showed that oxidative stress is involved in various acute injuries occurring within the allograft.

  9. Methylglyoxal promotes oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Sena, Cristina M; Matafome, Paulo; Crisóstomo, Joana; Rodrigues, Lisa; Fernandes, Rosa; Pereira, Paulo; Seiça, Raquel M

    2012-05-01

    Modern diets can cause modern diseases. Research has linked a metabolite of sugar, methylglyoxal (MG), to the development of diabetic complications, but the exact mechanism has not been fully elucidated. The present study was designed to investigate whether MG could directly influence endothelial function, oxidative stress and inflammation in Wistar and Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats, an animal model of type 2 diabetes. Wistar and GK rats treated with MG in the drinking water for 3 months were compared with the respective control rats. The effects of MG were investigated on NO-dependent vasorelaxation in isolated rat aortic arteries from the different groups. Insulin resistance, NO bioavailability, glycation, a pro-inflammatory biomarker monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and vascular oxidative stress were also evaluated. Methylglyoxal treated Wistar rats significantly reduced the efficacy of NO-dependent vasorelaxation (p<0.001). This impairment was accompanied by a three fold increase in the oxidative stress marker nitrotyrosine. Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) formation was significantly increased as well as MCP-1 and the expression of the receptor for AGEs (RAGE). NO bioavailability was significantly attenuated and accompanied by an increase in superoxide anion immunofluorescence. Methylglyoxal treated GK rats significantly aggravated endothelial dysfunction, oxidative stress, AGEs accumulation and diminished NO bioavailability when compared with control GK rats. These results indicate that methylglyoxal induced endothelial dysfunction in normal Wistar rats and aggravated the endothelial dysfunction present in GK rats. The mechanism is at least in part by increasing oxidative stress and/or AGEs formation with a concomitant increment of inflammation and a decrement in NO bioavailability. The present study provides further evidence for methylglyoxal as one of the causative factors in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and development of macrovascular

  10. Multimarker Screening of Oxidative Stress in Aging

    PubMed Central

    Syslová, Kamila; Böhmová, Adéla; Kuzma, Marek; Pelclová, Daniela; Kačer, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Aging is a complex process of organism decline in physiological functions. There is no clear theory explaining this phenomenon, but the most accepted one is the oxidative stress theory of aging. Biomarkers of oxidative stress, substances, which are formed during oxidative damage of phospholipids, proteins, and nucleic acids, are present in body fluids of diseased people as well as the healthy ones (in a physiological concentration). 8-iso prostaglandin F2α is the most prominent biomarker of phospholipid oxidative damage, o-tyrosine, 3-chlorotyrosine, and 3-nitrotyrosine are biomarkers of protein oxidative damage, and 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine and 8-hydroxyguanosine are biomarkers of oxidative damage of nucleic acids. It is thought that the concentration of biomarkers increases as the age of people increases. However, the concentration of biomarkers in body fluids is very low and, therefore, it is necessary to use a sensitive analytical method. A combination of HPLC and MS was chosen to determine biomarker concentration in three groups of healthy people of a different age (twenty, forty, and sixty years) in order to find a difference among the groups. PMID:25147595

  11. Disparate effects of simvastatin on angiogenesis during hypoxia and inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiang-Yang; Daghini, Elena; Chade, Alejandro R.; Lavi, Ronit; Napoli, Claudio; Lerman, Amir; Lerman, Lilach O.

    2008-01-01

    Aims Studies have shown that some of statin's pleiotropic effects were achieved by either promotion or inhibition of angiogenesis, depending on the underlying disease. This study tested the hypothesis that the angiogenic potential of simvastatin is related to the microenvironmental conditions. Main methods Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were studied after exposure to hypoxia or the inflammatory factors tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, with or without co-incubation with simvastatin (1μmol/L) and mevalonate. HUVEC angiogenesis was evaluated by tube formation, migration, and proliferation assays. Hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1α, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), Akt, endothelium nitric oxide synthase (e-NOS), and oxidative stress were evaluated. Key findings HUVEC angiogenesis increased during hypoxia (tube length 14.7±0.5 vs. 7.8±0.6 mm, p<0.05) and further enhanced by simvastatin (19.3±1.1 mm, p<0.05 vs. hypoxia alone), which downregulated the expression of the HIF-1 inhibitor PHD2 and upregulated HIF-1α, VEGF, and Akt, without changing oxidative stress or eNOS. Incubation with TNF-α promoted HUVEC angiogenesis (7.4±0.2 vs. 6.5±0.2 mm, p<0.05) with increased oxidative stress. However, simvastatin inhibited this promotion (2.5±0.3 mm, p<0.001 vs. TNF-α alone) by decreasing oxidative stress, VEGF, Akt, and eNOS. Significance We conclude that at the same dosage, simvastatin can either promote or inhibit angiogenesis, possibly by activating upstream regulators of HIF-1α in hypoxia, but conversely interfering with angiogenic signaling downstream to inflammation. These opposing angiogenic effects should be considered in the therapeutic strategies with statins. PMID:18976673

  12. Inflammatory and oxidative stress in rotavirus infection

    PubMed Central

    Guerrero, Carlos A; Acosta, Orlando

    2016-01-01

    Rotaviruses are the single leading cause of life-threatening diarrhea affecting children under 5 years of age. Rotavirus entry into the host cell seems to occur by sequential interactions between virion proteins and various cell surface molecules. The entry mechanisms seem to involve the contribution of cellular molecules having binding, chaperoning and oxido-reducing activities. It appears to be that the receptor usage and tropism of rotaviruses is determined by the species, cell line and rotavirus strain. Rotaviruses have evolved functions which can antagonize the host innate immune response, whereas are able to induce endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, oxidative stress and inflammatory signaling. A networking between ER stress, inflammation and oxidative stress is suggested, in which release of calcium from the ER increases the generation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to toxic accumulation of ROS within ER and mitochondria. Sustained ER stress potentially stimulates inflammatory response through unfolded protein response pathways. However, the detailed characterization of the molecular mechanisms underpinning these rotavirus-induced stressful conditions is still lacking. The signaling events triggered by host recognition of virus-associated molecular patterns offers an opportunity for the development of novel therapeutic strategies aimed at interfering with rotavirus infection. The use of N-acetylcysteine, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and PPARγ agonists to inhibit rotavirus infection opens a new way for treating the rotavirus-induced diarrhea and complementing vaccines. PMID:27175349

  13. Inflammatory and oxidative stress in rotavirus infection.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, Carlos A; Acosta, Orlando

    2016-05-12

    Rotaviruses are the single leading cause of life-threatening diarrhea affecting children under 5 years of age. Rotavirus entry into the host cell seems to occur by sequential interactions between virion proteins and various cell surface molecules. The entry mechanisms seem to involve the contribution of cellular molecules having binding, chaperoning and oxido-reducing activities. It appears to be that the receptor usage and tropism of rotaviruses is determined by the species, cell line and rotavirus strain. Rotaviruses have evolved functions which can antagonize the host innate immune response, whereas are able to induce endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, oxidative stress and inflammatory signaling. A networking between ER stress, inflammation and oxidative stress is suggested, in which release of calcium from the ER increases the generation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to toxic accumulation of ROS within ER and mitochondria. Sustained ER stress potentially stimulates inflammatory response through unfolded protein response pathways. However, the detailed characterization of the molecular mechanisms underpinning these rotavirus-induced stressful conditions is still lacking. The signaling events triggered by host recognition of virus-associated molecular patterns offers an opportunity for the development of novel therapeutic strategies aimed at interfering with rotavirus infection. The use of N-acetylcysteine, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and PPARγ agonists to inhibit rotavirus infection opens a new way for treating the rotavirus-induced diarrhea and complementing vaccines.

  14. [Mitochondria, oxidative stress and aging].

    PubMed

    Szarka, András; Bánhegyi, Gábor; Sümegi, Balázs

    2014-03-23

    The free radical theory of aging was defined in the 1950s. On the base of this theory, the reactive oxygen species formed in the metabolic pathways can play pivotal role in ageing. The theory was modified by defining the mitochondrial respiration as the major cellular source of reactive oxygen species and got the new name mitochondrial theory of aging. Later on the existence of a "vicious cycle" was proposed, in which the reactive oxygen species formed in the mitochondrial respiration impair the mitochondrial DNA and its functions. The formation of reactive oxygen species are elevated due to mitochondrial dysfunction. The formation of mitochondrial DNA mutations can be accelerated by this "vicious cycle", which can lead to accelerated aging. The exonuclease activity of DNA polymerase γ, the polymerase responsible for the replication of mitochondrial DNA was impaired in mtDNA mutator mouse recently. The rate of somatic mutations in mitochondrial DNA was elevated and an aging phenotype could have been observed in these mice. Surprisingly, no oxidative impairment neither elevated reactive oxygen species formation could have been observed in the mtDNA mutator mice, which may question the existence of the "vicious cycle".

  15. Oxidative Stress: A Promising Target for Chemoprevention

    PubMed Central

    John, AM Sashi Papu; Ankem, Murali K; Damodaran, Chendil

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide, and treating advanced stages of cancer remains clinically challenging. Epidemiological studies have shown that oxidants and free radicals induced DNA damage is one of the predominant causative factors for cancer pathogenesis. Hence, oxidants are attractive targets for chemoprevention as well as therapy. Dietary agents are known to exert an anti-oxidant property which is one of the most efficient preventive strategy in cancer progression. In this article, we highlight dietary agents can potentially target oxidative stress, in turn delaying, preventing, or treating cancer development. Some of these agents are currently in use in basic research, while some have been launched successfully into clinical trials. PMID:27088073

  16. Oxidative stress and Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Christen, Y

    2000-02-01

    Research in the field of molecular biology has helped to provide a better understanding of both the cascade of biochemical events that occurs with Alzheimer disease (AD) and the heterogeneous nature of the disease. One hypothesis that accounts for both the heterogeneous nature of AD and the fact that aging is the most obvious risk factor is that free radicals are involved. The probability of this involvement is supported by the fact that neurons are extremely sensitive to attacks by destructive free radicals. Furthermore, lesions are present in the brains of AD patients that are typically associated with attacks by free radicals (eg, damage to DNA, protein oxidation, lipid peroxidation, and advanced glycosylation end products), and metals (eg, iron, copper, zinc, and aluminum) are present that have catalytic activity that produce free radicals. beta-Amyloid is aggregated and produces more free radicals in the presence of free radicals; beta-amyloid toxicity is eliminated by free radical scavengers. Apolipoprotein E is subject to attacks by free radicals, and apolipoprotein E peroxidation has been correlated with AD. In contrast, apolipoprotein E can act as a free radical scavenger and this behavior is isoform dependent. AD has been linked to mitochondrial anomalies affecting cytochrome-c oxidase, and these anomalies may contribute to the abnormal production of free radicals. Finally, many free radical scavengers (eg, vitamin E, selegeline, and Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761) have produced promising results in relation to AD, as has desferrioxamine-an iron-chelating agent-and antiinflammatory drugs and estrogens, which also have an antioxidant effect.

  17. Electromagnetic Fields, Oxidative Stress, and Neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Consales, Claudia; Merla, Caterina; Marino, Carmela; Benassi, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) originating both from both natural and manmade sources permeate our environment. As people are continuously exposed to EMFs in everyday life, it is a matter of great debate whether they can be harmful to human health. On the basis of two decades of epidemiological studies, an increased risk for childhood leukemia associated with Extremely Low Frequency fields has been consistently assessed, inducing the International Agency for Research on Cancer to insert them in the 2B section of carcinogens in 2001. EMFs interaction with biological systems may cause oxidative stress under certain circumstances. Since free radicals are essential for brain physiological processes and pathological degeneration, research focusing on the possible influence of the EMFs-driven oxidative stress is still in progress, especially in the light of recent studies suggesting that EMFs may contribute to the etiology of neurodegenerative disorders. This review synthesizes the emerging evidences about this topic, highlighting the wide data uncertainty that still characterizes the EMFs effect on oxidative stress modulation, as both pro-oxidant and neuroprotective effects have been documented. Care should be taken to avoid methodological limitations and to determine the patho-physiological relevance of any alteration found in EMFs-exposed biological system. PMID:22991514

  18. Oxidative stress response in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Campos, Elida G; Jesuino, Rosália Santos Amorim; Dantas, Alessandra da Silva; Brígido, Marcelo de Macedo; Felipe, Maria Sueli S

    2005-06-30

    Survival of pathogenic fungi inside human hosts depends on evasion from the host immune system and adaptation to the host environment. Among different insults that Paracoccidioides brasiliensis has to handle are reactive oxygen and nitrogen species produced by the human host cells, and by its own metabolism. Knowing how the parasite deals with reactive species is important to understand how it establishes infection and survives within humans. The initiative to describe the P. brasiliensis transcriptome fostered new approaches to study oxidative stress response in this organism. By examining genes related to oxidative stress response, one can evaluate the parasite's ability to face this condition and infer about possible ways to overcome this ability. We report the results of a search of the P. brasiliensis assembled expressed sequence tag database for homologous sequences involved in oxidative stress response. We described several genes coding proteins involved in antioxidant defense, for example, catalase and superoxide dismutase isoenzymes, peroxiredoxin, cytochrome c peroxidase, glutathione synthesis enzymes, thioredoxin, and the transcription factors Yap1 and Skn7. The transcriptome analysis of P. brasiliensis reveals a pathogen that has many resources to combat reactive species. Besides characterizing the antioxidant defense system in P. brasiliensis, we also compared the ways in which different fungi respond to oxidative damage, and we identified the basic features of this response.

  19. Oxidative stress and anti-oxidative mobilization in burn injury.

    PubMed

    Parihar, Arti; Parihar, Mordhwaj S; Milner, Stephen; Bhat, Satyanarayan

    2008-02-01

    A severe burn is associated with release of inflammatory mediators which ultimately cause local and distant pathophysiological effects. Mediators including Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and Reactive Nitrogen Species (RNS) are increased in affected tissue, which are implicated in pathophysiological events observed in burn patients. The purpose of this article is to understand the role of oxidative stress in burns, in order to develop therapeutic strategies. All peer-reviewed, original and review articles published in the English language literature relevant to the topic of oxidative stress in burns in animals and human subjects were selected for this review and the possible roles of ROS and RNS in the pathophysiology of burns are discussed. Both increased xanthine oxidase and neutrophil activation appear to be the oxidant sources in burns. Free radicals have been found to have beneficial effects on antimicrobial action and wound healing. However following a burn, there is an enormous production of ROS which is harmful and implicated in inflammation, systemic inflammatory response syndrome, immunosuppression, infection and sepsis, tissue damage and multiple organ failure. Thus clinical response to burn is dependent on the balance between production of free radicals and its detoxification. Supplementation of antioxidants in human and animal models has proven benefit in decreasing distant organ failure suggesting a cause and effect relationship. We conclude that oxidative damage is one of the mechanisms responsible for the local and distant pathophysiological events observed after burn, and therefore anti-oxidant therapy might be beneficial in minimizing injury in burned patients.

  20. Oxidative Stress and Air Pollution Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Lodovici, Maura; Bigagli, Elisabetta

    2011-01-01

    Air pollution is associated with increased cardiovascular and pulmonary morbidity and mortality. The mechanisms of air pollution-induced health effects involve oxidative stress and inflammation. As a matter of fact, particulate matter (PM), especially fine (PM2.5, PM < 2.5 μm) and ultrafine (PM0.1, PM < 0.1 μm) particles, ozone, nitrogen oxides, and transition metals, are potent oxidants or able to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS). Oxidative stress can trigger redox-sensitive pathways that lead to different biological processes such as inflammation and cell death. However, it does appear that the susceptibility of target organ to oxidative injury also depends upon its ability to upregulate protective scavenging systems. As vehicular traffic is known to importantly contribute to PM exposure, its intensity and quality must be strongly relevant determinants of the qualitative characteristics of PM spread in the atmosphere. Change in the composition of this PM is likely to modify its health impact. PMID:21860622

  1. Oxidative Stress and Periodontal Disease in Obesity.

    PubMed

    Dursun, Erhan; Akalin, Ferda Alev; Genc, Tolga; Cinar, Nese; Erel, Ozcan; Yildiz, Bulent Okan

    2016-03-01

    Periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory disease of the jaws and is more prevalent in obesity. Local and systemic oxidative stress may be an early link between periodontal disease and obesity. The primary aim of this study was to detect whether increased periodontal disease susceptibility in obese individuals is associated with local and systemic oxidative stress. Accordingly; we analyzed periodontal status and systemic (serum) and local (gingival crevicular fluid [GCF]) oxidative status markers in young obese women in comparison with age-matched lean women.Twenty obese and 20 lean women participated. Periodontal condition was determined by clinical periodontal indices including probing depth, clinical attachment level, gingival index, gingival bleeding index, and plaque index. Anthropometric, hormonal, and metabolic measurements were also performed. Blood and GCF sampling was performed at the same time after an overnight fasting. Serum and GCF total antioxidant capacity (TAOC), and total oxidant status (TOS) levels were determined, and oxidative stress index (OSI) was calculated.Clinical periodontal analyses showed higher gingival index and gingival bleeding index in the obese group (P = 0.001 for both) with no significant difference in probing depth, clinical attachment level, and plaque index between the obese and the lean women. Oxidant status analyses revealed lower GCF and serum TAOC, and higher GCF and serum OSI values in the obese women (P < 0.05 for all). GCF TOS was higher in the obese women (P < 0.05), whereas there was a nonsignificant trend for higher serum TOS in obese women (P = 0.074). GCF TAOC values showed a negative correlation with body mass index, whereas GCF OSI was positively correlated with fasting insulin and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels (P < 0.05 for all). Clinical periodontal indices showed significant correlations with body mass index, insulin, and lipid levels, and also oxidant status markers

  2. Oxidative Stress and Periodontal Disease in Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Dursun, Erhan; Akalın, Ferda Alev; Genc, Tolga; Cinar, Nese; Erel, Ozcan; Yildiz, Bulent Okan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory disease of the jaws and is more prevalent in obesity. Local and systemic oxidative stress may be an early link between periodontal disease and obesity. The primary aim of this study was to detect whether increased periodontal disease susceptibility in obese individuals is associated with local and systemic oxidative stress. Accordingly; we analyzed periodontal status and systemic (serum) and local (gingival crevicular fluid [GCF]) oxidative status markers in young obese women in comparison with age-matched lean women. Twenty obese and 20 lean women participated. Periodontal condition was determined by clinical periodontal indices including probing depth, clinical attachment level, gingival index, gingival bleeding index, and plaque index. Anthropometric, hormonal, and metabolic measurements were also performed. Blood and GCF sampling was performed at the same time after an overnight fasting. Serum and GCF total antioxidant capacity (TAOC), and total oxidant status (TOS) levels were determined, and oxidative stress index (OSI) was calculated. Clinical periodontal analyses showed higher gingival index and gingival bleeding index in the obese group (P = 0.001 for both) with no significant difference in probing depth, clinical attachment level, and plaque index between the obese and the lean women. Oxidant status analyses revealed lower GCF and serum TAOC, and higher GCF and serum OSI values in the obese women (P < 0.05 for all). GCF TOS was higher in the obese women (P < 0.05), whereas there was a nonsignificant trend for higher serum TOS in obese women (P = 0.074). GCF TAOC values showed a negative correlation with body mass index, whereas GCF OSI was positively correlated with fasting insulin and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels (P < 0.05 for all). Clinical periodontal indices showed significant correlations with body mass index, insulin, and lipid levels, and also oxidant status

  3. Oxidative stress and inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Almenier, Hazem A; Al Menshawy, Hazem H; Maher, Maha M; Al Gamal, Salah

    2012-01-01

    Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) is a chronic relapsing and remitting inflammatory condition of the gastrointestinal tract. The exact cause of IBD remains undetermined, the condition appears to be related to a combination of genetic and environmental factors. While many gaps in our knowledge still exist, the last two decades have witnessed an unprecedented progress not only in the etiology ; but mainly in the mechanisms underlying the chronic inflammatory response, immunologic and genetic aspects. We review some recent points of research in pathogenesis with special stress on oxidative stress and its correlations with disease activity.

  4. [Atherosclerosis, oxidative stress and physical activity. Review].

    PubMed

    Calderón, Juan Camilo; Fernández, Ana Zita; María de Jesús, Alina Isabel

    2008-09-01

    Atherosclerosis and related diseases have emerged as the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the western world and, therefore, as a problem of public health. Free radicals and reactive oxygen species have been suggested to be part of the pathophysiology of these diseases. It is well known that physical activity plays an important role as a public health measure by reducing the risk of developing atherosclerosis-related cardiovascular events in the general population. It is also known that physical activity increases in some tissues, the reactive oxygen species production. In this review the atherosclerosis-oxidative stress-physical activity relationship is focused on the apparent paradox by which physical activity reduces atherosclerosis and cardiovascular risk in parallel with the activation of an apparently damaging mechanism which is an increased oxidative stress. A hypothesis including the experimental and clinical evidence is presented to explain the aforementioned paradox.

  5. Role of Oxidative Stress in Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Khandrika, Lakshmipathi; Kumar, Binod; Koul, Sweaty; Maroni, Paul; Koul, Hari K.

    2009-01-01

    As prostate cancer and aberrant changes in reactive oxygen species (ROS) become more common with aging, ROS signaling may play an important role in the development and progression of this malignancy. Increased ROS, otherwise known as oxidative stress, is a result of either increased ROS generation or a loss of antioxidant defense mechanisms. Oxidative stress is associated with several pathological conditions including inflammation and infection. ROS are products of normal cellular metabolism and play vital roles in stimulation of signaling pathways in response to changing intra- and extracellular environmental conditions. Chronic increases in ROS over time are known to induce somatic mutations and neoplastic transformation. In this review we summarize the causes for increased ROS generation and its potential role in etiology and progression of prostate cancer. PMID:19185987

  6. [Oxidative stress and preeclampsia: A review].

    PubMed

    Guerby, P; Vidal, F; Garoby-Salom, S; Vayssiere, C; Salvayre, R; Parant, O; Negre-Salvayre, A

    2015-11-01

    Preeclampsia is a leading cause of pregnancy complications and affects 3-7% of pregnant women. Pathophysiology of preeclampsia is still unclear. According to the two-stage model of preeclampsia, the abnormal and hypoperfused placenta (stage 1) releases factors to the bloodstream, which are responsible for the maternal symptoms (stage 2), characterised by a systemic inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathophysiology of the preeclampsia and could be the common denominator between the two. This review summarizes the current knowledge of a new potential etiology of the disease, with a special focus on oxidative stress. We also review the different factors that have been proposed to cause endothelial cell dysfunction in preeclampsia, and trials investigating the role of antioxidant supplementation in preeclampsia.

  7. ALS and Oxidative Stress: The Neurovascular Scenario

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Keshav; Gupta, Pawan Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative stress and angiogenic factors have been placed as the prime focus of scientific investigations after an establishment of link between vascular endothelial growth factor promoter (VEGF), hypoxia, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) pathogenesis. Deletion of the hypoxia-response element in the vascular endothelial growth factor promoter and mutant superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) which are characterised by atrophy and muscle weakness resulted in phenotype resembling human ALS in mice. This results in lower motor neurodegeneration thus establishing an important link between motor neuron degeneration, vasculature, and angiogenic molecules. In this review, we have presented human, animal, and in vitro studies which suggest that molecules like VEGF have a therapeutic, diagnostic, and prognostic potential in ALS. Involvement of vascular growth factors and hypoxia response elements also highlights the converging role of oxidative stress and neurovascular network for understanding and treatment of various neurodegenerative disorders like ALS. PMID:24367722

  8. Oxidative stress and autoimmune skin disease.

    PubMed

    Shah, Amit Aakash; Sinha, Animesh A

    2013-01-01

    Antioxidants play the important role in our body of neutralizing free radicals and peroxides that are formed during normal physiologic events. While these reactive oxygen species are necessary for numerous biological processes, when created in excess they can have deleterious effects. The skin as an organ is constantly under attack by reactive oxygen species from both endogenous and exogenous sources. The pathophysiology of many autoimmune diseases is unknown and recently oxidative stress has come to light as a possible triggering mechanism. Recent investigations attempting to link autoimmune skin diseases and oxidative stress have had varying degrees of success. In this article, we review the current literature regarding antioxidants in alopecia areata, pemphigus vulgaris and other blistering diseases, vitiligo, and psoriasis, and suggest possible future studies and treatment options.

  9. Oxidative stress and Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Blesa, Javier; Trigo-Damas, Ines; Quiroga-Varela, Anna; Jackson-Lewis, Vernice R.

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) is a chronic, progressive neurological disease that is associated with a loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta of the brain. The molecular mechanisms underlying the loss of these neurons still remain elusive. Oxidative stress is thought to play an important role in dopaminergic neurotoxicity. Complex I deficiencies of the respiratory chain account for the majority of unfavorable neuronal degeneration in PD. Environmental factors, such as neurotoxins, pesticides, insecticides, dopamine (DA) itself, and genetic mutations in PD-associated proteins contribute to mitochondrial dysfunction which precedes reactive oxygen species formation. In this mini review, we give an update of the classical pathways involving these mechanisms of neurodegeneration, the biochemical and molecular events that mediate or regulate DA neuronal vulnerability, and the role of PD-related gene products in modulating cellular responses to oxidative stress in the course of the neurodegenerative process. PMID:26217195

  10. Angiogenesis Inhibitors

    MedlinePlus

    ... of anticancer agents that target the VEGF pathway. Nature Reviews Clinical Oncology 2009; 6(8):465–477. [ ... mechanisms involved in the toxicity of angiogenesis inhibition. Nature Reviews Cancer 2007; 7(6):475–485. [PubMed ...

  11. Imaging of Oxidative Stress in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Brian M. Zeglis CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center New York, NY...27September2012-26September2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Imaging of Oxidative Stress in Prostate Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER...NUMBER Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY, 10065 9. SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S

  12. Oxidative stress and male reproductive health

    PubMed Central

    Aitken, Robert J; Smith, Tegan B; Jobling, Matthew S; Baker, Mark A; De Iuliis, Geoffry N

    2014-01-01

    One of the major causes of defective sperm function is oxidative stress, which not only disrupts the integrity of sperm DNA but also limits the fertilizing potential of these cells as a result of collateral damage to proteins and lipids in the sperm plasma membrane. The origins of such oxidative stress appear to involve the sperm mitochondria, which have a tendency to generate high levels of superoxide anion as a prelude to entering the intrinsic apoptotic cascade. Unfortunately, these cells have very little capacity to respond to such an attack because they only possess the first enzyme in the base excision repair (BER) pathway, 8-oxoguanine glycosylase 1 (OGG1). The latter successfully creates an abasic site, but the spermatozoa cannot process the oxidative lesion further because they lack the downstream proteins (APE1, XRCC1) needed to complete the repair process. It is the responsibility of the oocyte to continue the BER pathway prior to initiation of S-phase of the first mitotic division. If a mistake is made by the oocyte at this stage of development, a mutation will be created that will be represented in every cell in the body. Such mechanisms may explain the increase in childhood cancers and other diseases observed in the offspring of males who have suffered oxidative stress in their germ line as a consequence of age, environmental or lifestyle factors. The high prevalence of oxidative DNA damage in the spermatozoa of male infertility patients may have implications for the health of children conceived in vitro and serves as a driver for current research into the origins of free radical generation in the germ line. PMID:24369131

  13. Symbiosis-induced adaptation to oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Richier, Sophie; Furla, Paola; Plantivaux, Amandine; Merle, Pierre-Laurent; Allemand, Denis

    2005-01-01

    Cnidarians in symbiosis with photosynthetic protists must withstand daily hyperoxic/anoxic transitions within their host cells. Comparative studies between symbiotic (Anemonia viridis) and non-symbiotic (Actinia schmidti) sea anemones show striking differences in their response to oxidative stress. First, the basal expression of SOD is very different. Symbiotic animal cells have a higher isoform diversity (number and classes) and a higher activity than the non-symbiotic cells. Second, the symbiotic animal cells of A. viridis also maintain unaltered basal values for cellular damage when exposed to experimental hyperoxia (100% O(2)) or to experimental thermal stress (elevated temperature +7 degrees C above ambient). Under such conditions, A. schmidti modifies its SOD activity significantly. Electrophoretic patterns diversify, global activities diminish and cell damage biomarkers increase. These data suggest symbiotic cells adapt to stress while non-symbiotic cells remain acutely sensitive. In addition to being toxic, high O(2) partial pressure (P(O(2))) may also constitute a preconditioning step for symbiotic animal cells, leading to an adaptation to the hyperoxic condition and, thus, to oxidative stress. Furthermore, in aposymbiotic animal cells of A. viridis, repression of some animal SOD isoforms is observed. Meanwhile, in cultured symbionts, new activity bands are induced, suggesting that the host might protect its zooxanthellae in hospite. Similar results have been observed in other symbiotic organisms, such as the sea anemone Aiptasia pulchella and the scleractinian coral Stylophora pistillata. Molecular or physical interactions between the two symbiotic partners may explain such variations in SOD activity and might confer oxidative stress tolerance to the animal host.

  14. Autotaxin protects microglial cells against oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Awada, Rana; Rondeau, Philippe; Grès, Sandra; Saulnier-Blache, Jean Sébastien; Lefebvre d'Hellencourt, Christian; Bourdon, Emmanuel

    2012-01-15

    Oxidative stress occurs when antioxidant defenses are overwhelmed by oxygen-reactive species and can lead to cellular damage, as seen in several neurodegenerative disorders. Microglia are specialized cells in the central nervous system that act as the first and main form of active immune defense in the response to pathological events. Autotaxin (ATX) plays an important role in the modulation of critical cellular functions, through its enzymatic production of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). In this study, we investigated the potential role of ATX in the response of microglial cells to oxidative stress. We show that treatment of a microglial BV2 cell line with hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) stimulates ATX expression and LPA production. Stable overexpression of ATX inhibits microglial activation (CD11b expression) and protects against H(2)O(2)-treatment-induced cellular damage. This protective effect of ATX was partially reduced in the presence of the LPA-receptor antagonist Ki16425. ATX overexpression was also associated with a reduction in intracellular ROS formation, carbonylated protein accumulation, proteasomal activity, and catalase expression. Our results suggest that up-regulation of ATX expression in microglia could be a mechanism for protection against oxidative stress, thereby reducing inflammation in the nervous system. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Chrononutrition against Oxidative Stress in Aging

    PubMed Central

    Garrido, M.; Terrón, M. P.; Rodríguez, A. B.

    2013-01-01

    Free radicals and oxidative stress have been recognized as important factors in the biology of aging and in many age-associated degenerative diseases. Antioxidant systems deteriorate during aging. It is, thus, considered that one way to reduce the rate of aging and the risk of chronic disease is to avoid the formation of free radicals and reduce oxidative stress by strengthening antioxidant defences. Phytochemicals present in fruits, vegetables, grains, and other foodstuffs have been linked to reducing the risk of major oxidative stress-induced diseases. Some dietary components of foods possess biological activities which influence circadian rhythms in humans. Chrononutrition studies have shown that not only the content of food, but also the time of ingestion contributes to the natural functioning of the circadian system. Dietary interventions with antioxidant-enriched foods taking into account the principles of chrononutrition are of particular interest for the elderly since they may help amplify the already powerful benefits of phytochemicals as natural instruments with which to prevent or delay the onset of common age-related diseases. PMID:23861994

  16. Role of mitochondrial oxidative stress in hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Ungvari, Zoltan

    2013-01-01

    Based on mosaic theory, hypertension is a multifactorial disorder that develops because of genetic, environmental, anatomical, adaptive neural, endocrine, humoral, and hemodynamic factors. It has been recently proposed that oxidative stress may contribute to all of these factors and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in the development of hypertension. Previous studies focusing on the role of vascular NADPH oxidases provided strong support of this concept. Although mitochondria represent one of the most significant sources of cellular ROS generation, the regulation of mitochondrial ROS generation in the cardiovascular system and its pathophysiological role in hypertension are much less understood. In this review, the role of mitochondrial oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of hypertension and cross talk between angiotensin II signaling, pathways involved in mechanotransduction, NADPH oxidases, and mitochondria-derived ROS are considered. The possible benefits of therapeutic strategies that have the potential to attenuate mitochondrial oxidative stress for the prevention/treatment of hypertension are also discussed. PMID:24043248

  17. Oxidative stress sensitivity in Debaryomyces hansenii.

    PubMed

    Navarrete, Clara; Siles, Alicia; Martínez, José L; Calero, Fernando; Ramos, José

    2009-06-01

    Debaryomyces hansenii is an osmotolerant and halotolerant yeast of increasing interest for fundamental and applied research. In this work, we have performed a first study on the effect of oxidative stress on the performance of this yeast. We have used Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a well-known reference yeast. We show that D. hansenii is much more susceptible than S. cerevisiae to cadmium chloride, hydrogen peroxide or 1,4-dithiothreitol. These substances induced the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in both yeasts, the amounts measured being significantly higher in the case of D. hansenii. We also show that NaCl exerted a protective effect against oxidative stress in Debaryomyces, but that this was not the case in Saccharomyces because sodium protected that yeast only when toxicity was induced with cadmium. On the basis of the present results, we raised the hypothesis that the sensitivity to oxidative stress in D. hansenii is related to the high amounts of ROS formed in that yeast and that observations such as low glutathione amounts, low basal superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activities, decrease in ATP levels produced in the presence of ROS inducers and high cadmium accumulation are determinants directly or indirectly involved in the sensitivity process.

  18. Oxidative Stress in Patients With Acne Vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Arican, Ozer; Belge Kurutas, Ergul; Sasmaz, Sezai

    2005-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is one of the common dermatological diseases and its pathogenesis is multifactorial. In this study, we aim to determine the effects of oxidative stress in acne vulgaris. Forty-three consecutive acne patients and 46 controls were enrolled. The parameters of oxidative stress such as catalase (CAT), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and malondialdehyde (MDA) in the venous blood of cases were measured spectrophotometrically. The values compared with control group, the relation between the severity and distribution of acne, and the correlation of each enzyme level were researched. CAT and G6PD levels in patients were found to be statistically decreased, and SOD and MDA levels were found to be statistically increased (P < .001). However, any statistical difference and correlation could not be found between the severity and distribution of lesions and the mean levels of enzymes. In addition, we found that each enzyme is correlated with one another. Our findings show that oxidative stress exists in the acne patients. It will be useful to apply at least one antioxidant featured drug along with the combined acne treatment. PMID:16489259

  19. Lamins as mediators of oxidative stress

    SciTech Connect

    Sieprath, Tom; Darwiche, Rabih; De Vos, Winnok H.

    2012-05-18

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The nuclear lamina defines structural and functional properties of the cell nucleus. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lamina dysfunction leads to a broad spectrum of laminopathies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Recent data is reviewed connecting laminopathies to oxidative stress. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A framework is proposed to explain interactions between lamins and oxidative stress. -- Abstract: The nuclear lamina defines both structural and functional properties of the eukaryotic cell nucleus. Mutations in the LMNA gene, encoding A-type lamins, lead to a broad spectrum of diseases termed laminopathies. While different hypotheses have been postulated to explain disease development, there is still no unified view on the mechanistic basis of laminopathies. Recent observations indicate that laminopathies are often accompanied by altered levels of reactive oxygen species and a higher susceptibility to oxidative stress at the cellular level. In this review, we highlight the role of reactive oxygen species for cell function and disease development in the context of laminopathies and present a framework of non-exclusive mechanisms to explain the reciprocal interactions between a dysfunctional lamina and altered redox homeostasis.

  20. Antibacterial activity of graphite, graphite oxide, graphene oxide, and reduced graphene oxide: membrane and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shaobin; Zeng, Tingying Helen; Hofmann, Mario; Burcombe, Ehdi; Wei, Jun; Jiang, Rongrong; Kong, Jing; Chen, Yuan

    2011-09-27

    Health and environmental impacts of graphene-based materials need to be thoroughly evaluated before their potential applications. Graphene has strong cytotoxicity toward bacteria. To better understand its antimicrobial mechanism, we compared the antibacterial activity of four types of graphene-based materials (graphite (Gt), graphite oxide (GtO), graphene oxide (GO), and reduced graphene oxide (rGO)) toward a bacterial model-Escherichia coli. Under similar concentration and incubation conditions, GO dispersion shows the highest antibacterial activity, sequentially followed by rGO, Gt, and GtO. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and dynamic light scattering analyses show that GO aggregates have the smallest average size among the four types of materials. SEM images display that the direct contacts with graphene nanosheets disrupt cell membrane. No superoxide anion (O(2)(•-)) induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production is detected. However, the four types of materials can oxidize glutathione, which serves as redox state mediator in bacteria. Conductive rGO and Gt have higher oxidation capacities than insulating GO and GtO. Results suggest that antimicrobial actions are contributed by both membrane and oxidation stress. We propose that a three-step antimicrobial mechanism, previously used for carbon nanotubes, is applicable to graphene-based materials. It includes initial cell deposition on graphene-based materials, membrane stress caused by direct contact with sharp nanosheets, and the ensuing superoxide anion-independent oxidation. We envision that physicochemical properties of graphene-based materials, such as density of functional groups, size, and conductivity, can be precisely tailored to either reducing their health and environmental risks or increasing their application potentials. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  1. Mitochondrial oxidative stress and mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Kang, Dongchon; Hamasaki, Naotaka

    2003-10-01

    Mitochondria produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) under physiological conditions in association with activity of the respiratory chain in aerobic ATP production. The production of ROS is essentially a function of O2 consumption. Hence, increased mitochondrial activity per se can be an oxidative stress to cells. Furthermore, production of ROS is markedly enhanced in many pathological conditions in which the respiratory chain is impaired. Because mitochondrial DNA, which is essential for execution of normal oxidative phosphorylation, is located in proximity to the ROS-generating respiratory chain, it is more oxidatively damaged than is nuclear DNA. Cumulative damage of mitochondrial DNA is implicated in the aging process and in the progression of such common diseases as diabetes, cancer, and heart failure.

  2. Neuro-oxidative-nitrosative stress in sepsis.

    PubMed

    Berg, Ronan M G; Møller, Kirsten; Bailey, Damian M

    2011-07-01

    Neuro-oxidative-nitrosative stress may prove the molecular basis underlying brain dysfunction in sepsis. In the current review, we describe how sepsis-induced reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) trigger lipid peroxidation chain reactions throughout the cerebrovasculature and surrounding brain parenchyma, due to failure of the local antioxidant systems. ROS/RNS cause structural membrane damage, induce inflammation, and scavenge nitric oxide (NO) to yield peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)). This activates the inducible NO synthase, which further compounds ONOO(-) formation. ROS/RNS cause mitochondrial dysfunction by inhibiting the mitochondrial electron transport chain and uncoupling oxidative phosphorylation, which ultimately leads to neuronal bioenergetic failure. Furthermore, in certain 'at risk' areas of the brain, free radicals may induce neuronal apoptosis. In the present review, we define a role for ROS/RNS-mediated neuronal bioenergetic failure and apoptosis as a primary mechanism underlying sepsis-associated encephalopathy and, in sepsis survivors, permanent cognitive deficits.

