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Sample records for angiosperms nuphar advena

  1. Comparative chloroplast genomics: Analyses including new sequencesfrom the angiosperms Nuphar advena and Ranunculus macranthus

    SciTech Connect

    Raubeso, Linda A.; Peery, Rhiannon; Chumley, Timothy W.; Dziubek,Chris; Fourcade, H. Matthew; Boore, Jeffrey L.; Jansen, Robert K.

    2007-03-01

    The number of completely sequenced plastid genomes available is growing rapidly. This new array of sequences presents new opportunities to perform comparative analyses. In comparative studies, it is most useful to compare across wide phylogenetic spans and, within angiosperms, to include representatives from basally diverging lineages such as the new genomes reported here: Nuphar advena (from a basal-most lineage) and Ranunculus macranthus (from the basal group of eudicots). We report these two new plastid genome sequences and make comparisons (within angiosperms, seed plants, or all photosynthetic lineages) to evaluate features such as the status of ycf15 and ycf68 as protein coding genes, the distribution of simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and longer dispersed repeats (SDR), and patterns of nucleotide composition.

  2. Comparative chloroplast genomics: analyses including new sequences from the angiosperms Nuphar advena and Ranunculus macranthus

    PubMed Central

    Raubeson, Linda A; Peery, Rhiannon; Chumley, Timothy W; Dziubek, Chris; Fourcade, H Matthew; Boore, Jeffrey L; Jansen, Robert K

    2007-01-01

    Background The number of completely sequenced plastid genomes available is growing rapidly. This array of sequences presents new opportunities to perform comparative analyses. In comparative studies, it is often useful to compare across wide phylogenetic spans and, within angiosperms, to include representatives from basally diverging lineages such as the genomes reported here: Nuphar advena (from a basal-most lineage) and Ranunculus macranthus (a basal eudicot). We report these two new plastid genome sequences and make comparisons (within angiosperms, seed plants, or all photosynthetic lineages) to evaluate features such as the status of ycf15 and ycf68 as protein coding genes, the distribution of simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and longer dispersed repeats (SDR), and patterns of nucleotide composition. Results The Nuphar [GenBank:NC_008788] and Ranunculus [GenBank:NC_008796] plastid genomes share characteristics of gene content and organization with many other chloroplast genomes. Like other plastid genomes, these genomes are A+T-rich, except for rRNA and tRNA genes. Detailed comparisons of Nuphar with Nymphaea, another Nymphaeaceae, show that more than two-thirds of these genomes exhibit at least 95% sequence identity and that most SSRs are shared. In broader comparisons, SSRs vary among genomes in terms of abundance and length and most contain repeat motifs based on A and T nucleotides. Conclusion SSR and SDR abundance varies by genome and, for SSRs, is proportional to genome size. Long SDRs are rare in the genomes assessed. SSRs occur less frequently than predicted and, although the majority of the repeat motifs do include A and T nucleotides, the A+T bias in SSRs is less than that predicted from the underlying genomic nucleotide composition. In codon usage third positions show an A+T bias, however variation in codon usage does not correlate with differences in A+T-richness. Thus, although plastome nucleotide composition shows "A+T richness", an A+T bias is not

  3. Comparative chloroplast genomics: analyses including new sequences from the angiosperms Nuphar advena and Ranunculus macranthus.

    PubMed

    Raubeson, Linda A; Peery, Rhiannon; Chumley, Timothy W; Dziubek, Chris; Fourcade, H Matthew; Boore, Jeffrey L; Jansen, Robert K

    2007-06-15

    The number of completely sequenced plastid genomes available is growing rapidly. This array of sequences presents new opportunities to perform comparative analyses. In comparative studies, it is often useful to compare across wide phylogenetic spans and, within angiosperms, to include representatives from basally diverging lineages such as the genomes reported here: Nuphar advena (from a basal-most lineage) and Ranunculus macranthus (a basal eudicot). We report these two new plastid genome sequences and make comparisons (within angiosperms, seed plants, or all photosynthetic lineages) to evaluate features such as the status of ycf15 and ycf68 as protein coding genes, the distribution of simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and longer dispersed repeats (SDR), and patterns of nucleotide composition. The Nuphar [GenBank:NC_008788] and Ranunculus [GenBank:NC_008796] plastid genomes share characteristics of gene content and organization with many other chloroplast genomes. Like other plastid genomes, these genomes are A+T-rich, except for rRNA and tRNA genes. Detailed comparisons of Nuphar with Nymphaea, another Nymphaeaceae, show that more than two-thirds of these genomes exhibit at least 95% sequence identity and that most SSRs are shared. In broader comparisons, SSRs vary among genomes in terms of abundance and length and most contain repeat motifs based on A and T nucleotides. SSR and SDR abundance varies by genome and, for SSRs, is proportional to genome size. Long SDRs are rare in the genomes assessed. SSRs occur less frequently than predicted and, although the majority of the repeat motifs do include A and T nucleotides, the A+T bias in SSRs is less than that predicted from the underlying genomic nucleotide composition. In codon usage third positions show an A+T bias, however variation in codon usage does not correlate with differences in A+T-richness. Thus, although plastome nucleotide composition shows "A+T richness", an A+T bias is not apparent upon more in

  4. Evolutionary trends in the floral transcriptome: insights from one of the basalmost angiosperms, the water lily Nuphar advena (Nymphaeaceae).

    PubMed

    Yoo, Mi-Jeong; Chanderbali, André S; Altman, Naomi S; Soltis, Pamela S; Soltis, Douglas E

    2010-11-01

    Current understanding of floral developmental genetics comes primarily from the core eudicot model Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, we explore the floral transcriptome of the basal angiosperm, Nuphar advena (water lily), for insights into the ancestral developmental program of flowers. We identify several thousand Nuphar genes with significantly upregulated floral expression, including homologs of the well-known ABCE floral regulators, deployed in broadly overlapping transcriptional programs across floral organ categories. Strong similarities in the expression profiles of different organ categories in Nuphar flowers are shared with the magnoliid Persea americana (avocado), in contrast to the largely organ-specific transcriptional cascades evident in Arabidopsis, supporting the inference that this is the ancestral condition in angiosperms. In contrast to most eudicots, floral organs are weakly differentiated in Nuphar and Persea, with staminodial intermediates between stamens and perianth in Nuphar, and between stamens and carpels in Persea. Consequently, the predominantly organ-specific transcriptional programs that characterize Arabidopsis flowers (and perhaps other eudicots) are derived, and correlate with a shift towards morphologically distinct floral organs, including differentiated sepals and petals, and a perianth distinct from stamens and carpels. Our findings suggest that the genetic regulation of more spatially discrete transcriptional programs underlies the evolution of floral morphology. © 2010 The Authors. The Plant Journal © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Pollination by flies, bees, and beetles of Nuphar ozarkana and N. advena (Nymphaeaceae).

    PubMed

    Lippok, B; Gardine, A A; Williamson, P S; Renner, S S

    2000-06-01

    Nuphar comprises 13 species of aquatic perennials distributed in the temperate Northern Hemisphere. The European species N. lutea and N. pumila in Norway, the Netherlands, and Germany are pollinated by bees and flies, including apparent Nuphar specialists. This contrasts with reports of predominant beetle pollination in American N. advena and N. polysepala. We studied pollination in N. ozarkana in Missouri and N. advena in Texas to assess whether (1) there is evidence of pollinator shifts associated with floral-morphological differences between Old World and New World species as hypothesized by Padgett, Les, and Crow (American Journal of Botany 86: 1316-1324. 1999) and (2) whether beetle pollination characterizes American species of Nuphar. Ninety-seven and 67% of flower visits in the two species were by sweat bees, especially Lasioglossum (Evylaeus) nelumbonis. Syrphid fly species visiting both species were Paragus sp., Chalcosyrphus metallicus, and Toxomerus geminatus. The long-horned leaf beetle Donacia piscatrix was common on leaves and stems of N. ozarkana but rarely visited flowers. Fifteen percent of visits to N. advena flowers were by D. piscatrix and D. texana. The beetles' role as pollinators was investigated experimentally by placing floating mesh cages that excluded flies and bees over N. advena buds about to open and adding beetles. Beetles visited 40% of the flowers in cages, and flowers that received visits had 69% seed set, likely due to beetle-mediated geitonogamy of 1st-d flowers. Experimentally outcrossed 1st-d flowers had 62% seed set, and open-pollinated flowers 76%; 2nd-d selfed or outcrossed flowers had low seed sets (9 and 12%, respectively). Flowers are strongly protogynous and do not self spontaneously. Flowers shielded from pollinators set no seeds. A comparison of pollinator spectra in the two Old World and three New World Nuphar species studied so far suggests that the relative contribution of flies, bees, and beetles to pollen transfer

  6. Xylem of early angiosperms: Nuphar (Nymphaeaceae) has novel tracheid microstructure1.

    PubMed

    Carlquist, Sherwin; Schneider, Edward L; Hellquist, C Barre

    2009-01-01

    SEM studies of xylem of stems of Nuphar reveal a novel feature, not previously reported for any angiosperm. Pit membranes of tracheid end walls are composed of coarse fibrils, densest on the distal (outside surface, facing the pit of an adjacent cell) surface of the pit membrane of a tracheid, thinner, and disposed at various levels on the lumen side of a pit membrane. The fibrils tend to be randomly oriented on the distal face of the pit membrane; the innermost fibrils facing the lumen take the form of longitudinally oriented strands. Where most abundantly present, the fibrils tend to be disposed in a spongiform, three-dimensional pattern. Pores that interconnect tracheids are present within the fibrillar meshwork. Pit membranes on lateral walls of stem tracheids bear variously diminished versions of this pattern. Pits of root tracheids are unlike those of stems in that the lumen side of pit membranes bears a reticulum revealed on the outer surface of the tracheid after most of the thickness of a pit membrane is shaved away by the sectioning process. No fibrillar texturing is visible on the root tracheid pits when they are viewed from the inside of a tracheid. Tracheid end walls of roots do contain pores of various sizes in pit membranes. These root and stem patterns were seen in six species representing the two sections of Nuphar, plus one intersectional hybrid, as well as in one collection of Nymphaea, included for purposes of comparison. Differences between root and stem tracheids with respect to microstructure are consistent in all species studied. Microstructural patterns reported here for stem tracheid pits of Nymphaeaceae are not like those of Chloranthaceae, Illiciaceae, or other basal angiosperms. They are not referable to any of the patterns reported for early vascular plants. The adaptational nature of the pit membrane structure in these tracheids is not apparent; microstructure of pit membranes in basal angiosperms is more diverse than thought prior to

  7. DEF- and GLO-like proteins may have lost most of their interaction partners during angiosperm evolution

    PubMed Central

    Melzer, Rainer; Härter, Andrea; Rümpler, Florian; Kim, Sangtae; Soltis, Pamela S.; Soltis, Douglas E.; Theißen, Günter

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims DEFICIENS (DEF)- and GLOBOSA (GLO)-like proteins constitute two sister clades of floral homeotic transcription factors that were already present in the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of extant angiosperms. Together they specify the identity of petals and stamens in flowering plants. In core eudicots, DEF- and GLO-like proteins are functional in the cell only as heterodimers with each other. There is evidence that this obligate heterodimerization contributed to the canalization of the flower structure of core eudicots during evolution. It remains unknown as to whether this strict heterodimerization is an ancient feature that can be traced back to the MRCA of extant flowering plants or if it evolved later during the evolution of the crown group angiosperms. Methods The interactions of DEF- and GLO-like proteins of the early-diverging angiosperms Amborella trichopoda and Nuphar advena and of the magnoliid Liriodendron tulipifera were analysed by employing yeast two-hybrid analysis and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). Character-state reconstruction, including data from other species as well, was used to infer the ancestral interaction patterns of DEF- and GLO-like proteins. Key Results The yeast two-hybrid and EMSA data suggest that DEF- and GLO-like proteins from early-diverging angiosperms both homo- and heterodimerize. Character-state reconstruction suggests that the ability to form heterodimeric complexes already existed in the MRCA of extant angiosperms and that this property remained highly conserved throughout angiosperm evolution. Homodimerization of DEF- and GLO-like proteins also existed in the MRCA of all extant angiosperms. DEF-like protein homodimerization was probably lost very early in angiosperm evolution and was not present in the MRCA of eudicots and monocots. GLO-like protein homodimerization might have been lost later during evolution, but very probably was not present in the MRCA of eudicots. Conclusions The

  8. DEF- and GLO-like proteins may have lost most of their interaction partners during angiosperm evolution.

    PubMed

    Melzer, Rainer; Härter, Andrea; Rümpler, Florian; Kim, Sangtae; Soltis, Pamela S; Soltis, Douglas E; Theißen, Günter

    2014-11-01

    DEFICIENS (DEF)- and GLOBOSA (GLO)-like proteins constitute two sister clades of floral homeotic transcription factors that were already present in the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of extant angiosperms. Together they specify the identity of petals and stamens in flowering plants. In core eudicots, DEF- and GLO-like proteins are functional in the cell only as heterodimers with each other. There is evidence that this obligate heterodimerization contributed to the canalization of the flower structure of core eudicots during evolution. It remains unknown as to whether this strict heterodimerization is an ancient feature that can be traced back to the MRCA of extant flowering plants or if it evolved later during the evolution of the crown group angiosperms. The interactions of DEF- and GLO-like proteins of the early-diverging angiosperms Amborella trichopoda and Nuphar advena and of the magnoliid Liriodendron tulipifera were analysed by employing yeast two-hybrid analysis and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). Character-state reconstruction, including data from other species as well, was used to infer the ancestral interaction patterns of DEF- and GLO-like proteins. The yeast two-hybrid and EMSA data suggest that DEF- and GLO-like proteins from early-diverging angiosperms both homo- and heterodimerize. Character-state reconstruction suggests that the ability to form heterodimeric complexes already existed in the MRCA of extant angiosperms and that this property remained highly conserved throughout angiosperm evolution. Homodimerization of DEF- and GLO-like proteins also existed in the MRCA of all extant angiosperms. DEF-like protein homodimerization was probably lost very early in angiosperm evolution and was not present in the MRCA of eudicots and monocots. GLO-like protein homodimerization might have been lost later during evolution, but very probably was not present in the MRCA of eudicots. The flexibility of DEF- and GLO-like protein interactions in

  9. Synthesis and Sulfur Electrophilicity of the Nuphar Thiaspirane Pharmacophore

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We describe a general method to synthesize the iminium tetrahydrothiophene embedded in the dimeric Nuphar alkaloids. In contrast to prior studies, the sulfur atom of the thiaspirane pharmacophore is shown to be electrophilic. This α-thioether reacts with thiophenol or glutathione at ambient temperature to cleave the C–S bond and form a disulfide. Rates of conversion are proportional to the corresponding ammonium ion pKa and exhibit half-lives less than 5 h at a 5 mM concentration of thiol. A simple thiophane analogue of the Nuphar dimers causes apoptosis at single-digit micromolar concentration and labels reactive cysteines at similar levels as the unsaturated iminium “warhead”. Our experiments combined with prior observations suggest the sulfur of the Nuphar dimers can react as an electrophile in cellular environments and that sulfur-triggered retrodimerization can occur in the cell. PMID:27413784

  10. Evidence for the hybrid origin of Nuphar xrubrodisca (Nymphaeaceae).

    PubMed

    Padgett, D J; Les, D; Crow, G

    1998-10-01

    Plants intermediate in appearance between Nuphar microphyllaand N. variegata (Nymphaeaceae) have long been assumed to bethe result of hybridization. The evidence for this is based primarilyon field observations of morphology, poor fruit production, closegeographical proximity of presumed parent species, and limited pollensterility data. Fertile populations of the same plants have also beendocumented. We employed multivariate analyses of morphology, pollenfertility studies, and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markersto test the hypothesis that Nuphar × rubrodiscarepresents a natural interspecific hybrid between N.microphylla and N. variegata. Examination of 15morphological characters demonstrated the intermediacy of N.× rubrodisca between N. microphylla and N.variegata, and the pollen data revealed a markedly lower meanpollen viability in N. × rubrodisca (23%)compared to the other two species (91 and 86%, respectively). Eight 10-mer primers produced 13 species-specific RAPD markers forN. microphylla and nine for N. variegata, with all 22markers present in N. × rubrodisca. The datafrom RAPDs are concordant with morphology in implicating N.microphylla and N. variegata as parents of N.×rubrodisca.

  11. Potent immunosuppressive principles, dimeric sesquiterpene thioalkaloids, isolated from nupharis rhizoma, the rhizoma of Nuphar pumilum (nymphaeaceae): structure-requirement of nuphar-alkaloid for immunosuppressive activity.

    PubMed

    Yamahara, J; Shimoda, H; Matsuda, H; Yoshikawa, M

    1996-09-01

    Potent immunosuppressants, the dimeric sesquiterpene thioalkaloids, 6-hydroxythiobinupharidine (2), 6,6'-dihydroxythiobinupharidine (3), 6-hydroxythionuphlutine B (5) and 6'-hydroxythionuphlutine B (6), were isolated from a natural medicine, Nupharis Rhizoma, the rhizoma of Nuphar pumilum (TIMM.) DC., through bioassay-guided separation together with five quinolizidine alkaloids (8, 9, 10, 11, 12). Dimeric sesquiterpene thioalkaloids (2, 3, 5, 6) were found to significantly inhibit anti-sheep erythrocyte plaque forming cell formation in mice spleen cells at 10(-6) M concentration. At this concentration, 2, 5 and 6 were found to exhibit no cytotoxicity to mice spleen cells, and 3 also showed only a little cytotoxicity. In addition, the inhibitory activity of several Nuphar alkaloids, dimeric sesquiterpene thioalkaloids (1, 4, 7, 8), and monomeric sesquiterpene alkaloids (9, 10, 11, 12) on anti-sheep erythrocyte plaque forming cell formation was examined and some structural requirement of Nuphar alkaloid for immunosuppressive activity was determined.

  12. Toward the Synthesis of Nuphar Sesquiterpene Thioalkaloids: Stereodivergent Rhodium-Catalyzed Synthesis of the Thiolane Subunit.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ping; Herrmann, Aaron T; Zakarian, Armen

    2015-08-07

    A stereodivergent approach to the central thiolane subunit of Nuphar sesquiterpene thioalkaloids has been developed. This approach features a rhodium-catalyzed Stevens-type rearrangement in conjunction with an enzyme resolution reaction. Further elaboration into a polycyclic ring system via alcohol oxidation and ring-closing metathesis is also described.

  13. Expression of floral MADS-box genes in basal angiosperms: implications for the evolution of floral regulators.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sangtae; Koh, Jin; Yoo, Mi-Jeong; Kong, Hongzhi; Hu, Yi; Ma, Hong; Soltis, Pamela S; Soltis, Douglas E

    2005-09-01

    The ABC model of floral organ identity is based on studies of Arabidopsis and Antirrhinum, both of which are highly derived eudicots. Most of the genes required for the ABC functions in Arabidopsis and Antirrhinum are members of the MADS-box gene family, and their orthologs are present in all major angiosperm lineages. Although the eudicots comprise 75% of all angiosperms, most of the diversity in arrangement and number of floral parts is actually found among basal angiosperm lineages, for which little is known about the genes that control floral development. To investigate the conservation and divergence of expression patterns of floral MADS-box genes in basal angiosperms relative to eudicot model systems, we isolated several floral MADS-box genes and examined their expression patterns in representative species, including Amborella (Amborellaceae), Nuphar (Nymphaeaceae) and Illicium (Austrobaileyales), the successive sister groups to all other extant angiosperms, plus Magnolia and Asimina, members of the large magnoliid clade. Our results from multiple methods (relative-quantitative RT-PCR, real-time PCR and RNA in situ hybridization) revealed that expression patterns of floral MADS-box genes in basal angiosperms are broader than those of their counterparts in eudicots and monocots. In particular, (i) AP1 homologs are generally expressed in all floral organs and leaves, (ii) AP3/PI homologs are generally expressed in all floral organs and (iii) AG homologs are expressed in stamens and carpels of most basal angiosperms, in agreement with the expectations of the ABC model; however, an AG homolog is also expressed in the tepals of Illicium. The broader range of strong expression of AP3/PI homologs is inferred to be the ancestral pattern for all angiosperms and is also consistent with the gradual morphological intergradations often observed between adjacent floral organs in basal angiosperms.

  14. Microsatellite markers for Nuphar japonica (Nymphaeaceae), an aquatic plant in the agricultural ecosystem of Japan1

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Toshiaki; Watanabe, Sonoko; Shiga, Takashi; Isagi, Yuji

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Nuphar species (Nymphaeaceae) are representative aquatic plants in irrigation ponds in Japanese agricultural ecosystems. We developed 15 polymorphic microsatellite markers for N. japonica and confirmed their utility for its close relatives N. oguraensis var. akiensis and N. ×saijoensis, which originated from natural hybridization between N. japonica and N. oguraensis. Methods and Results: Genetic variation was characterized in 15 polymorphic loci in three populations of N. japonica. The average number of alleles per locus was 3.47 (range = 2−9; n = 32), and the average expected heterozygosity per locus was 0.84 (range = 0.5–1.0); 11 loci were amplified in N. oguraensis var. akiensis and 15 in N. ×saijoensis. Conclusions: The polymorphic microsatellite markers developed in this study will be useful for investigating the levels of genetic diversity within remnant populations of Nuphar taxa and could provide a valuable tool for conservation genetics of these taxa. PMID:28101435

  15. Microsatellite markers for Nuphar japonica (Nymphaeaceae), an aquatic plant in the agricultural ecosystem of Japan.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Toshiaki; Watanabe, Sonoko; Shiga, Takashi; Isagi, Yuji

    2016-12-01

    Nuphar species (Nymphaeaceae) are representative aquatic plants in irrigation ponds in Japanese agricultural ecosystems. We developed 15 polymorphic microsatellite markers for N. japonica and confirmed their utility for its close relatives N. oguraensis var. akiensis and N. ×saijoensis, which originated from natural hybridization between N. japonica and N. oguraensis. Genetic variation was characterized in 15 polymorphic loci in three populations of N. japonica. The average number of alleles per locus was 3.47 (range = 2-9; n = 32), and the average expected heterozygosity per locus was 0.84 (range = 0.5-1.0); 11 loci were amplified in N. oguraensis var. akiensis and 15 in N. ×saijoensis. The polymorphic microsatellite markers developed in this study will be useful for investigating the levels of genetic diversity within remnant populations of Nuphar taxa and could provide a valuable tool for conservation genetics of these taxa.

  16. Anatomically preserved seeds of Nuphar (Nymphaeaceae) from the Early Eocene of Wutu, Shandong Province, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Iju; Manchester, Steven R; Chen, Zhiduan

    2004-08-01

    Well-preserved seeds from the early Eocene of Wutu, Shandong, China are assigned to the genus Nuphar (Nymphaeaceae) based on morphology and anatomy. The seeds of Nuphar wutuensis sp. nov. are ellipsoidal to ovoid, 4-5 mm long with a clearly visible raphe ridge, and a truncate apex capped by a circular operculum ca. 1 mm in diameter bearing a central micropylar protrusion. These features, along with the testa composed of a uniseriate outer layer of equiaxial pentagonal to hexagonal surface cells and a middle layer 4-6 cells thick composed of thick-walled, periclinally elongate sclereids, correspond to the morphology and anatomy of extant Nuphar and distinguish this fossil species from all other extant and extinct genera of Nymphaeales. These seeds provide the oldest record for the genus in Asia and are supplemented by a similar well-preserved specimen from the Paleocene of North Dakota, USA. These data, together with the prior recognition of Brasenia (Cabombaceae) in the middle Eocene, indicate that the families Nymphaeaceae and Cabombaceae had differentiated by the early Tertiary.

  17. Phylogenetic relationships in Nuphar (Nymphaeaceae): evidence from morphology, chloroplast DNA, and nuclear ribosomal DNA.

    PubMed

    Padgett, D J; Les, D H; Crow, G E

    1999-09-01

    The genus Nuphar consists of yellow-flowered waterlilies and is widely distributed in north-temperate bodies of water. Despite regular taxonomic evaluation of these plants, no explicit phylogenetic hypotheses have been proposed for the genus. We investigated phylogenetic relationships in Nuphar using morphology and sequences of the chloroplast gene matK and of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of nuclear ribosomal DNA. Two major lineages within Nuphar are consistently resolved with the morphological and molecular data sets. One lineage comprises New World taxa and the other represents a primarily Old World lineage. Relationships within the major lineages were poorly resolved by morphology and ITS, yet certain relationships were elucidated by all analyses. Most notable is the strong support for a monophyletic lineage of dwarf taxa and the alliance of the North American N. microphylla with the Eurasian taxa. Minor discordance between the independent cladograms is accounted for by hybridization. The common taxonomic practice of uniting all North American and Eurasian taxa under one species is not supported phylogenetically.

  18. Reconstructing the ancestral female gametophyte of angiosperms: Insights from Amborella and other ancient lineages of flowering plants.

    PubMed

    Friedman, William E; Ryerson, Kirsten C

    2009-01-01

    For more than a century, the common ancestor of flowering plants was thought to have had a seven-celled, eight-nucleate Polygonum-type female gametophyte. It is now evident that not one, but in fact three, patterns of female gametophyte development and mature structure characterize the common ancestors of the four most ancient clades of extant angiosperms: Amborella-type, Nuphar/Schisandra-type and Polygonum-type. The Amborella-type female gametophyte is restricted to a single extant species, Amborella trichopoda, and at maturity consists of eight cells and nine nuclei. Development of the Amborella-type gametophyte is essentially identical to the Polygonum-type except that there is an additional and asynchronous cell division at the micropylar pole prior to maturation that produces a third synergid and the egg cell. The Nuphar/Schisandra-type female gametophyte is four-nucleate and four-celled and at maturity contains a typical three-celled egg apparatus and a central cell with a single haploid polar nucleus. This type of gametophyte appears to be universal among extant members of the Nymphaeales (including Hydatellaceae) and Austrobaileyales. Based on explicit reconstruction of character distribution and evolution, the Polygonum-type female gametophyte is certain to be representative of the common ancestors of monocots, eudicots, magnoliids, Ceratophyllaceae, and Chloranthaceae. There are compelling biological reasons to suggest that the four-celled, four-nucleate female gametophyte (as found in Nymphaeales and Austrobaileyales) is ancestral among angiosperms, with transitions to Polygonum-type female gametophytes separately in the Amborellales and in the ancient angiosperm clade that includes all angiosperms except Amborella, Nymphaeales, and Austrobaileyales. Subsequent to the evolution of a seven-celled, eight-nucleate Polygonum-type female gametophyte in the Amborellales, we hypothesize that a peramorphic increase in egg apparatus cell number took place and

  19. Phylogeny and divergence of basal angiosperms inferred from APETALA3- and PISTILLATA-like MADS-box genes.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Seishiro; Uehara, Koichi; Imafuku, Masao; Hasebe, Mitsuyasu; Ito, Motomi

    2004-06-01

    The B-class MADS-box genes composed of APETALA3 ( AP3) and PISTILLATA ( PI) lineages play an important role in petal and stamen identity in previously studied flowering plants. We investigated the diversification of the AP3-like and PI-like MADS-box genes of eight species in five basal angiosperm families: Amborella trichopoda (Amborellaceae); Brasenia schreberi and Cabomba caroliniana (Cabombaceae); Euryale ferox, Nuphar japonicum, and Nymphaea tetragona (Nymphaeaceae); Illicium anisatum (Illiciaceae); and Kadsura japonica (Schisandraceae). Sequence analysis showed that a four amino acid deletion in the K domain, which was found in all previously reported angiosperm PI genes, exists in a PI homologue of Schisandraceae, but not in six PI homologues of the Amborellaceae, Cabombaceae, and Nymphaeaceae, suggesting that the Amborellaceae, Cabombaceae, and Nymphaeaceae are basalmost lineages in angiosperms. The results of molecular phylogenetic analyses were not inconsistent with this hypothesis. The AP3 and PI homologues from Amborella share a sequence of five amino acids in the 5' region of exon 7. Using the linearized tree and likelihood methods, the divergence time between the AP3 and PI lineages was estimated as somewhere between immediately after to several tens of millions of years after the split between angiosperms and extant gymnosperms. Estimates of the age of the most recent common ancestor of all extant angiosperms range from approximately 140-210 Ma, depending on the trees used and assumptions made.

  20. Phylogenetic and evolutionary implications of complete chloroplast genome sequences of four early-diverging angiosperms: Buxus (Buxaceae), Chloranthus (Chloranthaceae), Dioscorea (Dioscoreaceae), and Illicium (Schisandraceae).

    PubMed

    Hansen, Debra R; Dastidar, Sayantani G; Cai, Zhengqiu; Penaflor, Cynthia; Kuehl, Jennifer V; Boore, Jeffrey L; Jansen, Robert K

    2007-11-01

    We have determined the complete chloroplast genome sequences of four early-diverging lineages of angiosperms, Buxus (Buxaceae), Chloranthus (Chloranthaceae), Dioscorea (Dioscoreaceae), and Illicium (Schisandraceae), to examine the organization and evolution of plastid genomes and to estimate phylogenetic relationships among angiosperms. For the most part, the organization of these plastid genomes is quite similar to the ancestral angiosperm plastid genome with a few notable exceptions. Dioscorea has lost one protein-coding gene, rps16; this gene loss has also happened independently in four other land plant lineages, liverworts, conifers, Populus, and legumes. There has also been a small expansion of the inverted repeat (IR) in Dioscorea that has duplicated trnH-GUG. This event has also occurred multiple times in angiosperms, including in monocots, and in the two basal angiosperms Nuphar and Drimys. The Illicium chloroplast genome is unusual by having a 10 kb contraction of the IR. The four taxa sequenced represent key groups in resolving phylogenetic relationships among angiosperms. Illicium is one of the basal angiosperms in the Austrobaileyales, Chloranthus (Chloranthales) remains unplaced in angiosperm classifications, and Buxus and Dioscorea are early-diverging eudicots and monocots, respectively. We have used sequences for 61 shared protein-coding genes from these four genomes and combined them with sequences from 35 other genomes to estimate phylogenetic relationships using parsimony, likelihood, and Bayesian methods. There is strong congruence among the trees generated by the three methods, and most nodes have high levels of support. The results indicate that Amborella alone is sister to the remaining angiosperms; the Nymphaeales represent the next-diverging clade followed by Illicium; Chloranthus is sister to the magnoliids and together this group is sister to a large clade that includes eudicots and monocots; and Dioscorea represents an early

  1. Phylogeny and diversification of B-function MADS-box genes in angiosperms: evolutionary and functional implications of a 260-million-year-old duplication.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sangtae; Yoo, Mi-Jeong; Albert, Victor A; Farris, James S; Soltis, Pamela S; Soltis, Douglas E

    2004-12-01

    B-function MADS-box genes play crucial roles in floral development in model angiosperms. We reconstructed the structural and functional implications of B-function gene phylogeny in the earliest extant flowering plants based on analyses that include 25 new AP3 and PI sequences representing critical lineages of the basalmost angiosperms: Amborella, Nuphar (Nymphaeaceae), and Illicium (Austrobaileyales). The ancestral size of exon 5 in PI-homologues is 42 bp, typical of exon 5 in other plant MADS-box genes. This 42-bp length is found in PI-homologues from Amborella and Nymphaeaceae, successive sisters to all other angiosperms. Following these basalmost branches, a deletion occurred in exon 5, yielding a length of 30 bp, a condition that unites all other angiosperms. Several shared amino acid strings, including a prominent "DEAER" motif, are present in the AP3- and PI-homologues of Amborella. These may be ancestral motifs that were present before the duplication that yielded the AP3 and PI lineages and subsequently were modified after the divergence of Amborella. Other structural features were identified, including a motif that unites the previously described TM6 clade and a deletion in AP3-homologues that unites all Magnoliales. Phylogenetic analyses of AP3- and PI-homologues yielded gene trees that generally track organismal phylogeny as inferred by multigene data sets. With both AP3 and PI amino acid sequences, Amborella and Nymphaeaceae are sister to all other angiosperms. Using nonparametric rate smoothing (NPRS), we estimated that the duplication that produced the AP3 and PI lineages occurred approximately 260 mya (231-290). This places the duplication after the split between extant gymnosperms and angiosperms, but well before the oldest angiosperm fossils. A striking similarity in the multimer-signalling C domains of the Amborella proteins suggests the potential for the formation of unique transcription-factor complexes. The earliest angiosperms may have been

  2. Enantiospecific Synthesis and Biological Investigations of a Nuphar Alkaloid: Proposed Structure of a Castoreum Component

    PubMed Central

    Seki, Hajime; Georg, Gunda I.

    2014-01-01

    An enantiospecific synthesis of a Nuphar alkaloid was achieved in 9 steps from N-Boc-(L)-proline. The alkaloid is a minor component of castoreum, the dried scent glands of the beaver. During the course of our study, the stereochemistry of three synthetic intermediates was verified by X-ray analysis, which contributes to resolving existing discrepancies among the literature reports regarding the synthesis of this particular compound. Based on our synthesis, we propose the structure of the natural product. Also, intrigued by castoreum’s therapeutic effect, which was used in ancient Greece and Rome for gynecological and other purposes, biological screening was conducted. We found that the alkaloid has affinity for the oxytocin receptor. PMID:25395879

  3. Angiosperm ovules: diversity, development, evolution

    PubMed Central

    Endress, Peter K.

    2011-01-01

    Background Ovules as developmental precursors of seeds are organs of central importance in angiosperm flowers and can be traced back in evolution to the earliest seed plants. Angiosperm ovules are diverse in their position in the ovary, nucellus thickness, number and thickness of integuments, degree and direction of curvature, and histological differentiations. There is a large body of literature on this diversity, and various views on its evolution have been proposed over the course of time. Most recently evo–devo studies have been concentrated on molecular developmental genetics in ovules of model plants. Scope The present review provides a synthetic treatment of several aspects of the sporophytic part of ovule diversity, development and evolution, based on extensive research on the vast original literature and on experience from my own comparative studies in a broad range of angiosperm clades. Conclusions In angiosperms the presence of an outer integument appears to be instrumental for ovule curvature, as indicated from studies on ovule diversity through the major clades of angiosperms, molecular developmental genetics in model species, abnormal ovules in a broad range of angiosperms, and comparison with gymnosperms with curved ovules. Lobation of integuments is not an atavism indicating evolution from telomes, but simply a morphogenetic constraint from the necessity of closure of the micropyle. Ovule shape is partly dependent on locule architecture, which is especially indicated by the occurrence of orthotropous ovules. Some ovule features are even more conservative than earlier assumed and thus of special interest in angiosperm macrosystematics. PMID:21606056

  4. Identifying the Basal Angiosperm Node in Chloroplast GenomePhylogenies: Sampling One's Way Out of the Felsenstein Zone

    SciTech Connect

    Leebens-Mack, Jim; Raubeson, Linda A.; Cui, Liying; Kuehl,Jennifer V.; Fourcade, Matthew H.; Chumley, Timothy W.; Boore, JeffreyL.; Jansen, Robert K.; dePamphilis, Claude W.

    2005-05-27

    While there has been strong support for Amborella and Nymphaeales (water lilies) as branching from basal-most nodes in the angiosperm phylogeny, this hypothesis has recently been challenged by phylogenetic analyses of 61 protein-coding genes extracted from the chloroplast genome sequences of Amborella, Nymphaea and 12 other available land plant chloroplast genomes. These character-rich analyses placed the monocots, represented by three grasses (Poaceae), as sister to all other extant angiosperm lineages. We have extracted protein-coding regions from draft sequences for six additional chloroplast genomes to test whether this surprising result could be an artifact of long-branch attraction due to limited taxon sampling. The added taxa include three monocots (Acorus, Yucca and Typha), a water lily (Nuphar), a ranunculid(Ranunculus), and a gymnosperm (Ginkgo). Phylogenetic analyses of the expanded DNA and protein datasets together with microstructural characters (indels) provided unambiguous support for Amborella and the Nymphaeales as branching from the basal-most nodes in the angiospermphylogeny. However, their relative positions proved to be dependent on method of analysis, with parsimony favoring Amborella as sister to all other angiosperms, and maximum likelihood and neighbor-joining methods favoring an Amborella + Nympheales clade as sister. The maximum likelihood phylogeny supported the later hypothesis, but the likelihood for the former hypothesis was not significantly different. Parametric bootstrap analysis, single gene phylogenies, estimated divergence dates and conflicting in del characters all help to illuminate the nature of the conflict in resolution of the most basal nodes in the angiospermphylogeny. Molecular dating analyses provided median age estimates of 161 mya for the most recent common ancestor of all extant angiosperms and 145 mya for the most recent common ancestor of monocots, magnoliids andeudicots. Whereas long sequences reduce variance in

  5. Experimental insights into angiosperm origins.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomax, Barry; Lee, Alex; Smilie, Ian; Knight, Charles; Upchurch, Garland

    2017-04-01

    The angiosperms occupy almost every habitat type on Earth and comprise nearly 90% of extant plant species. Yet this ascendency is a relatively recent (geological) phenomenon. Palaeobotanical evidence indicates a likely first occurrence in the Early Cretaceous followed by a relatively rapid increase in diversity with their rise to dominance marking the onset of modern world. Understanding this diversification event has been a key research question since Darwin commented on this "abominable mystery", and it remains one of the most significant unanswered questions in plant biology. Sequencing work shows that the diversification and radiation was accompanied by successive whole genome duplication (WGD) events. Furthermore proxy data and predictions from long-term carbon cycle models indicate that the angiosperm diversification was accompanied by a decline in atmospheric CO2. These observation raise the intriguing possibility that declining atmospheric CO2 concentration and capacity to undergo polyploidy could have given angiosperms a competitive advantage when compared to other plant groups. Using comparative ecophysiology we set out to test the effects of declining atmospheric CO2 by growing a six species (Ranunculus acris and Polypodium vulgare, chosen to represent Cretaceous understorey angiosperms and pteridophytes respectively. Liquidambar styraciflua and Laurus nobilis represented canopy angiosperms and Ginkgo biloba and Metasequoia glyptostroboides canopy gymnosperms) in controlled conditions across a CO2 gradient (2000, 1200, 800 and 400 ppm) to simulate Cretaceous CO2decline. To test for WGDs we use the relationship between guard cell size and genome size to reconstruct angiosperm genome size as they radiated. Analysis of our fossil dataset shows that earliest angiosperms had a small genome size. Our experimental work shows that angiosperms have a greater capacity for acclimation suggesting that declining CO2 could have acted as a trigger for the angiosperm

  6. Comparative leaf development in angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Tsukaya, Hirokazu

    2014-02-01

    Recent accumulation of our knowledge on basic leaf development mechanisms in model angiosperm species has allowed us to pursue evolutionary development (evo/devo) studies of various kinds of leaf development. As a result, unexpected findings and clues have been unearthed aiding our understanding of the mechanisms involved in the diversity of leaf morphology, although the covered remain limited. In this review, we highlight recent findings of diversified leaf development in angiosperms.

  7. Comparative embryology of basal angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Friedman, W E

    2001-02-01

    Recent phylogenetic analyses of basal angiosperms have identified those lineages central to the study of the origin and early diversification of flowering plants. As we begin to understand the early evolution of endosperm developmental patterns in flowering plants, it is apparent that we know little about the other basic embryological features of basal angiosperms, such as the nature of the female gametophyte and even whether a process of double fertilization occurs.

  8. Montsechia, an ancient aquatic angiosperm.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Bernard; Daviero-Gomez, Véronique; Coiffard, Clément; Martín-Closas, Carles; Dilcher, David L

    2015-09-01

    The early diversification of angiosperms in diverse ecological niches is poorly understood. Some have proposed an origin in a darkened forest habitat and others an open aquatic or near aquatic habitat. The research presented here centers on Montsechia vidalii, first recovered from lithographic limestone deposits in the Pyrenees of Spain more than 100 y ago. This fossil material has been poorly understood and misinterpreted in the past. Now, based upon the study of more than 1,000 carefully prepared specimens, a detailed analysis of Montsechia is presented. The morphology and anatomy of the plant, including aspects of its reproduction, suggest that Montsechia is sister to Ceratophyllum (whenever cladistic analyses are made with or without a backbone). Montsechia was an aquatic angiosperm living and reproducing below the surface of the water, similar to Ceratophyllum. Montsechia is Barremian in age, raising questions about the very early divergence of the Ceratophyllum clade compared with its position as sister to eudicots in many cladistic analyses. Lower Cretaceous aquatic angiosperms, such as Archaefructus and Montsechia, open the possibility that aquatic plants were locally common at a very early stage of angiosperm evolution and that aquatic habitats may have played a major role in the diversification of some early angiosperm lineages.

  9. Flower diversity and angiosperm diversification.

    PubMed

    Soltis, Pamela S; Soltis, Douglas E

    2014-01-01

    The flower itself, which comprises most of the evolutionary innovations of flowering plants, bears special significance for understanding the origin and diversification of angiosperms. The sudden origin of angiosperms in the fossil record poses unanswered questions on both the origins of flowering plants and their rapid spread and diversification. Central to these questions is the role that the flower, and floral diversity, played. Recent clarifications of angiosperm phylogeny provide the foundation for investigating evolutionary transitions in floral features and the underlying genetic mechanisms of stasis and change. The general features of floral diversity can best be addressed by considering key patterns of variation: an undifferentiated versus a differentiated perianth; elaboration of perianth organs in size and color; merosity of the flower; and phyllotaxy of floral organs. Various models of gene expression now explain the regulation of floral organization and floral organ identity; the best understood are the ABC(E) model and its modifications, but other gene systems are important in specific clades and require further study. Furthermore, the propensity for gene and genome duplications in angiosperms provides abundant raw material for novel floral features--emphasizing the importance of understanding the conservation and diversification of gene lineages and functions in studies of macroevolution.

  10. Heterophylly in the yellow waterlily, Nuphar variegata (Nymphaeaceae): effects of [CO2], natural sediment type, and water depth.

    PubMed

    Titus, J E; Gary Sullivan, P

    2001-08-01

    We transplanted Nuphar variegata with submersed leaves only into natural lake sediments in pH-, [CO(2)]-, depth-, and temperature-controlled greenhouse tanks to test the hypotheses that more fertile sediment, lower free [CO(2)], and shallower depth would all stimulate the development of floating leaves. Sediment higher in porewater [NH(4)(+)] favored floating leaf development. Low CO(2)-grown plants initiated floating leaf development significantly earlier than high CO(2)-grown plants, which produced significantly more submersed leaves and fewer floating leaves. Mean floating leaf biomass was significantly greater than mean submersed leaf biomass but was not influenced by CO(2) enrichment, whereas mean submersed leaf biomass increased 88% at high [CO(2)]. At the shallower depth (35 cm), floating leaves required 50% less biomass investment per leaf than at 70 cm, and a significantly greater proportion of plants had floating leaves (70 vs. 23-43% at 35 vs. 70 cm, respectively) for the last three of the eight leaf censuses. Sediment type, water depth, and especially free [CO(2)] all can influence leaf morphogenesis in Nuphar variegata, and the development of more and larger submersed leaves with CO(2) enrichment favors the exploitation of high [CO(2)] when it is present in the water column.

  11. Early Cretaceous angiosperms and beetle evolution

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bo; Zhang, Haichun; Jarzembowski, Edmund A.

    2013-01-01

    The Coleoptera (beetles) constitute almost one–fourth of all known life-forms on earth. They are also among the most important pollinators of flowering plants, especially basal angiosperms. Beetle fossils are abundant, almost spanning the entire Early Cretaceous, and thus provide important clues to explore the co-evolutionary processes between beetles and angiosperms. We review the fossil record of some Early Cretaceous polyphagan beetles including Tenebrionoidea, Scarabaeoidea, Curculionoidea, and Chrysomeloidea. Both the fossil record and molecular analyses reveal that these four groups had already diversified during or before the Early Cretaceous, clearly before the initial rise of angiosperms to widespread floristic dominance. These four beetle groups are important pollinators of basal angiosperms today, suggesting that their ecological association with angiosperms probably formed as early as in the Early Cretaceous. With the description of additional well-preserved fossils and improvements in phylogenetic analyses, our knowledge of Mesozoic beetle–angiosperm mutualisms will greatly increase during the near future. PMID:24062759

  12. Early Cretaceous angiosperms and beetle evolution.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Zhang, Haichun; Jarzembowski, Edmund A

    2013-09-12

    The Coleoptera (beetles) constitute almost one-fourth of all known life-forms on earth. They are also among the most important pollinators of flowering plants, especially basal angiosperms. Beetle fossils are abundant, almost spanning the entire Early Cretaceous, and thus provide important clues to explore the co-evolutionary processes between beetles and angiosperms. We review the fossil record of some Early Cretaceous polyphagan beetles including Tenebrionoidea, Scarabaeoidea, Curculionoidea, and Chrysomeloidea. Both the fossil record and molecular analyses reveal that these four groups had already diversified during or before the Early Cretaceous, clearly before the initial rise of angiosperms to widespread floristic dominance. These four beetle groups are important pollinators of basal angiosperms today, suggesting that their ecological association with angiosperms probably formed as early as in the Early Cretaceous. With the description of additional well-preserved fossils and improvements in phylogenetic analyses, our knowledge of Mesozoic beetle-angiosperm mutualisms will greatly increase during the near future.

  13. Schmeissneria: A missing link to angiosperms?

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin; Duan, Shuying; Geng, Baoyin; Cui, Jinzhong; Yang, Yong

    2007-01-01

    Background The origin of angiosperms has been under debate since the time of Darwin. While there has been much speculation in past decades about pre-Cretaceous angiosperms, including Archaefructus, these reports are controversial. The earliest reliable fossil record of angiosperms remains restricted to the Cretaceous, even though recent molecular phylogenetic studies suggest an origin for angiosperms much earlier than the current fossil record. Results In this paper, after careful SEM and light microscopic work, we report fossils with angiospermous traits of the Jurassic age. The fossils were collected from the Haifanggou Formation (middle Jurassic) in western Liaoning, northeast China. They include two female structures and an associated leaf on the same slab. One of the female structures is physically connected to the apex of a short shoot. The female organs are borne in pairs on short peduncles that are arranged along the axis of the female structure. Each of the female organs has a central unit that is surrounded by an envelope with characteristic longitudinal ribs. Each central unit has two locules completely separated by a vertical septum. The apex of the central unit is completely closed. The general morphology places these fossils into the scope of Schmeissneria, an early Jurassic genus that was previously attributed to Ginkgoales. Conclusion Because the closed carpel is a character only found in angiosperms, the closed apex of the central unit suggests the presence of angiospermy in Schmeissneria. This angiospermous trait implies either a Jurassic angiosperm or a new seed plant group parallel to angiosperms and other known seed plants. As an angiosperm, the Liassic age (earliest Jurassic) of Schmeissneria microstachys would suggest an origin of angiosperms during the Triassic. Although still uncertain, this could have a great impact on our perspective of the history, diversity and systematics of seed plants and angiosperms. PMID:17284326

  14. Schmeissneria: a missing link to angiosperms?

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Duan, Shuying; Geng, Baoyin; Cui, Jinzhong; Yang, Yong

    2007-02-07

    The origin of angiosperms has been under debate since the time of Darwin. While there has been much speculation in past decades about pre-Cretaceous angiosperms, including Archaefructus, these reports are controversial. The earliest reliable fossil record of angiosperms remains restricted to the Cretaceous, even though recent molecular phylogenetic studies suggest an origin for angiosperms much earlier than the current fossil record. In this paper, after careful SEM and light microscopic work, we report fossils with angiospermous traits of the Jurassic age. The fossils were collected from the Haifanggou Formation (middle Jurassic) in western Liaoning, northeast China. They include two female structures and an associated leaf on the same slab. One of the female structures is physically connected to the apex of a short shoot. The female organs are borne in pairs on short peduncles that are arranged along the axis of the female structure. Each of the female organs has a central unit that is surrounded by an envelope with characteristic longitudinal ribs. Each central unit has two locules completely separated by a vertical septum. The apex of the central unit is completely closed. The general morphology places these fossils into the scope of Schmeissneria, an early Jurassic genus that was previously attributed to Ginkgoales. Because the closed carpel is a character only found in angiosperms, the closed apex of the central unit suggests the presence of angiospermy in Schmeissneria. This angiospermous trait implies either a Jurassic angiosperm or a new seed plant group parallel to angiosperms and other known seed plants. As an angiosperm, the Liassic age (earliest Jurassic) of Schmeissneria microstachys would suggest an origin of angiosperms during the Triassic. Although still uncertain, this could have a great impact on our perspective of the history, diversity and systematics of seed plants and angiosperms.

  15. Genome duplication and the origin of angiosperms.

    PubMed

    De Bodt, Stefanie; Maere, Steven; Van de Peer, Yves

    2005-11-01

    Despite intensive research, little is known about the origin of the angiosperms and their rise to ecological dominance during the Early Cretaceous. Based on whole-genome analyses of Arabidopsis thaliana, there is compelling evidence that angiosperms underwent two whole-genome duplication events early during their evolutionary history. Recent studies have shown that these events were crucial for the creation of many important developmental and regulatory genes found in extant angiosperm genomes. Here, we argue that these ancient polyploidy events might have also had an important role in the origin and diversification of the angiosperms.

  16. Anti-inflammatory effect of a Nuphar lutea partially purified leaf extract in murine models of septic shock.

    PubMed

    Ozer, J; Levi, T; Golan-Goldhirsh, A; Gopas, J

    2015-02-23

    Various plant organs of Nuphar lutea (L.) SM. (Nymphaeaceae) are used in traditional medicine for the treatment of arthritis, fever, aches, pains and inflammation. The main purpose of this study was to determine the anti-inflammatory effect of Nuphar lutea leaf extract (NUP) in two septic shock models: (1) Survival of mice challenged with a lethal dose of LPS, determination of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines in serum, as well as in peritoneal macrophages in cell culture. (2) The effect of NUP in a murine model of fecal-induced peritonitis. NUP pre-treatment partially protected mice in two models of acute septic shock. We concluded that NUP is anti-inflammatory by inhibiting the NF-κB pathway, modulating cytokine production and ERK phosphorylation. A significant average survival rate (60%) of LPS lethally-challenged mice was achieved by pre-treatment with NUP. In addition, NUP pre-treatment reduced nuclear NF-κB translocation in peritoneal macrophages. The production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-12, in the sera of LPS-treated mice or in the supernatants of peritoneal macrophages stimulated with LPS for 2-6 h was also decreased by NUP. Pre-treatment with NUP caused a significant increase in the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. The NUP pre-treatment reduced and delayed mortality in mice with fecal-induced peritonitis. Our studies also revealed that NUP pre-treatment induced a dose-dependent phosphorylation of ERK in peritoneal macrophages. Since most of the reports about the anti-inflammatory effect of Nuphar lutea refer to rhizome and root powder and extracts, it is important to clarify the effectiveness of leaf extract as a source for such activity. NUP pre-treatment partially protected mice in two models of acute septic shock. We concluded that NUP is anti-inflammatory by inhibiting the NF-κB pathway, modulating cytokine production and ERK phosphorylation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Origin and early evolution of angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Soltis, Douglas E; Bell, Charles D; Kim, Sangtae; Soltis, Pamela S

    2008-01-01

    Contributions from paleobotany, phylogenetics, genomics, developmental biology, and developmental genetics have yielded tremendous insight into Darwin's "abominable mystery"--the origin and rapid diversification of the angiosperms. Analyses of morphological and molecular data reveal a revised "anthophyte clade" consisting of the fossils glossopterids, Pentoxylon, Bennettitales, and Caytonia as sister to angiosperms. Molecular estimates of the age of crown group angiosperms have converged on 140-180 million years ago (Ma), older than the oldest fossils (132 Ma), suggesting that older fossils remain to be discovered. Whether the first angiosperms were forest shrubs (dark-and-disturbed hypothesis) or aquatic herbs (wet-and-wild hypothesis) remains unclear. The near-basal phylogenetic position of Nymphaeales (water lilies), which may include the well-known fossil Archaefructus, certainly indicates that the aquatic habit arose early. After initial, early "experiments," angiosperms radiated rapidly (angiosperm species. Updated estimates of divergence times across the angiosperms conducted using nonparametric rate smoothing, with one or multiple fossils, were older than previous reports, whereas estimates using PATHd8 were typically younger. Virtually all angiosperm genomes show evidence of whole-genome duplication, indicating that polyploidy may have been an important catalyst in angiosperm evolution. Although the flower is the central feature of the angiosperms, its origin and subsequent diversification remain major questions. Variation in spatial expression of floral regulators may control major differences in floral morphology between basal angiosperms and eudicot models.

  18. Frequent chloroplast RNA editing in early-branching flowering plants: pilot studies on angiosperm-wide coexistence of editing sites and their nuclear specificity factors.

    PubMed

    Hein, Anke; Polsakiewicz, Monika; Knoop, Volker

    2016-01-25

    RNA editing by cytidine-to-uridine conversions is an essential step of RNA maturation in plant organelles. Some 30-50 sites of C-to-U RNA editing exist in chloroplasts of flowering plant models like Arabidopsis, rice or tobacco. We now predicted significantly more RNA editing in chloroplasts of early-branching angiosperm genera like Amborella, Calycanthus, Ceratophyllum, Chloranthus, Illicium, Liriodendron, Magnolia, Nuphar and Zingiber. Nuclear-encoded RNA-binding pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins are key editing factors expected to coevolve with their cognate RNA editing sites in the organelles. With an extensive chloroplast transcriptome study we identified 138 sites of RNA editing in Amborella trichopoda, approximately the 3- to 4-fold of cp editing in Arabidopsis thaliana or Oryza sativa. Selected cDNA studies in the other early-branching flowering plant taxa furthermore reveal a high diversity of early angiosperm RNA editomes. Many of the now identified editing sites in Amborella have orthologues in ferns, lycophytes or hornworts. We investigated the evolution of CRR28 and RARE1, two known Arabidopsis RNA editing factors responsible for cp editing events ndhBeU467PL, ndhDeU878SL and accDeU794SL, respectively, all of which we now found conserved in Amborella. In a phylogenetically wide sampling of 65 angiosperm genomes we find evidence for only one single loss of CRR28 in chickpea but several independent losses of RARE1, perfectly congruent with the presence of their cognate editing sites in the respective cpDNAs. Chloroplast RNA editing is much more abundant in early-branching than in widely investigated model flowering plants. RNA editing specificity factors can be traced back for more than 120 million years of angiosperm evolution and show highly divergent patterns of evolutionary losses, matching the presence of their target editing events.

  19. Biodiversity: modelling angiosperms as networks.

    PubMed

    Gottlieb, O R; Borin, M R

    2000-11-01

    In the neotropics, one of the last biological frontiers, the major ecological concern should not involve local strategies, but global effects often responsible for irreparable damage. For a holistic approach, angiosperms are ideal model systems dominating most land areas of the present world in an astonishing variety of form and function. Recognition of biogeographical patterns requires new methodologies and entails several questions, such as their nature, dynamics and mechanism. Demographical patterns of families, modelled via species dominance, reveal the existence of South American angiosperm networks converging at the central Brazilian plateau. Biodiversity of habitats, measured via taxonomic uniqueness, reveal higher creative power at this point of convergence than in more peripheral regions. Compositional affinities of habitats, measured via bioconnectivity, reveal the decisive role of ecotones in the exchange or redistribution of information, energy and organisms among the ecosystems. Forming dynamic boundaries, ecotones generate and relay evolutionary novelty, and integrate all neotropical ecosystems into a single vegetation net. Connectivity in such plant webs may depend on mycorrhizal links. If sufficiently general such means of metabolic transfer will require revision of the chemical composition of many plants.

  20. The Enigma of Angiosperm Origins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Norman Francis

    2005-07-01

    The origins of angiosperms are still debated, despite many years of work by scientists from differing disciplines. The progress made toward resolving the problem is reviewed in this book. The author suggests that the only fruitful method of study is the total integrated use of the fossil record, particularly dispersed palynomorphs. This includes the use of electron microscopy and refined data handling to record the occurrence of microscopic fossils, rather than the extensive use of morphology and cladistics. The methods advocated in this book could result in a rethinking of the current classification of living plants, and it is hoped that the ideas presented will initiate discussion between both professionals and students of paleontology and plant science on the wider possibilities that may clarify the enigmatic origins of the dominant flowering plant groups.

  1. The Enigma of Angiosperm Origins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Norman Francis

    1994-09-01

    The origins of angiosperms are still debated, despite many years of work by scientists from differing disciplines. The progress made toward resolving the problem is reviewed in this book. The author suggests that the only fruitful method of study is the total integrated use of the fossil record, particularly dispersed palynomorphs. This includes the use of electron microscopy and refined data handling to record the occurrence of microscopic fossils, rather than the extensive use of morphology and cladistics. The methods advocated in this book could result in a rethinking of the current classification of living plants, and it is hoped that the ideas presented will initiate discussion between both professionals and students of paleontology and plant science on the wider possibilities that may clarify the enigmatic origins of the dominant flowering plant groups.

  2. The origin and diversification of angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Soltis, Pamela S; Soltis, Douglas E

    2004-10-01

    The angiosperms, one of five groups of extant seed plants, are the largest group of land plants. Despite their relatively recent origin, this clade is extremely diverse morphologically and ecologically. However, angiosperms are clearly united by several synapomorphies. During the past 10 years, higher-level relationships of the angiosperms have been resolved. For example, most analyses are consistent in identifying Amborella, Nymphaeaceae, and Austrobaileyales as the basalmost branches of the angiosperm tree. Other basal lineages include Chloranthaceae, magnoliids, and monocots. Approximately three quarters of all angiosperm species belong to the eudicot clade, which is strongly supported by molecular data but united morphologically by a single synapomorphy-triaperturate pollen. Major clades of eudicots include Ranunculales, which are sister to all other eudicots, and a clade of core eudicots, the largest members of which are Saxifragales, Caryophyllales, rosids, and asterids. Despite rapid progress in resolving angiosperm relationships, several significant problems remain: (1) relationships among the monocots, Chloranthaceae, magnoliids, and eudicots, (2) branching order among basal eudicots, (3) relationships among the major clades of core eudicots, (4) relationships within rosids, (5) relationships of the many lineages of parasitic plants, and (6) integration of fossils with extant taxa into a comprehensive tree of angiosperm phylogeny.

  3. Early steps of angiosperm pollinator coevolution.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shusheng; Dilcher, David L; Jarzen, David M; Winship Taylor, David

    2008-01-08

    The hypothesis that early flowering plants were insect-pollinated could be tested by an examination of the pollination biology of basal angiosperms and the pollination modes of fossil angiosperms. We provide data to show that early fossil angiosperms were insect-pollinated. Eighty-six percent of 29 extant basal angiosperm families have species that are zoophilous (of which 34% are specialized) and 17% of the families have species that are wind-pollinated, whereas basal eudicot families and basal monocot families more commonly have wind and specialized pollination modes (up to 78%). Character reconstruction based on recent molecular trees of angiosperms suggests that the most parsimonious result is that zoophily is the ancestral state. Combining pollen ornamentation, size, and aperture characteristics and the abundance of single-species pollen clumps of Cenomanian angiosperm-dispersed pollen species from the Dakota Formation demonstrates a dominance of zoophilous pollination (76% versus 24% wind pollination). The zoophilous pollen species have adaptations for pollination by generalist insects (39%), specialized pollen-collecting insects (27%), and other specialized pollinators (10%). These data quantify the presences of more specialized pollination modes during the mid-Cretaceous angiosperm diversification.

  4. Widespread genome duplications throughout the history of flowering plants

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Liying; Wall, P. Kerr; Leebens-Mack, James H.; Lindsay, Bruce G.; Soltis, Douglas E.; Doyle, Jeff J.; Soltis, Pamela S.; Carlson, John E.; Arumuganathan, Kathiravetpilla; Barakat, Abdelali; Albert, Victor A.; Ma, Hong; dePamphilis, Claude W.

    2006-01-01

    Genomic comparisons provide evidence for ancient genome-wide duplications in a diverse array of animals and plants. We developed a birth–death model to identify evidence for genome duplication in EST data, and applied a mixture model to estimate the age distribution of paralogous pairs identified in EST sets for species representing the basal-most extant flowering plant lineages. We found evidence for episodes of ancient genome-wide duplications in the basal angiosperm lineages including Nuphar advena (yellow water lily: Nymphaeaceae) and the magnoliids Persea americana (avocado: Lauraceae), Liriodendron tulipifera (tulip poplar: Magnoliaceae), and Saruma henryi (Aristolochiaceae). In addition, we detected independent genome duplications in the basal eudicot Eschscholzia californica (California poppy: Papaveraceae) and the basal monocot Acorus americanus (Acoraceae), both of which were distinct from duplications documented for ancestral grass (Poaceae) and core eudicot lineages. Among gymnosperms, we found equivocal evidence for ancient polyploidy in Welwitschia mirabilis (Gnetales) and no evidence for polyploidy in pine, although gymnosperms generally have much larger genomes than the angiosperms investigated. Cross-species sequence divergence estimates suggest that synonymous substitution rates in the basal angiosperms are less than half those previously reported for core eudicots and members of Poaceae. These lower substitution rates permit inference of older duplication events. We hypothesize that evidence of an ancient duplication observed in the Nuphar data may represent a genome duplication in the common ancestor of all or most extant angiosperms, except Amborella. PMID:16702410

  5. Widespread genome duplications throughout the history of flowering plants.

    PubMed

    Cui, Liying; Wall, P Kerr; Leebens-Mack, James H; Lindsay, Bruce G; Soltis, Douglas E; Doyle, Jeff J; Soltis, Pamela S; Carlson, John E; Arumuganathan, Kathiravetpilla; Barakat, Abdelali; Albert, Victor A; Ma, Hong; dePamphilis, Claude W

    2006-06-01

    Genomic comparisons provide evidence for ancient genome-wide duplications in a diverse array of animals and plants. We developed a birth-death model to identify evidence for genome duplication in EST data, and applied a mixture model to estimate the age distribution of paralogous pairs identified in EST sets for species representing the basal-most extant flowering plant lineages. We found evidence for episodes of ancient genome-wide duplications in the basal angiosperm lineages including Nuphar advena (yellow water lily: Nymphaeaceae) and the magnoliids Persea americana (avocado: Lauraceae), Liriodendron tulipifera (tulip poplar: Magnoliaceae), and Saruma henryi (Aristolochiaceae). In addition, we detected independent genome duplications in the basal eudicot Eschscholzia californica (California poppy: Papaveraceae) and the basal monocot Acorus americanus (Acoraceae), both of which were distinct from duplications documented for ancestral grass (Poaceae) and core eudicot lineages. Among gymnosperms, we found equivocal evidence for ancient polyploidy in Welwitschia mirabilis (Gnetales) and no evidence for polyploidy in pine, although gymnosperms generally have much larger genomes than the angiosperms investigated. Cross-species sequence divergence estimates suggest that synonymous substitution rates in the basal angiosperms are less than half those previously reported for core eudicots and members of Poaceae. These lower substitution rates permit inference of older duplication events. We hypothesize that evidence of an ancient duplication observed in the Nuphar data may represent a genome duplication in the common ancestor of all or most extant angiosperms, except Amborella.

  6. A combinatorial morphospace for angiosperm pollen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mander, Luke

    2016-04-01

    The morphology of angiosperm (flowering plant) pollen is extraordinarily diverse. This diversity results from variations in the morphology of discrete anatomical components. These components include the overall shape of a pollen grain, the stratification of the exine, the number and form of any apertures, the type of dispersal unit, and the nature of any surface ornamentation. Different angiosperm pollen morphotypes reflect different combinations of these discrete components. In this talk, I ask the following question: given the anatomical components of angiosperm pollen that are known to exist in the plant kingdom, how many unique biologically plausible combinations of these components are there? I explore this question from the perspective of enumerative combinatorics using an algorithm I have written in the Python programming language. This algorithm (1) calculates the number of combinations of these components; (2) enumerates those combinations; and (3) graphically displays those combinations. The result is a combinatorial morphospace that reflects an underlying notion that the process of morphogenesis in angiosperm pollen can be thought of as an n choose k counting problem. I compare the morphology of extant and fossil angiosperm pollen grains to this morphospace, and suggest that from a combinatorial point of view angiosperm pollen is not as diverse as it could be, which may be a result of developmental constraints.

  7. Ferns diversified in the shadow of angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Harald; Schuettpelz, Eric; Pryer, Kathleen M; Cranfill, Raymond; Magallón, Susana; Lupia, Richard

    2004-04-01

    The rise of angiosperms during the Cretaceous period is often portrayed as coincident with a dramatic drop in the diversity and abundance of many seed-free vascular plant lineages, including ferns. This has led to the widespread belief that ferns, once a principal component of terrestrial ecosystems, succumbed to the ecological predominance of angiosperms and are mostly evolutionary holdovers from the late Palaeozoic/early Mesozoic era. The first appearance of many modern fern genera in the early Tertiary fossil record implies another evolutionary scenario; that is, that the majority of living ferns resulted from a more recent diversification. But a full understanding of trends in fern diversification and evolution using only palaeobotanical evidence is hindered by the poor taxonomic resolution of the fern fossil record in the Cretaceous. Here we report divergence time estimates for ferns and angiosperms based on molecular data, with constraints from a reassessment of the fossil record. We show that polypod ferns (> 80% of living fern species) diversified in the Cretaceous, after angiosperms, suggesting perhaps an ecological opportunistic response to the diversification of angiosperms, as angiosperms came to dominate terrestrial ecosystems.

  8. Morphological rates of angiosperm seed size evolution.

    PubMed

    Sims, Hallie J

    2013-05-01

    The evolution of seed size among angiosperms reflects their ecological diversification in a complex fitness landscape of life-history strategies. The lineages that have evolved seeds beyond the upper and lower boundaries that defined nonflowering seed plants since the Paleozoic are more dispersed across the angiosperm phylogeny than would be expected under a neutral model of phenotypic evolution. Morphological rates of seed size evolution estimated for 40 clades based on 17,375 species ranged from 0.001 (Garryales) to 0.207 (Malvales). Comparative phylogenetic analysis indicated that morphological rates are not associated with the clade's seed size but are negatively correlated with the clade's position in the overall distribution of angiosperm seed sizes; clades with seed sizes closer to the angiosperm mean had significantly higher morphological rates than clades with extremely small or extremely large seeds. Likewise, per-clade taxonomic diversification rates are not associated with the seed size of the clade but with where the clade falls within the angiosperm seed size distribution. These results suggest that evolutionary rates (morphological and taxonomic) are elevated in densely occupied regions of the seed morphospace relative to lineages whose ecophenotypic innovations have moved them toward the edges. © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  9. Anatomical aspects of angiosperm root evolution

    PubMed Central

    Seago, James L.; Fernando, Danilo D.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Anatomy had been one of the foundations in our understanding of plant evolutionary trends and, although recent evo-devo concepts are mostly based on molecular genetics, classical structural information remains useful as ever. Of the various plant organs, the roots have been the least studied, primarily because of the difficulty in obtaining materials, particularly from large woody species. Therefore, this review aims to provide an overview of the information that has accumulated on the anatomy of angiosperm roots and to present possible evolutionary trends between representatives of the major angiosperm clades. Scope This review covers an overview of the various aspects of the evolutionary origin of the root. The results and discussion focus on angiosperm root anatomy and evolution covering representatives from basal angiosperms, magnoliids, monocots and eudicots. We use information from the literature as well as new data from our own research. Key Findings The organization of the root apical meristem (RAM) of Nymphaeales allows for the ground meristem and protoderm to be derived from the same group of initials, similar to those of the monocots, whereas in Amborellales, magnoliids and eudicots, it is their protoderm and lateral rootcap which are derived from the same group of initials. Most members of Nymphaeales are similar to monocots in having ephemeral primary roots and so adventitious roots predominate, whereas Amborellales, Austrobaileyales, magnoliids and eudicots are generally characterized by having primary roots that give rise to a taproot system. Nymphaeales and monocots often have polyarch (heptarch or more) steles, whereas the rest of the basal angiosperms, magnoliids and eudicots usually have diarch to hexarch steles. Conclusions Angiosperms exhibit highly varied structural patterns in RAM organization; cortex, epidermis and rootcap origins; and stele patterns. Generally, however, Amborellales, magnoliids and, possibly

  10. Anatomical aspects of angiosperm root evolution.

    PubMed

    Seago, James L; Fernando, Danilo D

    2013-07-01

    Anatomy had been one of the foundations in our understanding of plant evolutionary trends and, although recent evo-devo concepts are mostly based on molecular genetics, classical structural information remains useful as ever. Of the various plant organs, the roots have been the least studied, primarily because of the difficulty in obtaining materials, particularly from large woody species. Therefore, this review aims to provide an overview of the information that has accumulated on the anatomy of angiosperm roots and to present possible evolutionary trends between representatives of the major angiosperm clades. This review covers an overview of the various aspects of the evolutionary origin of the root. The results and discussion focus on angiosperm root anatomy and evolution covering representatives from basal angiosperms, magnoliids, monocots and eudicots. We use information from the literature as well as new data from our own research. The organization of the root apical meristem (RAM) of Nymphaeales allows for the ground meristem and protoderm to be derived from the same group of initials, similar to those of the monocots, whereas in Amborellales, magnoliids and eudicots, it is their protoderm and lateral rootcap which are derived from the same group of initials. Most members of Nymphaeales are similar to monocots in having ephemeral primary roots and so adventitious roots predominate, whereas Amborellales, Austrobaileyales, magnoliids and eudicots are generally characterized by having primary roots that give rise to a taproot system. Nymphaeales and monocots often have polyarch (heptarch or more) steles, whereas the rest of the basal angiosperms, magnoliids and eudicots usually have diarch to hexarch steles. Angiosperms exhibit highly varied structural patterns in RAM organization; cortex, epidermis and rootcap origins; and stele patterns. Generally, however, Amborellales, magnoliids and, possibly, Austrobaileyales are more similar to eudicots, and the

  11. Action mechanism of 6, 6'-dihydroxythiobinupharidine from Nuphar japonicum, which showed anti-MRSA and anti-VRE activities.

    PubMed

    Okamura, Shinya; Nishiyama, Eri; Yamazaki, Tomohiro; Otsuka, Nao; Taniguchi, Shoko; Ogawa, Wakano; Hatano, Tsutomu; Tsuchiya, Tomofusa; Kuroda, Teruo

    2015-06-01

    Multidrug-resistant bacteria, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE), cause serious infections at clinical sites, for which the development of new drugs is necessary. We screened candidates for new antibiotics and investigated its action mechanism. An antimicrobial compound was isolated from an extract of Nuphar japonicum. Its chemical structure was determined by NMR, MS, and optical rotation. We measured its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) using the microdilution method. The effects of the compound on DNA gyrase and DNA topoisomerase IV were investigated with DNA supercoiling, decatenation, and cleavage assay. We isolated and identified 6,6'-dihydroxythiobinupharidine as the antimicrobial compound. The MIC of this compound was 1-4 μg/mL against various MRSA and VRE strains. We also demonstrated that this compound inhibited DNA topoisomerase IV (IC50 was 10-15 μM), but not DNA gyrase in S. aureus, both of which are known to be the targets of quinolone antibiotics and necessary for DNA replication. However, this compound only exhibited slight cross-resistance to norfloxacin-resistant S. aureus, which indicated that DTBN might inhibit other targets besides topoisomerase IV. These results suggest that 6,6'-dihydroxythiobinupharidine may be a potent candidate or seed for novel antibacterial agents. DTBN from N. japonicum showed anti-MRSA and anti-VRE activities. DTBN might be involved in the inhibition of DNA topoisomerase IV. DTBN might be useful as a seed compound. The information on the inhibition mechanism of DTBN will be useful for the modification of DTBN towards developing novel anti-MRSA and anti-VRE drug. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Programmed cell death in seeds of angiosperms.

    PubMed

    López-Fernández, María Paula; Maldonado, Sara

    2015-12-01

    During the diversification of angiosperms, seeds have evolved structural, chemical, molecular and physiologically developing changes that specially affect the nucellus and endosperm. All through seed evolution, programmed cell death (PCD) has played a fundamental role. However, examples of PCD during seed development are limited. The present review examines PCD in integuments, nucellus, suspensor and endosperm in those representative examples of seeds studied to date.

  13. Ancestral polyploidy in seed plants and angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Yuannian; Wickett, Norman J; Ayyampalayam, Saravanaraj; Chanderbali, André S; Landherr, Lena; Ralph, Paula E; Tomsho, Lynn P; Hu, Yi; Liang, Haiying; Soltis, Pamela S; Soltis, Douglas E; Clifton, Sandra W; Schlarbaum, Scott E; Schuster, Stephan C; Ma, Hong; Leebens-Mack, Jim; dePamphilis, Claude W

    2011-05-05

    Whole-genome duplication (WGD), or polyploidy, followed by gene loss and diploidization has long been recognized as an important evolutionary force in animals, fungi and other organisms, especially plants. The success of angiosperms has been attributed, in part, to innovations associated with gene or whole-genome duplications, but evidence for proposed ancient genome duplications pre-dating the divergence of monocots and eudicots remains equivocal in analyses of conserved gene order. Here we use comprehensive phylogenomic analyses of sequenced plant genomes and more than 12.6 million new expressed-sequence-tag sequences from phylogenetically pivotal lineages to elucidate two groups of ancient gene duplications-one in the common ancestor of extant seed plants and the other in the common ancestor of extant angiosperms. Gene duplication events were intensely concentrated around 319 and 192 million years ago, implicating two WGDs in ancestral lineages shortly before the diversification of extant seed plants and extant angiosperms, respectively. Significantly, these ancestral WGDs resulted in the diversification of regulatory genes important to seed and flower development, suggesting that they were involved in major innovations that ultimately contributed to the rise and eventual dominance of seed plants and angiosperms.

  14. Evolutionary diversification of the flowers in angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Endress, Peter K

    2011-03-01

    Angiosperms and their flowers have greatly diversified into an overwhelming array of forms in the past 135 million years. Diversification was shaped by changes in climate and the biological environment (vegetation, interaction with other organisms) and by internal structural constraints and potentials. This review focuses on the development and structural diversity of flowers and structural constraints. It traces floral diversification in the different organs and organ complexes (perianth, androecium, gynoecium) through the major clades of extant angiosperms. The continuously improved results of molecular phylogenetics provide the framework for this endeavor, which is necessary for the understanding of the biology of the angiosperms and their flowers. Diversification appears to work with innovations and modifications of form. Many structural innovations originated in several clades and in special cases could become key innovations, which likely were hot spots of diversification. Synorganization between organs was an important process to reach new structural levels, from which new diversifications originated. Complexity of synorganization reached peaks in Orchidaceae and Apocynaceae with the independent evolution of pollinaria. Such a review throughout the major clades of angiosperms also shows how superficial and fragmentary our knowledge on floral structure in many clades is. Fresh studies and a multidisciplinary approach are needed.

  15. Stomatal architecture and evolution in basal angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Kevin J

    2005-10-01

    Stomatal architecture-the number, form, and arrangement of specialized epidermal cells associated with stomatal guard cells-of 46 species of basal angiosperms representing all ANITA grade families and Chloranthaceae was investigated. Leaf clearings and cuticular preparations were examined with light microscopy, and a sample of 100 stomata from each specimen was coded for stomatal type and five other characters contributing to stomatal architecture. New stomatal types were defined, and many species were examined and illustrated for the first time. Character evolution was examined in light of the ANITA hypothesis using MacClade software. Analysis of character evolution, along with other evidence from this study and evidence from the literature on fossil angiosperms and other seed plant lineages, suggests that the ancestral condition of angiosperms can be described as anomo-stephanocytic, a system in which complexes lacking subdidiaries (anomocytic) intergrade with those having weakly differentiated subsidiaries arranged in a rosette (stephanocytic). From this ancestral condition, tangential divisions of contact cells led to the profusion of different types seen in early fossil angiosperms and Amborellaceae, Austrobaileyales, and derived Chloranthaceae, while the state in Nymphaeales is little modified. Formation of new, derived types by tangential division appears to be a recurrent theme in seed plant evolution.

  16. Fossil evidence for Cretaceous escalation in angiosperm leaf vein evolution.

    PubMed

    Feild, Taylor S; Brodribb, Timothy J; Iglesias, Ari; Chatelet, David S; Baresch, Andres; Upchurch, Garland R; Gomez, Bernard; Mohr, Barbara A R; Coiffard, Clement; Kvacek, Jiri; Jaramillo, Carlos

    2011-05-17

    The flowering plants that dominate modern vegetation possess leaf gas exchange potentials that far exceed those of all other living or extinct plants. The great divide in maximal ability to exchange CO(2) for water between leaves of nonangiosperms and angiosperms forms the mechanistic foundation for speculation about how angiosperms drove sweeping ecological and biogeochemical change during the Cretaceous. However, there is no empirical evidence that angiosperms evolved highly photosynthetically active leaves during the Cretaceous. Using vein density (D(V)) measurements of fossil angiosperm leaves, we show that the leaf hydraulic capacities of angiosperms escalated several-fold during the Cretaceous. During the first 30 million years of angiosperm leaf evolution, angiosperm leaves exhibited uniformly low vein D(V) that overlapped the D(V) range of dominant Early Cretaceous ferns and gymnosperms. Fossil angiosperm vein densities reveal a subsequent biphasic increase in D(V). During the first mid-Cretaceous surge, angiosperm D(V) first surpassed the upper bound of D(V) limits for nonangiosperms. However, the upper limits of D(V) typical of modern megathermal rainforest trees first appear during a second wave of increased D(V) during the Cretaceous-Tertiary transition. Thus, our findings provide fossil evidence for the hypothesis that significant ecosystem change brought about by angiosperms lagged behind the Early Cretaceous taxonomic diversification of angiosperms.

