Science.gov

Sample records for angle light scattering

  1. Angle- and Spectral-Dependent Light Scattering from Plasmonic Nanocups

    SciTech Connect

    King, Nicholas S.; Li, Yang; Ayala-Orozco, Ciceron; Brannan, Travis; Nordlander, Peter; Halas, Naomi J.

    2011-09-27

    As optical frequency nanoantennas, reduced-symmetry plasmonic nanoparticles have light-scattering properties that depend strongly on geometry, orientation, and variations in dielectric environment. Here we investigate how these factors influence the spectral and angular dependence of light scattered by Au nanocups. A simple dielectric substrate causes the axial, electric dipole mode of the nanocup to deviate substantially from its characteristic cos² θ free space scattering profile, while the transverse, magnetic dipole mode remains remarkably insensitive to the presence of the substrate. Nanoscale irregularities of the nanocup rim and the local substrate permittivity have a surprisingly large effect on the spectral- and angle-dependent light-scattering properties of these structures.

  2. Wide-angle light scattering (WALS) for soot aggregate characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Oltmann, Hergen; Reimann, Joerg; Will, Stefan

    2010-03-15

    A novel set-up for the experimental determination of aggregate morphology in combustion processes based on elastic light scattering has been designed and realized. A key feature of this wide-angle light scattering (WALS) approach is an ellipsoidal mirror which is used to collect scattered light over a wide angular range of about 10-170 . The set-up employs a cw solid-state laser as light source and an intensified CCD-camera as detector. By means of the mirror the scattered light is imaged onto the detector allowing for a simultaneous acquisition of a full scattering diagram with a high angular resolution of about 0.6 . To demonstrate the performance of the approach, measurements for various sooting flames produced by premixed combustion in a flat flame burner were carried out, where the burner was operated with different equivalence ratios and fuels. It is shown that radii of gyration of soot particles may efficiently be obtained from an analysis of the scattering diagrams. (author)

  3. A novel full-angle scanning light scattering profiler to quantitatively evaluate forward and backward light scattering from intraocular lenses

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Bennett N.; James, Robert H.; Ilev, Ilko K.; Calogero, Don

    2015-09-15

    Glare, glistenings, optical defects, dysphotopsia, and poor image quality are a few of the known deficiencies of intraocular lenses (IOLs). All of these optical phenomena are related to light scatter. However, the specific direction that light scatters makes a critical difference between debilitating glare and a slightly noticeable decrease in image quality. Consequently, quantifying the magnitude and direction of scattered light is essential to appropriately evaluate the safety and efficacy of IOLs. In this study, we introduce a full-angle scanning light scattering profiler (SLSP) as a novel approach capable of quantitatively evaluating the light scattering from IOLs with a nearly 360° view. The SLSP method can simulate in situ conditions by controlling the parameters of the light source including angle of incidence. This testing strategy will provide a more effective nonclinical approach for the evaluation of IOL light scatter.

  4. A novel full-angle scanning light scattering profiler to quantitatively evaluate forward and backward light scattering from intraocular lenses.

    PubMed

    Walker, Bennett N; James, Robert H; Calogero, Don; Ilev, Ilko K

    2015-09-01

    Glare, glistenings, optical defects, dysphotopsia, and poor image quality are a few of the known deficiencies of intraocular lenses (IOLs). All of these optical phenomena are related to light scatter. However, the specific direction that light scatters makes a critical difference between debilitating glare and a slightly noticeable decrease in image quality. Consequently, quantifying the magnitude and direction of scattered light is essential to appropriately evaluate the safety and efficacy of IOLs. In this study, we introduce a full-angle scanning light scattering profiler (SLSP) as a novel approach capable of quantitatively evaluating the light scattering from IOLs with a nearly 360° view. The SLSP method can simulate in situ conditions by controlling the parameters of the light source including angle of incidence. This testing strategy will provide a more effective nonclinical approach for the evaluation of IOL light scatter.

  5. Multi-angle Light Scattering Device for Aerosol Particle Detection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    currently measuring scattering from Arizona road dust, various sizes of abrasive grits and planning soot studies, some cloud processed. The project...sizes of alumina abrasives . With our small angles (and unlike all previous scattering work), we are able to obtain Guinier regimes for these systems

  6. Angle-resolved light scattering of individual rod-shaped bacteria based on Fourier transform light scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Youngju; Jung, Jaehwang; Lee, Jee Woong; Shin, Della; Park, Hyunjoo; Nam, Ki Tae; Park, Ji-Ho; Park, Yongkeun

    2014-05-01

    Two-dimensional angle-resolved light scattering maps of individual rod-shaped bacteria are measured at the single-cell level. Using quantitative phase imaging and Fourier transform light scattering techniques, the light scattering patterns of individual bacteria in four rod-shaped species (Bacillus subtilis, Lactobacillus casei, Synechococcus elongatus, and Escherichia coli) are measured with unprecedented sensitivity in a broad angular range from -70° to 70°. The measured light scattering patterns are analyzed along the two principal axes of rod-shaped bacteria in order to systematically investigate the species-specific characteristics of anisotropic light scattering. In addition, the cellular dry mass of individual bacteria is calculated and used to demonstrate that the cell-to-cell variations in light scattering within bacterial species is related to the cellular dry mass and growth.

  7. Angle-resolved light scattering of individual rod-shaped bacteria based on Fourier transform light scattering

    PubMed Central

    Jo, YoungJu; Jung, JaeHwang; Lee, Jee Woong; Shin, Della; Park, HyunJoo; Nam, Ki Tae; Park, Ji-Ho; Park, YongKeun

    2014-01-01

    Two-dimensional angle-resolved light scattering maps of individual rod-shaped bacteria are measured at the single-cell level. Using quantitative phase imaging and Fourier transform light scattering techniques, the light scattering patterns of individual bacteria in four rod-shaped species (Bacillus subtilis, Lactobacillus casei, Synechococcus elongatus, and Escherichia coli) are measured with unprecedented sensitivity in a broad angular range from −70° to 70°. The measured light scattering patterns are analyzed along the two principal axes of rod-shaped bacteria in order to systematically investigate the species-specific characteristics of anisotropic light scattering. In addition, the cellular dry mass of individual bacteria is calculated and used to demonstrate that the cell-to-cell variations in light scattering within bacterial species is related to the cellular dry mass and growth. PMID:24867385

  8. Angle-resolved light scattering of individual rod-shaped bacteria based on Fourier transform light scattering.

    PubMed

    Jo, YoungJu; Jung, JaeHwang; Lee, Jee Woong; Shin, Della; Park, HyunJoo; Nam, Ki Tae; Park, Ji-Ho; Park, YongKeun

    2014-05-28

    Two-dimensional angle-resolved light scattering maps of individual rod-shaped bacteria are measured at the single-cell level. Using quantitative phase imaging and Fourier transform light scattering techniques, the light scattering patterns of individual bacteria in four rod-shaped species (Bacillus subtilis, Lactobacillus casei, Synechococcus elongatus, and Escherichia coli) are measured with unprecedented sensitivity in a broad angular range from -70° to 70°. The measured light scattering patterns are analyzed along the two principal axes of rod-shaped bacteria in order to systematically investigate the species-specific characteristics of anisotropic light scattering. In addition, the cellular dry mass of individual bacteria is calculated and used to demonstrate that the cell-to-cell variations in light scattering within bacterial species is related to the cellular dry mass and growth.

  9. Fine Particle Sensor Based on Multi-Angle Light Scattering and Data Fusion.

    PubMed

    Shao, Wenjia; Zhang, Hongjian; Zhou, Hongliang

    2017-05-04

    Meteorological parameters such as relative humidity have a significant impact on the precision of PM2.5 measurement instruments based on light scattering. Instead of adding meteorological sensors or dehumidification devices used widely in commercial PM2.5 measurement instruments, a novel particle sensor based on multi-angle light scattering and data fusion is proposed to eliminate the effect of meteorological factors. Three photodiodes are employed to collect the scattered light flux at three distinct angles. Weather index is defined as the ratio of scattered light fluxes collected at the 40° and 55° angles, which can be used to distinguish the mass median diameter variation caused by different meteorological parameters. Simulations based on Lorenz-Mie theory and field experiments establish the feasibility of this scheme. Experimental results indicate that mass median diameter has less effect on the photodiode at the 55° angle in comparison with photodiodes at the 40° angle and 140° angle. After correction using the weather index, the photodiode at the 40° angle yielded the best results followed by photodiodes at the 55° angle and the 140° angle.

  10. Fine Particle Sensor Based on Multi-Angle Light Scattering and Data Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Wenjia; Zhang, Hongjian; Zhou, Hongliang

    2017-01-01

    Meteorological parameters such as relative humidity have a significant impact on the precision of PM2.5 measurement instruments based on light scattering. Instead of adding meteorological sensors or dehumidification devices used widely in commercial PM2.5 measurement instruments, a novel particle sensor based on multi-angle light scattering and data fusion is proposed to eliminate the effect of meteorological factors. Three photodiodes are employed to collect the scattered light flux at three distinct angles. Weather index is defined as the ratio of scattered light fluxes collected at the 40° and 55° angles, which can be used to distinguish the mass median diameter variation caused by different meteorological parameters. Simulations based on Lorenz-Mie theory and field experiments establish the feasibility of this scheme. Experimental results indicate that mass median diameter has less effect on the photodiode at the 55° angle in comparison with photodiodes at the 40° angle and 140° angle. After correction using the weather index, the photodiode at the 40° angle yielded the best results followed by photodiodes at the 55° angle and the 140° angle. PMID:28471406

  11. Development of wide-angle 2D light scattering static cytometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Linyan; Liu, Qiao; Shao, Changshun; Su, Xuantao

    2016-10-01

    We have recently developed a 2D light scattering static cytometer for cellular analysis in a label-free manner, which measures side scatter (SSC) light in the polar angular range from 79 to 101 degrees. Compared with conventional flow cytometry, our cytometric technique requires no fluorescent labeling of the cells, and static cytometry measurements can be performed without flow control. In this paper we present an improved label-free static cytometer that can obtain 2D light scattering patterns in a wider angular range. By illuminating the static microspheres on chip with a scanning optical fiber, wide-angle 2D light scattering patterns of single standard microspheres with a mean diameter of 3.87 μm are obtained. The 2D patterns of 3.87 μm microspheres contain both large-angle forward scatter (FSC) and SSC light in the polar angular range from 40 to 100 degrees, approximately. Experimental 2D patterns of 3.87 μm microspheres are in good agreement with Mie theory simulated ones. The wide-angle light scattering measurements may provide a better resolution for particle analysis as compared with the SSC measurements. Two dimensional light scattering patterns of HL-60 human acute leukemia cells are obtained by using our static cytometer. Compared with SSC 2D light scattering patterns, wide-angle 2D patterns contain richer information of the HL-60 cells. The obtaining of 2D light scattering patterns in a wide angular range could help to enhance the capabilities of our label-free static cytometry for cell analysis.

  12. Finite-size effect in light transmission through highly forward scattering media at grazing angles.

    PubMed

    Marinyuk, V V; Sheberstov, S V

    2016-03-01

    We present a theoretical study of light transmission through a disordered medium with large (compared to the light wavelength) inhomogeneities. Both numerical integration and analytic treatments of the radiative transfer equation are performed. An effect of the single-scattering phase function on the total transmittance is found in a subdiffusion thickness range. The effect reveals itself at grazing angles of incidence and originates from small-angle multiple scattering of light. A simple analytic formula for the total transmittance is derived. Our results are in good agreement with data of independent numerical calculations.

  13. Angle-Resolved Second-Harmonic Light Scattering from Colloidal Particles

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, N.; Angerer, W. E.; Yodh, A. G.

    2001-09-03

    We report angle-resolved second-harmonic generation (SHG) measurements from suspensions of centrosymmetric micron-size polystyrene spheres with surface-adsorbed dye (malachite green). The second-harmonic scattering profiles differ qualitatively from linear light scattering profiles of the same particles. We investigated these radiation patterns using several polarization configurations and particle diameters. We introduce a simple Rayleigh-Gans-Debye model to account for the SHG scattering anisotropy. The model compares favorably with our experimental data. Our measurements suggest scattering anisotropy may be used to isolate particle nonlinear optics from other bulk nonlinear optical effects in suspension.

  14. Single-shot measurement of soot aggregate sizes by wide-angle light scattering (WALS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oltmann, H.; Reimann, J.; Will, S.

    2012-01-01

    The wide-angle light scattering (WALS) approach has been utilized for the measurement of soot aggregate sizes (radii of gyration) in flames on a single-shot basis. Key elements are a pulsed laser and an ellipsoidal mirror, which images the light scattered within a plane onto an intensified CCD camera, thus allowing for an instantaneous acquisition of a full scattering diagram with high resolution. Results for a laminar premixed flame exhibit good agreement with averaged data and demonstrate the feasibility of the method. The applicability of the technique to unsteady combustion processes is demonstrated by measuring aggregate sizes in a weakly turbulent jet-diffusion flame. In both cases light scattering results are verified by data obtained from electron microscopy analysis of sampled soot.

  15. The potential for studying the effects of microgravity on connective tissue by small angle light scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, K.; Bellare, A.; Shortkroff, S.; Dahlgren, E.

    In order to address the effects of microgravity on living tissue, we must examine and understand tissue response on a molecular level. Doing so requires the development of quantitative techniques for characterizing tissue behavior on the micrometer scale under both normal and reduced gravitational fields. It has been demonstrated that small angle light scattering holds great promise in this regard. Small angle light scattering (SALS) has been used to probe tissue microstructure on the micron and sub-micron length scales. Quantitative information on feature geometry, dimension and orientation was obtained. Here, we discuss the application of small angle light scattering techniques to the study of connective tissue. Two terrestrial situations relevant to future microgravity studies were considered: the anisotropic behavior of collagen fibers in rabbit tendon in response to increasing load; and, the variation in collagen structure in healthy and arthritic human cartilage. SALS allowed quantitative determination of both fiber diameter and degree of orientation, providing a level of information beyond that obtainable by light and electron microscopies. The primary advantages of SALS over these techniques lies in its quantitative nature and reduced sample preparation requirements. SALS requires neither vacuum or the use of dyes, eliminating important potential sources of artifacts. Results from these studies compare favorably with microscopy studies and demonstrate the importance of the quantitative nature of the technique. In addition, these results also demonstrate the potential of SALS for providing quantitative analysis of effects of microgravity on structural and connective tissue.

  16. Small angle light scattering characterization of single micrometric particles in microfluidic flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dannhauser, David; Romeo, Giovanni; Causa, Filippo; Netti, Paolo A.

    2013-04-01

    A CCD-camera based small angle light scattering (SALS) apparatus has been used to characterize single micrometric particles flowing in a micro-channel. The measured scattering vector spans the range 2x10-2 - 6:8x101μm-1. The incident laser light is collimated to a spot of about 50 μm in diameter at the sample position with a divergence lower than 0.045 rad. Such small collimated laser beam opens the possibility to perform on-line SALS of micron-sized particles flowing in micro-channels. By properly designing the micro-channel and using a viscoelastic liquid as suspending medium we are able to realize a precise 3D focusing of the target particles. The forward scattering emitted from the particle is collected by a lens with high numerical aperture. At the focal point of that lens a homemade beam stop is blocking the incident light. Finally, a second lens maps the scattered light on the CCD sensor, allowing to obtain far field images on short distances. Measurements with mono-disperse polystyrene particles, both in quiescent and in-flow conditions have been realized. Experiments in-flow allow to measure the single particle scattering. Results are validated by comparison with calculations based on the Lorenz-Mie theory. The quality of the measured intensity profiles confirms the possibility to use our apparatus in real multiplex applications, with particles down to 1 μm in radius.

  17. Dual wavelength multiple-angle light scattering system for cryptosporidium detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buaprathoom, S.; Pedley, S.; Sweeney, S. J.

    2012-06-01

    A simple, dual wavelength, multiple-angle, light scattering system has been developed for detecting cryptosporidium suspended in water. Cryptosporidium is a coccidial protozoan parasite causing cryptosporidiosis; a diarrheal disease of varying severity. The parasite is transmitted by ingestion of contaminated water, particularly drinking-water, but also accidental ingestion of bathing-water, including swimming pools. It is therefore important to be able to detect these parasites quickly, so that remedial action can be taken to reduce the risk of infection. The proposed system combines multiple-angle scattering detection of a single and two wavelengths, to collect relative wavelength angle-resolved scattering phase functions from tested suspension, and multivariate data analysis techniques to obtain characterizing information of samples under investigation. The system was designed to be simple, portable and inexpensive. It employs two diode lasers (violet InGaN-based and red AlGaInP-based) as light sources and silicon photodiodes as detectors and optical components, all of which are readily available. The measured scattering patterns using the dual wavelength system showed that the relative wavelength angle-resolved scattering pattern of cryptosporidium oocysts was significantly different from other particles (e.g. polystyrene latex sphere, E.coli). The single wavelength set up was applied for cryptosporidium oocysts'size and relative refractive index measurement and differential measurement of the concentration of cryptosporidium oocysts suspended in water and mixed polystyrene latex sphere suspension. The measurement results showed good agreement with the control reference values. These results indicate that the proposed method could potentially be applied to online detection in a water quality control system.

  18. Waveguide detection of right-angle-scattered light in flow cytometry

    DOEpatents

    Mariella, Jr., Raymond P.

    2000-01-01

    A transparent flow cell is used as an index-guided optical waveguide. A detector for the flow cell but not the liquid stream detects the Right-Angle-Scattered (RAS) Light exiting from one end of the flow cell. The detector(s) could view the trapped RAS light from the flow cell either directly or through intermediate optical light guides. If the light exits one end of the flow cell, then the other end of the flow cell can be given a high-reflectivity coating to approximately double the amount of light collected. This system is more robust in its alignment than the traditional flow cytometry systems which use imaging optics, such as microscope objectives.

  19. Sizing aerosolized fractal nanoparticle aggregates through Bayesian analysis of wide-angle light scattering (WALS) data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Franz J. T.; Will, Stefan; Daun, Kyle J.

    2016-11-01

    Inferring the size distribution of aerosolized fractal aggregates from the angular distribution of elastically scattered light is a mathematically ill-posed problem. This paper presents a procedure for analyzing Wide-Angle Light Scattering (WALS) data using Bayesian inference. The outcome is probability densities for the recovered size distribution and aggregate morphology parameters. This technique is applied to both synthetic data and experimental data collected on soot-laden aerosols, using a measurement equation derived from Rayleigh-Debye-Gans fractal aggregate (RDG-FA) theory. In the case of experimental data, the recovered aggregate size distribution parameters are generally consistent with TEM-derived values, but the accuracy is impaired by the well-known limited accuracy of RDG-FA theory. Finally, we show how this bias could potentially be avoided using the approximation error technique.

  20. Small-angle neutron and dynamic light scattering study of gelatin coacervates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohanty, B.; Aswal, V. K.; Goyal, P. S.; Bohidar, H. B.

    2004-08-01

    The state of intermolecular aggregates and that of folded gelatin molecules could be characterized by dynamic laser light and small-angle neutron scattering experiments, which implied spontaneous segregation of particle sizes preceding coacervation, which is a liquid-liquid phase transition phenomenon. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) data analysis revealed two particle sizes until precipitation was reached. The smaller particles having a diameter of 50 nm (stable nanoparticles prepared by coacervation method) were detected in the supernatant, whereas the inter-molecular aggregates having a diameter of 400 nm gave rise to coacervation. Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) experiments revealed that typical mesh size of the networks exist in polymer dense phase (coacervates) [1]. Analysis of the SANS structure factor showed the presence of two length scales associated with this system that were identified as the correlation length or mesh size, xi = 10.6 Å of the network and the other is the size of inhomogeneities = 21.4 Å. Observations were discussed based on the results obtained from SANS experiments performed in 5% (w/v) gelatin solution at 60oC (xi = 50 Å, zeta = 113 Å) and 5% (w/v) gel at 28oC (xi = 47 Å, zeta = 115 Å) in aqueous phase [2] indicating smaller length scales in coacervate as compared to sol and gel.

  1. Characterization of Nanocellulose Using Small-Angle Neutron, X-ray, and Dynamic Light Scattering Techniques.

    PubMed

    Mao, Yimin; Liu, Kai; Zhan, Chengbo; Geng, Lihong; Chu, Benjamin; Hsiao, Benjamin S

    2017-02-16

    Nanocellulose extracted from wood pulps using TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl radical)-mediated oxidation and sulfuric acid hydrolysis methods was characterized by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), and dynamic light scattering (DLS) techniques. The dimensions of this nanocellulose (TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofiber (TOCN) and sulfuric acid hydrolyzed cellulose nanocrystal (SACN)) revealed by the different scattering methods were compared with those characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The SANS and SAXS data were analyzed using a parallelepiped-based form factor. The width and thickness of the nanocellulose cross section were ∼8 and ∼2 nm for TOCN and ∼20 and ∼3 nm for SACN, respectively, where the fitting results from SANS and SAXS profiles were consistent with each other. DLS was carried out under both the VV mode with the polarizer and analyzer parallel to each other and the HV mode having them perpendicular to each other. Using rotational and translational diffusion coefficients obtained under the HV mode yielded a nanocellulose length qualitatively consistent with that observed by TEM, whereas the length derived by the translational diffusion coefficient under the VV mode appeared to be overestimated.

  2. [Evaluation of molecular weights of hyaluronate preparations by multi-angle laser light scattering].

    PubMed

    Yomota, Chikako

    2003-01-01

    Hyaluronate (HA), a glycosaminoglycan polysaccharide, has been used for osteoarthritis, periartritis of the shoulder and rheumatoid arthritis by intraarticular administration, and in ophthalmic surgery such as anterior segment surgery, and eye lotion. In this study, the molecular weight (Mw) of HA preparations were estimated by size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) system consisted of a refractometer (RI) and a multi-angle laser light scattering (MALS). From the results, it has been clarified that a successful characterization of HA samples with Mw up to 2 - 3 x 10(6) g/mol was possible by multidetector system.

  3. Asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation with multi-angle light scattering and quasi-elastic light scattering for characterization of polymersomes: comparison with classical techniques.

    PubMed

    Till, Ugo; Gaucher-Delmas, Mireille; Saint-Aguet, Pascale; Hamon, Glenn; Marty, Jean-Daniel; Chassenieux, Christophe; Payré, Bruno; Goudounèche, Dominique; Mingotaud, Anne-Françoise; Violleau, Frédéric

    2014-12-01

    Polymersomes formed from amphiphilic block copolymers, such as poly(ethyleneoxide-b-ε-caprolactone) (PEO-b-PCL) or poly(ethyleneoxide-b-methylmethacrylate), were characterized by asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation coupled with quasi-elastic light scattering (QELS), multi-angle light scattering (MALS), and refractive index detection, leading to the determination of their size, shape, and molecular weight. The method was cross-examined with more classical ones, like batch dynamic and static light scattering, electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The results show good complementarities between all the techniques; asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation being the most pertinent one when the sample exhibits several different types of population.

  4. Particle sizing by measurement of forward-scattered light at two angles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchele, D. R.

    1983-01-01

    Fundamental and practical limitations to particle sizing by measurement of forward scattered light are presented. Methods to minimize the limitations are described. Two types of instruments are compared.

  5. Angle-resolved spin wave band diagrams of square antidot lattices studied by Brillouin light scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Gubbiotti, G.; Tacchi, S.; Madami, M.; Carlotti, G.; Ding, J.; Adeyeye, A. O.

    2015-06-29

    The Brillouin light scattering technique has been exploited to study the angle-resolved spin wave band diagrams of squared Permalloy antidot lattice. Frequency dispersion of spin waves has been measured for a set of fixed wave vector magnitudes, while varying the wave vector in-plane orientation with respect to the applied magnetic field. The magnonic band gap between the two most dispersive modes exhibits a minimum value at an angular position, which exclusively depends on the product between the selected wave vector magnitude and the lattice constant of the array. The experimental data are in very good agreement with predictions obtained by dynamical matrix method calculations. The presented results are relevant for magnonic devices where the antidot lattice, acting as a diffraction grating, is exploited to achieve multidirectional spin wave emission.

  6. A stress-controlled shear cell for small-angle light scattering and microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aime, S.; Ramos, L.; Fromental, J. M.; Prévot, G.; Jelinek, R.; Cipelletti, L.

    2016-12-01

    We develop and test a stress-controlled, parallel plates shear cell that can be coupled to an optical microscope or a small angle light scattering setup, for simultaneous investigation of the rheological response and the microscopic structure of soft materials under an imposed shear stress. In order to minimize friction, the cell is based on an air bearing linear stage, the stress is applied through a contactless magnetic actuator, and the strain is measured through optical sensors. We discuss the contributions of inertia and of the small residual friction to the measured signal and demonstrate the performance of our device in both oscillating and step stress experiments on a variety of viscoelastic materials.

  7. Small-angle light scattering from polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal films

    SciTech Connect

    Loiko, V. A. Maschke, U.; Zyryanov, V. Ya.; Konkolovich, A. V.; Misckevich, A. A.

    2008-10-15

    A method is developed for modeling and computing the angular distribution of light scattered forward from a single-layer polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal (PDLC) film. The method is based on effective-medium approximation, anomalous diffraction approximation, and far-field single-scattering approximation. The angular distribution of forward-scattered light is analyzed for PDLC films with droplet size larger than the optical wavelength. The method can be used to study field-and temperature-induced phase transitions in LC droplets with cylindrical symmetry by measuring polarized scattered light intensity.

  8. Solution Properties of 1,3-Cyclohexadiene Polymers by Small Angle Neutron and Light Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Yun, Seok I; Melnichenko, Yuri B; Wignall, George D; Hong, Kunlun; Mays, Jimmy; Britt, Phillip F; Terao, Ken; Nakamura, Yo

    2006-01-01

    1,3-Cyclohexdiene polymers (PCHD) and their derivatives are of interest due to the six-member rings in the main chain, which are expected to impart higher mechanical strength and better thermal and chemical stability, as compared to common vinyl polymers. For example, hydrogenated PCHD has the highest glass transition temperature (T{sub g} {approx} 231 C) of all hydrocarbon polymers, and it also shows good heat, weather, impact, abrasion, and chemical resistance as well as low water absorption. In addition, PCHD has unique photochemical properties, such as excellent transparency, due to the isolated double bonds in the main chain. Also, block copolymers containing PCHD show unusual phase separation behavior. For example, a styrene/1,3-CHD block copolymer (PS-b-PCHD) with 50 vol % CHD (1,4/1,2 {approx} 95/5) exhibits a core-shell or hollow cylinder morphology, while a typical styrene/acyclic diene (isoprene or butadiene) block copolymer with similar composition exhibits a lamellar structure. Such phase behavior and many other properties strongly depend on the conformation of the polymer in solution or bulk. However, almost no data have been reported on the conformation of PCHD, probably because of the lack of well-defined and well-characterized samples. Here we report solution properties of PCHD in tetrahydrofuran (THF) and chloroform by multiangle laser light scattering, viscometry, and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS).

  9. Characterization of nanoparticles of lidocaine in w/o microemulsions using small-angle neutron scattering and dynamic light scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, A.; Kiselev, M. A.; Hoell, A.; Neubert, R. H. H.

    2004-08-01

    Microemulsions (MEs) are of special interest because a variety of Reactants can be introduced into the nanometer-sized aqueous domains, leading to materials with controlled size and shape [1,2]. In the past few years, significant research has been conducted in the reverse ME-mediated synthesis of organic nanoparticles [3,4]. In this study, a w/o ME medium was employed for the synthesis of lidocaine by direct precipitation in w/o microemulsion systems: water/isopropylpalmitat/Tween80/Span80. The particle size as well as the location of nanoparticles in the ME droplet were characterized by means of dynamic light scattering (DLS) and small angle neutron scattering (SANS). It is observed that lidocaine precipitated in the aqueous cores because of its insolubility in water. Hydrodynamic radius and gyration radius of microemulsion droplets were estimated as ~15 nm and ~4.50 nm from DLS and SANS respectively. Furthermore, different size parameters obtained by DLS and SANS experiments were compared

  10. Small Angle X-Ray Scattering and Quasi-Elastic Light Scattering Studies of Polymer Liquid Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ao, Xiaolei

    In order to understand the structural properties of semiflexible polymer liquid crystals, small angle X -ray scattering data from the synthetic polypeptide poly -gamma-benzyl glutamate (PBG) in the nematic phase are presented. The important features of the data are discussed in terms of the current understanding of the nature of nematic ordering in main chain polymer systems. This includes analysis of the angular distribution function for the polymer segments, long wavelength fluctuations dictated by elastic phenomena, the effects of finite chain lengths, and the effects due to the short range interactions and packing of the chains. The rigid rod-like biological macromolecule, tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), in the nematic and the smectic A phases is studied by quasi-elastic light scattering in order to understand the hydrodynamic properties of rigid rod-like lyotropic liquid crystals. A nonlocal behavior of the elasticity in the nematic phase is observed and discussed in terms of a recent developed nonlocal theory. The relative diffusion and undulation modes in the smectic A phase are observed. The results are compared with theory.

  11. Internal structures of agar-gelatin co-hydrogels by light scattering, small-angle neutron scattering and rheology.

    PubMed

    Santinath Singh, S; Aswal, V K; Bohidar, H B

    2011-06-01

    Internal structures of agar-gelatin co-hydrogels were investigated as a function of their volumetric mixing ratio, [Formula: see text] , 1.0 and 2.0 using dynamic light scattering (DLS), small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and rheology. The degree of non-ergodicity ( X = 0.2 ± 0.02) , which was extracted as a heterodyne contribution from the measured dynamic structure factor data remained less than that of homogeneous solutions where ergodicity is expected (X = 10. The static structure factor, I(q) , results obtained from SANS were interpreted in the Guinier regime (low-q , which implied the existence of ≈ 250 nm long rod-like structures (double-helix bundles), and the power law (intermediate-q regions) yielded I (q) ~ q(−α) with α = 2.3 , 1.8 and 1.6 for r = 0.5 , 1.0 and 2.0. This is indicative of the presence of Gaussian chains at low r , while at r = 2 there was a propensity of rod-shaped structures. The gel strength and transition temperatures measured from frequency sweep and temperature ramp studies were suggestive of the presence of a stronger association between the two biopolymer networks at higher r . The results indicate that the internal structures of agar-gelatin co-hydrogels were highly dependent on the volumetric mixing ratio.

  12. Small-angle light scattering by airborne particulates: Environnement S.A. continuous particulate monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renard, Jean-Baptiste; Thaury, Claire; Mineau, Jean-Luc; Gaubicher, Bertrand

    2010-08-01

    Airborne particulate matter may have an effect on human health. It is therefore necessary to determine and control in real time the evolution of the concentration and mass of particulates in the ambient air. These parameters can be obtained using optical methods. We propose here a new instrument, 'CPM' (continuous particulate monitor), for the measurement of light scattered by ambient particulates at small angles. This geometry allows simultaneous and separate detections of PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 fractions of airborne particulate matter, with no influence of their chemical nature and without using theoretical calculations. The ambient air is collected through a standard sampling head (PM10 inlet according to EN 12341, PM2.5 inlet according to EN 14907; or PM1, TSP inlets, standard US EPA inlets). The analysis of the first measurements demonstrates that this new instrument can detect, for each of the seven defined size ranges, real-time variations of particulate content in the ambient air. The measured concentrations (expressed in number per liter) can be converted into total mass concentrations (expressed in micrograms per cubic meter) of all fractions of airborne particulate matters sampled by the system. Periodic comparison with a beta-attenuation mass monitor (MP101M Beta Gauge Analyzer from Environnement S.A. company) allows the calculation of a calibration factor as a function of the mean particulate density that is used for this conversion. It is then possible to provide real-time relative variations of aerosol mass concentration.

  13. Integral indicatrix of light scattering from {open_quotes}soft{close_quotes} spherical particles in the region of small angles

    SciTech Connect

    Lopatin, V.N.; Shapovalov, K.A.

    1995-05-01

    The integral indicatrix of light scattering from a {open_quotes}soft{close_quotes} spherical particle is studied as a function of the phase shift. It is shown analytically in the WKB approximation and numerically on the basis of the Mie theory and the WKB approximation that the dependence of the integral indicatrix on the phase shift is similar to that for the factor of light scattering efficiency. Asymptotic expressions for the integral indicatrix are obtained for large diffraction parameters in the limiting cases of small and large phase shifts in the region of small angles. 8 refs., 3 figs.

  14. Small Angle Neutron Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Urban, Volker S

    2012-01-01

    Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) probes structural details at the nanometer scale in a non-destructive way. This article gives an introduction to scientists who have no prior small-angle scattering knowledge, but who seek a technique that allows elucidating structural information in challenging situations that thwart approaches by other methods. SANS is applicable to a wide variety of materials including metals and alloys, ceramics, concrete, glasses, polymers, composites and biological materials. Isotope and magnetic interactions provide unique methods for labeling and contrast variation to highlight specific structural features of interest. In situ studies of a material s responses to temperature, pressure, shear, magnetic and electric fields, etc., are feasible as a result of the high penetrating power of neutrons. SANS provides statistical information on significant structural features averaged over the probed sample volume, and one can use SANS to quantify with high precision the structural details that are observed, for example, in electron microscopy. Neutron scattering is non-destructive; there is no need to cut specimens into thin sections, and neutrons penetrate deeply, providing information on the bulk material, free from surface effects. The basic principles of a SANS experiment are fairly simple, but the measurement, analysis and interpretation of small angle scattering data involves theoretical concepts that are unique to the technique and that are not widely known. This article includes a concise description of the basics, as well as practical know-how that is essential for a successful SANS experiment.

  15. Scattering attributes of one-dimensional semiconducting oxide nanomaterials individually probed for varying light-matter interaction angles

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Daniel S.; Singh, Manpreet; Zhou, Hebing; Milchak, Marissa; Hahm, Jong-in

    2015-01-01

    We report the characteristic optical responses of one-dimensional semiconducting oxide nanomaterials by examining the individual nanorods (NRs) of ZnO, SnO2, indium tin oxide, and zinc tin oxide under precisely controlled, light-matter interaction geometry. Scattering signals from a large set of NRs of the different types are evaluated spatially along the NR length while varying the NR tilt angle, incident light polarization, and analyzer rotation. Subsequently, we identify material-indiscriminate, NR tilt angle- and incident polarization-dependent scattering behaviors exhibiting continuous, intermittent, and discrete responses. The insight gained from this study can advance our fundamental understanding of the optical behaviors of the technologically useful nanomaterials and, at the same time, promote the development of highly miniaturized, photonic and bio-optical devices utilizing the spatially controllable, optical responses of the individual semiconducting oxide NRs. PMID:26549887

  16. Scattering attributes of one-dimensional semiconducting oxide nanomaterials individually probed for varying light-matter interaction angles

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Daniel S.; Singh, Manpreet; Zhou, Hebing; Milchak, Marissa; Hahm, Jong-in

    2015-10-12

    We report the characteristic optical responses of one-dimensional semiconducting oxide nanomaterials by examining the individual nanorods (NRs) of ZnO, SnO{sub 2}, indium tin oxide, and zinc tin oxide under precisely controlled, light-matter interaction geometry. Scattering signals from a large set of NRs of the different types are evaluated spatially along the NR length while varying the NR tilt angle, incident light polarization, and analyzer rotation. Subsequently, we identify material-indiscriminate, NR tilt angle- and incident polarization-dependent scattering behaviors exhibiting continuous, intermittent, and discrete responses. The insight gained from this study can advance our fundamental understanding of the optical behaviors of the technologically useful nanomaterials and, at the same time, promote the development of highly miniaturized, photonic and bio-optical devices utilizing the spatially controllable, optical responses of the individual semiconducting oxide NRs.

  17. Cell growth characteristics from angle- and polarization-resolved light scattering: Prospects for two-dimensional correlation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herran Cuspinera, Roxana M.; Hore, Dennis K.

    2016-11-01

    We highlight the potential of generalized two-dimensional correlation analysis for the fingerprinting of cell growth in solution monitored by light scattering, where the synchronous and asynchronous responses serve as a sensitive marker for the effect of growth conditions on the distribution of cell morphologies. The polarization of the scattered light varies according to the cell size distribution, and so the changes in the polarization over time are an excellent indicator of the dynamic growth conditions. However, direct comparison of the polarization-, time-, and angle-resolved signals between different experiments is hindered by the subtle changes in the data, and the inability to easily adapt models to account for these differences. Using Mie scattering simulations of different growth conditions, and some preliminary experimental data for a single set of conditions, we illustrate that correlation analysis provides rapid and sensitive qualitative markers of growth characteristics.

  18. Distribution angle control of a light-emitting diode downlight lens with high color uniformity using a scattering polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mochizuki, Keiichi; Oosumi, Kazumasa; Koizumi, Fumiaki; Shinohara, Yoshinori; Tagaya, Akihiro; Koike, Yasuhiro

    2015-06-01

    We have proposed a light-emitting diode (LED) downlight lens that is made of a highly scattered optical transmission (HSOT) polymer. The HSOT polymer contains optimized heterogeneous structures that produce homogeneously scattered light with forward directivity. The full width at half maximum of the illuminance distribution angle can be increased from 16.7° to 37.9° as the concentration of the scattering particles in the HSOT polymer LED downlight lenses of identical shape is increased from 0.015 to 0.100 wt%. The colors in an illuminated area are highly uniform, which is not discernible by the human eye, with a high output efficiency greater than 85 %.

  19. Multi-angle static and dynamic light scattering investigation of lysozyme association: From crystallization to liquid liquid phase separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onuma, Kazuo; Kanzaki, Noriko

    2007-06-01

    The association of hen egg white lysozyme was observed using time-resolved multi-angle static and dynamic light scattering. In solutions containing 1.2 M of NaCl with a pH of 4.6 buffered by 50 mM of NaAc, and maintained at 20C, the apparent molecular weight Mw, and gyration radius Rg, of lysozyme aggregates were measured at 0.3-5-s intervals for various lysozyme concentrations from 8 to 32 mg/mL using static light scattering. At 32 mg/mL, liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) occurred. The (Kc/ΔR(q)) vs. q2 plot had a non-linear shape with a maximum at a particular q2, indicating that the aggregate size distribution was within a narrow range. This had not been observed in our previous studies of high-molecular-weight proteins. The dynamic light scattering data were consistent with those of static light scattering; i.e., CONTIN analysis showed clear bimodal (monomer and aggregate) distributions. Fractal dimension analysis of the aggregates with the protein concentration showed that the inner structure of the scatterer formed during LLPS was rigid in the final stage, which supports a two-step nucleation model.

  20. Observation of Brewster Angle Light Scattering from Air Bubbles Rising in Water

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-08-25

    At the bottom of this pipe a hollow needle is placed which is connected to an air supply. By regulating the air through the needle bubbles were...back scattering direction a beamsplitter was inserted in the light path. Then a retroreflector was placed behind the beamsplitter. The beam coming...out of the retroreflector is reflected at 45’ off the beamsplitter and then focused to a point. This point now defines the backwards direction. 03 0 t W

  1. The effect of pressure, isotopic (H/D) substitution, and other variables on miscibility in polymer-solvent systems. The nature of the demixing process; dynamic light scattering and small angle neutron scattering studies. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Van Hook, W.A.

    2000-01-01

    A research program examining the effects of pressure, isotope substitution and other variables on miscibility in polymer solvent systems is described. The techniques employed included phase equilibrium measurements and dynamic light scattering and small angle neutron scattering.

  2. Measurement of yarn twist based on backward light scattering and small-angle far-field diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Z. G.; Tao, X. M.

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents a non-destructive, non-contact method for measuring the twist of a yarn based on light scattering and diffraction. The surface twist angle is measured by determining the direction of the line with the highest intensity on the backward light scattering pattern which is perpendicular to the surface fibers, which is verified by both theoretical analysis based on Beckmann’s scattering model and experiments. The yarn diameter is measured with good accuracy by using the small-angle far-field diffraction pattern of the yarn body. Yarn twist is then derived from the measured surface twist angle and yarn diameter. Further studies reveal that the measured yarn twists by the proposed method are comparable to those measured based on microscopic images of the yarn. This method requires no high-magnification optics and is able to pick up short-term variations of twist with less labor intensity, indicating its potential application in the on-line measuring of yarn twist and its distribution.

  3. Molecular weight-gyration radius relation of globular proteins: a comparison of light scattering, small-angle X-ray scattering and structure-based data.

    PubMed

    Smilgies, Detlef-M; Folta-Stogniew, Ewa

    2015-10-01

    The molecular weight-gyration radius relation for a number of globular proteins based on experimental light scattering data is compared with small-angle X-ray scattering data recently published by Mylonas & Svergun [J. Appl. Cryst. (2007 ▸), 40, s245-s249]. In addition, other recent experimental data and theoretical calculations are reviewed. It is found that the MW-Rg relation for the globular proteins is well represented by a power law with an exponent of 0.37 (2).

  4. Small angle neutron scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cousin, Fabrice

    2015-10-01

    Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) is a technique that enables to probe the 3-D structure of materials on a typical size range lying from ˜ 1 nm up to ˜ a few 100 nm, the obtained information being statistically averaged on a sample whose volume is ˜ 1 cm3. This very rich technique enables to make a full structural characterization of a given object of nanometric dimensions (radius of gyration, shape, volume or mass, fractal dimension, specific area…) through the determination of the form factor as well as the determination of the way objects are organized within in a continuous media, and therefore to describe interactions between them, through the determination of the structure factor. The specific properties of neutrons (possibility of tuning the scattering intensity by using the isotopic substitution, sensitivity to magnetism, negligible absorption, low energy of the incident neutrons) make it particularly interesting in the fields of soft matter, biophysics, magnetic materials and metallurgy. In particular, the contrast variation methods allow to extract some informations that cannot be obtained by any other experimental techniques. This course is divided in two parts. The first one is devoted to the description of the principle of SANS: basics (formalism, coherent scattering/incoherent scattering, notion of elementary scatterer), form factor analysis (I(q→0), Guinier regime, intermediate regime, Porod regime, polydisperse system), structure factor analysis (2nd Virial coefficient, integral equations, characterization of aggregates), and contrast variation methods (how to create contrast in an homogeneous system, matching in ternary systems, extrapolation to zero concentration, Zero Averaged Contrast). It is illustrated by some representative examples. The second one describes the experimental aspects of SANS to guide user in its future experiments: description of SANS spectrometer, resolution of the spectrometer, optimization of spectrometer

  5. Accurate Size and Size-Distribution Determination of Polystyrene Latex Nanoparticles in Aqueous Medium Using Dynamic Light Scattering and Asymmetrical Flow Field Flow Fractionation with Multi-Angle Light Scattering

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Haruhisa; Nakamura, Ayako; Takahashi, Kayori; Kinugasa, Shinichi

    2012-01-01

    Accurate determination of the intensity-average diameter of polystyrene latex (PS-latex) by dynamic light scattering (DLS) was carried out through extrapolation of both the concentration of PS-latex and the observed scattering angle. Intensity-average diameter and size distribution were reliably determined by asymmetric flow field flow fractionation (AFFFF) using multi-angle light scattering (MALS) with consideration of band broadening in AFFFF separation. The intensity-average diameter determined by DLS and AFFFF-MALS agreed well within the estimated uncertainties, although the size distribution of PS-latex determined by DLS was less reliable in comparison with that determined by AFFFF-MALS. PMID:28348293

  6. Molecular weight determination of hypromellose phthalate (HPMCP) using size exclusion chromatography with a multi-angle laser light scattering detector.

    PubMed

    Fukasawa, Miyuki; Obara, Sakaé

    2003-11-01

    The molecular weight of hypromellose phthalate (HPMCP), a polymer used for enteric coating, was determined using size exclusion chromatography with a multi-angle laser light scattering detector. The values of weight-average molecular weight (Mw) of commercially available grades (HP-55, HP-55S, and HP-50) were 45600, 60200, and 37900, respectively. Their inter-day precisions expressed in terms of the coefficient of variation were less than 3%. A correlation curve between Mw and solution viscosity was prepared so that Mw could be easily estimated from the solution viscosity measured by the compendial method.

  7. Associative phase separation of beta-lactoglobulin/pectin solutions: a kinetic study by small angle static light scattering.

    PubMed

    Girard, Maude; Sanchez, Christian; Laneuville, Sandra I; Turgeon, Sylvie L; Gauthier, Sylvie F

    2004-05-01

    Interpolymer complexation between beta-lactoglobulin (beta-lg) and pectin led to phase separation. Small angle static light scattering and phase contrast microscopy were used to monitor the phase separation of beta-lg/low-methoxyl or high-methoxyl-pectin (LM- or HM-pectin) dispersions as they were slowly acidified from pH 7 to 4 with glucono-delta-lactone (GDL). The monotonic decrease in scattered light intensity with the wave vector was associated with a nucleation and growth phase separation mechanism. Microscopic observations and turbidity measurements showed the increase of complex amounts with lower pH and at higher beta-lg/pectin ratios. The formation of intrapolymer complexes was initiated at pH 6.4 with the LM-pectin and at pH 5.0 with the HM-pectin. Local ordering with increasing amounts of small complexes was observed as scattered light intensity increased at intermediate q values. The beta-lg/LM-pectin complexes at the 5:1 and the 2:1 weight ratios and the beta-lg/HM-pectin complexes at 5:1 weight ratio have fractal structures. The formation of large amounts of small assemblies and sedimentation would be responsible for the decrease in the number and volume mean diameters and fractal dimension of beta-lg/LM-pectin complexes over time.

  8. Angle resolved scatter measurement of bulk scattering in transparent ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Saurabh; Miller, J. Keith; Shori, Ramesh K.; Goorsky, Mark S.

    2015-02-01

    Bulk scattering in polycrystalline laser materials (PLM), due to non-uniform refractive index across the bulk, is regarded as the primary loss mechanism leading to degradation of laser performance with higher threshold and lower output power. The need for characterization techniques towards identifying bulk scatter and assessing the quality. Assessment of optical quality and the identification of bulk scatter have been by simple visual inspection of thin samples of PLMs, thus making the measurements highly subjective and inaccurate. Angle Resolved Scatter (ARS) measurement allows for the spatial mapping of scattered light at all possible angles about a sample, mapping the intensity for both forward scatter and back-scatter regions. The cumulative scattered light intensity, in the forward scatter direction, away from the specular beam is used for the comparison of bulk scattering between samples. This technique employ the detection of scattered light at all angles away from the specular beam directions and represented as a 2-D polar map. The high sensitivity of the ARS technique allows us to compare bulk scattering in different PLM samples which otherwise had similar transmitted beam wavefront distortions.

  9. Molecular characterization of multivalent bioconjugates by size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) with multi-angle laser light scattering (MALS)

    PubMed Central

    Pollock, Jacob F.; Ashton, Randolph S.; Rode, Nikhil A.; Schaffer, David V.; Healy, Kevin E.

    2013-01-01

    The degree of substitution and valency of bioconjugate reaction products are often poorly judged or require multiple time- and product- consuming chemical characterization methods. These aspects become critical when analyzing and optimizing the potency of costly polyvalent bioactive conjugates. In this study, size-exclusion chromatography with multi-angle laser light scattering was paired with refractive index detection and ultraviolet spectroscopy (SEC-MALS-RI-UV) to characterize the reaction efficiency, degree of substitution, and valency of the products of conjugation of either peptides or proteins to a biopolymer scaffold, i.e., hyaluronic acid (HyA). Molecular characterization was more complete compared to estimates from a protein quantification assay, and exploitation of this method led to more accurate deduction of the molecular structures of polymer bioconjugates. Information obtained using this technique can improve macromolecular engineering design principles and better understand multivalent macromolecular interactions in biological systems. PMID:22794081

  10. Ternary systems of nonionic surfactant Brij 35, water and various simple alcohols: Structural investigations by small-angle X-ray scattering and dynamic light scattering.

    PubMed

    Tomsic, Matija; Bester-Rogac, Marija; Jamnik, Andrej; Kunz, Werner; Touraud, Didier; Bergmann, Alexander; Glatter, Otto

    2006-02-01

    Structural properties of ternary systems composed of nonionic surfactant dodecyl-poly(ethylene oxide-23) ether (C12E23, commercial name: Brij 35), water and various alcohols from ethanol to 1-decanol have been investigated using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) techniques. All measurements were performed at the temperature 25 degrees C. SAXS experimental data were put on absolute scale using water as a secondary standard. The data of water-rich mixtures at low to moderate surfactant concentrations were evaluated using the generalized indirect Fourier transformation method (GIFT), which is based on the simultaneous determination of the intra- and inter-particle scattering contributions. In this way, the size and the shape of interacting scattering particles in real space could be deduced. The systems with a relatively low surfactant concentration (5 mass%) were studied most extensively. In these cases, the water-rich regions of the phase diagrams could be investigated into more detail, since in the alcohol-rich regions problems with the GIFT evaluation of the SAXS data were encountered. The presented results demonstrate the level of structural details that can be obtained on the basis of scattering methods and point out the specific stages of data evaluation and interpretation where one must be extremely precautious. As such they reveal the inner structuration of the complex ternary systems of our present interest. In parallel, they also indicate that the longer chain alcohols actually behave as real oil phases in the studied systems, as one might expect, and also confirm the well-known properties of different short to medium chain alcohols that act as co-solvents and/or co-surfactants in microemulsion systems depending on their chain length.

  11. Synthetic Fourier transform light scattering.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyeoreh; Kim, Hyeon-Don; Kim, Kyoohyun; Kim, Youngchan; Hillman, Timothy R; Min, Bumki; Park, Yongkeun

    2013-09-23

    We present synthetic Fourier transform light scattering, a method for measuring extended angle-resolved light scattering (ARLS) from individual microscopic samples. By measuring the light fields scattered from the sample plane and numerically synthesizing them in Fourier space, the angle range of the ARLS patterns is extended up to twice the numerical aperture of the imaging system with unprecedented sensitivity and precision. Extended ARLS patterns of individual microscopic polystyrene beads, healthy human red blood cells (RBCs), and Plasmodium falciparum-parasitized RBCs are presented.

  12. Both improvements of the light extraction efficiency and scattered angle of GaN-LED using sub-micron Fresnel lens array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Xinyu; Chen, Linsen; Shen, Su; Wan, Wenqiang

    2015-11-01

    With the demanding requirements for light source, light emitting diodes (LED) attracts more and more attention because of its inherent advantages such as low power consumption, high reliability and longevity. However, there are two disadvantages for LED, one is the low light extraction efficiency resulting from the total internal reflection, and the other is the relative large scattered angle. In order to improve the light extraction efficiency and collimate the out-coupling light, a sub-micron Fresnel lens array is introduced and investigated in this paper. The focal length of the proposed Fresnel lens is 3μm and the minimum width of the outmost ring is about 150nm. To calculate and analyze the light extraction efficiency and the scattered angle of LED with such Fresnel lens array structure, we optimize the parameters of the Fresnel lens, such as the depth of the Fresnel lens array structure and the thickness of the p-type gallium nitride layer by using the finite difference time domain method (FDTD). By comparing the discussed patterned GaN-based LED with that traditional flat LEDs, it can be found that significant enhancement factor of the light extraction efficiency, which is improved by 3.5 times, can be obtained and the scattered angle at half maximum can be decreased 50° from 60° with this novel Fresnel lens structure. It will be expected that the proposed sub-micron structure can find wide applications in LEDs industry.

  13. Molecular characterization of solution styrene-butadiene rubber: thermal field-flow fractionation/multi-angle light scattering studies.

    PubMed

    Choi, You Jin; Kim, Sun Tae; Lee, Seung Hwa; Kim, A-Ju; Kwag, Gwanghoon; Lee, Seungho

    2013-11-01

    Solution styrene-butadiene rubber (SSBR) is mainly constituted of a random copolymer of styrene and butadiene. SSBR usually contains microgels, having ultrahigh molecular weight (M>10(7)g/mol), affecting rheological properties of the rubber. Thus, determinations of M and size distribution of these microgels are critical in performance evaluation and control for SSBR. We employ thermal field-flow fractionation (ThFFF), combined with online multi-angle light scattering (MALS), as most suited for characterization of solutions containing the microgels since they can be characterized in toto without removing the microgels from the solution. ThFFF-MALS was applied for characterization of linear and branched SBR materials from various commercial sources, and the results were compared to those from size-exclusion chromatography (SEC). ThFFF provides higher resolution than SEC for high molecular fractions and allowed gel content to be measured. The gel content was determined by subtracting the amount of sol from total injection mass, and was measured to be 10-15%. We infer from the characterization results that the microgel content may not be correlated to the microstructure, the styrene and vinyl content of butadiene but to the fraction of high molecular weight in SSBR. Finally, the macromolecular structure and the content of microgel (larger than about 100nm) were found to significantly affect various rheological parameters such as viscosity, mechanical and dynamic properties. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Application of GPC/LALLS to cellulose research. [Gel permeation chromatography/low-angle laser light scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Cael, J.J.; Cietek, D.J.; Kolpak, F.J.

    1983-01-01

    The techniques of gel permeation chromatography and low-angle laser light scattering (GPC/LALLS) have been combined for absolute determination of cellulose molecular weights and molecular weight distributions (MWD). The GPC/LALLS technique has been applied to tetrahydrofuran (THF) solutions of cellulose tricarbanilate (CTC) derivatives prepared from celluloses having a wide range of molecular weights. The molecular weight data obtained are consistent with values determined by intrinsic viscosity methods; and as a consequence of the absolute nature of this technique, Mark-Houswink coefficients can be predicted from a single, broad-distribution, linear homopolymer without recourse to tedious and time-consuming fractional precipitation methods. A unique application of the technique has been in correlating GPC/LALLS molecular weight data with the viscosity of nonderivatized celluloses dissolved in 0.5 M cupiethylenediamine hydroxide (CuEn). The procedure yields an absolute viscosity-molecular weight relationship which is comparable with a similar relationship originally derived from cellulose nitrates. The results indicate that the weight-average degree of polymerization (DP/sub w/) for CTC preparations is considerably greater than that obtained from cellulose nitrates, and this discrepancy, in DP/sub w/ has been attributed to errors in the Mark-Houwink coefficients for the cellulose nitrate-acetone system. 25 references, 9 figures, 7 tables.

  15. How Spirals and Gaps Driven by Companions in Protoplanetary Disks Appear in Scattered Light at Arbitrary Viewing Angles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Ruobing; Fung, Jeffrey; Chiang, Eugene

    2016-07-01

    Direct imaging observations of protoplanetary disks at near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths have revealed structures of potentially planetary origin. Investigations of observational signatures from planet-induced features have so far focused on disks viewed face-on. Combining 3D hydrodynamics and radiative transfer simulations, we study how the appearance of the spiral arms and the gap produced in a disk by a companion varies with inclination and position angle in NIR scattered light. We compare the cases of a 3M J and a 0.1M ⊙ companion, and make predictions suitable for testing with Gemini/GPI, Very Large Telescope/NACO/SPHERE, and Subaru/HiCIAO/SCExAO. We find that the two trailing arms produced by an external perturber can have a variety of morphologies in inclined systems—they may appear as one trailing arm; two trailing arms on the same side of the disk; or two arms winding in opposite directions. The disk ring outside a planetary gap may also mimic spiral arms when viewed at high inclinations. We suggest potential explanations for the features observed in HH 30, HD 141569 A, AK Sco, HD 100546, and AB Aur. We emphasize that inclined views of companion-induced features cannot be converted into face-on views using simple and commonly practiced image deprojections.

  16. A study of alcohol-induced gelation of beta-lactoglobulin with small-angle neutron scattering, neutron spin echo, and dynamic light scattering measurements.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Koji; Yamaguchi, Toshio; Osaka, Noboru; Endo, Hitoshi; Shibayama, Mitsuhiro

    2010-04-07

    Gelation of beta-lactoglobulin (beta-Lg) in various alcohol-water mixtures with 0.1 M (M = mol L(-1)) hydrochloric acid was investigated with small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), neutron spin echo (NSE), and time-resolved dynamic light scattering (TRDLS) measurements. The beta-Lg in alcohol-water solutions undergoes gelation at specific alcohol concentrations where the alcohol-induced alpha-helical structure of beta-Lg is stabilized. The SANS profiles showed that beta-Lg exists as a single molecule at a low alcohol concentration. With increasing alcohol concentration, the profiles indicate a power law behavior of approximately 1.7 when the samples gelate. These behaviors were observed in all alcohol-water mixtures used, but the alcohol concentrations where the SANS profiles change shift to a lower alcohol concentration region with an increase in the size of the hydrophobic group of the alcohols. Apparent diffusion constants, obtained from the intermediate scattering function (ISF) of NSE and the intensity time correlation function (ITCF) of TRDLS, mainly depend on the viscosity of alcohol-water mixtures before gelation. After gelation, on the other hand, the ISFs of gels do not change appreciably in the range of the NSE time scale, indicating the microscopically rigid structure of beta-Lg gel. The ITCF functions obtained from TRDLS follow a double exponential decay type before gelation, but a logarithmic one (exponent alpha = 0.7) after gelation. It is most likely that the alcohol-induced gelation undergoes a similar mechanism to that for the heat-induced one at pH = 7 where beta-Lg aggregates stick together to form a fractal network, although the gelation time is faster in the former than in the latter.

  17. Small-angle light scattering symmetry breaking in polymer-dispersed liquid crystal films with inhomogeneous electrically controlled interface anchoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loiko, V. A.; Konkolovich, A. V.; Zyryanov, V. Ya.; Miskevich, A. A.

    2017-03-01

    We have described the method of analyzing and reporting on the results of calculation of the small-angle structure of radiation scattered by a polymer-dispersed liquid crystal film with electrically controlled interfacial anchoring. The method is based on the interference approximation of the wave scattering theory and the hard disk model. Scattering from an individual liquid crystal droplet has been described using the anomalous diffraction approximation extended to the case of droplets with uniform and nonuniform interface anchoring at the droplet-polymer boundary. The director field structure in an individual droplet is determined from the solution of the problem of minimizing the volume density of the free energy. The electrooptical effect of symmetry breaking in the angular distribution of scattered radiation has been analyzed. This effect means that the intensities of radiation scattered within angles +θ s and-θ s relative to the direction of illumination in the scattering plane can be different. The effect is of the interference origin and is associated with asymmetry of the phase shift of the wavefront of an incident wave from individual parts of the droplet, which appears due to asymmetry of the director field structure in the droplet, caused by nonuniform anchoring of liquid crystal molecules with the polymer on its surface. This effect is analyzed in the case of normal illumination of the film depending on the interfacial anchoring at the liquid crystal-polymer interface, the orientation of the optical axes of droplets, their concentration, sizes, anisometry, and polydispersity.

  18. Modulated heterodyne light scattering set-up for measuring long relaxation time at small and wide angle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leone, Nancy; Villari, Valentina; Micali, Norberto

    2012-08-01

    We present a simple, compact, and versatile experimental setup working in the heterodyne detection mode with modulation of the reference beam. The system is implemented with a collection optics based on a unimodal optical fiber coupler. This choice allows the heterodyne to be used in a wide range of scattering angles, even for very small ones, without losing the optical beating. The apparatus can be successfully used to study translational diffusive dynamics of dispersed particles at scattering angles smaller than 5° and it is suitable for exploring slow relaxation processes in sub-Hertz frequency domain, for example, in glass-forming systems. It is also possible to measure the electrophoretic mobility by applying an electric field into a charged particles solution.

  19. Investigation on the structure of water/AOT/IPM/alcohols reverse micelles by conductivity, dynamic light scattering, and small angle X-ray scattering.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoguang; Chen, Yingjun; Liu, Jiexiang; Zhao, Chuanzhuang; Zhang, Haijiao

    2012-03-29

    We have systematically investigated the effect of alcohols (ethanol, propanol, butanol, and pentanol) on the structure of the water/AOT/IPM system using conductivity, dynamic light scattering (DLS), and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) techniques. The results show that no percolation phenomenon is observed in the water/AOT/IPM system, whereas the addition of ethanol (propanol and butanol) induces apparently percolation. The threshold water content (W(p)) depends closely on the alcohol type and concentration. The effect of alcohols on the conductance behavior is discussed from the physical properties of alcohols, the interfacial flexibility, and the attractive interactions between droplets. The hydrodynamic diameter of droplets (d(H)) obtained from DLS increases markedly with the increase in water content (W(0)); however, it decreases gradually with increasing alcohol chain length and concentration. SAXS measurements display distinctly the shoulder, the low hump peaks, and the heavy tail phenomenon in the pair distance distribution function p(r) profile, which rely strongly on the alcohol species and its concentration. The gyration radius (R(g)) increases with increasing W(0), and decreases with the increase of alcohol chain length and concentration. Schematic diagram of the conductance mechanism of water/AOT/IPM/alcohol systems is primarily depicted. Three different phases of the discrete droplets, the oligomers, and the isolated ellipsoidal droplets existed in the different W(0) ranges correspond to three different stages in the conductivity-W(0) curve. Coupling the structure characteristics of reverse micelles obtained from DLS and SAXS techniques with conductivity could be greatly helpful to deeply understand the percolation mechanism of water/AOT/IPM/alcohols systems.