  3. Iron, Oxidative Stress and Gestational Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Taifeng; Han, Huijun; Yang, Zhenyu

    2014-01-01

    Both iron deficiency and hyperglycemia are highly prevalent globally for pregnant women. Iron supplementation is recommended during pregnancy to control iron deficiency. The purposes of the review are to assess the oxidative effects of iron supplementation and the potential relationship between iron nutrition and gestational diabetes. High doses of iron (~relative to 60 mg or more daily for adult humans) can induce lipid peroxidation in vitro and in animal studies. Pharmaceutical doses of iron supplements (e.g., 10× RDA or more for oral supplements or direct iron supplementation via injection or addition to the cell culture medium) for a short or long duration will induce DNA damage. Higher heme-iron intake or iron status measured by various biomarkers, especially serum ferritin, might contribute to greater risk of gestational diabetes, which may be mediated by iron oxidative stress though lipid oxidation and/or DNA damage. However, information is lacking about the effect of low dose iron supplementation (≤60 mg daily) on lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and gestational diabetes. Randomized trials of low-dose iron supplementation (≤60 mg daily) for pregnant women are warranted to test the relationship between iron oxidative stress and insulin resistance/gestational diabetes, especially for iron-replete women. PMID:25255832

  4. Nicotine and pathological angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jieun; Cooke, John P

    2012-11-27

    This paper describes the role of endothelial nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) in diseases where pathological angiogenesis plays a role. An extensive review of the literature was performed, focusing on studies that investigated the effect of nicotine upon angiogenesis. Nicotine induces pathological angiogenesis at clinically relevant concentrations (i.e. at tissue and plasma concentrations similar to those of a light to moderate smoker). Nicotine promotes endothelial cell migration, proliferation, survival, tube formation and nitric oxide (NO) production in vitro, mimicking the effect of other angiogenic growth factors. These in vitro findings indicate that there may be an angiogenic component to the pathophysiology of major tobacco related diseases such as carcinoma, atherosclerosis, and age-related macular degeneration. Indeed, nicotine stimulates pathological angiogenesis in pre-clinical models of these disorders. Subsequently, it has been demonstrated that nicotine stimulates nAChRs on the endothelium to induce angiogenic processes, that these nAChRs are largely of the α7 homomeric type, and that there are synergistic interactions between the nAChRs and angiogenic growth factor receptors at the phosphoproteomic and genomic levels. These findings are of potential clinical relevance, and provide mechanistic insights into tobacco-related disease. Furthermore, these findings may lead to novel therapies for diseases characterized by insufficient or inappropriate angiogenesis. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Oxidative stress, thyroid dysfunction & Down syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Carlos; Casado, Ángela

    2015-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is one of the most common chromosomal disorders, occurring in one out of 700-1000 live births, and the most common cause of mental retardation. Thyroid dysfunction is the most typical endocrine abnormality in patients with DS. It is well known that thyroid dysfunction is highly prevalent in children and adults with DS and that both hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism are more common in patients with DS than in the general population. Increasing evidence has shown that DS individuals are under unusual increased oxidative stress, which may be involved in the higher prevalence and severity of a number of pathologies associated with the syndrome, as well as the accelerated ageing observed in these individuals. The gene for Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) is coded on chromosome 21 and it is overexpressed (~50%) resulting in an increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS) due to overproduction of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). ROS leads to oxidative damage of DNA, proteins and lipids, therefore, oxidative stress may play an important role in the pathogenesis of DS. PMID:26354208

  6. Oxidative Stress and Autophagy in Cardiovascular Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Cyndi R.; Pedrozo, Zully; Lavandero, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Autophagy is an evolutionarily ancient process of intracellular protein and organelle recycling required to maintain cellular homeostasis in the face of a wide variety of stresses. Dysregulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) leads to oxidative damage. Both autophagy and ROS/RNS serve pathological or adaptive roles within cardiomyocytes, depending on the context. Recent Advances: ROS/RNS and autophagy communicate with each other via both transcriptional and post-translational events. This cross talk, in turn, regulates the structural integrity of cardiomyocytes, promotes proteostasis, and reduces inflammation, events critical to disease pathogenesis. Critical Issues: Dysregulation of either autophagy or redox state has been implicated in many cardiovascular diseases. Cardiomyocytes are rich in mitochondria, which make them particularly sensitive to oxidative damage. Maintenance of mitochondrial homeostasis and elimination of defective mitochondria are each critical to the maintenance of redox homeostasis. Future Directions: The complex interplay between autophagy and oxidative stress underlies a wide range of physiological and pathological events and its elucidation holds promise of potential clinical applicability. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 507–518. PMID:23641894

  7. Smog induces oxidative stress and microbiota disruption.

    PubMed

    Wong, Tit-Yee

    2017-04-01

    Smog is created through the interactions between pollutants in the air, fog, and sunlight. Air pollutants, such as carbon monoxide, heavy metals, nitrogen oxides, ozone, sulfur dioxide, volatile organic vapors, and particulate matters, can induce oxidative stress in human directly or indirectly through the formation of reactive oxygen species. The outermost boundary of human skin and mucous layers are covered by a complex network of human-associated microbes. The relation between these microbial communities and their human host are mostly mutualistic. These microbes not only provide nutrients, vitamins, and protection against other pathogens, they also influence human's physical, immunological, nutritional, and mental developments. Elements in smog can induce oxidative stress to these microbes, leading to community collapse. Disruption of these mutualistic microbiota may introduce unexpected health risks, especially among the newborns and young children. Besides reducing the burning of fossil fuels as the ultimate solution of smog formation, advanced methods by using various physical, chemical, and biological means to reduce sulfur and nitrogen contains in fossil fuels could lower smog formation. Additionally, information on microbiota disruption, based on functional genomics, culturomics, and general ecological principles, should be included in the risk assessment of prolonged smog exposure to the health of human populations. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Molecular magnetic resonance imaging of angiogenesis in vivo using polyvalent cyclic RGD-iron oxide microparticle conjugates.

    PubMed

    Melemenidis, Stavros; Jefferson, Andrew; Ruparelia, Neil; Akhtar, Asim M; Xie, Jin; Allen, Danny; Hamilton, Alastair; Larkin, James R; Perez-Balderas, Francisco; Smart, Sean C; Muschel, Ruth J; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Sibson, Nicola R; Choudhury, Robin P

    2015-01-01

    Angiogenesis is an essential component of tumour growth and, consequently, an important target both therapeutically and diagnostically. The cell adhesion molecule α(v)β(3) integrin is a specific marker of angiogenic vessels and the most prevalent vascular integrin that binds the amino acid sequence arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD). Previous studies using RGD-targeted nanoparticles (20-50 nm diameter) of iron oxide (NPIO) for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of tumour angiogenesis, have identified a number of limitations, including non-specific extravasation, long blood half-life (reducing specific contrast) and low targeting valency. The aim of this study, therefore, was to determine whether conjugation of a cyclic RGD variant [c(RGDyK)], with enhanced affinity for α(v)β(3), to microparticles of iron oxide (MPIO) would provide a more sensitive contrast agent for imaging of angiogenic tumour vessels. Cyclic RGD [c(RGDyK)] and RAD [c(RADyK)] based peptides were coupled to 2.8 μm MPIO, and binding efficacy tested both in vitro and in vivo. Significantly greater specific binding of c(RGDyK)-MPIO to S-nitroso-n-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP)-stimulated human umbilical vein endothelial cells in vitro than PBS-treated cells was demonstrated under both static (14-fold increase; P < 0.001) and flow (44-fold increase; P < 0.001) conditions. Subsequently, mice bearing subcutaneous colorectal (MC38) or melanoma (B16F10) derived tumours underwent in vivo MRI pre- and post-intravenous administration of c(RGDyK)-MPIO or c(RADyK)-MPIO. A significantly greater volume of MPIO-induced hypointensities were found in c(RGDyK)-MPIO injected compared to c(RADyK)-MPIO injected mice, in both tumour models (P < 0.05). Similarly, administration of c(RGDyK)-MPIO induced a greater reduction in mean tumour T(2)* relaxation times than the control agent in both tumour models (melanoma P < 0.001; colorectal P < 0.0001). Correspondingly, MPIO density per tumour volume assessed

  9. Oxidative stress inhibition and oxidant activity by fibrous clays.

    PubMed

    Cervini-Silva, Javiera; Nieto-Camacho, Antonio; Gómez-Vidales, Virginia

    2015-09-01

    Fibrous clays (sepiolite, palygorskite) are produced at 1.2m tonnes per year and have a wide range of industrial applications needing to replace long-fibre length asbestos. However, information on the beneficial effects of fibrous clays on health remains scarce. This paper reports on the effect of sepiolite (Vallecas, Spain) and palygorskite (Torrejón El Rubio, Spain) on cell damage via oxidative stress (determined as the progress of lipid peroxidation, LP). The extent of LP was assessed using the Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances assay. The oxidant activity by fibrous clays was quantified using Electron-Paramagnetic Resonance. Sepiolite and palygorskite inhibited LP, whereby corresponding IC50 values were 6557±1024 and 4250±289μgmL(-1). As evidenced by dose-response experiments LP inhibition by palygorskite was surface-controlled. Fibrous clay surfaces did not stabilize HO species, except for suspensions containing 5000μgmL(-1). A strong oxidant (or weak anti-oxidant) activity favours the inhibition of LP by fibrous clays. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Epigenetics, oxidative stress, and Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Zawia, Nasser H; Lahiri, Debomoy K; Cardozo-Pelaez, Fernando

    2009-05-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder whose clinical manifestations appear in old age. The sporadic nature of 90% of AD cases, the differential susceptibility to and course of the illness, as well as the late age onset of the disease suggest that epigenetic and environmental components play a role in the etiology of late-onset AD. Animal exposure studies demonstrated that AD may begin early in life and may involve an interplay between the environment, epigenetics, and oxidative stress. Early life exposure of rodents and primates to the xenobiotic metal lead (Pb) enhanced the expression of genes associated with AD, repressed the expression of others, and increased the burden of oxidative DNA damage in the aged brain. Epigenetic mechanisms that control gene expression and promote the accumulation of oxidative DNA damage are mediated through alterations in the methylation or oxidation of CpG dinucleotides. We found that environmental influences occurring during brain development inhibit DNA-methyltransferases, thus hypomethylating promoters of genes associated with AD such as the beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP). This early life imprint was sustained and triggered later in life to increase the levels of APP and amyloid-beta (Abeta). Increased Abeta levels promoted the production of reactive oxygen species, which damage DNA and accelerate neurodegenerative events. Whereas AD-associated genes were overexpressed late in life, others were repressed, suggesting that these early life perturbations result in hypomethylation as well as hypermethylation of genes. The hypermethylated genes are rendered susceptible to Abeta-enhanced oxidative DNA damage because methylcytosines restrict repair of adjacent hydroxyguanosines. Although the conditions leading to early life hypo- or hypermethylation of specific genes are not known, these changes can have an impact on gene expression and imprint susceptibility to oxidative DNA damage in the aged brain.

  11. Oxidative stress and antioxidants: Distress or eustress?

    PubMed

    Niki, Etsuo

    2016-04-01

    There is a growing consensus that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are not just associated with various pathologies, but that they act as physiological redox signaling messenger with important regulatory functions. It is sometimes stated that "if ROS is a physiological signaling messenger, then removal of ROS by antioxidants such as vitamins E and C may not be good for human health." However, it should be noted that ROS acting as physiological signaling messenger and ROS removed by antioxidants are not the same. The lipid peroxidation products of polyunsaturated fatty acids and cholesterol induce adaptive response and enhance defense capacity against subsequent oxidative insults, but it is unlikely that these lipid peroxidation products are physiological signaling messenger produced on purpose. The removal of ROS and inhibition of lipid peroxidation by antioxidants should be beneficial for human health, although it has to be noted also that they may not be an effective inhibitor of oxidative damage mediated by non-radical oxidants. The term ROS is vague and, as there are many ROS and antioxidants which are different in chemistry, it is imperative to explicitly specify ROS and antioxidant to understand the effects and role of oxidative stress and antioxidants properly.

  12. Free radicals, reactive oxygen species, oxidative stress and its classification.

    PubMed

    Lushchak, Volodymyr I

    2014-12-05

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) initially considered as only damaging agents in living organisms further were found to play positive roles also. This paper describes ROS homeostasis, principles of their investigation and technical approaches to investigate ROS-related processes. Especial attention is paid to complications related to experimental documentation of these processes, their diversity, spatiotemporal distribution, relationships with physiological state of the organisms. Imbalance between ROS generation and elimination in favor of the first with certain consequences for cell physiology has been called "oxidative stress". Although almost 30years passed since the first definition of oxidative stress was introduced by Helmut Sies, to date we have no accepted classification of oxidative stress. In order to fill up this gape here classification of oxidative stress based on its intensity is proposed. Due to that oxidative stress may be classified as basal oxidative stress (BOS), low intensity oxidative stress (LOS), intermediate intensity oxidative stress (IOS), and high intensity oxidative stress (HOS). Another classification of potential interest may differentiate three categories such as mild oxidative stress (MOS), temperate oxidative stress (TOS), and finally severe (strong) oxidative stress (SOS). Perspective directions of investigations in the field include development of sophisticated classification of oxidative stresses, accurate identification of cellular ROS targets and their arranged responses to ROS influence, real in situ functions and operation of so-called "antioxidants", intracellular spatiotemporal distribution and effects of ROS, deciphering of molecular mechanisms responsible for cellular response to ROS attacks, and ROS involvement in realization of normal cellular functions in cellular homeostasis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Stevioside prevents oxidative stress in wheat seedlings.

    PubMed

    Timofeeva, O A; Nevmerzhitskaya, Yu Yu; Mikhaylov, A L; Schaimullina, G Kh; Mironov, V F

    2015-11-01

    This is the first study on the effect of stevioside, a diterpene glycoside that is a new promising plant growth regulator, on the antioxidant and photosynthetic systems of seedlings of the winter wheat cultivar Kazanskaya 560. Stevioside has been demonstrated to cause a decrease in the malondialdehyde formation rate, an increase in the activities of antioxidant enzymes (peroxidase and ascorbate peroxidase), and the accumulation of proline and carotenoids. Apparently, this integrated effect of stevioside can prevent oxidative stress caused by adverse environmental factors in plants.

  14. Correlates of oxidative stress in wild kestrel nestlings (Falco tinnunculus).

    PubMed

    Costantini, David; Casagrande, Stefania; De Filippis, Stefania; Brambilla, Gianfranco; Fanfani, Alberto; Tagliavini, James; Dell'Omo, Giacomo

    2006-05-01

    The fitness of an organism can be affected by conditions experienced during early development. In light of the impact that oxidative stress can have on the health and ageing of a bird species, this study evaluated factors accounting for the variation in oxidative stress levels in nestlings of the Eurasian kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) by measuring the serum concentration of reactive oxygen metabolites and the serum antioxidant barrier against hypochlorite-induced oxidation. The ratio between these two variables was considered as an index of oxidative stress, with higher values meaning higher oxidative damage. Six-chick broods showed the highest level of oxidative stress, while no effect of sex was found. Age showed an inverse relationship with the oxidants and the levels of oxidative stress, with younger birds having higher levels. Hatching date, body condition, body mass and carotenoid concentration did not show any relationship with oxidants, antioxidants or degree of oxidative stress. These findings suggest that intrabrood sibling competition could play a role in determining oxidative stress, and that in carnivorous birds other antioxidant molecules could be more important than carotenoids to reduce oxidative stress.

  15. Air pollution and circulating biomarkers of oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Staimer, Norbert; Vaziri, Nosratola D.

    2013-01-01

    Chemical components of air pollutant exposures that induce oxidative stress and subsequent inflammation may be partly responsible for associations of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality with airborne particulate matter and combustion-related pollutant gasses. However, epidemiologic evidence regarding this is limited. An exposure-assessment approach is to measure the oxidative potential of particle mixtures because it is likely that hundreds of correlated chemicals are involved in overall effects of air pollution on health. Oxidative potential likely depends on particle composition and size distribution, especially ultrafine particle concentration, and on transition metals and certain semivolatile and volatile organic chemicals. For health effects, measuring systemic oxidative stress in the blood is one feasible approach, but there is no universal biomarker of oxidative stress and there are many potential target molecules (lipids, proteins, DNA, nitric oxide, etc.), which may be more or less suitable for specific study goals. Concurrent with the measurement of oxidative stress, it is important to measure gene and/or protein expression of endogenous antioxidant enzymes because they can modify relations between oxidative stress biomarkers and air pollutants. Conversely, the expression and activities of these enzymes are modified by oxidative stress. This interplay will likely determine the observed effects of air pollutants on systemic inflammatory and thrombotic mediators and related clinical outcomes. Studies are needed to assess the reliability and validity of oxidative stress biomarkers, evaluate differences in associations between oxidative stress biomarkers and various pollutant measurements (mass, chemical components, and oxidative potential), and evaluate impacts of antioxidant responses on these relations. PMID:23626660

  16. Biocompatibility of implantable materials: An oxidative stress viewpoint.

    PubMed

    Mouthuy, Pierre-Alexis; Snelling, Sarah J B; Dakin, Stephanie G; Milković, Lidija; Gašparović, Ana Čipak; Carr, Andrew J; Žarković, Neven

    2016-12-01

    Oxidative stress occurs when the production of oxidants surpasses the antioxidant capacity in living cells. Oxidative stress is implicated in a number of pathological conditions such as cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases but it also has crucial roles in the regulation of cellular activities. Over the last few decades, many studies have identified significant connections between oxidative stress, inflammation and healing. In particular, increasing evidence indicates that the production of oxidants and the cellular response to oxidative stress are intricately connected to the fate of implanted biomaterials. This review article provides an overview of the major mechanisms underlying the link between oxidative stress and the biocompatibility of biomaterials. ROS, RNS and lipid peroxidation products act as chemo-attractants, signalling molecules and agents of degradation during the inflammation and healing phases. As chemo-attractants and signalling molecules, they contribute to the recruitment and activation of inflammatory and healing cells, which in turn produce more oxidants. As agents of degradation, they contribute to the maturation of the extracellular matrix at the healing site and to the degradation of the implanted material. Oxidative stress is itself influenced by the material properties, such as by their composition, their surface properties and their degradation products. Because both cells and materials produce and react with oxidants, oxidative stress may be the most direct route mediating the communication between cells and materials. Improved understanding of the oxidative stress mechanisms following biomaterial implantation may therefore help the development of new biomaterials with enhanced biocompatibility.

  17. Menopause as risk factor for oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Rodríguez, Martha A; Zacarías-Flores, Mariano; Arronte-Rosales, Alicia; Correa-Muñoz, Elsa; Mendoza-Núñez, Víctor Manuel

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of menopause (hypoestrogenism) as a risk factor for oxidative stress. We carried out a cross-sectional study with 187 perimenopausal women from Mexico City, including 94 premenopausal (mean ± SD age, 44.9 ± 4.0 y; estrogen, 95.8 ± 65.7 pg/mL; follicle-stimulating hormone, 13.6 ± 16.9 mIU/mL) and 93 postmenopausal (mean ± SD age, 52.5 ± 3.3 y; estrogen, 12.8 ± 6.8 pg/mL; follicle-stimulating hormone, 51.4 ± 26.9 mIU/mL) women. We measured lipoperoxides using a thiobarbituric acid-reacting substance assay, erythrocyte superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities, and the total antioxidant status with the Randox kit. An alternative cutoff value for lipoperoxide level of 0.320 μmol/L or higher was defined on the basis of the 90th percentile of young healthy participants. All women answered the Menopause Rating Scale, the Athens Insomnia Scale, and a structured questionnaire about pro-oxidant factors, that is, smoking, consumption of caffeinated and alcoholic beverages, and physical activity. Finally, we measured weight and height and calculated body mass index. The lipoperoxide levels were significantly higher in the postmenopausal group than in the premenopausal group (0.357 ± 0.05 vs 0.331 ± 0.05 μmol/L, P = 0.001). Using logistic regression to control pro-oxidant variables, we found that menopause was the main risk factor for oxidative stress (odds ratio, 2.62; 95% CI, 1.35-5.11; P < 0.01). We also found a positive correlation between menopause rating score, insomnia score, and lipoperoxides, and this relationship was most evident in the postmenopausal group (menopause scale, r = 0.327 [P = 0.001]; insomnia scale, r = 0.209 [P < 0.05]). Our findings suggest that the depletion of estrogen in postmenopause could cause oxidative stress in addition to the known symptoms.

  18. PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA: A CATECHOLAMINE AND OXIDATIVE STRESS DISORDER

    PubMed Central

    Pacak, Karel

    2012-01-01

    The WHO classification of endocrine tumors defines pheochromocytoma as a tumor arising from chromaffin cells in the adrenal medulla — an intra-adrenal paraganglioma. Closely related tumors of extra-adrenal sympathetic and parasympathetic paraganglia are classified as extra-adrenal paragangliomas. Almost all pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas produce catecholamines. The concentrations of catecholamines in pheochromocytoma tissues are enormous, potentially creating a volcano that can erupt at any time. Significant eruptions result in catecholamine storms called “attacks” or “spells”. Acute catecholamine crisis can strike unexpectedly, leaving traumatic memories of acute medical disaster that champions any intensive care unit. A very well-defined genotype-biochemical phenotype relationship exists, guiding proper and cost-effective genetic testing of patients with these tumors. Currently, the production of norepinephrine and epinephrine is optimally assessed by the measurement of their O-methylated metabolites, normetanephrine or metanephrine, respectively. Dopamine is a minor component, but some paragangliomas produce only this catecholamine or this together with norepinephrine. Methoxytyramine, the O-methylated metabolite of dopamine, is the best biochemical marker of these tumors. In those patients with equivocal biochemical results, a modified clonidine suppression test coupled with the measurement of plasma normetanephrine has recently been introduced. In addition to differences in catecholamine enzyme expression, the presence of either constitutive or regulated secretory pathways contributes further to the very unique mutation-dependent catecholamine production and release, resulting in various clinical presentations. Oxidative stress results from a significant imbalance between levels of prooxidants, generated during oxidative phosphorylation, and antioxidants. The gradual accumulation of prooxidants due to metabolic oxidative stress results in proto

  19. OXIDATIVE STRESS: BIOMARKERS AND NOVEL THERAPEUTIC PATHWAYS

    PubMed Central

    Maiese, Kenneth; Chong, Zhao Zhong; Hou, Jinling; Shang, Yan Chen

    2010-01-01

    Oxidative stress significantly impacts multiple cellular pathways that can lead to the initiation and progression of varied disorders throughout the body. It therefore becomes imperative to elucidate the components and function of novel therapeutic strategies against oxidative stress to further clinical diagnosis and care. In particular, both the growth factor and cytokine erythropoietin (EPO) and members of the mammalian forkhead transcription factors of the O class (FoxOs) may offer the greatest promise for new treatment regimens since these agents and the cellular pathways they oversee cover a range of critical functions that directly influence progenitor cell development, cell survival and degeneration, metabolism, immune function, and cancer cell invasion. Furthermore, both EPO and FoxOs function not only as therapeutic targets, but also as biomarkers of disease onset and progression, since their cellular pathways are closely linked and overlap with several unique signal transduction pathways. However, biological outcome with EPO and FoxOs may sometimes be both unexpected and undesirable that can raise caution for these agents and warrant further investigations. Here we present the exciting as well as complicated role EPO and FoxOs possess to uncover the benefits as well as the risks of these agents for cell biology and clinical care in processes that range from stem cell development to uncontrolled cellular proliferation. PMID:20064603

  20. Prebiotics and oxidative stress in constipated rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanning; Zong, Yanhong; Qi, Jinsheng; Liu, Kun

    2011-10-01

    Constipation can adversely affect children's health, with disorders of host immunity and enhanced oxidative stress. As nondigestible carbohydrates, prebiotics can affect the host with constipation; however, whether the prebiotics have effects on the content of intestinal secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) and the contents of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in constipation has not been fully clarified. In the present study, constipation was induced in female Sprague-Dawley rats by diphenoxylate, and the prebiotics dissolved in milk were used as an intervention. The indicators of intestinal peristalsis, including the time of passing black stool initially, the grains of black stool in 24 hours, and the advance rate of ponceau, were measured. The content of intestinal sIgA was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The contents of SOD and MDA in serum and intestinal tissue were analyzed by their detection kits. The changes in intestinal peristalsis show obvious constipation. The content of intestinal sIgA decreases, the content of SOD decreases, but the content of MDA increases in constipated rats. Prebiotics can attenuate the constipation-caused abnormal indicators significantly. Prebiotics can attenuate decreased intestinal immunity and enhanced oxidative stress, in addition to reduced intestinal peristalsis and of the constipated rats.

  1. Oxidative stress: Biomarkers and novel therapeutic pathways.

    PubMed

    Maiese, Kenneth; Chong, Zhao Zhong; Hou, Jinling; Shang, Yan Chen

    2010-03-01

    Oxidative stress significantly impacts multiple cellular pathways that can lead to the initiation and progression of varied disorders throughout the body. It therefore becomes imperative to elucidate the components and function of novel therapeutic strategies against oxidative stress to further clinical diagnosis and care. In particular, both the growth factor and cytokine erythropoietin (EPO) and members of the mammalian forkhead transcription factors of the O class (FoxOs) may offer the greatest promise for new treatment regimens since these agents and the cellular pathways they oversee cover a range of critical functions that directly influence progenitor cell development, cell survival and degeneration, metabolism, immune function, and cancer cell invasion. Furthermore, both EPO and FoxOs function not only as therapeutic targets, but also as biomarkers of disease onset and progression, since their cellular pathways are closely linked and overlap with several unique signal transduction pathways. However, biological outcome with EPO and FoxOs may sometimes be both unexpected and undesirable that can raise caution for these agents and warrant further investigations. Here we present the exciting as well as complicated role EPO and FoxOs possess to uncover the benefits as well as the risks of these agents for cell biology and clinical care in processes that range from stem cell development to uncontrolled cellular proliferation.

  2. Melamine Induces Oxidative Stress in Mouse Ovary.

    PubMed

    Dai, Xiao-Xin; Duan, Xing; Cui, Xiang-Shun; Kim, Nam-Hyung; Xiong, Bo; Sun, Shao-Chen

    2015-01-01

    Melamine is a nitrogen heterocyclic triazine compound which is widely used as an industrial chemical. Although melamine is not considered to be acutely toxic with a high LD50 in animals, food contaminated with melamine expose risks to the human health. Melamine has been reported to be responsible for the renal impairment in mammals, its toxicity on the reproductive system, however, has not been adequately assessed. In the present study, we examined the effect of melamine on the follicle development and ovary formation. The data showed that melamine increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, and induced granulosa cell apoptosis as well as follicle atresia. To further analyze the mechanism by which melamine induces oxidative stress, the expression and activities of two key antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) were analyzed, and the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) were compared between control and melamine-treated ovaries. The result revealed that melamine changed the expression and activities of SOD and GPX in the melamine-treated mice. Therefore, we demonstrate that melamine causes damage to the ovaries via oxidative stress pathway.

  3. Melamine Induces Oxidative Stress in Mouse Ovary

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Xiao-Xin; Duan, Xing; Cui, Xiang-Shun; Kim, Nam-Hyung; Xiong, Bo; Sun, Shao-Chen

    2015-01-01

    Melamine is a nitrogen heterocyclic triazine compound which is widely used as an industrial chemical. Although melamine is not considered to be acutely toxic with a high LD50 in animals, food contaminated with melamine expose risks to the human health. Melamine has been reported to be responsible for the renal impairment in mammals, its toxicity on the reproductive system, however, has not been adequately assessed. In the present study, we examined the effect of melamine on the follicle development and ovary formation. The data showed that melamine increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, and induced granulosa cell apoptosis as well as follicle atresia. To further analyze the mechanism by which melamine induces oxidative stress, the expression and activities of two key antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathi-one peroxidase (GPX) were analyzed, and the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) were compared between control and melamine-treated ovaries. The result revealed that melamine changed the expression and activities of SOD and GPX in the melamine-treated mice. Therefore, we demonstrate that melamine causes damage to the ovaries via oxidative stress pathway. PMID:26545251

  4. A Nucleocytoplasmic Shuttling Protein in Oxidative Stress Tolerance

    SciTech Connect

    Ow, David W.; Song, Wen

    2003-03-26

    Plants for effective extraction of toxic metals and radionuclides must tolerate oxidative stress. To identify genes that enhance oxidative stress tolerance, an S. pombe cDNA expression plasmid library was screened for the ability to yield hypertolerant colonies. Here, we report on the properties of one gene that confers hypertolerance to cadmium and oxidizing chemicals. This gene appears to be conserved in other organisms as homologous genes are found in human, mouse, fruitfly and Arabidopsis. The fruitfly and Arabidopsis genes likewise enhance oxidative stress tolerance in fission yeast. During oxidative stress, the amount of mRNA does not change, but protein fusions to GFP relocate from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. The same pattern is observed with the Arabidopsis homologue-GFP fusion protein. This behavior suggests a signaling role in oxidative stress tolerance and these conserved proteins may be targets for engineering stress tolerant plants for phytoremediation.

  5. Oxidative Stress in Genetic Mouse Models of Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Varçin, Mustafa; Bentea, Eduard; Michotte, Yvette; Sarre, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    There is extensive evidence in Parkinson's disease of a link between oxidative stress and some of the monogenically inherited Parkinson's disease-associated genes. This paper focuses on the importance of this link and potential impact on neuronal function. Basic mechanisms of oxidative stress, the cellular antioxidant machinery, and the main sources of cellular oxidative stress are reviewed. Moreover, attention is given to the complex interaction between oxidative stress and other prominent pathogenic pathways in Parkinson's disease, such as mitochondrial dysfunction and neuroinflammation. Furthermore, an overview of the existing genetic mouse models of Parkinson's disease is given and the evidence of oxidative stress in these models highlighted. Taken into consideration the importance of ageing and environmental factors as a risk for developing Parkinson's disease, gene-environment interactions in genetically engineered mouse models of Parkinson's disease are also discussed, highlighting the role of oxidative damage in the interplay between genetic makeup, environmental stress, and ageing in Parkinson's disease. PMID:22829959

  6. Chasing great paths of Helmut Sies "Oxidative Stress".

    PubMed

    Majima, Hideyuki J; Indo, Hiroko P; Nakanishi, Ikuo; Suenaga, Shigeaki; Matsumoto, Ken-Ichiro; Matsui, Hirofumi; Minamiyama, Yukiko; Ichikawa, Hiroshi; Yen, Hsiu-Chuan; Hawkins, Clare L; Davies, Michael J; Ozawa, Toshihiko; St Clair, Daret K

    2016-04-01

    Prof. Dr. Helmut Sies is a pioneer of "Oxidative Stress", and has published over 18 papers with the name of "Oxidative Stress" in the title. He has been Editor-in-Chief of the journal "Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics" for many years, and is a former Editor-in-Chief of the journal "Free Radical Research". He has clarified our understanding of the causes of chronic developing diseases, and has studied antioxidant factors. In this article, importance of "Oxidative Stress" and our mitochondrial oxidative stress studies; roles of mitochondrial ROS, effects of vitamin E and its homologues in oxidative stress-related diseases, effects of antioxidants in vivo and in vitro, and a mitochondrial superoxide theory for oxidative stress diseases and aging are introduced, and some of our interactions with Helmut are described, congratulating and appreciating his great path.

  7. Tumour angiogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, F.

    1985-01-01

    Tumours induce the growth of host blood vessels to support their proliferation. This process of angiogenesis is evoked by specific chemical signals. Recognition of these angiogenic factors has led to experimental methods for cancer diagnosis and for inhibiting malignant growth by specifically blocking neovascularisation. The clinical potential of these techniques is discussed. PMID:2413796

  8. Diabetes and the Brain: Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, and Autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Muriach, María; Flores-Bellver, Miguel; Romero, Francisco J.; Barcia, Jorge M.

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a common metabolic disorder associated with chronic complications including a state of mild to moderate cognitive impairment, in particular psychomotor slowing and reduced mental flexibility, not attributable to other causes, and shares many symptoms that are best described as accelerated brain ageing. A common theory for aging and for the pathogenesis of this cerebral dysfunctioning in diabetes relates cell death to oxidative stress in strong association to inflammation, and in fact nuclear factor κB (NFκB), a master regulator of inflammation and also a sensor of oxidative stress, has a strategic position at the crossroad between oxidative stress and inflammation. Moreover, metabolic inflammation is, in turn, related to the induction of various intracellular stresses such as mitochondrial oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and autophagy defect. In parallel, blockade of autophagy can relate to proinflammatory signaling via oxidative stress pathway and NFκB-mediated inflammation. PMID:25215171

  9. Diabetes and the brain: oxidative stress, inflammation, and autophagy.

    PubMed

    Muriach, María; Flores-Bellver, Miguel; Romero, Francisco J; Barcia, Jorge M

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a common metabolic disorder associated with chronic complications including a state of mild to moderate cognitive impairment, in particular psychomotor slowing and reduced mental flexibility, not attributable to other causes, and shares many symptoms that are best described as accelerated brain ageing. A common theory for aging and for the pathogenesis of this cerebral dysfunctioning in diabetes relates cell death to oxidative stress in strong association to inflammation, and in fact nuclear factor κB (NFκB), a master regulator of inflammation and also a sensor of oxidative stress, has a strategic position at the crossroad between oxidative stress and inflammation. Moreover, metabolic inflammation is, in turn, related to the induction of various intracellular stresses such as mitochondrial oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and autophagy defect. In parallel, blockade of autophagy can relate to proinflammatory signaling via oxidative stress pathway and NFκB-mediated inflammation.

  10. Oxidative stress in marine environments: biochemistry and physiological ecology.

    PubMed

    Lesser, Michael P

    2006-01-01

    Oxidative stress-the production and accumulation of reduced oxygen intermediates such as superoxide radicals, singlet oxygen, hydrogen peroxide, and hydroxyl radicals-can damage lipids, proteins, and DNA. Many disease processes of clinical interest and the aging process involve oxidative stress in their underlying etiology. The production of reactive oxygen species is also prevalent in the world's oceans, and oxidative stress is an important component of the stress response in marine organisms exposed to a variety of insults as a result of changes in environmental conditions such as thermal stress, exposure to ultraviolet radiation, or exposure to pollution. As in the clinical setting, reactive oxygen species are also important signal transduction molecules and mediators of damage in cellular processes, such as apoptosis and cell necrosis, for marine organisms. This review brings together the voluminous literature on the biochemistry and physiology of oxidative stress from the clinical and plant physiology disciplines with the fast-increasing interest in oxidative stress in marine environments.

  11. Oxidative stress induction by nanoparticles in THP-1 cells with 4-HNE production: stress biomarker or oxidative stress signalling molecule?

    PubMed

    Foucaud, L; Goulaouic, S; Bennasroune, A; Laval-Gilly, P; Brown, D; Stone, V; Falla, J

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether carbon black (CB) nanoparticles might induce toxicity to monocytic cells in vitro via an oxidative stress mechanism involving formation of the lipid peroxidation product 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) and the subsequent role of 4-HNE in inducing further cytotoxic effects. ROS production in cells by CB nanoparticles was shown by the oxidation of DCFH after a short time exposure. These particles induced the formation of 4-HNE-protein adducts and significant modification of glutathione content corresponding to an increase of oxidized glutathione form (GSSG) and a decrease of total glutathione (GSX) content. These results attest to an oxidative stress induced by the carbon black nanoparticles, although no induction of HO-1 protein expression was detected. Concerning the effects of a direct exposure to 4-HNE, our results showed that 4-HNE is not cytotoxic for concentrations lower than 12.5 microM. By contrast, it provokes a very high cytotoxicity for concentrations above 25 microM. An induction of HO-1 expression was observed from concentrations above 5 microM of 4-HNE. Finally, glutathione content decreased significantly from 5 microM of 4-HNE but no modification was observed under this concentration. The discrepancy between effects of carbon black nanoparticles and 4-HNE on the intracellular markers of oxidative stress suggests that 4-HNE is not directly implied in the signalling of oxidative toxicity of nanoparticles but is an effective biomarker of oxidative effects of nanoparticles.

  12. Serum prolidase activity, oxidative stress, and antioxidant enzyme levels in patients with renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Pirinççi, Necip; Kaba, Mehmet; Geçit, İlhan; Güneş, Mustafa; Yüksel, Mehmet Bilgehan; Tanık, Serhat; Arslan, Ayşe; Demir, Halit

    2016-02-01

    Prolidase is a member of the matrix metalloproteinase family. It plays a vital role in collagen turnover, matrix remodeling, and cell growth. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of various diseases, including cancers. Oxidative stress can cause tumor angiogenesis and may be carcinogenic. However, the relationship between antioxidant capacity and various cancers has been researched in several clinical trials. In our study, we aimed to identify serum prolidase activity, oxidative stress, and antioxidant enzyme levels in patients with renal tumors and to evaluate their relationships with each other. A total of 37 male patients with renal cell cancer and with a mean age of 56.28 ± 3.1 were included in the study. The control group comprising 36 male patients (mean age 56.31 ± 2.9) was randomly selected among the volunteers. Serum samples for measurement of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), and prolidase levels were kept at -20°C until they were used. Serum prolidase activity and MDA levels were significantly higher in renal cancer patients than in controls (all, p < 0.05), while SOD, GSHPx, and GST levels were significantly lower (p < 0.05). Our results indicate that increased prolidase seems to be related to increased oxidative stress along with decreased antioxidant levels in renal cancer. © The Author(s) 2013.

  13. Management of multicellular senescence and oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Haines, David D; Juhasz, Bela; Tosaki, Arpad

    2013-01-01

    Progressively sophisticated understanding of cellular and molecular processes that contribute to age-related physical deterioration is being gained from ongoing research into cancer, chronic inflammatory syndromes and other serious disorders that increase with age. Particularly valuable insight has resulted from characterization of how senescent cells affect the tissues in which they form in ways that decrease an organism's overall viability. Increasingly, the underlying pathophysiology of ageing is recognized as a consequence of oxidative damage. This leads to hyperactivity of cell growth pathways, prominently including mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin), that contribute to a build-up in cells of toxic aggregates such as progerin (a mutant nuclear cytoskeletal protein), lipofuscin and other cellular debris, triggering formation of senescent cellular phenotypes, which interact destructively with surrounding tissue. Indeed, senescent cell ablation dramatically inhibits physical deterioration in progeroid (age-accelerated) mice. This review explores ways in which oxidative stress creates ageing-associated cellular damage and triggers induction of the cell death/survival programs’ apoptosis, necrosis, autophagy and ‘necroapoptophagy’. The concept of ‘necroapoptophagy’ is presented here as a strategy for varying tissue oxidative stress intensity in ways that induce differential activation of death versus survival programs, resulting in enhanced and sustained representation of healthy functional cells. These strategies are discussed in the context of specialized mesenchymal stromal cells with the potential to synergize with telocytes in stabilizing engrafted progenitor cells, thereby extending periods of healthy life. Information and concepts are summarized in a hypothetical approach to suppressing whole-organism senescence, with methods drawn from emerging understandings of ageing, gained from Cnidarians (jellyfish, corals and anemones) that undergo a

  14. Biomarkers of exposure to endogenous oxidative and aldehyde stress.

    PubMed

    Bruce, W Robert; Lee, Owen; Liu, Zhen; Marcon, Norman; Minkin, Salomon; O'Brien, Peter J

    2011-08-01

    We observed an unexpectedly strong association of three different endogenous aldehydes and noted that the association could be explained by multiple reactions in which oxidative stress increased the formation of endogenous aldehydes and endogenous aldehydes increased oxidative stress. These interactions make it reasonable to assess multiple exposures to endogenous oxidative and aldehyde stress with less specific measures such as advanced glycation end-products or protein carbonyls.