  17. Organization of the root apical meristem in angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Heimsch, Charles; Seago, James L

    2008-01-01

    Although flowers, leaves, and stems of the angiosperms have understandably received more attention than roots, the growing root tips, or root apical meristems (RAMs), are organs that could provide insight into angiosperm evolution. We studied RAM organization across a broad spectrum of angiosperms (45 orders and 132 families of basal angiosperms, monocots, and eudicots) to characterize angiosperm RAMs and cortex development related to RAMs. Types of RAM organization in root tips of flowering plants include open RAMs without boundaries between some tissues in the growing tip and closed RAMs with distinct boundaries between apical regions. Epidermis origin is associated with the cortex in some basal angiosperms and monocots and with the lateral rootcap in eudicots and other basal angiosperms. In most angiosperm RAMs, initials for the central region of the rootcap, or columella, are distinct from the lateral rootcap and its initials. Slightly more angiosperm families have exclusively closed RAMs than exclusively open RAMs, but many families have representatives with both open and closed RAMs. Root tips with open RAMs are generally found in angiosperm families considered sister to other families; certain open RAMs may be ancestral in angiosperms.

  18. Fossil evidence for Cretaceous escalation in angiosperm leaf vein evolution

    PubMed Central

    Feild, Taylor S.; Brodribb, Timothy J.; Iglesias, Ari; Chatelet, David S.; Baresch, Andres; Upchurch, Garland R.; Gomez, Bernard; Mohr, Barbara A. R.; Coiffard, Clement; Kvacek, Jiri; Jaramillo, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    The flowering plants that dominate modern vegetation possess leaf gas exchange potentials that far exceed those of all other living or extinct plants. The great divide in maximal ability to exchange CO2 for water between leaves of nonangiosperms and angiosperms forms the mechanistic foundation for speculation about how angiosperms drove sweeping ecological and biogeochemical change during the Cretaceous. However, there is no empirical evidence that angiosperms evolved highly photosynthetically active leaves during the Cretaceous. Using vein density (DV) measurements of fossil angiosperm leaves, we show that the leaf hydraulic capacities of angiosperms escalated several-fold during the Cretaceous. During the first 30 million years of angiosperm leaf evolution, angiosperm leaves exhibited uniformly low vein DV that overlapped the DV range of dominant Early Cretaceous ferns and gymnosperms. Fossil angiosperm vein densities reveal a subsequent biphasic increase in DV. During the first mid-Cretaceous surge, angiosperm DV first surpassed the upper bound of DV limits for nonangiosperms. However, the upper limits of DV typical of modern megathermal rainforest trees first appear during a second wave of increased DV during the Cretaceous-Tertiary transition. Thus, our findings provide fossil evidence for the hypothesis that significant ecosystem change brought about by angiosperms lagged behind the Early Cretaceous taxonomic diversification of angiosperms. PMID:21536892

  19. Molecular and Fossil Evidence on the Origin of Angiosperms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, James A.

    2012-05-01

    Molecular data on relationships within angiosperms confirm the view that their increasing morphological diversity through the Cretaceous reflected their evolutionary radiation. Despite the early appearance of aquatics and groups with simple flowers, the record is consistent with inferences from molecular trees that the first angiosperms were woody plants with pinnately veined leaves, multiparted flowers, uniovulate ascidiate carpels, and columellar monosulcate pollen. Molecular data appear to refute the hypothesis based on morphology that angiosperms and Gnetales are closest living relatives. Morphological analyses of living and fossil seed plants that assume molecular relationships identify glossopterids, Bennettitales, and Caytonia as angiosperm relatives; these results are consistent with proposed homologies between the cupule of glossopterids and Caytonia and the angiosperm bitegmic ovule. Jurassic molecular dates for the angiosperms may be reconciled with the fossil record if the first angiosperms were restricted to wet forest understory habitats and did not radiate until the Cretaceous.

  20. Pollination biology of basal angiosperms (ANITA Grade)

    Treesearch

    Leonard B. Thien; Peter Bernhardt; Margaret S. Devall; Zhi-Duan Chen; Yi-bo Luo; Jian-Hua Fan; Liang-Chen Yuan; Joseph H. Williams

    2009-01-01

    The fi rst three branches of the angiosperm phylogenetic tree consist of eight families with ~201 species of plants (the ANITA grade). The oldest fl ower fossil for the group is dated to the Early Cretaceous (115 – 125 Mya) and identifi ed to the Nymphaeales. The fl owers of extant plants in the ANITA grade are small, and pollen is the edible reward (rarely nectar or...

  1. Peptide signalling during angiosperm seed development.

    PubMed

    Ingram, Gwyneth; Gutierrez-Marcos, Jose

    2015-08-01

    Cell-cell communication is pivotal for the coordination of various features of plant development. Recent studies in plants have revealed that, as in animals, secreted signal peptides play critical roles during reproduction. However, the precise signalling mechanisms in plants are not well understood. In this review, we discuss the known and putative roles of secreted peptides present in the seeds of angiosperms as key signalling factors involved in coordinating different aspects of seed development.

  2. Molecular evidence for pre-Cretaceous angiosperm origins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, William; Gierl, Alfons; Saedler, Heinz

    1989-05-01

    FLOWERING plants or angiosperms have dominated the Earth's flora since at least the late Cretaceous1 and were already highly diversified by Barremian times, about 120 million years (Myr) ago. However, because of the paucity of fossilized angiosperm reproductive structures from lower Cretaceous sediments2,3 and the absence of generally recognized angiosperm fossils from pre-Cretaceous strata4,5, their origins and early evolution remain obscure. Similarly, attempts to understand pre-Cretaceous angiosperm evolution4-11 have been impaired by difficulties in defining and interpreting angiospermous characters in fossil specimens8,12. We report here molecular evidence suggesting that angiosperm ancestors underwent diversification more than 300 Myr ago.

  3. Did dinosaurs invent flowers? Dinosaur-angiosperm coevolution revisited.

    PubMed

    Barrett, P M; Willis, K J

    2001-08-01

    Angiosperms first appeared in northern Gondwana during the Early Cretaceous, approximately 135 million years ago. Several authors have hypothesised that the origin of angiosperms, and the tempo and pattern of their subsequent radiation, was mediated by changes in the browsing behaviour of large herbivorous dinosaurs (sauropods and ornithischians). Moreover, the taxonomic and ecological radiation of angiosperms has been associated with the evolution of complex jaw mechanisms among ornithischian dinosaurs. Here, we review critically the evidence for dinosaur-angiosperm interactions during the Cretaceous Period, providing explicit spatiotemporal comparisons between evolutionary and palaeoecological events in both the dinosaur and angiosperm fossil records and an assessment of the direct and indirect evidence for dinosaur diets. We conclude that there are no strong spatiotemporal correlations in support of the hypothesis that dinosaurs were causative agents in the origin of angiosperms; however, dinosaur-angiosperm interactions in the Late Cretaceous may have resulted in some coevolutionary interactions, although direct evidence of such interactions is scanty at present. It is likely that other animal groups (insects, arboreal mammals) had a greater impact on angiosperm diversity during the Cretaceous than herbivorous dinosaurs. Elevated levels of atmospheric CO2 might have played a critical role in the initial stages of the angiosperm radiation.

  4. Accessory costs of seed production and the evolution of angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Lord, Janice M; Westoby, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Accessory costs of reproduction frequently equal or exceed direct investment in offspring, and can limit the evolution of small offspring sizes. Early angiosperms had minimum seed sizes, an order of magnitude smaller than their contemporaries. It has been proposed that changes to reproductive features at the base of the angiosperm clade reduced accessory costs thus removing the fitness disadvantage of small seeds. We measured accessory costs of reproduction in 25 extant gymnosperms and angiosperms, to test whether angiosperms can produce small seeds more economically than gymnosperms. Total accessory costs scaled isometrically to seed mass for angiosperms but less than isometrically for gymnosperms, so that smaller seeds were proportionally more expensive for gymnosperms to produce. In particular, costs of abortions and packaging structures were significantly higher in gymnosperms. Also, the relationship between seed:ovule ratio and seed size was negative in angiosperms but positive in gymnosperms. We argue that the carpel was a key evolutionary innovation reducing accessory costs in angiosperms by allowing sporophytic control of pre- and postzygotic mate selection and timing of resource allocation. The resulting reduction in costs of aborting unfertilized ovules or genetically inferior embryos would have lowered total reproductive costs enabling early angiosperms to evolve small seed sizes and short generation times.

  5. Palaeobotanical redux: revisiting the age of the angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Herendeen, Patrick S; Friis, Else Marie; Pedersen, Kaj Raunsgaard; Crane, Peter R

    2017-03-03

    Angiosperms (flowering plants) are the most diverse of all major lineages of land plants and the dominant autotrophs in most terrestrial ecosystems. Their evolutionary and ecological appearance is therefore of considerable interest and has significant implications for understanding patterns of diversification in other lineages, including insects and other animals. More than half a century ago, influential reviews showed that while angiosperms are richly represented in sediments of Late Cretaceous and younger ages, there are no reliable records of angiosperms from pre-Cretaceous rocks. The extensive new macrofossil, mesofossil, and microfossil data that have accumulated since have confirmed and reinforced this pattern. Recently, however, molecular dating methods have raised the possibility that angiosperms may have existed much earlier, and there have been scattered reports of putative angiosperms from Triassic and Jurassic rocks. Critical assessment of these reports shows that, so far, none provide unequivocal evidence of pre-Cretaceous angiosperms. Angiosperms may ultimately be recognized from Jurassic or earlier rocks, but credible palaeobotanical evidence will require unambiguous documentation of the diagnostic structural features that separate angiosperms from other groups of extant and extinct seed plants.

  6. Teaching Angiosperm Reproduction by Means of the Learning Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scharmann, Lawrence C.

    1991-01-01

    Discussed is an alternative teaching strategy to uncover and assess a common misconception in the life sciences and to articulate its use in teaching a unit on angiosperm reproduction. The learning cycle is described, and a concept map on reproduction on angiosperms is included. (KR)

  7. The ABC Model and its Applicability to Basal Angiosperms

    PubMed Central

    Soltis, Douglas E.; Chanderbali, André S.; Kim, Sangtae; Buzgo, Matyas; Soltis, Pamela S.

    2007-01-01

    Background Although the flower is the central feature of the angiosperms, little is known of its origin and subsequent diversification. The ABC model has long been the unifying paradigm for floral developmental genetics, but it is based on phylogenetically derived eudicot models. Synergistic research involving phylogenetics, classical developmental studies, genomics and developmental genetics has afforded valuable new insights into floral evolution in general, and the early flower in particular. Scope and Conclusions Genomic studies indicate that basal angiosperms, and by inference the earliest angiosperms, had a rich tool kit of floral genes. Homologues of the ABCE floral organ identity genes are also present in basal angiosperm lineages; however, C-, E- and particularly B-function genes are more broadly expressed in basal lineages. There is no single model of floral organ identity that applies to all angiosperms; there are multiple models that apply depending on the phylogenetic position and floral structure of the group in question. The classic ABC (or ABCE) model may work well for most eudicots. However, modifications are needed for basal eudicots and, the focus of this paper, basal angiosperms. We offer ‘fading borders’ as a testable hypothesis for the basal-most angiosperms and, by inference, perhaps some of the earliest (now extinct) angiosperms. PMID:17616563

  8. The earliest angiosperms: evidence from mitochondrial, plastid and nuclear genomes.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Y L; Lee, J; Bernasconi-Quadroni, F; Soltis, D E; Soltis, P S; Zanis, M; Zimmer, E A; Chen, Z; Savolainen, V; Chase, M W

    1999-11-25

    Angiosperms have dominated the Earth's vegetation since the mid-Cretaceous (90 million years ago), providing much of our food, fibre, medicine and timber, yet their origin and early evolution have remained enigmatic for over a century. One part of the enigma lies in the difficulty of identifying the earliest angiosperms; the other involves the uncertainty regarding the sister group of angiosperms among extant and fossil gymnosperms. Here we report a phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequences of five mitochondrial, plastid and nuclear genes (total aligned length 8,733 base pairs), from all basal angiosperm and gymnosperm lineages (105 species, 103 genera and 63 families). Our study demonstrates that Amborella, Nymphaeales and Illiciales-Trimeniaceae-Austrobaileya represent the first stage of angiosperm evolution, with Amborella being sister to all other angiosperms. We also show that Gnetales are related to the conifers and are not sister to the angiosperms, thus refuting the Anthophyte Hypothesis. These results have far-reaching implications for our understanding of diversification, adaptation, genome evolution and development of the angiosperms.

  9. The ABC model and its applicability to basal angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Soltis, Douglas E; Chanderbali, André S; Kim, Sangtae; Buzgo, Matyas; Soltis, Pamela S

    2007-08-01

    Although the flower is the central feature of the angiosperms, little is known of its origin and subsequent diversification. The ABC model has long been the unifying paradigm for floral developmental genetics, but it is based on phylogenetically derived eudicot models. Synergistic research involving phylogenetics, classical developmental studies, genomics and developmental genetics has afforded valuable new insights into floral evolution in general, and the early flower in particular. Genomic studies indicate that basal angiosperms, and by inference the earliest angiosperms, had a rich tool kit of floral genes. Homologues of the ABCE floral organ identity genes are also present in basal angiosperm lineages; however, C-, E- and particularly B-function genes are more broadly expressed in basal lineages. There is no single model of floral organ identity that applies to all angiosperms; there are multiple models that apply depending on the phylogenetic position and floral structure of the group in question. The classic ABC (or ABCE) model may work well for most eudicots. However, modifications are needed for basal eudicots and, the focus of this paper, basal angiosperms. We offer 'fading borders' as a testable hypothesis for the basal-most angiosperms and, by inference, perhaps some of the earliest (now extinct) angiosperms.

  10. Teaching Angiosperm Reproduction by Means of the Learning Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scharmann, Lawrence C.

    1991-01-01

    Discussed is an alternative teaching strategy to uncover and assess a common misconception in the life sciences and to articulate its use in teaching a unit on angiosperm reproduction. The learning cycle is described, and a concept map on reproduction on angiosperms is included. (KR)

  11. mCCG methylation in angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Jeddeloh, J A; Richards, E J

    1996-05-01

    Two different methods were used to investigate the abundance of cytosine methylation at the outer (5') position in 5'-CCG-3' trinucleotides in angiosperm genomes. Mspl is unable to cut its target site if the outer cytosine is methylated (5'-mCCGG-3'). Using Mspl restriction analysis, it was shown that 5'-mCCG-3' is present in all angiosperm genomes examined, and that the amount of cytosine methylation at this site varies between species. Subsequently, direct measurements were made of the amount of methylation at both cytosines in a subset of 5'-CCG-3' trinucleotides in the Arabidopsis thaliana genome. Based upon these analyses, it was estimated that approximately 20-30% of 5'-CCG-3' trinucleotides in A. thaliana are methylated at the outer cytosine. Approximately 20% of the 5'-CCG-3' trinucleotides contain 5-methyl-cytosine at the inner cytosine position, which corresponds to a previous determination of 5'-mCG-3' methylation in A. thaliana. The implications of 5'-mCCG-3' methylation are discussed.

  12. Floral symmetry affects speciation rates in angiosperms.

    PubMed Central

    Sargent, Risa D.

    2004-01-01

    Despite much recent activity in the field of pollination biology, the extent to which animal pollinators drive the formation of new angiosperm species remains unresolved. One problem has been identifying floral adaptations that promote reproductive isolation. The evolution of a bilaterally symmetrical corolla restricts the direction of approach and movement of pollinators on and between flowers. Restricting pollinators to approaching a flower from a single direction facilitates specific placement of pollen on the pollinator. When coupled with pollinator constancy, precise pollen placement can increase the probability that pollen grains reach a compatible stigma. This has the potential to generate reproductive isolation between species, because mutations that cause changes in the placement of pollen on the pollinator may decrease gene flow between incipient species. I predict that animal-pollinated lineages that possess bilaterally symmetrical flowers should have higher speciation rates than lineages possessing radially symmetrical flowers. Using sister-group comparisons I demonstrate that bilaterally symmetric lineages tend to be more species rich than their radially symmetrical sister lineages. This study supports an important role for pollinator-mediated speciation and demonstrates that floral morphology plays a key role in angiosperm speciation. PMID:15156918

  13. The ancestral flower of angiosperms and its early diversification

    PubMed Central

    Sauquet, Hervé; von Balthazar, Maria; Magallón, Susana; Doyle, James A.; Endress, Peter K.; Bailes, Emily J.; Barroso de Morais, Erica; Bull-Hereñu, Kester; Carrive, Laetitia; Chartier, Marion; Chomicki, Guillaume; Coiro, Mario; Cornette, Raphaël; El Ottra, Juliana H. L.; Epicoco, Cyril; Foster, Charles S. P.; Jabbour, Florian; Haevermans, Agathe; Haevermans, Thomas; Hernández, Rebeca; Little, Stefan A.; Löfstrand, Stefan; Luna, Javier A.; Massoni, Julien; Nadot, Sophie; Pamperl, Susanne; Prieu, Charlotte; Reyes, Elisabeth; dos Santos, Patrícia; Schoonderwoerd, Kristel M.; Sontag, Susanne; Soulebeau, Anaëlle; Staedler, Yannick; Tschan, Georg F.; Wing-Sze Leung, Amy; Schönenberger, Jürg

    2017-01-01

    Recent advances in molecular phylogenetics and a series of important palaeobotanical discoveries have revolutionized our understanding of angiosperm diversification. Yet, the origin and early evolution of their most characteristic feature, the flower, remains poorly understood. In particular, the structure of the ancestral flower of all living angiosperms is still uncertain. Here we report model-based reconstructions for ancestral flowers at the deepest nodes in the phylogeny of angiosperms, using the largest data set of floral traits ever assembled. We reconstruct the ancestral angiosperm flower as bisexual and radially symmetric, with more than two whorls of three separate perianth organs each (undifferentiated tepals), more than two whorls of three separate stamens each, and more than five spirally arranged separate carpels. Although uncertainty remains for some of the characters, our reconstruction allows us to propose a new plausible scenario for the early diversification of flowers, leading to new testable hypotheses for future research on angiosperms. PMID:28763051

  14. The ancestral flower of angiosperms and its early diversification.

    PubMed

    Sauquet, Hervé; von Balthazar, Maria; Magallón, Susana; Doyle, James A; Endress, Peter K; Bailes, Emily J; Barroso de Morais, Erica; Bull-Hereñu, Kester; Carrive, Laetitia; Chartier, Marion; Chomicki, Guillaume; Coiro, Mario; Cornette, Raphaël; El Ottra, Juliana H L; Epicoco, Cyril; Foster, Charles S P; Jabbour, Florian; Haevermans, Agathe; Haevermans, Thomas; Hernández, Rebeca; Little, Stefan A; Löfstrand, Stefan; Luna, Javier A; Massoni, Julien; Nadot, Sophie; Pamperl, Susanne; Prieu, Charlotte; Reyes, Elisabeth; Dos Santos, Patrícia; Schoonderwoerd, Kristel M; Sontag, Susanne; Soulebeau, Anaëlle; Staedler, Yannick; Tschan, Georg F; Wing-Sze Leung, Amy; Schönenberger, Jürg

    2017-08-01

    Recent advances in molecular phylogenetics and a series of important palaeobotanical discoveries have revolutionized our understanding of angiosperm diversification. Yet, the origin and early evolution of their most characteristic feature, the flower, remains poorly understood. In particular, the structure of the ancestral flower of all living angiosperms is still uncertain. Here we report model-based reconstructions for ancestral flowers at the deepest nodes in the phylogeny of angiosperms, using the largest data set of floral traits ever assembled. We reconstruct the ancestral angiosperm flower as bisexual and radially symmetric, with more than two whorls of three separate perianth organs each (undifferentiated tepals), more than two whorls of three separate stamens each, and more than five spirally arranged separate carpels. Although uncertainty remains for some of the characters, our reconstruction allows us to propose a new plausible scenario for the early diversification of flowers, leading to new testable hypotheses for future research on angiosperms.

  15. B CHROMOSOMES IN ANGIOSPERM--A REVIEW.

    PubMed

    Datta, A K; Mandal, A; Das, D; Gupta, S; Saha, A; Paul, R; Sengupta, S

    2016-01-01

    A review article on B chromosomes (Bs) in angiosperms is documented considering occurrence, morphology, polymorphic B forms, divisional phase heterogeneity, chromatin organization and gene content, sequence composition, origin, evolutionary aspects and significant role on host with an objective to foresee the evolutionary perspectives as it still remains an enigma. Irrespective of the origin of Bs, it seems that they have attained the following modifications, namely, insertion of centromeric and telomeric sequences, structural reorganization and procuring mitotic and meiotic drives but shows genetic inertness and present in the host as selfish DNA. In the context, few questions are raised. Further, scientific quest may unravel the unexplored information about Bs to ascertain its evolutionary perspectives, if any.

  16. Evolution of the angiosperms: calibrating the family tree.

    PubMed Central

    Wikström, N.; Savolainen, V.; Chase, M. W.

    2001-01-01

    Growing evidence of morphological diversity in angiosperm flowers, seeds and pollen from the mid Cretaceous and the presence of derived lineages from increasingly older geological deposits both imply that the timing of early angiosperm cladogenesis is older than fossil-based estimates have indicated. An alternative to fossils for calibrating the phylogeny comes from divergence in DNA sequence data. Here, angiosperm divergence times are estimated using non-parametric rate smoothing and a three-gene dataset covering ca. 75% of all angiosperm families recognized in recent classifications. The results provide an initial hypothesis of angiosperm diversification times. Using an internal calibration point, an independent evaluation of angiosperm and eudicot origins is performed. The origin of the crown group of extant angiosperms is indicated to be Early to Middle Jurassic (179-158 Myr), and the origin of eudicots is resolved as Late Jurassic to mid Cretaceous (147-131 Myr). Both estimates, despite a conservative calibration point, are older than current fossil-based estimates. PMID:11674868

  17. Evolution of the angiosperms: calibrating the family tree.

    PubMed

    Wikström, N; Savolainen, V; Chase, M W

    2001-11-07

    Growing evidence of morphological diversity in angiosperm flowers, seeds and pollen from the mid Cretaceous and the presence of derived lineages from increasingly older geological deposits both imply that the timing of early angiosperm cladogenesis is older than fossil-based estimates have indicated. An alternative to fossils for calibrating the phylogeny comes from divergence in DNA sequence data. Here, angiosperm divergence times are estimated using non-parametric rate smoothing and a three-gene dataset covering ca. 75% of all angiosperm families recognized in recent classifications. The results provide an initial hypothesis of angiosperm diversification times. Using an internal calibration point, an independent evaluation of angiosperm and eudicot origins is performed. The origin of the crown group of extant angiosperms is indicated to be Early to Middle Jurassic (179-158 Myr), and the origin of eudicots is resolved as Late Jurassic to mid Cretaceous (147-131 Myr). Both estimates, despite a conservative calibration point, are older than current fossil-based estimates.

  18. Conservation patterns in angiosperm rDNA ITS2 sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Hershkovitz, M A; Zimmer, E A

    1996-01-01

    The two internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA have become commonly exploited sources of informative variation for interspecific-/intergeneric-level phylogenetic analyses among angiosperms and other eukaryotes. We present an alignment in which one-third to one-half of the ITS2 sequence is alignable above the family level in angiosperms and a phenetic analysis showing that ITS2 contains information sufficient to diagnose lineages at several hierarchical levels. Base compositional analysis shows that angiosperm ITS2 is inherently GC-rich, and that the proportion of T is much more variable than that for other bases. We propose a general model of angiosperm ITS2 secondary structure that shows common pairing relationships for most of the conserved sequence tracts. Variations in our secondary structure predictions for sequences from different taxa indicate that compensatory mutation is not limited to paired positions. PMID:8760866

  19. Angiosperm phylogeny based on matK sequence information.

    PubMed

    Hilu, Khidir W; Borsch, Thomas; Müller, Kai; Soltis, Douglas E; Soltis, Pamela S; Savolainen, Vincent; Chase, Mark W; Powell, Martyn P; Alice, Lawrence A; Evans, Rodger; Sauquet, Hervé; Neinhuis, Christoph; Slotta, Tracey A B; Rohwer, Jens G; Campbell, Christopher S; Chatrou, Lars W

    2003-12-01

    Plastid matK gene sequences for 374 genera representing all angiosperm orders and 12 genera of gymnosperms were analyzed using parsimony (MP) and Bayesian inference (BI) approaches. Traditionally, slowly evolving genomic regions have been preferred for deep-level phylogenetic inference in angiosperms. The matK gene evolves approximately three times faster than the widely used plastid genes rbcL and atpB. The MP and BI trees are highly congruent. The robustness of the strict consensus tree supercedes all individual gene analyses and is comparable only to multigene-based phylogenies. Of the 385 nodes resolved, 79% are supported by high jackknife values, averaging 88%. Amborella is sister to the remaining angiosperms, followed by a grade of Nymphaeaceae and Austrobaileyales. Bayesian inference resolves Amborella + Nymphaeaceae as sister to the rest, but with weak (0.42) posterior probability. The MP analysis shows a trichotomy sister to the Austrobaileyales representing eumagnoliids, monocots + Chloranthales, and Ceratophyllum + eudicots. The matK gene produces the highest internal support yet for basal eudicots and, within core eudicots, resolves a crown group comprising Berberidopsidaceae/Aextoxicaceae, Santalales, and Caryophyllales + asterids. Moreover, matK sequences provide good resolution within many angiosperm orders. Combined analyses of matK and other rapidly evolving DNA regions with available multigene data sets have strong potential to enhance resolution and internal support in deep level angiosperm phylogenetics and provide additional insights into angiosperm evolution.

  20. Evolution of angiosperm seed disperser mutualisms: the timing of origins and their consequences for coevolutionary interactions between angiosperms and frugivores.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Ove

    2016-02-01

    The origins of interactions between angiosperms and fruit-eating seed dispersers have attracted much attention following a seminal paper on this topic by Tiffney (1984). This review synthesizes evidence pertaining to key events during the evolution of angiosperm-frugivore interactions and suggests some implications of this evidence for interpretations of angiosperm-frugivore coevolution. The most important conclusions are: (i) the diversification of angiosperm seed size and fleshy fruits commenced around 80 million years ago (Mya). The diversity of seed sizes, fruit sizes and fruit types peaked in the Eocene around 55 to 50 Mya. During this first phase of the interaction, angiosperms and animals evolving frugivory expanded into niche space not previously utilized by these groups, as frugivores and previously not existing fruit traits appeared. From the Eocene until the present, angiosperm-frugivore interactions have occurred within a broad frame of existing niche space, as defined by fruit traits and frugivory, motivating a separation of the angiosperm-frugivore interactions into two phases, before and after the peak in the early Eocene. (ii) The extinct multituberculates were probably the most important frugivores during the early radiation phase of angiosperm seeds and fleshy fruits. Primates and rodents are likely to have been important in the latter part of this first phase. (iii) Flying frugivores, birds and bats, evolved during the second phase, mainly during the Oligocene and Miocene, thus exploiting an existing diversity of fleshy fruits. (iv) A drastic climate shift around the Eocene-Oligocene boundary (around 34 Mya) resulted in more semi-open woodland vegetation, creating patchily occurring food resources for frugivores. This promoted evolution of a 'flying frugivore niche' exploited by birds and bats. In particular, passerines became a dominant frugivore group worldwide. (v) Fleshy fruits evolved at numerous occasions in many angiosperm families

  1. Fruit evolution and diversification in campanulid angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Beaulieu, Jeremy M; Donoghue, Michael J

    2013-11-01

    With increases in both the size and scope of phylogenetic trees, we are afforded a renewed opportunity to address long-standing comparative questions, such as whether particular fruit characters account for much of the variation in diversity among flowering plant clades. Studies to date have reported conflicting results, largely as a consequence of taxonomic scale and a reliance on potentially conservative statistical measures. Here we examine a larger and older angiosperm clade, the Campanulidae, and infer the rates of character transitions among the major fruit types, emphasizing the evolution of the achene fruits that are most frequently observed within the group. Our analyses imply that campanulids likely originated bearing capsules, and that all subsequent fruit diversity was derived from various modifications of this dry fruit type. We also found that the preponderance of lineages bearing achenes is a consequence of not only being a fruit type that is somewhat irreversible once it evolves, but one that also seems to have a positive association with diversification rates. Although these results imply the achene fruit type is a significant correlate of diversity patterns observed across campanulids, we conclude that it remains difficult to confidently and directly view this character state as the actual cause of increased diversification rates.

  2. Plant Sterol Diversity in Pollen from Angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Villette, Claire; Berna, Anne; Compagnon, Vincent; Schaller, Hubert

    2015-08-01

    Here we have examined the composition of free sterols and steryl esters of pollen from selected angiosperm species, as a first step towards a comprehensive analysis of sterol biogenesis in the male gametophyte. We detected four major sterol structural groups: cycloartenol derivatives bearing a 9β,19-cyclopropyl group, sterols with a double bond at C-7(8), sterols with a double bond at C-5(6), and stanols. All these groups were unequally distributed among species. However, the distribution of sterols as free sterols or as steryl esters in pollen grains indicated that free sterols were mostly Δ(5)-sterols and that steryl esters were predominantly 9β,19-cyclopropyl sterols. In order to link the sterol composition of a pollen grain at anthesis with the requirement for membrane lipid constituents of the pollen tube, we germinated pollen grains from Nicotiana tabacum, a model plant in reproductive biology. In the presence of radiolabelled mevalonic acid and in a time course series of measurements, we showed that cycloeucalenol was identified as the major neosynthesized sterol. Furthermore, the inhibition of cycloeucalenol neosynthesis by squalestatin was in full agreement with a de novo biogenesis and an apparent truncated pathway in the pollen tube.

  3. Pollination biology of basal angiosperms (ANITA grade).

    PubMed

    Thien, Leonard B; Bernhardt, Peter; Devall, Margaret S; Chen, Zhi-Duan; Luo, Yi-Bo; Fan, Jian-Hua; Yuan, Liang-Chen; Williams, Joseph H

    2009-01-01

    The first three branches of the angiosperm phylogenetic tree consist of eight families with ∼201 species of plants (the ANITA grade). The oldest flower fossil for the group is dated to the Early Cretaceous (115-125 Mya) and identified to the Nymphaeales. The flowers of extant plants in the ANITA grade are small, and pollen is the edible reward (rarely nectar or starch bodies). Unlike many gymnosperms that secrete "pollination drops," ANITA-grade members examined thus far have a dry-type stigma. Copious secretions of stigmatic fluid are restricted to the Nymphaeales, but this is not nectar. Floral odors, floral thermogenesis (a resource), and colored tepals attract insects in deceit-based pollination syndromes throughout the first three branches of the phylogenetic tree. Self-incompatibility and an extragynoecial compitum occur in some species in the Austrobaileyales. Flies are primary pollinators in six families (10 genera). Beetles are pollinators in five families varying in importance as primary (exclusive) to secondary vectors of pollen. Bees are major pollinators only in the Nymphaeaceae. It is hypothesized that large flowers in Nymphaeaceae are the result of the interaction of heat, floral odors, and colored tepals to trap insects to increase fitness.

  4. Mycorrhizal symbiosis stimulates endoreduplication in angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Bainard, L D; Bainard, J D; Newmaster, S G; Klironomos, J N

    2011-09-01

    Symbiotic and parasitic relationships can alter the degree of endoreduplication in plant cells, and a limited number of studies have documented this occurrence in root cells colonized by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. However, this phenomenon has not been tested in a wide range of plant species, including species that are non-endopolyploid and those that do not associate with AM fungi. We grew 37 species belonging to 16 plant families, with a range of genome sizes and a range in the degree of endopolyploidy. The endoreduplication index (EI) was compared between plants that were inoculated with Glomus irregulare and plants that were not inoculated. Of the species colonized with AM fungi, 22 of the 25 species had a significant increase in endopolyploid root nuclei over non-mycorrhizal plants, including species that do not normally exhibit endopolyploidy. Changes in the EI were strongly correlated (R(2) = 0.619) with the proportion of root length colonized by arbuscules. No change was detected in the EI for the 12 non-mycorrhizal species. This work indicates that colonization by symbiotic fungi involves a mechanism to increase nuclear DNA content in roots across many angiosperm groups and is likely linked to increased metabolism and protein production. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Nuclear DNA Amounts in Macaronesian Angiosperms

    PubMed Central

    SUDA, JAN; KYNCL, TOMÁŠ; FREIOVÁ, RADKA

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear DNA contents for 104 Macaronesian angiosperms, with particular attention on Canary Islands endemics, were analysed using propidium iodide flow cytometry. Prime estimates for more than one‐sixth of the whole Canarian endemic flora (including representatives of 11 endemic genera) were obtained. The resulting 1C DNA values ranged from 0·19 to 7·21 pg for Descurainia bourgeauana and Argyranthemum frutescens, respectively (about 38‐fold difference). The majority of species, however, possessed (very) small genomes, with C‐values <1·6 pg. The tendency towards small nuclear DNA contents and genome sizes was confirmed by comparing average values for Macaronesian and non‐Macaronesian representatives of individual families, genera and major phylogenetic lineages. Our data support the hypothesis that the insular selection pressures in Macaronesia favour small C‐values and genome sizes. Both positive and negative correlations between infrageneric nuclear DNA amount variation and environmental conditions on Tenerife were also found in several genera. PMID:12824074

  6. Leaf hydraulic evolution led a surge in leaf photosynthetic capacity during early angiosperm diversification.

    PubMed

    Brodribb, Tim J; Feild, Taylor S

    2010-02-01

    Angiosperm evolution transformed global ecology, and much of this impact derives from the unrivalled vegetative productivity of dominant angiosperm clades. However, the origins of high photosynthetic capacity in angiosperms remain unknown. In this study, we describe the steep trajectory of leaf vein density (D(v)) evolution in angiosperms, and predict that this leaf plumbing innovation enabled a major shift in the capacity of leaves to assimilate CO(2). Reconstructing leaf vein evolution from an examination of 504 angiosperm species we found a rapid three- to fourfold increase in D(v) occurred during the early evolution of angiosperms. We demonstrate how this major shift in leaf vein architecture potentially allowed the maximum photosynthetic capacity in angiosperms to rise above competing groups 140-100 Ma. Our data suggest that early terrestrial angiosperms produced leaves with low photosynthetic rates, but that subsequent angiosperm success is linked to a surge in photosynthetic capacity during their early diversification.

  7. Herbaceous Angiosperms Are Not More Vulnerable to Drought-Induced Embolism Than Angiosperm Trees1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Delmas, Chloé E.L.; Buttler, Alexandre; Chauvin, Thibaud; Doria, Larissa Chacon; del Arco, Marcelino

    2016-01-01

    The water transport pipeline in herbs is assumed to be more vulnerable to drought than in trees due to the formation of frequent embolisms (gas bubbles), which could be removed by the occurrence of root pressure, especially in grasses. Here, we studied hydraulic failure in herbaceous angiosperms by measuring the pressure inducing 50% loss of hydraulic conductance (P50) in stems of 26 species, mainly European grasses (Poaceae). Our measurements show a large range in P50 from −0.5 to −7.5 MPa, which overlaps with 94% of the woody angiosperm species in a worldwide, published data set and which strongly correlates with an aridity index. Moreover, the P50 values obtained were substantially more negative than the midday water potentials for five grass species monitored throughout the entire growing season, suggesting that embolism formation and repair are not routine and mainly occur under water deficits. These results show that both herbs and trees share the ability to withstand very negative water potentials without considerable embolism formation in their xylem conduits during drought stress. In addition, structure-function trade-offs in grass stems reveal that more resistant species are more lignified, which was confirmed for herbaceous and closely related woody species of the daisy group (Asteraceae). Our findings could imply that herbs with more lignified stems will become more abundant in future grasslands under more frequent and severe droughts, potentially resulting in lower forage digestibility. PMID:27268961

  8. Herbaceous Angiosperms Are Not More Vulnerable to Drought-Induced Embolism Than Angiosperm Trees.

    PubMed

    Lens, Frederic; Picon-Cochard, Catherine; Delmas, Chloé E L; Signarbieux, Constant; Buttler, Alexandre; Cochard, Hervé; Jansen, Steven; Chauvin, Thibaud; Doria, Larissa Chacon; Del Arco, Marcelino; Delzon, Sylvain

    2016-10-01

    The water transport pipeline in herbs is assumed to be more vulnerable to drought than in trees due to the formation of frequent embolisms (gas bubbles), which could be removed by the occurrence of root pressure, especially in grasses. Here, we studied hydraulic failure in herbaceous angiosperms by measuring the pressure inducing 50% loss of hydraulic conductance (P50) in stems of 26 species, mainly European grasses (Poaceae). Our measurements show a large range in P50 from -0.5 to -7.5 MPa, which overlaps with 94% of the woody angiosperm species in a worldwide, published data set and which strongly correlates with an aridity index. Moreover, the P50 values obtained were substantially more negative than the midday water potentials for five grass species monitored throughout the entire growing season, suggesting that embolism formation and repair are not routine and mainly occur under water deficits. These results show that both herbs and trees share the ability to withstand very negative water potentials without considerable embolism formation in their xylem conduits during drought stress. In addition, structure-function trade-offs in grass stems reveal that more resistant species are more lignified, which was confirmed for herbaceous and closely related woody species of the daisy group (Asteraceae). Our findings could imply that herbs with more lignified stems will become more abundant in future grasslands under more frequent and severe droughts, potentially resulting in lower forage digestibility.

  9. Rise to dominance of angiosperm pioneers in European Cretaceous environments.

    PubMed

    Coiffard, Clément; Gomez, Bernard; Daviero-Gomez, Véronique; Dilcher, David L

    2012-12-18

    The majority of environments are dominated by flowering plants today, but it is uncertain how this dominance originated. This increase in angiosperm diversity happened during the Cretaceous period (ca. 145-65 Ma) and led to replacement and often extinction of gymnosperms and ferns. We propose a scenario for the rise to dominance of the angiosperms from the Barremian (ca. 130 Ma) to the Campanian (ca. 84 Ma) based on the European megafossil plant record. These megafossil data demonstrate that angiosperms migrated into new environments in three phases: (i) Barremian (ca. 130-125 Ma) freshwater lake-related wetlands; (ii) Aptian-Albian (ca. 125-100 Ma) understory floodplains (excluding levees and back swamps); and (iii) Cenomanian-Campanian (ca. 100-84 Ma) natural levees, back swamps, and coastal swamps. This scenario allows for the measured evolution of angiosperms in time and space synthesizing changes in the physical environment with concomitant changes in the biological environment. This view of angiosperm radiation in three phases reconciles previous scenarios based on the North American record. The Cretaceous plant record that can be observed in Europe is exceptional in many ways. (i) Angiosperms are well preserved from the Barremian to the Maastrichtian (ca. 65 Ma). (ii) Deposits are well constrained and dated stratigraphically. (iii) They encompass a full range of environments. (iv) European paleobotany provides many detailed studies of Cretaceous floras for analysis. These factors make a robust dataset for the study of angiosperm evolution from the Barremian to the Campanian that can be traced through various ecosystems and related to other plant groups occupying the same niches.

  10. Rise to dominance of angiosperm pioneers in European Cretaceous environments

    PubMed Central

    Coiffard, Clément; Gomez, Bernard; Daviero-Gomez, Véronique; Dilcher, David L.

    2012-01-01

    The majority of environments are dominated by flowering plants today, but it is uncertain how this dominance originated. This increase in angiosperm diversity happened during the Cretaceous period (ca. 145–65 Ma) and led to replacement and often extinction of gymnosperms and ferns. We propose a scenario for the rise to dominance of the angiosperms from the Barremian (ca. 130 Ma) to the Campanian (ca. 84 Ma) based on the European megafossil plant record. These megafossil data demonstrate that angiosperms migrated into new environments in three phases: (i) Barremian (ca. 130–125 Ma) freshwater lake-related wetlands; (ii) Aptian–Albian (ca. 125–100 Ma) understory floodplains (excluding levees and back swamps); and (iii) Cenomanian–Campanian (ca. 100–84 Ma) natural levees, back swamps, and coastal swamps. This scenario allows for the measured evolution of angiosperms in time and space synthesizing changes in the physical environment with concomitant changes in the biological environment. This view of angiosperm radiation in three phases reconciles previous scenarios based on the North American record. The Cretaceous plant record that can be observed in Europe is exceptional in many ways. (i) Angiosperms are well preserved from the Barremian to the Maastrichtian (ca. 65 Ma). (ii) Deposits are well constrained and dated stratigraphically. (iii) They encompass a full range of environments. (iv) European paleobotany provides many detailed studies of Cretaceous floras for analysis. These factors make a robust dataset for the study of angiosperm evolution from the Barremian to the Campanian that can be traced through various ecosystems and related to other plant groups occupying the same niches. PMID:23213256

  11. Hawaiian angiosperm radiations of North American origin

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, Bruce G.; Wagner, Warren L.

    2010-01-01

    Background Putative phytogeographical links between America (especially North America) and the Hawaiian Islands have figured prominently in disagreement and debate about the origin of Pacific floras and the efficacy of long-distance (oversea) plant dispersal, given the obstacles to explaining such major disjunctions by vicariance. Scope Review of past efforts, and of progress over the last 20 years, toward understanding relationships of Hawaiian angiosperms allows for a historically informed re-evaluation of the American (New World) contribution to Hawaiian diversity and evolutionary activity of American lineages in an insular setting. Conclusions Temperate and boreal North America is a much more important source of Hawaiian flora than suggested by most 20th century authorities on Pacific plant life, such as Fosberg and Skottsberg. Early views of evolution as too slow to account for divergence of highly distinctive endemics within the Hawaiian geological time frame evidently impeded biogeographical understanding, as did lack of appreciation for the importance of rare, often biotically mediated dispersal events and ecological opportunity in island ecosystems. Molecular phylogenetic evidence for North American ancestry of Hawaiian plant radiations, such as the silversword alliance, mints, sanicles, violets, schiedeas and spurges, underlines the potential of long-distance dispersal to shape floras, in accordance with hypotheses championed by Carlquist. Characteristics important to colonization of the islands, such as dispersibility by birds and ancestral hybridization or polyploidy, and ecological opportunities associated with ‘sky islands’ of temperate or boreal climate in the tropical Hawaiian archipelago may have been key to extensive diversification of endemic lineages of North American origin that are among the most species-rich clades of Hawaiian plants. Evident youth of flowering-plant lineages from North America is highly consistent with recent geological

  12. Hawaiian angiosperm radiations of North American origin.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Bruce G; Wagner, Warren L

    2010-06-01

    Putative phytogeographical links between America (especially North America) and the Hawaiian Islands have figured prominently in disagreement and debate about the origin of Pacific floras and the efficacy of long-distance (oversea) plant dispersal, given the obstacles to explaining such major disjunctions by vicariance. Review of past efforts, and of progress over the last 20 years, toward understanding relationships of Hawaiian angiosperms allows for a historically informed re-evaluation of the American (New World) contribution to Hawaiian diversity and evolutionary activity of American lineages in an insular setting. Temperate and boreal North America is a much more important source of Hawaiian flora than suggested by most 20th century authorities on Pacific plant life, such as Fosberg and Skottsberg. Early views of evolution as too slow to account for divergence of highly distinctive endemics within the Hawaiian geological time frame evidently impeded biogeographical understanding, as did lack of appreciation for the importance of rare, often biotically mediated dispersal events and ecological opportunity in island ecosystems. Molecular phylogenetic evidence for North American ancestry of Hawaiian plant radiations, such as the silversword alliance, mints, sanicles, violets, schiedeas and spurges, underlines the potential of long-distance dispersal to shape floras, in accordance with hypotheses championed by Carlquist. Characteristics important to colonization of the islands, such as dispersibility by birds and ancestral hybridization or polyploidy, and ecological opportunities associated with 'sky islands' of temperate or boreal climate in the tropical Hawaiian archipelago may have been key to extensive diversification of endemic lineages of North American origin that are among the most species-rich clades of Hawaiian plants. Evident youth of flowering-plant lineages from North America is highly consistent with recent geological evidence for lack of high

  13. Parallel structural evolution of auxin response factors in the angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Finet, Cédric; Fourquin, Chloé; Vinauger, Marion; Berne-Dedieu, Annick; Chambrier, Pierre; Paindavoine, Sandrine; Scutt, Charles P

    2010-09-01

    Here we analyze the structural evolution of the paralogous transcription factors ETTIN (ETT/ARF3) and AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 4 (ARF4), which control the development of floral organs and leaves in the model angiosperm Arabidopsis. ETT is truncated at its C terminus, and consequently lacks two regulatory domains present in most other ARFs, including ARF4. Our analysis indicates ETT and ARF4 to have been generated by the duplication of a non-truncated ARF gene prior to the radiation of the extant angiosperms. We furthermore show that either ETT or ARF4 orthologs have become modified to encode truncated ARF proteins, lacking C-terminal regulatory domains, in representatives of three groups that separated early in angiosperm evolution: Amborellales, Nymphaeales and the remaining angiosperm clade. Interestingly, the production of truncated ARF4 transcripts in Amborellales occurs through an alternative splicing mechanism, rather than through a permanent truncation, as in the other groups studied. To gain insight into the potential functional significance of truncations to ETT and ARF4, we tested the capacity of native, truncated and chimeric coding sequences of these genes to restore a wild-type phenotype to Arabidopsis ett mutants. We discuss the results of this analysis in the context of the structural evolution of ARF genes in the angiosperms.

  14. Tectonic-driven climate change and the diversification of angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Chaboureau, Anne-Claire; Sepulchre, Pierre; Donnadieu, Yannick; Franc, Alain

    2014-09-30

    In 1879, Charles Darwin characterized the sudden and unexplained rise of angiosperms during the Cretaceous as an "abominable mystery." The diversification of this clade marked the beginning of a rapid transition among Mesozoic ecosystems and floras formerly dominated by ferns, conifers, and cycads. Although the role of environmental factors has been suggested [Coiffard C, Gómez B (2012) Geol Acta 10(2):181-188], Cretaceous global climate change has barely been considered as a contributor to angiosperm radiation, and focus was put on biotic factors to explain this transition. Here we use a fully coupled climate model driven by Mesozoic paleogeographic maps to quantify and discuss the impact of continental drift on angiosperm expansion and diversification. We show that the decrease of desertic belts between the Triassic and the Cretaceous and the subsequent onset of long-lasting humid conditions during the Late Cretaceous were driven by the breakup of Pangea and were contemporaneous with the first rise of angiosperm diversification. Positioning angiosperm-bearing fossil sites on our paleobioclimatic maps shows a strong match between the location of fossil-rich outcrops and temperate humid zones, indicating that climate change from arid to temperate dominance may have set the stage for the ecological expansion of flowering plants.

  15. Female gamete competition in an ancient angiosperm lineage

    PubMed Central

    Bachelier, Julien B.; Friedman, William E.

    2011-01-01

    In Trimenia moorei, an extant member of the ancient angiosperm clade Austrobaileyales, we found a remarkable pattern of female gametophyte (egg-producing structure) development that strikingly resembles that of pollen tubes and their intrasexual competition within the maternal pollen tube transmitting tissues of most flowers. In contrast with most other flowering plants, in Trimenia, multiple female gametophytes are initiated at the base (chalazal end) of each ovule. Female gametophytes grow from their tips and compete over hundreds of micrometers to reach the apex of the nucellus and the site of fertilization. Here, the successful female gametophyte will mate with a pollen tube to produce an embryo and an endosperm. Moreover, the central tissue within the ovules of Trimenia, through which the embryo sacs grow, contains starch and other carbohydrates similar to the pollen tube transmitting tissues in the styles of most flowers. The pattern of female gametophyte development found in Trimenia is rare but by no means unique in angiosperms. Importantly, it seems that multiple female gametophytes are occasionally or frequently initiated in members of other ancient angiosperm lineages. The intensification of pollen tube (male gametophyte) competition and enhanced maternal selection among competing pollen tubes are considered to have been major contributors to the rise of angiosperms. Based on insights from Trimenia, we posit that prefertilization female gametophyte (egg) competition within individual ovules in addition to male gametophyte (sperm) competition and maternal mate choice may have been key features of the earliest angiosperms. PMID:21690400

  16. Tectonic-driven climate change and the diversification of angiosperms

    PubMed Central

    Chaboureau, Anne-Claire; Sepulchre, Pierre; Donnadieu, Yannick; Franc, Alain

    2014-01-01

    In 1879, Charles Darwin characterized the sudden and unexplained rise of angiosperms during the Cretaceous as an “abominable mystery.” The diversification of this clade marked the beginning of a rapid transition among Mesozoic ecosystems and floras formerly dominated by ferns, conifers, and cycads. Although the role of environmental factors has been suggested [Coiffard C, Gómez B (2012) Geol Acta 10(2):181–188], Cretaceous global climate change has barely been considered as a contributor to angiosperm radiation, and focus was put on biotic factors to explain this transition. Here we use a fully coupled climate model driven by Mesozoic paleogeographic maps to quantify and discuss the impact of continental drift on angiosperm expansion and diversification. We show that the decrease of desertic belts between the Triassic and the Cretaceous and the subsequent onset of long-lasting humid conditions during the Late Cretaceous were driven by the breakup of Pangea and were contemporaneous with the first rise of angiosperm diversification. Positioning angiosperm-bearing fossil sites on our paleobioclimatic maps shows a strong match between the location of fossil-rich outcrops and temperate humid zones, indicating that climate change from arid to temperate dominance may have set the stage for the ecological expansion of flowering plants. PMID:25225405

  17. Angiosperm leaf vein evolution was physiologically and environmentally transformative.

    PubMed

    Boyce, C Kevin; Brodribb, Tim J; Feild, Taylor S; Zwieniecki, Maciej A

    2009-05-22

    The veins that irrigate leaves during photosynthesis are demonstrated to be strikingly more abundant in flowering plants than in any other vascular plant lineage. Angiosperm vein densities average 8 mm of vein per mm(2) of leaf area and can reach 25 mm mm(-2), whereas such high densities are absent from all other plants, living or extinct. Leaves of non-angiosperms have consistently averaged close to 2 mm mm(-2) throughout 380 million years of evolution despite a complex history that has involved four or more independent origins of laminate leaves with many veins and dramatic changes in climate and atmospheric composition. We further demonstrate that the high leaf vein densities unique to the angiosperms enable unparalleled transpiration rates, extending previous work indicating a strong correlation between vein density and assimilation rates. Because vein density is directly measurable in fossils, these correlations provide new access to the physiology of extinct plants and how they may have impacted their environments. First, the high assimilation rates currently confined to the angiosperms among living plants are likely to have been unique throughout evolutionary history. Second, the transpiration-driven recycling of water that is important for bolstering precipitation in modern tropical rainforests might have been significantly less in a world before the angiosperms.

  18. Angiosperm leaf vein evolution was physiologically and environmentally transformative

    PubMed Central

    Boyce, C. Kevin; Brodribb, Tim J.; Feild, Taylor S.; Zwieniecki, Maciej A.

    2009-01-01

    The veins that irrigate leaves during photosynthesis are demonstrated to be strikingly more abundant in flowering plants than in any other vascular plant lineage. Angiosperm vein densities average 8 mm of vein per mm2 of leaf area and can reach 25 mm mm−2, whereas such high densities are absent from all other plants, living or extinct. Leaves of non-angiosperms have consistently averaged close to 2 mm mm−2 throughout 380 million years of evolution despite a complex history that has involved four or more independent origins of laminate leaves with many veins and dramatic changes in climate and atmospheric composition. We further demonstrate that the high leaf vein densities unique to the angiosperms enable unparalleled transpiration rates, extending previous work indicating a strong correlation between vein density and assimilation rates. Because vein density is directly measurable in fossils, these correlations provide new access to the physiology of extinct plants and how they may have impacted their environments. First, the high assimilation rates currently confined to the angiosperms among living plants are likely to have been unique throughout evolutionary history. Second, the transpiration-driven recycling of water that is important for bolstering precipitation in modern tropical rainforests might have been significantly less in a world before the angiosperms. PMID:19324775

  19. Female gamete competition in an ancient angiosperm lineage.

    PubMed

    Bachelier, Julien B; Friedman, William E

    2011-07-26

    In Trimenia moorei, an extant member of the ancient angiosperm clade Austrobaileyales, we found a remarkable pattern of female gametophyte (egg-producing structure) development that strikingly resembles that of pollen tubes and their intrasexual competition within the maternal pollen tube transmitting tissues of most flowers. In contrast with most other flowering plants, in Trimenia, multiple female gametophytes are initiated at the base (chalazal end) of each ovule. Female gametophytes grow from their tips and compete over hundreds of micrometers to reach the apex of the nucellus and the site of fertilization. Here, the successful female gametophyte will mate with a pollen tube to produce an embryo and an endosperm. Moreover, the central tissue within the ovules of Trimenia, through which the embryo sacs grow, contains starch and other carbohydrates similar to the pollen tube transmitting tissues in the styles of most flowers. The pattern of female gametophyte development found in Trimenia is rare but by no means unique in angiosperms. Importantly, it seems that multiple female gametophytes are occasionally or frequently initiated in members of other ancient angiosperm lineages. The intensification of pollen tube (male gametophyte) competition and enhanced maternal selection among competing pollen tubes are considered to have been major contributors to the rise of angiosperms. Based on insights from Trimenia, we posit that prefertilization female gametophyte (egg) competition within individual ovules in addition to male gametophyte (sperm) competition and maternal mate choice may have been key features of the earliest angiosperms.

  20. Transposable Elements: Powerful Contributors to Angiosperm Evolution and Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, Keith R.; McComb, Jen A.; Greene, Wayne K.

    2013-01-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) are a dominant feature of most flowering plant genomes. Together with other accepted facilitators of evolution, accumulating data indicate that TEs can explain much about their rapid evolution and diversification. Genome size in angiosperms is highly correlated with TE content and the overwhelming bulk (>80%) of large genomes can be composed of TEs. Among retro-TEs, long terminal repeats (LTRs) are abundant, whereas DNA-TEs, which are often less abundant than retro-TEs, are more active. Much adaptive or evolutionary potential in angiosperms is due to the activity of TEs (active TE-Thrust), resulting in an extraordinary array of genetic changes, including gene modifications, duplications, altered expression patterns, and exaptation to create novel genes, with occasional gene disruption. TEs implicated in the earliest origins of the angiosperms include the exapted Mustang, Sleeper, and Fhy3/Far1 gene families. Passive TE-Thrust can create a high degree of adaptive or evolutionary potential by engendering ectopic recombination events resulting in deletions, duplications, and karyotypic changes. TE activity can also alter epigenetic patterning, including that governing endosperm development, thus promoting reproductive isolation. Continuing evolution of long-lived resprouter angiosperms, together with genetic variation in their multiple meristems, indicates that TEs can facilitate somatic evolution in addition to germ line evolution. Critical to their success, angiosperms have a high frequency of polyploidy and hybridization, with resultant increased TE activity and introgression, and beneficial gene duplication. Together with traditional explanations, the enhanced genomic plasticity facilitated by TE-Thrust, suggests a more complete and satisfactory explanation for Darwin’s “abominable mystery”: the spectacular success of the angiosperms. PMID:24065734

  1. Cell size, genome size and the dominance of Angiosperms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonin, K. A.; Roddy, A. B.

    2016-12-01

    Angiosperms are capable of maintaining the highest rates of photosynthetic gas exchange of all land plants. High rates of photosynthesis depends mechanistically both on efficiently transporting water to the sites of evaporation in the leaf and on regulating the loss of that water to the atmosphere as CO2 diffuses into the leaf. Angiosperm leaves are unique in their ability to sustain high fluxes of liquid and vapor phase water transport due to high vein densities and numerous, small stomata. Despite the ubiquity of studies characterizing the anatomical and physiological adaptations that enable angiosperms to maintain high rates of photosynthesis, the underlying mechanism explaining why they have been able to develop such high leaf vein densities, and such small and abundant stomata, is still incomplete. Here we ask whether the scaling of genome size and cell size places a fundamental constraint on the photosynthetic metabolism of land plants, and whether genome downsizing among the angiosperms directly contributed to their greater potential and realized primary productivity relative to the other major groups of terrestrial plants. Using previously published data we show that a single relationship can predict guard cell size from genome size across the major groups of terrestrial land plants (e.g. angiosperms, conifers, cycads and ferns). Similarly, a strong positive correlation exists between genome size and both stomatal density and vein density that together ultimately constrains maximum potential (gs, max) and operational stomatal conductance (gs, op). Further the difference in the slopes describing the covariation between genome size and both gs, max and gs, op suggests that genome downsizing brings gs, op closer to gs, max. Taken together the data presented here suggests that the smaller genomes of angiosperms allow their final cell sizes to vary more widely and respond more directly to environmental conditions and in doing so bring operational photosynthetic

  2. Transposable elements: powerful contributors to angiosperm evolution and diversity.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Keith R; McComb, Jen A; Greene, Wayne K

    2013-01-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) are a dominant feature of most flowering plant genomes. Together with other accepted facilitators of evolution, accumulating data indicate that TEs can explain much about their rapid evolution and diversification. Genome size in angiosperms is highly correlated with TE content and the overwhelming bulk (>80%) of large genomes can be composed of TEs. Among retro-TEs, long terminal repeats (LTRs) are abundant, whereas DNA-TEs, which are often less abundant than retro-TEs, are more active. Much adaptive or evolutionary potential in angiosperms is due to the activity of TEs (active TE-Thrust), resulting in an extraordinary array of genetic changes, including gene modifications, duplications, altered expression patterns, and exaptation to create novel genes, with occasional gene disruption. TEs implicated in the earliest origins of the angiosperms include the exapted Mustang, Sleeper, and Fhy3/Far1 gene families. Passive TE-Thrust can create a high degree of adaptive or evolutionary potential by engendering ectopic recombination events resulting in deletions, duplications, and karyotypic changes. TE activity can also alter epigenetic patterning, including that governing endosperm development, thus promoting reproductive isolation. Continuing evolution of long-lived resprouter angiosperms, together with genetic variation in their multiple meristems, indicates that TEs can facilitate somatic evolution in addition to germ line evolution. Critical to their success, angiosperms have a high frequency of polyploidy and hybridization, with resultant increased TE activity and introgression, and beneficial gene duplication. Together with traditional explanations, the enhanced genomic plasticity facilitated by TE-Thrust, suggests a more complete and satisfactory explanation for Darwin's "abominable mystery": the spectacular success of the angiosperms.

  3. Correlations of life form, pollination mode and sexual system in aquatic angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Du, Zhi-Yuan; Wang, Qing-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Aquatic plants are phylogenetically well dispersed across the angiosperms. Reproductive and other life-history traits of aquatic angiosperms are closely associated with specific growth forms. Hydrophilous pollination exhibits notable examples of convergent evolution in angiosperm reproductive structures, and hydrophiles exhibit great diversity in sexual system. In this study, we reconstructed ancestral characters of aquatic lineages based on the phylogeny of aquatic angiosperms. Our aim is to find the correlations of life form, pollination mode and sexual system in aquatic angiosperms. Hydrophily is the adaptive evolution of completely submersed angiosperms to aquatic habitats. Hydroautogamy and maleflower-ephydrophily are the transitional stages from anemophily and entomophily to hydrophily. True hydrophily occurs in 18 submersed angiosperm genera, which is associated with an unusually high incidence of unisexual flowers. All marine angiosperms are submersed, hydrophilous species. This study would help us understand the evolution of hydrophilous pollination and its correlations with life form and sexual system.

  4. Toward a new synthesis: major evolutionary trends in the angiosperm fossil record.

    PubMed

    Dilcher, D

    2000-06-20

    Angiosperm paleobotany has widened its horizons, incorporated new techniques, developed new databases, and accepted new questions that can now focus on the evolution of the group. The fossil record of early flowering plants is now playing an active role in addressing questions of angiosperm phylogeny, angiosperm origins, and angiosperm radiations. Three basic nodes of angiosperm radiations are identified: (i) the closed carpel and showy radially symmetrical flower, (ii) the bilateral flower, and (iii) fleshy fruits and nutritious nuts and seeds. These are all coevolutionary events and spread out through time during angiosperm evolution. The proposal is made that the genetics of the angiosperms pressured the evolution of the group toward reproductive systems that favored outcrossing. This resulted in the strongest selection in the angiosperms being directed toward the flower, fruits, and seeds. That is why these organs often provide the best systematic characters for the group.

  5. Correlations of Life Form, Pollination Mode and Sexual System in Aquatic Angiosperms

    PubMed Central

    Du, Zhi-Yuan; Wang, Qing-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Aquatic plants are phylogenetically well dispersed across the angiosperms. Reproductive and other life-history traits of aquatic angiosperms are closely associated with specific growth forms. Hydrophilous pollination exhibits notable examples of convergent evolution in angiosperm reproductive structures, and hydrophiles exhibit great diversity in sexual system. In this study, we reconstructed ancestral characters of aquatic lineages based on the phylogeny of aquatic angiosperms. Our aim is to find the correlations of life form, pollination mode and sexual system in aquatic angiosperms. Hydrophily is the adaptive evolution of completely submersed angiosperms to aquatic habitats. Hydroautogamy and maleflower-ephydrophily are the transitional stages from anemophily and entomophily to hydrophily. True hydrophily occurs in 18 submersed angiosperm genera, which is associated with an unusually high incidence of unisexual flowers. All marine angiosperms are submersed, hydrophilous species. This study would help us understand the evolution of hydrophilous pollination and its correlations with life form and sexual system. PMID:25525810

  6. Genetic diversity and population structure of Nuphar submersa (Nymphaeaceae), a critically endangered aquatic plant endemic to Japan, and implications for its conservation.

    PubMed

    Shiga, Takashi; Yokogawa, Masashi; Kaneko, Shingo; Isagi, Yuji

    2017-01-01

    Nuphar submersa (Nymphaeaceae) is a critically endangered freshwater macrophyte indigenous to central Japan, with only four small extant populations represented across its entire range. We investigated the genotypic and genetic diversity as well as the genetic structure of all extant individuals of N. submersa based on analysis of 15 microsatellite loci. Among 278 individual ramets, 52 multilocus genotypes were detected: 30 genotypes in Nikko City (NIK), 18 in Nasukarasuyama City (NAS), 3 in Mooka City (MOK), and 1 in Sakura City (SAK). The average number of alleles per locus ranged from 1.20 to 1.93, whereas the observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.11 to 0.33 and from 0.10 to 0.24, respectively. With the exception of SAK, all populations contained multiple clones, but our results indicated low levels of within-population genetic diversity. The populations NIK and NAS comprised few large or middle-sized genets and many small genets. The populations NIK and NAS were suggested to comprise large old, old fragmented, and/or young small genets resulting from seedling establishment. All four populations were differentiated, and gene flow between the populations was restricted (average level of gene flow (Nm) = 0.122, G' ST  = 0.639). Of the total genetic diversity, 67.20 and 9.13% were attributable to inter- and intra-population diversity, respectively. STRUCTURE analysis revealed two or three well-differentiated groups of populations. Cluster I comprised one population (NIK) and cluster II comprised the remaining populations at K = 2. The populations NIK, NAS, and the remaining populations were assigned to clusters I, II, and III, respectively, at K = 3. For conservation practices, we recommend that each cluster be regarded as a different management unit. We further suggest that artificial gene flow among MOK and SAK populations is an appropriate option, whereas NIK should not be reinforced with genotypes from the remaining populations.

  7. Evolutionary patterns and biogeochemical significance of angiosperm root traits

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Based on a synthesis of recent progress in belowground ecology, we advance and discuss a hypothesis that relates root trait evolution to the increased dominance of angiosperms into dry upland habitats and the decline of atmospheric CO2 concentration that began in the Cretaceous. Our hypothesis is bu...

  8. Ancient WGD events as drivers of key innovations in angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Soltis, Pamela S; Soltis, Douglas E

    2016-04-01

    Polyploidy, or whole-genome duplication (WGD), is a ubiquitous feature of plant genomes, contributing to variation in both genome size and gene content. Although polyploidy has occurred in all major clades of land plants, it is most frequent in angiosperms. Following a WGD in the common ancestor of all extant angiosperms, a complex pattern of both ancient and recent polyploidy is evident across angiosperm phylogeny. In several cases, ancient WGDs are associated with increased rates of species diversification. For example, a WGD in the common ancestor of Asteraceae, the largest family of angiosperms with ∼25000 species, is statistically linked to a shift in species diversification; several other old WGDs are followed by increased diversification after a 'lag' of up to three nodes. WGD may thus lead to a genomic combination that generates evolutionary novelty and may serve as a catalyst for diversification. In this paper, we explore possible links between WGD, the origin of novelty, and key innovations and propose a research path forward. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Cabomba as a model for studies of early angiosperm evolution

    PubMed Central

    Vialette-Guiraud, Aurelie C. M.; Alaux, Michael; Legeai, Fabrice; Finet, Cedric; Chambrier, Pierre; Brown, Spencer C.; Chauvet, Aurelie; Magdalena, Carlos; Rudall, Paula J.; Scutt, Charles P.

    2011-01-01

    Background The angiosperms, or flowering plants, diversified in the Cretaceous to dominate almost all terrestrial environments. Molecular phylogenetic studies indicate that the orders Amborellales, Nymphaeales and Austrobaileyales, collectively termed the ANA grade, diverged as separate lineages from a remaining angiosperm clade at a very early stage in flowering plant evolution. By comparing these early diverging lineages, it is possible to infer the possible morphology and ecology of the last common ancestor of the extant angiosperms, and this analysis can now be extended to try to deduce the developmental mechanisms that were present in early flowering plants. However, not all species in the ANA grade form convenient molecular-genetic models. Scope The present study reviews the genus Cabomba (Nymphaeales), which shows a range of features that make it potentially useful as a genetic model. We focus on characters that have probably been conserved since the last common ancestor of the extant flowering plants. To facilitate the use of Cabomba as a molecular model, we describe methods for its cultivation to flowering in the laboratory, a novel Cabomba flower expressed sequence tag database, a well-adapted in situ hybridization protocol and a measurement of the nuclear genome size of C. caroliniana. We discuss the features required for species to become tractable models, and discuss the relative merits of Cabomba and other ANA-grade angiosperms in molecular-genetic studies aimed at understanding the origin of the flowering plants. PMID:21486926

  10. Cabomba as a model for studies of early angiosperm evolution.

    PubMed

    Vialette-Guiraud, Aurelie C M; Alaux, Michael; Legeai, Fabrice; Finet, Cedric; Chambrier, Pierre; Brown, Spencer C; Chauvet, Aurelie; Magdalena, Carlos; Rudall, Paula J; Scutt, Charles P

    2011-09-01

    The angiosperms, or flowering plants, diversified in the Cretaceous to dominate almost all terrestrial environments. Molecular phylogenetic studies indicate that the orders Amborellales, Nymphaeales and Austrobaileyales, collectively termed the ANA grade, diverged as separate lineages from a remaining angiosperm clade at a very early stage in flowering plant evolution. By comparing these early diverging lineages, it is possible to infer the possible morphology and ecology of the last common ancestor of the extant angiosperms, and this analysis can now be extended to try to deduce the developmental mechanisms that were present in early flowering plants. However, not all species in the ANA grade form convenient molecular-genetic models. The present study reviews the genus Cabomba (Nymphaeales), which shows a range of features that make it potentially useful as a genetic model. We focus on characters that have probably been conserved since the last common ancestor of the extant flowering plants. To facilitate the use of Cabomba as a molecular model, we describe methods for its cultivation to flowering in the laboratory, a novel Cabomba flower expressed sequence tag database, a well-adapted in situ hybridization protocol and a measurement of the nuclear genome size of C. caroliniana. We discuss the features required for species to become tractable models, and discuss the relative merits of Cabomba and other ANA-grade angiosperms in molecular-genetic studies aimed at understanding the origin of the flowering plants.

  11. Nuclear DNA amounts in angiosperms: progress, problems and prospects.

    PubMed

    Bennett, M D; Leitch, I J

    2005-01-01

    The nuclear DNA amount in an unreplicated haploid chromosome complement (1C-value) is a key diversity character with many uses. Angiosperm C-values have been listed for reference purposes since 1976, and pooled in an electronic database since 1997 (http://www.kew.org/cval/homepage). Such lists are cited frequently and provide data for many comparative studies. The last compilation was published in 2000, so a further supplementary list is timely to monitor progress against targets set at the first plant genome size workshop in 1997 and to facilitate new goal setting. The present work lists DNA C-values for 804 species including first values for 628 species from 88 original sources, not included in any previous compilation, plus additional values for 176 species included in a previous compilation. 1998-2002 saw striking progress in our knowledge of angiosperm C-values. At least 1700 first values for species were measured (the most in any five-year period) and familial representation rose from 30 % to 50 %. The loss of many densitometers used to measure DNA C-values proved less serious than feared, owing to the development of relatively inexpensive flow cytometers and computer-based image analysis systems. New uses of the term genome (e.g. in 'complete' genome sequencing) can cause confusion. The Arabidopsis Genome Initiative C-value for Arabidopsis thaliana (125 Mb) was a gross underestimate, and an exact C-value based on genome sequencing alone is unlikely to be obtained soon for any angiosperm. Lack of this expected benchmark poses a quandary as to what to use as the basal calibration standard for angiosperms. The next decade offers exciting prospects for angiosperm genome size research. The database (http://www.kew.org/cval/homepage) should become sufficiently representative of the global flora to answer most questions without needing new estimations. DNA amount variation will remain a key interest as an integrated strand of holistic genomics.

  12. Nonstochastic variation of species-level diversification rates within angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Sims, Hallie J; McConway, Kevin J

    2003-03-01

    Variations in the origination and extinction rates of species over geological time often are linked with a range of factors, including the evolution of key innovations, changes in ecosystem structure, and environmental factors such as shifts in climate and physical geography. Before hypothesizing causality of a single factor, it is critical to demonstrate that the observed variation in diversification is significantly greater than one would expect due to natural stochasticity in the evolutionary branching process. Here, we use a likelihood-ratio test to compare taxonomic rate heterogeneity to a neutral birth-death model, using data on well-supported sister pairs of taxa and their species richness. We test the likelihood that the distribution of extant species among angiosperm genera and families could be the result of constant diversification rates. Results strongly support the conclusion that there is significantly more heterogeneity in diversity at the species level within angiosperms than would be expected due to stochastic processes. This result is consistent in datasets of genus pairs and family pairs and is not affected significantly by degrading pairs to simulate inaccuracy in the assumption of simultaneous origin of sister taxa. When we parse taxon pairs among higher groups of angiosperms, results indicate that a constant rates model is not rejected by rosid and basal eudicot pairs but is rejected by asterid and eumagnoliid pairs. These results provide strong support for the hypothesis that species-level rates of origination and/or extinction have varied nonrandomly within angiosperms and that the magnitude of heterogeneity varies among major groups within angiosperms.

  13. Nuclear DNA amounts in angiosperms: targets, trends and tomorrow.

    PubMed

    Bennett, M D; Leitch, I J

    2011-03-01

    The amount of DNA in an unreplicated gametic chromosome complement is known as the C-value and is a key biodiversity character of fundamental significance with many practical and predictive uses. Since 1976, Bennett and colleagues have assembled eight compilations of angiosperm C-values for reference purposes and subsequently these have been pooled into the Angiosperm DNA C-values Database (http://data.kew.org/cvalues/). Since the last compilation was published in 2005, a large amount of data on angiosperm genome size has been published. It is therefore timely to bring these data together into a ninth compilation of DNA amounts. Scope The present work lists DNA C-values for 2221 species from 151 original sources (including first values for 1860 species not listed in previous compilations). Combining these data with those published previously shows that C-values are now available for 6287 angiosperm species. Analysis of the dataset, which is by far the largest of the nine compilations published since 1976, shows that angiosperm C-values are now being generated at the highest rate since the first genome sizes were estimated in the 1950s. The compilation includes new record holders for the smallest (1C = 0·0648 pg in Genlisea margaretae) and largest (1C = 152·23 pg in Paris japonica) genome sizes so far reported, extending the range encountered in angiosperms to nearly 2400-fold. A review of progress in meeting targets set at the Plant Genome Size meetings shows that although representation for genera, geographical regions and some plant life forms (e.g. island floras and parasitic plants) has improved, progress to increase familial representation is still slow. In terms of technique it is now clear that flow cytometry is soon likely to become the only method available for plant genome size estimations. Fortunately, this has been accompanied by numerous careful studies to improve the quality of data generated using this technique (e.g. design of new buffers

  14. Darwin's abominable mystery: Insights from a supertree of the angiosperms

    PubMed Central

    Davies, T. Jonathan; Barraclough, Timothy G.; Chase, Mark W.; Soltis, Pamela S.; Soltis, Douglas E.; Savolainen, Vincent

    2004-01-01

    Angiosperms are among the major terrestrial radiations of life and a model group for studying patterns and processes of diversification. As a tool for future comparative studies, we compiled a supertree of angiosperm families from published phylogenetic studies. Sequence data from the plastid rbcL gene were used to estimate relative timing of branching events, calibrated by using robust fossil dates. The frequency of shifts in diversification rate is largely constant among time windows but with an apparent increase in diversification rates within the more recent time frames. Analyses of species numbers among families revealed that diversification rate is a labile attribute of lineages at all levels of the tree. An examination of the top 10 major shifts in diversification rates indicates they cannot easily be attributed to the action of a few key innovations but instead are consistent with a more complex process of diversification, reflecting the interactive effects of biological traits and the environment. PMID:14766971

  15. Epiphytic leafy liverworts diversified in angiosperm-dominated forests

    PubMed Central

    Feldberg, Kathrin; Schneider, Harald; Stadler, Tanja; Schäfer-Verwimp, Alfons; Schmidt, Alexander R.; Heinrichs, Jochen

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have provided evidence for pulses in the diversification of angiosperms, ferns, gymnosperms, and mosses as well as various groups of animals during the Cretaceous revolution of terrestrial ecosystems. However, evidence for such pulses has not been reported so far for liverworts. Here we provide new insight into liverwort evolution by integrating a comprehensive molecular dataset with a set of 20 fossil age constraints. We found evidence for a relative constant diversification rate of generalistic liverworts (Jungermanniales) since the Palaeozoic, whereas epiphytic liverworts (Porellales) show a sudden increase of lineage accumulation in the Cretaceous. This difference is likely caused by the pronounced response of Porellales to the ecological opportunities provided by humid, megathermal forests, which were increasingly available as a result of the rise of the angiosperms. PMID:25099137

  16. Epiphytic leafy liverworts diversified in angiosperm-dominated forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldberg, Kathrin; Schneider, Harald; Stadler, Tanja; Schäfer-Verwimp, Alfons; Schmidt, Alexander R.; Heinrichs, Jochen

    2014-08-01

    Recent studies have provided evidence for pulses in the diversification of angiosperms, ferns, gymnosperms, and mosses as well as various groups of animals during the Cretaceous revolution of terrestrial ecosystems. However, evidence for such pulses has not been reported so far for liverworts. Here we provide new insight into liverwort evolution by integrating a comprehensive molecular dataset with a set of 20 fossil age constraints. We found evidence for a relative constant diversification rate of generalistic liverworts (Jungermanniales) since the Palaeozoic, whereas epiphytic liverworts (Porellales) show a sudden increase of lineage accumulation in the Cretaceous. This difference is likely caused by the pronounced response of Porellales to the ecological opportunities provided by humid, megathermal forests, which were increasingly available as a result of the rise of the angiosperms.

  17. Epiphytic leafy liverworts diversified in angiosperm-dominated forests.

    PubMed

    Feldberg, Kathrin; Schneider, Harald; Stadler, Tanja; Schäfer-Verwimp, Alfons; Schmidt, Alexander R; Heinrichs, Jochen

    2014-08-07

    Recent studies have provided evidence for pulses in the diversification of angiosperms, ferns, gymnosperms, and mosses as well as various groups of animals during the Cretaceous revolution of terrestrial ecosystems. However, evidence for such pulses has not been reported so far for liverworts. Here we provide new insight into liverwort evolution by integrating a comprehensive molecular dataset with a set of 20 fossil age constraints. We found evidence for a relative constant diversification rate of generalistic liverworts (Jungermanniales) since the Palaeozoic, whereas epiphytic liverworts (Porellales) show a sudden increase of lineage accumulation in the Cretaceous. This difference is likely caused by the pronounced response of Porellales to the ecological opportunities provided by humid, megathermal forests, which were increasingly available as a result of the rise of the angiosperms.

  18. Phylogenetic analysis of the angiosperm-floricolous insect-yeast association: have yeast and angiosperm lineages co-diversified?

