Science.gov

Sample records for angra ii nuclear

  1. The Angra Project: Monitoring Nuclear Reactors with Antineutrino Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Anjos, J. C.; Barbosa, A. F.; Lima, H. P. Jr.; Bezerra, T. J. C.; Gonzalez, L. F. G.; Kemp, E.; Chimenti, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Lima, R. M.; Nunokawa, H.

    2010-03-30

    We present the status of the Angra Neutrino project, describing the development of an antineutrino detector aimed at monitoring nuclear reactor activity. The experiment will take place at the Brazilian nuclear power plant located in Angra dos Reis. The Angra II reactor, with 4 GW of thermal power, will be used as a source of antineutrinos. A water Cherenkov detector will be placed above ground in a commercial container outside the reactor containment, about 30 m from the reactor core. With a detector of one ton scale a few thousand antineutrino interactions per day are expected. We intend, in a first step, to use the measured neutrino event rate to monitor the on--off status and the thermal power delivered by the reactor. In addition to the safeguards issues the project will provide an alternative tool to have an independent measurement of the reactor power.

  2. Front-end Design and Characterization for the ν-Angra Nuclear Reactor Monitoring Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dornelas, T. I.; Araújo, F. T. H.; Cerqueira, A. S.; Costa, J. A.; Nóbrega, R. A.

    2016-07-01

    The Neutrinos Angra (ν-Angra) Experiment aims to construct an antineutrinos detection device capable of monitoring the Angra dos Reis nuclear reactor activity. Nuclear reactors are intense sources of antineutrinos, and the thermal power released in the fission process is directly related to the flow rate of these particles. The antineutrinos energy spectrum also provides valuable information on the nuclear source isotopic composition. The proposed detector will be equipped with photomultipliers tubes (PMT) which will be readout by a custom Amplifier-Shaper-Discriminator circuit designed to condition its output signals to the acquisition modules to be digitized and processed by an FPGA. The readout circuit should be sensitive to single photoelectron signals, process fast signals, with a full-width-half-amplitude of about 5 ns, have a narrow enough output pulse width to detect both particles coming out from the inverse beta decay (bar nue+p → n + e+), and its output amplitude should be linear to the number of photoelectrons generated inside the PMT, used for energy estimation. In this work, some of the main PMT characteristics are measured and a new readout circuit is proposed, described and characterized.

  3. The behavior of ANGRA 2 nuclear power plant core for a small break LOCA simulated with RELAP5 code

    SciTech Connect

    Sabundjian, Gaiane; Andrade, Delvonei A.; Belchior, Antonio Jr.; Silva Rocha, Marcelo da; Conti, Thadeu N.; Torres, Walmir M.; Macedo, Luiz A.; Umbehaun, Pedro E.; Mesquita, Roberto N.; Masotti, Paulo H. F.; Souza Lima, Ana Cecilia de

    2013-05-06

    This work discusses the behavior of Angra 2 nuclear power plant core, for a postulate Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) in the primary circuit for Small Break Loss Of Coolant Accident (SBLOCA). A pipe break of the hot leg Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) was simulated with RELAP 5 code. The considered rupture area is 380 cm{sup 2}, which represents 100% of the ECCS pipe flow area. Results showed that the cooling is enough to guarantee the integrity of the reactor core.

  4. The Angra Neutrino Project: precise measurement of θ13 and safeguards applications of neutrino detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casimiro, E.; Anjos, J. C.

    2009-04-01

    We present an introduction to the Angra Neutrino Project. The goal of the project is to explore the use of neutrino detectors to monitor the reactor activity. The Angra Project, willl employ as neutrino sources the reactors of the nuclear power complex in Brazil, located in Angra dos Reis, some 150 Km south from the city of Rio de Janeiro. The Angra collaboration will develop and operate a low-mass neutrino detector to monitor the nuclear reactor activity, in particular to measure the reactor thermal power and the reactor fuel isotopic composition.

  5. Cosmic muon background and reactor neutrino detectors: the Angra experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casimiro, E.; Anjos, J. C.

    2008-06-01

    We discuss on the importance of appropriately taking into account the cosmic background in the design of reactor neutrino detectors. In particular, as a practical study case, we describe the Angra Project, a new reactor neutrino oscillation experiment proposed to be built in the coming years at the Brazilian nuclear power complex, located near the Angra dos Reis city. The main goal of the experiment is to measure with high precision θ13, the last unknown of the three neutrino mixing angles. The experiment will in addition explore the possibility of using neutrino detectors for purposes of safeguards and non-proliferation of nuclear weapons.

  6. Tritium ((3)H) as a tracer for monitoring the dispersion of conservative radionuclides discharged by the Angra dos Reis nuclear power plants in the Piraquara de Fora Bay, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho Gomes, Franciane; Godoy, José Marcus; de Carvalho, Zenildo Lara; de Souza, Elder Magalhães; Rodrigues Silva, José Ivan; Tadeu Lopes, Ricardo

    2014-10-01

    Presently, two nuclear power plants operate in Brazil. Both are located at Itaorna beach, Angra dos Reis, approximately 133 km from Rio de Janeiro city. The reactor cooling circuits require the input of seawater, which is later discharged through a pipeline into the adjacent Piraquara de Fora Cove. The radioactive effluents undergo ion-exchange treatment prior to their release in batches, causing the enrichment of (3)H relative to other radionuclides in the discharged waters. Under steady state conditions, the (3)H gradient in the Piraquara de Fora waters can be used to determine the dependence of the dilution factor on the distance from the discharge point. The present work describes experiments carried out at the reactor site during batch release episodes, including time series sampling at the discharge point and surface seawater sampling every 250 m to a distance of 1250 m, after a double distillation, the (3)H concentration was measured by liquid scintillation counting applying a Quantulus liquid scintillation spectrometer. The obtained results showed a linear relationship between the (3)H concentration and distance from the discharge point. At 1250 m from the discharge point a dilution index of 1:15 was measured which fits the expected value based on modeling.