  15. Gamma-Glutamylcysteine Inhibits Oxidative Stress in Human Endothelial Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    γ-Glutamylcysteine inhibits oxidative stress in human endothelial cells Yukiko K. Nakamura a, Michael A. Dubick b, Stanley T. Omaye a,⁎ a Department...n f o Article history: Received 12 July 2011 Accepted 16 October 2011 Keywords: γ-Glutamylcysteine Glutathione Glutathione synthetase Oxidative stress...include reducing risks of oxidative stress-related injuries and diseases. The ob- jective of this studywas to investigate the efficacy of GGC on GSH

  16. Oxidative and nitrosative stress in ammonia neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Skowrońska, Marta; Albrecht, Jan

    2013-04-01

    Increased ammonia accumulation in the brain due to liver dysfunction is a major contributor to the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Fatal outcome of rapidly progressing (acute) HE is mainly related to cytotoxic brain edema associated with astrocytic swelling. An increase of brain ammonia in experimental animals or treatment of cultured astrocytes with ammonia generates reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in the target tissues, leading to oxidative/nitrosative stress (ONS). In cultured astrocytes, ammonia-induced ONS is invariably associated with the increase of the astrocytic cell volume. Interrelated mechanisms underlying this response include increased nitric oxide (NO) synthesis which is partly coupled to the activation of NMDA receptors and increased generation of reactive oxygen species by NADPH oxidase. ONS and astrocytic swelling are further augmented by excessive synthesis of glutamine (Gln) which impairs mitochondrial function following its accumulation in there and degradation back to ammonia ("the Trojan horse" hypothesis). Ammonia also induces ONS in other cell types of the CNS: neurons, microglia and the brain capillary endothelial cells (BCEC). ONS in microglia contributes to the central inflammatory response, while its metabolic and pathophysiological consequences in the BCEC evolve to the vasogenic brain edema associated with HE. Ammonia-induced ONS results in the oxidation of mRNA and nitration/nitrosylation of proteins which impact intracellular metabolism and potentiate the neurotoxic effects. Simultaneously, ammonia facilitates the antioxidant response of the brain, by activating astrocytic transport and export of glutathione, in this way increasing the availability of precursors of neuronal glutathione synthesis.

  17. Alterations in magnesium and oxidative status during chronic emotional stress.

    PubMed

    Cernak, I; Savic, V; Kotur, J; Prokic, V; Kuljic, B; Grbovic, D; Veljovic, M

    2000-03-01

    Magnesium and oxidative status were investigated in young volunteers exposed to chronic stress (political intolerance, awareness of potential military attacks, permanent stand-by duty and reduced holidays more than 10 years) or subchronic stress consisting of everyday mortal danger in military actions lasting more than 3 months. Significant decreases in plasma ionized Mg2+, total Mg and ionized Ca2+ concentrations were found in both groups. Similarly, both study groups exhibited oxidative stress as assessed by increased plasma superoxide anions and malondialdehyde and modified antioxidant defense. There were no significant differences between the two stress groups. A negative correlation between magnesium balance and oxidative stress was observed suggesting that the same etiological factor (chronic stress) initiate decreases in both free and total magnesium concentrations and simultaneously increase oxidative stress intensity. These findings support the need for magnesium supplementation with antioxidant vitamins for people living in conditions of chronic stress.

  18. Postprandial Oxidative Stress in Exercise Trained and Sedentary Cigarette Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Bloomer, Richard J.; Fisher-Wellman, Kelsey H.

    2009-01-01

    Cigarette smokers experience an exaggerated triglyceride (TAG) and oxidative stress response to high fat feeding. Exercise training may serve to attenuate the rise in these variables, by improving TAG clearance and antioxidant defense. We compared blood TAG, antioxidant capacity, and oxidative stress biomarkers in exercise trained (>2 hrs per wk) and untrained smokers matched for age, in response to a high fat test meal. We report here that low volume exercise training can attenuate postprandial lipid peroxidation, but has little impact on blood TAG and other markers of oxidative stress. Higher volumes of exercise may be needed to allow for clinically meaningful adaptations in postprandial lipemia and oxidative stress. PMID:19440401

  19. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Links Oxidative Stress to Impaired Pancreatic Beta-Cell Function Caused by Human Oxidized LDL

    PubMed Central

    Favre, Dimitri; Ezanno, Hélène; Bonnefond, Amélie; Bonner, Caroline; Gmyr, Valéry; Kerr-Conte, Julie; Gauthier, Benoit R.; Widmann, Christian; Waeber, Gérard; Pattou, François; Froguel, Philippe; Abderrahmani, Amar

    2016-01-01

    Elevated plasma concentration of the pro-atherogenic oxidized low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) triggers adverse effects in pancreatic beta-cells and is associated with type 2 diabetes. Here, we investigated whether the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is a key player coupling oxidative stress to beta-cell dysfunction and death elicited by human oxidized LDL. We found that human oxidized LDL activates ER stress as evidenced by the activation of the inositol requiring 1α, and the elevated expression of both DDIT3 (also called CHOP) and DNAJC3 (also called P58IPK) ER stress markers in isolated human islets and the mouse insulin secreting MIN6 cells. Silencing of Chop and inhibition of ER stress markers by the chemical chaperone phenyl butyric acid (PBA) prevented cell death caused by oxidized LDL. Finally, we found that oxidative stress accounts for activation of ER stress markers induced by oxidized LDL. Induction of Chop/CHOP and p58IPK/P58IPK by oxidized LDL was mimicked by hydrogen peroxide and was blocked by co-treatment with the N-acetylcystein antioxidant. As a conclusion, the harmful effects of oxidized LDL in beta-cells requires ER stress activation in a manner that involves oxidative stress. This mechanism may account for impaired beta-cell function in diabetes and can be reversed by antioxidant treatment. PMID:27636901

  20. Targeting oxidative stress response by green tea polyphenols: clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Yiannakopoulou, Eugenia Ch

    2013-09-01

    Green tea polyphenols, the most interesting constituent of green tea leaves, have been shown to have both pro-oxidant and antioxidant properties. Both pro-oxidant and antioxidant properties are expected to contribute to modulation of oxidative stress response under ideal optimal dosage regimens. Exposure to a low concentration of a pro-oxidant prior to exposure to oxidative stress induces the expression of genes that code for proteins that induce adaptation in a subsequent oxidative stress. On the other hand, exposure to an antioxidant concurrently with exposure to the oxidative stress affords protection through free radical scavenging or through other indirect antioxidant mechanisms. In any case, the optimal conditions that afford protection from oxidative stress should be defined for any substance with redox properties. Green tea polyphenols, being naturally occurring substances, seem to be an ideal option for the modulation of oxidative stress response. This paper reviews available data on the pro-oxidant and antioxidant properties of green tea polyphenols focusing on their potential on the modulation of oxidative stress response.

  1. Genetically induced oxidative stress in mice causes thrombocytosis, splenomegaly and placental angiodysplasia that leads to recurrent abortion

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Takamasa; Miyazawa, Masaki; Takanashi, Yumi; Tanigawa, Maya; Yasuda, Kayo; Onouchi, Hiromi; Kawabe, Noboru; Mitsushita, Junji; Hartman, Phil S.; Ishii, Naoaki

    2014-01-01

    Historical data in the 1950s suggests that 7%, 11%, 33%, and 87% of couples were infertile by ages 30, 35, 40 and 45, respectively. Up to 22.3% of infertile couples have unexplained infertility. Oxidative stress is associated with male and female infertility. However, there is insufficient evidence relating to the influence of oxidative stress on the maintenance of a viable pregnancy, including pregnancy complications and fetal development. Recently, we have established Tet-mev-1 conditional transgenic mice, which can express the doxycycline-induced mutant SDHCV69E transgene and experience mitochondrial respiratory chain dysfunction leading to intracellular oxidative stress. In this report, we demonstrate that this kind of abnormal mitochondrial respiratory chain-induced chronic oxidative stress affects fertility, pregnancy and delivery rates as well as causes recurrent abortions, occasionally resulting in maternal death. Despite this, spermatogenesis and early embryogenesis are completely normal, indicating the mutation's effects to be rather subtle. Female Tet-mev-1 mice exhibit thrombocytosis and splenomegaly in both non-pregnant and pregnant mice as well as placental angiodysplasia with reduced Flt-1 protein leading to hypoxic conditions, which could contribute to placental inflammation and fetal abnormal angiogenesis. Collectively these data strongly suggest that chronic oxidative stress caused by mitochondrial mutations provokes spontaneous abortions and recurrent miscarriage resulting in age-related female infertility. PMID:24936442

  2. Genetically induced oxidative stress in mice causes thrombocytosis, splenomegaly and placental angiodysplasia that leads to recurrent abortion.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Takamasa; Miyazawa, Masaki; Takanashi, Yumi; Tanigawa, Maya; Yasuda, Kayo; Onouchi, Hiromi; Kawabe, Noboru; Mitsushita, Junji; Hartman, Phil S; Ishii, Naoaki

    2014-01-01

    Historical data in the 1950s suggests that 7%, 11%, 33%, and 87% of couples were infertile by ages 30, 35, 40 and 45, respectively. Up to 22.3% of infertile couples have unexplained infertility. Oxidative stress is associated with male and female infertility. However, there is insufficient evidence relating to the influence of oxidative stress on the maintenance of a viable pregnancy, including pregnancy complications and fetal development. Recently, we have established Tet-mev-1 conditional transgenic mice, which can express the doxycycline-induced mutant SDHC(V69E) transgene and experience mitochondrial respiratory chain dysfunction leading to intracellular oxidative stress. In this report, we demonstrate that this kind of abnormal mitochondrial respiratory chain-induced chronic oxidative stress affects fertility, pregnancy and delivery rates as well as causes recurrent abortions, occasionally resulting in maternal death. Despite this, spermatogenesis and early embryogenesis are completely normal, indicating the mutation's effects to be rather subtle. Female Tet-mev-1 mice exhibit thrombocytosis and splenomegaly in both non-pregnant and pregnant mice as well as placental angiodysplasia with reduced Flt-1 protein leading to hypoxic conditions, which could contribute to placental inflammation and fetal abnormal angiogenesis. Collectively these data strongly suggest that chronic oxidative stress caused by mitochondrial mutations provokes spontaneous abortions and recurrent miscarriage resulting in age-related female infertility.

  3. Arsenic: toxicity, oxidative stress and human disease.

    PubMed

    Jomova, K; Jenisova, Z; Feszterova, M; Baros, S; Liska, J; Hudecova, D; Rhodes, C J; Valko, M

    2011-03-01

    Arsenic (As) is a toxic metalloid element that is present in air, water and soil. Inorganic arsenic tends to be more toxic than organic arsenic. Examples of methylated organic arsenicals include monomethylarsonic acid [MMA(V)] and dimethylarsinic acid [DMA(V)]. Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated oxidative damage is a common denominator in arsenic pathogenesis. In addition, arsenic induces morphological changes in the integrity of mitochondria. Cascade mechanisms of free radical formation derived from the superoxide radical, combined with glutathione-depleting agents, increase the sensitivity of cells to arsenic toxicity. When both humans and animals are exposed to arsenic, they experience an increased formation of ROS/RNS, including peroxyl radicals (ROO•), the superoxide radical, singlet oxygen, hydroxyl radical (OH•) via the Fenton reaction, hydrogen peroxide, the dimethylarsenic radical, the dimethylarsenic peroxyl radical and/or oxidant-induced DNA damage. Arsenic induces the formation of oxidized lipids which in turn generate several bioactive molecules (ROS, peroxides and isoprostanes), of which aldehydes [malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxy-nonenal (HNE)] are the major end products. This review discusses aspects of chronic and acute exposures of arsenic in the etiology of cancer, cardiovascular disease (hypertension and atherosclerosis), neurological disorders, gastrointestinal disturbances, liver disease and renal disease, reproductive health effects, dermal changes and other health disorders. The role of antioxidant defence systems against arsenic toxicity is also discussed. Consideration is given to the role of vitamin C (ascorbic acid), vitamin E (α-tocopherol), curcumin, glutathione and antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase in their protective roles against arsenic-induced oxidative stress. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Effect of paraquat-induced oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Wiemer, Matthias; Osiewacz, Heinz D.

    2014-01-01

    Aging of biological systems is influenced by various factors, conditions and processes. Among others, processes allowing organisms to deal with various types of stress are of key importance. In particular, oxidative stress as the result of the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) at the mitochondrial respiratory chain and the accumulation of ROS-induced molecular damage has been strongly linked to aging. Here we view the impact of ROS from a different angle: their role in the control of gene expression. We report a genome-wide transcriptome analysis of the fungal aging model Podospora anserina grown on medium containing paraquat (PQ). This treatment leads to an increased cellular generation and release of H2O2, a reduced growth rate, and a decrease in lifespan. The combined challenge by PQ and copper has a synergistic negative effect on growth and lifespan. The data from the transcriptome analysis of the wild type cultivated under PQ-stress and their comparison to those of a longitudinal aging study as well as of a copper-uptake longevity mutant of P. anserina revealed that PQ-stress leads to the up-regulation of transcripts coding for components involved in mitochondrial remodeling. PQ also affects the expression of copper-regulated genes suggesting an increase of cytoplasmic copper levels as it has been demonstrated earlier to occur during aging of P. anserina and during senescence of human fibroblasts. This effect may result from the induction of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore via PQ-induced ROS, leading to programmed cell death as part of an evolutionary conserved mechanism involved in biological aging and lifespan control. PMID:28357247

  5. Effects of oxidative stress on erythrocyte deformability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayer, Rainer; Wasser, Gerd

    1996-05-01

    Hemolysis as a consequence of open heart surgery is well investigated and explained by the oxidative and/or mechanical stress produced, e.g. by the heart lung machine. In Europe O3 is widely used by physicians, dedicated to alternative medicine. They apply O3 mostly by means of the Major Autohematotherapy (MAH, a process of removing 50 - 100 ml of blood, adding O3 gas to it and returning it to the patient's body). No controlled studies on the efficacy of O3 are available so far, but several anecdotal cases appear to confirm that MAH improves microcirculation, possibly due to increased RBC flexibility. Most methods established to estimate RBC deformability are hard to standardize and include high error of measurement. For our present investigation we used the method of laser diffraction in combination with image analysis. The variation coefficient of the measurement is less than 1%. Previous investigations of our group have shown, that mechanical stress decreases deformability, already at rather low levels of mechanical stress which do not include hemolysis. On the other hand exposure to O2, H2O2 or O3 does not alter the deformability of RBC and--except O3--does not induce considerably hemolysis. However this only holds true if deformability (shear rates 36/s - 2620/s) is determined in isotonic solutions. In hypertonic solutions O3 decreases RBC deformability, but improves it in hypotonic solutions. The results indicate that peroxidative stress dehydrates RBC and reduces their size. To explain the positive effect of O3 on the mechanical fragility of RBC we tentatively assume, that the reduction of RBC size facilitates the feed through small pore filters. In consequence, the size reduction in combination with undisturbed deformability at iso-osmolarity may have a beneficial effect on microcirculation.

  6. Evaluation of Oxidative Stress in Bipolar Disorder in terms of Total Oxidant Status, Total Antioxidant Status, and Oxidative Stress Index

    PubMed Central

    CİNGİ YİRÜN, Merve; ÜNAL, Kübranur; ALTUNSOY ŞEN, Neslihan; YİRÜN, Onur; AYDEMİR, Çiğdem; GÖKA, Erol

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Bipolar disorder is one of the most debilitating psychiatric disorders characterized by disruptive episodes of mania/hypomania and depression. Considering the complex role of biological and environmental factors in the etiology of affective disorders, recent studies have focused on oxidative stress, which may damage nerve cell components and take part in pathophysiology. The aim of the present study was to contribute to the data about oxidative stress in bipolar disorder by detecting the total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS), and oxidative stress index (OSI) levels of manic episode (ME) and euthymic (EU) patients and by comparing these results with those of healthy controls (HCs). Methods The study population consisted of 28 EU outpatients meeting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) criteria for bipolar disorder I and 23 inpatients who were currently hospitalized in a psychiatry ward with the diagnosis of the bipolar disorder ME according to the DSM-5 criteria. Forty-three healthy subjects were included in the study as the control group (HC). Serum TAS, TOS, and OSI levels of all the participants were determined. Results Statistical analysis of serum TAS, TOS, and OSI levels did not show any significant differences between the ME patients, EU patients, and HCs. Comparison between the bipolar disorder patients (ME+EU) and HC also did not reveal any statistically significant difference between these two groups in terms of serum TAS, TOS, and OSI levels. Conclusion To date, studies on oxidative stress in bipolar disorder have led to controversial results. In the present study, no statistically significant difference was detected between the oxidative parameters of bipolar disorder patients and HCs. In order to comprehensively evaluate oxidative stress in bipolar disorder, further studies are needed. PMID:28373794

  7. Evaluation of Oxidative Stress in Bipolar Disorder in terms of Total Oxidant Status, Total Antioxidant Status, and Oxidative Stress Index.

    PubMed

    Cingi Yirün, Merve; Ünal, Kübranur; Altunsoy Şen, Neslihan; Yirün, Onur; Aydemir, Çiğdem; Göka, Erol

    2016-09-01

    Bipolar disorder is one of the most debilitating psychiatric disorders characterized by disruptive episodes of mania/hypomania and depression. Considering the complex role of biological and environmental factors in the etiology of affective disorders, recent studies have focused on oxidative stress, which may damage nerve cell components and take part in pathophysiology. The aim of the present study was to contribute to the data about oxidative stress in bipolar disorder by detecting the total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS), and oxidative stress index (OSI) levels of manic episode (ME) and euthymic (EU) patients and by comparing these results with those of healthy controls (HCs). The study population consisted of 28 EU outpatients meeting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) criteria for bipolar disorder I and 23 inpatients who were currently hospitalized in a psychiatry ward with the diagnosis of the bipolar disorder ME according to the DSM-5 criteria. Forty-three healthy subjects were included in the study as the control group (HC). Serum TAS, TOS, and OSI levels of all the participants were determined. Statistical analysis of serum TAS, TOS, and OSI levels did not show any significant differences between the ME patients, EU patients, and HCs. Comparison between the bipolar disorder patients (ME+EU) and HC also did not reveal any statistically significant difference between these two groups in terms of serum TAS, TOS, and OSI levels. To date, studies on oxidative stress in bipolar disorder have led to controversial results. In the present study, no statistically significant difference was detected between the oxidative parameters of bipolar disorder patients and HCs. In order to comprehensively evaluate oxidative stress in bipolar disorder, further studies are needed.

  8. Chronic photo-oxidative stress and subsequent MCP-1 activation as causative factors for age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Mihoko; Tsujikawa, Motokazu; Itabe, Hiroyuki; Du, Zhao-Jiang; Xie, Ping; Matsumura, Nagakazu; Fu, Xiaoming; Zhang, Renliang; Sonoda, Koh-hei; Egashira, Kensuke; Hazen, Stanley L; Kamei, Motohiro

    2012-05-15

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness among the elderly in developed countries. Although pathogenic factors, such as oxidative stress, inflammation and genetics are thought to contribute to the development of AMD, little is known about the relationships and priorities between these factors. Here, we show that chronic photo-oxidative stress is an environmental factor involved in AMD pathogenesis. We first demonstrated that exposure to light induced phospholipid oxidation in the mouse retina, which was more prominent in aged animals. The induced oxidized phospholipids led to an increase in the expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, which then resulted in macrophage accumulation, an inflammatory process. Antioxidant treatment prevented light-induced phospholipid oxidation and the subsequent increase of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (also known as C-C motif chemokine 2; CCL2), which are the beginnings of the light-induced changes. Subretinal application of oxidized phospholipids induced choroidal neovascularization, a characteristic feature of wet-type AMD, which was inhibited by blocking monocyte chemoattractant protein-1. These findings strongly suggest that a sequential cascade from photic stress to inflammatory processes through phospholipid oxidation has an important role in AMD pathogenesis. Finally, we succeeded in mimicking human AMD in mice with low-level, long-term photic stress, in which characteristic pathological changes, including choroidal neovascularization formation, were observed. Therefore, we propose a consecutive pathogenic pathway involving photic stress, oxidation of phospholipids and chronic inflammation, leading to angiogenesis. These findings add to the current understanding of AMD pathology and suggest protection from oxidative stress or suppression of the subsequent inflammation as new potential therapeutic targets for AMD.

  9. Oxidative Stress and ADHD: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Nidhin; Zhang-James, Yanli; Perl, Andras; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2017-01-01

    Objective To clarify the role of oxidative stress and antioxidant activity in ADHD. Method We examined the association of ADHD and oxidative stress by applying random effects meta-analysis to studies of oxidative stress and antioxidant status in medication naive patients with ADHD and controls. Results Six studies of a total of 231 ADHD patients and 207 controls met our selection criteria. The association between ADHD and antioxidant status was not significant. We found a significant association between ADHD and oxidative stress that could not be accounted for by publication bias. The significant association lost significance after correcting for intrastudy clustering. No one observation accounted for the positive result. Conclusion These results are preliminary given the small number of studies. They suggest that patients with ADHD have normal levels of antioxidant production, but that their response to oxidative stress is insufficient, leading to oxidative damage. PMID:24232168

  10. Biphasic regulation of lysosomal exocytosis by oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Ravi, Sreeram; Peña, Karina A; Chu, Charleen T; Kiselyov, Kirill

    2016-11-01

    Oxidative stress drives cell death in a number of diseases including ischemic stroke and neurodegenerative diseases. A better understanding of how cells recover from oxidative stress is likely to lead to better treatments for stroke and other diseases. The recent evidence obtained in several models ties the process of lysosomal exocytosis to the clearance of protein aggregates and toxic metals. The mechanisms that regulate lysosomal exocytosis, under normal or pathological conditions, are only beginning to emerge. Here we provide evidence for the biphasic effect of oxidative stress on lysosomal exocytosis. Lysosomal exocytosis was measured using the extracellular levels of the lysosomal enzyme beta-hexosaminidase (ß-hex). Low levels or oxidative stress stimulated lysosomal exocytosis, but inhibited it at high levels. Deletion of the lysosomal ion channel TRPML1 eliminated the stimulatory effect of low levels of oxidative stress. The inhibitory effects of oxidative stress appear to target the component of lysosomal exocytosis that is driven by extracellular Ca(2+). We propose that while moderate oxidative stress promotes cellular repair by stimulating lysosomal exocytosis, at high levels oxidative stress has a dual pathological effect: it directly causes cell damage and impairs damage repair by inhibiting lysosomal exocytosis. Harnessing these adaptive mechanisms may point to pharmacological interventions for diseases involving oxidative proteotoxicity or metal toxicity.

  11. Indium and indium tin oxide induce endoplasmic reticulum stress and oxidative stress in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Brun, Nadja Rebecca; Christen, Verena; Furrer, Gerhard; Fent, Karl

    2014-10-07

    Indium and indium tin oxide (ITO) are extensively used in electronic technologies. They may be introduced into the environment during production, use, and leaching from electronic devices at the end of their life. At present, surprisingly little is known about potential ecotoxicological implications of indium contamination. Here, molecular effects of indium nitrate (In(NO3)3) and ITO nanoparticles were investigated in vitro in zebrafish liver cells (ZFL) cells and in zebrafish embryos and novel insights into their molecular effects are provided. In(NO3)3 led to induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response, induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and induction of transcripts of pro-apoptotic genes and TNF-α in vitro at a concentration of 247 μg/L. In(NO3)3 induced the ER stress key gene BiP at mRNA and protein level, as well as atf6, which ultimately led to induction of the important pro-apoptotic marker gene chop. The activity of In(NO3)3 on ER stress induction was much stronger than that of ITO, which is explained by differences in soluble free indium ion concentrations. The effect was also stronger in ZFL cells than in zebrafish embryos. Our study provides first evidence of ER stress and oxidative stress induction by In(NO3)3 and ITO indicating a critical toxicological profile that needs further investigation.

  12. The Role of Oxidative Stress and Antioxidants in Liver Diseases.

    PubMed

    Li, Sha; Tan, Hor-Yue; Wang, Ning; Zhang, Zhang-Jin; Lao, Lixing; Wong, Chi-Woon; Feng, Yibin

    2015-11-02

    A complex antioxidant system has been developed in mammals to relieve oxidative stress. However, excessive reactive species derived from oxygen and nitrogen may still lead to oxidative damage to tissue and organs. Oxidative stress has been considered as a conjoint pathological mechanism, and it contributes to initiation and progression of liver injury. A lot of risk factors, including alcohol, drugs, environmental pollutants and irradiation, may induce oxidative stress in liver, which in turn results in severe liver diseases, such as alcoholic liver disease and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Application of antioxidants signifies a rational curative strategy to prevent and cure liver diseases involving oxidative stress. Although conclusions drawn from clinical studies remain uncertain, animal studies have revealed the promising in vivo therapeutic effect of antioxidants on liver diseases. Natural antioxidants contained in edible or medicinal plants often possess strong antioxidant and free radical scavenging abilities as well as anti-inflammatory action, which are also supposed to be the basis of other bioactivities and health benefits. In this review, PubMed was extensively searched for literature research. The keywords for searching oxidative stress were free radicals, reactive oxygen, nitrogen species, anti-oxidative therapy, Chinese medicines, natural products, antioxidants and liver diseases. The literature, including ours, with studies on oxidative stress and anti-oxidative therapy in liver diseases were the focus. Various factors that cause oxidative stress in liver and effects of antioxidants in the prevention and treatment of liver diseases were summarized, questioned, and discussed.

  13. The Role of Oxidative Stress and Antioxidants in Liver Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Li, Sha; Tan, Hor-Yue; Wang, Ning; Zhang, Zhang-Jin; Lao, Lixing; Wong, Chi-Woon; Feng, Yibin

    2015-01-01

    A complex antioxidant system has been developed in mammals to relieve oxidative stress. However, excessive reactive species derived from oxygen and nitrogen may still lead to oxidative damage to tissue and organs. Oxidative stress has been considered as a conjoint pathological mechanism, and it contributes to initiation and progression of liver injury. A lot of risk factors, including alcohol, drugs, environmental pollutants and irradiation, may induce oxidative stress in liver, which in turn results in severe liver diseases, such as alcoholic liver disease and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Application of antioxidants signifies a rational curative strategy to prevent and cure liver diseases involving oxidative stress. Although conclusions drawn from clinical studies remain uncertain, animal studies have revealed the promising in vivo therapeutic effect of antioxidants on liver diseases. Natural antioxidants contained in edible or medicinal plants often possess strong antioxidant and free radical scavenging abilities as well as anti-inflammatory action, which are also supposed to be the basis of other bioactivities and health benefits. In this review, PubMed was extensively searched for literature research. The keywords for searching oxidative stress were free radicals, reactive oxygen, nitrogen species, anti-oxidative therapy, Chinese medicines, natural products, antioxidants and liver diseases. The literature, including ours, with studies on oxidative stress and anti-oxidative therapy in liver diseases were the focus. Various factors that cause oxidative stress in liver and effects of antioxidants in the prevention and treatment of liver diseases were summarized, questioned, and discussed. PMID:26540040

  14. Strategies for Reducing or Preventing the Generation of Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Poljsak, B.

    2011-01-01

    The reduction of oxidative stress could be achieved in three levels: by lowering exposure to environmental pollutants with oxidizing properties, by increasing levels of endogenous and exogenous antioxidants, or by lowering the generation of oxidative stress by stabilizing mitochondrial energy production and efficiency. Endogenous oxidative stress could be influenced in two ways: by prevention of ROS formation or by quenching of ROS with antioxidants. However, the results of epidemiological studies where people were treated with synthetic antioxidants are inconclusive and contradictory. Recent evidence suggests that antioxidant supplements (although highly recommended by the pharmaceutical industry and taken by many individuals) do not offer sufficient protection against oxidative stress, oxidative damage or increase the lifespan. The key to the future success of decreasing oxidative-stress-induced damage should thus be the suppression of oxidative damage without disrupting the wellintegrated antioxidant defense network. Approach to neutralize free radicals with antioxidants should be changed into prevention of free radical formation. Thus, this paper addresses oxidative stress and strategies to reduce it with the focus on nutritional and psychosocial interventions of oxidative stress prevention, that is, methods to stabilize mitochondria structure and energy efficiency, or approaches which would increase endogenous antioxidative protection and repair systems. PMID:22191011

  15. Thyroid Hormones, Oxidative Stress, and Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Mancini, Antonio; Di Segni, Chantal; Raimondo, Sebastiano; Olivieri, Giulio; Silvestrini, Andrea; Meucci, Elisabetta; Currò, Diego

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation and oxidative stress (OS) are closely related processes, as well exemplified in obesity and cardiovascular diseases. OS is also related to hormonal derangement in a reciprocal way. Among the various hormonal influences that operate on the antioxidant balance, thyroid hormones play particularly important roles, since both hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism have been shown to be associated with OS in animals and humans. In this context, the nonthyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS) that typically manifests as reduced conversion of thyroxine (T4) to triiodothyronine (T3) in different acute and chronic systemic conditions is still a debated topic. The pathophysiological mechanisms of this syndrome are reviewed, together with the roles of deiodinases, the enzymes responsible for the conversion of T4 to T3, in both physiological and pathological situations. The presence of OS indexes in NTIS supports the hypothesis that it represents a condition of hypothyroidism at the tissue level and not only an adaptive mechanism to diseases.

  16. Cerulein Pancreatitis: Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, and Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Cerulein pancreatitis is similar to human edematous pancreatitis, manifesting with dysregulation of digestive enzyme production and cytoplasmic vacuolization, the death of acinar cells, edema formation, and infiltration of inflammatory cells into the pancreas. Reactive oxygen species are involved in nuclear factor-κB activation, cytokine expression, apoptosis and pathogenesis of pancreatitis. There is recent evidence that cerulein activates NADPH oxidase, which is a major source of reactive oxygen species during inflammation and apoptosis in pancreatic acinar cells. In addition, the Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription pathway has been suggested as being involved in inflammatory signaling in the pancreas. This review discusses the involvement of oxidative stress in inflammation and apoptosis in pancreatic acinar cells stimulated with cerulein as an in vitro model of pancreatitis. PMID:20485614

  17. Oxidative stress, free radicals and protein peroxides.

    PubMed

    Gebicki, Janusz M

    2016-04-01

    Primary free radicals generated under oxidative stress in cells and tissues produce a cascade of reactive secondary radicals, which attack biomolecules with efficiency determined by the reaction rate constants and target concentration. Proteins are prominent targets because they constitute the bulk of the organic content of cells and tissues and react readily with many of the secondary radicals. The reactions commonly lead to the formation of carbon-centered radicals, which generally convert in vivo to peroxyl radicals and finally to semistable hydroperoxides. All of these intermediates can initiate biological damage. This article outlines the advantages of the application of ionizing radiations to studies of radicals, with particular reference to the generation of desired radicals, studies of the kinetics of their reactions and correlating the results with events in biological systems. In one such application, formation of protein hydroperoxides in irradiated cells was inhibited by the intracellular ascorbate and glutathione. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Thyroid Hormones, Oxidative Stress, and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Raimondo, Sebastiano; Olivieri, Giulio; Meucci, Elisabetta; Currò, Diego

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation and oxidative stress (OS) are closely related processes, as well exemplified in obesity and cardiovascular diseases. OS is also related to hormonal derangement in a reciprocal way. Among the various hormonal influences that operate on the antioxidant balance, thyroid hormones play particularly important roles, since both hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism have been shown to be associated with OS in animals and humans. In this context, the nonthyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS) that typically manifests as reduced conversion of thyroxine (T4) to triiodothyronine (T3) in different acute and chronic systemic conditions is still a debated topic. The pathophysiological mechanisms of this syndrome are reviewed, together with the roles of deiodinases, the enzymes responsible for the conversion of T4 to T3, in both physiological and pathological situations. The presence of OS indexes in NTIS supports the hypothesis that it represents a condition of hypothyroidism at the tissue level and not only an adaptive mechanism to diseases. PMID:27051079

  19. Air pollution, oxidative stress, and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Moulton, Paula Valencia; Yang, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia affecting millions of people worldwide and will continue to affect millions more with population aging on the rise. AD causality is multifactorial. Known causal factors include genetic predisposition, age, and sex. Environmental toxins such as air pollution (AP) have also been implicated in AD causation. Exposure to AP can lead to chronic oxidative stress (OS), which is involved in the pathogenesis of AD. Whereas AP plays a role in AD pathology, the epidemiological evidence for this association is limited. Given the significant prevalence of AP exposure combined with increased population aging, epidemiological evidence for this link is important to consider. In this paper, we examine the existing evidence supporting the relationship between AP, OS, and AD and provide recommendations for future research on the population level, which will provide evidence in support of public health interventions.

  20. Sport and oxidative stress in oncological patients.

    PubMed

    Knop, K; Schwan, R; Bongartz, M; Bloch, W; Brixius, K; Baumann, F

    2011-12-01

    Oxidative stress is thought to be an important factor in the onset, progression and recurrence of cancer. In order to investigate how it is influenced by physical activity, we measured oxidative stress and antioxidative capacity (aoC) in 12 women with breast cancer and 6 men with prostate cancer, before and after long hiking trips. Before the hike, the men had a ROS-concentration of 1.8±0.6 mM H2O2 and an aoC of 0.7±0.6 mM Trolox-equivalent (Tro), while the women had a ROS-concentration of 3.1±0.7 mM H2O2 and an aoC of 1.2±0.2 mM Tro. After the hike, women showed no significant change in ROS and a significant increase in aoC (1.3±0.2 mM Tro), while the ROS concentration in men increased significantly (2.1±0.3 mM H2O2) and their aoC decreased (0.25±0.1 mM Tro). After a regenerative phase, the ROS concentration of the men decreased to 1.7±0.4 mM H2O2 and their aoC recovered significantly (1.2±0.4 mM Tro), while the women presented no significant change in the concentration of H2O2 but showed an ulterior increase in antioxidant capacity (2.05±0.43 mM Tro). From this data we conclude that physical training programs as for example long distance hiking trips can improve the aoC in the blood of oncological patients. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Effects of Febuxostat on Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Fukui, Toshiki; Maruyama, Mie; Yamauchi, Kazuhiro; Yoshitaka, Sumie; Yasuda, Tadashi; Abe, Youichi

    2015-07-01

    We previously examined factors that affect the measured derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs), an indicator of reactive oxygen species production, and biological antioxidant potential (BAP), an indicator of antioxidant capacity, in typical health checkup examinees and reported the usefulness of measuring both indicators simultaneously. In addition, a positive correlation reportedly exists between d-ROMs and the visceral fat area measured by using computed tomography. A recent study of the relationship between uric acid levels and various obesity-related factors found that visceral fat was the factor most strongly related to uric acid levels. Uric acid is itself a potent endogenous antioxidant, but because reactive oxygen species are produced during uric acid generation, it is suggested that uric acid may have opposing effects. The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of febuxostat, a novel xanthine oxidase inhibitor, on oxidative stress. Study subjects were 43 hyperuricemia outpatients receiving care in the internal medicine department of our institution. The subjects were divided into a new administration group (29 patients) and a switched administration group (14 patients); the latter were allopurinol-treated patients with hyperuricemia who were switched to febuxostat. In addition to measuring the patients' uric acid and creatinine levels and estimated glomerular filtration rate before and after treatment, their d-ROMs and BAP as well as the BAP/d-ROMs ratio were also measured. Both groups exhibited significant decreases in uric acid levels, as well as significant decreases in d-ROMs and BAP. No significant changes were observed in the BAP/dROMs ratio or renal function, including creatinine levels and estimated glomerular filtration rate. Febuxostat could significantly reduce d-ROMs. However, BAP levels were also significantly reduced concurrently. No changes were observed in the BAP/d-ROMs ratios. This regulatory mechanism is believed

  2. [Selenium and oxidative stress in cancer patients].

    PubMed

    Gorozhanskaia, É G; Sviridova, S P; Dobrovol'skaia, M M; Zybrikhina, G N; Kashnia, Sh R

    2013-01-01

    In order to identify the features of violations of free-radical processes in blood serum of 94 untreated cancer patients with different localization of the tumor (cancer of the stomach, colon, breast, ovarian, hemoblastoses) were determined selenium levels and indicators of oxidative stress (sum of metabolites of nitrogen--NOx, the level of superoxide dismutase--Cu/ZnSOD and malondiialdehyde-MDA, and the activity of catalase). In addition, 40 patients with malignant liver disease and clinical signs of liver failure in the early postoperative period was carried out a comparative evaluation of the efficacy of selenium-containing drug "Selenaze" (sodium selenite pentahydrate). It was found that selenium levels in cancer patients by 25-30% below the norm of 110-120 mg/l at a rate of 73.0 +/- 2.6 mg/l. Low levels of NOx was detected in patients with all tumor localizations (22.1 +/- 1.1 microM, with normal range 28.4 +/- 0.9 microM). The exceptions were patients with extensive malignant process in the liver, in which the NOx levels were significantly higher than normal (p < 0.001). The high level of NOx has a toxic effect on the hepatocyte, causing metabolic disorders and inflammatory-necrotic changes in the liver. Elevated levels of SOD and MDA in normal values of catalase activity was detected in all patients. The use of "Selenaze" in postoperative patients with tumors of the liver increased selenium levels by 10-12%, which was accompanied by a decrease in the content of SOD and NOx, and contributed to earlier recovery of detoxic and synthetic liver function. These findings point to an intensification of oxidative stress and metabolic disorders in the malignant process, which is the basis for metabolic correction.

  3. Oxidized LDL at low concentration promotes in-vitro angiogenesis and activates nitric oxide synthase through PI3K/Akt/eNOS pathway in human coronary artery endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Shan; Wong, Siu Ling; Lau, Chi Wai; Huang, Yu; Yu, Cheuk-Man

    2011-04-01

    Research highlights: {yields} Low-concentration oxidized LDL enhances angiogenesis through nitric oxide (NO). {yields} Oxidized LDL increases intracellular NO levels via eNOS phosphorylation. {yields} Akt/PI3K signaling mediates oxidized LDL-induced eNOS phosphorylation. -- Abstract: It has long been considered that oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) causes endothelial dysfunction and is remarkably related to the development of atherosclerosis. However, the effect of oxLDL at very low concentration (<10 {mu}g/ml) on the endothelial cells remains speculative. Nitric oxide (NO) has a crucial role in the endothelial cell function. In this study, we investigated the effect of oxLDL at low concentration on NO production and proliferation, migration, tube formation of the human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAEC). Results showed that oxLDL at 5 {mu}g/ml enhanced HCAEC proliferation, migration and tube formation. These phenomena were accompanied by an increased intracellular NO production. L-NAME (a NOS inhibitor), LY294002 and wortmannin (PI3K inhibitors) could abolish oxLDL-induced angiogenic effects and prevent NO production in the HCAEC. The phosphorylation of Akt, PI3K and eNOS were up-regulated by oxLDL, which was attenuated by LY294002. Our results suggested that oxLDL at low concentration could promote in-vitro angiogenesis and activate nitric oxide synthesis through PI3K/Akt/eNOS pathway in HCAEC.