    PubMed

    Guzmán, Beatriz; Lachance, Marc-André; Herrera, Carlos M

    2013-08-01

    Metschnikowia (Saccharomycetales, Metschnikowiaceae/Metschnikowia clade) is an ascomycetous yeast genus whose species are associated mostly with angiosperms and their insect pollinators over all continents. The wide distribution of the genus, its association with angiosperm flowers, and the fact that it includes some of the best-studied yeasts in terms of biogeography and ecology make Metschnikowia an excellent group to investigate a possible co-radiation with angiosperm lineages. We performed phylogenetic analyses implementing Bayesian inference and likelihood methods, using a concatenated matrix (≈2.6 Kbp) of nuclear DNA (ACT1, 1st and 2nd codon positions of EF2, Mcm7, and RPB2) sequences. We included 77 species representing approximately 90% of the species in the family. Bayesian and parsimony methods were used to perform ancestral character reconstructions within Metschnikowia in three key morphological characters. Patterns of evolution of yeast habitats and divergence times were explored in the Metschnikowia clade lineages with the purpose of inferring the time of origin of angiosperm-associated habitats within Metschnikowiaceae. This paper presents the first phylogenetic hypothesis to include nearly all known species in the family. The polyphyletic nature of Clavispora was confirmed and Metschnikowia species (and their anamorphs) were shown to form two groups: one that includes mostly floricolous, insect-associated species distributed in mostly tropical areas (the large-spored Metschnikowia clade and relatives) and another that comprises more heterogeneous species in terms of habitat and geographical distribution. Reconstruction of character evolution suggests that sexual characters (ascospore length, number of ascospores, and ascus formation) evolved multiple times within Metschnikowia. Complex and dynamic habitat transitions seem to have punctuated the course of evolution of the Metschnikowiaceae with repeated and independent origins of angiosperm

  19. Diversity in obscurity: fossil flowers and the early history of angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Friis, Else Marie; Pedersen, Kaj Raunsgaard; Crane, Peter R

    2010-02-12

    In the second half of the nineteenth century, pioneering discoveries of rich assemblages of fossil plants from the Cretaceous resulted in considerable interest in the first appearance of angiosperms in the geological record. Darwin's famous comment, which labelled the 'rapid development' of angiosperms an 'abominable mystery', dates from this time. Darwin and his contemporaries were puzzled by the relatively late, seemingly sudden and geographically widespread appearance of modern-looking angiosperms in Late Cretaceous floras. Today, the early diversification of angiosperms seems much less 'rapid'. Angiosperms were clearly present in the Early Cretaceous, 20-30 Myr before they attained the level of ecological dominance reflected in some mid-Cretaceous floras, and angiosperm leaves and pollen show a distinct pattern of steadily increasing diversity and complexity through this interval. Early angiosperm fossil flowers show a similar orderly diversification and also provide detailed insights into the changing reproductive biology and phylogenetic diversity of angiosperms from the Early Cretaceous. In addition, newly discovered fossil flowers indicate considerable, previously unrecognized, cryptic diversity among the earliest angiosperms known from the fossil record. Lineages that today have an herbaceous or shrubby habit were well represented. Monocotyledons, which have previously been difficult to recognize among assemblages of early fossil angiosperms, were also diverse and prominent in many Early Cretaceous ecosystems.

  20. Leaf energy balance modelling as a tool to infer habitat preference in the early angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Lee, Alexandra P; Upchurch, Garland; Murchie, Erik H; Lomax, Barry H

    2015-03-22

    Despite more than a century of research, some key aspects of habitat preference and ecology of the earliest angiosperms remain poorly constrained. Proposed growth ecology has varied from opportunistic weedy species growing in full sun to slow-growing species limited to the shaded understorey of gymnosperm forests. Evidence suggests that the earliest angiosperms possessed low transpiration rates: gas exchange rates for extant basal angiosperms are low, as are the reconstructed gas exchange rates for the oldest known angiosperm leaf fossils. Leaves with low transpirational capacity are vulnerable to overheating in full sun, favouring the hypothesis that early angiosperms were limited to the shaded understorey. Here, modelled leaf temperatures are used to examine the thermal tolerance of some of the earliest angiosperms. Our results indicate that small leaf size could have mitigated the low transpirational cooling capacity of many early angiosperms, enabling many species to survive in full sun. We propose that during the earliest phases of the angiosperm leaf record, angiosperms may not have been limited to the understorey, and that some species were able to compete with ferns and gymnosperms in both shaded and sunny habitats, especially in the absence of competition from more rapidly growing and transpiring advanced lineages of angiosperms.

  1. Diversity in obscurity: fossil flowers and the early history of angiosperms

    PubMed Central

    Friis, Else Marie; Pedersen, Kaj Raunsgaard; Crane, Peter R.

    2010-01-01

    In the second half of the nineteenth century, pioneering discoveries of rich assemblages of fossil plants from the Cretaceous resulted in considerable interest in the first appearance of angiosperms in the geological record. Darwin's famous comment, which labelled the ‘rapid development’ of angiosperms an ‘abominable mystery’, dates from this time. Darwin and his contemporaries were puzzled by the relatively late, seemingly sudden and geographically widespread appearance of modern-looking angiosperms in Late Cretaceous floras. Today, the early diversification of angiosperms seems much less ‘rapid’. Angiosperms were clearly present in the Early Cretaceous, 20–30 Myr before they attained the level of ecological dominance reflected in some mid-Cretaceous floras, and angiosperm leaves and pollen show a distinct pattern of steadily increasing diversity and complexity through this interval. Early angiosperm fossil flowers show a similar orderly diversification and also provide detailed insights into the changing reproductive biology and phylogenetic diversity of angiosperms from the Early Cretaceous. In addition, newly discovered fossil flowers indicate considerable, previously unrecognized, cryptic diversity among the earliest angiosperms known from the fossil record. Lineages that today have an herbaceous or shrubby habit were well represented. Monocotyledons, which have previously been difficult to recognize among assemblages of early fossil angiosperms, were also diverse and prominent in many Early Cretaceous ecosystems. PMID:20047865

  2. Leaf energy balance modelling as a tool to infer habitat preference in the early angiosperms

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Alexandra P.; Upchurch, Garland; Murchie, Erik H.; Lomax, Barry H.

    2015-01-01

    Despite more than a century of research, some key aspects of habitat preference and ecology of the earliest angiosperms remain poorly constrained. Proposed growth ecology has varied from opportunistic weedy species growing in full sun to slow-growing species limited to the shaded understorey of gymnosperm forests. Evidence suggests that the earliest angiosperms possessed low transpiration rates: gas exchange rates for extant basal angiosperms are low, as are the reconstructed gas exchange rates for the oldest known angiosperm leaf fossils. Leaves with low transpirational capacity are vulnerable to overheating in full sun, favouring the hypothesis that early angiosperms were limited to the shaded understorey. Here, modelled leaf temperatures are used to examine the thermal tolerance of some of the earliest angiosperms. Our results indicate that small leaf size could have mitigated the low transpirational cooling capacity of many early angiosperms, enabling many species to survive in full sun. We propose that during the earliest phases of the angiosperm leaf record, angiosperms may not have been limited to the understorey, and that some species were able to compete with ferns and gymnosperms in both shaded and sunny habitats, especially in the absence of competition from more rapidly growing and transpiring advanced lineages of angiosperms. PMID:25694625

  3. Hybridization and speciation in angiosperms: a role for pollinator shifts?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The majority of convincingly documented cases of hybridization in angiosperms has involved genetic introgression between the parental species or formation of a hybrid species with increased ploidy; however, homoploid (diploid) hybridization may be just as common. Recent studies, including one in BMC Evolutionary Biology, show that pollinator shifts can play a role in both mechanisms of hybrid speciation. See research article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/10/103 PMID:20409350

  4. Molecular mechanisms underlying origin and diversification of the angiosperm flower.

    PubMed

    Theissen, Guenter; Melzer, Rainer

    2007-09-01

    Understanding the mode and mechanisms of the evolution of the angiosperm flower is a long-standing and central problem of evolutionary biology and botany. It has essentially remained unsolved, however. In contrast, considerable progress has recently been made in our understanding of the genetic basis of flower development in some extant model species. The knowledge that accumulated this way has been pulled together in two major hypotheses, termed the 'ABC model' and the 'floral quartet model'. These models explain how the identity of the different types of floral organs is specified during flower development by homeotic selector genes encoding transcription factors. We intend to explain how the 'ABC model' and the 'floral quartet model' are now guiding investigations that help to understand the origin and diversification of the angiosperm flower. Investigation of orthologues of class B and class C floral homeotic genes in gymnosperms suggest that bisexuality was one of the first innovations during the origin of the flower. The transition from dimer to tetramer formation of floral homeotic proteins after establishment of class E proteins may have increased cooperativity of DNA binding of the transcription factors controlling reproductive growth. That way, we hypothesize, better 'developmental switches' originated that facilitated the early evolution of the flower. Expression studies of ABC genes in basally diverging angiosperm lineages, monocots and basal eudicots suggest that the 'classical' ABC system known from core eudicots originated from a more fuzzy system with fading borders of gene expression and gradual transitions in organ identity, by sharpening of ABC gene expression domains and organ borders. Shifting boundaries of ABC gene expression may have contributed to the diversification of the angiosperm flower many times independently, as may have changes in interactions between ABC genes and their target genes.

  5. Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Origin and Diversification of the Angiosperm Flower

    PubMed Central

    Theissen, Guenter; Melzer, Rainer

    2007-01-01

    Background Understanding the mode and mechanisms of the evolution of the angiosperm flower is a long-standing and central problem of evolutionary biology and botany. It has essentially remained unsolved, however. In contrast, considerable progress has recently been made in our understanding of the genetic basis of flower development in some extant model species. The knowledge that accumulated this way has been pulled together in two major hypotheses, termed the ‘ABC model’ and the ‘floral quartet model’. These models explain how the identity of the different types of floral organs is specified during flower development by homeotic selector genes encoding transcription factors. Scope We intend to explain how the ‘ABC model’ and the ‘floral quartet model’ are now guiding investigations that help to understand the origin and diversification of the angiosperm flower. Conclusions Investigation of orthologues of class B and class C floral homeotic genes in gymnosperms suggest that bisexuality was one of the first innovations during the origin of the flower. The transition from dimer to tetramer formation of floral homeotic proteins after establishment of class E proteins may have increased cooperativity of DNA binding of the transcription factors controlling reproductive growth. That way, we hypothesize, better ‘developmental switches’ originated that facilitated the early evolution of the flower. Expression studies of ABC genes in basally diverging angiosperm lineages, monocots and basal eudicots suggest that the ‘classical’ ABC system known from core eudicots originated from a more fuzzy system with fading borders of gene expression and gradual transitions in organ identity, by sharpening of ABC gene expression domains and organ borders. Shifting boundaries of ABC gene expression may have contributed to the diversification of the angiosperm flower many times independently, as may have changes in interactions between ABC genes and their target

  6. Floral variation and floral genetics in basal angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Soltis, Pamela S; Brockington, Samuel F; Yoo, Mi-Jeong; Piedrahita, Ana; Latvis, Maribeth; Moore, Michael J; Chanderbali, Andre S; Soltis, Douglas E

    2009-01-01

    Recent advances in phylogeny reconstruction and floral genetics set the stage for new investigations of the origin and diversification of the flower. We review the current state of angiosperm phylogeny, with an emphasis on basal lineages. With the surprising inclusion of Hydatellaceae with Nymphaeales, recent studies support the topology of Amborella sister to all other extant angiosperms, with Nymphaeales and then Austrobaileyales as subsequent sisters to all remaining angiosperms. Notable modifications from most recent analyses are the sister relationships of Chloranthaceae with the magnoliids and of Ceratophyllaceae with eudicots. We review "trends" in floral morphology and contrast historical, intuitive interpretations with explicit character-state reconstructions using molecular-based trees, focusing on (1) the size, number, and organization of floral organs; (2) the evolution of the perianth; (3) floral symmetry; and (4) floral synorganization. We provide summaries of those genes known to affect floral features that contribute to much of floral diversity. Although most floral genes have not been investigated outside of a few model systems, sufficient information is emerging to identify candidate genes for testing specific hypotheses in nonmodel plants. We conclude with a set of evo-devo case studies in which floral genetics have been linked to variation in floral morphology.

  7. Induced defense mechanisms in an aquatic angiosperm to insect herbivory.

    PubMed

    Fornoff, Felix; Gross, Elisabeth M

    2014-05-01

    In terrestrial angiosperms, defense and resistance mechanisms against herbivores have been studied extensively; yet this topic is poorly understood in aquatic angiosperms. We investigated induced response mechanisms in Myriophyllum spicatum to the generalist insect herbivore Acentria ephemerella in three independent experiments. Various morphological and chemical response variables were examined in grazed apical shoots and compared to undamaged controls. We further estimated plant palatability of induced and non-induced apices in choice assays, and assessed the growth response of Acentria larvae in no-choice feeding assays. Leaves of induced apices were splayed out horizontally and changed in color from green to red. The dry matter content and thus plant toughness increased by up to 19%, but silica levels stayed constant. Induced apices exhibited a decline in chlorophyll content of up to 34%, reflected also by a 10% decrease in nitrogen levels, while nitrogen increased by 14% in lower parts of grazed shoots. Also, herbivore-deterring total phenolic compounds increased by up to 20% in apices. In choice trials, Acentria larvae strongly avoided grazed tips, and growth was reduced by 25% on induced apices. In total, we observed five different induced resistance and defensive traits in grazed apices: changes in appearance, increased plant toughness, delocalization of N-containing metabolites, increased polyphenols, and reduced nutritional value. The observed changes prevent herbivore damage and loss of apical tissue, which are most valuable for plant fitness. Our study presents the first evidence of multiple, parallel defense strategies including constitutive and induced defense mechanisms in a freshwater angiosperm.

  8. After a dozen years of progress the origin of angiosperms is still a great mystery.

    PubMed

    Frohlich, Michael W; Chase, Mark W

    2007-12-20

    Here we discuss recent advances surrounding the origin of angiosperms. Putatively primitive characters are now much better understood because of a vastly improved understanding of angiosperm phylogenetics, and recent discoveries of fossil flowers have provided an increasingly detailed picture of early diversity in the angiosperms. The 'anthophyte theory', the dominant concept of the 1980s and 1990s, has been eclipsed; Gnetales, previously thought to be closest to the angiosperms, are related instead to other extant gymnosperms, probably most closely to conifers. Finally, new theories of flower origins have been proposed based on gene function, duplication and loss, as well as on morphology. Further studies of genetic mechanisms that control reproductive development in seed plants provide a most promising avenue for further research, including tests of these recent theories. Identification of fossils with morphologies that convincingly place them close to angiosperms could still revolutionize understanding of angiosperm origins.

  9. Unique Responsiveness of Angiosperm Stomata to Elevated CO2 Explained by Calcium Signalling

    PubMed Central

    Brodribb, Timothy J.; McAdam, Scott A. M.

    2013-01-01

    Angiosperm and conifer tree species respond differently when exposed to elevated CO2, with angiosperms found to dynamically reduce water loss while conifers appear insensitive. Such distinct responses are likely to affect competition between these tree groups as atmospheric CO2 concentration rises. Seeking the mechanism behind this globally important phenomenon we targeted the Ca2+-dependent signalling pathway, a mediator of stomatal closure in response to elevated CO2, as a possible explanation for the differentiation of stomatal behaviours. Sampling across the diversity of vascular plants including lycophytes, ferns, gymnosperms and angiosperms we show that only angiosperms possess the stomatal behaviour and prerequisite genetic coding, linked to Ca2+-dependent stomatal signalling. We conclude that the evolution of Ca2+-dependent stomatal signalling gives angiosperms adaptive benefits in terms of highly efficient water use, but that stomatal sensitivity to high CO2 may penalise angiosperm productivity relative to other plant groups in the current era of soaring atmospheric CO2. PMID:24278470

  10. Unique responsiveness of angiosperm stomata to elevated CO2 explained by calcium signalling.

    PubMed

    Brodribb, Timothy J; McAdam, Scott A M

    2013-01-01

    Angiosperm and conifer tree species respond differently when exposed to elevated CO2, with angiosperms found to dynamically reduce water loss while conifers appear insensitive. Such distinct responses are likely to affect competition between these tree groups as atmospheric CO2 concentration rises. Seeking the mechanism behind this globally important phenomenon we targeted the Ca(2+)-dependent signalling pathway, a mediator of stomatal closure in response to elevated CO2, as a possible explanation for the differentiation of stomatal behaviours. Sampling across the diversity of vascular plants including lycophytes, ferns, gymnosperms and angiosperms we show that only angiosperms possess the stomatal behaviour and prerequisite genetic coding, linked to Ca(2+)-dependent stomatal signalling. We conclude that the evolution of Ca(2+)-dependent stomatal signalling gives angiosperms adaptive benefits in terms of highly efficient water use, but that stomatal sensitivity to high CO2 may penalise angiosperm productivity relative to other plant groups in the current era of soaring atmospheric CO2.

  11. Nuclear DNA Amounts in Angiosperms: Progress, Problems and Prospects

    PubMed Central

    BENNETT, M. D.; LEITCH, I. J.

    2005-01-01

    CONTENTSINTRODUCTION45PROGRESS46    Improved systematic representation (species and families)46        (i) First estimates for species46        (ii) First estimates for families47PROBLEMS48    Geographical representation and distribution48    Plant life form48    Obsolescence time bomb49    Errors and inexactitudes49    Genome size, ‘complete’ genome sequencing, and, the euchromatic genome50    The completely sequenced genome50    Weeding out erroneous data52    What is the smallest reliable C-value for an angiosperm?52    What is the minimum C-value for a free-living angiosperm and other free-living organisms?53PROSPECTS FOR THE NEXT TEN YEARS54    Holistic genomics55LITERATURE CITED56APPENDIX59    Notes to the Appendix59    Original references for DNA values89 • Background The nuclear DNA amount in an unreplicated haploid chromosome complement (1C-value) is a key diversity character with many uses. Angiosperm C-values have been listed for reference purposes since 1976, and pooled in an electronic database since 1997 (http://www.kew.org/cval/homepage). Such lists are cited frequently and provide data for many comparative studies. The last compilation was published in 2000, so a further supplementary list is timely to monitor progress against targets set at the first plant genome size workshop in 1997 and to facilitate new goal setting. • Scope The present work lists DNA C-values for 804 species including first values for 628 species from 88 original sources, not included in any previous compilation, plus additional values for 176 species included in a previous compilation. • Conclusions 1998–2002 saw striking progress in our knowledge of angiosperm C-values. At least 1700 first values for species were measured (the most in any five-year period) and familial representation rose from 30 % to 50 %. The loss of many

  12. Fire-adapted Gondwanan Angiosperm floras evolved in the Cretaceous

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Fires have been widespread over the last 250 million years, peaking 60−125 million years ago (Ma), and might therefore have played a key role in the evolution of Angiosperms. Yet it is commonly believed that fireprone communities existed only after the global climate became more arid and seasonal 15 Ma. Recent molecular-based studies point to much earlier origins of fireprone Angiosperm floras in Australia and South Africa (to 60 Ma, Paleocene) but even these were constrained by the ages of the clades examined. Results Using a molecular-dated phylogeny for the great Gondwanan family Proteaceae, with a 113-million-year evolutionary history, we show that the ancestors of many of its characteristic sclerophyll genera, such as Protea, Conospermum, Leucadendron, Petrophile, Adenanthos and Leucospermum (all subfamily Proteoideae), occurred in fireprone habitats from 88 Ma (83−94, 95% HPD, Mid-Upper Cretaceous). This coincided with the highest atmospheric oxygen (combustibility) levels experienced over the past 150 million years. Migration from non-fireprone (essentially rainforest-climate-type) environments was accompanied by the evolution of highly speciose clades with a range of seed storage traits and fire-cued seed release or germination mechanisms that was diagnostic for each clade by 71 Ma, though the ant-dispersed lineage (as a soil seed-storage subclade) was delayed until 45 Ma. Conclusions Focusing on the widespread 113-million-year-old family Proteaceae, fireproneness among Gondwanan Angiosperm floras can now be traced back almost 90 million years into the fiery Cretaceous. The associated evolution of on-plant (serotiny) and soil seed storage, and later ant dispersal, affirms them as ancient adaptations to fire among flowering plants. PMID:23171161

  13. Evolutionary Analyses of GRAS Transcription Factors in Angiosperms

    PubMed Central

    Cenci, Alberto; Rouard, Mathieu

    2017-01-01

    GRAS transcription factors (TFs) play critical roles in plant growth and development such as gibberellin and mycorrhizal signaling. Proteins belonging to this gene family contain a typical GRAS domain in the C-terminal sequence, whereas the N-terminal region is highly variable. Although, GRAS genes have been characterized in a number of plant species, their classification is still not completely resolved. Based on a panel of eight representative species of angiosperms, we identified 29 orthologous groups or orthogroups (OGs) for the GRAS gene family, suggesting that at least 29 ancestor genes were present in the angiosperm lineage before the “Amborella” evolutionary split. Interestingly, some taxonomic groups were missing members of one or more OGs. The gene number expansion usually observed in transcription factors was not observed in GRAS while the genome triplication ancestral to the eudicots (γ hexaploidization event) was detectable in a limited number of GRAS orthogroups. We also found conserved OG-specific motifs in the variable N-terminal region. Finally, we could regroup OGs in 17 subfamilies for which names were homogenized based on a literature review and described 5 new subfamilies (DLT, RAD1, RAM1, SCLA, and SCLB). This study establishes a consistent framework for the classification of GRAS members in angiosperm species, and thereby a tool to correctly establish the orthologous relationships of GRAS genes in most of the food crops in order to facilitate any subsequent functional analyses in the GRAS gene family. The multi-fasta file containing all the sequences used in our study could be used as database to perform diagnostic BLASTp to classify GRAS genes from other non-model species. PMID:28303145

  14. Floral gene resources from basal angiosperms for comparative genomics research.

    PubMed

    Albert, Victor A; Soltis, Douglas E; Carlson, John E; Farmerie, William G; Wall, P Kerr; Ilut, Daniel C; Solow, Teri M; Mueller, Lukas A; Landherr, Lena L; Hu, Yi; Buzgo, Matyas; Kim, Sangtae; Yoo, Mi-Jeong; Frohlich, Michael W; Perl-Treves, Rafael; Schlarbaum, Scott E; Bliss, Barbara J; Zhang, Xiaohong; Tanksley, Steven D; Oppenheimer, David G; Soltis, Pamela S; Ma, Hong; DePamphilis, Claude W; Leebens-Mack, James H

    2005-03-30

    The Floral Genome Project was initiated to bridge the genomic gap between the most broadly studied plant model systems. Arabidopsis and rice, although now completely sequenced and under intensive comparative genomic investigation, are separated by at least 125 million years of evolutionary time, and cannot in isolation provide a comprehensive perspective on structural and functional aspects of flowering plant genome dynamics. Here we discuss new genomic resources available to the scientific community, comprising cDNA libraries and Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) sequences for a suite of phylogenetically basal angiosperms specifically selected to bridge the evolutionary gaps between model plants and provide insights into gene content and genome structure in the earliest flowering plants. Random sequencing of cDNAs from representatives of phylogenetically important eudicot, non-grass monocot, and gymnosperm lineages has so far (as of 12/1/04) generated 70,514 ESTs and 48,170 assembled unigenes. Efficient sorting of EST sequences into putative gene families based on whole Arabidopsis/rice proteome comparison has permitted ready identification of cDNA clones for finished sequencing. Preliminarily, (i) proportions of functional categories among sequenced floral genes seem representative of the entire Arabidopsis transcriptome, (ii) many known floral gene homologues have been captured, and (iii) phylogenetic analyses of ESTs are providing new insights into the process of gene family evolution in relation to the origin and diversification of the angiosperms. Initial comparisons illustrate the utility of the EST data sets toward discovery of the basic floral transcriptome. These first findings also afford the opportunity to address a number of conspicuous evolutionary genomic questions, including reproductive organ transcriptome overlap between angiosperms and gymnosperms, genome-wide duplication history, lineage-specific gene duplication and functional divergence, and

  15. Conservation and functional element discovery in 20 angiosperm plant genomes.

    PubMed

    Hupalo, Daniel; Kern, Andrew D

    2013-07-01

    Here, we describe the construction of a phylogenetically deep, whole-genome alignment of 20 flowering plants, along with an analysis of plant genome conservation. Each included angiosperm genome was aligned to a reference genome, Arabidopsis thaliana, using the LASTZ/MULTIZ paradigm and tools from the University of California-Santa Cruz Genome Browser source code. In addition to the multiple alignment, we created a local genome browser displaying multiple tracks of newly generated genome annotation, as well as annotation sourced from published data of other research groups. An investigation into A. thaliana gene features present in the aligned A. lyrata genome revealed better conservation of start codons, stop codons, and splice sites within our alignments (51% of features from A. thaliana conserved without interruption in A. lyrata) when compared with previous publicly available plant pairwise alignments (34% of features conserved). The detailed view of conservation across angiosperms revealed not only high coding-sequence conservation but also a large set of previously uncharacterized intergenic conservation. From this, we annotated the collection of conserved features, revealing dozens of putative noncoding RNAs, including some with recorded small RNA expression. Comparing conservation between kingdoms revealed a faster decay of vertebrate genome features when compared with angiosperm genomes. Finally, conserved sequences were searched for folding RNA features, including but not limited to noncoding RNA (ncRNA) genes. Among these, we highlight a double hairpin in the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) of the PRIN2 gene and a putative ncRNA with homology targeting the LAF3 protein.

  16. Evolutionary Analyses of GRAS Transcription Factors in Angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Cenci, Alberto; Rouard, Mathieu

    2017-01-01

    GRAS transcription factors (TFs) play critical roles in plant growth and development such as gibberellin and mycorrhizal signaling. Proteins belonging to this gene family contain a typical GRAS domain in the C-terminal sequence, whereas the N-terminal region is highly variable. Although, GRAS genes have been characterized in a number of plant species, their classification is still not completely resolved. Based on a panel of eight representative species of angiosperms, we identified 29 orthologous groups or orthogroups (OGs) for the GRAS gene family, suggesting that at least 29 ancestor genes were present in the angiosperm lineage before the "Amborella" evolutionary split. Interestingly, some taxonomic groups were missing members of one or more OGs. The gene number expansion usually observed in transcription factors was not observed in GRAS while the genome triplication ancestral to the eudicots (γ hexaploidization event) was detectable in a limited number of GRAS orthogroups. We also found conserved OG-specific motifs in the variable N-terminal region. Finally, we could regroup OGs in 17 subfamilies for which names were homogenized based on a literature review and described 5 new subfamilies (DLT, RAD1, RAM1, SCLA, and SCLB). This study establishes a consistent framework for the classification of GRAS members in angiosperm species, and thereby a tool to correctly establish the orthologous relationships of GRAS genes in most of the food crops in order to facilitate any subsequent functional analyses in the GRAS gene family. The multi-fasta file containing all the sequences used in our study could be used as database to perform diagnostic BLASTp to classify GRAS genes from other non-model species.

  17. Phylogeny of the Ants: Diversification in the Age of Angiosperms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreau, Corrie S.; Bell, Charles D.; Vila, Roger; Archibald, S. Bruce; Pierce, Naomi E.

    2006-04-01

    We present a large-scale molecular phylogeny of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), based on 4.5 kilobases of sequence data from six gene regions extracted from 139 of the 288 described extant genera, representing 19 of the 20 subfamilies. All but two subfamilies are recovered as monophyletic. Divergence time estimates calibrated by minimum age constraints from 43 fossils indicate that most of the subfamilies representing extant ants arose much earlier than previously proposed but only began to diversify during the Late Cretaceous to Early Eocene. This period also witnessed the rise of angiosperms and most herbivorous insects.

  18. Biogenesis of thylakoid networks in angiosperms: knowns and unknowns.

    PubMed

    Adam, Zach; Charuvi, Dana; Tsabari, Onie; Knopf, Ronit Rimon; Reich, Ziv

    2011-07-01

    Aerobic life on Earth depends on oxygenic photosynthesis. This fundamentally important process is carried out within an elaborate membranous system, called the thylakoid network. In angiosperms, thylakoid networks are constructed almost from scratch by an intricate, light-dependent process in which lipids, proteins, and small organic molecules are assembled into morphologically and functionally differentiated, three-dimensional lamellar structures. In this review, we summarize the major events that occur during this complex, largely elusive process, concentrating on those that are directly involved in network formation and potentiation and highlighting gaps in our knowledge, which, as hinted by the title, are substantial.

  19. Early Angiosperm Ecology: Evidence from the Albian-Cenomanian of Europe

    PubMed Central

    COIFFARD, C.; GOMEZ, B.; KVAČEK, J.; THEVENARD, F.

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims The mid-Cretaceous is a period of sudden turnover from gymnosperm to angiosperm-dominated floras. The aim was to investigate the fossil plant ecology in order to follow the spread of angiosperm taxa. • Methods Floristic lists and localities from the latest Albian-Cenomanian of Europe are analysed with Wagner's Parsimony Method, a clustering method currently used in phylogeny (cladistics). • Key Results Wagner's Parsimony Method points out that (a) gymnosperms dominated brackish water-related environments while angiosperms dominated freshwater-related environments (e.g. swamps, floodplains, levees, channels), (b) angiosperms showed the highest diversity in stable, freshwater-related environments, (c) a single angiosperm, ‘Diospyros’ cretacea, is restricted to brackish water-related environments and (d) the families Lauraceae and Platanaceae were exclusive to disturbed, braided river environments, implying a opportunist strategy for early tree angiosperms. • Conclusions During the Mid-Cretaceous, European floras were characterized by (a) coastal gymnosperms, (b) highly diversified fluvial angiosperms and (c) the first European brackish water-related angiosperm. PMID:16790466

  20. The evolution of floral biology in basal angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Endress, Peter K

    2010-02-12

    In basal angiosperms (including ANITA grade, magnoliids, Choranthaceae, Ceratophyllaceae) almost all bisexual flowers are dichogamous (with male and female functions more or less separated in time), and nearly 100 per cent of those are protogynous (with female function before male function). Movements of floral parts and differential early abscission of stamens in the male phase are variously associated with protogyny. Evolution of synchronous dichogamy based on the day/night rhythm and anthesis lasting 2 days is common. In a few clades in Magnoliales and Laurales heterodichogamy has also evolved. Beetles, flies and thrips are the major pollinators, with various degrees of specialization up to large beetles and special flies in some large-flowered Nymphaeaceae, Magnoliaceae, Annonaceae and Aristolochiaceae. Unusual structural specializations are involved in floral biological adaptations (calyptras, inner staminodes, synandria and food bodies, and secretory structures on tepals, stamens and staminodes). Numerous specializations that are common in monocots and eudicots are absent in basal angiosperms. Several families are poorly known in their floral biology.

  1. Gibberellin-induced formation of tension wood in angiosperm trees.

    PubMed

    Funada, Ryo; Miura, Tatsuhiko; Shimizu, Yousuke; Kinase, Takanori; Nakaba, Satoshi; Kubo, Takafumi; Sano, Yuzou

    2008-05-01

    After gibberellin had been applied to the vertical stems of four species of angiosperm trees for approximately 2 months, we observed eccentric radial growth that was due to the enhanced growth rings on the sides of stems to which gibberellin had been applied. Moreover, the application of gibberellin resulted in the formation of wood fibers in which the thickness of inner layers of cell walls was enhanced. These thickened inner layers of cell walls were unlignified or only slightly lignified. In addition, cellulose microfibrils on the innermost surface of these thickened inner layers of cell walls were oriented parallel or nearly parallel to the longitudinal axis of the fibers. Such thickened inner layers of cell walls had features similar to those of gelatinous layers in the wood fibers of tension wood, which are referred to as gelatinous fibers. Our anatomical and histochemical investigations indicate that the application of gibberellin can induce the formation of tension wood on vertical stems of angiosperm trees in the absence of gravitational stimulus.

  2. Male gametophyte development and function in angiosperms: a general concept.

    PubMed

    Hafidh, Said; Fíla, Jan; Honys, David

    2016-06-01

    Overview of pollen development. Male gametophyte development of angiosperms is a complex process that requires coordinated activity of different cell types and tissues of both gametophytic and sporophytic origin and the appropriate specific gene expression. Pollen ontogeny is also an excellent model for the dissection of cellular networks that control cell growth, polarity, cellular differentiation and cell signaling. This article describes two sequential phases of angiosperm pollen ontogenesis-developmental phase leading to the formation of mature pollen grains, and a functional or progamic phase, beginning with the impact of the grains on the stigma surface and ending at double fertilization. Here we present an overview of important cellular processes in pollen development and explosive pollen tube growth stressing the importance of reserves accumulation and mobilization and also the mutual activation of pollen tube and pistil tissues, pollen tube guidance and the communication between male and female gametophytes. We further describe the recent advances in regulatory mechanisms involved such as posttranscriptional regulation (including mass transcript storage) and posttranslational modifications to modulate protein function, intracellular metabolic signaling, ionic gradients such as Ca(2+) and H(+) ions, cell wall synthesis, protein secretion and intercellular signaling within the reproductive tissues.

  3. Mammal disparity decreases during the Cretaceous angiosperm radiation.

    PubMed

    Grossnickle, David M; Polly, P David

    2013-11-22

    Fossil discoveries over the past 30 years have radically transformed traditional views of Mesozoic mammal evolution. In addition, recent research provides a more detailed account of the Cretaceous diversification of flowering plants. Here, we examine patterns of morphological disparity and functional morphology associated with diet in early mammals. Two analyses were performed: (i) an examination of diversity based on functional dental type rather than higher-level taxonomy, and (ii) a morphometric analysis of jaws, which made use of modern analogues, to assess changes in mammalian morphological and dietary disparity. Results demonstrate a decline in diversity of molar types during the mid-Cretaceous as abundances of triconodonts, symmetrodonts, docodonts and eupantotherians diminished. Multituberculates experience a turnover in functional molar types during the mid-Cretaceous and a shift towards plant-dominated diets during the late Late Cretaceous. Although therians undergo a taxonomic expansion coinciding with the angiosperm radiation, they display small body sizes and a low level of morphological disparity, suggesting an evolutionary shift favouring small insectivores. It is concluded that during the mid-Cretaceous, the period of rapid angiosperm radiation, mammals experienced both a decrease in morphological disparity and a functional shift in dietary morphology that were probably related to changing ecosystems.

  4. Diversification of myco-heterotrophic angiosperms: Evidence from Burmanniaceae

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background Myco-heterotrophy evolved independently several times during angiosperm evolution. Although many species of myco-heterotrophic plants are highly endemic and long-distance dispersal seems unlikely, some genera are widely dispersed and have pantropical distributions, often with large disjunctions. Traditionally this has been interpreted as evidence for an old age of these taxa. However, due to their scarcity and highly reduced plastid genomes our understanding about the evolutionary histories of the angiosperm myco-heterotrophic groups is poor. Results We provide a hypothesis for the diversification of the myco-heterotrophic family Burmanniaceae. Phylogenetic inference, combined with biogeographical analyses, molecular divergence time estimates, and diversification analyses suggest that Burmanniaceae originated in West Gondwana and started to diversify during the Late Cretaceous. Diversification and migration of the species-rich pantropical genera Burmannia and Gymnosiphon display congruent patterns. Diversification began during the Eocene, when global temperatures peaked and tropical forests occurred at low latitudes. Simultaneous migration from the New to the Old World in Burmannia and Gymnosiphon occurred via boreotropical migration routes. Subsequent Oligocene cooling and breakup of boreotropical flora ended New-Old World migration and caused a gradual decrease in diversification rate in Burmanniaceae. Conclusion Our results indicate that extant diversity and pantropical distribution of myco-heterotrophic Burmanniaceae is the result of diversification and boreotropical migration during the Eocene when tropical rain forest expanded dramatically. PMID:18573195

  5. The evolution of floral biology in basal angiosperms

    PubMed Central

    Endress, Peter K.

    2010-01-01

    In basal angiosperms (including ANITA grade, magnoliids, Choranthaceae, Ceratophyllaceae) almost all bisexual flowers are dichogamous (with male and female functions more or less separated in time), and nearly 100 per cent of those are protogynous (with female function before male function). Movements of floral parts and differential early abscission of stamens in the male phase are variously associated with protogyny. Evolution of synchronous dichogamy based on the day/night rhythm and anthesis lasting 2 days is common. In a few clades in Magnoliales and Laurales heterodichogamy has also evolved. Beetles, flies and thrips are the major pollinators, with various degrees of specialization up to large beetles and special flies in some large-flowered Nymphaeaceae, Magnoliaceae, Annonaceae and Aristolochiaceae. Unusual structural specializations are involved in floral biological adaptations (calyptras, inner staminodes, synandria and food bodies, and secretory structures on tepals, stamens and staminodes). Numerous specializations that are common in monocots and eudicots are absent in basal angiosperms. Several families are poorly known in their floral biology. PMID:20047868

  6. Mammal disparity decreases during the Cretaceous angiosperm radiation

    PubMed Central

    Grossnickle, David M.; Polly, P. David

    2013-01-01

    Fossil discoveries over the past 30 years have radically transformed traditional views of Mesozoic mammal evolution. In addition, recent research provides a more detailed account of the Cretaceous diversification of flowering plants. Here, we examine patterns of morphological disparity and functional morphology associated with diet in early mammals. Two analyses were performed: (i) an examination of diversity based on functional dental type rather than higher-level taxonomy, and (ii) a morphometric analysis of jaws, which made use of modern analogues, to assess changes in mammalian morphological and dietary disparity. Results demonstrate a decline in diversity of molar types during the mid-Cretaceous as abundances of triconodonts, symmetrodonts, docodonts and eupantotherians diminished. Multituberculates experience a turnover in functional molar types during the mid-Cretaceous and a shift towards plant-dominated diets during the late Late Cretaceous. Although therians undergo a taxonomic expansion coinciding with the angiosperm radiation, they display small body sizes and a low level of morphological disparity, suggesting an evolutionary shift favouring small insectivores. It is concluded that during the mid-Cretaceous, the period of rapid angiosperm radiation, mammals experienced both a decrease in morphological disparity and a functional shift in dietary morphology that were probably related to changing ecosystems. PMID:24089340

  7. Endophytic bacterial community of a Mediterranean marine angiosperm (Posidonia oceanica)

    PubMed Central

    Garcias-Bonet, Neus; Arrieta, Jesus M.; de Santana, Charles N.; Duarte, Carlos M.; Marbà, Núria

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial endophytes are crucial for the survival of many terrestrial plants, but little is known about the presence and importance of bacterial endophytes of marine plants. We conducted a survey of the endophytic bacterial community of the long-living Mediterranean marine angiosperm Posidonia oceanica in surface-sterilized tissues (roots, rhizomes, and leaves) by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE). A total of 26 Posidonia oceanica meadows around the Balearic Islands were sampled, and the band patterns obtained for each meadow were compared for the three sampled tissues. Endophytic bacterial sequences were detected in most of the samples analyzed. A total of 34 OTUs (Operational Taxonomic Units) were detected. The main OTUs of endophytic bacteria present in P. oceanica tissues belonged primarily to Proteobacteria (α, γ, and δ subclasses) and Bacteroidetes. The OTUs found in roots significantly differed from those of rhizomes and leaves. Moreover, some OTUs were found to be associated to each type of tissue. Bipartite network analysis revealed differences in the bacterial endophyte communities present on different islands. The results of this study provide a pioneering step toward the characterization of the endophytic bacterial community associated with tissues of a marine angiosperm and reveal the presence of bacterial endophytes that differed among locations and tissue types. PMID:23049528

  8. Factors influencing diversification in angiosperms: at the crossroads of intrinsic and extrinsic traits.

    PubMed

    Vamosi, Jana C; Vamosi, Steven M

    2011-03-01

    Recent studies indicate that both key innovations and available area influence species richness in angiosperms. Available area has been observed to have the greatest effect, however, and appears to alter the "carrying capacity" of a lineage rather than alter diversification rates. Here, we review and weigh the evidence of predictors of angiosperm diversification and further dissect how area can place ecological limits on diversification of angiosperms, specifically addressing the following: (1) theoretical mechanisms by which particular intrinsic and extrinsic traits may affect diversification in angiosperm families; (2) evidence that the amount of available area determines the ecological limits on lineages; and (3) geographical distribution of diversification hotspots in angiosperms, concentrating on the effects of zygomorphy, noncontiguous area, and latitude. While we found that dispersal to numerous noncontiguous areas is most important in spurring diversification, diversification of tropical and zygomorphic families appears to be elevated by the generation of more species per given area.

  9. A critical transition in leaf evolution facilitated the Cretaceous angiosperm revolution.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Hugo Jan; Eppinga, Maarten B; Wassen, Martin J; Dekker, Stefan C

    2012-01-01

    The revolutionary rise of broad-leaved (flowering) angiosperm plant species during the Cretaceous initiated a global ecological transformation towards modern biodiversity. Still, the mechanisms involved in this angiosperm radiation remain enigmatic. Here we show that the period of rapid angiosperm evolution initiated after the leaf interior (post venous) transport path length for water was reduced beyond the leaf interior transport path length for CO2 at a critical leaf vein density of 2.5-5 mm mm(-2). Data and our modelling approaches indicate that surpassing this critical vein density was a pivotal moment in leaf evolution that enabled evolving angiosperms to profit from developing leaves with more and smaller stomata in terms of higher carbon returns from equal water loss. Surpassing the critical vein density may therefore have facilitated evolving angiosperms to develop leaves with higher gas exchange capacities required to adapt to the Cretaceous CO2 decline and outcompete previously dominant coniferous species in the upper canopy.

  10. Floral gene resources from basal angiosperms for comparative genomics research

    PubMed Central

    Albert, Victor A; Soltis, Douglas E; Carlson, John E; Farmerie, William G; Wall, P Kerr; Ilut, Daniel C; Solow, Teri M; Mueller, Lukas A; Landherr, Lena L; Hu, Yi; Buzgo, Matyas; Kim, Sangtae; Yoo, Mi-Jeong; Frohlich, Michael W; Perl-Treves, Rafael; Schlarbaum, Scott E; Bliss, Barbara J; Zhang, Xiaohong; Tanksley, Steven D; Oppenheimer, David G; Soltis, Pamela S; Ma, Hong; dePamphilis, Claude W; Leebens-Mack, James H

    2005-01-01

    Background The Floral Genome Project was initiated to bridge the genomic gap between the most broadly studied plant model systems. Arabidopsis and rice, although now completely sequenced and under intensive comparative genomic investigation, are separated by at least 125 million years of evolutionary time, and cannot in isolation provide a comprehensive perspective on structural and functional aspects of flowering plant genome dynamics. Here we discuss new genomic resources available to the scientific community, comprising cDNA libraries and Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) sequences for a suite of phylogenetically basal angiosperms specifically selected to bridge the evolutionary gaps between model plants and provide insights into gene content and genome structure in the earliest flowering plants. Results Random sequencing of cDNAs from representatives of phylogenetically important eudicot, non-grass monocot, and gymnosperm lineages has so far (as of 12/1/04) generated 70,514 ESTs and 48,170 assembled unigenes. Efficient sorting of EST sequences into putative gene families based on whole Arabidopsis/rice proteome comparison has permitted ready identification of cDNA clones for finished sequencing. Preliminarily, (i) proportions of functional categories among sequenced floral genes seem representative of the entire Arabidopsis transcriptome, (ii) many known floral gene homologues have been captured, and (iii) phylogenetic analyses of ESTs are providing new insights into the process of gene family evolution in relation to the origin and diversification of the angiosperms. Conclusion Initial comparisons illustrate the utility of the EST data sets toward discovery of the basic floral transcriptome. These first findings also afford the opportunity to address a number of conspicuous evolutionary genomic questions, including reproductive organ transcriptome overlap between angiosperms and gymnosperms, genome-wide duplication history, lineage-specific gene duplication and

  11. The evolutionary ecology of cytonuclear interactions in angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Caruso, Christina M; Case, Andrea L; Bailey, Maia F

    2012-11-01

    Interactions between cytoplasmic and nuclear genomes have significant evolutionary consequences. In angiosperms, the most common cytonuclear interaction is between mitochondrial genes that disrupt pollen production (cytoplasmic male sterility, CMS) and nuclear genes that restore it (nuclear male fertility restorers, Rf). The outcome of CMS/Rf interactions can depend on whether Rf alleles have negative pleiotropic effects on fitness. Although these fitness costs are often considered to be independent of the ecological context, we argue that the effects of Rf alleles on fitness should be context dependent. Thus, measuring the cost of restoration across a range of environments could help explain geographic and phylogenetic variation in the distribution of Rf alleles and the outcome of CMS/Rf interactions.

  12. New angiosperm genera from cretaceous sections of northern Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseev, P. I.; Herman, A. B.; Shchepetov, S. V.

    2014-11-01

    The Cretaceous floras of northern Asia represented by the Antibes flora of the Chulym-Yenisei area of West Siberia, Kaivayam flora of northwestern Kamchatka, and Grebenka flora of the Anadyr River basin in Chukotka are reviewed. These floras characterize the Late Cretaceous Siberian-Canadian Paleofloristic Region, where they developed in humid warm temperate climatic environments. Two new angiosperm genera are described: genus Chachlovia P. Alekseev et Herman with species C. kiyensis P. Alekseev, sp. nov. and C. dombeyopsoida (Herman) Herman, comb. nov. and genus Soninia Herman et Shczepetov with species S. asiatica P. Alekseev, sp. nov. and S. integerrima Herman et Shczepetov, sp. nov. The species Chachlovia kiyensis and Soninia asiatica were characteristic components of the Antibes flora. Chachlovia dombeyopsoida and Soninia integerrima were constituents of the Kaivayam and Grebenka floras, respectively.

  13. Early Cretaceous Archaeamphora is not a carnivorous angiosperm.

    PubMed

    Wong, William Oki; Dilcher, David Leonard; Labandeira, Conrad C; Sun, Ge; Fleischmann, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Archaeamphora longicervia H. Q. Li was described as an herbaceous, Sarraceniaceae-like pitcher plant from the mid Early Cretaceous Yixian Formation of Liaoning Province, northeastern China. Here, a re-investigation of A. longicervia specimens from the Yixian Formation provides new insights into its identity and the morphology of pitcher plants claimed by Li. We demonstrate that putative pitchers of Archaeamphora are insect-induced leaf galls that consist of three components: (1) an innermost larval chamber; (2) an intermediate zone of nutritive tissue; and (3) an outermost wall of sclerenchyma. Archaeamphora is not a carnivorous, Sarraceniaceae-like angiosperm, but represents insect-galled leaves of the previously reported gymnosperm Liaoningocladus boii G. Sun et al. from the Yixian Formation.

  14. Early Cretaceous Archaeamphora is not a carnivorous angiosperm

    PubMed Central

    Wong, William Oki; Dilcher, David Leonard; Labandeira, Conrad C.; Sun, Ge; Fleischmann, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Archaeamphora longicervia H. Q. Li was described as an herbaceous, Sarraceniaceae-like pitcher plant from the mid Early Cretaceous Yixian Formation of Liaoning Province, northeastern China. Here, a re-investigation of A. longicervia specimens from the Yixian Formation provides new insights into its identity and the morphology of pitcher plants claimed by Li. We demonstrate that putative pitchers of Archaeamphora are insect-induced leaf galls that consist of three components: (1) an innermost larval chamber; (2) an intermediate zone of nutritive tissue; and (3) an outermost wall of sclerenchyma. Archaeamphora is not a carnivorous, Sarraceniaceae-like angiosperm, but represents insect-galled leaves of the previously reported gymnosperm Liaoningocladus boii G. Sun et al. from the Yixian Formation. PMID:25999978

  15. Ancestral xerophobia: a hypothesis on the whole plant ecophysiology of early angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Feild, T S; Chatelet, D S; Brodribb, T J

    2009-03-01

    Today, angiosperms are fundamental players in the diversity and biogeochemical functioning of the planet. Yet despite the omnipresence of angiosperms in today's ecosystems, the basic evolutionary understanding of how the earliest angiosperms functioned remains unknown. Here we synthesize ecophysiological, paleobotanical, paleoecological, and phylogenetic lines of evidence about early angiosperms and their environments. In doing so, we arrive at a hypothesis that early angiosperms evolved in evermoist tropical terrestrial habitats, where three of their emblematic innovations - including net-veined leaves, xylem vessels, and flowers - found ecophysiological advantages. However, the adaptation of early angiosperm ecophysiology to wet habitats did not initially promote massive diversification and ecological dominance. Instead, wet habitats were permissive for the ecological roothold of the clade, a critical phase of early diversification that entailed experimentation with a range of functional innovations in the leaves, wood, and flowers. Later, our results suggest that some of these innovations were co-opted gradually for new roles in the evolution of greater productivity and drought tolerance, which are characteristics seen across the vast majority of derived and ecologically dominant angiosperms today.

  16. Exceptional preservation of tiny embryos documents seed dormancy in early angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Friis, Else Marie; Crane, Peter R; Pedersen, Kaj Raunsgaard; Stampanoni, Marco; Marone, Federica

    2015-12-24

    The rapid diversification of angiosperms through the Early Cretaceous period, between about 130-100 million years ago, initiated fundamental changes in the composition of terrestrial vegetation and is increasingly well understood on the basis of a wealth of palaeobotanical discoveries over the past four decades and their integration with improved knowledge of living angiosperms. Prevailing hypotheses, based on evidence both from living and from fossil plants, emphasize that the earliest angiosperms were plants of small stature with rapid life cycles that exploited disturbed habitats in open, or perhaps understorey, conditions. However, direct palaeontogical data relevant to understanding the seed biology and germination ecology of Early Cretaceous angiosperms are sparse. Here we report the discovery of embryos and their associated nutrient storage tissues in exceptionally well-preserved angiosperm seeds from the Early Cretaceous. Synchrotron radiation X-ray tomographic microscopy of the fossil embryos from many taxa reveals that all were tiny at the time of dispersal. These results support hypotheses based on extant plants that tiny embryos and seed dormancy are basic for angiosperms as a whole. The minute size of the fossil embryos, and the modest nutrient storage tissues dictated by the overall small seed size, is also consistent with the interpretation that many early angiosperms were opportunistic, early successional colonizers of disturbance-prone habitats.

  17. Changes to Cretaceous surface fire behaviour influenced the spread of the early angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Belcher, Claire M; Hudspith, Victoria A

    2017-02-01

    Angiosperms evolved and diversified during the Cretaceous period. Early angiosperms were short-stature weedy plants thought to have increased fire frequency and mortality in gymnosperm forest, aiding their own expansion. However, no explorations have considered whether the range of novel fuel types that diversified throughout the Cretaceous also altered fire behaviour, which should link more strongly to mortality than fire frequency alone. We measured ignitability and heat of combustion in analogue Cretaceous understorey fuels (conifer litter, ferns, weedy and shrubby angiosperms) and used these data to model palaeofire behaviour. Variations in ignition, driven by weedy angiosperms alone, were found to have been a less important feedback to changes in Cretaceous fire activity than previously estimated. Our model estimates suggest that fires in shrub and fern understories had significantly greater fireline intensities than those fuelled by conifer litter or weedy angiosperms, and whilst fern understories supported the most rapid fire spread, angiosperm shrubs delivered the largest amount of heat per unit area. The higher fireline intensities predicted by the models led to estimates of enhanced scorch of the gymnosperm canopy and a greater chance of transitioning to crown fires. Therefore, changes in fire behaviour driven by the addition of new Cretaceous fuel groups may have assisted the angiosperm expansion. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  18. Leaf economic traits from fossils support a weedy habit for early angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Royer, Dana L; Miller, Ian M; Peppe, Daniel J; Hickey, Leo J

    2010-03-01

    Many key aspects of early angiosperms are poorly known, including their ecophysiology and associated habitats. Evidence for fast-growing, weedy angiosperms comes from the Early Cretaceous Potomac Group, where angiosperm fossils, some of them putative herbs, are found in riparian depositional settings. However, inferences of growth rate from sedimentology and growth habit are somewhat indirect; also, the geographic extent of a weedy habit in early angiosperms is poorly constrained. Using a power law between petiole width and leaf mass, we estimated the leaf mass per area (LMA) of species from three Albian (110-105 Ma) fossil floras from North America (Winthrop Formation, Patapsco Formation of the Potomac Group, and the Aspen Shale). All LMAs for angiosperm species are low (<125 g/m(2); mean = 76 g/m(2)) but are high for gymnosperm species (>240 g/m(2); mean = 291 g/m(2)). On the basis of extant relationships between LMA and other leaf economic traits such as photosynthetic rate and leaf lifespan, we conclude that these Early Cretaceous landscapes were populated with weedy angiosperms with short-lived leaves (<12 mo). The unrivalled capacity for fast growth observed today in many angiosperms was in place by no later than the Albian and likely played an important role in their subsequent ecological success.

  19. Three keys to the radiation of angiosperms into freezing environments.

    PubMed

    Zanne, Amy E; Tank, David C; Cornwell, William K; Eastman, Jonathan M; Smith, Stephen A; FitzJohn, Richard G; McGlinn, Daniel J; O'Meara, Brian C; Moles, Angela T; Reich, Peter B; Royer, Dana L; Soltis, Douglas E; Stevens, Peter F; Westoby, Mark; Wright, Ian J; Aarssen, Lonnie; Bertin, Robert I; Calaminus, Andre; Govaerts, Rafaël; Hemmings, Frank; Leishman, Michelle R; Oleksyn, Jacek; Soltis, Pamela S; Swenson, Nathan G; Warman, Laura; Beaulieu, Jeremy M

    2014-02-06

    Early flowering plants are thought to have been woody species restricted to warm habitats. This lineage has since radiated into almost every climate, with manifold growth forms. As angiosperms spread and climate changed, they evolved mechanisms to cope with episodic freezing. To explore the evolution of traits underpinning the ability to persist in freezing conditions, we assembled a large species-level database of growth habit (woody or herbaceous; 49,064 species), as well as leaf phenology (evergreen or deciduous), diameter of hydraulic conduits (that is, xylem vessels and tracheids) and climate occupancies (exposure to freezing). To model the evolution of species' traits and climate occupancies, we combined these data with an unparalleled dated molecular phylogeny (32,223 species) for land plants. Here we show that woody clades successfully moved into freezing-prone environments by either possessing transport networks of small safe conduits and/or shutting down hydraulic function by dropping leaves during freezing. Herbaceous species largely avoided freezing periods by senescing cheaply constructed aboveground tissue. Growth habit has long been considered labile, but we find that growth habit was less labile than climate occupancy. Additionally, freezing environments were largely filled by lineages that had already become herbs or, when remaining woody, already had small conduits (that is, the trait evolved before the climate occupancy). By contrast, most deciduous woody lineages had an evolutionary shift to seasonally shedding their leaves only after exposure to freezing (that is, the climate occupancy evolved before the trait). For angiosperms to inhabit novel cold environments they had to gain new structural and functional trait solutions; our results suggest that many of these solutions were probably acquired before their foray into the cold.

  20. First Nuclear DNA Amounts in more than 300 Angiosperms

    PubMed Central

    ZONNEVELD, B. J. M.; LEITCH, I. J.; BENNETT, M. D.

    2005-01-01

    • Background and Aims Genome size (DNA C-value) data are key biodiversity characters of fundamental significance used in a wide variety of biological fields. Since 1976, Bennett and colleagues have made scattered published and unpublished genome size data more widely accessible by assembling them into user-friendly compilations. Initially these were published as hard copy lists, but since 1997 they have also been made available electronically (see the Plant DNA C-values database www.kew.org/cval/homepage.html). Nevertheless, at the Second Plant Genome Size Meeting in 2003, Bennett noted that as many as 1000 DNA C-value estimates were still unpublished and hence unavailable. Scientists were strongly encouraged to communicate such unpublished data. The present work combines the databasing experience of the Kew-based authors with the unpublished C-values produced by Zonneveld to make a large body of valuable genome size data available to the scientific community. • Methods C-values for angiosperm species, selected primarily for their horticultural interest, were estimated by flow cytometry using the fluorochrome propidium iodide. The data were compiled into a table whose form is similar to previously published lists of DNA amounts by Bennett and colleagues. • Key Results and Conclusions The present work contains C-values for 411 taxa including first values for 308 species not listed previously by Bennett and colleagues. Based on a recent estimate of the global published output of angiosperm DNA C-value data (i.e. 200 first C-value estimates per annum) the present work equals 1·5 years of average global published output; and constitutes over 12 % of the latest 5-year global target set by the Second Plant Genome Size Workshop (see www.kew.org/cval/workshopreport.html). Hopefully, the present example will encourage others to unveil further valuable data which otherwise may lie forever unpublished and unavailable for comparative analyses. PMID:15905300

  1. Attached bacterial populations shared by four species of aquatic angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Crump, Byron C; Koch, Evamaria W

    2008-10-01

    Symbiotic relationships between microbes and plants are common and well studied in terrestrial ecosystems, but little is known about such relationships in aquatic environments. We compared the phylogenetic diversities of leaf- and root-attached bacteria from four species of aquatic angiosperms using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and DNA sequencing of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes. Plants were collected from three beds in Chesapeake Bay at sites characterized as freshwater (Vallisneria americana), brackish (Potomogeton perfoliatus and Stuckenia pectinata), and marine (Zostera marina). DGGE analyses showed that bacterial communities were very similar for replicate samples of leaves from canopy-forming plants S. pectinata and P. perfoliatus and less similar for replicate samples of leaves from meadow-forming plants Z. marina and V. americana and of roots of all species. In contrast, bacterial communities differed greatly among plant species and between leaves and roots. DNA sequencing identified 154 bacterial phylotypes, most of which were restricted to single plant species. However, 12 phylotypes were found on more than one plant species, and several of these phylotypes were abundant in clone libraries and represented the darkest bands in DGGE banding patterns. Root-attached phylotypes included relatives of sulfur-oxidizing Gammaproteobacteria and sulfate-reducing Deltaproteobacteria. Leaf-attached phylotypes included relatives of polymer-degrading Bacteroidetes and phototrophic Alphaproteobacteria. Also, leaves and roots of three plant species hosted relatives of methylotrophic Betaproteobacteria belonging to the family Methylophilaceae. These results suggest that aquatic angiosperms host specialized communities of bacteria on their surfaces, including several broadly distributed and potentially mutualistic bacterial populations.

  2. [Morphological and molecular data on the origin of angiosperms: on a way to a synthesis].

    PubMed

    Sokolov, D D; Timonin, A K

    2007-01-01

    Molecular phylogenetic data have drastically changed the views on the phylogeny of higher plants. All the extant gymnosperms were asserted as a monophyletic group opposed to the highly isolated angiosperms. The 'Anthophyte Theory' was thus rejected. The identification and analysis of gymnosperm orthologues of genes regulating flower development in angiosperms resulted in the formulation of the 'Mostly Male Theory' of the evolutionary origin of flower; this theory does not contradict the concept of monophyly of all the extant gymnosperms. The Mostly Male Theory assumes that the origin of angiosperms was caused by a loss of the Needle family gene that effected ovuliferous (female) organs and the translocation of the ovules onto the adaxial side of some of the (male) leafy microsporangiophores. Having acquired ovules, the former microsporangiophores started evolving into the carpels. The prerequisite bisexual design of the ancestral fructification thus becomes unnecessary. Indeed, this assumption suggests the deriving of Angiosperms from any gymnosperm plant with leafy microsporangiophores. The problem of carpel origin has subsequently changed to some degree into the problem of the origin of the bitegmic anatropous ovule presumably inherent in ancestral Angiosperms. The Mostly Male Theory consideredeither Corystospermataceae (= Umkomasiaceae) or Caytoniaceae to be the forerunners of such an ovule. Yet the capsules of Corystospermataceae distinctly differ from angiosperm ovules in the locations of their adaxial/abaxial sides, while Caytoniaceae had no leafy microsporangiophores. This inconsistency suggests that functions of the Needle family regulatory genes in Gymnosperms should be much better understood to appraise properly both the possibilities and the consequences of their hypothetical loss by the emerging angiosperms. Moreover, the extant gymnosperm groups are actually held as monophyletic and contrasted to Angiosperms on the basis of analysing the

  3. Characterization of the basal angiosperm Aristolochia fimbriata: a potential experimental system for genetic studies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous studies in basal angiosperms have provided insight into the diversity within the angiosperm lineage and helped to polarize analyses of flowering plant evolution. However, there is still not an experimental system for genetic studies among basal angiosperms to facilitate comparative studies and functional investigation. It would be desirable to identify a basal angiosperm experimental system that possesses many of the features found in existing plant model systems (e.g., Arabidopsis and Oryza). Results We have considered all basal angiosperm families for general characteristics important for experimental systems, including availability to the scientific community, growth habit, and membership in a large basal angiosperm group that displays a wide spectrum of phenotypic diversity. Most basal angiosperms are woody or aquatic, thus are not well-suited for large scale cultivation, and were excluded. We further investigated members of Aristolochiaceae for ease of culture, life cycle, genome size, and chromosome number. We demonstrated self-compatibility for Aristolochia elegans and A. fimbriata, and transformation with a GFP reporter construct for Saruma henryi and A. fimbriata. Furthermore, A. fimbriata was easily cultivated with a life cycle of just three months, could be regenerated in a tissue culture system, and had one of the smallest genomes among basal angiosperms. An extensive multi-tissue EST dataset was produced for A. fimbriata that includes over 3.8 million 454 sequence reads. Conclusions Aristolochia fimbriata has numerous features that facilitate genetic studies and is suggested as a potential model system for use with a wide variety of technologies. Emerging genetic and genomic tools for A. fimbriata and closely related species can aid the investigation of floral biology, developmental genetics, biochemical pathways important in plant-insect interactions as well as human health, and various other features present in early angiosperms

  4. Heterogeneous Rates of Molecular Evolution and Diversification Could Explain the Triassic Age Estimate for Angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Beaulieu, Jeremy M; O'Meara, Brian C; Crane, Peter; Donoghue, Michael J

    2015-09-01

    Dating analyses based on molecular data imply that crown angiosperms existed in the Triassic, long before their undisputed appearance in the fossil record in the Early Cretaceous. Following a re-analysis of the age of angiosperms using updated sequences and fossil calibrations, we use a series of simulations to explore the possibility that the older age estimates are a consequence of (i) major shifts in the rate of sequence evolution near the base of the angiosperms and/or (ii) the representative taxon sampling strategy employed in such studies. We show that both of these factors do tend to yield substantially older age estimates. These analyses do not prove that younger age estimates based on the fossil record are correct, but they do suggest caution in accepting the older age estimates obtained using current relaxed-clock methods. Although we have focused here on the angiosperms, we suspect that these results will shed light on dating discrepancies in other major clades.

  5. Resolution of deep angiosperm phylogeny using conserved nuclear genes and estimates of early divergence times

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Liping; Zhang, Qiang; Sun, Renran; Kong, Hongzhi; Zhang, Ning; Ma, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Angiosperms are the most successful plants and support human livelihood and ecosystems. Angiosperm phylogeny is the foundation of studies of gene function and phenotypic evolution, divergence time estimation and biogeography. The relationship of the five divergent groups of the Mesangiospermae (~99.95% of extant angiosperms) remains uncertain, with multiple hypotheses reported in the literature. Here transcriptome data sets are obtained from 26 species lacking sequenced genomes, representing each of the five groups: eudicots, monocots, magnoliids, Chloranthaceae and Ceratophyllaceae. Phylogenetic analyses using 59 carefully selected low-copy nuclear genes resulted in highly supported relationships: sisterhood of eudicots and a clade containing Chloranthaceae and Ceratophyllaceae, with magnoliids being the next sister group, followed by monocots. Our topology allows a re-examination of the evolutionary patterns of 110 morphological characters. The molecular clock estimates of Mesangiospermae diversification during the late to middle Jurassic correspond well to the origins of some insects, which may have been a factor facilitating early angiosperm radiation. PMID:25249442

  6. Mesozoic mass extinctions and angiosperm radiation: does the molecular clock tell something new?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruban, Dmitry A.

    2012-03-01

    Angiosperms evolved rapidly in the late Mesozoic. Data from the genetic-based approach called ‘molecular clock’ permit an evaluation of the radiation of flowering plants through geological time and of the possible influences of Mesozoic mass extinctions. A total of 261 divergence ages of angiosperm families are considered. The radiation of flowering plants peaked in the Albian, early Campanian, and Maastrichtian. From the three late Mesozoic mass extinctions (Jurassic/Cretaceous, Cenomanian/Turonian, and Cretaceous/Palaeogene), only the Cretaceous/Palaeogene event coincided with a significant, abrupt, and long-term decline in angiosperm radiation. If their link will be further proven, this means that global-scale environmental perturbation precluded from many innovations in the development of plants. This decline was, however, not unprecedented in the history of the angiosperms. The implication of data from the molecular clock for evolutionary reconstructions is limited, primarily because this approach deals with only extant lineages.

  7. Universal multiplexable matK primers for DNA barcoding of angiosperms1

    PubMed Central

    Heckenhauer, Jacqueline; Barfuss, Michael H. J.; Samuel, Rosabelle

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: PCR amplification of the matK barcoding region is often difficult when dealing with multiple angiosperm families. We developed a primer cocktail to amplify this region efficiently across angiosperm diversity. Methods and Results: We developed 14 matK primers (seven forward, seven reverse) for multiplex PCR, using sequences available in GenBank for 178 taxa belonging to 123 genera in 41 families and 18 orders. Universality of these new multiplexed primers was tested with 53 specimens from 44 representative angiosperm families in 23 different orders. Our primers showed high PCR amplification and sequencing success. Conclusions: These results show that our newly developed primers are highly effective for multiplex PCR and can be employed in future barcode projects involving taxonomically diverse samples across angiosperms. Using multiplex primers for barcoding will reduce the cost and time needed for PCR amplification. PMID:27347449

  8. Universal multiplexable matK primers for DNA barcoding of angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Heckenhauer, Jacqueline; Barfuss, Michael H J; Samuel, Rosabelle

    2016-06-01

    PCR amplification of the matK barcoding region is often difficult when dealing with multiple angiosperm families. We developed a primer cocktail to amplify this region efficiently across angiosperm diversity. We developed 14 matK primers (seven forward, seven reverse) for multiplex PCR, using sequences available in GenBank for 178 taxa belonging to 123 genera in 41 families and 18 orders. Universality of these new multiplexed primers was tested with 53 specimens from 44 representative angiosperm families in 23 different orders. Our primers showed high PCR amplification and sequencing success. These results show that our newly developed primers are highly effective for multiplex PCR and can be employed in future barcode projects involving taxonomically diverse samples across angiosperms. Using multiplex primers for barcoding will reduce the cost and time needed for PCR amplification.

  9. Resolution of deep angiosperm phylogeny using conserved nuclear genes and estimates of early divergence times.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Liping; Zhang, Qiang; Sun, Renran; Kong, Hongzhi; Zhang, Ning; Ma, Hong

    2014-09-24

    Angiosperms are the most successful plants and support human livelihood and ecosystems. Angiosperm phylogeny is the foundation of studies of gene function and phenotypic evolution, divergence time estimation and biogeography. The relationship of the five divergent groups of the Mesangiospermae (~99.95% of extant angiosperms) remains uncertain, with multiple hypotheses reported in the literature. Here transcriptome data sets are obtained from 26 species lacking sequenced genomes, representing each of the five groups: eudicots, monocots, magnoliids, Chloranthaceae and Ceratophyllaceae. Phylogenetic analyses using 59 carefully selected low-copy nuclear genes resulted in highly supported relationships: sisterhood of eudicots and a clade containing Chloranthaceae and Ceratophyllaceae, with magnoliids being the next sister group, followed by monocots. Our topology allows a re-examination of the evolutionary patterns of 110 morphological characters. The molecular clock estimates of Mesangiospermae diversification during the late to middle Jurassic correspond well to the origins of some insects, which may have been a factor facilitating early angiosperm radiation.

  10. Highly effective sequencing whole chloroplast genomes of angiosperms by nine novel universal primer pairs.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun-Bo; Li, De-Zhu; Li, Hong-Tao

    2014-09-01

    Chloroplast genomes supply indispensable information that helps improve the phylogenetic resolution and even as organelle-scale barcodes. Next-generation sequencing technologies have helped promote sequencing of complete chloroplast genomes, but compared with the number of angiosperms, relatively few chloroplast genomes have been sequenced. There are two major reasons for the paucity of completely sequenced chloroplast genomes: (i) massive amounts of fresh leaves are needed for chloroplast sequencing and (ii) there are considerable gaps in the sequenced chloroplast genomes of many plants because of the difficulty of isolating high-quality chloroplast DNA, preventing complete chloroplast genomes from being assembled. To overcome these obstacles, all known angiosperm chloroplast genomes available to date were analysed, and then we designed nine universal primer pairs corresponding to the highly conserved regions. Using these primers, angiosperm whole chloroplast genomes can be amplified using long-range PCR and sequenced using next-generation sequencing methods. The primers showed high universality, which was tested using 24 species representing major clades of angiosperms. To validate the functionality of the primers, eight species representing major groups of angiosperms, that is, early-diverging angiosperms, magnoliids, monocots, Saxifragales, fabids, malvids and asterids, were sequenced and assembled their complete chloroplast genomes. In our trials, only 100 mg of fresh leaves was used. The results show that the universal primer set provided an easy, effective and feasible approach for sequencing whole chloroplast genomes in angiosperms. The designed universal primer pairs provide a possibility to accelerate genome-scale data acquisition and will therefore magnify the phylogenetic resolution and species identification in angiosperms.

  11. An angiosperm-wide analysis of the gynodioecy–dioecy pathway

    PubMed Central

    Dufay, M.; Champelovier, P.; Käfer, J.; Henry, J. P.; Mousset, S.; Marais, G. A. B.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims About 6 % of an estimated total of 240 000 species of angiosperms are dioecious. The main precursors of this sexual system are thought to be monoecy and gynodioecy. A previous angiosperm-wide study revealed that many dioecious species have evolved through the monoecy pathway; some case studies and a large body of theoretical research also provide evidence in support of the gynodioecy pathway. If plants have evolved through the gynodioecy pathway, gynodioecious and dioecious species should co-occur in the same genera. However, to date, no large-scale analysis has been conducted to determine the prevalence of the gynodioecy pathway in angiosperms. In this study, this gap in knowledge was addressed by performing an angiosperm-wide survey in order to test for co-occurrence as evidence of the gynodioecy pathway. Methods Data from different sources were compiled to obtain (to our knowledge) the largest dataset on gynodioecy available, with 275 genera that include at least one gynodioecious species. This dataset was combined with a dioecy dataset from the literature, and a study was made of how often dioecious and gynodioecious species could be found in the same genera using a contingency table framework. Key Results It was found that, overall, angiosperm genera with both gynodioecious and dioecious species occur more frequently than expected, in agreement with the gynodioecy pathway. Importantly, this trend holds when studying different classes separately (or sub-classes, orders and families), suggesting that the gynodioecy pathway is not restricted to a few taxa but may instead be widespread in angiosperms. Conclusions This work complements that previously carried out on the monoecy pathway and suggests that gynodioecy is also a common pathway in angiosperms. The results also identify angiosperm families where some (or all) dioecious species may have evolved from gynodioecious precursors. These families could be the targets of future small

  12. Cenozoic extinctions account for the low diversity of extant gymnosperms compared with angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Crisp, Michael D; Cook, Lyn G

    2011-12-01

    We test the widely held notion that living gymnosperms are 'ancient' and 'living fossils' by comparing them with their sister group, the angiosperms. This perception derives partly from the lack of gross morphological differences between some Mesozoic gymnosperm fossils and their living relatives (e.g. Ginkgo, cycads and dawn redwood), suggesting that the rate of evolution of gymnosperms has been slow. We estimated the ages and diversification rates of gymnosperm lineages using Bayesian relaxed molecular clock dating calibrated with 21 fossils, based on the phylogenetic analysis of alignments of matK chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) and 26S nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA) sequences, and compared these with published estimates for angiosperms. Gymnosperm crown groups of Cenozoic age are significantly younger than their angiosperm counterparts (median age: 32 Ma vs 50 Ma) and have long unbranched stems, indicating major extinctions in the Cenozoic, in contrast with angiosperms. Surviving gymnosperm genera have diversified more slowly than angiosperms during the Neogene as a result of their higher extinction rate. Compared with angiosperms, living gymnosperm groups are not ancient. The fossil record also indicates that gymnosperms suffered major extinctions when climate changed in the Oligocene and Miocene. Extant gymnosperm groups occupy diverse habitats and some probably survived after making adaptive shifts.

  13. The angiosperm radiation revisited, an ecological explanation for Darwin’s ‘abominable mystery’

    PubMed Central

    Berendse, Frank; Scheffer, Marten

    2009-01-01

    One of the greatest terrestrial radiations is the diversification of the flowering plants (Angiospermae) in the Cretaceous period. Early angiosperms appear to have been limited to disturbed, aquatic or extremely dry sites, suggesting that they were suppressed in most other places by the gymnosperms that still dominated the plant world. However, fossil evidence suggests that by the end of the Cretaceous the angiosperms had spectacularly taken over the dominant position from the gymnosperms around the globe. Here, we suggest an ecological explanation for their escape from their subordinate position relative to gymnosperms and ferns. We propose that angiosperms due to their higher growth rates profit more rapidly from increased nutrient supply than gymnosperms, whereas at the same time angiosperms promote soil nutrient release by producing litter that is more easily decomposed. This positive feedback may have resulted in a runaway process once angiosperms had reached a certain abundance. Evidence for the possibility of such a critical transition to angiosperm dominance comes from recent work on large scale vegetation shifts, linking long-term field observations, large scale experiments and the use of simulation models. PMID:19572916

  14. History of plastid DNA insertions reveals weak deletion and at mutation biases in angiosperm mitochondrial genomes.

    PubMed

    Sloan, Daniel B; Wu, Zhiqiang

    2014-11-21

    Angiosperm mitochondrial genomes exhibit many unusual properties, including heterogeneous nucleotide composition and exceptionally large and variable genome sizes. Determining the role of nonadaptive mechanisms such as mutation bias in shaping the molecular evolution of these unique genomes has proven challenging because their dynamic structures generally prevent identification of homologous intergenic sequences for comparative analyses. Here, we report an analysis of angiosperm mitochondrial DNA sequences that are derived from inserted plastid DNA (mtpts). The availability of numerous completely sequenced plastid genomes allows us to infer the evolutionary history of these insertions, including the specific nucleotide substitutions and indels that have occurred because their incorporation into the mitochondrial genome. Our analysis confirmed that many mtpts have a complex history, including frequent gene conversion and multiple examples of horizontal transfer between divergent angiosperm lineages. Nevertheless, it is clear that the majority of extant mtpt sequence in angiosperms is the product of recent transfer (or gene conversion) and is subject to rapid loss/deterioration, suggesting that most mtpts are evolving relatively free from functional constraint. The evolution of mtpt sequences reveals a pattern of biased mutational input in angiosperm mitochondrial genomes, including an excess of small deletions over insertions and a skew toward nucleotide substitutions that increase AT content. However, these mutation biases are far weaker than have been observed in many other cellular genomes, providing insight into some of the notable features of angiosperm mitochondrial architecture, including the retention of large intergenic regions and the relatively neutral GC content found in these regions.

  15. Highly conserved low-copy nuclear genes as effective markers for phylogenetic analyses in angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ning; Zeng, Liping; Shan, Hongyan; Ma, Hong

    2012-09-01

    Organismal phylogeny provides a crucial evolutionary framework for many studies and the angiosperm phylogeny has been greatly improved recently, largely using organellar and rDNA genes. However, low-copy protein-coding nuclear genes have not been widely used on a large scale in spite of the advantages of their biparental inheritance and vast number of choices. Here, we identified 1083 highly conserved low-copy nuclear genes by genome comparison. Furthermore, we demonstrated the use of five nuclear genes in 91 angiosperms representing 46 orders (73% of orders) and three gymnosperms as outgroups for a highly resolved phylogeny. These nuclear genes are easy to clone and align, and more phylogenetically informative than widely used organellar genes. The angiosperm phylogeny reconstructed using these genes was largely congruent with previous ones mainly inferred from organellar genes. Intriguingly, several new placements were uncovered for some groups, including those among the rosids, the asterids, and between the eudicots and several basal angiosperm groups. These conserved universal nuclear genes have several inherent qualities enabling them to be good markers for reconstructing angiosperm phylogeny, even eukaryotic relationships, further providing new insights into the evolutionary history of angiosperms.

  16. Leaf evolution in Southern Hemisphere conifers tracks the angiosperm ecological radiation.

    PubMed

    Biffin, Ed; Brodribb, Timothy J; Hill, Robert S; Thomas, Philip; Lowe, Andrew J

    2012-01-22

    The angiosperm radiation has been linked to sharp declines in gymnosperm diversity and the virtual elimination of conifers from the tropics. The conifer family Podocarpaceae stands as an exception with highest species diversity in wet equatorial forests. It has been hypothesized that efficient light harvesting by the highly flattened leaves of several podocarp genera facilitates persistence with canopy-forming angiosperms, and the angiosperm ecological radiation may have preferentially favoured the diversification of these lineages. To test these ideas, we develop a molecular phylogeny for Podocarpaceae using Bayesian-relaxed clock methods incorporating fossil time constraints. We find several independent origins of flattened foliage types, and that these lineages have diversified predominantly through the Cenozoic and therefore among canopy-forming angiosperms. The onset of sustained foliage flattening podocarp diversification is coincident with a declining diversification rate of scale/needle-leaved lineages and also with ecological and climatic transformations linked to angiosperm foliar evolution. We demonstrate that climatic range evolution is contingent on the underlying state for leaf morphology. Taken together, our findings imply that as angiosperms came to dominate most terrestrial ecosystems, competitive interactions at the foliar level have profoundly shaped podocarp geography and as a consequence, rates of lineage diversification.