  20. Critical fluid light scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gammon, Robert W.

    1988-01-01

    The objective is to measure the decay rates of critical density fluctuations in a simple fluid (xenon) very near its liquid-vapor critical point using laser light scattering and photon correlation spectroscopy. Such experiments were severely limited on Earth by the presence of gravity which causes large density gradients in the sample when the compressibility diverges approaching the critical point. The goal is to measure fluctuation decay rates at least two decades closer to the critical point than is possible on earth, with a resolution of 3 microK. This will require loading the sample to 0.1 percent of the critical density and taking data as close as 100 microK to the critical temperature. The minimum mission time of 100 hours will allow a complete range of temperature points to be covered, limited by the thermal response of the sample. Other technical problems have to be addressed such as multiple scattering and the effect of wetting layers. The experiment entails measurement of the scattering intensity fluctuation decay rate at two angles for each temperature and simultaneously recording the scattering intensities and sample turbidity (from the transmission). The analyzed intensity and turbidity data gives the correlation length at each temperature and locates the critical temperature. The fluctuation decay rate data from these measurements will provide a severe test of the generalized hydrodynamic theories of transport coefficients in the critical regions. When compared to equivalent data from binary liquid critical mixtures they will test the universality of critical dynamics.

  1. Molecular weight determination of hypromellose acetate succinate (HPMCAS) using size exclusion chromatography with a multi-angle laser light scattering detector.

    PubMed

    Fukasawa, Miyuki; Obara, Sakaé

    2004-11-01

    The molecular weight of hypromellose acetate succinate (HPMCAS), a polymer used for enteric coating, was determined by means of size exclusion chromatography with a multi-angle laser light scattering detector. The weight-average molecular weight (Mw) of several lots and grades ranged approximately from 17000 to 20000, and the number-average molecular weight (Mn) was around 13000. The inter-day precision of measurement, in terms of the coefficient of variation, was less than 5%.

  2. A mobile system for a comprehensive online-characterization of nanoparticle aggregates based on wide-angle light scattering and laser-induced incandescence.

    PubMed

    Huber, Franz J T; Altenhoff, Michael; Will, Stefan

    2016-05-01

    A mobile demonstrator for the comprehensive online-characterization of gas-borne nanoparticle aggregates is presented. Two optical measurement techniques are combined, both utilizing a pulsed Nd:YAG laser as light source. Aggregate size and fractal dimension are measured by Wide-Angle Light Scattering (WALS). An ellipsoidal mirror images elastically scattered light from scattering angles between 10° and 165° onto a CCD-camera chip resulting in an almost complete scattering diagram with high angular resolution. Primary particle size and volume fraction are measured by time-resolved Laser-Induced Incandescence (TiRe-LII). Here, particles are heated up to about 3000 K by the short laser pulse, the enhanced thermal radiation signal is detected with gated photomultiplier tubes. Analysis of the signal decay time and maximum LII-signal allows for the determination of primary particle diameter and volume fraction. The performance of the system is demonstrated by combined measurements on soot nanoparticle aggregates from a soot aerosol generator. Particle and aggregate sizes are varied by using different equivalence ratios of the combustion in the generator. Soot volume fraction can be adjusted by different levels of dilution with air. Online-measurements were carried out demonstrating the favorable performance of the system and the potential for industrial applications such as process control and product development. The particle properties obtained are confirmed through transmission electron microscopy analysis on representative samples.

  3. A mobile system for a comprehensive online-characterization of nanoparticle aggregates based on wide-angle light scattering and laser-induced incandescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Franz J. T.; Altenhoff, Michael; Will, Stefan

    2016-05-01

    A mobile demonstrator for the comprehensive online-characterization of gas-borne nanoparticle aggregates is presented. Two optical measurement techniques are combined, both utilizing a pulsed Nd:YAG laser as light source. Aggregate size and fractal dimension are measured by Wide-Angle Light Scattering (WALS). An ellipsoidal mirror images elastically scattered light from scattering angles between 10° and 165° onto a CCD-camera chip resulting in an almost complete scattering diagram with high angular resolution. Primary particle size and volume fraction are measured by time-resolved Laser-Induced Incandescence (TiRe-LII). Here, particles are heated up to about 3000 K by the short laser pulse, the enhanced thermal radiation signal is detected with gated photomultiplier tubes. Analysis of the signal decay time and maximum LII-signal allows for the determination of primary particle diameter and volume fraction. The performance of the system is demonstrated by combined measurements on soot nanoparticle aggregates from a soot aerosol generator. Particle and aggregate sizes are varied by using different equivalence ratios of the combustion in the generator. Soot volume fraction can be adjusted by different levels of dilution with air. Online-measurements were carried out demonstrating the favorable performance of the system and the potential for industrial applications such as process control and product development. The particle properties obtained are confirmed through transmission electron microscopy analysis on representative samples.

  4. A mobile system for a comprehensive online-characterization of nanoparticle aggregates based on wide-angle light scattering and laser-induced incandescence

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, Franz J. T.; Will, Stefan; Altenhoff, Michael

    2016-05-15

    A mobile demonstrator for the comprehensive online-characterization of gas-borne nanoparticle aggregates is presented. Two optical measurement techniques are combined, both utilizing a pulsed Nd:YAG laser as light source. Aggregate size and fractal dimension are measured by Wide-Angle Light Scattering (WALS). An ellipsoidal mirror images elastically scattered light from scattering angles between 10° and 165° onto a CCD-camera chip resulting in an almost complete scattering diagram with high angular resolution. Primary particle size and volume fraction are measured by time-resolved Laser-Induced Incandescence (TiRe-LII). Here, particles are heated up to about 3000 K by the short laser pulse, the enhanced thermal radiation signal is detected with gated photomultiplier tubes. Analysis of the signal decay time and maximum LII-signal allows for the determination of primary particle diameter and volume fraction. The performance of the system is demonstrated by combined measurements on soot nanoparticle aggregates from a soot aerosol generator. Particle and aggregate sizes are varied by using different equivalence ratios of the combustion in the generator. Soot volume fraction can be adjusted by different levels of dilution with air. Online-measurements were carried out demonstrating the favorable performance of the system and the potential for industrial applications such as process control and product development. The particle properties obtained are confirmed through transmission electron microscopy analysis on representative samples.

  5. Size fractionation and size characterization of nanoemulsions of lipid droplets and large unilamellar lipid vesicles by asymmetric-flow field-flow fractionation/multi-angle light scattering and dynamic light scattering.

    PubMed

    Vezočnik, Valerija; Rebolj, Katja; Sitar, Simona; Ota, Katja; Tušek-Žnidarič, Magda; Štrus, Jasna; Sepčić, Kristina; Pahovnik, David; Maček, Peter; Žagar, Ema

    2015-10-30

    Asymmetric-flow field-flow fractionation technique coupled to a multi-angle light-scattering detector (AF4-MALS) was used together with dynamic light-scattering (DLS) in batch mode and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to study the size characteristics of the trioleoylglycerol lipid droplets covered by a monolayer of sphingomyelin and cholesterol, in water phase. These lipid droplet nanoemulsions (LD) were formed by ultrasonication. In parallel, the size characteristics of large unilamellar lipid vesicles (LUV) prepared by extrusion and composed of sphingomyelin and cholesterol were determined. LD and LUV were prepared at two different molar ratios (1/1, 4/1) of sphingomyelin and cholesterol. In AF4-MALS, various cross-flow conditions and mobile phase compositions were tested to optimize the separation of LD or LUV particles. The particle radii, R, as well as the root-mean-square radii, Rrms, of LD and LUV were determined by AF4-MALS, whereas the hydrodynamic radii, Rh, were obtained by DLS. TEM visualization revealed round shape particles of LD and LUV.

  6. Spectral angle resolved scattering of thin film coatings.

    PubMed

    Schröder, Sven; Unglaub, David; Trost, Marcus; Cheng, Xinbin; Zhang, Jinlong; Duparré, Angela

    2014-02-01

    The light scattering of interference coatings is strongly dependent on the wavelength. In addition to the general strong increase of scattering as the wavelengths get shorter, dramatic scatter effects in and around the resonance regions can occur. This is discussed in detail for highly reflective and chirped mirrors. A new instrument is presented which enables spectral angle resolved scatter measurements of high-quality optical components to be performed between 250 and 1500 nm.

  7. Applications of multi-angle laser light-scattering detection in the analysis of peptides and proteins.

    PubMed

    Oliva, Alexis; Llabrés, Matías; Fariña, José B

    2004-10-01

    The proliferation of new peptides and proteins requiring characterisation is a direct result of recent advances in genomics and proteomics, but protein aggregation is particular problem in the biotechnology industry, where aggregation is encountered throughout the lifetime of a therapeutic protein, including during refolding, purification, sterilization, shipping, and storage process. To ensure that it meets quality standards, the size, molecular weight and/or molecular weight distribution, and aggregate state must be accurately determined. Traditional analytical methods for determining molecular weight include size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), gel electrophoresis, analytical ultracentrifugation and time-of-flight mass spectrometry. These technologies are time-consuming (some take days), provide data based on relative standards, or cannot characterise very high molecular weight aggregates. Laser light-scattering (LS) detection coupled with SEC system have been used for over a decade to determine the size and molecular weight of bio-molecules such as proteins, peptides, polysaccharides, oligonucleotides, and antibodies, the method of choice being for molar mass determinations and the study of self-association and heterogeneous interaction under native, equilibrium conditions in solution. The purpose of the current review is to describe and discuss the capability of the SEC/LS system to determine absolute molecular weight of proteins and their complexes and the association state of the conjugate, either with itself or with protein receptor/ligands. For this, the "two or three detector" methods, each with its advantages and limitations, can be used to calculate the molecular weight of a simple protein or glycoprotein, and the stoichiometry of their complexes. Also, some alternative techniques for determining the molecular weight are discussed in this review. Applications of all these methodologies are described.

  8. Laser light scattering review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaetzel, Klaus

    1989-01-01

    Since the development of laser light sources and fast digital electronics for signal processing, the classical discipline of light scattering on liquid systems experienced a strong revival plus an enormous expansion, mainly due to new dynamic light scattering techniques. While a large number of liquid systems can be investigated, ranging from pure liquids to multicomponent microemulsions, this review is largely restricted to applications on Brownian particles, typically in the submicron range. Static light scattering, the careful recording of the angular dependence of scattered light, is a valuable tool for the analysis of particle size and shape, or of their spatial ordering due to mutual interactions. Dynamic techniques, most notably photon correlation spectroscopy, give direct access to particle motion. This may be Brownian motion, which allows the determination of particle size, or some collective motion, e.g., electrophoresis, which yields particle mobility data. Suitable optical systems as well as the necessary data processing schemes are presented in some detail. Special attention is devoted to topics of current interest, like correlation over very large lag time ranges or multiple scattering.

  9. Small-angle X-ray and light scattering analysis of multi-layered Curdlan gels prepared by a diffusion method.

    PubMed

    Maki, Yasuyuki; Furusawa, Kazuya; Dobashi, Toshiaki; Sugimoto, Yasunobu; Wakabayashi, Katsuzo

    2017-01-02

    Curdlan, a microbial polysaccharide, forms a multi-layered gel consisting of four layers with different turbidity when its alkaline solution is dialyzed against aqueous solutions containing Ca(2+) (diffusion-set gel). The present study clarified the microstructure of each layer of the diffusion-set Curdlan gel by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and small-angle light scattering (SALS). The SAXS data showed that Curdlan chains assume a helical ordered conformation in the gel and that the gel consists of the fibrils formed by the association of Curdlan chains and the aggregates of fibrils. The SAXS results also indicated that the gelation is induced by the formation of a network of Ca(2+)-cross-linked fibrils in the outer region of the gel, whereas by the network formation of the aggregation of fibrils in the neutralization process in the inner region of the gel. A structural anisotropy of the gel was investigated by analysis of two-dimensional SAXS images, showing that the fibril is oriented circumferentially in the outer region of the cylindrical gel, whereas it is oriented randomly in the inner region of the gel. The SALS data showed that a characteristic length of an inhomogeneous structure in the turbid layers is of the order of micrometers. The observed spatial variation of the microscopic structure is caused by the difference in the paths of pH and [Ca(2+)] traced in the gelation process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Biological cell classification by multiangle light scattering

    DOEpatents

    Salzman, G.C.; Crowell, J.M.; Mullaney, P.F.

    1975-06-03

    The specification is directed to an apparatus and method for detecting light scattering from a biological cell. Light, preferably from a coherent source of radiation, intercepts an individual biological cell in a stream of cells passing through the beam. Light scattered from the cell is detected at a selected number of angles between 0 and 90/sup 0/ to the longitudinal axis of the beam with a circular array of light responsive elements which produce signals representative of the intensity of light incident thereon. Signals from the elements are processed to determine the light-scattering pattern of the cell and therefrom its identity.

  11. Inelastic Light Scattering Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fouche, Daniel G.; Chang, Richard K.

    1973-01-01

    Five different inelastic light scattering processes will be denoted by, ordinary Raman scattering (ORS), resonance Raman scattering (RRS), off-resonance fluorescence (ORF), resonance fluorescence (RF), and broad fluorescence (BF). A distinction between fluorescence (including ORF and RF) and Raman scattering (including ORS and RRS) will be made in terms of the number of intermediate molecular states which contribute significantly to the scattered amplitude, and not in terms of excited state lifetimes or virtual versus real processes. The theory of these processes will be reviewed, including the effects of pressure, laser wavelength, and laser spectral distribution on the scattered intensity. The application of these processes to the remote sensing of atmospheric pollutants will be discussed briefly. It will be pointed out that the poor sensitivity of the ORS technique cannot be increased by going toward resonance without also compromising the advantages it has over the RF technique. Experimental results on inelastic light scattering from I(sub 2) vapor will be presented. As a single longitudinal mode 5145 A argon-ion laser line was tuned away from an I(sub 2) absorption line, the scattering was observed to change from RF to ORF. The basis, of the distinction is the different pressure dependence of the scattered intensity. Nearly three orders of magnitude enhancement of the scattered intensity was measured in going from ORF to RF. Forty-seven overtones were observed and their relative intensities measured. The ORF cross section of I(sub 2) compared to the ORS cross section of N2 was found to be 3 x 10(exp 6), with I(sub 2) at its room temperature vapor pressure.

  12. Implementation and performance of SIBYLS: a dual endstation small-angle X-ray scattering and macromolecular crystallography beamline at the Advanced Light Source

    PubMed Central

    Classen, Scott; Hura, Greg L.; Holton, James M.; Rambo, Robert P.; Rodic, Ivan; McGuire, Patrick J.; Dyer, Kevin; Hammel, Michal; Meigs, George; Frankel, Kenneth A.; Tainer, John A.

    2013-01-01

    The SIBYLS beamline (12.3.1) of the Advanced Light Source at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, supported by the US Department of Energy and the National Institutes of Health, is optimized for both small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and macromolecular crystallography (MX), making it unique among the world’s mostly SAXS or MX dedicated beamlines. Since SIBYLS was commissioned, assessments of the limitations and advantages of a combined SAXS and MX beamline have suggested new strategies for integration and optimal data collection methods and have led to additional hardware and software enhancements. Features described include a dual mode monochromator [containing both Si(111) crystals and Mo/B4C multilayer elements], rapid beamline optics conversion between SAXS and MX modes, active beam stabilization, sample-loading robotics, and mail-in and remote data collection. These features allow users to gain valuable insights from both dynamic solution scattering and high-resolution atomic diffraction experiments performed at a single synchrotron beamline. Key practical issues considered for data collection and analysis include radiation damage, structural ensembles, alternative conformers and flexibility. SIBYLS develops and applies efficient combined MX and SAXS methods that deliver high-impact results by providing robust cost-effective routes to connect structures to biology and by performing experiments that aid beamline designs for next generation light sources. PMID:23396808

  13. On-line direct determination of the second virial coefficient of a natural polysaccharide using size-exclusion chromatography and multi-angle laser light scattering.

    PubMed

    Girod, S; Baldet-Dupy, P; Maillols, H; Devoisselle, J M

    2002-01-11

    By combining a size-exclusion chromatographic (SEC) separation and an on-line multi-angle light scattering (MALLS) analysis, we have elaborated an original methodology permitting on-line direct determination of the second virial coefficient of molar mass fractions of polydisperse polysaccharides. By assimilating the SEC-MALLS data to a batch mode acquisition, we have obtained on-line the complete Zimm plot of the eluted fractions, leading to knowledge of their weight-average molar mass Mw, radius of gyration r(g) and second virial coefficient A2. Our methodology was successfully applied to a iota carrageenan sample in LiCl 100 mM, EDTA 1 g/l.

  14. Small Angle X-Ray Scattering Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Hessler, Jan P.

    2004-06-15

    A detector for time-resolved small-angle x-ray scattering includes a nearly constant diameter, evacuated linear tube having an end plate detector with a first fluorescent screen and concentric rings of first fiber optic bundles for low angle scattering detection and an annular detector having a second fluorescent screen and second fiber optic bundles concentrically disposed about the tube for higher angle scattering detection. With the scattering source, i.e., the specimen under investigation, located outside of the evacuated tube on the tube's longitudinal axis, scattered x-rays are detected by the fiber optic bundles, to each of which is coupled a respective photodetector, to provide a measurement resolution, i.e., dq/q, where q is the momentum transferred from an incident x-ray to an x-ray scattering specimen, of 2% over two (2) orders of magnitude in reciprocal space, i.e., qmax/qmin approx=lO0.

  15. Scattering Of Light Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Quaglioni, S; Navratil, P; Roth, R

    2009-12-15

    The exact treatment of nuclei starting from the constituent nucleons and the fundamental interactions among them has been a long-standing goal in nuclear physics. Above all nuclear scattering and reactions, which require the solution of the many-body quantum-mechanical problem in the continuum, represent an extraordinary theoretical as well as computational challenge for ab initio approaches.We present a new ab initio many-body approach which derives from the combination of the ab initio no-core shell model with the resonating-group method [4]. By complementing a microscopic cluster technique with the use of realistic interactions, and a microscopic and consistent description of the nucleon clusters, this approach is capable of describing simultaneously both bound and scattering states in light nuclei. We will discuss applications to neutron and proton scattering on sand light p-shell nuclei using realistic nucleon-nucleon potentials, and outline the progress toward the treatment of more complex reactions.

  16. Fluorescence and Light Scattering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Ronald J.; Oprysa, Anna

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the mentioned experiment is to aid students in developing tactics for distinguishing between signals originating from fluorescence and light scattering. Also, the experiment provides students with a deeper understanding of the physicochemical bases of each phenomenon and shows that the techniques are actually related.

  17. Fluorescence and Light Scattering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Ronald J.; Oprysa, Anna

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the mentioned experiment is to aid students in developing tactics for distinguishing between signals originating from fluorescence and light scattering. Also, the experiment provides students with a deeper understanding of the physicochemical bases of each phenomenon and shows that the techniques are actually related.

  18. Amorphous supramolecular structure of carboxymethyl cellulose in aqueous solution at different pH values as determined by rheology, small angle X-ray and light scattering.

    PubMed

    Dogsa, Iztok; Tomšič, Matija; Orehek, Janez; Benigar, Elizabeta; Jamnik, Andrej; Stopar, David

    2014-10-13

    Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) is one of the most widely used thickening agents in industry. The combination of small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), static and dynamic light scattering, as well as viscosity measurements and microscopy at different pH values was utilized to explore the physicochemical properties of CMC on a scale ranging from individual macromolecules to supramolecular assemblies. The supramolecular structure of CMC was represented as a set of characteristic sample subspaces based on SAXS data utilizing the string-of-beads model. The results indicate that at pH 7.0 individual CMC molecules are approximately uniformly distributed in a supramolecular structure owing to strong intra- and intermolecular repulsive interactions. The structure of CMC is most expanded at the value of pKa, where it has the largest radius of gyration, persistence length, and size of heterogeneous regions. Below pKa the majority of the CMC sample volume belongs to the low density subspaces. Most of CMC molecules, however, reside in a few high density subspaces. Dynamically, supramolecular structure of CMC is composed of fast diffusive relaxation processes embedded in a background of non-diffusive slow relaxation process at high pH and mostly slow relaxation processes at low pH. The rheological properties of CMC at different pH values were directly related to the CMC supramolecular structure in the aqueous environment.

  19. Particle chaos and pitch angle scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkhart, G. R.; Dusenbery, P. B.; Speiser, T. W.

    1995-01-01

    Pitch angle scattering is a factor that helps determine the dawn-to-dusk current, controls particle energization, and it has also been used as a remote probe of the current sheet structure. Previous studies have interpreted their results under the exception that randomization will be greatest when the ratio of the two timescales of motion (gyration parallel to and perpendicular to the current sheet) is closet to one. Recently, the average expotential divergence rate (AEDR) has been calculated for particle motion in a hyperbolic current sheet (Chen, 1992). It is claimed that this AEDR measures the degree of chaos and therefore may be thought to measure the randomization. In contrast to previous expectations, the AEDR is not maximized when Kappa is approximately equal to 1 but instead increases with decreasing Kappa. Also contrary to previous expectations, the AEDR is dependent upon the parameter b(sub z). In response to the challenge to previous expectations that has been raised by this calculation of the AEDR, we have investigated the dependence of a measure of particle pitch angle scattering on both the parameters Kappa and b(sub z). We find that, as was previously expected, particle pitch angle scattering is maximized near Kappa = 1 provided that Kappa/b(sub z) greater than 1. In the opposite regime, Kappa/b(sub z) less than 1, we find that particle pitch angle scattering is still largest when the two timescales are equal, but the ratio of the timescales is proportional to b(sub z). In this second regime, particle pitch angle scattering is not due to randomization, but is instead due to a systematic pitch angle change. This result shows that particle pitch angle scattering need not be due to randomization and indicates how a measure of pitch angle scattering can exhibit a different behavior than a measure of chaos.

  20. Polysaccharide characterization by hollow-fiber flow field-flow fractionation with on-line multi-angle static light scattering and differential refractometry.

    PubMed

    Pitkänen, Leena; Striegel, André M

    2015-02-06

    Accurate characterization of the molar mass and size of polysaccharides is an ongoing challenge, oftentimes due to architectural diversity but also to the broad molar mass (M) range over which a single polysaccharide can exist and to the ultra-high M of many polysaccharides. Because of the latter, many of these biomacromolecules experience on-column, flow-induced degradation during analysis by size-exclusion and, even, hydrodynamic chromatography (SEC and HDC, respectively). The necessity for gentler fractionation methods has, to date, been addressed employing asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4). Here, we introduce the coupling of hollow-fiber flow field-flow fractionation (HF5) to multi-angle static light scattering (MALS) and differential refractometry (DRI) detection for the analysis of polysaccharides. In HF5, less stresses are placed on the macromolecules during separation than in SEC or HDC, and HF5 can offer a higher sensitivity, with less propensity for system overloading and analyte aggregation, than generally found in AF4. The coupling to MALS and DRI affords the determination of absolute, calibration-curve-independent molar mass averages and dispersities. Results from the present HF5/MALS/DRI experiments with dextrans, pullulans, and larch arabinogalactan were augmented with hydrodynamic radius (RH) measurements from off-line quasi-elastic light scattering (QELS) and by RH distribution calculations and fractogram simulations obtained via a finite element analysis implementation of field-flow fractionation theory by commercially available software. As part of this study, we have investigated analyte recovery in HF5 and also possible reasons for discrepancies between calculated and simulated results vis-à-vis experimentally determined data. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Neutron spin echo scattering angle measurement (SESAME)

    SciTech Connect

    Pynn, R.; Fitzsimmons, M.R.; Fritzsche, H.; Gierlings, M.; Major, J.; Jason, A.

    2005-05-15

    We describe experiments in which the neutron spin echo technique is used to measure neutron scattering angles. We have implemented the technique, dubbed spin echo scattering angle measurement (SESAME), using thin films of Permalloy electrodeposited on silicon wafers as sources of the magnetic fields within which neutron spins precess. With 30-{mu}m-thick films we resolve neutron scattering angles to about 0.02 deg. with neutrons of 4.66 A wavelength. This allows us to probe correlation lengths up to 200 nm in an application to small angle neutron scattering. We also demonstrate that SESAME can be used to separate specular and diffuse neutron reflection from surfaces at grazing incidence. In both of these cases, SESAME can make measurements at higher neutron intensity than is available with conventional methods because the angular resolution achieved is independent of the divergence of the neutron beam. Finally, we discuss the conditions under which SESAME might be used to probe in-plane structure in thin films and show that the method has advantages for incident neutron angles close to the critical angle because multiple scattering is automatically accounted for.

  2. High-resolution soft X-ray beamline ADRESS at the Swiss Light Source for resonant inelastic X-ray scattering and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopies

    PubMed Central

    Strocov, V. N.; Schmitt, T.; Flechsig, U.; Schmidt, T.; Imhof, A.; Chen, Q.; Raabe, J.; Betemps, R.; Zimoch, D.; Krempasky, J.; Wang, X.; Grioni, M.; Piazzalunga, A.; Patthey, L.

    2010-01-01

    The concepts and technical realisation of the high-resolution soft X-ray beamline ADRESS operating in the energy range from 300 to 1600 eV and intended for resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES) are described. The photon source is an undulator of novel fixed-gap design where longitudinal movement of permanent magnetic arrays controls not only the light polarization (including circular and 0–180° rotatable linear polarizations) but also the energy without changing the gap. The beamline optics is based on the well established scheme of plane-grating monochromator operating in collimated light. The ultimate resolving power E/ΔE is above 33000 at 1 keV photon energy. The choice of blazed versus lamellar gratings and optimization of their profile parameters is described. Owing to glancing angles on the mirrors as well as optimized groove densities and profiles of the gratings, the beamline is capable of delivering high photon flux up to 1 × 1013 photons s−1 (0.01% BW)−1 at 1 keV. Ellipsoidal refocusing optics used for the RIXS endstation demagnifies the vertical spot size down to 4 µm, which allows slitless operation and thus maximal transmission of the high-resolution RIXS spectrometer delivering E/ΔE > 11000 at 1 keV photon energy. Apart from the beamline optics, an overview of the control system is given, the diagnostics and software tools are described, and strategies used for the optical alignment are discussed. An introduction to the concepts and instrumental realisation of the ARPES and RIXS endstations is given. PMID:20724785

  3. Wide angle light collection with ultralow reflection and super scattering by silicon micro-nanostructures for thin crystalline silicon solar cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Sonali; Kundu, Avra; Saha, Hiranmay; Datta, Swapan K.

    2016-01-01

    Conventional c-Si solar cells employ micron-sized pyramids for achieving reduced reflection (˜10%) and enhanced light trapping by multiple bounces (maximum 3) of the incident light. Alternatively, bio-mimetic, moth-eye sub-wavelength nanostructures offer broadband antireflection properties (˜3%) suitable for solar cell applications in the optical regime. However, such structures do not provide any advantage in the charge carrier extraction process as radial junctions cannot be formed in such sub-wavelength dimensions and they have high surface area causing increased charged carrier recombination. The choice of the geometry for achieving optimum photon-electron harvesting for solar applications is therefore very critical. Cross-fertilization of the conventional solar cell light-trapping techniques and the sub-wavelength nanostructures results in unique micro-nanostructures (structures having sub-wavelength dimensions as well as dimensions of the order of few microns) which provide advanced light management capabilities along with the ability of realizing radial junctions. It is seen that an ultralow reflection along with wide angle light collection is obtained which enables such structures to overcome the morning, evening and winter light losses in solar cells. Further, super-scattering in the structures offer enhanced light trapping not only in the structure itself but also in the substrate housing the structure. Ray and wave optics have been used to understand the optical benefits of the structures. It is seen that the aspect ratio of the structures plays the most significant role for achieving such light management capabilities, and efficiencies as high as 12% can be attained. Experiments have been carried out to fabricate a unique micro-nanomaze-like structure instead of a periodic array of micro-nanostructures with the help of nanosphere lithography and the MacEtch technique. It is seen that randomized micro-nanomaze geometry offers very good antireflection

  4. Phase Doppler droplet sizing: Scattering angle effects

    SciTech Connect

    Ceman, D.L.; O'Hern, T.J.; Rader, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    The phase Doppler technique is an LDV-based method for the nonintrusive, simultaneous measurement of particle size, velocity, and concentration. It is becoming a standard device for measurement of spray droplets in air as well as cavitation nuclei bubbles in water. The Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) is a commercial phase Doppler instrument. Previous calibrations of the PDPA using well-characterized liquid droplets have revealed nonlinearity of the instrument response for droplet diameters less than 20 {mu}m. For many applications, droplet sizing accuracy in the small diameter range is critical. Light scattering calculations performed by the instrument manufacturer suggest two theoretical approaches to improving the instrument response in this size range: optimizing the collection angle and increasing the collection area. The first approach has been tested experimentally. This paper presents size calibrations of the PDPA with the receiver configured at two angles: 30{degree} (the standard configuration) and 70{degree} off-forward axis. The calibration was performed with monodisperse oleic acid droplets in the diameter range 3.7 to 32 {mu}m. As in earlier calibration studies, the 30{degree} configuration resulted in marked nonlinearity in instrument response below 20 {mu}m. Oscillations were still apparent for the 70{degree} configuration, which showed only a modest improvement compared to the response at 30{degree}. 7 refs., 5 figs.

  5. Bidirectional scattering of light from tree leaves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brakke, Thomas W.; Smith, James A.; Harnden, Joann M.

    1989-01-01

    A laboratory goniometer consisting of an He-Ne laser (632.8 nm), vertical leaf holder, and silicon photovoltaic detector was used to measure the bidirectional scattering (both transmittance and reflectance) of red oak and red maple. The illumination angles were 0, 30, and 60 deg, and the scattering was recorded approximately every 10 deg in the principal plane. The scattering profiles obtained show the non-Lambertian characteristics of the scattering, particularly for the off-nadir illumination directions. The transmitted light was more isotropic than the reflected light.

  6. Bidirectional scattering of light from tree leaves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brakke, Thomas W.; Smith, James A.; Harnden, Joann M.

    1989-01-01

    A laboratory goniometer consisting of an He-Ne laser (632.8 nm), vertical leaf holder, and silicon photovoltaic detector was used to measure the bidirectional scattering (both transmittance and reflectance) of red oak and red maple. The illumination angles were 0, 30, and 60 deg, and the scattering was recorded approximately every 10 deg in the principal plane. The scattering profiles obtained show the non-Lambertian characteristics of the scattering, particularly for the off-nadir illumination directions. The transmitted light was more isotropic than the reflected light.

  7. Light Scattering by Spheroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Ya-Ming; Ji, Xia

    Nowadays, with the development of technology, particles with size at nanoscale have been synthesized in experiments. It is noticed that anisotropy is an unavoidable problem in the production of nanospheres. Besides, nonspherical nanoparticles have also been extensively used in experiments. Comparing with spherical model, spheroidal model can give a better description for the characteristics of nonspherical particles. Thus the study of analytical solution for light scattering by spheroidal particles has practical implications. By expanding incident, scattered, and transmitted electromagnetic fields in terms of appropriate vector spheroidal wave functions, an analytic solution is obtained to the problem of light scattering by spheroids. Unknown field expansion coefficients can be determined with the combination of boundary conditions and rotational-translational addition theorems for vector spheroidal wave functions. Based on the theoretical derivation, a Fortran code has been developed to calculate the extinction cross section and field distribution, whose results agree well with those obtain by FDTD simulation. This research is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China No. 91230203.

  8. Directional light scattering from individual Au nanocup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Jinjun; Li, Yong; Zhao, Bo

    2017-03-01

    We investigate the optical scattering properties of gold nanocup with different orientation and fractional height by full vector finite element method. All of the scattering cross section, the distribution of electric field intensity, and the ability of directional light scattering are simulated, respectively. It is demonstrated that the scattering cross section of Au nanocup is a superposition of scattering spectrum of a transverse mode and an axial mode. The wavelength and the intensity of the maximum value of the scattering cross section increase initially then reduce with the fractional height increasing for transverse mode, while they increase monotonously with the fractional height increasing for axial mode. Furthermore, the calculation results show that the ability of redirecting incident light of Au nanocup mainly depends on the transverse mode. And the deflected angle of scattering increases with the fractional height of Au nanocup decreasing. These results indicate that Au nanocup has a promising application in the planar plasmon devices.

  9. Improved Optics For Quasi-Elastic Light Scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheung, Harry Michael

    1995-01-01

    Improved optical train devised for use in light-scattering measurements of quasi-elastic light scattering (QELS) and laser spectroscopy. Measurements performed on solutions, microemulsions, micellular solutions, and colloidal dispersions. Simultaneous measurements of total intensity and fluctuations in total intensity of light scattered from sample at various angles provides data used, in conjunction with diffusion coefficients, to compute sizes of particles in sample.

  10. The application of low angle light scattering to evaluate qualitatively and quantitatively the dynamics of formation of oligomers in heme protein sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabino, Luis G.; Guimarães, Wellinson Gadelha; Costa, Pedro Mikael; Carepo, Marta S. P.; Gondim, Ana C. S.; Lopes, Luiz G. F.; Sousa, Eduardo H. S.

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the structural organization and oligomerization properties of the sensory kinase protein DevS using low-angle light scattering (LALS) and gel filtration chromatography (HPLC). In addition, the structural characteristics of FixL and BSA were investigated and compared with DevS to better elucidate LALS technique. DevS is a direct and specific O2 sensing protein in Mycobacterium tuberculosis and acts as an activator of the transcription factor protein DevR. This latter triggers the latency state of tuberculosis under hypoxic conditions. DevS has been briefly evaluated under different conditions of concentration, ionic strength and temperature. LALS and gel filtration (HPLC) analysis were performed right after DevS purification process. The results of LALS for BSA proved to be highly reliable with a Rh value of c.a. 3.7 nm. Considering BSA a globular protein, the molecular weight estimative, using LALS was near 67 KDa, which is reasonably within the value reported in the literature. Preliminary LALS results showed a hydrodynamic radius (Rh) varying from 4.2-15.0 nm for DevS protein, and an average of 6.7 nm. These data supported, along with gel filtration, a dimer (~130 KDa) and tetramer (255 KDa) as the main DevS species. Additionally, it was found higher oligomeric species by gel filtration suggesting either an equilibrium of oligomers or an aggregation process that deserves further studies.

  11. Determination of the second virial coefficient of bovine serum albumin under varying pH and ionic strength by composition-gradient multi-angle static light scattering.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yingfang; Acosta, Diana M; Whitney, Jon R; Podgornik, Rudolf; Steinmetz, Nicole F; French, Roger H; Parsegian, V Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Composition-gradient multi-angle static light scattering (CG-MALS) is an emerging technique for the determination of intermolecular interactions via the second virial coefficient B22. With CG-MALS, detailed studies of the second virial coefficient can be carried out more accurately and effectively than with traditional methods. In addition, automated mixing, delivery and measurement enable high speed, continuous, fluctuation-free sample delivery and accurate results. Using CG-MALS we measure the second virial coefficient of bovine serum albumin (BSA) in aqueous solutions at various values of pH and ionic strength of a univalent salt (NaCl). The systematic variation of the second virial coefficient as a function of pH and NaCl strength reveals the net charge change and the isoelectric point of BSA under different solution conditions. The magnitude of the second virial coefficient decreases to 1.13 x 10(-5) ml*mol/g(2) near the isoelectric point of pH 4.6 and 25 mM NaCl. These results illuminate the role of fundamental long-range electrostatic and van der Waals forces in protein-protein interactions, specifically their dependence on pH and ionic strength.

  12. Dextrin characterization by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography--pulsed amperometric detection and size-exclusion chromatography--multi-angle light scattering--refractive index detection.

    PubMed

    White, D Richard; Hudson, Patricia; Adamson, Julie T

    2003-05-16

    Starch hydrolysis products, or dextrins, are widely used throughout the food industry for their functional properties. Dextrins are saccharide polymers linked primarily by alpha-(1 --> 4) D-glucose units and are prepared by partial hydrolysis of starch. Hydrolysis can be accomplished by the use of acid, enzymes, or by a combination of both. The hydrolysis products are typically characterized by the "dextrose equivalent" (DE), which refers to the total reducing power of all sugars present relative to glucose. While the DE gives the supplier and buyer a rough guide to the bulk properties of the material, the physiochemical properties of dextrins are dependent on the overall oligosaccharide profile. High-performance anion-exchange chromatography (HPAEC) with pulsed amperometric detection and size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) with multi-angle light-scattering and refractive index detection were used to characterize dextrins from commercial sources. HPAEC was used to acquire the oligosaccharide profile, and SEC to obtain an overall molar mass distribution. These methods in combination extended our understanding of the relationship between oligosaccharide profile, DE, and the hydrolysis process. Data from the two techniques enabled a method for estimating the DE that gave results in reasonable agreement with the accepted titration method.

  13. Evaluation and comparison of commercially available Aloe vera L. products using size exclusion chromatography with refractive index and multi-angle laser light scattering detection.

    PubMed

    Turner, Carlton E; Williamson, David A; Stroud, Paul A; Talley, Doug J

    2004-12-20

    Raw materials supplied as Aloe vera L. (sometimes referred to as Aloe barbadensis) samples often contain different composition of low and high molecular weight components when analyzed by size exclusion chromatography. One major reason for variable compositions of commercial A. vera L. materials is that they are produced by different manufacturing techniques. Consistent composition of matter based upon a given standard has been difficult to define. In addition, the method of quantifying and characterization of these commercially available materials has not been agreed upon within the industry. The end user, whether a researcher, a manufacturer, a marketing arm of industry or the consumer, should know that they are receiving a consistent product. A blind study of 32 various A. vera L. samples from different manufacturers, and a prepared sample of fresh A. vera L. gel with the commercial, biologic drug Acemannan Immunostimulanttrade mark, were analyzed for content of high molecular weight (polysaccharides) material by size exclusion chromatography with refractive index detection (SEC/RI) and SEC/RI coupled with multi-angle laser light scattering (MALLS) detection. Results from the SEC/RI analysis showed significant variation in the high molecular weight content, and the MALLS analysis also showed significant variation versus SEC/RI. In addition, HPLC analysis of the anthraquinone content showed that all samples contained significantly less than that of the raw, unwashed aloe gel. The variation of results from all analysis is attributed to differing methods in which the samples were processed by the different manufacturers.

  14. Absolute molecular weight determination of hypromellose acetate succinate by size exclusion chromatography: use of a multi angle laser light scattering detector and a mixed solvent.

    PubMed

    Chen, Raymond; Ilasi, Nicholas; Sekulic, Sonja S

    2011-12-05

    Molecular weight distribution is an important quality attribute for hypromellose acetate succinate (HPMCAS), a pharmaceutical excipient used in spray-dried dispersions. Our previous study showed that neither relative nor universal calibration method of size exclusion chromatography (SEC) works for HPMCAS polymers. We here report our effort to develop a SEC method using a mass sensitive multi angle laser light scattering detector (MALLS) to determine molecular weight distributions of HPMCAS polymers. A solvent screen study reveals that a mixed solvent (60:40%, v/v 50mM NaH(2)PO(4) with 0.1M NaNO(3) buffer: acetonitrile, pH* 8.0) is the best for HPMCAS-LF and MF sub-classes. Use of a mixed solvent creates a challenging condition for the method that uses refractive index detector. Therefore, we thoroughly evaluated the method performance and robustness. The mean weight average molecular weight of a polyethylene oxide standard has a 95% confidence interval of (28,443-28,793) g/mol vs. 28,700g/mol from the Certificate of Analysis. The relative standard deviations of average molecular weights for all polymers are 3-6%. These results and the Design of Experiments study demonstrate that the method is accurate and robust.

  15. Small Angle X-Ray Scattering Detector

    DOEpatents

    Hessler, Jan P.

    2004-06-15

    A detector for time-resolved small-angle x-ray scattering includes a nearly constant diameter, evacuated linear tube having an end plate detector with a first fluorescent screen and concentric rings of first fiber optic bundles for low angle scattering detection and an annular detector having a second fluorescent screen and second fiber optic bundles concentrically disposed about the tube for higher angle scattering detection. With the scattering source, i.e., the specimen under investigation, located outside of the evacuated tube on the tube's longitudinal axis, scattered x-rays are detected by the fiber optic bundles, to each of which is coupled a respective photodetector, to provide a measurement resolution, i.e., dq/q, where q is the momentum transferred from an incident x-ray to an x-ray scattering specimen, of 2% over two (2) orders of magnitude in reciprocal space, i.e., q.sub.max /q.sub.min.congruent.100.

  16. Tiny incident light angle sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitrenga, D.; Schädel, M.; Winzer, A. T.; Völlmeke, S.; Preuß, K. D.; Freitag, J.; Brodersen, O.

    2017-05-01

    A novel device for detecting the intensity and the angles of incoming light is presented. The silicon chip with 1 mm edge length comprises a segmented photo diode with four active areas within the inclined surfaces of a deep etched cavity. Simple signal difference analysis of these signals allow for accurate azimuth and inclination measurement in the range of 0 to 360° and 0 to 55°, respectively. Using an artificial neural network (ANN) calibration strategy the operation range of inclination can be increased up to 85° with typical angle errors below 2°. In this report we present details on design, fabrication, signal analysis and calibration strategies.

  17. Anomalous and resonance small angle scattering: Revision

    SciTech Connect

    Epperson, J.E.; Thiyagarajan, P.

    1987-11-01

    Significant changes in the small angle scattered intensity can be induced by making measurements with radiation close to an absorption edge of an appropriate atomic species contained in the sample. These changes can be related quantitatively to the real and imaginary anomalous dispersion terms for the scattering factor (x-rays) or scattering length (neutrons). The physics inherent in these anomalous dispersion terms is first discussed before considering how they enter the relevant scattering theory. Two major areas of anomalous scattering research have emerged; macromolecules in solution and unmixing of metallic alloys. Research in each area is reviewed, illustrating both the feasibility and potential of these techniques. All the experimental results reported to date have been obtained with x-rays. However, it is pointed out that the formalism is the same for the analogue experiment with neutrons, and a number of suitable isotopes exist which exhibit resonance in an accessible range of energy. Potential applications of resonance small angle neutron scatterings are discussed. 54 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Anomalous and resonance small angle scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Epperson, J.E.; Thiyagarajan, P.

    1987-11-01

    Significant changes in the small angle scattered intensity can be induced by making measurements with radiation close to an absorption edge of an appropriate atomic species contained in the sample. These changes can be related quantitatively to the real and imaginary anomalous dispersion terms for the scattering factor (x-rays) or scattering length (neutrons). The physics inherent in these anomalous dispersion terms is first discussed before considering how they enter the relevant scattering theory. Two major areas of anomalous scattering research have emerged; macromolecules in solution and unmixing of metallic alloys. Research in each area is reviewed, illustrating both the feasibility and potential of these techniques. All the experimental results reported to date have been obtained with x-rays. However, it is pointed out that the formalism is the same or the analogue experiment with neutrons, and a number of suitable isotopes exist which exhibit resonance in an accessible range of energy. Potential applications of resonance small-angle neutron scatterings are discussed. 8 figs.

  19. Review of light scattering literature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potts, Marie K.

    1994-06-01

    This report reviews the recent literature of static and dynamic light scattering of dilute and semidilute polymer solutions and gels, as obtained from the Chemical Abstracts Macromolecular Sections, and an electronic literature search. In general, this review has been confined to the interests of the Polymer Research Branch, specifically experimental light scattering studies of synthetic polymers in solution. In order to further limit the size of this review, light scattering for phase separation studies or particle size analysis have been excluded, as well as light scattering used strictly for size exclusion chromatography detection.

  20. Effect of cationic monomer content on polyacrylamide copolymers by frit-inlet asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation/multi-angle light scattering.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyejin; Kim, Jin Yong; Choi, Woonjin; Moon, Myeong Hee

    2017-06-23

    In this study, ultrahigh-molecular-weight (MW) (>10(7)Da) cationic polyacrylamides (C-PAMs), which are water-soluble polymers used in waste water treatment, were characterized using frit-inlet asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation coupled with multi-angle light scattering and differential refractive detection. C-PAMs copolymerized with acryloxyethyltrimethyl ammonium chloride (DAC) were prepared by varying the feed amount of cationic monomer, polymerization method (solution vs. emulsion), and degree of branching. The MW of the copolymers prepared using emulsion polymerization (10(7)-10(9)Da) was generally larger than that of copolymers prepared using solution polymerization (4×10(7)-10(8)Da). When the amount of cationic monomer was increased from 10 to 55mol% in solution polymerization, hydrophobic contraction of the core induced formation of more compact C-PAMs. The copolymers prepared using emulsion polymerization formed highly aggregated or supercoil structures owing to increased intermolecular hydrophobic interaction when less cationic monomer was used. However, the MW decreased with increased cationic group content. In addition, C-PAMs larger than ∼10(8)Da prepared using the emulsion method were separated by steric/hyperlayer elution mode while those in the 10(7)-10(8)Da range were analyzed in either normal or steric/hyperlayer mode depending on the decay patterns of field programming. Moreover, branched copolymers were found to be resolved with different elution modes under the same field decay pattern depending on the degree of branching: steric/hyperlayer for low-branching and normal for high-branching C-PAMs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Characterization of aggregates of surface modified fullerenes by asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation with multi-angle light scattering detection.

    PubMed

    Astefanei, Alina; Kok, Wim Th; Bäuerlein, Patrick; Núñez, Oscar; Galceran, Maria Teresa; de Voogt, Pim; Schoenmakers, Peter J

    2015-08-21

    Fullerenes are carbon nanoparticles with widespread biomedical, commercial and industrial applications. Attributes such as their tendency to aggregate and aggregate size and shape impact their ability to be transported into and through the environment and living tissues. Knowledge of these properties is therefore valuable for their human and environmental risk assessment as well as to control their synthesis and manufacture. In this work, asymmetrical flow-field flow fractionation (AF4) coupled to multi-angle light scattering (MALS) was used for the first time to study the size distribution of surface modified fullerenes with both polyhydroxyl and carboxyl functional groups in aqueous solutions having different pH (6.5-11) and ionic strength values (0-200mM) of environmental relevance. Fractionation key parameters such as flow rates, flow programming, and membrane material were optimized for the selected fullerenes. The aggregation of the compounds studied appeared to be indifferent to changes in solution pH, but was affected by changes in the ionic strength. Polyhydroxy-fullerenes were found to be present mostly as 4nm aggregates in water without added salt, but showed more aggregation at high ionic strength, with an up to 10-fold increase in their mean hydrodynamic radii (200mM), due to a decrease in the electrostatic repulsion between the nanoparticles. Carboxy-fullerenes showed a much stronger aggregation degree in water (50-100nm). Their average size and recoveries decreased with the increase in the salt concentration. This behavior can be due to enhanced adsorption of the large particles to the membrane at high ionic strength, because of their higher hydrophobicity and much larger particle sizes compared to polyhydroxy-fullerenes. The method performance was evaluated by calculating the run-to-run precision of the retention time (hydrodynamic radii), and the obtained RSD values were lower than 1%. MALS measurements showed aggregate sizes that were in good

  2. Laser light scattering instrument advanced technology development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, J. F.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this advanced technology development (ATD) project has been to provide sturdy, miniaturized laser light scattering (LLS) instrumentation for use in microgravity experiments. To do this, we assessed user requirements, explored the capabilities of existing and prospective laser light scattering hardware, and both coordinated and participated in the hardware and software advances needed for a flight hardware instrument. We have successfully breadboarded and evaluated an engineering version of a single-angle glove-box instrument which uses solid state detectors and lasers, along with fiber optics, for beam delivery and detection. Additionally, we have provided the specifications and written verification procedures necessary for procuring a miniature multi-angle LLS instrument which will be used by the flight hardware project which resulted from this work and from this project's interaction with the laser light scattering community.

  3. Hollow-fiber flow field-flow fractionation and multi-angle light scattering investigation of the size, shape and metal-release of silver nanoparticles in aqueous medium for nano-risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Marassi, Valentina; Casolari, Sonia; Roda, Barbara; Zattoni, Andrea; Reschiglian, Pierluigi; Panzavolta, Silvia; Tofail, Syed A M; Ortelli, Simona; Delpivo, Camilla; Blosi, Magda; Costa, Anna Luisa

    2015-03-15

    Due to the increased use of silver nanoparticles in industrial scale manufacturing, consumer products and nanomedicine reliable measurements of properties such as the size, shape and distribution of these nano particles in aqueous medium is critical. These properties indeed affect both functional properties and biological impacts especially in quantifying associated risks and identifying suitable risk-mediation strategies. The feasibility of on-line coupling of a fractionation technique such as hollow-fiber flow field flow fractionation (HF5) with a light scattering technique such as MALS (multi-angle light scattering) is investigated here for this purpose. Data obtained from such a fractionation technique and its combination thereof with MALS have been compared with those from more conventional but often complementary techniques e.g. transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, atomic absorption spectroscopy, and X-ray fluorescence. The combination of fractionation and multi angle light scattering techniques have been found to offer an ideal, hyphenated methodology for a simultaneous size-separation and characterization of silver nanoparticles. The hydrodynamic radii determined by fractionation techniques can be conveniently correlated to the mean average diameters determined by multi angle light scattering and reliable information on particle morphology in aqueous dispersion has been obtained. The ability to separate silver (Ag(+)) ions from silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) via membrane filtration during size analysis is an added advantage in obtaining quantitative insights to its risk potential. Most importantly, the methodology developed in this article can potentially be extended to similar characterization of metal-based nanoparticles when studying their functional effectiveness and hazard potential.

  4. Multiple-Fiber-Optic Probe For Light-Scattering Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dhadwal, Harbans Singh; Ansari, Rafat R.

    1996-01-01

    Multiple-fiber-optical probe developed for use in measuring light scattered at various angles from specimens of materials. Designed for both static and dynamic light-scattering measurements of colloidal dispersions. Probe compact, rugged unit containing no moving parts and remains stationary during operation. Not restricted to operation in controlled, research-laboratory environment. Positioned inside or outside light-scattering chamber. Provides simultaneous measurements at small angular intervals over range of angles, made to include small scattering angles by orienting probe in appropriate direction.

  5. Small-Angle Scattering on Magnetoferritin Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balejčíková Petrenko, L., VI; Avdeev, MV; Garamus, VM; Almásy, L.; Kopčanský, P.

    2017-05-01

    Magnetoferritin is a synthetically prepared magnetic bio-complex, consisting of apoferritin shell and iron-based nanoparticles. Superparamagnetic behaviour, nanoscale size (about 12 nm) and biological origin allow to use magnetoferritin in various applications. In this report, we present a general overview about basic physicochemical properties of magnetoferritin, as determined by small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering experiments and some interesting references on their potential bio-applications.

  6. Resonance enhanced dynamic light scattering.

    PubMed

    Plum, Markus A; Menges, Bernhard; Fytas, George; Butt, Hans-Jürgen; Steffen, Werner

    2011-01-01

    We present a novel light scattering setup that enables probing of dynamics near solid surfaces. An evanescent wave generated by a surface plasmon resonance in a metal layer is the incident light field in the dynamic light scattering experiment. The combination of surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering leads to a spatiotemporal resolution extending a few hundred nanometers from the surface and from microseconds to seconds. The comparison with evanescent wave dynamic light scattering identifies the advantages of the presented technique, e.g., surface monitoring, use of metal surfaces, and biorelevant systems. For both evanescent wave geometries, we define the scattering wave vector necessary for the analysis of the experimental relaxation functions.

  7. Scattered light mapping of protoplanetary disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolker, T.; Dominik, C.; Min, M.; Garufi, A.; Mulders, G. D.; Avenhaus, H.

    2016-12-01

    Context. High-contrast scattered light observations have revealed the surface morphology of several dozen protoplanetary disks at optical and near-infrared wavelengths. Inclined disks offer the opportunity to measure part of the phase function of the dust grains that reside in the disk surface which is essential for our understanding of protoplanetary dust properties and the early stages of planet formation. Aims: We aim to construct a method which takes into account how the flaring shape of the scattering surface of an optically thick protoplanetary disk projects onto the image plane of the observer. This allows us to map physical quantities (e.g., scattering radius and scattering angle) onto scattered light images and retrieve stellar irradiation corrected images (r2-scaled) and dust phase functions. Methods: The scattered light mapping method projects a power law shaped disk surface onto the detector plane after which the observed scattered light image is interpolated backward onto the disk surface. We apply the method on archival polarized intensity images of the protoplanetary disk around HD 100546 that were obtained with VLT/SPHERE in the R' band and VLT/NACO in the H and Ks bands. Results: The brightest side of the r2-scaled R' band polarized intensity image of HD 100546 changes from the far to the near side of the disk when a flaring instead of a geometrically flat disk surface is used for the r2-scaling. The decrease in polarized surface brightness in the scattering angle range of 40°-70° is likely a result of the dust phase function and degree of polarization which peak in different scattering angle regimes. The derived phase functions show part of a forward scattering peak, which indicates that large, aggregate dust grains dominate the scattering opacity in the disk surface. Conclusions: Projection effects of a protoplanetary disk surface need to be taken into account to correctly interpret scattered light images. Applying the correct scaling for the

  8. Fourier transform light scattering angular spectroscopy using digital inline holography.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoohyun; Park, YongKeun

    2012-10-01

    A simple and practical method for measuring the angle-resolved light scattering (ARLS) from individual objects is reported. Employing the principle of inline holography and a Fourier transform light scattering technique, both the static and dynamic scattering patterns from individual micrometer-sized objects can be effectively and quantitatively obtained. First, the light scattering measurements were performed on individual polystyrene beads, from which the refractive index and diameter of each bead were retrieved. Also, the measurements of the static and dynamic light scattering from intact human red blood cells are demonstrated. Using the present method, an existing microscope can be directly transformed into a precise instrument for ARLS measurements.

  9. Light scattering measurement of sodium polyacrylate products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lama, Nisha; Norwood, David; Boone, Steven; Massie-Boyer, Valerie

    2015-03-01

    In the presentation, we will describe the use of a multi-detector HPLC incorporating the DAWN EOS multi-angle laser light scattering (MALLS) detector to measure the properties such as molecular weight, RMS radius, contour and persistence length and polydispersity of sodium polyacrylate products. The samples of sodium polyacrylate are used in various industries as thickening agents, coating dispersants, artificial snow, laundry detergent and disposable diapers. Data and results obtained from the experiment will be presented.

  10. Dynamic Light Scattering From Colloidal Gels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krall, A. H.; Weitz, David A.

    1996-01-01

    We present a brief, preliminary account of the interpretation of dynamic light scattering from fractal colloidal gels. For small scattering angles, and for high initial colloid particle volume fractions, the correlation functions exhibit arrested decay, reflecting the non-ergodic nature of these systems and allowing us to directly determine the elastic modulus of the gels. For smaller initial volume fractions, the correlation functions decay completely. In all cases, the initial decay is not exponential, but is instead described by a stretched exponential. We summarize the principles of a model that accounts for these data and discuss the scaling behavior of the measured parameters.

  11. Light scattering by aggregated red blood cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsinopoulos, Stephanos V.; Sellountos, Euripides J.; Polyzos, Demosthenes

    2002-03-01

    In low flow rates, red blood cells (RBCs) fasten together along their axis of symmetry and form a so-called rouleaux. The scattering of He-Ne laser light by a rouleau consisting of n (2 less-than-or-equal n less-than-or-equal 8) average-sized RBCs is investigated. The interaction problem is treated numerically by means of an advanced axisymmetric boundary element--fast Fourier transform methodology. The scattering problem of one RBC was solved first, and the results showed that the influence of the RBC's membrane on the scattering patterns is negligible. Thus the rouleau is modeled as an axisymmetric, homogeneous, low-contrast dielectric cylinder, on the surface of which appears, owing to aggregated RBCs, a periodic roughness along the direction of symmetry. The direction of the incident laser light is considered to be perpendicular to the scatterer's axis of symmetry. The differential scattering cross sections in both perpendicular and parallel scattering planes and for all the scattering angles are calculated and presented in detail.

  12. Dynamic light scattering study of microemulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharifi, Soheil; Alavi, Alireza

    2011-05-01

    Brownian motion is a subject of renewed interest since the development of photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS) in the last decade. The dynamic properties of microemulsions and colloidal systems are studied by measuring the relaxation of concentration fluctuations. The mixture of C12E5nanoemulsion with PEG have been studied by small-angle X-ray scattering and dynamic light scattering in order to determine structure and dynamic of the system. Light scattering experiment shown an exponential relaxation for pure C12E5 nanoemulsion that the shape of the relaxation change with increasing of polymer concentration in the C12E5 nanoemulsion, that relaxation becomes non-exponential, which demonstrates increase of cooperatively in the C12E5 nanoemulsion.

  13. Selective scattering polymer dispersed liquid crystal film for light enhancement of organic light emitting diode.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jinghua; McGraw, Greg; Ma, Ruiqing; Brown, Julie; Yang, Deng-Ke

    2017-02-20

    We developed a novel light enhancing film for an organic light emitting diode (OLED) based on polymer dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC). In the film, the liquid crystal droplets are unidirectionally aligned along the film normal direction and exhibit selective scattering. The film scatters light emitted only in directions with large incident angles but not light emitted in directions with small incident angles. When the light is scattered, it changes propagation direction and exits the OLED. The PDLC film reduces the total internal reflection and thus can significantly increase the light efficiency of the OLED.

  14. Small-Angle Scattering from Nanoscale Fat Fractals.

    PubMed

    Anitas, E M; Slyamov, A; Todoran, R; Szakacs, Z

    2017-12-01

    Small-angle scattering (of neutrons, x-ray, or light; SAS) is considered to describe the structural characteristics of deterministic nanoscale fat fractals. We show that in the case of a polydisperse fractal system, with equal probability for any orientation, one obtains the fractal dimensions and scaling factors at each structural level. This is in agreement with general results deduced in the context of small-angle scattering analysis of a system of randomly oriented, non-interacting, nano-/micro-fractals. We apply our results to a two-dimensional fat Cantor-like fractal, calculating analytic expressions for the scattering intensities and structure factors. We explain how the structural properties can be computed from experimental data and show their correlation to the variation of the scaling factor with the iteration number. The model can be used to interpret recorded experimental SAS data in the framework of fat fractals and can reveal structural properties of materials characterized by a regular law of changing of the fractal dimensions. It can describe successions of power-law decays, with arbitrary decreasing values of the scattering exponents, and interleaved by regions of constant intensity.

  15. Investigating hard sphere interactions through spin echo scattering angle measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Washington, Adam

    Spin Echo Scattering Angle Measurement (SESAME) allows neutron scattering instruments to perform real space measurements on large micron scale samples by encoding the scattering angle into the neutron's spin state via Larmor precession. I have built a SESAME instrument at the Low Energy Neutron Source. I have also assisted in the construction of a modular SESAME instrument on the ASTERIX beamline at Los Alamos National lab. The ability to tune these instruments has been proved mathematically and optimized and automated experimentally. Practical limits of the SESAME technique with respect to polarization analyzers, neutron spectra, Larmor elements, and data analysis were investigated. The SESAME technique was used to examine the interaction of hard spheres under depletion. Poly(methyl methacrylate) spheres suspended in decalin had previously been studied as a hard sphere solution. The interparticle correlations between the spheres were found to match the Percus-Yevick closure, as had been previously seen in dynamical light scattering experiments. To expand beyond pure hard spheres, 900kDa polystyrene was added to the solution in concentrations of less than 1% by mass. The steric effects of the polystyrene were expected to produce a short-range, attractive, "sticky" potential. Experiment showed, however, that the "sticky" potential was not a stable state and that the spheres would eventually form long range aggregates.

  16. Small-Angle Scattering from Nanoscale Fat Fractals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anitas, E. M.; Slyamov, A.; Todoran, R.; Szakacs, Z.

    2017-06-01

    Small-angle scattering (of neutrons, x-ray, or light; SAS) is considered to describe the structural characteristics of deterministic nanoscale fat fractals. We show that in the case of a polydisperse fractal system, with equal probability for any orientation, one obtains the fractal dimensions and scaling factors at each structural level. This is in agreement with general results deduced in the context of small-angle scattering analysis of a system of randomly oriented, non-interacting, nano-/micro-fractals. We apply our results to a two-dimensional fat Cantor-like fractal, calculating analytic expressions for the scattering intensities and structure factors. We explain how the structural properties can be computed from experimental data and show their correlation to the variation of the scaling factor with the iteration number. The model can be used to interpret recorded experimental SAS data in the framework of fat fractals and can reveal structural properties of materials characterized by a regular law of changing of the fractal dimensions. It can describe successions of power-law decays, with arbitrary decreasing values of the scattering exponents, and interleaved by regions of constant intensity.