  4. Angiogenesis Assays.

    PubMed

    Nambiar, Dhanya K; Kujur, Praveen K; Singh, Rana P

    2016-01-01

    Neoangiogenesis constitutes one of the first steps of tumor progression beyond a critical size of tumor growth, which supplies a dormant mass of cancerous cells with the required nutrient supply and gaseous exchange through blood vessels essentially needed for their sustained and aggressive growth. In order to understand any biological process, it becomes imperative that we use models, which could mimic the actual biological system as closely as possible. Hence, finding the most appropriate model is always a vital part of any experimental design. Angiogenesis research has also been much affected due to lack of simple, reliable, and relevant models which could be easily quantitated. The angiogenesis models have been used extensively for studying the action of various molecules for agonist or antagonistic behaviour and associated mechanisms. Here, we have described two protocols or models which have been popularly utilized for studying angiogenic parameters. Rat aortic ring assay tends to bridge the gap between in vitro and in vivo models. The chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay is one of the most utilized in vivo model system for angiogenesis-related studies. The CAM is highly vascularized tissue of the avian embryo and serves as a good model to study the effects of various test compounds on neoangiogenesis.

  5. Correlation of Zinc with Oxidative Stress Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Morales-Suárez-Varela, María; Llopis-González, Agustín; González-Albert, Verónica; López-Izquierdo, Raúl; González-Manzano, Isabel; Cháves, Javier; Huerta-Biosca, Vicente; Martin-Escudero, Juan C.

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension and smoking are related with oxidative stress (OS), which in turn reports on cellular aging. Zinc is an essential element involved in an individual’s physiology. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relation of zinc levels in serum and urine with OS and cellular aging and its effect on the development of hypertension. In a Spanish sample with 1500 individuals, subjects aged 20–59 years were selected, whose zinc intake levels fell within the recommended limits. These individuals were classified according to their smoking habits and hypertensive condition. A positive correlation was found (Pearson’s C = 0.639; p = 0.01) between Zn serum/urine quotient and oxidized glutathione levels (GSSG). Finally, risk of hypertension significantly increased when the GSSG levels exceeded the 75 percentile; OR = 2.80 (95%CI = 1.09–7.18) and AOR = 3.06 (95%CI = 0.96–9.71). Low zinc levels in serum were related with OS and cellular aging and were, in turn, to be a risk factor for hypertension.  PMID:25774936

  6. Oxidative stress, protein modification and Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Tramutola, A; Lanzillotta, C; Perluigi, M; Butterfield, D Allan

    2016-06-15

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that affects the elderly population with complex etiology. Many hypotheses have been proposed to explain different causes of AD, but the exact mechanisms remain unclear. In this review, we focus attention on the oxidative-stress hypothesis of neurodegeneration and we discuss redox proteomics approaches to analyze post-mortem human brain from AD brain. Collectively, these studies have provided valuable insights into the molecular mechanisms involved both in the pathogenesis and progression of AD, demonstrating the impairment of numerous cellular processes such as energy production, cellular structure, signal transduction, synaptic function, mitochondrial function, cell cycle progression, and degradative systems. Each of these cellular functions normally contributes to maintain healthy neuronal homeostasis, so the deregulation of one or more of these functions could contribute to the pathology and clinical presentation of AD. In particular, we discuss the evidence demonstrating the oxidation/dysfunction of a number of enzymes specifically involved in energy metabolism that support the view that reduced glucose metabolism and loss of ATP are crucial events triggering neurodegeneration and progression of AD.

  7. Influence of Oxidative Stress on Stored Platelets

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Platelet storage and its availability for transfusion are limited to 5-6 days. Oxidative stress (OS) is one of the causes for reduced efficacy and shelf-life of platelets. The studies on platelet storage have focused on improving the storage conditions by altering platelet storage solutions, temperature, and materials. Nevertheless, the role of OS on platelet survival during storage is still unclear. Hence, this study was conducted to investigate the influence of storage on platelets. Platelets were stored for 12 days at 22°C. OS markers such as aggregation, superoxides, reactive oxygen species, glucose, pH, lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, and antioxidant enzymes were assessed. OS increased during storage as indicated by increments in aggregation, superoxides, pH, conjugate dienes, and superoxide dismutase and decrements in glucose and catalase. Thus, platelets could endure OS till 6 days during storage, due to the antioxidant defense system. An evident increase in OS was observed from day 8 of storage, which can diminish the platelet efficacy. The present study provides an insight into the gradual changes occurring during platelet storage. This lays the foundation towards new possibilities of employing various antioxidants as additives in storage solutions. PMID:26949396

  8. Oxidative stress causes plasma protein modification.

    PubMed

    Tetik, Sermin; Kiliç, Arzu; Aksoy, Halil; Rizaner, Nahit; Ahmad, Sarfraz; Yardimci, Turay

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effect of oxidative systems on plasma proteins using Chloramine-T, a source of free radicals. Plasma specimens from 10 healthy volunteers were treated with 40 mmol/L Chloramine-T (1:1 v/v). Total protein and plasma carbonyl levels were evaluated spectrophotometrically. Identification of plasma proteins modifications was performed by SDS-PAGE, protein and lipid electrophoresis. Protein fragmentation was evaluated by HPLC. Total protein levels of oxidised plasmas were significantly lower (4.08 ± 0.12 g/dL) than control (7.86 ± 0.03 g/dL) (P < 0.01). Plasma carbonyl levels were higher (1.94 ± 0.38 nmol/mg protein) in oxidised plasma than that of control (0.03 ± 0.01 nmol/mg protein) (P < 0.01). Plasma oxidation had no significant effect on the levels of proteins and lipids. Protein fragmentations were detected in oxidised groups compared to those of the control. We conclude that protein modifications have direct effect on the protein functions, which are related to stress agent, its treatment period(s), and the methodology used for evaluating such experimental results.

  9. Oxidative stress in atherosclerosis and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Lankin, V Z; Lisina, M O; Arzamastseva, N E; Konovalova, G G; Nedosugova, L V; Kaminnyi, A I; Tikhaze, A K; Ageev, F T; Kukharchuk, V V; Belenkov, Yu N

    2005-07-01

    We measured the content of lipid peroxides in plasma LDL from patients with chronic CHD not accompanied by hypercholesterolemia; CHD and hypercholesterolemia; type 2 diabetes mellitus and decompensation of carbohydrate metabolism; and CHD, circulatory insufficiency, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (without hypercholesterolemia). The content of lipid peroxides in LDL isolated from blood plasma by differential ultracentrifugation in a density gradient was estimated by a highly specific method with modifications (reagent Fe(2+) xylene orange and triphenylphosphine as a reducing agent for organic peroxides). The content of lipid peroxides in LDL from patients was much higher than in controls (patients without coronary heart disease and diabetes). Hypercholesterolemia and diabetes can be considered as factors promoting LDL oxidation in vivo. Our results suggest that stimulation of lipid peroxidation in low-density lipoproteins during hypercholesterolemia and diabetes is associated with strong autooxidation of cholesterol and glucose during oxidative and carbonyl (aldehyde) stress, respectively. These data illustrate a possible mechanism of the progression of atherosclerosis in patients with diabetes mellitus.

  10. Oxidative and Nitrative Stress in Neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Cobb, Catherine A.; Cole, Marsha P.

    2015-01-01

    Aerobes require oxygen for metabolism and normal free radical formation. As a result, maintaining the redox homeostasis is essential for brain cell survival due to their high metabolic energy requirement to sustain electrochemical gradients, neurotransmitter release, and membrane lipid stability. Further, brain antioxidant levels are limited compared to other organs and less able to compensate for reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) generation which contribute oxidative/nitrative stress (OS/NS). Antioxidant treatments such as vitamin E, minocycline, and resveratrol mediate neuroprotection by prolonging the incidence of or reversing OS and NS conditions. Redox imbalance occurs when the antioxidant capacity is overwhelmed, consequently leading to activation of alternate pathways that remain quiescent under normal conditions. If OS/NS fails to lead to adaptation, tissue damage and injury ensue, resulting in cell death and/or disease. The progression of OS/NS-mediated neurodegeneration along with contributions from microglial activation, dopamine metabolism, and diabetes comprise a detailed interconnected pathway. This review proposes a significant role for OS/NS and more specifically, lipid peroxidation (LPO) and other lipid modifications, by triggering microglial activation to elicit a neuroinflammatory state potentiated by diabetes or abnormal dopamine metabolism. Subsequently, sustained stress in the neuroinflammatory state overwhelms cellular defenses and prompts neurotoxicity resulting in the onset or amplification of brain damage. PMID:26024962

  11. The natriuretic peptide/guanylyl cyclase–A system functions as a stress-responsive regulator of angiogenesis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Michaela; Völker, Katharina; Schwarz, Kristine; Carbajo-Lozoya, Javier; Flögel, Ulrich; Jacoby, Christoph; Stypmann, Jörg; van Eickels, Martin; Gambaryan, Stepan; Hartmann, Michael; Werner, Matthias; Wieland, Thomas; Schrader, Jürgen; Baba, Hideo A.

    2009-01-01

    Cardiac atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) modulate blood pressure and volume by activation of the receptor guanylyl cyclase–A (GC-A) and subsequent intracellular cGMP formation. Here we report what we believe to be a novel function of these peptides as paracrine regulators of vascular regeneration. In mice with systemic deletion of the GC-A gene, vascular regeneration in response to critical hind limb ischemia was severely impaired. Similar attenuation of ischemic angiogenesis was observed in mice with conditional, endothelial cell–restricted GC-A deletion (here termed EC GC-A KO mice). In contrast, smooth muscle cell–restricted GC-A ablation did not affect ischemic neovascularization. Immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR revealed BNP expression in activated satellite cells within the ischemic muscle, suggesting that local BNP elicits protective endothelial effects. Since within the heart, BNP is mainly induced in cardiomyocytes by mechanical load, we investigated whether the natriuretic peptide/GC-A system also regulates angiogenesis accompanying load-induced cardiac hypertrophy. EC GC-A KO hearts showed diminished angiogenesis, mild fibrosis, and diastolic dysfunction. In vitro BNP/GC-A stimulated proliferation and migration of cultured microvascular endothelia by activating cGMP-dependent protein kinase I and phosphorylating vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein and p38 MAPK. We therefore conclude that BNP, produced by activated satellite cells within ischemic skeletal muscle or by cardiomyocytes in response to pressure load, regulates the regeneration of neighboring endothelia via GC-A. This paracrine communication might be critically involved in coordinating muscle regeneration/hypertrophy and angiogenesis. PMID:19487812

  12. NADPH oxidase activation played a critical role in the oxidative stress process in stable coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiefang; Wang, Meihui; Li, Zhengwei; Bi, Xukun; Song, Jiale; Weng, Shaoxiang; Fu, Guosheng

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The study was designed to investigate the oxidative stress levels of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in stable coronary artery disease (CAD) and to explore the underlying mechanisms of NADPH oxidase activation and subsequent EPCs dysfunction. Methods: EPCs were isolated from patients with stable CAD (n=50) and matched healthy volunteers (n=50). NADPH oxidase activation was detected by measuring the expression of each subunit using western blotting and qPCR analyses and the membrane translocation of p47phox using immunofluorescence. The in vivo angiogenesis capacity was evaluated using immunofluorescence by transplanting EPCs into a rat hind limb ischemia model. The PKC inhibitor GÖ-6983 was used to determine the role of PKC in NADPH oxidase activation. Results: Oxidative stress level was increased and the in vivo angiogenesis capacity was impaired in EPCs obtained from CAD subjects with the activation of NADPH oxidase. P47phox membrane translocation increased in CAD group vs controls. These effects were resolved by NADPH oxidase inhibition. Up-regulation of PKCα/β2 was found in EPCs from CAD subjects, PKC inhibition GÖ-6983 could reduce the expression and activity of NADPH oxidation. Conclusions: NADPH oxidase activation via p47phox membrane translocation played a critical role in the initiation and progression of CAD, and the PKCα/β2 signaling pathway might be involved. PMID:28077995

  13. Oxidative stress in zebrafish (Danio rerio) sperm.

    PubMed

    Hagedorn, Mary; McCarthy, Megan; Carter, Virginia L; Meyers, Stuart A

    2012-01-01

    Laboratories around the world have produced tens of thousands of mutant and transgenic zebrafish lines. As with mice, maintaining all of these valuable zebrafish genotypes is expensive, risky, and beyond the capacity of even the largest stock centers. Because reducing oxidative stress has become an important aspect of reducing the variability in mouse sperm cryopreservation, we examined whether antioxidants might improve cryopreservation of zebrafish sperm. Four experiments were conducted in this study. First, we used the xanthine-xanthine oxidase (X-XO) system to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS). The X-XO system was capable of producing a stress reaction in zebrafish sperm reducing its sperm motility in a concentration dependent manner (P<0.05). Second, we examined X-XO and the impact of antioxidants on sperm viability, ROS and motility. Catalase (CAT) mitigated stress and maintained viability and sperm motility (P>0.05), whereas superoxide dismutase (SOD) and vitamin E did not (P<0.05). Third, we evaluated ROS in zebrafish spermatozoa during cryopreservation and its effect on viability and motility. Methanol (8%) reduced viability and sperm motility (P<0.05), but the addition of CAT mitigated these effects (P>0.05), producing a mean 2.0 to 2.9-fold increase in post-thaw motility. Fourth, we examined the effect of additional cryoprotectants and CAT on fresh sperm motility. Cryoprotectants, 8% methanol and 10% dimethylacetamide (DMA), reduced the motility over the control value (P<0.5), whereas 10% dimethylformamide (DMF) with or without CAT did not (P>0.05). Zebrafish sperm protocols should be modified to improve the reliability of the cryopreservation process, perhaps using a different cryoprotectant. Regardless, the simple addition of CAT to present-day procedures will significantly improve this process, assuring increased and less variable fertilization success and allowing resource managers to dependably plan how many straws are needed to safely

  14. Classification of oxidative stress based on its intensity

    PubMed Central

    Lushchak, Volodymyr I.

    2014-01-01

    In living organisms production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is counterbalanced by their elimination and/or prevention of formation which in concert can typically maintain a steady-state (stationary) ROS level. However, this balance may be disturbed and lead to elevated ROS levels called oxidative stress. To our best knowledge, there is no broadly acceptable system of classification of oxidative stress based on its intensity due to which proposed here system may be helpful for interpretation of experimental data. Oxidative stress field is the hot topic in biology and, to date, many details related to ROS-induced damage to cellular components, ROS-based signaling, cellular responses and adaptation have been disclosed. However, it is common situation when researchers experience substantial difficulties in the correct interpretation of oxidative stress development especially when there is a need to characterize its intensity. Careful selection of specific biomarkers (ROS-modified targets) and some system may be helpful here. A classification of oxidative stress based on its intensity is proposed here. According to this classification there are four zones of function in the relationship between “Dose/concentration of inducer” and the measured “Endpoint”: I – basal oxidative stress (BOS); II – low intensity oxidative stress (LOS); III – intermediate intensity oxidative stress (IOS); IV – high intensity oxidative stress (HOS). The proposed classification will be helpful to describe experimental data where oxidative stress is induced and systematize it based on its intensity, but further studies will be in need to clear discriminate between stress of different intensity. PMID:26417312

  15. Traumatic stress, oxidative stress and posttraumatic stress disorder: neurodegeneration and the accelerated-aging hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Mark W.; Sadeh, Naomi

    2014-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with elevated risk for a variety of age-related diseases and neurodegeneration. In this paper, we review evidence relevant to the hypothesis that chronic PTSD constitutes a form of persistent life stress that potentiates oxidative stress (OXS) and accelerates cellular aging. We provide an overview of empirical studies that have examined the effects of psychological stress on OXS, discuss the stress-perpetuating characteristics of PTSD, and then identify mechanisms by which PTSD might promote OXS and accelerated aging. We review studies on OXS-related genes and the role that they may play in moderating the effects of PTSD on neural integrity and conclude with a discussion of directions for future research on antioxidant treatments and biomarkers of accelerated aging in PTSD. PMID:25245500

  16. Protein Sulfenylation: A Novel Readout of Environmental Oxidant Stress

    EPA Science Inventory

    Oxidative stress is a commonly cited mechanism of toxicity of environmental agents. Ubiquitous environmental chemicals such as the diesel exhaust component 1,2-naphthoquinone (1,2-NQ)induce oxidative stress by redox cycling, which generates hydrogen peroxide (H202). Cysteinylthio...

  17. Antioxidant status and biomarkers of oxidative stress in canine lymphoma

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background – Oxidative stress might play a role in carcinogenesis, as well as impacting morbidity and mortality of veterinary cancer patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate antioxidant concentrations and biomarkers of oxidative stress in dogs with newly-diagnosed lymphoma prior to treatm...

  18. Altered Gravity Induces Oxidative Stress in Drosophila Melanogaster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhattacharya, Sharmila; Hosamani, Ravikumar

    2015-01-01

    Altered gravity environments can induce increased oxidative stress in biological systems. Microarray data from our previous spaceflight experiment (FIT experiment on STS-121) indicated significant changes in the expression of oxidative stress genes in adult fruit flies after spaceflight. Currently, our lab is focused on elucidating the role of hypergravity-induced oxidative stress and its impact on the nervous system in Drosophila melanogaster. Biochemical, molecular, and genetic approaches were combined to study this effect on the ground. Adult flies (2-3 days old) exposed to acute hypergravity (3g, for 1 hour and 2 hours) showed significantly elevated levels of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) in fly brains compared to control samples. This data was supported by significant changes in mRNA expression of specific oxidative stress and antioxidant defense related genes. As anticipated, a stress-resistant mutant line, Indy302, was less vulnerable to hypergravity-induced oxidative stress compared to wild-type flies. Survival curves were generated to study the combined effect of hypergravity and pro-oxidant treatment. Interestingly, many of the oxidative stress changes that were measured in flies showed sex specific differences. Collectively, our data demonstrate that altered gravity significantly induces oxidative stress in Drosophila, and that one of the organs where this effect is evident is the brain.

  19. Hypoxia-Induced Oxidative Stress Modulation with Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Debevec, Tadej; Millet, Grégoire P.; Pialoux, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    Increased oxidative stress, defined as an imbalance between prooxidants and antioxidants, resulting in molecular damage and disruption of redox signaling, is associated with numerous pathophysiological processes and known to exacerbate chronic diseases. Prolonged systemic hypoxia, induced either by exposure to terrestrial altitude or a reduction in ambient O2 availability is known to elicit oxidative stress and thereby alter redox balance in healthy humans. The redox balance modulation is also highly dependent on the level of physical activity. For example, both high-intensity exercise and inactivity, representing the two ends of the physical activity spectrum, are known to promote oxidative stress. Numerous to-date studies indicate that hypoxia and exercise can exert additive influence upon redox balance alterations. However, recent evidence suggests that moderate physical activity can attenuate altitude/hypoxia-induced oxidative stress during long-term hypoxic exposure. The purpose of this review is to summarize recent findings on hypoxia-related oxidative stress modulation by different activity levels during prolonged hypoxic exposures and examine the potential mechanisms underlying the observed redox balance changes. The paper also explores the applicability of moderate activity as a strategy for attenuating hypoxia-related oxidative stress. Moreover, the potential of such moderate intensity activities used to counteract inactivity-related oxidative stress, often encountered in pathological, elderly and obese populations is also discussed. Finally, future research directions for investigating interactive effects of altitude/hypoxia and exercise on oxidative stress are proposed. PMID:28243207

  20. Blood and Oxidative Stress (BOS): Soyuz mission "Eneide"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzo, Angela Maria; Adorni, Laura; Montorfano, Gigliola; Negroni, Manuela; Zava, Stefania; Berra, Bruno

    2007-09-01

    The aim of this experiment was to assay astronaut antioxidant status, to analyse red blood cell membrane composition of astronauts prior and after flight and to study the correlation with oxidative stress that erythrocytes have undergone due to space radiations. Results obtained from this single case study, indicate that during a short time flight, erythrocytes decrease their antioxidant defences, to counteract oxidative stress.

  1. Protein Sulfenylation: A Novel Readout of Environmental Oxidant Stress

    EPA Science Inventory

    Oxidative stress is a commonly cited mechanism of toxicity of environmental agents. Ubiquitous environmental chemicals such as the diesel exhaust component 1,2-naphthoquinone (1,2-NQ)induce oxidative stress by redox cycling, which generates hydrogen peroxide (H202). Cysteinylthio...

  2. Curcumin alleviates oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Daverey, Amita; Agrawal, Sandeep K

    2016-10-01

    Oxidative stress plays a critical role in various neurodegenerative diseases, thus alleviating oxidative stress is a potential strategy for therapeutic intervention and/or prevention of neurodegenerative diseases. In the present study, alleviation of oxidative stress through curcumin is investigated in A172 (human glioblastoma cell line) and HA-sp (human astrocytes cell line derived from the spinal cord) astrocytes. H2O2 was used to induce oxidative stress in astrocytes (A172 and HA-sp). Data show that H2O2 induces activation of astrocytes in dose- and time-dependent manner as evident by increased expression of GFAP in A172 and HA-sp cells after 24 and 12h respectively. An upregulation of Prdx6 was also observed in A172 and HA-sp cells after 24h of H2O2 treatment as compared to untreated control. Our data also showed that curcumin inhibits oxidative stress-induced cytoskeleton disarrangement, and impedes the activation of astrocytes by inhibiting upregulation of GFAP, vimentin and Prdx6. In addition, we observed an inhibition of oxidative stress-induced inflammation, apoptosis and mitochondria fragmentation after curcumin treatment. Therefore, our results suggest that curcumin not only protects astrocytes from H2O2-induced oxidative stress but also reverses the mitochondrial damage and dysfunction induced by oxidative stress. This study also provides evidence for protective role of curcumin on astrocytes by showing its effects on attenuating reactive astrogliosis and inhibiting apoptosis.

  3. Effect of heat stress on oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation and some stress parameters in broilers.

    PubMed

    Altan, O; Pabuçcuoğlu, A; Altan, A; Konyalioğlu, S; Bayraktar, H

    2003-09-01

    1. This study was conducted to determine the effects of heat stress on fearfulness, leucocyte components, oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation in two commercial broiler strains, Cobb (C) and Ross (R). 2. At 36 and 37 d of age birds were exposed to 38 +/- 1 degree C for 3 h. Rectal temperatures, duration of tonic immobility (TI), haematocrit values, proportions of leucocyte components (heterophil, lymphocyte, basophil, eosinophil, monocyte), malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations and antioxidant enzyme activities (CAT, SOD, GPx) of all the birds were determined, before and after heat treatment. 3. Rectal temperatures increased and haematocrit values decreased in birds exposed to heat stress. Heat stress caused a significant increase in heterophil/lymphocyte and in basophil ratios. 4. Exposing birds to heat stress increased duration of TI, suggesting heat-stressed birds tended to be more fearful. 5. Heat stress resulted in a significant Genotype x Treatment interaction for MDA concentration. CAT, SOD and GPx activities; MDA concentrations in heat-stressed R strain birds were greater than in heat-stressed C strain birds.

  4. Effects of Oxidative Stress on Mesenchymal Stem Cell Biology

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent stem cells present in most fetal and adult tissues. Ex vivo culture-expanded MSCs are being investigated for tissue repair and immune modulation, but their full clinical potential is far from realization. Here we review the role of oxidative stress in MSC biology, as their longevity and functions are affected by oxidative stress. In general, increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) inhibit MSC proliferation, increase senescence, enhance adipogenic but reduce osteogenic differentiation, and inhibit MSC immunomodulation. Furthermore, aging, senescence, and oxidative stress reduce their ex vivo expansion, which is critical for their clinical applications. Modulation of sirtuin expression and activity may represent a method to reduce oxidative stress in MSCs. These findings have important implications in the clinical utility of MSCs for degenerative and immunological based conditions. Further study of oxidative stress in MSCs is imperative in order to enhance MSC ex vivo expansion and in vivo engraftment, function, and longevity. PMID:27413419

  5. Oxidative stress in diabetes: implications for vascular and other complications.

    PubMed

    Pitocco, Dario; Tesauro, Manfredi; Alessandro, Rizzi; Ghirlanda, Giovanni; Cardillo, Carmine

    2013-10-30

    In recent decades, oxidative stress has become a focus of interest in most biomedical disciplines and many types of clinical research. Increasing evidence shows that oxidative stress is associated with the pathogenesis of diabetes, obesity, cancer, ageing, inflammation, neurodegenerative disorders, hypertension, apoptosis, cardiovascular diseases, and heart failure. Based on these studies, an emerging concept is that oxidative stress is the "final common pathway" through which the risk factors for several diseases exert their deleterious effects. Oxidative stress causes a complex dysregulation of cell metabolism and cell-cell homeostasis; in particular, oxidative stress plays a key role in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction. These are the two most relevant mechanisms in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes and its vascular complications, the leading cause of death in diabetic patients.

  6. Oxidative Stress in Diabetes: Implications for Vascular and Other Complications

    PubMed Central

    Pitocco, Dario; Tesauro, Manfredi; Alessandro, Rizzi; Ghirlanda, Giovanni; Cardillo, Carmine

    2013-01-01

    In recent decades, oxidative stress has become a focus of interest in most biomedical disciplines and many types of clinical research. Increasing evidence shows that oxidative stress is associated with the pathogenesis of diabetes, obesity, cancer, ageing, inflammation, neurodegenerative disorders, hypertension, apoptosis, cardiovascular diseases, and heart failure. Based on these studies, an emerging concept is that oxidative stress is the “final common pathway” through which the risk factors for several diseases exert their deleterious effects. Oxidative stress causes a complex dysregulation of cell metabolism and cell–cell homeostasis; in particular, oxidative stress plays a key role in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction. These are the two most relevant mechanisms in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes and its vascular complications, the leading cause of death in diabetic patients. PMID:24177571

  7. Nanoparticles, Lung Injury, and the Role of Oxidant Stress

    PubMed Central

    Madl, Amy K.; Plummer, Laurel E.; Carosino, Christopher; Pinkerton, Kent E.

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of engineered nanoscale materials has provided significant advancements in electronic, biomedical, and material science applications. Both engineered nanoparticles and nanoparticles derived from combustion or incidental processes exhibit a range of physical and chemical properties, which have been shown to induce inflammation and oxidative stress in biologic systems. Oxidative stress reflects the imbalance between the generation of reaction oxygen species (ROS) and the biochemical mechanisms to detoxify and repair resulting damage of reactive intermediates. This review examines current research incidental and engineered nanoparticles in terms of their health effects on the lungs and mechanisms by which oxidative stress via physicochemical characteristics influence toxicity or biocompatibility. Although oxidative stress has generally been thought of as an adverse biological outcome, this review will also briefly discuss some of the potential emerging technologies to use nanoparticle-induced oxidative stress to treat disease in a site specific fashion. PMID:24215442

  8. Oxidative stress-induced autophagy: Role in pulmonary toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Malaviya, Rama; Laskin, Jeffrey D.; Laskin, Debra L.

    2014-03-01

    Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved catabolic process important in regulating the turnover of essential proteins and in elimination of damaged organelles and protein aggregates. Autophagy is observed in the lung in response to oxidative stress generated as a consequence of exposure to environmental toxicants. Whether autophagy plays role in promoting cell survival or cytotoxicity is unclear. In this article recent findings on oxidative stress-induced autophagy in the lung are reviewed; potential mechanisms initiating autophagy are also discussed. A better understanding of autophagy and its role in pulmonary toxicity may lead to the development of new strategies to treat lung injury associated with oxidative stress. - Highlights: • Exposure to pulmonary toxicants is associated with oxidative stress. • Oxidative stress is known to induce autophagy. • Autophagy is upregulated in the lung following exposure to pulmonary toxicants. • Autophagy may be protective or pathogenic.

  9. Clinical Perspective of Oxidative Stress in Sporadic ALS

    PubMed Central

    D’Amico, Emanuele; Factor-Litvak, Pam; Santella, Regina M.; Mitsumoto, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (sALS) is one of the most devastating neurological diseases; most patients die within 3 to 4 years after symptom onset. Oxidative stress is a disturbance in the pro-oxidative/anti-oxidative balance favoring the pro-oxidative state. Autopsy and laboratory studies in ALS indicate that oxidative stress plays a major role in motor neuron degeneration and astrocyte dysfunction. Oxidative stress biomarkers in cerebrospinal fluid, plasma, and urine, are elevated, suggesting that abnormal oxidative stress is generated outside of the central nervous system. Our review indicates that agricultural chemicals, heavy metals, military service, professional sports, excessive physical exertion, chronic head trauma, and certain foods might be modestly associated with ALS risk, with a stronger association between risk and smoking. At the cellular level, these factors are all involved in generating oxidative stress. Experimental studies indicate that a combination of insults that induce modest oxidative stress can exert additive deleterious effects on motor neurons, suggesting multiple exposures in real-world environments are important. As the disease progresses, nutritional deficiency, cachexia, psychological stress, and impending respiratory failure may further increase oxidative stress. Moreover, accumulating evidence suggests that ALS is possibly a systemic disease. Laboratory, pathologic, and epidemiologic evidence clearly support the hypothesis that oxidative stress is central in the pathogenic process, particularly in genetically susceptive individuals. If we are to improve ALS treatment, well-designed biochemical and genetic epidemiological studies, combined with a multidisciplinary research approach, are needed and will provide knowledge crucial to our understanding of ALS etiology, pathophysiology, and prognosis. PMID:23797033

  10. Oxidative stress in kidney transplantation: causes, consequences, and potential treatment.

    PubMed

    Nafar, Mohsen; Sahraei, Zahra; Salamzadeh, Jamshid; Samavat, Shiva; Vaziri, Nosartolah D

    2011-11-01

    Oxidative stress is a major mediator of adverse outcomes throughout the course of transplantation. Transplanted kidneys are prone to oxidative stress-mediated injury by pre-transplant and post-transplant conditions that cause reperfusion injury or imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants. Besides adversely affecting the allograft, oxidative stress and its constant companion, inflammation, cause cardiovascular disease, cancer, metabolic syndrome, and other disorders in transplant recipients. Presence and severity of oxidative stress can be assessed by various biomarkers produced from interaction of reactive oxygen species with lipids, proteins, nucleic acids, nitric oxide, glutathione, etc. In addition, expression and activities of redox-sensitive molecules such as antioxidant enzymes can serve as biomarkers of oxidative stress. Via activation of nuclear factor kappa B, oxidative stress promotes inflammation which, in turn, amplifies oxidative stress through reactive oxygen species generation by activated immune cells. Therefore, inflammation markers are indirect indicators of oxidative stress. Many treatment options have been evaluated in studies conducted at different stages of transplantation in humans and animals. These studies have provided useful strategies for use in donors or in organ preservation solutions. However, strategies tested for use in post-transplant phase have been largely inconclusive and controversial. A number of therapeutic options have been exclusively examined in animal models and only a few have been tested in humans. Most of the clinical investigations have been of short duration and have provided no insight into their impact on the long-term survival of transplant patients. Effective treatment of oxidative stress in transplant population remains elusive and awaits future explorations.

  11. Changes in capillary shear stress in skeletal muscles exposed to long-term activity: role of nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Hudlicka, Olga; Brown, Margaret D; May, Sylvia; Zakrzewicz, Andreas; Pries, Axel R

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish whether suppression of angiogenesis by nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibition in skeletal muscles exposed to long-term activity can be explained by changes in capillary shear stress linked to the lack of nitric oxide production. Capillary shear stress was calculated from diameters (d) and red blood cell velocities (V(rbc)) measured at rest and after acute contractions in epi-illuminated extensor digitorum longus muscles of control rats and those in which ankle flexors had been stimulated via implanted electrodes (10 Hz, 8 h x day(-1)) for 2 or 7 days without and with inhibition of nitric oxide synthase activity by N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA, 3-4 mg x day(-1) in drinking water). Neither chronic electrical stimulation nor L-NNA treatment altered capillary diameters. Capillary V(rbc) and shear stress (SS) were doubled in muscles after 2 days stimulation (298 +/- 22 microm x s(-1) and 11.4 +/- 1.0 dyne x cm(-2), respectively, p < .005) compared to controls (148 +/- 18 microm x s(-1) and 5.6 +/- 0.8 dyne x cm(-2)) but normalized after 7 days (153 +/- 27 microm x s(-1) and 6.2 +/- 1.0 dyne x cm(-2)), when the capillary bed is known to be enlarged. L-NNA, which increased blood pressure in all treated animals, abolished the increase in capillary SS after 2 days stimulation and decreased SS after 7 days. These data support a role for NO in the early elevation of capillary shear stress that initiates angiogenesis in stimulated muscles, likely via modulation of upstream vascular resistance, and could explain the lack of capillary growth in stimulated muscles when nitric oxide generation is suppressed.

  12. Hypertension and physical exercise: The role of oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Korsager Larsen, Monica; Matchkov, Vladimir V

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress is associated with the pathogenesis of hypertension. Decreased bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO) is one of the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis. It has been suggested that physical exercise could be a potential non-pharmacological strategy in treatment of hypertension because of its beneficial effects on oxidative stress and endothelial function. The aim of this review is to investigate the effect of oxidative stress in relation to hypertension and physical exercise, including the role of NO in the pathogenesis of hypertension. Endothelial dysfunction and decreased NO levels have been found to have the adverse effects in the correlation between oxidative stress and hypertension. Most of the previous studies found that aerobic exercise significantly decreased blood pressure and oxidative stress in hypertensive subjects, but the intense aerobic exercise can also injure endothelial cells. Isometric exercise decreases normally only systolic blood pressure. An alternative exercise, Tai chi significantly decreases blood pressure and oxidative stress in normotensive elderly, but the effect in hypertensive subjects has not yet been studied. Physical exercise and especially aerobic training can be suggested as an effective intervention in the prevention and treatment of hypertension and cardiovascular disease via reduction in oxidative stress. Copyright © 2016 The Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. Production and hosting by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  13. Molecular mechanisms of ROS production and oxidative stress in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Newsholme, Philip; Cruzat, Vinicius Fernandes; Keane, Kevin Noel; Carlessi, Rodrigo; de Bittencourt, Paulo Ivo Homem

    2016-12-15

    Oxidative stress and chronic inflammation are known to be associated with the development of metabolic diseases, including diabetes. Oxidative stress, an imbalance between oxidative and antioxidative systems of cells and tissues, is a result of over production of oxidative-free radicals and associated reactive oxygen species (ROS). One outcome of excessive levels of ROS is the modification of the structure and function of cellular proteins and lipids, leading to cellular dysfunction including impaired energy metabolism, altered cell signalling and cell cycle control, impaired cell transport mechanisms and overall dysfunctional biological activity, immune activation and inflammation. Nutritional stress, such as that caused by excess high-fat and/or carbohydrate diets, promotes oxidative stress as evident by increased lipid peroxidation products, protein carbonylation and decreased antioxidant status. In obesity, chronic oxidative stress and associated inflammation are the underlying factors that lead to the development of pathologies such as insulin resistance, dysregulated pathways of metabolism, diabetes and cardiovascular disease through impaired signalling and metabolism resulting in dysfunction to insulin secretion, insulin action and immune responses. However, exercise may counter excessive levels of oxidative stress and thus improve metabolic and inflammatory outcomes. In the present article, we review the cellular and molecular origins and significance of ROS production, the molecular targets and responses describing how oxidative stress affects cell function including mechanisms of insulin secretion and action, from the point of view of possible application of novel diabetic therapies based on redox regulation.

  14. Oxidative stress in the brain causes hypertension via sympathoexcitation.

    PubMed

    Kishi, Takuya; Hirooka, Yoshitaka

    2012-01-01

    Activation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) has an important role in the pathogenesis of hypertension, and is determined by the brain. Previous many studies have demonstrated that oxidative stress, mainly produced by angiotensin II type 1 (AT(1)) receptor and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAD (P) H) oxidase, in the autonomic brain regions was involved in the activation of the SNS of hypertension. In this concept, we have investigated the role of oxidative stress in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), which is known as the cardiovascular center in the brainstem, in the activation of the SNS, and demonstrated that AT(1) receptor and NAD (P) H oxidase-induced oxidative stress in the RVLM causes sympathoexcitation in hypertensive rats. The mechanisms in which brain oxidative stress causes sympathoexcitation have been investigated, such as the interactions with nitric oxide (NO), effects on the signal transduction, or inflammations. Interestingly, the environmental factors of high salt intake and high calorie diet may also increase the oxidative stress in the brain, particularly in the RVLM, thereby activating the central sympathetic outflow and increasing the risk of hypertension. Furthermore, several orally administered AT(1) receptor blockers have been found to cause sympathoinhibition via reduction of oxidative stress through the inhibition of central AT(1) receptor. In conclusion, we must consider that AT(1) receptor and the related oxidative stress production in the brain cause the activation of SNS in hypertension, and that AT(1) receptor in the brain could be novel therapeutic target of the treatments for hypertension.

  15. Transcript profiling of common bean nodules subjected to oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Mario; Guillén, Gabriel; Fuentes, Sara I; Iñiguez, Luis P; Aparicio-Fabre, Rosaura; Zamorano-Sánchez, David; Encarnación-Guevara, Sergio; Panzeri, Dario; Castiglioni, Bianca; Cremonesi, Paola; Strozzi, Francesco; Stella, Alessandra; Girard, Lourdes; Sparvoli, Francesca; Hernández, Georgina

    2013-11-01

    Several environmental stresses generate high amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plant cells, resulting in oxidative stress. Symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF) in the legume-rhizobia symbiosis is sensitive to damage from oxidative stress. Active nodules of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) exposed to the herbicide paraquat (1,1'-dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridinium dichloride hydrate), which stimulates ROS accumulation, exhibited reduced nitrogenase activity and ureide content. We analyzed the global gene response of nodules subjected to oxidative stress using the Bean Custom Array 90K, which includes probes from 30,000 expressed sequence tags (ESTs). A total of 4280 ESTs were differentially expressed in stressed bean nodules; of these, 2218 were repressed. Based on Gene Ontology analysis, these genes were grouped into 42 different biological process categories. Analysis with the PathExpress bioinformatic tool, adapted for bean, identified five significantly repressed metabolic pathways related to carbon/nitrogen metabolism, which is crucial for nodule function. Quantitative reverse transcription (qRT)-PCR analysis of transcription factor (TF) gene expression showed that 67 TF genes were differentially expressed in nodules exposed to oxidative stress. Putative cis-elements recognized by highly responsive TF were detected in promoter regions of oxidative stress regulated genes. The expression of oxidative stress responsive genes and of genes important for SNF in bacteroids analyzed in stressed nodules revealed that these conditions elicited a transcriptional response. © 2013 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  16. Oxidative stress and Kawasaki disease: how is oxidative stress involved from the acute stage to the chronic stage?