  17. The angiosperm radiation revisited, an ecological explanation for Darwin's 'abominable mystery'.

    PubMed

    Berendse, Frank; Scheffer, Marten

    2009-09-01

    One of the greatest terrestrial radiations is the diversification of the flowering plants (Angiospermae) in the Cretaceous period. Early angiosperms appear to have been limited to disturbed, aquatic or extremely dry sites, suggesting that they were suppressed in most other places by the gymnosperms that still dominated the plant world. However, fossil evidence suggests that by the end of the Cretaceous the angiosperms had spectacularly taken over the dominant position from the gymnosperms around the globe. Here, we suggest an ecological explanation for their escape from their subordinate position relative to gymnosperms and ferns. We propose that angiosperms due to their higher growth rates profit more rapidly from increased nutrient supply than gymnosperms, whereas at the same time angiosperms promote soil nutrient release by producing litter that is more easily decomposed. This positive feedback may have resulted in a runaway process once angiosperms had reached a certain abundance. Evidence for the possibility of such a critical transition to angiosperm dominance comes from recent work on large scale vegetation shifts, linking long-term field observations, large scale experiments and the use of simulation models.

  18. Leaf evolution in Southern Hemisphere conifers tracks the angiosperm ecological radiation

    PubMed Central

    Biffin, Ed; Brodribb, Timothy J.; Hill, Robert S.; Thomas, Philip; Lowe, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    The angiosperm radiation has been linked to sharp declines in gymnosperm diversity and the virtual elimination of conifers from the tropics. The conifer family Podocarpaceae stands as an exception with highest species diversity in wet equatorial forests. It has been hypothesized that efficient light harvesting by the highly flattened leaves of several podocarp genera facilitates persistence with canopy-forming angiosperms, and the angiosperm ecological radiation may have preferentially favoured the diversification of these lineages. To test these ideas, we develop a molecular phylogeny for Podocarpaceae using Bayesian-relaxed clock methods incorporating fossil time constraints. We find several independent origins of flattened foliage types, and that these lineages have diversified predominantly through the Cenozoic and therefore among canopy-forming angiosperms. The onset of sustained foliage flattening podocarp diversification is coincident with a declining diversification rate of scale/needle-leaved lineages and also with ecological and climatic transformations linked to angiosperm foliar evolution. We demonstrate that climatic range evolution is contingent on the underlying state for leaf morphology. Taken together, our findings imply that as angiosperms came to dominate most terrestrial ecosystems, competitive interactions at the foliar level have profoundly shaped podocarp geography and as a consequence, rates of lineage diversification. PMID:21653584

  19. Predicting extinction risk of Brazilian Atlantic forest angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Leão, Tarciso C C; Fonseca, Carlos R; Peres, Carlos A; Tabarelli, Marcelo

    2014-10-01

    Understanding how plant life history affects species vulnerability to anthropogenic disturbances and environmental change is a major ecological challenge. We examined how vegetation type, growth form, and geographic range size relate to extinction risk throughout the Brazilian Atlantic Forest domain. We used a database containing species-level information of 6,929 angiosperms within 112 families and a molecular-based working phylogeny. We used decision trees, standard regression, and phylogenetic regression to explore the relationships between species attributes and extinction risk. We found a significant phylogenetic signal in extinction risk. Vegetation type, growth form, and geographic range size were related to species extinction risk, but the effect of growth form was not evident after phylogeny was controlled for. Species restricted to either rocky outcrops or scrub vegetation on sandy coastal plains exhibited the highest extinction risk among vegetation types, a finding that supports the hypothesis that species adapted to resource-limited environments are more vulnerable to extinction. Among growth forms, epiphytes were associated with the highest extinction risk in non-phylogenetic regression models, followed by trees, whereas shrubs and climbers were associated with lower extinction risk. However, the higher extinction risk of epiphytes was not significant after correcting for phylogenetic relatedness. Our findings provide new indicators of extinction risk and insights into the mechanisms governing plant vulnerability to extinction in a highly diverse flora where human disturbances are both frequent and widespread.

  20. Nonrandom extinction leads to elevated loss of angiosperm evolutionary history.

    PubMed

    Vamosi, Jana C; Wilson, John R U

    2008-10-01

    The phylogenetic clustering of extinction may jeopardize the existence of entire families and genera, which can result in elevated reductions of evolutionary history (EH), trait diversity, and ecosystem functioning. Analyses of globally threatened birds and mammals suggest current extinction threats will result in a much higher loss of EH than random extinction scenarios, while the analyses of the taxonomical distribution of regionally rare plants find the opposite pattern. The disproportionately high number of rare plant species within species-rich families potentially suggests that lower losses of plant EH will be sustained than expected under random extinction. We show that at a global scale, this is not the case. Species-poor (especially monotypic) angiosperm families are more often at risk of extinction than expected. Because these high-risk species-poor families are as evolutionarily distinct as other families, the expected family-level EH plausibly lost in the next 100 years exceeds that predicted from random extinction by up to approximately 1165 million years.

  1. Role of proline and GABA in sexual reproduction of angiosperms

    PubMed Central

    Biancucci, Marco; Mattioli, Roberto; Forlani, Giuseppe; Funck, Dietmar; Costantino, Paolo; Trovato, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Two glutamate derivatives, proline and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), appear to play pivotal roles in different aspects of sexual reproduction in angiosperms, although their precise function in plant reproduction and the molecular basis of their action are not yet fully understood. Proline and GABA have long been regarded as pivotal amino acids in pollen vitality and fertility. Proline may constitute up to 70% of the free amino acid pool in pollen grains and it has been recently shown that Arabidopsis mutants affected in the first and rate-limiting step in proline synthesis produce aberrant and infertile pollen grains, indicating that proline synthesis is required for pollen development and fertility. Concerning GABA, a large body of evidence points to this glutamate derivative as a key determinant of post-pollination fertilization. Intriguingly, proline has also been associated with pollination, another aspect of sexual reproduction, since honeybees were reported to show a strong preference for proline-enriched nectars. In this review, we survey current knowledge on the roles of proline and GABA in plant fertility, and discuss future perspectives potentially capable to improve our understanding on the functions of these amino acids in pollen development, pollination, and pollen tube guidance. PMID:26388884

  2. Inferring angiosperm phylogeny from EST data with widespread gene duplication.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, Michael J; McMahon, Michelle M

    2007-02-08

    Most studies inferring species phylogenies use sequences from single copy genes or sets of orthologs culled from gene families. For taxa such as plants, with very high levels of gene duplication in their nuclear genomes, this has limited the exploitation of nuclear sequences for phylogenetic studies, such as those available in large EST libraries. One rarely used method of inference, gene tree parsimony, can infer species trees from gene families undergoing duplication and loss, but its performance has not been evaluated at a phylogenomic scale for EST data in plants. A gene tree parsimony analysis based on EST data was undertaken for six angiosperm model species and Pinus, an outgroup. Although a large fraction of the tentative consensus sequences obtained from the TIGR database of ESTs was assembled into homologous clusters too small to be phylogenetically informative, some 557 clusters contained promising levels of information. Based on maximum likelihood estimates of the gene trees obtained from these clusters, gene tree parsimony correctly inferred the accepted species tree with strong statistical support. A slight variant of this species tree was obtained when maximum parsimony was used to infer the individual gene trees instead. Despite the complexity of the EST data and the relatively small fraction eventually used in inferring a species tree, the gene tree parsimony method performed well in the face of very high apparent rates of duplication.

  3. Inferring angiosperm phylogeny from EST data with widespread gene duplication

    PubMed Central

    Sanderson, Michael J; McMahon, Michelle M

    2007-01-01

    Background Most studies inferring species phylogenies use sequences from single copy genes or sets of orthologs culled from gene families. For taxa such as plants, with very high levels of gene duplication in their nuclear genomes, this has limited the exploitation of nuclear sequences for phylogenetic studies, such as those available in large EST libraries. One rarely used method of inference, gene tree parsimony, can infer species trees from gene families undergoing duplication and loss, but its performance has not been evaluated at a phylogenomic scale for EST data in plants. Results A gene tree parsimony analysis based on EST data was undertaken for six angiosperm model species and Pinus, an outgroup. Although a large fraction of the tentative consensus sequences obtained from the TIGR database of ESTs was assembled into homologous clusters too small to be phylogenetically informative, some 557 clusters contained promising levels of information. Based on maximum likelihood estimates of the gene trees obtained from these clusters, gene tree parsimony correctly inferred the accepted species tree with strong statistical support. A slight variant of this species tree was obtained when maximum parsimony was used to infer the individual gene trees instead. Conclusion Despite the complexity of the EST data and the relatively small fraction eventually used in inferring a species tree, the gene tree parsimony method performed well in the face of very high apparent rates of duplication. PMID:17288576

  4. Determinate Root Growth and Meristem Maintenance in Angiosperms

    PubMed Central

    Shishkova, S.; Rost, T. L.; Dubrovsky, J. G.

    2008-01-01

    Background The difference between indeterminate and determinate growth in plants consists of the presence or absence of an active meristem in the fully developed organ. Determinate root growth implies that the root apical meristem (RAM) becomes exhausted. As a consequence, all cells in the root tip differentiate. This type of growth is widely found in roots of many angiosperm taxa and might have evolved as a developmental adaptation to water deficit (in desert Cactaceae), or low mineral content in the soil (proteoid roots in various taxa). Scope and Conclusions This review considers the mechanisms of determinate root growth to better understand how the RAM is maintained, how it functions, and the cellular and genetic bases of these processes. The role of the quiescent centre in RAM maintenance and exhaustion will be analysed. During root ageing, the RAM becomes smaller and its organization changes; however, it remains unknown whether every root is truly determinate in the sense that its RAM becomes exhausted before senescence. We define two types of determinate growth: constitutive where determinacy is a natural part of root development; and non-constitutive where determinacy is induced usually by an environmental factor. Determinate root growth is proposed to include two phases: the indeterminate growth phase, when the RAM continuously produces new cells; and the termination growth phase, when cell production gradually decreases and eventually ceases. Finally, new concepts regarding stem cells and a stem cell niche are discussed to help comprehend how the meristem is maintained in a broad taxonomic context. PMID:17954472

  5. Perforated Pit Membranes in Imperforate Tracheary Elements of Some Angiosperms

    PubMed Central

    SANO, YUZOU; JANSEN, STEVEN

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims The structure of pit membranes in angiosperms has not been fully examined and our understanding about the structure is incomplete. Therefore, this study aims to illustrate the micromorphology of pit membranes in fibres and tracheids of woody species from various families. • Methods Specimens from ten species from ten genera and eight families were prepared using two techniques and examined by field-emission scanning electron microscopy. • Key Results Interfibre pit membranes with an average diameter of <4 µm were frequently perforated or appeared to be very porous. In contrast, pit membranes in imperforate tracheary elements with distinctly bordered pits and an average diameter of ≥4 µm were homogeneous and densely packed with microfibrils. These differences were observed consistently not only among species but also within a single species in which different types of imperforate tracheary elements were present. • Conclusions This study demonstrates that the structure of interfibre pit membranes differs among cell types and the differences are closely associated with the specialization of the fibre cells. It is suggested that perforated pit membranes between specialized fibres contribute to the dehydration of the fibre cells at or soon after maturation. PMID:16520339

  6. Hybrid speciation in angiosperms: parental divergence drives ploidy

    PubMed Central

    Paun, Ovidiu; Forest, Félix; Fay, Michael F.; Chase, Mark W.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Hybridization and polyploidy are now hypothesized to have regularly stimulated speciation in angiosperms, but individual or combined involvement of these two processes seems to involve significant differences in pathways of formation, establishment and evolutionary consequences of resulting lineages. We evaluate here the classical cytological hypothesis that ploidy in hybrid speciation is governed by the extent of chromosomal rearrangements among parental species. Within a phylogenetic framework, we calculate genetic divergence indices for 50 parental species pairs and use these indices as surrogates for the overall degree of genomic divergence (i.e. as proxy for assessments of dissimilarity of the parental chromosomes). The results confirm that genomic differentiation between progenitor taxa influences the likelihood of diploid (homoploid) versus polyploid hybrid speciation because genetic divergence between parents of polyploids is found to be significantly greater than in the case of homoploid hybrid species. We argue that this asymmetric relationship may be reinforced immediately after hybrid formation, during stabilization and establishment. Underlying mechanisms potentially producing this pattern are discussed. PMID:19220761

  7. Deep phylogenetic incongruence in the angiosperm clade Rosidae.

    PubMed

    Sun, Miao; Soltis, Douglas E; Soltis, Pamela S; Zhu, Xinyu; Burleigh, J Gordon; Chen, Zhiduan

    2015-02-01

    Analysis of large data sets can help resolve difficult nodes in the tree of life and also reveal complex evolutionary histories. The placement of the Celastrales-Oxalidales-Malpighiales (COM) clade within Rosidae remains one of the most confounding phylogenetic questions in angiosperms, with previous analyses placing it with either Fabidae or Malvidae. To elucidate the position of COM, we assembled multi-gene matrices of chloroplast, mitochondrial, and nuclear sequences, as well as large single- and multi-copy nuclear gene data sets. Analyses of multi-gene data sets demonstrate conflict between the chloroplast and both nuclear and mitochondrial data sets, and the results are robust to various character-coding and data-exclusion treatments. Analyses of single- and multi-copy nuclear loci indicate that most loci support the placement of COM with Malvidae, fewer loci support COM with Fabidae, and almost no loci support COM outside a clade of Fabidae and Malvidae. Although incomplete lineage sorting and ancient introgressive hybridization remain as plausible explanations for the conflict among loci, more complete sampling is necessary to evaluate these hypotheses fully. Our results emphasize the importance of genomic data sets for revealing deep incongruence and complex patterns of evolution.

  8. Plastid primers for angiosperm phylogenetics and phylogeography1

    PubMed Central

    Prince, Linda M.

    2015-01-01

    Premise of the study: PCR primers are available for virtually every region of the plastid genome. Selection of which primer pairs to use is second only to selection of the genic region. This is particularly true for research at the species/population interface. Methods: Primer pairs for 130 regions of the chloroplast genome were evaluated in 12 species distributed across the angiosperms. Likelihood of amplification success was inferred based upon number and location of mismatches to target sequence. Intraspecific sequence variability was evaluated under three different criteria in four species. Results: Many published primer pairs should work across all taxa sampled, with the exception of failure due to genomic reorganization events. Universal barcoding primers were the least likely to work (65% success). The list of most variable regions for use within species has little in common with the lists identified in prior studies. Discussion: Published primer sequences should amplify a diversity of flowering plant DNAs, even those designed for specific taxonomic groups. “Universal” primers may have extremely limited utility. There was little consistency in likelihood of amplification success for any given publication across lineages or within lineage across publications. PMID:26082876

  9. Utility of the Amborella trichopoda expansin superfamily in elucidating the history of angiosperm expansins.

    PubMed

    Seader, Victoria H; Thornsberry, Jennifer M; Carey, Robert E

    2016-03-01

    Expansins form a superfamily of plant proteins that assist in cell wall loosening during growth and development. The superfamily is divided into four families: EXPA, EXPB, EXLA, and EXLB (Sampedro and Cosgrove in Genome Biol 6:242, 2005. doi: 10.1186/gb-2005-6-12-242 ). Previous studies on Arabidopsis, rice, and Populus trichocarpa have clarified the evolutionary history of expansins in angiosperms (Sampedro et al. in Plant J 44:409-419, 2005. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-313X.2005.02540.x ). Amborella trichopoda is a flowering plant that diverged very early. Thus, it is a sister lineage to all other extant angiosperms (Amborella Genome Project in 342:1241089, 2013. doi: 10.1126/science.1241089 ). Because of this relationship, comparing the A. trichopoda expansin superfamily with those of other flowering plants may indicate which expansin genes were present in the last common ancestor of all angiosperms. The A. trichopoda expansin superfamily was assembled using BLAST searches with angiosperm expansin queries. The search results were analyzed and annotated to isolate the complete A. trichopoda expansin superfamily. This superfamily is similar to other angiosperm expansin superfamilies, but is somewhat smaller. This is likely because of a lack of genome duplication events (Amborella Genome Project 2013). Phylogenetic and syntenic analyses of A. trichopoda expansins have improved our understanding of the evolutionary history of expansins in angiosperms. Nearly all of the A. trichopoda expansins were placed into an existing Arabidopsis-rice expansin clade. Based on the results of phylogenetic and syntenic analyses, we estimate there were 12-13 EXPA genes, 2 EXPB genes, 1 EXLA gene, and 2 EXLB genes in the last common ancestor of all angiosperms.

  10. Reproductive ecology of the basal angiosperm Trithuria submersa (Hydatellaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Mackenzie L.; Macfarlane, Terry D.; Williams, Joseph H.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Trithuria, the sole genus in the family Hydatellaceae, is an important group for understanding early angiosperm evolution because of its sister relationship to the ancient lineage, Nymphaeales (water lilies). Although also aquatic, Trithuria differs from water lilies in that all species are extremely small, and most have an annual life form and grow in seasonal wetlands. Very little is known about their reproductive ecology. This paper reports on reproductive timing, mode of pollination and characteristics of the breeding system of Trithuria submersa in Western Australia. Methods Mass collections of open-pollinated plants from different ecological settings were used to characterize the reproductive developmental sequence and natural pollen reception. Hand-pollination, caging and emasculation experiments were used to measure outcross + geitonogamous pollen reception versus autonomous self-pollination in two populations over two field seasons. Key Results Natural outcross or geitonogamous pollination was by wind, not by water or insects, but pollen reception was extremely low. Pollen production was very low and pollen release was non-synchronous within populations. The pollen to ovule (P/O) ratio was 23·9, compared with 1569·1 in dioecious Trithuria austinensis. Stigmas became receptive before male phase and remained so until anthers dehisced and autonomous self-pollination occurred. Natural pollen loads are composed primarily of self pollen. Self- and open-pollinated plants had equivalent seed set (both >70 %). Self-pollinated plants produced seed within 17 d. Conclusions Autonomous self-pollination and self-fertilization are predominant in T. submersa. The low P/O ratio is not an artefact of small plant size and is inconsistent with long-term pollination by wind. It indicates that T. submersa has evolved a primarily autogamous breeding system. Selfing, along with the effect of small plant size on the speed of reproduction, has enabled T

  11. Formin homology 2 domains occur in multiple contexts in angiosperms

    PubMed Central

    Cvrčková, Fatima; Novotný, Marian; Pícková, Denisa; Žárský, Viktor

    2004-01-01

    Background Involvement of conservative molecular modules and cellular mechanisms in the widely diversified processes of eukaryotic cell morphogenesis leads to the intriguing question: how do similar proteins contribute to dissimilar morphogenetic outputs. Formins (FH2 proteins) play a central part in the control of actin organization and dynamics, providing a good example of evolutionarily versatile use of a conserved protein domain in the context of a variety of lineage-specific structural and signalling interactions. Results In order to identify possible plant-specific sequence features within the FH2 protein family, we performed a detailed analysis of angiosperm formin-related sequences available in public databases, with particular focus on the complete Arabidopsis genome and the nearly finished rice genome sequence. This has led to revision of the current annotation of half of the 22 Arabidopsis formin-related genes. Comparative analysis of the two plant genomes revealed a good conservation of the previously described two subfamilies of plant formins (Class I and Class II), as well as several subfamilies within them that appear to predate the separation of monocot and dicot plants. Moreover, a number of plant Class II formins share an additional conserved domain, related to the protein phosphatase/tensin/auxilin fold. However, considerable inter-species variability sets limits to generalization of any functional conclusions reached on a single species such as Arabidopsis. Conclusions The plant-specific domain context of the conserved FH2 domain, as well as plant-specific features of the domain itself, may reflect distinct functional requirements in plant cells. The variability of formin structures found in plants far exceeds that known from both fungi and metazoans, suggesting a possible contribution of FH2 proteins in the evolution of the plant type of multicellularity. PMID:15256004

  12. Another look at the root of the angiosperms reveals a familiar tale.

    PubMed

    Drew, Bryan T; Ruhfel, Brad R; Smith, Stephen A; Moore, Michael J; Briggs, Barbara G; Gitzendanner, Matthew A; Soltis, Pamela S; Soltis, Douglas E

    2014-05-01

    Since the advent of molecular phylogenetics more than 25 years ago, a major goal of plant systematists has been to discern the root of the angiosperms. Although most studies indicate that Amborella trichopoda is sister to all remaining extant flowering plants, support for this position has varied with respect to both the sequence data sets and analyses employed. Recently, Goremykin et al. (2013) questioned the "Amborella-sister hypothesis" using a "noise-reduction" approach and reported a topology with Amborella + Nymphaeales (water lilies) sister to all remaining angiosperms. Through a series of analyses of both plastid genomes and mitochondrial genes, we continue to find mostly strong support for the Amborella-sister hypothesis and offer a rebuttal of Goremykin et al. (2013). The major tenet of Goremykin et al. is that the Amborella-sister position is determined by noisy data--that is, characters with high rates of change and lacking true phylogenetic signal. To investigate the signal in these noisy data further, we analyzed the discarded characters from their noise-reduced alignments. We recovered a tree identical to that of the currently accepted angiosperm framework, including the position of Amborella as sister to all other angiosperms, as well as all other major clades. Thus, the signal in the "noisy" data is consistent with that of our complete data sets--arguing against the use of their noise-reduction approach. We also determined that one of the alignments presented by Goremykin et al. yields results at odds with their central claim--their data set actually supports Amborella as sister to all other angiosperms, as do larger plastid data sets we present here that possess more complete taxon sampling both within the monocots and for angiosperms in general. Previous unpartitioned, multilocus analyses of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) data have provided the strongest support for Amborella + Nymphaeales as sister to other angiosperms. However, our analysis

  13. Physiological mechanisms drive differing foliar calcium content in ferns and angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Funk, Jennifer L; Amatangelo, Kathryn L

    2013-09-01

    Recent evidence points to ferns containing significantly lower contents of foliar calcium and other cations than angiosperms. This is especially true of more ancient 'non-polypod' fern lineages, which predate the diversification of angiosperms. Calcium is an important plant nutrient, the lack of which can potentially slow plant growth and litter decomposition, and alter soil invertebrate communities. The physiological mechanisms limiting foliar calcium (Ca) content in ferns are unknown. While there is a lot we do not know about Ca uptake and transport in plants, three physiological processes are likely to be important. We measured transpiration rate, cation exchange capacity, and leaching loss to determine which process most strongly regulates foliar Ca content in a range of fern and co-occurring understory angiosperm species from a montane Hawaiian rainforest. We found higher instantaneous and lifetime (corrected for leaf lifespan) transpiration rates in angiosperms relative to ferns. Ferns preferentially incorporated Ca into leaves relative to strontium, which suggests that root or stem cation exchange capacity differs between ferns and angiosperms, potentially affecting calcium transport in plants. There were no differences in foliar Ca leaching loss between groups. Among the physiological mechanisms measured, foliar Ca was most strongly correlated with leaf-level transpiration rate and leaf lifespan. This suggests that inter-specific differences in a leaf's lifetime transpiration may play a significant role in determining plant nutrition.

  14. A critical transition in leaf evolution facilitated the Cretaceous angiosperm revolution

    PubMed Central

    de Boer, Hugo Jan; Eppinga, Maarten B.; Wassen, Martin J.; Dekker, Stefan C.

    2012-01-01

    The revolutionary rise of broad-leaved (flowering) angiosperm plant species during the Cretaceous initiated a global ecological transformation towards modern biodiversity. Still, the mechanisms involved in this angiosperm radiation remain enigmatic. Here we show that the period of rapid angiosperm evolution initiated after the leaf interior (post venous) transport path length for water was reduced beyond the leaf interior transport path length for CO2 at a critical leaf vein density of 2.5–5 mm mm−2. Data and our modelling approaches indicate that surpassing this critical vein density was a pivotal moment in leaf evolution that enabled evolving angiosperms to profit from developing leaves with more and smaller stomata in terms of higher carbon returns from equal water loss. Surpassing the critical vein density may therefore have facilitated evolving angiosperms to develop leaves with higher gas exchange capacities required to adapt to the Cretaceous CO2 decline and outcompete previously dominant coniferous species in the upper canopy. PMID:23187621

  15. Evolutionary Analysis of MIKC(c)-Type MADS-Box Genes in Gymnosperms and Angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fei; Zhang, Xingtan; Liu, Xing; Zhang, Liangsheng

    2017-01-01

    MIKC(c)-type MADS-box genes encode transcription factors that control floral organ morphogenesis and flowering time in flowering plants. Here, in order to determine when the subfamilies of MIKC(c) originated and their early evolutionary trajectory, we sampled and analyzed the genomes and large-scale transcriptomes representing all the orders of gymnosperms and basal angiosperms. Through phylogenetic inference, the MIKC(c)-type MADS-box genes were subdivided into 14 monophyletic clades. Among them, the gymnosperm orthologs of AGL6, SEP, AP1, GMADS, SOC1, AGL32, AP3/PI, SVP, AGL15, ANR1, and AG were identified. We identified and characterized the origin of a novel subfamily GMADS within gymnosperms but lost orthologs in monocots and Brassicaceae. ABCE model prototype genes were relatively conserved in terms of gene number in gymnosperms, but expanded in angiosperms, whereas SVP, SOC1, and GMADS had dramatic expansions in gymnosperms but conserved in angiosperms. Our results provided the most detailed evolutionary history of all MIKC(c) gene clades in gymnosperms and angiosperms. We proposed that although the near complete set of MIKC(c) genes had evolved in gymnosperms, the duplication and expressional transition of ABCE model MIKC(c) genes in the ancestor of angiosperms triggered the first flower.

  16. Timing of Early Cretaceous angiosperm diversification and possible links to major paleoenvironmental change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heimhofer, U.; Hochuli, P. A.; Burla, S.; Dinis, J. M. L.; Weissert, H.

    2005-02-01

    Palynological records from the Western Portuguese and Algarve basins (Portugal) provide new insights on the timing and pattern of the early diversification of angiosperms (flowering plants) and its relationship to global environmental perturbations during the late Early Cretaceous. Angiosperm pollen displays a stepwise increase in both diversity and relative abundance during the late Barremian to middle Albian interval (ca. 124 104 Ma), reflecting the incipient radiation of flowering plants in lower midlatitude floras. Our results provide new evidence for the age interpretation of the previously described angiosperm mesofossil floras and associated in situ pollen assemblages from the Western Portuguese basin, until now interpreted as Barremian or possibly Aptian in age. Biostratigraphic and sedimentologic evidence indicates a post-Aptian age for these assemblages, hence demonstrating a major radiation phase of angiosperms during the early Albian. Correlation of the angiosperm pollen record with data on global paleoenvironmental changes suggests a link between the rapid adaptive radiation of flowering plants and major climatic and oceanographic perturbations during the late Early Cretaceous.

  17. Yuhania: a unique angiosperm from the Middle Jurassic of Inner Mongolia, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhong-Jian; Wang, Xin

    2017-05-19

    Despite increasing claims of pre-Cretaceous angiosperms, whether there really are angiosperms in the Jurassic is apparently still an open question for many people before further evidence is available. This question can only be answered by studying more Jurassic plant fossils. Here we report a fossil angiosperm, Yuhania daohugouensis gen. et sp. nov, from the Middle Jurassic of Inner Mongolia, China. The plant includes connected stem, leaves, flowers, aggregate fruits, fruitlets, and seeds within fruitlets. The leaves are helically arranged along the curving stem, linear in shape, with 5-6 parallel veins. The aggregate fruit is pedicellate, composed of over 20 carpels/fruitlets helically arranged. Each fruitlet encloses a seed. The reproductive organs in various stages are found in the same plant, allowing us to understand the development of Yuhania. The occurrence of Yuhania in the Middle Jurassic re-confirms the Jurassic history for angiosperms that has been suggested by other independent research and adds to the on-going study on the early evolution of angiosperms.

  18. Yuhania: a unique angiosperm from the Middle Jurassic of Inner Mongolia, China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhong-Jian; Wang, Xin

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Despite increasing claims of pre-Cretaceous angiosperms, whether there really are angiosperms in the Jurassic is apparently still an open question for many people before further evidence is available. This question can only be answered by studying more Jurassic plant fossils. Here we report a fossil angiosperm, Yuhania daohugouensis gen. et sp. nov, from the Middle Jurassic of Inner Mongolia, China. The plant includes connected stem, leaves, flowers, aggregate fruits, fruitlets, and seeds within fruitlets. The leaves are helically arranged along the curving stem, linear in shape, with 5–6 parallel veins. The aggregate fruit is pedicellate, composed of over 20 carpels/fruitlets helically arranged. Each fruitlet encloses a seed. The reproductive organs in various stages are found in the same plant, allowing us to understand the development of Yuhania. The occurrence of Yuhania in the Middle Jurassic re-confirms the Jurassic history for angiosperms that has been suggested by other independent research and adds to the on-going study on the early evolution of angiosperms. PMID:28392623

  19. Ecological determinants of mean family age of angiosperm trees in forest communities in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Hong; Chen, Shengbin

    2016-06-01

    Species assemblage in a local community is determined by the interplay of evolutionary and ecological processes. The Tropical Niche Conservatism hypothesis proposes mechanisms underlying patterns of biodiversity in biological communities along environmental gradients. This hypothesis predicts that, among other things, clades in areas with warm or wet environments are, on average, older than those in areas with cold or dry environments. Focusing on angiosperm trees in forests, this study tested the age-related prediction of the Tropical Niche Conservatism hypothesis. We related the mean family age of angiosperm trees in 57 local forests from across China with 23 current and paleo-environmental variables, which included all major temperature- and precipitation-related variables. Our study shows that the mean family age of angiosperm trees in local forests was positively correlated with temperature and precipitation. This finding is consistent with the age-related prediction of the Tropical Niche Conservatism hypothesis. Approximately 85% of the variance in the mean family age of angiosperm trees was explained by temperature-related variables, and 81% of the variance in the mean family age of angiosperm trees was explained by precipitation-related variables. Climatic conditions at the Last Glacial Maximum did not explain additional variation in mean family age after accounting for current environmental conditions.

  20. Ecological determinants of mean family age of angiosperm trees in forest communities in China

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Hong; Chen, Shengbin

    2016-01-01

    Species assemblage in a local community is determined by the interplay of evolutionary and ecological processes. The Tropical Niche Conservatism hypothesis proposes mechanisms underlying patterns of biodiversity in biological communities along environmental gradients. This hypothesis predicts that, among other things, clades in areas with warm or wet environments are, on average, older than those in areas with cold or dry environments. Focusing on angiosperm trees in forests, this study tested the age-related prediction of the Tropical Niche Conservatism hypothesis. We related the mean family age of angiosperm trees in 57 local forests from across China with 23 current and paleo-environmental variables, which included all major temperature- and precipitation-related variables. Our study shows that the mean family age of angiosperm trees in local forests was positively correlated with temperature and precipitation. This finding is consistent with the age-related prediction of the Tropical Niche Conservatism hypothesis. Approximately 85% of the variance in the mean family age of angiosperm trees was explained by temperature-related variables, and 81% of the variance in the mean family age of angiosperm trees was explained by precipitation-related variables. Climatic conditions at the Last Glacial Maximum did not explain additional variation in mean family age after accounting for current environmental conditions. PMID:27354109

  1. Hydraulic tuning of vein cell microstructure in the evolution of angiosperm venation networks.

    PubMed

    Feild, Taylor S; Brodribb, Timothy J

    2013-08-01

    High vein density (D(V)) evolution in angiosperms represented a key functional transition. Yet, a mechanistic account on how this hydraulic transformation evolved remains lacking. We demonstrate that a consequence of producing high D(V is that veins must become very small to fit inside the leaf, and that angiosperms are the only clade that evolved the specific type of vessel required to yield sufficiently conductive miniature leaf veins. From 111 species spanning key divergences in vascular plant evolution, we show, using analyses of vein conduit evolution in relation to vein packing, that a key xylem innovation associated with high D(V) evolution is a strong reduction in vein thickness and simplification of the perforation plates of primary xylem vessels. Simple perforation plates in the leaf xylem occurred only in derived angiosperm clades exhibiting high D(V) (> 12 mm mm(-2)). Perforation plates in the vessels of other species, including extant basal angiosperms, consisted of resistive scalariform types that were associated with thicker veins and much lower D(V). We conclude that a reduction in within-vein conduit resistance allowed vein size to decrease. We suggest that this adaptation may have been a critical evolutionary step that enabled dramatic D(V) elaboration in angiosperms.

  2. Using fossils to break long branches in molecular dating: a comparison of relaxed clocks applied to the origin of angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Magallón, Susana

    2010-07-01

    Long branches are potentially problematic in molecular dating because they can encompass a vast number of combinations of substitution rate and time. A long branch is suspected to have biased molecular clock estimates of the age of flowering plants (angiosperms) to be much older than their earliest fossils. This study explores the effect of the long branch subtending angiosperms in molecular dating and how different relaxed clocks react to it. Fossil angiosperm relatives, identified through a combined morphological and molecular phylogenetic analysis for living and fossil seed plants, were used to break the long angiosperm stem branch. Nucleotide sequences of angiosperm fossil relatives were simulated using a phylogeny and model parameters from living taxa and incorporated in molecular dating. Three relaxed clocks, which implement among-lineage rate heterogeneity differently, were used: penalized likelihood (using 2 different rate smoothing optimization criteria), a Bayesian rate-autocorrelated method, and a Bayesian uncorrelated method. Different clocks provided highly correlated ages across the tree. Breaking the angiosperm stem branch did not result in major age differences, except for a few sensitive nodes. Breaking the angiosperm stem branch resulted in a substantially younger age for crown angiosperms only with 1 of the 4 methods, but, nevertheless, the obtained age is considerably older than the oldest angiosperm fossils. The origin of crown angiosperms is estimated between the Upper Triassic and the early Permian. The difficulty in estimating crown angiosperm age probably lies in a combination of intrinsic and extrinsic complicating factors, including substantial molecular rate heterogeneity among lineages and through time. A more adequate molecular dating approach might combine moderate background rate heterogeneity with large changes in rate at particular points in the tree.

  3. Significance of satellite DNA revealed by conservation of a widespread repeat DNA sequence among angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Mehrotra, Shweta; Goel, Shailendra; Raina, Soom Nath; Rajpal, Vijay Rani

    2014-08-01

    The analysis of plant genome structure and evolution requires comprehensive characterization of repetitive sequences that make up the majority of plant nuclear DNA. In the present study, we analyzed the nature of pCtKpnI-I and pCtKpnI-II tandem repeated sequences, reported earlier in Carthamus tinctorius. Interestingly, homolog of pCtKpnI-I repeat sequence was also found to be present in widely divergent families of angiosperms. pCtKpnI-I showed high sequence similarity but low copy number among various taxa of different families of angiosperms analyzed. In comparison, pCtKpnI-II was specific to the genus Carthamus and was not present in any other taxa analyzed. The molecular structure of pCtKpnI-I was analyzed in various unrelated taxa of angiosperms to decipher the evolutionary conserved nature of the sequence and its possible functional role.

  4. Evolution of Lower Brachyceran Flies (Diptera) and Their Adaptive Radiation with Angiosperms

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qingqing; Wang, Bo

    2017-01-01

    The Diptera (true flies) is one of the most species-abundant orders of Insecta, and it is also among the most important flower-visiting insects. Dipteran fossils are abundant in the Mesozoic, especially in the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous. Here, we review the fossil record and early evolution of some Mesozoic lower brachyceran flies together with new records in Burmese amber, including Tabanidae, Nemestrinidae, Bombyliidae, Eremochaetidae, and Zhangsolvidae. The fossil records reveal that some flower-visiting groups had diversified during the mid-Cretaceous, consistent with the rise of angiosperms to widespread floristic dominance. These brachyceran groups played an important role in the origin of co-evolutionary relationships with basal angiosperms. Moreover, the rise of angiosperms not only improved the diversity of flower-visiting flies, but also advanced the turnover and evolution of other specialized flies. PMID:28484485

  5. Repeated Evolution of the Pyrrolizidine Alkaloid–Mediated Defense System in Separate Angiosperm LineagesW⃞

    PubMed Central

    Reimann, Andreas; Nurhayati, Niknik; Backenköhler, Anita; Ober, Dietrich

    2004-01-01

    Species of several unrelated families within the angiosperms are able to constitutively produce pyrrolizidine alkaloids as a defense against herbivores. In pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA) biosynthesis, homospermidine synthase (HSS) catalyzes the first specific step. HSS was recruited during angiosperm evolution from deoxyhypusine synthase (DHS), an enzyme involved in the posttranslational activation of eukaryotic initiation factor 5A. Phylogenetic analysis of 23 cDNA sequences coding for HSS and DHS of various angiosperm species revealed at least four independent recruitments of HSS from DHS: one within the Boraginaceae, one within the monocots, and two within the Asteraceae family. Furthermore, sequence analyses indicated elevated substitution rates within HSS-coding sequences after each gene duplication, with an increased level of nonsynonymous mutations. However, the contradiction between the polyphyletic origin of the first enzyme in PA biosynthesis and the structural identity of the final biosynthetic PA products needs clarification. PMID:15466410

  6. Evolution of Lower Brachyceran Flies (Diptera) and Their Adaptive Radiation with Angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qingqing; Wang, Bo

    2017-01-01

    The Diptera (true flies) is one of the most species-abundant orders of Insecta, and it is also among the most important flower-visiting insects. Dipteran fossils are abundant in the Mesozoic, especially in the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous. Here, we review the fossil record and early evolution of some Mesozoic lower brachyceran flies together with new records in Burmese amber, including Tabanidae, Nemestrinidae, Bombyliidae, Eremochaetidae, and Zhangsolvidae. The fossil records reveal that some flower-visiting groups had diversified during the mid-Cretaceous, consistent with the rise of angiosperms to widespread floristic dominance. These brachyceran groups played an important role in the origin of co-evolutionary relationships with basal angiosperms. Moreover, the rise of angiosperms not only improved the diversity of flower-visiting flies, but also advanced the turnover and evolution of other specialized flies.

  7. GC content evolution in coding regions of angiosperm genomes: a unifying hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Glémin, Sylvain; Clément, Yves; David, Jacques; Ressayre, Adrienne

    2014-07-01

    In angiosperms (as in other species), GC content varies along and between genes, within a genome, and between genomes of different species, but the reason for this distribution is still an open question. Grass genomes are particularly intriguing because they exhibit a strong bimodal distribution of genic GC content and a sharp 5'-3' decreasing GC content gradient along most genes. Here, we propose a unifying model to explain the main patterns of GC content variation at the gene and genome scale. We argue that GC content patterns could be mainly determined by the interactions between gene structure, recombination patterns, and GC-biased gene conversion. Recent studies on fine-scale recombination maps in angiosperms support this hypothesis and previous results also fit this model. We propose that our model could be used as a null hypothesis to search for additional forces that affect GC content in angiosperms.

  8. The relationship of angiosperms and oleanane in petroleum through geologic time

    SciTech Connect

    Moldowan, J.M.; Dahl, J.E.; Huizinga, B.J.; Jacobson, S.R.; Taylor, D.W.

    1993-02-01

    The biological marker oleanane has been suggested as an indicator of angiosperm (flowering plant) input into source rocks and their derived oils. Parallels should therefore be evident between the angiosperm fossil record and oleanane occurrence and abundance. A global selection of more than 50 core samples from marine rocks of different ages and from different locations was quantitatively analyzed for oleanane to determine its abundance over geologic time relative to the bacterial marker hopane. Oleanane was recognized using Metastable Reaction Monitoring (MRM) GC-MS. A parallel was observed between the oleanane/hopane ratio and angiosperm diversity in the fossil record through time. The first fossil evidence of angiosperms is during the Early Cretaceous with radiation during the Late Cretaceous and Tertiary. Occurrences of oleanane are confirmed throughout the Cretaceous system. Early-to-middle Cretaceous (Berriasian-Cenomanian) occurrences are sporadic and oleanan/hopane ratios are less than 0.07. Late Cretaceous (Turonian-Maastrichtian) oleanane/hopane ratios range up to 0.15 with higher ratios in many Tertiary samples. It appears that oleanane/hopane ratios of oils can restrict the age of their unavailable or unknown source rocks. High ratios indicate Tertiary age and lower ratios can indicate Cretaceous or Tertiary age, depending on depositional environment. While these data do not rule out pre-Cretaceous oleanane, preliminary data show that oleanane/hopane ratios for Jurassic and older rock extracts are typically below our detection limits (<0.03). While oleanane precursors are abundant in angiosperms, they also occur, rarely, in other modern plant groups. We identified oleanane in low abundances in three Early Cretaceous fossil benettitialeans, an extinct plant group (Late Triassic to Late Cretaceous) thought to be related to angiosperms. These findings suggest that oleanane could be present in low abundance in some pre-Cretaceous rocks and oils.

  9. Darwin's second 'abominable mystery': Why are there so many angiosperm species?

    PubMed

    Crepet, William L; Niklas, Karl J

    2009-01-01

    The rapid diversification and ecological dominance of the flowering plants beg the question "Why are there so many angiosperm species and why are they so successful?" A number of equally plausible hypotheses have been advanced in response to this question, among which the most widely accepted highlights the mutually beneficial animal-plant relationships that are nowhere better developed nor more widespread than among angiosperm species and their biotic vectors for pollination and dispersal. Nevertheless, consensus acknowledges that there are many other attributes unique to or characteristic of the flowering plants. In addition, the remarkable coevolution of the angiosperms and pollination/dispersal animal agents could be an effect of the intrinsic adaptability of the flowering plants rather than a primary cause of their success, suggesting that the search for underlying causes should focus on an exploration of the genetic and epigenetic mechanisms that might facilitate adaptive evolution and speciation. Here, we explore angiosperm diversity promoting attributes in their general form and draw particular attention to those that, either individually or collectively, have been shown empirically to favor high speciation rates, low extinction rates, or broad ecological tolerances. Among these are the annual growth form, homeotic gene effects, asexual/sexual reproduction, a propensity for hybrid polyploidy, and apparent "resistance" to extinction. Our survey of the literature suggests that no single vegetative, reproductive, or ecological feature taken in isolation can account for the evolutionary success of the angiosperms. Rather, we believe that the answer to Darwin's second "abominable mystery" lies in a confluence of features that collectively make the angiosperms unique among the land plants.

  10. Evolutionary origins of pectin methylesterase genes associated with novel aspects of angiosperm pollen tube walls.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Simon; Williams, Joseph H

    2017-06-03

    The early evolution of angiosperms was marked by a number of innovations of the reproductive cycle including an accelerated fertilization process involving faster transport of sperm to the egg via a pollen tube. Fast pollen tube growth rates in angiosperms are accompanied by a hard shank-soft tip pollen tube morphology. A critical actor in that morphology is the wall-embedded enzyme pectin methylesterase (PME), which in type II PMEs is accompanied by a co-transcribed inhibitor, PMEI. PMEs convert the esterified pectic tip wall to a stiffer state in the subapical flank by pectin de-esterification. It is hypothesized that rapid and precise targeting of PME activity was gained with the origin of type II genes, which are derived and have only expanded since the origin of vascular plants. Pollen-active PMEs have yet to be reported in early-divergent angiosperms or gymnosperms. Gene expression studies in Nymphaea odorata found transcripts from four type II VGD1-like and 16 type I AtPPME1-like homologs that were more abundant in pollen and pollen tubes than in vegetative tissues. The near full-length coding sequence of one type II PME (NoPMEII-1) included at least one PMEI domain. The identification of possible VGD1 homologs in an early-diverging angiosperm suggests that the refined control of PMEs that mediate de-esterification of pectins near pollen tube tips is a conserved feature across angiosperms. The recruitment of type II PMEs into a pollen tube elongation role in angiosperms may represent a key evolutionary step in the development of faster growing pollen tubes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The age of the angiosperms: a molecular timescale without a clock.

    PubMed

    Bell, Charles D; Soltis, Douglas E; Soltis, Pamela S

    2005-06-01

    The age of the angiosperms has long been of interest to botanists and evolutionary biologists. Many early efforts to date the age of the angiosperms and evolutionary divergences within the angiosperm clade using a molecular clock have yielded age estimates that are grossly inconsistent with the fossil record. We investigated the age of angiosperms using Bayesian relaxed clock (BRC) and penalized likelihood (PL) approaches. Both of these methods allow the incorporation of multiple fossil constraints into the optimization procedure. The BRC method allows a range of values for among-lineage rate of substitution, from a nearly clocklike behavior to a condition in which each branch is allowed an optimal substitution rate, and also accounts for variation in molecular evolution across multiple genes. A topology derived from an analysis of genes from all three plant genomes for 71 taxa was used as a backbone. The effects on age estimates of different genes, single-gene versus concatenated datasets, and the inclusion and assumptions of fossils as age constraints were examined. In addition, the influence of prior distributions on estimates of divergence times was also explored. These results indicate that widely divergent age estimates can result from the different methods (198-139 million years ago), different sources of data (275-122 million years ago), and the inclusion of temporal constraints to topologies. Most dates, however, are between 180-140 million years ago, suggesting a Middle Jurassic-Early Cretaceous origin of flowering plants, predating the oldest unequivocal fossil angiosperms by about 45-5 million years. Nonetheless, these dates are consistent with other recent studies that have used methods that relax the assumption of a strict molecular clock and also agree with the hypothesis that the angiosperms may be somewhat older than the fossil record indicates.

  12. Uncorrelated evolution of leaf and petal venation patterns across the angiosperm phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Roddy, Adam B; Guilliams, C Matt; Lilittham, Terapan; Farmer, Jessica; Wormser, Vanessa; Pham, Trang; Fine, Paul V A; Feild, Taylor S; Dawson, Todd E

    2013-10-01

    Early angiosperm evolution, beginning approximately 140 million years ago, saw many innovations that enabled flowering plants to alter ecosystems globally. These included the development of novel, flower-based pollinator attraction mechanisms and the development of increased water transport capacity in stems and leaves. Vein length per area (VLA) of leaves increased nearly threefold in the first 30-40 million years of angiosperm evolution, increasing the capacity for transpiration and photosynthesis. In contrast to leaves, high water transport capacities in flowers may not be an advantage because flowers do not typically contribute to plant carbon gain. Although flowers of extant basal angiosperms are hydrated by the xylem, flowers of more recently derived lineages may be hydrated predominantly by the phloem. In the present study, we measured leaf and flower VLA for a phylogenetically diverse sample of 132 species from 52 angiosperm families to ask (i) whether flowers have lower VLA than leaves, (ii) whether flowers of basal angiosperm lineages have higher VLA than more recently derived lineages because of differences between xylem and phloem hydration, and (iii) whether flower and leaf VLA evolved independently. It was found that floral structures had lower VLA than leaves, but basal angiosperm flowers did not have higher VLA than more derived lineages. Furthermore, the independent evolution of leaf and petal VLA suggested that these organs may be developmentally modular. Unlike leaves, which have experienced strong selection for increased water transport capacity, flowers may have been shielded from such selective pressures by different developmental processes controlling VLA throughout the plant bauplan.

  13. False Blister Beetles and the Expansion of Gymnosperm-Insect Pollination Modes before Angiosperm Dominance.

    PubMed

    Peris, David; Pérez-de la Fuente, Ricardo; Peñalver, Enrique; Delclòs, Xavier; Barrón, Eduardo; Labandeira, Conrad C

    2017-03-20

    During the mid-Cretaceous, angiosperms diversified from several nondiverse lineages to their current global domination [1], replacing earlier gymnosperm lineages [2]. Several hypotheses explain this extensive radiation [3], one of which involves proliferation of insect pollinator associations in the transition from gymnosperm to angiosperm dominance. However, most evidence supports gymnosperm-insect pollinator associations, buttressed by direct evidence of pollen on insect bodies, currently established for four groups: Thysanoptera (thrips), Neuroptera (lacewings), Diptera (flies), and now Coleoptera (beetles). Each group represents a distinctive pollination mode linked to a unique mouthpart type and feeding guild [4-9]. Extensive indirect evidence, based on specialized head and mouthpart morphology, is present for one of these pollinator types, the long-proboscid pollination mode [10], representing minimally ten family-level lineages of Neuroptera, Mecoptera (scorpionflies), and Diptera [8, 10, 11]. A recurring feature uniting these pollinator modes is host associations with ginkgoalean, cycad, conifer, and bennettitalean gymnosperms. Pollinator lineages bearing these pollination modes were categorized into four evolutionary cohorts during the 35-million-year-long angiosperm radiation, each defined by its host-plant associations (gymnosperm or angiosperm) and evolutionary pattern (extinction, continuation, or origination) during this interval [12]. Here, we provide the first direct evidence for one cohort, exemplified by the beetle Darwinylus marcosi, family Oedemeridae (false blister beetles), that had an earlier gymnosperm (most likely cycad) host association, later transitioning onto angiosperms [13]. This association constitutes one of four patterns explaining the plateau of family-level plant lineages generally and pollinating insects specifically during the mid-Cretaceous angiosperm radiation [12]. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Dimorphic chloroplasts in the epidermis of Podostemoideae, a subfamily of the unique aquatic angiosperm family Podostemaceae.

    PubMed

    Fujinami, Rieko; Yoshihama, Isao; Imaichi, Ryoko

    2011-09-01

    Plants of the Podostemoideae, a subfamily of the unique aquatic angiosperm family Podostemaceae, which are found in rapids and waterfalls of the tropics and subtropics, have two different sizes of chloroplasts in their epidermis. These small and large chloroplasts are located separately in each epidermal cell along its upper and inner tangential walls, respectively. This is the first case of the chloroplast dimorphism in a single epidermal cell of angiosperms. While the large chloroplasts have well developed starch grains, the small chloroplasts have a normal granal ultrastructure but very few starch grains. This suggests that the small chloroplasts mainly function in CO(2) uptake for photosynthesis from torrential water.

  15. The Paleocene Eocene carbon isotope excursion in higher plant organic matter: Differential fractionation of angiosperms and conifers in the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schouten, Stefan; Woltering, Martijn; Rijpstra, W. Irene C.; Sluijs, Appy; Brinkhuis, Henk; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.

    2007-06-01

    A study of upper Paleocene-lower Eocene (P-E) sediments deposited on the Lomonosov Ridge in the central Arctic Ocean reveals relatively high abundances of terrestrial biomarkers. These include dehydroabietane and simonellite derived from conifers (gymnosperms) and a tetra-aromatic triterpenoid derived from angiosperms. The relative percentage of the angiosperm biomarker of the summed angiosperm + conifer biomarkers was increased at the end of the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM), different when observed with pollen counts which showed a relative decrease in angiosperm pollen. Stable carbon isotopic analysis of these biomarkers shows that the negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE) during the PETM amounts to 3‰ for both conifer biomarkers, dehydroabietane and simonellite, comparable to the magnitude of the CIE inferred from marine carbonates, but significantly lower than the 4.5‰ of the terrestrial C 29n-alkane [M. Pagani, N. Pedentchouk, M. Huber, A. Sluijs, S. Schouten, H. Brinkhuis, J.S. Sinninghe Damsté, G.R. Dickens, and the IODP Expedition 302 Expedition Scientists (2006), Arctic's hydrology during global warming at the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum. Nature, 442, 671-675.], which is a compound sourced by both conifers and angiosperms. Conspicuously, the angiosperm-sourced aromatic triterpane shows a much larger CIE of 6‰ and suggests that angiosperms increased in their carbon isotopic fractionation during the PETM. Our results thus indicate that the 4.5‰ C 29n-alkane CIE reported previously represents the average CIE of conifers and angiosperms at this site and suggest that the large and variable CIE observed in terrestrial records may be partly explained by the variable contributions of conifers and angiosperms. The differential response in isotopic fractionation of angiosperms and conifers points to different physiological responses of these vegetation types to the rise in temperature, humidity, and greenhouse gases during the PETM.

  16. Ferns are less dependent on passive dilution by cell expansion to coordinate leaf vein and stomatal spacing than angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Carins Murphy, Madeline R; Jordan, Gregory J; Brodribb, Timothy J

    2017-01-01

    Producing leaves with closely spaced veins is a key innovation linked to high rates of photosynthesis in angiosperms. A close geometric link between veins and stomata in angiosperms ensures that investment in enhanced venous water transport provides the strongest net carbon return to the plant. This link is underpinned by "passive dilution" via expansion of surrounding cells. However, it is not known whether this 'passive dilution' mechanism is present in plant lineages other than angiosperms and is another key feature of the angiosperms' evolutionary success. Consequently, we sought to determine whether the 'passive dilution' mechanism is; (i) exclusive to the angiosperms, (ii) a conserved mechanism that evolved in the common ancestor of ferns and angiosperms, or (iii) has evolved continuously over time. To do this we first we assessed the plasticity of vein and stomatal density and epidermal cell size in ferns in response to light environment. We then compared the relationships between these traits found among ferns with modelled relationships that assume vein and stomatal density respond passively to epidermal cell expansion, and with those previously observed in angiosperms. Vein density, stomatal density and epidermal cell size were linked in ferns with remarkably similar relationships to those observed in angiosperms, except that fern leaves had fewer veins per stomata. However, plasticity was limited in ferns and stomatal spacing was dependent on active stomatal differentiation as well as passive cell expansion. Thus, ferns (like angiosperms) appear to coordinate vein and stomatal density with epidermal cell expansion to some extent to maintain a constant ratio between veins and stomata in the leaf. The different general relationships between vein density and stomatal density in ferns and angiosperms suggests the groups have different optimum balances between the production of vein tissue dedicated to water supply and stomatal tissue for gas exchange.

  17. Species-specific size expansion and molecular evolution of the oleosins in angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qi; Sun, Yepeng; Su, Wujie; Yang, Jing; Liu, Xiuming; Wang, Yanfang; Wang, Fawei; Li, Haiyan; Li, Xiaokun

    2012-11-10

    Oleosins are hydrophobic plant proteins thought to be important for the formation of oil bodies, which supply energy for seed germination and subsequent seedling growth. To better understand the evolutionary history and diversity of the oleosin gene family in plants, especially angiosperms, we systematically investigated the molecular evolution of this family using eight representative angiosperm species. A total of 73 oleosin members were identified, with six members in each of four monocot species and a greater but variable number in the four eudicots. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that the angiosperm oleosin genes belonged to three monophyletic lineages. Species-specific gene duplications, caused mainly by segmental duplication, led to the great expansion of oleosin genes and occurred frequently in eudicots after the monocot-eudicot divergence. Functional divergence analyses indicate that significant amino acid site-specific selective constraints acted on the different clades of oleosins. Adaptive evolution analyses demonstrate that oleosin genes were subject to strong purifying selection after their species-specific duplications and that rapid evolution occurred with a high degree of evolutionary dynamics in the pollen-specific oleosin genes. In conclusion, this study serves as a foundation for genome-wide analyses of the oleosins. These findings provide insight into the function and evolution of this gene family in angiosperms and pave the way for studies in other plants.

  18. Genetic enablers underlying the clustered evolutionary origins of C4 photosynthesis in angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Christin, Pascal-Antoine; Arakaki, Mónica; Osborne, Colin P; Edwards, Erika J

    2015-04-01

    The evolutionary accessibility of novel adaptations varies among lineages, depending in part on the genetic elements present in each group. However, the factors determining the evolutionary potential of closely related genes remain largely unknown. In plants, CO2-concentrating mechanisms such as C4 and crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) photosynthesis have evolved numerous times in distantly related groups of species, and constitute excellent systems to study constraints and enablers of evolution. It has been previously shown for multiple proteins that grasses preferentially co-opted the same gene lineage for C4 photosynthesis, when multiple copies were present. In this work, we use comparative transcriptomics to show that this bias also exists within Caryophyllales, a distantly related group with multiple C4 origins. However, the bias is not the same as in grasses and, when all angiosperms are considered jointly, the number of distinct gene lineages co-opted is not smaller than that expected by chance. These results show that most gene lineages present in the common ancestor of monocots and eudicots produced gene descendants that were recruited into C4 photosynthesis, but that C4-suitability changed during the diversification of angiosperms. When selective pressures drove C4 evolution, some copies were preferentially co-opted, probably because they already possessed C4-like expression patterns. However, the identity of these C4-suitable genes varies among clades of angiosperms, and C4 phenotypes in distant angiosperm groups thus represent genuinely independent realizations, based on different genetic precursors.

  19. Pollination and mating systems of Apodanthaceae and the distribution of reproductive traits in parasitic angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Bellot, Sidonie; Renner, Susanne S

    2013-06-01

    The most recent reviews of the reproductive biology and sexual systems of parasitic angiosperms were published 17 yr ago and reported that dioecy might be associated with parasitism. We use current knowledge on parasitic lineages and their sister groups, and data on the reproductive biology and sexual systems of Apodanthaceae, to readdress the question of possible trends in the reproductive biology of parasitic angiosperms. • Fieldwork in Zimbabwe and Iran produced data on the pollinators and sexual morph frequencies in two species of Apodanthaceae. Data on pollinators, dispersers, and sexual systems in parasites and their sister groups were compiled from the literature. • With the possible exception of some Viscaceae, most of the ca. 4500 parasitic angiosperms are animal-pollinated, and ca. 10% of parasites are dioecious, but the gain and loss of dioecy across angiosperms is too poorly known to infer a statistical correlation. The studied Apodanthaceae are dioecious and pollinated by nectar- or pollen-foraging Calliphoridae and other flies. • Sister group comparisons so far do not reveal any reproductive traits that evolved (or were lost) concomitant with a parasitic life style, but the lack of wind pollination suggests that this pollen vector may be maladaptive in parasites, perhaps because of host foliage or flowers borne close to the ground.

  20. Seed size and its rate of evolution correlate with species diversification across angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Igea, Javier; Miller, Eleanor F; Papadopulos, Alexander S T; Tanentzap, Andrew J

    2017-07-01

    Species diversity varies greatly across the different taxonomic groups that comprise the Tree of Life (ToL). This imbalance is particularly conspicuous within angiosperms, but is largely unexplained. Seed mass is one trait that may help clarify why some lineages diversify more than others because it confers adaptation to different environments, which can subsequently influence speciation and extinction. The rate at which seed mass changes across the angiosperm phylogeny may also be linked to diversification by increasing reproductive isolation and allowing access to novel ecological niches. However, the magnitude and direction of the association between seed mass and diversification has not been assessed across the angiosperm phylogeny. Here, we show that absolute seed size and the rate of change in seed size are both associated with variation in diversification rates. Based on the largest available angiosperm phylogenetic tree, we found that smaller-seeded plants had higher rates of diversification, possibly due to improved colonisation potential. The rate of phenotypic change in seed size was also strongly positively correlated with speciation rates, providing rare, large-scale evidence that rapid morphological change is associated with species divergence. Our study now reveals that variation in morphological traits and, importantly, the rate at which they evolve can contribute to explaining the extremely uneven distribution of diversity across the ToL.

  1. Using plastid genome-scale data to resolve enigmatic relationships among basal angiosperms

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Michael J.; Bell, Charles D.; Soltis, Pamela S.; Soltis, Douglas E.

    2007-01-01

    Although great progress has been made in clarifying deep-level angiosperm relationships, several early nodes in the angiosperm branch of the Tree of Life have proved difficult to resolve. Perhaps the last great question remaining in basal angiosperm phylogeny involves the branching order among the five major clades of mesangiosperms (Ceratophyllum, Chloranthaceae, eudicots, magnoliids, and monocots). Previous analyses have found no consistent support for relationships among these clades. In an effort to resolve these relationships, we performed phylogenetic analyses of 61 plastid genes (≈42,000 bp) for 45 taxa, including members of all major basal angiosperm lineages. We also report the complete plastid genome sequence of Ceratophyllum demersum. Parsimony analyses of combined and partitioned data sets varied in the placement of several taxa, particularly Ceratophyllum, whereas maximum-likelihood (ML) trees were more topologically stable. Total evidence ML analyses recovered a clade of Chloranthaceae + magnoliids as sister to a well supported clade of monocots + (Ceratophyllum + eudicots). ML bootstrap and Bayesian support values for these relationships were generally high, although approximately unbiased topology tests could not reject several alternative topologies. The extremely short branches separating these five lineages imply a rapid diversification estimated to have occurred between 143.8 ± 4.8 and 140.3 ± 4.8 Mya. PMID:18048334

  2. Interactions between tectonics, climate and vegetation during the Cretaceous. A context for the diversification of Angiosperms.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sepulchre, Pierre; Chaboureau, Anne-Claire; Donnadieu, Yannick; Franc, Alain; Ladant, Jean-Baptiste

    2017-04-01

    It has long been thought that the Angiosperms diversification occurred within a context of warmer-than-present and equable climate during the Cretaceous. However, during the last decade, the view of a uniformely warm Cretaceous climate has been challenged both by paleoclimate proxies and numerical simulations. Among the processes likely affecting climate during this time, atmospheric pCO2 and tectonics appear to be pivotal to drive temperature and precipitation changes, while the feedbacks from vegetation cover changes on the hydrological cycles remain to be explored. Here we attempt to provide a review of the main studies exploring climate-vegetation interactions during the Cretaceous. Then we present climate simulations aiming at quantifying the impact of landmasses redistribution on climate and vegetation distribution from 225 Ma to 70 Ma. In our simulations, the Pangea breakup triggers the decrease of arid belts from the Triassic to the Cretaceous and a subsequent onset of humid conditions during the late Cretaceous. Positioning angiosperm-bearing fossil sites on our paleo-bioclimatic maps confirm that the rise of flowering plants occured within a context of changing climate. With additional simulations in which we modified physiological parameterizations of the vegetation, we explore the combined impact of paleogeography and shift to angiosperms-dominated land surfaces on climate at the regional and global scales. This gives us the opportunity to test earlier ideas that the angiosperms takeover could have benefited from a positive feedback induced by their particular transpiration capacities.

  3. Nested radiations and the pulse of angiosperm diversification: increased diversification rates often follow whole genome duplications.

    PubMed

    Tank, David C; Eastman, Jonathan M; Pennell, Matthew W; Soltis, Pamela S; Soltis, Douglas E; Hinchliff, Cody E; Brown, Joseph W; Sessa, Emily B; Harmon, Luke J

    2015-07-01

    Our growing understanding of the plant tree of life provides a novel opportunity to uncover the major drivers of angiosperm diversity. Using a time-calibrated phylogeny, we characterized hot and cold spots of lineage diversification across the angiosperm tree of life by modeling evolutionary diversification using stepwise AIC (MEDUSA). We also tested the whole-genome duplication (WGD) radiation lag-time model, which postulates that increases in diversification tend to lag behind established WGD events. Diversification rates have been incredibly heterogeneous throughout the evolutionary history of angiosperms and reveal a pattern of 'nested radiations' - increases in net diversification nested within other radiations. This pattern in turn generates a negative relationship between clade age and diversity across both families and orders. We suggest that stochastically changing diversification rates across the phylogeny explain these patterns. Finally, we demonstrate significant statistical support for the WGD radiation lag-time model. Across angiosperms, nested shifts in diversification led to an overall increasing rate of net diversification and declining relative extinction rates through time. These diversification shifts are only rarely perfectly associated with WGD events, but commonly follow them after a lag period. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  4. Seed size and its rate of evolution correlate with species diversification across angiosperms

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Eleanor F.; Papadopulos, Alexander S. T.; Tanentzap, Andrew J.

    2017-01-01

    Species diversity varies greatly across the different taxonomic groups that comprise the Tree of Life (ToL). This imbalance is particularly conspicuous within angiosperms, but is largely unexplained. Seed mass is one trait that may help clarify why some lineages diversify more than others because it confers adaptation to different environments, which can subsequently influence speciation and extinction. The rate at which seed mass changes across the angiosperm phylogeny may also be linked to diversification by increasing reproductive isolation and allowing access to novel ecological niches. However, the magnitude and direction of the association between seed mass and diversification has not been assessed across the angiosperm phylogeny. Here, we show that absolute seed size and the rate of change in seed size are both associated with variation in diversification rates. Based on the largest available angiosperm phylogenetic tree, we found that smaller-seeded plants had higher rates of diversification, possibly due to improved colonisation potential. The rate of phenotypic change in seed size was also strongly positively correlated with speciation rates, providing rare, large-scale evidence that rapid morphological change is associated with species divergence. Our study now reveals that variation in morphological traits and, importantly, the rate at which they evolve can contribute to explaining the extremely uneven distribution of diversity across the ToL. PMID:28723902

  5. The evolution of desiccation-tolerance in angiosperm plants, a rare yet common phenomenon!

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In a minute proportion of angiosperm species, rehydrating foliage can revive from airdryness or even from equilibration with air of ~0% relative humidity. Such desiccation tolerance is known from vegetative cells of some species of algae and of major groups close to the evolutionary path of the angi...

  6. The enigma of the rise of angiosperms: can we untie the knot?

    PubMed

    Augusto, L; Davies, T J; Delzon, S; De Schrijver, A

    2014-10-01

    Multiple hypotheses have been put forward to explain the rise of angiosperms to ecological dominance following the Cretaceous. A unified scheme incorporating all these theories appears to be an inextricable knot of relationships, processes and plant traits. Here, we revisit these hypotheses, categorising them within frameworks based on plant carbon economy, resistance to climatic stresses, nutrient economy, biotic interactions and diversification. We maintain that the enigma remains unresolved partly because our current state of knowledge is a result of the fragmentary nature of palaeodata. This lack of palaeodata limits our ability to draw firm conclusions. Nonetheless, based on consistent results, some inferences may be drawn. Our results indicate that a complex multidriver hypothesis may be more suitable than any single-driver theory. We contend that plant carbon economy and diversification may have played an important role during the early stages of gymnosperms replacement by angiosperms in fertile tropical sites. Plant tolerance to climatic stresses, plant nutrition, biotic interactions and diversification may have played a role in later stages of angiosperm expansion within temperate and harsh environments. The angiosperm knot remains partly tied, but to unravel it entirely will only be feasible if new discoveries are made by scientific communities.

  7. Insights from ANA-grade angiosperms into the early evolution of CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON genes.

    PubMed

    Vialette-Guiraud, Aurélie C M; Adam, Hélène; Finet, Cédric; Jasinski, Sophie; Jouannic, Stefan; Scutt, Charles P

    2011-06-01

    The closely related NAC family genes NO APICAL MERISTEM (NAM) and CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON3 (CUC3) regulate the formation of boundaries within and between plant organs. NAM is post-transcriptionally regulated by miR164, whereas CUC3 is not. To gain insight into the evolution of NAM and CUC3 in the angiosperms, we analysed orthologous genes in early-diverging ANA-grade angiosperms and gymnosperms. We obtained NAM- and CUC3-like sequences from diverse angiosperms and gymnosperms by a combination of reverse transcriptase PCR, cDNA library screening and database searching, and then investigated their phylogenetic relationships by performing maximum-likelihood reconstructions. We also studied the spatial expression patterns of NAM, CUC3 and MIR164 orthologues in female reproductive tissues of Amborella trichopoda, the probable sister to all other flowering plants. Separate NAM and CUC3 orthologues were found in early-diverging angiosperms, but not in gymnosperms, which contained putative orthologues of the entire NAM + CUC3 clade that possessed sites of regulation by miR164. Multiple paralogues of NAM or CUC3 genes were noted in certain taxa, including Brassicaceae. Expression of NAM, CUC3 and MIR164 orthologues from Am. trichopoda was found to co-localize in ovules at the developmental boundary between the chalaza and nucellus. The NAM and CUC3 lineages were generated by duplication, and CUC3 was subsequently lost regulation by miR164, prior to the last common ancestor of the extant angiosperms. However, the paralogous NAM clade genes CUC1 and CUC2 were generated by a more recent duplication, near the base of Brassicaceae. The function of NAM and CUC3 in defining a developmental boundary in the ovule appears to have been conserved since the last common ancestor of the flowering plants, as does the post-transcriptional regulation in ovule tissues of NAM by miR164.

  8. The morphophysiological dormancy in Amborella trichopoda seeds is a pleisiomorphic trait in angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Fogliani, Bruno; Gâteblé, Gildas; Villegente, Matthieu; Fabre, Isabelle; Klein, Nicolas; Anger, Nicolas; Baskin, Carol C; Scutt, Charlie P

    2017-03-01

    Recent parsimony-based reconstructions suggest that seeds of early angiosperms had either morphophysiological or physiological dormancy, with the former considered as more probable. The aim of this study was to determine the class of seed dormancy present in Amborella trichopoda , the sole living representative of the most basal angiosperm lineage Amborellales, with a view to resolving fully the class of dormancy present at the base of the angiosperm clade. Drupes of A. trichopoda without fleshy parts were germinated and dissected to observe their structure and embryo growth. Pre-treatments including acid scarification, gibberellin treatment and seed excision were tested to determine their influence on dormancy breakage and germination. Character-state mapping by maximum parsimony, incorporating data from the present work and published sources, was then used to determine the likely class of dormancy present in early angiosperms. Germination in A. trichopoda requires a warm stratification period of at least approx. 90 d, which is followed by endosperm swelling, causing the water-permeable pericarp-mesocarp envelope to split open. The embryo then grows rapidly within the seed, to radicle emergence some 17 d later and cotyledon emergence after an additional 24 d. Gibberellin treatment, acid scarification and excision of seeds from the surrounding drupe tissues all promoted germination by shortening the initial phase of dormancy, prior to embryo growth. Seeds of A. trichopoda have non-deep simple morphophysiological dormancy, in which mechanical resistance of the pericarp-mesocarp envelope plays a key role in the initial physiological phase. Maximum parsimony analyses, including data obtained in the present work, indicate that morphophysiological dormancy is likely to be a pleisiomorphic trait in flowering plants. The significance of this conclusion for studies of early angiosperm evolution is discussed.

  9. Insights from ANA-grade angiosperms into the early evolution of CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON genes

    PubMed Central

    Vialette-Guiraud, Aurélie C. M.; Adam, Hélène; Finet, Cédric; Jasinski, Sophie; Jouannic, Stefan; Scutt, Charles P.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims The closely related NAC family genes NO APICAL MERISTEM (NAM) and CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON3 (CUC3) regulate the formation of boundaries within and between plant organs. NAM is post-transcriptionally regulated by miR164, whereas CUC3 is not. To gain insight into the evolution of NAM and CUC3 in the angiosperms, we analysed orthologous genes in early-diverging ANA-grade angiosperms and gymnosperms. Methods We obtained NAM- and CUC3-like sequences from diverse angiosperms and gymnosperms by a combination of reverse transcriptase PCR, cDNA library screening and database searching, and then investigated their phylogenetic relationships by performing maximum-likelihood reconstructions. We also studied the spatial expression patterns of NAM, CUC3 and MIR164 orthologues in female reproductive tissues of Amborella trichopoda, the probable sister to all other flowering plants. Key Results Separate NAM and CUC3 orthologues were found in early-diverging angiosperms, but not in gymnosperms, which contained putative orthologues of the entire NAM + CUC3 clade that possessed sites of regulation by miR164. Multiple paralogues of NAM or CUC3 genes were noted in certain taxa, including Brassicaceae. Expression of NAM, CUC3 and MIR164 orthologues from Am. trichopoda was found to co-localize in ovules at the developmental boundary between the chalaza and nucellus. Conclusions The NAM and CUC3 lineages were generated by duplication, and CUC3 was subsequently lost regulation by miR164, prior to the last common ancestor of the extant angiosperms. However, the paralogous NAM clade genes CUC1 and CUC2 were generated by a more recent duplication, near the base of Brassicaceae. The function of NAM and CUC3 in defining a developmental boundary in the ovule appears to have been conserved since the last common ancestor of the flowering plants, as does the post-transcriptional regulation in ovule tissues of NAM by miR164. PMID:21320879

  10. Ontogenetic shifts in plant-plant interactions in a rare cycad within angiosperm communities.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Yépiz, Juan C; Búrquez, Alberto; Dovčiak, Martin

    2014-06-01

    Gymnosperms and angiosperms can co-occur within the same habitats but key plant traits are thought to give angiosperms an evolutionary competitive advantage in many ecological settings. We studied ontogenetic changes in competitive and facilitative interactions between a rare gymnosperm (Dioon sonorense, our target species) and different plant and abiotic neighbours (conspecific-cycads, heterospecific-angiosperms, or abiotic-rocks) from 2007 to 2010 in an arid environment of northwestern Mexico. We monitored survival and growth of seedlings, juveniles, and adults of the cycad Dioon sonorense to evaluate how cycad survival and relative height growth rate (RHGR) responded to intra- and interspecific competition, canopy openness, and nearest neighbour. We tested spatial associations among D. sonorense life stages and angiosperm species and measured ontogenetic shifts in cycad shade tolerance. Canopy openness decreased cycad survival while intraspecific competition decreased survival and RHGR during early ontogeny. Seedling survival was higher in association with rocks and heterospecific neighbours where intraspecific competition was lower. Shade tolerance decreased with cycad ontogeny reflecting the spatial association of advanced stages with more open canopies. Interspecific facilitation during early ontogeny of our target species may promote its persistence in spite of increasing interspecific competition in later stages. We provide empirical support to the long-standing assumption that marginal rocky habitats serve as refugia from angiosperm competition for slow-growing gymnosperms such as cycads. The lack of knowledge of plant-plant interactions in rare or endangered species may hinder developing efficient conservation strategies (e.g. managing for sustained canopy cover), especially under the ongoing land use and climatic changes.

  11. Evidence for a Cenozoic radiation of ferns in an angiosperm-dominated canopy.

    PubMed

    Schuettpelz, Eric; Pryer, Kathleen M

    2009-07-07

    In today's angiosperm-dominated terrestrial ecosystems, leptosporangiate ferns are truly exceptional--accounting for 80% of the approximately 11,000 nonflowering vascular plant species. Recent studies have shown that this remarkable diversity is mostly the result of a major leptosporangiate radiation beginning in the Cretaceous, following the rise of angiosperms. This pattern is suggestive of an ecological opportunistic response, with the proliferation of flowering plants across the landscape resulting in the formation of many new niches--both on forest floors and within forest canopies--into which leptosporangiate ferns could diversify. At present, one-third of leptosporangiate species grow as epiphytes in the canopies of angiosperm-dominated tropical rain forests. However, we know too little about the evolutionary history of epiphytic ferns to assess whether or not their diversification was in fact linked to the establishment of these forests, as would be predicted by the ecological opportunistic response hypothesis. Here we provide new insight into leptosporangiate diversification and the evolution of epiphytism by integrating a 400-taxon molecular dataset with an expanded set of fossil age constraints. We find evidence for a burst of fern diversification in the Cenozoic, apparently driven by the evolution of epiphytism. Whether this explosive radiation was triggered simply by the establishment of modern angiosperm-dominated tropical rain forest canopies, or spurred on by some other large-scale extrinsic factor (e.g., climate change) remains to be determined. In either case, it is clear that in both the Cretaceous and Cenozoic, leptosporangiate ferns were adept at exploiting newly created niches in angiosperm-dominated ecosystems.

  12. Evidence for a Cenozoic radiation of ferns in an angiosperm-dominated canopy

    PubMed Central

    Schuettpelz, Eric; Pryer, Kathleen M.

    2009-01-01

    In today's angiosperm-dominated terrestrial ecosystems, leptosporangiate ferns are truly exceptional—accounting for 80% of the ≈11,000 nonflowering vascular plant species. Recent studies have shown that this remarkable diversity is mostly the result of a major leptosporangiate radiation beginning in the Cretaceous, following the rise of angiosperms. This pattern is suggestive of an ecological opportunistic response, with the proliferation of flowering plants across the landscape resulting in the formation of many new niches—both on forest floors and within forest canopies—into which leptosporangiate ferns could diversify. At present, one-third of leptosporangiate species grow as epiphytes in the canopies of angiosperm-dominated tropical rain forests. However, we know too little about the evolutionary history of epiphytic ferns to assess whether or not their diversification was in fact linked to the establishment of these forests, as would be predicted by the ecological opportunistic response hypothesis. Here we provide new insight into leptosporangiate diversification and the evolution of epiphytism by integrating a 400-taxon molecular dataset with an expanded set of fossil age constraints. We find evidence for a burst of fern diversification in the Cenozoic, apparently driven by the evolution of epiphytism. Whether this explosive radiation was triggered simply by the establishment of modern angiosperm-dominated tropical rain forest canopies, or spurred on by some other large-scale extrinsic factor (e.g., climate change) remains to be determined. In either case, it is clear that in both the Cretaceous and Cenozoic, leptosporangiate ferns were adept at exploiting newly created niches in angiosperm-dominated ecosystems. PMID:19567832

  13. The case of Darwinylus marcosi (Insecta: Coleoptera: Oedemeridae): A Cretaceous shift from a gymnosperm to an angiosperm pollinator mutualism

    PubMed Central

    Peris, David; Labandeira, Conrad C.; Peñalver, Enrique; Delclòs, Xavier; Barrón, Eduardo; Pérez-de la Fuente, Ricardo

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Abundant gymnosperm pollen grains associated with the oedemerid beetle Darwinylus marcosi Peris, 2016 were found in Early Cretaceous amber from Spain. This discovery provides confirmatory evidence for a pollination mutualism during the mid Mesozoic for the family Oedemeridae (Coleoptera), which today is known to pollinate only angiosperms. As a result, this new record documents a lateral host-plant transfer from an earlier gymnosperm to a later angiosperm, indicating that pollination of the latter is a derived condition within Oedemeridae. This new fossil record exemplifies one of the 4 ecological-evolutionary pollinator cohorts now known to have existed during the global shift from a gymnosperm to an angiosperm dominated global flora. Currently, all direct evidence for pollination during the 35 million-year interval of the mid Cretaceous gymnosperm-to-angiosperm transition entails recognition of gymnosperm pollen grains on insect mouthparts and other body contact surfaces, while analogous records involving angiosperms are lacking. The gathering evidence indicates that angiosperm pollination was preceded by at least 4 gymnosperm pollination modes that served as a functional and ecological prelude to the rise and expansion of angiosperms.