  7. Readout electronics validation and target detector assessment for the Neutrinos Angra experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarenga, T. A.; Anjos, J. C.; Azzi, G.; Cerqueira, A. S.; Chimenti, P.; Costa, J. A.; Dornelas, T. I.; Farias, P. C. M. A.; Guedes, G. P.; Gonzalez, L. F. G.; Kemp, E.; Lima, H. P.; Machado, R.; Nóbrega, R. A.; Pepe, I. M.; Ribeiro, D. B. S.; Simas Filho, E. F.; Valdiviesso, G. A.; Wagner, S.

    2016-09-01

    A compact surface detector designed to identify the inverse beta decay interaction produced by anti-neutrinos coming from near operating nuclear reactors is being developed by the Neutrinos Angra Collaboration. In this document we describe and test the detector and its readout system by means of cosmic rays acquisition. In this measurement campaign, the target detector has been equipped with 16 8-in PMTs and two scintillator paddles have been used to trigger cosmic ray events. The achieved results disclosed the main operational characteristics of the Neutrinos Angra system and have been used to assess the detector and to validate its readout system.

  8. Persistent nuclear actin filaments inhibit transcription by RNA polymerase II.

    PubMed

    Serebryannyy, Leonid A; Parilla, Megan; Annibale, Paolo; Cruz, Christina M; Laster, Kyle; Gratton, Enrico; Kudryashov, Dmitri; Kosak, Steven T; Gottardi, Cara J; de Lanerolle, Primal

    2016-09-15

    Actin is abundant in the nucleus and it is clear that nuclear actin has important functions. However, mystery surrounds the absence of classical actin filaments in the nucleus. To address this question, we investigated how polymerizing nuclear actin into persistent nuclear actin filaments affected transcription by RNA polymerase II. Nuclear filaments impaired nuclear actin dynamics by polymerizing and sequestering nuclear actin. Polymerizing actin into stable nuclear filaments disrupted the interaction of actin with RNA polymerase II and correlated with impaired RNA polymerase II localization, dynamics, gene recruitment, and reduced global transcription and cell proliferation. Polymerizing and crosslinking nuclear actin in vitro similarly disrupted the actin-RNA-polymerase-II interaction and inhibited transcription. These data rationalize the general absence of stable actin filaments in mammalian somatic nuclei. They also suggest a dynamic pool of nuclear actin is required for the proper localization and activity of RNA polymerase II.

  9. CRC handbook of nuclear reactors calculations. Vol. II

    SciTech Connect

    Ronen, Y.

    1986-01-01

    This handbook breaks down the complex field of nuclear reactor calculations into major steps. Each step presents a detailed analysis of the problems to be solved, the parameters involved, and the elaborate computer programs developed to perform the calculations. This book bridges the gap between nuclear reactor theory and the implementation of that theory, including the problems to be encountered and the level of confidence that should be given to the methods described. Volume II: Monte Carlo Calculations for Nuclear Reactors. In-Core Management of Four Reactor Types. In-Core Management in CANDU-PHW Reactors. Reactor Dynamics. The Theory of Neutron Leakage in Reactor Lattices. Index.

  10. Open Questions in Stellar Nuclear Physics: II

    SciTech Connect

    Gai, Moshe

    2004-09-13

    No doubt, among the most exciting discoveries of the third millennium thus far are oscillations of massive neutrinos and dark energy that leads to an accelerated expansion of the Universe. Accordingly, Nuclear Physics is presented with two extraordinary challenges: the need for precise (5% or better) prediction of solar neutrino fluxes within the Standard Solar Model, and the need for an accurate (5% or better) understanding of stellar evolution and in particular of Type Ia super nova that are used as cosmological standard candle. In contrast, much confusion is found in the field with contradicting data and strong statements of accuracy that can not be supported by current data. We discuss an experimental program to address these challenges and disagreements.

  11. Databases and tools for nuclear astrophysics applications. BRUSsels Nuclear LIBrary (BRUSLIB), Nuclear Astrophysics Compilation of REactions II (NACRE II) and Nuclear NETwork GENerator (NETGEN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Y.; Goriely, S.; Jorissen, A.; Chen, G. L.; Arnould, M.

    2013-01-01

    An update of a previous description of the BRUSLIB + NACRE package of nuclear data for astrophysics and of the web-based nuclear network generator NETGEN is presented. The new version of BRUSLIB contains the latest predictions of a wide variety of nuclear data based on the most recent version of the Brussels-Montreal Skyrme-Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov model. The nuclear masses, radii, spin/parities, deformations, single-particle schemes, matter densities, nuclear level densities, E1 strength functions, fission properties, and partition functions are provided for all nuclei lying between the proton and neutron drip lines over the 8 ≤ Z ≤ 110 range, whose evaluation is based on a unique microscopic model that ensures a good compromise between accuracy, reliability, and feasibility. In addition, these various ingredients are used to calculate about 100 000 Hauser-Feshbach neutron-, proton-, α-, and γ-induced reaction rates based on the reaction code TALYS. NACRE is superseded by the NACRE II compilation for 15 charged-particle transfer reactions and 19 charged-particle radiative captures on stable targets with mass numbers A < 16. NACRE II features the inclusion of experimental data made available after the publication of NACRE in 1999 and up to 2011. In addition, the extrapolation of the available data to the very low energies of astrophysical relevance is improved through the systematic use of phenomenological potential models. Uncertainties in the rates are also evaluated on this basis. Finally, the latest release v10.0 of the web-based tool NETGEN is presented. In addition to the data already used in the previous NETGEN package, it contains in a fully documented form the new BRUSLIB and NACRE II data, as well as new experiment-based radiative neutron capture cross sections. The full new versions of BRUSLIB, NACRE II, and NETGEN are available electronically from the nuclear database at http://www.astro.ulb.ac.be/NuclearData. The nuclear material is presented in