    PubMed

    Yahata, Tomoyo; Hamaoka, Kenji

    2017-01-01

    Inflammation and oxidative stress are closely related. Further, oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathology of inflammation-based Kawasaki disease. An excessive in vivo production of reactive oxygen species increases oxidative stress in the body, which triggers an endless vicious spiral of inflammation reactions and reactive oxygen metabolites. This presumably forms diffuse vasculitis in the acute phase. Acute inflammation and oxidative stress can be rapidly controlled by treatments; however, they may remain for a long time. This has recently been identified as a problem in the chronic phase of Kawasaki disease. Generally, the presence of vascular inflammation and oxidative stress impairs blood vessels, leading to the onset of atherosclerosis, which is a widely recognized risk. The current discussion focuses on whether the same is valid for blood vessels in the chronic phase of Kawasaki disease.

  17. Aldehyde Dehydrogenases in Cellular Responses to Oxidative/electrophilic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Surendra; Brocker, Chad; Koppaka, Vindhya; Ying, Chen; Jackson, Brian; Matsumoto, Akiko; Thompson, David C.; Vasiliou, Vasilis

    2013-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are continuously generated within living systems and the inability to manage ROS load leads to elevated oxidative stress and cell damage. Oxidative stress is coupled to the oxidative degradation of lipid membranes, also known as lipid peroxidation. This process generates over 200 types of aldehydes, many of which are highly reactive and toxic. Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) metabolize endogenous and exogenous aldehydes and thereby mitigate oxidative/electrophilic stress in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. ALDHs are found throughout the evolutionary gamut, from single celled organisms to complex multicellular species. Not surprisingly, many ALDHs in evolutionarily distant, and seemingly unrelated, species perform similar functions, including protection against a variety of environmental stressors like dehydration and ultraviolet radiation. The ability to act as an ‘aldehyde scavenger’ during lipid peroxidation is another ostensibly universal ALDH function found across species. Up-regulation of ALDHs is a stress response in bacteria (environmental and chemical stress), plants (dehydration, salinity and oxidative stress), yeast (ethanol exposure and oxidative stress), Caenorhabditis elegans (lipid peroxidation) and mammals (oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation). Recent studies have also identified ALDH activity as an important feature of cancer stem cells. In these cells, ALDH expression helps abrogate oxidative stress and imparts resistance against chemotherapeutic agents such as oxazaphosphorine, taxane and platinum drugs. The ALDH superfamily represents a fundamentally important class of enzymes that significantly contributes to the management of electrophilic/oxidative stress within living systems. Mutations in various ALDHs are associated with a variety of pathological conditions in humans, underscoring the fundamental importance of these enzymes in physiological and pathological processes. PMID:23195683

  18. Aloin Protects Skin Fibroblasts from Heat Stress-Induced Oxidative Stress Damage by Regulating the Oxidative Defense System.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fu-Wei; Liu, Fu-Chao; Wang, Yu-Ren; Tsai, Hsin-I; Yu, Huang-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress is commonly involved in the pathogenesis of skin damage induced by environmental factors, such as heat stress. Skin fibroblasts are responsible for the connective tissue regeneration and the skin recovery from injury. Aloin, a bioactive compound in Aloe vera, has been reported to have various pharmacological activities, such as anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect of aloin against heat stress-mediated oxidative stress in human skin fibroblast Hs68 cells. Hs68 cells were first incubated at 43°C for 30 min to mimic heat stress. The study was further examined if aloin has any effect on heat stress-induced oxidative stress. We found that aloin protected Hs68 cells against heat stress-induced damage, as assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and lactate dehydrogenase assay. Aloin protected Hs68 cells by regulating reactive oxygen species production and increasing the levels of glutathione, cytosolic and mitochondrial superoxide dismutase. Aloin also prevented the elevation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and the reduction of 8-OH-dG induced by heat stress. These results indicated that aloin protected human skin fibroblasts from heat stress-induced oxidative stress damage by regulating the oxidative defense system.

  19. Aloin Protects Skin Fibroblasts from Heat Stress-Induced Oxidative Stress Damage by Regulating the Oxidative Defense System

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu-Ren; Tsai, Hsin-I; Yu, Huang-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress is commonly involved in the pathogenesis of skin damage induced by environmental factors, such as heat stress. Skin fibroblasts are responsible for the connective tissue regeneration and the skin recovery from injury. Aloin, a bioactive compound in Aloe vera, has been reported to have various pharmacological activities, such as anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect of aloin against heat stress-mediated oxidative stress in human skin fibroblast Hs68 cells. Hs68 cells were first incubated at 43°C for 30 min to mimic heat stress. The study was further examined if aloin has any effect on heat stress-induced oxidative stress. We found that aloin protected Hs68 cells against heat stress-induced damage, as assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and lactate dehydrogenase assay. Aloin protected Hs68 cells by regulating reactive oxygen species production and increasing the levels of glutathione, cytosolic and mitochondrial superoxide dismutase. Aloin also prevented the elevation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and the reduction of 8-OH-dG induced by heat stress. These results indicated that aloin protected human skin fibroblasts from heat stress-induced oxidative stress damage by regulating the oxidative defense system. PMID:26637174

  20. Mechanical strain stimulates vasculogenesis and expression of angiogenesis guidance molecules of embryonic stem cells through elevation of intracellular calcium, reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide generation.

    PubMed

    Sharifpanah, Fatemeh; Behr, Sascha; Wartenberg, Maria; Sauer, Heinrich

    2016-12-01

    Differentiation of embryonic stem (ES) cells may be regulated by mechanical strain. Herein, signaling molecules underlying mechanical stimulation of vasculogenesis and expression of angiogenesis guidance cues were investigated in ES cell-derived embryoid bodies. Treatment of embryoid bodies with 10% static mechanical strain using a Flexercell strain system significantly increased CD31-positive vascular structures and the angiogenesis guidance molecules plexinB1, ephrin B2, neuropilin1 (NRP1), semaphorin 4D (sem4D) and robo4 as well as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) and platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) as evaluated by Western blot and real time RT-PCR. In contrast ephrin type 4 receptor B (EphB4) expression was down-regulated upon mechanical strain, indicating an arterial-type differentiation. Robo1 protein expression was modestly increased with no change in mRNA expression. Mechanical strain increased intracellular calcium as well as reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO). Mechanical strain-induced vasculogenesis was abolished by the NOS inhibitor L-NAME, the NADPH oxidase inhibitor VAS2870, upon chelation of intracellular calcium by BAPTA as well as upon siRNA inactivation of ephrin B2, NRP1 and robo4. BAPTA blunted the strain-induced expression of angiogenic growth factors, the increase in NO and ROS as well as the expression of NRP1, sem4D and plexinB1, whereas ephrin B2, EphB4 as well as robo1 and robo4 expression were not impaired. Mechanical strain stimulates vasculogenesis of ES cells by the intracellular messengers ROS, NO and calcium as well as by upregulation of angiogenesis guidance molecules and the angiogenic growth factors VEGF, FGF-2 and PDGF-BB. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Increased oxidative stress and oxidative DNA damage in non-remission schizophrenia patients.

    PubMed

    Sertan Copoglu, U; Virit, Osman; Hanifi Kokacya, M; Orkmez, Mustafa; Bulbul, Feridun; Binnur Erbagci, A; Semiz, Murat; Alpak, Gokay; Unal, Ahmet; Ari, Mustafa; Savas, Haluk A

    2015-09-30

    Increasing evidence shows that oxidative stress plays a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. But there is not any study which examines the effects of oxidative stress on DNA in schizophrenia patients. Therefore we aimed to assess the oxidative stress levels and oxidative DNA damage in schizophrenia patients with and without symptomatic remission. A total of 64 schizophrenia patients (38 with symptomatic remission and 26 without symptomatic remission) and 80 healthy volunteers were included in the study. 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), total oxidant status (TOS) and total antioxidant status (TAS) were measured in plasma. TOS, oxidative stress index (OSI) and 8-OHdG levels were significantly higher in non-remission schizophrenic (Non-R-Sch) patients than in the controls. TOS and OSI levels were significantly higher in remission schizophrenic (R-Sch) patients than in the controls. TAS level were significantly lower and TOS and OSI levels were significantly higher in R-Sch patients than in Non-R-Sch patients. Despite the ongoing oxidative stress in patients with both R-Sch and Non-R-Sch, oxidative DNA damage was higher in only Non-R-Sch patients compared to controls. It is suggested that oxidative stress can cause the disease via DNA damage, and oxidative stress plays a role in schizophrenia through oxidative DNA damage.

  2. [Oxidative stress in porphyria and carriers].

    PubMed

    Aminaka, Masahito; Kondo, Masao; Takata, Ayako; Yamauchi, Hiroshi; Ikeda, Maki; Yoshida, Katsumi

    2008-05-01

    We sought to establish a causal relationship between oxidative stress and porphyria in patients and carriers. We reported changes in urinary porphyrin concentrations related to 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine. We measured urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine concentration in porphyria patients and carriers with multifactorial inheritance as a possible marker of attack. The porphyria types included 10 patients with porphyria cutanea tarda, 5 with variegate porphyria, 8 with hereditary coproporphyria, 7 with congenital erythropoietic porphyria, 5 with erythropoietic protoporphyria, 5 with acute intermittent porphyria, 7 erythropoietic protoporphyria carriers, and 7 acute intermittent porphyria carriers. Urinary porphyrin concentrations in these patients were significantly higher than those in healthy subjects (p<0.001). Urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine concentrations were significantly high in dermatopathy porphyria types namely porphyria cutanea tarda (p<0.001), variegate porphyria (p<0.05), hereditary coproporphyria (p<0.05), congenital erythropoietic phyria (p<0.05), and erythropoietic protoporphyria (p<0.001). These results reveal that urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine concentration in cutis porphyria types is a good predictor of attack and abatement.

  3. Effect of Oxidative Stress on Male Reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Virk, Gurpriya; Ong, Chloe; du Plessis, Stefan S

    2014-01-01

    Infertility affects approximately 15% of couples trying to conceive, and a male factor contributes to roughly half of these cases. Oxidative stress (OS) has been identified as one of the many mediators of male infertility by causing sperm dysfunction. OS is a state related to increased cellular damage triggered by oxygen and oxygen-derived free radicals known as reactive oxygen species (ROS). During this process, augmented production of ROS overwhelms the body's antioxidant defenses. While small amounts of ROS are required for normal sperm functioning, disproportionate levels can negatively impact the quality of spermatozoa and impair their overall fertilizing capacity. OS has been identified as an area of great attention because ROS and their metabolites can attack DNA, lipids, and proteins; alter enzymatic systems; produce irreparable alterations; cause cell death; and ultimately, lead to a decline in the semen parameters associated with male infertility. This review highlights the mechanisms of ROS production, the physiological and pathophysiological roles of ROS in relation to the male reproductive system, and recent advances in diagnostic methods; it also explores the benefits of using antioxidants in a clinical setting. PMID:24872947

  4. Oxidative Stress and Inflammation: What Polyphenols Can Do for Us?

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Tarique; Yin, Yulong; Blachier, Francois; Tossou, Myrlene C. B.; Rahu, Najma

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress is viewed as an imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and their elimination by protective mechanisms, which can lead to chronic inflammation. Oxidative stress can activate a variety of transcription factors, which lead to the differential expression of some genes involved in inflammatory pathways. The inflammation triggered by oxidative stress is the cause of many chronic diseases. Polyphenols have been proposed to be useful as adjuvant therapy for their potential anti-inflammatory effect, associated with antioxidant activity, and inhibition of enzymes involved in the production of eicosanoids. This review aims at exploring the properties of polyphenols in anti-inflammation and oxidation and the mechanisms of polyphenols inhibiting molecular signaling pathways which are activated by oxidative stress, as well as the possible roles of polyphenols in inflammation-mediated chronic disorders. Such data can be helpful for the development of future antioxidant therapeutics and new anti-inflammatory drugs. PMID:27738491

  5. Tyrosine phosphorylation of clathrin heavy chain under oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Ihara, Yoshito; Yasuoka, Chie; Kageyama, Kan; Wada, Yoshinao; Kondo, Takahito

    2002-09-20

    In mouse pancreatic insulin-producing betaTC cells, oxidative stress due to H(2)O(2) causes tyrosine phosphorylation in various proteins. To identify proteins bearing phosphotyrosine under stress, the proteins were affinity purified using an anti-phosphotyrosine antibody-conjugated agarose column. A protein of 180kDa was identified as clathrin heavy chain (CHC) by electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Immunoprecipitated CHC showed tyrosine phosphorylation upon H(2)O(2) treatment and the phosphorylation was suppressed by the Src kinase inhibitor, PP2. The phosphorylation status of CHC affected the intracellular localization of CHC and the clathrin-dependent endocytosis of transferrin under oxidative stress. In conclusion, CHC is a protein that is phosphorylated at tyrosine by H(2)O(2) and this phosphorylation status is implicated in the intracellular localization and functions of CHC under oxidative stress. The present study demonstrates that oxidative stress affects intracellular vesicular trafficking via the alteration of clathrin-dependent vesicular trafficking.

  6. Relationship between hyposalivation and oxidative stress in aging mice.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Yoshitaka; Matsuno, Tomonori; Omata, Kazuhiko; Satoh, Tazuko

    2017-07-01

    The increase in oxidative stress that accompanies aging has been implicated in the abnormal advance of aging and in the onset of various systemic diseases. However, the details of what effects the increase in oxidative stress that accompanies aging has on saliva secretion are not known. In this study, naturally aging mice were used to examine the stimulated whole saliva flow rate, saliva and serum oxidative stress, antioxidant level, submandibular gland H-E staining, and immunofluorescence staining to investigate the effect of aging on the volume of saliva secretion and the relationship with oxidative stress, as well as the effect of aging on the structure of salivary gland tissue. The stimulated whole saliva flow rate decreased significantly with age. Also, oxidative stress increased significantly with age. Antioxidant levels, however, decreased significantly with age. Structural changes of the submandibular gland accompanying aging included atrophy of parenchyma cells and fatty degeneration and fibrosis of stroma, and the submandibular gland weight ratio decreased. These results suggest that oxidative stress increases with age, not just systemically but also locally in the submandibular gland, and that oxidative stress causes changes in the structure of the salivary gland and is involved in hyposalivation.

  7. Oxidative stress responses in Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed Central

    Farr, S B; Kogoma, T

    1991-01-01

    Oxidative stress is strongly implicated in a number of diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disorders, and atherosclerosis, and its emerging as one of the most important causative agents of mutagenesis, tumorigenesis, and aging. Recent progress on the genetics and molecular biology of the cellular responses to oxidative stress, primarily in Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium, is summarized. Bacteria respond to oxidative stress by invoking two distinct stress responses, the peroxide stimulon and the superoxide stimulon, depending on whether the stress is mediated by peroxides or the superoxide anion. The two stimulons each contain a set of more than 30 genes. The expression of a subset of genes in each stimulon is under the control of a positive regulatory element; these genes constitute the OxyR and SoxRS regulons. The schemes of regulation of the two regulons by their respective regulators are reviewed in detail, and the overlaps of these regulons with other stress responses such as the heat shock and SOS responses are discussed. The products of Oxy-R- and SoxRS-regulated genes, such as catalases and superoxide dismutases, are involved in the prevention of oxidative damage, whereas others, such as endonuclease IV, play a role in the repair of oxidative damage. The potential roles of these and other gene products in the defense against oxidative damage in DNA, proteins, and membranes are discussed in detail. A brief discussion of the similarities and differences between oxidative stress responses in bacteria and eukaryotic organisms concludes this review. PMID:1779927

  8. Chronic oxidative stress after irradiation: an unproven hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Samuel R; Cohen, Eric P

    2012-01-01

    Injury and organ failure after irradiation of late-responding tissues is a substantial problem in radiation oncology and a major threat after accidental or belligerent exposures. The mechanisms of injury may include death of clonogens, vascular injury, activation of cytokine networks, and/or chronic oxidative stress. Knowledge of mechanisms may guide optimal use of mitigators. The hypothesis of chronic oxidative stress as a mechanism of late radiation injury has received much attention. We review herein the published evidence for chronic oxidative stress in vivo, and for use of antioxidants as mitigators of normal tissue radiation injury. We conclude that there is only indirect evidence for chronic oxidative stress after irradiation, and there are only limited published reports of mitigation by antioxidants. We did not find a differentiation of persistent markers of oxidative stress from an ongoing production of oxygen radicals. It is thus unproven that chronic oxidative stress plays a major role in causing radiation injury and organ failure in late-responding tissues. Further investigation is justified, to identify persistent oxidative stress and to identify optimal mitigators of radiation injury. PMID:23245910

  9. Potential role of punicalagin against oxidative stress induced testicular damage

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Faiza; Tian, Hui; Li, Wenqing; Hung, Helong; Sun, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Punicalagin is isolated from pomegranate and widely used for the treatment of different diseases in Chinese traditional medicine. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of Punicalagin (purity ≥98%) on oxidative stress induced testicular damage and its effect on fertility. We detected the antioxidant potential of punicalagin in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced oxidative stress damage in testes, also tried to uncover the boosting fertility effect of Punicalagin (PU) against oxidative stress-induced infertility. Results demonstrated that 9 mg kg−1 for 7 days treatment significantly decreases LPS induced oxidative damage in testes and nitric oxide production. The administration of oxidative stress resulted in a significant reduction in testes antioxidants GSH, T-SOD, and CAT raised LPO, but treatment with punicalagin for 7 days increased antioxidant defense GSH, T-SOD, and CAT by the end of the experiment and reduced LPO level as well. PU also significantly activates Nrf2, which is involved in regulation of antioxidant defense systems. Hence, the present research categorically elucidates the protective effect of punicalagin against LPS induced oxidative stress induced perturbation in the process of spermatogenesis and significantly increased sperm health and number. Moreover, fertility success significantly decreased in LPS-injected mice compared to controls. Mice injected with LPS had fertility indices of 12.5%, while others treated with a combination of PU + LPS exhibited 75% indices. By promoting fertility and eliminating oxidative stress and inflammation, PU may be a useful nutrient for the treatment of infertility. PMID:26763544

  10. Potential role of punicalagin against oxidative stress induced testicular damage.

    PubMed

    Rao, Faiza; Tian, Hui; Li, Wenqing; Hung, Helong; Sun, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Punicalagin is isolated from pomegranate and widely used for the treatment of different diseases in Chinese traditional medicine. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of Punicalagin (purity ≥98%) on oxidative stress induced testicular damage and its effect on fertility. We detected the antioxidant potential of punicalagin in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced oxidative stress damage in testes, also tried to uncover the boosting fertility effect of Punicalagin (PU) against oxidative stress-induced infertility. Results demonstrated that 9 mg kg-1 for 7 days treatment significantly decreases LPS induced oxidative damage in testes and nitric oxide production. The administration of oxidative stress resulted in a significant reduction in testes antioxidants GSH, T-SOD, and CAT raised LPO, but treatment with punicalagin for 7 days increased antioxidant defense GSH, T-SOD, and CAT by the end of the experiment and reduced LPO level as well. PU also significantly activates Nrf2, which is involved in regulation of antioxidant defense systems. Hence, the present research categorically elucidates the protective effect of punicalagin against LPS induced oxidative stress induced perturbation in the process of spermatogenesis and significantly increased sperm health and number. Moreover, fertility success significantly decreased in LPS-injected mice compared to controls. Mice injected with LPS had fertility indices of 12.5%, while others treated with a combination of PU + LPS exhibited 75% indices. By promoting fertility and eliminating oxidative stress and inflammation, PU may be a useful nutrient for the treatment of infertility.

  11. Oxidative stress and metabolic disorders: Pathogenesis and therapeutic strategies.

    PubMed

    Rani, Vibha; Deep, Gagan; Singh, Rakesh K; Palle, Komaraiah; Yadav, Umesh C S

    2016-03-01

    Increased body weight and metabolic disorder including insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular complications together constitute metabolic syndrome. The pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome involves multitude of factors. A number of studies however indicate, with some conformity, that oxidative stress along with chronic inflammatory condition pave the way for the development of metabolic diseases. Oxidative stress, a state of lost balance between the oxidative and anti-oxidative systems of the cells and tissues, results in the over production of oxidative free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Excessive ROS generated could attack the cellular proteins, lipids and nucleic acids leading to cellular dysfunction including loss of energy metabolism, altered cell signalling and cell cycle control, genetic mutations, altered cellular transport mechanisms and overall decreased biological activity, immune activation and inflammation. In addition, nutritional stress such as that caused by high fat high carbohydrate diet also promotes oxidative stress as evident by increased lipid peroxidation products, protein carbonylation, and decreased antioxidant system and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels. These changes lead to initiation of pathogenic milieu and development of several chronic diseases. Studies suggest that in obese person oxidative stress and chronic inflammation are the important underlying factors that lead to development of pathologies such as carcinogenesis, obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases through altered cellular and nuclear mechanisms, including impaired DNA damage repair and cell cycle regulation. Here we discuss the aspects of metabolic disorders-induced oxidative stress in major pathological conditions and strategies for their prevention and therapy.

  12. Pathological neoangiogenesis depends on oxidative stress regulation by ATM.

    PubMed

    Okuno, Yuji; Nakamura-Ishizu, Ayako; Otsu, Kinya; Suda, Toshio; Kubota, Yoshiaki

    2012-08-01

    The ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase, a master regulator of the DNA damage response (DDR), acts as a barrier to cellular senescence and tumorigenesis. Aside from DDR signaling, ATM also functions in oxidative defense. Here we show that Atm in mice is activated specifically in immature vessels in response to the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Global or endothelial-specific Atm deficiency in mice blocked pathological neoangiogenesis in the retina. This block resulted from increased amounts of ROS and excessive activation of the mitogen activated kinase p38α rather than from defects in the canonical DDR pathway. Atm deficiency also lowered tumor angiogenesis and enhanced the antiangiogenic action of vascular endothelial growth factor (Vegf) blockade. These data suggest that pathological neoangiogenesis requires ATM-mediated oxidative defense and that agents that promote excessive ROS generation may have beneficial effects in the treatment of neovascular disease.

  13. Oxidative stress and psychological functioning among medical students

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Rani; Batra, Jyoti

    2014-01-01

    Background: Oxidative stress has gained attention recently in behavioral medicine and has been reported to be associated with various psychological disturbances and their prognoses. Objectives: Study aims to evaluate the oxidative stress (malonylaldehyde (MDA) levels) and its relation with psychological factors (dimensions of personality, levels of anxiety, stress, and depression) among medical/paramedical students of 1st and 3rd year). Materials and Methods: A total of 150 students; 75 from 1st year (2010–2011) and75 from 3rd year (2009–2010); of medical and paramedical background were assessed on level of MDA (oxidative stress) and personality variables, that is, level of anxiety, stress, and depression. These psychological variables were correlated with the level of their oxidative stress. Results: Findings revealed that both groups are influenced by oxidative stress and their psychological variables are also compatible in order to confirm their vulnerabilities to stress. Conclusions: Stress in 3rd year students was significantly higher and it was noted that it adversely affects the psychological parameters. Hence, special attention on mental health aspect in these students may be given. PMID:25788802

  14. The Role of Flavonoids on Oxidative Stress in Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Diniz, Tâmara Coimbra; Silva, Juliane Cabral; de Lima-Saraiva, Sarah Raquel Gomes; Ribeiro, Fernanda Pires Rodrigues de Almeida; Pacheco, Alessandra Gomes Marques; de Freitas, Rivelilson Mendes; Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo José; Quintans, Jullyana de Souza Siqueira; Mendes, Rosemairy Luciane; Almeida, Jackson Roberto Guedes da Silva

    2015-01-01

    Backgrounds. Oxidative stress can result from excessive free-radical production and it is likely implicated as a possible mechanism involved in the initiation and progression of epileptogenesis. Flavonoids can protect the brain from oxidative stress. In the central nervous system (CNS) several flavonoids bind to the benzodiazepine site on the GABAA-receptor resulting in anticonvulsive effects. Objective. This review provides an overview about the role of flavonoids in oxidative stress in epilepsy. The mechanism of action of flavonoids and its relation to the chemical structure is also discussed. Results/Conclusions. There is evidence that suggests that flavonoids have potential for neuroprotection in epilepsy. PMID:25653736

  15. Intrinsic skin aging: the role of oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Poljšak, Borut; Dahmane, Raja G; Godić, Aleksandar

    2012-01-01

    Skin aging appears to be the result of two overlapping processes, intrinsic and extrinsic. It is well accepted that oxidative stress contributes significantly to extrinsic skin aging, although findings point towards reactive oxygen species (ROS) as one of the major causes of and single most important contributor; not only does ROS production increase with age, but human skin cells' ability to repair DNA damage steadily decreases over the years. We extrapolated mechanisms of intrinsic oxidative stress in tissues other than skin to the skin cells in order to provide effective anti-aging strategies and reviewed the literature on intrinsic skin aging and the role of oxidative stress.

  16. Tumor-associated macrophages favor C26 murine colon carcinoma cell proliferation in an oxidative stress-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Luput, Lavinia; Licarete, Emilia; Sesarman, Alina; Laura, Patras; Alupei, Marius Costel; Banciu, Manuela

    2017-02-17

    The role of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) in the development of colon carcinoma is still controversial. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the TAM‑driven processes that may affect colon cancer cell proliferation. To achieve this purpose, murine macrophages were co-cultured with C26 murine colon carcinoma cells at a cell density ratio that approximates physiological conditions for colon carcinoma development in vivo. In this respect, the effects of TAM-mediated angiogenesis, inflammation and oxidative stress on the proliferative capacity of C26 murine colon carcinoma cells were studied. To gain insight into the TAM-driven oxidative stress, NADPH oxidase, the main pro-oxidant enzyme in macrophages, was inhibited. Our data revealed that the stimulatory effects of TAMs on C26 cell proliferation may be related mainly to their pro-oxidant actions exerted by NADPH oxidase activity, which maintains the redox status and the angiogenic capacity of the tumor microenvironment. Additionally, the anti-inflammatory and pro-angiogenic effects of TAMs on tumor cells were found to create a favorable microenvironment for C26 colon carcinoma development and progression. In conclusion, our data confirmed the protumor role of TAMs in the development of colon carcinoma in an oxidative stress-dependent manner that potentiates the angiogenic capacity of the tumor microenvironment. These data may offer valuable information for future tumor-targeted therapies based on TAM 're-education' strategies.

  17. Mitochondrial metabolism mediates oxidative stress and inflammation in fatty liver

    PubMed Central

    Satapati, Santhosh; Kucejova, Blanka; Duarte, Joao A.G.; Fletcher, Justin A.; Reynolds, Lacy; Sunny, Nishanth E.; He, Tianteng; Nair, L. Arya; Livingston, Kenneth; Fu, Xiaorong; Merritt, Matthew E.; Sherry, A. Dean; Malloy, Craig R.; Shelton, John M.; Lambert, Jennifer; Parks, Elizabeth J.; Corbin, Ian; Magnuson, Mark A.; Browning, Jeffrey D.; Burgess, Shawn C.

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria are critical for respiration in all tissues; however, in liver, these organelles also accommodate high-capacity anaplerotic/cataplerotic pathways that are essential to gluconeogenesis and other biosynthetic activities. During nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), mitochondria also produce ROS that damage hepatocytes, trigger inflammation, and contribute to insulin resistance. Here, we provide several lines of evidence indicating that induction of biosynthesis through hepatic anaplerotic/cataplerotic pathways is energetically backed by elevated oxidative metabolism and hence contributes to oxidative stress and inflammation during NAFLD. First, in murine livers, elevation of fatty acid delivery not only induced oxidative metabolism, but also amplified anaplerosis/cataplerosis and caused a proportional rise in oxidative stress and inflammation. Second, loss of anaplerosis/cataplerosis via genetic knockdown of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 (Pck1) prevented fatty acid–induced rise in oxidative flux, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Flux appeared to be regulated by redox state, energy charge, and metabolite concentration, which may also amplify antioxidant pathways. Third, preventing elevated oxidative metabolism with metformin also normalized hepatic anaplerosis/cataplerosis and reduced markers of inflammation. Finally, independent histological grades in human NAFLD biopsies were proportional to oxidative flux. Thus, hepatic oxidative stress and inflammation are associated with elevated oxidative metabolism during an obesogenic diet, and this link may be provoked by increased work through anabolic pathways. PMID:26571396

  18. Induction of the nuclear factor HIF-1{alpha} in acetaminophen toxicity: Evidence for oxidative stress

    SciTech Connect

    James, Laura P. . E-mail: jameslaurap@uams.edu; Donahower, Brian; Burke, Angela S.; McCullough, Sandra; Hinson, Jack A.

    2006-04-28

    Hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) controls the transcription of genes involved in angiogenesis, erythropoiesis, glycolysis, and cell survival. HIF-1{alpha} levels are a critical determinant of HIF activity. The induction of HIF-1{alpha} was examined in the livers of mice treated with a toxic dose of APAP (300 mg/kg IP) and sacrificed at 1, 2, 4, 8, and 12 h. HIF-1{alpha} was induced at 1-12 h and induction occurred prior to the onset of toxicity. Pre-treatment of mice with N-acetylcysteine (1200 mg/kg IP) prevented toxicity and HIF-1{alpha} induction. In further studies, hepatocyte suspensions were incubated with APAP (1 mM) in the presence of an oxygen atmosphere. HIF-1{alpha} was induced at 1 h, prior to the onset of toxicity. Inclusion of cyclosporine A (10 {mu}M), an inhibitor of mitochondrial permeability transition, oxidative stress, and toxicity, prevented the induction of HIF-1{alpha}. Thus, HIF-1{alpha} is induced before APAP toxicity and can occur under non-hypoxic conditions. The data suggest a role for oxidative stress in the induction of HIF-1{alpha} in APAP toxicity.

  19. Severe Life Stress and Oxidative Stress in the Brain: From Animal Models to Human Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Jaquet, Vincent; Trabace, Luigia; Krause, Karl-Heinz

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Severe life stress (SLS), as opposed to trivial everyday stress, is defined as a serious psychosocial event with the potential of causing an impacting psychological traumatism. Recent Advances: Numerous studies have attempted to understand how the central nervous system (CNS) responds to SLS. This response includes a variety of morphological and neurochemical modifications; among them, oxidative stress is almost invariably observed. Oxidative stress is defined as disequilibrium between oxidant generation and the antioxidant response. Critical Issues: In this review, we discuss how SLS leads to oxidative stress in the CNS, and how the latter impacts pathophysiological outcomes. We also critically discuss experimental methods that measure oxidative stress in the CNS. The review covers animal models and human observations. Animal models of SLS include sleep deprivation, maternal separation, and social isolation in rodents, and the establishment of hierarchy in non-human primates. In humans, SLS, which is caused by traumatic events such as child abuse, war, and divorce, is also accompanied by oxidative stress in the CNS. Future Directions: The outcome of SLS in humans ranges from resilience, over post-traumatic stress disorder, to development of chronic mental disorders. Defining the sources of oxidative stress in SLS might in the long run provide new therapeutic avenues. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 18, 1475–1490. PMID:22746161

  20. Severe life stress and oxidative stress in the brain: from animal models to human pathology.

    PubMed

    Schiavone, Stefania; Jaquet, Vincent; Trabace, Luigia; Krause, Karl-Heinz

    2013-04-20

    Severe life stress (SLS), as opposed to trivial everyday stress, is defined as a serious psychosocial event with the potential of causing an impacting psychological traumatism. Numerous studies have attempted to understand how the central nervous system (CNS) responds to SLS. This response includes a variety of morphological and neurochemical modifications; among them, oxidative stress is almost invariably observed. Oxidative stress is defined as disequilibrium between oxidant generation and the antioxidant response. In this review, we discuss how SLS leads to oxidative stress in the CNS, and how the latter impacts pathophysiological outcomes. We also critically discuss experimental methods that measure oxidative stress in the CNS. The review covers animal models and human observations. Animal models of SLS include sleep deprivation, maternal separation, and social isolation in rodents, and the establishment of hierarchy in non-human primates. In humans, SLS, which is caused by traumatic events such as child abuse, war, and divorce, is also accompanied by oxidative stress in the CNS. The outcome of SLS in humans ranges from resilience, over post-traumatic stress disorder, to development of chronic mental disorders. Defining the sources of oxidative stress in SLS might in the long run provide new therapeutic avenues.

  1. Oxidative stress induces senescence in human mesenchymal stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Brandl, Anita; Meyer, Matthias; Bechmann, Volker; Nerlich, Michael; Angele, Peter

    2011-07-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) contribute to tissue repair in vivo and form an attractive cell source for tissue engineering. Their regenerative potential is impaired by cellular senescence. The effects of oxidative stress on MSCs are still unknown. Our studies were to investigate into the proliferation potential, cytological features and the telomere linked stress response system of MSCs, subject to acute or prolonged oxidant challenge with hydrogen peroxide. Telomere length was measured using the telomere restriction fragment assay, gene expression was determined by rtPCR. Sub-lethal doses of oxidative stress reduced proliferation rates and induced senescent-morphological features and senescence-associated {beta}-galactosidase positivity. Prolonged low dose treatment with hydrogen peroxide had no effects on cell proliferation or morphology. Sub-lethal and prolonged low doses of oxidative stress considerably accelerated telomere attrition. Following acute oxidant insult p21 was up-regulated prior to returning to initial levels. TRF1 was significantly reduced, TRF2 showed a slight up-regulation. SIRT1 and XRCC5 were up-regulated after oxidant insult and expression levels increased in aging cells. Compared to fibroblasts and chondrocytes, MSCs showed an increased tolerance to oxidative stress regarding proliferation, telomere biology and gene expression with an impaired stress tolerance in aged cells.

  2. Crosstalk between oxidative and nitrosative stress and arterial stiffness.

    PubMed

    Mozos, Ioana; Luca, Constantin Tudor

    2017-02-01

    Arterial stiffness, the expression of reduced arterial elasticity, is an effective predictor of cardiovascular disorders. Oxidative stress is an imbalance between exposure to toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant systems. The increase in reactive nitrogen species (RNS) is termed nitrosative stress. We review the main mechanisms and products linking arterial stiffness with oxidative and nitrosative stress in several disorders, focusing on recent experimental and clinical data, and the mechanisms explaining benefits of antioxidant therapy. Oxidative and nitrosative stress play important roles in arterial stiffness elevation in several disorders, including diabetes mellitus, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, obesity, peripheral arterial disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, systemic lupus erythematosus, thalassemia, Kawasaki disease and malignant disorders. Oxidative and nitrosative stress are responsible for endothelial dysfunction due to uncoupling of the nitric oxide synthase, oxidative damage to lipids, proteins and DNA in vascular endothelial cells, associated with inflammation, arteriosclerosis and atherosclerosis. Regular physical exercise, caloric restriction, red wine, statins, sartans, metformin, oestradiol, curcumin and combinations of antioxidant vitamins are therapeutic strategies that may decrease arterial stiffness and oxidative stress thus reducing the risk of cardiovascular events. ROS and RNS represent potential therapeutic targets for preventing progression of arterial stiffness.

  3. Protective mechanisms of Cucumis sativus in diabetes-related modelsof oxidative stress and carbonyl stress

    PubMed Central

    Heidari, Himan; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Noubarani, Maryam; Rahmati, Mokhtar; Jafarian, Iman; Adiban, Hasan; Eskandari, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Oxidative stress and carbonyl stress have essential mediatory roles in the development of diabetes and its related complications through increasing free radicals production and impairing antioxidant defense systems. Different chemical and natural compounds have been suggested for decreasing such disorders associated with diabetes. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the protective effects of Cucumis sativus (C. sativus) fruit (cucumber) in oxidative and carbonyl stress models. These diabetes-related models with overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive carbonyl species (RCS) simulate conditions observed in chronic hyperglycemia. Methods: Cytotoxicity induced by cumene hydroperoxide (oxidative stress model) or glyoxal (carbonyl stress model) were measured and the protective effects of C. sativus were evaluated using freshly isolated rat hepatocytes. Results: Aqueous extract of C. sativus fruit (40 μg/mL) prevented all cytotoxicity markers in both the oxidative and carbonyl stress models including cell lysis, ROS formation, membrane lipid peroxidation, depletion of glutathione, mitochondrial membrane potential decline, lysosomal labialization, and proteolysis. The extract also protected hepatocytes from protein carbonylation induced by glyoxal. Our results indicated that C. sativus is able to prevent oxidative stress and carbonyl stress in the isolated hepatocytes. Conclusion: It can be concluded that C. sativus has protective effects in diabetes complications and can be considered a safe and suitable candidate for decreasing the oxidative stress and carbonyl stress that is typically observed in diabetes mellitus. PMID:27340622

  4. Protective mechanisms of Cucumis sativus in diabetes-related modelsof oxidative stress and carbonyl stress.

    PubMed

    Heidari, Himan; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Noubarani, Maryam; Rahmati, Mokhtar; Jafarian, Iman; Adiban, Hasan; Eskandari, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress and carbonyl stress have essential mediatory roles in the development of diabetes and its related complications through increasing free radicals production and impairing antioxidant defense systems. Different chemical and natural compounds have been suggested for decreasing such disorders associated with diabetes. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the protective effects of Cucumis sativus (C. sativus) fruit (cucumber) in oxidative and carbonyl stress models. These diabetes-related models with overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive carbonyl species (RCS) simulate conditions observed in chronic hyperglycemia. Cytotoxicity induced by cumene hydroperoxide (oxidative stress model) or glyoxal (carbonyl stress model) were measured and the protective effects of C. sativus were evaluated using freshly isolated rat hepatocytes. Aqueous extract of C. sativus fruit (40 μg/mL) prevented all cytotoxicity markers in both the oxidative and carbonyl stress models including cell lysis, ROS formation, membrane lipid peroxidation, depletion of glutathione, mitochondrial membrane potential decline, lysosomal labialization, and proteolysis. The extract also protected hepatocytes from protein carbonylation induced by glyoxal. Our results indicated that C. sativus is able to prevent oxidative stress and carbonyl stress in the isolated hepatocytes. It can be concluded that C. sativus has protective effects in diabetes complications and can be considered a safe and suitable candidate for decreasing the oxidative stress and carbonyl stress that is typically observed in diabetes mellitus.

  5. Oxidative stress in aspic vipers facing pregnancy and water constraints.

    PubMed

    Stier, Antoine; Dupoué, Andréaz; Picard, Damien; Angelier, Frédéric; Brischoux, François; Lourdais, Olivier

    2017-03-14

    The physiological mechanisms underlying the 'cost of reproduction' remain under debate, though oxidative stress has emerged as a potential candidate. The 'oxidative cost of reproduction' has received considerable attention with regards to food and antioxidant availability, however the limitation of water availability has thus far been neglected. In this study we experimentally examined the combined effect of pregnancy and water-deprivation on oxidative status in a viviparous snake (Vipera aspis), a species naturally exposed to periods of water and food deprivation. We predicted a cumulative effect of pregnancy and dehydration on oxidative stress levels. Our results support the occurrence of an oxidative cost of reproduction since we found higher oxidative damage levels in pregnant females than in non-reproductive individuals, despite an up-regulation of antioxidant defences. Surprisingly, water-deprivation was associated with an up-regulation of antioxidant defences, and did not increase oxidative damage, either alone or in combination with reproduction.