  17. Multiple small angle neutron scattering: A new two-dimensional ultrasmall angle neutron scattering technique

    SciTech Connect

    Gruenzweig, C.; Hils, T.; Muehlbauer, S.; Ay, M.; Lorenz, K.; Georgii, R.; Gaehler, R.; Boeni, P.

    2007-11-12

    We report on the demonstration experiment of the multiple small angle neutron scattering (MSANS) technique at a 5.6 m long neutron beam line, leading to a q resolution of 3x10{sup -4} A{sup -1}. The MSANS technique is based on two two-dimensional multihole apertures placed at the front end of the collimator and close to the sample, respectively. By choosing the proper MSANS geometry, individual diffraction patterns are superimposed leading to a large gain in intensity. Using MSANS as an option for standard small angle neutron scattering beam lines, the q resolution could be increased to 10{sup -5} A{sup -1} without dramatically sacrificing intensity.

  18. Review of Light Scattering Literature

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-01

    Homopolymers ......................................... 3 2.2. Polyelectrolytes...and Sphere Diffusion .................................................................... 7 3.3. Homopolymer Solutions 3.3.1. Flexible Polymers...static light scattering of polymers. 2.1. Dilute Solution Properties of Homopolymers A Mark-Houwink-Sakurada (M-H-S) equation for polyurethane in benzene

  19. Nonlinear scattering of light in nanodiamond hydrosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikheev, G. M.; Puzyr', A. P.; Vanyukov, V. V.; Purtov, K. V.; Mogileva, T. N.; Bondar', V. S.

    2010-04-01

    The nonlinear scattering of light under the conditions of optical limiting of nanosecond pulsed laser radiation at a wavelength of 1064 nm in a nanodiamond (ND) hydrosol has been experimentally studied. Superstable hydrosols were obtained from detonation NDs with a modified surface. Using an improved scheme of z scanning, it is shown that a decrease in the optical transmission coefficient of an ND hydrosol under optical limiting conditions is due to enhanced nonlinear scattering. It is established that the energy of pulsed radiation scattered at a right angle obeys a power law in dependence on the energy density of incident radiation pulses. Hydrosols of detonation NDs with the modified surface exhibit high stability with respect to the periodic laser action at high power density.

  20. Zeno: Critical Fluid Light Scattering Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gammon, Robert W.; Shaumeyer, J. N.; Briggs, Matthew E.; Boukari, Hacene; Gent, David A.; Wilkinson, R. Allen

    1996-01-01

    The Zeno (Critical Fluid Light Scattering) experiment is the culmination of a long history of critical fluid light scattering in liquid-vapor systems. The major limitation to making accurate measurements closer to the critical point was the density stratification which occurs in these extremely compressible fluids. Zeno was to determine the critical density fluctuation decay rates at a pair of supplementary angles in the temperature range 100 mK to 100 (mu)K from T(sub c) in a sample of xenon accurately loaded to the critical density. This paper gives some highlights from operating the instrument on two flights March, 1994 on STS-62 and February, 1996 on STS-75. More detail of the experiment Science Requirements, the personnel, apparatus, and results are displayed on the Web homepage at http://www.zeno.umd.edu.

  1. Fractal Approach in Petrology: Combining Ultra-Small Angle (USANA) and Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS)

    SciTech Connect

    LoCelso, F.; Triolo, F.; Triolo, A.; Lin, J.S.; Lucido, G.; Triolo, R.

    1999-10-14

    Ultra small angle neutron scattering instruments have recently covered the gap between the size resolution available with conventional intermediate angle neutron scattering and small angle neutron scattering instruments on one side and optical microscopy on the other side. Rocks showing fractal behavior in over two decades of momentum transfer and seven orders of magnitude of intensity are examined and fractal parameters are extracted from the combined USANS and SANS curves.

  2. The new IAA Light Scattering Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz, O.; Moreno, F.; Molina, A.; Guirado, D.; Ramos, J. L.; López, A.; Girela, F.; Costillo, L. P.

    2005-05-01

    We are building up a light scattering setup at the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (IAA), Granada, Spain. The design of this new setup is based on the well known apparatus currently located at the Astronomical Institute "Anton Pannekoek", University of Amsterdam, The Neteherlands [1],[2]. By using a polarization modulation technique, all scattering matrix elements as function of the scattering angle are obtained from 8 separate measurement runs. In this new setup we use an Argon-Kripton laser (483 nm, 488 nm, 514 nm, 568 nm, and 647 nm) as light source. The detectors are mounted on dove tails that allow their movement backward and forward. In addition, the detectors have been designed to minimize blockage of the laser beam at positions close to the forward and backward directions. In this way we intend to do measurements covering an angle range from 3 to 177 degrees. The alignment of the optics is automatically done and controlled from the computer reducing the measurement time.

  3. Light scattering at dielectric metasurfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinelnik, A. D.; Samusev, K. B.; Lukashenko, S. Yu.; Kivshar, Yu. S.; Limonov, M. F.; Rybin, M. V.

    2017-03-01

    "Photonic graphene" structures—submicron two-dimensional dielectric structures with a honeycomb lattice— are fabricated by laser lithography. The transition from the regime of light scattering by a metasurface to that of Laue diffraction at a two-dimensional photonic structure in the optical range is studied experimentally and theoretically. The optical diffraction patterns make it possible to determine the number of unit cells in a finite microstructured sample with the naked eye.

  4. Inelastic light scattering from correlated electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devereaux, Thomas P.; Hackl, Rudi

    2007-01-01

    Inelastic light scattering is an intensively used tool in the study of electronic properties of solids. Triggered by the discovery of high-temperature superconductivity in the cuprates and by new developments in instrumentation, light scattering in both the visible (Raman effect) and x-ray part of the electromagnetic spectrum has become a method complementary to optical (infrared) spectroscopy while providing additional and relevant information. The main purpose of the review is to position Raman scattering with regard to single-particle methods like angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, and other transport and thermodynamic measurements in correlated materials. Particular focus will be placed on photon polarizations and the role of symmetry to elucidate the dynamics of electrons in different regions of the Brillouin zone. This advantage over conventional transport (usually measuring averaged properties) provides new insights into anisotropic and complex many-body behavior of electrons in various systems. Recent developments in the theory of electronic Raman scattering in correlated systems and experimental results in paradigmatic materials such as the A15 superconductors, magnetic and paramagnetic insulators, compounds with competing orders, as well as the cuprates with high superconducting transition temperatures are reviewed. An overview of the manifestations of complexity in the Raman response due to the impact of correlations and developing competing orders is presented. In a variety of materials, observations which may be understood and a summary of important open questions that pave the way to a detailed understanding of correlated electron systems, are discussed.

  5. Light scattering studies of an electrorheological fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, J.E.; Odinek, J.

    1993-08-01

    We report real-time, two-dimensional light scattering studies of the evolution of structure in an electrorheological fluid in the quiescent state and under shear. We find that when an electric field is applied to the quiescent fluid, particles chain along the electric field lines and cause strong light scattering lobes to appear at a finite scattering wavevector q orthogonal to the field lines. These lobes then brighten as they move to q=O, indicating the existence of an unstable concentration fluctuation that signifies the segregation of chains into columns. In fact, the observed power law growth kinetics of the characteristic length, as well as the form of the structure factor, are qualitatively similar to two-dimensional spinodal decomposition in a system with a conserved order parameter. When the sample is subjected to shear, we find that the scattering pattern approaches a steady state, with lobes that are rotated in the direction of fluid vorticity. The angle of rotation is found to increase as the cube root of the shear rate, in agreement with a theoretical prediction of the steady state structure of fragmenting particle chains.

  6. Laser Light Scattering with Multiple Scattering Suppression Used to Measure Particle Sizes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, William V.; Tin, Padetha; Lock, James A.; Cannell, David S.; Smart, Anthony E.; Taylor, Thomas W.

    1999-01-01

    Laser light scattering is the technique of choice for noninvasively sizing particles in a fluid. The members of the Advanced Technology Development (ATD) project in laser light scattering at the NASA Lewis Research Center have invented, tested, and recently enhanced a simple and elegant way to extend the concentration range of this standard laboratory particle-sizing technique by several orders of magnitude. With this technique, particles from 3 nm to 3 mm can be measured in a solution. Recently, laser light scattering evolved to successfully size particles in both clear solutions and concentrated milky-white solutions. The enhanced technique uses the property of light that causes it to form tall interference patterns at right angles to the scattering plane (perpendicular to the laser beam) when it is scattered from a narrow laser beam. Such multiple-scattered light forms a broad fuzzy halo around the focused beam, which, in turn, forms short interference patterns. By placing two fiber optics on top of each other and perpendicular to the laser beam (see the drawing), and then cross-correlating the signals they produce, only the tall interference patterns formed by singly scattered light are detected. To restate this, unless the two fiber optics see the same interference pattern, the scattered light is not incorporated into the signal. With this technique, only singly scattered light is seen (multiple-scattered light is rejected) because only singly scattered light has an interference pattern tall enough to span both of the fiber-optic pickups. This technique is simple to use, easy to align, and works at any angle. Placing a vertical slit in front of the signal collection fibers enhanced this approach. The slit serves as an optical mask, and it significantly shortens the time needed to collect good data by selectively masking out much of the unwanted light before cross-correlation is applied.

  7. Neutron and light scattering studies of light-harvesting photosynthetic antenna complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Kuo-Hsiang; Blankenship, Robert E.

    2011-06-28

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) have been employed in studying the structural information of various biological systems, particularly in systems without high-resolution structural information available. In this report, we briefly present some principles and biological applications of neutron scattering and DLS, compare the differences in information that can be obtained with small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), and then report recent studies of SANS and DLS, together with other biophysical approaches, for light-harvesting antenna complexes and reaction centers of purple and green phototrophic bacteria.

  8. Characterization of the refolding and reassembly of an integral membrane protein OmpF porin by low-angle laser light scattering photometry coupled with high-performance gel chromatography.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Yasushi

    2002-06-28

    The refolding and reassembly of an integral membrane protein OmpF porin denatured in sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) into its stable species by the addition of n-octyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (OG) have been studied by means of circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and low-angle laser light scattering photometry coupled with high-performance gel chromatography. The minimal concentration where change in the secondary structure was induced by the addition of OG was found to be 6.0 mg/ml in CD experiments. A species unfolded further than the SDS-denatured form of this protein was observed at an early stage (5-15 min) of refolding just above the minimal OG concentration. In addition, the CD spectrum of protein species obtained above the minimal OG concentration showed that the protein is composed of a beta-structure which is different from the native structure of this protein. In light scattering experiments, no changes in molecular assemblies were observed when the OG concentration was below its minimal refolding concentration determined by CD measurements. Above the minimal concentration, a compact monomeric species was observed when denatured OmpF porin was incubated for 5 min at 25 degrees C in a refolding medium containing 1 mg/ml SDS and 7 mg/ml OG, and then injected into columns equilibrated with the refolding medium. After an incubation of 24 h before injection into the columns, predominant dimerization of this protein was observed in addition to incorrect aggregation.

  9. LIGHT SCATTERING: Fast path-integration technique in simulation of light propagation through highly scattering objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voronov, Aleksandr V.; Tret'yakov, Evgeniy V.; Shuvalov, Vladimir V.

    2004-06-01

    Based on the path-integration technique and the Metropolis method, the original calculation scheme is developed for solving the problem of light propagation through highly scattering objects. The elimination of calculations of 'unnecessary' realisations and the phenomenological description of processes of multiple small-angle scattering provided a drastic increase (by nine and more orders of magnitude) in the calculation rate, retaining the specific features of the problem (consideration of spatial inhomogeneities, boundary conditions, etc.). The scheme allows one to verify other fast calculation algorithms and to obtain information required to reconstruct the internal structure of highly scattering objects (of size ~1000 scattered lengths and more) by the method of diffusion optical tomography.

  10. Light Scattering in Exoplanet Transits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Tyler D.; Fortney, Jonathan J.

    2016-10-01

    Transit spectroscopy is currently the leading technique for studying exoplanet atmospheric composition, and has led to the detection of molecular species, clouds, and/or hazes for numerous worlds outside the Solar System. The field of exoplanet transit spectroscopy will be revolutionized with the anticipated launch of NASA's James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) in 2018. Over the course of the design five year mission for JWST, the observatory is expected to provide in-depth observations of many tens of transiting exoplanets, including some worlds in the poorly understood 2-4 Earth-mass regime. As the quality of transit spectrum observations continues to improve, so should models of exoplanet transits. Thus, certain processes initially thought to be of second-order importance should be revisited and possibly added to modeling tools. For example, atmospheric refraction, which was commonly omitted from early transit spectrum models, has recently been shown to be of critical importance in some terrestrial exoplanet transits. Beyond refraction, another process that has seen little study with regards to exoplanet transits is light multiple scattering. In most cases, scattering opacity in exoplanet transits has been treated as equivalent to absorption opacity. However, this equivalence cannot always hold, such as in the case of a strongly forward scattering, weakly absorbing aerosol. In this presentation, we outline a theory of exoplanet transit spectroscopy that spans the geometric limit (used in most modern models) to a fully multiple scattering approach. We discuss a new technique for improving model efficiency that effectively separates photon paths, which tend to vary slowly in wavelength, from photon absorption, which can vary rapidly in wavelength. Using this newly developed approach, we explore situations where cloud or haze scattering may be important to JWST observations of gas giants, and comment on the conditions necessary for scattering to become a major

  11. Small-angle scattering model for multilamellar vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Frielinghaus, Henrich

    2007-11-15

    A small-angle neutron-x-ray-light-scattering model for multilamellar vesicles is developed on the basis of a simple geometry. N spherical shells with radii of an arithmetic series are allowed for displacements {delta}R which are limited by {delta}Rscattering angles. Then the important bilayer spacing is larger. The predictive power of the model lies in the connection of the compactness with N and in the maximum correlation peak sharpness. This model considers many length scales at a time while existing theories focus on length scales of the bilayer spacing and the bilayer itself.

  12. Light scattering characterization of optical components: BRDF, BTDF, and scatter losses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, Sven; Finck, Alexander; Katsir, Dina; Zeitner, Uwe; Duparré, Angela

    2014-11-01

    Light scattering caused by imperfections of optical components can critically affect the performance of optical systems in terms of losses and image degradation. Because of the numerous potential sources of scattering such as roughness, surface and sub-surface defects, bulk inhomogeneities, as well as coatings, scattering properties must be carefully specified and measured at the wavelengths of application. Bidirectional Reflectance and Transmittance Distribution Functions (BRDF / BTDF) are used to quantify the angle resolved scattering properties. The data can be used as an input for optical engineering software just as FRED, ASAP, ZEMAX for stray light modeling. In addition, analyzing the scattered light can provide valuable information about the relevant imperfections. The presentation provides an overview of instrumentation for light scattering measurements at wavelengths ranging from the visible to the extreme ultraviolet and the infrared spectral regions. Examples of applications will be discussed ranging from superpolished mirrors to diffraction gratings, interference coatings, and black absorbing coatings.

  13. The Amsterdam-Granada Light Scattering Database.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munoz, O.; Moreno, R.; Guirado, D.; Dabowska, D. D.; Volten, H.; Hovenier, J. W.

    2012-09-01

    The Amsterdam light-scattering apparatus was closed in 2007. A modernized and improved descendant has been constructed, called the IAA Cosmic Dust Laboratory(CoDuLab), at the Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia, CSIC in Granada, Spain. A new light scattering database, the Amsterdam-Granada Light Scattering Database is available at the website www.iaa.es/scattering.This contains all data obtained so far in Amsterdam and Granada and will be continuously replenished with new data.

  14. Light scattering in colloidal solution of magnetite in electric and magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Yerin, Constantine V

    2007-04-15

    Light scattering by magnetite particles in kerosene under the simultaneous action of crossed electric and magnetic fields was studied. Decreasing of variation of light scattering intensity at some values of electric and magnetic fields have been found. Values of fields at which a minimum of light scattering intensity occur depend on the angle between laser beam and the plane of crossed fields.

  15. Collisionless pitch-angle scattering of runaway electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jian; Wang, Yulei; Qin, Hong

    2016-06-01

    It is discovered that the tokamak field geometry generates a toroidicity induced broadening of the pitch-angle distribution of runaway electrons. This collisionless pitch-angle scattering is much stronger than the collisional scattering and invalidates the gyro-center model for runaway electrons. As a result, the energy limit of runaway electrons is found to be larger than the prediction of the gyro-center model and to depend heavily on the background magnetic field.

  16. Cosmic-ray pitch-angle scattering in isotropic turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bieber, John W.; Smith, Charles W.; Matthaeus, William H.

    1988-01-01

    A dissipation range is incorporated in the turbulence model to reconcile the divergent conclusions from studies of cosmic-ray pitch-angle scattering in isotropic magnetic turbulence. The Fokker-Planck coefficient for pitch-angle scattering is calculated. It is shown that the slab form of the Fokker-Plank coefficient (Jokipii, 1966) is valid at very low energies, while the nonslab form (Fisk, 1974) is valid at intermediate energies.

  17. Measurements Of Scattered Light From Asbestos Particulate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riis, P.; Ballik, E. A.

    1987-09-01

    Light-scattering techniques are potentially very important for the low-level detection and identification of particulate species such as asbestos in aerosol and liquid suspensions. Low-level detection is essential because asbestos is a known carcinogen, even at very-low exposure levels. At present, most asbestos particulate monitoring is used on optical microscopy. If detailed analysis is required, then electron microscopy is employed. Both of these methods are labour intensive. Furthermore, the optical microscopy method is not very reliable. Although the light-scattering techniques described here have general applicability, the emphasis is on asbestos measurements. Ordinary measurements of Mie scattering from asbestos suspensions can provide only limited information on asbestos content. owever, a more sophisticated technique can be employed which relies on the fact that asbestos particulate is fibrous rather than spherical in shape, and that the fibres align in a strong magnetic field (approximately 0.5 T). Particulate other than asbestos is generally non-fibrous in shape. Measurements have been carried out on liquid suspensions of asbestos contained in a small cell placed between the poles of a rotating magnet. The aligned fibres, which rotate about their centre of mass as they follow the field, are illuminated using a laser source. The Mie-scattering intensity is measured as a function of rotation angle, and the resulting data is then analysed with the aid of a microcomputer. Intensity maxima and minima provide reliable information on asbestos concentration, even in the presence of strong scattering from other particulate. In addition, the angular location of the intensity peaks provides information on the type of asbestos present. Each type has a characteristic alignment behaviour in a strong magnetic field. Using relatively-simple equipment, chrysotile asbestos (the most commonly-used type) has been detected at levels below 30 ng/l.

  18. Linear correlation between bacterial overexpression of recombinant peptides and cell light scatter.

    PubMed Central

    Lavergne-Mazeau, F; Maftah, A; Cenatiempo, Y; Julien, R

    1996-01-01

    Fusion of multiple copies of a test peptide leads to insoluble inclusion bodies. Their presence within bacteria increases either forward-angle light scattering or, to a lesser extent, right-angle light scattering. A linear correlation has been established between cell forward-angle scattering and the level of overexpression of atrial natriuretic peptide. The correlation is valid only for unlysed cells and is protein product specific. PMID:8702299

  19. Determination of wood grain direction from laser light scattering pattern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonaho, Simo-Pekka; Palviainen, Jari; Tolonen, Yrjö; Silvennoinen, Raimo

    2004-01-01

    Laser light scattering patterns from the grains of wood are investigated in detail to gain information about the characteristics of scattering patterns related to the direction of the grains. For this purpose, wood samples of Scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris L.) and silver birch ( Betula pubescens) were investigated. The orientation and shape of the scattering pattern of laser light in wood was found to correlate well with the direction of grain angles in a three-dimensional domain. The proposed method was also experimentally verified.

  20. Dynamic light scattering homodyne probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, William V. (Inventor); Cannell, David S. (Inventor); Smart, Anthony E. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    An optical probe for analyzing a sample illuminated by a laser includes an input optical fiber operably connectable to the laser where the input optical fiber has an entrance end and an exit end. The probe also includes a first beam splitter where the first beam splitter is adapted to transmit an alignment portion of a light beam from the input fiber exit end and to reflect a homodyning portion of the light beam from the input fiber. The probe also includes a lens between the input fiber exit end and the first beam splitter and a first and a second output optical fiber, each having an entrance end and an exit end, each exit end being operably connectable to respective optical detectors. The probe also includes a second beam splitter which is adapted to reflect at least a portion of the reflected homodyning portion into the output fiber entrance ends and to transmit light from the laser scattered by the sample into the entrance ends.

  1. A rapid and accurate method for the quantitative estimation of natural polysaccharides and their fractions using high performance size exclusion chromatography coupled with multi-angle laser light scattering and refractive index detector.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Kit-Leong; Wu, Ding-Tao; Zhao, Jing; Li, Shao-Ping

    2015-06-26

    In this study, a rapid and accurate method for quantitative analysis of natural polysaccharides and their different fractions was developed. Firstly, high performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) was utilized to separate natural polysaccharides. And then the molecular masses of their fractions were determined by multi-angle laser light scattering (MALLS). Finally, quantification of polysaccharides or their fractions was performed based on their response to refractive index detector (RID) and their universal refractive index increment (dn/dc). Accuracy of the developed method for the quantification of individual and mixed polysaccharide standards, including konjac glucomannan, CM-arabinan, xyloglucan, larch arabinogalactan, oat β-glucan, dextran (410, 270, and 25 kDa), mixed xyloglucan and CM-arabinan, and mixed dextran 270 K and CM-arabinan was determined, and their average recoveries were between 90.6% and 98.3%. The limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were ranging from 10.68 to 20.25 μg/mL, and 42.70 to 68.85 μg/mL, respectively. Comparing to the conventional phenol sulfuric acid assay and HPSEC coupled with evaporative light scattering detection (HPSEC-ELSD) analysis, the developed HPSEC-MALLS-RID method based on universal dn/dc for the quantification of polysaccharides and their fractions is much more simple, rapid, and accurate with no need of individual polysaccharide standard, as well as free of calibration curve. The developed method was also successfully utilized for quantitative analysis of polysaccharides and their different fractions from three medicinal plants of Panax genus, Panax ginseng, Panax notoginseng and Panax quinquefolius. The results suggested that the HPSEC-MALLS-RID method based on universal dn/dc could be used as a routine technique for the quantification of polysaccharides and their fractions in natural resources.

  2. Scattering theory of stochastic electromagnetic light waves.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Zhao, Daomu

    2010-07-15

    We generalize scattering theory to stochastic electromagnetic light waves. It is shown that when a stochastic electromagnetic light wave is scattered from a medium, the properties of the scattered field can be characterized by a 3 x 3 cross-spectral density matrix. An example of scattering of a spatially coherent electromagnetic light wave from a deterministic medium is discussed. Some interesting phenomena emerge, including the changes of the spectral degree of coherence and of the spectral degree of polarization of the scattered field.

  3. Light scattering of degenerate fermions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubin, S.; Leblanc, L. J.; Myrskog, S.; Extavour, M. H. T.; McKay, D.; Stummer, A.; Thywissen, J. H.

    2006-05-01

    We report on progress in measuring the suppression of resonant light scattering in a gas of degenerate fermions. A gas of trapped degenerate fermions is expected to exhibit narrower optical linewidths and longer excited state lifetimes than single atoms when the Fermi energy is larger than the photon recoil energy [1-3]. In this case, the number of available states into which a scattered atom can recoil is significantly reduced due to the filling of the Fermi sea. We produce a degenerate gas of 4x10^4 ultra-cold fermionic ^40K atoms by sympathetic cooling with bosonic ^87Rb in a micro-magnetic chip trap. The atoms can then be loaded into a tight dipole trap just above the surface of the chip and probed with a near resonance laser pulse. [1] Th. Busch, J. R. Anglin, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, Europhys. Lett. 44, 1 (1998). [2] B. DeMarco and D. S. Jin, Phys. Rev. A 58, R4267 (1998). [3] J. Javanainen and J. Ruostekosky, Phys. Rev. A 52, 3033 (1995). Work supported by NSERC, CFI, OIT, Research Corporation, and PRO.

  4. Limits of applicability of the concept of scattering amplitude in small-angle scattering problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzheparov, F. S.; Lvov, D. V.

    2014-01-01

    The applicability of the concept of scattering amplitude to the description of small-angle scattering experiments has been considered. An expression has been obtained for a scattered radiation flux on a detector under much milder conditions than the condition of Fraunhofer diffraction. The influence of incoherence of the source on the results has been evaluated.

  5. Non-label bioimaging utilizing scattering lights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Tomonobu M.; Ichimura, Taro; Fujita, Hideaki

    2017-04-01

    Optical microscopy is an indispensable tool for medical and life sciences. Especially, the microscopes utilized with scattering light offer a detailed internal observation of living specimens in real time because of their non-labeling and non-invasive capability. We here focus on two kinds of scattering lights, Raman scattering light and second harmonic generation light. Raman scattering light includes the information of all the molecular vibration modes of the molecules, and can be used to distinguish types and/or state of cell. Second harmonic generation light is derived from electric polarity of proteins in the specimen, and enables to detect their structural change. In this conference, we would like to introduce our challenges to extract biological information from those scattering lights.

  6. Scattering-angle based filtering of the waveform inversion gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkhalifah, Tariq

    2015-01-01

    Full waveform inversion (FWI) requires a hierarchical approach to maneuver the complex non-linearity associated with the problem of velocity update. In anisotropic media, the non-linearity becomes far more complex with the potential trade-off between the multiparameter description of the model. A gradient filter helps us in accessing the parts of the gradient that are suitable to combat the potential non-linearity and parameter trade-off. The filter is based on representing the gradient in the time-lag normalized domain, in which the low scattering angle of the gradient update is initially muted out in the FWI implementation, in what we may refer to as a scattering angle continuation process. The result is a low wavelength update dominated by the transmission part of the update gradient. In this case, even 10 Hz data can produce vertically near-zero wavenumber updates suitable for a background correction of the model. Relaxing the filtering at a later stage in the FWI implementation allows for smaller scattering angles to contribute higher-resolution information to the model. The benefits of the extended domain based filtering of the gradient is not only it's ability in providing low wavenumber gradients guided by the scattering angle, but also in its potential to provide gradients free of unphysical energy that may correspond to unrealistic scattering angles.

  7. An experimental study of light scattering by large, irregular particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcguire, Audrey F.; Hapke, Bruce W.

    1995-01-01

    The intensity and polarization of light scattered by a variety of types of artificial partices large compared to the wavelength were measured as a function of phase angle. Shape, surface roughness, absorption coefficient, and internal scattering coefficient were varied systematically and their effects studied. Scattering by clear, smooth-surfaced spheres is in quantitative agreement with the predictions of the geometrical optics (ray theory) approximation to physical optics (Mie theory). The phase functions of almost all of the particles measured have both forward and backward scattering lobes. A two-parameter, double Henyey-Greenstein function generally provides reasonably good descriptions of the data, while keeping the number of free parameters to the minimum necessary. On a double Henyey- Greenstein parameter plot all of the particles fall into an L-shaped area of restricted size in which the location is characteristic of the particle type. Formalisms based on the equivalent slab model are also given for estimating the scattering efficiency of a large, irregular particle. For most dielectric particles the transmitted, forward scattered light is partially negatively polarized. It is this component that is respopnsible for the well-known maximum in the polarization curves of planetary regoliths at phase angles around 100 deg. For phase angles between about 30 deg and 70 deg the internally scattered light is found to be randomly polarized in the particles studied here, so that the only contribution to the second component of the Stokes vector is by Fresnel reflection from the particle surface. If this empirical result is general, measurement of the second Stokes vector of the light scattered from a regolith at these angles may provide a method of remotely measuring the mean refractive index.

  8. Emerging applications of small angle solution scattering in structural biology.

    PubMed

    Chaudhuri, Barnali N

    2015-03-01

    Small angle solution X-ray and neutron scattering recently resurfaced as powerful tools to address an array of biological problems including folding, intrinsic disorder, conformational transitions, macromolecular crowding, and self or hetero-assembling of biomacromolecules. In addition, small angle solution scattering complements crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and other structural methods to aid in the structure determinations of multidomain or multicomponent proteins or nucleoprotein assemblies. Neutron scattering with hydrogen/deuterium contrast variation, or X-ray scattering with sucrose contrast variation to a certain extent, is a convenient tool for characterizing the organizations of two-component systems such as a nucleoprotein or a lipid-protein assembly. Time-resolved small and wide-angle solution scattering to study biological processes in real time, and the use of localized heavy-atom labeling and anomalous solution scattering for applications as FRET-like molecular rulers, are amongst promising newer developments. Despite the challenges in data analysis and interpretation, these X-ray/neutron solution scattering based approaches hold great promise for understanding a wide variety of complex processes prevalent in the biological milieu.

  9. Emerging applications of small angle solution scattering in structural biology

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhuri, Barnali N

    2015-01-01

    Small angle solution X-ray and neutron scattering recently resurfaced as powerful tools to address an array of biological problems including folding, intrinsic disorder, conformational transitions, macromolecular crowding, and self or hetero-assembling of biomacromolecules. In addition, small angle solution scattering complements crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and other structural methods to aid in the structure determinations of multidomain or multicomponent proteins or nucleoprotein assemblies. Neutron scattering with hydrogen/deuterium contrast variation, or X-ray scattering with sucrose contrast variation to a certain extent, is a convenient tool for characterizing the organizations of two-component systems such as a nucleoprotein or a lipid-protein assembly. Time-resolved small and wide-angle solution scattering to study biological processes in real time, and the use of localized heavy-atom labeling and anomalous solution scattering for applications as FRET-like molecular rulers, are amongst promising newer developments. Despite the challenges in data analysis and interpretation, these X-ray/neutron solution scattering based approaches hold great promise for understanding a wide variety of complex processes prevalent in the biological milieu. PMID:25516491

  10. Scanning Light Scattering Profiler (SLPS) Based Methodology to Quantitatively Evaluate Forward and Backward Light Scattering from Intraocular Lenses.

    PubMed

    Walker, Bennett N; James, Robert H; Calogero, Don; Ilev, Ilko K

    2017-06-06

    The scanning light scattering profiler (SLSP) methodology has been developed for the full-angle quantitative evaluation of forward and backward light scattering from intraocular lenses (IOLs) using goniophotometer principles. This protocol describes the SLSP platform and how it employs a 360° rotational photodetector sensor that is scanned around an IOL sample while recording the intensity and location of scattered light as it passes through the IOL medium. The SLSP platform can be used to predict, non-clinically, the propensity for current and novel IOL designs and materials to induce light scatter. Non-clinical evaluation of light scattering properties of IOLs can significantly reduce the number of patient complaints related to unwanted glare, glistening, optical defects, poor image quality, and other phenomena associated with the unintended light scattering. Future studies should be conducted to correlate SLSP data with clinical results to help identify which measured light scatter is most problematic for patients that have undergone cataract surgery subsequent to IOL implantation.

  11. Sizing particles used in the leather industry by light scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scaffardi, Lucia B.; Tocho, Jorge O.; Yebrin, Luis L.; Cantera, Carlos S.

    1996-01-01

    Three optical methods for sizing polymer particles are instrumented to be used in the leather industry. One method is based on the measurement of the light scattered intensity for several angles, and the other two are monochromatic or spectral extinction methods. Uniform latex particles and two commercial products used in leather finishing are measured. Advantages compared with electronic microscopy are discussed.

  12. Small-angle neutron scattering from samples of expanded carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Bogdanov, S. G. Valiev, E. Z.; Dorofeev, Yu. A.; Pirogov, A. N.; Skryabin, Yu. N.; Makotchenko, V. G.; Nazarov, A. S.; Fedorov, V. E.

    2006-12-15

    The subatomic structure of expanded graphite has been investigated by small-angle neutron scattering. Samples were synthesized during quick thermal decomposition of intercalated compounds based on oxidized graphite. They had a low bulk density (up to 0.1 g/cm{sup 3}) and were characterized by considerable small-angle scattering. It has been established that majority of the volume of expanded graphite samples is occupied by participles with characteristic sizes in two ranges: from 6 to 8 nm and from 20 to 30 nm. Small particles have properties of a surface fractal with the dimension D{sub s} = 2.4-2.6, whereas the larger particles are mainly smooth and have the dimension D{sub s} = 2.0-2.1. The specific surface of the samples studied was determined from the small-angle scattering data.

  13. A study of bioactive, branched (1→3)-β-d-glucans in dimethylacetamide/LiCl and dimethyl sulphoxide/LiCl using size-exclusion chromatography with multi-angle light scattering detection.

    PubMed

    Qin, Fen; Kes, Mürşide; Christensen, Bjørn E

    2013-08-30

    Water-soluble (1→3)-β-d-glucans with 1,6-linked branches (SBG) isolated from the cell walls of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were studied by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) with multi-angle laser light scattering (MALLS) detector using dimethylacetamide (DMAc) containing 0.5% (0.12M) LiCl, or dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) in the absence and presence of 0.25M LiCl, respectively, as eluents. The aggregating glucan could be dispersed as single chains in both solvents, with chain length distributions in reasonable agreement with results obtained previously with carboxymethylated glucans in aqueous solvent. However, DMAc is preferred over DMSO because of higher sensitivity in MALLS, and also because the latter produces SEC anomalies. SBG dissolves slowly in DMAc/LICl at room temperature, but heating accelerates the process. The rate of depolymerisation of SBG in DMAc/LiCl at high temperatures (70-105°C) was determined as a basis for defining dissolution procedures at elevated temperatures with a minimum of degradation. The result of the investigation is a simple and reliable protocol for preparing unaggregated, fully dissolved and undegraded SBG in DMAc/LiCl, which is well suited as a standard analysis of the molecular weight distribution of SBG-like molecules without chemical derivatization. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Experimental studies of laser light scattering in turbid media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Sawyer; Grobe, Rainer; Su, Charles

    2006-05-01

    We inject an angularly collimated laser beam into a scattering medium of a non-dairy creamer-water solution and examine the distribution of the scattered light along the optical axis as a function of the source-detector spacing. The experimental and simulated data obtained from a Monte Carlo simulation on the optical axis suggest four regimes characterizing the transition from un-scattered to diffusive light. We compare the data with theoretical predictions based on a first-order scattering theory for regions close to the source, and with diffusion-like theories for larger source-detector spacings. We comment on the impact of the measurement on the light distribution and show that the regime of validity of these theories can depend on the experimental parameters such as the diameter and acceptance angle of the detection fiber.

  15. Correlating the morphological and light scattering properties of biological cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, Marina

    The scattered light pattern from a biological cell is greatly influenced by the internal structure and optical properties of the cell. This research project examines the relationships between the morphological and scattering properties of biological cells through numerical simulations. The mains goals are: (1) to develop a procedure to analytically model biological cells, (2) to quantitatively study the effects of a range of cell characteristics on the features of the light scattering patterns, and (3) to classify cells based on the features of their light scattering patterns. A procedure to create an analytical cell model was developed which extracted structural information from the confocal microscopic images of cells and allowed for the alteration of the cell structure in a controlled and systematic way. The influence of cell surface roughness, nuclear size, and mitochondrial volume density, spatial distribution, size and shape on the light scattering patterns was studied through numerical simulations of light scattering using the Discrete Dipole Approximation. It was found that the light scattering intensity in the scattering angle range of 25° to 45° responded to changes in the surface fluctuation of the cell and the range of 90° to 110° was well suited for characterization of mitochondrial density and nuclear size. A comparison of light scattering pattern analysis methods revealed that the angular distribution of the scattered light and Gabor filters were most helpful in differentiating between the cell characteristics. In addition, a measured increase in the Gabor energy of the light scattering patterns in response to an increase in the complexity of the cell models suggested that a complex nuclear structure and mitochondria should be included when modeling biological cells for light scattering simulations. Analysis of the scattering pattern features with Gabor filters resulted in discrimination of the cell models according to cell surface roughness

  16. Multiple scattering of polarized light: influence of absorption.

    PubMed

    Hohmann, A; Voit, F; Schäfer, J; Kienle, A

    2014-06-07

    This work continues previous research about multiple scattering of polarized light propagation in turbid media, putting emphasis on the imaginary part of the scatterers' complex refractive index. The whole angle-dependent Müller matrix is evaluated by comparing results of a polarization sensitive radiative transfer solution to Maxwell theory. Turbid media of defined scatterer concentrations are modelled in three dimensions by sphere ensembles kept inside a cubic or spherical simulation volume. This study addresses the impact of absorption on polarization characteristics for selected media from low to high absorption. Besides that, effects caused by multiple and dependent scattering are shown for increasing volume concentration. In this context some unique properties associated with multiple scattering and absorption are pointed out. Further, scattering results in two dimensions are compared for examples of infinite parallel cylinders of high absorption and perpendicularly incident plane waves.

  17. Analysis of photopolarimetric data of comets at small phase angles by rough surface scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukai, S.; Mukai, T.

    1990-07-01

    A comparison of cometary rough surface scattering model calculation results with observations has indicated that negative polarization is produced, over a phase-angle range of less than 20 deg, by the variation of polarization angle of reflected light due to a contribution from (1) different sites on large, rough particles, and/or (2) multiple internal reflection within small dielectric particles. The opposition effect in cometary comas is caused by large, rough particle reflection. The mixing model for cometary grains, encompassing small particles and large rough ones composed in both cases of slightly absorbing material, is seen as explaining the photopolarimetric data of comets in the backward-scattering region.

  18. Static laser light scattering (SLLS) investigations of the scattering parameters of a synthetic polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazy, R.; El-Baradie, B.; El-Shaer, A.; El-Mekawey, F.

    1999-09-01

    A laser light scattering system was built to study the scattering parameters of some materials in solution form. The light source used was an argon-ion laser at wavelength 488 nm (all lines). The investigated material was a synthetic polymer which has a wide range of applications in the field of teeth medicine applications. This is polymethyl-methacrylate (PMMA) which is used for the formation of artificial clamps. The PMMA was solved in both acetone and methyl-ethyl-ketone (MEK). The acetone solvent is chosen for its high specific refractive index increment dn/dc at the same wavelength 488 nm as the argon laser source. The angular distribution of the scattered laser light intensities of PMMA dissolved in acetone was measured at different scattering angles from 30 to 150° for each concentration. The angular distributions have a symmetrical behavior about the scattering angle π/2; by using the scattered intensities the Zimm plot was formed. The weight average molecular weight (WAMW) was determined, the two other scattering parameters like as radius of gyration, h, and the second verial coefficient, A2 were determined.

  19. Scanning radiometer for measurement of forward-scattered light to determine mean diameter of spray particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchele, D. R.

    1976-01-01

    A scanning radiometer is reported that measures forward-scattered light to determine the mean diameter of spray particles. An optical scanning method gives a continuous measurement of the light-scattering angle during spray nozzle tests. A method of calibration and a correction for background light are presented. Mean particle diameters of 10 to 500 micrometers can be measured.

  20. Monte carlo calculations of light scattering from clouds.

    PubMed

    Plass, G N; Kattawar, G W

    1968-03-01

    The scattering of visible light by clouds is calculated from an efficient Monte Carlo code which follows the multiple scattered path of the photon. The single scattering function is obtained from the Mie theory by integration over a particle size distribution appropriate for cumulus clouds at 0.7-micro wavelength. The photons are followed through a sufficient number of collisions and reflections from the lower surface (which may have any desired albedo) until they make a negligible contribution to the intensity. Various variance reduction techniques are used to improve the statistics. The cloud albedo and the mean optical path of the transmitted and reflected photons are given as a function of the solar zenith angle, optical thickness, and surface albedo. The numerous small angle scatterings of the photon in the direction of the incident beam are followed accurately and produce a greater penetration into the cloud than is obtained with a more isotropic and less realistic phase function.

  1. Fiber optic light-scattering measurement system for evaluation of embryo viability: light-scattering characteristics from live mouse embryo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Harumi; Arai, Tsunenori; Kikuchi, Makoto

    1997-06-01

    We measured angular distribution of the light scattering from live mouse embryo with 632.8nm in wavelength to evaluate the embryo viability. We aim to measure the mitochondrial density in human embryo which have relation to the embryo viability. We have constructed the light scattering measurement system to detect the mitochondrial density non-invasively. We have employed two optical fibers for the illumination and sensing to change the angle between these fibers. There were two dips on the scattering angular distribution from the embryo. These dips existed on 30 and 85 deg. We calculated the scattering angular pattern by Mie theory to fit the measured scattering estimated scattering size and density. The best fitting was obtained when the particle size and density were 0.9 micrometers and 1010 particles per ml, respectively. These values coincided with the approximated values of mitochondrial in the embryo. The measured light scattering may mainly originated from mitochondria in spite of the existence of the various scattering particles in the embryo. Since our simple scattering measurement may offer the mitochondrial density in the embryo, it might become the practical method of human embryo on in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer.

  2. SASBDB, a repository for biological small-angle scattering data

    PubMed Central

    Valentini, Erica; Kikhney, Alexey G.; Previtali, Gianpietro; Jeffries, Cy M.; Svergun, Dmitri I.

    2015-01-01

    Small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering (SAXS and SANS) are fundamental tools used to study the global shapes of proteins, nucleic acids, macromolecular complexes and assemblies in solution. Due to recent advances in instrumentation and computational methods, the quantity of experimental scattering data and subsequent publications is increasing dramatically. The need for a global repository allowing investigators to locate and access experimental scattering data and associated models was recently emphasized by the wwPDB small-angle scattering task force (SAStf). The small-angle scattering biological data bank (SASBDB) www.sasbdb.org has been designed in accordance with the plans of the SAStf as part of a future federated system of databases for biological SAXS and SANS. SASBDB is a comprehensive repository of freely accessible and fully searchable SAS experimental data and models that are deposited together with the relevant experimental conditions, sample details and instrument characteristics. At present the quality of deposited experimental data and the accuracy of models are manually curated, with future plans to integrate automated systems as the database expands. PMID:25352555

  3. Low frequency seabed scattering at low grazing angles.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ji-Xun; Zhang, Xue-Zhen

    2012-04-01

    Low-frequency (LF) seabed scattering at low grazing angles (LGA) is almost impossible to directly measure in shallow water (SW), except through inversion from reverberation. The energy flux method for SW reverberation is briefly introduced in this paper. The closed-form expressions of reverberation in an isovelocity waveguide, derived from this method, indicate that in the three-halves law range interval multimode/ray sea bottom scattering with different incident and scattering angles in forming the reverberation may equivalently be represented by the bottom backscattering at a single range-dependent angle. This equivalent relationship is used to derive the bottom backscattering strength (BBS) as a function of angle and frequency. The LF&LGA BBS is derived in a frequency band of 200-2500 Hz and in a grazing angle range of 1.1°-14.0° from reverberation measurements at three sites with sandy bottoms. This is based on three previous works: (1) The closed-form expressions of SW reverberation [Zhou, (Chinese) Acta Acustica 5, 86-99 (1980)]; (2) the effective geo-acoustic model of sandy bottoms that follows the Biot model [Zhou et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 125, 2847-2866 (2009)] and (3) A quality database of wideband reverberation level normalized to source level [Zhou and Zhang, IEEE J. Oceanic Eng. 30, 832-842 (2005)].

  4. Multiple magnetic scattering in small-angle neutron scattering of Nd–Fe–B nanocrystalline magnet

    PubMed Central

    Ueno, Tetsuro; Saito, Kotaro; Yano, Masao; Ito, Masaaki; Shoji, Tetsuya; Sakuma, Noritsugu; Kato, Akira; Manabe, Akira; Hashimoto, Ai; Gilbert, Elliot P.; Keiderling, Uwe; Ono, Kanta

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated the influence of multiple scattering on the magnetic small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) from a Nd–Fe–B nanocrystalline magnet. We performed sample-thickness- and neutron-wavelength-dependent SANS measurements, and observed the scattering vector dependence of the multiple magnetic scattering. It is revealed that significant multiple scattering exists in the magnetic scattering rather than the nuclear scattering of Nd–Fe–B nanocrystalline magnet. It is considered that the mean free path of the neutrons for magnetic scattering is rather short in Nd–Fe–B magnets. We analysed the SANS data by the phenomenological magnetic correlation model considering the magnetic microstructures and obtained the microstructural parameters. PMID:27321149

  5. Multiple magnetic scattering in small-angle neutron scattering of Nd-Fe-B nanocrystalline magnet.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Tetsuro; Saito, Kotaro; Yano, Masao; Ito, Masaaki; Shoji, Tetsuya; Sakuma, Noritsugu; Kato, Akira; Manabe, Akira; Hashimoto, Ai; Gilbert, Elliot P; Keiderling, Uwe; Ono, Kanta

    2016-06-20

    We have investigated the influence of multiple scattering on the magnetic small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) from a Nd-Fe-B nanocrystalline magnet. We performed sample-thickness- and neutron-wavelength-dependent SANS measurements, and observed the scattering vector dependence of the multiple magnetic scattering. It is revealed that significant multiple scattering exists in the magnetic scattering rather than the nuclear scattering of Nd-Fe-B nanocrystalline magnet. It is considered that the mean free path of the neutrons for magnetic scattering is rather short in Nd-Fe-B magnets. We analysed the SANS data by the phenomenological magnetic correlation model considering the magnetic microstructures and obtained the microstructural parameters.

  6. Multiple magnetic scattering in small-angle neutron scattering of Nd-Fe-B nanocrystalline magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueno, Tetsuro; Saito, Kotaro; Yano, Masao; Ito, Masaaki; Shoji, Tetsuya; Sakuma, Noritsugu; Kato, Akira; Manabe, Akira; Hashimoto, Ai; Gilbert, Elliot P.; Keiderling, Uwe; Ono, Kanta

    2016-06-01

    We have investigated the influence of multiple scattering on the magnetic small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) from a Nd-Fe-B nanocrystalline magnet. We performed sample-thickness- and neutron-wavelength-dependent SANS measurements, and observed the scattering vector dependence of the multiple magnetic scattering. It is revealed that significant multiple scattering exists in the magnetic scattering rather than the nuclear scattering of Nd-Fe-B nanocrystalline magnet. It is considered that the mean free path of the neutrons for magnetic scattering is rather short in Nd-Fe-B magnets. We analysed the SANS data by the phenomenological magnetic correlation model considering the magnetic microstructures and obtained the microstructural parameters.

  7. Correction of sunspot intensities for scattered light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullan, D. J.

    1973-01-01

    Correction of sunspot intensities for scattered light usually involves fitting theoretical curves to observed aureoles (Zwaan, 1965; Staveland, 1970, 1972). In this paper we examine the inaccuracies in the determination of scattered light by this method. Earlier analyses are extended to examine uncertainties due to the choice of the expression for limb darkening. For the spread function, we consider Lorentzians and Gaussians for which analytic expressions for the aureole can be written down. Lorentzians lead to divergence and normalization difficulties, and should not be used in scattered light determinations. Gaussian functions are more suitable.

  8. Scattering of light by bispheres with touching and separated components.

    PubMed

    Mishchenko, M I; Mackowski, D W; Travis, L D

    1995-07-20

    We use the T-matrix method as described by Mishchenko and Mackowski [Opt. Lett. 19, 1604 (1994)] to compute light scattering by bispheres in fixed and random orientations extensively. For all our computations the index of refraction is fixed at a value 1.5 + 0.005i, which is close to the refractive index of mineral tropospheric aerosols and was used in previous extensive studies of light scattering by spheroids and Chebyshev particles. For monodisperse bispheres with touching components in a fixed orientation, electromagnetic interactions between the constituent spheres result in a considerably more complicated interference structure in the scattering patterns than that for single monodisperse spheres. However, this increased structure is largely washed out by orientational averaging and results in scattering patterns for randomly oriented bispheres that are close to those for single spheres with size equal to the size of the bisphere components. Unlike other nonspherical particles such as cubes and spheroids, randomly oriented bispheres do not exhibit pronounced enhancement of side scattering and reduction of backscattering and positive polarization at side-scattering angles. Thus the dominant feature of light scattering by randomly oriented bispheres is the single scattering from the component spheres, whereas the effects of cooperative scattering and concavity of the bisphere shape play a minor role. The only distinct manifestations of nonsphericity and cooperative scattering effects for randomly oriented bispheres are the departure of the ratio F(22)/F(11) of the elements of the scattering matrix from unity, the inequality of the ratios F(33)/F(11) and F(44)/F(11), and nonzero linear and circular backscattering depolarization ratios. Our computations for randomly oriented bispheres with separated wavelengthsized components show that the component spheres become essentially independent scatterers at as small a distance between their centers as 4 times their

  9. Semi-imaging light pipe for collecting weakly scattered light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, George W.; Simons, Tad D.

    1998-09-01

    A simple reflective light pipe, formed from a cylindrical tube with an external reflective coating and a small central aperture, can be a highly efficient optical element for collecting light from molecular scattering processes along the path of a laser beam. When the laser beam is co-linear with the axis of the light pipe, scattered light from any location along the interaction region (near the pipe axis) re-images repeatedly to another location along the axis of the pipe. This semi-imaging property of the light pipe permits a large fraction of the total scattered light to re- image along the entire length of the interaction region. If one observes through the small central aperture, scattered light from the single segment of the laser beam in view appears to come from all the locations along the interaction length, as well as from the single segment. In this manner, one can have the advantage of collecting scattered light from a small segment (and thus onto a small detector), while observing an effective interaction length that is many times longer than the segment. Measurements from practical light pipes confirm effective gains of about 10X with light pipes a few centimeters long (Effective gain is defined as the ratio of light collected with the light pipe divided by the light collected from a direct image of the beam using the collection optics).

  10. Windows for small-angle X-ray scattering cryostats.

    PubMed

    Lurio, Laurence; Mulders, Norbert; Paetkau, Mark; Jemian, Pete R; Narayanan, Suresh; Sandy, Alec

    2007-11-01

    To determine the suitability of commonly used windows for small-angle X-ray scattering, a range of materials, including Kapton, (aluminized) Mylar, beryllium, high-purity aluminium foil, mica and silicon nitride have been studied. At small wavevector transfers, Q, in the range 2 x 10(-3) to 0.2 nm(-1), the scattering from Kapton, mica and beryllium is reasonably well described by power laws in Q with exponents of -3.25, -3.6 and -3.9, respectively. There are large variations in the scattering from mica, but a freshly cleaved natural mica window was by far the weakest scatterer. For applications where radiation in the infrared or visible range should be blocked, aluminized Mylar is the most suitable material. Both Mylar and Kapton can be used to make very simple demountable superfluid-tight windows using indium O-ring seals.

  11. Structured light, transmission, and scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, David L.

    2011-03-01

    Numerous theoretical and experimental studies have established the principle that beams conveying orbital angular momentum offer a rich scope for information transfer. However, it is not clear how far it is practicable to operate such a concept at the single-photon level - especially when such a beam propagates through a system in which scattering can occur. In cases where scattering leads to photon deflection, it produces losses; however in terms of the retention of information content, there should be more concern over forward scattering. Based on a quantum electrodynamical formulation of theory, this paper aims to frame and resolve the key issues. A quantum amplitude is constructed for the representation of single and multiple scattering events in the propagation an individual photon, from a suitably structured beam. The analysis identifies potential limitations of principle, undermining complete fidelity of quantum information transmission.

  12. Imaging beyond the ballistic limit in coherence imaging using multiply scattered light

    PubMed Central

    Giacomelli, Michael G.; Wax, Adam

    2011-01-01

    We present an imaging system based on low coherence interferometric detection of multiply scattered light for extended depth imaging into highly scattering media. By incorporating angle-resolved detection, coherence imaging with multiply scattered photons is shown to be both feasible and potentially superior to existing techniques for performing time-resolved measurements of scattered light. Imaging is demonstrated through nearly 100 mean free paths of scattering phantom in a single-ended geometry. The resolution and imaging contrast are compared to those obtained with conventional OCT systems which chiefly detect singly scattered light. PMID:21369257

  13. Microscopic Imaging and Spectroscopy with Scattered Light

    PubMed Central

    Boustany, Nada N.; Boppart, Stephen A.; Backman, Vadim

    2012-01-01

    Optical contrast based on elastic scattering interactions between light and matter can be used to probe cellular structure and dynamics, and image tissue architecture. The quantitative nature and high sensitivity of light scattering signals to subtle alterations in tissue morphology, as well as the ability to visualize unstained tissue in vivo, has recently generated significant interest in optical scatter based biosensing and imaging. Here we review the fundamental methodologies used to acquire and interpret optical scatter data. We report on recent findings in this field and present current advances in optical scatter techniques and computational methods. Cellular and tissue data enabled by current advances in optical scatter spectroscopy and imaging stand to impact a variety of biomedical applications including clinical tissue diagnosis, in vivo imaging, drug discovery and basic cell biology. PMID:20617940

  14. Mid-infrared (λ = 8.4-9.9 μm) light scattering from porcine tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liakat, Sabbir; Michel, Anna P. M.; Bors, Kevin A.; Gmachl, Claire F.

    2012-08-01

    Back-scattering of mid-infrared light from porcine skin is studied versus wavelength and angle for a Quantum Cascade laser and a broadband infrared light source. Scattering is detected over 30° away from the specular angle for both sources, and modulation patterns with angle are seen when using the laser. A nonlinear increase in scattered light intensity versus input power indicates that directional scattering from within the skin is dominant. Collagen fibers in the dermis layer, over 200 μm deep into the skin, are conducive to such scattering. We conclude that mid-infrared light penetrates deep enough for potential glucose detection in dermal interstitial fluid.

  15. Light scattering and cell volumes in osmotically stressed and frozen-thawed cells.

    PubMed

    McGann, L E; Walterson, M L; Hogg, L M

    1988-01-01

    Recent reports, indicating that under some conditions the intensity of light scattering from cells is a nonlinear function of cell volume, have led to the widespread generalization that intensity of low-angle light scattering indicates cell size. This study was performed to measure the relationships between light scattering and cell volumes in an-isotonic solutions and after a freeze-thaw stress. Cell volumes in isolated human lymphocytes, human granulocytes, and hamster fibroblasts were deliberately altered by exposure to anisotonic solutions. Boyle-vant Hoff plots of cell volume as a function of inverse osmotic pressure showed that the cells behaved as osmometers. Similar plots of right-angle and low-angle light scattering showed that the intensity of light scattering varied inversely with cell volume. In other experiments where cells were frozen without cryoprotectant at various sub zero temperatures to -25 degrees C and then thawed rapidly, cell viability decreased progressively with decreasing temperature, as did the intensity of both low-angle and right-angle light scattering, although cell volumes remained relatively constant. The intensity of both low- and high-angle light scattering varied inversely with cell volumes in hypertonic and hypotonic solutions, but cell damage induced by freezing and thawing resulted in significant reductions in the intensity of low-angle light scattering with little change in cell volume. These observations show that light scattering and cell volumes can vary independently, and they underline the need for a better understanding of the phenomenon of light scattering from living cells.

  16. 14 CFR 23.1387 - Position light system dihedral angles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Position light system dihedral angles. 23... Equipment Lights § 23.1387 Position light system dihedral angles. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (e) of this section, each position light must, as installed, show unbroken light within the dihedral...

  17. Light scattering regimes along the optical axis in turbid media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, S. D.; O'Connell, A. K.; Menon, S.; Su, Q.; Grobe, R.

    2006-12-01

    We inject an angularly collimated laser beam into a scattering medium of a nondairy creamer-water solution and examine the distribution of the scattered light along the optical axis as a function of the source-detector spacing. The experimental and simulated data obtained from a Monte Carlo simulation suggest four regimes characterizing the transition from unscattered to diffusive light. We compare the data also with theoretical predictions based on a first-order scattering theory for regions close to the source, and with diffusionlike theories for larger source-detector spacings. We demonstrate the impact of the measurement process and the effect of the unavoidable absorption of photons by the detection fiber on the light distribution inside the medium. We show that the range of validity of these theories can depend on the experimental parameters such as the diameter and acceptance angle of the detection fiber.

  18. Light scattering regimes along the optical axis in turbid media.

    PubMed

    Campbell, S D; O'connell, A K; Menon, S; Su, Q; Grobe, R

    2006-12-01

    We inject an angularly collimated laser beam into a scattering medium of a nondairy creamer-water solution and examine the distribution of the scattered light along the optical axis as a function of the source-detector spacing. The experimental and simulated data obtained from a Monte Carlo simulation suggest four regimes characterizing the transition from unscattered to diffusive light. We compare the data also with theoretical predictions based on a first-order scattering theory for regions close to the source, and with diffusionlike theories for larger source-detector spacings. We demonstrate the impact of the measurement process and the effect of the unavoidable absorption of photons by the detection fiber on the light distribution inside the medium. We show that the range of validity of these theories can depend on the experimental parameters such as the diameter and acceptance angle of the detection fiber.

  19. Low-angle X-ray scattering from spices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desouky, Omar S.; Ashour, Ahmed H.; Abdullah, Mohamed I.; Elshemey, Wael M.

    2002-07-01

    Low-angle scattering of X-rays is characterized by the presence of one or more peaks in the forward direction of scattering. These peaks are due to the interference of photons coherently scattered from the molecules of the medium. Thus these patterns are closely linked to the molecular structure of the investigated medium. In this work, low-angle X-ray scattering (LAXS) profiles of five spices; pimpinella anisum (anise), coriandrum sativum (coriander), cuminum cyminum (cumin), foenculum vulgare (fennel) and nigella sativa (nigella or black cumin) are presented after extensive measurements. It is found that all spices exhibit one characteristic peak at a scattering angle around 10°. This is equivalent to a value x=0.0565 Å -1, where x=sin( θ⧸2)⧸ λ. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) of this peak is found to be characteristic for each type of the investigated spices. The possibility to detect the irradiation of these spices from their LAXS profiles is also examined after 10, 20, 30 and 40 kGy doses of gamma radiation. Except for anise, coriander and cumin at 40 kGy, there are no detectable deviations from the control samples in the scattering profiles of irradiated samples. These results comply with the recommendations of the FDA (US Food and Drug Administration) which defines 30 kGy as the maximum dose for irradiation of spices. The present technique could be used to detect over-irradiation, which causes damage to the molecular structure of some spices.

  20. Light scattering and birefrigence by magnetic bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, R.G.; Jacobson, P.L.

    1990-01-01

    The bacterium Aquaspirillum magnetotacticum grows its own internal single domain magnets. For a number of reasons, these magnets make the bacterium an extremely interesting scattering particle. We are engaging in light scattering and birefringence studies on Aquaspirillum magnetotacticum. 9 refs., 4 figs.

  1. Differential Light Scattering from Spherical Mammalian Cells

    PubMed Central

    Brunsting, Albert; Mullaney, Paul F.

    1974-01-01

    The differential scattered light intensity patterns of spherical mammalian cells were measured with a new photometer which uses high-speed film as the light detector. The scattering objects, interphase and mitotic Chinese hamster ovary cells and HeLa cells, were modeled as (a) a coated sphere, accounting for nucleus and cytoplasm, and (b) a homogeneous sphere when no cellular nucleus was present. The refractive indices and size distribution of the cells were measured for an accurate comparison of the theoretical model with the light-scattering measurements. The light scattered beyond the forward direction is found to contain information about internal cellular morphology, provided the size distribution of the cells is not too broad. ImagesFIGURE 1 PMID:4134589

  2. Deep Water Cherenkov Light Scatter Meter

    SciTech Connect

    Pappalardo, L; Petta, C.; Russo, G.V.

    2000-12-31

    The relevant parameters for the site choice of an underwater neutrino's telescope are discussed. The in situ measurement of the scattering distribution of the cherenkov light requires a suitable experimental setup. Its main features are described here.

  3. Small-angle scattering and 3D structure interpretation.

    PubMed

    Trewhella, Jill

    2016-10-01

    This review focuses on advances in the application of solution small-angle scattering (SAS) in structural analysis of biomolecules and the complexes they form. Examples highlighted illustrate the unique contribution of SAS, using both X-rays and neutrons, in hybrid or integrative modelling methods. The increased information content when neutron scattering with contrast variation is used is a particular focus. Finally, progress toward an agreed reporting framework, the development of open data and model archives, and the importance of these initiatives is covered.

  4. The Amsterdam-Granada Light Scattering Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz, O.; Moreno, F.; Guirado, D.; Dabrowska, D. D.; Volten, H.; Hovenier, J. W.

    2012-02-01

    The Amsterdam Light Scattering Database proved to be a very successful way of promoting the use of the data obtained with the Amsterdam Light Scattering apparatus at optical wavelengths. Many different research groups around the world made use of the experimental data. After the closing down of the Dutch scattering apparatus, a modernized and improved descendant, the IAA Cosmic Dust Laboratory (CoDuLab), has been constructed at the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (IAA) in Granada, Spain. The first results of this instrument for water droplets and for two samples of clay particles have been published. We would now like to make these data also available to the community in digital form by introducing a new light scattering database, the Amsterdam-Granada Light Scattering Database (www.iaa.es/scattering). By combining the data from the two instruments in one database we ensure the continued availability of the old data, and we prevent fragmentation of important data over different databases. In this paper we present the Amsterdam-Granada Light Scattering Database.