  12. Deployment of the Topaz-II space nuclear power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Standley, V.H.; Wyant, F.J.; Polansky, G.F. )

    1993-01-01

    The Topaz-II is a 5-kW(electric) Russian space nuclear power plant. The power plant resembles a shuttlecock standing 3.9 m high and is 1.4 m in diameter at the base. The reactor is at the top, the radiation shield is in the middle, and the radiator is at the bottom. The whole system weighs 1 tonne. The reactor core is 37.5 cm long and 26 cm in diameter. It contains 37 core-length, single-cell thermionic fuel elements embedded in a ZrH moderator. Each thermionic fuel cell is a cylindrical emitter inside a cylindrical collector. Nuclear fuel inside the emitter raises the emitter's temperature.

  13. Type-II histone deacetylases: elusive plant nuclear signal transducers.

    PubMed

    Grandperret, Vincent; Nicolas-Francès, Valérie; Wendehenne, David; Bourque, Stéphane

    2014-06-01

    Since the beginning of the 21st century, numerous studies have concluded that the plant cell nucleus is one of the cellular compartments that define the specificity of the cellular response to an external stimulus or to a specific developmental stage. To that purpose, the nucleus contains all the enzymatic machinery required to carry out a wide variety of nuclear protein post-translational modifications (PTMs), which play an important role in signal transduction pathways leading to the modulation of specific sets of genes. PTMs include protein (de)acetylation which is controlled by the antagonistic activities of histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs). Regarding protein deacetylation, plants are of particular interest: in addition to the RPD3-HDA1 and Sir2 HDAC families that they share with other eukaryotic organisms, plants have developed a specific family called type-II HDACs (HD2s). Interestingly, these HD2s are well conserved in plants and control fundamental biological processes such as seed germination, flowering or the response to pathogens. The aim of this review was to summarize current knowledge regarding this fascinating, but still poorly understood nuclear protein family. PMID:24236403

  14. 10 CFR 76.115 - Special nuclear material of moderate strategic significance-Category II.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Special nuclear material of moderate strategic significance-Category II. 76.115 Section 76.115 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safeguards and Security § 76.115 Special nuclear material of...

  15. 10 CFR 76.115 - Special nuclear material of moderate strategic significance-Category II.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Special nuclear material of moderate strategic significance-Category II. 76.115 Section 76.115 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safeguards and Security § 76.115 Special nuclear material of...

  16. 10 CFR 76.115 - Special nuclear material of moderate strategic significance-Category II.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Special nuclear material of moderate strategic significance-Category II. 76.115 Section 76.115 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safeguards and Security § 76.115 Special nuclear material of...

  17. 10 CFR 76.115 - Special nuclear material of moderate strategic significance-Category II.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special nuclear material of moderate strategic significance-Category II. 76.115 Section 76.115 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safeguards and Security § 76.115 Special nuclear material of...

  18. 10 CFR 76.115 - Special nuclear material of moderate strategic significance-Category II.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Special nuclear material of moderate strategic significance-Category II. 76.115 Section 76.115 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safeguards and Security § 76.115 Special nuclear material of...

  19. An alternate hypothesis for the origin of Angra dos Reis - Porphyry, not cumulate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Treiman, A. H.

    1989-01-01

    The Angra dos Reis achondrite is a unique meteorite of potentially great importance for understanding the origins of the solar system and of the terrestrial planets. It is proposed that the meteorite, which consists of megacrysts of Al-Ti augite (fassaite) in skeletal or cellular shapes, olivine, and possibly whitlockite in a fine-grained groundmass of the same materials plus spinel, is a porphyritic igneous rock modified by metamorphism. In this interpretation, the megacrysts represent cellular-textured phenocrysts, and the fine-grain groundmass represents crystallized or devitrified magma. Phase equilibria suggest that Angra dos Reis-like compositions could grow phenocrysts of fassaite pyroxene, olivine, and whitlockite. These same compositions could crystallize, without crystal sorting or accumulation, to an almost monomineralic fassaite pyroxenite.

  20. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 32: Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  1. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 17: Radiation Protection II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  2. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 34: Control Systems II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  3. Nuclear import of RNA polymerase II is coupled with nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of the RNA polymerase II-associated protein 2.

    PubMed

    Forget, Diane; Lacombe, Andrée-Anne; Cloutier, Philippe; Lavallée-Adam, Mathieu; Blanchette, Mathieu; Coulombe, Benoit

    2013-08-01

    The RNA polymerase II (RNAP II)-associated protein (RPAP) 2 has been discovered through its association with various subunits of RNAP II in affinity purification coupled with mass spectrometry experiments. Here, we show that RPAP2 is a mainly cytoplasmic protein that shuttles between the cytoplasm and the nucleus. RPAP2 shuttling is tightly coupled with nuclear import of RNAP II, as RPAP2 silencing provokes abnormal accumulation of RNAP II in the cytoplasmic space. Most notably, RPAP4/GPN1 silencing provokes the retention of RPAP2 in the nucleus. Our results support a model in which RPAP2 enters the nucleus in association with RNAP II and returns to the cytoplasm in association with the GTPase GPN1/RPAP4. Although binding of RNAP II to RPAP2 is mediated by an N-terminal domain (amino acids 1-170) that contains a nuclear retention domain, and binding of RPAP4/GPN1 to RPAP2 occurs through a C-terminal domain (amino acids 156-612) that has a dominant cytoplasmic localization domain. In conjunction with previously published data, our results have important implications, as they indicate that RPAP2 controls gene expression by two distinct mechanisms, one that targets RNAP II activity during transcription and the other that controls availability of RNAP II in the nucleus.