  6. Reduced resistance to oxidative stress during reproduction as a cost of early-life stress.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Cédric; Spencer, Karen A

    2015-05-01

    Stress exposure during early-life development can have long-term consequences for a variety of biological functions including oxidative stress. The link between early-life stress and oxidative balance is beginning to be explored and previous studies have focused on this link in adult non-breeding or immature individuals. However, as oxidative stress is considered as the main physiological mechanism underlying the trade-off between self-maintenance and investment in reproduction, it is necessary to look at the consequences of early-life stress on oxidative status during reproduction. Here, we investigated the effects of exposure to pre- and/or post-natal stress on oxidative balance during reproduction under benign or stressful environmental conditions in an avian model species, the Japanese quail. We determined total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS) and resistance to a free-radical attack in individual exposed to pre-natal stress, post-natal stress or both and in control individuals exposed to none of the stressors. TAS levels decreased over time in all females that reproduced under stressful conditions. TOS decreased between the beginning and the end of reproductive period in pre-natal control females. In all females, resistance to a free-radical attack decreased over the reproductive event but this decrease was more pronounced in females from a pre-natal stress development. Our results suggest that pre-natal stress may be associated with a higher cost of reproduction in terms of oxidative stress. These results also confirm that early-life stress can be associated with both benefits and costs depending of the life-history stage or environmental context.

  7. A comprehensive study of oxidative stress in sudden hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Gul, Fatih; Muderris, Togay; Yalciner, Gokhan; Sevil, Ergun; Bercin, Sami; Ergin, Merve; Babademez, Mehmet Ali; Kiris, Muzaffer

    2017-03-01

    Little is known about the association between idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSNHL) and oxidative stress. We investigated changes in a wide range of oxidants and antioxidants to create a comprehensive picture of oxidative imbalance. In the peripheral blood of 50 ISSNHL patients and 50 healthy subjects, total oxidant status (TOS), total antioxidant status (TAS), paraoxonase (PON), thiol/disulphide levels were measured. Moreover, a global oxidative stress index, reflecting both oxidative and antioxidant counterparts, was also calculated. One-way analysis between oxidative markers and severity of hearing loss were evaluated. The ISSNHL patients showed significantly higher TOS levels than controls (6.02 ± 3.17 vs. 4.5 ± 2.22; p = 0.018). The oxidative index was also significantly higher in patients than controls (0.39 ± 0.19 vs. 0.3 ± 0.14; p = 0.035). TAS, PON, native thiol, and total thiol were not altered. There was no statistical significance between oxidative markers and severity of hearing loss. The binary logistic regression model revealed that disulphide and TOS were associated with ISSNHL. There are alterations in a wide array of oxidants and antioxidants, with balance shifting toward increased oxidative stress in ISSNHL. Our findings may suggest endothelial dysfunction in ISSNHL etiopathogenesis.

  8. The relationship between oxidative stress and exercise.

    PubMed

    Finkler, Maya; Lichtenberg, Dov; Pinchuk, Ilya

    2014-02-01

    Physical exercise has many benefits, but it might also have a negative impact on the body, depending on the training level, length of workout, gender, age and fitness. The negative effects of physical exercise are commonly attributed to an imbalance between the levels of antioxidants (both low molecular weight antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes) and reactive oxygen and nitrogen species due to excessive production of free radicals during physical exercise. In this critical review, we look for answers for three specific questions regarding the interrelationship between physical exercise and oxidative stress (OS), namely, (i) the dependence of the steady-state level of OS on fitness, (ii) the effect of intensive exercise on the OS and (iii) the dependence of the effect of the intense exercise on the individual fitness. All these questions have been raised, investigated and answered, but the answers given on the basis of different studies are different. In the present review, we try to explain the reason(s) for the inconsistencies between the conclusions of different investigations, commonly based on the concentrations of specific biomarkers in body fluids. We think that most of the inconsistencies can be attributed to the difference between the criteria of the ill-defined term denoted OS, the methods used to test them and in some cases, between the qualities of the applied assays. On the basis of our interpretation of the differences between different criteria of OS, we consider possible answers to three well-defined questions. Possible partial answers are given, all of which lend strong support to the conclusion that the network responsible for homeostasis of the redox status is very effective. However, much more data are required to address the association between exercise and OS and its dependence on various relevant factors.

  9. Mechanical Ventilation-Induced Oxidative Stress in the Diaphragm

    PubMed Central

    Falk, Darin J.; Kavazis, Andreas N.; Whidden, Melissa A.; Smuder, Ashley J.; McClung, Joseph M.; Hudson, Matthew B.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Prolonged mechanical ventilation (MV) results in a rapid onset of diaphragmatic atrophy that is primarily due to increased proteolysis. Although MV-induced protease activation can involve several factors, it is clear that oxidative stress is a required signal for protease activation in the diaphragm during prolonged MV. However, the oxidant-producing pathways in the diaphragm that contribute to MV-induced oxidative stress remain unknown. We have demonstrated that prolonged MV results in increased diaphragmatic expression of a key stress-sensitive enzyme, heme oxygenase (HO)-1. Paradoxically, HO-1 can function as either a pro-oxidant or an antioxidant, and the role that HO-1 plays in MV-induced diaphragmatic oxidative stress is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that HO-1 acts as a pro-oxidant in the diaphragm during prolonged MV. Methods: To determine whether HO-1 functions as a pro-oxidant or an antioxidant in the diaphragm during MV, we assigned rats into three experimental groups: (1) a control group, (2) a group that received 18 h of MV and saline solution, and (3) a group that received 18 h of MV and was treated with a selective HO-1 inhibitor. Indices of oxidative stress, protease activation, and fiber atrophy were measured in the diaphragm. Results: Inhibition of HO-1 activity did not prevent or exacerbate MV-induced diaphragmatic oxidative stress (as indicated by biomarkers of oxidative damage). Further, inhibition of HO-1 activity did not influence MV-induced protease activation or myofiber atrophy in the diaphragm. Conclusions: Our results indicate that HO-1 is neither a pro-oxidant nor an antioxidant in the diaphragm during MV. Furthermore, our findings reveal that HO-1 does not play an important role in MV-induced protease activation and diaphragmatic atrophy. PMID:21106654

  10. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Oxidative Stress: A Vicious Nexus Implicated in Bowel Disease Pathophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Wai Chin; Shastri, Madhur D.; Eri, Rajaraman

    2017-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a complex protein folding and trafficking organelle. Alteration and discrepancy in the endoplasmic reticulum environment can affect the protein folding process and hence, can result in the production of misfolded proteins. The accumulation of misfolded proteins causes cellular damage and elicits endoplasmic reticulum stress. Under such stress conditions, cells exhibit reduced functional synthesis, and will undergo apoptosis if the stress is prolonged. To resolve the ER stress, cells trigger an intrinsic mechanism called an unfolded protein response (UPR). UPR is an adaptive signaling process that triggers multiple pathways through the endoplasmic reticulum transmembrane transducers, to reduce and remove misfolded proteins and improve the protein folding mechanism, in order to improve and maintain endoplasmic reticulum homeostasis. An increasing number of studies support the view that oxidative stress has a strong connection with ER stress. During the protein folding process, reactive oxygen species are produced as by-products, leading to impaired reduction-oxidation (redox) balance conferring oxidative stress. As the protein folding process is dependent on redox homeostasis, the oxidative stress can disrupt the protein folding mechanism and enhance the production of misfolded proteins, causing further ER stress. It is proposed that endoplasmic reticulum stress and oxidative stress together play significant roles in the pathophysiology of bowel diseases. PMID:28379196

  11. Futile cycling increases sensitivity toward oxidative stress in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Adolfsen, Kristin J.; Brynildsen, Mark P.

    2015-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are toxic molecules utilized by the immune system to combat invading pathogens. Recent evidence suggests that inefficiencies in ATP production or usage can lead to increased endogenous ROS production and sensitivity to oxidative stress in bacteria. With this as inspiration, and knowledge that ATP is required for a number of DNA repair mechanisms, we hypothesized that futile cycling would be an effective way to increase sensitivity to oxidative stress. We developed a mixed integer linear optimization framework to identify experimentally-tractable futile cycles, and confirmed metabolic modeling predictions that futile cycling depresses growth rate, and increases both O2 consumption and ROS production per biomass generated. Further, intracellular ATP was decreased and sensitivity to oxidative stress increased in all actively cycling strains compared to their catalytically inactive controls. This research establishes a fundamental connection between ATP metabolism, endogenous ROS production, and tolerance toward oxidative stress in bacteria. PMID:25732623

  12. [Obesity and oxidative stress: role of antioxidant supplementation].

    PubMed

    Valdecantos, María Pilar; Pérez-Matute, Patricia; Martínez, José Alfredo

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity has significantly increased during the last decades reaching epidemic proportions in many countries. Obesity has been described as a state of chronic oxidative stress. Furthermore, oxidative stress has been defined as the link between obesity and its major associated disorders such as insulin resistance, hypertension, etc. Because of this, recent studies have suggested the potential therapeutic role of dietary antioxidant supplementation in the reduction of body weight or its beneficial effect on several obesity related disorders. This review updates the data described during the last years (2002-2008) regarding the relationship between obesity and oxidative stress as well as the role of dietary antioxidant supplementation in the reduction of oxidative stress, obesity and its principal associated comorbidities. Despite the available data, here summarized, further studies are needed in order to deeply understand the molecular mechanisms involved in the beneficial effects of dietary antioxidants on obesity and associated disorders.

  13. Oxidative stress in juvenile chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welker, T.L.; Congleton, J.L.

    2004-01-01

    Juvenile chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), were held in 8-11??C freshwater, starved for 3 days and subjected to a low-water stressor to determine the relationship between the general stress response and oxidative stress. Lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels (lipid hydroperoxides) were measured in kidney, liver and brain samples taken at the beginning of the experiment (0-h unstressed controls) and at 6, 24 and 48 h after application of a continuous low-water stressor. Tissue samples were also taken at 48 h from fish that had not been exposed to the stressor (48-h unstressed controls). Exposure to the low-water stressor affected LPO in kidney and brain tissues. In kidney, LPO decreased 6 h after imposition of the stressor; similar but less pronounced decreases also occurred in the liver and brain. At 48 h, LPO increased (in comparison with 6-h stressed tissues) in the kidney and brain. In comparison with 48-h unstressed controls, LPO levels were higher in the kidney and brain of stressed fish. Although preliminary, results suggest that stress can cause oxidative tissue damage in juvenile chinook salmon. Measures of oxidative stress have shown similar responses to stress in mammals; however, further research is needed to determine the extent of the stress-oxidative stress relationship and the underlying physiological mechanisms in fish.

  14. Mitochondrial oxidant stress in locus coeruleus is regulated by activity and nitric oxide synthase

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez–Padilla, J.; Guzman, J.N.; Ilijic, E.; Kondapalli, J.; Galtieri, D.J.; Yang, B.; Schieber, S.; Oertel, W.; Wokosin, D.; Schumacker, P. T.; Surmeier, D. J.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Loss of noradrenergic locus coeruleus (LC) neurons is a prominent feature of aging–related neurodegenerative diseases, like Parkinson’s disease (PD). The basis of this vulnerability is not understood. To explore possible physiological determinants, LC neurons were studied using electrophysiological and optical approaches in ex vivo mouse brain slices. These studies revealed that autonomous activity in LC neurons was accompanied by oscillations in dendritic Ca2+ concentration attributable to opening of L–type Ca2+ channels. This oscillation elevated mitochondrial oxidant stress and was attenuated by inhibition of nitric oxide synthase. The relationship between activity and stress was malleable, as arousal and carbon dioxide, each increased the spike rate, but differentially affected mitochondrial oxidant stress. Oxidant stress also was increased in an animal model of PD. Thus, our results point to activity–dependent Ca2+ entry and a resulting mitochondrial oxidant stress as factors contributing to the vulnerability of LC neurons. PMID:24816140

  15. 99mTc-Labeled Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Dual-Contrast (T1/T2) Magnetic Resonance and Dual-Modality Imaging of Tumor Angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Xue, Sihan; Zhang, Chunfu; Yang, Yi; Zhang, Lu; Cheng, Dengfeng; Zhang, Jianping; Shi, Hongcheng; Zhang, Yingjian

    2015-06-01

    Multi functional probes possessing magnetic resonance imaging and single-photon emission computed tomography properties are favorable for the molecular imaging of cancers. In this study, ultra small super paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, about 3.5 nm in size, were synthesized by the polyol method. The particles were functionalized using c(RGDyC) peptides and labeled with 99mTc to prepare molecular imaging probes for detecting tumor angiogenesis. The probes demonstrated good T1 (r1 = 8.2 s(-1) mM(-1)) and reasonable T2 contrast effects (r2 = 20.1 s(-1) mM(-1)) and could specifically target avβ3-positive cells, inducing more cell ingestion, unlike that in case of the control probes [functionalized with scrambled c(RADyC) peptides]. After the probes were injected into the mice bearing H1299 lung tumors, T1/T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and single-photon emission computed tomography revealed that they addressed tumor angiogenic vessels, which were distributed mainly in the peripheral region of tumors. Biodistribution studies indicated that tumor accumulation of the probes was significant [13.8 ± 9.6%ID/g (p < 0.01), which is more than that of the control probes, 4.5 ± 1.9%ID/g], and could be inhibited by free RGD peptides (6.0 ± 2.8%ID/g, p < 0.01). Our study demonstrated that the dual-contrast (T1/T2) magnetic resonance and dual-modal imaging probe based on ultra small superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles is very promising for the molecular imaging of tumor angiogenesis.

  16. Introduction to Oxidative Stress in Biomedical and Biological Research

    PubMed Central

    Breitenbach, Michael; Eckl, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress is now a well-researched area with thousands of new articles appearing every year. We want to give the reader here an overview of the topics in biomedical and basic oxidative stress research which are covered by the authors of this thematic issue. We also want to give the newcomer a short introduction into some of the basic concepts, definitions and analytical procedures used in this field. PMID:26117854

  17. Oxidative Stress: A Master Regulator of Plant Trade-Offs?

    PubMed

    Morales, Melanie; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2016-12-01

    Trade-offs between growth, reproduction, and defence have been documented. Oxidative stress is one of the physiological mechanisms that underlie trade-offs at the cellular and organ levels. The diversity of plant life forms and the complexity of scaling up limit our knowledge of oxidative stress as a universal mediator of life-history trade-offs at the organism level. Joint efforts by plant physiologists and ecologists will undoubtedly provide novel insights into this topic in the near future.

  18. Emerging importance of oxidative stress in regulating striated muscle elasticity.

    PubMed

    Beckendorf, Lisa; Linke, Wolfgang A

    2015-02-01

    The contractile function of striated muscle cells is altered by oxidative/nitrosative stress, which can be observed under physiological conditions but also in diseases like heart failure or muscular dystrophy. Oxidative stress causes oxidative modifications of myofilament proteins and can impair myocyte contractility. Recent evidence also suggests an important effect of oxidative stress on muscle elasticity and passive stiffness via modifications of the giant protein titin. In this review we provide a short overview of known oxidative modifications in thin and thick filament proteins and then discuss in more detail those oxidative stress-related modifications altering titin stiffness directly or indirectly. Direct modifications of titin include reversible disulfide bonding within the cardiac-specific N2-Bus domain, which increases titin stiffness, and reversible S-glutathionylation of cryptic cysteines in immunoglobulin-like domains, which only takes place after the domains have unfolded and which reduces titin stiffness in cardiac and skeletal muscle. Indirect effects of oxidative stress on titin can occur via reversible modifications of protein kinase signalling pathways (especially the NO-cGMP-PKG axis), which alter the phosphorylation level of certain disordered titin domains and thereby modulate titin stiffness. Oxidative stress also activates proteases such as matrix-metalloproteinase-2 and (indirectly via increasing the intracellular calcium level) calpain-1, both of which cleave titin to irreversibly reduce titin-based stiffness. Although some of these mechanisms require confirmation in the in vivo setting, there is evidence that oxidative stress-related modifications of titin are relevant in the context of biomarker design and represent potential targets for therapeutic intervention in some forms of muscle and heart disease.

  19. The in vivo Gene Expression Signature of Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Han, Eun-Soo; Muller, Florian L.; Perez, Viviana; Qi, Wenbo; Liang, Huiyun; Xi, Liang; Fu, Chunxiao; Doyle, Erin; Hickey, Morgen; Cornell, John; Epstein, Charles J.; Roberts, L. Jackson; Van Remmen, Holly; Richardson, Arlan

    2008-01-01

    How higher organisms respond to elevated oxidative stress in vivo is poorly understood. Therefore, we measured oxidative stress parameters and gene expression alterations (Affymetrix arrays) in the liver caused by elevated reactive oxygen species induced in vivo by diquat or by genetic ablation of the major antioxidant enzymes, CuZn-Superoxide Dismutase (Sod1) and Glutathione Peroxidase-1 (Gpx1). Diquat (50 mg/kg) treatment resulted in a significant increase in oxidative damage within 3 to 6 hours in wild type mice without any lethality. In contrast, treating Sod1−/− or Gpx1−/− mice with a similar concentration of diquat resulted in a significant increase in oxidative damage within an hour of treatment and was lethal, i.e., these mice are extremely sensitive to the oxidative stress generated by diquat. The expression response to elevated oxidative stress in vivo does not involve an upregulation of classical antioxidant genes, though long-term oxidative stress in the Sod1−/− mice leads to a significant upregulation of thiol antioxidants (e.g., Mt1, Srxn1, Gclc, Txnrd1), which appears to be mediated by the redox-sensitive transcription factor, Nrf2. The main finding of our study is that the common response to elevated oxidative stress, with diquat treatment in wild type, Gpx1−/−, Sod1−/− mice and in untreated Sod1−/− mice, is an upregulation of p53 target genes (p21, Gdf15, Plk3, Atf3, Trp53inp1, Ddit4, Gadd45a, Btg2, Ndrg1). A retrospective comparison with previous studies shows that induction of these p53-target genes is a conserved expression response to oxidative stress, in vivo and in vitro, in different species and different cells/organs. PMID:18445702

  20. Association between heat stress and oxidative stress in poultry; mitochondrial dysfunction and dietary interventions with phytochemicals.

    PubMed

    Akbarian, Abdollah; Michiels, Joris; Degroote, Jeroen; Majdeddin, Maryam; Golian, Abolghasem; De Smet, Stefaan

    2016-01-01

    Heat as a stressor of poultry has been studied extensively for many decades; it affects poultry production on a worldwide basis and has significant impact on well-being and production. More recently, the involvement of heat stress in inducing oxidative stress has received much interest. Oxidative stress is defined as the presence of reactive species in excess of the available antioxidant capacity of animal cells. Reactive species can modify several biologically cellular macromolecules and can interfere with cell signaling pathways. Furthermore, during the last decade, there has been an ever-increasing interest in the use of a wide array of natural feed-delivered phytochemicals that have potential antioxidant properties for poultry. In light of this, the current review aims to (1) summarize the mechanisms through which heat stress triggers excessive superoxide radical production in the mitochondrion and progresses into oxidative stress, (2) illustrate that this pathophysiology is dependent on the intensity and duration of heat stress, (3) present different nutritional strategies for mitigation of mitochondrial dysfunction, with particular focus on antioxidant phytochemicals. Oxidative stress that occurs with heat exposure can be manifest in all parts of the body; however, mitochondrial dysfunction underlies oxidative stress. In the initial phase of acute heat stress, mitochondrial substrate oxidation and electron transport chain activity are increased resulting in excessive superoxide production. During the later stage of acute heat stress, down-regulation of avian uncoupling protein worsens the oxidative stress situation causing mitochondrial dysfunction and tissue damage. Typically, antioxidant enzyme activities are upregulated. Chronic heat stress, however, leads to downsizing of mitochondrial metabolic oxidative capacity, up-regulation of avian uncoupling protein, a clear alteration in the pattern of antioxidant enzyme activities, and depletion of antioxidant

  1. Prohibitin as an oxidative stress biomarker in the eye.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyunju; Arnouk, Hilal; Sripathi, Srinivas; Chen, Ping; Zhang, Ruonan; Bartoli, Manuela; Hunt, Richard C; Hrushesky, William J M; Chung, Hyewon; Lee, Sung Haeng; Jahng, Wan Jin

    2010-12-01

    Identification of biomarker proteins in the retina and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) under oxidative stress may imply new insights into signaling mechanisms of retinal degeneration at the molecular level. Proteomic data from an in vivo mice model in constant light and an in vitro oxidative stress model are compared to controls under normal conditions. Our proteomic study shows that prohibitin is involved in oxidative stress signaling in the retina and RPE. The identity of prohibitin in the retina and RPE was studied using 2D electrophoresis, immunohistochemistry, western blot, and mass spectrometry analysis. Comparison of expression levels with apoptotic markers as well as translocation between mitochondria and the nucleus imply that the regulation of prohibitin is an early signaling event in the RPE and retina under oxidative stress. Immunohistochemical analysis of murine aged and diabetic eyes further suggests that the regulation of prohibitin in the RPE/retina is related to aging- and diabetes-induced oxidative stress. Our proteomic approach implies that prohibitin in the RPE and the retina could be a new biomarker protein of oxidative stress in aging and diabetes.

  2. Nitrative and Oxidative Stress in Toxicology and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Ruth A.; Laskin, Debra L.; Smith, Charles V.; Robertson, Fredika M.; Allen, Erin M. G.; Doorn, Jonathan A.; Slikker, William

    2009-01-01

    Persistent inflammation and the generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species play pivotal roles in tissue injury during disease pathogenesis and as a reaction to toxicant exposures. The associated oxidative and nitrative stress promote diverse pathologic reactions including neurodegenerative disorders, atherosclerosis, chronic inflammation, cancer, and premature labor and stillbirth. These effects occur via sustained inflammation, cellular proliferation and cytotoxicity and via induction of a proangiogenic environment. For example, exposure to the ubiquitous air pollutant ozone leads to generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in lung macrophages that play a key role in subsequent tissue damage. Similarly, studies indicate that genes involved in regulating oxidative stress are altered by anesthetic treatment resulting in brain injury, most notable during development. In addition to a role in tissue injury in the brain, inflammation, and oxidative stress are implicated in Parkinson's disease, a neurodegenerative disease characterized by the loss of dopamine neurons. Recent data suggest a mechanistic link between oxidative stress and elevated levels of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde, a neurotoxin endogenous to dopamine neurons. These findings have significant implications for development of therapeutics and identification of novel biomarkers for Parkinson's disease pathogenesis. Oxidative and nitrative stress is also thought to play a role in creating the proinflammatory microenvironment associated with the aggressive phenotype of inflammatory breast cancer. An understanding of fundamental concepts of oxidative and nitrative stress can underpin a rational plan of treatment for diseases and toxicities associated with excessive production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. PMID:19656995

  3. Postprandial oxidative stress: influence of sex and exercise training status.

    PubMed

    Bloomer, Richard J; Ferebee, David E; Fisher-Wellman, Kelsey H; Quindry, John C; Schilling, Brian K

    2009-12-01

    An individual's sex and exercise training status may influence oxidative stress. No study has compared postprandial oxidative stress in exercise-trained and untrained men and women. To compare oxidative stress biomarkers and triglycerides (TAG) in 16 trained and 16 untrained men and women after ingestion of a high-fat meal. Blood samples were collected before, and at 1, 2, 4, and 6 h after intake of a high-fat meal and analyzed for Trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), malondialdehyde, hydrogen peroxide, xanthine oxidase activity, protein carbonyls (PC), and TAG. Area under the curve was calculated for each variable. Sex main effects were noted for all variables (P < 0.01), except for PC and TEAC (P > 0.05), with higher values for men compared with women. A training status main effect was noted for TEAC (P = 0.02), with higher values for trained compared with untrained subjects. No interaction effects were noted (P > 0.05). Regression analysis indicated that TAG explained the greatest degree of variability for oxidative stress variables, and premeal TAG best predicted the TAG response to feeding (R(2) = 0.50). With the exception of TEAC, for which higher values were noted for trained compared with untrained subjects, our findings indicate that sex, not exercise training status, influences postprandial oxidative stress. Specifically, women experience a significantly lower oxidative stress response to feeding compared with men. This seems mediated in part by the TAG response to feeding.

  4. Correlation between Oxidative Stress, Nutrition, and Cancer Initiation

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Subbroto Kumar; Lee, Soo Bin; Won, Jihye; Choi, Hye Yeon; Kim, Kyeongseok; Yang, Gwang-Mo; Abdal Dayem, Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    Inadequate or excessive nutrient consumption leads to oxidative stress, which may disrupt oxidative homeostasis, activate a cascade of molecular pathways, and alter the metabolic status of various tissues. Several foods and consumption patterns have been associated with various cancers and approximately 30–35% of the cancer cases are correlated with overnutrition or malnutrition. However, several contradictory studies are available regarding the association between diet and cancer risk, which remains to be elucidated. Concurrently, oxidative stress is a crucial factor for cancer progression and therapy. Nutritional oxidative stress may be induced by an imbalance between antioxidant defense and pro-oxidant load due to inadequate or excess nutrient supply. Oxidative stress is a physiological state where high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and free radicals are generated. Several signaling pathways associated with carcinogenesis can additionally control ROS generation and regulate ROS downstream mechanisms, which could have potential implications in anticancer research. Cancer initiation may be modulated by the nutrition-mediated elevation in ROS levels, which can stimulate cancer initiation by triggering DNA mutations, damage, and pro-oncogenic signaling. Therefore, in this review, we have provided an overview of the relationship between nutrition, oxidative stress, and cancer initiation, and evaluated the impact of nutrient-mediated regulation of antioxidant capability against cancer therapy. PMID:28714931

  5. ELECTROSTATIC CHARGE STIMULATES OXIDATIVE STRESS IN CNS MICROGLIA.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nanometer size particles carry free radical activity on their surface and can create oxidative stress (OS)-mediated inflammatory changes upon impact. The oxidative burst signals the activation of phage-lineage cells such as peripheral macrophages, Kupffer cells and CNS microgl...

  6. ELECTROSTATIC CHARGE STIMULATES OXIDATIVE STRESS IN CNS MICROGLIA.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nanometer size particles carry free radical activity on their surface and can create oxidative stress (OS)-mediated inflammatory changes upon impact. The oxidative burst signals the activation of phage-lineage cells such as peripheral macrophages, Kupffer cells and CNS microgl...

  7. The role of oxidative stress in corneal diseases and injuries.

    PubMed

    Čejková, Jitka; Čejka, Čestmír

    2015-08-01

    In various corneal injuries (such as chemical burns or irradiation of corneas with UVB radiation) and ocular diseases (e.g. dry eye disease, keratokonus, bullous keratopathy, Fuchs' endothelial dystrophy), the expressions of malondialdehyde (a marker of lipid peroxidation) and nitrotyrosine (a marker of oxidative stress) appeared in cells of individual corneal layers and conjunctival cells (dry eye disease). This is in contrast to healthy corneas in which negligible levels of malondialdehyde and no expressions of nitrotyrosine are present. The injured or diseased corneas reveal decreased capacity of antioxidants (enzymatic as well as non-enzymatic), whereas the levels of pro-oxidants (e.g. oxidases that generate reactive oxygen species) remain at physiological levels or even increase, leading to the antioxidant/prooxidant imbalance and oxidative stress. Oxidative stress in the cornea stimulates generation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, proteolytic enzymes and enzymes that generate nitric oxide (nitric oxide synthases). An abundant amout of reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide lead to the formation of toxic reactive products contributing to tissue damage. This review aims to summarize immunohistochemical changes in severe corneal injuries and diseases in which oxidative stress has been proved.

  8. CONCENTRATED AMBIENT AIR POLLUTION CREATES OXIDATIVE STRESS IN CNS MICROGLIA.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nanometer size particles carry free radical activity on their surface and can produce oxidative stress (OS)-mediated damage upon impact to target cells. The initiating event of phage cell activation (i.e., the oxidative burst) is unknown, although many proximal events have been i...

  9. Infrared Dielectric Properties of Low-Stress Silicon Oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cataldo, Giuseppe; Wollack, Edward J.; Brown, Ari D.; Miller, Kevin H.

    2016-01-01

    Silicon oxide thin films play an important role in the realization of optical coatings and high-performance electrical circuits. Estimates of the dielectric function in the far- and mid-infrared regime are derived from the observed transmittance spectrum for a commonly employed low-stress silicon oxide formulation. The experimental, modeling, and numerical methods used to extract the dielectric function are presented.

  10. Infrared Dielectric Properties of Low-Stress Silicon Oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cataldo, Giuseppe; Wollack, Edward J.; Brown, Ari D.; Miller, Kevin H.

    2016-01-01

    Silicon oxide thin films play an important role in the realization of optical coatings and high-performance electrical circuits. Estimates of the dielectric function in the far- and mid-infrared regime are derived from the observed transmittance spectrum for a commonly employed low-stress silicon oxide formulation. The experimental, modeling, and numerical methods used to extract the dielectric function are presented.

  11. CONCENTRATED AMBIENT AIR POLLUTION CREATES OXIDATIVE STRESS IN CNS MICROGLIA.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nanometer size particles carry free radical activity on their surface and can produce oxidative stress (OS)-mediated damage upon impact to target cells. The initiating event of phage cell activation (i.e., the oxidative burst) is unknown, although many proximal events have been i...

  12. Transcriptomic analysis of the hepatic response to stress in the red cusk-eel (Genypterus chilensis): Insights into lipid metabolism, oxidative stress and liver steatosis

    PubMed Central

    Aedo, Jorge E.; Zuloaga, Rodrigo; Maldonado, Jonathan; Bastias-Molina, Macarena; Silva, Herman; Meneses, Claudio; Gallardo-Escarate, Cristian; Molina, Alfredo

    2017-01-01

    Teleosts exhibit a broad divergence in their adaptive response to stress, depending on the magnitude, duration, and frequency of stressors and the species receiving the stimulus. We have previously reported that the red cusk-eel (Genypterus chilensis), an important marine farmed fish, shows a physiological response to stress that results in increased skeletal muscle atrophy mediated by over-expression of components of the ubiquitin proteasome and autophagy-lysosomal systems. To better understand the systemic effects of stress on the red cusk-eel metabolism, the present study assessed the transcriptomic hepatic response to repetitive handling-stress. Using high-throughput RNA-seq, 259 up-regulated transcripts were found, mostly associated with angiogenesis, gluconeogenesis, and triacylglyceride catabolism. Conversely, 293 transcripts were down-regulated, associated to cholesterol biosynthesis, PPARα signaling, fatty acid biosynthesis, and glycolysis. This gene signature was concordant with hepatic metabolite levels and hepatic oxidative damage. Moreover, the increased plasmatic levels of AST (aspartate aminotransferase), ALT (alanine aminotransferase) and AP (alkaline phosphatase), as well as liver histology suggest stress-induced liver steatosis. This study offers an integrative molecular and biochemical analysis of the hepatic response to handling-stress, and reveals unknown aspects of lipid metabolism in a non-model teleost. PMID:28448552

  13. Transcriptomic analysis of the hepatic response to stress in the red cusk-eel (Genypterus chilensis): Insights into lipid metabolism, oxidative stress and liver steatosis.

    PubMed

    Naour, Sebastian; Espinoza, Brisa M; Aedo, Jorge E; Zuloaga, Rodrigo; Maldonado, Jonathan; Bastias-Molina, Macarena; Silva, Herman; Meneses, Claudio; Gallardo-Escarate, Cristian; Molina, Alfredo; Valdés, Juan Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Teleosts exhibit a broad divergence in their adaptive response to stress, depending on the magnitude, duration, and frequency of stressors and the species receiving the stimulus. We have previously reported that the red cusk-eel (Genypterus chilensis), an important marine farmed fish, shows a physiological response to stress that results in increased skeletal muscle atrophy mediated by over-expression of components of the ubiquitin proteasome and autophagy-lysosomal systems. To better understand the systemic effects of stress on the red cusk-eel metabolism, the present study assessed the transcriptomic hepatic response to repetitive handling-stress. Using high-throughput RNA-seq, 259 up-regulated transcripts were found, mostly associated with angiogenesis, gluconeogenesis, and triacylglyceride catabolism. Conversely, 293 transcripts were down-regulated, associated to cholesterol biosynthesis, PPARα signaling, fatty acid biosynthesis, and glycolysis. This gene signature was concordant with hepatic metabolite levels and hepatic oxidative damage. Moreover, the increased plasmatic levels of AST (aspartate aminotransferase), ALT (alanine aminotransferase) and AP (alkaline phosphatase), as well as liver histology suggest stress-induced liver steatosis. This study offers an integrative molecular and biochemical analysis of the hepatic response to handling-stress, and reveals unknown aspects of lipid metabolism in a non-model teleost.

  14. Bridges between mitochondrial oxidative stress, ER stress and mTOR signaling in pancreatic β cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Yang, Xin; Zhang, Jingjing

    2016-08-01

    Pancreatic β cell dysfunction, i.e., failure to provide insulin in concentrations sufficient to control blood sugar, is central to the etiology of all types of diabetes. Current evidence implicates mitochondrial oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in pancreatic β cell loss and impaired insulin secretion. Oxidative and ER stress are interconnected so that misfolded proteins induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) production; likewise, oxidative stress disturbs the ER redox state thereby disrupting correct disulfide bond formation and proper protein folding. mTOR signaling regulates many metabolic processes including protein synthesis, cell growth, survival and proliferation. Oxidative stress inhibits mTORC1, which is considered an important suppressor of mitochondrial oxidative stress in β cells, and ultimately, controls cell survival. The interplay between ER stress and mTORC1 is complicated, since the unfolded protein response (UPR) activation can occur upstream or downstream of mTORC1. Persistent activation of mTORC1 initiates protein synthesis and UPR activation, while in the later phase induces ER stress. Chronic activation of ER stress inhibits Akt/mTORC1 pathway, while under particular settings, acute activation of UPR activates Akt-mTOR signaling. Thus, modulating mitochondrial oxidative stress and ER stress via mTOR signaling may be an approach that will effectively suppress obesity- or glucolipotoxicity-induced metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In this review, we focus on the regulations between mTOR signaling and mitochondrial oxidative or ER stress in pancreatic β cells.

  15. Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, and Neuroprogression in Chronic PTSD.

    PubMed

    Miller, Mark W; Lin, Alex P; Wolf, Erika J; Miller, Danielle R

    2017-10-09

    Posttraumatic stress disorder is a serious and often disabling syndrome that develops in response to a traumatic event. Many individuals who initially develop the disorder go on to experience a chronic form of the condition that in some cases can last for many years. Among these patients, psychiatric and medical comorbidities are common, including early onset of age-related conditions such as chronic pain, cardiometabolic disease, neurocognitive disorders, and dementia. The hallmark symptoms of posttraumatic stress-recurrent sensory-memory reexperiencing of the trauma(s)-are associated with concomitant activations of threat- and stress-related neurobiological pathways that occur against a tonic backdrop of sleep disturbance and heightened physiological arousal. Emerging evidence suggests that the molecular consequences of this stress-perpetuating syndrome include elevated systemic levels of oxidative stress and inflammation. In this article we review evidence for the involvement of oxidative stress and inflammation in chronic PTSD and the neurobiological consequences of these processes, including accelerated cellular aging and neuroprogression. Our aim is to update and expand upon previous reviews of this rapidly developing literature and to discuss magnetic resonance spectroscopy as an imaging technology uniquely suited to measuring oxidative stress and inflammatory markers in vivo. Finally, we highlight future directions for research and avenues for the development of novel therapeutics targeting oxidative stress and inflammation in patients with PTSD.

  16. Influence of endodontic treatment on systemic oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Inchingolo, Francesco; Marrelli, Massimo; Annibali, Susanna; Cristalli, Maria Paola; Dipalma, Gianna; Inchingolo, Alessio Danilo; Palladino, Antonio; Inchingolo, Angelo Michele; Gargari, Marco; Tatullo, Marco

    2014-01-01

    An increased production of oxidizing species related to reactive oral diseases, such as chronic apical periodontitis, could have systemic implications such as an increase in cardiovascular morbidity. Based on this consideration, we conducted a prospective study to assess whether subjects affected by chronic periodontitis presented with higher values of oxidative stress than reference values before endodontic treatment, and whether endodontic treatment can reduce the oxidative imbalance and bring it back to normal in these subjects. The authors recruited 2 groups of patients from private studies and dental clinics: these patients were recruited randomly. The oxidative balance in both patients with chronic apical periodontitis (CAP) and healthy control patients was determined by measuring the oxidant status, using an identification of the reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs) test, while the antioxidant status in these patients was determined using a biological antioxidant potential (BAP) test. Both these tests were carried on plasma samples taken from enrolled patients. Values were measured both before the endodontic treatment of the patients with chronic apical periodontitis, and 30 and 90 days after treatment, and compared to those obtained from healthy control patients. It was found that, on recruitment, the patients with chronic apical periodontitis exhibited significantly higher levels of oxidative stress than control patients, as determined by the d-ROMs and BAP tests. Furthermore, the d-ROMs test values were shown to decrease and the BAP test values to increase over time in patients with chronic apical periodontitis following endodontic therapy. As the levels of oxidative stress in these patients tended to reduce and return to normal by 90 days following treatment. This study has demonstrated a positive association between chronic apical periodontitis and oxidative stress. Subjects affected by chronic apical periodontitis are exposed to a condition of

  17. Oxidative stress in β-thalassaemia and sickle cell disease

    PubMed Central

    Voskou, S.; Aslan, M.; Fanis, P.; Phylactides, M.; Kleanthous, M.

    2015-01-01

    Sickle cell disease and β-thalassaemia are inherited haemoglobinopathies resulting in structural and quantitative changes in the β-globin chain. These changes lead to instability of the generated haemoglobin or to globin chain imbalance, which in turn impact the oxidative environment both intracellularly and extracellularly. The ensuing oxidative stress and the inability of the body to adequately overcome it are, to a large extent, responsible for the pathophysiology of these diseases. This article provides an overview of the main players and control mechanisms involved in the establishment of oxidative stress in these haemoglobinopathies. PMID:26285072

  18. Salivary markers of oxidative stress in oral diseases

    PubMed Central

    Tóthová, L'ubomíra; Kamodyová, Natália; Červenka, Tomáš; Celec, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Saliva is an interesting alternative diagnostic body fluid with several specific advantages over blood. These include non-invasive and easy collection and related possibility to do repeated sampling. One of the obstacles that hinders the wider use of saliva for diagnosis and monitoring of systemic diseases is its composition, which is affected by local oral status. However, this issue makes saliva very interesting for clinical biochemistry of oral diseases. Periodontitis, caries, oral precancerosis, and other local oral pathologies are associated with oxidative stress. Several markers of lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and DNA damage induced by reactive oxygen species can be measured in saliva. Clinical studies have shown an association with oral pathologies at least for some of the established salivary markers of oxidative stress. This association is currently limited to the population level and none of the widely used markers can be applied for individual diagnostics. Oxidative stress seems to be of local oral origin, but it is currently unclear whether it is caused by an overproduction of reactive oxygen species due to inflammation or by the lack of antioxidants. Interventional studies, both, in experimental animals as well as humans indicate that antioxidant treatment could prevent or slow-down the progress of periodontitis. This makes the potential clinical use of salivary markers of oxidative stress even more attractive. This review summarizes basic information on the most commonly used salivary markers of oxidative damage, antioxidant status, and carbonyl stress and the studies analyzing these markers in patients with caries or periodontitis. PMID:26539412

  19. Oxidative stress and autophagy: Crucial modulators of kidney injury

    PubMed Central

    Sureshbabu, Angara; Ryter, Stefan W.; Choi, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    Both acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) that lead to diminished kidney function are interdependent risk factors for increased mortality. If untreated over time, end stage renal disease (ESRD) is an inevitable outcome. Acute and chronic kidney diseases occur partly due to imbalance between the molecular mechanisms that govern oxidative stress, inflammation, autophagy and cell death. Oxidative stress refers to the cumulative effects of highly reactive oxidizing molecules that cause cellular damage. Autophagy removes damaged organelles, protein aggregates and pathogens by recruiting these substrates into double membrane vesicles called autophagosomes which subsequently fuse with lysosomes. Mounting evidence suggests that both oxidative stress and autophagy are significantly involved in kidney health and disease. However, very little is known about the signaling processes that link them. This review is focused on understanding the role of oxidative stress and autophagy in kidney diseases. In this review, we also discuss the potential relationships between oxidative stress and autophagy that may enable the development of better therapeutic intervention to halt the progression of kidney disease and promote its repair and resolution. PMID:25613291

  20. [Oxidative stress and fertility: false evidence and bad recipes].