  5. An empirical correction for moderate multiple scattering in super-heterodyne light scattering.

    PubMed

    Botin, Denis; Mapa, Ludmila Marotta; Schweinfurth, Holger; Sieber, Bastian; Wittenberg, Christopher; Palberg, Thomas

    2017-05-28

    Frequency domain super-heterodyne laser light scattering is utilized in a low angle integral measurement configuration to determine flow and diffusion in charged sphere suspensions showing moderate to strong multiple scattering. We introduce an empirical correction to subtract the multiple scattering background and isolate the singly scattered light. We demonstrate the excellent feasibility of this simple approach for turbid suspensions of transmittance T ≥ 0.4. We study the particle concentration dependence of the electro-kinetic mobility in low salt aqueous suspension over an extended concentration regime and observe a maximum at intermediate concentrations. We further use our scheme for measurements of the self-diffusion coefficients in the fluid samples in the absence or presence of shear, as well as in polycrystalline samples during crystallization and coarsening. We discuss the scope and limits of our approach as well as possible future applications.

  6. An empirical correction for moderate multiple scattering in super-heterodyne light scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botin, Denis; Mapa, Ludmila Marotta; Schweinfurth, Holger; Sieber, Bastian; Wittenberg, Christopher; Palberg, Thomas

    2017-05-01

    Frequency domain super-heterodyne laser light scattering is utilized in a low angle integral measurement configuration to determine flow and diffusion in charged sphere suspensions showing moderate to strong multiple scattering. We introduce an empirical correction to subtract the multiple scattering background and isolate the singly scattered light. We demonstrate the excellent feasibility of this simple approach for turbid suspensions of transmittance T ≥ 0.4. We study the particle concentration dependence of the electro-kinetic mobility in low salt aqueous suspension over an extended concentration regime and observe a maximum at intermediate concentrations. We further use our scheme for measurements of the self-diffusion coefficients in the fluid samples in the absence or presence of shear, as well as in polycrystalline samples during crystallization and coarsening. We discuss the scope and limits of our approach as well as possible future applications.

  7. Light scattering by selected zooplankton from the Gulf of Aqaba.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Y L; Shashar, N; Warrant, E J; Johnsen, S J

    2007-11-01

    Light scattering by zooplankton was investigated as a major factor undermining transparency camouflage in these pelagic animals. Zooplankton of differing transparencies--including the hyperiid amphipod Anchylomera blossevillei, an unknown gammarid amphipod species, the brine shrimp Artemia salina, the euphausiid shrimp Euphausia diomedeae, the isopod Gnathia sp., the copepods Pontella karachiensis, Rhincalanus sp. and Sapphirina sp., the chaetognath Sagitta elegans and an enteropneust tornaria larva--were illuminated dorsally with white light (400-700 nm). Spectral measurements of direct transmittance as well as relative scattered radiances at angles of 30 degrees , 90 degrees , 150 degrees and 180 degrees from the light source were taken. The animals sampled had transparencies between 1.5% and 75%. For all species, the highest recorded relative scattered radiance was at 30 degrees , with radiances reaching 38% of the incident radiance for the amphipod A. blossevillei. Scattering patterns were also found to be species-specific for most animals. Relative scattered radiances were used to estimate sighting distances at different depths. These calculations predict that all of the examined zooplankton are brighter than the background radiance when viewed horizontally, or from diagonally above or below at shallow depths. Thus, in contrast to greater depths, the best strategy for detecting transparent zooplankton in the epipelagic environment may be to search for them from above while looking diagonally downwards, looking horizontally or looking from below diagonally upwards. Looking directly upwards proved to be more beneficial than the other viewing angles only when the viewed animal was at depths greater than 40 m.

  8. Comparative Study of Light Scattering from Hepatoma Cells and Hepatocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Xiaogang; Wang, Rongrong; Guo, Yongcai; Gao, Chao; Guo, Xiaoen

    2012-11-01

    Primary liver cancer is one of the highest mortality malignant tumors in the world. China is a high occurrence area of primary liver cancer. Diagnosis of liver cancer, especially early diagnosis, is essential for improving patients' survival. Light scattering and measuring method is an emerging technology developed in recent decades, which has attracted a large number of biomedical researchers due to its advantages, such as fast, simple, high accuracy, good repeatability, and non-destructive. The hypothesis of this project is that there may be some different light scattering information between hepatoma cells and hepatocyte. Combined with the advantages of the dynamic light scattering method and the biological cytology, an experimental scheme to measure the light scattering information of cells was formulated. Hepatoma cells and hepatic cells were irradiated by a semiconductor laser (532 nm). And the Brookhaven BI-200SM wide-angle light scattering device and temperature control apparatus were adopted. The light scattering information of hepatoma cells and hepatic cells in vitro within the 15°C to 30°C temperature range was processed by a BI-9000AT digital autocorrelator. The following points were found: (a) the scattering intensities of human hepatic cells and hepatoma cells are nearly not affected by the temperature factor, and the former is always greater than the latter and (b) the relaxation time of hepatoma cells is longer than that of hepatic cells, and both the relaxation time are shortened with increasing temperature from 15°C to 25°C. It can be concluded that hepatoma cells could absorb more incident light than hepatic cells. The reason may be that there exists more protein and nucleic acid in cancerous cells than normal cells. Furthermore, based on the length relaxation time, a conclusion can be inferred that the Brownian movement of cancer cells is greater.

  9. Accounting for thermodynamic non-ideality in the Guinier region of small-angle scattering data of proteins.

    PubMed

    Scott, David J

    2016-12-01

    Hydrodynamic studies of the solution properties of proteins and other biological macromolecules are often hard to interpret when the sample is present at a reasonably concentrated solution. The reason for this is that solutions exhibit deviations from ideal behaviour which is manifested as thermodynamic non-ideality. The range of concentrations at which this behaviour typically is exhibited is as low as 1-2 mg/ml, well within the range of concentrations used for their analysis by techniques such as small-angle scattering. Here we discuss thermodynamic non-ideality used previously used in the context of light scattering and sedimentation equilibrium analytical ultracentrifugation and apply it to the Guinier region of small-angle scattering data. The results show that there is a complementarity between the radially averaged structure factor derived from small-angle X-ray scattering/small-angle neutron scattering studies and the second virial coefficient derived from sedimentation equilibrium analytical ultracentrifugation experiments.

  10. Microscope spectrometer for light scattering investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Barbara, Aude; Lopez-Rios, Tomas; Dumont, Sylvain; Gay, Frederic; Quemerais, Pascal

    2010-08-01

    We describe a setup including a microscope to study volumes of a few {mu}m{sup 3} by static and dynamic light scattering (DLS) in a backscattering configuration. Light scattered by individual objects of micrometric size can be analyzed in the 400-800 nm spectral range. This setup can also be employed to study both diluted and concentrated colloidal solutions by DLS measurements. For diluted solutions we found evidence of the fluctuations of the number of particles in a confocal volume. We discuss their contribution to the autocorrelation function of the scattered intensity measured as a function of time.

  11. SANS (small-angle neutron scattering) from polymers and colloids

    SciTech Connect

    Hayter, J.B.

    1987-01-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) has been remarkably successful in providing detailed quantitative structural information on complex everyday materials, such as polymers and colloids, which are often of considerable industrial as well as academic interest. This paper reviews some recent SANS experiments on polymers and colloids, including ferrofluids, and discusses the use of these apparently complex systems as general physical models of the liquid or solid state.

  12. Large-angle Bhabha scattering at LEP 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beenakker, Wim; Passarino, Giampiero

    1998-04-01

    A critical assessment is given of the theoretical uncertainty in the predicted cross-sections for large-angle Bhabha scattering at LEP 1, with or without t-channel subtraction. To this end a detailed comparison is presented of the results obtained with the programs ALIBABA and TOPAZ0. Differences in the implementation of the radiative corrections and the effect of missing higher-order terms are critically discussed. © 1998

  13. Light Scattering from Rough Surfaces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-08-17

    us (V. Ruiz Cortes) was supported by a CONACYT and CICESE scholarship. 5. REFERENCES I.-K.A. O’Donnell and E.R. Mdndez, "Experimental study of...Calculated variation of scattenng for increasing roughness. The angle of incidence is 800. The solid line is (DAJA45-90-C-0026). VRC thanks CONACYT and for a

  14. Ultrasonic trap for light scattering measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, Petr; Pavlu, Jiri

    2017-04-01

    Light scattering is complex phenomenon occurring widely in space environments, including the dense dusty clouds, nebulas or even the upper atmosphere of the Earth. However, when the size of the dust (or of other scattering center) is close to the incident light wavelength, theoretical determination is difficult. In such case, Mie theory is to be used but there is a lack of the material constants for most space-related materials. For experimental measurement of light scattering, we designed unique apparatus, based on ultrasonic trap. Using acoustic levitation we are able to capture the dust grain in midair, irradiate it with laser, and observe scattering directly with goniometer-mounted photodiode. Advantage of this approach is ability to measure directly in the air (thus, no need for the carrier medium) and possibility to study non-spherical particles. Since the trap development is nearly finished and initial experiments are carried out, the paper presents first tests on water droplets.

  15. Expressive Single Scattering for Light Shaft Stylization.

    PubMed

    Kol, Timothy R; Klehm, Oliver; Seidel, Hans-Peter; Eisemann, Elmar

    2016-04-14

    Light scattering in participating media is a natural phenomenon that is increasingly featured in movies and games, as it is visually pleasing and lends realism to a scene. In art, it may further be used to express a certain mood or emphasize objects. Here, artists often rely on stylization when creating scattering effects, not only because of the complexity of physically correct scattering, but also to increase expressiveness. Little research, however, focuses on artistically influencing the simulation of the scattering process in a virtual 3D scene. We propose novel stylization techniques, enabling artists to change the appearance of single scattering effects such as light shafts. Users can add, remove, or enhance light shafts using occluder manipulation. The colors of the light shafts can be stylized and animated using easily modifiable transfer functions. Alternatively, our system can optimize a light map given a simple user input for a number of desired views in the 3D world. Finally, we enable artists to control the heterogeneity of the underlying medium. Our stylized scattering solution is easy to use and compatible with standard rendering pipelines. It works for animated scenes and can be executed in real time to provide the artist with quick feedback.

  16. Experimental Differential Light-Scattering Correction to the Circular Dichroism of Bacteriophage T2

    PubMed Central

    Dorman, Burton P.; Maestre, Marcos F.

    1973-01-01

    Experimental techniques are presented that can be used to assay and correct for differential light scattering effects in circular dichroism spectra of biological macrostructures. The assay is based upon use of variable detector geometries that collect light over large solid angles. Disrupted T2 virus suspensions and purified T2 phage DNA exhibit geometry-independent spectra; the spectrum of intact T2 virus is highly sensitive to detection geometry. On the basis of spectra obtained after light-scattering correction, the structure of T2 DNA in the phage particle is assigned to the C form. We conclude that: (i) The measured circular dichroism of a light-scattering specimen may be highly sensitive to light-detection geometry of the instrument. This effect is indicative of differential scattering intensity for left and right circularly polarized light. (ii) Some optically active particles, although they scatter light intensely, exhibit circular dichroism that is independent of detection geometry and, therefore, apparently uninfluenced by differential light scattering. We infer that whether differential light scattering arises may depend upon the presence or absence of ordered asymmetry in the organization of the scattering particle. (iii) The circular dichroism of any light-scattering specimen should be measured again in apparatus designed for differential light-scattering correction as a prerequisite to meaningful structural conclusions. (iv) Differential scattering effects in circular dichroism may be potentially useful as a probe for large-order organization of the scattering particle. PMID:4509658

  17. Light Scattering by Fractal Dust Aggregates. I. Angular Dependence of Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tazaki, Ryo; Tanaka, Hidekazu; Okuzumi, Satoshi; Kataoka, Akimasa; Nomura, Hideko

    2016-06-01

    In protoplanetary disks, micron-sized dust grains coagulate to form highly porous dust aggregates. Because the optical properties of these aggregates are not completely understood, it is important to investigate how porous dust aggregates scatter light. In this study, the light scattering properties of porous dust aggregates were calculated using a rigorous method, the T-matrix method, and the results were then compared with those obtained using the Rayleigh-Gans-Debye (RGD) theory and Mie theory with the effective medium approximation (EMT). The RGD theory is applicable to moderately large aggregates made of nearly transparent monomers. This study considered two types of porous dust aggregates—ballistic cluster-cluster agglomerates (BCCAs) and ballistic particle-cluster agglomerates. First, the angular dependence of the scattered intensity was shown to reflect the hierarchical structure of dust aggregates; the large-scale structure of the aggregates is responsible for the intensity at small scattering angles, and their small-scale structure determines the intensity at large scattering angles. Second, it was determined that the EMT underestimates the backward scattering intensity by multiple orders of magnitude, especially in BCCAs, because the EMT averages the structure within the size of the aggregates. It was concluded that the RGD theory is a very useful method for calculating the optical properties of BCCAs.

  18. Asymmetric Nanoantennas for Ultrahigh Angle Broadband Visible Light Bending.

    PubMed

    Khaidarov, Egor; Hao, Hanfang; Paniagua-Domínguez, Ramón; Yu, Ye Feng; Fu, Yuan Hsing; Valuckas, Vytautas; Yap, Sherry Lee Koon; Toh, Yeow Teck; Ng, Jeff Siu Kit; Kuznetsov, Arseniy I

    2017-10-11

    Wavefront manipulation in metasurfaces typically relies on phase mapping with a finite number of elements. In particular, a discretized linear phase profile may be used to obtain a beam bending functionality. However, discretization limits the applicability of this approach for high angle bending due to the drastic efficiency drop when the phase is mapped by a small number of elements. In this work, we discuss a novel concept for energy redistribution in diffraction gratings and its application in the visible spectrum range, which helps overcome the constraints of ultrahigh angle (above 80°) beam bending. Arranging asymmetric dielectric nanoantennas into diffractive gratings, we show that one can efficiently redistribute the power between the grating orders at will. This is achieved by precise engineering of the scattering pattern of the nanoantennas. The concept is numerically and experimentally demonstrated at visible frequencies using several designs of TiO2 (titanium dioxide) nanoantennas for medium (∼55°) and high (∼80°) angle light bending. Results show efficient broadband visible-light operation (blue and green range) of transmissive devices, reaching efficiencies of ∼90% and 50%, respectively, at the optimized wavelength. The presented design concept is general and can be applied for both transmission and reflection operation at any desired wavelength and polarization.

  19. Shear Brillouin light scattering microscope

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Moonseok; Besner, Sebastien; Ramier, Antoine; Kwok, Sheldon J. J.; An, Jeesoo; Scarcelli, Giuliano; Yun, Seok Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Brillouin spectroscopy has been used to characterize shear acoustic phonons in materials. However, conventional instruments had slow acquisition times over 10 min per 1 mW of input optical power, and they required two objective lenses to form a 90° scattering geometry necessary for polarization coupling by shear phonons. Here, we demonstrate a confocal Brillouin microscope capable of detecting both shear and longitudinal phonons with improved speeds and with a single objective lens. Brillouin scattering spectra were measured from polycarbonate, fused quartz, and borosilicate in 1-10 s at an optical power level of 10 mW. The elastic constants, phonon mean free path and the ratio of the Pockels coefficients were determined at microscopic resolution. PMID:26832263

  20. BIOISIS: Biological Macromolecules by Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Tainer, John [Scripps Research Institute; Hura, Greg [LBNL; Rambo, Robert P. [LBNL

    BIOISIS is an open access database dedicated to the study of biological macromolecules by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). BIOISIS aims to become the complete source for the deposition, distribution and maintenance of small angle X-ray scattering data and technologies. The database is designed around the concept of an ôexperimentö and relates a specific experiment to a set of genes, organisms, computational models and experimental data. As of May 2012, BIOSIS contains 7,118 genes covering four different organisms. Forty-two modeled structures are available. Clicking on a structures reveals scattering curves, experimental conditions, and experimental values. The data are collected at Beamline 12.3.1 of the Advanced Light Source (ALS).[Copied with editing from http://www.bioisis.net/about

  1. Hadronic light-by-light scattering in muonium hyperfine splitting

    SciTech Connect

    Karshenboim, S. G.; Shelyuto, V. A.; Vainshtein, A. I.

    2008-09-15

    We consider an impact of hadronic light-by-light scattering on the muonium hyperfine structure. A shift of the hyperfine interval {delta}{nu}(Mu){sub HLBL} is calculated with the light-by-light scattering approximated by the exchange of pseudoscalar and pseudovector mesons. Constraints from the operator product expansion in QCD are used to fix parameters of the model similar to the one used earlier for the hadronic light-by-light scattering in calculations of the muon anomalous magnetic moment. The pseudovector exchange is dominant in the resulting shift, {delta}{nu}(Mu){sub HLBL}=-0.0065(10) Hz. Although the effect is tiny it is useful in understanding the level of hadronic uncertainties.

  2. Fiber optic probe for light scattering measurements

    DOEpatents

    Nave, S.E.; Livingston, R.R.; Prather, W.S.

    1993-01-01

    This invention is comprised of a fiber optic probe and a method for using the probe for light scattering analyses of a sample. The probe includes a probe body with an inlet for admitting a sample into an interior sample chamber, a first optical fiber for transmitting light from a source into the chamber, and a second optical fiber for transmitting light to a detector such as a spectrophotometer. The interior surface of the probe carries a coating that substantially prevents non-scattered light from reaching the second fiber. The probe is placed in a region where the presence and concentration of an analyte of interest are to be detected, and a sample is admitted into the chamber. Exciting light is transmitted into the sample chamber by the first fiber, where the light interacts with the sample to produce Raman-scattered light. At least some of the Raman- scattered light is received by the second fiber and transmitted to the detector for analysis. Two Raman spectra are measured, at different pressures. The first spectrum is subtracted from the second to remove background effects, and the resulting sample Raman spectrum is compared to a set of stored library spectra to determine the presence and concentration of the analyte.

  3. Fiber optic probe for light scattering measurements

    DOEpatents

    Nave, Stanley E.; Livingston, Ronald R.; Prather, William S.

    1995-01-01

    A fiber optic probe and a method for using the probe for light scattering analyses of a sample. The probe includes a probe body with an inlet for admitting a sample into an interior sample chamber, a first optical fiber for transmitting light from a source into the chamber, and a second optical fiber for transmitting light to a detector such as a spectrophotometer. The interior surface of the probe carries a coating that substantially prevents non-scattered light from reaching the second fiber. The probe is placed in a region where the presence and concentration of an analyte of interest are to be detected, and a sample is admitted into the chamber. Exciting light is transmitted into the sample chamber by the first fiber, where the light interacts with the sample to produce Raman-scattered light. At least some of the Raman-scattered light is received by the second fiber and transmitted to the detector for analysis. Two Raman spectra are measured, at different pressures. The first spectrum is subtracted from the second to remove background effects, and the resulting sample Raman spectrum is compared to a set of stored library spectra to determine the presence and concentration of the analyte.

  4. The Whiteness of Things and Light Scattering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gratton, L. M.; Lopez-Arias, T.; Calza, G.; Oss, S.

    2009-01-01

    We discuss some simple experiments dealing with intriguing properties of light and its interaction with matter. In particular, we show how to emphasize that light reflection, refraction and scattering can provide a proper, physical description of human perception of the "colour" white. These experiments can be used in the classroom with an enquiry…

  5. The Whiteness of Things and Light Scattering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gratton, L. M.; Lopez-Arias, T.; Calza, G.; Oss, S.

    2009-01-01

    We discuss some simple experiments dealing with intriguing properties of light and its interaction with matter. In particular, we show how to emphasize that light reflection, refraction and scattering can provide a proper, physical description of human perception of the "colour" white. These experiments can be used in the classroom with an enquiry…

  6. Development of a versatile laser light scattering instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, William V.; Ansari, Rafat R.

    1992-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center is providing and coordinating the technology for placing a compact Laser Light Scattering (LLS) instrument in a microgravity environment. This will be accomplished by defining and assessing user requirements for microgravity experiments, coordinating needed technological developments, and filling technical gaps. This effort is striving to brassboard and evaluate a miniature multi-angle LLS instrument. The progress of the program is reported.

  7. Small Angle X-ray Scattering for Nanoparticle Research

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Byeongdu; Senesi-Good, Andrew J.; Li, Tao

    2016-09-28

    X-ray scattering is a structural characterization tool that has impacted diverse fields of study. It is unique in its ability to examine materials in real time and under realistic sample environments, enabling researchers to understand morphology at nanometer and ångström length scales using complementary small and wide angle X-ray scattering (SAXS, WAXS), respectively. Herein, we focus on the use of SAXS to examine nanoscale particulate systems. We provide a theoretical foundation for X-ray scattering, considering both form factor and structure factor, as well as the use of correlation functions, which may be used to determine a particle’s size, size distribution, shape, and organization into hierarchal structures. The theory is expanded upon with contemporary use cases. Both transmission and reflection (grazing incidence) geometries are addressed, as well the combination of SAXS with other X-ray and non-X ray characterization tools. We conclude with an examination of several key areas of research where X-rays scattering has played a pivotal role, including in situ nanoparticle synthesis, nanoparticle assembly, and in operando studies of catalysts and energy storage materials. Throughout this review we highlight the unique capabilities of X-ray scattering for structural characterization of materials in their native environment.

  8. Small Angle X-ray Scattering for Nanoparticle Research

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Tao; Senesi, Andrew J.; Lee, Byeongdu

    2016-04-07

    X-ray scattering is a structural characterization tool that has impacted diverse fields of study. It is unique in its ability to examine materials in real time and under realistic sample environments, enabling researchers to understand morphology at nanometer and ångström length scales using complementary small and wide angle X-ray scattering (SAXS, WAXS), respectively. Herein, we focus on the use of SAXS to examine nanoscale particulate systems. We provide a theoretical foundation for X-ray scattering, considering both form factor and structure factor, as well as the use of correlation functions, which may be used to determine a particle’s size, size distribution, shape, and organization into hierarchal structures. The theory is expanded upon with contemporary use cases. Both transmission and reflection (grazing incidence) geometries are addressed, as well the combination of SAXS with other X-ray and non-X ray characterization tools. Furthermore, we conclude with an examination of several key areas of research where X-rays scattering has played a pivotal role, including in situ nanoparticle synthesis, nanoparticle assembly, and in operando studies of catalysts and energy storage materials. Throughout this review we highlight the unique capabilities of X-ray scattering for structural characterization of materials in their native environment.

  9. Small Angle X-ray Scattering for Nanoparticle Research

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Tao; Senesi, Andrew J.; Lee, Byeongdu

    2016-04-07

    X-ray scattering is a structural characterization tool that has impacted diverse fields of study. It is unique in its ability to examine materials in real time and under realistic sample environments, enabling researchers to understand morphology at nanometer and ångström length scales using complementary small and wide angle X-ray scattering (SAXS, WAXS), respectively. Herein, we focus on the use of SAXS to examine nanoscale particulate systems. We provide a theoretical foundation for X-ray scattering, considering both form factor and structure factor, as well as the use of correlation functions, which may be used to determine a particle’s size, size distribution,more » shape, and organization into hierarchal structures. The theory is expanded upon with contemporary use cases. Both transmission and reflection (grazing incidence) geometries are addressed, as well the combination of SAXS with other X-ray and non-X ray characterization tools. Furthermore, we conclude with an examination of several key areas of research where X-rays scattering has played a pivotal role, including in situ nanoparticle synthesis, nanoparticle assembly, and in operando studies of catalysts and energy storage materials. Throughout this review we highlight the unique capabilities of X-ray scattering for structural characterization of materials in their native environment.« less

  10. Small Angle X-ray Scattering for Nanoparticle Research.

    PubMed

    Li, Tao; Senesi, Andrew J; Lee, Byeongdu

    2016-09-28

    X-ray scattering is a structural characterization tool that has impacted diverse fields of study. It is unique in its ability to examine materials in real time and under realistic sample environments, enabling researchers to understand morphology at nanometer and angstrom length scales using complementary small and wide angle X-ray scattering (SAXS, WAXS), respectively. Herein, we focus on the use of SAXS to examine nanoscale particulate systems. We provide a theoretical foundation for X-ray scattering, considering both form factor and structure factor, as well as the use of correlation functions, which may be used to determine a particle's size, size distribution, shape, and organization into hierarchical structures. The theory is expanded upon with contemporary use cases. Both transmission and reflection (grazing incidence) geometries are addressed, as well as the combination of SAXS with other X-ray and non-X-ray characterization tools. We conclude with an examination of several key areas of research where X-ray scattering has played a pivotal role, including in situ nanoparticle synthesis, nanoparticle assembly, and operando studies of catalysts and energy storage materials. Throughout this review we highlight the unique capabilities of X-ray scattering for structural characterization of materials in their native environment.

  11. Research on the illumination model based on light scattering properties of steel surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yuanjiong; Kong, Jianyi; Xu, Pan; Liu, Cancan; Zheng, Guo

    2015-12-01

    Experimental scheme was designed based on the steel production process, surface optical characteristics and BRDF (Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function) illumination model theory. The relationship between the light incidence angle, surface roughness and laws of light scattering under a particular light-source conditions were found through a series of light scattering characteristics experiments for different steel plate surface. The results showed that there was an apparent specular reflection peak on steel surface. surface light scattering was influenced greatly by light incidence angle and surface roughness, and it showed the law of exponential distribution functions. Thus the improved semi-empirical light scattering mathematical model which based on roughness factor and surface Gaussian distribution of micro-plane components has been formed through non-linear model fitting and optimization. The surface illumination model has been proposed to accurately describe the light intensity distribution of steel plate surface and provide a theoretical method for the design of optimal imaging system.

  12. Measurements of Euglena motion parameters by laser light scattering.

    PubMed Central

    Ascoli, C; Barbi, M; Frediani, C; Murè, A

    1978-01-01

    Measurements of Euglena gracilis motion parameters have been performed by the spectral analysis of the scattered laser light. Samples were oriented by a radiofrequency field to obtain easily interpretable spectra. Cell rotation frequency and flagellar beating frequency distributions were obtained from the homodyne spectra, whereas the Doppler lines obtained at small observation angles by heterodyne detection yielded the swimming speed distributions. We discuss the broadening of the heterodyne spectra at large angles of observation. An application of this method to the study of the photo-kinetic effect is also described. Images FIGURE 3 PMID:104747

  13. Coherent Detector for Near-Angle Scattering and Polarization Characterization of Telescope Mirror Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macenka, Steven A.; Chipman, Russell A.; Daugherty, Brian J.; McClain, Stephen C.

    2012-01-01

    A report discusses the difficulty of measuring scattering properties of coated mirrors extremely close to the specular reflection peak. A prototype Optical Hetero dyne Near-angle Scatterometer (OHNS) was developed. Light from a long-coherence-length (>150 m) 532-nm laser is split into two arms. Acousto-optic modulators frequency shift the sample and reference beams, establishing a fixed beat frequency between the beams. The sample beam is directed at very high f/# onto a mirror sample, and the point spread function (PSF) formed after the mirror sample is scanned with a pinhole. This light is recombined by a non-polarizing beam splitter and measured through heterodyne detection with a spectrum analyzer. Polarizers control the illuminated and analyzed polarization states, allowing the polarization dependent scatter to be measured. The bidirectional reflective or scattering distribution function is normally measured through use of a scattering goniometer instrument. The instrumental beam width (collection angle span) over which the scatterometer responds is typically many degrees. The OHNS enables measurement at angles as small as the first Airy disk diameter.

  14. Angle-resolved surface-enhanced Raman scattering on metallic nanostructured plasmonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Baumberg, Jeremy J; Kelf, Timothy A; Sugawara, Yoshihiro; Cintra, Suzanne; Abdelsalam, Mamdouh E; Bartlett, Phillip N; Russell, Andrea E

    2005-11-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering is an ideal tool for identifying molecules from the "fingerprint" of their molecular bonds; unfortunately, this process lacks a full microscopic understanding and, practically, is plagued with irreproducibility. Using nanostructured metal surfaces, we demonstrate strong correlations between plasmon resonances and Raman enhancements. Evidence for simultaneous ingoing and outgoing resonances in wavelength and angle sheds new light on the Raman enhancement process, allowing optimization of a new generation of reproducible Raman substrates.

  15. Light scattering study of rheumatoid arthritis

    SciTech Connect

    Beuthan, J; Netz, U; Minet, O; Mueller, G; Scheel, A; Henniger, J

    2002-11-30

    The distribution of light scattered by finger joints is studied in the near-IR region. It is shown that variations in the optical parameters of the tissue (scattering coefficient {mu}{sub s}, absorption coefficient {mu}{sub a}, and anisotropy factor g) depend on the presence of the rheumatoid arthritis (RA). At the first stage, the distribution of scattered light was measured in diaphanoscopic experiments. The convolution of a Gaussian error function with the scattering phase function proved to be a good approximation of the data obtained. Then, a new method was developed for the reconstruction of distribution of optical parameters in the finger cross section. Model tests of the quality of this reconstruction method show good results. (laser biology and medicine)

  16. Scattered light corrections to Sun photometry: analytical results for single and multiple scattering regimes.

    PubMed

    Kokhanovsky, Alexander A

    2007-04-01

    Analytical equations for the diffused scattered light correction factor of Sun photometers are derived and analyzed. It is shown that corrections are weakly dependent on the atmospheric optical thickness. They are influenced mostly by the size of aerosol particles encountered by sunlight on its way to a Sun photometer. In addition, the accuracy of the small-angle approximation used in the work is studied with numerical calculations based on the exact radiative transfer equation.

  17. Analysis of PKR Structure by Small-Angle Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    VanOudenhove, Jennifer; Anderson, Eric; Krueger, Susan; Cole, James L.

    2009-04-27

    Protein kinase R (PKR) is a key component of the interferon antiviral defense pathway. Upon binding double-stranded RNA, PKR undergoes autophosphorylation reactions that activate the kinase. PKR contains an N-terminal double-stranded RNA binding domain, which consists of two tandem double-stranded RNA binding motifs, and a C-terminal kinase domain. We have used small-angle X-ray scattering and small-angle neutron scattering to define the conformation of latent PKR in solution. Guinier analysis indicates a radius of gyration of about 35 {angstrom}. The p(r) distance distribution function exhibits a peak near 30 {angstrom}, with a broad shoulder extending to longer distances. Good fits to the scattering data require models that incorporate multiple compact and extended conformations of the two interdomain linker regions. Thus, PKR belongs to the growing family of proteins that contain intrinsically unstructured regions. We propose that the flexible linkers may allow PKR to productively dimerize upon interaction with RNA activators that have diverse structures.

  18. Survey of background scattering from materials found in small-angle neutron scattering

    PubMed Central

    Barker, J. G.; Mildner, D. F. R.

    2015-01-01

    Measurements and calculations of beam attenuation and background scattering for common materials placed in a neutron beam are presented over the temperature range of 300–700 K. Time-of-flight (TOF) measurements have also been made, to determine the fraction of the background that is either inelastic or quasi-elastic scattering as measured with a 3He detector. Other background sources considered include double Bragg diffraction from windows or samples, scattering from gases, and phonon scattering from solids. Background from the residual air in detector vacuum vessels and scattering from the 3He detector dome are presented. The thickness dependence of the multiple scattering correction for forward scattering from water is calculated. Inelastic phonon background scattering at small angles for crystalline solids is both modeled and compared with measurements. Methods of maximizing the signal-to-noise ratio by material selection, choice of sample thickness and wavelength, removal of inelastic background by TOF or Be filters, and removal of spin-flip scattering with polarized beam analysis are discussed. PMID:26306088

  19. Survey of background scattering from materials found in small-angle neutron scattering.

    PubMed

    Barker, J G; Mildner, D F R

    2015-08-01

    Measurements and calculations of beam attenuation and background scattering for common materials placed in a neutron beam are presented over the temperature range of 300-700 K. Time-of-flight (TOF) measurements have also been made, to determine the fraction of the background that is either inelastic or quasi-elastic scattering as measured with a (3)He detector. Other background sources considered include double Bragg diffraction from windows or samples, scattering from gases, and phonon scattering from solids. Background from the residual air in detector vacuum vessels and scattering from the (3)He detector dome are presented. The thickness dependence of the multiple scattering correction for forward scattering from water is calculated. Inelastic phonon background scattering at small angles for crystalline solids is both modeled and compared with measurements. Methods of maximizing the signal-to-noise ratio by material selection, choice of sample thickness and wavelength, removal of inelastic background by TOF or Be filters, and removal of spin-flip scattering with polarized beam analysis are discussed.

  20. Light scattering by radially inhomogeneous fuel droplets in a high-temperature environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Michael; Hirleman, E. Dan; Saleheen, Hasan I.; Chowdhury, Dipakbin Q.; Hill, Steven C.

    1993-05-01

    Light scattering by radially inhomogeneous fuel droplets has been calculated using both geometrical optics (GO) and the exact separation of variables (SV) solutions. The refractive index profiles of the fuel droplets were those calculated by Kneer et al. The GO and SV solutions agree very well in the forward direction (for scattering angles between 30 and 60 degrees), and less well in the backward direction (for scattering angles between 140 and 170 degrees). Both amplitudes and phases of the scattered light are compared. The agreement in the backward direction is much better for 40 micrometers diameter droplets than for 20 micrometers diameter droplets.

  1. Monte Carlo calculation of large and small-angle electron scattering in air

    DOE PAGES

    Cohen, B. I.; Higginson, D. P.; Eng, C. D.; ...

    2017-08-12

    A Monte Carlo method for angle scattering of electrons in air that accommodates the small-angle multiple scattering and larger-angle single scattering limits is introduced. In this work, the algorithm is designed for use in a particle-in-cell simulation of electron transport and electromagnetic wave effects in air. The method is illustrated in example calculations.

  2. Polarization of scattered light in biological tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abubaker, Hamed M.; Tománek, Pavel

    2012-02-01

    The real-time nondestructive inspection of biological tissues begins to be one of important tools which could contribute to better human life not only in medical diagnosis but also in everyday mankind activities. A biological tissue is considered as a turbid medium in which light is scattered. Although single or multiple scattering in tissue multiple randomizes polarization states of incident light, linear, circular and elliptical polarization states in the medium are considered, and there are circumstances when appreciable degree of polarization can be observed in diffusive scattering. Our work shows that with a sufficient degree of sensitivity is possible to detect structural changes due to the aging of processed meat by using Mueller matrix polarimeter. Moreover, it demonstrated that the degree of polarization of the backscattered light is sensitive to the optical properties of specimen material and to its thickness.

  3. Polarization of scattered light in biological tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abubaker, Hamed M.; Tománek, Pavel

    2011-09-01

    The real-time nondestructive inspection of biological tissues begins to be one of important tools which could contribute to better human life not only in medical diagnosis but also in everyday mankind activities. A biological tissue is considered as a turbid medium in which light is scattered. Although single or multiple scattering in tissue multiple randomizes polarization states of incident light, linear, circular and elliptical polarization states in the medium are considered, and there are circumstances when appreciable degree of polarization can be observed in diffusive scattering. Our work shows that with a sufficient degree of sensitivity is possible to detect structural changes due to the aging of processed meat by using Mueller matrix polarimeter. Moreover, it demonstrated that the degree of polarization of the backscattered light is sensitive to the optical properties of specimen material and to its thickness.

  4. Glassy carbon as an absolute intensity calibration standard for small-angle scattering.

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, F.; Ilavsky, J.; Long, G.; Allen, A.; Quintana, J.; Jemian, P.; NIST

    2010-05-01

    Absolute calibration of small-angle scattering (SAS) intensity data (measured in terms of the differential scattering cross section per unit sample volume per unit solid angle) is essential for many important aspects of quantitative SAS analysis, such as obtaining the number density, volume fraction, and specific surface area of the scatterers. It also enables scattering data from different instruments (light, X-ray, or neutron scattering) to be combined, and it can even be useful to detect the existence of artifacts in the experimental data. Different primary or secondary calibration methods are available. In the latter case, absolute intensity calibration requires a stable artifact with the necessary scattering profile. Glassy carbon has sometimes been selected as this intensity calibration standard. Here we review the spatial homogeneity and temporal stability of one type of commercially available glassy carbon that is being used as an intensity calibration standard at a number of SAS facilities. We demonstrate that glassy carbon is sufficiently homogeneous and stable during routine use to be relied upon as a suitable standard for absolute intensity calibration of SAS data.

  5. Small-angle scattering study of Aspergillus awamori glycoprotein glucoamylase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, A. E.; Shvetsov, A. V.; Kuklin, A. I.; Lebedev, D. V.; Surzhik, M. A.; Sergeev, V. R.; Isaev-Ivanov, V. V.

    2016-01-01

    Glucoamylase from fungus Aspergillus awamori is glycoside hydrolase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of α-1,4- and α-1,6-glucosidic bonds in glucose polymers and oligomers. This glycoprotein consists of a catalytic domain and a starch-binding domain connected by an O-glycosylated polypeptide chain. The conformation of the linker, the relative arrangement of the domains, and the structure of the full-length enzyme are unknown. The structure of the recombinant glucoamylase GA1 was studied by molecular modelling and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) methods. The experimental SANS data provide evidence that glucoamylase exists as a monomer in solution and contains a glycoside component, which makes a substantial contribution to the scattering. The model of full-length glucoamylase, which was calculated without taking into account the effect of glycosylation, is consistent with the experimental data and has a radius of gyration of 33.4 ± 0.6 Å.

  6. Small angle scattering from protein/sugar conjugates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Andrew; White, John

    2006-11-01

    The Maillard reaction between free amine groups on proteins and sugars is well known. We have examined the effect of the reaction of the casein group of milk proteins with sugars on their nanoscale structure and aggregation. The small angle neutron scattering from beta casein and sodium caseinate and their sugar conjugates have been studied as a function of solution concentration. At high conjugate concentration (greater than ca. 5 mg/ml) the addition of sugar reduces supra-micellar aggregation of the protein whilst at lower concentration, where the protein is expected to be deaggregated already, little effect is seen. Guinier analysis of the scattering data show a radius of gyration of around 75 A˚ for beta casein in solution and around 80 A˚ for the sucrose conjugate.

  7. Small-angle neutron scattering study of polymeric micellar structures

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, G.; Chu, B. ); Schneider, D.K. )

    1994-11-17

    Polymeric micellar structures formed by a PEO-PPO-PEO copolymer in o-xylene in the presence of water were investigated by small-angle neutron scattering. In order to reveal the detailed micellar structure, different contrasts among the micellar core, the micellar shell, and the dispersing medium (background) were constructed by selectively changing the protonated/deuterated combination of water and xylene. The micellar structure could be well described by a core-shell structure with the scattering behavior of the micellar shell being very similar to that of a star polymer. The solubilized water existed not only in the micellar core but also in the micellar shell. The volume fraction of a copolymer segments in the micellar shell was rather low, being of the order of 0.2. There seemed to be no sharp interface between the micellar core and the micellar shell. 25 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Small angle neutron scattering using a triple axis spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmend, F.U.; Kamal, I.; Yunus, S.M.

    1994-12-31

    SANS technique has been developed on a triple axis neutron spectrometer at TRIGA Mark II (3 MW) research reactor, AERE, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Double crystal (with very small mosaic spread {approximately} 1 min.) diffraction known as Bonse and Hart`s method has been employed in this technique. Such a device is a useful tool for small angle scattering in the Q range between 10{sup -5} and 10{sup -1} {Angstrom}{sup -1} and for real time experiments at short time scales. Therefore, large objects and large distance interparticle correlations can be investigated easily by this method. Test measurements using alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) sample has been carried out to exploit this method. The radius of gyration has been determined and the data has been fitted to the scattering function of a sphere.

  9. Small-angle scattering study of Aspergillus awamori glycoprotein glucoamylase

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, A. E. Shvetsov, A. V.; Kuklin, A. I.; Lebedev, D. V.; Surzhik, M. A.; Sergeev, V. R.; Isaev-Ivanov, V. V.

    2016-01-15

    Glucoamylase from fungus Aspergillus awamori is glycoside hydrolase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of α-1,4- and α-1,6-glucosidic bonds in glucose polymers and oligomers. This glycoprotein consists of a catalytic domain and a starch-binding domain connected by an O-glycosylated polypeptide chain. The conformation of the linker, the relative arrangement of the domains, and the structure of the full-length enzyme are unknown. The structure of the recombinant glucoamylase GA1 was studied by molecular modelling and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) methods. The experimental SANS data provide evidence that glucoamylase exists as a monomer in solution and contains a glycoside component, which makes a substantial contribution to the scattering. The model of full-length glucoamylase, which was calculated without taking into account the effect of glycosylation, is consistent with the experimental data and has a radius of gyration of 33.4 ± 0.6 Å.

  10. Characterization of photosynthetic supramolecular assemblies using small angle neutron scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Tiede, D.M.; Marone, P.; Wagner, A.M.; Thiyagarajan, P.

    1995-12-31

    We are using small angle neutron scattering (SANS) to resolve structural features of supramolecular assemblies of photosynthetic proteins in liquid and frozen solutions. SANS resolves the size, shape, and structural homogeneity of macromolecular assemblies in samples identical to those used for spectroscopic assays of photosynthetic function. Likely molecular structures of the supramolecular assemblies can be identified by comparing experimental scattering data with scattering profiles calculated for model supramolecular assemblies built from crystal structures of the individual proteins. SANS studies of the Rhodobacter sphaeroides reaction center, RC, presented here, show that the detergent solubilized RC exists in a variety of monomeric and aggregation states. The distribution between monomer and aggregate was found to depend strongly upon detergent, temperature and nature of additives, such as ethylene glycol used for low temperature spectroscopy and polyethylene glycol used for crystallization. Likely aggregate structures are being identified by fitting the experimental scattering profiles with those calculated for model aggregates built-up using the RC crystal structure. This work establishes the foundation for using SANS to identify intermediates in the RC crystallization pathways, and for determining likely structures of complexes formed between the RC and its physiological reaction partners, cytochrome c, and the LHI antenna complex.

  11. Ultra-small-angle neutron scattering with azimuthal asymmetry.

    PubMed

    Gu, X; Mildner, D F R

    2016-06-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements from thin sections of rock samples such as shales demand as great a scattering vector range as possible because the pores cover a wide range of sizes. The limitation of the scattering vector range for pinhole SANS requires slit-smeared ultra-SANS (USANS) measurements that need to be converted to pinhole geometry. The desmearing algorithm is only successful for azimuthally symmetric data. Scattering from samples cut parallel to the plane of bedding is symmetric, exhibiting circular contours on a two-dimensional detector. Samples cut perpendicular to the bedding show elliptically dependent contours with the long axis corresponding to the normal to the bedding plane. A method is given for converting such asymmetric data collected on a double-crystal diffractometer for concatenation with the usual pinhole-geometry SANS data. The aspect ratio from the SANS data is used to modify the slit-smeared USANS data to produce quasi-symmetric contours. Rotation of the sample about the incident beam may result in symmetric data but cannot extract the same information as obtained from pinhole geometry.

  12. Ultra-small-angle neutron scattering with azimuthal asymmetry

    PubMed Central

    Gu, X.; Mildner, D. F. R.

    2016-01-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements from thin sections of rock samples such as shales demand as great a scattering vector range as possible because the pores cover a wide range of sizes. The limitation of the scattering vector range for pinhole SANS requires slit-smeared ultra-SANS (USANS) measurements that need to be converted to pinhole geometry. The desmearing algorithm is only successful for azimuthally symmetric data. Scattering from samples cut parallel to the plane of bedding is symmetric, exhibiting circular contours on a two-dimensional detector. Samples cut perpendicular to the bedding show elliptically dependent contours with the long axis corresponding to the normal to the bedding plane. A method is given for converting such asymmetric data collected on a double-crystal diffractometer for concatenation with the usual pinhole-geometry SANS data. The aspect ratio from the SANS data is used to modify the slit-smeared USANS data to produce quasi-symmetric contours. Rotation of the sample about the incident beam may result in symmetric data but cannot extract the same information as obtained from pinhole geometry. PMID:27275140

  13. Ultra-small-angle neutron scattering with azimuthal asymmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, X.; Mildner, D. F. R.

    2016-05-16

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements from thin sections of rock samples such as shales demand as great a scattering vector range as possible because the pores cover a wide range of sizes. The limitation of the scattering vector range for pinhole SANS requires slit-smeared ultra-SANS (USANS) measurements that need to be converted to pinhole geometry. The desmearing algorithm is only successful for azimuthally symmetric data. Scattering from samples cut parallel to the plane of bedding is symmetric, exhibiting circular contours on a two-dimensional detector. Samples cut perpendicular to the bedding show elliptically dependent contours with the long axis corresponding to the normal to the bedding plane. A method is given for converting such asymmetric data collected on a double-crystal diffractometer for concatenation with the usual pinhole-geometry SANS data. Furthermore, the aspect ratio from the SANS data is used to modify the slit-smeared USANS data to produce quasi-symmetric contours. Rotation of the sample about the incident beam may result in symmetric data but cannot extract the same information as obtained from pinhole geometry.

  14. Ultra-small-angle neutron scattering with azimuthal asymmetry

    DOE PAGES

    Gu, X.; Mildner, D. F. R.

    2016-05-16

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements from thin sections of rock samples such as shales demand as great a scattering vector range as possible because the pores cover a wide range of sizes. The limitation of the scattering vector range for pinhole SANS requires slit-smeared ultra-SANS (USANS) measurements that need to be converted to pinhole geometry. The desmearing algorithm is only successful for azimuthally symmetric data. Scattering from samples cut parallel to the plane of bedding is symmetric, exhibiting circular contours on a two-dimensional detector. Samples cut perpendicular to the bedding show elliptically dependent contours with the long axis corresponding tomore » the normal to the bedding plane. A method is given for converting such asymmetric data collected on a double-crystal diffractometer for concatenation with the usual pinhole-geometry SANS data. Furthermore, the aspect ratio from the SANS data is used to modify the slit-smeared USANS data to produce quasi-symmetric contours. Rotation of the sample about the incident beam may result in symmetric data but cannot extract the same information as obtained from pinhole geometry.« less

  15. Polarization of light scattered by vegetation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderbilt, V. C.; Grant, L.; Daughtry, C. S. T.

    1985-01-01

    The potential information in polarization data of both single leaves and plant canopies is investigated. Measurements demonstrate the relationship between polarization data and various optical and botanical properties of both pieces of foliage and plant canopies. The results provide a basis for gaining fundamental understanding of how light is scattered and polarized by a plant canopy. The results show the polarized and nonpolarized portions of the light scattered by a remotely sensed ground scene potentially are independent sources of information for discriminating species and assessing the condition of plant canopies.

  16. An automatic light scattering CCN counter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lala, G. G.

    1981-01-01

    The counter is a static thermal diffusion chamber which has been modified to include an optical system for the determination of droplet concentration by the measurement of scattered light. The determination of concentration is made by measurement of the peak scattered light signal from the cloud of growing droplets which is a function of both the droplet concentration and chamber supersaturation. Because the formation of the peak is related to the rate of growth of the droplets and sedimentation, both of which are determined by supersaturation, the system calibration can be uniquely determined by comparison with an absolute counter such as a static diffusion chamber with a photographic recording system.

  17. 14 CFR 27.1387 - Position light system dihedral angles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Position light system dihedral angles. 27... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 27.1387 Position light system dihedral angles. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (e) of this section, each forward...

  18. 14 CFR 29.1387 - Position light system dihedral angles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Position light system dihedral angles. 29... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 29.1387 Position light system dihedral angles. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (e) of this section,...

  19. Large Solid Angle Spectrometer for Inelastic X-ray Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Gelebart, F.; Morand, M.; Dermigny, Q.; Giura, P.; Shukla, A.; Rueff, J.-P.

    2007-01-19

    We have designed a large solid angle spectrometer mostly devoted to inelastic x-ray scattering (IXS) studies of materials under extreme conditions (high pressure / temperature) in the hard x-ray range. The new IXS spectrometer is designed to optimize the photon throughput while preserving an excellent resolving power of {approx}10000 in the considered energy range. The spectrometer consists of an array of up to 4 spherically bent 0.5 m radius analyzer crystals and a solid-state detector positioned on the Rowland circle. The four analyzers can cover a solid angle more than one order of magnitude larger than conventional spectrometers. The spectrometer is to be installed on the GALAXIES beamline at SOLEIL in the near future.

  20. Small-angle electron scattering from magnetic artificial lattice.

    PubMed

    Takayanagi, Kazuya; Koyama, Tsukasa; Mori, Shigeo; Harada, Ken; Togawa, Yoshihiko

    2012-01-01

    In this study, quantitative reciprocal-space analyses of magnetic domain structures in magnetic artificial lattices of patterned elements were performed by means of the small-angle electron scattering (SAES) technique. Using a conventional transmission electron microscope with a LaB(6) thermal-emission electron gun, Lorentz deflection due to magnetic moments in patterned elements and Bragg diffraction due to the lattice periodicity are simultaneously recorded at an angle of the order of less than 1 10(-)(6) rad when using electron waves with high spatial coherency and large camera length. The present SAES technique together with TEM real-space imaging methods such as Lorentz microscopy will be useful in analyzing electromagnetic fields in nano-scaled materials.

  1. Small-angle electron scattering of magnetic fine structures.

    PubMed

    Togawa, Yoshihiko

    2013-06-01

    Magnetic structures in magnetic artificial lattices and chiral magnetic orders in chiral magnets have been quantitatively analyzed in the reciprocal space by means of small-angle electron scattering (SAES) method. Lorentz deflection due to magnetic moments and Bragg diffraction due to periodicity are simultaneously recorded at an angle of the order of or less than 1 × 10(-6) rad, using a camera length of more than 100 m. The present SAES method, together with TEM real-space imaging methods such as in-situ Lorentz microscopy, is very powerful in analyzing magnetic fine structures in magnetic materials. Indeed, the existence of both a chiral helimagnetic structure and a chiral magnetic soliton lattice in a chiral magnet CrNb3S6 has been successfully verified for the first time using the present complementary methods.

  2. Disordered porous solids : from chord distributions to small angle scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levitz, P.; Tchoubar, D.

    1992-06-01

    Disordered biphasic porous solids are examples of complex interfacial media. Small angle scattering strongly depends on the geometrical properties of the internal surface partitioning a porous system. Properties of the second derivative of the bulk autocorrelation function quantitatively defines the level of connection between the small angle scattering and the statistical properties of this interface. A tractable expression of this second derivative, involving the pore and the mass chord distribution functions, was proposed by Mering and Tchoubar (MT). Based on the present possibility to make a quantitative connection between imaging techniques and the small angle scattering, this paper tries to complete and to extend the MT approach. We first discuss how chord distribution functions can be used as fingerprints of the structural disorder. An explicit relation between the small angle scattering and these chord distributions is then proposed. In a third part, the application to different types of disorder is critically discussed and predictions are compared to available experimental data. Using image processing, we will consider three types of disorder : the long-range Debye randomness, the “ correlated " disorder with a special emphasis on the structure of a porous glass (the vycor), and, finally, complex structures where length scale invariance properties can be observed. Les solides poreux biphasiques sont des exemples de milieux interfaciaux complexes. La diffusion aux petits angles (SAS) dépend fortement des propriétés géométriques de l'interface partitionant le milieu poreux. Les propriétés de la dérivée seconde de la fonction d'autocorrélation de densité définit quantitativement le niveau de connection entre la diffusion aux petits angles et les caractéristiques statistiques de cette interface. Une expression utilisable de cette seconde dérivée, impliquant les distributions de cordes associées à la phase massique et au réseau de pores, fut

  3. ASIC for Small Angle Neutron Scattering Experiments at the SNS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Geronimo, Gianluigi; Fried, Jack; Smith, Graham C.; Yu, Bo; Vernon, Emerson; Britton, Charles L.; Bryan, William L.; Clonts, Lloyd G.; Frank, Shane S.

    2007-06-01

    We present an ASIC for a 3He gas detector to be used in small angle neutron scattering experiments at the spallation neutron source in oak ridge. The ASIC is composed of 64 channels with low noise charge amplification, filtering, timing and amplitude measurement circuits, where an innovative current-mode peak-detector and digitizer (PDAD) is adopted. The proposed PDAD provides at the same time peak detection and A/D conversion in real time, at low power, and without requiring a clock signal. The channels share an efficient data sparsification and derandomization scheme, a 30-bit 256 deep FIFO, and low voltage differential signaling.

  4. Influences of refractive index on forward light scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xueshan; Shen, Jianqi; Yin, Pengteng; Hu, Shiyu; Bi, Duo

    2014-04-01

    The influence of the relative refractive index (RRI) of the particles to the surrounding medium on the small-angle forward scattering signals is studied, based on the Mie theory, the Debye series expansion (DSE) and the Fraunhofer diffraction theory. It comes to the conclusion that, for small particles, the influence on the forward scattering signals is mainly due to the part of the internal reflection if the RRI deviates from 1. However, when the RRI is close to 1, the effects on the forward scattered light from both the surface reflection and the internal reflection are great. For large particles, the contributions of the surface reflection and the internal reflection to the forward scattered light are much weaker than the diffraction when the RRI deviates from 1. When the RRI is very close to 1, the effects on the forward scattered light from the internal reflection are great. To determine the influence of the RRI in detail, the modified Chahine algorithm is employed. The inversion results cannot give the correct PSD for small particles if the RRI used in the inversion procedure does not match the one of the sample. The result shows that it is necessary to determine the exact value of the RRI and one should avoid the RRI close to 1 by choosing dispersion with proper refractive index in practice.

  5. Lattice QCD Calculation of Hadronic Light-by-Light Scattering.

    PubMed

    Green, Jeremy; Gryniuk, Oleksii; von Hippel, Georg; Meyer, Harvey B; Pascalutsa, Vladimir

    2015-11-27

    We perform a lattice QCD calculation of the hadronic light-by-light scattering amplitude in a broad kinematical range. At forward kinematics, the results are compared to a phenomenological analysis based on dispersive sum rules for light-by-light scattering. The size of the pion pole contribution is investigated for momenta of typical hadronic size. The presented numerical methods can be used to compute the hadronic light-by-light contribution to the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon. Our calculations are carried out in two-flavor QCD with the pion mass in the range of 270-450 MeV and contain so far only the diagrams with fully connected quark lines.

  6. Experimental light scattering by small particles: system design and calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maconi, Göran; Kassamakov, Ivan; Penttilä, Antti; Gritsevich, Maria; Hæggström, Edward; Muinonen, Karri

    2017-06-01

    We describe a setup for precise multi-angular measurements of light scattered by mm- to μm-sized samples. We present a calibration procedure that ensures accurate measurements. Calibration is done using a spherical sample (d = 5 mm, n = 1.517) fixed on a static holder. The ultimate goal of the project is to allow accurate multi-wavelength measurements (the full Mueller matrix) of single-particle samples which are levitated ultrasonically. The system comprises a tunable multimode Argon-krypton laser, with 12 wavelengths ranging from 465 to 676 nm, a linear polarizer, a reference photomultiplier tube (PMT) monitoring beam intensity, and several PMT:s mounted radially towards the sample at an adjustable radius. The current 150 mm radius allows measuring all azimuthal angles except for ±4° around the backward scattering direction. The measurement angle is controlled by a motor-driven rotational stage with an accuracy of 15'.

  7. Cylindrical aggregates of chlorophylls studied by small-angle neutron scatter

    SciTech Connect

    Worcester, D.L.; Katz, J.J.

    1994-12-31

    Neutron small-angle scattering has demonstrated tubular chlorophyll aggregates formed by self-assembly of a variety of chlorophyll types in nonpolar solvents. The size and other properties of the tubular aggregates can be accounted for by stereochemical properties of the chlorophyll molecules. Features of some of the structures are remarkably similar to light harvesting chlorophyll complexes in vivo, particularly for photosynthetic bacteria. These nanotube chlorophyll structures may have applications as light harvesting biomaterials where efficient energy transfer occurs from an excited state which is highly delocalized.

  8. Molecular shapes from small-angle X-ray scattering: extension of the theory to higher scattering angles.

    PubMed

    Shneerson, V L; Saldin, D K

    2009-03-01

    A low-resolution shape of a molecule in solution may be deduced from measured small-angle X-ray scattering I(q) data by exploiting a Hankel transform relation between the coefficients of a multipole expansion of the scattered amplitude and corresponding coefficients of the electron density. In the past, the radial part of the Hankel transform has been evaluated with the aid of a truncated series expansion of a spherical Bessel function. It is shown that series truncation may be avoided by analytically performing the radial integral over an entire Bessel function. The angular part of the integral involving a spherical harmonic kernel is performed by quadrature. Such a calculation also allows a convenient incorporation of a molecular hydration shell of constant density intermediate between that of the protein and the solvent. Within this framework, we determine the multipole coefficients of the shape function by optimization of the agreement with experimental data by simulated annealing.

  9. Nonlinear light scattering by a dipole monolayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Averbukh, B. B.; Averbukh, I. B.

    2013-08-01

    Scattering of a strong p-polarized monochromatic field by a dipole monolayer is considered. It is shown that a triplet should be observed at incident angles (between the wave vector of the incident wave and the normal to the monolayer surface) not too close to π/2 in the spectrum of the scattered radiation. For grazing incidence of a strong field on the monolayer, waves with frequencies of the strong field and the high-frequency component of the triplet scatter forward and backward. In this case, radiation with frequency of the low-frequency component of the triplet propagates in the form of two inhomogeneous waves along the monolayer on both sides of it, exponentially decaying with distance from the monolayer.

  10. Hierarchical Pore Morphology of Cretaceous Shale: A Small-Angle Neutron Scattering and Ultrasmall-Angle Neutron Scattering Study

    DOE PAGES

    Bahadur, J.; Melnichenko, Y. B.; Mastalerz, Maria; ...

    2014-09-25

    Shale reservoirs are becoming an increasingly important source of oil and natural gas supply and a potential candidate for CO2 sequestration. Understanding the pore morphology in shale may provide clues to making gas extraction more efficient and cost-effective. The porosity of Cretaceous shale samples from Alberta, Canada, collected from different depths with varying mineralogical compositions, has been investigated by small- and ultrasmall-angle neutron scattering. Moreover these samples come from the Second White Specks and Belle Fourche formations, and their organic matter content ranges between 2 and 3%. The scattering length density of the shale specimens has been estimated using themore » chemical composition of the different mineral components. Scattering experiments reveal the presence of fractal and non-fractal pores. It has been shown that the porosity and specific surface area are dominated by the contribution from meso- and micropores. The fraction of closed porosity has been calculated by comparing the porosities estimated by He pycnometry and scattering techniques. There is no correlation between total porosity and mineral components, a strong correlation has been observed between closed porosity and major mineral components in the studied specimens.« less

  11. Hierarchical Pore Morphology of Cretaceous Shale: A Small-Angle Neutron Scattering and Ultrasmall-Angle Neutron Scattering Study

    SciTech Connect

    Bahadur, J.; Melnichenko, Y. B.; Mastalerz, Maria; Furmann, Agnieszka; Clarkson, Chris R.

    2014-09-25

    Shale reservoirs are becoming an increasingly important source of oil and natural gas supply and a potential candidate for CO2 sequestration. Understanding the pore morphology in shale may provide clues to making gas extraction more efficient and cost-effective. The porosity of Cretaceous shale samples from Alberta, Canada, collected from different depths with varying mineralogical compositions, has been investigated by small- and ultrasmall-angle neutron scattering. Moreover these samples come from the Second White Specks and Belle Fourche formations, and their organic matter content ranges between 2 and 3%. The scattering length density of the shale specimens has been estimated using the chemical composition of the different mineral components. Scattering experiments reveal the presence of fractal and non-fractal pores. It has been shown that the porosity and specific surface area are dominated by the contribution from meso- and micropores. The fraction of closed porosity has been calculated by comparing the porosities estimated by He pycnometry and scattering techniques. There is no correlation between total porosity and mineral components, a strong correlation has been observed between closed porosity and major mineral components in the studied specimens.

  12. Light-like scattering in quantum gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjerrum-Bohr, N. E. J.; Donoghue, John F.; Holstein, Barry R.; Planté, Ludovic; Vanhove, Pierre

    2016-11-01

    We consider scattering in quantum gravity and derive long-range classical and quantum contributions to the scattering of light-like bosons and fermions (spin-0, spin- 1/2 , spin-1) from an external massive scalar field, such as the Sun or a black hole. This is achieved by treating general relativity as an effective field theory and identifying the non-analytic pieces of the one-loop gravitational scattering amplitude. It is emphasized throughout the paper how modern amplitude techniques, involving spinor-helicity variables, unitarity, and squaring relations in gravity enable much simplified computations. We directly verify, as predicted by general relativity, that all classical effects in our computation are universal (in the context of matter type and statistics). Using an eikonal procedure we confirm the post-Newtonian general relativity correction for light-like bending around large stellar objects. We also comment on treating effects from quantum ℏ dependent terms using the same eikonal method.