  14. Ferns are less dependent on passive dilution by cell expansion to coordinate leaf vein and stomatal spacing than angiosperms

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Gregory J.; Brodribb, Timothy J.

    2017-01-01

    Producing leaves with closely spaced veins is a key innovation linked to high rates of photosynthesis in angiosperms. A close geometric link between veins and stomata in angiosperms ensures that investment in enhanced venous water transport provides the strongest net carbon return to the plant. This link is underpinned by “passive dilution” via expansion of surrounding cells. However, it is not known whether this ‘passive dilution’ mechanism is present in plant lineages other than angiosperms and is another key feature of the angiosperms’ evolutionary success. Consequently, we sought to determine whether the ‘passive dilution’ mechanism is; (i) exclusive to the angiosperms, (ii) a conserved mechanism that evolved in the common ancestor of ferns and angiosperms, or (iii) has evolved continuously over time. To do this we first we assessed the plasticity of vein and stomatal density and epidermal cell size in ferns in response to light environment. We then compared the relationships between these traits found among ferns with modelled relationships that assume vein and stomatal density respond passively to epidermal cell expansion, and with those previously observed in angiosperms. Vein density, stomatal density and epidermal cell size were linked in ferns with remarkably similar relationships to those observed in angiosperms, except that fern leaves had fewer veins per stomata. However, plasticity was limited in ferns and stomatal spacing was dependent on active stomatal differentiation as well as passive cell expansion. Thus, ferns (like angiosperms) appear to coordinate vein and stomatal density with epidermal cell expansion to some extent to maintain a constant ratio between veins and stomata in the leaf. The different general relationships between vein density and stomatal density in ferns and angiosperms suggests the groups have different optimum balances between the production of vein tissue dedicated to water supply and stomatal tissue for gas

  15. Exploring Early Angiosperm Fire Feedbacks using Coupled Experiments and Modelling Approaches to Estimate Cretaceous Palaeofire Behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belcher, Claire; Hudpsith, Victoria

    2016-04-01

    Using the fossil record we are typically limited to exploring linkages between palaeoecological changes and palaeofire activity by assessing the abundance of charcoals preserved in sediments. However, it is the behaviour of fires that primarily governs their ecological effects. Therefore, the ability to estimate variations in aspects of palaeofire behaviour such as palaeofire intensity and rate of spread would be of key benefit toward understanding the coupled evolutionary history of ecosystems and fire. The Cretaceous Period saw major diversification in land plants. Previously, conifers (gymnosperms) and ferns (pteridophytes) dominated Earth's ecosystems until flowering plants (angiosperms) appear in the fossil record of the Early Cretaceous (~135Ma). We have created surface fire behaviour estimates for a variety of angiosperm invasion scenarios and explored the influence of Cretaceous superambient atmospheric oxygen levels on the fire behaviour occurring in these new Cretaceous ecosystems. These estimates are then used to explore the hypothesis that the early spread of the angiosperms was promoted by the novel fire regimes that they created. In order to achieve this we tested the flammability of Mesozoic analogue fuel types in controlled laboratory experiments using an iCone calorimeter, which measured the ignitability as well as the effective heat of combustion of the fuels. We then used the BehavePlus fire behaviour modelling system to scale up our laboratory results to the ecosystem scale. Our results suggest that fire-angiosperm feedbacks may have occurred in two phases: The first phase being a result of weedy angiosperms providing an additional easily ignitable fuel that enhanced both the seasonality and frequency of surface fires. In the second phase, the addition of shrubby understory fuels likely expanded the number of ecosystems experiencing more intense surface fires, resulting in enhanced mortality and suppressed post-fire recruitment of gymnosperms

  16. Long branch attraction, taxon sampling, and the earliest angiosperms: Amborella or monocots?

    PubMed Central

    Stefanović, Saša; Rice, Danny W; Palmer, Jeffrey D

    2004-01-01

    Background Numerous studies, using in aggregate some 28 genes, have achieved a consensus in recognizing three groups of plants, including Amborella, as comprising the basal-most grade of all other angiosperms. A major exception is the recent study by Goremykin et al. (2003; Mol. Biol. Evol. 20:1499–1505), whose analyses of 61 genes from 13 sequenced chloroplast genomes of land plants nearly always found 100% support for monocots as the deepest angiosperms relative to Amborella, Calycanthus, and eudicots. We hypothesized that this conflict reflects a misrooting of angiosperms resulting from inadequate taxon sampling, inappropriate phylogenetic methodology, and rapid evolution in the grass lineage used to represent monocots. Results We used two main approaches to test this hypothesis. First, we sequenced a large number of chloroplast genes from the monocot Acorus and added these plus previously sequenced Acorus genes to the Goremykin et al. (2003) dataset in order to explore the effects of altered monocot sampling under the same analytical conditions used in their study. With Acorus alone representing monocots, strongly supported Amborella-sister trees were obtained in all maximum likelihood and parsimony analyses, and in some distance-based analyses. Trees with both Acorus and grasses gave either a well-supported Amborella-sister topology or else a highly unlikely topology with 100% support for grasses-sister and paraphyly of monocots (i.e., Acorus sister to "dicots" rather than to grasses). Second, we reanalyzed the Goremykin et al. (2003) dataset focusing on methods designed to account for rate heterogeneity. These analyses supported an Amborella-sister hypothesis, with bootstrap support values often conflicting strongly with cognate analyses performed without allowing for rate heterogeneity. In addition, we carried out a limited set of analyses that included the chloroplast genome of Nymphaea, whose position as a basal angiosperm was also, and very recently

  17. Phylogeny and Molecular Evolution Analysis of PIN-FORMED 1 in Angiosperm

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shuang; Zhao, Fangfang; Wang, Guangping; Yang, Liming; Lu, Mengzhu; Chen, Jinhui; Shi, Jisen

    2014-01-01

    PIN-FORMED 1 (PIN1) is an important secondary transporter and determines the direction of intercellular auxin flow. As PIN1 performs the conserved function of auxin transport, it is expected that the sequence and structure of PIN1 is conserved. Therefore, we hypothesized that PIN1 evolve under pervasive purifying selection in the protein-coding sequences in angiosperm. To test this hypothesis, we performed detailed evolutionary analyses of 67 PIN1 sequences from 35 angiosperm species. We found that the PIN1 sequences are highly conserved within their transmembrane regions, part of their hydrophilic regions. We also found that there are two or more PIN1 copies in some of these angiosperm species. PIN1 sequences from Poaceae and Brassicaceae are representative of the modern clade. We identified 12 highly conserved motifs and a significant number of family-specific sites within these motifs. One family-specific site within Motif 11 shows a different residue between monocots and dicots, and is functionally critical for the polarity of PIN1. Likewise, the function of PIN1 appears to be different between monocots and dicots since the phenotype associated with PIN1 overexpression is opposite between Arabidopsis and rice. The evolution of angiosperm PIN1 protein-coding sequences appears to have been primarily driven by purifying selection, but traces of positive selection associated with sequences from certain families also seem to be present. We verified this observation by calculating the numbers of non-synonymous and synonymous changes on each branch of a phylogenetic tree. Our results indicate that the evolution of angiosperm PIN1 sequences involve strong purifying selection. In addition, our results suggest that the conserved sequences of PIN1 derive from a combination of the family-specific site variations and conserved motifs during their unique evolutionary processes, which is critical for the functional integrity and stability of these auxin transporters

  18. Phylogeny and molecular evolution analysis of PIN-FORMED 1 in angiosperm.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pengkai; Cheng, Tielong; Wu, Shuang; Zhao, Fangfang; Wang, Guangping; Yang, Liming; Lu, Mengzhu; Chen, Jinhui; Shi, Jisen

    2014-01-01

    PIN-FORMED 1 (PIN1) is an important secondary transporter and determines the direction of intercellular auxin flow. As PIN1 performs the conserved function of auxin transport, it is expected that the sequence and structure of PIN1 is conserved. Therefore, we hypothesized that PIN1 evolve under pervasive purifying selection in the protein-coding sequences in angiosperm. To test this hypothesis, we performed detailed evolutionary analyses of 67 PIN1 sequences from 35 angiosperm species. We found that the PIN1 sequences are highly conserved within their transmembrane regions, part of their hydrophilic regions. We also found that there are two or more PIN1 copies in some of these angiosperm species. PIN1 sequences from Poaceae and Brassicaceae are representative of the modern clade. We identified 12 highly conserved motifs and a significant number of family-specific sites within these motifs. One family-specific site within Motif 11 shows a different residue between monocots and dicots, and is functionally critical for the polarity of PIN1. Likewise, the function of PIN1 appears to be different between monocots and dicots since the phenotype associated with PIN1 overexpression is opposite between Arabidopsis and rice. The evolution of angiosperm PIN1 protein-coding sequences appears to have been primarily driven by purifying selection, but traces of positive selection associated with sequences from certain families also seem to be present. We verified this observation by calculating the numbers of non-synonymous and synonymous changes on each branch of a phylogenetic tree. Our results indicate that the evolution of angiosperm PIN1 sequences involve strong purifying selection. In addition, our results suggest that the conserved sequences of PIN1 derive from a combination of the family-specific site variations and conserved motifs during their unique evolutionary processes, which is critical for the functional integrity and stability of these auxin transporters

  19. Was the ANITA rooting of the angiosperm phylogeny affected by long-branch attraction? Amborella, Nymphaeales, Illiciales, Trimeniaceae, and Austrobaileya.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Y L; Lee, J; Whitlock, B A; Bernasconi-Quadroni, F; Dombrovska, O

    2001-09-01

    Five groups of basal angiosperms, Amborella, Nymphaeales, Illiciales, Trimeniaceae, and Austrobaileya (ANITA), were identified in several recent studies as representing a series of the earliest-diverging lineages of the angiosperm phylogeny. All of these studies except one employed a multigene analysis approach and used gymnosperms as the outgroup to determine the ingroup topology. The high level of divergence between gymnosperms and angiosperms, however, has long been implicated in the difficulty of reconstructing relationships at the base of angiosperm phylogeny using DNA sequences, for fear of long-branch attraction (LBA). In this study, we replaced the gymnosperm sequences from the five-gene matrix (mitochondrial atp1 and matR, plastid atpB and rbcL, and nuclear 18S rDNA) used in our earlier study with four categories of divergent sequences--random sequences with equal base frequencies or equally AT- and GC-rich contents, homopolymers and heteropolymers, misaligned gymnosperm sequences, and aligned lycopod and bryophyte sequences--to evaluate whether the gymnosperms were an appropriate outgroup to angiosperms in our earlier study that identified the ANITA rooting. All 24 analyses performed rooted the angiosperm phylogeny at either Acorus or Alisma (or Alisma-Triglochin-Potamogeton in one case due to use of a slightly different alignment) and placed the monocots as a basal grade, producing genuine LBA results. These analyses demonstrate that the identification of ANITA as the basalmost extant angiosperms was based on historical signals preserved in the gymnosperm sequences and that the gymnosperms were an appropriate outgroup with which to root the angiosperm phylogeny in the multigene sequence analysis. This strategy of evaluating the appropriateness of an outgroup using artificial sequences and a series of outgroups with increments of divergence levels can be applied to investigations of phylogenetic patterns at the bases of other major clades, such as land

  20. Testing the recent theories for the origin of the hermaphrodite flower by comparison of the transcriptomes of gymnosperms and angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Tavares, Raquel; Cagnon, Mathilde; Negrutiu, Ioan; Mouchiroud, Dominque

    2010-08-03

    Different theories for the origin of the angiosperm hermaphrodite flower make different predictions concerning the overlap between the genes expressed in the male and female cones of gymnosperms and the genes expressed in the hermaphrodite flower of angiosperms. The Mostly Male (MM) theory predicts that, of genes expressed primarily in male versus female gymnosperm cones, an excess of male orthologs will be expressed in flowers, excluding ovules, while Out Of Male (OOM) and Out Of Female (OOF) theories predict no such excess. In this paper, we tested these predictions by comparing the transcriptomes of three gymnosperms (Ginkgo biloba, Welwitschia mirabilis and Zamia fisheri) and two angiosperms (Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa), using EST data. We found that the proportion of orthologous genes expressed in the reproductive organs of the gymnosperms and in the angiosperms flower is significantly higher than the proportion of orthologous genes expressed in the reproductive organs of the gymnosperms and in the angiosperms vegetative tissues, which shows that the approach is correct. However, we detected no significant differences between the proportion of gymnosperm orthologous genes expressed in the male cone and in the angiosperms flower and the proportion of gymnosperm orthologous genes expressed in the female cone and in the angiosperms flower. These results do not support the MM theory prediction of an excess of male gymnosperm genes expressed in the hermaphrodite flower of the angiosperms and seem to support the OOM/OOF theories. However, other explanations can be given for the 1:1 ratio that we found. More abundant and more specific (namely carpel and ovule) expression data should be produced in order to further test these theories.

  1. Testing the recent theories for the origin of the hermaphrodite flower by comparison of the transcriptomes of gymnosperms and angiosperms

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Different theories for the origin of the angiosperm hermaphrodite flower make different predictions concerning the overlap between the genes expressed in the male and female cones of gymnosperms and the genes expressed in the hermaphrodite flower of angiosperms. The Mostly Male (MM) theory predicts that, of genes expressed primarily in male versus female gymnosperm cones, an excess of male orthologs will be expressed in flowers, excluding ovules, while Out Of Male (OOM) and Out Of Female (OOF) theories predict no such excess. Results In this paper, we tested these predictions by comparing the transcriptomes of three gymnosperms (Ginkgo biloba, Welwitschia mirabilis and Zamia fisheri) and two angiosperms (Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa), using EST data. We found that the proportion of orthologous genes expressed in the reproductive organs of the gymnosperms and in the angiosperms flower is significantly higher than the proportion of orthologous genes expressed in the reproductive organs of the gymnosperms and in the angiosperms vegetative tissues, which shows that the approach is correct. However, we detected no significant differences between the proportion of gymnosperm orthologous genes expressed in the male cone and in the angiosperms flower and the proportion of gymnosperm orthologous genes expressed in the female cone and in the angiosperms flower. Conclusions These results do not support the MM theory prediction of an excess of male gymnosperm genes expressed in the hermaphrodite flower of the angiosperms and seem to support the OOM/OOF theories. However, other explanations can be given for the 1:1 ratio that we found. More abundant and more specific (namely carpel and ovule) expression data should be produced in order to further test these theories. PMID:20682074

  2. Genome size diversity in angiosperms and its influence on gene space.

    PubMed

    Dodsworth, Steven; Leitch, Andrew R; Leitch, Ilia J

    2015-12-01

    Genome size varies c. 2400-fold in angiosperms (flowering plants), although the range of genome size is skewed towards small genomes, with a mean genome size of 1C=5.7Gb. One of the most crucial factors governing genome size in angiosperms is the relative amount and activity of repetitive elements. Recently, there have been new insights into how these repeats, previously discarded as 'junk' DNA, can have a significant impact on gene space (i.e. the part of the genome comprising all the genes and gene-related DNA). Here we review these new findings and explore in what ways genome size itself plays a role in influencing how repeats impact genome dynamics and gene space, including gene expression.

  3. The dynamic history of plastid genomes in the Campanulaceae sensu lato is unique among angiosperms

    PubMed Central

    Knox, Eric B.

    2014-01-01

    Why have some plants lost the organizational stability in plastid genomes (plastomes) that evolved in their algal ancestors? During the endosymbiotic transformation of a cyanobacterium into the eukaryotic plastid, most cyanobacterial genes were transferred to the nucleus or otherwise lost from the plastome, and the resulting plastome architecture in land plants confers organizational stability, as evidenced by the conserved gene order among bryophytes and lycophytes, whereas ferns, gymnosperms, and angiosperms share a single, 30-kb inversion. Although some additional gene losses have occurred, gene additions to angiosperm plastomes were previously unknown. Plastomes in the Campanulaceae sensu lato have incorporated dozens of large ORFs (putative protein-coding genes). These insertions apparently caused many of the 125+ large inversions now known in this small eudicot clade. This phylogenetically restricted phenomenon is not biogeographically localized, which indicates that these ORFs came from the nucleus or (less likely) a cryptic endosymbiont. PMID:25024223

  4. Cretaceous flowers of Nymphaeaceae and implications for complex insect entrapment pollination mechanisms in early Angiosperms

    PubMed Central

    Gandolfo, M. A.; Nixon, K. C.; Crepet, W. L.

    2004-01-01

    Based on recent molecular systematics studies, the water lily lineage (Nymphaeales) provides an important key to understanding ancestral angiosperm morphology and is of considerable interest in the context of angiosperm origins. Therefore, the fossil record of Nymphaeales potentially provides evidence on both the timing and nature of diversification of one of the earliest clades of flowering plants. Recent fossil evidence of Turonian age (≈90 million years B.P.) includes fossil flowers with characters that, upon rigorous analysis, firmly place them within Nymphaeaceae. Unequivocally the oldest floral record of the Nymphaeales, these fossils are closely related to the modern Nymphaealean genera Victoria (the giant Amazon water lily) and Euryale. Although the fossils are much smaller than their modern relatives, the precise and dramatic correspondence between the fossil floral morphology and that of modern Victoria flowers suggests that beetle entrapment pollination was present in the earliest part of the Late Cretaceous. PMID:15148371

  5. Cretaceous flowers of Nymphaeaceae and implications for complex insect entrapment pollination mechanisms in early angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Gandolfo, M A; Nixon, K C; Crepet, W L

    2004-05-25

    Based on recent molecular systematics studies, the water lily lineage (Nymphaeales) provides an important key to understanding ancestral angiosperm morphology and is of considerable interest in the context of angiosperm origins. Therefore, the fossil record of Nymphaeales potentially provides evidence on both the timing and nature of diversification of one of the earliest clades of flowering plants. Recent fossil evidence of Turonian age (approximately 90 million years B.P.) includes fossil flowers with characters that, upon rigorous analysis, firmly place them within Nymphaeaceae. Unequivocally the oldest floral record of the Nymphaeales, these fossils are closely related to the modern Nymphaealean genera Victoria (the giant Amazon water lily) and Euryale. Although the fossils are much smaller than their modern relatives, the precise and dramatic correspondence between the fossil floral morphology and that of modern Victoria flowers suggests that beetle entrapment pollination was present in the earliest part of the Late Cretaceous.

  6. Cellulose Orientation in the Outer Epidermal Wall of Angiosperm Roots: Implications for Biosystematics

    PubMed Central

    KERSTENS, SVEN; VERBELEN, JEAN‐PIERRE

    2002-01-01

    The net orientation of cellulose fibrils in the outer epidermal wall of the root elongation zone of 57 angiosperm species belonging to 29 families was determined by means of Congo Red fluorescence and polarization confocal microscopy. The angiosperms can be divided in three groups. In all but four plant families, the net orientation of the cellulose fibrils is transverse to the root axis. Three families, the Poaceae, Juncaceae and Cyperaceae, have a totally different organization. In the root elongation zone of these plants, the net orientation of cellulose fibrils in the outer epidermal wall is parallel with the root axis. In roots of one family, the Arecaceae, an elongation zone in the literal sense of the word is absent and cellulose fibrils are randomly oriented. PMID:12466108

  7. Size is not everything: rates of genome size evolution, not C-value, correlate with speciation in angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Puttick, Mark N; Clark, James; Donoghue, Philip C J

    2015-12-07

    Angiosperms represent one of the key examples of evolutionary success, and their diversity dwarfs other land plants; this success has been linked, in part, to genome size and phenomena such as whole genome duplication events. However, while angiosperms exhibit a remarkable breadth of genome size, evidence linking overall genome size to diversity is equivocal, at best. Here, we show that the rates of speciation and genome size evolution are tightly correlated across land plants, and angiosperms show the highest rates for both, whereas very slow rates are seen in their comparatively species-poor sister group, the gymnosperms. No evidence is found linking overall genome size and rates of speciation. Within angiosperms, both the monocots and eudicots show the highest rates of speciation and genome size evolution, and these data suggest a potential explanation for the megadiversity of angiosperms. It is difficult to associate high rates of diversification with different types of polyploidy, but it is likely that high rates of evolution correlate with a smaller genome size after genome duplications. The diversity of angiosperms may, in part, be due to an ability to increase evolvability by benefiting from whole genome duplications, transposable elements and general genome plasticity.

  8. Diffusional limitations explain the lower photosynthetic capacity of ferns as compared with angiosperms in a common garden study.

    PubMed

    Carriquí, M; Cabrera, H M; Conesa, M À; Coopman, R E; Douthe, C; Gago, J; Gallé, A; Galmés, J; Ribas-Carbo, M; Tomás, M; Flexas, J

    2015-03-01

    Ferns are thought to have lower photosynthetic rates than angiosperms and they lack fine stomatal regulation. However, no study has directly compared photosynthesis in plants of both groups grown under optimal conditions in a common environment. We present a common garden comparison of seven angiosperms and seven ferns paired by habitat preference, with the aims of (1) confirming that ferns do have lower photosynthesis capacity than angiosperms and quantifying these differences; (2) determining the importance of diffusional versus biochemical limitations; and (3) analysing the potential implication of leaf anatomical traits in setting the photosynthesis capacity in both groups. On average, the photosynthetic rate of ferns was about half that of angiosperms, and they exhibited lower stomatal and mesophyll conductance to CO2 (gm ), maximum velocity of carboxylation and electron transport rate. A quantitative limitation analysis revealed that stomatal and mesophyll conductances were co-responsible for the lower photosynthesis of ferns as compared with angiosperms. However, gm alone was the most constraining factor for photosynthesis in ferns. Consistently, leaf anatomy showed important differences between angiosperms and ferns, especially in cell wall thickness and the surface of chloroplasts exposed to intercellular air spaces.

  9. Size is not everything: rates of genome size evolution, not C-value, correlate with speciation in angiosperms

    PubMed Central

    Puttick, Mark N.; Clark, James; Donoghue, Philip C. J.

    2015-01-01

    Angiosperms represent one of the key examples of evolutionary success, and their diversity dwarfs other land plants; this success has been linked, in part, to genome size and phenomena such as whole genome duplication events. However, while angiosperms exhibit a remarkable breadth of genome size, evidence linking overall genome size to diversity is equivocal, at best. Here, we show that the rates of speciation and genome size evolution are tightly correlated across land plants, and angiosperms show the highest rates for both, whereas very slow rates are seen in their comparatively species-poor sister group, the gymnosperms. No evidence is found linking overall genome size and rates of speciation. Within angiosperms, both the monocots and eudicots show the highest rates of speciation and genome size evolution, and these data suggest a potential explanation for the megadiversity of angiosperms. It is difficult to associate high rates of diversification with different types of polyploidy, but it is likely that high rates of evolution correlate with a smaller genome size after genome duplications. The diversity of angiosperms may, in part, be due to an ability to increase evolvability by benefiting from whole genome duplications, transposable elements and general genome plasticity. PMID:26631568

  10. Chemical ecology of marine angiosperms: opportunities at the interface of marine and terrestrial systems.

    PubMed

    Sieg, R Drew; Kubanek, Julia

    2013-06-01

    This review examines the state of the field for chemically mediated interactions involving marine angiosperms (seagrasses, mangroves, and salt marsh angiosperms). Small-scale interactions among these plants and their herbivores, pathogens, fouling organisms, and competitors are explored, as are community-level effects of plant secondary metabolites. At larger spatial scales, secondary metabolites from marine angiosperms function as reliable cues for larval settlement, molting, or habitat selection by fish and invertebrates, and can influence community structure and ecosystem function. Several recent studies illustrate the importance of chemical defenses from these plants that deter feeding by herbivores and infection by pathogens, but the extent to which allelopathic compounds kill or inhibit the growth of competitors is less clear. While some phenolic compounds such as ferulic acid and caffeic acid act as critical defenses against herbivores and pathogens, we find that a high total concentration of phenolic compounds within bulk plant tissues is not a strong predictor of defense. Residual chemical defenses prevent shredding or degradation of plant detritus by detritivores and microbes, delaying the time before plant matter can enter the microbial loop. Mangroves, marsh plants, and seagrasses remain plentiful sources of new natural products, but ecological functions are known for only a small proportion of these compounds. As new analytical techniques are incorporated into ecological studies, opportunities are emerging for chemical ecologists to test how subtle environmental cues affect the production and release of marine angiosperm chemical defenses or signaling molecules. Throughout this review, we point to areas for future study, highlighting opportunities for new directions in chemical ecology that will advance our understanding of ecological interactions in these valuable ecosystems.

  11. Roots of angiosperm formins: The evolutionary history of plant FH2 domain-containing proteins

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background Shuffling of modular protein domains is an important source of evolutionary innovation. Formins are a family of actin-organizing proteins that share a conserved FH2 domain but their overall domain architecture differs dramatically between opisthokonts (metazoans and fungi) and plants. We performed a phylogenomic analysis of formins in most eukaryotic kingdoms, aiming to reconstruct an evolutionary scenario that may have produced the current diversity of domain combinations with focus on the origin of the angiosperm formin architectures. Results The Rho GTPase-binding domain (GBD/FH3) reported from opisthokont and Dictyostelium formins was found in all lineages except plants, suggesting its ancestral character. Instead, mosses and vascular plants possess the two formin classes known from angiosperms: membrane-anchored Class I formins and Class II formins carrying a PTEN-like domain. PTEN-related domains were found also in stramenopile formins, where they have been probably acquired independently rather than by horizontal transfer, following a burst of domain rearrangements in the chromalveolate lineage. A novel RhoGAP-related domain was identified in some algal, moss and lycophyte (but not angiosperm) formins that define a specific branch (Class III) of the formin family. Conclusion We propose a scenario where formins underwent multiple domain rearrangements in several eukaryotic lineages, especially plants and chromalveolates. In plants this replaced GBD/FH3 by a probably inactive RhoGAP-like domain, preserving a formin-mediated association between (membrane-anchored) Rho GTPases and the actin cytoskeleton. Subsequent amplification of formin genes, possibly coincident with the expansion of plants to dry land, was followed by acquisition of alternative membrane attachment mechanisms present in extant Class I and Class II formins, allowing later loss of the RhoGAP-like domain-containing formins in angiosperms. PMID:18430232

  12. Taxonomy and Biogeography of Apomixis in Angiosperms and Associated Biodiversity Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Hojsgaard, Diego; Klatt, Simone; Baier, Roland; Carman, John G.; Hörandl, Elvira

    2014-01-01

    Apomixis in angiosperms is asexual reproduction from seed. Its importance to angiospermous evolution and biodiversity has been difficult to assess mainly because of insufficient taxonomic documentation. Thus, we assembled literature reporting apomixis occurrences among angiosperms and transferred the information to an internet database (http://www.apomixis.uni-goettingen.de). We then searched for correlations between apomixis occurrences and well-established measures of taxonomic diversity and biogeography. Apomixis was found to be taxonomically widespread with no clear tendency to specific groups and to occur with sexuality at all taxonomic levels. Adventitious embryony was the most frequent form (148 genera) followed by apospory (110) and diplospory (68). All three forms are phylogenetically scattered, but this scattering is strongly associated with measures of biodiversity. Across apomictic-containing orders and families, numbers of apomict-containing genera were positively correlated with total numbers of genera. In general, apomict-containing orders, families, and subfamilies of Asteraceae, Poaceae, and Orchidaceae were larger, i.e., they possessed more families or genera, than non-apomict-containing orders, families or subfamilies. Furthermore, many apomict-containing genera were found to be highly cosmopolitan. In this respect, 62% occupy multiple geographic zones. Numbers of genera containing sporophytic or gametophytic apomicts decreased from the tropics to the arctic, a trend that parallels general biodiversity. While angiosperms appear to be predisposed to shift from sex to apomixis, there is also evidence of reversions to sexuality. Such reversions may result from genetic or epigenetic destabilization events accompanying hybridization, polyploidy, or other cytogenetic alterations. Because of increased within-plant genetic and genomic heterogeneity, range expansions and diversifications at the species and genus levels may occur more rapidly upon

  13. The progamic phase of an early-divergent angiosperm, Annona cherimola (Annonaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Lora, J.; Hormaza, J. I.; Herrero, M.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Recent studies of reproductive biology in ancient angiosperm lineages are beginning to shed light on the early evolution of flowering plants, but comparative studies are restricted by fragmented and meagre species representation in these angiosperm clades. In the present study, the progamic phase, from pollination to fertilization, is characterized in Annona cherimola, which is a member of the Annonaceae, the largest extant family among early-divergent angiosperms. Beside interest due to its phylogenetic position, this species is also an ancient crop with a clear niche for expansion in subtropical climates. Methods The kinetics of the reproductive process was established following controlled pollinations and sequential fixation. Gynoecium anatomy, pollen tube pathway, embryo sac and early post-fertilization events were characterized histochemically. Key Results A plesiomorphic gynoecium with a semi-open carpel shows a continuous secretory papillar surface along the carpel margins, which run from the stigma down to the obturator in the ovary. The pollen grains germinate in the stigma and compete in the stigma-style interface to reach the narrow secretory area that lines the margins of the semi-open stylar canal and is able to host just one to three pollen tubes. The embryo sac has eight nuclei and is well provisioned with large starch grains that are used during early cellular endosperm development. Conclusions A plesiomorphic simple gynoecium hosts a simple pollen–pistil interaction, based on a support–control system of pollen tube growth. Support is provided through basipetal secretory activity in the cells that line the pollen tube pathway. Spatial constraints, favouring pollen tube competition, are mediated by a dramatic reduction in the secretory surface available for pollen tube growth at the stigma–style interface. This extramural pollen tube competition contrasts with the intrastylar competition predominant in more recently derived

  14. Invasions but not extinctions change phylogenetic diversity of angiosperm assemblage on southeastern Pacific Oceanic islands

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    We assessed changes in phylogenetic diversity of angiosperm flora on six oceanic islands located in the southeastern Pacific Ocean, by comparing flora from two periods: the pre-European colonization of islands and current times. We hypothesize that, in the time between these periods, extinction of local plant species and addition of exotic plants modified phylogenetic-α-diversity at different levels (deeper and terminal phylogeny) and increased phylo-β-diversity among islands. Based on floristic studies, we assembled a phylogenetic tree from occurrence data that includes 921 species, of which 165 and 756 were native or exotic in origin, respectively. Then, we studied change in the phylo-α-diversity and phylo-β-diversity (1 –Phylosor) by comparing pre-European and current times. Despite extinction of 18 native angiosperm species, an increase in species richness and phylo-α-diversity was observed for all islands studied, attributed to introduction of exotic plants (between 6 to 477 species per island). We did not observe significant variation of mean phylogenetic distance (MPD), a measure of the ‘deeper’ phylogenetic diversity of assemblages (e.g., orders, families), suggesting that neither extinctions nor introductions altered phylogenetic structure of the angiosperms of these islands. In regard to phylo-β-diversity, we detected temporal turnover (variation in phylogenetic composition) between periods to flora (0.38 ± 0.11). However, when analyses were performed only considering native plants, we did not observe significant temporal turnover between periods (0.07 ± 0.06). These results indicate that introduction of exotic angiosperms has contributed more notably than extinctions to the configuration of plant assemblages and phylogenetic diversity on the studied islands. Because phylogenetic diversity is closely related to functional diversity (species trait variations and roles performed by organisms), our results suggests that the introduction of

  15. Invasions but not extinctions change phylogenetic diversity of angiosperm assemblage on southeastern Pacific Oceanic islands.

    PubMed

    Carvallo, Gastón O; Castro, Sergio A

    2017-01-01

    We assessed changes in phylogenetic diversity of angiosperm flora on six oceanic islands located in the southeastern Pacific Ocean, by comparing flora from two periods: the pre-European colonization of islands and current times. We hypothesize that, in the time between these periods, extinction of local plant species and addition of exotic plants modified phylogenetic-α-diversity at different levels (deeper and terminal phylogeny) and increased phylo-β-diversity among islands. Based on floristic studies, we assembled a phylogenetic tree from occurrence data that includes 921 species, of which 165 and 756 were native or exotic in origin, respectively. Then, we studied change in the phylo-α-diversity and phylo-β-diversity (1 -Phylosor) by comparing pre-European and current times. Despite extinction of 18 native angiosperm species, an increase in species richness and phylo-α-diversity was observed for all islands studied, attributed to introduction of exotic plants (between 6 to 477 species per island). We did not observe significant variation of mean phylogenetic distance (MPD), a measure of the 'deeper' phylogenetic diversity of assemblages (e.g., orders, families), suggesting that neither extinctions nor introductions altered phylogenetic structure of the angiosperms of these islands. In regard to phylo-β-diversity, we detected temporal turnover (variation in phylogenetic composition) between periods to flora (0.38 ± 0.11). However, when analyses were performed only considering native plants, we did not observe significant temporal turnover between periods (0.07 ± 0.06). These results indicate that introduction of exotic angiosperms has contributed more notably than extinctions to the configuration of plant assemblages and phylogenetic diversity on the studied islands. Because phylogenetic diversity is closely related to functional diversity (species trait variations and roles performed by organisms), our results suggests that the introduction of exotic

  16. Pollen structure and development in Nymphaeales: insights into character evolution in an ancient angiosperm lineage.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Mackenzie L; Cooper, Ranessa L; Schneider, Edward L; Osborn, Jeffrey M

    2015-10-01

    A knowledge of pollen characters in early-diverging angiosperm lineages is essential for understanding pollen evolution and the role of pollen in angiosperm diversification. In this paper, we report and synthesize data on mature pollen and pollen ontogeny from all genera of Nymphaeales within a comparative, phylogenetic context and consider pollen evolution in this early-diverging angiosperm lineage. We describe mature pollen characters for Euryale, Barclaya, and Nymphaea ondinea, taxa for which little to no structural data exist. We studied mature pollen for all nymphaealean genera using light, scanning electron, and transmission electron microscopy. We reviewed published reports of nymphaealean pollen to provide a comprehensive discussion of pollen characters in water lilies. Nymphaeales exhibit diversity in key pollen characters, including dispersal unit size, ornamentation, aperture morphology, and tapetum type. All Nymphaeales pollen are tectate-columellate, exhibiting one of two distinct patterns of infratectal ultrastructure-a thick infratectal space with robust columellae or a thin infratectal space with thin columellae. All genera have pollen with a lamellate endexine that becomes compressed in the proximal, but not distal wall. This endexine ultrastructure supports the operculate hypothesis for aperture origin. Nymphaeaceae pollen exhibit a membranous granular layer, which is a synapomorphy of the family. Variation in pollen characters indicates that significant potential for lability in pollen development was present in Nymphaeales at the time of its divergence from the rest of angiosperms. Structural and ontogenetic data are essential for interpreting pollen characters, such as infratectum and endexine ultrastructure in Nymphaeales. © 2015 Botanical Society of America.

  17. The progamic phase of an early-divergent angiosperm, Annona cherimola (Annonaceae).

    PubMed

    Lora, J; Hormaza, J I; Herrero, M

    2010-02-01

    Recent studies of reproductive biology in ancient angiosperm lineages are beginning to shed light on the early evolution of flowering plants, but comparative studies are restricted by fragmented and meagre species representation in these angiosperm clades. In the present study, the progamic phase, from pollination to fertilization, is characterized in Annona cherimola, which is a member of the Annonaceae, the largest extant family among early-divergent angiosperms. Beside interest due to its phylogenetic position, this species is also an ancient crop with a clear niche for expansion in subtropical climates. The kinetics of the reproductive process was established following controlled pollinations and sequential fixation. Gynoecium anatomy, pollen tube pathway, embryo sac and early post-fertilization events were characterized histochemically. A plesiomorphic gynoecium with a semi-open carpel shows a continuous secretory papillar surface along the carpel margins, which run from the stigma down to the obturator in the ovary. The pollen grains germinate in the stigma and compete in the stigma-style interface to reach the narrow secretory area that lines the margins of the semi-open stylar canal and is able to host just one to three pollen tubes. The embryo sac has eight nuclei and is well provisioned with large starch grains that are used during early cellular endosperm development. A plesiomorphic simple gynoecium hosts a simple pollen-pistil interaction, based on a support-control system of pollen tube growth. Support is provided through basipetal secretory activity in the cells that line the pollen tube pathway. Spatial constraints, favouring pollen tube competition, are mediated by a dramatic reduction in the secretory surface available for pollen tube growth at the stigma-style interface. This extramural pollen tube competition contrasts with the intrastylar competition predominant in more recently derived lineages of angiosperms.

  18. Tempo, mode and phylogenetic associations of relative embryo size evolution in angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Verdú, M

    2006-03-01

    Relative embryo size (E : S, the ratio of embryo to seed) is a key trait related to germination ecology and seed plant evolution. A small, underdeveloped embryo is a primitive feature of angiosperms, which has led to the hypothesis that an evolutionary trend towards increasing E : S has occurred. Here, I examine first the tempo and mode of E : S evolution in angiosperms; then I test for phylogenetic associations of E : S with traits hypothetically related to anagenetic (germination time) and cladogenetic (number of species per family and differential speciation) change, and finally I test the existence of a directional increasing trend in E : S. The analysis of the evolutionary tempo suggests that E : S changed very fast early in evolutionary time and remained stable later, which is consistent with early radiations and fits well with the history of angiosperms consisting of rapid spread associated with great diversification rates soon after their origin. E : S evolution in angiosperms has not followed a punctuational mode of evolution but a scaled-gradualism evolution in which stasis has occurred in longer branches of the phylogeny. An evolutionary trend towards increasing E : S has not been actively driven by anagenesis nor cladogenesis, although large E : S is associated with high levels of diversification (i.e. number of species per family). This rapid ecological diversification occurring in the early radiation probably produced an increasing phenotypic variance in the E : S. Because the ancestral embryo was so small, an increase in variance might have produced a passive trend towards the only direction allowed for the ancestral embryo to evolve. Thus, a passive diffusion away from a lower bound may explain the average increase in E : S.

  19. Seedlings of temperate rainforest conifer and angiosperm trees differ in leaf area display

    PubMed Central

    Lusk, Christopher H.; Pérez-Millaqueo, Manuel M.; Saldaña, Alfredo; Burns, Bruce R.; Laughlin, Daniel C.; Falster, Daniel S.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims The contemporary relegation of conifers mainly to cold or infertile sites has been ascribed to low competitive ability, as a result of the hydraulic inefficiency of tracheids and their seedlings' initial dependence on small foliage areas. Here it is hypothesized that, in temperate rainforests, the larger leaves of angiosperms also reduce self-shading and thus enable display of larger effective foliage areas than the numerous small leaves of conifers. Methods This hypothesis was tested using 3-D modelling of plant architecture and structural equation modelling to compare self-shading and light interception potential of seedlings of six conifers and 12 angiosperm trees from temperate rainforests. The ratio of displayed leaf area to plant mass (LARd) was used to indicate plant light interception potential: LARd is the product of specific leaf area, leaf mass fraction, self-shading and leaf angle. Results Angiosperm seedlings self-shaded less than conifers, mainly because of differences in leaf number (more than leaf size), and on average their LARd was about twice that of conifers. Although specific leaf area was the most pervasive influence on LARd, differences in self-shading also significantly influenced LARd of large seedlings. Conclusions The ability to deploy foliage in relatively few, large leaves is advantageous in minimizing self-shading and enhancing seedling light interception potential per unit of plant biomass. This study adds significantly to evidence that vegetative traits may be at least as important as reproductive innovations in explaining the success of angiosperms in productive environments where vegetation is structured by light competition. PMID:22585929

  20. [Correlations between gynoecium morphology and ovary position in angiosperm flowers: roles of developmental and terminological constraints].

    PubMed

    Sokoloff, D D

    2015-01-01

    Angiosperm gynoecium consists of elementary units, called carpels. These can be free (apocarpy) or united (coenocarpy, or syncarpy in a wide sense). One of the most complicate problems of evolutionary morphology of angiosperms is distinguishing monomerous and pseudomonomerous gynoecia. The former are assumed to be derived by reduction of carpel number in apocarpous gynoecia, the latter by reduction of gynoecia with united carpels. Pseudomonomerous gynoecia have one fertile carpel and more or less prominent traces of sterile carpel(s). In extreme cases of reduction, pseudomonomerous gynoecia are very similar to monomerous, even though the two types have completely different evolutionary histories. G.B. Kedrov (1969) proposed a new approach to resolving the issue. Using the fact of absence of polymerous free-carpellate gynoecia with inferior ovaries, he suggested that there is a constraint against epigyny in plants with free carpels. Therefore, in taxa with disputable morphological interpretations, the gynoecium should be treated as pseudomonomerous (and not monomerous) if the ovary is inferior. A critical review of the concept of G.B. Kedrov showed that his ideas would suggest re-interpretation of widely accepted views on gynoecium morphology in several key families of basal angiosperms. An alternative view is proposed, that for most important types of epigyny in angiosperms, a "constraint" for a combination of inferior ovary and apocarpy is due to definition of the term "apocarpy" only. There is no biological sense in this "constraint". Existence of two other morphogenetic constraints is proposed: (1) against development of a typical inferior ovary in monomerous gynoecia with conduplicate carpel and (2) against a radial (sectorial) fusion of individual carpels with stamens or perianth members without fusion of these groups into an entire structure. Possible biological nature of these constraints is discussed.

  1. Taxonomy and Biogeography of Apomixis in Angiosperms and Associated Biodiversity Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Hojsgaard, Diego; Klatt, Simone; Baier, Roland; Carman, John G; Hörandl, Elvira

    2014-09-03

    Apomixis in angiosperms is asexual reproduction from seed. Its importance to angiospermous evolution and biodiversity has been difficult to assess mainly because of insufficient taxonomic documentation. Thus, we assembled literature reporting apomixis occurrences among angiosperms and transferred the information to an internet database (http://www.apomixis.uni-goettingen.de). We then searched for correlations between apomixis occurrences and well-established measures of taxonomic diversity and biogeography. Apomixis was found to be taxonomically widespread with no clear tendency to specific groups and to occur with sexuality at all taxonomic levels. Adventitious embryony was the most frequent form (148 genera) followed by apospory (110) and diplospory (68). All three forms are phylogenetically scattered, but this scattering is strongly associated with measures of biodiversity. Across apomictic-containing orders and families, numbers of apomict-containing genera were positively correlated with total numbers of genera. In general, apomict-containing orders, families, and subfamilies of Asteraceae, Poaceae, and Orchidaceae were larger, i.e., they possessed more families or genera, than non-apomict-containing orders, families or subfamilies. Furthermore, many apomict-containing genera were found to be highly cosmopolitan. In this respect, 62% occupy multiple geographic zones. Numbers of genera containing sporophytic or gametophytic apomicts decreased from the tropics to the arctic, a trend that parallels general biodiversity. While angiosperms appear to be predisposed to shift from sex to apomixis, there is also evidence of reversions to sexuality. Such reversions may result from genetic or epigenetic destabilization events accompanying hybridization, polyploidy, or other cytogenetic alterations. Because of increased within-plant genetic and genomic heterogeneity, range expansions and diversifications at the species and genus levels may occur more rapidly upon

  2. Stomatal responses to vapour pressure deficit are regulated by high speed gene expression in angiosperms.

    PubMed

    McAdam, Scott A M; Sussmilch, Frances C; Brodribb, Timothy J

    2016-03-01

    Plants dynamically regulate water use by the movement of stomata on the surface of leaves. Stomatal responses to changes in vapour pressure deficit (VPD) are the principal regulator of daytime transpiration and water use efficiency in land plants. In angiosperms, stomatal responses to VPD appear to be regulated by the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA), yet the origin of this ABA is controversial. After a 20 min exposure of plants, from three diverse angiosperm species, to a doubling in VPD, stomata closed, foliar ABA levels increased and the expression of the gene encoding the key, rate-limiting carotenoid cleavage enzyme (9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase, NCED) in the ABA biosynthetic pathway was significantly up-regulated. The NCED gene was the only gene in the ABA biosynthetic pathway to be up-regulated over the short time scale corresponding to the response of stomata. The closure of stomata and rapid increase in foliar ABA levels could not be explained by the release of ABA from internal stores in the leaf or the hydrolysis of the conjugate ABA-glucose ester. These results implicate an extremely rapid de novo biosynthesis of ABA, mediated by a single gene, as the means by which angiosperm stomata respond to natural changes in VPD.

  3. Co-option of the polarity gene network shapes filament morphology in angiosperms.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Ana Maria Rocha; Yockteng, Roxana; Schnable, James; Alvarez-Buylla, Elena R; Freeling, Michael; Specht, Chelsea D

    2014-08-29

    The molecular genetic mechanisms underlying abaxial-adaxial polarity in plants have been studied as a property of lateral and flattened organs, such as leaves. In leaves, laminar expansion occurs as a result of balanced abaxial-adaxial gene expression. Over- or under- expression of either abaxializing or adaxializing genes inhibits laminar growth, resulting in a mutant radialized phenotype. Here, we show that co-option of the abaxial-adaxial polarity gene network plays a role in the evolution of stamen filament morphology in angiosperms. RNA-Seq data from species bearing laminar (flattened) or radial (cylindrical) filaments demonstrates that species with laminar filaments exhibit balanced expression of abaxial-adaxial (ab-ad) genes, while overexpression of a YABBY gene is found in species with radial filaments. This result suggests that unbalanced expression of ab-ad genes results in inhibition of laminar outgrowth, leading to a radially symmetric structure as found in many angiosperm filaments. We anticipate that co-option of the polarity gene network is a fundamental mechanism shaping many aspects of plant morphology during angiosperm evolution.

  4. Angiosperm flora on the páramos of northwestern Colombia: diversity and affinities.

    PubMed

    Alzate-Guarín, Fernando; Murillo-Serna, Jhon Steven

    2016-01-01

    Páramos are high-elevation isolated ecosystems in the Andes characterized by specific flora. This flora includes a number of endemic species and some taxa phylogenetically related to temperate lineages (van der Hammen and Cleef 1986). There are six páramo units or complexes in the Department of Antioquia, located in northwestern Colombia. For five years, we conducted botanic explorations in order to quantify the richness of angiosperm flora in these units. We estimate the richness of angiosperms in these páramos at 693 species, 277 genera, and 86 families, which represent almost 10% of the floral diversity in Antioquia, but contained in only 0.7% of its area. We found that Frontino-Urrao is the most species-rich páramo with 465 species from 225 genera. Our results show that the most diverse angiosperm families of the páramos of Antioquia are Asteraceae, Orchidaceae, Melastomataceae, and Poaceae, which together represent 245 species. Groupings between páramos by Sørensen's similarity index show that the complexes of the Central Andes Cordillera form a cluster of greater affinity than Páramos from other regions. Of the species found, 80 have a CITES or IUCN diagnosis. The expeditions allowed the identification of 21 species not previously registered in Antioquia and a considerable number of endemisms (35 species), further proof of the high plant diversity in these ecosystems.

  5. Evaluating the role of genome downsizing and size thresholds from genome size distributions in angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Zenil-Ferguson, Rosana; Ponciano, José M; Burleigh, J Gordon

    2016-07-01

    Whole-genome duplications (WGDs) can rapidly increase genome size in angiosperms. Yet their mean genome size is not correlated with ploidy. We compared three hypotheses to explain the constancy of genome size means across ploidies. The genome downsizing hypothesis suggests that genome size will decrease by a given percentage after a WGD. The genome size threshold hypothesis assumes that taxa with large genomes or large monoploid numbers will fail to undergo or survive WGDs. Finally, the genome downsizing and threshold hypothesis suggests that both genome downsizing and thresholds affect the relationship between genome size means and ploidy. We performed nonparametric bootstrap simulations to compare observed angiosperm genome size means among species or genera against simulated genome sizes under the three different hypotheses. We evaluated the hypotheses using a decision theory approach and estimated the expected percentage of genome downsizing. The threshold hypothesis improves the approximations between mean genome size and simulated genome size. At the species level, the genome downsizing with thresholds hypothesis best explains the genome size means with a 15% genome downsizing percentage. In the genus level simulations, the monoploid number threshold hypothesis best explains the data. Thresholds of genome size and monoploid number added to genome downsizing at species level simulations explain the observed means of angiosperm genome sizes, and monoploid number is important for determining the genome size mean at the genus level. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  6. Ultrastructure of stomatal development in early-divergent angiosperms reveals contrasting patterning and pre-patterning.

    PubMed

    Rudall, Paula J; Knowles, Emma V W

    2013-10-01

    Angiosperm stomata consistently possess a pair of guard cells, but differ between taxa in the patterning and developmental origin of neighbour cells. Developmental studies of phylogenetically pivotal taxa are essential as comparative yardsticks for understanding the evolution of stomatal development. We present a novel ultrastructural study of developing stomata in leaves of Amborella (Amborellales), Nymphaea and Cabomba (Nymphaeales), and Austrobaileya and Schisandra (Austrobaileyales), representing the three earliest-divergent lineages of extant angiosperms (the ANITA-grade). Alternative developmental pathways occur in early-divergent angiosperms, resulting partly from differences in pre-patterning and partly from the presence or absence of highly polarized (asymmetric) mitoses in the stomatal cell lineage. Amplifying divisions are absent from ANITA-grade taxa, indicating that ostensible similarities with the stomatal patterning of Arabidopsis are superficial. In Amborella, 'squared' pre-patterning occurs in intercostal regions, with groups of four protodermal cells typically arranged in a rectangle; most guard-mother cells are formed by asymmetric division of a precursor cell (the mesoperigenous condition) and are typically triangular or trapezoidal. In contrast, water-lily stomata are always perigenous (lacking asymmetric divisions). Austrobaileya has occasional 'giant' stomata. Similar mature stomatal phenotypes can result from contrasting morphogenetic factors, although the results suggest that paracytic stomata are invariably the product of at least one asymmetric division. Loss of asymmetric divisions in stomatal development could be a significant factor in land plant evolution, with implications for the diversity of key structural and physiological pathways.

  7. Co-option of the polarity gene network shapes filament morphology in angiosperms

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Ana Maria Rocha; Yockteng, Roxana; Schnable, James; Alvarez-Buylla, Elena R.; Freeling, Michael; Specht, Chelsea D.

    2014-01-01

    The molecular genetic mechanisms underlying abaxial-adaxial polarity in plants have been studied as a property of lateral and flattened organs, such as leaves. In leaves, laminar expansion occurs as a result of balanced abaxial-adaxial gene expression. Over- or under- expression of either abaxializing or adaxializing genes inhibits laminar growth, resulting in a mutant radialized phenotype. Here, we show that co-option of the abaxial-adaxial polarity gene network plays a role in the evolution of stamen filament morphology in angiosperms. RNA-Seq data from species bearing laminar (flattened) or radial (cylindrical) filaments demonstrates that species with laminar filaments exhibit balanced expression of abaxial-adaxial (ab-ad) genes, while overexpression of a YABBY gene is found in species with radial filaments. This result suggests that unbalanced expression of ab-ad genes results in inhibition of laminar outgrowth, leading to a radially symmetric structure as found in many angiosperm filaments. We anticipate that co-option of the polarity gene network is a fundamental mechanism shaping many aspects of plant morphology during angiosperm evolution. PMID:25168962

  8. The evolution of scarab beetles tracks the sequential rise of angiosperms and mammals

    PubMed Central

    Ahrens, Dirk; Schwarzer, Julia; Vogler, Alfried P.

    2014-01-01

    Extant terrestrial biodiversity arguably is driven by the evolutionary success of angiosperm plants, but the evolutionary mechanisms and timescales of angiosperm-dependent radiations remain poorly understood. The Scarabaeoidea is a diverse lineage of predominantly plant- and dung-feeding beetles. Here, we present a phylogenetic analysis of Scarabaeoidea based on four DNA markers for a taxonomically comprehensive set of specimens and link it to recently described fossil evidence. The phylogeny strongly supports multiple origins of coprophagy, phytophagy and anthophagy. The ingroup-based fossil calibration of the tree widely confirmed a Jurassic origin of the Scarabaeoidea crown group. The crown groups of phytophagous lineages began to radiate first (Pleurostict scarabs: 108 Ma; Glaphyridae between 101 Ma), followed by the later diversification of coprophagous lineages (crown-group age Scarabaeinae: 76 Ma; Aphodiinae: 50 Ma). Pollen feeding arose even later, at maximally 62 Ma in the oldest anthophagous lineage. The clear time lag between the origins of herbivores and coprophages suggests an evolutionary path driven by the angiosperms that first favoured the herbivore fauna (mammals and insects) followed by the secondary radiation of the dung feeders. This finding makes it less likely that extant dung beetle lineages initially fed on dinosaur excrements, as often hypothesized. PMID:25100705

  9. Rosid radiation and the rapid rise of angiosperm-dominated forests

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hengchang; Moore, Michael J.; Soltis, Pamela S.; Bell, Charles D.; Brockington, Samuel F.; Alexandre, Roolse; Davis, Charles C.; Latvis, Maribeth; Manchester, Steven R.; Soltis, Douglas E.

    2009-01-01

    The rosid clade (70,000 species) contains more than one-fourth of all angiosperm species and includes most lineages of extant temperate and tropical forest trees. Despite progress in elucidating relationships within the angiosperms, rosids remain the largest poorly resolved major clade; deep relationships within the rosids are particularly enigmatic. Based on parsimony and maximum likelihood (ML) analyses of separate and combined 12-gene (10 plastid genes, 2 nuclear; >18,000 bp) and plastid inverted repeat (IR; 24 genes and intervening spacers; >25,000 bp) datasets for >100 rosid species, we provide a greatly improved understanding of rosid phylogeny. Vitaceae are sister to all other rosids, which in turn form 2 large clades, each with a ML bootstrap value of 100%: (i) eurosids I (Fabidae) include the nitrogen-fixing clade, Celastrales, Huaceae, Zygophyllales, Malpighiales, and Oxalidales; and (ii) eurosids II (Malvidae) include Tapisciaceae, Brassicales, Malvales, Sapindales, Geraniales, Myrtales, Crossosomatales, and Picramniaceae. The rosid clade diversified rapidly into these major lineages, possibly over a period of <15 million years, and perhaps in as little as 4 to 5 million years. The timing of the inferred rapid radiation of rosids [108 to 91 million years ago (Mya) and 107–83 Mya for Fabidae and Malvidae, respectively] corresponds with the rapid rise of angiosperm-dominated forests and the concomitant diversification of other clades that inhabit these forests, including amphibians, ants, placental mammals, and ferns. PMID:19223592

  10. Angiosperm flora on the páramos of northwestern Colombia: diversity and affinities

    PubMed Central

    Alzate-Guarín, Fernando; Murillo-Serna, Jhon Steven

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Páramos are high-elevation isolated ecosystems in the Andes characterized by specific flora. This flora includes a number of endemic species and some taxa phylogenetically related to temperate lineages (van der Hammen and Cleef 1986). There are six páramo units or complexes in the Department of Antioquia, located in northwestern Colombia. For five years, we conducted botanic explorations in order to quantify the richness of angiosperm flora in these units. We estimate the richness of angiosperms in these páramos at 693 species, 277 genera, and 86 families, which represent almost 10% of the floral diversity in Antioquia, but contained in only 0.7% of its area. We found that Frontino-Urrao is the most species-rich páramo with 465 species from 225 genera. Our results show that the most diverse angiosperm families of the páramos of Antioquia are Asteraceae, Orchidaceae, Melastomataceae, and Poaceae, which together represent 245 species. Groupings between páramos by Sørensen’s similarity index show that the complexes of the Central Andes Cordillera form a cluster of greater affinity than Páramos from other regions. Of the species found, 80 have a CITES or IUCN diagnosis. The expeditions allowed the identification of 21 species not previously registered in Antioquia and a considerable number of endemisms (35 species), further proof of the high plant diversity in these ecosystems. PMID:27829798

  11. Divergence of RNA polymerase α subunits in angiosperm plastid genomes is mediated by genomic rearrangement

    PubMed Central

    Blazier, J. Chris; Ruhlman, Tracey A.; Weng, Mao-Lun; Rehman, Sumaiyah K.; Sabir, Jamal S. M.; Jansen, Robert K.

    2016-01-01

    Genes for the plastid-encoded RNA polymerase (PEP) persist in the plastid genomes of all photosynthetic angiosperms. However, three unrelated lineages (Annonaceae, Passifloraceae and Geraniaceae) have been identified with unusually divergent open reading frames (ORFs) in the conserved region of rpoA, the gene encoding the PEP α subunit. We used sequence-based approaches to evaluate whether these genes retain function. Both gene sequences and complete plastid genome sequences were assembled and analyzed from each of the three angiosperm families. Multiple lines of evidence indicated that the rpoA sequences are likely functional despite retaining as low as 30% nucleotide sequence identity with rpoA genes from outgroups in the same angiosperm order. The ratio of non-synonymous to synonymous substitutions indicated that these genes are under purifying selection, and bioinformatic prediction of conserved domains indicated that functional domains are preserved. One of the lineages (Pelargonium, Geraniaceae) contains species with multiple rpoA-like ORFs that show evidence of ongoing inter-paralog gene conversion. The plastid genomes containing these divergent rpoA genes have experienced extensive structural rearrangement, including large expansions of the inverted repeat. We propose that illegitimate recombination, not positive selection, has driven the divergence of rpoA. PMID:27087667

  12. A targeted enrichment strategy for massively parallel sequencing of angiosperm plastid genomes1

    PubMed Central

    Stull, Gregory W.; Moore, Michael J.; Mandala, Venkata S.; Douglas, Norman A.; Kates, Heather-Rose; Qi, Xinshuai; Brockington, Samuel F.; Soltis, Pamela S.; Soltis, Douglas E.; Gitzendanner, Matthew A.

    2013-01-01

    • Premise of the study: We explored a targeted enrichment strategy to facilitate rapid and low-cost next-generation sequencing (NGS) of numerous complete plastid genomes from across the phylogenetic breadth of angiosperms. • Methods and Results: A custom RNA probe set including the complete sequences of 22 previously sequenced eudicot plastomes was designed to facilitate hybridization-based targeted enrichment of eudicot plastid genomes. Using this probe set and an Agilent SureSelect targeted enrichment kit, we conducted an enrichment experiment including 24 angiosperms (22 eudicots, two monocots), which were subsequently sequenced on a single lane of the Illumina GAIIx with single-end, 100-bp reads. This approach yielded nearly complete to complete plastid genomes with exceptionally high coverage (mean coverage: 717×), even for the two monocots. • Conclusions: Our enrichment experiment was highly successful even though many aspects of the capture process employed were suboptimal. Hence, significant improvements to this methodology are feasible. With this general approach and probe set, it should be possible to sequence more than 300 essentially complete plastid genomes in a single Illumina GAIIx lane (achieving ∼50× mean coverage). However, given the complications of pooling numerous samples for multiplex sequencing and the limited number of barcodes (e.g., 96) available in commercial kits, we recommend 96 samples as a current practical maximum for multiplex plastome sequencing. This high-throughput approach should facilitate large-scale plastid genome sequencing at any level of phylogenetic diversity in angiosperms. PMID:25202518

  13. Leaf hydraulic capacity in ferns, conifers and angiosperms: impacts on photosynthetic maxima.

    PubMed

    Brodribb, Tim J; Holbrook, N Michele; Zwieniecki, Maciej A; Palma, Beatriz

    2005-03-01

    * The hydraulic plumbing of vascular plant leaves varies considerably between major plant groups both in the spatial organization of veins, as well as their anatomical structure. * Five conifers, three ferns and 12 angiosperm trees were selected from tropical and temperate forests to investigate whether the profound differences in foliar morphology of these groups lead to correspondingly profound differences in leaf hydraulic efficiency. * We found that angiosperm leaves spanned a range of leaf hydraulic conductance from 3.9 to 36 mmol m2 s-1 MPa-1, whereas ferns (5.9-11.4 mmol m-2 s-1 MPa-1) and conifers (1.6-9.0 mmol m-2 s-1 MPa-1) were uniformly less conductive to liquid water. Leaf hydraulic conductance (Kleaf) correlated strongly with stomatal conductance indicating an internal leaf-level regulation of liquid and vapour conductances. Photosynthetic capacity also increased with Kleaf, however, it became saturated at values of Kleaf over 20 mmol m-2 s-1 MPa-1. * The data suggest that vessels in the leaves of the angiosperms studied provide them with the flexibility to produce highly conductive leaves with correspondingly high photosynthetic capacities relative to tracheid-bearing species.

  14. Phylogenomics and a posteriori data partitioning resolve the Cretaceous angiosperm radiation Malpighiales.

    PubMed

    Xi, Zhenxiang; Ruhfel, Brad R; Schaefer, Hanno; Amorim, André M; Sugumaran, M; Wurdack, Kenneth J; Endress, Peter K; Matthews, Merran L; Stevens, Peter F; Mathews, Sarah; Davis, Charles C

    2012-10-23

    The angiosperm order Malpighiales includes ~16,000 species and constitutes up to 40% of the understory tree diversity in tropical rain forests. Despite remarkable progress in angiosperm systematics during the last 20 y, relationships within Malpighiales remain poorly resolved, possibly owing to its rapid rise during the mid-Cretaceous. Using phylogenomic approaches, including analyses of 82 plastid genes from 58 species, we identified 12 additional clades in Malpighiales and substantially increased resolution along the backbone. This greatly improved phylogeny revealed a dynamic history of shifts in net diversification rates across Malpighiales, with bursts of diversification noted in the Barbados cherries (Malpighiaceae), cocas (Erythroxylaceae), and passion flowers (Passifloraceae). We found that commonly used a priori approaches for partitioning concatenated data in maximum likelihood analyses, by gene or by codon position, performed poorly relative to the use of partitions identified a posteriori using a Bayesian mixture model. We also found better branch support in trees inferred from a taxon-rich, data-sparse matrix, which deeply sampled only the phylogenetically critical placeholders, than in trees inferred from a taxon-sparse matrix with little missing data. Although this matrix has more missing data, our a posteriori partitioning strategy reduced the possibility of producing multiple distinct but equally optimal topologies and increased phylogenetic decisiveness, compared with the strategy of partitioning by gene. These approaches are likely to help improve phylogenetic resolution in other poorly resolved major clades of angiosperms and to be more broadly useful in studies across the Tree of Life.

  15. Seed ferns from the late Paleozoic and Mesozoic: Any angiosperm ancestors lurking there?

    PubMed

    Taylor, Edith L; Taylor, Thomas N

    2009-01-01

    Five orders of late Paleozoic-Mesozoic seed ferns have, at one time or another, figured in discussions on the origin of angiosperms, even before the application of phylogenetic systematics. These are the Glossopteridales, Peltaspermales, Corystospermales, Caytoniales, and Petriellales. Although vegetative features have been used to suggest homologies, most discussion has focused on ovulate structures, which are generally interpreted as megasporophylls bearing seeds, with the seeds partially to almost completely enclosed by the megasporophyll (or cupule). Here we discuss current information about the reproductive parts of these plants. Since most specimens are impression-compression remains, homologizing the ovulate organs, deriving angiospermous homologues, and defining synapomorphies remain somewhat speculative. Although new specimens have increased the known diversity in these groups, a reconstruction of an entire plant is available only for the corystosperms, and thus hypotheses about phylogenetic position are of limited value. We conclude that, in the case of these seed plants, phylogenetic analysis techniques have surpassed the hard data needed to formulate meaningful phylogenetic hypotheses. Speculation on angiosperm origins and transitional stages in these fossils provides for interesting discussion, but currently it is still speculation, as the role of these groups in the origin of angiospermy continues to be cloaked in Darwin's mystery.

  16. Seedless fruits and the disruption of a conserved genetic pathway in angiosperm ovule development

    PubMed Central

    Lora, Jorge; Hormaza, José I.; Herrero, María; Gasser, Charles S.

    2011-01-01

    Although the biological function of fruiting is the production and dissemination of seeds, humans have developed seedless fruits in a number of plant species to facilitate consumption. Here we describe a unique spontaneous seedless mutant (Thai seedless; Ts) of Annona squamosa (sugar apple), a member of the early-divergent magnoliid angiosperm clade. Ovules (seed precursors) of the mutant lack the outer of two normal integuments, a phenocopy of the inner no outer (ino) mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana. Cloning of the INO ortholog from A. squamosa confirmed conservation of the outer integument-specific expression pattern of this gene between the two species. All regions of the gene were detectable in wild-type A. squamosa and in other members of this genus. However, no region of the INO gene could be detected in Ts plants, indicating apparent deletion of the INO locus. These results provide a case of a candidate gene approach revealing the apparent molecular basis of a useful agronomic trait (seedless fruit) in a crop species, and indicate conservation of the role of a critical regulator of ovule development between eudicots and more ancient lineages of angiosperms. The outer integument is one synapomorphy of angiosperms separating them from other extant seed plants, and the results suggest that the evolution of this structure was contemporaneous with the derivation of INO from ancestral YABBY genes. Thus, a unique lateral structure appears to have coevolved with a novel gene family member essential for the structure's formation. PMID:21402944

  17. Phosphorylation of GENOMES UNCOUPLED 4 Alters Stimulation of Mg Chelatase Activity in Angiosperms1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Hochheuser, Caroline; Fufezan, Christian; Heinze, Laura

    2016-01-01

    GENOMES UNCOUPLED 4 (GUN4) is a positive regulator of light-dependent chlorophyll biosynthesis. GUN4 activates Mg chelatase (MgCh) that catalyzes the insertion of an Mg2+ ion into protoporphyrin IX. We show that Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) GUN4 is phosphorylated at Ser 264 (S264), the penultimate amino acid residue at the C terminus. While GUN4 is preferentially phosphorylated in darkness, phosphorylation is reduced upon accumulation of Mg porphyrins. Expression of a phosphomimicking GUN4(S264D) results in an incomplete complementation of the white gun4-2 null mutant and a chlorotic phenotype comparable to gun4 knockdown mutants. Phosphorylated GUN4 has a reduced stimulatory effect on MgCh in vitro and in vivo but retains its protein stability and tetrapyrrole binding capacity. Analysis of GUN4 found in oxygenic photosynthetic organisms reveals the evolution of a C-terminal extension, which harbors the phosphorylation site of GUN4 expressed in angiosperms. Homologs of GUN4 from Synechocystis and Chlamydomonas lack the conserved phosphorylation site found in a C-terminal extension of angiosperm GUN4. Biochemical studies proved the importance of the C-terminal extension for MgCh stimulation and inactivation of GUN4 by phosphorylation in angiosperms. An additional mechanism regulating MgCh activity is proposed. In conjunction with the dark repression of 5-aminolevulinic acid synthesis, GUN4 phosphorylation minimizes the flow of intermediates into the Mg branch of the tetrapyrrole metabolic pathway for chlorophyll biosynthesis. PMID:27688621

  18. The evolution of scarab beetles tracks the sequential rise of angiosperms and mammals.

    PubMed

    Ahrens, Dirk; Schwarzer, Julia; Vogler, Alfried P

    2014-09-22

    Extant terrestrial biodiversity arguably is driven by the evolutionary success of angiosperm plants, but the evolutionary mechanisms and timescales of angiosperm-dependent radiations remain poorly understood. The Scarabaeoidea is a diverse lineage of predominantly plant- and dung-feeding beetles. Here, we present a phylogenetic analysis of Scarabaeoidea based on four DNA markers for a taxonomically comprehensive set of specimens and link it to recently described fossil evidence. The phylogeny strongly supports multiple origins of coprophagy, phytophagy and anthophagy. The ingroup-based fossil calibration of the tree widely confirmed a Jurassic origin of the Scarabaeoidea crown group. The crown groups of phytophagous lineages began to radiate first (Pleurostict scarabs: 108 Ma; Glaphyridae between 101 Ma), followed by the later diversification of coprophagous lineages (crown-group age Scarabaeinae: 76 Ma; Aphodiinae: 50 Ma). Pollen feeding arose even later, at maximally 62 Ma in the oldest anthophagous lineage. The clear time lag between the origins of herbivores and coprophages suggests an evolutionary path driven by the angiosperms that first favoured the herbivore fauna (mammals and insects) followed by the secondary radiation of the dung feeders. This finding makes it less likely that extant dung beetle lineages initially fed on dinosaur excrements, as often hypothesized. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  19. Divergence of RNA polymerase α subunits in angiosperm plastid genomes is mediated by genomic rearrangement.

    PubMed

    Blazier, J Chris; Ruhlman, Tracey A; Weng, Mao-Lun; Rehman, Sumaiyah K; Sabir, Jamal S M; Jansen, Robert K

    2016-04-18

    Genes for the plastid-encoded RNA polymerase (PEP) persist in the plastid genomes of all photosynthetic angiosperms. However, three unrelated lineages (Annonaceae, Passifloraceae and Geraniaceae) have been identified with unusually divergent open reading frames (ORFs) in the conserved region of rpoA, the gene encoding the PEP α subunit. We used sequence-based approaches to evaluate whether these genes retain function. Both gene sequences and complete plastid genome sequences were assembled and analyzed from each of the three angiosperm families. Multiple lines of evidence indicated that the rpoA sequences are likely functional despite retaining as low as 30% nucleotide sequence identity with rpoA genes from outgroups in the same angiosperm order. The ratio of non-synonymous to synonymous substitutions indicated that these genes are under purifying selection, and bioinformatic prediction of conserved domains indicated that functional domains are preserved. One of the lineages (Pelargonium, Geraniaceae) contains species with multiple rpoA-like ORFs that show evidence of ongoing inter-paralog gene conversion. The plastid genomes containing these divergent rpoA genes have experienced extensive structural rearrangement, including large expansions of the inverted repeat. We propose that illegitimate recombination, not positive selection, has driven the divergence of rpoA.

  20. Seedless fruits and the disruption of a conserved genetic pathway in angiosperm ovule development.

    PubMed

    Lora, Jorge; Hormaza, José I; Herrero, María; Gasser, Charles S

    2011-03-29

    Although the biological function of fruiting is the production and dissemination of seeds, humans have developed seedless fruits in a number of plant species to facilitate consumption. Here we describe a unique spontaneous seedless mutant (Thai seedless; Ts) of Annona squamosa (sugar apple), a member of the early-divergent magnoliid angiosperm clade. Ovules (seed precursors) of the mutant lack the outer of two normal integuments, a phenocopy of the inner no outer (ino) mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana. Cloning of the INO ortholog from A. squamosa confirmed conservation of the outer integument-specific expression pattern of this gene between the two species. All regions of the gene were detectable in wild-type A. squamosa and in other members of this genus. However, no region of the INO gene could be detected in Ts plants, indicating apparent deletion of the INO locus. These results provide a case of a candidate gene approach revealing the apparent molecular basis of a useful agronomic trait (seedless fruit) in a crop species, and indicate conservation of the role of a critical regulator of ovule development between eudicots and more ancient lineages of angiosperms. The outer integument is one synapomorphy of angiosperms separating them from other extant seed plants, and the results suggest that the evolution of this structure was contemporaneous with the derivation of INO from ancestral YABBY genes. Thus, a unique lateral structure appears to have coevolved with a novel gene family member essential for the structure's formation.

  1. The rise of angiosperm-dominated herbaceous floras: Insights from Ranunculaceae

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Lin, Li; Xiang, Xiao-Guo; Ortiz, Rosa del C.; Liu, Yang; Xiang, Kun-Li; Yu, Sheng-Xiang; Xing, Yao-Wu; Chen, Zhi-Duan

    2016-01-01

    The rise of angiosperms has been regarded as a trigger for the Cretaceous revolution of terrestrial ecosystems. However, the timeframe of the rise angiosperm-dominated herbaceous floras (ADHFs) is lacking. Here, we used the buttercup family (Ranunculaceae) as a proxy to provide insights into the rise of ADHFs. An integration of phylogenetic, molecular dating, ancestral state inferring, and diversification analytical methods was used to infer the early evolutionary history of Ranunculaceae. We found that Ranunculaceae became differentiated in forests between about 108–90 Ma. Diversification rates markedly elevated during the Campanian, mainly resulted from the rapid divergence of the non-forest lineages, but did not change across the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary. Our data for Ranunculaceae indicate that forest-dwelling ADHFs may have appeared almost simultaneously with angiosperm-dominated forests during the mid-Cretaceous, whereas non-forest ADHFs arose later, by the end of the Cretaceous terrestrial revolution. Furthermore, ADHFs were relatively unaffected by the Cretaceous-Paleogene mass extinction. PMID:27251635

  2. Identification, expression, and taxonomic distribution of alternative oxidases in non-angiosperm plants.

    PubMed

    Neimanis, Karina; Staples, James F; Hüner, Norman P A; McDonald, Allison E

    2013-09-10

    Alternative oxidase (AOX) is a terminal ubiquinol oxidase present in the respiratory chain of all angiosperms investigated to date, but AOX distribution in other members of the Viridiplantae is less clear. We assessed the taxonomic distribution of AOX using bioinformatics. Multiple sequence alignments compared AOX proteins and examined amino acid residues involved in AOX catalytic function and post-translational regulation. Novel AOX sequences were found in both Chlorophytes and Streptophytes and we conclude that AOX is widespread in the Viridiplantae. AOX multigene families are common in non-angiosperm plants and the appearance of AOX1 and AOX2 subtypes pre-dates the divergence of the Coniferophyta and Magnoliophyta. Residues involved in AOX catalytic function are highly conserved between Chlorophytes and Streptophytes, while AOX post-translational regulation likely differs in these two lineages. We demonstrate experimentally that an AOX gene is present in the moss Physcomitrella patens and that the gene is transcribed. Our findings suggest that AOX will likely exert an influence on plant respiration and carbon metabolism in non-angiosperms such as green algae, bryophytes, liverworts, lycopods, ferns, gnetophytes, and gymnosperms and that further research in these systems is required.

  3. Hydraulic safety margins and embolism reversal in stems and leaves: why are conifers and angiosperms so different?

    PubMed

    Johnson, Daniel M; McCulloh, Katherine A; Woodruff, David R; Meinzer, Frederick C

    2012-10-01

    Angiosperm and coniferous tree species utilize a continuum of hydraulic strategies. Hydraulic safety margins (defined as differences between naturally occurring xylem pressures and pressures that would cause hydraulic dysfunction, or differences between pressures resulting in loss of hydraulic function in adjacent organs (e.g., stems vs. leaves) tend to be much greater in conifers than angiosperms and serve to prevent stem embolism. However, conifers tend to experience embolism more frequently in leaves and roots than angiosperms. Embolism repair is thought to occur by active transport of sugars into empty conduits followed by passive water movement. The most likely source of sugar for refilling is from nonstructural carbohydrate depolymerization in nearby parenchyma cells. Compared to angiosperms, conifers tend to have little parenchyma or nonstructural carbohydrates in their wood. The ability to rapidly repair embolisms may rely on having nearby parenchyma cells, which could explain the need for greater safety margins in conifer wood as compared to angiosperms. The frequent embolisms that occur in the distal portions of conifers are readily repaired, perhaps due to the abundant parenchyma in leaves and roots, and these distal tissues may act as hydraulic circuit breakers that prevent tension-induced embolisms in the attached stems. Frequent embolisms in conifer leaves may also be due to weaker stomatal response to changes in ambient humidity. Although there is a continuum of hydraulic strategies among woody plants, there appear to be two distinct 'behaviors' at the extremes: (1) embolism prevention and (2) embolism occurrence and subsequent repair.