    PubMed

    Ménézo, Y; Entezami, F; Lichtblau, I; Cohen, M; Belloc, S; Brack, M

    2012-12-01

    Worldwide statistics agree that at least one out of six couples has fertility problems. If the male gamete is the origin of this problem, it is generally admitted that the oxidative stress is involved. Modern life has obviously increased fertility problems through pesticides, xenoestrogenes, endocrine disrupting chemicals involved in plastic technology such as polychlorinated bisphenyls, bisphenol A, phthalates and alkylphenols… and other cosmetic additives. An important part of these compounds increases oxidative stress, at least in part. Oxidative stress is more than probably at the origin or recurrent increasing pathologies such as endometriosis. If the oocyte is theoretically able to repair oxidative stress linked decays such as DNA fragmentation and oxidation of bases, its capacity is finite and decreasing with age. In order to decrease DNA repair charge, reducing or even avoiding the generation of DNA damages related to reactive oxygen species through consumption of antioxidants compounds is often tempting: however Reasons will be provided to break from current treatments given haphazardly in the population in the age of reproduction, as well as the potential risks of over-exposure. Furthermore recommended treatments, in relation with the new concepts in oxidative stress, will be specified.

  1. OXIDATIVE STRESS 3 Is a Chromatin-Associated Factor Involved in Tolerance to Heavy Metals and Oxidative Stress

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A cDNA expression library from Brassica juncea was introduced into the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe to select for transformants tolerant to cadmium. Transformants expressing OXIDATIVE STRESS 3 (OXS3) or OXS3-Like cDNA exhibited enhanced tolerance to a range of metals and oxidizing chemica...

  2. Markers of Oxidative Stress and Neuroprogression in Depression Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Vaváková, Magdaléna; Trebatická, Jana

    2015-01-01

    Major depression is multifactorial disorder with high prevalence and alarming prognostic in the nearest 15 years. Several mechanisms of depression are known. Neurotransmitters imbalance and imbalance between neuroprogressive and neuroprotective factors are observed in major depression. Depression is accompanied by inflammatory responses of the organism and consequent elevation of proinflammatory cytokines and increased lipid peroxidation are described in literature. Neuropsychiatric disorders including major depression are also associated with telomerase shortening, oxidative changes in nucleotides, and polymorphisms in several genes connected to metabolism of reactive oxygen species. Mitochondrion dysfunction is directly associated with increasing levels of oxidative stress. Oxidative stress plays significant role in pathophysiology of major depression via actions of free radicals, nonradical molecules, and reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Products of oxidative stress represent important parameters for measuring and predicting of depression status as well as for determining effectiveness of administrated antidepressants. Positive effect of micronutrients, vitamins, and antioxidants in depression treatment is also reviewed. PMID:26078821

  3. Oxidative stress, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Tangvarasittichai, Surapon

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress is increased in metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and this appears to underlie the development of cardiovascular disease, T2DM and diabetic complications. Increased oxidative stress appears to be a deleterious factor leading to insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, β-cell dysfunction, impaired glucose tolerance and ultimately leading to T2DM. Chronic oxidative stress, hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia are particularly dangerous for β-cells from lowest levels of antioxidant, have high oxidative energy requirements, decrease the gene expression of key β-cell genes and induce cell death. If β-cell functioning is impaired, it results in an under production of insulin, impairs glucose stimulated insulin secretion, fasting hyperglycemia and eventually the development of T2DM. PMID:25897356

  4. Markers of Oxidative Stress and Neuroprogression in Depression Disorder.

    PubMed

    Vaváková, Magdaléna; Ďuračková, Zdeňka; Trebatická, Jana

    2015-01-01

    Major depression is multifactorial disorder with high prevalence and alarming prognostic in the nearest 15 years. Several mechanisms of depression are known. Neurotransmitters imbalance and imbalance between neuroprogressive and neuroprotective factors are observed in major depression. Depression is accompanied by inflammatory responses of the organism and consequent elevation of proinflammatory cytokines and increased lipid peroxidation are described in literature. Neuropsychiatric disorders including major depression are also associated with telomerase shortening, oxidative changes in nucleotides, and polymorphisms in several genes connected to metabolism of reactive oxygen species. Mitochondrion dysfunction is directly associated with increasing levels of oxidative stress. Oxidative stress plays significant role in pathophysiology of major depression via actions of free radicals, nonradical molecules, and reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Products of oxidative stress represent important parameters for measuring and predicting of depression status as well as for determining effectiveness of administrated antidepressants. Positive effect of micronutrients, vitamins, and antioxidants in depression treatment is also reviewed.

  5. Oxidative stress in Alzheimer disease: a possibility for prevention.

    PubMed

    Bonda, David J; Wang, Xinglong; Perry, George; Nunomura, Akihiko; Tabaton, Massimo; Zhu, Xiongwei; Smith, Mark A

    2010-01-01

    Oxidative stress is at the forefront of Alzheimer disease (AD) research. While its implications in the characteristic neurodegeneration of AD are vast, the most important aspect is that it seems increasingly apparent that oxidative stress is in fact a primary progenitor of the disease, and not merely an epiphenomenon. Moreover, evidence indicates that a long "dormant period" of gradual oxidative damage accumulation precedes and actually leads to the seemingly sudden appearance of clinical and pathological AD symptoms, including amyloid-beta deposition, neurofibrillary tangle formation, metabolic dysfunction, and cognitive decline. These findings provide important insights into the development of potential treatment regimens and even allude to the possibility of a preventative cure. In this review, we elaborate on the dynamic role of oxidative stress in AD and present corresponding treatment strategies that are currently under investigation. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Statins lower calcium-induced oxidative stress in isolated mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Parihar, A; Parihar, M S; Zenebe, W J; Ghafourifar, P

    2012-04-01

    Statins are widely used cholesterol-lowering agents that exert cholesterol-independent effects including antioxidative. The present study delineates the effects of statins, atorvastatin, and simvastatin on oxidative stress and functions of mitochondria that are the primary cellular sources of oxidative stress. In isolated rat liver mitochondria, both the statins prevented calcium-induced cytochrome c release, lipid peroxidation, and opening of the mitochondrial membrane permeability transition (MPT). Both the statins decreased the activity of mitochondrial nitric oxide synthase (mtNOS), lowered the intramitochondrial ionized calcium, and increased the mitochondrial transmembrane potential. Our findings suggest that statins lower intramitochondrial ionized calcium that decreases mtNOS activity, lowers oxidative stress, prevents MPT opening, and prevents the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria. These results provide a novel framework for understanding the antioxidative properties of statins and their effects on mitochondrial functions.

  7. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction-linked neurodegenerative disorders.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Torequl

    2017-01-01

    Reactive species play an important role in physiological functions. Overproduction of reactive species, notably reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen (RNS) species along with the failure of balance by the body's antioxidant enzyme systems results in destruction of cellular structures, lipids, proteins, and genetic materials such as DNA and RNA. Moreover, the effects of reactive species on mitochondria and their metabolic processes eventually cause a rise in ROS/RNS levels, leading to oxidation of mitochondrial proteins, lipids, and DNA. Oxidative stress has been considered to be linked to the etiology of many diseases, including neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs) such as Alzheimer diseases, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Friedreich's ataxia, Huntington's disease, Multiple sclerosis, and Parkinson's diseases. In addition, oxidative stress causing protein misfold may turn to other NDDs include Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy, Kuru, Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker syndrome, and Fatal Familial Insomnia. An overview of the oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction-linked NDDs has been summarized in this review.

  8. Morphine as a Potential Oxidative Stress-Causing Agent.

    PubMed

    Skrabalova, Jitka; Drastichova, Zdenka; Novotny, Jiri

    2013-11-01

    Morphine exhibits important pharmacological effects for which it has been used in medical practice for quite a long time. However, it has a high addictive potential and can be abused. Long-term use of this drug can be connected with some pathological consequences including neurotoxicity and neuronal dysfunction, hepatotoxicity, kidney dysfunction, oxidative stress and apoptosis. Therefore, most studies examining the impact of morphine have been aimed at determining the effects induced by chronic morphine exposure in the brain, liver, cardiovascular system and macrophages. It appears that different tissues may respond to morphine diversely and are distinctly susceptible to oxidative stress and subsequent oxidative damage of biomolecules. Importantly, production of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species induced by morphine, which have been observed under different experimental conditions, can contribute to some pathological processes, degenerative diseases and organ dysfunctions occurring in morphine abusers or morphine-treated patients. This review attempts to provide insights into the possible relationship between morphine actions and oxidative stress.

  9. alpha-Lipoic acid and ascorbate prevent LDL oxidation and oxidant stress in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Sabharwal, Anup K; May, James M

    2008-02-01

    Both alpha-lipoic acid (LA) and ascorbic acid (vitamin C) have been shown to improve endothelial dysfunction, a precursor of atherosclerosis. Since oxidant stress can cause endothelial dysfunction, we tested the interaction and efficacy of these antioxidants in preventing oxidant damage to lipids due to both intra- and extracellular oxidant stresses in EA.hy926 endothelial cells. LA spared intracellular ascorbate in culture and in response to an intracellular oxidant stress induced by the redox cycling agent menadione. Extracellular oxidant stress generated by incubating cells for 2 h in with 0.2 mg/ml LDL and 5 muM Cu2+ caused a time-dependent increase of the lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde in both cells and LDL, preceded by rapid disappearance of; alpha-tocopherol in LDL. alpha-Lipoic acid at concentrations of 40-80 microM blunted these effects. Similarly, intracellular ascorbate concentrations of 1-2 mM also prevented Cu2+-induced lipid peroxidation in LDL and cells. Cu2+-dependent oxidation of LDL in the presence of ascorbate-loaded cells decreased intracellular ascorbate by 20%, but this decrease was not reversed by LA. Both LA and ascorbate protect endothelial cells and LDL from either intra- or extracellular oxidant stress, but that LA does not spare ascorbate in oxidatively stressed cells.

  10. Stressed Oxidation of C/SiC Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halbig, Michael C.; Brewer, David N.; Eckel, Andrew J.; Cawley, James D.

    1997-01-01

    Constant load, stressed oxidation testing was performed on T-300 C/SiC composites with a SiC seal coat. Test conditions included temperatures ranging from 350 C to 1500 C at stresses of 69 MPa and 172 MPa (10 and 25 ksi). The coupon subjected to stressed oxidation at 550 C/69 MPa for 25 hours had a room temperature residual strength one-half that of the as-received coupons. The coupon tested at the higher stress and all coupons tested at higher temperatures failed in less than 25 hr. Microstructural analysis of the fracture surfaces, using SEM (scanning electron microscopy), revealed the formation of reduced cross-sectional fibers with pointed tips. Analysis of composite cross-sections show pathways for oxygen ingress. The discussion will focus on fiber/matrix interphase oxidation and debonding as well as the formation and implications of the fiber tip morphology.

  11. Oxidative stress as a crucial factor in liver diseases

    PubMed Central

    Cichoż-Lach, Halina; Michalak, Agata

    2014-01-01

    Redox state constitutes an important background of numerous liver disorders. The redox state participates in the course of inflammatory, metabolic and proliferative liver diseases. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are primarily produced in the mitochondria and in the endoplasmic reticulum of hepatocytes via the cytochrome P450 enzymes. Under the proper conditions, cells are equipped with special molecular strategies that control the level of oxidative stress and maintain a balance between oxidant and antioxidant particles. Oxidative stress represents an imbalance between oxidant and antioxidant agents. Hepatocytic proteins, lipids and DNA are among the cellular structures that are primarily affected by ROS and reactive nitrogen species. The process results in structural and functional abnormalities in the liver. Thus, the phenomenon of oxidative stress should be investigated for several reasons. First, it may explain the pathogenesis of various liver disorders. Moreover, monitoring oxidative markers among hepatocytes offers the potential to diagnose the degree of liver damage and ultimately to observe the response to pharmacological therapies. The present report focuses on the role of oxidative stress in selected liver diseases. PMID:25009380

  12. Oxidative stress decreases with elevation in the lizard Psammodromus algirus.

    PubMed

    Reguera, Senda; Zamora-Camacho, Francisco J; Trenzado, Cristina E; Sanz, Ana; Moreno-Rueda, Gregorio

    2014-06-01

    Oxidative stress is considered one of the main ecological and evolutionary forces. Several environmental stressors vary geographically and thus organisms inhabiting different sites face different oxidant environments. Nevertheless, there is scarce information about how oxidative damage and antioxidant defences vary geographically in animals. Here we study how oxidative stress varies from lowlands (300-700 m asl) to highlands (2200-2500 m asl) in the lizard Psammodromus algirus. To accomplish this, antioxidant enzymatic activity (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione transferase, DT-diaphorase) and lipid peroxidation were assayed in tissue samples from the lizards' tail. Lipid peroxidation was higher in individuals from lowlands than from highlands, indicating higher oxidative stress in lowland lizards. These results suggest that environmental conditions are less oxidant at high elevations with respect to low ones. Therefore, our study shows that oxidative stress varies geographically, which should have important consequences for our understanding of geographic variation in physiology and life-history of organisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Oxidative stress contributes to autophagy induction in response to endoplasmic reticulum stress in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Martín, Marta; Pérez-Pérez, María Esther; Lemaire, Stéphane D; Crespo, José L

    2014-10-01

    The accumulation of unfolded/misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) results in the activation of stress responses, such as the unfolded protein response or the catabolic process of autophagy to ultimately recover cellular homeostasis. ER stress also promotes the production of reactive oxygen species, which play an important role in autophagy regulation. However, it remains unknown whether reactive oxygen species are involved in ER stress-induced autophagy. In this study, we provide evidence connecting redox imbalance caused by ER stress and autophagy activation in the model unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Treatment of C. reinhardtii cells with the ER stressors tunicamycin or dithiothreitol resulted in up-regulation of the expression of genes encoding ER resident endoplasmic reticulum oxidoreductin1 oxidoreductase and protein disulfide isomerases. ER stress also triggered autophagy in C. reinhardtii based on the protein abundance, lipidation, cellular distribution, and mRNA levels of the autophagy marker ATG8. Moreover, increases in the oxidation of the glutathione pool and the expression of oxidative stress-related genes were detected in tunicamycin-treated cells. Our results revealed that the antioxidant glutathione partially suppressed ER stress-induced autophagy and decreased the toxicity of tunicamycin, suggesting that oxidative stress participates in the control of autophagy in response to ER stress in C. reinhardtii In close agreement, we also found that autophagy activation by tunicamycin was more pronounced in the C. reinhardtii sor1 mutant, which shows increased expression of oxidative stress-related genes.

  14. Perinatal Oxidative Stress May Affect Fetal Ghrelin Levels in Humans.

    PubMed

    Luo, Zhong-Cheng; Bilodeau, Jean-François; Nuyt, Anne Monique; Fraser, William D; Julien, Pierre; Audibert, Francois; Xiao, Lin; Garofalo, Carole; Levy, Emile

    2015-12-08

    In vitro cell model studies have shown that oxidative stress may affect beta-cell function. It is unknown whether oxidative stress may affect metabolic health in human fetuses/newborns. In a singleton pregnancy cohort (n = 248), we studied maternal (24-28 weeks gestation) and cord plasma biomarkers of oxidative stress [malondialdehyde (MDA), F2-isoprostanes] in relation to fetal metabolic health biomarkers including cord plasma glucose-to-insulin ratio (an indicator of insulin sensitivity), proinsulin-to-insulin ratio (an indicator of beta-cell function), insulin, IGF-I, IGF-II, leptin, adiponectin and ghrelin concentrations. Strong positive correlations were observed between maternal and cord plasma biomarkers of oxidative stress (r = 0.33 for MDA, r = 0.74 for total F2-isoprostanes, all p < 0.0001). Adjusting for gestational age at blood sampling, cord plasma ghrelin concentrations were consistently negatively correlated to oxidative stress biomarkers in maternal (r = -0.32, p < 0.0001 for MDA; r = -0.31, p < 0.0001 for F2-isoprostanes) or cord plasma (r = -0.13, p = 0.04 for MDA; r = -0.32, p < 0.0001 for F2-isoprostanes). Other fetal metabolic health biomarkers were not correlated to oxidative stress. Adjusting for maternal and pregnancy characteristics, similar associations were observed. Our study provides the first preliminary evidence suggesting that oxidative stress may affect fetal ghrelin levels in humans. The implications in developmental "programming" the vulnerability to metabolic syndrome related disorders remain to be elucidated.

  15. Contaminant-induced oxidative stress in fish: a mechanistic approach.

    PubMed

    Lushchak, Volodymyr I

    2016-04-01

    The presence of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in living organisms was described more than 60 years ago and virtually immediately it was suggested that ROS were involved in various pathological processes and aging. The state when ROS generation exceeds elimination leading to an increased steady-state ROS level has been called "oxidative stress." Although ROS association with many pathological states in animals is well established, the question of ROS responsibility for the development of these states is still open. Fish represent the largest group of vertebrates and they inhabit a broad range of ecosystems where they are subjected to many different aquatic contaminants. In many cases, the deleterious effects of contaminants have been connected to induction of oxidative stress. Therefore, deciphering of molecular mechanisms leading to such contaminant effects and organisms' response may let prevent or minimize deleterious impacts of oxidative stress. This review describes general aspects of ROS homeostasis, in particular highlighting its basic aspects, modification of cellular constituents, operation of defense systems and ROS-based signaling with an emphasis on fish systems. A brief introduction to oxidative stress theory is accompanied by the description of a recently developed classification system for oxidative stress based on its intensity and time course. Specific information on contaminant-induced oxidative stress in fish is covered in sections devoted to such pollutants as metal ions (particularly iron, copper, chromium, mercury, arsenic, nickel, etc.), pesticides (insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides) and oil with accompanying pollutants. In the last section, certain problems and perspectives in studies of oxidative stress in fish are described.

  16. The Role of Oxidative Stress in Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Vera; Junn, Eunsung; Mouradian, M. Maral

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Disruptions in the physiologic maintenance of the redox potential in neurons interfere with several biological processes, ultimately leading to cell death. Evidence has been developed for oxidative and nitrative damage to key cellular components in the PD substantia nigra. A number of sources and mechanisms for the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are recognized including the metabolism of dopamine itself, mitochondrial dysfunction, iron, neuroinflammatory cells, calcium, and aging. PD causing gene products including DJ-1, PINK1, parkin, alpha-synuclein and LRRK2 also impact in complex ways mitochondrial function leading to exacerbation of ROS generation and susceptibility to oxidative stress. Additionally, cellular homeostatic processes including the ubiquitin-proteasome system and mitophagy are impacted by oxidative stress. It is apparent that the interplay between these various mechanisms contributes to neurodegeneration in PD as a feed forward scenario where primary insults lead to oxidative stress, which damages key cellular pathogenetic proteins that in turn cause more ROS production. Animal models of PD have yielded some insights into the molecular pathways of neuronal degeneration and highlighted previously unknown mechanisms by which oxidative stress contributes to PD. However, therapeutic attempts to target the general state of oxidative stress in clinical trials have failed to demonstrate an impact on disease progression. Recent knowledge gained about the specific mechanisms related to PD gene products that modulate ROS production and the response of neurons to stress may provide targeted new approaches towards neuroprotection. PMID:24252804

  17. The effect of oxidative stress during exercise in the horse.

    PubMed

    Williams, C A

    2016-10-01

    Oxidative stress is an imbalance of the oxidant-to-antioxidant ratio in the body. Increases in oxidative stress and changes in antioxidant status have been shown during endurance and intense exercise and eventing competition in horses. Antioxidants include vitamins, minerals, enzymes, and proteins that must be synthesized in the body or obtained from the diet. Therefore, exercise level and diet are both factors that play a role in influencing the oxidative stress and antioxidant status of the equine athlete. Along with exercise intensity and duration, diet, age, and training program can also affect oxidative stress in the horse. Several studies using exogenous supplementation of vitamin E, vitamin C, and alpha-lipoic acid have shown positive results in decreasing the effects of exercise (endurance and intense exercise)-induced oxidative stress and increasing the antioxidant status based on the markers and antioxidants measured, whereas other studies using superoxide dismutase showed little effects on the exercise horse. The "free radical theory of aging" states that long-term effects of the degenerative changes associated with aging may induce oxidative stress. However, in old horses (22 ± 2 yr), lipid peroxidation levels and blood antioxidant concentrations were similar to those found in younger but mature (12 ± 2 yr) horses both at rest and during exercise. Other studies found that yearlings (18 ± 2.4 mo) that are novel to forced exercise had less lipid peroxidation and greater antioxidant status than mature mares (13 ± 2.1 yr) prior to exercise training. Exercise training reduced oxidative stress markers and improved antioxidant status in mares, whereas few effects were seen in yearlings. This indicates that youth provided more defense against oxidative stress due to exercise than the exercise training program. Other studies during competition (endurance, jumping, eventing, and racing) have investigated the influence on oxidative stress with varying results

  18. Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress Responses in the Pediatric Population

    PubMed Central

    Avloniti, Alexandra; Chatzinikolaou, Athanasios; Deli, Chariklia K.; Vlachopoulos, Dimitris; Gracia-Marco, Luis; Leontsini, Diamanda; Draganidis, Dimitrios; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z.; Mastorakos, George; Fatouros, Ioannis G.

    2017-01-01

    Adults demonstrate an upregulation of their pro- and anti-oxidant mechanisms in response to acute exercise while systematic exercise training enhances their antioxidant capacity, thereby leading to a reduced generation of free radicals both at rest and in response to exercise stress. However, less information exists regarding oxidative stress responses and the underlying mechanisms in the pediatric population. Evidence suggests that exercise-induced redox perturbations may be valuable in order to monitor exercise-induced inflammatory responses and as such training overload in children and adolescents as well as monitor optimal growth and development. The purpose of this review was to provide an update on oxidative stress responses to acute and chronic exercise in youth. It has been documented that acute exercise induces age-specific transient alterations in both oxidant and antioxidant markers in children and adolescents. However, these responses seem to be affected by factors such as training phase, training load, fitness level, mode of exercise etc. In relation to chronic adaptation, the role of training on oxidative stress adaptation has not been adequately investigated. The two studies performed so far indicate that children and adolescents exhibit positive adaptations of their antioxidant system, as adults do. More studies are needed in order to shed light on oxidative stress and antioxidant responses, following acute exercise and training adaptations in youth. Available evidence suggests that small amounts of oxidative stress may be necessary for growth whereas the transition to adolescence from childhood may promote maturation of pro- and anti-oxidant mechanisms. Available evidence also suggests that obesity may negatively affect basal and exercise-related antioxidant responses in the peripubertal period during pre- and early-puberty. PMID:28106721

  19. Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress Responses in the Pediatric Population.

    PubMed

    Avloniti, Alexandra; Chatzinikolaou, Athanasios; Deli, Chariklia K; Vlachopoulos, Dimitris; Gracia-Marco, Luis; Leontsini, Diamanda; Draganidis, Dimitrios; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z; Mastorakos, George; Fatouros, Ioannis G

    2017-01-17

    Adults demonstrate an upregulation of their pro- and anti-oxidant mechanisms in response to acute exercise while systematic exercise training enhances their antioxidant capacity, thereby leading to a reduced generation of free radicals both at rest and in response to exercise stress. However, less information exists regarding oxidative stress responses and the underlying mechanisms in the pediatric population. Evidence suggests that exercise-induced redox perturbations may be valuable in order to monitor exercise-induced inflammatory responses and as such training overload in children and adolescents as well as monitor optimal growth and development. The purpose of this review was to provide an update on oxidative stress responses to acute and chronic exercise in youth. It has been documented that acute exercise induces age-specific transient alterations in both oxidant and antioxidant markers in children and adolescents. However, these responses seem to be affected by factors such as training phase, training load, fitness level, mode of exercise etc. In relation to chronic adaptation, the role of training on oxidative stress adaptation has not been adequately investigated. The two studies performed so far indicate that children and adolescents exhibit positive adaptations of their antioxidant system, as adults do. More studies are needed in order to shed light on oxidative stress and antioxidant responses, following acute exercise and training adaptations in youth. Available evidence suggests that small amounts of oxidative stress may be necessary for growth whereas the transition to adolescence from childhood may promote maturation of pro- and anti-oxidant mechanisms. Available evidence also suggests that obesity may negatively affect basal and exercise-related antioxidant responses in the peripubertal period during pre- and early-puberty.

  20. Oxidative stress in glaucomatous neurodegeneration: mechanisms and consequences.

    PubMed

    Tezel, Gülgün

    2006-09-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated as by-products of cellular metabolism, primarily in the mitochondria. Although ROS are essential participants in cell signaling and regulation, when their cellular production overwhelms the intrinsic antioxidant capacity, damage to cellular macromolecules such as DNA, proteins, and lipids ensues. Such a state of "oxidative stress" is thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of a number of neurodegenerative diseases. Growing evidence supports the involvement of oxidative stress as a common component of glaucomatous neurodegeneration in different subcellular compartments of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Besides the evidence of direct cytotoxic consequences leading to RGC death, it also seems highly possible that ROS are involved in signaling RGC death by acting as a second messenger and/or modulating protein function by redox modifications of downstream effectors through enzymatic oxidation of specific amino acid residues. Different studies provide cumulating evidence, which supports the association of ROS with different aspects of the neurodegenerative process. Oxidative protein modifications during glaucomatous neurodegeneration increase neuronal susceptibility to damage and also lead to glial dysfunction. Oxidative stress-induced dysfunction of glial cells may contribute to spreading neuronal damage by secondary degeneration. Oxidative stress also promotes the accumulation of advanced glycation end products in glaucomatous tissues. In addition, oxidative stress takes part in the activation of immune response during glaucomatous neurodegeneration, as ROS stimulate the antigen presenting ability of glial cells and also function as co-stimulatory molecules during antigen presentation. By discussing current evidence, this review provides a broad perspective on cellular mechanisms and potential consequences of oxidative stress in glaucoma.

  1. Oxidative stress alters global histone modification and DNA methylation.

    PubMed

    Niu, Yingmei; DesMarais, Thomas L; Tong, Zhaohui; Yao, Yixin; Costa, Max

    2015-05-01

    The JmjC domain-containing histone demethylases can remove histone lysine methylation and thereby regulate gene expression. The JmjC domain uses iron Fe(II) and α-ketoglutarate (αKG) as cofactors in an oxidative demethylation reaction via hydroxymethyl lysine. We hypothesize that reactive oxygen species will oxidize Fe(II) to Fe(III), thereby attenuating the activity of JmjC domain-containing histone demethylases. To minimize secondary responses from cells, extremely short periods of oxidative stress (3h) were used to investigate this question. Cells that were exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) for 3h exhibited increases in several histone methylation marks including H3K4me3 and decreases of histone acetylation marks including H3K9ac and H4K8ac; preincubation with ascorbate attenuated these changes. The oxidative stress level was measured by generation of 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein, GSH/GSSG ratio, and protein carbonyl content. A cell-free system indicated that H2O2 inhibited histone demethylase activity where increased Fe(II) rescued this inhibition. TET protein showed a decreased activity under oxidative stress. Cells exposed to a low-dose and long-term (3 weeks) oxidative stress also showed increased global levels of H3K4me3 and H3K27me3. However, these global methylation changes did not persist after washout. The cells exposed to short-term oxidative stress also appeared to have higher activity of class I/II histone deacetylase (HDAC) but not class III HDAC. In conclusion, we have found that oxidative stress transiently alters the epigenetic program process through modulating the activity of enzymes responsible for demethylation and deacetylation of histones.

  2. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in Kindler syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zapatero-Solana, Elisabeth; García-Giménez, Jose Luis; Guerrero-Aspizua, Sara; García, Marta; Toll, Agustí; Baselga, Eulalia; Durán-Moreno, Maria; Markovic, Jelena; García-Verdugo, Jose Manuel; Conti, Claudio J; Has, Cristina; Larcher, Fernando; Pallardó, Federico V; Del Rio, Marcela

    2014-12-21

    Kindler Syndrome (KS) is an autosomal recessive skin disorder characterized by skin blistering, photosensitivity, premature aging, and propensity to skin cancer. In spite of the knowledge underlying cause of this disease involving mutations of FERMT1 (fermitin family member 1), and efforts to characterize genotype-phenotype correlations, the clinical variability of this genodermatosis is still poorly understood. In addition, several pathognomonic features of KS, not related to skin fragility such as aging, inflammation and cancer predisposition have been strongly associated with oxidative stress. Alterations of the cellular redox status have not been previously studied in KS. Here we explored the role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of this rare cutaneous disease. Patient-derived keratinocytes and their respective controls were cultured and classified according to their different mutations by PCR and western blot, the oxidative stress biomarkers were analyzed by spectrophotometry and qPCR and additionally redox biosensors experiments were also performed. The mitochondrial structure and functionality were analyzed by confocal microscopy and electron microscopy. Patient-derived keratinocytes showed altered levels of several oxidative stress biomarkers including MDA (malondialdehyde), GSSG/GSH ratio (oxidized and reduced glutathione) and GCL (gamma-glutamyl cysteine ligase) subunits. Electron microscopy analysis of both, KS skin biopsies and keratinocytes showed marked morphological mitochondrial abnormalities. Consistently, confocal microscopy studies of mitochondrial fluorescent probes confirmed the mitochondrial derangement. Imbalance of oxidative stress biomarkers together with abnormalities in the mitochondrial network and function are consistent with a pro-oxidant state. This is the first study to describe mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress involvement in KS.

  3. Role of Nrf2 in Oxidative Stress and Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Organismal life encounters reactive oxidants from internal metabolism and environmental toxicant exposure. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species cause oxidative stress and are traditionally viewed as being harmful. On the other hand, controlled production of oxidants in normal cells serves useful purposes to regulate signaling pathways. Reactive oxidants are counterbalanced by complex antioxidant defense systems regulated by a web of pathways to ensure that the response to oxidants is adequate for the body’s needs. A recurrent theme in oxidant signaling and antioxidant defense is reactive cysteine thiol–based redox signaling. The nuclear factor erythroid 2–related factor 2 (Nrf2) is an emerging regulator of cellular resistance to oxidants. Nrf2 controls the basal and induced expression of an array of antioxidant response element–dependent genes to regulate the physiological and pathophysiological outcomes of oxidant exposure. This review discusses the impact of Nrf2 on oxidative stress and toxicity and how Nrf2 senses oxidants and regulates antioxidant defense. PMID:23294312

  4. Oxidative stress in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Passali, D; Corallo, G; Yaremchuk, S; Longini, M; Proietti, F; Passali, G C; Bellussi, L

    2015-12-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) is a disorder that leads to metabolic abnormalities and increased cardiovascular risk. The aim of this study was to identify early laboratory markers of cardiovascular disease through analysis of oxidative stress in normal subjects and patients with OSAS. A prospective study was designed to compare outcomes of oxidative stress laboratory tests in 20 adult patients with OSAS and a control group of 20 normal subjects. Laboratory techniques for detecting and quantifying free radical damage must be targeted to assess the pro-oxidant component and the antioxidant in order to obtain an overall picture of oxidative balance. No statistical differences in age, sex distribution, or BMI were found between the two groups (p>0.05). There were significant differences in the apnoea/hypopnoea index (AHI) between OSAS patients and the control group (p<0.05). Statistically significant differences in isoprostane, advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) and non-protein bound iron (NPBI) levels were found between the study and control groups. No significant difference in the levels of thiol biomarkers was found between the two groups. The main finding of the present study was increased production of oxidative stress biomarkers in OSAS patients. The major difference between thiols and other oxidative stress biomarkers is that thiols are antioxidants, while the others are expressions of oxidative damage. The findings of the present study indicate that biomarkers of oxidative stress in OSAS may be used as a marker of upper airway obstructive episodes due to mechanical trauma, as well as a marker of hypoxaemia causing local oropharyngeal inflammation.

  5. Heat Stress and Hormetin-Induced Hormesis in Human Cells: Effects on Aging, Wound Healing, Angiogenesis, and Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Rattan, Suresh I. S.; Fernandes, Ricardo A.; Demirovic, Dino; Dymek, Barbara; Lima, Cristovao F.

    2009-01-01

    Accumulation of molecular damage and increased molecular heterogeneity are hallmarks of cellular aging. Mild stress-induced hormesis can be an effective way for reducing the accumulation of molecular damage, and thus slowing down aging from within. We have shown that repeated mild heat stress (RMHS) has anti-aging effects on growth and various other cellular and biochemical characteristics of normal human skin fibroblasts and keratinocytes undergoing aging in vitro. RMHS given to human cells increased the basal levels of various chaperones, reduced the accumulation of damaged proteins, stimulated proteasomal activities, increased the cellular resistance to other stresses, enhanced the levels of various antioxidant enzymes, enhanced the activity and amounts of sodium-potassium pump, and increased the phosphorylation-mediated activities of various stress kinases. We have now observed novel hormetic effects of mild heat stress on improving the wound healing capacity of skin fibroblasts and on enhancing the angiogenic ability of endothelial cells. We have also tested potential hormetins, such as curcumin and rosmarinic acid in bringing about their beneficial effects in human cells by inducing stress response pathways involving heat shock proteins and hemeoxygenase HO-1. These data further support the view that mild stress-induced hormesis can be applied for the modulation, intervention and prevention of aging and age-related impairments. PMID:19343114

  6. Acrylonitrile-Induced Oxidative Stress and Oxidative DNA Damage in Male Sprague-Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kamendulis, Lisa M.; Klaunig, James E.

    2009-01-01

    Studies have demonstrated that the induction of oxidative stress may be involved in brain tumor induction in rats by acrylonitrile. The present study examined whether acrylonitrile induces oxidative stress and DNA damage in rats and whether blood can serve as a valid surrogate for the biomonitoring of oxidative stress induced by acrylonitrile in the exposed population. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with 0, 3, 30, 100, and 200 ppm acrylonitrile in drinking water for 28 days. One group of rats were also coadministered N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) (0.3% in diet) with acrylonitrile (200 ppm in drinking water) to examine whether antioxidant supplementation was protective against acrylonitrile-induced oxidative stress. Direct DNA strand breakage in white blood cells (WBC) and brain was measured using the alkaline comet assay. Oxidative DNA damage in WBC and brain was evaluated using formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (fpg)-modified comet assay and with high-performance liquid chromatography-electrochemical detection. No significant increase in direct DNA strand breaks was observed in brain and WBC from acrylonitrile-treated rats. However, oxidative DNA damage (fpg comet and 8′hydroxyl-2-deoxyguanosine) in brain and WBC was increased in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, plasma levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) increased in rats administered acrylonitrile. Dietary supplementation with NAC prevented acrylonitrile-induced oxidative DNA damage in brain and WBC. A slight, but significant, decrease in the GSH:GSSG ratio was seen in brain at acrylonitrile doses > 30 ppm. These results provide additional support that the mode of action for acrylonitrile-induced astrocytomas involves the induction of oxidative stress and damage. Significant associations were seen between oxidative DNA damage in WBC and brain, ROS formation in plasma, and the reported tumor incidences. Since oxidative DNA damage in brain correlated with oxidative damage in WBC, these results suggest

  7. Mechanistic and Therapeutic Implications of Angiogenesis in Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Robert N.; Yu, Jie; Torres, Paulo B.; Schickedanz, Aimee C.; Park, John K.; Mueller, Michael D.; Sidell, Neil

    2010-01-01

    Like tumor metastases, endometriotic implants require neovascularization to proliferate and invade into ectopic sites within the host. Endometrial tissue, with its robust stem cell populations and remarkable regenerative capabilities, is a rich source of proangiogenic factors. Among the most potent and extensively studied of these proteins, vascular endothelial growth factor has emerged as a critical vasculogenic regulator in endometriosis. Accordingly, angiogenesis of the nascent endometriotic lesion has become an attractive target for novel medical therapeutics and strategies to inhibit vascular endothelial growth factor action. Vascular endothelial growth factor gene regulation in endometrial and endometriosis cells by nuclear receptors, other transcription factors, and also by infiltrating immune cells is emphasized. New data showing that oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stress increase vascular endothelial growth factor expression are provided. Finally, we review the clinical implications of angiogenesis in this condition and propose potential antiangiogenic therapies that may become useful in the control or eradication of endometriotic lesions. PMID:19001553

  8. Targets of oxidative stress in cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Chakraborti, T; Ghosh, S K; Michael, J R; Batabyal, S K; Chakraborti, S

    1998-10-01

    Although oxidants such as superoxide (O2.) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) play a role in host-mediated destruction of foreign pathogens yet excessive generation of oxidants may lead to a variety of pathological complications in the cardiovascular system. An important mechanism by which oxidants cause dysfunction of the cardiovascular system appears to be due to the increase in intracellular free Ca2+ concentration. Oxidants cause cellular Ca2+ mobilization by modulating activities of a variety of regulators such as Na+/H+ and Na+/Ca2+ exchangers, Na+/K+ ATPase and Ca2+ ATPase and Ca2+ channels that are associated with Ca2+ transport in the plasma membrane and the sarco(endo)plasmic reticular membrane of myocardial cells. Recent research have suggested that the increase in Ca2+ level by oxidants plays a pivotal role in inducing several protein kinases such as protein kinase C, tyrosine kinase and mitogen activated protein kinases. Oxidant-mediated alteration of different signal transduction systems and their interations eventually regulate a variety of pathological conditions such as atherosclerosis, apoptosis and necrosis in the myocardium.

  9. Oxidative stress in the oral cavity: sources and pathological outcomes.

    PubMed

    Avezov, Katia; Reznick, Abraham Z; Aizenbud, Dror

    2015-04-01

    Oxidative stress (OS), an imbalance in the oxidant-antioxidant equilibrium, is thought to be involved in the development of many seemingly unrelated diseases. Oral cavity tissues are a unique environment constantly exposed to internal and external compounds and material hazards as almost no other part of the human body. Some of the compounds are capable of generating OS. Here, the main groups of endogenous as well as exogenous OS sources are presented, followed by their oxidative effect on the salivary contents and function. The oxidative mechanisms in oral cells and their pathologic influence are also discussed.