  4. PML isoform II plays a critical role in nuclear lipid droplet formation

    PubMed Central

    Ohsaki, Yuki; Kawai, Takeshi; Yoshikawa, Yukichika; Cheng, Jinglei; Jokitalo, Eija

    2016-01-01

    Lipid droplets (LDs) in the nucleus of hepatocyte-derived cell lines were found to be associated with premyelocytic leukemia (PML) nuclear bodies (NBs) and type I nucleoplasmic reticulum (NR) or the extension of the inner nuclear membrane. Knockdown of PML isoform II (PML-II) caused a significant decrease in both nuclear LDs and type I NR, whereas overexpression of PML-II increased both. Notably, these effects were evident only in limited types of cells, in which a moderate number of nuclear LDs exist intrinsically, and PML-II was targeted not only at PML NBs, but also at the nuclear envelope, excluding lamins and SUN proteins. Knockdown of SUN proteins induced a significant increase in the type I NR and nuclear LDs, but these effects were cancelled by simultaneous knockdown of PML-II. Nuclear LDs harbored diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 2 and CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase α and incorporated newly synthesized lipid esters. These results corroborated that PML-II plays a critical role in generating nuclear LDs in specific cell types. PMID:26728854

  5. Toward higher nuclearity: tetranuclear cobalt(II) metallogrid exhibiting spin crossover.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shu-Qi; Wang, Yi-Tong; Cui, Ai-Li; Kou, Hui-Zhong

    2014-03-01

    Supramolecular strategy was employed to achieve the highest nuclearity Co(II) cluster exhibiting spin-crossover (SCO) behavior. Magnetic susceptibility characterization of the Co4(II) complex shows that two different spin-transition processes occur. The SCO behavior is directed by the partially deprotonated polydentate ligand, which favors the structural distortion required by the spin transition. PMID:24555696

  6. Nuclear expression of a group II intron is consistent with spliceosomal intron ancestry.

    PubMed

    Chalamcharla, Venkata R; Curcio, M Joan; Belfort, Marlene

    2010-04-15

    Group II introns are self-splicing RNAs found in eubacteria, archaea, and eukaryotic organelles. They are mechanistically similar to the metazoan nuclear spliceosomal introns; therefore, group II introns have been invoked as the progenitors of the eukaryotic pre-mRNA introns. However, the ability of group II introns to function outside of the bacteria-derived organelles is debatable, since they are not found in the nuclear genomes of eukaryotes. Here, we show that the Lactococcus lactis Ll.LtrB group II intron splices accurately and efficiently from different pre-mRNAs in a eukaryote, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, a pre-mRNA harboring a group II intron is spliced predominantly in the cytoplasm and is subject to nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD), and the mature mRNA from which the group II intron is spliced is poorly translated. In contrast, a pre-mRNA bearing the Tetrahymena group I intron or the yeast spliceosomal ACT1 intron at the same location is not subject to NMD, and the mature mRNA is translated efficiently. Thus, a group II intron can splice from a nuclear transcript, but RNA instability and translation defects would have favored intron loss or evolution into protein-dependent spliceosomal introns, consistent with the bacterial group II intron ancestry hypothesis.

  7. Age and isotopic relationships among the angrites Lewis Cliff 86010 and Angra dos Reis

    SciTech Connect

    Lugmair, G.W. ); Galer, S.J.G. Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Chemie, Mainz )

    1992-04-01

    Results of a wide-ranging isotopic investigation of the unique Antarctican angrite LEW-86010 (LEW) are presented, together with a reassessment of the type angrite Angra dos Reis (ADOR). The principal objectives of this study are to obtain precise radiometric ages, initial Sr isotopic compositions, and to search for the erstwhile presence of the short-lived nuclei {sup 146}Sm and {sup 26}Al via their daughter products. The isotopic compositions of Sm, U, Ca, and Ti were also measured. This allows a detailed appraisal to be made of the relations between, and the genealogy of, these two angrites.

  8. Studies of Brazilian meteorites. III - Origin and history of the Angra dos Reis achondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinz, M.; Keil, K.; Hlava, P. F.; Berkley, J. L.; Gomes, C. B.; Curvello, W. S.

    1977-01-01

    The mineral composition of the Angra dos Reis meteorite, which fell in 1869, is described. This achondrite contains phases reported in a meteorite for the first time. Petrofabric analysis shows that fassaite has a preferred orientation and lineation, which is interpreted as being due to cumulus processes, possibly the effect of post-depositional magmatic current flow or laminar flow of a crystalline mush. The mineral chemistry indicates crystallization from a highly silica-undersaturated melt at low pressure. Several aspects of the mineral composition are discussed with reference to the implications of crystallization conditions.

  9. The regulatory quagmire underlying the TOPAZ II exhibition: The nuclear regulatory commission's jurisdiction over the TOPAZ II reactor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, John W.