  13. Distinguishing morphological changes with polarized light scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, T. M.; Aida, T.; Carpenter, S.; Freyer, J. P.; Mourant, J. R.

    2002-01-01

    Results of work determining how different biological structures contribute to light scattering will be presented. Further, measurements of phantoms that mimic structural changes expected in vivo will be presented. It is found that polarized measurements can discriminate between phantoms with similar properties.

  14. Light Scattering based detection of food pathogens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The current methods for detecting foodborne pathogens are mostly destructive (i.e., samples need to be pretreated), and require time, personnel, and laboratories for analyses. Optical methods including light scattering based techniques have gained a lot of attention recently due to its their rapid a...

  15. Cooperative light scattering in any dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Tyler; Sanders, Barry C.; Deng, Hui

    2017-03-01

    We present a theory of cooperative light scattering valid in any dimension: connecting theories for an open line, open plane, and open space in the nonrelativistic regime. This theory includes near-field and dipole-orientation effects, highlighting how field-mode confinement controls the phenomena. We present an experimental implementation for planar collective effects.

  16. Immunoassay control method based on light scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilyi, Olexander I.; Kiselyov, Eugene M.; Petrina, R. O.; Ferensovich, Yaroslav P.; Yaremyk, Roman Y.

    1999-11-01

    The physics principle of registration immune reaction by light scattering methods is concerned. The operation of laser nephelometry for measuring antigen-antibody reaction is described. The technique of obtaining diagnostic and immune reactions of interaction latex agglutination for diphtheria determination is described.

  17. Small angle x-ray scattering with edge-illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modregger, Peter; Cremona, Tiziana P.; Benarafa, Charaf; Schittny, Johannes C.; Olivo, Alessandro; Endrizzi, Marco

    2016-08-01

    Sensitivity to sub-pixel sample features has been demonstrated as a valuable capability of phase contrast x-ray imaging. Here, we report on a method to obtain angular-resolved small angle x-ray scattering distributions with edge-illumination- based imaging utilizing incoherent illumination from an x-ray tube. Our approach provides both the three established image modalities (absorption, differential phase and scatter strength), plus a number of additional contrasts related to unresolved sample features. The complementarity of these contrasts is experimentally validated by using different materials in powder form. As a significant application example we show that the extended complementary contrasts could allow the diagnosis of pulmonary emphysema in a murine model. In support of this, we demonstrate that the properties of the retrieved scattering distributions are consistent with the expectation of increased feature sizes related to pulmonary emphysema. Combined with the simplicity of implementation of edge-illumination, these findings suggest a high potential for exploiting extended sub-pixel contrasts in the diagnosis of lung diseases and beyond.

  18. Quasi-Elastic Light Scattering in Ophthalmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, Rafat R.

    The eye is not just a "window to the soul"; it can also be a "window to the human body." The eye is built like a camera. Light which travels from the cornea to the retina traverses through tissues that are representative of nearly every tissue type and fluid type in the human body. Therefore, it is possible to diagnose ocular and systemic diseases through the eye. Quasi-elastic light scattering (QELS) also known as dynamic light scattering (DLS) is a laboratory technique routinely used in the characterization of macromolecular dispersions. QELS instrumentation has now become more compact, sensitive, flexible, and easy to use. These developments have made QELS/DLS an important tool in ophthalmic research where disease can be detected early and noninvasively before the clinical symptoms appear.

  19. Scattered light in the STIS echelle modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landsman, W.; Bowers, C.

    1997-01-01

    The Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) echelle spectra obtained during the Early Release Observations have non-zero residuals in the cores of saturated interstellar lines, indicating the need for a scattered light correction. A rough measure of the magnitude of the needed correction shows the ratio of the interorder to the in-order flux in different echelle modes in both pre-launch calibration images of a continuum lamp source and in post-launch images of stellar continuum sources. The interorder and in-order fluxes are computed by averaging the central 200 pixels in the dispersion direction. The amount of scattered light in the interorder region rises toward shorter wavelengths for two reasons: (1) the order separation decreases toward shorter wavelengths; and (2) the amount of echelle scattering is expected to have an inverse dependence on wavelength. At the shortest wavelengths the fraction of light scattered into the interorder region can be 10% for the Near-ultraviolet-Multi-Anode Microchannel Array (NUV-MAMA) and 15% for the Far-ultraviolet-Multi-Anode Microchannel Array (FUV-MAMA).

  20. Scattered light in the STIS echelle modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landsman, W.; Bowers, C.

    1997-01-01

    The Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) echelle spectra obtained during the Early Release Observations have non-zero residuals in the cores of saturated interstellar lines, indicating the need for a scattered light correction. A rough measure of the magnitude of the needed correction shows the ratio of the interorder to the in-order flux in different echelle modes in both pre-launch calibration images of a continuum lamp source and in post-launch images of stellar continuum sources. The interorder and in-order fluxes are computed by averaging the central 200 pixels in the dispersion direction. The amount of scattered light in the interorder region rises toward shorter wavelengths for two reasons: (1) the order separation decreases toward shorter wavelengths; and (2) the amount of echelle scattering is expected to have an inverse dependence on wavelength. At the shortest wavelengths the fraction of light scattered into the interorder region can be 10% for the Near-ultraviolet-Multi-Anode Microchannel Array (NUV-MAMA) and 15% for the Far-ultraviolet-Multi-Anode Microchannel Array (FUV-MAMA).

  1. Multiple Light Scattering Probes of Soft Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheffold, Frank

    2007-02-01

    I will discuss both static and dynamic properties of diffuse waves. In practical applications the optical properties of colloidal systems play an important role, for example in commercial products such as sunscreen lotions, food (drinks), coatings but also in medicine for example in cataract formation (eye lens turbidity). It is thus of importance to know the key parameters governing optical turbidity from the single to the multiple scattering regime. Temporal fluctuations of multiply scattered light are studied with photon correlation spectroscopy (Diffusing Wave Spectroscopy). This DWS method and its various implementations will be treated.

  2. Small angle neutron scattering studies of vesicle stability

    SciTech Connect

    Mang, J.T.; Hjelm, R.P.

    1997-10-01

    Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) was used to investigate the structure of mixed colloids of egg yolk phosphatidylcholine (EYPC) with the bile salt, cholylglycine (CG), in D{sub 2}O as a function of pressure (P) and temperature (T). At atmospheric pressure, the system forms an isotropic phase of mixed, single bilayer vesicles (SLV`s). Increasing the external hydrostatic pressure brought about significant changes in particle morphology. At T = 25 C, application of a pressure of 3.5 MPa resulted in the collapse of the SLV`s. Further increase of P, up to 51.8 MPa, resulted in a transition from a phase of ordered (stacked), collapsed vesicles to one of stacked, ribbon-like particles. A similar collapse of the vesicles was observed at higher temperature (T = 37 C) with increasing P, but at this temperature, no ribbon phase was found at the highest pressure explored.

  3. Small Angle Elastic Scattering of Protons off of Spinless Nuclei.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Alan Graham

    1988-12-01

    Elastic differential cross sections and analyzing powers for 800 MeV protons incident on ^ {12}C, ^{40} Ca, and ^{208}Pb in the momentum transfer range 20 MeV/c < q < 130 MeV/c have been measured. The data was taken with the High Resolution Spectrometer (HRS) at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility. Special delay -line drift chambers with dead regions for the beam to pass through them were used to obtain the data. Through the interference of the Coulomb and nuclear contributions to the differential cross section in the small angle region, the ratio of the real to imaginary part of the forward nuclear amplitude alpha_{rm n}(0) = Ref_{rm n}(0)/Imf_{rm n }(0) is extracted. The importance of knowing this quantity at lower energies in order to study the differences between relativistic and non-relativistic scattering theories is discussed.

  4. Radiation damage study using small-angle neutron scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rétfalvi, E.; Török, Gy; Rosta, L.

    2000-03-01

    Nuclear radiation provides important changes in the microstructure of metallic components of nuclear power plant and research reactors, influencing their mechanical properties. The investigation of this problem has primary interest for the safety and life-time of such nuclear installations. For the characterization of this kind of nanostructures small angle neutron scattering technique is a very useful tool. We have carried out experiments on samples of irradiated reactor vessel material and welded components of VVER-440-type reactors on the SANS instrument at the Budapest Research Reactor. In our measurements irradiated as well as non-irradiated samples were compared and magnetic field was applied for viewing the magnetic structure effects of the materials. A clear modification of the structure due to irradiation was obtained. Our data were analyzed by the ITP92 code, the inverse Fourier transform program of O. Glatter [1].

  5. A novel small-angle neutron scattering detector geometry

    PubMed Central

    Kanaki, Kalliopi; Jackson, Andrew; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Piscitelli, Francesco; Kirstein, Oliver; Andersen, Ken H.

    2013-01-01

    A novel 2π detector geometry for small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) applications is presented and its theoretical performance evaluated. Such a novel geometry is ideally suited for a SANS instrument at the European Spallation Source (ESS). Motivated by the low availability and high price of 3He, the new concept utilizes gaseous detectors with 10B as the neutron converter. The shape of the detector is inspired by an optimization process based on the properties of the conversion material. Advantages over the detector geometry traditionally used on SANS instruments are discussed. The angular and time resolutions of the proposed detector concept are shown to satisfy the requirements of the particular SANS instrument. PMID:24046504

  6. Modeling stray light from rough surfaces and subsurface scatter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, James E.; Goshy, John J.; Pfisterer, Richard N.

    2014-09-01

    Over the years we have developed an adequate theory and understanding of surface scatter from smooth optical surfaces (Rayleigh-Rice), moderately rough surfaces with paraxial incident and scattered angles (Beckmann- Kirchhoff) and even for moderately rough surfaces with arbitrary incident and scattered angles where a linear systems formulation requiring a two-parameter family of surface transfer functions is required to characterize the surface scatter process (generalized Harvey-Shack). However, there is always some new material or surface manufacturing process that provides non-intuitive scatter behavior. The linear systems formulation of surface scatter is potentially useful even for these situations. In this paper we will present empirical models of several classes of rough surfaces or materials (subsurface scatter) that allow us to accurately model the scattering behavior at any incident angle from limited measured scatter data. In particular, scattered radiance appears to continue being the natural quantity that exhibits simple, elegant behavior only in direction cosine space.

  7. Atmospheric particulate analysis using angular light scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, M. Z.

    1980-01-01

    Using the light scattering matrix elements measured by a polar nephelometer, a procedure for estimating the characteristics of atmospheric particulates was developed. A theoretical library data set of scattering matrices derived from Mie theory was tabulated for a range of values of the size parameter and refractive index typical of atmospheric particles. Integration over the size parameter yielded the scattering matrix elements for a variety of hypothesized particulate size distributions. A least squares curve fitting technique was used to find a best fit from the library data for the experimental measurements. This was used as a first guess for a nonlinear iterative inversion of the size distributions. A real index of 1.50 and an imaginary index of -0.005 are representative of the smoothed inversion results for the near ground level atmospheric aerosol in Tucson.

  8. Particle sizing by weighted measurements of scattered light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchele, Donald R.

    1988-01-01

    A description is given of a measurement method, applicable to a poly-dispersion of particles, in which the intensity of scattered light at any angle is weighted by a factor proportional to that angle. Determination is then made of four angles at which the weighted intensity is four fractions of the maximum intensity. These yield four characteristic diameters, i.e., the diameters of the volume/area mean (D sub 32 the Sauter mean) and the volume/diameter mean (D sub 31); the diameters at cumulative volume fractions of 0.5 (D sub v0.5 the volume median) and 0.75 (D sub v0.75). They also yield the volume dispersion of diameters. Mie scattering computations show that an average diameter less than three micrometers cannot be accurately measured. The results are relatively insensitive to extraneous background light and to the nature of the diameter distribution. Also described is an experimental method of verifying the conclusions by using two microscopic slides coated with polystyrene microspheres to simulate the particles and the background.

  9. Bacteriorhodopsin induces a light-scattering change in Halobacterium halobium

    PubMed Central

    1978-01-01

    When suspensions of Halobacterium halobium are exposed to bright light, the light-scattering properties of the bacteria change. This light- scattering response can produce a transmission decrease of about 1% throughout the red and near-infrared region. The action spectrum for the light-scattering response appropriately matches the absorption spectrum of bacteriorhodopsin. The response is eliminated by cyanide p- trifluoro-methoxyphenylhydrazone, a proton ionophore, and by triphenylmethylphosphonium, a membrane permanent cation. A mild hypertonic shock induces a similar light-scattering change, suggesting that bright light causes the bacteria to shrink about 1% in volume, thereby producing the light-scattering response. PMID:32181

  10. Calculations of scattered light from rigid polymers by Shifrin and Rayleigh-Debye approximations.

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, M F

    1989-01-01

    We show that the commonly used Rayleigh-Debye method for calculating light scattering can lead to significant errors when used for describing scattering from dilute solutions of long rigid polymers, errors that can be overcome by use of the easily applied Shifrin approximation. In order to show the extent of the discrepancies between the two methods, we have performed calculations at normal incidence both for polarized and unpolarized incident light with the scattering intensity determined as a function of polarization angle and of scattering angle, assuming that the incident light is in a spectral region where the absorption of hemoglobin is small. When the Shifrin method is used, the calculated intensities using either polarized or unpolarized scattered light give information about the alignment of polymers, a feature that is lost in the Rayleigh-Debye approximation because the effect of the asymmetric shape of the scatterer on the incoming polarized electric field is ignored. Using sickle hemoglobin polymers as an example, we have calculated the intensity of light scattering using both approaches and found that, for totally aligned polymers within parallel planes, the difference can be as large as 25%, when the incident electric field is perpendicular to the polymers, for near forward or near backward scattering (0 degrees or 180 degrees scattering angle), but becomes zero as the scattering angle approaches 90 degrees. For randomly oriented polymers within a plane, or for incident unpolarized light for either totally oriented or randomly oriented polymers, the difference between the two results for near forward or near backward scattering is approximately 15%. PMID:2605302

  11. Laser Light Scattering by Shock Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panda, J.; Adamovsky, G.

    1995-01-01

    Scattering of coherent light as it propagates parallel to a shock wave, formed in front of a bluff cylindrical body placed in a supersonic stream, is studied experimentally and numerically. Two incident optical fields are considered. First, a large diameter collimated beam is allowed to pass through the shock containing flow. The light intensity distribution in the resultant shadowgraph image, measured by a low light CCD camera, shows well-defined fringes upstream and downstream of the shadow cast by the shock. In the second situation, a narrow laser beam is brought to a grazing incidence on the shock and the scattered light, which appears as a diverging sheet from the point of interaction, is visualized and measured on a screen placed normal to the laser path. Experiments are conducted on shocks formed at various free-stream Mach numbers, M, and total pressures, P(sub 0). It is found that the widths of the shock shadows in a shadowgraph image become independent of M and P(sub 0) when plotted against the jump in the refractive index, (Delta)n, created across the shock. The total scattered light measured from the narrow laser beam and shock interaction also follows the same trend. In the numerical part of the study, the shock is assumed to be a 'phase object', which introduces phase difference between the upstream and downstream propagating parts of the light disturbances. For a given shape and (Delta)n of the bow shock the phase and amplitude modulations are first calculated by ray tracing. The wave front is then propagated to the screen using the Fresnet diffraction equation. The calculated intensity distribution, for both of the incident optical fields, shows good agreement with the experimental data.

  12. Influence of convection on the stimulated concentration light scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkhanov, I. S.; Krivokhizha, S. V.; Chaikov, L. L.

    2016-08-01

    A non-linear growth of the scattering intensity and the frequency shift of the spectral lines of scattered light close to the half-width of the spontaneous scattering in the back scattering of light in the suspensions of latex nanoparticles in water were found. It proves that we observed a stimulated scattering of light on the particle concentration variations. Influence of convection is taken into account using Doppler measurements of fluid flow.

  13. Method and Apparatus for Measuring Near-Angle Scattering of Mirror Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chipman, Russell A. (Inventor); Daugherty, Brian J. (Inventor); McClain, Stephen C. (Inventor); Macenka, Steven A. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Disclosed herein is a method of determining the near angle scattering of a sample reflective surface comprising the steps of: a) splitting a beam of light having a coherence length of greater than or equal to about 2 meters into a sample beam and a reference beam; b) frequency shifting both the sample beam and the reference beam to produce a fixed beat frequency between the sample beam and the reference beam; c) directing the sample beam through a focusing lens and onto the sample reflective surface, d) reflecting the sample beam from the sample reflective surface through a detection restriction disposed on a movable stage; e) recombining the sample beam with the reference beam to form a recombined beam, followed by f) directing the recombined beam to a detector and performing heterodyne analysis on the recombined beam to measure the near-angle scattering of the sample reflective surface, wherein the position of the detection restriction relative to the sample beam is varied to occlude at least a portion of the sample beam to measure the near-angle scattering of the sample reflective surface. An apparatus according to the above method is also disclosed.

  14. Initial State Helicity Correlation in Wide Angle Compton Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, Donal; Keller, Dustin; Zhang, Jixie

    2016-03-01

    Wide-angle Compton scattering (WACS) belongs to the family of exclusive processes, with large values of s, - t , and - u , that can reveal nucleon structure. In the pQCD version of WACS, three active quarks and two hard gluons are required to share the momentum. pQCD predictions for the WACS disagree with the cross sections currently available. In contrast, handbag mechanism calculations involving a single quark coupled to the spectator through GPDs, are compatible with the cross sections. Measurements of the longitudinal polarization transfer parameter KLL have been found to be inconsistent with the predictions of pQCD yet consistent with calculations within the handbag mechanism, at least at very large angles. There are handbag calculations, including quark and hadron helicity flip, which contradicts pQCD by finding that KLL ≠ALL . A measurement of ALL has been approved to run at Jefferson Lab and which has the potential to clarify the nature of the reaction mechanism in WACS and illuminate the role of quark orbital angular momentum. It will utilize a pure untagged bremsstrahlung photon beam and a longitudinally polarized proton target. After an introduction, the experiment will be described and the expected results presented.

  15. Radiant intensity of light scattered from clouds.

    PubMed

    Plass, G N; Kattawar, G W

    1968-04-01

    A Monte Carlo method that accurately allows for the numerous small angle scattering events is used to calculate the reflected and transmitted radiance and flux of visible radiation that has interacted with cumulus clouds. The variation of these quantities with solar zenith angle, optical thickness of the cloud, and surface albedo is studied. When the surface albedo is zero, the reflected radiance has a relative maximum at the horizon (except for very thick clouds and incident beam near zenith). When the incident beam is near the horizon, there is a strong maximum in the reflected radiance on the solar horizon and a pronounced minimum near the zenith. There is a relative maximum in the transmitted radiance around the direction of the incident beam until the cloud becomes thick in that direction. In most instances, the variations are greatly decreased when the surface albedo is unity.

  16. Light- scattering studies of blood sedimentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grzegorzewski, Bronislaw; Kowalinska, E.

    2002-02-01

    We present the result of investigation of blood sediment formation with the use of three different optical techniques. The angular dependence of scattered light intensity, transmitted light intensity across the sediment's layer and correlation of speckle intensity fluctuations were measure. Two characteristic time periods of the sedimentation process are demonstrated. In the first period three phases can be distinguished: the plasma, the phase of diffuse erythrocytes and the phase of already formed aggregates. In the second period the phase of the diffuse erythrocytes disappears. The results support the hypothesis that a phase transition is associated with the blood sedimentation process.

  17. Visible Inelastic Light Scattering from Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkinson, Roger Allen

    In this work we studied the spectral shape of the intense continuum of light scattered inelastically from "bare" metals used in Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering. We derived cross sections, presented their spectral properties, and experimentally sought to characterize the observable spectral shape. Three scattering cross sections are derived. The development includes exposure of assumptions and limitations in the derivation. Elucidated are: contributions due to the few angstrom drastic spatial and polarization variations of the applied electromagnetic field at jellium metal surfaces; fluctuation induced light scattering, such as, spin density, charge density (plasmon and single electron), and current density fluctuations; and the light coupling operators that arise from a choice of gauge used in photoemission rather than the customary Coulomb gauge. The result is a set of matrix elements that carry the important physics of light scattering by metallic electrons, and that is more complete than is found in the Surface Enhanced Raman literature. Using one of these matrix elements in the electric dipole approximation we have developed a quantum chemistry computer algorithm to evaluate the strength of light interaction with any metal surface which can be modeled as a cluster. The algorithm uses spd Slater-type bases and can study transition and noble metals. It was tested on some model systems. A formalism is presented for further developing the algorithm to calculate adsorbed molecular vibrational Raman cross sections in the limit of the long wavelength electric dipole approximation. We further present known continuum spectral shapes from familiar light coupling operators (a subset of those we derived) and associate them with our experimentally observed spectral shapes. In the experimental study of spectral shapes we found the mechanical disorder, due to cold working smooth metals during polishing, to correlate with the strength of the continuum. Using microscopic

  18. Angle-resolved scattering spectroscopy of explosives using an external cavity quantum cascade laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suter, Jonathan D.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Phillips, Mark C.

    2012-01-01

    We present a study of the spectral and angular dependence of the diffuse scatter of mid-infrared (MIR) laser light from explosives residues on surfaces. Experiments were performed using an external cavity quantum cascade laser (ECQCL) tunable between 7 and 8 μm (1270 to 1400 cm-1) for surface illumination. A mercury cadmium telluride (MCT) detector was used to detect backscattered spectra as a function of surface angle at a 2 meter standoff. A ferroelectric focal plane array was used to build hyperspectral images at a 0.5 meter standoff. Residues of RDX, tetryl, and TNT were investigated on surfaces including a painted car door for angles between zero (specular) and 50 degrees. We observe spectral signatures of the explosives in the diffuse scattering geometry which differ significantly from those observed in transmission geometries. Characterization of the scattered light spectra of explosives on surfaces will be essential for understanding the performance of standoff explosives detection instruments and developing robust spectral analysis techniques.

  19. A Light Scattering Layer for Internal Light Extraction of Organic Light-Emitting Diodes Based on Silver Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Lee, Keunsoo; Shin, Jin-Wook; Park, Jun-Hwan; Lee, Jonghee; Joo, Chul Woong; Lee, Jeong-Ik; Cho, Doo-Hee; Lim, Jong Tae; Oh, Min-Cheol; Ju, Byeong-Kwon; Moon, Jaehyun

    2016-07-13

    We propose and fabricate a random light scattering layer for light extraction in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with silver nanodots, which were obtained by melting silver nanowires. The OLED with the light scattering layer as an internal light extraction structure was enhanced by 49.1% for the integrated external quantum efficiency (EQE). When a wrinkle structure is simultaneously used for an external light extraction structure, the total enhancement of the integrated EQE was 65.3%. The EQE is maximized to 65.3% at a current level of 2.0 mA/cm(2). By applying an internal light scattering layer and wrinkle structure to an OLED, the variance in the emission spectra was negligible over a broad viewing angle. Power mode analyses with finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulations revealed that the use of a scattering layer effectively reduced the waveguiding mode while introducing non-negligible absorption. Our method offers an effective yet simple approach to achieve both efficiency enhancement and spectral stability for a wide range of OLED applications.

  20. Peculiarities of excitation of surface plasmons upon noncollinear light scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Andreev, Anatolii V; Korneev, A A; Mukina, L S; Nazarov, Maksim M; Prudnikov, I R; Shkurinov, A P

    2005-01-31

    The efficiency of excitation of surface plasmons upon noncollinear light scattering from a metal diffraction grating is studied. It is shown that this efficiency strongly depends on the grating profile and the azimuthal angle of rotation. The relation between the spatial configuration of the electromagnetic field near the grating-vacuum interface and the possibility of excitation of plasmons is found. Taking into account different conditions for plasmon excitation, the peculiarities of experimental angular dependences of specular reflection are explained. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasma)

  1. Light-scattering and dispersion behavior of multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saltiel, Craig; Manickavasagam, Siva; Pinar Mengüc, M.; Andrews, Rodney

    2005-08-01

    Elliptically polarized light-scattering measurements were performed to investigate the dispersion behavior of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNT). Xylene- and pyridine-derived MWNT powders were dispersed in water and ethanol in separate optic cells and allowed to sit undisturbed over a two-week time period after probe sonication. Continuous light-scattering measurements taken between scattering angles of 10-170 deg and repeated over several days showed that the nanotubes formed fractal-like networks. The pyridine-derived MWNTs showed greater dispersion variation over time, tending to aggregate and clump much faster than the xylene-derived tubes. The water suspensions appeared much more stable than the ethanol suspensions, which transformed into nonfractal morphology after a few hours. We relate the dispersion stability to size and fringe patterns on the outer surface of the nanotubes. Measured values of fractal dimension were distinctly lower than those in previous studies of single-walled carbon nanotubes. Profiles of both diagonal and off-diagonal scattering matrix elements are presented.

  2. Bacterial Identification Using Light Scattering Measurements: a Preliminary Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkins, J. R.

    1971-01-01

    The light scattering properties of single bacterial cells were examined as a possible means of identification. Three species were studied with streptococcus faecalis exhibiting a unique pattern; the light-scattering traces for staphylococcus aureus and escherichia coli were quite similar although differences existed. Based on preliminary investigations, the light scattering approach appeared promising with additional research needed to include a wide variety of bacterial species, computer capability to handle and analyze data, and expansion of light scattering theory to include bacterial cells.

  3. Bacterial Identification Using Light Scattering Measurements: a Preliminary Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkins, J. R.

    1971-01-01

    The light scattering properties of single bacterial cells were examined as a possible means of identification. Three species were studied with streptococcus faecalis exhibiting a unique pattern; the light-scattering traces for staphylococcus aureus and escherichia coli were quite similar although differences existed. Based on preliminary investigations, the light scattering approach appeared promising with additional research needed to include a wide variety of bacterial species, computer capability to handle and analyze data, and expansion of light scattering theory to include bacterial cells.

  4. Light scattering from unclad fibers: ray theory.

    PubMed

    Marcuse, D

    1975-07-01

    Information contained in the position of the peaks of backscattered light intensity from an unclad fiber, with laser light incident at right angles to the fiber axis, is utilized to determine the parameter b/lambda (b = fiber radius, lambda free space wavelength). For known laser wavelength the fiber diameter can thus be determined. The theory is based on an approximate ray analysis and is compared with the results of the exact wave theory. Good agreement is obtained. The accuracy of this procedure may vary between 1% and 10%.

  5. Antibody elbow angles are influenced by their light chain class

    SciTech Connect

    Stanfield, R; Zemla, A; Wilson, I; Rupp, B

    2006-01-12

    We have examined the elbow angles for 365 different Fab fragments, and observe that Fabs with lambda light chains have adopted a wider range of elbow angles than their kappa-chain counterparts, and that the lambda light chain Fabs are frequently found with very large (>195{sup o}) elbow angles. This apparent hyperflexibility of lambda-chain Fabs may be due to an insertion in their switch region, which is one residue longer than in kappa chains, with glycine occurring most frequently at the insertion position. A new, web-based computer program that was used to calculate the Fab elbow angles is also described.

  6. Designs and Reliability Evaluations of a Scattered Light Measurement System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kang-Min

    The purpose of my work was to develop an in-plane stray light measurement system having the advantage of being easily applicable in both motion control and optical configurations. First of all, mechanical designs were conducted based on both 3D modeling and structural analysis through a finite element method (FEM). Optical configurations for both the incident source and the detector were designed to achieve minimum observed source convergence angle of the system. The control panel and micro stepping system were programmed for automated measurement. Finally, the designed system was calibrated and aligned. In order to evaluate the system reliability for scatter measurements from various surface conditions, a total of 9 samples were used. Scattering analysis for bidirectional scatter distribution functions of the samples were conducted: rough surface, smooth surface and small particles. ABg model, Rayleigh-Rice theory and Generalized Harvey-Shack theory were used to verify the scatter measurements. The results indicate that the designed system was appropriately developed for measuring scattering phenomena by rough surface, smooth surface and small particles.

  7. In vivo measurement of mid-infrared light scattering from human skin

    PubMed Central

    Michel, Anna P. M.; Liakat, Sabbir; Bors, Kevin; Gmachl, Claire F.

    2013-01-01

    Two mid-infrared light sources, a broadband source from a Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR) and a pulsed Quantum Cascade (QC) Laser, are used to measure angle-resolved backscattering in vivo from human skin across a broad spectral range. Scattering profiles measured using the FTIR suggest limited penetration of the light into the skin, with most of the light interacting with the stratum corneum layer of the epidermis. Scattering profiles from the QC laser show modulation patterns with angle suggesting interaction with scattering centers in the skin. The scattering is attributed to interaction of the laser light with components such as collagen fibers and capillaries in the dermis layer of the skin. PMID:23577287

  8. Light scattering by irregular particles much larger than the wavelength with wavelength-scale surface roughness.

    PubMed

    Grynko, Yevgen; Shkuratov, Yuriy; Förstner, Jens

    2016-08-01

    We simulate light scattering by random irregular particles that have dimensions much larger than the wavelength of incident light at the size parameter of X=200 using the discontinuous Galerkin time domain method. A comparison of the DGTD solution for smoothly faceted particles with that obtained with a geometric optics model shows good agreement for the scattering angle curves of intensity and polarization. If a wavelength-scale surface roughness is introduced, diffuse scattering at rough interface results in smooth and featureless curves for all scattering matrix elements which is consistent with the laboratory measurements of real samples.

  9. Small angle scattering polarization biopsy: a comparative analysis of various skin diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimnyakov, D. A.; Alonova, M. V.; Yermolenko, S. B.; Ivashko, P. V.; Reshetnikova, E. M.; Galkina, E. M.; Utz, S. R.

    2013-12-01

    An approach to differentiation of the morphological features of normal and pathological human epidermis on the base of statistical analysis of the local polarization states of laser light forward scattered by in-vitro tissue samples is discussed. The eccentricity and the azimuth angle of local polarization ellipses retrieved for various positions of the focused laser beam on the tissue surface, and the coefficient of collimated transmittance are considered as the diagnostic parameters for differentiation. The experimental data obtained with the psoriasis, discoid lupus erythematosus, alopecia, lichen planus, scabies, demodex, and normal skin samples are presented.

  10. Analysis of light scattered by turbid media in cylindrical geometry.

    PubMed

    Tromp, R Hans; Liemert, André; Meinders, Marcel B J

    2014-07-22

    The angle dependence of the transmitted light through a cylindrical turbid sample (latex suspension, developing milk gel, draining/coarsening milk, and protein foams) in a standard light scattering setup was analyzed in terms of the transport mean free path length or scattering length l* (a measure for the turbidity) and the absorption length labs. By variation of the concentration of an absorbing dye, the independence of l* and labs was demonstrated. The resulting value of the specific extinction coefficient of the dye was found to be in fair agreement with direct spectroscopic determination and practically identical in milk and latex suspensions. The validity of this technique for obtaining l* was demonstrated by monitoring the acid-induced gelation of milk. The possibility to simultaneously determine l* and labs was used to follow the time development of a draining and coarsening protein foam which contained an absorbing dye. It was shown that labs can be used as a measure for the volume fraction of air in the foam. This method of monitoring the transmission of multiple light scattering provides an easy way to determine l* and, specifically for foams, quantitative data dominated by the bulk of the foam.

  11. Influence of forward and multiple light scatter on the measurement of beam attenuation in highly scattering marine environments.

    PubMed

    Piskozub, Jacek; Stramski, Dariusz; Terrill, Eric; Melville, W Kendall

    2004-08-20

    Using three-dimensional Monte Carlo radiative transfer simulations, we examine the effect of beam transmissometer geometry on the relative error in the measurement of the beam-attenuation coefficient in an aquatic environment characterized by intense light scattering, especially within submerged bubble clouds entrained by surface-wave breaking. We discuss the forward-scattering error associated with the detection of photons scattered at small angles (< 1 degrees) and the multiple-scattering error associated with the detection of photons scattered more than once along the path length of the instrument. Several scattering phase functions describing bubble clouds at different bubble void fractions in the water are considered. Owing to forward-scattering error, a beam-attenuation meter (beam transmissometer) with a half-angle of receiver acceptance of 1.0 degrees and a path length of 0.1 m can underestimate the true beam attenuation within the bubble cloud by more than 50%. For bubble clouds with a beam attenuation of as much as 100 m(-1), the multiple-scattering error is no more than a few percent. These results are compared with simulations for some example phase functions that are representative of other scattering regimes found in natural waters. The forward-scattering error for the Petzold phase function of turbid waters is 16% for a typical instrument geometry, whereas for the Henyey-Greenstein phase function with the asymmetry parameter of 0.7 and 0.9 the error range is 8-28%.

  12. Measurements of near forward scattered laser light in a large ICF plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Moody, J.D., LLNL

    1998-06-02

    We describe an instrument which measures the angular spread and spectrum of near forward scattered laser light from a probe beam in a long scalelength laser-plasma. The instrument consists of a combination of time integrating and time resolving detectors which measure the scattered light amplitude over four orders of magnitude for a range of angles. These measurements allow us to study the beam spray resulting from various laser and plasma conditions and determine the density fluctuations associated with this beam spray.

  13. Differential light-scattering of granal and agranal chloroplasts and their fragments.

    PubMed Central

    Faludi-Dániel, A; Bialek, G E; Horváth, G; Sz-Rózsa, Z; Gregory, R P

    1978-01-01

    Intact (class-A) granal and agranal maize chloroplasts and chloroplast fragments were examined for differential scattering of circularly polarized light (measured at 90 degrees) and c.d. (circular dichroism) (measured at 0 degrees) by using a modified spectropolarimeter with a large acceptance angle. Useful c.d. information was obtained by making corrections for scattered light. Chloroplast fragments exhibited a large and characteristic differential scattering of circularly polarized light recognized in the presence of granal chloroplasts. It is confirmed that agranal chloroplasts do not have the intense 682 nm c.d. peak that is assigned to the presence of grana. PMID:708414

  14. Measurement of light scattering in deep sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maragos, N.; Balasi, K.; Domvoglou, T.; Kiskiras, I.; Lenis, D.; Maniatis, M.; Stavropoulos, G.

    2016-04-01

    The deep-sea neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea, being prepared by the KM3NET collaboration, will contain thousands of optical sensors to readout. The accurate knowledge of the optical properties of deep-sea water is of great importance for the neutrino event reconstruction process. In this study we describe our progress in designing an experimental setup and studying a method to measure the parameters describing the absorption and scattering characteristics of deep-sea water. Three PMTs will be used to measure in situ the scattered light emitted from six laser diodes in three different wavelengths covering the Cherenkov radiation spectrum. The technique for the evaluation of the parameters is based on Monte Carlo simulations and our results show that we are able to determine these parameters with satisfying precision.

  15. Measurement of energy spectra of small-angle scattering and distribution of optical microinhomogeneities in laser ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Tverdokhleb, P E; Shepetkin, Yu A; Steinberg, I Sh; Belikov, A Yu; Vatnik, S M; Vedin, I A; Kurbatov, P F

    2014-06-30

    The energy spectra of small-angle light scattering from the samples of Nd:YAG ceramics and the spatial distributions of optical microinhomogeneities in them are measured. The spatial profiles of microinhomogeneities are found using the collinear heterodyne microprobe technique. Based on the obtained data, the comparison of noise and lasing characteristics of foreign and domestic samples of laser ceramics is carried out. (extreme light fields and their applications)

  16. Measurement of the Weak Mixing Angle in Moller Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Klejda, B.

    2005-01-28

    scattering. This value corresponds to a weak mixing angle at Q{sup 2} = 0.026 (GeV/c){sup 2} of sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub w{ovr MS}} = 0.2379 {+-} 0.0016 (stat.) {+-} 0.0013 (syst.), which is -0.3 standard deviations away from the Standard Model prediction: sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub w{ovr MS}}{sup predicted} = 0.2385 {+-} 0.0006 (theory). The E158 measurement of sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub w} at a precision of {delta}(sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub w}) = 0.0020 provides new physics sensitivity at the TeV scale.

  17. HD100546 multi-epoch scattered light observations

    SciTech Connect

    Avenhaus, Henning; Quanz, Sascha P.; Meyer, Michael R.; Brittain, Sean D.; Carr, John S.; Najita, Joan R.

    2014-07-20

    We present H, K{sub s}, and L' filter polarimetric differential imaging (PDI) data for the transitional disk around HD100546 obtained in 2013, together with an improved re-reduction of previously published 2006 data. We reveal the disk in polarized scattered light in all three filters, achieving an inner working angle of ∼0.''1. Additional, short-exposure observations in the H and K{sub s} filters probe the surroundings of the star down to ∼0.''03 (∼3 AU). HD100546 is fascinating because of its variety of sub-structures possibly related to forming planets in the disk, and PDI is currently the best technique for imaging them in the near-IR. For the first time ever, we detect a disk in L-band PDI data, and we constrain the outer radius of the inner hole to 14 ± 2 AU and its eccentricity to <0.133. A dark lane is detected between ∼0.''2-0.''6 AU in the front side of the disk, which is likely an effect of the scattering angle and the scattering function of the grains. We find a spiral arm in the northeast that has no obvious connection to spiral arms seen before by other authors further out in the disk, but winds are in the same direction (clockwise). The two bright scattering peaks along the semi-major axis are asymmetric, with the southeastern one being significantly brighter. This could be related to the inner companion candidate that is close to the brighter side of the disk at the time of the observations. The scattering color is close to gray between the H and K{sub s} filters ([H]–[K{sub s}] = 0.19 ± 0.11), but the scattering in the L' filter is significantly weaker ([H]–[L'] = –1.08 ± 0.35, [K{sub s}]–[L'] = –1.27 ± 0.35). We measure the position angle of the disk to be 138° ± 3°, consistent with previous observations, and we derive the dust scattering function in the H and K{sub s} filters between ∼35° and ∼130° at two different radii (30-50 and 80-110 AU) and show that our results are consistent with a disk that is more strongly

  18. Light Scattering Study of Titania Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Choonghoon; Sorensen, Chris

    1997-03-01

    We studied the fractal morphology of titania aerosols by light scattering. Titania aerosols were generated by the thermal decomposition of titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) in a silica tube furnace. TTIP was evaporated at temperatures up to 80^circC and its vapor was carried by dry nitrogen to a furnace with temperature in the range of 400 - 600^circC. A TEM analysis of the generated particles showed a typical DLCA structure with a monomer diameter about 50 nm. The particles were then made to flow through a narrow outlet as a laminar stream. The light scattering from these particles was measured using a He-Ne laser as a light source. The measured structure factor clearly showed the Rayleigh, Guinier, and fractal regimes. The fractal morphological parameters, such as the cluster radius of gyration, the fractal dimension, and the fractal prefactor were studied from the structure factor as a function of particle generation conditions. The cluster radius of gyration was about 1 μm and showed a modest dependency on the generation conditions. The fractal dimension was about 1.7 in all cases. These results are in good agreement with the TEM analysis.

  19. Light Scattering from Exoplanet Oceans and Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zugger, Michael; Kasting, J. F.; Williams, D. M.; Kane, T. J.; Philbrick, C. R.

    2011-01-01

    Orbital variation in reflected starlight from exoplanets could eventually be used to detect surface oceans. Exoplanets with rough surfaces, or dominated by atmospheric Rayleigh scattering, should reach peak brightness in full phase, orbital longitude = 180deg, whereas ocean planets with transparent atmospheres should reach peak brightness in crescent phase near OL = 30deg. Application of Fresnel theory to a planet with no atmosphere covered by a calm ocean predicts a peak polarization fraction of 1 at OL = 74deg; however, our model shows that clouds, wind-driven waves, aerosols, absorption, and Rayleigh scattering in the atmosphere and within the water column, dilute the polarization fraction and shift the peak to other OLs. Observing at longer wavelengths reduces the obfuscation of the water polarization signature by Rayleigh scattering but does not mitigate the other effects. Planets with thick Rayleigh scattering atmospheres reach peak polarization near OL = 90deg, but clouds and Lambertian surface scattering dilute and shift this peak to smaller OL. A shifted Rayleigh peak might be mistaken for a water signature unless data from multiple wavelength bands are available. Our calculations suggest that polarization alone may not positively identify the presence of an ocean under an Earth-like atmosphere; however polarization adds another dimension which can be used, in combination with unpolarized orbital light curves and contrast ratios, to detect extrasolar oceans, atmospheric water aerosols, and water clouds. Additionally, the presence and direction of the polarization vector could be used to determine planet association with the star, and constrain orbit inclination. This research was funded by the NASA Astrobiology Institute, the University of Washington Virtual Planetary Laboratory, and the Penn State Astrobiology Institute. Authors M. Zugger, J. Kasting, and D. Williams are members of the Penn State Center for Exoplanets and Habitable Worlds.

  20. New Very Small Angle Neutron Scattering (VSANS) Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Every, E.; Deyhim, A.; Kulesza, J.

    2016-09-01

    The design of a new Very Small Angle Neutron Scattering (VSANS) Instrument for use in National Institute of Standards And Technology (NIST) will be discussed. This instrument is similar to a shorter instrument we designed and delivered to ANSTO in Australia called the Bilby SANS instrument. The NIST VSANS and the ANSTO Bilby SANS instruments have very similar dimensions for length and diameter and have similar requirements for internal detector motion, top access port, walkway supports, and ports; however, the Bilby SANS instrument vacuum requirement was lower (7.5×10-5 Torr) and the entire (60,000 pound) vessel was required to move 1.5 meters on external rails with a repeatability of 100 um, which ADC achieved. The NIST VSANS length is 24 meter, internal diameter 2.3 meter with three internal carriages. The NIST VSANS instrument, which covers the usual SANS range will also allow configuration to cover the range between q ∼⃒ 10-4 A-1 to 10-3 A-1 with a sample beam current of (104 neutrons/s). The key requirements are a second position-sensitive detector system having a 1 mm pixel size and a longer sample-detector flight path of 20 m (i.e., a 40 m instrument).

  1. Heparin's solution structure determined by small-angle neutron scattering.

    PubMed

    Rubinson, Kenneth A; Chen, Yin; Cress, Brady F; Zhang, Fuming; Linhardt, Robert J

    2016-12-01

    Heparin is a linear, anionic polysaccharide that is widely used as a clinical anticoagulant. Despite its discovery 100 years ago in 1916, the solution structure of heparin remains unknown. The solution shape of heparin has not previously been examined in water under a range of concentrations, and here is done so in D2 O solution using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). Solutions of 10 kDa heparin-in the millimolar concentration range-were probed with SANS. Our results show that when sodium concentrations are equivalent to the polyelectrolyte's charge or up to a few hundred millimoles higher, the molecular structure of heparin is compact and the shape could be well modeled by a cylinder with a length three to four times its diameter. In the presence of molar concentrations of sodium, the molecule becomes extended to nearly its full length estimated from reported X-ray measurements on stretched fibers. This stretched form is not found in the presence of molar concentrations of potassium ions. In this high-potassium environment, the heparin molecules have the same shape as when its charges were mostly protonated at pD ≈ 0.5, that is, they are compact and approximately half the length of the extended molecules.

  2. Small angle elastic scattering of protons off of spinless nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Ling, A.G.

    1988-07-01

    Elastic differential cross sections and analyzing powers for 800 MeV protons incident on /sup 12/C, /sup 40/Ca, and /sup 208/Pb in the momentum transfer range 20 MeV/c < q < 130 MeV/c have been measured. The data was taken with the High Resolution Spectrometer (HRS) at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility. Special delay-line drift chambers with dead regions for the beam to pass through them were used to obtain the data. Through the interference of the Coulomb and nuclear contributions to the differential cross section in the small angle region, the ratio of the real to imaginary part of the forward nuclear amplitude ..cap alpha../sub n/(0) = Ref/sub n/(0)/Imf/sub n/(0) is extracted. The importance of knowing this quantity at lower energies in order to study the differences between relativistic and non-relativistic scattering theories is discussed. 130 refs., 60 figs., 12 tabs.

  3. Branch Content in Hybrid Materials using Small-Angle Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaucage, Greg

    2005-03-01

    Inorganic/organic hybrid materials often display ramified mass- fractal structures characterized by primary particle size, aggregate size, and mass-fractal dimension. Physical properties, such as mechanical and dynamic mechanical properties and electrical conductivity (in carbon composites for instance), can not be predicted using only these structural features since such properties are intimately tied to the degree and type of branching as shown by Witten [1]. Witten suggested the use of the minimum dimension, or the related connectivity dimension, to calculate mechanical response in these hybrid systems. A viable technique to quantify the minimum dimension and connectivity dimension in hybrid materials has, until recently, been absent from the literature. This presentation will discuss the use of small-angle x-ray and neutron scattering to describe branch content in hybrid materials [2] and will outline an approach to use the minimum dimension and connectivity dimension to predict static and dynamic mechanical properties for hybrid materials based on structure [1, 3]. 1. Witten TA, Rubinstein M, Colby RH Reinforcement of Rubber by Fractal Aggregates J Phys II 3 (3): 367-383 (1993). 2. Beaucage G Determination of branch fraction and minimum dimension of mass-fractal aggregates Phys Rev E 70 (3): art. no. 031401 Part 1 (2004). 3. Kohls DJ, Beaucage G Rational design of reinforced rubber Curr Opin Solid St M 6 (3): 183-194 (2002).

  4. Nanostructure surveys of macroscopic specimens by small-angle scattering tensor tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebi, Marianne; Georgiadis, Marios; Menzel, Andreas; Schneider, Philipp; Kohlbrecher, Joachim; Bunk, Oliver; Guizar-Sicairos, Manuel

    2015-11-01

    The mechanical properties of many materials are based on the macroscopic arrangement and orientation of their nanostructure. This nanostructure can be ordered over a range of length scales. In biology, the principle of hierarchical ordering is often used to maximize functionality, such as strength and robustness of the material, while minimizing weight and energy cost. Methods for nanoscale imaging provide direct visual access to the ultrastructure (nanoscale structure that is too small to be imaged using light microscopy), but the field of view is limited and does not easily allow a full correlative study of changes in the ultrastructure over a macroscopic sample. Other methods of probing ultrastructure ordering, such as small-angle scattering of X-rays or neutrons, can be applied to macroscopic samples; however, these scattering methods remain constrained to two-dimensional specimens or to isotropically oriented ultrastructures. These constraints limit the use of these methods for studying nanostructures with more complex orientation patterns, which are abundant in nature and materials science. Here, we introduce an imaging method that combines small-angle scattering with tensor tomography to probe nanoscale structures in three-dimensional macroscopic samples in a non-destructive way. We demonstrate the method by measuring the main orientation and the degree of orientation of nanoscale mineralized collagen fibrils in a human trabecula bone sample with a spatial resolution of 25 micrometres. Symmetries within the sample, such as the cylindrical symmetry commonly observed for mineralized collagen fibrils in bone, allow for tractable sampling requirements and numerical efficiency. Small-angle scattering tensor tomography is applicable to both biological and materials science specimens, and may be useful for understanding and characterizing smart or bio-inspired materials. Moreover, because the method is non-destructive, it is appropriate for in situ measurements and

  5. Nanostructure surveys of macroscopic specimens by small-angle scattering tensor tomography.

    PubMed

    Liebi, Marianne; Georgiadis, Marios; Menzel, Andreas; Schneider, Philipp; Kohlbrecher, Joachim; Bunk, Oliver; Guizar-Sicairos, Manuel

    2015-11-19

    The mechanical properties of many materials are based on the macroscopic arrangement and orientation of their nanostructure. This nanostructure can be ordered over a range of length scales. In biology, the principle of hierarchical ordering is often used to maximize functionality, such as strength and robustness of the material, while minimizing weight and energy cost. Methods for nanoscale imaging provide direct visual access to the ultrastructure (nanoscale structure that is too small to be imaged using light microscopy), but the field of view is limited and does not easily allow a full correlative study of changes in the ultrastructure over a macroscopic sample. Other methods of probing ultrastructure ordering, such as small-angle scattering of X-rays or neutrons, can be applied to macroscopic samples; however, these scattering methods remain constrained to two-dimensional specimens or to isotropically oriented ultrastructures. These constraints limit the use of these methods for studying nanostructures with more complex orientation patterns, which are abundant in nature and materials science. Here, we introduce an imaging method that combines small-angle scattering with tensor tomography to probe nanoscale structures in three-dimensional macroscopic samples in a non-destructive way. We demonstrate the method by measuring the main orientation and the degree of orientation of nanoscale mineralized collagen fibrils in a human trabecula bone sample with a spatial resolution of 25 micrometres. Symmetries within the sample, such as the cylindrical symmetry commonly observed for mineralized collagen fibrils in bone, allow for tractable sampling requirements and numerical efficiency. Small-angle scattering tensor tomography is applicable to both biological and materials science specimens, and may be useful for understanding and characterizing smart or bio-inspired materials. Moreover, because the method is non-destructive, it is appropriate for in situ measurements and

  6. Scattering of light on rippled surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilarov, V. L.; Korsukov, V. E.; Korsukova, M. M.; Shcherbakov, I. P.

    2015-06-01

    Thin platinum foils and ribbons of the amorphous alloy Fe77Ni1Si9B13 with fractal surfaces made of unidirectional multiscale surface ripples have been prepared. The surface relief and atomic structure of these foils have been investigated by low-energy electron diffraction, atomic force microscopy, and scanning tunnelling microscopy. It has been shown that Pt foils with a fractal surface relief have the prospect for application as reflective diffraction gratings. A model has been proposed and used to calculate the light scattering on unidirectional rippled surface structures of Pt foils.

  7. Applications of Optical Sensors to the Detection of Light Scattered from Gelling Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulone, Donatella; Manno, Mauro; San Biagio, Pier Luigi; Martorana, Vincenzo

    Visible light, scattered within an angle of few degrees, (Small Angle Light Scattering, SALS) yields information on the spatial correlations and dynamical properties on the scale of the micrometers. In this way a quick and non-invasive characterization of a variety of samples is feasible. Lately the SALS instruments have been built around multielement optical sensors (CCD, CMOS), allowing the simultaneous measurement of the complete structure factor even during fast kinetics. An assessment of some sensor matrices of different technology will be presented. The omolecular assemblies produced by polysaccharides or proteins can be functional or dysfunctional, their properties being either desirable or detrimental. Anyhow, their morphology often depends, in a very delicate way, on the presence of cosolutes, on the thermal history, on the biopolymer concentration etc. We present some applications of low angle dynamic and static light scattering to the study of gelling systems (agarose, pectin, insulin).

  8. Light scattering from dense cold atomic media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Bihui; Cooper, John; Ye, Jun; Rey, Ana Maria

    2016-08-01

    We theoretically study the propagation of light through a cold atomic medium, where the effects of motion, laser intensity, atomic density, and polarization can all modify the properties of the scattered light. We present two different microscopic models: the "coherent dipole model" and the "random-walk model", both suitable for modeling recent experimental work done in large atomic arrays in the low-light-intensity regime. We use them to compute relevant observables such as the linewidth, peak intensity, and line center of the emitted light. We further develop generalized models that explicitly take into account atomic motion. Those are relevant for hotter atoms and beyond the low-intensity regime. We show that atomic motion can lead to drastic dephasing and to a reduction of collective effects, together with a distortion of the line shape. Our results are applicable to model a full gamut of quantum systems that rely on atom-light interactions, including atomic clocks, quantum simulators, and nanophotonic systems.

  9. Effect of laser-radiation polarization on the nonlinear scattering of light in nanodiamond suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikheev, G. M.; Vanyukov, V. V.; Mogileva, T. N.; Puzyr', A. P.; Bondar', V. S.; Svirko, Yu. P.

    2014-07-01

    The effect of laser radiation polarization on the nonlinear scattering of light in aqueous suspensions of detonation nanodiamonds (DNDs) in a regime of optical power limiting (OPL) has been studied. It is established that the nonlinear transmission coefficient of DND suspension in the OPL regime in a field of nanosecond laser pulses with a wavelength of 532 nm is independent of the polarization of incident radiation. The nonlinear scattering of light observed at an angle of 90° in the plane perpendicular to the plane of polarization of the incident radiation depends on the polarization angle in accordance with a trigonometric law. It is shown that the ratio of the signals of scattered radiation for the vertical and horizontal polarizations exhibits nonmonotonic dependence on the laser-beam power density. The results are explained by the Rayleigh-Mie scattering and a change in the size of scattering centers as a result of the effect of a laser upon the DND suspension.

  10. Light organization of small particles by multiple scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hang, Zhi Hong

    Optical manipulation is of broad interest in physics, chemistry, and biology. In the literature, most of the studies are focused on the optical trapping on a single object. In this thesis, we investigated the light-induced interaction of a collection of particles. The light-induced interaction between small particles was studied by a hierarchy of methods including the dipole theory, the multiple scattering and Maxwell stress tensor formalism, and the finite-difference-time-domain method. We showed that the multiple scattering between small particles could induce a binding mechanism to stabilize optically organized structures, but at the same time induced an intrinsic unbinding mechanism. The stability of optically organized structure was studied and a concept of "optical density" was introduced to gauge the destabilizing effect. We found that light-induced forces could bind dielectric spheres into extended structures through two mechanisms, each with its own length scale which could be adjusted by the configuration of the external light source. By manipulating the commensurability of the two length scales, these two mechanisms cooperated to bind a large number of spheres. When the two length scales became incommensurate for some particular incident angle, the competition between the two mechanisms led to modulated structures and other complex phenomena such as re-entrant stability. We searched for the possibility for stabilizing larger clusters. For this purpose, we found that circularly polarized light bound dielectric spheres into large-scale two-dimensional hexagonal lattice and multiple scattering also induced a rotation of optically bound structures. We searched for configurations that could induce optical trapping by field enhancement. Enhanced transmission on perforated metallic film system was studied. Surface modes bound on multi perforated perfect metal plate system were analytical solved and related to different high transmittance modes. Near

  11. Quantitative impact of small angle forward scatter on whole blood oximetry using a Beer-Lambert absorbance model.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, Serge Emile; Atanya, Monica; Burns, Kevin; Munger, Rejean

    2011-04-21

    It is well known that red blood cell scattering has an impact on whole blood oximetry as well as in vivo retinal oxygen saturation measurements. The goal of this study was to quantify the impact of small angle forward scatter on whole blood oximetry for scattering angles found in retinal oximetry light paths. Transmittance spectra of whole blood were measured in two different experimental setups: one that included small angle scatter in the transmitted signal and one that measured the transmitted signal only, at absorbance path lengths of 25, 50, 100, 250 and 500 µm. Oxygen saturation was determined by multiple linear regression in the 520-600 nm wavelength range and compared between path lengths and experimental setups. Mean calculated oxygen saturation differences between setups were greater than 10% at every absorbance path length. The deviations to the Beer-Lambert absorbance model had different spectral dependences between experimental setups, with the highest deviations found in the 520-540 nm range when scatter was added to the transmitted signal. These results are consistent with other models of forward scatter that predict different spectral dependences of the red blood cell scattering cross-section and haemoglobin extinction coefficients in this wavelength range.

  12. Light scattering in artificial fog and simulated with light scattering filter.

    PubMed

    Ikaunieks, Gatis; Colomb, Michéle; Ozolinsh, Maris

    2009-05-01

    Disability glare, affecting e.g. road safety at night, may result either from intraocular light scattering or from external conditions such as fog. Measurements were made of light scattering in fog and compared with intraocular straylight data for normal eyes and eyes with simulated cataract. All measurements were made with a direct compensation flicker method. To estimate light scattering levels in fog, straylight measurements were carried in a fog chamber for different densities of fog. Density was characterized by the meteorological term visibility V and ranged from 7 to 25. Test distance for measurements in the fog was constant at 5 m. Cataract eye conditions were simulated by placing a light scattering polymer dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) filter with scatterers of submicron size in front of the normal eye. All measurements were made using each of three broad-band color stimuli - red, green and blue (produced either with LEDs or a color CRT monitor). Differences were found in both the level and the spectral characteristics of scattering under the different conditions. The measured values of the straylight parameter, s, in artificial fog showed no noticeable spectral dependence at any visibility range. Increasing the visibility range caused an exponential decrease in the straylight. Intraocular straylight measured with the clear eye showed an increase at the red and blue ends of the spectrum as compared to the green. Straylight measured using PDLC plates with different transparency levels showed a spectral dependence which decreased with wavelength. The scattering introduced by the PDLC plate therefore failed to give a valid simulation of cataract and fog conditions for polychromatic stimuli, due to its erroneous spectral dependence.

  13. Differences in forward angular light scattering distributions between M1 and M2 macrophages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halaney, David L.; Zahedivash, Aydin; Phipps, Jennifer E.; Wang, Tianyi; Dwelle, Jordan; Saux, Claude Jourdan Le; Asmis, Reto; Milner, Thomas E.; Feldman, Marc D.

    2015-11-01

    The ability to distinguish macrophage subtypes noninvasively could have diagnostic potential in cancer, atherosclerosis, and diabetes, where polarized M1 and M2 macrophages play critical and often opposing roles. Current methods to distinguish macrophage subtypes rely on tissue biopsy. Optical imaging techniques based on light scattering are of interest as they can be translated into biopsy-free strategies. Because mitochondria are relatively strong subcellular light scattering centers, and M2 macrophages are known to have enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis compared to M1, we hypothesized that M1 and M2 macrophages may have different angular light scattering profiles. To test this, we developed an in vitro angle-resolved forward light scattering measurement system. We found that M1 and M2 macrophage monolayers scatter relatively unequal amounts of light in the forward direction between 1.6 deg and 3.2 deg with M2 forward scattering significantly more light than M1 at increasing angles. The ratio of forward scattering can be used to identify the polarization state of macrophage populations in culture.

  14. Differences in forward angular light scattering distributions between M1 and M2 macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Halaney, David L.; Zahedivash, Aydin; Phipps, Jennifer E.; Wang, Tianyi; Dwelle, Jordan; Saux, Claude Jourdan Le; Asmis, Reto; Milner, Thomas E.; Feldman, Marc D.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. The ability to distinguish macrophage subtypes noninvasively could have diagnostic potential in cancer, atherosclerosis, and diabetes, where polarized M1 and M2 macrophages play critical and often opposing roles. Current methods to distinguish macrophage subtypes rely on tissue biopsy. Optical imaging techniques based on light scattering are of interest as they can be translated into biopsy-free strategies. Because mitochondria are relatively strong subcellular light scattering centers, and M2 macrophages are known to have enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis compared to M1, we hypothesized that M1 and M2 macrophages may have different angular light scattering profiles. To test this, we developed an in vitro angle-resolved forward light scattering measurement system. We found that M1 and M2 macrophage monolayers scatter relatively unequal amounts of light in the forward direction between 1.6 deg and 3.2 deg with M2 forward scattering significantly more light than M1 at increasing angles. The ratio of forward scattering can be used to identify the polarization state of macrophage populations in culture. PMID:26538329

  15. A study of the polarization of light scattered by vegetation. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woessner, P. N.

    1985-01-01

    This study was undertaken in order to better understand the factors that govern the polarization of light scattered from vegetation and soils. The intensity and polarization of light scattered by clover and grass in vivo and soil were measured at a number of different angles of incidence and reflectance. Both individual leaves and natural patches of leaves were measured. The light transmitted through the leaves was found to be negatively polarized. The light scattered from the upper leaf surface was found to be positively polarized in a manner which could be accounted for qualitatively but not quantitatively by the Fresnel reflection coefficients modified by a shadowing function of the form cos sup2 (g/2), where g is the phase angle. Findings indicate that the polarization of light scattered by vegetation is a more complex process than previously thought, and that besides the surface-scattered component of light, the volume-scattered and multiply-scattered components also contribute significantly to the polarization.

  16. Differences in forward angular light scattering distributions between M1 and M2 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Halaney, David L; Zahedivash, Aydin; Phipps, Jennifer E; Wang, Tianyi; Dwelle, Jordan; Saux, Claude Jourdan Le; Asmis, Reto; Milner, Thomas E; Feldman, Marc D

    2015-11-01

    The ability to distinguish macrophage subtypes noninvasively could have diagnostic potential in cancer, atherosclerosis, and diabetes, where polarized M1 and M2 macrophages play critical and often opposing roles. Current methods to distinguish macrophage subtypes rely on tissue biopsy. Optical imaging techniques based on light scattering are of interest as they can be translated into biopsy-free strategies. Because mitochondria are relatively strong subcellular light scattering centers, and M2 macrophages are known to have enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis compared to M1, we hypothesized that M1 and M2 macrophages may have different angular light scattering profiles. To test this, we developed an in vitro angle-resolved forward light scattering measurement system. We found that M1 and M2 macrophage monolayers scatter relatively unequal amounts of light in the forward direction between 1.6 deg and 3.2 deg with M2 forward scattering significantly more light than M1 at increasing angles. The ratio of forward scattering can be used to identify the polarization state of macrophage populations in culture.

  17. Atom-interferometric studies of light scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beattie, S.; Barrett, B.; Chan, I.; Mok, C.; Yavin, I.; Kumarakrishnan, A.