  10. Novel biomarker pipeline to probe the oxidation sites and oxidation degrees of hemoglobin in bovine erythrocytes exposed to oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Zong, Wansong; Wang, Xiaoning; Yang, Chuanxi; Du, Yonggang; Sun, Weijun; Xu, Zhenzhen

    2016-06-01

    Research on biomarkers for protein oxidation might give insight into the mechanistic mode of oxidative stress. In the work present here, a novel pipeline was established to probe the oxidation mechanism of bovine hemoglobin (Hb) with its oxidation products serving as the biomarkers. Reactive oxygen species generated by irradiation were used to mimic oxidative stress conditions to oxidize Hb in bovine erythrocytes. After Hb extraction and digestion, oxidized peptides in the tryptic fragments were assigned by comparison with the extracted ion chromatography spectra of native peptide from the control sample. Subsequent tandem mass spectrometry analysis of these peptides proved that oxidation was limited to partially exposed amino acid residues (α-Phe36 , β-Met1 , β-Trp14 , for instance) in Hb. Quantitation analysis on these oxidized peptides showed that oxidation degrees of target sites had positive correlations with the extended oxidation dose and the oxidation processes were also controlled by residues types. Compared with the conventional protein carbonyl assay, the identified oxidized products were feasibility biomarkers for Hb oxidation, indicating that the proposed biomarker pipeline was suitable to provide specific and valid information for protein oxidation. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Mild oxidative stress is beneficial for sperm telomere length maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Swetasmita; Kumar, Rajeev; Malhotra, Neena; Singh, Neeta; Dada, Rima

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate telomere length in sperm DNA and its correlation with oxidative stress (normal, mild, severe). METHODS: The study included infertile men (n = 112) and age matched fertile controls (n = 102). The average telomere length from the sperm DNA was measured using a quantitative real time PCR based assay. Seminal reactive oxygen species (ROS) and 8-Isoprostane (8-IP) levels were measured by chemiluminescence assay and ELISA respectively. RESULTS: Average sperm telomere length in infertile men and controls was 0.609 ± 0.15 and 0.789 ± 0.060, respectively (P < 0.0001). Seminal ROS levels in infertile was higher [66.61 ± 28.32 relative light units (RLU)/s/million sperm] than in controls (14.04 ± 10.67 RLU/s/million sperm) (P < 0.0001). The 8-IP level in infertile men was significantly higher (421.55 ± 131.29 pg/mL) than in controls (275.94 ± 48.13 pg/mL) (P < 0.001). When correlated to oxidative stress, in normal range of oxidative stress (ROS, 0-21.3 RLU/s/million sperm) the average telomere length in cases was 0.663 ± 0.14, in mild oxidative stress (ROS, 21.3-35 RLU/s/million sperm) it was elevated (0.684 ± 0.12) and in severe oxidative stress (ROS > 35 RLU/s/million sperm) average telomere length was decreased to 0.595 ± 0.15. CONCLUSION: Mild oxidative stress results in lengthening of telomere length, but severe oxidative stress results in shorter telomeres. Although telomere maintenance is a complex trait, the study shows that mild oxidative stress is beneficial in telomere length maintenance and thus a delicate balance needs to be established to maximize the beneficial effects of free radicals and prevent harmful effects of supra physiological levels. Detailed molecular evaluation of telomere structure, its correlation with oxidative stress would aid in elucidating the cause of accelerated telomere length attrition. PMID:27376021

  12. Carbamylated low-density lipoprotein induces oxidative stress and accelerated senescence in human endothelial progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Carracedo, Julia; Merino, Ana; Briceño, Carolina; Soriano, Sagrario; Buendía, Paula; Calleros, Laura; Rodriguez, Mariano; Martín-Malo, Alejandro; Aljama, Pedro; Ramírez, Rafael

    2011-04-01

    Carbamylated low-density lipoprotein (cLDL) plays a role in atherosclerosis. In this study we evaluate the effect of uremia on LDL carbamylation and the effect of cLDL and oxidized LDL (oxLDL; 200 μg/ml) on number, function, and genomic stability of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) obtained from healthy volunteers. cLDL was generated after incubation of native LDL (nLDL) with uremic serum from patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) stages 2-4. Oxidative stress was measured by flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy, mitochondrial depolarization by flow cytometry, senescence by β-galactosidase activity and telomere length, and DNA damage by phosphorylated histone H2AX (γH2AX). The percentage of cLDL by uremic serum was related to the severity of CKD. Compared with nLDL, cLDL induced an increase in oxidative stress (62±5 vs. 8±3%, P<0.001) and cells with mitochondrial depolarization (73±7 vs. 9±5%, P<0.001), and a decrease in EPC proliferation and angiogenesis. cLDL also induced accelerated senescence (73±16 vs. 12±9%, P<0.001), which was associated with a decrease in the expression of γH2AX (62±9 vs. 5±3%, P<0.001). The degree of injury induced by cLDL was comparable to that observed with oxLDL. This study supports the hypothesis that cLDL triggers genomic damage in EPCs, resulting in premature senescence. We can, therefore, hypothesize that EPCs injury by cLDL contributes to an increase in atherosclerotic disease in CKD.

  13. Nitric oxide signaling in plant responses to abiotic stresses.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Weihua; Fan, Liu-Min

    2008-10-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) plays important roles in diverse physiological processes in plants. NO can provoke both beneficial and harmful effects, which depend on the concentration and location of NO in plant cells. This review is focused on NO synthesis and the functions of NO in plant responses to abiotic environmental stresses. Abiotic stresses mostly induce NO production in plants. NO alleviates the harmfulness of reactive oxygen species, and reacts with other target molecules, and regulates the expression of stress responsive genes under various stress conditions.

  14. Dietary proteins and angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Medina, Miguel Ángel; Quesada, Ana R

    2014-01-17

    Both defective and persistent angiogenesis are linked to pathological situations in the adult. Compounds able to modulate angiogenesis have a potential value for the treatment of such pathologies. Several small molecules present in the diet have been shown to have modulatory effects on angiogenesis. This review presents the current state of knowledge on the potential modulatory roles of dietary proteins on angiogenesis. There is currently limited available information on the topic. Milk contains at least three proteins for which modulatory effects on angiogenesis have been previously demonstrated. On the other hand, there is some scarce information on the potential of dietary lectins, edible plant proteins and high protein diets to modulate angiogenesis.

  15. Myelophil ameliorates brain oxidative stress in mice subjected to restraint stress.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin-Seok; Kim, Hyung-Geug; Han, Jong-Min; Lee, Jong-Suk; Son, Seung-Wan; Ahn, Yo-Chan; Son, Chang-Gue

    2012-12-03

    We evaluated the pharmacological effects of Myelophil, a 30% ethanol extract of a mix of Astragali Radix and Salviae Radix, on oxidative stress-induced brain damage in mice caused by restraint stress. C57BL/6 male mice (eight weeks old) underwent daily oral administration of distilled water, Myelophil (25, 50, or 100mg/kg), or ascorbic acid (100mg/kg) 1h before induction of restraint stress, which involved 3h of immobilization per day for 21days. Nitric oxide levels, lipid peroxidation, activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione redox system enzymes), and concentrations of adrenaline, corticosterone, and interferon-γ, were measured in brain tissues and/or sera. Restraint stress-induced increases in nitric oxide levels (serum and brain tissues) and lipid peroxidation (brain tissues) were significantly attenuated by Myelophil treatment. Restraint stress moderately lowered total antioxidant capacity, catalase activity, glutathione content, and the activities of glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione S-transferase; all these responses were reversed by Myelophil. Myelophil significantly attenuated the elevated serum concentrations of adrenaline and corticosterone and restored serum and brain interferon-γ levels. Moreover, Myelophil normalized expression of the genes encoding monoamine oxidase A, catechol-O-methyltransferase, and phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase, which was up-regulated by restraint stress in brain tissues. These results suggest that Myelophil has pharmacological properties protects brain tissues against stress-associated oxidative stress damage, perhaps in part through regulation of stress hormones.

  16. Relationship of oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction in sleep apnoea.

    PubMed

    Jurado-Gámez, B; Fernandez-Marin, M C; Gómez-Chaparro, J L; Muñoz-Cabrera, L; Lopez-Barea, J; Perez-Jimenez, F; Lopez-Miranda, J

    2011-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate ischaemic reactive hyperaemia (IRH) in obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and its relationship with oxidative stress. We studied 69 consecutive patients referred to our Sleep Unit (Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba, Spain). Patients with chronic diseases or those taking medication were excluded. IRH was assessed before and after polysomnography. Morning IRH and oxidative stress markers were compared between patients with (apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI) ≥ 5) and without (AHI < 5) OSA. Measurements were repeated in 25 severe OSA patients after continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy. We included 46 OSA patients (mean ± sd AHI 49 ± 32.1) and 23 non-OSA subjects (AHI 3 ± 0.9). The OSA patients showed a significant worsening of morning IRH, and a significant increase in malondialdehyde and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine levels. Only the oxygen desaturation index independently explained morning IRH, while malondialdehyde levels showed a weak effect on IRH. In severe OSA patients, IRH improved significantly after CPAP treatment, as did malondialdehyde, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine and protein carbonyl levels. In OSA patients, endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress were observed, and IRH worsened after sleep. The increase in oxidative stress was not associated with IRH, while intermittent hypoxia was strongly associated with IRH. In severe OSA patients, CPAP treatment improved oxidative stress and endothelial function.

  17. Oxidative stress modulation in hepatitis C virus infected cells

    PubMed Central

    Lozano-Sepulveda, Sonia A; Bryan-Marrugo, Owen L; Cordova-Fletes, Carlos; Gutierrez-Ruiz, Maria C; Rivas-Estilla, Ana M

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication is associated with the endoplasmic reticulum, where the virus can induce cellular stress. Oxidative cell damage plays an important role in HCV physiopathology. Oxidative stress is triggered when the concentration of oxygen species in the extracellular or intracellular environment exceeds antioxidant defenses. Cells are protected and modulate oxidative stress through the interplay of intracellular antioxidant agents, mainly glutathione system (GSH) and thioredoxin; and antioxidant enzyme systems such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, GSH peroxidase, and heme oxygenase-1. Also, the use of natural and synthetic antioxidants (vitamin C and E, N-acetylcysteine, glycyrrhizin, polyenylphosphatidyl choline, mitoquinone, quercetin, S-adenosylmethionine and silymarin) has already shown promising results as co-adjuvants in HCV therapy. Despite all the available information, it is not known how different agents with antiviral activity can interfere with the modulation of the cell redox state induced by HCV and decrease viral replication. This review describes an evidence-based consensus on molecular mechanisms involved in HCV replication and their relationship with cell damage induced by oxidative stress generated by the virus itself and cell antiviral machinery. It also describes some molecules that modify the levels of oxidative stress in HCV-infected cells. PMID:26692473

  18. (+)-Catechin protects dermal fibroblasts against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Oxidative stress has been suggested as a mechanism underlying skin aging, as it triggers apoptosis in various cell types, including fibroblasts, which play important roles in the preservation of healthy, youthful skin. Catechins, which are antioxidants contained in green tea, exert various actions such as anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, and anti-cancer actions. In this study, we investigated the effect of (+)-catechin on apoptosis induced by oxidative stress in fibroblasts. Methods Fibroblasts (NIH3T3) under oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide (0.1 mM) were treated with either vehicle or (+)-catechin (0–100 μM). The effect of (+)-catechin on cell viability, apoptosis, phosphorylation of c-Jun terminal kinases (JNK) and p38, and activation of caspase-3 in fibroblasts under oxidative stress were evaluated. Results Hydrogen peroxide induced apoptotic cell death in fibroblasts, accompanied by induction of phosphorylation of JNK and p38 and activation of caspase-3. Pretreatment of the fibroblasts with (+)-catechin inhibited hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis and reduced phosphorylation of JNK and p38 and activation of caspase-3. Conclusion (+)-Catechin protects against oxidative stress-induced cell death in fibroblasts, possibly by inhibiting phosphorylation of p38 and JNK. These results suggest that (+)-catechin has potential as a therapeutic agent for the prevention of skin aging. PMID:24712558

  19. Cellular Mechanisms of Oxidative Stress and Action in Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Venza, Mario; Visalli, Maria; Beninati, Concetta; De Gaetano, Giuseppe Valerio; Teti, Diana; Venza, Isabella

    2015-01-01

    Most melanomas occur on the skin, but a small percentage of these life-threatening cancers affect other parts of the body, such as the eye and mucous membranes, including the mouth. Given that most melanomas are caused by ultraviolet radiation (UV) exposure, close attention has been paid to the impact of oxidative stress on these tumors. The possibility that key epigenetic enzymes cannot act on a DNA altered by oxidative stress has opened new perspectives. Therefore, much attention has been paid to the alteration of DNA methylation by oxidative stress. We review the current evidence about (i) the role of oxidative stress in melanoma initiation and progression; (ii) the mechanisms by which ROS influence the DNA methylation pattern of transformed melanocytes; (iii) the transformative potential of oxidative stress-induced changes in global and/or local gene methylation and expression; (iv) the employment of this epimutation as a biomarker for melanoma diagnosis, prognosis, and drug resistance evaluation; (v) the impact of this new knowledge in clinical practice for melanoma treatment. PMID:26064422

  20. Oxidative stress increased in pregnant women with iodine deficiency.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Zendy Evelyn Olivo; Rufino, Sergio Cuellar; Tlaxcalteco, Esteban Hernández; Trejo, Cirenia Hernández; Campos, Raúl Martínez; Meza, Mónica Navarro; Rodríguez, Rocío Coutiño; Arroyo-Helguera, Omar

    2014-03-01

    Iodine is an essential element trace for the synthesis of maternal thyroid hormones needed to support normal fetal development; it also acts as an antioxidant directly or induce antioxidant enzymes indirectly. Iodine deficiency and oxidative stress are associated with pregnancy complications. This study aimed to assess the urinary iodine concentration and its relationship with the antioxidant and oxidative stress status during gestation. Pregnant women were consecutively recruited from an obstetric clinic during all gestation trimesters, and urinary iodine concentration, antioxidant, and oxidative stress were determined. Results showed that 70 % of pregnant women have optimal iodine levels (150-200 μg/L), while approximately 30 % showed mild iodine deficiency (50-99 μg/L). Oxidative stress was significantly higher, and the antioxidant status was also compromised as evidenced by decreased total antioxidant status and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in pregnant women with mild iodine deficiency than pregnant women with optimal iodine levels. Significant positive correlations were noted between optimal iodine levels and total antioxidant status. Oxidative stress was significantly correlated with mild iodine deficiency. However, no significant correlation was found between iodine levels and SOD and catalase activities. In conclusion, for the first time, these data suggest a correlation between iodine levels and the antioxidant status during pregnancy.

  1. Arterial stiffness, oxidative stress, and smoke exposure in wildland firefighters.

    PubMed

    Gaughan, Denise M; Siegel, Paul D; Hughes, Michael D; Chang, Chiung-Yu; Law, Brandon F; Campbell, Corey R; Richards, Jennifer C; Kales, Stefanos F; Chertok, Marcia; Kobzik, Lester; Nguyen, Phuong-son; O'Donnell, Carl R; Kiefer, Max; Wagner, Gregory R; Christiani, David C

    2014-07-01

    To assess the association between exposure, oxidative stress, symptoms, and cardiorespiratory function in wildland firefighters. We studied two Interagency Hotshot Crews with questionnaires, pulse wave analysis for arterial stiffness, spirometry, urinary 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (8-isoprostane) and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and the smoke exposure marker (urinary levoglucosan). Arterial stiffness was assessed by examining levels of the aortic augmentation index, expressed as a percentage. An oxidative stress score comprising the average of z-scores created for 8-OHdG and 8-isoprostane was calculated. Mean augmentation index % was higher for participants with higher oxidative stress scores after adjusting for smoking status. Specifically for every one unit increase in oxidative stress score the augmentation index % increased 10.5% (95% CI: 2.5, 18.5%). Higher mean lower respiratory symptom score was associated with lower percent predicted forced expiratory volume in one second/forced vital capacity. Biomarkers of oxidative stress may serve as indicators of arterial stiffness in wildland firefighters. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Phloroglucinol Attenuates Free Radical-induced Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    So, Mi Jung; Cho, Eun Ju

    2014-01-01

    The protective role of phloroglucinol against oxidative stress and stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS) was investigated in vitro and in cell culture. Phloroglucinol had strong and concentration-dependent radical scavenging effects against nitric oxide (NO), superoxide anions (O2−), and hydroxyl radicals. In this study, free radical generators were used to induce oxidative stress in LLC-PK1 renal epithelial cells. Treatment with phloroglucinol attenuated the oxidative stress induced by peroxyl radicals, NO, O2−, and peroxynitrite. Phloroglucinol also increased cell viability and decreased lipid peroxidation in a concentration-dependent manner. WI-38 human diploid fibroblast cells were used to investigate the protective effect of phloroglucinol against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced SIPS. Phloroglucinol treatment attenuated H2O2-induced SIPS by increasing cell viability and inhibited lipid peroxidation, suggesting that treatment with phloroglucinol should delay the aging process. The present study supports the promising role of phloroglucinol as an antioxidative agent against free radical-induced oxidative stress and SIPS. PMID:25320709

  3. Cellular Mechanisms of Oxidative Stress and Action in Melanoma.

    PubMed

    Venza, Mario; Visalli, Maria; Beninati, Concetta; De Gaetano, Giuseppe Valerio; Teti, Diana; Venza, Isabella

    2015-01-01

    Most melanomas occur on the skin, but a small percentage of these life-threatening cancers affect other parts of the body, such as the eye and mucous membranes, including the mouth. Given that most melanomas are caused by ultraviolet radiation (UV) exposure, close attention has been paid to the impact of oxidative stress on these tumors. The possibility that key epigenetic enzymes cannot act on a DNA altered by oxidative stress has opened new perspectives. Therefore, much attention has been paid to the alteration of DNA methylation by oxidative stress. We review the current evidence about (i) the role of oxidative stress in melanoma initiation and progression; (ii) the mechanisms by which ROS influence the DNA methylation pattern of transformed melanocytes; (iii) the transformative potential of oxidative stress-induced changes in global and/or local gene methylation and expression; (iv) the employment of this epimutation as a biomarker for melanoma diagnosis, prognosis, and drug resistance evaluation; (v) the impact of this new knowledge in clinical practice for melanoma treatment.

  4. Metallothionein protects against oxidative stress-induced lysosomal destabilization

    PubMed Central

    Baird, Sarah K.; Kurz, Tino; Brunk, Ulf T.

    2005-01-01

    The introduction of apo-ferritin or the iron chelator DFO (desferrioxamine) conjugated to starch into the lysosomal compartment protects cells against oxidative stress, lysosomal rupture and ensuing apoptosis/necrosis by binding intralysosomal redox-active iron, thus preventing Fenton-type reactions and ensuing peroxidation of lysosomal membranes. Because up-regulation of MTs (metallothioneins) also generates enhanced cellular resistance to oxidative stress, including X-irradiation, and MTs were found to be capable of iron binding in an acidic and reducing lysosomal-like environment, we propose that these proteins might similarly stabilize lysosomes following autophagocytotic delivery to the lysosomal compartment. Here, we report that Zn-mediated MT up-regulation, assayed by Western blotting and immunocytochemistry, results in lysosomal stabilization and decreased apoptosis following oxidative stress, similar to the protection afforded by fluid-phase endocytosis of apo-ferritin or DFO. In contrast, the endocytotic uptake of an iron phosphate complex destabilized lysosomes against oxidative stress, but this was suppressed in cells with up-regulated MT. It is suggested that the resistance against oxidative stress, known to occur in MT-rich cells, may be a consequence of autophagic turnover of MT, resulting in reduced iron-catalysed intralysosomal peroxidative reactions. PMID:16236025

  5. Oxidative stress induces mitochondrial fragmentation in frataxin-deficient cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lefevre, Sophie; Sliwa, Dominika; Rustin, Pierre; Camadro, Jean-Michel; Santos, Renata

    2012-02-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Yeast frataxin-deficiency leads to increased proportion of fragmented mitochondria. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oxidative stress induces complete mitochondrial fragmentation in {Delta}yfh1 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oxidative stress increases mitochondrial fragmentation in patient fibroblasts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of mitochondrial fission in {Delta}yfh1 induces oxidative stress resistance. -- Abstract: Friedreich ataxia (FA) is the most common recessive neurodegenerative disease. It is caused by deficiency in mitochondrial frataxin, which participates in iron-sulfur cluster assembly. Yeast cells lacking frataxin ({Delta}yfh1 mutant) showed an increased proportion of fragmented mitochondria compared to wild-type. In addition, oxidative stress induced complete fragmentation of mitochondria in {Delta}yfh1 cells. Genetically controlled inhibition of mitochondrial fission in these cells led to increased resistance to oxidative stress. Here we present evidence that in yeast frataxin-deficiency interferes with mitochondrial dynamics, which might therefore be relevant for the pathophysiology of FA.

  6. Role of Magnesium in Oxidative Stress in Individuals with Obesity.

    PubMed

    Morais, Jennifer Beatriz Silva; Severo, Juliana Soares; Santos, Loanne Rocha Dos; de Sousa Melo, Stéfany Rodrigues; de Oliveira Santos, Raisa; de Oliveira, Ana Raquel Soares; Cruz, Kyria Jayanne Clímaco; do Nascimento Marreiro, Dilina

    2017-03-01

    Adipose tissue is considered an endocrine organ that promotes excessive production of reactive oxygen species when in excess, thus contributing to lipid peroxidation. Magnesium deficiency contributes to the development of oxidative stress in obese individuals, as this mineral plays a role as an antioxidant, participates as a cofactor of several enzymes, maintains cell membrane stability and mitigates the effects of oxidative stress. The objective of this review is to bring together updated information on the participation of magnesium in the oxidative stress present in obesity. We conducted a search of articles published in the PubMed, SciELO and LILACS databases, using the keywords 'magnesium', 'oxidative stress', 'malondialdehyde', 'superoxide dismutase', 'glutathione peroxidase', 'reactive oxygen species', 'inflammation' and 'obesity'. The studies show that obese subjects have low serum concentrations of magnesium, as well as high concentrations of oxidative stress marker in these individuals. Furthermore, it is evident that the adequate intake of magnesium contributes to its appropriate homeostasis in the body. Thus, this review of current research can help define the need for intervention with supplementation of this mineral for the prevention and treatment of disorders associated with this chronic disease.

  7. Arterial Stiffness, Oxidative Stress, and Smoke Exposure in Wildland Firefighters

    PubMed Central

    Gaughan, Denise M.; Siegel, Paul D.; Hughes, Michael D.; Chang, Chiung-Yu; Law, Brandon F.; Campbell, Corey R.; Richards, Jennifer C.; Kales, Stefanos F.; Chertok, Marcia; Kobzik, Lester; Nguyen, Phuongson; O’Donnell, Carl R.; Kiefer, Max; Wagner, Gregory R.; Christiani, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess the association between exposure, oxidative stress, symptoms, and cardiorespiratory function in wildland firefighters. Methods We studied two Interagency Hotshot Crews with questionnaires, pulse wave analysis for arterial stiffness, spirometry, urinary 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (8-isoprostane) and 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and the smoke exposure marker (urinary levoglucosan). Arterial stiffness was assessed by examining levels of the aortic augmentation index, expressed as a percentage. An oxidative stress score comprising the average of z-scores created for 8-OHdG and 8-isoprostane was calculated. Results Mean augmentation index % was higher for participants with higher oxidative stress scores after adjusting for smoking status. Specifically for every one unit increase in oxidative stress score the augmentation index % increased 10.5% (95% CI: 2.5, 18.5%). Higher mean lower respiratory symptom score was associated with lower percent predicted forced expiratory volume in one second/forced vital capacity. Conclusions Biomarkers of oxidative stress may serve as indicators of arterial stiffness in wildland firefighters. PMID:24909863

  8. Effects of ovariohysterectomy on oxidative stress markers in female dogs.

    PubMed

    Szczubial, M; Kankofer, M; Bochniarz, M; Dąbrowski, R

    2015-06-01

    Numerous studies reported an increase of oxidative stress increases in both women and female laboratory animals after ovariectomy. However, there is little information about the evaluation of antioxidative/oxidative status in ovariectomized dogs. The purpose of this study was to examine the changes in oxidative stress markers after ovariohysterectomy (OHE) in female dogs. The study included eighteen healthy mongrel female dogs. Blood samples were collected immediately before surgery and 14 and 30 days after surgery. Following parameters of oxidative stress intensity were determined: the erythrocyte activity of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) as well as the plasma concentrations of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), radical cations of N,N, diethylpara-phenylene diamine (RC-DEPPD), sulfhydryl groups (SH groups), bityrosine and formylkynurenine. The activity of GSH-Px increased markedly, although not significantly, 14 days after OHE and then significantly decreased at 30 days after OHE. A significant increase in plasma TBARS, bityrosine and formylkynurenine concentrations and a decrease in SH group content were concurrently noted at 30 days after surgery. Acquired results suggested that a loss of control over ROS production occurred in female dogs after OHE, which could lead to oxidative stress in the late post-operative period. In conclusion, our findings indicated that OHE is related with the risk of oxidative stress in the late period after operations. Given that oxidative stress contributes to the pathogenesis of various diseases, this may suggest an increased risk of disorders in ovariectomized female dogs; however, further studies are necessary to confirm this hypothesis. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Catalase evaluation in different human diseases associated with oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Al-Abrash, A S; Al-Quobaili, F A; Al-Akhras, G N

    2000-09-01

    Catalase is an enzyme present in most of the aerobic cells, it protects them from oxidative stress by catalyzing the rapid decomposition of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in two types of reactions depending on its peroxidatic and catalatic activities. The aim of this study was to measure the erythrocytes catalase activity by a reliable method in normal subjects with different age categories, and patients whom suffer from different diseases associated with oxidative stress (inflammatory, tumor, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, anemia and Wilson's disease). Erythrocytes catalase activity was measured, by peroxidatic method (Johansson-Borg method), in 210 apparently healthy subjects, (117 males and 93 females). The range of their ages was from 7 months to 65 years, and in 454 patients their ages ranged from 3 months to 74 years, whom suffer from the above mentioned diseases which resulted in oxidative stress. The comparison had been made between the Johansson-Borg and the UV catalase methods. Strong correlation was found between the two methods, peroxidatic and catalatic (r=0.99, P<0.0001), but the catalase solutions were unstable when the temperature was raised. The normal range of catalase was found to be 2869+1039 u/g Hb. It was found that the catalase activity increased in the studied morbidity groups (eg. 188% in oxidative anemia). An accepted decrease 50% was noted in catalase activity when Vitamin E was administered to anemic patients suffering from oxidative stress. There was an increase in catalase activity in all studied patients suffering from oxidative stress (cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, tumor, inflammation, dermatological diseases, anemia and Wilson's disease). The catalase activity was not affected by age, sex or the anticoagulant agent, which was used to collect the blood samples. It was found that the Vitamin E supplement decreased the catalase activity and improved the state of anemic oxidative stress patients.

  10. Increased systemic oxidative stress in patients with keratoconus.

    PubMed

    Toprak, I; Kucukatay, V; Yildirim, C; Kilic-Toprak, E; Kilic-Erkek, O

    2014-03-01

    To establish the effect of systemic oxidative stress on the pathogenesis of keratoconus by measuring serum total oxidant status (TOS) and total antioxidant status (TAS) in patients with keratoconus. Twenty-five patients with keratoconus (keratoconus group) and 25 age-sex-matched healthy subjects (control group) were enrolled in the study. Exclusion criteria were smoking habit, history of any other corneal pathology, systemic disease or inflammation, and current antioxidant or anti-inflammatory therapies. All participants underwent a detailed ophthalmological examination and corneal topography. Serum samples were obtained from all participants. Oxidative stress markers (TAS and TOS) were measured using a commercial kit and oxidative stress index (OSI) was calculated. The study comprised 25 patients with keratoconus (mean age of 26.4±1.7 years) and 25 healthy control subjects (mean age of 26.6±1.7 years) (P>0.05). The serum TOS and OSI values were significantly higher in patients with keratoconus compared with those of the controls (P=0.036 and 0.037, respectively). However, serum TAS did not show significant difference between the keratoconus and control groups (P=0.497). The higher levels of serum oxidant status and OSI in patients with keratoconus suggest that systemic oxidative stress might be involved in the pathogenesis of keratoconus.

  11. Acute exercise and oxidative stress: a 30 year history

    PubMed Central

    Fisher-Wellman, Kelsey; Bloomer, Richard J

    2009-01-01

    The topic of exercise-induced oxidative stress has received considerable attention in recent years, with close to 300 original investigations published since the early work of Dillard and colleagues in 1978. Single bouts of aerobic and anaerobic exercise can induce an acute state of oxidative stress. This is indicated by an increased presence of oxidized molecules in a variety of tissues. Exercise mode, intensity, and duration, as well as the subject population tested, all can impact the extent of oxidation. Moreover, the use of antioxidant supplements can impact the findings. Although a single bout of exercise often leads to an acute oxidative stress, in accordance with the principle of hormesis, such an increase appears necessary to allow for an up-regulation in endogenous antioxidant defenses. This review presents a comprehensive summary of original investigations focused on exercise-induced oxidative stress. This should provide the reader with a well-documented account of the research done within this area of science over the past 30 years. PMID:19144121

  12. Oxidative stress during acute FIV infection in cats.

    PubMed

    Webb, Craig; Lehman, Tracy; McCord, Kelly; Avery, Paul; Dow, Steven

    2008-03-15

    Oxidative stress is thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of HIV infection in humans. For example, CD4(+) T cells are particularly affected in HIV patients and oxidative stress may also contribute to impairment of neutrophil function in HIV/AIDS patients. Since cats infected with FIV develop many of the same immunological abnormalites as HIV-infected humans, we investigated effects of acute FIV infection on oxidative stress in cats. Cats were infected with a pathogenic strain of FIV and viral load, changes in neutrophil number, total blood glutathione, malondiadehye, antioxidant enzyme concentrations, and reduced glutathione (GSH) concentration in leukocytes were measured sequentially during the first 16 weeks of infection. We found that superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase concentrations in whole blood increased significantly during acute FIV infection. In addition, neutrophil numbers increased significantly during this time period, though their intracellular GSH concentrations did not change. In contrast, the numbers of CD4(+) T cells decreased significantly and their intracellular GSH concentration increased significantly, while intracellular GSH concentrations were unchanged in CD8(+) T cells. However, by 16 weeks of infection, many of the abnormalities in oxidative balance had stabilized or returned to pre-inoculation values. These results suggest that acute infection with FIV causes oxidative stress in cats and that CD4(+) T cells appear to be preferentially affected. Further studies are required to determine whether early treatment with anti-oxidants may help ameliorate the decline in CD4(+) T cell number and function associated with acute FIV infection in cats.

  13. Causes and consequences of oxidative stress in spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Aitken, Robert John; Gibb, Zamira; Baker, Mark A; Drevet, Joel; Gharagozloo, Parviz

    2016-01-01

    Spermatozoa are highly vulnerable to oxidative attack because they lack significant antioxidant protection due to the limited volume and restricted distribution of cytoplasmic space in which to house an appropriate armoury of defensive enzymes. In particular, sperm membrane lipids are susceptible to oxidative stress because they abound in significant amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Susceptibility to oxidative attack is further exacerbated by the fact that these cells actively generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) in order to drive the increase in tyrosine phosphorylation associated with sperm capacitation. However, this positive role for ROS is reversed when spermatozoa are stressed. Under these conditions, they default to an intrinsic apoptotic pathway characterised by mitochondrial ROS generation, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, caspase activation, phosphatidylserine exposure and oxidative DNA damage. In responding to oxidative stress, spermatozoa only possess the first enzyme in the base excision repair pathway, 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase. This enzyme catalyses the formation of abasic sites, thereby destabilising the DNA backbone and generating strand breaks. Because oxidative damage to sperm DNA is associated with both miscarriage and developmental abnormalities in the offspring, strategies for the amelioration of such stress, including the development of effective antioxidant formulations, are becoming increasingly urgent.

  14. Oxidative stress and maternal obesity: feto-placental unit interaction.

    PubMed

    Malti, N; Merzouk, H; Merzouk, S A; Loukidi, B; Karaouzene, N; Malti, A; Narce, M

    2014-06-01

    To determine oxidative stress markers in maternal obesity during pregnancy and to evaluate feto-placental unit interaction, especially predictors of fetal metabolic alterations. 40 obese pregnant women (prepregnancy BMI > 30 kg/m²) were compared to 50 control pregnant women. Maternal, cord blood and placenta samples were collected at delivery. Biochemical parameters (total cholesterol and triglycerides) and oxidative stress markers (malondialdehyde, carbonyl proteins, superoxide anion expressed as reduced Nitroblue Tetrazolium, nitric oxide expressed as nitrite, reduced glutathione, catalase, superoxide dismutase) were assayed by biochemical methods. Maternal, fetal and placental triglyceride levels were increased in obese group compared to control. Maternal malondialdehyde, carbonyl proteins, nitric oxide and superoxide anion levels were high while reduced glutathione concentrations and superoxide dismutase activity were low in obesity. In the placenta and in newborns of these obese mothers, variations of redox balance were also observed indicating high oxidative stress. Maternal and placental interaction constituted a strong predictor of fetal redox variations in obese pregnancies. Maternal obesity compromised placental metabolism and antioxidant status which strongly impacted fetal redox balance. Oxidative stress may be one of the key downstream mediators that initiate programming of the offspring. Maternal obesity is associated with metabolic alterations and dysregulation of redox balance in the mother-placenta - fetus unit. These perturbations could lead to maternal and fetal complications and should be carefully considered. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Plasma levels of oxidative stress-responsive apoptosis inducing protein (ORAIP) in rats subjected to physicochemical oxidative stresses.

    PubMed

    Yao, Takako; Fujimura, Tsutomu; Murayama, Kimie; Seko, Yoshinori

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress is known to play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of various disorders including atherosclerosis, aging and especially ischaemia/reperfusion injury. It causes cell damage that leads to apoptosis. However, the precise mechanism has been uncertain. Recently, we identified an apoptosis-inducing humoral factor in a hypoxia/reoxygenated medium of cardiac myocytes. We named this novel post-translationally modified secreted form of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF5A) as oxidative stress-responsive apoptosis inducing protein (ORAIP). We developed a sandwich ELISA and confirmed that myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion markedly increased plasma levels of ORAIP. To investigate whether the role of ORAIP is common to various types of oxidative stress, we measured plasma ORAIP levels in rats subjected to three physicochemical models of oxidative stress including N2/O2 inhalation, cold/warm-stress (heat shock) and blood acidification. In all three models, plasma ORAIP levels significantly increased and reached a peak level at 10-30 min after stimulation, then decreased within 60 min. The (mean±S.E.M.) plasma ORAIP levels before and after (peak) stimulation were (16.4±9.6) and (55.2±34.2) ng/ml in N2/O2 inhalation, (14.1±12.4) and (34.3±14.6) ng/ml in cold/warm-stress, and (18.9±14.3) and (134.0±67.2) ng/ml in blood acidification study. These data strongly suggest that secretion of ORAIP in response to oxidative stress is universal mechanism and plays an essential role. ORAIP will be an important novel biomarker as well as a specific therapeutic target of these oxidative stress-induced cell injuries. © 2016 The Author(s).

  16. Aluminum Induces Oxidative Stress Genes in Arabidopsis thaliana1

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Keith D.; Schott, Eric J.; Sharma, Yogesh K.; Davis, Keith R.; Gardner, Richard C.

    1998-01-01

    Changes in gene expression induced by toxic levels of Al were characterized to investigate the nature of Al stress. A cDNA library was constructed from Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings treated with Al for 2 h. We identified five cDNA clones that showed a transient induction of their mRNA levels, four cDNA clones that showed a longer induction period, and two down-regulated genes. Expression of the four long-term-induced genes remained at elevated levels for at least 48 h. The genes encoded peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase, blue copper-binding protein, and a protein homologous to the reticuline:oxygen oxidoreductase enzyme. Three of these genes are known to be induced by oxidative stresses and the fourth is induced by pathogen treatment. Another oxidative stress gene, superoxide dismutase, and a gene for Bowman-Birk protease inhibitor were also induced by Al in A. thaliana. These results suggested that Al treatment of Arabidopsis induces oxidative stress. In confirmation of this hypothesis, three of four genes induced by Al stress in A. thaliana were also shown to be induced by ozone. Our results demonstrate that oxidative stress is an important component of the plant's reaction to toxic levels of Al. PMID:9449849

  17. Oxidative Stress in Glaucomatous Neurodegeneration: Mechanisms and Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Tezel, Gülgün

    2007-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated as by-products of cellular metabolism, primarily in the mitochondria. Although ROS are essential participants in cell signaling and regulation, when their cellular production overwhelms the intrinsic antioxidant capacity, damage to cellular macromolecules such as DNA, proteins, and lipids ensues. Such a state of “oxidative stress” is thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of a number of neurodegenerative diseases. Growing evidence supports the involvement of oxidative stress as a common component of glaucomatous neurodegeneration in different subcellular compartments of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Besides the evidence of direct cytotoxic consequences leading to RGC death, it also seems highly possible that ROS are involved in signaling RGC death by acting as a second messenger and/or modulating protein function by redox modifications of downstream effectors through enzymatic oxidation of specific amino acid residues. Different studies provide cumulating evidence, which supports the association of ROS with different aspects of the neurodegenerative process. Oxidative protein modifications during glaucomatous neurodegeneration increase neuronal susceptibility to damage and also lead to glial dysfunction. Oxidative stress-induced dysfunction of glial cells may contribute to spreading neuronal damage by secondary degeneration. Oxidative stress also promotes the accumulation of advanced glycation end products in glaucomatous tissues. It is also evident that oxidative stress takes part in the activation of immune response during glaucomatous neurodegeneration, as ROS stimulate the antigen presenting ability of glial cells and also function as co-stimulatory molecules during antigen presentation. By discussing current evidence, this review provides a broad perspective on cellular mechanisms and potential consequences of oxidative stress in glaucoma. PMID:16962364

  18. Gender-dimorphic effects of adipose-derived stromal vascular fractions on HUVECs exposed to oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Soyeon; Kim, Il-Kwon; Choi, Jung-Won; Seo, Hyang-Hee; Lim, Kyu Hee; Lee, Seahyoung; Lee, Hoon-Bum; Kim, Sang Woo; Hwang, Ki-Chul

    2017-01-01

    Stromal vascular fractions (SVFs) are a heterogeneous collection of cells within adipose tissue that are being studied for various clinical indications. In this study, we aimed to determine whether SVF transplantation into impaired tissues has differential effects on inflammatory and angiogenetic properties with regard to gender. As reactive oxygen species have been implicated in cardiovascular disease development, we investigated differences in gene and protein expression related to inflammation and angiogenesis in HUVECs co-cultured with adipose-derived SVFs from male (M group) and female (F group) individuals under oxidative stress conditions. The expression of several inflammatory (interleukin (IL)-33) and angiogenetic (platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)) factors differed dramatically between male and female donors. Anti-inflammatory and pro-angiogenetic responses were observed in HUVECs co-cultured with SVFs under oxidative stress conditions, and these characteristics may exhibit partially differential effects according to gender. Using network analysis, we showed that co-cu