    1992-01-01

    At the 8th Symposium on Space Nuclear Power Systems, 6-10 January 1990, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics displayed a TOPAZ II thermionic space nuclear reactor. Underlying that exhibition was a regulatory quagmire created by a decision of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission that an import license was required to bring the device into the United States, and that an amendment to their regulations governing exports was required to return the device to the Soviet Union latter that summer. This paper briefly reviews the jurisdictional issue of how the Nuclear Regulatory Commission exerted its authority over the TOPAZ II reactor system, as well as the manner in which the import and export licensing actions were accomplished. In sum, the paper offers an independent interpretation of the applicable import and export regulations, and concludes that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission likely need not have exercised its import jurisdiction, and notwithstanding the initial assumption of jurisdiction, an export license likely could have been issued without an amendment to the then existing regulations.

  10. Independent Qualification of the CIAU Tool Based on the Uncertainty Estimate in the Prediction of Angra 1 NPP Inadvertent Load Rejection Transient

    SciTech Connect

    Borges, Ronaldo C.; Alvim, Antonio Carlos M.

    2002-07-01

    The Code with - the capability of - Internal Assessment of Uncertainty (CIAU) is a tool proposed by the 'Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica, Nucleare e della Produzione (DIMNP)' of the University of Pisa. Other Institutions including the nuclear regulatory body from Brazil, 'Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear', contributed to the development of the tool. The CIAU aims at providing the currently available Relap5/Mod3.2 system code with the integrated capability of performing not only relevant transient calculations but also the related estimates of uncertainty bands. The Uncertainty Methodology based on Accuracy Extrapolation (UMAE) is used to characterize the uncertainty in the prediction of system code calculations for light water reactors and is internally coupled with the above system code. Following an overview of the CIAU development, the present paper deals with the independent qualification of the tool. The qualification test is performed by estimating the uncertainty bands that should envelope the prediction of the Angra 1 NPP transient RES-11. 99 originated by an inadvertent complete load rejection that caused the reactor scram when the unit was operating at 99% of nominal power. The current limitation of the 'error' database, implemented into the CIAU prevented a final demonstration of the qualification. However, all the steps for the qualification process are demonstrated. (authors)

  11. Biological effects of nuclear war. II. Impact on the biosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Grover, H.D.; Harwell, M.A.

    1985-10-01

    This paper deals with the consequences of nuclear war for areas not directly targeted, with indirect effects propagated regionally, hemispherically, and globally. The authors are especially concerned with how ecosystem recovery might proceed and how human survivors might influence or be influenced by these indirect effects.

  12. Commercial Nuclear Steam-Electric Power Plants, Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shore, Ferdinand J.

    1974-01-01

    Presents the pros and cons of nuclear power systems. Includes a discussion of the institutional status of the AEC, AEC regulatory record, routine low-level radiation hazards, transport of radioactive materials, storage of wastes, and uranium resources and economics of supply. (GS)

  13. Startup control of the TOPAZ-II space nuclear reactor. Master`s thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Astrin, C.D.

    1996-09-01

    The Russian designed and manufactured TOPAZ-II Thermionic Nuclear Space Reactor has been supplied to the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization for study as part of the TOPAZ International Program. A Preliminary Nuclear Safety Assessment investigated the readiness to use the TOPAZ-II in support of a Nuclear Electric Propulsion Space Test Mission (NEPSTP). Among the anticipated system modifications required for launching the TOPAZ-II system within safety goals is for a U.S. designed Automatic Control System. The requirements and desired features of such a control system are developed based upon U.S. safety standards. System theory and design are presented in order to establish the basis for development of a hybrid control model from available simulations. The model is verified and then used in exploration of various control schemes and casualty analysis providing groundwork for future Automatic Control System design.

  14. Electron-nuclear double resonance on copper (II) tetraimidazole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Camp, Harlan L.; Sands, Richard H.; Fee, James A.

    1981-09-01

    We have investigated the electron-nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) from frozen aqueous solutions of 65Cu++(imidazole)4, 65Cu++ (imidazole-15N)4, and 65Cu++(imidazole-Dn)4, where n = 1, 2, 3, and 4 for selectively deuterated imidazole. We have observed ENDOR associated with the imidazole protons and the two imidazole nitrogens. The selective deuteration has allowed us to attempt identification of the weakly coupled protons responsible for the ENDOR spectrum, and a comparison of the overall line shape of that spectrum taken at two extreme points of the EPR spectrum suggests that some of the imidazole planes are tilted with respect to the plane of the complex. The ENDOR arising from the nitrogen nearest the copper is primarily isotropic with A(g⊥) = 41.6±1.5 MHz and A(g∥) = 39.8±1.5 MHz. The resonance shows little structure and seems consistent with a picture that requires some inequivalence among the various imidazoles. The remote nitrogen ENDOR reveals both hyperfine and quadrupole effects with approximately isotropic A(14N) = 1.79 MHz, Qz'z'?0.360 MHz, and Qx'x'y'x'?0.349 MHz. These values are in agreement with the results of the nuclear modulation effect [J. Chem. Phys. 69, 4921 (1978)]. The values for the quadrupole constants are thought to be accurate within 10% and are the same as are found in free imidazole. It is also demonstrated that, in this instance, ENDOR and the nuclear modulation effect are complementary in that they have each provided different parts of the same hyperfine spectrum.

  15. Proceedings of the 1984 DOE nuclear reactor and facility safety conference. Volume II

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    This report is a collection of papers on reactor safety. The report takes the form of proceedings from the 1984 DOE Nuclear Reactor and Facility Safety Conference, Volume II of two. These proceedings cover Safety, Accidents, Training, Task/Job Analysis, Robotics and the Engineering Aspects of Man/Safety interfaces.

  16. Multiparticle Production in Particle and Nuclear Collisions. II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanki, T.; Kinoshita, K.; Sumiyoshi, H.; Takagi, F.