  4. Analysis of 81 genes from 64 plastid genomes resolves relationships in angiosperms and identifies genome-scale evolutionary patterns

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Robert K.; Cai, Zhengqiu; Raubeson, Linda A.; Daniell, Henry; dePamphilis, Claude W.; Leebens-Mack, James; Müller, Kai F.; Guisinger-Bellian, Mary; Haberle, Rosemarie C.; Hansen, Anne K.; Chumley, Timothy W.; Lee, Seung-Bum; Peery, Rhiannon; McNeal, Joel R.; Kuehl, Jennifer V.; Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2007-01-01

    Angiosperms are the largest and most successful clade of land plants with >250,000 species distributed in nearly every terrestrial habitat. Many phylogenetic studies have been based on DNA sequences of one to several genes, but, despite decades of intensive efforts, relationships among early diverging lineages and several of the major clades remain either incompletely resolved or weakly supported. We performed phylogenetic analyses of 81 plastid genes in 64 sequenced genomes, including 13 new genomes, to estimate relationships among the major angiosperm clades, and the resulting trees are used to examine the evolution of gene and intron content. Phylogenetic trees from multiple methods, including model-based approaches, provide strong support for the position of Amborella as the earliest diverging lineage of flowering plants, followed by Nymphaeales and Austrobaileyales. The plastid genome trees also provide strong support for a sister relationship between eudicots and monocots, and this group is sister to a clade that includes Chloranthales and magnoliids. Resolution of relationships among the major clades of angiosperms provides the necessary framework for addressing numerous evolutionary questions regarding the rapid diversification of angiosperms. Gene and intron content are highly conserved among the early diverging angiosperms and basal eudicots, but 62 independent gene and intron losses are limited to the more derived monocot and eudicot clades. Moreover, a lineage-specific correlation was detected between rates of nucleotide substitutions, indels, and genomic rearrangements. PMID:18048330

  5. Angiosperm-like pollen and Afropollis from the Middle Triassic (Anisian) of the Germanic Basin (Northern Switzerland)

    PubMed Central

    Hochuli, Peter A.; Feist-Burkhardt, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    Here we report on angiosperm-like pollen and Afropollis from the Anisian (Middle Triassic, 247.2–242.0 Ma) of a mid-latitudinal site in Northern Switzerland. Small monosulcate pollen grains with typical reticulate (semitectate) sculpture, columellate structure of the sexine and thin nexine show close similarities to early angiosperm pollen known from the Early Cretaceous. However, they differ in their extremely thin inner layer (nexine). Six different pollen types (I–VI) are differentiated based on size, reticulation pattern, and exine structure. The described pollen grains show all the essential features of angiosperm pollen. However, considering the lack of a continuous record throughout the lower part of the Mesozoic and the comparison with the oldest Cretaceous finds we suggest an affinity to an angiosperm stem group. Together with the previously published records from the Middle Triassic of the Barents Sea area the angiosperm-like pollen grains reflect a considerable diversity of the parent plants during the Middle Triassic. Sedimentological evidence and associated palynofloras also suggest a remarkable ecological range for these plants. Associated with these grains we found pollen comparable to the genus Afropollis. Representatives of this genus are commonly recorded in Lower Cretaceous sediments of low latitudes, but until now had no record from the lower part of the Mesozoic. PMID:24106492

  6. Phylogenetic footprint of the plant clock system in angiosperms: evolutionary processes of Pseudo-Response Regulators

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Plant circadian clocks regulate many photoperiodic and diurnal responses that are conserved among plant species. The plant circadian clock system has been uncovered in the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, using genetics and systems biology approaches. However, it is still not clear how the clock system had been organized in the evolutionary history of plants. We recently revealed the molecular phylogeny of LHY/CCA1 genes, one of the essential components of the clock system. The aims of this study are to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships of angiosperm clock-associated PRR genes, the partner of the LHY/CCA1 genes, and to clarify the evolutionary history of the plant clock system in angiosperm lineages. Results In the present study, to investigate the molecular phylogeny of PRR genes, we performed two approaches: reconstruction of phylogenetic trees and examination of syntenic relationships. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that PRR genes had diverged into three clades prior to the speciation of monocots and eudicots. Furthermore, copy numbers of PRR genes have been independently increased in monocots and eudicots as a result of ancient chromosomal duplication events. Conclusions Based on the molecular phylogenies of both PRR genes and LHY/CCA1 genes, we inferred the evolutionary process of the plant clock system in angiosperms. This scenario provides evolutionary information that a common ancestor of monocots and eudicots had retained the basic components required for reconstructing a clock system and that the plant circadian clock may have become a more elaborate mechanism after the speciation of monocots and eudicots because of the gene expansion that resulted from polyploidy events. PMID:20433765

  7. Five major shifts of diversification through the long evolutionary history of Magnoliidae (angiosperms).

    PubMed

    Massoni, Julien; Couvreur, Thomas L P; Sauquet, Hervé

    2015-03-18

    With 10,000 species, Magnoliidae are the largest clade of flowering plants outside monocots and eudicots. Despite an ancient and rich fossil history, the tempo and mode of diversification of Magnoliidae remain poorly known. Using a molecular data set of 12 markers and 220 species (representing >75% of genera in Magnoliidae) and six robust, internal fossil age constraints, we estimate divergence times and significant shifts of diversification across the clade. In addition, we test the sensitivity of magnoliid divergence times to the choice of relaxed clock model and various maximum age constraints for the angiosperms. Compared with previous work, our study tends to push back in time the age of the crown node of Magnoliidae (178.78-126.82 million years, Myr), and of the four orders, Canellales (143.18-125.90 Myr), Piperales (158.11-88.15 Myr), Laurales (165.62-112.05 Myr), and Magnoliales (164.09-114.75 Myr). Although families vary in crown ages, Magnoliidae appear to have diversified into most extant families by the end of the Cretaceous. The strongly imbalanced distribution of extant diversity within Magnoliidae appears to be best explained by models of diversification with 6 to 13 shifts in net diversification rates. Significant increases are inferred within Piperaceae and Annonaceae, while the low species richness of Calycanthaceae, Degeneriaceae, and Himantandraceae appears to be the result of decreases in both speciation and extinction rates. This study provides a new time scale for the evolutionary history of an important, but underexplored, part of the tree of angiosperms. The ages of the main clades of Magnoliidae (above the family level) are older than previously thought, and in several lineages, there were significant increases and decreases in net diversification rates. This study is a new robust framework for future investigations of trait evolution and of factors influencing diversification in this group as well as angiosperms as a whole.

  8. Ultrastructure of stomatal development in early-divergent angiosperms reveals contrasting patterning and pre-patterning

    PubMed Central

    Rudall, Paula J.; Knowles, Emma V. W.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Angiosperm stomata consistently possess a pair of guard cells, but differ between taxa in the patterning and developmental origin of neighbour cells. Developmental studies of phylogenetically pivotal taxa are essential as comparative yardsticks for understanding the evolution of stomatal development. Methods We present a novel ultrastructural study of developing stomata in leaves of Amborella (Amborellales), Nymphaea and Cabomba (Nymphaeales), and Austrobaileya and Schisandra (Austrobaileyales), representing the three earliest-divergent lineages of extant angiosperms (the ANITA-grade). Key Results Alternative developmental pathways occur in early-divergent angiosperms, resulting partly from differences in pre-patterning and partly from the presence or absence of highly polarized (asymmetric) mitoses in the stomatal cell lineage. Amplifying divisions are absent from ANITA-grade taxa, indicating that ostensible similarities with the stomatal patterning of Arabidopsis are superficial. In Amborella, ‘squared’ pre-patterning occurs in intercostal regions, with groups of four protodermal cells typically arranged in a rectangle; most guard-mother cells are formed by asymmetric division of a precursor cell (the mesoperigenous condition) and are typically triangular or trapezoidal. In contrast, water-lily stomata are always perigenous (lacking asymmetric divisions). Austrobaileya has occasional ‘giant’ stomata. Conclusions Similar mature stomatal phenotypes can result from contrasting morphogenetic factors, although the results suggest that paracytic stomata are invariably the product of at least one asymmetric division. Loss of asymmetric divisions in stomatal development could be a significant factor in land plant evolution, with implications for the diversity of key structural and physiological pathways. PMID:23969762

  9. Accelerated evolution and coevolution drove the evolutionary history of AGPase sub-units during angiosperm radiation

    PubMed Central

    Corbi, Jonathan; Dutheil, Julien Y.; Damerval, Catherine; Tenaillon, Maud I.; Manicacci, Domenica

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) is a key enzyme of starch biosynthesis. In the green plant lineage, it is composed of two large (LSU) and two small (SSU) sub-units encoded by paralogous genes, as a consequence of several rounds of duplication. First, our aim was to detect specific patterns of molecular evolution following duplication events and the divergence between monocotyledons and dicotyledons. Secondly, we investigated coevolution between amino acids both within and between sub-units. Methods A phylogeny of each AGPase sub-unit was built using all gymnosperm and angiosperm sequences available in databases. Accelerated evolution along specific branches was tested using the ratio of the non-synonymous to the synonymous substitution rate. Coevolution between amino acids was investigated taking into account compensatory changes between co-substitutions. Key Results We showed that SSU paralogues evolved under high functional constraints during angiosperm radiation, with a significant level of coevolution between amino acids that participate in SSU major functions. In contrast, in the LSU paralogues, we identified residues under positive selection (1) following the first LSU duplication that gave rise to two paralogues mainly expressed in angiosperm source and sink tissues, respectively; and (2) following the emergence of grass-specific paralogues expressed in the endosperm. Finally, we found coevolution between residues that belong to the interaction domains of both sub-units. Conclusions Our results support the view that coevolution among amino acid residues, especially those lying in the interaction domain of each sub-unit, played an important role in AGPase evolution. First, within SSU, coevolution allowed compensating mutations in a highly constrained context. Secondly, the LSU paralogues probably acquired tissue-specific expression and regulatory properties via the coevolution between sub-unit interacting domains. Finally, the

  10. Accelerated evolution and coevolution drove the evolutionary history of AGPase sub-units during angiosperm radiation.

    PubMed

    Corbi, Jonathan; Dutheil, Julien Y; Damerval, Catherine; Tenaillon, Maud I; Manicacci, Domenica

    2012-03-01

    ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) is a key enzyme of starch biosynthesis. In the green plant lineage, it is composed of two large (LSU) and two small (SSU) sub-units encoded by paralogous genes, as a consequence of several rounds of duplication. First, our aim was to detect specific patterns of molecular evolution following duplication events and the divergence between monocotyledons and dicotyledons. Secondly, we investigated coevolution between amino acids both within and between sub-units. A phylogeny of each AGPase sub-unit was built using all gymnosperm and angiosperm sequences available in databases. Accelerated evolution along specific branches was tested using the ratio of the non-synonymous to the synonymous substitution rate. Coevolution between amino acids was investigated taking into account compensatory changes between co-substitutions. We showed that SSU paralogues evolved under high functional constraints during angiosperm radiation, with a significant level of coevolution between amino acids that participate in SSU major functions. In contrast, in the LSU paralogues, we identified residues under positive selection (1) following the first LSU duplication that gave rise to two paralogues mainly expressed in angiosperm source and sink tissues, respectively; and (2) following the emergence of grass-specific paralogues expressed in the endosperm. Finally, we found coevolution between residues that belong to the interaction domains of both sub-units. Our results support the view that coevolution among amino acid residues, especially those lying in the interaction domain of each sub-unit, played an important role in AGPase evolution. First, within SSU, coevolution allowed compensating mutations in a highly constrained context. Secondly, the LSU paralogues probably acquired tissue-specific expression and regulatory properties via the coevolution between sub-unit interacting domains. Finally, the pattern we observed during LSU evolution is consistent

  11. Phylogenetic footprint of the plant clock system in angiosperms: evolutionary processes of pseudo-response regulators.

    PubMed

    Takata, Naoki; Saito, Shigeru; Saito, Claire Tanaka; Uemura, Matsuo

    2010-05-01

    Plant circadian clocks regulate many photoperiodic and diurnal responses that are conserved among plant species. The plant circadian clock system has been uncovered in the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, using genetics and systems biology approaches. However, it is still not clear how the clock system had been organized in the evolutionary history of plants. We recently revealed the molecular phylogeny of LHY/CCA1 genes, one of the essential components of the clock system. The aims of this study are to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships of angiosperm clock-associated PRR genes, the partner of the LHY/CCA1 genes, and to clarify the evolutionary history of the plant clock system in angiosperm lineages. In the present study, to investigate the molecular phylogeny of PRR genes, we performed two approaches: reconstruction of phylogenetic trees and examination of syntenic relationships. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that PRR genes had diverged into three clades prior to the speciation of monocots and eudicots. Furthermore, copy numbers of PRR genes have been independently increased in monocots and eudicots as a result of ancient chromosomal duplication events. Based on the molecular phylogenies of both PRR genes and LHY/CCA1 genes, we inferred the evolutionary process of the plant clock system in angiosperms. This scenario provides evolutionary information that a common ancestor of monocots and eudicots had retained the basic components required for reconstructing a clock system and that the plant circadian clock may have become a more elaborate mechanism after the speciation of monocots and eudicots because of the gene expansion that resulted from polyploidy events.

  12. Large-Scale Analyses of Angiosperm Nucleotide-Binding Site-Leucine-Rich Repeat Genes Reveal Three Anciently Diverged Classes with Distinct Evolutionary Patterns.

    PubMed

    Shao, Zhu-Qing; Xue, Jia-Yu; Wu, Ping; Zhang, Yan-Mei; Wu, Yue; Hang, Yue-Yu; Wang, Bin; Chen, Jian-Qun

    2016-04-01

    Nucleotide-binding site-leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR) genes make up the largest plant disease resistance gene family (R genes), with hundreds of copies occurring in individual angiosperm genomes. However, the expansion history of NBS-LRR genes during angiosperm evolution is largely unknown. By identifying more than 6,000 NBS-LRR genes in 22 representative angiosperms and reconstructing their phylogenies, we present a potential framework of NBS-LRR gene evolution in the angiosperm. Three anciently diverged NBS-LRR classes (TNLs, CNLs, and RNLs) were distinguished with unique exon-intron structures and DNA motif sequences. A total of seven ancient TNL, 14 CNL, and two RNL lineages were discovered in the ancestral angiosperm, from which all current NBS-LRR gene repertoires were evolved. A pattern of gradual expansion during the first 100 million years of evolution of the angiosperm clade was observed for CNLs. TNL numbers remained stable during this period but were eventually deleted in three divergent angiosperm lineages. We inferred that an intense expansion of both TNL and CNL genes started from the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary. Because dramatic environmental changes and an explosion in fungal diversity occurred during this period, the observed expansions of R genes probably reflect convergent adaptive responses of various angiosperm families. An ancient whole-genome duplication event that occurred in an angiosperm ancestor resulted in two RNL lineages, which were conservatively evolved and acted as scaffold proteins for defense signal transduction. Overall, the reconstructed framework of angiosperm NBS-LRR gene evolution in this study may serve as a fundamental reference for better understanding angiosperm NBS-LRR genes.

  13. The relationship of recombination rate, genome structure, and patterns of molecular evolution across angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Tiley, George P; Burleigh, J Gordon; Burleigh, Gordon

    2015-09-16

    Although homologous recombination affects the efficacy of selection in populations, the pattern of recombination rate evolution and its effects on genome evolution across plants are largely unknown. Recombination can reduce genome size by enabling the removal of LTR retrotransposons, alter codon usage by GC biased gene conversion, contribute to complex histories of gene duplication and loss through tandem duplication, and enhance purifying selection on genes. Therefore, variation in recombination rate across species may explain some of the variation in genomic architecture as well as rates of molecular evolution. We used phylogenetic comparative methods to investigate the evolution of global meiotic recombination rate in angiosperms and its effects on genome architecture and selection at the molecular level using genetic maps and genome sequences from thirty angiosperm species. Recombination rate is negatively correlated with genome size, which is likely caused by the removal of LTR retrotransposons. After correcting recombination rates for euchromatin content, we also found an association between global recombination rate and average gene family size. This suggests a role for recombination in the preservation of duplicate genes or expansion of gene families. An analysis of the correlation between the ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitution rates (dN/dS) and recombination rate in 3748 genes indicates that higher recombination rates are associated with an increased efficacy of purifying selection, suggesting that global recombination rates affect variation in rates of molecular evolution across distantly related angiosperm species, not just between populations. We also identified shifts in dN/dS for recombination proteins that are associated with shifts in global recombination rate across our sample of angiosperms. Although our analyses only reveal correlations, not mechanisms, and do not include potential covariates of recombination rate, like effective

  14. Discrete shoot and root stem cell-promoting WUS/WOX5 functions are an evolutionary innovation of angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Nardmann, Judith; Reisewitz, Pascal; Werr, Wolfgang

    2009-08-01

    The morphologically diverse bodies of seed plants comprising gymnosperms and angiosperms, which separated some 350 Ma, grow by the activity of meristems containing stem cell niches. In the dicot model Arabidopsis thaliana, these are maintained by the stem cell-promoting functions of WUS and WUSCHEL-related homeobox 5 (WOX5) in the shoot and the root, respectively. Both genes are members of the WOX gene family, which has a monophyletic origin in green algae. The establishment of the WOX gene phylogeny from basal land plants through gymnosperms to basal and higher angiosperms reveals three major branches: a basal clade consisting of WOX13-related genes present in some green algae and throughout all land plant genomes, a second clade containing WOX8/9/11/12 homologues, and a modern clade restricted to seed plants. The analysis of the origin of the modern branch in two basal angiosperms (Amborella trichopoda and Nymphaea jamesoniana) and three gymnosperms (Pinus sylvestris, Ginkgo biloba, and Gnetum gnemon) shows that all members of the modern clade consistently found in monocots and dicots exist at the base of the angiosperm lineage, including WUS and WOX5 orthologues. In contrast, our analyses identify a single WUS/WOX5 homologue in all three gymnosperm genomes, consistent with a monophyletic origin in the last common ancestor of gymnosperms and angiosperms. Phylogenetic data, WUS- and WOX5-specific evolutionary signatures, as well as the expression pattern and stem cell-promoting function of the single gymnosperm WUS/WOX5 pro-orthologue in Arabidopsis indicate a gene duplication event followed by subfunctionalization at the base of angiosperms.

  15. Mitochondrial DNA suggests at least 11 origins of parasitism in angiosperms and reveals genomic chimerism in parasitic plants

    PubMed Central

    Barkman, Todd J; McNeal, Joel R; Lim, Seok-Hong; Coat, Gwen; Croom, Henrietta B; Young, Nelson D; dePamphilis, Claude W

    2007-01-01

    Background Some of the most difficult phylogenetic questions in evolutionary biology involve identification of the free-living relatives of parasitic organisms, particularly those of parasitic flowering plants. Consequently, the number of origins of parasitism and the phylogenetic distribution of the heterotrophic lifestyle among angiosperm lineages is unclear. Results Here we report the results of a phylogenetic analysis of 102 species of seed plants designed to infer the position of all haustorial parasitic angiosperm lineages using three mitochondrial genes: atp1, coxI, and matR. Overall, the mtDNA phylogeny agrees with independent studies in terms of non-parasitic plant relationships and reveals at least 11 independent origins of parasitism in angiosperms, eight of which consist entirely of holoparasitic species that lack photosynthetic ability. From these results, it can be inferred that modern-day parasites have disproportionately evolved in certain lineages and that the endoparasitic habit has arisen by convergence in four clades. In addition, reduced taxon, single gene analyses revealed multiple horizontal transfers of atp1 from host to parasite lineage, suggesting that parasites may be important vectors of horizontal gene transfer in angiosperms. Furthermore, in Pilostyles we show evidence for a recent host-to-parasite atp1 transfer based on a chimeric gene sequence that indicates multiple historical xenologous gene acquisitions have occurred in this endoparasite. Finally, the phylogenetic relationships inferred for parasites indicate that the origins of parasitism in angiosperms are strongly correlated with horizontal acquisitions of the invasive coxI group I intron. Conclusion Collectively, these results indicate that the parasitic lifestyle has arisen repeatedly in angiosperm evolutionary history and results in increasing parasite genomic chimerism over time. PMID:18154671

  16. The Complete Chloroplast Genome Sequence of Ampelopsis: Gene Organization, Comparative Analysis, and Phylogenetic Relationships to Other Angiosperms

    PubMed Central

    Raman, Gurusamy; Park, SeonJoo

    2016-01-01

    Ampelopsis brevipedunculata is an economically important plant that belongs to the Vitaceae family of angiosperms. The phylogenetic placement of Vitaceae is still unresolved. Recent phylogenetic studies suggested that it should be placed in various alternative families including Caryophyllaceae, asteraceae, Saxifragaceae, Dilleniaceae, or with the rest of the rosid families. However, these analyses provided weak supportive results because they were based on only one of several genes. Accordingly, complete chloroplast genome sequences are required to resolve the phylogenetic relationships among angiosperms. Recent phylogenetic analyses based on the complete chloroplast genome sequence suggested strong support for the position of Vitaceae as the earliest diverging lineage of rosids and placed it as a sister to the remaining rosids. These studies also revealed relationships among several major lineages of angiosperms; however, they highlighted the significance of taxon sampling for obtaining accurate phylogenies. In the present study, we sequenced the complete chloroplast genome of A. brevipedunculata and used these data to assess the relationships among 32 angiosperms, including 18 taxa of rosids. The Ampelopsis chloroplast genome is 161,090 bp in length, and includes a pair of inverted repeats of 26,394 bp that are separated by small and large single copy regions of 19,036 bp and 89,266 bp, respectively. The gene content and order of Ampelopsis is identical to many other unrearranged angiosperm chloroplast genomes, including Vitis and tobacco. A phylogenetic tree constructed based on 70 protein-coding genes of 33 angiosperms showed that both Saxifragales and Vitaceae diverged from the rosid clade and formed two clades with 100% bootstrap value. The position of the Vitaceae is sister to Saxifragales, and both are the basal and earliest diverging lineages. Moreover, Saxifragales forms a sister clade to Vitaceae of rosids. Overall, the results of this study will

  17. Evolutionary Dynamics of Microsatellite Distribution in Plants: Insight from the Comparison of Sequenced Brassica, Arabidopsis and Other Angiosperm Species

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jiaqin; Huang, Shunmou; Fu, Donghui; Yu, Jinyin; Wang, Xinfa; Hua, Wei; Liu, Shengyi; Liu, Guihua; Wang, Hanzhong

    2013-01-01

    Despite their ubiquity and functional importance, microsatellites have been largely ignored in comparative genomics, mostly due to the lack of genomic information. In the current study, microsatellite distribution was characterized and compared in the whole genomes and both the coding and non-coding DNA sequences of the sequenced Brassica, Arabidopsis and other angiosperm species to investigate their evolutionary dynamics in plants. The variation in the microsatellite frequencies of these angiosperm species was much smaller than those for their microsatellite numbers and genome sizes, suggesting that microsatellite frequency may be relatively stable in plants. The microsatellite frequencies of these angiosperm species were significantly negatively correlated with both their genome sizes and transposable elements contents. The pattern of microsatellite distribution may differ according to the different genomic regions (such as coding and non-coding sequences). The observed differences in many important microsatellite characteristics (especially the distribution with respect to motif length, type and repeat number) of these angiosperm species were generally accordant with their phylogenetic distance, which suggested that the evolutionary dynamics of microsatellite distribution may be generally consistent with plant divergence/evolution. Importantly, by comparing these microsatellite characteristics (especially the distribution with respect to motif type) the angiosperm species (aside from a few species) all clustered into two obviously different groups that were largely represented by monocots and dicots, suggesting a complex and generally dichotomous evolutionary pattern of microsatellite distribution in angiosperms. Polyploidy may lead to a slight increase in microsatellite frequency in the coding sequences and a significant decrease in microsatellite frequency in the whole genome/non-coding sequences, but have little effect on the microsatellite distribution with

  18. Evolutionary dynamics of microsatellite distribution in plants: insight from the comparison of sequenced brassica, Arabidopsis and other angiosperm species.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jiaqin; Huang, Shunmou; Fu, Donghui; Yu, Jinyin; Wang, Xinfa; Hua, Wei; Liu, Shengyi; Liu, Guihua; Wang, Hanzhong

    2013-01-01

    Despite their ubiquity and functional importance, microsatellites have been largely ignored in comparative genomics, mostly due to the lack of genomic information. In the current study, microsatellite distribution was characterized and compared in the whole genomes and both the coding and non-coding DNA sequences of the sequenced Brassica, Arabidopsis and other angiosperm species to investigate their evolutionary dynamics in plants. The variation in the microsatellite frequencies of these angiosperm species was much smaller than those for their microsatellite numbers and genome sizes, suggesting that microsatellite frequency may be relatively stable in plants. The microsatellite frequencies of these angiosperm species were significantly negatively correlated with both their genome sizes and transposable elements contents. The pattern of microsatellite distribution may differ according to the different genomic regions (such as coding and non-coding sequences). The observed differences in many important microsatellite characteristics (especially the distribution with respect to motif length, type and repeat number) of these angiosperm species were generally accordant with their phylogenetic distance, which suggested that the evolutionary dynamics of microsatellite distribution may be generally consistent with plant divergence/evolution. Importantly, by comparing these microsatellite characteristics (especially the distribution with respect to motif type) the angiosperm species (aside from a few species) all clustered into two obviously different groups that were largely represented by monocots and dicots, suggesting a complex and generally dichotomous evolutionary pattern of microsatellite distribution in angiosperms. Polyploidy may lead to a slight increase in microsatellite frequency in the coding sequences and a significant decrease in microsatellite frequency in the whole genome/non-coding sequences, but have little effect on the microsatellite distribution with

  19. Re-evaluating the isotopic divide between angiosperms and gymnosperms using n-alkane δ13C values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, R. T.; McInerney, F. A.

    2009-12-01

    Angiosperm δ13C values are typically 1-3‰ more negative than those of co-occurring gymnosperms. This is known for both bulk leaf and compound-specific values from n-alkanes, which are stable, straight-chain hydrocarbons (C23-C35) found in the epicuticular leaf wax of vascular plants. For n-alkanes, there is a second distinction between the δ13C values of angiosperms and gymnosperms—δ13C values generally decrease with increasing chain-length in angiosperms, while in gymnosperms they increase. These two distinctions have been used to support the ‘plant community change hypothesis’ explaining the difference between the terrestrial and marine carbon isotope excursions during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM.) Preserved n-alkanes from terrestrial paleosols in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming reveal a negative carbon isotope excursion during the PETM of 4-5‰, which is 1-2‰ greater than the excursion recorded by marine carbonates. The local plant community, known from macrofossils as well as palynoflora, shifted from a deciduous, mixed angiosperm/gymnosperm flora to a suite of evergreen angiosperm species during the PETM. At the end of the PETM, the community returned to a mixed deciduous flora very similar to the original. This change in the plant community could thus magnify the terrestrial negative carbon isotope excursion to the degree necessary to explain its divergence from the marine record. However, the comparison between modern angiosperms and gymnosperms has been made mostly between broadleaf, deciduous angiosperms and evergreen, coniferous gymnosperms. New data analyzing deciduous, coniferous gymnosperms, including Metasequoia glyptostroboides and Taxodium distichum, suggests that the division previously ascribed to taxonomy may actually be based on leaf habit and physiology, specifically broadleaf, deciduous versus needle-leaf, evergreen plants. If differences in n-alkane δ13C values can be described not as angiosperms versus gymnosperms

  20. Identification of the structure and origin of thioacidolysis marker compounds for cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase deficiency in angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hoon; Ralph, John; Lu, Fachuang; Pilate, Gilles; Leplé, Jean-Charles; Pollet, Brigitte; Lapierre, Catherine

    2002-12-06

    Molecular marker compounds, derived from lignin by the thioacidolysis degradative method, for cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) deficiency in angiosperms have been structurally identified as indene derivatives. They are shown to derive from hydroxycinnamyl aldehydes that have undergone 8-O-4-cross-coupling during lignification. As such, they are valuable markers for ascertaining plant responses to various levels of CAD down-regulation. Their derivation illustrates that hydroxycinnamyl aldehydes incorporate into angiosperm lignins by endwise coupling reactions in much the same way as normal monolignols do, suggesting that the hydroxycinnamyl aldehydes should be considered authentic lignin precursors.

  1. Rate accelerations in nuclear 18S rDNA of mycoheterotrophic and parasitic angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Lemaire, Benny; Huysmans, Suzy; Smets, Erik; Merckx, Vincent

    2011-09-01

    Rate variation in genes from all three genomes has been observed frequently in plant lineages with a parasitic and mycoheterotrophic mode of life. While the loss of photosynthetic ability leads to a relaxation of evolutionary constraints in genes involved in the photosynthetic apparatus, it remains to be determined how prevalent increased substitution rates are in nuclear DNA of non-photosynthetic angiosperms. In this study we infer rates of molecular evolution of 18S rDNA of all parasitic and mycoheterotorphic plant families (except Lauraceae and Polygalaceae) using relative rate tests. In several holoparasitic and mycoheterotrophic plant lineages extremely high substitution rates are observed compared to other photosynthetic angiosperms. The position and frequency of these substitutions have been identified to understand the mutation dynamics of 18S rRNA in achlorophyllous plants. Despite the presence of significantly elevated substitution rates, very few mutations occur in major functional and structural regions of the small ribosomal molecule, providing evidence that the efficiency of the translational apparatus in non-photosynthetic plants has not been affected.

  2. Mechanisms for independent cytoplasmic inheritance of mitochondria and plastids in angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Noriko

    2010-03-01

    The inheritance of mitochondria and plastids in angiosperms has been categorized into three modes:maternal, biparental and paternal. Many mechanisms have been proposed for maternal inheritance, including: (1) physical exclusion of the organelle itself during pollenmitosis I (PMI); (2) elimination of the organelle by formation of enucleated cytoplasmic bodies (ECB); (3) autophagic degradation of organelles during male gametophyte development; (4) digestion of the organelle after fertilization; and (5)--the most likely possibility--digestion of organellar DNA in generative cells just after PMI. In detailed cytological observations, the presence or absence of mitochondrial and plastid DNA in generative cells corresponds to biparental/paternal inheritance or maternal inheritance of the respective organelle examined genetically. These improved cytological observations demonstrate that the replication or digestion of organellar DNA in young generative cells just after PMI is a critical point determining the mode of cytoplasmic inheritance. This review describes the independent control mechanisms in mitochondria and plastids that lead to differences in cytoplasmic inheritance in angiosperms.

  3. Molecular evolutionary rates predict both extinction and speciation in temperate angiosperm lineages

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A positive relationship between diversification (i.e., speciation) and nucleotide substitution rates is commonly reported for angiosperm clades. However, the underlying cause of this relationship is often unknown because multiple intrinsic and extrinsic factors can affect the relationship, and these have confounded previous attempts infer causation. Determining which factor drives this oft-reported correlation can lend insight into the macroevolutionary process. Results Using a new database of 13 time-calibrated angiosperm phylogenies based on internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences, and controlling for extrinsic variables of life history and habitat, I evaluated several potential intrinsic causes of this correlation. Speciation rates (λ) and relative extinction rates (ε) were positively correlated with mean substitution rates, but were uncorrelated with substitution rate heterogeneity. It is unlikely that the positive diversification-substitution correlation is due to accelerated molecular evolution during speciation (e.g., via enhanced selection or drift), because punctuated increases in ITS rate (i.e., greater mean and variation in ITS rate for rapidly speciating clades) were not observed. Instead, fast molecular evolution likely increases speciation rate (via increased mutational variation as a substrate for selection and reproductive isolation) but also increases extinction (via mutational genetic load). Conclusions In general, these results predict that clades with higher background substitution rates may undergo successful diversification under new conditions while clades with lower substitution rates may experience decreased extinction during environmental stasis. PMID:20515493

  4. The genome of the seagrass Zostera marina reveals angiosperm adaptation to the sea.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Jeanine L; Rouzé, Pierre; Verhelst, Bram; Lin, Yao-Cheng; Bayer, Till; Collen, Jonas; Dattolo, Emanuela; De Paoli, Emanuele; Dittami, Simon; Maumus, Florian; Michel, Gurvan; Kersting, Anna; Lauritano, Chiara; Lohaus, Rolf; Töpel, Mats; Tonon, Thierry; Vanneste, Kevin; Amirebrahimi, Mojgan; Brakel, Janina; Boström, Christoffer; Chovatia, Mansi; Grimwood, Jane; Jenkins, Jerry W; Jueterbock, Alexander; Mraz, Amy; Stam, Wytze T; Tice, Hope; Bornberg-Bauer, Erich; Green, Pamela J; Pearson, Gareth A; Procaccini, Gabriele; Duarte, Carlos M; Schmutz, Jeremy; Reusch, Thorsten B H; Van de Peer, Yves

    2016-02-18

    Seagrasses colonized the sea on at least three independent occasions to form the basis of one of the most productive and widespread coastal ecosystems on the planet. Here we report the genome of Zostera marina (L.), the first, to our knowledge, marine angiosperm to be fully sequenced. This reveals unique insights into the genomic losses and gains involved in achieving the structural and physiological adaptations required for its marine lifestyle, arguably the most severe habitat shift ever accomplished by flowering plants. Key angiosperm innovations that were lost include the entire repertoire of stomatal genes, genes involved in the synthesis of terpenoids and ethylene signalling, and genes for ultraviolet protection and phytochromes for far-red sensing. Seagrasses have also regained functions enabling them to adjust to full salinity. Their cell walls contain all of the polysaccharides typical of land plants, but also contain polyanionic, low-methylated pectins and sulfated galactans, a feature shared with the cell walls of all macroalgae and that is important for ion homoeostasis, nutrient uptake and O2/CO2 exchange through leaf epidermal cells. The Z. marina genome resource will markedly advance a wide range of functional ecological studies from adaptation of marine ecosystems under climate warming, to unravelling the mechanisms of osmoregulation under high salinities that may further inform our understanding of the evolution of salt tolerance in crop plants.

  5. Evolution of a unique anatomical precision in angiosperm leaf venation lifts constraints on vascular plant ecology

    PubMed Central

    Zwieniecki, Maciej A.; Boyce, Charles K.

    2014-01-01

    The main role of leaf venation is to supply water across the photosynthetic surface to keep stomata open and allow access to atmospheric CO2 despite evaporative demand. The optimal uniform delivery of water occurs when the distance between veins equals the depth of vein placement within the leaf away from the evaporative surface. As presented here, only angiosperms maintain this anatomical optimum across all leaf thicknesses and different habitats, including sheltered environments where this optimization need not be required. Intriguingly, basal angiosperm lineages tend to be underinvested hydraulically; uniformly high optimization is derived independently in the magnoliids, monocots and core eudicots. Gymnosperms and ferns, including available fossils, are limited by their inability to produce high vein densities. The common association of ferns with shaded humid environments may, in part, be a direct evolutionary consequence of their inability to produce hydraulically optimized leaves. Some gymnosperms do approach optimal vein placement, but only by virtue of their ability to produce thick leaves most appropriate in environments requiring water conservation. Thus, this simple anatomical metric presents an important perspective on the evolution and phylogenetic distribution of plant ecologies and further evidence that the vegetative biology of flowering plants—not just their reproductive biology—is unique. PMID:24478301

  6. Amborella trichopoda (Amborellaceae) and the evolutionary developmental origins of the angiosperm progamic phase.

    PubMed

    Williams, Joseph H

    2009-01-01

    A remarkable number of the defining features of flowering plants are expressed during the life history stage between pollination and fertilization. Hand pollinations of Amborella trichopoda (Amborellaceae) in New Caledonia show that when the stigma is first receptive, the female gametophyte is near maturity. Pollen germinates within 2 h, and pollen tubes with callose walls and plugs grow entirely within secretions from stigma to stylar canal and ovarian cavity. Pollen tubes enter the micropyle within 14 h, and double fertilization occurs within 24 h. Hundreds of pollen tubes grow to the base of the stigma, but few enter the open stylar canal. New data from Amborella, combined with a review of fertilization biology of other early-divergent angiosperms, show that an evolutionary transition from slow reproduction to rapid reproduction occurred early in angiosperm history. I identify increased pollen tube growth rates within novel secretory carpel tissues as the primary mechanism for such a shift. The opportunity for prezygotic selection through interactions with the stigma is also an important innovation. Pollen tube wall construction and substantial modifications of the ovule and its associated structures greatly facilitated a new kind of reproductive biology.

  7. The floral morphospace--a modern comparative approach to study angiosperm evolution.

    PubMed

    Chartier, Marion; Jabbour, Florian; Gerber, Sylvain; Mitteroecker, Philipp; Sauquet, Hervé; von Balthazar, Maria; Staedler, Yannick; Crane, Peter R; Schönenberger, Jürg

    2014-12-01

    Morphospaces are mathematical representations used for studying the evolution of morphological diversity and for the evaluation of evolved shapes among theoretically possible ones. Although widely used in zoology, they--with few exceptions--have been disregarded in plant science and in particular in the study of broad-scale patterns of floral structure and evolution. Here we provide basic information on the morphospace approach; we review earlier morphospace applications in plant science; and as a practical example, we construct and analyze a floral morphospace. Morphospaces are usually visualized with the help of ordination methods such as principal component analysis (PCA) or nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS). The results of these analyses are then coupled with disparity indices that describe the spread of taxa in the space. We discuss these methods and apply modern statistical tools to the first and only angiosperm-wide floral morphospace published by Stebbins in 1951. Despite the incompleteness of Stebbins’ original dataset, our analyses highlight major, angiosperm-wide trends in the diversity of flower morphology and thereby demonstrate the power of this previously neglected approach in plant science.

  8. The floral morphospace – a modern comparative approach to study angiosperm evolution

    PubMed Central

    Chartier, Marion; Jabbour, Florian; Gerber, Sylvain; Mitteroecker, Philipp; Sauquet, Hervé; von Balthazar, Maria; Staedler, Yannick; Crane, Peter R.; Schönenberger, Jürg

    2017-01-01

    Summary Morphospaces are mathematical representations used for studying the evolution of morphological diversity and for the evaluation of evolved shapes among theoretically possible ones. Although widely used in zoology, they – with few exceptions – have been disregarded in plant science and in particular in the study of broad-scale patterns of floral structure and evolution. Here we provide basic information on the morphospace approach; we review earlier morphospace applications in plant science; and as a practical example, we construct and analyze a floral morphospace. Morphospaces are usually visualized with the help of ordination methods such as principal component analysis (PCA) or nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS). The results of these analyses are then coupled with disparity indices that describe the spread of taxa in the space. We discuss these methods and apply modern statistical tools to the first and only angiosperm-wide floral morphospace published by Stebbins in 1951. Despite the incompleteness of Stebbins’ original dataset, our analyses highlight major, angiosperm-wide trends in the diversity of flower morphology and thereby demonstrate the power of this previously neglected approach in plant science. PMID:25539005

  9. Non-equilibrium dynamics and floral trait interactions shape extant angiosperm diversity

    PubMed Central

    O'Meara, Brian C.; Smith, Stacey D.; Armbruster, W. Scott; Harder, Lawrence D.; Hardy, Christopher R.; Hileman, Lena C.; Hufford, Larry; Litt, Amy; Magallón, Susana; Smith, Stephen A.; Stevens, Peter F.; Fenster, Charles B.; Diggle, Pamela K.

    2016-01-01

    Why are some traits and trait combinations exceptionally common across the tree of life, whereas others are vanishingly rare? The distribution of trait diversity across a clade at any time depends on the ancestral state of the clade, the rate at which new phenotypes evolve, the differences in speciation and extinction rates across lineages, and whether an equilibrium has been reached. Here we examine the role of transition rates, differential diversification (speciation minus extinction) and non-equilibrium dynamics on the evolutionary history of angiosperms, a clade well known for the abundance of some trait combinations and the rarity of others. Our analysis reveals that three character states (corolla present, bilateral symmetry, reduced stamen number) act synergistically as a key innovation, doubling diversification rates for lineages in which this combination occurs. However, this combination is currently less common than predicted at equilibrium because the individual characters evolve infrequently. Simulations suggest that angiosperms will remain far from the equilibrium frequencies of character states well into the future. Such non-equilibrium dynamics may be common when major innovations evolve rarely, allowing lineages with ancestral forms to persist, and even outnumber those with diversification-enhancing states, for tens of millions of years. PMID:27147092

  10. Floral specialization and angiosperm diversity: phenotypic divergence, fitness trade-offs and realized pollination accuracy.

    PubMed

    Armbruster, W Scott

    2014-01-01

    Plant reproduction by means of flowers has long been thought to promote the success and diversification of angiosperms. It remains unclear, however, how this success has come about. Do flowers, and their capacity to have specialized functions, increase speciation rates or decrease extinction rates? Is floral specialization fundamental or incidental to the diversification? Some studies suggest that the conclusions we draw about the role of flowers in the diversification and increased phenotypic disparity (phenotypic diversity) of angiosperms depends on the system. For orchids, for example, specialized pollination may have increased speciation rates, in part because in most orchids pollen is packed in discrete units so that pollination is precise enough to contribute to reproductive isolation. In most plants, however, granular pollen results in low realized pollination precision, and thus key innovations involving flowers more likely reflect reduced extinction rates combined with opportunities for evolution of greater phenotypic disparity (phenotypic diversity) and occupation of new niches. Understanding the causes and consequences of the evolution of specialized flowers requires knowledge of both the selective regimes and the potential fitness trade-offs in using more than one pollinator functional group. The study of floral function and flowering-plant diversification remains a vibrant evolutionary field. Application of new methods, from measuring natural selection to estimating speciation rates, holds much promise for improving our understanding of the relationship between floral specialization and evolutionary success.

  11. Specialized structures in the leaf epidermis of basal angiosperms: morphology, distribution, and homology.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Kevin J

    2006-05-01

    The morphology of specialized structures in the leaf epidermis of 32 species of basal (ANITA: Amborella, Nymphaeales, Illiciales, Trimeniaceae, and Austrobaileyaceae) angiosperms, representing all seven families and 11 of 14 genera, was investigated using light and scanning electron microscopy. Distribution, density, and size of structures were also measured, and character evolution was analyzed. Hydropotes are a synapomorphy of Nymphaeales and ethereal oil cells are a synapomorphy of Austrobaileyales, but uniseriate nonglandular trichomes appear to have arisen independently several times. Specialized structures are frequently characterized by adjacent epidermal cells that have striking similarities in their form and arrangement (i.e., architecture) to subsidiary cells of certain types of stomatal complexes. Additionally, forms intermediate to oil cells and stomata, to trichomes and stomata, and to hydropotes and oil cells are present in some taxa. Thus, all of these specialized structures and their adjacent epidermal cells form complexes that may be homologous with, and evolutionarily derived from stomatal complexes, and the specialized structure, or portion thereof, may be homologous to the stoma or guard mother cell. Improved knowledge of the morphology and evolution of these structures in the earliest branching extant angiosperm lineages has a bearing on many diverse areas of botany.

  12. Seedling Diversity in Hydatellaceae: Implications for the Evolution of Angiosperm Cotyledons

    PubMed Central

    Sokoloff, Dmitry D.; Remizowa, Margarita V.; Macfarlane, Terry D.; Tuckett, Renee E.; Ramsay, Margaret M.; Beer, Anton S.; Yadav, Shrirang R.; Rudall, Paula J.

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims Cotyledon number has long been a primary morphological feature distinguishing monocots from other angiosperms. Recent placement of Hydatellaceae near the early-divergent angiosperm order Nymphaeales, rather than in the monocot order Poales, has prompted reassessment of seedling morphology in this poorly known family. Methods Seedlings of six species representing all eco-geographical groups of Hydatellaceae are described using light and scanning electron microscopy. Key Results Two seedling types were discovered. Material examined of Trithuria submersa, T. bibracteata, T. austinensis and T. filamentosa possess a transparent bilobed sheathing structure that surrounds the main axis below the first foliage leaf. The seed coat is attached to the sheathing structure. Seedlings of Trithuria lanterna and T. konkanensis lack a sheathing structure, and the seed coat is attached to a short, narrow lateral outgrowth on the main axis of the seedling. Conclusions The sheathing structure that is present in seedlings of some Hydatellaceae could be homologized with the two united cotyledons of water lilies. It also resembles the single cotyledon of some monocots, and hence demonstrates a possible pathway of the origin of a monocot-like embryo, though no homology is implied. The sheathing structure is reduced in Trithuria lanterna and T. konkanensis, and the short, narrow outgrowth of its seedling could represent a single cotyledon. This synapomorphy suggests that the only Indian species of Hydatellaceae, T. konkanensis, is closer to the northern Australian T. lanterna than to the south-western Australian T. bibracteata. PMID:18032428

  13. Hummingbird pollination and the diversification of angiosperms: an old and successful association in Gesneriaceae.

    PubMed

    Serrano-Serrano, Martha Liliana; Rolland, Jonathan; Clark, John L; Salamin, Nicolas; Perret, Mathieu

    2017-04-12

    The effects of specific functional groups of pollinators in the diversification of angiosperms are still to be elucidated. We investigated whether the pollination shifts or the specific association with hummingbirds affected the diversification of a highly diverse angiosperm lineage in the Neotropics. We reconstructed a phylogeny of 583 species from the Gesneriaceae family and detected diversification shifts through time, inferred the timing and amount of transitions among pollinator functional groups, and tested the association between hummingbird pollination and speciation and extinction rates. We identified a high frequency of pollinator transitions, including reversals to insect pollination. Diversification rates of the group increased through time since 25 Ma, coinciding with the evolution of hummingbird-adapted flowers and the arrival of hummingbirds in South America. We showed that plants pollinated by hummingbirds have a twofold higher speciation rate compared with plants pollinated by insects, and that transitions among functional groups of pollinators had little impact on the diversification process. We demonstrated that floral specialization on hummingbirds for pollination has triggered rapid diversification in the Gesneriaceae family since the Early Miocene, and that it represents one of the oldest identified plant-hummingbird associations. Biotic drivers of plant diversification in the Neotropics could be more related to this specific type of pollinator (hummingbirds) than to shifts among different functional groups of pollinators. © 2017 The Author(s).

  14. Anatomical features associated with water transport in imperforate tracheary elements of vessel-bearing angiosperms

    PubMed Central

    Sano, Yuzou; Morris, Hugh; Shimada, Hiroshi; Ronse De Craene, Louis P.; Jansen, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Imperforate tracheary elements (ITEs) in wood of vessel-bearing angiosperms may or may not transport water. Despite the significance of hydraulic transport for defining ITE types, the combination of cell structure with water transport visualization in planta has received little attention. This study provides a quantitative analysis of structural features associated with the conductive vs. non-conductive nature of ITEs. Methods Visualization of water transport was studied in 15 angiosperm species by dye injection and cryo-scanning electron microscopy. Structural features of ITEs were examined using light and electron microscopy. Key Results ITEs connected to each other by pit pairs with complete pit membranes contributed to water transport, while cells showing pit membranes with perforations up to 2 µm were hydraulically not functional. A close relationship was found between pit diameter and pit density, with both characters significantly higher in conductive than in non-conductive cells. In species with both conductive and non-conductive ITEs, a larger diameter was characteristic of the conductive cells. Water transport showed no apparent relationship with the length of ITEs and vessel grouping. Conclusions The structure and density of pits between ITEs represent the main anatomical characters determining water transport. The pit membrane structure of ITEs provides a reliable, but practically challenging, criterion to determine their conductive status. It is suggested that the term tracheids should strictly be used for conductive ITEs, while fibre-tracheids and libriform fibres are non-conductive. PMID:21385773

  15. Recalibrated tree of leaf beetles (Chrysomelidae) indicates independent diversification of angiosperms and their insect herbivores.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Zurita, Jesús; Hunt, Toby; Kopliku, Fatos; Vogler, Alfried P

    2007-04-11

    The great diversity of the "Phytophaga" (weevils, longhorn beetles and leaf beetles) has been attributed to their co-radiation with the angiosperms based on matching age estimates for both groups, but phylogenetic information and molecular clock calibrations remain insufficient for this conclusion. A phylogenetic analysis of the leaf beetles (Chrysomelidae) was conducted based on three partial ribosomal gene markers (mitochondrial rrnL, nuclear small and large subunit rRNA) including over 3000 bp for 167 taxa representing most major chrysomelid lineages and outgroups. Molecular clock calibrations and confidence intervals were based on paleontological data from the oldest (K-T boundary) leaf beetle fossil, ancient feeding traces ascribed to hispoid Cassidinae, and the vicariant split of Nearctic and Palearctic members of the Timarchini. The origin of the Chrysomelidae was dated to 73-79 Mya (confidence interval 63-86 Mya), and most subfamilies were post-Cretaceous, consistent with the ages of all confirmed body fossils. Two major monocot feeding chrysomelid lineages formed widely separated clades, demonstrating independent colonization of this ancient (early Cretaceous) angiosperm lineage. Previous calibrations proposing a much older origin of Chrysomelidae were not supported. Therefore, chrysomelid beetles likely radiated long after the origin of their host lineages and their diversification was driven by repeated radiaton on a pre-existing diverse resource, rather than ancient host associations.

  16. Evidence for the monophyletic evolution of benzylisoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis in angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Liscombe, David K; MacLeod, Benjamin P; Loukanina, Natalia; Nandi, Owi I; Facchini, Peter J

    2005-10-01

    Benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIAs) consist of more than 2500 diverse structures largely restricted to the order Ranunculales and the eumagnoliids. However, BIAs also occur in the Rutaceae, Lauraceae, Cornaceae and Nelumbonaceae, and sporadically throughout the order Piperales. Several of these alkaloids function in the defense of plants against herbivores and pathogens--thus the capacity for BIA biosynthesis is expected to play an important role in the reproductive fitness of certain plants. Biochemical and molecular phylogenetic approaches were used to investigate the evolution of BIA biosynthesis in basal angiosperms. The occurrence of (S)-norcoclaurine synthase (NCS; EC 4.2.1.78) activity in 90 diverse plant species was compared to the distribution of BIAs superimposed onto a molecular phylogeny. These results support the monophyletic origin of BIA biosynthesis prior to the emergence of the eudicots. Phylogenetic analysis of NCS, berberine bridge enzyme and several O-methyltransferases suggest a latent molecular fingerprint for BIA biosynthesis in angiosperms not known to accumulate such alkaloids. The limited occurrence of BIAs outside the Ranunculales and eumagnoliids suggests the requirement for a highly specialized, yet evolutionarily unstable cellular platform to accommodate or reactivate the pathway in divergent taxa. The molecular cloning and functional characterization of NCS from opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) is also reported. Pathogenesis--related (PR)10 and Bet v 1 major allergen proteins share homology with NCS, but recombinant polypeptides were devoid of NCS activity.

  17. Evidence for the monophyletic evolution of benzylisoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis in angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Liscombe, David K; Macleod, Benjamin P; Loukanina, Natalia; Nandi, Owi I; Facchini, Peter J

    2005-06-01

    Benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIAs) consist of more than 2500 diverse structures largely restricted to the order Ranunculales and the eumagnoliids. However, BIAs also occur in the Rutaceae, Lauraceae, Cornaceae and Nelumbonaceae, and sporadically throughout the order Piperales. Several of these alkaloids function in the defense of plants against herbivores and pathogens - thus, the capacity for BIA biosynthesis is expected to play an important role in the reproductive fitness of certain plants. Biochemical and molecular phylogenetic approaches were used to investigate the evolution of BIA biosynthesis in basal angiosperms. The occurrence of (S)-norcoclaurine synthase (NCS; EC 4.2.1.78) activity in 90 diverse plant species was compared to the distribution of BIAs superimposed onto a molecular phylogeny. These results support the monophyletic origin of BIA biosynthesis prior to the emergence of the eudicots. Phylogenetic analyses of NCS, berberine bridge enzyme and several O-methyltransferases suggest a latent molecular fingerprint for BIA biosynthesis in angiosperms not known to accumulate such alkaloids. The limited occurrence of BIAs outside the Ranunculales and eumagnoliids suggests the requirement for a highly specialized, yet evolutionarily unstable cellular platform to accommodate or reactivate the pathway in divergent taxa. The molecular cloning and functional characterization of NCS from opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) is also reported. Pathogenesis-related (PR)10 and Bet v 1 major allergen proteins share homology with NCS, but recombinant polypeptides were devoid of NCS activity.

  18. Evolution of a unique anatomical precision in angiosperm leaf venation lifts constraints on vascular plant ecology.

    PubMed

    Zwieniecki, Maciej A; Boyce, Charles K

    2014-03-22

    The main role of leaf venation is to supply water across the photosynthetic surface to keep stomata open and allow access to atmospheric CO2 despite evaporative demand. The optimal uniform delivery of water occurs when the distance between veins equals the depth of vein placement within the leaf away from the evaporative surface. As presented here, only angiosperms maintain this anatomical optimum across all leaf thicknesses and different habitats, including sheltered environments where this optimization need not be required. Intriguingly, basal angiosperm lineages tend to be underinvested hydraulically; uniformly high optimization is derived independently in the magnoliids, monocots and core eudicots. Gymnosperms and ferns, including available fossils, are limited by their inability to produce high vein densities. The common association of ferns with shaded humid environments may, in part, be a direct evolutionary consequence of their inability to produce hydraulically optimized leaves. Some gymnosperms do approach optimal vein placement, but only by virtue of their ability to produce thick leaves most appropriate in environments requiring water conservation. Thus, this simple anatomical metric presents an important perspective on the evolution and phylogenetic distribution of plant ecologies and further evidence that the vegetative biology of flowering plants-not just their reproductive biology-is unique.

  19. Recalibrated Tree of Leaf Beetles (Chrysomelidae) Indicates Independent Diversification of Angiosperms and Their Insect Herbivores

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Zurita, Jesús; Hunt, Toby; Kopliku, Fatos; Vogler, Alfried P.

    2007-01-01

    Background The great diversity of the “Phytophaga” (weevils, longhorn beetles and leaf beetles) has been attributed to their co-radiation with the angiosperms based on matching age estimates for both groups, but phylogenetic information and molecular clock calibrations remain insufficient for this conclusion. Methodology A phylogenetic analysis of the leaf beetles (Chrysomelidae) was conducted based on three partial ribosomal gene markers (mitochondrial rrnL, nuclear small and large subunit rRNA) including over 3000 bp for 167 taxa representing most major chrysomelid lineages and outgroups. Molecular clock calibrations and confidence intervals were based on paleontological data from the oldest (K-T boundary) leaf beetle fossil, ancient feeding traces ascribed to hispoid Cassidinae, and the vicariant split of Nearctic and Palearctic members of the Timarchini. Principal Findings The origin of the Chrysomelidae was dated to 73–79 Mya (confidence interval 63–86 Mya), and most subfamilies were post-Cretaceous, consistent with the ages of all confirmed body fossils. Two major monocot feeding chrysomelid lineages formed widely separated clades, demonstrating independent colonization of this ancient (early Cretaceous) angiosperm lineage. Conclusions Previous calibrations proposing a much older origin of Chrysomelidae were not supported. Therefore, chrysomelid beetles likely radiated long after the origin of their host lineages and their diversification was driven by repeated radiaton on a pre-existing diverse resource, rather than ancient host associations. PMID:17426809

  20. Floral specialization and angiosperm diversity: phenotypic divergence, fitness trade-offs and realized pollination accuracy

    PubMed Central

    Armbruster, W. Scott

    2014-01-01

    Plant reproduction by means of flowers has long been thought to promote the success and diversification of angiosperms. It remains unclear, however, how this success has come about. Do flowers, and their capacity to have specialized functions, increase speciation rates or decrease extinction rates? Is floral specialization fundamental or incidental to the diversification? Some studies suggest that the conclusions we draw about the role of flowers in the diversification and increased phenotypic disparity (phenotypic diversity) of angiosperms depends on the system. For orchids, for example, specialized pollination may have increased speciation rates, in part because in most orchids pollen is packed in discrete units so that pollination is precise enough to contribute to reproductive isolation. In most plants, however, granular pollen results in low realized pollination precision, and thus key innovations involving flowers more likely reflect reduced extinction rates combined with opportunities for evolution of greater phenotypic disparity (phenotypic diversity) and occupation of new niches. Understanding the causes and consequences of the evolution of specialized flowers requires knowledge of both the selective regimes and the potential fitness trade-offs in using more than one pollinator functional group. The study of floral function and flowering-plant diversification remains a vibrant evolutionary field. Application of new methods, from measuring natural selection to estimating speciation rates, holds much promise for improving our understanding of the relationship between floral specialization and evolutionary success. PMID:24790124

  1. Non-equilibrium dynamics and floral trait interactions shape extant angiosperm diversity.

    PubMed

    O'Meara, Brian C; Smith, Stacey D; Armbruster, W Scott; Harder, Lawrence D; Hardy, Christopher R; Hileman, Lena C; Hufford, Larry; Litt, Amy; Magallón, Susana; Smith, Stephen A; Stevens, Peter F; Fenster, Charles B; Diggle, Pamela K

    2016-05-11

    Why are some traits and trait combinations exceptionally common across the tree of life, whereas others are vanishingly rare? The distribution of trait diversity across a clade at any time depends on the ancestral state of the clade, the rate at which new phenotypes evolve, the differences in speciation and extinction rates across lineages, and whether an equilibrium has been reached. Here we examine the role of transition rates, differential diversification (speciation minus extinction) and non-equilibrium dynamics on the evolutionary history of angiosperms, a clade well known for the abundance of some trait combinations and the rarity of others. Our analysis reveals that three character states (corolla present, bilateral symmetry, reduced stamen number) act synergistically as a key innovation, doubling diversification rates for lineages in which this combination occurs. However, this combination is currently less common than predicted at equilibrium because the individual characters evolve infrequently. Simulations suggest that angiosperms will remain far from the equilibrium frequencies of character states well into the future. Such non-equilibrium dynamics may be common when major innovations evolve rarely, allowing lineages with ancestral forms to persist, and even outnumber those with diversification-enhancing states, for tens of millions of years.

  2. Oil biosynthesis in a basal angiosperm: transcriptome analysis of Persea Americana mesocarp.

    PubMed

    Kilaru, Aruna; Cao, Xia; Dabbs, Parker B; Sung, Ha-Jung; Rahman, Md Mahbubur; Thrower, Nicholas; Zynda, Greg; Podicheti, Ram; Ibarra-Laclette, Enrique; Herrera-Estrella, Luis; Mockaitis, Keithanne; Ohlrogge, John B

    2015-08-16

    The mechanism by which plants synthesize and store high amounts of triacylglycerols (TAG) in tissues other than seeds is not well understood. The comprehension of controls for carbon partitioning and oil accumulation in nonseed tissues is essential to generate oil-rich biomass in perennial bioenergy crops. Persea americana (avocado), a basal angiosperm with unique features that are ancestral to most flowering plants, stores ~ 70 % TAG per dry weight in its mesocarp, a nonseed tissue. Transcriptome analyses of select pathways, from generation of pyruvate and leading up to TAG accumulation, in mesocarp tissues of avocado was conducted and compared with that of oil-rich monocot (oil palm) and dicot (rapeseed and castor) tissues to identify tissue- and species-specific regulation and biosynthesis of TAG in plants. RNA-Seq analyses of select lipid metabolic pathways of avocado mesocarp revealed patterns similar to that of other oil-rich species. However, only some predominant orthologs of the fatty acid biosynthetic pathway genes in this basal angiosperm were similar to those of monocots and dicots. The accumulation of TAG, rich in oleic acid, was associated with higher transcript levels for a putative stearoyl-ACP desaturase and endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated acyl-CoA synthetases, during fruit development. Gene expression levels for enzymes involved in terminal steps to TAG biosynthesis in the ER further indicated that both acyl-CoA-dependent and -independent mechanisms might play a role in TAG assembly, depending on the developmental stage of the fruit. Furthermore, in addition to the expression of an ortholog of WRINKLED1 (WRI1), a regulator of fatty acid biosynthesis, high transcript levels for WRI2-like and WRI3-like suggest a role for additional transcription factors in nonseed oil accumulation. Plastid pyruvate necessary for fatty acid synthesis is likely driven by the upregulation of genes involved in glycolysis and transport of its intermediates

  3. Weak coordination among petiole, leaf, vein, and gas-exchange traits across 41 Australian angiosperm species and its possible implications

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background and Aims Close coordination between leaf gas exchange and maximal hydraulic supply has been reported across diverse plant life-forms. However, recent reports suggest that this relationship may become weak or break down completely within the angiosperms. Methods To examine this possi...

  4. Thioacidolysis Marker Compound for Ferulic Acid Incorporation into Angiosperm Lignins (and an Indicator for Cinnamoyl-coenzyme-A Reductase Deficiency

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A molecular marker compound, derived from lignin by the thioacidolysis degradative method, for structures produced when ferulic acid is incorporated into lignification in angiosperms (poplar, Arabidopsis, tobacco) has been structurally identified as 1,2,2-trithioethyl ethylguaiacol [1-(4-hydroxy-3-m...

  5. Xanthophyll cycle pigment and antioxidant profiles of winter-red (anthocyanic) and winter-green (acyanic) angiosperm evergreen species

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Leaves of many angiosperm evergreen species turn red during winter, corresponding with synthesis of anthocyanin pigments. The function of winter color change, and why it occurs in some species and not others, is not yet understood. We hypothesized that anthocyanins play a compensatory photoprotect...

  6. Hydraulic safety margins and embolism reversal in stems and leaves: Why are conifers and angiosperms so different?

    Treesearch

    Daniel M. Johnson; Katherine A. McCulloh; David R. Woodruff; Frederick C. Meinzer

    2012-01-01

    Angiosperm and coniferous tree species utilize a continuum of hydraulic strategies. Hydraulic safety margins (defined as differences between naturally occurring xylem pressures and pressures that would cause hydraulic dysfunction, or differences between pressures resulting in loss of hydraulic function in adjacent organs (e.g., stems vs. leaves) tend to be much greater...

  7. Selaginella moellendorffii has a reduced and highly conserved expansin superfamily with genes more closely related to angiosperms than to bryophytes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Expansins are plant cell wall loosening proteins encoded by a large superfamily of genes, consisting of four families named EXPA, EXPB, EXLA, and EXLB. The evolution of the expansin superfamily is well understood in angiosperms, thanks to synteny-based evolutionary studies of the gene superfamily in Arabidopsis, rice, and Populus. Analysis of the expansin superfamily in the moss Physcomitrella patens revealed a superfamily without EXLA or EXLB genes that has evolved considerably and independently of angiosperm expansins. The sequencing of the Selaginella moellendorffii genome has allowed us to extend these analyses into an early diverging vascular plant. Results The expansin superfamily in Selaginella moellendorffii has now been assembled from genomic scaffolds. A smaller (and less diverse) superfamily is revealed, consistent with studies of other gene families in Selaginella. Selaginella has an expansin superfamily, which, like Physcomitrella, lacks EXLA or EXLB genes, but does contain two EXPA genes that are related to a particular Arabidopsis-rice clade involved in root hair development. Conclusions From sequence-based phylogenetic analysis, most Selaginella expansins lie outside the Arabidopsis-rice clades, leading us to estimate the minimum number of expansins present in the last common ancestor of Selaginella and angiosperms at 2 EXPA genes and 1 EXPB gene. These results confirm Selaginella as an important intermediary between bryophytes and angiosperms. PMID:23286898

  8. Conservation and canalization of gene expression during angiosperm diversification accompany the origin and evolution of the flower.

    PubMed

    Chanderbali, André S; Yoo, Mi-Jeong; Zahn, Laura M; Brockington, Samuel F; Wall, P Kerr; Gitzendanner, Matthew A; Albert, Victor A; Leebens-Mack, James; Altman, Naomi S; Ma, Hong; dePamphilis, Claude W; Soltis, Douglas E; Soltis, Pamela S

    2010-12-28

    The origin and rapid diversification of the angiosperms (Darwin's "Abominable Mystery") has engaged generations of researchers. Here, we examine the floral genetic programs of phylogenetically pivotal angiosperms (water lily, avocado, California poppy, and Arabidopsis) and a nonflowering seed plant (a cycad) to obtain insight into the origin and subsequent evolution of the flower. Transcriptional cascades with broadly overlapping spatial domains, resembling the hypothesized ancestral gymnosperm program, are deployed across morphologically intergrading organs in water lily and avocado flowers. In contrast, spatially discrete transcriptional programs in distinct floral organs characterize the more recently derived angiosperm lineages represented by California poppy and Arabidopsis. Deep evolutionary conservation in the genetic programs of putatively homologous floral organs traces to those operating in gymnosperm reproductive cones. Female gymnosperm cones and angiosperm carpels share conserved genetic features, which may be associated with the ovule developmental program common to both organs. However, male gymnosperm cones share genetic features with both perianth (sterile attractive and protective) organs and stamens, supporting the evolutionary origin of the floral perianth from the male genetic program of seed plants.

  9. Selaginella moellendorffii has a reduced and highly conserved expansin superfamily with genes more closely related to angiosperms than to bryophytes.

    PubMed

    Carey, Robert E; Hepler, Nathan K; Cosgrove, Daniel J

    2013-01-03

    Expansins are plant cell wall loosening proteins encoded by a large superfamily of genes, consisting of four families named EXPA, EXPB, EXLA, and EXLB. The evolution of the expansin superfamily is well understood in angiosperms, thanks to synteny-based evolutionary studies of the gene superfamily in Arabidopsis, rice, and Populus. Analysis of the expansin superfamily in the moss Physcomitrella patens revealed a superfamily without EXLA or EXLB genes that has evolved considerably and independently of angiosperm expansins. The sequencing of the Selaginella moellendorffii genome has allowed us to extend these analyses into an early diverging vascular plant. The expansin superfamily in Selaginella moellendorffii has now been assembled from genomic scaffolds. A smaller (and less diverse) superfamily is revealed, consistent with studies of other gene families in Selaginella. Selaginella has an expansin superfamily, which, like Physcomitrella, lacks EXLA or EXLB genes, but does contain two EXPA genes that are related to a particular Arabidopsis-rice clade involved in root hair development. From sequence-based phylogenetic analysis, most Selaginella expansins lie outside the Arabidopsis-rice clades, leading us to estimate the minimum number of expansins present in the last common ancestor of Selaginella and angiosperms at 2 EXPA genes and 1 EXPB gene. These results confirm Selaginella as an important intermediary between bryophytes and angiosperms.

  10. Conservation and canalization of gene expression during angiosperm diversification accompany the origin and evolution of the flower

    PubMed Central

    Chanderbali, André S.; Yoo, Mi-Jeong; Zahn, Laura M.; Brockington, Samuel F.; Wall, P. Kerr; Gitzendanner, Matthew A.; Albert, Victor A.; Leebens-Mack, James; Altman, Naomi S.; Ma, Hong; dePamphilis, Claude W.; Soltis, Douglas E.; Soltis, Pamela S.

    2010-01-01

    The origin and rapid diversification of the angiosperms (Darwin's “Abominable Mystery”) has engaged generations of researchers. Here, we examine the floral genetic programs of phylogenetically pivotal angiosperms (water lily, avocado, California poppy, and Arabidopsis) and a nonflowering seed plant (a cycad) to obtain insight into the origin and subsequent evolution of the flower. Transcriptional cascades with broadly overlapping spatial domains, resembling the hypothesized ancestral gymnosperm program, are deployed across morphologically intergrading organs in water lily and avocado flowers. In contrast, spatially discrete transcriptional programs in distinct floral organs characterize the more recently derived angiosperm lineages represented by California poppy and Arabidopsis. Deep evolutionary conservation in the genetic programs of putatively homologous floral organs traces to those operating in gymnosperm reproductive cones. Female gymnosperm cones and angiosperm carpels share conserved genetic features, which may be associated with the ovule developmental program common to both organs. However, male gymnosperm cones share genetic features with both perianth (sterile attractive and protective) organs and stamens, supporting the evolutionary origin of the floral perianth from the male genetic program of seed plants. PMID:21149731

  11. A set of conserved PCR primers for the analysis of simple sequence repeat polymorphisms in chloroplast genomes of dicotyledonous angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Weising, K; Gardner, R C

    1999-02-01

    Short runs of mononucleotide repeats are present in chloroplast genomes of higher plants. In soybean, rice, and pine, PCR (polymerase chain reaction) with flanking primers has shown that the numbers of A or T residues in such repeats are variable among closely related taxa. Here we describe a set of primers for studying mononucleotide repeat variation in chloroplast DNA of angiosperms where database information is limited. A total of 39 (A)n and (T)n repeats (n > or = 10) were identified in the tobacco chloroplast genome, and DNA sequences encompassing these 39 regions were aligned with orthologous DNA sequences in the databases. Consensus primer pairs were constructed and used to amplify total genomic DNA from a hierarchical set of angiosperms. All 10 primer pairs generated PCR products from members of the Solanaceae, and 8 of the 10 were also functional in most other angiosperm species. Levels of interspecific polymorphism within the genera Nicotiana, Lycopersicon (both Solanaceae), and Actinidia (Actinidiaceae) proved to be high, while intraspecific variation in Nicotiana tabacum, Lycopersicon esculentum, and Actinidia chinensis was limited. Sequence analysis of PCR products from three primer pairs revealed variable numbers of A, G, and T residues in mononucleotide arrays as the major cause of polymorphism in Actinidia. Our results suggest that universal primers targeted to mononucleotide repeats may serve as general tools to study chloroplast variation in angiosperms.

  12. Complete plastid genome sequence of Daucus carota: implications for biotechnology and phylogeny of angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Ruhlman, Tracey; Lee, Seung-Bum; Jansen, Robert K; Hostetler, Jessica B; Tallon, Luke J; Town, Christopher D; Daniell, Henry

    2006-08-31

    Carrot (Daucus carota) is a major food crop in the US and worldwide. Its capacity for storage and its lifecycle as a biennial make it an attractive species for the introduction of foreign genes, especially for oral delivery of vaccines and other therapeutic proteins. Until recently efforts to express recombinant proteins in carrot have had limited success in terms of protein accumulation in the edible tap roots. Plastid genetic engineering offers the potential to overcome this limitation, as demonstrated by the accumulation of BADH in chromoplasts of carrot taproots to confer exceedingly high levels of salt resistance. The complete plastid genome of carrot provides essential information required for genetic engineering. Additionally, the sequence data add to the rapidly growing database of plastid genomes for assessing phylogenetic relationships among angiosperms. The complete carrot plastid genome is 155,911 bp in length, with 115 unique genes and 21 duplicated genes within the IR. There are four ribosomal RNAs, 30 distinct tRNA genes and 18 intron-containing genes. Repeat analysis reveals 12 direct and 2 inverted repeats > or = 30 bp with a sequence identity > or = 90%. Phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequences for 61 protein-coding genes using both maximum parsimony (MP) and maximum likelihood (ML) were performed for 29 angiosperms. Phylogenies from both methods provide strong support for the monophyly of several major angiosperm clades, including monocots, eudicots, rosids, asterids, eurosids II, euasterids I, and euasterids II. The carrot plastid genome contains a number of dispersed direct and inverted repeats scattered throughout coding and non-coding regions. This is the first sequenced plastid genome of the family Apiaceae and only the second published genome sequence of the species-rich euasterid II clade. Both MP and ML trees provide very strong support (100% bootstrap) for the sister relationship of Daucus with Panax in the euasterid II clade. These

  13. Complete plastid genome sequence of Daucus carota: Implications for biotechnology and phylogeny of angiosperms

    PubMed Central

    Ruhlman, Tracey; Lee, Seung-Bum; Jansen, Robert K; Hostetler, Jessica B; Tallon, Luke J; Town, Christopher D; Daniell, Henry

    2006-01-01

    Background Carrot (Daucus carota) is a major food crop in the US and worldwide. Its capacity for storage and its lifecycle as a biennial make it an attractive species for the introduction of foreign genes, especially for oral delivery of vaccines and other therapeutic proteins. Until recently efforts to express recombinant proteins in carrot have had limited success in terms of protein accumulation in the edible tap roots. Plastid genetic engineering offers the potential to overcome this limitation, as demonstrated by the accumulation of BADH in chromoplasts of carrot taproots to confer exceedingly high levels of salt resistance. The complete plastid genome of carrot provides essential information required for genetic engineering. Additionally, the sequence data add to the rapidly growing database of plastid genomes for assessing phylogenetic relationships among angiosperms. Results The complete carrot plastid genome is 155,911 bp in length, with 115 unique genes and 21 duplicated genes within the IR. There are four ribosomal RNAs, 30 distinct tRNA genes and 18 intron-containing genes. Repeat analysis reveals 12 direct and 2 inverted repeats ≥ 30 bp with a sequence identity ≥ 90%. Phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequences for 61 protein-coding genes using both maximum parsimony (MP) and maximum likelihood (ML) were performed for 29 angiosperms. Phylogenies from both methods provide strong support for the monophyly of several major angiosperm clades, including monocots, eudicots, rosids, asterids, eurosids II, euasterids I, and euasterids II. Conclusion The carrot plastid genome contains a number of dispersed direct and inverted repeats scattered throughout coding and non-coding regions. This is the first sequenced plastid genome of the family Apiaceae and only the second published genome sequence of the species-rich euasterid II clade. Both MP and ML trees provide very strong support (100% bootstrap) for the sister relationship of Daucus with Panax in the

  14. Gymnosperms have increased capacity for electron leakage to oxygen (Mehler and PTOX reactions) in photosynthesis compared with angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Shirao, Masayoshi; Kuroki, Shu; Kaneko, Kaoru; Kinjo, Yuriko; Tsuyama, Michito; Förster, Britta; Takahashi, Shunichi; Badger, Murray R

    2013-07-01

    Oxygen plays an important role in photosynthesis by participating in a number of O2-consuming reactions. O2 inhibits CO2 fixation by stimulating photorespiration, thus reducing plant production. O2 interacts with photosynthetic electron transport in the chloroplasts' thylakoids in two main ways: by accepting electrons from PSI (Mehler reaction); and by accepting electrons from reduced plastoquinone (PQ) mediated by the plastid terminal oxidase (PTOX). In this study, we show, using 101 plant species, that there is a difference in the potential for photosynthetic electron flow to O2 between angiosperms and gymnosperms. We found, from measurements of Chl fluorescence and leaf absorbance at 830 nm, (i) that electron outflow from PSII, as determined by decay kinetics of Chl fluorescence after application of a saturating light pulse, is more rapid in gymnosperms than in angiosperms; (ii) that the reaction center Chl of PSI (P700) is rapidly and highly oxidized in gymnosperms during induction of photosynthesis; and (iii) that these differences are dependent on oxygen. Finally, rates of O2 uptake measured by mass spectrometry in the absence of photorespiration were significantly promoted by illumination in dark-adapted leaves of gymnosperms, but not in those of angiosperms. The light-stimulated O2 uptake was around 10% of the maximum O2 evolution in gymnosperms and 1% in angiosperms. These results suggest that gymnosperms have increased capacity for electron leakage to oxygen in photosynthesis compared with angiosperms. The involvement of the Mehler reaction and PTOX in the electron flow to O2 is discussed.

  15. A single evolutionary innovation drives the deep evolution of symbiotic N2-fixation in angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Werner, Gijsbert D A; Cornwell, William K; Sprent, Janet I; Kattge, Jens; Kiers, E Toby

    2014-06-10

    Symbiotic associations occur in every habitat on earth, but we know very little about their evolutionary histories. Current models of trait evolution cannot adequately reconstruct the deep history of symbiotic innovation, because they assume homogenous evolutionary processes across millions of years. Here we use a recently developed, heterogeneous and quantitative phylogenetic framework to study the origin of the symbiosis between angiosperms and nitrogen-fixing (N2) bacterial symbionts housed in nodules. We compile the largest database of global nodulating plant species and reconstruct the symbiosis' evolution. We identify a single, cryptic evolutionary innovation driving symbiotic N2-fixation evolution, followed by multiple gains and losses of the symbiosis, and the subsequent emergence of 'stable fixers' (clades extremely unlikely to lose the symbiosis). Originating over 100 MYA, this innovation suggests deep homology in symbiotic N2-fixation. Identifying cryptic innovations on the tree of life is key to understanding the evolution of complex traits, including symbiotic partnerships.

  16. A single evolutionary innovation drives the deep evolution of symbiotic N2-fixation in angiosperms

    PubMed Central

    Werner, Gijsbert D. A.; Cornwell, William K.; Sprent, Janet I.; Kattge, Jens; Kiers, E. Toby

    2014-01-01

    Symbiotic associations occur in every habitat on earth, but we know very little about their evolutionary histories. Current models of trait evolution cannot adequately reconstruct the deep history of symbiotic innovation, because they assume homogenous evolutionary processes across millions of years. Here we use a recently developed, heterogeneous and quantitative phylogenetic framework to study the origin of the symbiosis between angiosperms and nitrogen-fixing (N2) bacterial symbionts housed in nodules. We compile the largest database of global nodulating plant species and reconstruct the symbiosis’ evolution. We identify a single, cryptic evolutionary innovation driving symbiotic N2-fixation evolution, followed by multiple gains and losses of the symbiosis, and the subsequent emergence of ‘stable fixers’ (clades extremely unlikely to lose the symbiosis). Originating over 100 MYA, this innovation suggests deep homology in symbiotic N2-fixation. Identifying cryptic innovations on the tree of life is key to understanding the evolution of complex traits, including symbiotic partnerships. PMID:24912610

  17. Large distribution and high sequence identity of a Copia-type retrotransposon in angiosperm families.

    PubMed

    Dias, Elaine Silva; Hatt, Clémence; Hamon, Serge; Hamon, Perla; Rigoreau, Michel; Crouzillat, Dominique; Carareto, Claudia Marcia Aparecida; de Kochko, Alexandre; Guyot, Romain

    2015-09-01

    Retrotransposons are the main component of plant genomes. Recent studies have revealed the complexity of their evolutionary dynamics. Here, we have identified Copia25 in Coffea canephora, a new plant retrotransposon belonging to the Ty1-Copia superfamily. In the Coffea genomes analyzed, Copia25 is present in relatively low copy numbers and transcribed. Similarity sequence searches and PCR analyses show that this retrotransposon with LTRs (Long Terminal Repeats) is widely distributed among the Rubiaceae family and that it is also present in other distantly related species belonging to Asterids, Rosids and monocots. A particular situation is the high sequence identity found between the Copia25 sequences of Musa, a monocot, and Ixora, a dicot species (Rubiaceae). Our results reveal the complexity of the evolutionary dynamics of the ancient element Copia25 in angiosperm, involving several processes including sequence conservation, rapid turnover, stochastic losses and horizontal transfer.