    2009-07-01

    We have used an echo-type atom interferometer that manipulates laser-cooled atoms in a single ground state to investigate the effect of light scattering from pulsed and continuous-wave light. The interferometer uses two off-resonant standing-wave pulses applied at times t=0 and t=T to diffract and recombine momentum states separated by 2ℏk at t=2T . Matter wave interference is associated with the formation of a density grating with period λ/2 in the vicinity of this echo time. The grating contrast is measured by recording the intensity of coherently backscattered light. The interferometer is perturbed by an additional pulse applied at t=2T-δT or by continuous-wave background light. If the additional pulse is a standing wave, the momentum states interfering at t=2T are displaced and the grating contrast can be completely recovered due to constructive interference. In this case, the contrast shows a periodic modulation at the atomic recoil frequency as a function of δT . In a recent work, it was shown that the atomic recoil frequency can be measured easily and precisely when using coherence functions to model the signal shape. This paper provides an alternative description of the signal shape through an analytical calculation of echo formation in the presence of an additional standing-wave pulse. Using this treatment, it is possible to model the effects of spontaneous emission and spatial profile of the laser beam on the signal shape. Additionally, the theory predicts scaling laws as a function of the pulse area and the number of additional standing-wave pulses. These scaling laws are investigated experimentally and can be exploited to improve precision measurements of the atomic recoil frequency. We also show that coherence functions can be used to make a direct measurement of the populations of momentum states associated with the ground state under conditions where the Doppler-broadened velocity distribution of the sample is much larger than the recoil

  18. Small-Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) Instrument Performance and Validation Using Silver Nanoparticles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-01

    Using Silver Nanoparticles by Frederick L Beyer Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. NOTICES...Small-Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) Instrument Performance and Validation Using Silver Nanoparticles by Frederick L Beyer Weapons and Materials...2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Small-Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) Instrument Performance and Validation Using Silver Nanoparticles 5a. CONTRACT

  19. Small Angle X ray Scattering (SAXS) Instrument Performance and Validation Using Silver Nanoparticles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-01

    Using Silver Nanoparticles by Frederick L Beyer Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. NOTICES...Small-Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) Instrument Performance and Validation Using Silver Nanoparticles by Frederick L Beyer Weapons and Materials...2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Small-Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) Instrument Performance and Validation Using Silver Nanoparticles 5a. CONTRACT

  20. Spectral data of specular reflectance, narrow-angle transmittance and angle-resolved surface scattering of materials for solar concentrators.

    PubMed

    Good, Philipp; Cooper, Thomas; Querci, Marco; Wiik, Nicolay; Ambrosetti, Gianluca; Steinfeld, Aldo

    2016-03-01

    The spectral specular reflectance of conventional and novel reflective materials for solar concentrators is measured with an acceptance angle of 17.5 mrad over the wavelength range 300-2500 nm at incidence angles 15-60° using a spectroscopic goniometry system. The same experimental setup is used to determine the spectral narrow-angle transmittance of semi-transparent materials for solar collector covers at incidence angles 0-60°. In addition, the angle-resolved surface scattering of reflective materials is recorded by an area-scan CCD detector over the spectral range 350-1050 nm. A comprehensive summary, discussion, and interpretation of the results are included in the associated research article "Spectral reflectance, transmittance, and angular scattering of materials for solar concentrators" in Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells.

  1. Spectral data of specular reflectance, narrow-angle transmittance and angle-resolved surface scattering of materials for solar concentrators

    PubMed Central

    Good, Philipp; Cooper, Thomas; Querci, Marco; Wiik, Nicolay; Ambrosetti, Gianluca; Steinfeld, Aldo

    2015-01-01

    The spectral specular reflectance of conventional and novel reflective materials for solar concentrators is measured with an acceptance angle of 17.5 mrad over the wavelength range 300−2500 nm at incidence angles 15–60° using a spectroscopic goniometry system. The same experimental setup is used to determine the spectral narrow-angle transmittance of semi-transparent materials for solar collector covers at incidence angles 0–60°. In addition, the angle-resolved surface scattering of reflective materials is recorded by an area-scan CCD detector over the spectral range 350–1050 nm. A comprehensive summary, discussion, and interpretation of the results are included in the associated research article “Spectral reflectance, transmittance, and angular scattering of materials for solar concentrators” in Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells. PMID:26862556

  2. Industrial Particle Size Measurement Using Light Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muly, E. C.; Frock, H. N.

    1980-12-01

    The precise knowledge of particle size and particle size distribution is fundamental to the control of a wide variety of industrial processes. Processing steps as diverse as crystallization, grinding, emulsification, and atomization, produce particles in the size range .1 to 1000 micrometers in diameter. While the object of some processes may be the production of particles of specified sizes, e.g., abrasives and glass beads, other processes may require particle size control for process efficiency, e.g., crystallization, and still others for control of final product quality, e.g., minerals, cement, and ceramics. In many processes more than one of these reasons may be important. A line of instruments has been developed using light scattering to measure various parameters of particulate distributions. These instruments employ laser illumination of a flowing stream of particles, producing Fraunhofer diffraction patterns which are processed both optically and electronically with unique, proprietary techniques. Various parameters of the particle size distribution are measured. The measurement is both rapid and precise. This paper will cover the importance of particle size measurements in various processes, different types of measurement methods, and the application of light scattering technology to size determinations in wet slurries and dry powders. A number of specific applications will be discussed encompassing minerals grinding, Portland cement, and rolling mill emulsions. Some references will be made to energy savings through automation.

  3. Light Scattering From Fractal Titania Aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pande, Rajiv; Sorensen, Christopher M.

    1996-03-01

    We studied the fractal morphology of titania aggregates by light scattering. Titanium dioxide particles were generated by the thermal decomposition of titanium tetra-isopropoxide(TTIP) in a glass furnace at various temperatures in the range of 100 - 500^o C. We scattered vertically polarized He-Ne laser (λ = 6328Ålight from a laminar aerosol stream of particles and measured the optical structure factor. This structure factor shows Rayleigh, Guinier, fractal and Porod regimes. The radius of gyration Rg was determined from the Guinier analysis. The data were then fit to the Fisher-Burford form to determine the fractal dimension of about 2.0. This fit also delineated the crossover from the fractal to Porod regime, which can be used to determine the monomer particle size of about 0.1 μm. These optical measurements will be compared to electron microscope analysis of aggregates collected from the aerosol. This work was supported by NSF grant CTS-9908153.

  4. Light scattering characterization of extruded lipid vesicles.

    PubMed

    Jin, A J; Huster, D; Gawrisch, K; Nossal, R

    1999-01-01

    By modeling extruded unilamellar lipid vesicles as thin-walled ellipsoidal shells, mathematical analysis provides simple equations which relate the mean elongation and other morphological characteristics of a vesicle population to quantities readily obtained from combined static and dynamic light scattering measurements. For SOPC vesicles extruded through a 100 nm pore-size filter into a 72.9 mM NaCl solution, the inferred elongation ratio (vesicle long axis to short axis) is approximately 3.7 +/- 0.6. When these vesicles were dialyzed into hypertonic or hypotonic solutions, this elongation ratio varied from 1 (for spherical liposomes) in strongly hypotonic solutions to greater than 6 in increasingly hypertonic solutions, beyond which abrupt morphological transformations appear. These results are quantitatively consistent with a mechanism of vesicle formation by extrusion and with the expectation that vesicle volumes change to equalize internal and external osmolarity via water flow, subject to the constraint of constant bilayer area. Our analysis also provides simplified equations to assess the effects of vesicle elongation and polydispersity on liposome parameters that are commonly required to characterize vesicle preparations for diverse applications. The implications of this study for routine light scattering characterization of extruded vesicles are discussed.

  5. Coincidence measurements of electron-impact coherence parameters for e-He scattering in the full range of scattering angles

    SciTech Connect

    Klosowski, Lukasz; Piwinski, Mariusz; Dziczek, Dariusz; Pleskacz, Katarzyna; Chwirot, Stanislaw

    2009-12-15

    Electron impact coherence parameters for inelastic e-He scattering have been measured for the excitation to the 2 {sup 1}P{sub 1} state at collision energy of 100 eV. The experiment was conducted using angular correlation electron-photon coincidence technique with a magnetic angle changer allowing measurements in full range of scattering angles. The results are compared with other experimental data and theoretical predictions available for this collisional system.

  6. Preparing monodisperse macromolecular samples for successful biological small-angle X-ray and neutron-scattering experiments.

    PubMed

    Jeffries, Cy M; Graewert, Melissa A; Blanchet, Clément E; Langley, David B; Whitten, Andrew E; Svergun, Dmitri I

    2016-11-01

    Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) are techniques used to extract structural parameters and determine the overall structures and shapes of biological macromolecules, complexes and assemblies in solution. The scattering intensities measured from a sample contain contributions from all atoms within the illuminated sample volume, including the solvent and buffer components, as well as the macromolecules of interest. To obtain structural information, it is essential to prepare an exactly matched solvent blank so that background scattering contributions can be accurately subtracted from the sample scattering to obtain the net scattering from the macromolecules in the sample. In addition, sample heterogeneity caused by contaminants, aggregates, mismatched solvents, radiation damage or other factors can severely influence and complicate data analysis, so it is essential that the samples be pure and monodisperse for the duration of the experiment. This protocol outlines the basic physics of SAXS and SANS, and it reveals how the underlying conceptual principles of the techniques ultimately 'translate' into practical laboratory guidance for the production of samples of sufficiently high quality for scattering experiments. The procedure describes how to prepare and characterize protein and nucleic acid samples for both SAXS and SANS using gel electrophoresis, size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) and light scattering. Also included are procedures that are specific to X-rays (in-line SEC-SAXS) and neutrons, specifically preparing samples for contrast matching or variation experiments and deuterium labeling of proteins.

  7. Angle-resolved scattering spectroscopy of explosives using an external cavity quantum cascade laser

    SciTech Connect

    Suter, Jonathan D.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Phillips, Mark C.

    2012-04-01

    Investigation of angle-resolved scattering from solid explosives residues on a car door for non-contact sensing geometries. Illumination with a mid-infrared external cavity quantum cascade laser tuning between 7 and 8 microns was detected both with a sensitive single point detector and a hyperspectral imaging camera. Spectral scattering phenomena were discussed and possibilities for hyperspectral imaging at large scattering angles were outlined.

  8. A biophysical study of clathrin utilizing light scattering, neutron scattering and structure based computer modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, Matthew Lee

    A principal component in the protein coats of certain post-golgi and endocytic vesicles is clathrin, which appears as a three-legged heteropolymer (known as a triskelion) that assembles into polyhedral baskets principally made up of pentagonal and hexagonal faces. In vitro, this assembly depends on the pH, with baskets forming more readily at low pH and less readily at high pH. We have developed procedures, based on static and dynamic light scattering, to determine the radius of gyration, Rg, and hydrodynamic radius, RH, of isolated triskelia under conditions where basket assembly occurs. Calculations based on rigid molecular bead models of a triskelion show that the measured values can be accounted for by bending of the legs and a puckering at the vertex. We also show that the values of Rg and R H measured for clathrin triskelia in solution are qualitatively consistent with the conformation of an individual triskelion that is part of a "D6 barrel" basket assembly measured by cryo-EM tomography. We extended this study by performing small angle neutron scattering (SANS) experiments on isolated triskelia in solution under conditions where baskets do not assemble. SANS experiments were consistent with previous static light scattering experiments but showed a shoulder in the scattering function at intermediate q-values just beyond the central diffraction peak (the Guinier regime). Theoretical calculations based on rigid bead models of a triskelion showed well-defined features in this region different from the experiment. A flexible bead-spring model of a triskelion and Brownian dynamics simulations were used to generate a time averaged scattering function. This model adequately described the experimental data for flexibilities close to previous estimates from the analysis of electron micrographs.

  9. Polarized light diffusely scattered under smooth and rough interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Germer, Thomas A.

    2003-12-01

    We develop models for light scattering appropriate for glossy and matte paints. Volume scattering is treated in the single scattering regime and the diffusive scattering regime. In the single scattering regime, scattering is treated in the Rayleigh-Gans approximation, using a Henyey-Greenstein phase function. Interaction of the light with the smooth or rough interface is treated in the facet approximation. The theory for transmissive light scattering by a rough interface in the facet approximation is presented. To treat volume scattering under a rough interface, a Monte Carlo approach is used, where light is allowed to interact with the surface twice, once upon entering the material and once upon exiting. We compare the polarization and intensity predicted by the models with experimental data from glossy and matte paint samples. The results indicate that the new models are an improvement over the Maxwell-Beard model.

  10. Determination of light absorption, scattering and anisotropy factor of a highly scattering medium using backscattered circularly polarized light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, M.; Alrubaiee, M.; Gayen, S. K.; Alfano, R. R.

    2007-02-01

    The absorption coefficient, the scattering coefficient and the anisotropy factor of a highly scattering medium are determined using the diffuse reflectance of an obliquely incident beam of circularly polarized light. This approach determines both the anisotropy factor and the cutoff size parameter for the fractal continuous scattering medium such as biological tissue and tissue phantoms from depolarization of the backscattered light.

  11. Modeling of light scattering by icy bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolokolova, L.; Mackowski, D.; Pitman, K.; Verbiscer, A.; Buratti, B.; Momary, T.

    2014-07-01

    As a result of ground-based, space-based, and in-situ spacecraft mission observations, a great amount of photometric, polarimetric, and spectroscopic data of icy bodies (satellites of giant planets, Kuiper Belt objects, comet nuclei, and icy particles in cometary comae and rings) has been accumulated. These data have revealed fascinating light-scattering phenomena, such as the opposition surge resulting from coherent backscattering and shadow hiding and the negative polarization associated with them. Near-infrared (NIR) spectra of these bodies are especially informative as the depth, width, and shape of the absorption bands of ice are sensitive not only to the ice abundance but also to the size of icy grains. Numerous NIR spectra obtained by Cassini's Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) have been used to map the microcharacteristics of the icy satellites [1] and rings of Saturn [2]. VIMS data have also permitted a study of the opposition surge for icy satellites of Saturn [3], showing that coherent backscattering affects not only brightness and polarization of icy bodies but also their spectra [4]. To study all of the light-scattering phenomena that affect the photopolarimetric and spectroscopic characteristics of icy bodies, including coherent backscattering, requires computer modeling that rigorously considers light scattering by a large number of densely packed small particles that form either layers (in the case of regolith) or big clusters (ring and comet particles) . Such opportunity has appeared recently with a development of a new version MSTM4 of the Multi-Sphere T-Matrix code [5]. Simulations of reflectance and absorbance spectra of a ''target'' (particle layer or cluster) require that the dimensions of the target be significantly larger than the wavelength, sphere radius, and layer thickness. For wavelength-sized spheres and packing fractions typical of regolith, targets can contain dozens of thousands of spheres that, with the original MSTM

  12. Fourier-transform light scattering of individual colloidal clusters.

    PubMed

    Yu, HyeonSeung; Park, HyunJoo; Kim, Youngchan; Kim, Mahn Won; Park, YongKeun

    2012-07-01

    We present measurements of the scalar-field light scattering of individual dimer, trimer, and tetrahedron shapes among colloidal clusters. By measuring the electric field with quantitative phase imaging at the sample plane and then numerically propagating to the far-field scattering plane, the two-dimensional light-scattering patterns from individual colloidal clusters are effectively and precisely retrieved. The measured scattering patterns are consistent with simulated patterns calculated from the generalized multiparticle Mie solution.

  13. Angular-dependent polarization-based plasmon light scattering for bioaffinity sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslan, Kadir; Lakowicz, Joseph R.; Geddes, Chris D.

    2005-12-01

    We describe an approach to affinity biosensing based on the depolarization of plasmon scatter of biotinylated-bovine serum albumin coated 20nm gold colloids crosslinked by streptavidin. Our model system employs nanoparticles which initially scatter incident light with P ≈1, in a Rayleigh-like manner. However, upon aggregation, the nanoparticles show a decreased polarization and an increased forward scatter, consistent with both plasmon near-field coupling and Mie like scatter, enabling large changes in polarization detectable at angles approaching 180°.

  14. A Study of Brownian Motion Using Light Scattering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Noel A.; Lunacek, Joseph H.

    1969-01-01

    Describes an apparatus designed to investigate molecular motion by means of light scattering. Light from a He-Ne laser is focused into a cell containing a suspension of polystyrene spheres. The scattered light, collected on the photosurface of a photomultiplier tube, is analyzed. The apparatus won first prize in Demonstration Lecture Apparatus in…

  15. A Study of Brownian Motion Using Light Scattering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Noel A.; Lunacek, Joseph H.

    1969-01-01

    Describes an apparatus designed to investigate molecular motion by means of light scattering. Light from a He-Ne laser is focused into a cell containing a suspension of polystyrene spheres. The scattered light, collected on the photosurface of a photomultiplier tube, is analyzed. The apparatus won first prize in Demonstration Lecture Apparatus in…

  16. Recent applications of small-angle neutron scattering in strongly interacting soft condensed matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wignall, G. D.; Melnichenko, Y. B.

    2005-08-01

    Before the application of small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) to the study of polymer structure, chain conformation studies were limited to light and small-angle x-ray scattering techniques, usually conducted in dilute solution owing to the difficulties of separating the inter- and intrachain contributions to the structure. The unique role of neutron scattering in soft condensed matter arises from the difference in the coherent scattering length between deuterium (bD = 0.67 × 10-12 cm) and hydrogen (bH = -0.37 × 10-12 cm), which results in a marked difference in scattering power (contrast) between molecules synthesized from normal (hydrogeneous) and deuterated monomer units. Thus, deuterium labelling techniques may be used to 'stain' molecules and make them 'visible' in the condensed state and other crowded environments, such as concentrated solutions of overlapping chains. For over two decades, SANS has proved to be a powerful tool for studies of structure-property relationships in polymeric systems and has made it possible to extract unique information about their size, shape, conformational changes and molecular associations. These applications are now so numerous that an exhaustive review of the field is no longer practical, so the authors propose to focus on the use of SANS for studies of strongly interacting soft matter systems. This paper will therefore discuss basic theory and practical aspects of the technique and will attempt to explain the physics of scattering with the minimum of unnecessary detail and mathematical rigour. Examples will be given to demonstrate the power of SANS and to show how it has helped to unveil universal aspects of the behaviour of macromolecules in such apparently diverse systems as polymer solutions, blends, polyelectrolytes and supercritical mixtures. The aim of the authors is to aid potential users who have a general scientific background, but no specialist knowledge of scattering, to understand the potential of the

  17. Measuring the dynamics of structural changes in biological macromolecules from light scattering data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Adriel D.

    1993-01-01

    Examining techniques to study the dynamics of structural changes in various molecules has been an ongoing goal of the space program. Knowing how these phenomena occur in biological systems is fundamental to understanding what is necessary for life to remain functional in the space environment. A hierarchy of biological organization is functionally described when cells join together small organic molecules to form larger and more complex molecules. Characterizing the architecture of a particular macromolecule helps determine how that molecule works in the living cell and is basic to the diversity of life. Understanding this arrangement involves the correlation of the structure of macromolecules with their functions. A light scattering photometer was developed for detecting continuous measurement of the angular spectrum of light scattered by dynamically changing systems. The analysis of light scattered by biological macromolecules can be used to determine concentration, size, shape, molecular weight, and structural changes of cells, such as erythrocytes. Some light scattering photometers can collect and store 120 angular scattering spectra per minute, with an angular resolution of 0.2 deg which can be displayed with computer graphics. The light scattering photometer does the following: functions to produce and detect scattered light; determines scatter angles; and collects, stores, and analyzes data.

  18. Versatile wide angle diffraction setup for simultaneous wide and small angle x-ray scattering measurements with synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Rueda, D.R.; Garcia-Gutierrez, M.C.; Nogales, A.; Capitan, M.J.; Ezquerra, T.A.; Labrador, A.; Fraga, E.; Beltran, D.; Juanhuix, J.; Herranz, J.F.; Bordas, J.

    2006-03-15

    Here we present a novel, simple, and versatile experimental setup aimed to perform wide angle x-ray scattering (WAXS) measurements alone or in simultaneous combination with small angle x-ray scattering measurements. The design of the WAXS goniometer allows one to obtain high resolution diffraction patterns in a broad angular range. The setup can incorporate a hot stage in order to evaluate temperature resolved experiments. The performance of the equipment has been verified in the BM16 beam line of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility with different well known samples such as alumina, isotropic film of high density polyethylene (HDPE), and oriented HPDE fiber.

  19. Nanostructured metallic rear reflectors for thin solar cells: balancing parasitic absorption in metal and large-angle scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Disney, Claire E. R.; Pillai, Supriya; Green, Martin A.

    2015-12-01

    Rear reflectors for solar cells comprised of metal films with periodic arrays of nanoscale features on their surface can provide significantly enhanced light trapping in the absorber layer. However these structures can also result in significantly increased parasitic absorption into the metal layer at various wavelengths of light. Conversely these highly absorbing resonances can also coincide with the wavelengths which display the largest enhancement to the cell's photocurrent. As such it is important to understand the underlying causes for such photocurrent enhancements and losses in the metal in order to design the optimum structure for use. 3D Finite-difference-time-domain simulations have been used to model a variety of structures and analyze the spatial distribution of absorption within different materials which make up the structure, the angles at which light will be scattered from the rear surface, as well as the idealized short circuit current from each structure integrated across the AM1.5 spectrum. These reveal the properties of these modes at resonant wavelengths at which absorption into both materials is enhanced. Despite the enhanced coupling of light into the metal at these wavelengths, the amount of light scattered back into the absorber at large angles is also significantly boosted. For a large variety of geometries, the impact of this large angle scattering dominates leading to significant increases to a cell's photocurrent. Our simulations allow us to understand the contributions of multiple plasmonic effects occurring in such structures, allowing selection of the most suitable geometries to achieve large-angle scattering in a desired wavelength range.

  20. Light Scattering by Stochastic Solids, Aggregates and Regoliths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lumme, K.; Rahola, J.

    1999-09-01

    We use our well-tested light scattering code based on a numerical solution of the electromagnetic integral equation to complete the full four by four Muller matrix for light scattering. Our code is very versatile as to the geometry of particles. One of our goals is doing light scattering by various particle forms to understand the two ubiquitous photopolarimetric phenomena of the atmosphereless solar system bodies, comets and interplanetary dust. These are: the universal brightening of the object towards the planetary opposition (opposition effect or spike) and the reversal of linear polarization taking place at the phase angles of about 20(o) . First, we generate stochastically deformed spheres with two different radius covariance functions in the size parameter range from 1 to 7 and apply the power law size distribution to their individual contributions. Our computations quite naturally produce both the opposition effect and the reversal of linear polarization. Second, we create with the diffusion-limited aggregation code closely packed clusters with a power law size distributed particles. Again the above mentioned two phenomena quite naturally follow. These two different particle geometries seem to indicate that an unambiguous inversion of the photopolarimetric data is not possible. This is even more so because the typical cosmic dust particles are almost certainly much bigger than allowed in our code. Finally, we model a planetary regolith by randomly placing several hundred sheres in a cylidrical geometry with a varying packing density. Once again those two phenomena follow. We also compare our computations to our Monte-Carlo code for a horizontally finite cylinder in the radiative transfer regime to see the effects fo close packing. Both the intensity and linear polarization are fairly well reproduced, excluding the forward and backward directions by the ray-optical, radiattive transfer model.

  1. Angular scattering of light by a homogeneous spherical particle in a zeroth-order Bessel beam and its relationship to plane wave scattering.

    PubMed

    Preston, Thomas C; Reid, Jonathan P

    2015-06-01

    The angular scattering of light from a homogeneous spherical particle in a zeroth-order Bessel beam is calculated using a generalized Lorenz-Mie theory. We investigate the dependence of the angular scattering on the semi-apex angle of the Bessel beam and discuss the major features of the resulting scattering plots. We also compare Bessel beam scattering to plane wave scattering and provide criterion for when the difference between the two cases can be considered negligible. Finally, we discuss a method for characterizing spherical particles using angular light scattering. This work is useful to researchers who are interested in characterizing particles trapped in optical beams using angular dependent light scattering measurements.

  2. Discrete Sources Method for light scattering analysis of non-axisymmetric features of a substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eremin, Yuri; Wriedt, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The Discrete Sources Method (DSM) has been extended to analyze polarized light scattering by non-axial symmetric nano-sized features on a plane substrate. A detailed description of the corresponding numerical scheme is provided. Using a "fictitious" particle approach the new DSM model enables to consider scattering from such substrate defects as a line bump and a line pit. The developed computer model has been employed for demonstrating the ability to perform a comparative analysis of light scattering from such line features. Simulation results corresponding to the Differential Scattering Cross-Section (DSC) and the integral response for P/S polarized light are presented. It was found that the integral response can change by an order of magnitude depending on the orientation of the linear defect with respect to the direction of the incident laser light. In addition, it was shown that some defects can turn out to be "invisible" if an oblique angle of incidence is chosen.

  3. Differential Light Scattering Measurements of Heat-Treated Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Berkman, Richard M.; Wyatt, Philip J.

    1970-01-01

    Effects of heat on diameter, size distribution, and refractive index of Staphylococcus epidermidis suspensions were determined accurately by computer analysis of differential light scattering data. PMID:5485733

  4. LIGHT SCATTERING: Observation of multiple scattering of laser radiation from a light-induced jet of microparticles in suspension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondrat'ev, Andrei V.

    2004-06-01

    Variation in the correlation function of light multiply scattered by a random medium was observed with increasing the incident beam power. The light-induced motion of microparticles in suspension, caused by a high-power laser radiation, serves as an additional factor in the decorrelation of the scattered light. The experimental data are in good agreement with the results of theoretical analysis.

  5. Analytic height correlation function of rough surfaces derived from light scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamani, M.; Shafiei, F.; Fazeli, S. M.; Downer, M. C.; Jafari, G. R.

    2016-10-01

    We derive an analytic expression for the height correlation function of a homogeneous, isotropic rough surface based on the inverse wave scattering method of Kirchhoff theory. The expression directly relates the height correlation function to diffuse scattered intensity along a linear path at fixed polar angle. We test the solution by measuring the angular distribution of light scattered from rough silicon surfaces and comparing extracted height correlation functions to those derived from atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results agree closely with AFM over a wider range of roughness parameters than previous formulations of the inverse scattering problem, while relying less on large-angle scatter data. Our expression thus provides an accurate analytical equation for the height correlation function of a wide range of surfaces based on measurements using a simple, fast experimental procedure.

  6. Scattering of circularly polarized light by a rotating black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frolov, Valeri P.; Shoom, Andrey A.

    2012-07-01

    We study scattering of polarized light by a rotating (Kerr) black hole of mass M and angular momentum J. In order to keep trace of the polarization dependence of photon trajectories one can use the following dimensionless parameter: ɛ=±(ωM)-1, where ω is the photon frequency and the sign + (-) corresponds to the right (left) circular polarization. We assume that |ɛ|≪1 and use the modified geometric optics approximation developed in [Phys. Rev. D 84, 044026 (2011)]; that is, we include the first order in ɛ polarization-dependent terms into the eikonal equation. These corrections modify late-time behavior of photons. We demonstrate that the photon moves along a null curve, which in the limit ɛ=0 becomes a null geodesic. We focus on the scattering problem for polarized light. Namely, we consider the following problems: (i) How does the photon’s bending angle depend on its polarization? (ii) How does the position of the image of a pointlike source depend on its polarization? (iii) How does the arrival time of photons depend on their polarization? We perform the numerical calculations that illustrate these effects for an extremely rotating black hole and discuss their possible applications.

  7. Light scattering by red blood cells in ektacytometry: Fraunhofer versus anomalous diffraction.

    PubMed

    Streekstra, G J; Hoekstra, A G; Nijhof, E J; Heethaar, R M

    1993-05-01

    In the present literature on ektacytometry, small angle light scattering by ellipsoidal red blood cells is commonly approximated by Fraunhofer diffraction. Calculations on a sphere with the size and relative refractive index of a red cell, however, show that Fraunhofer diffraction deviates significantly from exact Mie theory. Anomalous diffraction is found to be a much better approximation. The anomalous diffraction theory is used to calculate the intensity distribution of the light scattered by an ellipsoidally deformed red blood cell. The derived expression shows that the ellipticity of isointensity curves in forward scattered light are equal to the ellipticity of the red blood cell. The theoretical expression is fitted to the intensity patterns measured with an ektacytometer. For the small observation angles used in ektacytometry, the experimental results confirm the validity of the anomalous diffraction approach.

  8. Polarized light-scattering profile-advanced characterization of nonspherical particles with scanning flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Strokotov, Dmitry I; Moskalensky, Alexander E; Nekrasov, Vyacheslav M; Maltsev, Valeri P

    2011-07-01

    We instrumentally, theoretically, and experimentally demonstrate a new approach for characterization of nonspherical individual particles from light scattering. Unlike the original optical scheme of the scanning flow cytometer that measures an angle-resolved scattering corresponding in general to S₁₁ element of the light-scattering matrix, the modernized instrument allows us to measure the polarized light-scattering profile of individual particles simultaneously. Theoretically, the polarized profile is expressed by the combination of a few light-scattering matrix elements. This approach supports us with additional independent data to characterize a particle with a complex shape and an internal structure. Applicability of the new method was demonstrated from analysis of polymer bispheres. The bisphere characteristics, sizes, and refractive indices of each sphere composing the bisphere were successfully retrieved from the solution of the inverse light-scattering problem. The solution provides determination of the Eulerian angles, which describe the orientation of the bispheres relative to the direction of the incident laser beam and detecting polarizer of the optical system. Both the ordinary and polarized profiles show a perfect agreement with T-matrix simulation resulting to 50-nm precision for sizing of bispheres. Copyright © 2011 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  9. Experimental methods in the study of neutron scattering at small angles

    SciTech Connect

    Dragolici, Cristian A.

    2014-11-24

    Small angle scattering (SAS) is the collective name given to the techniques of small angle neutron (SANS) and X-ray (SAXS) scattering. They offer the possibility to analyze particles without disturbing their natural environment. In each of these techniques radiation is elastically scattered by a sample and the resulting scattering pattern is analyzed to provide information about the size, shape and orientation of some component of the sample. Accordingly, a large number of methods and experimental patterns have been developed to ease the investigation of condensed matter by use of these techniques. Some of them are the discussed in this paper.

  10. Hyper-Rayleigh light scattering from an aqueous suspension of purple membrane.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, P K; Rayfield, G W

    1994-07-01

    Here we report the first observation of hyper-Rayleigh light scattering from bacteriorhodopsin in the form of an aqueous suspension of unoriented purple membranes. A typical purple membrane suspension used in our experiments contains approximately 10(8) randomly oriented purple membranes. Each purple membrane contains approximately 10(5) bacteriorhodopsin molecules in a two-dimensional crystallinearray. Hyper-Rayleigh light scattering is observed when the purple membrane suspension is illuminated with light that has a wavelength of 1064 nm. We propose that the 532-nm scattered light from each of the bacteriorhodopsin molecules in a single purple membrane is coherent, and that the scattered light from different purple membranes is incoherent. This proposal is supported by the following experimental observations: (a) the 532-nm light intensity is proportional to the square of the incident power, (b) the intensity of the 532-nm signal is linearly proportional to the concentration of purple membrane in solution, (c) the scattered 532-nm light is incoherent, (d) the scattered 532-nm light intensity decreases if the size of the purple membranes is reduced while the bacteriorhodopsin concentration is kept constant, and (e) the 532-nm light is due to the retinal chromophore of the bacteriorhodopsin molecule. The ratio of horizontal polarized hyper-Rayleigh scattered light to vertically polarized hyper-Rayleigh scattered light gives the angle (23 ± 4°) of the retinal axis with respect to the plane of the purple membrane. The hyperpolarizability of the bacteriorhodopsin molecule is found to be 5 ± 0.4 × 10(-27) esu.

  11. Analysis of Light Scattering by Nanoobjects on a Plane Surface via Discrete Sources Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eremina, Elena; Eremin, Yuri; Wriedt, Thomas

    2012-12-01

    In the last years light scattering by nanostructures is of interest in different areas of science and technology. Analysis of light scattered by nanostructures is an effective tool for a better understanding of their properties. In this work the Discrete Sources Method (DSM) is applied to model light scattering by nanoparticles on a surface. One of attractive features of the DSM is an ability to account for all the features of the modeled system, such as complex refractive index with frequency dispersion of particles and a substrate, scattering interaction of particle and an interface. To demonstrate the variety of possible applications for the DSM, we concentrated on two practical applications. First is light scattering by a nanorod on a surface, which requires the use of a general 3D version of the DSM. The second case discussed in this chapter is light scattering by a nanoshell, which allows the accounting for the axial symmetry of the problem and essential reduction of calculation time. In both cases light scattering characteristics and their dependence on nanostructure characteristics like size, symmetry, incident angle, particle orientation, refractive index and wavelength are analyzed and discussed.

  12. Light deflection by light: Effect of incidence angle and inhomogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Pardeep; Dasgupta, Shubhrangshu

    2016-10-01

    We study the angular deflection of the circularly polarized components of a linearly polarized probe field in a weakly birefringent atomic system in tripod configuration. A spatially inhomogeneous control field incident obliquely onto an atomic vapor cell facilitates a large angular divergence between circular components. We show that the angular resolution can be dynamically controlled by optimally choosing the angle of incidence and the transverse profile of the control beam. For instance, by employing a Laguerre-Gaussian profile of the control field, one can impart a large angular divergence to the circular components close to the entry face of the atomic vapor cell. We further demonstrate how such a medium causes the focusing and refocusing of the probe field, thereby acting as a lens with multiple foci. The absorption in the medium remains negligible at resonance due to electromagnetically induced transparency.

  13. Fractal mechanisms of light scattering in biological tissue and cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, M.; Alfano, R. R.

    2005-11-01

    We use fractal continuous random media to model visible and near-infrared light scattering by biological tissue and cell suspensions. The power law of the reduced scattering coefficient, the anisotropy factor of scattering, and the phase function are derived with good agreement with experimental results. Implications for spectroscopic tissue diagnosis are discussed.

  14. Aggregates structure analysis of petroleum asphaltenes with small-angle neutron scattering.

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, R.; Hunt, J. E.; Winans, R. E.; Thiyagarajan, P.; Sato, S.; Takanohashi, T.; Idemitsu Kosan Co.; National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine changes in the structures of petroleum asphaltene aggregates in situ with small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). Asphaltenes were isolated from three different crude oils: Maya, Khafji, and Iranian Light. An aliquot of the 5 wt % asphaltene solution in deuterated Decalin, 1-methylnaphthalene, or quinoline was loaded in a special stainless steel cell for SANS measurements. SANS data measured at various temperatures from 25 to 350 {sup o}C showed various topological features different with asphaltene or solvent species. A fractal network was formed only with asphaltene of Maya in Decalin, and it remained even at 350 {sup o}C. In all of the solvents, asphaltenes aggregate in the form of a prolate ellipsoid with a high aspect ratio at 25 {sup o}C and got smaller with increasing temperature. That became a compact sphere with the size of around 25 {angstrom} in radius at 350 {sup o}C.

  15. Multiple size scale structures in silica/siloxane composites studied by small-angle scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Beaucage, G.; Schaefer, D.W.; Ulibarri, T.; Black, E.

    1993-12-31

    The physical properties of in-situ produced composites, such as the TEOS-polysiloxane based systems, are directly related to the complex interaction of structural features from the nano- to macro-scopic scales. The nature of these structural interactions are a key element in understanding and controlling mechanical properties in these systems. We believe that the smallest scale structures, in the nanometer range, correlate with properties such as the modulus while large-scale structures on the micron scale effect failure in these materials. This paper discusses techniques for analysis of structural features and interrelation of structural features over these wide ranges of size using small-angle light, x-ray and neutron scattering. Combination of data from different instruments allows for characterization of the interaction between these different size scale features.

  16. Influence of Forward and Multiple Light Scatter on the Measurement of Beam Attenuation in Highly Scattering Marine Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piskozub, Jacek; Stramski, Dariusz; Terrill, Eric; Melville, W. Kendall

    2004-08-01

    Using three-dimensional Monte Carlo radiative transfer simulations, we examine the effect of beam transmissometer geometry on the relative error in the measurement of the beam-attenuation coefficient in an aquatic environment characterized by intense light scattering, especially within submerged bubble clouds entrained by surface-wave breaking. We discuss the forward-scattering error associated with the detection of photons scattered at small angles (< 1°) and the multiple-scattering error associated with the detection of photons scattered more than once along the path length of the instrument. Several scattering phase functions describing bubble clouds at different bubble void fractions in the water are considered. Owing to forward-scattering error, a beam-attenuation meter (beam transmissometer) with a half-angle of receiver acceptance of 1.0° and a path length of 0.1 m can underestimate the true beam attenuation within the bubble cloud by more than 50%. For bubble clouds with a beam attenuation of as much as 100 m^-1, the multiple-scattering error is no more than a few percent. These results are compared with simulations for some example phase functions that are representative of other scattering regimes found in natural waters. The forward-scattering error for the Petzold phase function of turbid waters is 16% for a typical instrument geometry, whereas for the Henyey-Greenstein phase function with the asymmetry parameter of 0.7 and 0.9 the error range is 8-28%.

  17. A versatile, low-cost approach to dynamic light scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pristinski, Denis; Chastek, Thomas Q.

    2009-04-01

    We describe a method for constructing a fiber-optic-based dynamic light scattering (DLS) instrument from commonly available components, without a need for custom-made parts. Details are provided that allow for academic researchers from diverse backgrounds to build this DLS instrument with minimal effort and at a low cost. This approach, while providing good sensitivity and high accuracy (e.g., measuring the size of latex standards to within 1% relative standard deviation), possesses several advantages not found, in their entirety, in existing DLS instrumentation. It was observed that, even though an arbitrary scattering angle could be selected, aligning this instrument to obtain optimal detection efficiency can be completed in as little as a few minutes. Also, complications associated with light refraction at the sample cell interface are avoided. Small volumes (<10 µL) can be measured, for example, by hanging a solution droplet from the fiber optic probe tips. In addition, use of fiber optic probes allows the beam path length to be as short as 1.6 mm while measuring at 90°, which reduces the likelihood of multiple scattering. With minimal customization, compact submersible probes and a portable battery-operated DLS instrument were made as examples of potential implementation. Finally, this approach is versatile, and can be incorporated into a wide variety of reactors, for in situ characterization, and other instrumentation for hybrid measurements. This type of in situ measurement was conducted after mounting the DLS probes inside a standard three-neck flask. This allowed for direct monitoring of the growth of silica nanoparticles prepared via Stöber synthesis.

  18. Modeling diffuse reflectance measurements of light scattered by layered tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohde, Shelley B.

    In this dissertation, we first present a model for the diffuse reflectance due to a continuous beam incident normally on a half space composed of a uniform scattering and absorbing medium. This model is the result of an asymptotic analysis of the radiative transport equation for strong scattering, weak absorption and a defined beam width. Through comparison with the diffuse reflectance computed using the numerical solution of the radiative transport equation, we show that this diffuse reflectance model gives results that are accurate for small source-detector separation distances. We then present an explicit model for the diffuse reflectance due to a collimated beam of light incident normally on layered tissues. This model is derived using the corrected diffusion approximation applied to a layered medium, and it takes the form of a convolution with an explicit kernel and the incident beam profile. This model corrects the standard diffusion approximation over all source-detector separation distances provided the beam is sufficiently wide compared to the scattering mean-free path. We validate this model through comparison with Monte Carlo simulations. Then we use this model to estimate the optical properties of an epithelial layer from Monte Carlo simulation data. Using measurements at small source-detector separations and this model, we are able to estimate the absorption coefficient, scattering coefficient and anisotropy factor of epithelial tissues efficiently with reasonable accuracy. Finally, we present an extension of the corrected diffusion approximation for an obliquely incident beam. This model is formed through a Fourier Series representation in the azimuthal angle which allows us to exhibit the break in axisymmetry when combined with the previous analysis. We validate this model with Monte Carlo simulations. This model can also be written in the form of a convolution of an explicit kernel with the incident beam profile. Additionally, it can be used to

  19. The artefacts of radiochromic film dosimetry with flatbed scanners and their causation by light scattering from radiation-induced polymers.

    PubMed

    Schoenfeld, Andreas A; Poppinga, Daniela; Harder, Dietrich; Doerner, Karl-Joachim; Poppe, Bjoern

    2014-07-07

    Optical experiments and theoretical considerations have been undertaken in order to understand the causes of the 'orientation effect' and the 'parabola effect', the artefacts impairing the desired light absorption measurement on radiochromic EBT3 films with flatbed scanners. EBT3 films exposed to doses up to 20.9 Gy were scanned with an Epson Expression 10000XL flatbed scanner in landscape and portrait orientation. The horizontally and vertically polarized light components of the scanner were determined, and another Epson Expression 10000XL flatbed scanner was disassembled to examine its optical components. The optical properties of exposed and unexposed EBT3 films were studied with incident polarized and unpolarized white light, and the transmitted red light was investigated for its polarization and scattering properties including the distribution of the scattering angles. Neutral density filters were studied for comparison. Guidance was sought from the theory of light scattering from rod-like macromolecular structures. The drastic dose-dependent variation of the transmitted total light current as function of the orientation of front and rear polarizers, interpreted by light scattering theory, shows that the radiation-induced polymerization of the monomers of EBT3 films produces light scattering oscillators preferably polarized at right angles with the coating direction of the film. The directional distribution of the scattered light is partly anisotropic, with a preferred scattering plane at right angles with the coating direction, indicating light scattering from stacks of coherently vibrating oscillators piled up along the monomer crystals. The polyester carrier film also participates in these effects. The 'orientation' and 'parabola' artefacts due to flatbed scanning of radiochromic films can be explained by the interaction of the polarization-dependent and anisotropic light scattering from exposed and unexposed EBT3 films with the quantitative difference

  20. Recovering the vorticity of a light beam after scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Salla, Gangi Reddy Perumangattu, Chithrabhanu; Anwar, Ali; Prabhakar, Shashi; Singh, Ravindra P.

    2015-07-13

    We generate optical vortices and scatter them through a rough surface. However, the scattered light passing through a lens shows the same vorticity when probed at the Fourier plane. The vorticity is measured using a nonseparable state of polarization and orbital angular momentum of light as it cannot be confirmed by the standard interferometric technique. The observed vorticity is found to be independent of the amount of scattered light collected. Therefore, vortices can be used as information carriers even in the presence of scattering media. The experimental results are well supported by the theoretical results.

  1. Utility of light scatter in the morphological analysis of sperm

    EPA Science Inventory

    We were able to differentiate the morphologically diverse sperm nuclei of four animal species by using an Ortho flow cytometer to detect the forward light scatter from a red (helium-neon) laser. Cytograms depicting the axial light loss and forward red scatter signals revealed uni...

  2. Utility of light scatter in the morphological analysis of sperm

    EPA Science Inventory

    We were able to differentiate the morphologically diverse sperm nuclei of four animal species by using an Ortho flow cytometer to detect the forward light scatter from a red (helium-neon) laser. Cytograms depicting the axial light loss and forward red scatter signals revealed uni...

  3. NASA Laser Light Scattering Advanced Technology Development Workshop, 1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, William V. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    The major objective of the workshop was to explore the capabilities of existing and prospective laser light scattering hardware and to assess user requirements and needs for a laser light scattering instrument in a reduced gravity environment. The workshop addressed experimental needs and stressed hardware development.

  4. Spectral and angular distribution of light scattered from the elytra of two carabid beetle species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, X.; Erbe, A.; Fabritius, H.; Raabe, D.

    2010-06-01

    Color in living organisms is primarily generated by two mechanisms: selective absorption by pigments and structural coloration, or a combination of both. In this study, we investigated the coloration of cuticle from the wings (elytra) of the two ground beetle species Carabus auronitens and Carabus auratus. The greenish iridescent color of both species is created by a multilayer structure consisting of periodically alternating layers with different thicknesses and composition which is located in the 1-2 µm thick outermost layer of the cuticle (epicuticle). Illuminated with white light, reflectance spectra in both linear polarisation show an angle-dependent characteristic peak in the blue/green region of the spectrum. Furthermore, the reflected light is polarised linearly. Scattering experiments with laser illumination at 532 nm show diffuse scattering over a larger angular range. The polarisation dependence of the scattered light is consistent with the interpretation of small inhomogeneities as scattering centres in the elytra.

  5. Label-free identification of individual bacteria using Fourier transform light scattering.

    PubMed

    Jo, YoungJu; Jung, JaeHwang; Kim, Min-Hyeok; Park, HyunJoo; Kang, Suk-Jo; Park, YongKeun

    2015-06-15

    Rapid identification of bacterial species is crucial in medicine and food hygiene. In order to achieve rapid and label-free identification of bacterial species at the single bacterium level, we propose and experimentally demonstrate an optical method based on Fourier transform light scattering (FTLS) measurements and statistical classification. For individual rod-shaped bacteria belonging to four bacterial species (Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus casei, and Bacillus subtilis), two-dimensional angle-resolved light scattering maps are precisely measured using FTLS technique. The scattering maps are then systematically analyzed, employing statistical classification in order to extract the unique fingerprint patterns for each species, so that a new unidentified bacterium can be identified by a single light scattering measurement. The single-bacterial and label-free nature of our method suggests wide applicability for rapid point-of-care bacterial diagnosis.

  6. Light scattering by marine heterotrophic bacteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulloa, Osvaldo; Sathyendranath, Shubha; Platt, Trevor; Quinones, Renato A.

    1992-01-01

    Mie theory is applied to estimate scattering by polydispersions of marine heterotrophic bacteria, and a simple expression is derived for the bacterial scattering coefficient. The error incurred in deriving bacterial optical properties by use of the van de Hulst approximations is computed. The scattering properties of natural bacterial assemblages in three marine environments, Georges Bank, Northeast Channel, and Sargasso Sea, are assessed by applying Mie theory to field data on bacterial size and abundance. Results are used to examine the potential contribution of bacteria to the scattering properties of seawater. The utility of using pigment data to predict the magnitude of scattering by bacteria is discussed.

  7. Light scattering by marine heterotrophic bacteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulloa, Osvaldo; Sathyendranath, Shubha; Platt, Trevor; Quinones, Renato A.

    1992-01-01

    Mie theory is applied to estimate scattering by polydispersions of marine heterotrophic bacteria, and a simple expression is derived for the bacterial scattering coefficient. The error incurred in deriving bacterial optical properties by use of the van de Hulst approximations is computed. The scattering properties of natural bacterial assemblages in three marine environments, Georges Bank, Northeast Channel, and Sargasso Sea, are assessed by applying Mie theory to field data on bacterial size and abundance. Results are used to examine the potential contribution of bacteria to the scattering properties of seawater. The utility of using pigment data to predict the magnitude of scattering by bacteria is discussed.

  8. On the scattered light by dilute aqueous dispersions of nanogel particles.

    PubMed

    Callejas-Fernández, J; Ramos, J; Forcada, J; Moncho-Jordá, A

    2015-07-15

    This work deals with the scattered light by nanoparticles formed by a temperature sensitive polymer networks, namely nanogel particles. The scattered light is measured as a function of the scattering angle at temperatures below and above the volume phase transition temperature (VPTT) of nanogel particles. Our experimental results indicate that nanogel particles have a core-shell structure, formed by a uniform highly cross-linked core surrounded by a fuzzy shell where the polymer density decays to zero gradually for swollen configurations and sharply for shrunken states. The theoretical fitting of the experimental curves shows that the scattered light at low angle obeys a decreasing power law with the scattering vector, q(-α). The value of exponent α provides information about the radial dependence of the polymer density at the external shell of the particles for swollen nanogels, and about the degree of roughness of the surface for the case of shrunken nanogels. On the one hand, at low temperatures (below the VPPT), the nanogel particle is in the swollen state and the light scattering data show that its shell structure follows a fractal behaviour, with a polymer density that decays as r(α-3), where r is the distance to the particle centre. On the other hand, above the VPPT the results indicate that nanogel collapses into a core of uniform polymer density and a rough shell, with a fractal surface dimension of 2.5.

  9. Scattering of Light and Surface Plasmon Polaritons from Rough Surfaces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-14

    AFRL-RV-PS- AFRL-RV-PS- TR-2013-0049 TR-2013-0049 SCATTERING OF LIGHT AND SURFACE PLASMON POLARITONS FROM ROUGH SURFACES Alexei A...2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Scattering of Light and Surface Plasmon Polaritons from Rough Surfaces 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA9453-08-C-0230 5b...of several properties of surface plasmon polaritons on structured surfaces are described, together with results for the scattering of surface plasmon

  10. Dynamic light scattering can determine platelet function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Nathan

    2011-10-01

    Platelet transfusions are life-saving procedures for patients who are bleeding or undergoing chemotherapy. The effectiveness of transfusions depends on the number of platelets transfused and the platelet function. Platelet function correlates with proportion of discoid to activated platelets, morphology response to temperature stress, and inversely correlates with microparticle content. ThromboLUX is a novel device that determines platelet function by measuring all of these characteristics using dynamic light scattering (DLS). During periods of stress, such as decreased temperature, cytoskeletal rearrangements will cause normal, discoid platelets to activate and become spiny spheres. The formation of pseudopods of various lengths facilitates the clotting cascade and also increases the apparent size of platelets. ThromboLUX uses a 37-20-37 C temperature cycle that mimics the bleeding, storage, and transfusion process. As the temperature fluctuates, DLS will measure the changing platelet hydrodynamic radius and the size of any microparticles present. ThromboLUX analysis of platelet concentrates in vitro would allow determination of high platelet function units before transfusion and would therefore improve transfusion outcomes and patient safety. This study examined how DLS is able to distinguish between discoid and activated platelets as well as measure the parameters that contribute to high platelet function.

  11. Dynamic light-scattering studies of mucin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bansil, Rama; Pajevic, Sinisa; Cao, Xingxiang; Bhaskar, K. R.; LaMont, Jeffrey T.; Afdhal, Nezham H.; Niu, N.

    1993-07-01

    Dynamic light scattering was applied to study aggregation phenomena in mucin, the glycoprotein responsible for the visco-elastic properties of mucus which is found as a lining on most epithelial cell surfaces. Intensity autocorrelation functions measured on purified mucin solutions under varying experimental conditions were analyzed by Laplace inversion methods. The results showed that at low pH (below 4) solutions of gastric mucin contain very large supra-molecular aggregates, with diffusion constants 100 times slower than those of the 2 X 106 molecular weight glycoprotein of mucin. Similar methods were used to investigate the interaction of gall bladder mucin with cholesterol-phospholipid vesicles. Repeated measurements of the intensity correlation functions after adding mucin to a suspension of vesicles showed a two-fold increase in the hydrodynamic radius of the vesicles over a period of three hours after which the vesicle size stayed constant. Control experiments with latex particles in mucin and vesicles in other proteins showed no change in size, implying that the fusion of vesicles is due to vesicle-mucin interactions.

  12. Limitations for heterodyne detection of Brillouin scattered light

    SciTech Connect

    Allemeier, R.T.; Wagner, J.W.; Telschow, K.L.

    1995-01-01

    One means by which elastic properties of a material may be determined is measuring sound wave velocities in the material, from which elastic moduli of interest can be computed. Velocity can be measured by conventional piezoelectric transduction techniques, by applying laser ultrasonics, or by using Brillouin-scattering methods. Brillouin-scattering techniques for determining the sound wave velocity are particularly attractive since they are completely noninvasive. Only a probe beam of light is required since the thermal energy in the material provides the elastic motion. Heterodyne methods for detection of Brillouin-scattered light are considered one possible means to increase the speed of the scattered light frequency detection. Results of experiments with simulated Brillouin scattering suggest that heterodyne detection of the Brillouin-scattered light is feasible. Experiments to detect Brillouin-scattered light, with water as the scattering medium, were designed and interpreted using the results of the simulated scattering experiments. Overall, results showed that it is difficult to narrow the linewidth for Brillouin scattering to an acceptable level. The results given indicate that heterodyne detection of the Brillouin components requires detection bandwidths that are quite small, perhaps 10 Hz or lower. These small bandwidths can be routinely achieved using lock-in amplifier techniques.

  13. Study of erythrocyte membrane fluctuation using light scattering analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hoyoon; Lee, Sangyun; Park, YongKeun; Shin, Sehyun

    2016-03-01

    It is commonly known that alteration of erythrocyte deformability lead to serious microcirculatory diseases such as retinopathy, nephropathy, etc. Various methods and technologies have been developed to diagnose such membrane properties of erythrocytes. In this study, we developed an innovative method to measure hemorheological characteristics of the erythrocyte membrane using a light scattering analysis with simplified optic setting and multi-cell analysis as well. Light scattering intensity through multiple erythrocytes and its power density spectrum were obtained. The results of light scattering analyses were compared in healthy control and artificially hardened sample which was treated with glutaraldehyde. These results were further compared with conventional assays to measure deformable property in hemorheology. We found that light scattering information would reflect the disturbance of membrane fluctuation in artificially damaged erythrocytes. Therefore, measuring fluctuation of erythrocyte membrane using light scattering signal could facilitate simple and precise diagnose of pathological state on erythrocyte as well as related complications.

  14. Anisotropic light scattering of individual sickle red blood cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Youngchan; Higgins, John M.; Dasari, Ramachandra R.; Suresh, Subra; Park, YongKeun

    2012-04-01

    We present the anisotropic light scattering of individual red blood cells (RBCs) from a patient with sickle cell disease (SCD). To measure light scattering spectra along two independent axes of elongated-shaped sickle RBCs with arbitrary orientation, we introduce the anisotropic Fourier transform light scattering (aFTLS) technique and measured both the static and dynamic anisotropic light scattering. We observed strong anisotropy in light scattering patterns of elongated-shaped sickle RBCs along its major axes using static aFTLS. Dynamic aFTLS analysis reveals the significantly altered biophysical properties in individual sickle RBCs. These results provide evidence that effective viscosity and elasticity of sickle RBCs are significantly different from those of the healthy RBCs.

  15. Small Angle X-Ray Scattering of Carbon and Kevlar Fibers Under Load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Effler, Lawrence Joseph, Jr.

    Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) was used as the primary tool for investigating the microporous structure of Kevlar and mesophase pitch based carbon fibers. The orientation present in the scattering entities was determined by extending Porod's invariant into a pseudo-invariant for one-dimensional data slices. By comparing the pseudo -invariants at different aximuthal angles the extent of the orientation present in the scattering system was determined. The orientation of the microvoids was found to correlate best with the modulus of the carbon fibers. Distance distribution functions were also determined for the fibers. For the carbon fibers the average size of the voids and the breadth of the distribution was found to increase with both fiber modulus and strength. In addition, the distance distribution curves were able to distinguish between fibers spun under different conditions. These results were found to mirror the enhancement of crystalline orientation and the development of graphitic phases in the fibers. Studies were also conducted to determine the response of the microvoids to an applied tensile load. Both Kevlar and the carbon fibers indicated a loss of outer fiber surface, with the most dramatic loss being seen for Kevlar. Experiments were conducted which compared both as received fibers to those which had been strained to failure. Additional experiments were done with the fibers being strained while in the SAXS camera. For the Kevlar fibers the loss of its skin layer was indicated by less anisotropic scattering patterns of the fractured fibers. The dynamic studies indicated that initially void orientation increases accompanied by the formation of newer, smaller voids. However these trends are reversed as the fiber tow approaches and reaches fracture. The loss of the skin region was confirmed by both laser backscattering and optical microscopy. The response of the microvoid phase of Kevlar to loading is interpreted in light of Morgan's chain end model

  16. Surface roughness studies with DALLAS-detector array for laser light angular scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vorburger, T. V.; Teague, E. C.; Scire, F. E.; Mclay, M. J.; Gilsinn, D. E.

    1984-01-01

    An attempt is made to develop a better mathematical description of optical scattering phenomena, in order to construct an optical scattering apparatus for reliable and routine measurements of roughness parameters without resorting to comparator standards. After a brief outline of optical scattering theory, a description is presented of an experimental instrument for measuring surface roughness which incorporates optical scattering principles. The instrument has a He-Ne laser which illuminates the test surface at a variable angle of incidence. Scattered light distribution is detected by an array of 87 fiber-optic sensors positioned in a rotating semicircular yoke. The output from the detector is digitized and analyzed in a laboratory computer. For a comparison with experimental data, theoretical distributions are calculated by substituting the roughness profiles into the operand of and integral equation for electromagnetic scattering developed by Beckmann and Spizzichino (1963). A schematic diagram of the instrument is provided and the general implications of the experimental results are discussed.

  17. Positron Production in Multiphoton Light-by-Light Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Koffas, Thomas

    2003-07-28

    We present the results of an experimental study on e{sup +}e{sup -} pair production during the collision of a low emittance 46.6 GeV electron beam with terawatt laser pulses from a Nd:glass laser at 527 nm wavelength and with linear polarization. The experiment was conducted at the Final Focus Test Beam facility in the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. Results with a 49.1 GeV electron beam are also included. A signal of 106 {+-} 14 positrons for the 46.6 GeV electron beam case and of 22 {+-} 10 positrons for the 49.1 GcV case above background, has been detected. We interpret the positrons as the products of a two-step process during which laser photons are backscattered to high energy gamma photons that absorb in their turn several laser photons in order to produce a e{sup +}e{sup -} pair. The data compare well with the existing theoretical models. This is the first observation in the laboratory of inelastic Light-by-Light scattering with only real photons. Alternatively, the data are interpreted as a manifestation of the spontaneous breakdown of the vacuum under the influence of an intense external alternating electric field.

  18. DUST SCATTERING IN TURBULENT MEDIA: CORRELATION BETWEEN THE SCATTERED LIGHT AND DUST COLUMN DENSITY

    SciTech Connect

    Seon, Kwang-Il; Witt, Adolf N.

    2013-12-01

    Radiative transfer models in a spherical, turbulent interstellar medium (ISM), in which the photon source is situated at the center, are calculated to investigate the correlation between the scattered light and the dust column density. The medium is modeled using fractional Brownian motion structures that are appropriate for turbulent ISM. The correlation plot between the scattered light and optical depth shows substantial scatter and deviation from simple proportionality. It was also found that the overall density contrast is smoothed out in scattered light. In other words, there is an enhancement of the dust-scattered flux in low-density regions, while the scattered flux is suppressed in high-density regions. The correlation becomes less significant as the scattering becomes closer to being isotropic and the medium becomes more turbulent. Therefore, the scattered light observed in near-infrared wavelengths would show much weaker correlation than the observations in optical and ultraviolet wavelengths. We also find that the correlation plot between scattered lights at two different wavelengths shows a tighter correlation than that of the scattered light versus the optical depth.

  19. Characterization of porcine peripheral blood leukocytes by light-scattering flow cytometry.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, F I; Williams, T J; el-Awar, F Y; Pang, V F; Hahn, E C

    1987-01-01

    As a basis for other experiments using flow cytometry of porcine peripheral blood leukocytes, cell fractions were isolated by various methods and analyzed by forward angle light scatter and 90 degree light scatter. Cytospin smears of cell samples were also studied by leukocyte differential counts and nonspecific esterase staining. Three main populations of peripheral blood leukocytes [lymphocytes, monocytes, and granulocytes (primarily neutrophils)], were defined in the log 90 degree light scatter by forward angle light scatter histogram. Partial overlap was observed between lymphocyte and monocyte, and between monocyte and granulocyte domains. Correlation between leukocyte differential counts and flow cytometric quantification based on bitmap statistics of appropriate domains was between r = 0.872-0.892 for lymphocyte and granulocyte. Percoll density gradients were used for subfractionation of leukocyte populations, especially for the enrichment of granulocytes. The specific densities were calculated for lymphocytes (1.0585-1.0819 g/cc), monocytes (1.0585-1.0702 g/cc), granulocyte (1.0819-1.0936 g/cc), and erythrocytes (greater than 1.0952 g/cc). We suggest that light scatter characterization is a basis for future studies of porcine blood by flow cytometry. PMID:3453262

  20. Broadband and Broad-Angle Low-Scattering Metasurface Based on Hybrid Optimization Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ke; Zhao, Jie; Cheng, Qiang; Dong, Di Sha; Cui, Tie Jun

    2014-01-01

    A broadband and broad-angle low-scattering metasurface is designed, fabricated, and characterized. Based on the optimization algorithm and far-field scattering pattern analysis, we propose a rapid and efficient method to design metasurfaces, which avoids the large amount of time-consuming electromagnetic simulations. Full-wave simulation and measurement results show that the proposed metasurface is insensitive to the polarization of incident waves, and presents good scattering-reduction properties for oblique incident waves. PMID:25089367

  1. Stray light compensation for dust analysers based on light scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molfese, C.; Della Corte, V.; Palumbo, P.; Esposito, F.; Colangeli, L.