    The dominant phenomenon in high-energy particle and nuclear collisions is multiple production of hadrons. This had attracted may physicists in 1950's, the period of the first remarkable development of particle physics. Multiparticle production was already observed in cosmic-ray experiments and expected to be explained as a natural consequence of the strong Yukawa interaction. Statistical and hydrodynamical models were then proposed by Fermi, Landau and others. These theories are still surviving even today as a prototype of modern ``fire-ball'' models. After twenty years, a golden age came in this field of physics. It was closely related to the rapid development of accelerator facilities, especially, the invention of colliding-beam machines which yield high enough center-of-mass energies for studying reactions with high multiplicity. Abundant data on final states of multiparticle production have been accumulated mainly by measuring inclusive cross sections and multiplicity distributions. In super high-energy bar{p}p collisions at CERN S pmacr pS Collider, we confirmed the increasing total cross section and found violations of many scaling laws which seemed to be valid at lower energies. This suggests a fundamental complexity of the multiparticle phenomena and offers new materials for further development of theoretical investigations. In the same period, studies of constituent (quark-gluon) structure of hadrons had also been develped. Nowadays, pysicists believe that the quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is the fundamental law of the hadronic world. Multiparticle dynamics should also be described by QCD. We have known that the hard-jet phenomena are well explained by the perturbative QCD. On the other hand, the soft processes are considered to be non-perturbative phenomena which have not yet been solved, and related to the mechanism of the color confinement and formation of strings or color-flux tubes. Multiparticle production would offer useful information on this

  17. Seismic fragility of nuclear power plant components (Phase II)

    SciTech Connect

    Bandyopadhyay, K.K.; Hofmayer, C.H.; Kassir, M.K.; Pepper, S.E. )

    1990-02-01

    As part of the Component Fragility Program which was initiated in FY 1985, three additional equipment classes have been evaluated. This report contains the fragility results and discussions on these equipment classes which are switchgear, I and C panels and relays. Both low and medium voltage switchgear assemblies have been considered and a separate fragility estimate for each type is provided. Test data on cabinets from the nuclear instrumentation/neutron monitoring system, plant/process protection system, solid state protective system and engineered safeguards test system comprise the BNL data base for I and C panels (NSSS). Fragility levels have been determined for various failure modes of switchgear and I C panels, and the deterministic results are presented in terms of test response spectra. In addition, the test data have been evaluated for estimating the respective probabilistic fragility levels which are expressed in terms of a median value, an uncertainty coefficient, a randomness coefficient and an HCLPF value. Due to a wide variation of relay design and the fragility level, a generic fragility level cannot be established for relays. 7 refs., 13 figs., 12 tabs.

  18. Sm-Nd-Pu timepieces in the Angra dos Reis meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lugmair, G. W.; Marti, K.

    1977-01-01

    Isotope ratios and age estimations are presented for the ultramafic pyroxenite Angra dos Reis meteorite. A pyroxene-phosphate internal isochron age of 4.55 plus or minus 0.04 eons was obtained, in agreement with reported Pb-Pb ages. It is suggested that Sm-146 decay led to an increase in the ratio of Nd-142 to Nd-144 in pyroxene, which is greater than the ratio of the Nd isotopes in phosphates. The effect of Pu-244 on the fission xenon components in pyroxene and phosphate is examined. The ratios of Pu-244 to Nd, U-238, and Th-232 are compared for pyroxene and phosphate separates. The exposure age of the meteorite, as obtained by the Kr-81 to Kr-83 method, was found to be 55.5 plus or minus 1.2 million years.

  19. Nuclear Distribution of RNA Polymerase II and mRNA Processing Machinery in Early Mammalian Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Bogolyubova, Irina O.; Bogolyubov, Dmitry S.

    2014-01-01

    Spatial distribution of components of nuclear metabolism provides a significant impact on regulation of the processes of gene expression. While distribution of the key nuclear antigens and their association with the defined nuclear domains were thoroughly traced in mammalian somatic cells, similar data for the preimplantation embryos are scanty and fragmental. However, the period of cleavage is characterized by the most drastic and dynamic nuclear reorganizations accompanying zygotic gene activation. In this minireview, we try to summarize the results of studies concerning distribution of major factors involved in RNA polymerase II-dependent transcription, pre-mRNA splicing mRNA export that have been carried out on early embryos of mammals. PMID:24868542

  20. Independent Safety Assessment of the TOPAZ-II space nuclear reactor power system (Revised)

    SciTech Connect

    1993-09-01

    The Independent Safety Assessment described in this study report was performed to assess the safety of the design and launch plans anticipated by the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) in 1993 for a Russian-built, U.S.-modified, TOPAZ-II space nuclear reactor power system. Its conclusions, and the bases for them, were intended to provide guidance for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) management in the event that the DOD requested authorization under section 91b. of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, for possession and use (including ground testing and launch) of a nuclear-fueled, modified TOPAZ-II. The scientists and engineers who were engaged to perform this assessment are nationally-known nuclear safety experts in various disciplines. They met with participants in the TOPAZ-II program during the spring and summer of 1993 and produced a report based on their analysis of the proposed TOPAZ-II mission. Their conclusions were confined to the potential impact on public safety and did not include budgetary, reliability, or risk-benefit analyses.

  1. Sliding mode control of the space nuclear reactor system TOPAZ II

    SciTech Connect

    Shtessel, Y.B.; Wyant, F.J.