  18. How does timing, duration and severity of heat stress influence pollen-pistil interactions in angiosperms?

    PubMed

    Snider, John L; Oosterhuis, Derrick M

    2011-07-01

    Reproductive development in sexual plants is substantially more sensitive to high temperature stress than vegetative development, resulting in negative implications for food and fiber production under the moderate temperature increases projected to result from global climate change. High temperature exposure either during early pollen development or during the progamic phase of pollen development will negatively impact pollen performance and reproductive output; both phases of pollen development are considered exceptionally sensitive to moderate heat stress. However, moderately elevated temperatures either before or during the progamic phase can limit fertilization by negatively impacting important pollen pistil interactions required for successful pollen tube growth toward the ovules. This minireview identifies the impacts of heat stress on pollen-pistil interactions and sexual reproduction in angiosperms. A special emphasis is placed on the biochemical response of the pistil to moderately high temperature and the resultant influence on in vivo pollen performance and fertilization.

  19. How does timing, duration and severity of heat stress influence pollen-pistil interactions in angiosperms?

    PubMed Central

    Oosterhuis, Derrick M

    2011-01-01

    Reproductive development in sexual plants is substantially more sensitive to high temperature stress than vegetative development, resulting in negative implications for food and fiber production under the moderate temperature increases projected to result from global climate change. High temperature exposure either during early pollen development or during the progamic phase of pollen development will negatively impact pollen performance and reproductive output; both phases of pollen development are considered exceptionally sensitive to moderate heat stress. However, moderately elevated temperatures either before or during the progamic phase can limit fertilization by negatively impacting important pollen pistil interactions required for successful pollen tube growth toward the ovules. This mini-review identifies the impacts of heat stress on pollen-pistil interactions and sexual reproduction in angiosperms. A special emphasis is placed on the biochemical response of the pistil to moderately high temperature and the resultant influence on in vivo pollen performance and fertilization. PMID:21628998

  20. Uneven HAK/KUP/KT Protein Diversity Among Angiosperms: Species Distribution and Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Nieves-Cordones, Manuel; Ródenas, Reyes; Chavanieu, Alain; Rivero, Rosa M.; Martinez, Vicente; Gaillard, Isabelle; Rubio, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    HAK/KUP/KT K+ transporters have been widely associated with K+ transport across membranes in bacteria, fungi, and plants. Indeed some members of the plant HAK/KUP/KT family contribute to root K+ uptake, notably at low external concentrations. Besides such role in acquisition, several studies carried out in Arabidopsis have shown that other members are also involved in developmental processes. With the publication of new plant genomes, a growing interest on plant species other than Arabidopsis has become evident. In order to understand HAK/KUP/KT diversity in these new plant genomes, we discuss the evolutionary trends of 913 HAK/KUP/KT sequences identified in 46 genomes revealing five major groups with an uneven distribution among angiosperms, notably between dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous species. This information evidenced the richness of crop genomes in HAK/KUP/KT transporters and supports their study for unraveling novel physiological roles of such transporters in plants. PMID:26904084

  1. Uneven HAK/KUP/KT Protein Diversity Among Angiosperms: Species Distribution and Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Nieves-Cordones, Manuel; Ródenas, Reyes; Chavanieu, Alain; Rivero, Rosa M; Martinez, Vicente; Gaillard, Isabelle; Rubio, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    HAK/KUP/KT K(+) transporters have been widely associated with K(+) transport across membranes in bacteria, fungi, and plants. Indeed some members of the plant HAK/KUP/KT family contribute to root K(+) uptake, notably at low external concentrations. Besides such role in acquisition, several studies carried out in Arabidopsis have shown that other members are also involved in developmental processes. With the publication of new plant genomes, a growing interest on plant species other than Arabidopsis has become evident. In order to understand HAK/KUP/KT diversity in these new plant genomes, we discuss the evolutionary trends of 913 HAK/KUP/KT sequences identified in 46 genomes revealing five major groups with an uneven distribution among angiosperms, notably between dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous species. This information evidenced the richness of crop genomes in HAK/KUP/KT transporters and supports their study for unraveling novel physiological roles of such transporters in plants.

  2. Diversity and composition of herbaceous angiosperms along gradients of elevation and forest-use intensity.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Díaz, Jorge Antonio; Krömer, Thorsten; Kreft, Holger; Gerold, Gerhard; Carvajal-Hernández, César Isidro; Heitkamp, Felix

    2017-01-01

    Terrestrial herbs are important elements of tropical forests; however, there is a lack of research on their diversity patterns and how they respond to different intensities of forest-use. The aim of this study was to analyze the diversity of herbaceous angiosperms along gradients of elevation (50 m to 3500 m) and forest-use intensity on the eastern slopes of the Cofre de Perote, Veracruz, Mexico. We recorded the occurrence of all herbaceous angiosperm species within 120 plots of 20 m x 20 m each. The plots were located at eight study locations separated by ~500 m in elevation and within three different habitats that differ in forest-use intensity: old-growth, degraded, and secondary forest. We analyzed species richness and floristic composition of herb communities among different elevations and habitats. Of the 264 plant species recorded, 31 are endemic to Mexico. Both α- and γ-diversity display a hump-shaped relation to elevation peaking at 2500 m and 3000 m, respectively. The relative contribution of between-habitat β-diversity to γ-diversity also showed a unimodal hump whereas within-habitat β-diversity declined with elevation. Forest-use intensity did not affect α-diversity, but β-diversity was high between old-growth and secondary forests. Overall, γ-diversity peaked at 2500 m (72 species), driven mainly by high within- and among-habitat β-diversity. We infer that this belt is highly sensitive to anthropogenic disturbance and forest-use intensification. At 3100 m, high γ-diversity (50 species) was driven by high α- and within-habitat β-diversity. There, losing a specific forest area might be compensated if similar assemblages occur in nearby areas. The high β-diversity and endemism suggest that mixes of different habitats are needed to sustain high γ-richness of terrestrial herbs along this elevational gradient.

  3. Evolution of Xylan Substitution Patterns in Gymnosperms and Angiosperms: Implications for Xylan Interaction with Cellulose.

    PubMed

    Busse-Wicher, Marta; Li, An; Silveira, Rodrigo L; Pereira, Caroline S; Tryfona, Theodora; Gomes, Thiago C F; Skaf, Munir S; Dupree, Paul

    2016-08-01

    The interaction between cellulose and xylan is important for the load-bearing secondary cell wall of flowering plants. Based on the precise, evenly spaced pattern of acetyl and glucuronosyl (MeGlcA) xylan substitutions in eudicots, we recently proposed that an unsubstituted face of xylan in a 2-fold helical screw can hydrogen bond to the hydrophilic surfaces of cellulose microfibrils. In gymnosperm cell walls, any role for xylan is unclear, and glucomannan is thought to be the important cellulose-binding polysaccharide. Here, we analyzed xylan from the secondary cell walls of the four gymnosperm lineages (Conifer, Gingko, Cycad, and Gnetophyta). Conifer, Gingko, and Cycad xylan lacks acetylation but is modified by arabinose and MeGlcA. Interestingly, the arabinosyl substitutions are located two xylosyl residues from MeGlcA, which is itself placed precisely on every sixth xylosyl residue. Notably, the Gnetophyta xylan is more akin to early-branching angiosperms and eudicot xylan, lacking arabinose but possessing acetylation on alternate xylosyl residues. All these precise substitution patterns are compatible with gymnosperm xylan binding to hydrophilic surfaces of cellulose. Molecular dynamics simulations support the stable binding of 2-fold screw conifer xylan to the hydrophilic face of cellulose microfibrils. Moreover, the binding of multiple xylan chains to adjacent planes of the cellulose fibril stabilizes the interaction further. Our results show that the type of xylan substitution varies, but an even pattern of xylan substitution is maintained among vascular plants. This suggests that 2-fold screw xylan binds hydrophilic faces of cellulose in eudicots, early-branching angiosperm, and gymnosperm cell walls. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Stomatal vs. genome size in angiosperms: the somatic tail wagging the genomic dog?

    PubMed Central

    Hodgson, J. G.; Sharafi, M.; Jalili, A.; Díaz, S.; Montserrat-Martí, G.; Palmer, C.; Cerabolini, B.; Pierce, S.; Hamzehee, B.; Asri, Y.; Jamzad, Z.; Wilson, P.; Raven, J. A.; Band, S. R.; Basconcelo, S.; Bogard, A.; Carter, G.; Charles, M.; Castro-Díez, P.; Cornelissen, J. H. C.; Funes, G.; Jones, G.; Khoshnevis, M.; Pérez-Harguindeguy, N.; Pérez-Rontomé, M. C.; Shirvany, F. A.; Vendramini, F.; Yazdani, S.; Abbas-Azimi, R.; Boustani, S.; Dehghan, M.; Guerrero-Campo, J.; Hynd, A.; Kowsary, E.; Kazemi-Saeed, F.; Siavash, B.; Villar-Salvador, P.; Craigie, R.; Naqinezhad, A.; Romo-Díez, A.; de Torres Espuny, L.; Simmons, E.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Genome size is a function, and the product, of cell volume. As such it is contingent on ecological circumstance. The nature of ‘this ecological circumstance’ is, however, hotly debated. Here, we investigate for angiosperms whether stomatal size may be this ‘missing link’: the primary determinant of genome size. Stomata are crucial for photosynthesis and their size affects functional efficiency. Methods Stomatal and leaf characteristics were measured for 1442 species from Argentina, Iran, Spain and the UK and, using PCA, some emergent ecological and taxonomic patterns identified. Subsequently, an assessment of the relationship between genome-size values obtained from the Plant DNA C-values database and measurements of stomatal size was carried out. Key Results Stomatal size is an ecologically important attribute. It varies with life-history (woody species < herbaceous species < vernal geophytes) and contributes to ecologically and physiologically important axes of leaf specialization. Moreover, it is positively correlated with genome size across a wide range of major taxa. Conclusions Stomatal size predicts genome size within angiosperms. Correlation is not, however, proof of causality and here our interpretation is hampered by unexpected deficiencies in the scientific literature. Firstly, there are discrepancies between our own observations and established ideas about the ecological significance of stomatal size; very large stomata, theoretically facilitating photosynthesis in deep shade, were, in this study (and in other studies), primarily associated with vernal geophytes of unshaded habitats. Secondly, the lower size limit at which stomata can function efficiently, and the ecological circumstances under which these minute stomata might occur, have not been satisfactorally resolved. Thus, our hypothesis, that the optimization of stomatal size for functional efficiency is a major ecological determinant of genome size, remains unproven

  5. Early to mid Cretaceous vegetation of northern Gondwana - the onset of angiosperm radiation and climatic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coiffard, Clément; Mohr, Barbara

    2014-05-01

    Early Cretaceous Northern Gondwana seems to be the cradle of many early flowering plants, especially mesangiosperms that include magnoliids and monocots and basal eudicots. So far our knowledge was based mostly on dispersed pollen and small flowering structures. New fossil finds from Brazil include more complete plants with attached roots, leaves and flowers. Taxonomic studies show that these fossils belonged to clades which are, based on macroscopic characters and molecular data, also considered to be rather basal, such as several members of Nymphaeales, Piperales, Laurales, Magnoliales, monocots (Araliaceae) and Ranunculales. Various parameters can be used in order to understand the physiology and habitat of these plants. Adaptations to climate and habitat are partly mirrored in their root anatomy (evidence of tap roots), leaf size and shape, leaf anatomy including presence of glands, and distribution of stomata. An important ecophysiolocical parameter is vein density as an indicator for the plants' cabability to pump water, and the stomatal pore index, representing the proportion of stomatal pore area on the leaf surface, which is related to the water vapor resistance of the leaf epidermis. During the mid-Cretaceous leaf vein density started to surpass that of gymnosperms, one factor that made angiosperms very successful in conquering many kinds of new environments. Using data on these parameters we deduce that during the late Early to mid Cretaceous angiosperms were already diverse, being represented as both herbs, with aquatic members, such as Nymphaeles, helophytes (e.g. some monocots) and plants that may have grown in shady locations. Other life forms included shrubs and perhaps already small trees (e.g. Magnoliales). These flowering plants occupied various habitats, ranging from xeric (e.g. some Magnoliales) to mesic and shady (e.g. Piperales) or aquatic (e.g. Araceae, Nymphaeales). Overall, it seems that several of these plants clearly exhibited some

  6. Stomatal vs. genome size in angiosperms: the somatic tail wagging the genomic dog?

    PubMed

    Hodgson, J G; Sharafi, M; Jalili, A; Díaz, S; Montserrat-Martí, G; Palmer, C; Cerabolini, B; Pierce, S; Hamzehee, B; Asri, Y; Jamzad, Z; Wilson, P; Raven, J A; Band, S R; Basconcelo, S; Bogard, A; Carter, G; Charles, M; Castro-Díez, P; Cornelissen, J H C; Funes, G; Jones, G; Khoshnevis, M; Pérez-Harguindeguy, N; Pérez-Rontomé, M C; Shirvany, F A; Vendramini, F; Yazdani, S; Abbas-Azimi, R; Boustani, S; Dehghan, M; Guerrero-Campo, J; Hynd, A; Kowsary, E; Kazemi-Saeed, F; Siavash, B; Villar-Salvador, P; Craigie, R; Naqinezhad, A; Romo-Díez, A; de Torres Espuny, L; Simmons, E

    2010-04-01

    Genome size is a function, and the product, of cell volume. As such it is contingent on ecological circumstance. The nature of 'this ecological circumstance' is, however, hotly debated. Here, we investigate for angiosperms whether stomatal size may be this 'missing link': the primary determinant of genome size. Stomata are crucial for photosynthesis and their size affects functional efficiency. Stomatal and leaf characteristics were measured for 1442 species from Argentina, Iran, Spain and the UK and, using PCA, some emergent ecological and taxonomic patterns identified. Subsequently, an assessment of the relationship between genome-size values obtained from the Plant DNA C-values database and measurements of stomatal size was carried out. Stomatal size is an ecologically important attribute. It varies with life-history (woody species < herbaceous species < vernal geophytes) and contributes to ecologically and physiologically important axes of leaf specialization. Moreover, it is positively correlated with genome size across a wide range of major taxa. Stomatal size predicts genome size within angiosperms. Correlation is not, however, proof of causality and here our interpretation is hampered by unexpected deficiencies in the scientific literature. Firstly, there are discrepancies between our own observations and established ideas about the ecological significance of stomatal size; very large stomata, theoretically facilitating photosynthesis in deep shade, were, in this study (and in other studies), primarily associated with vernal geophytes of unshaded habitats. Secondly, the lower size limit at which stomata can function efficiently, and the ecological circumstances under which these minute stomata might occur, have not been satisfactorally resolved. Thus, our hypothesis, that the optimization of stomatal size for functional efficiency is a major ecological determinant of genome size, remains unproven.

  7. Adaptive evolution of seed oil content in angiosperms: accounting for the global patterns of seed oils.

    PubMed

    Sanyal, Anushree; Decocq, Guillaume

    2016-09-09

    Studies of the biogeographic distribution of seed oil content in plants are fundamental to understanding the mechanisms of adaptive evolution in plants as seed oil is the primary energy source needed for germination and establishment of plants. However, seed oil content as an adaptive trait in plants is poorly understood. Here, we examine the adaptive nature of seed oil content in 168 angiosperm families occurring in different biomes across the world. We also explore the role of multiple seed traits like seed oil content and composition in plant adaptation in a phylogenetic and nonphylogenetic context. It was observed that the seed oil content in tropical plants (28.4 %) was significantly higher than the temperate plants (24.6 %). A significant relationship between oil content and latitude was observed in three families Papaveraceae, Sapindaceae and Sapotaceae indicating that selective forces correlated with latitude influence seed oil content. Evaluation of the response of seed oil content and composition to latitude and the correlation between seed oil content and composition showed that multiple seed traits, seed oil content and composition contribute towards plant adaptation. Investigation of the presence or absence of phylogenetic signals across 168 angiosperm families in 62 clades revealed that members of seven clades evolved to have high or low seed oil content independently as they did not share a common evolutionary path. The study provides us an insight into the biogeographical distribution and the adaptive role of seed oil content in plants. The study indicates that multiple seed traits like seed oil content and the fatty acid composition of the seed oils determine the fitness of the plants and validate the adaptive hypothesis that seed oil quantity and quality are crucial to plant adaptation.

  8. Intron loss and gain during evolution of the catalase gene family in angiosperms.

    PubMed Central

    Frugoli, J A; McPeek, M A; Thomas, T L; McClung, C R

    1998-01-01

    Angiosperms (flowering plants), including both monocots and dicots, contain small catalase gene families. In the dicot, Arabidopsis thaliana, two catalase (CAT) genes, CAT1 and CAT3, are tightly linked on chromosome 1 and a third, CAT2, which is more similar to CAT1 than to CAT3, is unlinked on chromosome 4. Comparison of positions and numbers of introns among 13 angiosperm catalase genomic sequences indicates that intron positions are conserved, and suggests that an ancestral catalase gene common to monocots and dicots contained seven introns. Arabidopsis CAT2 has seven introns; both CAT1 and CAT3 have six introns in positions conserved with CAT2, but each has lost a different intron. We suggest the following sequence of events during the evolution of the Arabidopsis catalase gene family. An initial duplication of an ancestral catalase gene gave rise to CAT3 and CAT1. CAT1 then served as the template for a second duplication, yielding CAT2. Intron losses from CAT1 and CAT3 followed these duplications. One subclade of monocot catalases has lost all but the 5'-most and 3'-most introns, which is consistent with a mechanism of intron loss by replacement of an ancestral intron-containing gene with a reverse-transcribed DNA copy of a fully spliced mRNA. Following this event of concerted intron loss, the Oryza sativa (rice, a monocot) CAT1 lineage acquired an intron in a novel position, consistent with a mechanism of intron gain at proto-splice sites. PMID:9584109

  9. Influence of biological and social-historical variables on the time taken to describe an angiosperm.

    PubMed

    Cavallin, Evelin K S; Munhoz, Cássia B R; Harris, Stephen A; Villarroel, Daniel; Proença, Carolyn E B

    2016-11-01

    By convention, scientific naming of angiosperm species began in 1753; it is estimated that 10-20% of species remain undescribed. To complete this task before rare, undescribed species go extinct, a better understanding of the description process is needed. The South American Cerrado biodiversity hotspot was considered a suitable model due to a high diversity of plants, habitats, and social history of species description. A randomized sample of 214 species (2% of the angiosperm flora) and 22 variables were analyzed using multivariate analyses and analysis of variance. Plants with wide global distributions, recorded from many areas, and above 2.6 m were described significantly earlier than narrowly distributed, uncommon species of smaller stature. The beginning of the career of the botanist who first collected the species was highly significant, with an average delay between first collection and description of 29 yr, and between type collection and description 19 yr; standard deviations were high and rose over time. Over a third of first collections were not cited in descriptions. Trends such as scientific specialization and decline of undescribed species were highlighted. Descriptions that involved potential collaboration between collectors and authors were significantly slower than those that did not. Results support four recommendations to hasten discovery of new species: (1) preferential collecting of plants below 2.6 m, at least in the Cerrado; (2) access to undetermined material in herbaria; (3) fieldwork in areas where narrow-endemic species occur; (4) fieldwork by knowledgeable botanists followed by descriptive activity by the same. © 2016 Proenca et al. Published by the Botanical Society of America. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License (CC-BY-NC).

  10. Inferring phylogenies with incomplete data sets: a 5-gene, 567-taxon analysis of angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Burleigh, J Gordon; Hilu, Khidir W; Soltis, Douglas E

    2009-03-17

    Phylogenetic analyses of angiosperm relationships have used only a small percentage of available sequence data, but phylogenetic data matrices often can be augmented with existing data, especially if one allows missing characters. We explore the effects on phylogenetic analyses of adding 378 matK sequences and 240 26S rDNA sequences to the complete 3-gene, 567-taxon angiosperm phylogenetic matrix of Soltis et al. We performed maximum likelihood bootstrap analyses of the complete, 3-gene 567-taxon data matrix and the incomplete, 5-gene 567-taxon data matrix. Although the 5-gene matrix has more missing data (27.5%) than the 3-gene data matrix (2.9%), the 5-gene analysis resulted in higher levels of bootstrap support. Within the 567-taxon tree, the increase in support is most evident for relationships among the 170 taxa for which both matK and 26S rDNA sequences were added, and there is little gain in support for relationships among the 119 taxa having neither matK nor 26S rDNA sequences. The 5-gene analysis also places the enigmatic Hydrostachys in Lamiales (BS = 97%) rather than in Cornales (BS = 100% in 3-gene analysis). The placement of Hydrostachys in Lamiales is unprecedented in molecular analyses, but it is consistent with embryological and morphological data. Adding available, and often incomplete, sets of sequences to existing data sets can be a fast and inexpensive way to increase support for phylogenetic relationships and produce novel and credible new phylogenetic hypotheses.

  11. The Causes of Self‐sterility in Natural Populations of the Relictual Angiosperm, Illicium floridanum (Illiciaceae)

    PubMed Central

    KOEHL, VERONICA; THIEN, LEONARD B.; HEIJ, ELIZABETH G.; SAGE, TAMMY L.

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims Illicium floridanum, a species belonging to the basal extant angiosperm taxon Illiciaceae, reportedly exhibits self‐incompatibility (SI). To date, the site and timing of SI within the carpel of this species remains unidentified. Thus, the objective of this research was to determine the cellular and temporal aspects of SI in I. floridanum. • Methods Following controlled application of cross‐ and self‐pollen in natural populations of I. floridanum, embryo sac development and temporal aspects of stigma receptivity, as well as pollen tube growth, fertilization, and embryo and endosperm development, were investigated with the aid of light and fluorescence microscopy. • Key Results Flowers of I. floridanum exhibited complete dichogamy whereby stigmas only supported cross‐ and self‐pollen tube growth prior to anther dehiscence. In contrast to earlier reports of SI in this species, a prezygotic SI resulting in rejection of self‐pollen tube growth at the stigma was absent and there were no significant differences between cross‐ versus self‐pollen germination and pollen tube growth within the style and ovary during the first 5 d after pollination. Structural development of the four‐celled embryo sac was not differentially influenced by pollen type as noted to occur in other angiosperms with late‐acting ovarian SI. The ovule micropyle and embryo sac were penetrated equally by cross‐ and self‐pollen tubes. In addition, there were no statistically significant differences in cross‐ versus self‐fertilization. A resting zygote and multicellular endosperm at a variety of developmental stages was present by 30 d after application of cross‐ or self‐pollen. • Conclusions In the clear absence of a prezygotic SI that was previously reported to result in differential self‐pollen tube growth at the stigma, self‐ sterility in I. floridanum is likely due to early‐acting inbreeding depression, although late‐acting post

  12. Diversity and composition of herbaceous angiosperms along gradients of elevation and forest-use intensity

    PubMed Central

    Krömer, Thorsten; Kreft, Holger; Gerold, Gerhard; Carvajal-Hernández, César Isidro; Heitkamp, Felix

    2017-01-01

    Terrestrial herbs are important elements of tropical forests; however, there is a lack of research on their diversity patterns and how they respond to different intensities of forest-use. The aim of this study was to analyze the diversity of herbaceous angiosperms along gradients of elevation (50 m to 3500 m) and forest-use intensity on the eastern slopes of the Cofre de Perote, Veracruz, Mexico. We recorded the occurrence of all herbaceous angiosperm species within 120 plots of 20 m x 20 m each. The plots were located at eight study locations separated by ~500 m in elevation and within three different habitats that differ in forest-use intensity: old-growth, degraded, and secondary forest. We analyzed species richness and floristic composition of herb communities among different elevations and habitats. Of the 264 plant species recorded, 31 are endemic to Mexico. Both α- and γ-diversity display a hump-shaped relation to elevation peaking at 2500 m and 3000 m, respectively. The relative contribution of between-habitat β-diversity to γ-diversity also showed a unimodal hump whereas within-habitat β-diversity declined with elevation. Forest-use intensity did not affect α-diversity, but β-diversity was high between old-growth and secondary forests. Overall, γ-diversity peaked at 2500 m (72 species), driven mainly by high within- and among-habitat β-diversity. We infer that this belt is highly sensitive to anthropogenic disturbance and forest-use intensification. At 3100 m, high γ-diversity (50 species) was driven by high α- and within-habitat β-diversity. There, losing a specific forest area might be compensated if similar assemblages occur in nearby areas. The high β-diversity and endemism suggest that mixes of different habitats are needed to sustain high γ-richness of terrestrial herbs along this elevational gradient. PMID:28792536

  13. A high-resolution angiosperm pollen reference record covering Albian mid-latitude coastal deposits (Lusitanian Basin, Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horikx, Maurits; Dinis, Jorge L.; Heimhofer, Ulrich

    2013-04-01

    The Lusitanian Basin in Portugal is one of the most important areas to investigate the rise and radiation of early angiosperms. Here, important micro-, macro- and mesofossil remains including pollen, reproductive organs, fruits and seeds have been found. In this study, a high-resolution Early to Late Albian pollen record from a thick (~160m) coastal succession in the Lusitanian Basin containing mixed carbonate-siliciclastic near-shore deposits is generated. The outcrop is located near the town of Ericeira (São Julião) and exhibits some important new features compared to existing records from the Lusitanian basin. The comparatively proximal depositional setting and high sedimentation rate of the São Julião outcrop is well suited for high-resolution palynological sampling compared to previously studied, more distal outcrops. In addition, the succession covers almost the entire Albian including a thick interval representing Late Albian strata. Dating of the succession was obtained using dinoflagellate cyst biostratigraphy, bulk C-isotope analysis and strontium isotope analysis of low-Mg oysters and rudist shells. The high-resolution pollen record shows a distinct radiation pattern of early angiosperm pollen as well as significant changes in the accompanying palynoflora. During most of the section gymnosperm pollen types such as Classopollis spp., Inaperturopollenites spp. and Exesipollenites spp. are dominant. Angiosperm pollen abundances do not exceed 20%, although angiosperms increase slightly from the Early Albian onwards. Monoaperturate grains of magnoliid or monocot affinity remain the most dominant angiosperm pollen type, both in abundances and diversity. Tricolpate and zonoaperturate pollen grains are also present. In addition, the occurrence of several odd-shaped Dichastopollenites-type pollen types is intriguing. The palynological results indicate a warm and dry climate during most of the Albian, although a rise in the spores over pollen ratio in the

  14. Contrasting trait syndromes in angiosperms and conifers are associated with different responses of tree growth to temperature on a large scale.

    PubMed

    Carnicer, Jofre; Barbeta, Adrià; Sperlich, Dominik; Coll, Marta; Peñuelas, Josep

    2013-01-01

    Recent large-scale studies of tree growth in the Iberian Peninsula reported contrasting positive and negative effects of temperature in Mediterranean angiosperms and conifers. Here we review the different hypotheses that may explain these trends and propose that the observed contrasting responses of tree growth to temperature in this region could be associated with a continuum of trait differences between angiosperms and conifers. Angiosperm and conifer trees differ in the effects of phenology in their productivity, in their growth allometry, and in their sensitivity to competition. Moreover, angiosperms and conifers significantly differ in hydraulic safety margins, sensitivity of stomatal conductance to vapor-pressure deficit (VPD), xylem recovery capacity or the rate of carbon transfer. These differences could be explained by key features of the xylem such as non-structural carbohydrate content (NSC), wood parenchymal fraction or wood capacitance. We suggest that the reviewed trait differences define two contrasting ecophysiological strategies that may determine qualitatively different growth responses to increased temperature and drought. Improved reciprocal common garden experiments along altitudinal or latitudinal gradients would be key to quantify the relative importance of the different hypotheses reviewed. Finally, we show that warming impacts in this area occur in an ecological context characterized by the advance of forest succession and increased dominance of angiosperm trees over extensive areas. In this context, we examined the empirical relationships between the responses of tree growth to temperature and hydraulic safety margins in angiosperm and coniferous trees. Our findings suggest a future scenario in Mediterranean forests characterized by contrasting demographic responses in conifer and angiosperm trees to both temperature and forest succession, with increased dominance of angiosperm trees, and particularly negative impacts in pines.

  15. Contrasting trait syndromes in angiosperms and conifers are associated with different responses of tree growth to temperature on a large scale

    PubMed Central

    Carnicer, Jofre; Barbeta, Adrià; Sperlich, Dominik; Coll, Marta; Peñuelas, Josep

    2013-01-01

    Recent large-scale studies of tree growth in the Iberian Peninsula reported contrasting positive and negative effects of temperature in Mediterranean angiosperms and conifers. Here we review the different hypotheses that may explain these trends and propose that the observed contrasting responses of tree growth to temperature in this region could be associated with a continuum of trait differences between angiosperms and conifers. Angiosperm and conifer trees differ in the effects of phenology in their productivity, in their growth allometry, and in their sensitivity to competition. Moreover, angiosperms and conifers significantly differ in hydraulic safety margins, sensitivity of stomatal conductance to vapor-pressure deficit (VPD), xylem recovery capacity or the rate of carbon transfer. These differences could be explained by key features of the xylem such as non-structural carbohydrate content (NSC), wood parenchymal fraction or wood capacitance. We suggest that the reviewed trait differences define two contrasting ecophysiological strategies that may determine qualitatively different growth responses to increased temperature and drought. Improved reciprocal common garden experiments along altitudinal or latitudinal gradients would be key to quantify the relative importance of the different hypotheses reviewed. Finally, we show that warming impacts in this area occur in an ecological context characterized by the advance of forest succession and increased dominance of angiosperm trees over extensive areas. In this context, we examined the empirical relationships between the responses of tree growth to temperature and hydraulic safety margins in angiosperm and coniferous trees. Our findings suggest a future scenario in Mediterranean forests characterized by contrasting demographic responses in conifer and angiosperm trees to both temperature and forest succession, with increased dominance of angiosperm trees, and particularly negative impacts in pines. PMID

  16. Gene expression analysis of aquatic angiosperms podostemaceae to gain insight into the evolution of their enigmatic morphology.

    PubMed

    Koi, Satoshi; Katayama, Natsu

    2013-01-01

    Podostemaceae is a family of aquatic angiosperms growing submerged on rocks in fast-flowing water and called moss-like or alga-like riverweeds. It evolved remarkable innovations to adapt to such an extreme environment, one of which is reduced shoots borne on roots adhering to rock surface. Recent observations revealed that the basal subfamily Tristichoideae, like most other angiosperms, has typical shoot apical meristems (SAMs). In species of the subfamily Podostemoideae, however, shoot apical meristems (SAMs) are not formed during development and new leaves arise from the meristematic basal region of preexisting leaves. The genetic basis of this shoot organogenesis process, e.g., the expression patterns of genes homologous to transcription factors regulating shoot development, is essential to better understand the evolution of Podostemaceae. A gene expression analysis found that the SAM-less Podostemoideae leaf has mixed identity of SAM and leaf, and provided insight into the evolution of the shoot in Podostemaceae.

  17. Floristic survey of herbaceous and subshrubby aquatic and palustrine angiosperms of Viruá National Park, Roraima, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa, Suzana Maria; Barbosa, Tiago Domingos Mouzinho; Bittrich, Volker; do Amaral, Maria do Carmo Estanislau

    2016-01-01

    We provide and discuss a floristic survey of herbaceous and subshrubby aquatic and palustrine angiosperms of Viruá National Park (VNP). The VNP is located in the northern Amazon basin and displays phytophysiognomies distributed in a mosaic where these plants occur, as flooded forests, hydromorphic white-sand savannas, "buritizais" and waterbodies. After expeditions between February/2010 and January/2015 and the analysis of specimens from regional herbaria, we list 207 species of herbaceous and subshrubby aquatic and palustrine angiosperms for the VNP, distributed in 85 genera in 37 families. We recorded six new occurrences for Brazil, two for the northern Brazilian region and 21 for Roraima state. These new occurrences, added to the other species listed here, highlight the floristic similarity between the study site and the Guiana Shield, an adjacent phytogeographical unit and geologically related to the origin of white-sand savannas.

  18. Floristic survey of herbaceous and subshrubby aquatic and palustrine angiosperms of Viruá National Park, Roraima, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Suzana Maria; Barbosa, Tiago Domingos Mouzinho; Bittrich, Volker; do Amaral, Maria do Carmo Estanislau

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We provide and discuss a floristic survey of herbaceous and subshrubby aquatic and palustrine angiosperms of Viruá National Park (VNP). The VNP is located in the northern Amazon basin and displays phytophysiognomies distributed in a mosaic where these plants occur, as flooded forests, hydromorphic white-sand savannas, “buritizais” and waterbodies. After expeditions between February/2010 and January/2015 and the analysis of specimens from regional herbaria, we list 207 species of herbaceous and subshrubby aquatic and palustrine angiosperms for the VNP, distributed in 85 genera in 37 families. We recorded six new occurrences for Brazil, two for the northern Brazilian region and 21 for Roraima state. These new occurrences, added to the other species listed here, highlight the floristic similarity between the study site and the Guiana Shield, an adjacent phytogeographical unit and geologically related to the origin of white-sand savannas. PMID:26884704

  19. Universal hydraulics of the flowering plants: vessel diameter scales with stem length across angiosperm lineages, habits and climates.

    PubMed

    Olson, Mark E; Anfodillo, Tommaso; Rosell, Julieta A; Petit, Giai; Crivellaro, Alan; Isnard, Sandrine; León-Gómez, Calixto; Alvarado-Cárdenas, Leonardo O; Castorena, Matiss

    2014-08-01

    Angiosperm hydraulic performance is crucially affected by the diameters of vessels, the water conducting conduits in the wood. Hydraulic optimality models suggest that vessels should widen predictably from stem tip to base, buffering hydrodynamic resistance accruing as stems, and therefore conductive path, increase in length. Data from 257 species (609 samples) show that vessels widen as predicted with distance from the stem apex across angiosperm orders, habits and habitats. Standardising for stem length, vessels are only slightly wider in warm/moist climates and in lianas, showing that, rather than climate or habit, plant size is by far the main driver of global variation in mean vessel diameter. Terminal twig vessels become wider as plant height increases, while vessel density decreases slightly less than expected tip to base. These patterns lead to testable predictions regarding evolutionary strategies allowing plants to minimise carbon costs per unit leaf area even as height increases.

  20. A new angiosperm from the Crato Formation (Araripe Basin, Brazil) and comments on the Early Cretaceous monocotyledons.

    PubMed

    De Lima, Flaviana J; Saraiva, Antônio A F; Da Silva, Maria A P; Bantim, Renan A M; Sayão, Juliana M

    2014-12-01

    The Crato Formation paleoflora is one of the few equatorial floras of the Early Cretaceous. It is diverse, with many angiosperms, especially representatives of the clades magnoliids, monocotyledons and eudicots, which confirms the assumption that angiosperm diversity during the last part of the Early Cretaceous was reasonably high. The morphology of a new fossil monocot is studied and compared to all other Smilacaceae genus, especially in the venation. Cratosmilax jacksoni gen. et sp. nov. can be related to the Smilacaceae family, becoming the oldest record of the family so far. Cratosmilax jacksoni is a single mesophilic leaf with entire margins, ovate shape, with acute apex and base, four venation orders and main acrodromous veins. It is the first terrestrial monocot described for the Crato Formation, monocots were previously described for the same formation, and are considered aquatics. Cratosmilax jacksoni is the first fossil record of Smilacaceae in Brazil, and the oldest record of this family.

  1. Palynofloras from the upper Barremian-Aptian Nishihiro Formation (Outer Zone of southwest Japan) and the appearance of angiosperms in Japan.

    PubMed

    Legrand, Julien; Yamada, Toshihiro; Nishida, Harufumi

    2014-03-01

    Palynomorphs are reported for the first time from the Nishihiro Formation (Wakayama Prefecture, Outer Zone of southwest Japan). The Nishihiro Formation consists of brackish to shallow marine deposits, dated as late Barremian to Aptian from geological correlations. Spores prevail in the assemblage, representing Filicopsida (mainly Cyatheaceae and Anemiaceae), Marchantiopsida and Lycopsida. The pollen assemblage is dominated by Coniferales, whereas Gnetales and Bennettitales/Cycadales are only rarely observed. Moreover, we report angiosperm pollen grains of the genus Retimonocolpites for the first time in the Early Cretaceous sediments of Japan. Pollen grains of the Retimonocolpites Group are typical of early angiosperms and commonly found in assemblages from the early to mid-Cretaceous of all paleofloristic provinces. Until this paper, the oldest angiosperm fossils in Japan were represented by a single seed and a wood reported from the Albian of Hokkaido. The oldest reliable angiosperm pollen grains were reported in Hokkaido from the Cenomanian, and in Honshu from the Coniacian. Thus, Retimonocolpites pollen grains reported in the present study represent the oldest record of angiosperms in Japan. They indicate an appearance of the angiosperms in Japan older than thought until now, which is consistent with that proposed elsewhere in eastern Asia.

  2. Analysis of conifer FLOWERING LOCUS T/TERMINAL FLOWER1-like genes provides evidence for dramatic biochemical evolution in the angiosperm FT lineage.

    PubMed

    Klintenäs, Maria; Pin, Pierre A; Benlloch, Reyes; Ingvarsson, Pär K; Nilsson, Ove

    2012-12-01

    In flowering plants, homologs of the Arabidopsis phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein (PEBP) FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) are key components in controlling flowering time. We show here that, although FT homologs are found in all angiosperms with completed genome sequences, there is no evidence to date that FT-like genes exist in other groups of plants. Through phylogeny reconstructions and heterologous expression, we examined the biochemical function of the Picea (spruces) and Pinus (pines) PEBP families - two gymnosperm taxa phylogenetically distant from the angiosperms. We have defined a lineage of gymnosperm PEBP genes, termed the FT/TERMINAL FLOWER1 (TFL1)-like genes, that share sequence characteristics with both the angiosperm FT- and TFL1-like clades. When expressed in Arabidopsis, FT/TFL1-like genes repressed flowering, indicating that the proteins are biochemically more similar to the angiosperm TFL1-like proteins than to the FT-like proteins. This suggests that the regulation of the vegetative-to-reproductive switch might differ in gymnosperms compared with angiosperms. Molecular evolution studies suggest that plasticity at exon 4 contributes to the divergence of FT-like function in floral promotion. In addition, the presence of FT-like genes in basal angiosperms indicates that the FT-like function emerged at an early stage during the evolution of flowering plants as a means to regulate flowering time.

  3. Chemical Composition of Soil Horizons and Aggregate Size Fractions Under the Hawaiian Fern Dicranopteris and Angiosperm Cheirodendrom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, C. E.; Amatangelo, K.; Neff, J.

    2007-12-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) inherits much of its chemical nature from the dominant vegetation, including phenolic (lignin-derived), aromatic, and aliphatic (cutin and wax-derived) compounds. However, relatively stable recalcitrant compounds may also be formed as a result of condensation and complexation reactions through decomposition and protected with association with mineral particles. The Hawaiian fern species Dicranopteris decomposes more slowly than the angiosperm, Cheirodendrom due to high concentrations of recalcitrant C compounds. These aliphatic fern leaf waxes are well-preserved and may comprise a large portion of the recalcitrant organic matter in these soils. Our objective was to determine the chemical composition of the SOM under the O- (litter-dominated) and the A- (mineral) horizons formed under fern and angiosperm vegetation. To determine the effect of mineral-association, we fractioned the soil into four size classes; 850-590 μm, 590-180 μm, 180-53 μm and <53 μm and characterized the SOM via pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (py-GC/MS). As the soils developed from the O- to the A-horizon, there was a decrease of lignin-derived phenolic compounds and an increase in more recalcitrant, aromatic and aliphatic C. Soils under ferns had greater relative concentrations of phenolic compounds, while the angiosperms had greater concentrations of fatty-acid methyl esters and furans (some polysaccharide-derived). Differences between size fractions were most evident in the O-horizon of both species. Recalcitrant fern-derived cutin and leaf waxes (alkene and alkanes structures) occurred in the 180-53 μm fraction, which has been shown to be the most stable of the aggregate-size fractions. Soils developed under fern versus angiosperm vegetation have distinct chemical signatures, which likely determine the recalcitrance of the SOM.

  4. Large-scale phylogenetic analyses reveal multiple gains of actinorhizal nitrogen-fixing symbioses in angiosperms associated with climate change.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong-Lei; Wang, Wei; Mortimer, Peter E; Li, Rui-Qi; Li, De-Zhu; Hyde, Kevin D; Xu, Jian-Chu; Soltis, Douglas E; Chen, Zhi-Duan

    2015-09-10

    Nitrogen is fundamental to all life forms and is also one of the most limiting of nutrients for plant growth. Several clades of angiosperms have developed symbiotic relationships with actinorhizal bacteria that fix atmospheric nitrogen and increase access to this nutrient. However, the evolutionary patterns of actinorhizal nitrogen-fixing symbioses remain unclear to date. Furthermore the underlying environmental pressures that led to the gain of symbiotic actinorhizal nitrogen fixation have never been investigated. Here, we present the most comprehensive genus-level phylogenetic analysis of the nitrogen-fixing angiosperms based on three plastid loci. We found that actinorhizal nitrogen-fixing species are distributed in nine distinct lineages. By dating the branching events, we determined that seven actinorhizal nitrogen-fixing lineages originated during the Late Cretaceous, and two more emerged during the Eocene. We put forward a hypothesis that multiple gains of actinorhizal nitrogen-fixing symbioses in angiosperms may have been associated with increased global temperatures and high levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide during these two time periods, as well as the availability of open habitats with high light conditions. Our nearly complete genus-level time-tree for the nitrogen-fixing clade is a significant advance in understanding the evolutionary and ecological background of this important symbiosis between plants and bacteria.

  5. Evolutionarily stable size of a megagametophyte: evolution of tiny megagametophytes of angiosperms from large ones of gymnosperms.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Satoki

    2013-02-01

    To examine the factors favoring large megagametophytes of gymnosperms and tiny ones of angiosperms, a game model for seed production was developed in which megagametophytes growing in the same female parent compete for resources provided by the parent. In the model, megagametophytes may continue to grow until seed completion or may cease to grow at a certain time and regrow at pollination or fertilization. Autonomous abortion of unpollinated or unfertilized megagametophytes may occur either at pollination or fertilization. Those megagametophytes absorb a certain amount of resources before abortion, due to constraints in the signal process, in addition to the resources absorbed before pollination or fertilization. It was found that both growth habits can be the ESS: megagametophytes continue to grow without cessation and monopolize resources, such as gymnosperms, or cease to grow until fertilization to reduce the loss of resources due to autonomous abortion, such as angiosperms. The former and the latter are the ESS if the time interval between pollination and fertilization is long and short, respectively. Thus, the fertilization interval may be a critical factor selecting for large megagametophytes of gymnosperms or tiny ones of angiosperms.

  6. An unusual form of reaction wood in Koromiko [Hebe salicifolia G. Forst. (Pennell)], a southern hemisphere angiosperm.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Miho; Becker, Verena K; Altaner, Clemens M

    2012-02-01

    Koromiko [Hebe salicifolia G. Forst. (Pennell)] is a woody angiosperm native to New Zealand and Chile. Hebe spp. belong to the otherwise herbaceous family Plantaginaceae in the order Lamiales. Reaction wood exerting expansional forces was found on the lower side of leaning H. salicifolia stems. Such reaction wood is atypical for angiosperms, which commonly form contracting reaction wood on the upper side of leaning stems. Reaction wood typical for angiosperms is formed by species in other families in the order Lamiales. This suggests that the form of reaction wood is specific to the family level. Functionally the reaction wood of H. salicifolia is similar to that found in gymnosperms, which both act by pushing. However, their chemical, anatomical and physical characteristics are different. Typical features of reaction wood present in gymnosperms such as high density, thick-walled rounded cells and the presence of (1 → 4)-β-galactan in the secondary cell wall layer are absent in H. salicifolia reaction wood. Reaction wood of H. salicifolia varies from normal wood in having a higher microfibril angle, which is likely to determine the direction of generated maturation stresses.

  7. The levels of male gametic mitochondrial DNA are highly regulated in angiosperms with regard to mitochondrial inheritance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan-Yang; Zhang, Quan; Liu, Yang; Lin, Zhi-Fu; Zhang, Shao-Xiang; Sun, Meng-Xiang; Sodmergen

    2010-07-01

    The mechanisms that regulate mitochondrial inheritance are not yet clear, even though it is 100 years since the first description of non-Mendelian genetics. Here, we quantified the copy numbers of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in the gametic cells of angiosperm species. We demonstrate that each egg cell from Arabidopsis thaliana, Antirrhinum majus, and Nicotiana tabacum possesses 59.0, 42.7, and 73.0 copies of mtDNA on average, respectively. These values are equivalent to those in Arabidopsis mesophyll cells, at 61.7 copies per cell. On the other hand, sperm or generative cells from Arabidopsis, A. majus, and N. tabacum possess minor amounts of mtDNA, at 0.083, 0.47, and 1 copy on average, respectively. We further reveal a 50-fold degradation of mtDNA during pollen development in A. majus. In contrast, markedly high levels of mtDNA are found in the male gametic cells of Cucumis melo and Pelargonium zonale (1296.3 and 256.7 copies, respectively). Our results provide direct evidence for mitochondrial genomic insufficiency in the eggs and somatic cells and indicate that a male gamete of an angiosperm may possess mtDNA at concentrations as high as 21-fold (C. melo) or as low as 0.1% (Arabidopsis) of the levels in somatic cells. These observations reveal the existence of a strong regulatory system for the male gametic mtDNA levels in angiosperms with regard to mitochondrial inheritance.

  8. Patterns of gene duplication and functional evolution during the diversification of the AGAMOUS subfamily of MADS box genes in angiosperms.

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Elena M; Jaramillo, M Alejandra; Di Stilio, Verónica S

    2004-01-01

    Members of the AGAMOUS (AG) subfamily of MIKC-type MADS-box genes appear to control the development of reproductive organs in both gymnosperms and angiosperms. To understand the evolution of this subfamily in the flowering plants, we have identified 26 new AG-like genes from 15 diverse angiosperm species. Phylogenetic analyses of these genes within a large data set of AG-like sequences show that ancient gene duplications were critical in shaping the evolution of the subfamily. Before the radiation of extant angiosperms, one event produced the ovule-specific D lineage and the well-characterized C lineage, whose members typically promote stamen and carpel identity as well as floral meristem determinacy. Subsequent duplications in the C lineage resulted in independent instances of paralog subfunctionalization and maintained functional redundancy. Most notably, the functional homologs AG from Arabidopsis and PLENA (PLE) from Antirrhinum are shown to be representatives of separate paralogous lineages rather than simple genetic orthologs. The multiple subfunctionalization events that have occurred in this subfamily highlight the potential for gene duplication to lead to dissociation among genetic modules, thereby allowing an increase in morphological diversity. PMID:15020484

  9. Large-scale phylogenetic analyses reveal multiple gains of actinorhizal nitrogen-fixing symbioses in angiosperms associated with climate change

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hong-Lei; Wang, Wei; Mortimer, Peter E.; Li, Rui-Qi; Li, De-Zhu; Hyde, Kevin D.; Xu, Jian-Chu; Soltis, Douglas E.; Chen, Zhi-Duan

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen is fundamental to all life forms and is also one of the most limiting of nutrients for plant growth. Several clades of angiosperms have developed symbiotic relationships with actinorhizal bacteria that fix atmospheric nitrogen and increase access to this nutrient. However, the evolutionary patterns of actinorhizal nitrogen-fixing symbioses remain unclear to date. Furthermore the underlying environmental pressures that led to the gain of symbiotic actinorhizal nitrogen fixation have never been investigated. Here, we present the most comprehensive genus-level phylogenetic analysis of the nitrogen-fixing angiosperms based on three plastid loci. We found that actinorhizal nitrogen-fixing species are distributed in nine distinct lineages. By dating the branching events, we determined that seven actinorhizal nitrogen-fixing lineages originated during the Late Cretaceous, and two more emerged during the Eocene. We put forward a hypothesis that multiple gains of actinorhizal nitrogen-fixing symbioses in angiosperms may have been associated with increased global temperatures and high levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide during these two time periods, as well as the availability of open habitats with high light conditions. Our nearly complete genus-level time-tree for the nitrogen-fixing clade is a significant advance in understanding the evolutionary and ecological background of this important symbiosis between plants and bacteria. PMID:26354898

  10. Angiosperms evolved a higher mesophyll surface area per volume to maximize exchange surface under a low CO2 world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Théroux-Rancourt, Guillaume; Mason Earles, J.; Gilbert, Matthew E.; Zwieniecki, Maciej A.; Boyce, C. Kevin; McElrone, Andrew; Brodersen, Craig

    2017-04-01

    Variation in leaf mesophyll structure strongly affects CO2 diffusion and photosynthetic rates. One key trait is the surface of mesophyll cells exposed to intercellular airspace (Sm) which increases mesophyll conductance. Consequently, Sm is a key control of CO2 diffusion among species and genotypes. Using Sm values from the literature (> 200 species with 500 data points) and from our high-resolution X-ray computed tomography (μCT) dataset (currently 117 species), Sm shows little variation from pteridophytes to early angiosperms, while eudicots show the greatest structural diversity. However, Sm increases with total thickness of the mesophyll. By considering the exposed surface of the mesophyll to the intercellular air space (IAS) on a leaf or mesophyll volume (Ames/V mes) rather than leaf area basis (Sm), we demonstrate that angiosperms, and most specifically commelinids and non-basal eudicots, have constructed leaves with more surface per volume, while gymnosperms keep a constant Ames/V mes ratio. Thus, this strong phylogenetic signal suggests that angiosperms have developed IAS properties favoring leaves with higher surface to volume ratio, trait that allowed for the potential of high productivity even as atmospheric CO2 declined over the Cenozoic.

  11. Production of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species by angiosperm stigmas and pollen: potential signalling crosstalk?

    PubMed

    McInnis, Stephanie M; Desikan, Radhika; Hancock, John T; Hiscock, Simon J

    2006-01-01

    Angiosperm stigmas exhibit high levels of peroxidase activity when receptive to pollen. To explore possible function(s) of this peroxidase activity we investigated amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS), particularly hydrogen peroxide, in stigmas and pollen. Because nitric oxide (NO) was recently implicated in pollen tube growth, we also investigated amounts of NO in pollen and stigmas. Reactive oxygen species accumulation was assessed with confocal microscopy and light microscopy using ROS probes DCFH2-DA and TMB, respectively. NO was assayed using the NO probe DAF-2DA and confocal microscopy. Stigmas from various different angiosperms were found to accumulate ROS, predominantly H2O2, constitutively. In Senecio squalidus and Arabidopsis thaliana high amounts of ROS/H2O2 were localized to stigmatic papillae. ROS/H2O2 amounts appeared reduced in stigmatic papillae to which pollen grains had adhered. S. squalidus and A. thaliana pollen produced relatively high amounts of NO compared with stigmas; treating stigmas with NO resulted in reduced amounts of stigmatic ROS/H2O2. Constitutive accumulation of ROS/H2O2 appears to be a feature of angiosperm stigmas. This novel finding is discussed in terms of a possible role for stigmatic ROS/H2O2 and pollen-derived NO in pollen-stigma interactions and defence.

  12. A new type of specialized morphophysiological dormancy and seed storage behaviour in Hydatellaceae, an early-divergent angiosperm family

    PubMed Central

    Tuckett, Renee E.; Merritt, David J.; Rudall, Paula J.; Hay, Fiona; Hopper, Stephen D.; Baskin, Carol C.; Baskin, Jerry M.; Tratt, Julia; Dixon, Kingsley W.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Recent phylogenetic analysis has placed the aquatic family Hydatellaceae as an early-divergent angiosperm. Understanding seed dormancy, germination and desiccation tolerance of Hydatellaceae will facilitate ex situ conservation and advance hypotheses regarding angiosperm evolution. Methods Seed germination experiments were completed on three species of south-west Australian Hydatellaceae, Trithuria austinensis, T. bibracteata and T. submersa, to test the effects of temperature, light, germination stimulant and storage. Seeds were sectioned to examine embryo growth during germination in T. austinensis and T. submersa. Key Results Some embryo growth and cell division in T. austinensis and T. submersa occurred prior to the emergence of an undifferentiated embryo from the seed coat (‘germination’). Embryo differentiation occurred later, following further growth and a 3- to 4-fold increase in the number of cells. The time taken to achieve 50 % of maximum germination for seeds on water agar was 50, 35 and 37 d for T. austinensis, T bibracteata and T. submersa, respectively. Conclusions Seeds of Hydatellaceae have a new kind of specialized morphophysiological dormancy in which neither root nor shoot differentiates until after the embryo emerges from the seed coat. Seed biology is discussed in relation to early angiosperm evolution, together with ex situ conservation of this phylogenetically significant group. PMID:20338953

  13. Insights into the dynamics of genome size and chromosome evolution in the early diverging angiosperm lineage Nymphaeales (water lilies).

    PubMed

    Pellicer, J; Kelly, L J; Magdalena, C; Leitch, I J

    2013-08-01

    Nymphaeales are the most species-rich lineage of the earliest diverging angiosperms known as the ANA grade (Amborellales, Nymphaeales, Austrobaileyales), and they have received considerable attention from morphological, physiological, and ecological perspectives. Although phylogenetic relationships between these three lineages of angiosperms are mainly well resolved, insights at the whole genome level are still limited because of a dearth of information. To address this, genome sizes and chromosome numbers in 34 taxa, comprising 28 species were estimated and analysed together with previously published data to provide an overview of genome size and chromosome diversity in Nymphaeales. Overall, genome sizes were shown to vary 10-fold and chromosome numbers and ploidy levels ranged from 2n = 2x = 18 to 2n = 16x = ∼224. Distinct patterns of genome diversity were apparent, reflecting the differential incidence of polyploidy, changes in repetitive DNA content, and chromosome rearrangements within and between genera. Using model-based approaches, ancestral genome size and basic chromosome numbers were reconstructed to provide insights into the dynamics of genome size and chromosome number evolution. Finally, by combining additional data from Amborellales and Austrobaileyales, a comprehensive overview of genome sizes and chromosome numbers in these early diverging angiosperms is presented.

  14. A physical map for the Amborella trichopoda genome sheds light on the evolution of angiosperm genome structure.

    PubMed

    Zuccolo, Andrea; Bowers, John E; Estill, James C; Xiong, Zhiyong; Luo, Meizhong; Sebastian, Aswathy; Goicoechea, José Luis; Collura, Kristi; Yu, Yeisoo; Jiao, Yuannian; Duarte, Jill; Tang, Haibao; Ayyampalayam, Saravanaraj; Rounsley, Steve; Kudrna, Dave; Paterson, Andrew H; Pires, J Chris; Chanderbali, Andre; Soltis, Douglas E; Chamala, Srikar; Barbazuk, Brad; Soltis, Pamela S; Albert, Victor A; Ma, Hong; Mandoli, Dina; Banks, Jody; Carlson, John E; Tomkins, Jeffrey; dePamphilis, Claude W; Wing, Rod A; Leebens-Mack, Jim

    2011-01-01

    Recent phylogenetic analyses have identified Amborella trichopoda, an understory tree species endemic to the forests of New Caledonia, as sister to a clade including all other known flowering plant species. The Amborella genome is a unique reference for understanding the evolution of angiosperm genomes because it can serve as an outgroup to root comparative analyses. A physical map, BAC end sequences and sample shotgun sequences provide a first view of the 870 Mbp Amborella genome. Analysis of Amborella BAC ends sequenced from each contig suggests that the density of long terminal repeat retrotransposons is negatively correlated with that of protein coding genes. Syntenic, presumably ancestral, gene blocks were identified in comparisons of the Amborella BAC contigs and the sequenced Arabidopsis thaliana, Populus trichocarpa, Vitis vinifera and Oryza sativa genomes. Parsimony mapping of the loss of synteny corroborates previous analyses suggesting that the rate of structural change has been more rapid on lineages leading to Arabidopsis and Oryza compared with lineages leading to Populus and Vitis. The gamma paleohexiploidy event identified in the Arabidopsis, Populus and Vitis genomes is shown to have occurred after the divergence of all other known angiosperms from the lineage leading to Amborella. When placed in the context of a physical map, BAC end sequences representing just 5.4% of the Amborella genome have facilitated reconstruction of gene blocks that existed in the last common ancestor of all flowering plants. The Amborella genome is an invaluable reference for inferences concerning the ancestral angiosperm and subsequent genome evolution.

  15. Structure and evolution of the largest chloroplast gene (ORF2280): internal plasticity and multiple gene loss during angiosperm evolution.

    PubMed

    Downie, S R; Katz-Downie, D S; Wolfe, K H; Calie, P J; Palmer, J D

    1994-04-01

    We have determined the nucleotide sequence of the Pelargonium x hortorum ORF2280 homolog, the largest gene in the plastid genome of most land plants, and compared it to published homologs from Nicotiana tabacum, Epifagus virginiana, Spinacia oleracea, and Marchantia polymorpha. Multiple alignment of protein sequences requires an extraordinary number of gaps, indicating a very high frequency of insertion/deletion events during the evolution of the protein; however, the overall predicted size of the protein varies relatively little among the five species. At 2,109 codons, the Pelargonium gene is smaller than other land plant ORF2280 homologs and exhibits a rate of nucleotide substitution several times higher relative to Nicotiana, Epifagus, and Spinacia. Southern-blot and restriction-mapping studies were carried out to uncover length variation in ORF2280 homologs from 279 species (representing 111 families) of angiosperms. In many independent angiosperm lineages, this gene has sustained deletions ranging in size from 200 bp to almost 6 kb. Based on the severity of deletions, we postulate that the chloroplast homolog of ORF2280 has become nonfunctional in at least four independent lineages of angiosperms.

  16. The Levels of Male Gametic Mitochondrial DNA Are Highly Regulated in Angiosperms with Regard to Mitochondrial Inheritance[W

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dan-Yang; Zhang, Quan; Liu, Yang; Lin, Zhi-Fu; Zhang, Shao-Xiang; Sun, Meng-Xiang; Sodmergen

    2010-01-01

    The mechanisms that regulate mitochondrial inheritance are not yet clear, even though it is 100 years since the first description of non-Mendelian genetics. Here, we quantified the copy numbers of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in the gametic cells of angiosperm species. We demonstrate that each egg cell from Arabidopsis thaliana, Antirrhinum majus, and Nicotiana tabacum possesses 59.0, 42.7, and 73.0 copies of mtDNA on average, respectively. These values are equivalent to those in Arabidopsis mesophyll cells, at 61.7 copies per cell. On the other hand, sperm or generative cells from Arabidopsis, A. majus, and N. tabacum possess minor amounts of mtDNA, at 0.083, 0.47, and 1 copy on average, respectively. We further reveal a 50-fold degradation of mtDNA during pollen development in A. majus. In contrast, markedly high levels of mtDNA are found in the male gametic cells of Cucumis melo and Pelargonium zonale (1296.3 and 256.7 copies, respectively). Our results provide direct evidence for mitochondrial genomic insufficiency in the eggs and somatic cells and indicate that a male gamete of an angiosperm may possess mtDNA at concentrations as high as 21-fold (C. melo) or as low as 0.1% (Arabidopsis) of the levels in somatic cells. These observations reveal the existence of a strong regulatory system for the male gametic mtDNA levels in angiosperms with regard to mitochondrial inheritance. PMID:20605854

  17. The evolution of the SEPALLATA subfamily of MADS-box genes: a preangiosperm origin with multiple duplications throughout angiosperm history.

    PubMed

    Zahn, Laura M; Kong, Hongzhi; Leebens-Mack, James H; Kim, Sangtae; Soltis, Pamela S; Landherr, Lena L; Soltis, Douglas E; Depamphilis, Claude W; Ma, Hong

    2005-04-01

    Members of the SEPALLATA (SEP) MADS-box subfamily are required for specifying the "floral state" by contributing to floral organ and meristem identity. SEP genes have not been detected in gymnosperms and seem to have originated since the lineage leading to extant angiosperms diverged from extant gymnosperms. Therefore, both functional and evolutionary studies suggest that SEP genes may have been critical for the origin of the flower. To gain insights into the evolution of SEP genes, we isolated nine genes from plants that occupy phylogenetically important positions. Phylogenetic analyses of SEP sequences show that several gene duplications occurred during the evolution of this subfamily, providing potential opportunities for functional divergence. The first duplication occurred prior to the origin of the extant angiosperms, resulting in the AGL2/3/4 and AGL9 clades. Subsequent duplications occurred within these clades in the eudicots and monocots. The timing of the first SEP duplication approximately coincides with duplications in the DEFICIENS/GLOBOSA and AGAMOUS MADS-box subfamilies, which may have resulted from either a proposed genome-wide duplication in the ancestor of extant angiosperms or multiple independent duplication events. Regardless of the mechanism of gene duplication, these pairs of duplicate transcription factors provided new possibilities of genetic interactions that may have been important in the origin of the flower.

  18. A physical map for the Amborella trichopoda genome sheds light on the evolution of angiosperm genome structure

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Recent phylogenetic analyses have identified Amborella trichopoda, an understory tree species endemic to the forests of New Caledonia, as sister to a clade including all other known flowering plant species. The Amborella genome is a unique reference for understanding the evolution of angiosperm genomes because it can serve as an outgroup to root comparative analyses. A physical map, BAC end sequences and sample shotgun sequences provide a first view of the 870 Mbp Amborella genome. Results Analysis of Amborella BAC ends sequenced from each contig suggests that the density of long terminal repeat retrotransposons is negatively correlated with that of protein coding genes. Syntenic, presumably ancestral, gene blocks were identified in comparisons of the Amborella BAC contigs and the sequenced Arabidopsis thaliana, Populus trichocarpa, Vitis vinifera and Oryza sativa genomes. Parsimony mapping of the loss of synteny corroborates previous analyses suggesting that the rate of structural change has been more rapid on lineages leading to Arabidopsis and Oryza compared with lineages leading to Populus and Vitis. The gamma paleohexiploidy event identified in the Arabidopsis, Populus and Vitis genomes is shown to have occurred after the divergence of all other known angiosperms from the lineage leading to Amborella. Conclusions When placed in the context of a physical map, BAC end sequences representing just 5.4% of the Amborella genome have facilitated reconstruction of gene blocks that existed in the last common ancestor of all flowering plants. The Amborella genome is an invaluable reference for inferences concerning the ancestral angiosperm and subsequent genome evolution. PMID:21619600

  19. Mating system plasticity promotes persistence and adaptation of colonizing populations of hermaphroditic angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Megan L; Kay, Kathleen M

    2015-01-01

    Persistence and adaptation in novel environments are limited by small population size, strong selection, and maladaptive gene flow. Mating system plasticity is common in angiosperms and may provide both demographic and genetic benefits that promote niche evolution, including reproductive assurance and isolation from maladaptive gene flow. Yet increased self-fertilization may also cause inbreeding depression, accumulation of deleterious mutations, and reduced adaptive potential. Here we use individual-based simulations to examine the consequences of mating system plasticity for persistence and adaptation in a novel environment that imposes selection on a quantitative trait. We examine the joint evolution of local adaptation, inbreeding depression, and genetic load. We find that a plastic shift to a mixed mating system generally promotes niche evolution by decreasing the risk of extinction, providing isolation from maladaptive gene flow, and temporarily increasing genetic variance in the trait under selection, whereas obligate self-fertilization reduces adaptive potential. These effects are most pronounced under conditions of mate limitation, strong selection, or maladaptive gene flow. Our results highlight the diverse demographic and genetic consequences of self-fertilization and support the potential role for plastic shifts in mating system to promote niche evolution in flowering plants.

  20. Coalescence vs. concatenation: Sophisticated analyses vs. first principles applied to rooting the angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Mark P; Gatesy, John

    2015-10-01

    It has recently been concluded that phylogenomic data from 310 nuclear genes support the clade of (Amborellales, Nymphaeales) as sister to the remaining angiosperms and that shortcut coalescent phylogenetic methods outperformed concatenation for these data. We falsify both of those conclusions here by demonstrating that discrepant results between the coalescent and concatenation analyses are primarily caused by the coalescent methods applied (MP-EST and STAR) not being robust to the highly divergent and often mis-rooted gene trees that were used. This result reinforces the expectation that low amounts of phylogenetic signal and methodological artifacts in gene-tree reconstruction can be more problematic for shortcut coalescent methods than is the assumption of a single hierarchy for all genes by concatenation methods when these approaches are applied to ancient divergences in empirical studies. We also demonstrate that a third coalescent method, ASTRAL, is more robust to mis-rooted gene trees than MP-EST or STAR, and that both Observed Variability (OV) and Tree Independent Generation of Evolutionary Rates (TIGER), which are two character subsampling procedures, are biased in favor of characters with highly asymmetrical distributions of character states when applied to this dataset. We conclude that enthusiastic application of novel tools is not a substitute for rigorous application of first principles, and that trending methods (e.g., shortcut coalescent methods applied to ancient divergences, tree-independent character subsampling), may be novel sources of previously under-appreciated, systematic errors.

  1. Shoot desiccation and hydraulic failure in temperate woody angiosperms during an extreme summer drought.

    PubMed

    Nardini, Andrea; Battistuzzo, Marta; Savi, Tadeja

    2013-10-01

    Plant water status and hydraulics were measured in six woody angiosperms growing in a karstic woodland, during an extreme summer drought. Our aim was to take advantage of an unusual climatic event to identify key traits related to species-specific drought damage. The damage suffered by different species was assessed in terms of percentage of individuals showing extensive crown desiccation. Stem water potential (Ψstem ) and percent loss of hydraulic conductivity (PLC) were measured in healthy and desiccated individuals. Vulnerability to cavitation was assessed in terms of stem water potential inducing 50% PLC (Ψ50 ). Stem density (ρstem ) was also measured. Species-specific percentage of desiccated individuals was correlated to Ψ50 and ρstem . Crown desiccation was more widespread in species with less negative Ψ50 and lower ρstem . Desiccated individuals had lower Ψstem and higher PLC than healthy ones, suggesting that hydraulic failure was an important mechanism driving shoot dieback. Drought-vulnerable species showed lower safety margins (Ψstem  - Ψ50 ) than resistant ones. The Ψ50 , safety margins and ρstem values emerge as convenient traits to be used for tentative predictions of differential species-specific impact of extreme drought events on a local scale. The possibility that carbohydrate depletion was also involved in induction of desiccation symptoms is discussed.

  2. Fossil evidence for a herbaceous diversification of early eudicot angiosperms during the Early Cretaceous.

    PubMed

    Jud, Nathan A

    2015-09-07

    Eudicot flowering plants comprise roughly 70% of land plant species diversity today, but their early evolution is not well understood. Fossil evidence has been largely restricted to their distinctive tricolpate pollen grains and this has limited our understanding of the ecological strategies that characterized their primary radiation. I describe megafossils of an Early Cretaceous eudicot from the Potomac Group in Maryland and Virginia, USA that are complete enough to allow reconstruction of important life-history traits. I draw on quantitative and qualitative analysis of functional traits, phylogenetic analysis and sedimentological evidence to reconstruct the biology of this extinct species. These plants were small and locally rare but widespread, fast-growing herbs. They had complex leaves and they were colonizers of bright, wet, disturbance-prone habitats. Other early eudicot megafossils appear to be herbaceous rather than woody, suggesting that this habit was characteristic of their primary radiation. A mostly herbaceous initial diversification of eudicots could simultaneously explain the heretofore sparse megafossil record as well as their rapid diversification during the Early Cretaceous because the angiosperm capacity for fast reproduction and fast evolution is best expressed in herbs.

  3. Molecular evolutionary analysis of the high-affinity K+ transporter gene family in angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Yang, P; Hua, C; Zhou, F; Zhang, B-J; Cai, X-N; Chen, Q-Z; Wang, R-L

    2016-07-15

    The high-affinity K(+) transporter (HKT) family comprises a group of multifunctional cation transporters widely distributed in organisms ranging from Bacteria to Eukarya. In angiosperms, the HKT family consists primarily of nine types, whose evolutionary relationships are not fully understood. The available sequences from 31 plant species were used to perform a comprehensive evolutionary analysis, including an examination of selection pressure and estimating phylogenetic tree and gene duplication events. Our results show that a gene duplication in the HKT1;5/HKT1;4 cluster might have led to the divergence of the HKT1;5 and HKT1;4 subfamilies. Additionally, maximum likelihood analysis revealed that the HKT family has undergone a strong purifying selection. An analysis of the amino acids provided strong statistical evidence for a functional divergence between subfamilies 1 and 2. Our study was the first to provide evidence of this functional divergence between these two subfamilies. Analysis of co-evolution in HKT identified 25 co-evolved groups. These findings expanded our understanding of the evolutionary mechanisms driving functional diversification of HKT proteins.

  4. Chlorophyll b in angiosperms: Functions in photosynthesis, signaling and ontogenetic regulation.

    PubMed

    Voitsekhovskaja, O V; Tyutereva, E V

    2015-09-15

    Chlorophyll b (Chlb) is an antenna chlorophyll. The binding of Chlb by antenna proteins is crucial for the correct assembly of the antenna complexes in thylakoid membranes. Since the levels of the proteins of major and minor antenna are affected to different extents by Chlb binding, the availability of Chlb influences the composition and the size of antenna complexes which in turn determine the supramolecular organization of the thylakoid membranes in grana. Therefore, Chlb synthesis levels have a major impact on lateral mobility and diffusion of membrane molecules, and thus affect not only light harvesting and thermal energy dissipation processes, but also linear electron transport and repair processes in grana. Furthermore, in angiosperms Chlb synthesis affects plant functions beyond chloroplasts. First, the stability of pigment-protein complexes in the antennae, which depends on Chlb, is an important factor in the regulation of plant ontogenesis, and Chlb levels were recently shown to influence plant ontogenetic signaling. Second, the amounts of minor antenna proteins in chloroplasts, which depend on the availability of Chlb, were recently shown to affect ABA levels and signaling in plants. These mechanisms can be examined in mutants where Chlb synthesis is reduced or abolished. The dramatic effects caused by the lack of Chlb on plant productivity are interpreted in this review in light of the pleiotropic effects on photosynthesis and signaling, and the potential to manipulate Chlb biosynthesis for the improvement of crop production is discussed.

  5. Fossil evidence for a herbaceous diversification of early eudicot angiosperms during the Early Cretaceous

    PubMed Central

    Jud, Nathan A.

    2015-01-01

    Eudicot flowering plants comprise roughly 70% of land plant species diversity today, but their early evolution is not well understood. Fossil evidence has been largely restricted to their distinctive tricolpate pollen grains and this has limited our understanding of the ecological strategies that characterized their primary radiation. I describe megafossils of an Early Cretaceous eudicot from the Potomac Group in Maryland and Virginia, USA that are complete enough to allow reconstruction of important life-history traits. I draw on quantitative and qualitative analysis of functional traits, phylogenetic analysis and sedimentological evidence to reconstruct the biology of this extinct species. These plants were small and locally rare but widespread, fast-growing herbs. They had complex leaves and they were colonizers of bright, wet, disturbance-prone habitats. Other early eudicot megafossils appear to be herbaceous rather than woody, suggesting that this habit was characteristic of their primary radiation. A mostly herbaceous initial diversification of eudicots could simultaneously explain the heretofore sparse megafossil record as well as their rapid diversification during the Early Cretaceous because the angiosperm capacity for fast reproduction and fast evolution is best expressed in herbs. PMID:26336172

  6. A Southern Hemisphere origin for campanulid angiosperms, with traces of the break-up of Gondwana

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background New powerful biogeographic methods have focused attention on long-standing hypotheses regarding the influence of the break-up of Gondwana on the biogeography of Southern Hemisphere plant groups. Studies to date have often concluded that these groups are too young to have been influenced by these ancient continental movements. Here we examine a much larger and older angiosperm clade, the Campanulidae, and infer its biogeographic history by combining Bayesian divergence time information with a likelihood-based biogeographic model focused on the Gondwanan landmasses. Results Our analyses imply that campanulids likely originated in the middle Albian (~105 Ma), and that a substantial portion of the early evolutionary history of campanulids took place in the Southern Hemisphere, despite their greater species richness in the Northern Hemisphere today. We also discovered several disjunctions that show biogeographic and temporal correspondence with the break-up of Gondwana. Conclusions While it is possible to discern traces of the break-up of Gondwana in clades that are old enough, it will generally be difficult to be confident in continental movement as the prime cause of geographic disjunctions. This follows from the need for the geographic disjunction, the inferred biogeographic scenario, and the dating of the lineage splitting events to be consistent with the causal hypothesis. PMID:23565668

  7. Oil bodies in leaf mesophyll cells of angiosperms: overview and a selected survey.

    PubMed

    Lersten, Nels R; Czlapinski, Albert R; Curtis, John D; Freckmann, Robert; Horner, Harry T

    2006-12-01

    Neutral (storage) oil bodies occur in leaf mesophyll cells of many angiosperms, but their literature has been largely forgotten. We review this literature and provide a survey of 302 species and hybrids from mostly north-central US species representing 113 families. Freehand cross sections of fresh leaves stained with Sudan IV verified the presence of oil. In 71 species from 24 families we observed 1-15 oil bodies per mesophyll cell. The eudicot families Asteraceae, Caprifoliaceae, Lamiaceae, and Rosaceae had the highest number of species with oil bodies, whereas few or no species in the Apiaceae, Betulaceae, Fabaceae, and Scrophulariaceae had them. Only three of 19 monocot species sampled had oil bodies. Repeat sampling of a Malus (crabapple) cultivar and a Euonymus species showed conspicuous oil bodies in mid-summer and also in mid-autumn in both attached and recently shed leaves. Oil bodies in leaf mesophyll cells are conspicuous (visible in hand cross sections using moderate magnification in unstained water mounts) in numerous species, and they occur throughout the growing season in at least some species. Neutral oil bodies in leaf mesophyll cells are not mentioned in contemporary textbooks and advanced works, but they deserve recognition as significant cellular components of many taxa, in which they may be significant sources of commercial oils.

  8. Does the globally invasive marine angiosperm, Halophila stipulacea, have high genetic diversity or unique mutations?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiquillo, K.; Campese, L.; Barber, P. H.; Willette, D. A.

    2016-02-01

    Seagrasses are important primary producers in many marine ecosystems, and support a wide diversity of marine life. However, invasive seagrasses like Halophila stipulacea can have pronounced negative impacts on an ecosystem by displacing native seagrasses and changing the community composition of the reef. Endemic to the Red Sea, Persian Gulf and Indian Ocean, Halophila stipulacea has become invasive in the Mediterranean and Caribbean Seas, presumably as a result of the opening of the Suez Canal and international ship traffic. However, it is unclear why this marine angiosperm has become invasive in parts of its range and not others. It is hypothesized that invasive forms may have evolved rapidly in response to natural selection in new and novel environments. Alternatively, genetic variation of introduced populations may be uniquely suited to thrive in regions where it is invasive. In this study, we use RAD next-generation sequencing to screen thousands of SNPs to investigate the genetic basis of adaptation in both native and invasive populations. We test whether genes under selection in the native range are the same as in the invasive range, or whether new genes have arisen with the invasion of each marine basin. The comparison of SNP frequencies unique among basins and environmental variables will aid in predicting new areas of invasion, assisting in improved management strategies to combat this invasive seagrass.

  9. Bacterial Leaf Symbiosis in Angiosperms: Host Specificity without Co-Speciation

    PubMed Central

    Lemaire, Benny; Vandamme, Peter; Merckx, Vincent; Smets, Erik; Dessein, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial leaf symbiosis is a unique and intimate interaction between bacteria and flowering plants, in which endosymbionts are organized in specialized leaf structures. Previously, bacterial leaf symbiosis has been described as a cyclic and obligate interaction in which the endosymbionts are vertically transmitted between plant generations and lack autonomous growth. Theoretically this allows for co-speciation between leaf nodulated plants and their endosymbionts. We sequenced the nodulated Burkholderia endosymbionts of 54 plant species from known leaf nodulated angiosperm genera, i.e. Ardisia, Pavetta, Psychotria and Sericanthe. Phylogenetic reconstruction of bacterial leaf symbionts and closely related free-living bacteria indicates the occurrence of multiple horizontal transfers of bacteria from the environment to leaf nodulated plant species. This rejects the hypothesis of a long co-speciation process between the bacterial endosymbionts and their host plants. Our results indicate a recent evolutionary process towards a stable and host specific interaction confirming the proposed maternal transmission mode of the endosymbionts through the seeds. Divergence estimates provide evidence for a relatively recent origin of bacterial leaf symbiosis, dating back to the Miocene (5–23 Mya). This geological epoch was characterized by cool and arid conditions, which may have triggered the origin of bacterial leaf symbiosis. PMID:21915326

  10. New Insights on Leucine-Rich Repeats Receptor-Like Kinase Orthologous Relationships in Angiosperms

    PubMed Central

    Dufayard, Jean-François; Bettembourg, Mathilde; Fischer, Iris; Droc, Gaetan; Guiderdoni, Emmanuel; Périn, Christophe; Chantret, Nathalie; Diévart, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Leucine-Rich Repeats Receptor-Like Kinase (LRR-RLK) genes represent a large and complex gene family in plants, mainly involved in development and stress responses. These receptors are composed of an LRR-containing extracellular domain (ECD), a transmembrane domain (TM) and an intracellular kinase domain (KD). To provide new perspectives on functional analyses of these genes in model and non-model plant species, we performed a phylogenetic analysis on 8,360 LRR-RLK receptors in 31 angiosperm genomes (8 monocots and 23 dicots). We identified 101 orthologous groups (OGs) of genes being conserved among almost all monocot and dicot species analyzed. We observed that more than 10% of these OGs are absent in the Brassicaceae species studied. We show that the ECD structural features are not always conserved among orthologs, suggesting that functions may have diverged in some OG sets. Moreover, we looked at targets of positive selection footprints in 12 pairs of OGs and noticed that depending on the subgroups, positive selection occurred more frequently either in the ECDs or in the KDs. PMID:28424707

  11. The AFL subfamily of B3 transcription factors: evolution and function in angiosperm seeds.

    PubMed

    Carbonero, Pilar; Iglesias-Fernández, Raquel; Vicente-Carbajosa, Jesús

    2016-12-21

    Seed development follows zygotic embryogenesis; during the maturation phase reserves accumulate and desiccation tolerance is acquired. This is tightly regulated at the transcriptional level and the AFL (ABI3/FUS3/LEC2) subfamily of B3 transcription factors (TFs) play a central role. They alter hormone biosynthesis, mainly in regards to abscisic acid and gibberellins, and also regulate the expression of other TFs and/or modulate their downstream activity via protein-protein interactions. This review deals with the origin of AFL TFs, which can be traced back to non-vascular plants such as Physcomitrella patens and achieves foremost expansion in the angiosperms. In green algae, like the unicellular Chlamydomonas reinhardtii or the pluricellular Klebsormidium flaccidum, a single B3 gene and four B3 paralogous genes are annotated, respectively. However, none of them present with the structural features of the AFL subfamily, with the exception of the B3 DNA-binding domain. Phylogenetic analysis groups the AFL TFs into four Major Clusters of Ortologous Genes (MCOGs). The origin and function of these genes is discussed in view of their expression patterns and in the context of major regulatory interactions in seeds of monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous species.