    2010-04-01

    One of the key issues concerning the measurement of size and density of dust grains based on light scattering system is the compensation of the stray light due to the optical components misalignment and to the possible contamination of these components by the dust particles during the measurement runs. This paper focuses on the case study of MEDUSA (Martian Environmental DUst Systematic Analyzer), one of the experiments initially selected for the ExoMars mission, planned by the European Space Agency (ESA), with the scientific objective to study water and dust in Mars atmosphere. The MEDUSA experiment foresees an Optical System (OS) aimed at measuring atmospheric dust content and size distribution. One pump assures that the proper gas and dust flow circulates inside the instrument. This paper reports the description and trade off analysis of several techniques for the stray-light compensation implemented on the MEDUSA OS Proximity Electronics (PE) Test Board (2006), designed and manufactured by INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, in the frame of the MEDUSA Bread Board (B/B) activities. The PE Test Board can implement more than one compensation mode, such as: AC coupling, DC coupling with offset compensation via external loop and DC coupling with offset compensation via on board HW loop. The choice among the mentioned compensation modes shall be done also according to the configuration of the overall acquisition system, implemented by the Main Electronics (ME), as explained in the reported trade-off analysis. For the architecture configuration of the industrial breadboard (2008) the preferred solution was the one based on the DC coupling with on board HW loop, for which some test results are reported.

  2. MIMO decorrelation for visible light communication based on angle optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Haiyong; Zhu, Yijun

    2017-03-01

    Recently, many researchers have used the normal vector tilting to solve the problems about low rate of multiplexing and channel strong correlation in Visible Light Communication Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (VLC-MIMO) system, but they all lack of the theoretical support. In this paper, we establish a channel model about 2×2 VLC-MIMO, then translate the communication problem about vector tilting optimal angle in a certain range into a mathematical problem about seeking the minimum value of function. Finally, we deduced the mathematic expressions about the optimal tilting angles of corresponding LEDs and PDs, and these expressions will provide a theoretical basis for the further study.

  3. Deflection angle of light in an Ellis wormhole geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Koki; Asada, Hideki

    2012-05-01

    We reexamine the light deflection by an Ellis wormhole. The bending angle as a function of the ratio between the impact parameter and the throat radius of the wormhole is obtained in terms of a complete elliptic integral of the first kind. This result immediately yields asymptotic expressions in the weak field approximation. It is shown that an expression for the deflection angle derived (and used) in recent papers is valid at the leading order but it breaks down at the next order because of the nontrivial spacetime topology.

  4. Small-angle Compton Scattering to Determine the Depth of a Radioactive Source in Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Oberer, R. B.; Gunn, C. A.; Chiang, L. G.; Valiga, R. E.; Cantrell, J. A.

    2011-04-01

    A gamma-ray peak in a spectrum is often accompanied by a discontinuity in the Compton continuum at the peak. The Compton continuum results from Compton scattering in the detector. The discontinuity at a peak results from small-angle Compton scattering by the gamma rays in matter situated directly between the gamma-ray source and the detector. The magnitude of this discontinuity with respect to the gamma-ray peak is therefore an indicator of the amount of material or shielding between the gamma-ray source and the detector. This small-angle scattering was used to determine the depth of highly-enriched uranium (HEU) solution standards in a concrete floor mockup. The empirical results of the use of this small-angle scattering discontinuity in a concrete floor experiment will be described. A Monte Carlo calculation of the experiment will also be described. In addition, the depth determined from small-angle scattering was used in conjunction with differential attenuation to more accurately measure the uranium content of the mockup. Following these empirical results, the theory of small-angle scattering will be discussed. The magnitude of the discontinuity compared to the peak count rate is directly related to the depth of the gamma-ray source in matter. This relation can be described by relatively simple mathematical expressions. This is the first instance that we are aware of in which the small-angle Compton scattering has been used to determine the depth of a radioactive source. Furthermore this is the first development of the theoretical expressions for the magnitude of the small-angle scattering discontinuity.

  5. Frequency mismatch in stimulated scattering processes: An important factor for the transverse distribution of scattered light

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, Tao; Zheng, Jian; Li, Zhichao; Yang, Dong; Ding, Yongkun; Hu, Guangyue; Zhao, Bin

    2016-06-15

    A 2D cylindrically symmetric model with inclusion of both diffraction and self-focus effects is developed to deal with the stimulated scattering processes of a single hotspot. The calculated results show that the transverse distribution of the scattered light is sensitive to the longitudinal profiles of the plasma parameters. The analysis of the evolution of the scattered light indicates that it is the frequency mismatch of coupling due to the inhomogeneity of plasmas that determines the transverse distribution of the scattered light.

  6. Effect of the single-scattering phase function on light transmission through disordered media with large inhomogeneities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinyuk, V. V.; Sheberstov, S. V.

    2017-01-01

    We calculate the total transmission coefficient (transmittance) of a disordered medium with large (compared to the light wavelength) inhomogeneities. To model highly forward scattering in the medium we take advantage of the Gegenbauer kernel phase function. In a subdiffusion thickness range, the transmittance is shown to be sensitive to the specific form of the single-scattering phase function. The effect reveals itself at grazing angles of incidence and originates from small-angle multiple scattering of light. Our results are in a good agreement with numerical solutions to the radiative transfer equation.

  7. Depolarization of light in turbid media: a scattering event resolved Monte Carlo study.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xinxin; Wood, Michael F G; Ghosh, Nirmalya; Vitkin, I Alex

    2010-01-10

    Details of light depolarization in turbid media were investigated using polarization-sensitive Monte Carlo simulations. The surviving linear and circular polarization fractions of photons undergoing a particular number of scattering events were studied for different optical properties of the turbid media. It was found that the threshold number of photon scattering interactions that fully randomize the incident polarization (defined here as <1% surviving polarization fraction) is not a constant, but varies with the photon detection angle. Larger detection angles, close to backscattering direction, show lower full depolarization threshold number for a given set of sample's optical properties. The Monte Carlo simulations also confirm that depolarization is not only controlled by the number of scattering events and detection geometry, but is also strongly influenced by other factors such as anisotropy g, medium linear birefringence, and the polarization state of the incident light.

  8. Distance within colloidal dimers probed by rotation-induced oscillations of scattered light.

    PubMed

    van Vliembergen, Roland W L; van IJzendoorn, Leo J; Prins, Menno W J

    2016-01-25

    Aggregation processes of colloidal particles are of broad scientific and technological relevance. The earliest stage of aggregation, when dimers appear in an ensemble of single particles, is very important to characterize because it opens routes for further aggregation processes. Furthermore, it represents the most sensitive phase of diagnostic aggregation assays. Here, we characterize dimers by rotating them in a magnetic field and by recording the angle dependence of light scattering. At small scattering angles, the scattering cross section can be approximated by the total cross-sectional area of the dimer. In contrast, at scattering angles around 90 degrees, we reveal that the dependence of the scattering cross section on the dimer angle shows a series of peaks per single 2π rotation of the dimers. These characteristics originate from optical interactions between the two particles, as we have verified with two-particle Mie scattering simulations. We have studied in detail the angular positions of the peaks. It appears from simulations that the influence of particle size polydispersity, Brownian rotation and refractive index on the angular positions of the peaks is relatively small. However, the angular positions of the peaks strongly depend on the distance between the particles. We find a good correspondence between measured data and calculations for a gap of 180 nm between particles having a diameter of 1 micrometer. The experiment and simulations pave the way for extracting distance-specific data from ensembles of dimerizing colloidal particles, with application for sensitive diagnostic aggregation assays.

  9. Light scattering by porous oriented polypropylene films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinchik, A. A.; Kuryndin, I. S.; Elyashevich, G. K.

    2017-03-01

    Oriented porous polypropylene films with lamellar crystal structure are studied by the laser radiation scattering method. The dependence of the scattering pattern on the degree of film orientation is determined. It is shown that the sizes of the central maximum of the scattering pattern depend linearly on the degree of film extension. The results obtained can be used in developing methods of optical nondestructive testing of polymeric materials.

  10. An analysis of scattered light in low dispersion IUE spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basri, G.; Clarke, J. T.; Haisch, B. M.

    1985-01-01

    A detailed numerical simulation of light scattering from the low-resolution grating in the short wavelength spectrograph of the IUE Observatory was developed, in order to quantitatively analyze the effects of scattering on both continuum and line emission spectra. It is found that: (1) the redistribution of light by grating scattering did not appreciably alter either the shape or the absolute flux level of continuum spectra for A-F stars; (2) late-type stellar continua showed a tendency to flatten when observed in scattered light toward the shorter wavelengths; and (3) the effect of grating scattering on emission lines is to decrease measured line intensities by an increasing percentage toward the shorter wavelengths. The spectra obtained from scattering experiments for solar-type and late type stars are reproduced in graphic form.

  11. Resonant scattering and resultant pitch angle evolution of relativistic electrons by plasmaspheric hiss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, B.; Bortnik, J.; Thorne, R. M.; Ma, Q.; Chen, L.

    2013-12-01

    Adopting several realistic models for the wave distribution and ambient plasmaspheric density, we perform a comprehensive analysis to evaluate hiss-induced scattering coefficients, the relative role of each resonant harmonic, and the overall effect of hiss scattering on the pitch angle evolution and associated decay (loss) processes of relativistic electrons. The results show that scattering by the equatorial, highly oblique component of the hiss emission is negligible. A quasi-parallel propagating wave model of hiss emissions provides a good approximation for evaluation of scattering rates of ≤ 2 MeV electrons. However, realistic wave propagation angles as a function of latitude along the field line must be taken into account to accurately quantify the rates of hiss scattering above 2 MeV. Ambient plasma density is also a critical parameter that can influence hiss scattering rates and resultant pitch angle evolution of electron flux. While the first order cyclotron and the Landau resonances are dominant for hiss-induced scattering of less than 2 MeV electrons, higher order resonances become important and even dominant at intermediate equatorial pitch angles for ultra-relativistic (≥ 3 MeV) electrons. Hiss induced electron pitch angle evolution consistently shows a relatively rapid initial transport of electrons from high to lower pitch angles, with a gradual approach towards an equilibrium shape, and a final state where the entire distribution decays exponentially with time. Although hiss scattering rates near the loss cone control the pitch angle evolution and the ultimate loss of ultra-relativistic electrons, the presence of a scattering bottleneck (a pronounced drop in diffusion rate at intermediate pitch angles) significantly affects the loss rate and leads to characteristic top hat shaped pitch angle distributions at energies below ~1 MeV. Decay timescales are determined to be on the order of a few days, tens of days, and > 100 days for 500 keV, 2 Me

  12. Angle-resolved molecular beam scattering of NO at the gas-liquid interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zutz, Amelia; Nesbitt, David J.

    2017-08-01

    This study presents first results on angle-resolved, inelastic collision dynamics of thermal and hyperthermal molecular beams of NO at gas-liquid interfaces. Specifically, a collimated incident beam of supersonically cooled NO (2 Π 1/2, J = 0.5) is directed toward a series of low vapor pressure liquid surfaces ([bmim][Tf2N], squalane, and PFPE) at θinc = 45(1)°, with the scattered molecules detected with quantum state resolution over a series of final angles (θs = -60°, -30°, 0°, 30°, 45°, and 60°) via spatially filtered laser induced fluorescence. At low collision energies [Einc = 2.7(9) kcal/mol], the angle-resolved quantum state distributions reveal (i) cos(θs) probabilities for the scattered NO and (ii) electronic/rotational temperatures independent of final angle (θs), in support of a simple physical picture of angle independent sticking coefficients and all incident NO thermally accommodating on the surface. However, the observed electronic/rotational temperatures for NO scattering reveal cooling below the surface temperature (Telec < Trot < TS) for all three liquids, indicating a significant dependence of the sticking coefficient on NO internal quantum state. Angle-resolved scattering at high collision energies [Einc = 20(2) kcal/mol] has also been explored, for which the NO scattering populations reveal angle-dependent dynamical branching between thermal desorption and impulsive scattering (IS) pathways that depend strongly on θs. Characterization of the data in terms of the final angle, rotational state, spin-orbit electronic state, collision energy, and liquid permit new correlations to be revealed and investigated in detail. For example, the IS rotational distributions reveal an enhanced propensity for higher J/spin-orbit excited states scattered into near specular angles and thus hotter rotational/electronic distributions measured in the forward scattering direction. Even more surprisingly, the average NO scattering angle (

  13. Projection screen having reduced ambient light scattering

    DOEpatents

    Sweatt, William C [Albuquerque, NM

    2010-05-11

    An apparatus and method for improving the contrast between incident projected light and ambient light reflected from a projection screen are described. The efficiency of the projection screen for reflection of the projected light remains high, while permitting the projection screen to be utilized in a brightly lighted room. Light power requirements from the projection system utilized may be reduced.

  14. Dynamic Light Scattering of Diabetic Vitreopathy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sebag, J.; Ansari, Rafat R.; Dunker, Stephan; Suh, Kwang I.

    1999-01-01

    Diabetes induces pathology throughout the body via nonenzymatic glycation of proteins. Vitreous, which is replete with type 11 collagen, undergoes significant changes in diabetes. The resultant diabetic vitreopathy plays an important role in diabetic retinopathy. Detecting these molecular changes could provide insight into diabetic eye disease as well as molecular effects elsewhere in the body. Human eyes were obtained at autopsy and studied in the fresh, unfixed state. Sclera, choroid, and retina were dissected off the vitreous for dark-field slit microscopy and dynamic light scattering (DLS). For the former, the entire vitreous was exposed. For the latter, only a window at the equator was dissected in some specimens, and the anterior segment was removed leaving the posterior lens capsule intact in others. DLS was performed to determine particle sizes at multiple sites 0.5 mm apart, spanning the globe at the equator (window dissections) and along the antero-posterior axis. Dark-field slit microscopy in diabetic subjects detected findings typical of age-related vitreous degeneration, but at much younger ages than nondiabetic controls. Noninvasive DLS measurements found a greater heterogeneity and larger particle sizes in vitreous of subjects with diabetes as compared to age-matched controls. DLS can detect and quantify the early molecular effects that cause vitreous collagen fibrils to cross-link and aggregate. This could provide valuable insight into ocular and systemic effects of hyperglycemia, because the molecular changes in diabetic vitreopathy could serve as an index of such effects throughout the body. In addition to the diagnostic implications, this methodology could provide a rapid, reproducible way to monitor the response to therapy with novel agents intended to prevent the complications of diabetes on a molecular level.

  15. Origin of light scattering variations of a latent flaw through light scattering measurement with applied stress effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakata, Yoshitaro; Terasaki, Nao; Sakai, Kazufumi; Nonaka, Kazuhiro

    2016-11-01

    The stress-induced light scattering method (SILSM) was proposed for inspecting surface to detect polishing induced latent flaws. In this study, in order to clarify the mechanism of the light scattering intensity variation of latent flaws using SILSM, we have investigated stress effect of light scattering intensities using polarized light system and calculated the reflectance and the retardation using Jones matrix. As the results, we evaluated the change in the birefringence around a tip of a latent flaw between before and after stress were applied.

  16. Polarization Transfer in Wide-Angle Compton Scattering and Single-Pion Photoproduction from the Proton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanelli, C.; Cisbani, E.; Hamilton, D. J.; Salmé, G.; Wojtsekhowski, B.; Ahmidouch, A.; Annand, J. R. M.; Baghdasaryan, H.; Beaufait, J.; Bosted, P.; Brash, E. J.; Butuceanu, C.; Carter, P.; Christy, E.; Chudakov, E.; Danagoulian, S.; Day, D.; Degtyarenko, P.; Ent, R.; Fenker, H.; Fowler, M.; Frlez, E.; Gaskell, D.; Gilman, R.; Horn, T.; Huber, G. M.; de Jager, C. W.; Jensen, E.; Jones, M. K.; Kelleher, A.; Keppel, C.; Khandaker, M.; Kohl, M.; Kumbartzki, G.; Lassiter, S.; Li, Y.; Lindgren, R.; Lovelace, H.; Luo, W.; Mack, D.; Mamyan, V.; Margaziotis, D. J.; Markowitz, P.; Maxwell, J.; Mbianda, G.; Meekins, D.; Meziane, M.; Miller, J.; Mkrtchyan, A.; Mkrtchyan, H.; Mulholland, J.; Nelyubin, V.; Pentchev, L.; Perdrisat, C. F.; Piasetzky, E.; Prok, Y.; Puckett, A. J. R.; Punjabi, V.; Shabestari, M.; Shahinyan, A.; Slifer, K.; Smith, G.; Solvignon, P.; Subedi, R.; Wesselmann, F. R.; Wood, S.; Ye, Z.; Zheng, X.

    2015-10-01

    Wide-angle exclusive Compton scattering and single-pion photoproduction from the proton have been investigated via measurement of the polarization transfer from a circularly polarized photon beam to the recoil proton. The wide-angle Compton scattering polarization transfer was analyzed at an incident photon energy of 3.7 GeV at a proton scattering angle of θcmp=70 ° . The longitudinal transfer KLL, measured to be 0.645 ±0.059 ±0.048 , where the first error is statistical and the second is systematic, has the same sign as predicted for the reaction mechanism in which the photon interacts with a single quark carrying the spin of the proton. However, the observed value is ˜3 times larger than predicted by the generalized-parton-distribution-based calculations, which indicates a significant unknown contribution to the scattering amplitude.

  17. Polarization Transfer in Wide-Angle Compton Scattering and Single-Pion Photoproduction from the Proton.

    PubMed

    Fanelli, C; Cisbani, E; Hamilton, D J; Salmé, G; Wojtsekhowski, B; Ahmidouch, A; Annand, J R M; Baghdasaryan, H; Beaufait, J; Bosted, P; Brash, E J; Butuceanu, C; Carter, P; Christy, E; Chudakov, E; Danagoulian, S; Day, D; Degtyarenko, P; Ent, R; Fenker, H; Fowler, M; Frlez, E; Gaskell, D; Gilman, R; Horn, T; Huber, G M; de Jager, C W; Jensen, E; Jones, M K; Kelleher, A; Keppel, C; Khandaker, M; Kohl, M; Kumbartzki, G; Lassiter, S; Li, Y; Lindgren, R; Lovelace, H; Luo, W; Mack, D; Mamyan, V; Margaziotis, D J; Markowitz, P; Maxwell, J; Mbianda, G; Meekins, D; Meziane, M; Miller, J; Mkrtchyan, A; Mkrtchyan, H; Mulholland, J; Nelyubin, V; Pentchev, L; Perdrisat, C F; Piasetzky, E; Prok, Y; Puckett, A J R; Punjabi, V; Shabestari, M; Shahinyan, A; Slifer, K; Smith, G; Solvignon, P; Subedi, R; Wesselmann, F R; Wood, S; Ye, Z; Zheng, X

    2015-10-09

    Wide-angle exclusive Compton scattering and single-pion photoproduction from the proton have been investigated via measurement of the polarization transfer from a circularly polarized photon beam to the recoil proton. The wide-angle Compton scattering polarization transfer was analyzed at an incident photon energy of 3.7 GeV at a proton scattering angle of θ_{cm}^{p}=70°. The longitudinal transfer K_{LL}, measured to be 0.645±0.059±0.048, where the first error is statistical and the second is systematic, has the same sign as predicted for the reaction mechanism in which the photon interacts with a single quark carrying the spin of the proton. However, the observed value is ~3 times larger than predicted by the generalized-parton-distribution-based calculations, which indicates a significant unknown contribution to the scattering amplitude.

  18. Light scattering by randomly irregular dielectric particles larger than the wavelength.

    PubMed

    Grynko, Yevgen; Shkuratov, Yuriy; Förstner, Jens

    2013-12-01

    We present results of simulation of light scattering by randomly irregular particles that have dimensions larger than the wavelength of incident light. We apply the discontinuous Galerkin time domain method and compare the accurate solution with that obtained using an approximate geometric-optics model. A qualitative agreement is observed for scattering angle curves of intensity at the size parameter of X=60, whereas angular dependence of polarization appears to be more sensitive to the wave effects and requires larger sizes for application of geometrical optics.

  19. Light-Scattering Characteristics of Optical Surfaces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-01-01

    UNCLASSIFIED Psd) Accession For NTIS GRA&I DTIC TAB Unannounced d ] Justificatio By - Distributon/_ Availability Codes JAvail and/or_ CHAPTER 1...rejection systems, evaluation of machined metal mirrors for high- energy laser applications , laser-radar backscatter signature programs, and a host of...other applications requiring extensive scattering data. If the scattering mechanism were completely understood, surface prepa- ration techniques or

  20. Small-angle approximation to the transfer of narrow laser beams in anisotropic scattering media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Box, M. A.; Deepak, A.

    1981-01-01

    The broadening and the signal power detected of a laser beam traversing an anisotropic scattering medium were examined using the small-angle approximation to the radiative transfer equation in which photons suffering large-angle deflections are neglected. To obtain tractable answers, simple Gaussian and non-Gaussian functions for the scattering phase functions are assumed. Two other approximate approaches employed in the field to further simplify the small-angle approximation solutions are described, and the results obtained by one of them are compared with those obtained using small-angle approximation. An exact method for obtaining the contribution of each higher order scattering to the radiance field is examined but no results are presented.

  1. Preparing Monodisperse Macromolecular Samples for Successful Biological Small-Angle X-ray and Neutron Scattering Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Jeffries, Cy M.; Graewert, Melissa A.; Blanchet, Clément E.; Langley, David B.; Whitten, Andrew E.; Svergun, Dmitri I

    2017-01-01

    Small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering (SAXS and SANS) are techniques used to extract structural parameters and determine the overall structures and shapes of biological macromolecules, complexes and assemblies in solution. The scattering intensities measured from a sample contain contributions from all atoms within the illuminated sample volume including the solvent and buffer components as well as the macromolecules of interest. In order to obtain structural information, it is essential to prepare an exactly matched solvent blank so that background scattering contributions can be accurately subtracted from the sample scattering to obtain the net scattering from the macromolecules in the sample. In addition, sample heterogeneity caused by contaminants, aggregates, mismatched solvents, radiation damage or other factors can severely influence and complicate data analysis so it is essential that the samples are pure and monodisperse for the duration of the experiment. This Protocol outlines the basic physics of SAXS and SANS and reveals how the underlying conceptual principles of the techniques ultimately ‘translate’ into practical laboratory guidance for the production of samples of sufficiently high quality for scattering experiments. The procedure describes how to prepare and characterize protein and nucleic acid samples for both SAXS and SANS using gel electrophoresis, size exclusion chromatography and light scattering. Also included are procedures specific to X-rays (in-line size exclusion chromatography SAXS) and neutrons, specifically preparing samples for contrast matching/variation experiments and deuterium labeling of proteins. PMID:27711050

  2. Structural evaluation of an amyloid fibril model using small-angle x-ray scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahal, Eshan; Choi, Mina; Alam, Nadia; Bhirde, Ashwinkumar A.; Beaucage, Serge L.; Badano, Aldo

    2017-08-01

    Amyloid fibrils are highly structured protein aggregates associated with a wide range of diseases including Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s. We report a structural investigation of an amyloid fibril model prepared from a commonly used plasma protein (bovine serum albumin (BSA)) using small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) technique. As a reference, the size estimates from SAXS are compared to dynamic light scattering (DLS) data and the presence of amyloid-like fibrils is confirmed using Congo red absorbance assay. Our SAXS results consistently show the structural transformation of BSA from spheroid to rod-like elongated structures during the fibril formation process. We observe the elongation of fibrils over two months with fibril length growing from 35.9  ±  3.0 nm to 51.5  ±  2.1 nm. Structurally metastable fibrils with distinct SAXS profiles have been identified. As proof of concept, we demonstrate the use of such distinct SAXS profiles to detect fibrils in the mixture solutions of two species by estimating their volume fractions. This easily detectable and well-characterized amyloid fibril model from BSA can be readily used as a control or standard reference to further investigate SAXS applications in the detection of structurally diverse amyloid fibrils associated with protein aggregation diseases.

  3. A novel screen design for anti-ambient light front projection display with angle-selective absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Tianju; Chen, Weigang; He, Kebo; Zhang, Zhaoyu

    2016-03-01

    Ambient light is destructive to the reflective type projection system's contrast ratio which has great influence on the image quality. In contrast to the conventional front projection, short-throw projection has its advantage to reject the ambient light. Fresnel lens-shaped reflection layer is adapted to direct light from a large angle due to the low lens throw ratio to the viewing area. The structure separates the path of the ambient light and projection light, creating the chance to solve the problem that ambient light is mixed with projection light. However, with solely the lens-shaped reflection layer is not good enough to improve the contrast ratio due to the scattering layer, which contributes a necessarily wide viewing angle, could interfere with both light paths before hitting the layer. So we propose a new design that sets the draft angle surface with absorption layer and adds an angle-selective absorber to separate these two kinds of light. The absorber is designed to fit the direction of the projection light, leading to a small absorption cross section for the projection light and respectfully big absorption cross section for the ambient light. We have calculated the design with Tracepro, a ray tracing program and find a nearly 8 times contrast ratio improvement against the current design in theory. This design can hopefully provide efficient display in bright lit situation with better viewer satisfaction.

  4. Detection of internal structure by scattered light intensity: Application to kidney cell sorting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goolsby, C. L.; Kunze, M. E.

    1985-01-01

    Scattered light measurements in flow cytometry were sucessfully used to distinguish cells on the basis of differing morphology and internal structure. Differences in scattered light patterns due to changes in internal structure would be expected to occur at large scattering angles. Practically, the results of these calculations suggest that in experimental situations an array of detectors would be useful. Although in general the detection of the scattered light intensity at several intervals within the 10 to 60 region would be sufficient, there are many examples where increased sensitivity could be acheived at other angles. The ability to measure at many different angular intervals would allow the experimenter to empirically select the optimum intervals for the varying conditions of cell size, N/C ratio, granule size and internal structure from sample to sample. The feasibility of making scattered light measurements at many different intervals in flow cytometry was demonstrated. The implementation of simplified versions of these techniques in conjunction with independant measurements of cell size could potentially improve the usefulness of flow cytometry in the study of the internal structure of cells.

  5. Light scattering by magnons in whispering gallery mode cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Sanchar; Blanter, Yaroslav M.; Bauer, Gerrit E. W.

    2017-09-01

    Brillouin light scattering is an established technique to study magnons, the elementary excitations of a magnet. Its efficiency can be enhanced by cavities that concentrate the light intensity. Here, we theoretically study inelastic scattering of photons by a magnetic sphere that supports optical whispering gallery modes in a plane normal to the magnetization. Magnons with low angular momenta scatter the light in the forward direction with a pronounced asymmetry in the Stokes and the anti-Stokes scattering strength, consistent with earlier studies. Magnons with large angular momenta constitute Damon-Eschbach modes which are shown to inelastically reflect light. The reflection spectrum contains either a Stokes or anti-Stokes peak, depending on the direction of the magnetization, a selection rule that can be explained by the chirality of the Damon-Eshbach magnons. The controllable energy transfer can be used to manage the thermodynamics of the magnet by light.

  6. Measurements and interpretations of light scattering from intact biological cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Jeremy D.

    Visible light interacts with biological cells primarily through elastic scattering. The details of how cells scatter light depend on their morphology and their substructures. In this thesis we first present a series of experiments and models to discern the specific contributions of certain sub-cellular constituents to whole-cell scattering. Exploiting the findings of those studies, we report on experiments within model systems of cell death that demonstrate the potential of light scattering measurements as a tool in modern biology. Instrumentation capable of exploiting the findings of this thesis from a biology-relevant microscopy platform is designed and developed. A Mie theory based interpretation of light scattering signals originating from a collection of particles with a broad size distribution is developed. Upon applying this model to scattering data from intact cells, we find that it robustly extracts the size scale of dominant light scattering particles, suggests that scattering measurements are sensitive primarily to mitochondrial and lysosomal morphology, and unites conflicting results in the literature. Using this model as a basis, we present a collection of studies in which we use various strategies of photodynamic therapy (PDT) as a biophysical tool to perturb mitochondria and lysosomes, and observe the effects of these perturbations on whole-cell scattering. Through these experiments, we are able to discern the individual contributions of mitochondria and lysosomes to whole-cell light scattering, and demonstrate that mitochondria are responsible for roughly 80% of the scattering signal. Results of experiments aimed at demonstrating the potential role that light scattering measurements have to play in future studies of cell death biology are presented. We first show that mitochondrial-PDT-induced morphology changes measured with light scattering map into the cell killing efficacy of the therapy. We next demonstrate that mitochondrial

  7. Measuring the distribution of cellulose microfibril angles in primary cell walls by small angle X-ray scattering

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background X-ray scattering is a well-established method for measuring cellulose microfibril angles in secondary cell walls. However, little data is available on the much thinner primary cell walls. Here, we show that microfibril orientation distributions can be determined by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) even in primary cell walls. The technique offers a number of advantages: samples can be analyzed in the native hydrated state without any preparation which minimizes the risk of artifacts and allows for fast data acquisition. The method provides data averaged over a specimen region, determined by the size of the used X-ray beam and, thus, yields the microfibril orientation distribution within this region. Results Cellulose microfibril orientation distributions were obtained for single cells of the alga Chara corallina, as well as for the multicellular hypocotyl of Arabidopsis thaliana. In both, Chara and Arabidopsis, distributions with a broad scattering around mean microfibril angles of approximately 0° and 90° towards the longitudinal axis of the cells were found. Conclusions With SAXS, the structure of primary cell walls can be analysed in their native state and new insights into the cellulose microfibril orientation of primary cell walls can be gained. The data shows that SAXS can serve as a valuable tool for the analysis of cellulose microfibril orientation in primary cell walls and, in consequence, add to the understanding of its mechanical behaviour and the intriguing mechanisms behind cell growth. PMID:25170343

  8. Investigation of the effect of scattering agent and scattering albedo on modulated light propagation in water.

    PubMed

    Mullen, Linda; Alley, Derek; Cochenour, Brandon

    2011-04-01

    A recent paper described experiments completed to study the effect of scattering on the propagation of modulated light in laboratory tank water [Appl. Opt.48, 2607 (2009)APOPAI0003-693510.1364/AO.48.002607]. Those measurements were limited to a specific scattering agent (Maalox antacid) with a fixed scattering albedo (0.95). The purpose of this paper is to study the effects of different scattering agents and scattering albedos on modulated light propagation in water. The results show that the scattering albedo affects the number of attenuation lengths that the modulated optical signal propagates without distortion, while the type of scattering agent affects the degree to which the modulation is distorted with increasing attenuation length.

  9. Bright-White Beetle Scales Optimise Multiple Scattering of Light

    PubMed Central

    Burresi, Matteo; Cortese, Lorenzo; Pattelli, Lorenzo; Kolle, Mathias; Vukusic, Peter; Wiersma, Diederik S.; Steiner, Ullrich; Vignolini, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Whiteness arises from diffuse and broadband reflection of light typically achieved through optical scattering in randomly structured media. In contrast to structural colour due to coherent scattering, white appearance generally requires a relatively thick system comprising randomly positioned high refractive-index scattering centres. Here, we show that the exceptionally bright white appearance of Cyphochilus and Lepidiota stigma beetles arises from a remarkably optimised anisotropy of intra-scale chitin networks, which act as a dense scattering media. Using time-resolved measurements, we show that light propagating in the scales of the beetles undergoes pronounced multiple scattering that is associated with the lowest transport mean free path reported to date for low-refractive-index systems. Our light transport investigation unveil high level of optimisation that achieves high-brightness white in a thin low-mass-per-unit-area anisotropic disordered nanostructure. PMID:25123449

  10. Bright-White Beetle Scales Optimise Multiple Scattering of Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burresi, Matteo; Cortese, Lorenzo; Pattelli, Lorenzo; Kolle, Mathias; Vukusic, Peter; Wiersma, Diederik S.; Steiner, Ullrich; Vignolini, Silvia

    2014-08-01

    Whiteness arises from diffuse and broadband reflection of light typically achieved through optical scattering in randomly structured media. In contrast to structural colour due to coherent scattering, white appearance generally requires a relatively thick system comprising randomly positioned high refractive-index scattering centres. Here, we show that the exceptionally bright white appearance of Cyphochilus and Lepidiota stigma beetles arises from a remarkably optimised anisotropy of intra-scale chitin networks, which act as a dense scattering media. Using time-resolved measurements, we show that light propagating in the scales of the beetles undergoes pronounced multiple scattering that is associated with the lowest transport mean free path reported to date for low-refractive-index systems. Our light transport investigation unveil high level of optimisation that achieves high-brightness white in a thin low-mass-per-unit-area anisotropic disordered nanostructure.

  11. Numerical analysis of the Fokker-Planck equation with adiabatic focusing: Realistic pitch-angle scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasuik, J.; Fiege, J. D.; Shalchi, A.

    2017-01-01

    We solve the focused transport equation of cosmic rays numerically to investigate non-isotropic models of the pitch-angle scattering coefficient. In previous work, the Fokker-Planck equation was solved either analytically by using approximations, or by using a numerical approach together with simple models for the pitch-angle scattering coefficient. It is the purpose of the current article so compute particle distribution functions as well as the parallel diffusion coefficient by solving numerically the focused transport equation for a more realistic Fokker-Planck coefficient of pitch-angle scattering. Our analytical form for the scattering parameter is based on non-linear diffusion theory that takes into account realistic scattering at pitch-angles close to 90 ° . This general form contains the isotropic form as well as the quasi-linear limit as special cases. We show that the ratio of the diffusion coefficients with and without focusing sensitively depends on the ratio of the turbulent magnetic field and the mean field. The assumed form of the pitch-angle Fokker-Planck coefficient has an influence on the parallel diffusion coefficient. In all considered cases we found a reduction of the ratio of the diffusion coefficients if the ratio of magnetic fields is reduced.

  12. Design and analysis of particles detecting system based on near forward light scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Xiao-Jun; Li, Xiao; Yu, Jia-Xin

    2016-01-01

    A novel design based on near forward light scattering detection system to measure size and concentration distribution of particles in liquids is reported. According to theory of Mie scattering, the influence of relative refractive index, particles size and wavelength on the detection results are discussed. A green optical fiber laser with 532nm was used as the excited light source. As a key part in the detection system, the focusing system using a lens structure to confine light sensitive area with Gauss distribution less than 80 μm2. The lateral size of the sample cell is limited to 100μm. In order to measure the particles in non-overlapping state and improve the accuracy and repeatability, a novel structure in the sample cell was used and particle velocity through the sample cell was controlled by high precision stepper motor control system of micro circulation pump. Particle light scattering signal acquisition was completed by the poly lens combination system, according to the receiving angle relative to the measured particle, which can adjust the light scattering direction to obtain better particles light scattering signal. Photoelectric signal conversion, amplification and acquisition are all the devices with high precision. The measurement results showed that the measurement system was accurate and stable when the particles size in the range of 0.5-5μm.

  13. Particle acceleration with anomalous pitch angle scattering in 2D magnetohydrodynamic reconnection simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borissov, A.; Kontar, E. P.; Threlfall, J.; Neukirch, T.

    2017-09-01

    The conversion of magnetic energy into other forms (such as plasma heating, bulk plasma flows, and non-thermal particles) during solar flares is one of the outstanding open problems in solar physics. It is generally accepted that magnetic reconnection plays a crucial role in these conversion processes. In order to achieve the rapid energy release required in solar flares, an anomalous resistivity, which is orders of magnitude higher than the Spitzer resistivity, is often used in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of reconnection in the corona. The origin of Spitzer resistivity is based on Coulomb scattering, which becomes negligible at the high energies achieved by accelerated particles. As a result, simulations of particle acceleration in reconnection events are often performed in the absence of any interaction between accelerated particles and any background plasma. This need not be the case for scattering associated with anomalous resistivity caused by turbulence within solar flares, as the higher resistivity implies an elevated scattering rate. We present results of test particle calculations, with and without pitch angle scattering, subject to fields derived from MHD simulations of two-dimensional (2D) X-point reconnection. Scattering rates proportional to the ratio of the anomalous resistivity to the local Spitzer resistivity, as well as at fixed values, are considered. Pitch angle scattering, which is independent of the anomalous resistivity, causes higher maximum energies in comparison to those obtained without scattering. Scattering rates which are dependent on the local anomalous resistivity tend to produce fewer highly energised particles due to weaker scattering in the separatrices, even though scattering in the current sheet may be stronger when compared to resistivity-independent scattering. Strong scattering also causes an increase in the number of particles exiting the computational box in the reconnection outflow region, as opposed to along the

  14. Nano-Scale Morphology of Melanosomes Revealed by Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering

    PubMed Central

    Gorniak, Thomas; Haraszti, Tamas; Garamus, Vasyl M.; Buck, Andreas R.; Senkbeil, Tobias; Priebe, Marius; Hedberg-Buenz, Adam; Koehn, Demelza; Salditt, Tim; Grunze, Michael; Anderson, Michael G.; Rosenhahn, Axel

    2014-01-01

    Melanosomes are highly specialized organelles that produce and store the pigment melanin, thereby fulfilling essential functions within their host organism. Besides having obvious cosmetic consequences – determining the color of skin, hair and the iris – they contribute to photochemical protection from ultraviolet radiation, as well as to vision (by defining how much light enters the eye). Though melanosomes can be beneficial for health, abnormalities in their structure can lead to adverse effects. Knowledge of their ultrastructure will be crucial to gaining insight into the mechanisms that ultimately lead to melanosome-related diseases. However, due to their small size and electron-dense content, physiologically intact melanosomes are recalcitrant to study by common imaging techniques such as light and transmission electron microscopy. In contrast, X-ray-based methodologies offer both high spatial resolution and powerful penetrating capabilities, and thus are well suited to study the ultrastructure of electron-dense organelles in their natural, hydrated form. Here, we report on the application of small-angle X-ray scattering – a method effective in determining the three-dimensional structures of biomolecules – to whole, hydrated murine melanosomes. The use of complementary information from the scattering signal of a large ensemble of suspended organelles and from single, vitrified specimens revealed a melanosomal sub-structure whose surface and bulk properties differ in two commonly used inbred strains of laboratory mice. Whereas melanosomes in C57BL/6J mice have a well-defined surface and are densely packed with 40-nm units, their counterparts in DBA/2J mice feature a rough surface, are more granular and consist of 60-nm building blocks. The fact that these strains have different coat colors and distinct susceptibilities to pigment-related eye disease suggest that these differences in size and packing are of biological significance. PMID:24621581

  15. Light scattering by dielectric bodies in the Born approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bereza, A. S.; Nemykin, A. V.; Perminov, S. V.; Frumin, L. L.; Shapiro, D. A.

    2017-06-01

    Light scattering is one of the most important elementary processes in near-field optics. We build up the Born series for scattering by dielectric bodies with sharp boundaries. The Green's function for a two-dimensional homogeneous dielectric cylinder is obtained. As an example, the formulas are derived for a scattered field of two parallel cylinders. The polar diagram is shown to agree with the numerical calculation by the known methods of discrete dipoles and boundary elements.

  16. Modelling of classical ghost images obtained using scattered light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosby, S.; Castelletto, S.; Aruldoss, C.; Scholten, R. E.; Roberts, A.

    2007-08-01

    The images obtained in ghost imaging with pseudo-thermal light sources are highly dependent on the spatial coherence properties of the incident light. Pseudo-thermal light is often created by reducing the coherence length of a coherent source by passing it through a turbid mixture of scattering spheres. We describe a model for simulating ghost images obtained with such partially coherent light, using a wave-transport model to calculate the influence of the scattering on initially coherent light. The model is able to predict important properties of the pseudo-thermal source, such as the coherence length and the amplitude of the residual unscattered component of the light which influence the resolution and visibility of the final ghost image. We show that the residual ballistic component introduces an additional background in the reconstructed image, and the spatial resolution obtainable depends on the size of the scattering spheres.

  17. Threshold energies of light-ion sputtering and heavy-ion sputtering as a function of angle of incidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamura, Y.

    1984-03-01

    The angular dependence of threshold energies has been investigated for light-ion sputtering and heavy-ion sputtering, and simple expressions for the angular dependences of threshold energies are derived for these two cases. For not-too-large angles of incidence, the threshold energy of heavy-ion sputtering is a decreasing function of the angle of incidence because of the anisotropy of the velocity distribution of recoil atoms, while the threshold energy of light-ion sputtering shows a weak angular dependence. For grazing angles of incidence, the threshold energies of these two cases are increasing functions of the angle of incidence because of surface scattering. In order to examine these theoretical angular dependences of threshold energies, the computer simulations have been performed using the ACAT code. It is found that in the near-threshold regime the angular dependences of sputtering yield by heavy ions are much different from those by light ions.

  18. A light-scattering characterization of membrane vesicles.

    PubMed Central

    Selser, J C; Yeh, Y; Baskin, R J

    1976-01-01

    A technique has been developed in this paper which enables quasi-elastic laser light scattering to be used to accurately and quantitatively measure the average vesicle diffusion coefficient and the relative dispersion in the diffusion coefficient about this average for dilute polydisperse vesicle suspensions. This technique relies on a theoretical analysis of a modified form of the Z-averaged diffusion coefficient. This modified Z-averaged diffusion coefficient explicitly incorporates vesicle size, structure, and polydispersity in a description of the scattered light autocorrelation spectrum. Light-scattering experiments were performed on a dilute, lobster sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicle suspension and the measured average diffusion coefficient and the diffusion coefficient relative dispersion about this average were determined with accuracies of 2 and 10%, respectively. A comparison of vesicle size inferred from light-scattering results was made with size results from electron microscopic analysis of the same sample. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 PMID:1252585

  19. Light scattering from nonspherical airborne particles: Experimental and theoretical comparisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirst, Edwin; Kaye, Paul H.; Guppy, John R.

    1994-10-01

    Spatial intensity distribution of laser light scattered by airborne hazardous particles such as asbestos fiber is studied to classify particles shape and size. Theoretical treatment is based on Rayleigh-Gans formalism. Theoretical and experimental data are in good agreement.

  20. Propagation and scattering of light in fluctuating media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuz'min, V. L.; Romanov, V. P.; Zubkov, L. A.

    1994-11-01

    The monograph deals with the problems of the propagation and scattering of light in molecular media. The explicit statistical mechanical averaging procedure for the equations of electrodynamics is developed. It permits to transform the molecular level description into the macroscopic one for the electrodynamics of the fluctuating media. In the framework of such an approach, the problems of the molecular correlation contribution into the dielectric permeability, of the calculation of the reflection coefficients with an account of surface layers and of the multiple light scattering are considered. The developed theory is applied to the description of the critical opalescence, the coherent backscattering enhancement, the light scattering depolarization phenomena and the propagation and scattering of light in anisotropic media, including the case of liquid crystals.

  1. Analytic expression for in-field scattered light distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Gary L.

    2004-01-01

    Light that is scattered from lenses and mirrors in an optical system produces a halo of stray light around bright objects within the field of view. The angular distribution of scattered light from any one component is usually described by the Harvey model. This paper presents analytic expressions for the scattered irradiance at a focal plane from optical components that scatter light in accordance with the Harvey model. It is found that the irradiance is independent of the location of an optical element within the system, provided the element is not located at or near an intermediate image plane. It is also found that the irradiance has little or no dependence on the size of the element.

  2. Evaluation of advanced light scattering technology for microgravity experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fredericks, W. J.; Rosenblum, W. M.

    1990-01-01

    The capabilities of modern light scattering equipment and the uses it might have in studying processes in microgravity are evaluated. Emphasis is on the resolution of polydisperse systems. This choice was made since a major use of light scattering was expected to be the study of crystal growth of macromolecules in low gravity environments. An evaluation of a modern photon correlation spectrometer and a Mie spectrometer is presented.

  3. Efficient light propagation for multiple anisotropic volume scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Max, N. |

    1993-12-01

    Realistic rendering of participating media like clouds requires multiple anisotropic light scattering. This paper presents a propagation approximation for light scattered into M direction bins, which reduces the ``ray effect`` problem in the traditional ``discrete ordinates`` method. For a volume of n{sup 3} elements, it takes O(M n{sup 3} log n + M{sup 2} n{sup 3}) time and O(M n{sup 3}) space.

  4. Application of small-angle neutron scattering to the study of forces between magnetically chained monodisperse ferrofluid emulsion droplets

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Dr Nirmesh; Liu, Dr C K; Hawkett, Dr B. S.; Warr, G. G.; Hamilton, William A

    2014-01-01

    The optical magnetic chaining technique (MCT) developed by Leal-Calderon, Bibette and co-workers in the 1990 s allows precise measurements of force profiles between droplets in monodisperse ferrofluid emulsions. However, the method lacks an in-situ determination of droplet size and therefore requires the combination of separately acquired measurements of droplet chain periodicity versus an applied magnetic field from optical Bragg scattering and droplet diameter inferred from dynamic light scattering (DLS) to recover surface force-distance profiles between the colloidal particles. Compound refractive lens (CRL) focussed small-angle scattering (SANS) MCT should result in more consistent measurements of droplet size (form factor measurements in the absence of field) and droplet chaining period (from structure factor peaks when the magnetic field is applied); and, with access to shorter length scales, extend force measurements to closer approaches than possible by optical measurements. We report on CRL-SANS measurements of monodisperse ferrofluid emulsion droplets aligned in straight chains by an applied field perpendicular to the incident beam direction. Analysis of the scattering from the closely spaced droplets required algorithms that carefully treated resolution and its effect on mean scattering vector magnitudes in order to determine droplet size and chain periods to sufficient accuracy. At lower applied fields scattering patterns indicate structural correlations transverse to the magnetic field direction due to the formation of intermediate structures in early chain growth.

  5. Small-angle scattering gives direct structural information about a membrane protein inside a lipid environment.

    PubMed

    Kynde, Søren A R; Skar-Gislinge, Nicholas; Pedersen, Martin Cramer; Midtgaard, Søren Roi; Simonsen, Jens Baek; Schweins, Ralf; Mortensen, Kell; Arleth, Lise

    2014-02-01

    Monomeric bacteriorhodopsin (bR) reconstituted into POPC/POPG-containing nanodiscs was investigated by combined small-angle neutron and X-ray scattering. A novel hybrid approach to small-angle scattering data analysis was developed. In combination, these provided direct structural insight into membrane-protein localization in the nanodisc and into the protein-lipid interactions. It was found that bR is laterally decentred in the plane of the disc and is slightly tilted in the phospholipid bilayer. The thickness of the bilayer is reduced in response to the incorporation of bR. The observed tilt of bR is in good accordance with previously performed theoretical predictions and computer simulations based on the bR crystal structure. The result is a significant and essential step on the way to developing a general small-angle scattering-based method for determining the low-resolution structures of membrane proteins in physiologically relevant environments.

  6. Noctilucent cloud polarimetry: Twilight measurements in a wide range of scattering angles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ugolnikov, Oleg S.; Maslov, Igor A.; Kozelov, Boris V.; Dlugach, Janna M.

    2016-06-01

    Wide-field polarization measurements of the twilight sky background during several nights with bright and extended noctilucent clouds in central and northern Russia in 2014 and 2015 are used to build the phase dependence of the degree of polarization of sunlight scattered by cloud particles in a wide range of scattering angles (from 40° to 130°). This range covers the linear polarization maximum near 90° and large-angle slope of the curve. The polarization in this angle range is most sensitive to the particle size. The method of separation of scattering on cloud particles from the twilight background is presented. Results are compared with T-matrix simulations for different sizes and shapes of ice particles; the best-fit model radius of particles (0.06 μm) and maximum radius (about 0.1 μm) are estimated.

  7. Electrically Switchable and Permanently Stable Light Scattering Modes by Dynamic Fingerprint Chiral Textures.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ko-Ting; Lee, Po-Yi; Qasim, Malik M; Liu, Cheng-Kai; Cheng, Wen-Fa; Wilkinson, Timothy D

    2016-04-27

    Negative dielectric nematic liquid crystals (LCs) doped with two azobenzene materials provide electrically switchable and permanently stable scattering mode light modulators based on dynamic fingerprint chiral textures (DFCT) with inhomogeneously helical axes. These light modulators can be switched between transparent (stable large domains of DFCT) states and scattering (stable small domains of DFCT) states by applying electric fields with different frequencies. The generation of DFCT results from the long flexible side chains of the doped chiral dopant. That is, if the DFCT can be obtained, then the large domains of DFCT reflect an intrinsically stable state. Moreover, the stabilization of the small domains of DFCT are caused by the terminal rigid restricted side chains of the other doped chiral dopant. Experimentally, the required amplitude to switch the light modulator from a scattering (transparent) state to a transparent (scattering) state decreases as the frequency of the applied electric field increases (decreases) within the set limits. This study is the first report on the advantages of the light scattering mode of DFCT, including low operating voltage, permanently stable transmission, wide viewing angle, high contrast, and polarization-independent scattering and transparency.

  8. Characteristics of low-angle x-ray scattering from some biological samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elshemey, Wael M.; Elsayed, Anwar A.; El-Lakkani, Ali

    1999-12-01

    Design of medical imaging devices based on the detection of low-angle coherent scattering is a subject of increasing interest. The technique is based on the differences in the distribution of photons coherently scattered from different body tissues. Coherent scattering is also useful in monitoring changes that may occur in a healthy tissue (e.g. carcinoma). In this work, low-angle scattering properties of some tissues and tissue-equivalent materials are studied. Special care is given to the possibility of distinguishing between tissues of similar water content (e.g. muscle and blood). For this purpose, a Monte Carlo simulation is updated, introducing molecular form factor data, which include molecular interference effects. This program is used to simulate the angular distribution of scattered photons from two tissue-equivalent materials (lucite and water) and three biological samples (muscle, fat and blood). Simulation results agree well with previously measured angular distributions of scattered photons at 59.54 keV. Scattering from water and lucite is also measured at 8.047 keV. The effects of scattering geometry, sample thickness, incident photon energy and tissue type on the angular distribution of scattered photons are investigated. Results reveal the potential of measuring the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the scattered photon distribution for tissue characterization. Energies up to 13 keV and sample thickness of 0.3 cm reported maximum differences between investigated samples. These conditions are expected to maximize the potential of using coherent scattering set-ups to monitor changes in biological samples even if their water contents are similar. Present results may act as a guide for the optimization of coherent scattering imaging systems.

  9. Initial State Helicity Correlation in Wide Angle Compton Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jixie; Day, Donal; Keller, Dustin; Rondon, Oscar

    2014-09-01

    The applicability of pQCD to exclusive reactions at medium energies is a subject of considerable interest. Real Compton scattering (RCS) has the potential to provide insight to this unsettled issue. In pQCD, three active quarks and two hard gluons are involved when describing RCS. But the cross sections do not agree with the pQCD predictions. In contrast, a handbag dominance model, involving only one single quark coupling to the spectator through generalized parton distributions (GPDs) does a good job of matching the cross section data. A measurement of the longitudinal polarization transfer parameter KLL was found inconsistent with predictions of pQCD yet consistent with calculations within the hand-bag mechanism. Further Miller's handbag approach, which including quark and hadron helicity flip, contradicts pQCD and others which demands that KLL =ALL , the initial state helicity correlation asymmetry, by finding that KLL ≠ALL . The first ever measurement of ALL has been proposed to run in Jefferson Lab's Hall C. This experiment will utilize an untagged bremsstrahlung photon beam and the longitudinally polarized UVA/JLAB proton target. After a brief introduction to the physics, the experiment will be described and the expected results presented.

  10. Initial State Helicity Correlation in Wide Angle Compton Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, Donal; Keller, Dustin; Zhang, Jixie

    2015-04-01

    Whether pQCD can describe exclusive reactions at medium energies remains an area of active study. Real Compton scattering (RCS) has the potential to provide insight to this unsettled issue. A pQCD description of RCS requires the participation of three quarks and two hard gluons. However its predictions for the RCS cross sections disagree with data while calculations based on the handbag mechanism, involving a single quark coupled to the spectator through generalized parton distributions (GPDs), match the data well. The measured longitudinal polarization transfer parameter KLL is inconsistent with predictions of pQCD yet consistent with calculations of the handbag mechanism. Furthermore, Miller's approach, which includes quark and hadron helicity flip, contradicts pQCD where KLL =ALL , the initial state helicity correlation asymmetry, by finding that KLL ≠ALL . The first ever measurement of ALL (E12-14-006) has been approved to run in Jefferson Lab's Hall C and will be able to discriminate between the various models. E12-14-006 will utilize an untagged bremsstrahlung photon beam and the longitudinally polarized UVA/JLAB proton target. After a brief introduction to the physics, the experiment will be described and the expected results presented.

  11. Magnetic scattering in the simultaneous measurement of small-angle neutron scattering and Bragg edge transmission from steel.

    PubMed

    Oba, Yojiro; Morooka, Satoshi; Ohishi, Kazuki; Sato, Nobuhiro; Inoue, Rintaro; Adachi, Nozomu; Suzuki, Jun-Ichi; Tsuchiyama, Toshihiro; Gilbert, Elliot Paul; Sugiyama, Masaaki

    2016-10-01

    Pulsed neutron sources enable the simultaneous measurement of small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and Bragg edge transmission. This simultaneous measurement is useful for microstructural characterization in steel. Since most steels are ferromagnetic, magnetic scattering contributions should be considered in both SANS and Bragg edge transmission analyses. An expression for the magnetic scattering contribution to Bragg edge transmission analysis has been derived. The analysis using this expression was applied to Cu steel. The ferrite crystallite size estimated from this Bragg edge transmission analysis with the magnetic scattering contribution was larger than that estimated using conventional expressions. This result indicates that magnetic scattering has to be taken into account for quantitative Bragg edge transmission analysis. In the SANS analysis, the ratio of magnetic to nuclear scattering contributions revealed that the precipitates consist of body-centered cubic Cu0.7Fe0.3 and pure Cu, which probably has 9R structure including elastic strain and vacancies. These results show that effective use of the magnetic scattering contribution allows detailed analyses of steel microstructure.

  12. Magnetic scattering in the simultaneous measurement of small-angle neutron scattering and Bragg edge transmission from steel1

    PubMed Central

    Oba, Yojiro; Morooka, Satoshi; Ohishi, Kazuki; Sato, Nobuhiro; Inoue, Rintaro; Adachi, Nozomu; Suzuki, Jun-ichi; Tsuchiyama, Toshihiro; Gilbert, Elliot Paul; Sugiyama, Masaaki

    2016-01-01

    Pulsed neutron sources enable the simultaneous measurement of small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and Bragg edge transmission. This simultaneous measurement is useful for microstructural characterization in steel. Since most steels are ferromagnetic, magnetic scattering contributions should be considered in both SANS and Bragg edge transmission analyses. An expression for the magnetic scattering contribution to Bragg edge transmission analysis has been derived. The analysis using this expression was applied to Cu steel. The ferrite crystallite size estimated from this Bragg edge transmission analysis with the magnetic scattering contribution was larger than that estimated using conventional expressions. This result indicates that magnetic scattering has to be taken into account for quantitative Bragg edge transmission analysis. In the SANS analysis, the ratio of magnetic to nuclear scattering contributions revealed that the precipitates consist of body-centered cubic Cu0.7Fe0.3 and pure Cu, which probably has 9R structure including elastic strain and vacancies. These results show that effective use of the magnetic scattering contribution allows detailed analyses of steel microstructure. PMID:27738416

  13. Q-space analysis of light scattering by Gaussian Random Spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maughan, Justin B.; Sorensen, Christopher M.; Chakrabarti, Amitabha

    2016-05-01

    Q-space analysis is applied to the scattered intensity from Gaussian Random Spheres (GRSs). Q-space analysis involves plotting the scattered intensity vs. the magnitude of the scattering wave vector q = 2 k sin θ/2 where k = 2 π / λ with λ the wavelength and θ is the scattering angle, on a log-log plot. The light scattering properties of GRSs were calculated using a discrete dipole approximation algorithm. The GRSs had σ=0.2 and ν=3, where σ is the relative standard deviation in the radial direction, and ν describes fluctuations in the angular direction. Calculations were systematically performed with size parameters ranging from 10 to 30, and with a relative index of refraction, m, ranging from 1.01 to 1.5. The results show quantifiable, power law descriptions of the scattered intensity and a Rayleigh functionality of the forward scattered intensity that depend upon the phase shift parameter ρ = 2 k Req | m - 1 | where Req is an equivalent radius. Similar functionalities have been observed in both spheres and other irregularly shaped particles. These results continue the implication that there is a comprehensive description of light scattering for all particles that can be uncovered with the application of Q-space.

  14. Light scattering from Sickle Cell Hemoglobin: Polarized and Unpolarized

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kejing; Hantgan, Roy R.; Kim-Shapiro, Daniel B.

    1999-11-01

    Sickle cell polymers form due to aggregation of a mutant form of hemoglobin (HbS). The polymerization of HbS leads to microvascular occlusion characteristic of Sickle Cell Disease. A good understanding of HbS polymerization requires a way to quantify the degree of polymerization. As our calculations show, total intensity light scattering is not always linearly dependent on the amount of polymer. Polarized light scattering has been proposed as a more accurate way to measure polymer content. We use a new modulation method to measure all 16 Mueller Matrix elements, which completely describe how the Polarization State of light is altered upon scattering. Preliminary results of light scattering measurements from spheres and hemoglobin show that the instrument works properly. In future experiments, we will attempt to use polarized light scattering as an accurate measure of polymerization. In addition, Polarized light scattering may provide information on the higher order structure of sickle polymer bundles that has not been obtainable by other means.

  15. A forward-angle-scattering method for the determination of optical constants and particle size distribution by collimated laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Yatao; Qi, Hong; Yu, Xiaoying; Ruan, Liming

    2017-04-01

    This study examined the feasibility of using a secondary optimization technique and forward-angle-scattering method to retrieve optical constants (or complex refractive indices) and particle size distribution (PSD) simultaneously. In this work, two continuous wave lasers of different wavelengths were applied to irradiate the participating samples, and the scattered light of samples with different acceptance angles was obtained. First, the scattered signals within different acceptance angles were calculated by solving the radiative transfer equation. Then, the complex refractive index and PSD were retrieved simultaneously by applying quantum particle swarm optimization. However, the estimated results of PSD were inaccurate. Thus, a secondary optimization, which using the directional radiative intensity as input, was performed to improve the accuracy of PSD based on the first optimization process. Four commonly used kinds of monomodal PSD functions, i.e., the Rosin-Rammler, standard Normal, Logarithmic Normal, and Junge distribution, were retrieved. All results showed that the proposed technique can estimate the complex refractive index and PSD accurately.

  16. Light scattering from a randomly occupied optical lattice. II. The multiple scattering problem.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wei; Prasad, Sudhakar

    2003-05-01

    In this paper, we study the problem of multiple scattering of light from a randomly occupied optical lattice, thereby extending the first-order Born analysis of the previous paper. A full multiple-scattering analysis is essential to a complete understanding of the nature of light propagation inside a medium. Our calculations show that the incident wave, when resonant with the atomic medium, is rapidly extinguished due to multiple scattering. The decay constant depends critically on the incident wavelength, the lattice constant, the average number density of atoms, and their polarizability. Both the Bragg scattering amplitudes and directions are modified as a result of multiple scattering. Because of the random site occupation of an otherwise regular lattice structure, a coherent enhancement of the scattering cross section is also predicted to occur along a discrete set of directions that are related to the strictly backward direction by reciprocal lattice vectors.

  17. Using small angle solution scattering data in Xplor-NIH structure calculations.

    PubMed

    Schwieters, Charles D; Clore, G Marius

    2014-07-01

    This contribution describes the use of small and wide angle X-ray and small angle neutron scattering for biomolecular structure calculation using the program Xplor-NIH, both with and without NMR data. The current algorithms used for calculating scattering curves are described, and the use of scattering data as a structural restraint is given concrete form as a fragment of an Xplor-NIH structure calculation script. We review five examples of the use of scattering data in structure calculation, including the treatment of single domain proteins, nucleic acids, structure determination of large proteins, and the use of ensemble representations to characterize small and large amplitude motions. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Limiting cases of the small-angle scattering approximation solutions for the propagation of laser beams in anisotropic scattering media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Box, M. A.; Deepak, A.

    1981-01-01

    The propagation of photons in a medium with strongly anisotropic scattering is a problem with a considerable history. Like the propagation of electrons in metal foils, it may be solved in the small-angle scattering approximation by the use of Fourier-transform techniques. In certain limiting cases, one may even obtain analytic expressions. This paper presents some of these results in a model-independent form and also illustrates them by the use of four different phase-function models. Sample calculations are provided for comparison purposes

  19. A potential for overestimating the absolute magnitudes of second virial coefficients by small-angle X-ray scattering.

    PubMed

    Scott, David J; Patel, Trushar R; Winzor, Donald J

    2013-04-15

    Theoretical consideration is given to the effect of cosolutes (including buffer and electrolyte components) on the determination of second virial coefficients for proteins by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS)-a factor overlooked in current analyses in terms of expressions for a two-component system. A potential deficiency of existing practices is illustrated by reassessment of published results on the effect of polyethylene glycol concentration on the second virial coefficient for urate oxidase. This error reflects the substitution of I(0,c3,0), the scattering intensity in the limit of zero scattering angle and solute concentration, for I(0,0,0), the corresponding parameter in the limit of zero cosolute concentration (c3) as well. Published static light scattering results on the dependence of the apparent molecular weight of ovalbumin on buffer concentration are extrapolated to zero concentration to obtain the true value (M2) and thereby establish the feasibility of obtaining the analogous SAXS parameter, I(0,0,0), experimentally.