    1996-03-01

    The Automatic Control System (ACS) of the space nuclear reactor power system TOPAZ II that generates electricity from nuclear heat using in-core thermionic converters is considered. Sliding Mode Control Technique was applied to the reactor system controller design in order to provide the robust high accuracy following of a neutron (thermal) power reference profile in a start up regime and a payload electric power (current) reference profile following in an operation regime. Extensive simulations of the TOPAZ II reactor system with the designed sliding mode controllers showed improved accuracy and robustness of the reactor system performances in a start up regime and in an electric power supply regime as well. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  2. Pol II-directed short RNAs suppress the nuclear export of mRNA.

    PubMed

    Komarova, Tatiana V; Schwartz, Anton M; Frolova, Olga Y; Zvereva, Anna S; Gleba, Yuri Y; Citovsky, Vitaly; Dorokhov, Yuri L

    2010-12-01

    The synthesis and subsequent nuclear export of non-coding RNA (ncRNA) directed by RNA polymerase (Pol) II is very sensitive to abiotic and biotic external stimuli including pathogen challenges. To assess whether stress-induced ncRNAs may suppress the nuclear export of mRNA, we exploited the ability of Agrobacterium tumefaciens to co-deliver Pol I, II and III promoter-based vectors for the transcription of short (s) ncRNAs, GFP mRNA or genomic RNA of plant viruses (Tobacco mosaic virus, TMV; or Potato virus X, PVX) into the nucleus of Nicotiana benthamiana cells. We showed that, in contrast to Pol I- and Pol III-derived sncRNAs, all tested Pol II-derived sncRNAs (U6 RNA, tRNA or artificial RNAs) resulted in decreased expression of GFP and host mRNA. The level of this inhibitory effect depended on the non-coding transcript length and promoter strength. Short coding RNA (scRNA) can also compete with mRNA for nuclear export. We showed that scRNA, an artificial 117-nt short sequence encoding Elastin-Like peptide element tandems with FLAG sequence (ELF) and the 318-nt N. benthamiana antimicrobial peptide thionin (defensin) gene efficiently decreased GFP expression. The stress-induced export of Pol II-derived sncRNA and scRNA into the cytoplasm via the mRNA export pathway may block nucleocytoplasmic traffic including the export of mRNA responsible for antivirus protection. Consistent with this model, we observed that Pol II-derived sncRNAs as well as scRNA, thionin and ELF strongly enhanced the cytoplasmic reproduction of TMV and PVX RNA. PMID:20953971

  3. Preliminary nuclear safety assessment of the NEPST (Topaz II) space reactor program

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, A.C.

    1993-01-01

    The United States (US) Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) decided to investigate the possibility of launching a Russian Topaz II space nuclear power system. A preliminary nuclear safety assessment was conducted to determine whether or not a space mission could be conducted safely and within budget constraints. As part of this assessment, a safety policy and safety functional requirements were developed to guide both the safety assessment and future Topaz II activities. A review of the Russian flight safety program was conducted and documented. Our preliminary nuclear safety assessment included a number of deterministic analyses, such as; neutronic analysis of normal and accident configurations, an evaluation of temperature coefficients of reactivity, a reentry and disposal analysis, an analysis of postulated launch abort impact accidents, and an analysis of postulated propellant fire and explosion accidents. Based on the assessment to date, it appears that it will be possible to safely launch the Topaz II system in the US with a modification to preclude water flooded criticality. A full scale safety program is now underway.

  4. NGC 4314. II - Hubble Space Telescope I-band surface photometry of the nuclear region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benedict, G. F.; Higdon, J. L.; Jefferys, W. H.; Duncombe, R.; Hemenway, P. D.; Shelus, P. J.; Whipple, A. L.; Nelan, E.; Story, D.; Mcarthur, B.

    1993-01-01

    We present an HST I-band Planetary Camera image of the nuclear region of NGC 4314, an anemic barred galaxy with recent star formation confined to a nuclear ring. These data resolve the nuclear ring into multiple sites of new star formation and resolve associated dust lanes into discrete clouds. Deconvolution results in at least 0.13 arcsec resolution, as demonstrated by the de Vaucouleurs r exp 1/4 law. Contrasted with similar studies of M87 and NGC 7457, we find no photometric evidence for an extreme concentration of stars in the center of NGC 4314. We identify an oval distortion of length 8 arcsec in the nuclear region, using ellipse-fitting routines and the unsharp masked frame. This nuclear bar has newer stars near its ends. We catalog 14 star clusters associated with H II regions in the nuclear ring. As an additional demonstration of the resolution achieved, the integral size distribution of these clusters is described by an exponential relationship which prevails down to 0.14 arcsec.

  5. Heterometallic Cu(II)-Dy(III) Clusters of Different Nuclearities with Slow Magnetic Relaxation.

    PubMed

    Modak, Ritwik; Sikdar, Yeasin; Cosquer, Goulven; Chatterjee, Sudipta; Yamashita, Masahiro; Goswami, Sanchita

    2016-01-19

    The synthesis, structures, and magnetic properties of two heterometallic Cu(II)-Dy(III) clusters are reported. The first structural motif displays a pentanuclear Cu(II)4Dy(III) core, while the second one reveals a nonanuclear Cu(II)6Dy(III)3 core. We employed o-vanillin-based Schiff base ligands combining o-vanillin with 3-amino-1-propanol, H2vap, (2-[(3-hydroxy-propylimino)-methyl]-6-methoxy-phenol), and 2-aminoethanol, H2vae, (2-[(3-hydroxy-ethylimino)-methyl]-6-methoxy-phenol). The differing nuclearities of the two clusters stem from the choice of imino alcohol arm in the Schiff bases, H2vap and H2vae. This work is aimed at broadening the diversity of Cu(II)-Dy(III) clusters and to perceive the consequence of changing the length of the alcohol arm on the nuclearity of the cluster, providing valuable insight into promising future synthetic directions. The underlying topological entity of the pentanuclear Cu4Dy cluster is reported for the first time. The investigation of magnetic behaviors of 1 and 2 below 2 K reveals slow magnetic relaxation with a significant influence coming from the variation of the alcohol arm affecting the nature of magnetic interactions. PMID:26702645