  12. Patterning of the angiosperm female gametophyte through the prism of theoretical paradigms.

    PubMed

    Lituiev, Dmytro S; Grossniklaus, Ueli

    2014-04-01

    The FG (female gametophyte) of flowering plants (angiosperms) is a simple highly polar structure composed of only a few cell types. The FG develops from a single cell through mitotic divisions to generate, depending on the species, four to 16 nuclei in a syncytium. These nuclei are then partitioned into three or four distinct cell types. The mechanisms underlying the specification of the nuclei in the FG has been a focus of research over the last decade. Nevertheless, we are far from understanding the patterning mechanisms that govern cell specification. Although some results were previously interpreted in terms of static positional information, several lines of evidence now show that local interactions are important. In the present article, we revisit the available data on developmental mutants and cell fate markers in the light of theoretical frameworks for biological patterning. We argue that a further dissection of the mechanisms may be impeded by the combinatorial and dynamical nature of developmental cues. However, accounting for these properties of developing systems is necessary to disentangle the diversity of the phenotypic manifestations of the underlying molecular interactions.

  13. Diversity of the Superfamily of Phloem Lectins (Phloem Protein 2) in Angiosperms1

    PubMed Central

    Dinant, Sylvie; Clark, Anna M.; Zhu, Yanmin; Vilaine, Françoise; Palauqui, Jean-Christophe; Kusiak, Chantal; Thompson, Gary A.

    2003-01-01

    Phloem protein 2 (PP2) is one of the most abundant and enigmatic proteins in the phloem sap. Although thought to be associated with structural P-protein, PP2 is translocated in the assimilate stream where its lectin activity or RNA-binding properties can exert effects over long distances. Analyzing the diversity of these proteins in vascular plants led to the identification of PP2-like genes in species from 17 angiosperm and gymnosperm genera. This wide distribution of PP2 genes in the plant kingdom indicates that they are ancient and common in vascular plants. Their presence in cereals and gymnosperms, both of which lack structural P-protein, also supports a wider role for these proteins. Within this superfamily, PP2 proteins have considerable size polymorphism. This is attributable to variability in the length of the amino terminus that extends from a highly conserved domain. The conserved PP2 domain was identified in the proteins encoded by six genes from several cucurbits, celery (Apium graveolens), and Arabidopsis that are specifically expressed in the sieve element-companion cell complex. The acquisition of additional modular domains in the amino-terminal extensions of other PP2-like proteins could reflect divergence from its phloem function. PMID:12529520

  14. M13 repeat probe detects DNA minisatellite-like sequences in gymnosperms and angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Rogstad, S H; Patton, J C; Schaal, B A

    1988-12-01

    Several kinds of minisatellite DNA, all of which are composed of low to moderately repetitive DNA, have been identified in tetrapod genomes. While the repeating oligonucleotide elements (subrepeats) of a given minisatellite are virtually identical, subrepeat nucleotide composition differs between different minisatellites. Several minisatellites have exhibited moderate to high levels of restriction length polymorphism in a number of tetrapods. Such hypervariable markers provide powerful tools for genetic analyses in several fields of biology. Minisatellite applications have been restricted to tetrapods, but here we demonstrate that one probe, the M13 repeat probe previously used to detect minisatellites in humans and bovines, also reveals minisatellite-bearing endonuclease fragments in gymnosperms and angiosperms. While the plant minisatellites appear to be somatically stable within an individual, they often vary within species in potentially useful ways. These results demonstrate that minisatellite-like families may be distributed over a wide taxonomic range in eukaryotes, opening the possibility of a commensurately wide utility of minisatellite probes in genetic analyses.

  15. Bacterial leaf symbiosis in angiosperms: host specificity without co-speciation.

    PubMed

    Lemaire, Benny; Vandamme, Peter; Merckx, Vincent; Smets, Erik; Dessein, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial leaf symbiosis is a unique and intimate interaction between bacteria and flowering plants, in which endosymbionts are organized in specialized leaf structures. Previously, bacterial leaf symbiosis has been described as a cyclic and obligate interaction in which the endosymbionts are vertically transmitted between plant generations and lack autonomous growth. Theoretically this allows for co-speciation between leaf nodulated plants and their endosymbionts. We sequenced the nodulated Burkholderia endosymbionts of 54 plant species from known leaf nodulated angiosperm genera, i.e. Ardisia, Pavetta, Psychotria and Sericanthe. Phylogenetic reconstruction of bacterial leaf symbionts and closely related free-living bacteria indicates the occurrence of multiple horizontal transfers of bacteria from the environment to leaf nodulated plant species. This rejects the hypothesis of a long co-speciation process between the bacterial endosymbionts and their host plants. Our results indicate a recent evolutionary process towards a stable and host specific interaction confirming the proposed maternal transmission mode of the endosymbionts through the seeds. Divergence estimates provide evidence for a relatively recent origin of bacterial leaf symbiosis, dating back to the Miocene (5-23 Mya). This geological epoch was characterized by cool and arid conditions, which may have triggered the origin of bacterial leaf symbiosis.

  16. A Southern Hemisphere origin for campanulid angiosperms, with traces of the break-up of Gondwana.

    PubMed

    Beaulieu, Jeremy M; Tank, David C; Donoghue, Michael J

    2013-04-08

    New powerful biogeographic methods have focused attention on long-standing hypotheses regarding the influence of the break-up of Gondwana on the biogeography of Southern Hemisphere plant groups. Studies to date have often concluded that these groups are too young to have been influenced by these ancient continental movements. Here we examine a much larger and older angiosperm clade, the Campanulidae, and infer its biogeographic history by combining Bayesian divergence time information with a likelihood-based biogeographic model focused on the Gondwanan landmasses. Our analyses imply that campanulids likely originated in the middle Albian (~105 Ma), and that a substantial portion of the early evolutionary history of campanulids took place in the Southern Hemisphere, despite their greater species richness in the Northern Hemisphere today. We also discovered several disjunctions that show biogeographic and temporal correspondence with the break-up of Gondwana. While it is possible to discern traces of the break-up of Gondwana in clades that are old enough, it will generally be difficult to be confident in continental movement as the prime cause of geographic disjunctions. This follows from the need for the geographic disjunction, the inferred biogeographic scenario, and the dating of the lineage splitting events to be consistent with the causal hypothesis.

  17. Polycomb group gene function in sexual and asexual seed development in angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Julio C M; Luo, Ming; Berger, Frédéric; Koltunow, Anna M G

    2010-06-01

    In sexually reproducing angiosperms, double fertilization initiates seed development, giving rise to two fertilization products, the embryo and the endosperm. In the endosperm, a terminal nutritive tissue that supports embryo growth, certain genes are expressed differentially depending on their parental origin, and this genomic imbalance is required for proper seed formation. This parent-of-origin effect on gene expression, called genomic imprinting, is controlled epigenetically through histone modifications and DNA methylation. In the sexual model plant Arabidopsis, the Polycomb group (PcG) genes of the plant Fertilization Independent Seed (FIS)-class control genomic imprinting by specifically silencing maternal or paternal target alleles through histone modifications. Mutations in FIS genes can lead to a bypass in the requirement of fertilization for the initiation of endosperm development and seed abortion. In this review, we discuss the role of the FIS complex in establishing and maintaining genomic imprinting, focusing on recent advances in elucidating the expression and function of FIS-related genes in maize, rice, and Hieracium, and particularly including apomictic Hieracium species that do not require paternal contribution and thus form seeds asexually. Surprisingly, not all FIS-mediated functions described in Arabidopsis are conserved. However, the function of some PcG components are required for viable seed formation in seeds formed via sexual and asexual processes (apomixis) in Hieracium, suggesting a conservation of the seed viability function in some eudicots.

  18. MarkerMiner 1.0: A new application for phylogenetic marker development using angiosperm transcriptomes.

    PubMed

    Chamala, Srikar; García, Nicolás; Godden, Grant T; Krishnakumar, Vivek; Jordon-Thaden, Ingrid E; De Smet, Riet; Barbazuk, W Brad; Soltis, Douglas E; Soltis, Pamela S

    2015-04-01

    Targeted sequencing using next-generation sequencing (NGS) platforms offers enormous potential for plant systematics by enabling economical acquisition of multilocus data sets that can resolve difficult phylogenetic problems. However, because discovery of single-copy nuclear (SCN) loci from NGS data requires both bioinformatics skills and access to high-performance computing resources, the application of NGS data has been limited. We developed MarkerMiner 1.0, a fully automated, open-access bioinformatic workflow and application for discovery of SCN loci in angiosperms. Our new tool identified as many as 1993 SCN loci from transcriptomic data sampled as part of four independent test cases representing marker development projects at different phylogenetic scales. MarkerMiner is an easy-to-use and effective tool for discovery of putative SCN loci. It can be run locally or via the Web, and its tabular and alignment outputs facilitate efficient downstream assessments of phylogenetic utility, locus selection, intron-exon boundary prediction, and primer or probe development.

  19. A draft of the genome and four transcriptomes of a medicinal and pesticidal angiosperm Azadirachta indica.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Neeraja M; Pattnaik, Swetansu; Jain, Prachi; Gaur, Prakhar; Choudhary, Rakshit; Vaidyanathan, Srividya; Deepak, Sa; Hariharan, Arun K; Krishna, Pg Bharath; Nair, Jayalakshmi; Varghese, Linu; Valivarthi, Naveen K; Dhas, Kunal; Ramaswamy, Krishna; Panda, Binay

    2012-09-09

    The Azadirachta indica (neem) tree is a source of a wide number of natural products, including the potent biopesticide azadirachtin. In spite of its widespread applications in agriculture and medicine, the molecular aspects of the biosynthesis of neem terpenoids remain largely unexplored. The current report describes the draft genome and four transcriptomes of A. indica and attempts to contextualise the sequence information in terms of its molecular phylogeny, transcript expression and terpenoid biosynthesis pathways. A. indica is the first member of the family Meliaceae to be sequenced using next generation sequencing approach. The genome and transcriptomes of A. indica were sequenced using multiple sequencing platforms and libraries. The A. indica genome is AT-rich, bears few repetitive DNA elements and comprises about 20,000 genes. The molecular phylogenetic analyses grouped A. indica together with Citrus sinensis from the Rutaceae family validating its conventional taxonomic classification. Comparative transcript expression analysis showed either exclusive or enhanced expression of known genes involved in neem terpenoid biosynthesis pathways compared to other sequenced angiosperms. Genome and transcriptome analyses in A. indica led to the identification of repeat elements, nucleotide composition and expression profiles of genes in various organs. This study on A. indica genome and transcriptomes will provide a model for characterization of metabolic pathways involved in synthesis of bioactive compounds, comparative evolutionary studies among various Meliaceae family members and help annotate their genomes. A better understanding of molecular pathways involved in the azadirachtin synthesis in A. indica will pave ways for bulk production of environment friendly biopesticides.

  20. Transport efficiency through uniformity: organization of veins and stomata in angiosperm leaves.

    PubMed

    Fiorin, Lucia; Brodribb, Timothy J; Anfodillo, Tommaso

    2016-01-01

    Leaves of vascular plants use specific tissues to irrigate the lamina (veins) and to regulate water loss (stomata), to approach homeostasis in leaf hydration during photosynthesis. As both tissues come with attendant costs, it would be expected that the synthesis and spacing of leaf veins and stomata should be coordinated in a way that maximizes benefit to the plant. We propose an innovative geoprocessing method based on image editing and a geographic information system to study the quantitative relationships between vein and stomatal spatial patterns on leaves collected from 31 angiosperm species from different biomes. The number of stomata within each areole was linearly related to the length of the looping vein contour. As a consequence of the presence of free-ending veinlets, the minimum mean distance of stomata from the nearest veins was invariant with areole size in most of the species, and species with smaller distances carried a higher density of stomata. Uniformity of spatial patterning was consistent within leaves and species. Our results demonstrate the existence of an optimal spatial organization of veins and stomata, and suggest their interplay as a key feature for achieving a constant mesophyll hydraulic resistance throughout the leaf.

  1. Phylogenetically structured traits in root systems influence arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization in woody angiosperms

    DOE PAGES

    Valverde-Barrantes, Oscar J.; Horning, Amber L.; Smemo, Kurt A.; ...

    2016-02-10

    In this study, there is little quantitative information about the relationship between root traits and the extent of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) colonization. We expected that ancestral species with thick roots will maximize AMF habitat by maintaining similar root traits across root orders (i.e., high root trait integration), whereas more derived species are expected to display a sharp transition from acquisition to structural roots. Moreover, we hypothesized that interspecific morphological differences rather than soil conditions will be the main driver of AMF colonization We analyzed 14 root morphological and chemical traits and AMF colonization rates for the first three rootmore » orders of 34 temperate tree species grown in two common gardens. We also collected associated soil to measure the effect of soil conditions on AMF colonization Results Thick-root magnoliids showed less variation in root traits along root orders than more-derived angiosperm groups. Variation in stele:root diameter ratio was the best indicator of AMF colonization within and across root orders. Root functional traits rather than soil conditions largely explained the variation in AMF colonization among species. In conclusion, not only the traits of first order but the entire structuring of the root system varied among plant lineages, suggesting alternative evolutionary strategies of resource acquisition. Understanding evolutionary pathways in below ground organs could open new avenues to understand tree species influence on soil carbon and nutrient cycling.« less

  2. Phylogenetically structured traits in root systems influence arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization in woody angiosperms

    SciTech Connect

    Valverde-Barrantes, Oscar J.; Horning, Amber L.; Smemo, Kurt A.; Blackwood, Christopher B.

    2016-02-10

    In this study, there is little quantitative information about the relationship between root traits and the extent of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) colonization. We expected that ancestral species with thick roots will maximize AMF habitat by maintaining similar root traits across root orders (i.e., high root trait integration), whereas more derived species are expected to display a sharp transition from acquisition to structural roots. Moreover, we hypothesized that interspecific morphological differences rather than soil conditions will be the main driver of AMF colonization We analyzed 14 root morphological and chemical traits and AMF colonization rates for the first three root orders of 34 temperate tree species grown in two common gardens. We also collected associated soil to measure the effect of soil conditions on AMF colonization Results Thick-root magnoliids showed less variation in root traits along root orders than more-derived angiosperm groups. Variation in stele:root diameter ratio was the best indicator of AMF colonization within and across root orders. Root functional traits rather than soil conditions largely explained the variation in AMF colonization among species. In conclusion, not only the traits of first order but the entire structuring of the root system varied among plant lineages, suggesting alternative evolutionary strategies of resource acquisition. Understanding evolutionary pathways in below ground organs could open new avenues to understand tree species influence on soil carbon and nutrient cycling.

  3. Internal habitat quality determines the effects of fragmentation on austral forest climbing and epiphytic angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Magrach, Ainhoa; Larrinaga, Asier R; Santamaría, Luis

    2012-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation has become one of the major threats to biodiversity worldwide, particularly in the case of forests, which have suffered enormous losses during the past decades. We analyzed how changes in patch configuration and habitat quality derived from the fragmentation of austral temperate rainforests affect the distribution of six species of forest-dwelling climbing and epiphytic angiosperms. Epiphyte and vine abundance is primarily affected by the internal characteristics of patches (such as tree size, the presence of logging gaps or the proximity to patch edges) rather than patch and landscape features (such as patch size, shape or connectivity). These responses were intimately related to species-specific characteristics such as drought- or shade-tolerance. Our study therefore suggests that plant responses to fragmentation are contingent on both the species' ecology and the specific pathways through which the study area is being fragmented, (i.e. extensive logging that shaped the boundaries of current forest patches plus recent, unregulated logging that creates gaps within patches). Management practices in fragmented landscapes should therefore consider habitat quality within patches together with other spatial attributes at landscape or patch scales.

  4. [Epigenetic and synergistic types of inheritance of the reproductive characters in angiosperms].

    PubMed

    Maletskiĭ, S I

    2004-01-01

    The author considers three types of hereditary memory (structural, cell and signal), that are realized on different levels of biological organization. These three types of hereditary memory correspond to three types of reproduction: self-replication, cell division and reproduction s. str. Reproductive characters are exemplified with three essential characters in angiosperm plants: dimorphism in population by flower sex; mono-, di- and trystyly of flowers; uni- and biparental mode of seed reproduction. All these characters are considered as "supercharacters" that are controlled by gene ensembles. The correspondence between three types of reproduction and three types of hereditary memory are discussed. The authors reviews also the role of polyploidy (auto- and endoploidy) in the inheritance of reproductive condition. From the information theory point the increase in cell ploidy causes the growth of uncertainty in expression of genes and gene ensembles thus creating new type of variability--epigenetic variation. The change of reproductive strategy in plants is regulated by state of gene and gene ensembles and does not demand structural changes in genome. The reproductive characters of plants in spite its complex structure are inherited in number of generations as a discrete Mendel characters by mono-, di-, ot trihybrid schemas.

  5. Internal Habitat Quality Determines the Effects of Fragmentation on Austral Forest Climbing and Epiphytic Angiosperms

    PubMed Central

    Magrach, Ainhoa; Larrinaga, Asier R.; Santamaría, Luis

    2012-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation has become one of the major threats to biodiversity worldwide, particularly in the case of forests, which have suffered enormous losses during the past decades. We analyzed how changes in patch configuration and habitat quality derived from the fragmentation of austral temperate rainforests affect the distribution of six species of forest-dwelling climbing and epiphytic angiosperms. Epiphyte and vine abundance is primarily affected by the internal characteristics of patches (such as tree size, the presence of logging gaps or the proximity to patch edges) rather than patch and landscape features (such as patch size, shape or connectivity). These responses were intimately related to species-specific characteristics such as drought- or shade-tolerance. Our study therefore suggests that plant responses to fragmentation are contingent on both the species' ecology and the specific pathways through which the study area is being fragmented, (i.e. extensive logging that shaped the boundaries of current forest patches plus recent, unregulated logging that creates gaps within patches). Management practices in fragmented landscapes should therefore consider habitat quality within patches together with other spatial attributes at landscape or patch scales. PMID:23119096

  6. Parallel evolution of angiosperm colour signals: common evolutionary pressures linked to hymenopteran vision

    PubMed Central

    Dyer, Adrian G.; Boyd-Gerny, Skye; McLoughlin, Stephen; Rosa, Marcello G. P.; Simonov, Vera; Wong, Bob B. M.

    2012-01-01

    Flowering plants in Australia have been geographically isolated for more than 34 million years. In the Northern Hemisphere, previous work has revealed a close fit between the optimal discrimination capabilities of hymenopteran pollinators and the flower colours that have most frequently evolved. We collected spectral data from 111 Australian native flowers and tested signal appearance considering the colour discrimination capabilities of potentially important pollinators. The highest frequency of flower reflectance curves is consistent with data reported for the Northern Hemisphere. The subsequent mapping of Australian flower reflectances into a bee colour space reveals a very similar distribution of flower colour evolution to the Northern Hemisphere. Thus, flowering plants in Australia are likely to have independently evolved spectral signals that maximize colour discrimination by hymenoptera. Moreover, we found that the degree of variability in flower coloration for particular angiosperm species matched the range of reflectance colours that can only be discriminated by bees that have experienced differential conditioning. This observation suggests a requirement for plasticity in the nervous systems of pollinators to allow generalization of flowers of the same species while overcoming the possible presence of non-rewarding flower mimics. PMID:22673351

  7. The naked and the dead: the ABCs of gymnosperm reproduction and the origin of the angiosperm flower.

    PubMed

    Melzer, Rainer; Wang, Yong-Qiang; Theissen, Günter

    2010-02-01

    20 years after establishment of the ABC model many of the molecular mechanisms underlying development of the angiosperm flower are relatively well understood. Central players in the gene regulatory network controlling flower development are SQUA-like, DEF/GLO-like, AG-like and AGL6/SEP1-like MIKC-type MADS-domain transcription factors. These provide class A, class B, class C and the more recently defined class E floral homeotic functions, respectively. There is evidence that the floral homeotic proteins recognize the DNA of target genes in an organ-specific way as multimeric protein complexes, thus constituting 'floral quartets'. In contrast to the detailed insights into flower development, how the flower originated during evolution has remained enigmatic. However, while orthologues of all classes of floral homeotic genes appear to be absent from all non-seed plants, DEF/GLO-like, AG-like, and AGL6-like genes have been found in diverse extant gymnosperms, the closest relatives of the angiosperms. While SQUA-like and SEP1-like MADS-box genes appear to be absent from extant gymnosperms, reconstruction of MADS-box gene phylogeny surprisingly suggests that the most recent common ancestor of gymnosperms and angiosperms possessed representatives of both genes, but that these have been lost in the lineage that led to extant gymnosperms. Expression studies and genetic complementation experiments indicate that both angiosperm and gymnosperm AG-like and DEF/GLO-like genes have conserved functions in the specification of reproductive organs and in distinguishing male from female organs, respectively. Based on these findings novel models about the molecular basis of flower origin, involving changes in the expression patterns of DEF/GLO-like or AGL6/SEP1/SQUA-like genes in reproductive structures, were developed. While in angiosperms SEP1-like proteins play an important role in floral quartet formation, preliminary evidence suggests that gymnosperm DEF/GLO-like and AG

  8. Reevaluation of the cox1 group I intron in Araceae and angiosperms indicates a history dominated by loss rather than horizontal transfer.

    PubMed

    Cusimano, Natalie; Zhang, Li-Bing; Renner, Susanne S

    2008-02-01

    The origin and modes of transmission of introns remain matters of much debate. Previous studies of the group I intron in the angiosperm cox1 gene inferred frequent angiosperm-to-angiosperm horizontal transmission of the intron from apparent incongruence between intron phylogenies and angiosperm phylogenies, patchy distribution of the intron among angiosperms, and differences between cox1 exonic coconversion tracts (the first 22 nt downstream of where the intron inserted). We analyzed the cox1 gene in 179 angiosperms, 110 of them containing the intron (intron(+)) and 69 lacking it (intron(-)). Our taxon sampling in Araceae is especially dense to test hypotheses about vertical and horizontal intron transmission put forward by Cho and Palmer (1999. Multiple acquisitions via horizontal transfer of a group I intron in the mitochondrial coxl gene during evolution of the Araceae family. Mol Biol Evol. 16:1155-1165). Maximum likelihood trees of Araceae cox1 introns, and also of all angiosperm cox1 introns, are largely congruent with known phylogenetic relationships in these taxa. The exceptions can be explained by low signal in the intron and long-branch attraction among a few taxa with high mitochondrial substitution rates. Analysis of the 179 coconversion tracts reveals 20 types of tracts (11 of them only found in single species, all involving silent substitutions). The distribution of these tracts on the angiosperm phylogeny shows a common ancestral type, characterizing most intron(+) and some intron(-) angiosperms, and several derivative tract types arising from gradual back mutation of the coconverted nucleotides. Molecular clock dating of small intron(+) and intron(-) sister clades suggests that coconversion tracts have persisted for 70 Myr in Araceae, whose cox1 sequences evolve comparatively slowly. Sequence similarity among the 110 introns ranges from 91% to identical, whereas putative homologs from fungi are highly different, but sampling in fungi is still sparse

  9. Studies of angiospermous woods in Australian brown coal by nuclear magnetic resonance and analytical pyrolysis: new insight into early coalification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatcher, P.G.; Wilson, M.A.; Vassalo, M.; Lerch, H. E.

    1990-01-01

    Many Tertiary coals contain abundant fossilized remains of angiosperms that often dominated some ancient peat-swamp environments; modern analogs of which can be found in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Comparisons of angiospermous woods from Australian brown coal with similar woods buried in modern peat swamps of Indonesia have provided some new insights into coalification reactions. These comparisons were made by using solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques and pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (py-gc-ms), two modern techniques especially suited for detailed structural evaluation of the complex macromolecules in coal. From these studies, we conclude that the earliest transformation (peatification) of organic matter in angiospermous wood is the degradation of cellulosic components. The efficiency of removal of cellulosic components in the wood varies considerably in peat, which results in variable levels of cellulose in peatified wood. However, the net trend is towards eventual removal of the cellulose. The angiospermous lignin that becomes enriched in wood as a result of cellulose degradation also is modified by coalifications reactions; this modification, however, does not involve degradation and removal. Rather, the early coalification process transforms the lignin phenols (guaiacyl and syringyl) to eventually yield the aromatic structures typically found in brown coal. One such transformation, which is determined from the NMR data, involves the cleavage of aryl ether bonds that link guaiacyl and syringyl units in lignin and leads to the formation of free lignin phenols. Another transformation, which is also determined from the NMR data, involves the loss of methoxyl groups, probably via demethylation, to produce catechol-like structures. Coincident with ether-cleavage and demethylation, the aromatic rings derived from lignin phenols become more carbon-substituted and cross-linked, as determined by dipolar

  10. Bark ecology of twigs vs. main stems: functional traits across eighty-five species of angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Rosell, Julieta A; Castorena, Matiss; Laws, Claire A; Westoby, Mark

    2015-08-01

    Although produced by meristems that are continuous along the stem length, marked differences in bark morphology and in microenvironment would suggest that main stem and twig bark might differ ecologically. Here, we examined: (1) how closely associated main stem and twig bark traits were, (2) how these associations varied across sites, and (3) used these associations to infer functional and ecological differences between twig and main stem bark. We measured density, water content, photosynthesis presence/absence, total, outer, inner, and relative thicknesses of main stem and twig bark from 85 species of angiosperms from six sites of contrasting precipitation, temperature, and fire regimes. Density and water content did not differ between main stems and twigs across species and sites. Species with thicker twig bark had disproportionately thicker main stem bark in most sites, but the slope and degree of association varied. Disproportionately thicker main stem bark for a given twig bark thickness in most fire-prone sites suggested stem protection near the ground. The savanna had the opposite trend, suggesting that selection also favors twig protection in these fire-prone habitats. A weak main stem-twig bark thickness association was observed in non fire-prone sites. The near-ubiquity of photosynthesis in twigs highlighted its likely ecological importance; variation in this activity was predicted by outer bark thickness in main stems. It seems that the ecology of twig bark can be generalized to main stem bark, but not for functions depending on the amount of bark, such as protection, storage, or photosynthesis.

  11. Foliar phosphite application has minor phytotoxic impacts across a diverse range of conifers and woody angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Scott, Peter; Bader, Martin Karl-Friedrich; Williams, Nari Michelle

    2016-10-01

    Phytophthora plant pathogens cause tremendous damage in planted and natural systems worldwide. Phosphite is one of the only effective chemicals to control broad-scale Phytophthora disease. Little work has been done on the phytotoxic effects of phosphite application on plant communities especially in combination with plant physiological impacts. Here, we tested the phytotoxic impact of phosphite applied as foliar spray at 0, 12, 24 and 48 kg a.i. ha(-1) . Eighteen-month-old saplings of 13 conifer and angiosperm species native to New Zealand, and two exotic coniferous species were treated and the development of necrotic tissue and chlorophyll-a-fluorescence parameters (optimal quantum yield, Fv /Fm ; effective quantum yield of photosystem II, ΦPSII ) were assessed. In addition, stomatal conductance (gs ) was measured on a subset of six species. Significant necrosis assessed by digital image analysis occurred in only three species: in the lauraceous canopy tree Beilschmiedia tawa (8-14%) and the understory shrub Dodonaea viscosa (5-7%) across phosphite concentrations and solely at the highest concentration in the myrtaceous pioneer shrub Leptospermum scoparium (66%). In non-necrotic tissue, Fv /Fm , ΦPSII and gs remained unaffected by the phosphite treatment. Overall, our findings suggest minor phytotoxic effects resulting from foliar phosphite application across diverse taxa and regardless of concentration. This study supports the large-scale use of phosphite as a management tool to control plant diseases caused by Phytophthora pathogens in plantations and natural ecosystems. Long-term studies are required to ascertain potential ecological impacts of repeated phosphite applications.

  12. A test of the hydraulic vulnerability segmentation hypothesis in angiosperm and conifer tree species

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Daniel M.; Wortemann, Remi; McCulloh, Katherine A.; Jordan-Meille, Lionel; Ward, Eric; Warren, Jeffrey M.; Palmroth, Sari; Domec, Jean -Christophe

    2016-05-04

    Water transport from soils to the atmosphere is critical for plant growth and survival. However, we have a limited understanding about many portions of the whole-tree hydraulic pathway, because the vast majority of published information is on terminal branches. Our understanding of mature tree trunk hydraulic physiology, in particular, is limited. The hydraulic vulnerability segmentation hypothesis (HVSH) stipulates that distal portions of the plant (leaves, branches and roots) should be more vulnerable to embolism than trunks, which are non-redundant organs that require a massive carbon investment. In the current study, we compared vulnerability to loss of hydraulic function, leaf and xylem water potentials and the resulting hydraulic safety margins (in relation to the water potential causing 50% loss of hydraulic conductivity) in leaves, branches, trunks and roots of four angiosperms and four conifer tree species. Across all species, our results supported strongly the HVSH as leaves and roots were less resistant to embolism than branches or trunks. However, branches were consistently more resistant to embolism than any other portion of the plant, including trunks. Also, calculated whole-tree vulnerability to hydraulic dysfunction was much greater than vulnerability in branches. This was due to hydraulic dysfunction in roots and leaves at less negative water potentials than those causing branch or trunk dysfunction. Leaves and roots had narrow or negative hydraulic safety margins, but trunks and branches maintained positive safety margins. By using branch-based hydraulic information as a proxy for entire plants, much research has potentially overestimated embolism resistance, and possibly drought tolerance, for many species. This study highlights the necessity to reconsider past conclusions made about plant resistance to drought based on branch xylem only. As a result, this study also highlights the necessity for more research of whole-plant hydraulic physiology

  13. Gene Duplicability of Core Genes Is Highly Consistent across All Angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhen; Defoort, Jonas; Tasdighian, Setareh; Maere, Steven; Van de Peer, Yves; De Smet, Riet

    2016-02-01

    Gene duplication is an important mechanism for adding to genomic novelty. Hence, which genes undergo duplication and are preserved following duplication is an important question. It has been observed that gene duplicability, or the ability of genes to be retained following duplication, is a nonrandom process, with certain genes being more amenable to survive duplication events than others. Primarily, gene essentiality and the type of duplication (small-scale versus large-scale) have been shown in different species to influence the (long-term) survival of novel genes. However, an overarching view of "gene duplicability" is lacking, mainly due to the fact that previous studies usually focused on individual species and did not account for the influence of genomic context and the time of duplication. Here, we present a large-scale study in which we investigated duplicate retention for 9178 gene families shared between 37 flowering plant species, referred to as angiosperm core gene families. For most gene families, we observe a strikingly consistent pattern of gene duplicability across species, with gene families being either primarily single-copy or multicopy in all species. An intermediate class contains gene families that are often retained in duplicate for periods extending to tens of millions of years after whole-genome duplication, but ultimately appear to be largely restored to singleton status, suggesting that these genes may be dosage balance sensitive. The distinction between single-copy and multicopy gene families is reflected in their functional annotation, with single-copy genes being mainly involved in the maintenance of genome stability and organelle function and multicopy genes in signaling, transport, and metabolism. The intermediate class was overrepresented in regulatory genes, further suggesting that these represent putative dosage-balance-sensitive genes.

  14. Host-specific races in the holoparasitic angiosperm Orobanche minor: implications for speciation in parasitic plants

    PubMed Central

    Thorogood, C. J.; Rumsey, F. J.; Hiscock, S. J.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Orobanche minor is a root-holoparasitic angiosperm that attacks a wide range of host species, including a number of commonly cultivated crops. The extent to which genetic divergence among natural populations of O. minor is influenced by host specificity has not been determined previously. Here, the host specificity of natural populations of O. minor is quantified for the first time, and evidence that this species may comprise distinct physiological races is provided. Methods A tripartite approach was used to examine the physiological basis for the divergence of populations occurring on different hosts: (1) host–parasite interactions were cultivated in rhizotron bioassays in order to quantify the early stages of the infection and establishment processes; (2) using reciprocal-infection experiments, parasite races were cultivated on their natural and alien hosts, and their fitness determined in terms of biomass; and (3) the anatomy of the host–parasite interface was investigated using histochemical techniques, with a view to comparing the infection process on different hosts. Key Results Races occurring naturally on red clover (Trifolium pratense) and sea carrot (Daucus carota ssp. gummifer) showed distinct patterns of host specificity: parasites cultivated in cross-infection studies showed a higher fitness on their natural hosts, suggesting that races show local adaptation to specific hosts. In addition, histological evidence suggests that clover and carrot roots vary in their responses to infection. Different root anatomy and responses to infection may underpin a physiological basis for host specificity. Conclusions It is speculated that host specificity may isolate races of Orobanche on different hosts, accelerating divergence and ultimately speciation in this genus. The rapid life cycle and broad host range of O. minor make this species an ideal model with which to study the interactions of parasitic plants with their host associates. PMID

  15. Calcium gradients in conifer pollen tubes; dynamic properties differ from those seen in angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Lazzaro, Mark D; Cardenas, Luis; Bhatt, Aadra P; Justus, Charles D; Phillips, Monique S; Holdaway-Clarke, Terena L; Hepler, Peter K

    2005-10-01

    Pollen tubes are an established model system for examining polarized cell growth. The focus here is on pollen tubes of the conifer Norway spruce (Picea abies, Pinaceae); examining the relationship between cytosolic free Ca2+, tip elongation, and intracellular motility. Conifer pollen tubes show important differences from their angiosperm counterparts; they grow more slowly and their organelles move in an unusual fountain pattern, as opposed to reverse fountain, in the tip. Ratiometric ion imaging of growing pollen tubes, microinjected with fura-2-dextran, reveals a tip-focused [Ca2+]i gradient extending from 450 nM at the extreme apex to 225 nM at the base of the tip clear zone. Injection of 5,5' dibromo-BAPTA does not dissipate the apical gradient, but stops cell elongation and uniquely causes rapid, transient increases of apical free Ca2+. The [Ca2+]i gradient is, however, dissipated by reversible perfusion of extracellular caffeine. When the basal cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration falls below 150 nM, again a large increase in apical [Ca2+]i occurs. An external source of calcium is not required for germination but significantly enhances elongation. However, both germination and elongation are significantly inhibited by the inclusion of calcium channels blockers, including lanthanum, gadolinium, or verapamil. Modulation of intracellular calcium also affects organelle position and motility. Extracellular perfusion of lanthanides reversibly depletes the apical [Ca2+]i gradient, altering organelle positioning in the tip. Later, during recovery from lanthanide perfusion, organelle motility switches direction to a reverse fountain. When taken together these data show a unique interplay in Picea abies pollen tubes between intracellular calcium and the motile processes controlling cellular organization.

  16. Two Photosynthetic Mechanisms Mediating the Low Photorespiratory State in Submersed Aquatic Angiosperms 1

    PubMed Central

    Salvucci, Michael E.; Bowes, George

    1983-01-01

    The submersed angiosperms Myriophyllum spicatum L. and Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royal exhibited different photosynthetic pulse-chase labeling patterns. In Hydrilla, over 50% of the 14C was initially in malate and aspartate, but the fate of the malate depended upon the photorespiratory state of the plant. In low photorespiration Hydrilla, malate label decreased rapidly during an unlabeled chase, whereas labeling of sucrose and starch increased. In contrast, for high photorespiration Hydrilla, malate labeling continued to increase during a 2-hour chase. Thus, malate formation occurs in both photorespiratory states, but reduced photorespiration results when this malate is utilized in the light. Unlike Hydrilla, in low photorespiration Myriophyllum, 14C incorporation was via the Calvin cycle, and less than 10% was in C4 acids. Ethoxyzolamide, a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor and a repressor of the low photorespiratory state, increased the label in glycolate, glycine, and serine of Myriophyllum. Isonicotinic acid hydrazide increased glycine labeling of low photorespiration Myriophyllum from 14 to 25%, and from 12 to 48% with high photorespiration plants. Similar trends were observed with Hydrilla. Increasing O2 increased the per cent [14C]glycine and the O2 inhibition of photosynthesis in Myriophyllum. In low photorespiration Myriophyllum, glycine labeling and O2 inhibition of photosynthesis were independent of the CO2 level, but in high photorespiration plants the O2 inhibition was competitively decreased by CO2. Thus, in low but not high photorespiration plants, glycine labeling and O2 inhibition appeared to be uncoupled from the external [O2]/[CO2] ratio. These data indicate that the low photorespiratory states of Hydrilla and Myriophyllum are mediated by different mechanisms, the former being C4-like, while the latter resembles that of low CO2-grown algae. Both may require carbonic anhydrase to enhance the use of inorganic carbon for reducing photorespiration

  17. Gene Duplicability of Core Genes Is Highly Consistent across All Angiosperms[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhen; Van de Peer, Yves; De Smet, Riet

    2016-01-01

    Gene duplication is an important mechanism for adding to genomic novelty. Hence, which genes undergo duplication and are preserved following duplication is an important question. It has been observed that gene duplicability, or the ability of genes to be retained following duplication, is a nonrandom process, with certain genes being more amenable to survive duplication events than others. Primarily, gene essentiality and the type of duplication (small-scale versus large-scale) have been shown in different species to influence the (long-term) survival of novel genes. However, an overarching view of “gene duplicability” is lacking, mainly due to the fact that previous studies usually focused on individual species and did not account for the influence of genomic context and the time of duplication. Here, we present a large-scale study in which we investigated duplicate retention for 9178 gene families shared between 37 flowering plant species, referred to as angiosperm core gene families. For most gene families, we observe a strikingly consistent pattern of gene duplicability across species, with gene families being either primarily single-copy or multicopy in all species. An intermediate class contains gene families that are often retained in duplicate for periods extending to tens of millions of years after whole-genome duplication, but ultimately appear to be largely restored to singleton status, suggesting that these genes may be dosage balance sensitive. The distinction between single-copy and multicopy gene families is reflected in their functional annotation, with single-copy genes being mainly involved in the maintenance of genome stability and organelle function and multicopy genes in signaling, transport, and metabolism. The intermediate class was overrepresented in regulatory genes, further suggesting that these represent putative dosage-balance-sensitive genes. PMID:26744215

  18. A draft of the genome and four transcriptomes of a medicinal and pesticidal angiosperm Azadirachta indica

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Azadirachta indica (neem) tree is a source of a wide number of natural products, including the potent biopesticide azadirachtin. In spite of its widespread applications in agriculture and medicine, the molecular aspects of the biosynthesis of neem terpenoids remain largely unexplored. The current report describes the draft genome and four transcriptomes of A. indica and attempts to contextualise the sequence information in terms of its molecular phylogeny, transcript expression and terpenoid biosynthesis pathways. A. indica is the first member of the family Meliaceae to be sequenced using next generation sequencing approach. Results The genome and transcriptomes of A. indica were sequenced using multiple sequencing platforms and libraries. The A. indica genome is AT-rich, bears few repetitive DNA elements and comprises about 20,000 genes. The molecular phylogenetic analyses grouped A. indica together with Citrus sinensis from the Rutaceae family validating its conventional taxonomic classification. Comparative transcript expression analysis showed either exclusive or enhanced expression of known genes involved in neem terpenoid biosynthesis pathways compared to other sequenced angiosperms. Genome and transcriptome analyses in A. indica led to the identification of repeat elements, nucleotide composition and expression profiles of genes in various organs. Conclusions This study on A. indica genome and transcriptomes will provide a model for characterization of metabolic pathways involved in synthesis of bioactive compounds, comparative evolutionary studies among various Meliaceae family members and help annotate their genomes. A better understanding of molecular pathways involved in the azadirachtin synthesis in A. indica will pave ways for bulk production of environment friendly biopesticides. PMID:22958331

  19. Phylogeny of Saxifragales (angiosperms, eudicots): analysis of a rapid, ancient radiation.

    PubMed

    Fishbein, M; Hibsch-Jetter, C; Soltis, D E; Hufford, L

    2001-01-01

    Rapid, ancient radiations pose one of the most difficult challenges for phylogenetic estimation. We used DNA sequence data of 9,006 aligned base pairs from five genes (chloroplast atpB, matK, rbcL, and 18S and 26S nrDNA) to elucidate relationships among major lineages of Saxifragales (angiosperms, eudicots). These relationships were poorly supported in previous studies, apparently because the lineages originated in rapid succession. Using an array of methods that explicitly incorporate assumptions about evolutionary process (weighted maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, LogDet/paralinear transformed distances), we show that the initial diversification of Saxifragales was indeed rapid. We suggest that the poor resolution of our best phylogenetic estimate is not due to violations of assumptions or to combining data partitions having conflicting histories or processes. We show that estimated branch lengths during the initial diversification are exceedingly short, and we estimate that acquiring sufficient sequence data to resolve these relationships would require an extraordinary effort (approximately 10(7) bp), assuming a linear increase in branch support with branch length. However, our simulation of much larger data sets containing a distribution of phylogenetic signal similar to that of the five sampled gene sequences suggests a limit to achievable branch support. Using statistical tests of differences in the likelihoods of topologies, we evaluated whether the initial radiation of Saxifragales involved the simultaneous origin of major lineages. Our results are consistent with predictions that resolving the branching order of rapid, ancient radiations requires sampling characters that evolved rapidly at the time of the radiation but have since experienced a slower evolutionary rate.

  20. A test of the hydraulic vulnerability segmentation hypothesis in angiosperm and conifer tree species.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Daniel M; Wortemann, Remi; McCulloh, Katherine A; Jordan-Meille, Lionel; Ward, Eric; Warren, Jeffrey M; Palmroth, Sari; Domec, Jean-Christophe

    2016-08-01

    Water transport from soils to the atmosphere is critical for plant growth and survival. However, we have a limited understanding about many portions of the whole-tree hydraulic pathway, because the vast majority of published information is on terminal branches. Our understanding of mature tree trunk hydraulic physiology, in particular, is limited. The hydraulic vulnerability segmentation hypothesis (HVSH) stipulates that distal portions of the plant (leaves, branches and roots) should be more vulnerable to embolism than trunks, which are nonredundant organs that require a massive carbon investment. In the current study, we compared vulnerability to loss of hydraulic function, leaf and xylem water potentials and the resulting hydraulic safety margins (in relation to the water potential causing 50% loss of hydraulic conductivity) in leaves, branches, trunks and roots of four angiosperms and four conifer tree species. Across all species, our results supported strongly the HVSH as leaves and roots were less resistant to embolism than branches or trunks. However, branches were consistently more resistant to embolism than any other portion of the plant, including trunks. Also, calculated whole-tree vulnerability to hydraulic dysfunction was much greater than vulnerability in branches. This was due to hydraulic dysfunction in roots and leaves at less negative water potentials than those causing branch or trunk dysfunction. Leaves and roots had narrow or negative hydraulic safety margins, but trunks and branches maintained positive safety margins. By using branch-based hydraulic information as a proxy for entire plants, much research has potentially overestimated embolism resistance, and possibly drought tolerance, for many species. This study highlights the necessity to reconsider past conclusions made about plant resistance to drought based on branch xylem only. This study also highlights the necessity for more research of whole-plant hydraulic physiology to better

  1. A test of the hydraulic vulnerability segmentation hypothesis in angiosperm and conifer tree species

    DOE PAGES

    Johnson, Daniel M.; Wortemann, Remi; McCulloh, Katherine A.; ...

    2016-05-04

    Water transport from soils to the atmosphere is critical for plant growth and survival. However, we have a limited understanding about many portions of the whole-tree hydraulic pathway, because the vast majority of published information is on terminal branches. Our understanding of mature tree trunk hydraulic physiology, in particular, is limited. The hydraulic vulnerability segmentation hypothesis (HVSH) stipulates that distal portions of the plant (leaves, branches and roots) should be more vulnerable to embolism than trunks, which are non-redundant organs that require a massive carbon investment. In the current study, we compared vulnerability to loss of hydraulic function, leaf andmore » xylem water potentials and the resulting hydraulic safety margins (in relation to the water potential causing 50% loss of hydraulic conductivity) in leaves, branches, trunks and roots of four angiosperms and four conifer tree species. Across all species, our results supported strongly the HVSH as leaves and roots were less resistant to embolism than branches or trunks. However, branches were consistently more resistant to embolism than any other portion of the plant, including trunks. Also, calculated whole-tree vulnerability to hydraulic dysfunction was much greater than vulnerability in branches. This was due to hydraulic dysfunction in roots and leaves at less negative water potentials than those causing branch or trunk dysfunction. Leaves and roots had narrow or negative hydraulic safety margins, but trunks and branches maintained positive safety margins. By using branch-based hydraulic information as a proxy for entire plants, much research has potentially overestimated embolism resistance, and possibly drought tolerance, for many species. This study highlights the necessity to reconsider past conclusions made about plant resistance to drought based on branch xylem only. As a result, this study also highlights the necessity for more research of whole-plant hydraulic

  2. Photosynthetic HCO3− Utilization and OH− Excretion in Aquatic Angiosperms

    PubMed Central

    Prins, Hidde B. A.; Snel, Jan F. H.; Helder, Riender J.; Zanstra, Pieter E.

    1980-01-01

    The utilization of HCO3− as carbon source for photosynthesis by aquatic angiosperms results in the production of 1 mole OH− for each mole CO2 assimilated. The OH− ions are subsequently released to the medium. In several Potamogeton and Elodea species, the site of the HCO3− influx and OH− efflux are spatially separated. Described here are light- and dark-induced pH changes at the lower and upper epidermis of the leaves of Potamogeton lucens, Elodea densa, and Elodea canadensis. In the light, two phases could be discerned. During the first phase, the pH increased at both sides of the leaves. This pH increase apparently resulted from CO2 fixation. During the second, so-called polar phase, the pH at the upper side increased further, but the pH at the lower side dropped below the pH of the ambient solution. The pH drop at the lower epidermis indicates that the K+ influx exceeds the net CO2 (HCO3− + CO2) influx slightly. This may result either from a proton pump driving an extra K+ influx or from CO2 diffusion from the cells into the outer medium previously taken up as HCO3−. In the dark, a CO2 gush was observed at both sides. During the polar phase, the upper side becomes electrically negative with respect to the lower side. Subsequent depolarization in the dark revealed that this potential difference consisted of a fast and a slow component. PMID:16661533

  3. A test of the hydraulic vulnerability segmentation hypothesis in angiosperm and conifer tree species

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Daniel M.; Wortemann, Remi; McCulloh, Katherine A.; Jordan-Meille, Lionel; Ward, Eric; Warren, Jeffrey M.; Palmroth, Sari; Domec, Jean -Christophe

    2016-05-04

    Water transport from soils to the atmosphere is critical for plant growth and survival. However, we have a limited understanding about many portions of the whole-tree hydraulic pathway, because the vast majority of published information is on terminal branches. Our understanding of mature tree trunk hydraulic physiology, in particular, is limited. The hydraulic vulnerability segmentation hypothesis (HVSH) stipulates that distal portions of the plant (leaves, branches and roots) should be more vulnerable to embolism than trunks, which are non-redundant organs that require a massive carbon investment. In the current study, we compared vulnerability to loss of hydraulic function, leaf and xylem water potentials and the resulting hydraulic safety margins (in relation to the water potential causing 50% loss of hydraulic conductivity) in leaves, branches, trunks and roots of four angiosperms and four conifer tree species. Across all species, our results supported strongly the HVSH as leaves and roots were less resistant to embolism than branches or trunks. However, branches were consistently more resistant to embolism than any other portion of the plant, including trunks. Also, calculated whole-tree vulnerability to hydraulic dysfunction was much greater than vulnerability in branches. This was due to hydraulic dysfunction in roots and leaves at less negative water potentials than those causing branch or trunk dysfunction. Leaves and roots had narrow or negative hydraulic safety margins, but trunks and branches maintained positive safety margins. By using branch-based hydraulic information as a proxy for entire plants, much research has potentially overestimated embolism resistance, and possibly drought tolerance, for many species. This study highlights the necessity to reconsider past conclusions made about plant resistance to drought based on branch xylem only. As a result, this study also highlights the necessity for more research of whole-plant hydraulic physiology

  4. Dioecy in Amborella trichopoda: evidence for genetically based sex determination and its consequences for inferences of the breeding system in early angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Anger, Nicolas; Fogliani, Bruno; Scutt, Charles P; Gâteblé, Gildas

    2017-03-01

    This work aimed to gain insight into the breeding system at the base of living angiosperms through both character state reconstructions and the study of sex ratios and phenotypes in the likely sister to all other living angiosperms, Amborella trichopoda . Sex phenotypes were mapped onto a phylogeny of basally diverging angiosperms using maximum parsimony. In parallel, sex ratios and phenotypes were studied over two consecutive flowering seasons in an ex situ population of A. trichopoda , while the sex ratio of an in situ population was also assessed. Parsimony analyses failed to resolve the breeding system present at the base of living angiosperms, but indicated the importance of A. trichopoda for the future elucidation of this question. The ex situ A. trichopoda population studied showed a primary sex ratio close to 1:1, though sex ratio bias was found in the in situ population studied. Instances of sexual instability were quantified in both populations. Sex ratio data support the presence of genetic sex determination in A. trichopoda , whose further elucidation may guide inferences on the breeding system at the base of living angiosperms. Sexual instability in A. trichopoda suggests the operation of epigenetic mechanisms, and the evolution of dioecy via a gynodioecious intermediate.

  5. Phylogenetic assemblage structure of North American trees is more strongly shaped by glacial-interglacial climate variability in gymnosperms than in angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ziyu; Sandel, Brody; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2016-05-01

    How fast does biodiversity respond to climate change? The relationship of past and current climate with phylogenetic assemblage structure helps us to understand this question. Studies of angiosperm tree diversity in North America have already suggested effects of current water-energy balance and tropical niche conservatism. However, the role of glacial-interglacial climate variability remains to be determined, and little is known about any of these relationships for gymnosperms. Moreover, phylogenetic endemism, the concentration of unique lineages in restricted ranges, may also be related to glacial-interglacial climate variability and needs more attention. We used a refined phylogeny of both angiosperms and gymnosperms to map phylogenetic diversity, clustering and endemism of North American trees in 100-km grid cells, and climate change velocity since Last Glacial Maximum together with postglacial accessibility to recolonization to quantify glacial-interglacial climate variability. We found: (1) Current climate is the dominant factor explaining the overall patterns, with more clustered angiosperm assemblages toward lower temperature, consistent with tropical niche conservatism. (2) Long-term climate stability is associated with higher angiosperm endemism, while higher postglacial accessibility is linked to to more phylogenetic clustering and endemism in gymnosperms. (3) Factors linked to glacial-interglacial climate change have stronger effects on gymnosperms than on angiosperms. These results suggest that paleoclimate legacies supplement current climate in shaping phylogenetic patterns in North American trees, and especially so for gymnosperms.

  6. Are there symplastic connections between the endosperm and embryo in some angiosperms?--a lesson from the Crassulaceae family.

    PubMed

    Kozieradzka-Kiszkurno, Małgorzata; Płachno, Bartosz Jan

    2012-10-01

    It is believed that there is symplastic isolation between the embryo (new sporophyte) and the endosperm (maternal-parental origin tissue, which nourishes the embryo) in angiosperms. However, in embryological literature there are rare examples in which plasmodesmata between the embryo suspensor and endosperm cells have been recorded (three species from Fabaceae). This study was undertaken in order to test the hypothesis that plasmodesmata between the embryo suspensor and the endosperm are not so rare but also occur in other angiosperm families; in order to check this, we used the Crassulaceae family because embryogenesis in Crassulaceae has been studied extensively at an ultrastructure level recently and also we tread members of this family as model for suspensor physiology and function studies. These plasmodesmata even occurred between the basal cell of the two-celled proembryo and endosperm cells. The plasmodesmata were simple at this stage of development. During the development of the embryo proper and the suspensor, the structure of plasmodesmata changes. They were branched and connected with electron-dense material. Our results suggest that in Crassulaceae with plasmodesmata between the endosperm and suspensor, symplastic connectivity at this cell-cell boundary is still reduced or blocked at a very early stage of embryo development (before the globular stage). The occurrence of plasmodesmata between the embryo suspensor and endosperm cells suggests possible symplastic transport between these different organs, at least at a very early stage of embryo development. However, whether this transport actually occurs needs to be proven experimentally. A broader analysis of plants from various families would show whether the occurrence of plasmodesmata between the embryo suspensor and the endosperm are typical embryological characteristics and if this is useful in discussions about angiosperm systematic and evolution.

  7. Chloroplast DNA sequence utility for the lowest phylogenetic and phylogeographic inferences in angiosperms: the tortoise and the hare IV.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Joey; Shafer, Hayden L; Leonard, O Rayne; Kovach, Margaret J; Schorr, Mark; Morris, Ashley B

    2014-11-01

    Noncoding chloroplast DNA (NC-cpDNA) sequences are the staple data source of low-level phylogeographic and phylogenetic studies of angiosperms. We followed up on previous papers (tortoise and hare II and III) that sought to identify the most consistently variable regions of NC-cpDNA. We used an exhaustive literature review and newly available whole plastome data to assess applicability of previous conclusions at low taxonomic levels. We aligned complete plastomes of 25 species pairs from across angiosperms, comparing the number of genetic differences found in 107 NC-cpDNA regions and matK. We surveyed Web of Science for the plant phylogeographic literature between 2007 and 2013 to assess how NC-cpDNA has been used at the intraspecific level. Several regions are consistently the most variable across angiosperm lineages: ndhF-rpl32, rpl32-trnL((UAG)), ndhC-trnV((UAC)), 5'rps16-trnQ((UUG)), psbE-petL, trnT((GGU))-psbD, petA-psbJ, and rpl16 intron. However, there is no universally best region. The average number of regions applied to low-level studies is ∼2.5, which may be too little to access the full discriminating power of this genome. Plastome sequences have been used successfully at lower and lower taxonomic levels. Our findings corroborate earlier works, suggesting that there are regions that are most likely to be the most variable. However, while NC-cpDNA sequences are commonly used in plant phylogeographic studies, few of the most variable regions are applied in that context. Furthermore, it appears that in most studies too few NC-cpDNAs are used to access the discriminating power of the cpDNA genome. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  8. Development and evolution of extreme synorganization in angiosperm flowers and diversity: a comparison of Apocynaceae and Orchidaceae

    PubMed Central

    Endress, Peter K.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Apocynaceae and Orchidaceae are two angiosperm families with extreme flower synorganization. They are unrelated, the former in eudicots, the latter in monocots, but they converge in the formation of pollinia and pollinaria, which do not occur in any other angiosperm family, and for which extreme synorganization of floral organs is a precondition. In each family extensive studies on flower development and evolution have been performed; however, newer comparative studies focusing on flower synorganization and involving both families together are lacking. Scope For this study an extensive search through the morphological literature has been conducted. Based on this and my own studies on flowers in various Apocynaceae and Orchidaceae and complex flowers in other angiosperms with scanning electron microscopy and with microtome section series, a review on convergent floral traits in flower development and architecture in the two families is presented. Key Findings There is a tendency of protracted development of synorganized parts in Apocynaceae and Orchidaceae (development of synorganization of two or more organs begins earlier the more accentuated it is at anthesis). Synorganization (or complexity) also paves the way for novel structures. One of the most conspicuous such novel structures in Apocynaceae is the corona, which is not the product of synorganization of existing organs; however, it is probably enhanced by synorganization of other, existing, floral parts. In contrast to synorganized parts, the corona appears developmentally late. Conclusions Synorganization of floral organs may lead to a large number of convergences in clades that are only very distantly related. The convergences that have been highlighted in this comparative study should be developmentally investigated directly in parallel in future studies. PMID:26292994

  9. Comparative ovule and megagametophyte development in Hydatellaceae and water lilies reveal a mosaic of features among the earliest angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Rudall, Paula J; Remizowa, Margarita V; Beer, Anton S; Bradshaw, Elizabeth; Stevenson, Dennis W; Macfarlane, Terry D; Tuckett, Renee E; Yadav, Shrirang R; Sokoloff, Dmitry D

    2008-05-01

    The embryo sac, nucellus and integuments of the early-divergent angiosperms Hydatellaceae and other Nymphaeales are compared with those of other seed plants, in order to evaluate the evolutionary origin of these characters in the angiosperms. Using light microscopy, ovule and embryo sac development are described in five (of 12) species of Trithuria, the sole genus of Hydatellaceae, and compared with those of Cabombaceae and Nymphaeaceae. The ovule of Trithuria is bitegmic and tenuinucellate, rather than bitegmic and crassinucellate as in most other Nymphaeales. The seed is operculate and possesses a perisperm that develops precociously, which are both key features of Nymphaeales. However, in the Indian species T. konkanensis, perisperm is relatively poorly developed by the time of fertilization. Perisperm cells in Trithuria become multinucleate during development, a feature observed also in other Nymphaeales. The outer integument is semi-annular ('hood-shaped'), as in Cabombaceae and some Nymphaeaceae, in contrast to the annular ('cap-shaped') outer integument of some other Nymphaeaceae (e.g. Barclaya) and Amborella. The megagametophyte in Trithuria is monosporic and four-nucleate; at the two-nucleate stage both nuclei occur in the micropylar domain. Double megagametophytes were frequently observed, probably developed from different megaspores of the same tetrad. Indirect, but strong evidence is presented for apomictic embryo development in T. filamentosa. Most features of the ovule and embryo sac of Trithuria are consistent with a close relationship with other Nymphaeales, especially Cabombaceae. The frequent occurrence of double megagametophytes in the same ovule indicates a high degree of developmental flexibility, and could provide a clue to the evolutionary origin of the Polygonum-type of angiosperm embryo sac.

  10. Comparative Ovule and Megagametophyte Development in Hydatellaceae and Water Lilies Reveal a Mosaic of Features Among the Earliest Angiosperms

    PubMed Central

    Rudall, Paula J.; Remizowa, Margarita V.; Beer, Anton S.; Bradshaw, Elizabeth; Stevenson, Dennis W.; Macfarlane, Terry D.; Tuckett, Renee E.; Yadav, Shrirang R.; Sokoloff, Dmitry D.

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims The embryo sac, nucellus and integuments of the early-divergent angiosperms Hydatellaceae and other Nymphaeales are compared with those of other seed plants, in order to evaluate the evolutionary origin of these characters in the angiosperms. Methods Using light microscopy, ovule and embryo sac development are described in five (of 12) species of Trithuria, the sole genus of Hydatellaceae, and compared with those of Cabombaceae and Nymphaeaceae. Key Results The ovule of Trithuria is bitegmic and tenuinucellate, rather than bitegmic and crassinucellate as in most other Nymphaeales. The seed is operculate and possesses a perisperm that develops precociously, which are both key features of Nymphaeales. However, in the Indian species T. konkanensis, perisperm is relatively poorly developed by the time of fertilization. Perisperm cells in Trithuria become multinucleate during development, a feature observed also in other Nymphaeales. The outer integument is semi-annular (‘hood-shaped’), as in Cabombaceae and some Nymphaeaceae, in contrast to the annular (‘cap-shaped’) outer integument of some other Nymphaeaceae (e.g. Barclaya) and Amborella. The megagametophyte in Trithuria is monosporic and four-nucleate; at the two-nucleate stage both nuclei occur in the micropylar domain. Double megagametophytes were frequently observed, probably developed from different megaspores of the same tetrad. Indirect, but strong evidence is presented for apomictic embryo development in T. filamentosa. Conclusions Most features of the ovule and embryo sac of Trithuria are consistent with a close relationship with other Nymphaeales, especially Cabombaceae. The frequent occurrence of double megagametophytes in the same ovule indicates a high degree of developmental flexibility, and could provide a clue to the evolutionary origin of the Polygonum-type of angiosperm embryo sac. PMID:18378513

  11. Two ancestral APETALA3 homologs from the basal angiosperm Magnolia wufengensis (Magnoliaceae) can affect flower development of Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Jing, Danlong; Liu, Zhixiong; Zhang, Bo; Ma, Jiang; Han, Yiyang; Chen, Faju

    2014-03-01

    APETALA3 (AP3) homologs are involved in specifying petal and stamen identities in core eudicot model organisms. In order to investigate the functional conservation of AP3 homologs between core eudicots and basal angiosperm, we isolated and identified two AP3 homologs from Magnolia wufengensis, a woody basal angiosperm belonging to the family Magnoliaceae. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses revealed that both genes are clade members of the paleoAP3 lineage. Moreover, a highly conserved motif of paleoAP3 is found in the C-terminal regions of MAwuAP3_1/2 proteins, but the PI-derived motif, usually present in AP3/DEF-like lineage members, is missing. Semi-quantitative and real time PCR analyses showed that the expression of MAwuAP3_1/2 was restricted to tepals and stamens. However, the MAwuAP3_1 expression was maintained at a high level during the rapid increased in size of tepals and stamens, while MAwuAP3_2 mRNA was only detected at the early stage of tepal and stamen development. Furthermore, the expression of MAwuAP3_1/2 in transgenic Arabidopsis causes phenotypic changes which partly resemble those caused by ectopic expressions of the endogenous AP3 gene. Moreover, the 35S::MAwuAP3_1/2 transgenic Arabidopsis can be used partially to rescue the loss-of-function ap3 mutant (ap3-3) of Arabidopsis. These findings call for a more comprehensive understanding of the B-functional evolution from basal angiosperm to core eudicot clades.

  12. Opposite domination of cyclic and pseudocyclic electron flows in short-illuminated dark-adapted leaves of angiosperms and gymnosperms.

    PubMed

    Noridomi, Mari; Nakamura, Shouta; Tsuyama, Michito; Futamura, Norihiro; Vladkova, Radka

    2017-07-08

    The present work was aimed to explain the recently reported higher O2-dependent electron flow capacity in gymnosperms than in angiosperms and to search for other differences in the electron transport processes by simultaneous characterization of the relative capacities of pseudocyclic (direct or Flavodiiron proteins (Flv)-mediated O2-reduction, Mehler(-like) reactions) and cyclic electron flows around photosystem I (CEF-PSI). To this end, a comparative multicomponent analysis was performed on the fluorescence decay curves of dark-adapted leaves after illumination with a 1-s saturating light pulse. In both gymnosperms and angiosperms, two or three exponential decay components were resolved: fast (t 1/21 ~ 170-260 ms), middle (~1.0-2.3 s), and slow (>4.2 s). The sensitivity of the decay parameters (amplitudes A1-3, halftimes t 1/2 1-3) to the alternative electron flows was assessed using Arabidopsis pgr5 and ndhM mutants, defective in CEF-PSI, Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 Δflv1 mutant, defective in Flv-mediated O2-photoreduction, different O2 concentrations, and methyl viologen treatment. A1 reflected the part of electrons involved in linear and O2-photoreduction pathways after PSI. The middle component appeared in pgr5 (but not in ndhM), in gymnosperms under low O2, and in Δflv1, and reflected limitations at the PSI acceptor side. The slow component was sensitive to CEF-PSI. The comparison of decay parameters provided evidence that Flv mediate O2-photoreduction in gymnosperms, which explains their higher O2-dependent electron flow capacity. The concomitant quantification of relative electrons branching in O2-photoreduction and CEF-PSI pathways under the applied non-steady-state photosynthetic conditions reveals that CEF-PSI capacity significantly exceeds that of O2-photoreduction in angiosperms while the opposite occurs in gymnosperms.

  13. Weak coordination among petiole, leaf, vein, and gas-exchange traits across Australian angiosperm species and its possible implications.

    PubMed

    Gleason, Sean M; Blackman, Chris J; Chang, Yvonne; Cook, Alicia M; Laws, Claire A; Westoby, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Close coordination between leaf gas exchange and maximal hydraulic supply has been reported across diverse plant life forms. However, it has also been suggested that this relationship may become weak or break down completely within the angiosperms. We examined coordination between hydraulic, leaf vein, and gas-exchange traits across a diverse group of 35 evergreen Australian angiosperms, spanning a large range in leaf structure and habitat. Leaf-specific conductance was calculated from petiole vessel anatomy and was also measured directly using the rehydration technique. Leaf vein density (thought to be a determinant of gas exchange rate), maximal stomatal conductance, and net CO 2 assimilation rate were also measured for most species (n = 19-35). Vein density was not correlated with leaf-specific conductance (either calculated or measured), stomatal conductance, nor maximal net CO 2 assimilation, with r (2) values ranging from 0.00 to 0.11, P values from 0.909 to 0.102, and n values from 19 to 35 in all cases. Leaf-specific conductance calculated from petiole anatomy was weakly correlated with maximal stomatal conductance (r (2) = 0.16; P = 0.022; n = 32), whereas the direct measurement of leaf-specific conductance was weakly correlated with net maximal CO 2 assimilation (r (2) = 0.21; P = 0.005; n = 35). Calculated leaf-specific conductance, xylem ultrastructure, and leaf vein density do not appear to be reliable proxy traits for assessing differences in rates of gas exchange or growth across diverse sets of evergreen angiosperms.

  14. Development and evolution of extreme synorganization in angiosperm flowers and diversity: a comparison of Apocynaceae and Orchidaceae.

    PubMed

    Endress, Peter K

    2016-04-01

    Apocynaceae and Orchidaceae are two angiosperm families with extreme flower synorganization. They are unrelated, the former in eudicots, the latter in monocots, but they converge in the formation of pollinia and pollinaria, which do not occur in any other angiosperm family, and for which extreme synorganization of floral organs is a precondition. In each family extensive studies on flower development and evolution have been performed; however, newer comparative studies focusing on flower synorganization and involving both families together are lacking. For this study an extensive search through the morphological literature has been conducted. Based on this and my own studies on flowers in various Apocynaceae and Orchidaceae and complex flowers in other angiosperms with scanning electron microscopy and with microtome section series, a review on convergent floral traits in flower development and architecture in the two families is presented. There is a tendency of protracted development of synorganized parts in Apocynaceae and Orchidaceae (development of synorganization of two or more organs begins earlier the more accentuated it is at anthesis). Synorganization (or complexity) also paves the way for novel structures. One of the most conspicuous such novel structures in Apocynaceae is the corona, which is not the product of synorganization of existing organs; however, it is probably enhanced by synorganization of other, existing, floral parts. In contrast to synorganized parts, the corona appears developmentally late. Synorganization of floral organs may lead to a large number of convergences in clades that are only very distantly related. The convergences that have been highlighted in this comparative study should be developmentally investigated directly in parallel in future studies. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. From algae to angiosperms-inferring the phylogeny of green plants (Viridiplantae) from 360 plastid genomes.

    PubMed

    Ruhfel, Brad R; Gitzendanner, Matthew A; Soltis, Pamela S; Soltis, Douglas E; Burleigh, J Gordon

    2014-02-17

    Next-generation sequencing has provided a wealth of plastid genome sequence data from an increasingly diverse set of green plants (Viridiplantae). Although these data have helped resolve the phylogeny of numerous clades (e.g., green algae, angiosperms, and gymnosperms), their utility for inferring relationships across all green plants is uncertain. Viridiplantae originated 700-1500 million years ago and may comprise as many as 500,000 species. This clade represents a major source of photosynthetic carbon and contains an immense diversity of life forms, including some of the smallest and largest eukaryotes. Here we explore the limits and challenges of inferring a comprehensive green plant phylogeny from available complete or nearly complete plastid genome sequence data. We assembled protein-coding sequence data for 78 genes from 360 diverse green plant taxa with complete or nearly complete plastid genome sequences available from GenBank. Phylogenetic analyses of the plastid data recovered well-supported backbone relationships and strong support for relationships that were not observed in previous analyses of major subclades within Viridiplantae. However, there also is evidence of systematic error in some analyses. In several instances we obtained strongly supported but conflicting topologies from analyses of nucleotides versus amino acid characters, and the considerable variation in GC content among lineages and within single genomes affected the phylogenetic placement of several taxa. Analyses of the plastid sequence data recovered a strongly supported framework of relationships for green plants. This framework includes: i) the placement of Zygnematophyceace as sister to land plants (Embryophyta), ii) a clade of extant gymnosperms (Acrogymnospermae) with cycads + Ginkgo sister to remaining extant gymnosperms and with gnetophytes (Gnetophyta) sister to non-Pinaceae conifers (Gnecup trees), and iii) within the monilophyte clade (Monilophyta), Equisetales

  16. Nonflowers near the base of extant angiosperms? Spatiotemporal arrangement of organs in reproductive units of Hydatellaceae and its bearing on the origin of the flower.

    PubMed

    Rudall, Paula J; Remizowa, Margarita V; Prenner, Gerhard; Prychid, Christina J; Tuckett, Renee E; Sokoloff, Dmitry D

    2009-01-01

    Reproductive units (RUs) of Trithuria, the sole genus of the early-divergent angiosperm family Hydatellaceae, are compared with flowers of their close relatives in Cabombaceae (Nymphaeales). Trithuria RUs combine features of flowers and inflorescences. They differ from typical flowers in possessing an "inside-out" morphology, with carpels surrounding stamens; furthermore, carpels develop centrifugally, in contrast to centripetal or simultaneous development in typical flowers. Trithuria RUs could be interpreted as pseudanthia of two or more cymose partial inflorescences enclosed within an involucre, but the bractlike involucral phyllomes do not subtend partial inflorescences and hence collectively resemble a typical perianth. Teratological forms of T. submersa indicate a tendency to fasciation and demonstrate that the inside-out structure-the primary feature that separates RUs of Hydatellaceae from more orthodox angiosperm flowers-can be at least partially modified, thus producing a morphology that is closer to an orthodox flower. The Trithuria RU could be described as a "nonflower", i.e., a structure that contains typical angiosperm carpels and stamens but does not allow recognition of a typical angiosperm flower. The term nonflower could combine cases of secondary loss of flower identity and cases of a prefloral condition, similar to those that gave rise to the angiosperm flower. Nonhomology among some angiosperm flowers could be due to iterative shifts between nonfloral construction and flower/inflorescence organization of reproductive organs. Potential testing of these hypotheses using evolutionary-developmental genetics is explored using preliminary data from immunolocalization of the floral meristem identity gene LEAFY in T. submersa, which indicated protein expression at different hierarchical levels.

  17. The polyamine oxidase from lycophyte Selaginella lepidophylla (SelPAO5), unlike that of angiosperms, back-converts thermospermine to norspermidine.

    PubMed

    Sagor, G H M; Inoue, Masataka; Kim, Dong Wook; Kojima, Seiji; Niitsu, Masaru; Berberich, Thomas; Kusano, Tomonobu

    2015-10-07

    In the phylogeny of plant polyamine oxidases (PAOs), clade III members from angiosperms, such as Arabidopsis thaliana PAO5 and Oryza sativa PAO1, prefer spermine and thermospermine as substrates and back-convert both of these substrates to spermidine in vitro. A clade III representative of lycophytes, SelPAO5 from Selaginella lepidophylla, also prefers spermine and thermospermine but instead back-converts these substrates to spermidine and norspermidine, respectively. This finding indicates that the clade III PAOs of lycophytes and angiosperms oxidize thermospermine at different carbon positions. We discuss the physiological significance of this difference.

  18. Morphological and molecular phylogenetic context of the angiosperms: contrasting the 'top-down' and 'bottom-up' approaches used to infer the likely characteristics of the first flowers.

    PubMed

    Bateman, Richard M; Hilton, Jason; Rudall, Paula J

    2006-01-01

    Recent attempts to address the long-debated 'origin' of the angiosperms depend on a phylogenetic framework derived from a matrix of taxa versus characters; most assume that empirical rigour is proportional to the size of the matrix. Sequence-based genotypic approaches increase the number of characters (nucleotides and indels) in the matrix but are confined to the highly restricted spectrum of extant species, whereas morphology-based approaches increase the number of phylogenetically informative taxa (including fossils) at the expense of accessing only a restricted spectrum of phenotypic characters. The two approaches are currently delivering strongly contrasting hypotheses of relationship. Most molecular studies indicate that all extant gymnosperms form a natural group, suggesting surprisingly early divergence of the lineage that led to angiosperms, whereas morphology-only phylogenies indicate that a succession of (mostly extinct) gymnosperms preceded a later angiosperm origin. Causes of this conflict include: (i) the vast phenotypic and genotypic lacuna, largely reflecting pre-Cenozoic extinctions, that separates early-divergent living angiosperms from their closest relatives among the living gymnosperms; (ii) profound uncertainty regarding which (a) extant and (b) extinct angiosperms are most closely related to gymnosperms; and (iii) profound uncertainty regarding which (a) extant and (b) extinct gymnosperms are most closely related to angiosperms, and thus best serve as 'outgroups' dictating the perceived evolutionary polarity of character transitions among the early-divergent angiosperms. These factors still permit a remarkable range of contrasting, yet credible, hypotheses regarding the order of acquisition of the many phenotypic characters, reproductive and vegetative, that distinguish 'classic' angiospermy from 'classic' gymnospermy. The flower remains ill-defined and its mode (or modes) of origin remains hotly disputed; some definitions and hypotheses of

  19. Primary productivity of angiosperm and macroalgae dominated habitats in a New England Salt Marsh: a Comparative analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roman, C. T.; Able, K. W.; Lazzari, M. A.; Heck, K. L.

    1990-01-01

    Net primary productivity estimates were made for the major macrophyte dominated habitats of the Nauset Marsh system, Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Above-ground primary productivity of short form Spartina alterniflora, the dominant habitat of the system, was 664 g m -2 y -1. Productivity of the other dominant angiosperm ( Zostera marina) was estimated to range from 444-987 g m -2 y -1. The marsh creekbank habitat was dominated by an intertidal zone of fucoid algae ( Ascophyllum nodosum ecad. scorpioides, 1179 g m -2 y -1; Fucus vesiculosus, 426 g m -2 y -1), mixed intertidal filamentous algae (91 g m -2 y -1), and a subtidal zone of assorted macroalgae (68 g m -2 y -1). Intertidal mudflats were dominated by Cladophora gracilis, with net production ranging from 59-637 g m -2 y -1. These angiosperm and macrophyte and macrophyte dominated habitats produce over 3 × 10 6 kg y -1 of biomass (1·2 × 10 6 kg carbon y -1). Twenty-eight per cent (28%) of this carbon production is derived from the Zostera and macroalgae habitats. Although S. alterniflora is considered the major macrophyte primary producer in Nauset Marsh and other north temperate salt marshes, it is concluded that other habitats also contribute significantly to total system carbon production.

  20. Sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis by the Maximum Likelihood method of ribosome-inactivating proteins from angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Di Maro, Antimo; Citores, Lucía; Russo, Rosita; Iglesias, Rosario; Ferreras, José Miguel

    2014-08-01

    Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) from angiosperms are rRNA N-glycosidases that have been proposed as defence proteins against virus and fungi. They have been classified as type 1 RIPs, consisting of single-chain proteins, and type 2 RIPs, consisting of an A chain with RIP properties covalently linked to a B chain with lectin properties. In this work we have carried out a broad search of RIP sequence data banks from angiosperms in order to study their main structural characteristics and phylogenetic evolution. The comparison of the sequences revealed the presence, outside of the active site, of a novel structure that might be involved in the internal protein dynamics linked to enzyme catalysis. Also the B-chains presented another conserved structure that might function either supporting the beta-trefoil structure or in the communication between both sugar-binding sites. A systematic phylogenetic analysis of RIP sequences revealed that the most primitive type 1 RIPs were similar to that of the actual monocots (Poaceae and Asparagaceae). The primitive RIPs evolved to the dicot type 1 related RIPs (like those from Caryophyllales, Lamiales and Euphorbiales). The gene of a type 1 RIP related with the actual Euphorbiaceae type 1 RIPs fused with a double beta trefoil lectin gene similar to the actual Cucurbitaceae lectins to generate the type 2 RIPs and finally this gene underwent deletions rendering either type 1 RIPs (like those from Cucurbitaceae, Rosaceae and Iridaceae) or lectins without A chain (like those from Adoxaceae).