  20. X-ray small-angle scattering from sputtered CeO{sub 2}/C bilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Haviar, S.; Dubau, M.; Khalakhan, I.; Vorokhta, M.; Matolinova, I.; Matolin, V.; Vales, V.; Endres, J.; Holy, V.; Buljan, M.; Bernstorff, S.

    2013-01-14

    Surface and interface morphology of cerium oxide/carbon bilayers used as thin-film catalysts is studied by grazing-incidence small-angle x-ray scattering, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic-force microscopy, and the dependence of the structural parameters on the thicknesses of the constituting layers is investigated. The applicability of x-ray scattering and its advantages over standard analytical methods are discussed.

  1. COSMIC-RAY PITCH-ANGLE SCATTERING IN IMBALANCED MHD TURBULENCE SIMULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Weidl, Martin S.; Jenko, Frank; Teaca, Bogdan; Schlickeiser, Reinhard

    2015-09-20

    Pitch-angle scattering rates for cosmic-ray particles in MHD simulations with imbalanced turbulence are calculated for fully evolving electromagnetic turbulence. We compare with theoretical predictions derived from the quasilinear theory of cosmic-ray diffusion for an idealized slab spectrum and demonstrate how cross helicity affects the shape of the pitch-angle diffusion coefficient. Additional simulations in evolving magnetic fields or static field configurations provide evidence that the scattering anisotropy in imbalanced turbulence is not primarily due to coherence with propagating Alfvén waves, but an effect of the spatial structure of electric fields in cross-helical MHD turbulence.

  2. Small Angle Neutron Scattering at the National Institute of Standards and Technology

    PubMed Central

    Hammouda, B.; Krueger, S.; Glinka, C. J.

    1993-01-01

    The small angle neutron scattering technique is a valuable method for the characterization of morphology of various materials. It can probe inhomogeneities in the sample (whether occurring naturally or introduced through isotopic substitution) at a length scale from the atomic size (nanometers) to the macroscopic (micrometers) size. This work provides an overview of the small angle neutron scattering facilities at the National Institute of Standards and Technology and a review of the technique as it has been applied to polymer systems, biological macromolecules, ceramic, and metallic materials. Specific examples have been included. PMID:28053456

  3. Two-atom model in enhanced ion backscattering near 180/sup 0/ scattering angles

    SciTech Connect

    Oen, O.S.

    1981-06-01

    The recent discovery by Pronko, Appleton, Holland, and Wilson of an unusual enhancement of the yield of ions backscattered through angles close to 180/sup 0/ from the near surface regions of solids is investigated using a two-atom scattering model. The model predicts an enhancement effect in amorphous solids whose physical origin arises from the tolerance of path for those ions whose inward and outward trajectories lie in the vicinity of the critical impact parameter. Predictions are given of the dependence of the yield enhancement on the following parameters: ion energy, backscattering depth, exit angle, scattering potential, atomic numbers of projectile and target, and atomic density of target.

  4. Pitch angle scattering of relativistic electrons from stationary magnetic waves: Continuous Markov process and quasilinear theory

    SciTech Connect

    Lemons, Don S.

    2012-01-15

    We develop a Markov process theory of charged particle scattering from stationary, transverse, magnetic waves. We examine approximations that lead to quasilinear theory, in particular the resonant diffusion approximation. We find that, when appropriate, the resonant diffusion approximation simplifies the result of the weak turbulence approximation without significant further restricting the regime of applicability. We also explore a theory generated by expanding drift and diffusion rates in terms of a presumed small correlation time. This small correlation time expansion leads to results valid for relatively small pitch angle and large wave energy density - a regime that may govern pitch angle scattering of high-energy electrons into the geomagnetic loss cone.

  5. Backward elastic light scattering of malaria infected red blood cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seungjun; Lu, Wei

    2011-08-01

    We investigated the backward light scattering pattern of healthy and malaria (Plasmodium falciparum) parasitized red blood cells. The spectrum could clearly distinguish between predominant ring stage infected blood cells and healthy blood cells. Further, we found that infected samples mixed with different stages of P. falciparum showed different signals, suggesting that even variance in parasite stages could also be detected by the spectrum. These results together with the backward scattering technique suggest the potential of non-invasive diagnosis of malaria through light scattering of blood cells near the surface of human body, such as using eyes or skin surface.

  6. Fiber optic probes for laser light scattering: Ground based evaluation for micgrogravity flight experimentation. Integrated coherent imaging fiber optic systems for laser light scattering and other applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dhadwal, Harbans Singh

    1994-01-01

    The research work presented in this report has established a new class of backscatter fiber optics probes for remote dynamic light scattering capability over a range of scattering angles from 94 degrees to 175 degrees. The fiber optic probes provide remote access to scattering systems, and can be utilized in either a noninvasive or invasive configuration. The fiber optics create an interference free data channel to inaccessible and harsh environments. Results from several studies of concentrated suspension, microemulsions, and protein systems are presented. The second part of the report describes the development of a new technology of wavefront processing within the optical fiber, that is, integrated fiber optics. Results have been very encouraging and the technology promises to have significant impact on the development of fiber optic sensors in a variety of fields ranging from environmental monitoring to optical recording, from biomedical sensing to photolithography.

  7. Light scattering by surface acoustic waves on corrugated metal surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, W.M.; Grimsditch, M. ); Moretti, A.L.; Kaufman, R.G.; Hulse, G.R. ); Fullerton, E.; Schuller, I.K. )

    1990-03-15

    We report the results of a Brillouin-scattering study of corrugated Ag surfaces. The corrugation plays a dramatic role in the wave-vector--selection rules governing coupling to surface phonons, and this effect is substantially different when the effective wave vector of the surface corrugation is collinear or perpendicular to the scattering plane. In processes that involve the grating wave vector, we show that the coupling mechanism between light and phonons is governed by surface plasmons which introduce a new scattering interaction with unusual polarization features in the Brillouin-scattering process.

  8. The generation of Ganymede's diffuse aurora through pitch angle scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, Arvind K.; Singhal, Rajendra P.; Singh, Onkar N., II

    2017-02-01

    Diffuse auroral intensities of neutral atomic oxygen OI λ1356 Å emission on Ganymede due to whistler mode waves are estimated. Pitch angle diffusion of magnetospheric electrons into the loss cone due to resonant wave-particle interaction of whistler mode waves is considered, and the resulting electron precipitation flux is calculated. The analytical yield spectrum approach is used for determining the energy deposition of electrons precipitating into the atmosphere of Ganymede. It is found that the intensities (4-30 R) calculated from the precipitation of magnetospheric electrons observed near Ganymede are inadequate to account for the observational intensities (≤ 100 R). This is in agreement with the conclusions reached in previous works. Some acceleration mechanism is required to energize the magnetospheric electrons. In the present work we consider the heating and acceleration of magnetospheric electrons by electrostatic waves. Two particle distribution functions (Maxwellian and kappa distribution) are used to simulate heating and acceleration of electrons. Precipitation of a Maxwellian distribution of electrons can produce about 70 R intensities of OI λ1356 Å emission for electron temperature of 150 eV. A kappa distribution can also yield a diffuse auroral intensity of similar magnitude for a characteristic energy of about 100 eV. The maximum contribution to the estimated intensity results from the dissociative excitation of O2. Contributions from the direct excitation of atomic oxygen and cascading in atomic oxygen are estimated to be only about 1 and 2 % of the total calculated intensity, respectively. The findings of this work are relevant for the present JUNO and future JUICE missions to Jupiter. These missions will provide new data on electron densities, electron temperature and whistler mode wave amplitudes in the magnetosphere of Jupiter near Ganymede.

  9. 2D light scattering label-free cytometry using light-sheet illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Meiai; Su, Xuantao

    2016-10-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) light scattering cytometry has been demonstrated as an effective label-free technology for cell analysis. Here we develop the light-sheet illumination in 2D light scattering static cytometry. In our cytometer, a cylindrical lens is used to form the light-sheet for better excitation of the static cells under an inverted microscope. The thickness of the light-sheet measured in fluorescent solution is about 13 μm. Two-dimensional light scattering patterns of standard microspheres and yeast cells are obtained by using a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) detector via a low numerical aperture (NA 0.4) optical objective. The experimental patterns characterized with fringe structures agree well with Mie theory simulated ones. Our results suggest that the light-sheet illumination is an effective excitation method for 2D light scattering label-free cytometry.

  10. Light scattering modeling of bacteria using spheroids and cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Chunxia; Huang, Lihua; Han, Jie; Zhou, Guangchao; Zeng, Aijun; Zhao, Yongkai; Huang, Huijie

    2009-11-01

    Numerical simulations of light scattering by irregularly shaped bacteria are carried out using the T-matrix method. A previously developed T-matrix code for the study of light scattering by randomly oriented non-spherical particles is used for the current purpose and it is validated against Mie-theory using coccus. Simplified particle shapes of spheroids and cylinders for simulating scattering by irregularly shaped bacteria are studied. The results for the angular distributions of the scattering matrix elements of B.Subtilis at wavelength 0.6328μm are presented. Their dependence on shape and model are discussed. Analysis suggests that spheroids perform better than cylinders for B.Subtilis. Calculations of the scatter matrix elements to determine bacteria sizes as well as shapes may be an accurate method and may be used to determine what the bacteria are.

  11. Decreasing Brillouin and Raman scattering by alternating-polarization light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z. J.; Zheng, C. Y.; Cao, L. H.; Li, B.; Xiang, J.; Hao, L.

    2017-03-01

    A new method to reduce the scattering levels of stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) and stimulated Brillouin (SBS) scattering is proposed using alternating-polarization light. The effect of the new technique is related to the alternating time. If the alternating time is smaller than the growth time, the scattering level of SRS or SBS can be decreased. The SBS process is simulated by the fluid method, and the SRS process is verified by the particle-in-cell method. This method is also compared with the spike trains of uneven duration and delay (STUD) technique. Combining STUD pulses with alternating-polarization light is also discussed. Under proper alternating-polarization parameters, the scattering level of SRS and SBS can be dramatically reduced by more than one order of magnitude.

  12. Do angles of obliquity apply to 30 degrees scattered radiation from megavoltage beams?

    PubMed

    Biggs, Peter J; Styczynski, John R

    2008-10-01

    The angle of obliquity is used in radiation shielding calculations to account for the longer path length x rays will see when obliquely incident on the protective barrier. According to the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP), use of the angle of obliquity is explicitly assumed for primary radiation, so that an angle of obliquity for secondary radiation is never addressed. However, in the example section of the latest report, it specifically recommends against using an angle of obliquity for scattered radiation. To check this assumption, the existence or not of an angle of obliquity for scattered radiation has been investigated for bremsstrahlung x-ray beams of 4, 6, 10, 15, and 18 MV and for barriers consisting of concrete, lead, and steel using a Monte Carlo approach. The MCNP Monte Carlo code, v4.2C, has been used to generate scattered radiation at 30 degrees from a water phantom and incident on a secondary barrier at the same angle relative to the normal to the barrier. The barrier thickness was increased from zero to a thickness sufficient to reduce the fluence (f4 tally) to <10(-3). A transmission curve was created for each energy-barrier material combination by normalizing to zero thickness. The results for the first tenth-value layer (TVL) in concrete (5 energies) show an average angle of obliquity of 21.7 degrees +/- 5.6 degrees , and for the first two TVLs averaged 29.7 degrees +/- 3.9 degrees . The results for the first TVL in lead (3 energies) show an average angle of obliquity of 27.7 degrees +/- 4.0 degrees , and for the first two TVLs averaged 20.5 degrees +/- 5.8 degrees . There are no data in the NCRP reports for 30 degrees scattered radiation attenuated by steel with which to make a comparison.

  13. Ultrasmall Angle X-ray Scattering (USAXS) and Wide Angle X-ray Scattering (WAXS) Studies on the Complex Metal Hydride NaAlH4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobbins, Tabbetha; Bennett, Christopher; Torres, James; Ilavsky, Jan

    This research seeks to understand the role of ScCl , ZrCl , and VCl catalysts in NaAlH. We have examined these hydrides at multiple length scales using an X-ray scattering instrument which is capable of measuring scattering wave vector, Q, of 0.0001Å to 6.0 Å . The ultrasmall angle X-ray scattering (USAXS) instrument sector 9ID-D of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) simultaneously collects using USAXS, SAXS, and WAXS detectors. Studies were performed during in-situ heating up to 170C (just below the H desorption temperature for uncatalyzed NaAlH). Results showed that NaAlH has a surface fractal (highly porous) morphology. Isothermal studies performed at 30C, 65C, 100C, 135C, and 170C reveals changes at low Q (Q~0.001 Å to 0.01 Å) associated with highly interconnected intraparticle porosity which is suitably described by a power-law slope for a Gaussian polymer chain structure of p~2. At high scattering wave vector, Q~0.03 Å , the presence of a pore population which obeys Porod scattering and appears to have a size at 21nm is present. These fine pores increase in their population density as temperature is elevated. The WAXS data reveals thermal expansion to occur, but no solid state phase transformation to the product phase. Currently at NASA-Goddard.

  14. Method for more accurate transmittance measurements of low-angle scattering samples using an integrating sphere with an entry port beam diffuser

    SciTech Connect

    Nilsson, Annica M.; Jonsson, Andreas; Jonsson, Jacob C.; Roos, Arne

    2011-03-01

    For most integrating sphere measurements, the difference in light distribution between a specular reference beam and a diffused sample beam can result in significant errors. The problem becomes especially pronounced in integrating spheres that include a port for reflectance or diffuse transmittance measurements. The port is included in many standard spectrophotometers to facilitate a multipurpose instrument, however, absorption around the port edge can result in a detected signal that is too low. The absorption effect is especially apparent for low-angle scattering samples, because a significant portion of the light is scattered directly onto that edge. In this paper, a method for more accurate transmittance measurements of low-angle light-scattering samples is presented. The method uses a standard integrating sphere spectrophotometer, and the problem with increased absorption around the port edge is addressed by introducing a diffuser between the sample and the integrating sphere during both reference and sample scan. This reduces the discrepancy between the two scans and spreads the scattered light over a greater portion of the sphere wall. The problem with multiple reflections between the sample and diffuser is successfully addressed using a correction factor. The method is tested for two patterned glass samples with low-angle scattering and in both cases the transmittance accuracy is significantly improved.

  15. ANGULAR LIGHT-SCATTERING STUDIES ON ISOLATED MITOCHONDRIA

    PubMed Central

    Gotterer, Gerald S.; Thompson, Thomas E.; Lehninger, Albert L.

    1961-01-01

    Angular light-scattering studies have been carried out on suspensions of isolated rat liver mitochondria. The angular scatter pattern has a large forward component, typical of large particles. Changes in dissymmetry and in the intensity of light scattered at 90° have been correlated with changes in optical density during the course of mitochondrial swelling and contraction. Such changes can be measured at mitochondrial concentrations much below those required for optical density measurements. Changes in mitochondrial geometry caused by factors "leaking" from mitochondria, not detectable by optical density measurements, have been demonstrated by measuring changes in dissymmetry. Angular light-scattering measurements therefore offer the advantages of increased sensitivity and of added indices of changes in mitochondrial conformation. PMID:19866589

  16. Exploitation of the UV Aerosol Index scattering angle dependence: Properties of Siberian smoke plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penning de Vries, Marloes; Beirle, Steffen; Sihler, Holger; Wagner, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    The UV Aerosol Index (UVAI) is a simple measure of aerosols from satellite that is particularly sensitive to elevated layers of absorbing particles. It has been determined from a range of instruments including TOMS, GOME-2, and OMI, for almost four decades and will be continued in the upcoming Sentinel missions S5-precursor, S4, and S5. Despite its apparent simplicity, the interpretation of UVAI is not straightforward, as it depends on aerosol abundance, absorption, and altitude in a non-linear way. In addition, UVAI depends on the geometry of the measurement (viewing angle, solar zenith and relative azimuth angles), particularly if viewing angles exceed 45 degrees, as is the case for OMI and TROPOMI (on S5-precursor). The dependence on scattering angle complicates the interpretation and further processing (e.g., averaging) of UVAI. In certain favorable cases, however, independent information on aerosol altitude and absorption may become available. We present a detailed study of the scatter angle dependence using SCIATRAN radiative transfer calculations. The model results were compared to observations of an extensive Siberian smoke plume, of which parts reached 10-12 km altitude. Due to its large extent and the high latitude, OMI observed the complete plume in five consecutive orbits under a wide range of scattering angles. This allowed us to deduce aerosol characteristics (absorption and layer height) that were compared with collocated CALIOP lidar measurements.

  17. A randomly nano-structured scattering layer for transparent organic light emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Huh, Jin Woo; Shin, Jin-Wook; Cho, Doo-Hee; Moon, Jaehyun; Joo, Chul Woong; Park, Seung Koo; Hwang, Joohyun; Cho, Nam Sung; Lee, Jonghee; Han, Jun-Han; Chu, Hye Yong; Lee, Jeong-Ik

    2014-09-21

    A random scattering layer (RSL) consisting of a random nano-structure (RNS) and a high refractive index planarization layer (HRI PL) is suggested and demonstrated as an efficient internal light-extracting layer for transparent organic light emitting diodes (TOLEDs). By introducing the RSL, a remarkable enhancement of 40% and 46% in external quantum efficiency (EQE) and luminous efficacy (LE) was achieved without causing deterioration in the transmittance. Additionally, with the use of the RSL, the viewing angle dependency of EL spectra was reduced to a marginal degree. The results were interpreted as the stronger influence of the scattering effect over the microcavity. The RSL can be applied widely in TOLEDs as an effective light-extracting layer for extracting the waveguide mode of confined light at the indium tin oxide (ITO)/OLED stack without introducing spectral changes in TOLEDs.

  18. A small angle neutron scattering study of mica based glass-ceramics with applications in dentistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilcoyne, S. H.; Bentley, P. M.; Al-Jawad, M.; Bubb, N. L.; Al-Shammary, H. A. O.; Wood, D. J.

    2004-07-01

    We are currently developing machinable and load-bearing mica-based glass-ceramics for use in restorative dental surgery. In this paper we present the results of an ambient temperature small angle neutron scattering (SANS) study of several such ceramics with chemical compositions chosen to optimise machinability and strength. The SANS spectra are all dominated by scattering from the crystalline-amorphous phase interface and exhibit Q-4 dependence (Porod scattering) indicating that, on a 100Å scale, the surface of the crystals is smooth.

  19. Scanning angle Raman spectroscopy: Investigation of Raman scatter enhancement techniques for chemical analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Matthew W.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis outlines advancements in Raman scatter enhancement techniques by applying evanescent fields, standing-waves (waveguides) and surface enhancements to increase the generated mean square electric field, which is directly related to the intensity of Raman scattering. These techniques are accomplished by employing scanning angle Raman spectroscopy and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy. A 1064 nm multichannel Raman spectrometer is discussed for chemical analysis of lignin. Extending dispersive multichannel Raman spectroscopy to 1064 nm reduces the fluorescence interference that can mask the weaker Raman scattering. Overall, these techniques help address the major obstacles in Raman spectroscopy for chemical analysis, which include the inherently weak Raman cross section and susceptibility to fluorescence interference.

  20. Small-angle and surface scattering from porous and fractal materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Sinha, S. K.

    1998-09-18

    We review the basic theoretical methods used to treat small-angle scattering from porous materials, treated as general two-phase systems, and also the basic experimental techniques for carrying out such experiments. We discuss the special forms of the scattering when the materials exhibit mass or surface fractal behavior, and review the results of recent experiments on several types of porous media and also SANS experiments probing the phase behavior of binary fluid mixtures or polymer solutions confined in porous materials. Finally, we discuss the analogous technique of off-specular scattering from surfaces and interfaces which is used to study surface roughness of various kinds.

  1. Orienting rigid and flexible biological assemblies in ferrofluids for small-angle neutron scattering studies

    PubMed Central

    Sosnick, T.; Charles, S.; Stubbs, G.; Yau, P.; Bradbury, E. M.; Timmins, P.; Trewhella, J.

    1991-01-01

    Small-angle scattering from macromolecules in solution is widely used to study their structures, but the information content is limited because the molecules are generally randomly oriented and hence the data are spherically averaged. The use of oriented rodlike structures for scattering, as in fiber diffraction, greatly increases the amount of structural detail that can be obtained. A new technique using a ferromagnetic fluid has been developed to align elongated structures independent of their intrinsic magnetic properties. This technique is ideal for small-angle neutron scattering because the scattering from the ferrofluid particles can be reduced significantly by matching the neutron scattering length density of the particles to a D2O solvent (“contrast matching”). The net result is scattering primarily from the ordered biological assembly in a solution environment that can be adjusted to physiological pH and ionic strength. Scattering results from ordered tobacco mosaic virus, tobacco rattle virus, and chromain fibers are presented. ImagesFIGURE 4FIGURE 4 PMID:19431809

  2. Silver nanoparticles on nanopatterned LiF(110) surface studied by extreme ultraviolet light scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Giglia, Angelo Nannarone, Stefano; Miotti, Paolo; Parisse, Pietro

    2015-12-21

    A LiF(110) surface featuring a ridge-and-valley nanopatterned structure periodic along the [−1,1,0] direction (period and height of the order of 30 nm and 10 nm, respectively) formed by [001] macrosteps exposing (100) and (010) facets was functionalized by rows of Ag nanoparticles and studied by elastic light scattering in the energy range 50–100 eV. Families of diffraction efficiencies curves were taken at grazing incidence angle and fixed photon energy as a function of scattering angle, and elastic scattering curves were taken at fixed scattering angle as a function of energy. The scattering curves presented well-defined features ascribable to the periodicities of the surface, or equivalently to the reciprocal q{sub X} vectors correlated with the power spectral density features of topological images of atomic force microscopy. Other characteristics of the functionalized surface, including the height of ridge-valley profile, the Ag nanoparticle dimensions, and the material distribution in the scattering plane, were obtained by fitting the experimental zero and first order efficiency curves to simulation results of a parameterized model. The simulations were carried out adapting an in-house code based on the electromagnetic differential method, and the different material properties were taken into account by a space dependent complex dielectric constant. Information along the direction perpendicular to the scattering plane was not accessible but morphological insights were obtained combining light diffraction with atomic force microscopy. The results indicate nanoparticles with a quasi-ellipsoidal shape prolate along the ridge direction with minor and major axes of ∼12 nm and ∼21 nm, respectively.

  3. Silver nanoparticles on nanopatterned LiF(110) surface studied by extreme ultraviolet light scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giglia, Angelo; Miotti, Paolo; Parisse, Pietro; Nannarone, Stefano

    2015-12-01

    A LiF(110) surface featuring a ridge-and-valley nanopatterned structure periodic along the [-1,1,0] direction (period and height of the order of 30 nm and 10 nm, respectively) formed by [001] macrosteps exposing {100} and {010} facets was functionalized by rows of Ag nanoparticles and studied by elastic light scattering in the energy range 50-100 eV. Families of diffraction efficiencies curves were taken at grazing incidence angle and fixed photon energy as a function of scattering angle, and elastic scattering curves were taken at fixed scattering angle as a function of energy. The scattering curves presented well-defined features ascribable to the periodicities of the surface, or equivalently to the reciprocal qX vectors correlated with the power spectral density features of topological images of atomic force microscopy. Other characteristics of the functionalized surface, including the height of ridge-valley profile, the Ag nanoparticle dimensions, and the material distribution in the scattering plane, were obtained by fitting the experimental zero and first order efficiency curves to simulation results of a parameterized model. The simulations were carried out adapting an in-house code based on the electromagnetic differential method, and the different material properties were taken into account by a space dependent complex dielectric constant. Information along the direction perpendicular to the scattering plane was not accessible but morphological insights were obtained combining light diffraction with atomic force microscopy. The results indicate nanoparticles with a quasi-ellipsoidal shape prolate along the ridge direction with minor and major axes of ˜12 nm and ˜21 nm, respectively.

  4. Structured water in polyelectrolyte dendrimers: Understanding small angle neutron scattering results through atomistic simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Bin; Kerkeni, Boutheïna; Egami, Takeshi; Do, Changwoo; Liu, Yun; Wang, Yongmei; Porcar, Lionel; Hong, Kunlun; Smith, Sean C.; Liu, Emily L.; Smith, Gregory S.; Chen, Wei-Ren

    2012-04-01

    Based on atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, the small angle neutron scattering (SANS) intensity behavior of a single generation-4 polyelectrolyte polyamidoamine starburst dendrimer is investigated at different levels of molecular protonation. The SANS form factor, P(Q), and Debye autocorrelation function, γ(r), are calculated from the equilibrium MD trajectory based on a mathematical approach proposed in this work. The consistency found in comparison against previously published experimental findings (W.-R. Chen, L. Porcar, Y. Liu, P. D. Butler, and L. J. Magid, Macromolecules 40, 5887 (2007)) leads to a link between the neutron scattering experiment and MD computation, and fresh perspectives. The simulations enable scattering calculations of not only the hydrocarbons but also the contribution from the scattering length density fluctuations caused by structured, confined water within the dendrimer. Based on our computational results, we explore the validity of using radius of gyration RG for microstructure characterization of a polyelectrolyte dendrimer from the scattering perspective.

  5. Light scattering in optical CT scanning of Presage dosimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Y.; Adamovics, J.; Cheeseborough, J. C.; Chao, K. S.; Wuu, C. S.

    2010-11-01

    The intensity of the scattered light from the Presage dosimeters was measured using a Thorlabs PM100D optical power meter (Thorlabs Inc, Newton, NJ) with an optical sensor of 1 mm diameter sensitive area. Five Presage dosimeters were made as cylinders of 15.2 cm, 10 cm, 4 cm diameters and irradiated with 6 MV photons using a Varian Clinac 2100EX. Each dosimeter was put into the scanning tank of an OCTOPUS" optical CT scanner (MGS Research Inc, Madison, CT) filled with a refractive index matching liquid. A laser diode was positioned at one side of the water tank to generate a stationary laser beam of 0.8 mm width. On the other side of the tank, an in-house manufactured positioning system was used to move the optical sensor in the direction perpendicular to the outgoing laser beam from the dosimeters at an increment of 1 mm. The amount of scattered photons was found to be more than 1% of the primary light signal within 2 mm from the laser beam but decreases sharply with increasing off-axis distance. The intensity of the scattered light increases with increasing light attenuations and/or absorptions in the dosimeters. The scattered light at the same off-axis distance was weaker for dosimeters of larger diameters and for larger detector-to-dosimeter distances. Methods for minimizing the effect of the light scattering in different types of optical CT scanners are discussed.

  6. Simultaneous determination of size and refractive index of red blood cells by light scattering measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, N.; Buddhiwant, P.; Uppal, A.; Majumder, S.K.; Patel, H.S.; Gupta, P.K.

    2006-02-20

    We present a fast and accurate approach for simultaneous determination of both the mean diameter and refractive index of a collection of red blood cells (RBCs). The approach uses the peak frequency of the power spectrum and the corresponding phase angle obtained by performing Fourier transform on the measured angular distribution of scattered light to determine these parameters. Results on the measurement of two important clinical parameters, the mean cell volume and mean cell hemoglobin concentration of a collection of RBCs, are presented.

  7. Fiber optic light-scattering measurement system for evaluation of embryo viability: model experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Harumi; Arai, Tsunenori; Kikuchi, Makoto

    1996-05-01

    We evaluated the particle density detectability and particle size detectivity of our fiber-optic light-scattering measurement system. In order to prevent the multiple pregnancy on current in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer, we have aimed to develop a new quantitative and non- invasive method to select a single viable human embryo. We employed the measurement of mitochondria localization in an embryo, which may have the correlation with development ability. We applied the angular distribution measurement of the light-scattering intensity from the embryo to obtain the information originated from the mitochondria. The latex spheres with a diameter of 1.0 micrometers were used to simulate the scattering intensity of the mitochondria. The measurement probes of our system consisted of two fibers for illumination and sensing. They were arranged at a right angle to a microscope optical axis to measure the angular distribution of the light-scattering intensity. We observed that the light-scattering intensity increased monotonically in the range from 106 to 1010 particles per ml. Since the mitochondria density in a human embryo corresponded to 2.5 X 107 per ml in the measurement chamber, we may measure the mitochondria density in the human embryo. The angular dependence of light-scattering intensity changed with the sphere diameters. This result showed the possibility of the selective measurement of the mitochondria density in the embryo in spite of the presence of the other cell organelle. We think that our light-scattering measurement system might be applicable to the evaluation method for the embryo viability.

  8. Transformation optofluidics for large-angle light bending and tuning.

    PubMed

    Yang, Y; Chin, L K; Tsai, J M; Tsai, D P; Zheludev, N I; Liu, A Q

    2012-10-07

    Transformation optics is a new art of light bending by designing materials with spatially variable parameters for developing wave-manipulation devices. Here, we introduce a transformation optofluidic Y-branch splitter with large-angle bending and tuning based on the design of a spatially variable index. Differing from traditional splitters, the optofluidic splitter is achieved in an inhomogeneous medium by coordinate transformation. The designed bidirectional gradient index (GRIN) distribution can be achieved practically by the convection-diffusion process of liquid flowing streams. The transformation optofluidic splitter can achieve a much larger split angle with little bend loss than the traditional ones. In the experiments, a large tunable split angle up to 30° is achieved by tuning the flow rates, allowing optical signals to be freely transferred to different channels. Besides the symmetrical branch splitting, asymmetrical Y-branch splitting with approximately equal power splitting is also demonstrated by changing the composition of the liquids. The optofluidic splitter has high potential applications in biological, chemical and biomedical solution measurement and detection.

  9. Impact of morphological parameters onto simulated light scattering patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skorupski, Krzysztof; Mroczka, Janusz; Riefler, Norbert; Oltmann, Hergen; Will, Stefan; Wriedt, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    We have investigated the impact of the variation of various parameters of fractal aggregates on simulated light scattering patterns. Static light scattering is commonly used to measure soot in a flame and such a study could help to improve experimental approaches. Aggregate models, used for our light scattering simulations, are based on real soot structures that can be found under laboratory conditions in a premixed ethane/air flame (McKenna-type burner, equivalence ratio ϕ=2.5). Our work was not focused on modeling and analysis of aggregates that are typically encountered in the atmosphere, therefore the results might be of limited interest to climate scientists. In our study, the variation of all parameters that enter into the standard fractal equation were investigated. Additionally effects when varying the overlap of primary particles, the incident wavelength and the complex refractive index are discussed. For numerical simulations two different codes were used, the T-Matrix (when particles are in point contact) and the DDScat program (which is capable of performing light scattering simulations by overlapping spheres). Comparisons between these two methods show very good agreement. The results demonstrate that the radius of gyration is responsible for the amount of light scattered towards the back direction while the total volume of an aggregate defines the shape of the light scattering patterns. Small changes of the fractal dimension can be neglected (provided that the fractal prefactor is accordingly modified in a suitable way). The overlap level, if the radius of gyration is kept constant, introduces barely visible changes to the light scattering diagrams which suggest that a simple aggregate model, composed of particles being in point contact, can be used instead of a structure in early sintering stage when overlap of primary particles is not so high.

  10. Analysis of the arriving-angle structure of the forward scattered wave on a vertical array in shallow water.

    PubMed

    He, Chuanlin; Yang, Kunde; Ma, Yuanliang; Lei, Bo

    2016-09-01

    The arriving-angle structure for the forward scattered wave on a vertical line array is obtained upon a modified scattering model in the Pekeris waveguide. The structure is investigated and interpreted by the array invariant theory combined with target induced modal coupling effect. Compared with that of the direct blast, the arriving-angle structure of the forward scattering wave owns multi-striations as well as an increased vertical array invariant. The forward scattered angle structure is dependent on the target position on the source-receiver line. Simulations indicate a potential separation for the forward scattered wave overwhelmed by the direct blast.

  11. A randomly nano-structured scattering layer for transparent organic light emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huh, Jin Woo; Shin, Jin-Wook; Cho, Doo-Hee; Moon, Jaehyun; Joo, Chul Woong; Park, Seung Koo; Hwang, Joohyun; Cho, Nam Sung; Lee, Jonghee; Han, Jun-Han; Chu, Hye Yong; Lee, Jeong-Ik

    2014-08-01

    A random scattering layer (RSL) consisting of a random nano-structure (RNS) and a high refractive index planarization layer (HRI PL) is suggested and demonstrated as an efficient internal light-extracting layer for transparent organic light emitting diodes (TOLEDs). By introducing the RSL, a remarkable enhancement of 40% and 46% in external quantum efficiency (EQE) and luminous efficacy (LE) was achieved without causing deterioration in the transmittance. Additionally, with the use of the RSL, the viewing angle dependency of EL spectra was reduced to a marginal degree. The results were interpreted as the stronger influence of the scattering effect over the microcavity. The RSL can be applied widely in TOLEDs as an effective light-extracting layer for extracting the waveguide mode of confined light at the indium tin oxide (ITO)/OLED stack without introducing spectral changes in TOLEDs.A random scattering layer (RSL) consisting of a random nano-structure (RNS) and a high refractive index planarization layer (HRI PL) is suggested and demonstrated as an efficient internal light-extracting layer for transparent organic light emitting diodes (TOLEDs). By introducing the RSL, a remarkable enhancement of 40% and 46% in external quantum efficiency (EQE) and luminous efficacy (LE) was achieved without causing deterioration in the transmittance. Additionally, with the use of the RSL, the viewing angle dependency of EL spectra was reduced to a marginal degree. The results were interpreted as the stronger influence of the scattering effect over the microcavity. The RSL can be applied widely in TOLEDs as an effective light-extracting layer for extracting the waveguide mode of confined light at the indium tin oxide (ITO)/OLED stack without introducing spectral changes in TOLEDs. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Simulation results of total (bottom and top) radiance of TOLEDs with the RSL depending on HTL and ETL thicknesses. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr01520g

  12. Three Biomedical Beamlines at NSLS-II for Macromolecular Crystallography and Small-Angle Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, D. K.; Berman, L. E.; Chubar, O.; Hendrickson, W. A.; Hulbert, S. L.; Lucas, M.; Sweet, R. M.; Yang, L.

    2013-03-01

    We report on the status of the development of three beamlines for the National Synchrotron Light Source-II (NSLS-II), two for macromolecular crystallography (MX), and one for wide- and small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS). Funded by the National Institutes of Health, this suite of Advanced Beamlines for Biological Investigations with X-rays (ABBIX) is scheduled to begin operation by 2015. The two MX beamlines share a sector with identical canted in-vacuum undulators (IVU21). The microfocusing FMX beamline on the inboard branch employs a two-stage horizontal source demagnification scheme, will cover an energy range of 5 - 23 keV, and at 12.7 keV will focus a flux of up to 1013 ph/s into a spot of 1 μm width. The companion AMX beamline on the short outboard branch of the sector is tunable in the range of 5 - 18 keV and has a native focus of 4 μm (h) × 2 μm (v). This robust beamline will be highly automated, have high throughput capabilities, and with larger beams and low divergence will be well suited for structure determinations on large complexes. The high brightness SAXS beamline, LIX, will provide multiple dynamic and static experimental systems to support scientific programs in solution scattering, membrane structure determination, and tissue imaging. It will occupy a different sector, equipped with a single in-vacuum undulator (IVU23). It can produce beams as small as 1 μm across, and with a broad energy range of 2.1 - 18 keV it will support anomalous SAXS.

  13. Imaging back scattered and near back scattered light in ignition scale plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkwood, R.K.; Back, C.A.; Glenzer, S.H.; Moody, J.D.

    1996-05-07

    Diagnostics have been developed and fielded at the Nova laser facility that image scattered light in the vicinity of the final laser focusing lens. The absolute calibration of optical components exposed to the target debris have been achieved by a combination of routine in situ calibration and maintenance. The scattering observed from plasmas relevant to ignition experiments indicates that light scattered just outside the lens can be larger than that collected by the lens, and is a significant factor in the energy balance when the f number is high.

  14. Modeling of light scattering from features on and within films and light scatter from epitaxial silicon defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Haiping

    The detection of particles and defects on or within films deposited on wafers using light scattering is of great interest to the semiconductor industry. Numerical calculation of light scattering characteristics from these features is very useful to the development and calibration of wafer inspection tools. A model and associated code is developed by using a modification of the discrete-dipole approximation (DDA) method to compute the light scattering from a feature with arbitrary shape on or within a filmed surface. The reflection interaction matrix is modified with the Sommerfeld integrals for filmed surfaces. Three-dimensional fast Fourier transform technique is used for accelerating the computation of light scatter from features associated with layered surfaces using the DDA method. Far field scatter is calculated approximately based on the reaction theorem. Model predictions of scattering signatures are compared with experimental results and other numerical models. Comparisons show good agreement for the cases considered, which demonstrates the accuracy and validity of the model. An epitaxial silicon wafer defect sample was fabricated containing typical epitaxial wafer defects such as epitaxial stacking faults, spikes and mounds. Atomic force microscopy was used to determine their physical sizes and shapes. The optical scattering characteristics of these epitaxial silicon wafer defects were studied using the numerical model. A method to discriminate epitaxial crystalline defects and particles is proposed.

  15. Fingerprint input based on scattered-light detection.

    PubMed

    Fujieda, I; Haga, H

    1997-12-10

    The principles of fingerprint imaging are based on scattered-light detection, and the technique is proposed for a compact input device. Light enters a glass plate from its edge and propagates inside the plate by repeating the total internal reflection at the boundaries with air. The ridges of a finger pressed onto the plate scatter the light, which then leaks out of the plate. This scattered light is imaged by an array of gradient-index optical fibers and an image sensor. A prototype sensor has been developed: The distance between the finger and the image sensor is 13 mm. The images obtained with this prototype clearly show not only the ridges and valleys but also the pores in the ridges.

  16. Light Scattering by Surface Tension Waves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisbuch, G.; Garbay, F.

    1979-01-01

    This simple and inexpensive experiment is an illustration of the physical concepts of interaction between light and surface tension waves, and provides a new method of measuring surface tension. (Author/GA)

  17. Polar structure of disclination loops in nematic liquid crystals probed by second-harmonic-light scattering.

    PubMed

    Pardaev, Shokir A; Williams, J C; Twieg, R J; Jakli, A; Gleeson, J T; Ellman, B; Sprunt, S

    2015-03-01

    Angle-resolved, second-harmonic-light scattering (SHLS) measurements are reported for three different classes of thermotropic nematic liquid crystals (NLCs): polar and nonpolar rodlike compounds and a bent-core compound. Results revealing well-defined scattering peaks are interpreted in terms of the electric polarization induced by distortions of the nematic orientational field ("flexopolarity") associated with inversion wall defects, nonsingular disclinations, analogous to Neel walls in ferromagnets, that often exhibit a closed loop morphology in NLCs. Analysis of the SHLS patterns based on this model provides a "proof-of-concept" for a potentially useful method to probe the flexopolar properties of NLCs.

  18. Measuring the light scattering and orientation of a spheroidal particle using in-line holography.

    PubMed

    Seo, Kyung Won; Byeon, Hyeok Jun; Lee, Sang Joon

    2014-07-01

    The light scattering properties of a horizontally and vertically oriented spheroidal particle under laser illumination are experimentally investigated using digital in-line holography. The reconstructed wave field shows the bright singular points as a result of the condensed beam formed by a transparent spheroidal particle acting as a lens. The in-plane (θ) and out-of-plane (ϕ) rotating angles of an arbitrarily oriented spheroidal particle are measured by using these scattering properties. As a feasibility test, the 3D orientation of a transparent spheroidal particle suspended in a microscale pipe flow is successfully reconstructed by adapting the proposed method.

  19. Assessing epithelial cell nuclear morphology by using azimuthal light scattering spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Chung-Chieh; Lau, Condon; Tunnell, James W.; Hunter, Martin; Kalashnikov, Maxim; Fang-Yen, Christopher; Fulghum, Stephen F.; Badizadegan, Kamran; Dasari, Ramachandra R.; Feld, Michael S.

    2006-11-01

    We describe azimuthal light scattering spectroscopy (ϕ/LSS), a novel technique for assessing epithelial-cell nuclear morphology. The difference between the spectra measured at azimuthal angles ϕ=0° and ϕ=90° preferentially isolates the single backscattering contribution due to large (˜10 μm) structures such as epithelial cell nuclei by discriminating against scattering from smaller organelles and diffusive background. We demonstrate the feasibility of using ϕ/LSS for cancer detection by showing that spectra from cancerous colon tissue exhibit significantly greater azimuthal asymmetry than spectra from normal colonic tissues.

  20. Scattering of light by large bubbles: Coupling of geometrical and physical optics approximations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sentis, Matthias P. L.; Onofri, Fabrice R. A.; Méès, Loic; Radev, Stefan

    2016-02-01

    This paper analyzes various phenomena in modeling the light-scattering properties of large spherical bubbles in the context of geometrical and physical optics approximations. Among these phenomena are interference occurring between higher-order rays, the Goos-Hänchen shift, the tunneling phase and the weak caustic associated with the critical angle. When the phenomena are appropriately taken into account, they allow retrieval of most features of the scattering diagrams predicted by the Lorenz-Mie theory, offering new possibilities for the optical characterization of bubbly flows.

  1. Ensemble Activation of G-Protein -Coupled Receptors Revealed by Small-Angle Neutron Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Xiang-Qiang; Perera, Suchithranga; Shrestha, Utsab; Chawla, Udeep; Struts, Andrey; Qian, Shuo; Brown, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Rhodopsin is a G-protein -coupled receptor (GPCR) involved in visual light perception and occurs naturally in a membrane lipid environment. Rhodopsin photoactivation yields cis-trans isomerization of retinal giving equilibrium between inactive Meta-I and active Meta-II states. Does photoactivation lead to a single Meta-II conformation, or do substates exist as described by an ensemble-activation mechanism (EAM)? We use small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) to investigate conformational changes in rhodopsin-detergent and rhodopsin-lipid complexes upon photoactivation. Meta-I state is stabilized in CHAPS-solubilized rhodopsin, while Meta-II is trapped in DDM-solubilized rhodopsin. SANS data are acquired from 80% D2O solutions and at contrast-matching points for both DDM and CHAPS samples. Our experiments demonstrate that for detergent-solubilized rhodopsin, SANS with contrast variation can detect structural differences between the rhodopsin dark-state, Meta-I, Meta-II, and ligand-free opsin states. Dark-state rhodopsin has more conformational flexibility in DDM micelles compared to CHAPS, which is consistent with an ensemble of activated Meta-II states. Furthermore, time-resolved SANS enables study of the time-dependent structural transitions between Meta-I and Meta-II, which is crucial to understanding the ensemble-based activation.

  2. Scattering angle resolved optical coherence tomography for in vivo murine retinal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, Michael R.; Katta, Nitesh; McElroy, Austin; Baruah, Vikram; Rylander, H. G.; Milner, Thomas E.

    2017-02-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) retinal imaging contributes to understanding central nervous system (CNS) diseases because the eye is an anatomical "window to the brain" with direct optical access to nonmylenated retinal ganglion cells. However, many CNS diseases are associated with neuronal changes beyond the resolution of standard OCT retinal imaging systems. Though studies have shown the utility of scattering angle resolved (SAR) OCT for particle sizing and detecting disease states ex vivo, a compact SAR-OCT system for in vivo rodent retinal imaging has not previously been reported. We report a fiber-based SAR-OCT system (swept source at 1310 nm +/- 65 nm, 100 kHz scan rate) for mouse retinal imaging with a partial glass window (center aperture) for angular discrimination of backscattered light. This design incorporates a dual-axis MEMS mirror conjugate to the ocular pupil plane and a high collection efficiency objective. A muring retina is imaged during euthanasia, and the proposed SAR-index is examined versus time. Results show a positive correlation between the SAR-index and the sub-cellular hypoxic response of neurons to isoflurane overdose during euthanasia. The proposed SAR-OCT design and image process technique offer a contrast mechanism able to detect sub-resolution neuronal changes for murine retinal imaging.

  3. Hybrid graphene nematic liquid crystal light scattering device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qasim, M. M.; Khan, A. A.; Kostanyan, A.; Kidambi, P. R.; Cabrero-Vilatela, A.; Braeuninger-Weimer, P.; Gardiner, D. J.; Hofmann, S.; Wilkinson, T. D.

    2015-08-01

    A hybrid graphene nematic liquid crystal (LC) light scattering device is presented. This device exploits the inherent poly-crystallinity of chemical vapour deposited (CVD) graphene films to induce directional anchoring and formation of LC multi-domains. This thereby enables efficient light scattering without the need for crossed polarisers or separate alignment layers/additives. The hybrid LC device exhibits switching thresholds at very low electric fields (< 1 V μm-1) and repeatable, hysteresis free characteristics. This exploitation of LC alignment effects on CVD graphene films enables a new generation of highly efficient nematic LC scattering displays as well as many other possible applications.A hybrid graphene nematic liquid crystal (LC) light scattering device is presented. This device exploits the inherent poly-crystallinity of chemical vapour deposited (CVD) graphene films to induce directional anchoring and formation of LC multi-domains. This thereby enables efficient light scattering without the need for crossed polarisers or separate alignment layers/additives. The hybrid LC device exhibits switching thresholds at very low electric fields (< 1 V μm-1) and repeatable, hysteresis free characteristics. This exploitation of LC alignment effects on CVD graphene films enables a new generation of highly efficient nematic LC scattering displays as well as many other possible applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr04094a

  4. Reconstruction of Rain Microstructure From Spectrum of Scattering Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterlyadkin, V.; Gluschenko, A.

    Night photoregistration of light, scattered by drops had proved that practically all drops oscillate as they fall. As drop oscillation frequency W monotony diminish with drop volume V rise, so different fractions of rain form different parts of spectrum. Thereby it is possible to reconstruct rain microstructure from remote optical measure- ments. In common case the form of spectrum depends not only on drop size distri- bution N(V) but also on oscillation amplitudes function, scattering phase function for oscillating drops and on frequency dependence W(V). The statistical treatment of our field data had shown that average oscillation amplitude rise with drop volume V as , where A is a some constant. This result allows to solve the inverse problem: to re- construct drop size distribution N(V) from the power spectrum of light, scattering by rain. Scattering phase function for nonspherical and oscillating drops was calculated in straight-line approximation. Analysis of optical properties of oscillating water drop had shown some optimal measurement geometry for registration of rain microstruc- ture. For low intensity rains it is reasonable to use the effect of abnormal high modu- lation of light scattered by oscillating drops, which we discovered earlier in laboratory condition and under field measurements. (The effect of abnormal high modulation al- lows us to detect 2-3 mm raindrop deformations from 5 m distance). The results of reconstruction of drop size distributions from spectra of light, scattered by rains are presented and discussed.

  5. Analysis of light scattering by two-dimensional inhomogeneities in paper using general radiative transfer theory

    SciTech Connect

    Nukala, Madhuri; Mendrok, Jana

    2014-12-10

    Lateral light scattering simulations of printed dots are analyzed using general radiative transfer theory. We investigated the appearance of a printed paper in relation to the medium parameters like thickness of the paper sample, its optical properties, and the asymmetry factor. It was found that the appearance of a print greatly depends on these factors making it either brighter or darker. A thicker substrate with higher single scattering albedo backed with an absorbing surface makes the dots brighter due to increased number of scattering events. Additionally, it is shown that the optical effects of print also depend on illuminating and viewing angles along with the depth of ink penetration. A larger single scattering angle implies less intensity and the dots appear much blurred due to the shadowing effect prominent when viewed from sides. A fully penetrated dot of the same extinction coefficient as a partial penetrated one is darker due to increased absorption. These results can be used in applications dealing with lateral light scattering.

  6. Studying fractal geometry on submicron length scales by small-angle scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, P.; Lin, J.

    1988-08-01

    Recent studies have shown that internal surfaces of porous geological materials, such as rocks and lignite coals, can be described by fractals down to atomic length scales. In this paper, the basic properties of self-similar and self-affine fractals are reviewed and how fractal dimensions can be measured by small-angle scattering experiments are discussed.

  7. Informing the improvement of forest products durability using small angle neutron scattering

    Treesearch

    Nayomi Plaza-Rodriguez; Sai Venkatesh Pingali; Shuo Qian; William T. Heller; Joseph E. Jakes

    2016-01-01

    A better understanding of how wood nanostructure swells with moisture is needed to accelerate the development of forest products with enhanced moisture durability. Despite its suitability to study nanostructures, small angle neutron scattering (SANS) remains an underutilized tool in forest products research. Nanoscale moisture-induced structural changes in intact and...

  8. Depth profiling of polymer films with grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering.

    PubMed

    Singh, Marsha A; Groves, Michael N

    2009-05-01

    A model-free method of reconstructing depth-specific lateral scattering from incident-angle-resolved grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) data is proposed. The information on the material which is available through variation of the X-ray penetration depth with incident angle is accessed through reference to the reflected branch of the GISAXS process. Reconstruction of the scattering from lateral density fluctuations is achieved by solving the resulting Fredholm integral equation with minimal a priori information about the experimental system. Results from simulated data generated for hypothetical multilayer polymer systems with constant absorption coefficient are used to verify that the method can be applied to cases with large X-ray penetration depths, as typically seen with polymer materials. Experimental tests on a spin-coated thick film of a blend of diblock copolymers demonstrate that the approach is capable of reconstruction of the scattering from a multilayer structure with the identification of lateral scattering profiles as a function of sample depth.

  9. Dual-angle, self-calibrating Thomson scattering measurements in RFX-MOD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giudicotti, L.; Pasqualotto, R.; Fassina, A.

    2014-11-01

    In the multipoint Thomson scattering (TS) system of the RFX-MOD experiment the signals from a few spatial positions can be observed simultaneously under two different scattering angles. In addition the detection system uses optical multiplexing by signal delays in fiber optic cables of different length so that the two sets of TS signals can be observed by the same polychromator. Owing to the dependence of the TS spectrum on the scattering angle, it was then possible to implement self-calibrating TS measurements in which the electron temperature Te, the electron density ne and the relative calibration coefficients of spectral channels sensitivity Ci were simultaneously determined by a suitable analysis of the two sets of TS data collected at the two angles. The analysis has shown that, in spite of the small difference in the spectra obtained at the two angles, reliable values of the relative calibration coefficients can be determined by the analysis of good S/N dual-angle spectra recorded in a few tens of plasma shots. This analysis suggests that in RFX-MOD the calibration of the entire set of TS polychromators by means of the similar, dual-laser (Nd:YAG/Nd:YLF) TS technique, should be feasible.

  10. Dual-angle, self-calibrating Thomson scattering measurements in RFX-MOD

    SciTech Connect

    Giudicotti, L.

    2014-11-15

    In the multipoint Thomson scattering (TS) system of the RFX-MOD experiment the signals from a few spatial positions can be observed simultaneously under two different scattering angles. In addition the detection system uses optical multiplexing by signal delays in fiber optic cables of different length so that the two sets of TS signals can be observed by the same polychromator. Owing to the dependence of the TS spectrum on the scattering angle, it was then possible to implement self-calibrating TS measurements in which the electron temperature T{sub e}, the electron density n{sub e} and the relative calibration coefficients of spectral channels sensitivity C{sub i} were simultaneously determined by a suitable analysis of the two sets of TS data collected at the two angles. The analysis has shown that, in spite of the small difference in the spectra obtained at the two angles, reliable values of the relative calibration coefficients can be determined by the analysis of good S/N dual‑angle spectra recorded in a few tens of plasma shots. This analysis suggests that in RFX-MOD the calibration of the entire set of TS polychromators by means of the similar, dual-laser (Nd:YAG/Nd:YLF) TS technique, should be feasible.

  11. Adenovirus particle quantification in cell lysates using light scattering.

    PubMed

    Hohl, Adrian; Ramms, Anne Sophie; Dohmen, Christian; Mantwill, Klaus; Bielmeier, Andrea; Kolk, Andreas; Ruppert, Andreas; Nawroth, Roman; Holm, Per Sonne

    2017-08-15

    Adenoviral vector production for therapeutic applications is a well-established routine process. However, current methods for measurement of adenovirus particle titers as a quality characteristic require highly purified virus preparations. While purified virus is typically obtained in the last step of downstream purification, rapid and reliable methods for adenovirus particle quantification in intermediate products and crude lysates to allow for optimization and validation of cell cultures and intermediate downstream processing steps are currently not at hand. Light scattering is an established process to measure virus particles' size. Though, due to cell impurities adequate quantification of adenovirus particles in cell lysates by light scattering has been impossible until today. This report describes a new method using light scattering to measure virus concentration in non-purified cell lysates. Here we report application of light scattering, a routine method to measure virus particle size, to virus quantification in enzymatically conditioned crude lysates. Samples are incubated with phospholipase A2 and benzonase and filtered through 0.22 µm filter cartridge prior to quantification by light scattering. Our results show that this treatment provides a precise method for fast and easy determination of total adenovirus particle numbers in cell lysates and is useful to monitor virus recovery throughout all downstream processing.

  12. Using light scattering to determine the stoichiometry of protein complexes.

    PubMed

    Mogridge, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    The stoichiometry of a protein complex can be calculated from an accurate measurement of the complex's molecular weight. Multiangle laser light scattering in combination with size exclusion chromatography and interferometric refractometry provides a powerful means for determining the molecular weights of proteins and protein complexes. In contrast to conventional size exclusion chromatography and analytical centrifugation, measurements do not rely on the use of molecular weight standards and are not affected by the shape of the proteins. The technique is based on the direct relationship between the amount of light scattered by a protein in solution, and the product of its concentration and molecular weight. A typical experimental configuration includes a size exclusion column to fractionate the sample, a light scattering detector to measure scattered light, and an interferometric refractometer to measure protein concentration. The determination of the molecular weight of an anthrax toxin complex will be used to illustrate how multiangle laser light scattering can be used to determine the stoichiometry of protein complexes.

  13. Polarization transfer in wide-angle Compton scattering and single-pion photoproduction from the proton

    DOE PAGES

    Fanelli, Cristiano V.

    2015-10-06

    Wide-angle exclusive Compton scattering and single-pion photoproduction from the proton have been investigated via measurement of the polarization transfer from a circularly polarized photon beam to the recoil proton. The WACS polarization transfer was analyzed at an incident photon energy of 3.7 GeV at a proton scattering angle of θPcm = 70°. The longitudinal transfer KLL, measured to be 0.645 ± 0.059 ± 0.048, where the first error is statistical and the second is systematic, has the same sign as predicted for the reaction mechanism in which the photon interacts with a single quark carrying the spin of the proton.more » However, the observed value is ~3 times larger than predicted by the GPD-based calculations, which indicates a significant unknown contribution to the scattering amplitude.« less

  14. Scattering of surface plasmon polaritons by impedance barriers: Dependence on angle of incidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikitin, A. Yu.; Brucoli, G.; García-Vidal, F. J.; Martín-Moreno, L.

    2008-05-01

    This paper studies theoretically surface plasmon polariton scattering by one-dimensional defects of metal surface impedance at oblique incidence. Surface impedance boundary conditions are used to formulate an integral equation which can be solved both analytically and numerically to yield the transmission, reflection, and out-of-plane cross section as a function of angle of incidence and other parameters. Numerical calculations, as well as analytical expressions, obtained within the Born approximation are presented. Green’s tensor approach is also applied so as to expand such analysis to region in which the surface impedance boundary conditions are not appropriate. We show that the angular dependencies for surface plasmon polariton scattering by impedance defects and by surface relief defects are essentially different. The angular dependency of surface plasmon polariton scattering by an impedance defect features an analog to Brewster’s angle that is explained in terms of dipole polarization of the defect.

  15. Polarization transfer in wide-angle Compton scattering and single-pion photoproduction from the proton

    SciTech Connect

    Fanelli, Cristiano V.

    2015-10-06

    Wide-angle exclusive Compton scattering and single-pion photoproduction from the proton have been investigated via measurement of the polarization transfer from a circularly polarized photon beam to the recoil proton. The WACS polarization transfer was analyzed at an incident photon energy of 3.7 GeV at a proton scattering angle of θPcm = 70°. The longitudinal transfer KLL, measured to be 0.645 ± 0.059 ± 0.048, where the first error is statistical and the second is systematic, has the same sign as predicted for the reaction mechanism in which the photon interacts with a single quark carrying the spin of the proton. However, the observed value is ~3 times larger than predicted by the GPD-based calculations, which indicates a significant unknown contribution to the scattering amplitude.

  16. A preliminary study of breast cancer diagnosis using laboratory based small angle x-ray scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Round, A. R.; Wilkinson, S. J.; Hall, C. J.; Rogers, K. D.; Glatter, O.; Wess, T.; Ellis, I. O.

    2005-09-01

    Breast tissue collected from tumour samples and normal tissue from bi-lateral mastectomy procedures were examined using small angle x-ray scattering. Previous work has indicated that breast tissue disease diagnosis could be performed using small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) from a synchrotron radiation source. The technique would be more useful to health services if it could be made to work using a conventional x-ray source. Consistent and reliable differences in x-ray scatter distributions were observed between samples from normal and tumour tissue samples using the laboratory based 'SAXSess' system. Albeit from a small number of samples, a sensitivity of 100% was obtained. This result encourages us to pursue the implementation of SAXS as a laboratory based diagnosis technique.

  17. Quantitative characterization of the contrast mechanisms of ultra-small angle x-ray scattering imaging.

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, F.; Long, G. G.; Levine, L.E.; Ilavsky, J.; Jemain, P.R.; NIST

    2008-04-01

    A general treatment of X-ray imaging contrast for ultra-small-angle X-ray scattering (USAXS) imaging is presented; this approach makes use of phase propagation and dynamical diffraction theory to account quantitatively for the intensity distribution at the detector plane. Simulated results from a model system of micrometer-sized spherical SiO{sub 2} particles embedded in a polypropylene matrix show good agreement with experimental measurements. Simulations by means of a separate geometrical ray-tracing method also account for the features in the USAXS images and offer a complementary view of small-angle X-ray scattering as a contrast mechanism. The ray-tracing analysis indicates that refraction, in the form of Porod scattering, and, to a much lesser extent, X-ray reflection account for the USAXS imaging contrast.

  18. Grazing-incidence small-angle neutron scattering from structures below an interface

    PubMed Central

    Nouhi, Shirin; Hellsing, Maja S.; Kapaklis, Vassilios; Rennie, Adrian R.

    2017-01-01

    Changes of scattering are observed as the grazing angle of incidence of an incoming beam increases and probes different depths in samples. A model has been developed to describe the observed intensity in grazing-incidence small-angle neutron scattering (GISANS) experiments. This includes the significant effects of instrument resolution, the sample transmission, which depends on both absorption and scattering, and the sample structure. The calculations are tested with self-organized structures of two colloidal samples with different size particles that were measured on two different instruments. The model allows calculations for various instruments with defined resolution and can be used to design future improved experiments. The possibilities and limits of GISANS for different studies are discussed using the model calculations. PMID:28808432

  19. Grazing-incidence small-angle neutron scattering from structures below an interface.

    PubMed

    Nouhi, Shirin; Hellsing, Maja S; Kapaklis, Vassilios; Rennie, Adrian R

    2017-08-01

    Changes of scattering are observed as the grazing angle of incidence of an incoming beam increases and probes different depths in samples. A model has been developed to describe the observed intensity in grazing-incidence small-angle neutron scattering (GISANS) experiments. This includes the significant effects of instrument resolution, the sample transmission, which depends on both absorption and scattering, and the sample structure. The calculations are tested with self-organized structures of two colloidal samples with different size particles that were measured on two different instruments. The model allows calculations for various instruments with defined resolution and can be used to design future improved experiments. The possibilities and limits of GISANS for different studies are discussed using the model calculations.

  20. Small-angle neutron scattering studies from solutions of bovine nasal cartilage proteoglycan

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, A.; Stivala, S.S.; Damle, S.P.; Gregory, J.D.; Bunick, G.J.; Uberbacher, E.C.

    1985-08-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering, SANS, of the proteoglycan subunit of bovine nasal cartilage in 0.15N LiCl at 25/sup 0/C yielded the radius of gyration, R/sub g/, radius of gyration of the cross-section, R/sub q/, persistence length, a, and the molecular weight, M. The following values were obtained: M = 3.9 x 10/sup 6/, R/sub g/ = 745 A, R/sub q/ = 34.6 A and a = 35.2 A. These values compare favorably with those that were obtained from small angle x-ray scattering, SAXS, of a similar extract. The scattering curve of the proteoglycan subunit in D/sub 2/O showed a characteristic broad peak in the specified angular range similar to that observed from SAXS, thus confirming the polyelectrolyte nature of the proteoglycan. 15 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab. (DT)