  6. Nuclear structure and the fate of core collapse (Type II) supernova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gai, Moshe

    2014-08-01

    For a long time Gerry Brown and his collaborator Hans Bethe considered the question of the final fate of a core collapse (Type II) supernova. Recalling ideas from nuclear structure on Kaon condensate and a soft equation of state of the dense nuclear matter they concluded that progenitor stars with mass as low as 17-18M⊙ (including supernova 1987A) could collapse to a small mass black hole with a mass just beyond 1.5M⊙, the upper bound they derive for a neutron star. We discuss another nuclear structure effect that determines the carbon to oxygen ratio (C/O) at the end of helium burning. This ratio also determines the fate of a Type II supernova with a carbon rich progenitor star producing a neutron star and oxygen rich collapsing to a black hole. While the C/O ratio is one of the most important nuclear inputs to stellar evolution it is still not known with sufficient accuracy. We discuss future efforts to measure with gamma-beam and TPC detector of the C12(α,γ)O16 reaction that determines the C/O ratio in stellar helium burning.

  7. Nuclear Shell Structure and Beta Decay I. Odd A Nuclei II. Even A Nuclei

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Mayer, M.G.; Moszkowski, S.A.; Nordheim, L.W.

    1951-05-01

    In Part I a systematics is given of all transitions for odd A nuclei for which sufficiently reliable data are available. The allowed or forbidden characters of the transitions are correlated with the positions of the initial and final odd nucleon groups in the nuclear shell scheme. The nuclear shells show definite characteristics with respect to parity of the ground states. The latter is the same as the one obtained from known spins and magnetic moments in a one-particle interpretation. In Part II a systematics of the beta transitions of even-A nuclei is given. An interpretation of the character of the transitions in terms of nuclear shell structure is achieved on the hypothesis that the odd nucleon groups have the same structure as in odd-A nuclei, together with a simple coupling rule between the neutron and proton groups in odd-odd nuclei.

  8. Physics with gamma-beams and charged particle detectors: I) Nuclear structure II) Nuclear astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Gai, Moshe

    2015-02-24

    The Charged Particle Working Group (CPWG) is proposing to construct large area Silicon Strip Detector (SSD), a gas Time Projection Chamber detector read by an electronic readout system (eTPC) and a Bubble Chamber (BC) containing superheated high purity water to be used in measurements utilizing intense gamma-ray beams from the newly constructed ELI-NP facility at Magurele, Bucharest in Romania. We intend to use the SSD and eTPC detectors to address essential problems in nuclear structure physics, such as clustering and the many alpha-decay of light nuclei such as {sup 12}C and {sup 16}O. All three detectors (SSD, eTPC and BC) will be used to address central problems in nuclear astrophysics such as the astrophysical cross section factor of the {sup 12}C(α,γ) reaction and other processes central to stellar evolution. The CPWG intends to submit to the ELI-NP facility a Technical Design Report (TDR) for the proposed detectors.

  9. Physics with gamma-beams and charged particle detectors: I) Nuclear structure II) Nuclear astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gai, Moshe

    2015-02-01

    The Charged Particle Working Group (CPWG) is proposing to construct large area Silicon Strip Detector (SSD), a gas Time Projection Chamber detector read by an electronic readout system (eTPC) and a Bubble Chamber (BC) containing superheated high purity water to be used in measurements utilizing intense gamma-ray beams from the newly constructed ELI-NP facility at Magurele, Bucharest in Romania. We intend to use the SSD and eTPC detectors to address essential problems in nuclear structure physics, such as clustering and the many alpha-decay of light nuclei such as 12C and 16O . All three detectors (SSD, eTPC and BC) will be used to address central problems in nuclear astrophysics such as the astrophysical cross section factor of the 12C (α,γ) reaction and other processes central to stellar evolution. The CPWG intends to submit to the ELI-NP facility a Technical Design Report (TDR) for the proposed detectors.

  10. Random vibration analysis of the Topaz-II nuclear reactor power system. Master`s thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, S.E.

    1995-06-01

    The TOPAZ-II Ya-21U is one of six Russian made space nuclear power systems which is based on theomionic power conversion. The U.S. is presently analyzing TOPAZ-II to determine the reliability and feasibility of using this system. A structural analysis test was conducted on the TOPAZ unit in May 1993 to provide data from which modal parameters could be identified. This test showed the fundamental frequency to be 10.5 Hz, yet the test results that the Russians conducted identified a fundamental frequency of 5 Hz. Another finite element model was created incorporating new developments in TOPAZ-II and modifications to the finite element model to better simulate the mass properties of the TOPAZ-II2. A second structural analysis test was conducted on the TOPAZ unit 06-09 September 1994. This thesis focuses on the random vibration analysis of the TOPAZ-II Ya-2lU utilizing the most recent test results and the Master Series (updated version) I-DEAS software. The modal respose of the model and simulated random vibration tests were within 8.33%. This model is a feasible tool which can be used to analyze the TOPAZ unit without testing the unit to fatigue.

  11. RNA-RNA interactions and pre-mRNA mislocalization as drivers of group II intron loss from nuclear genomes.

    PubMed

    Qu, Guosheng; Dong, Xiaolong; Piazza, Carol Lyn; Chalamcharla, Venkata R; Lutz, Sheila; Curcio, M Joan; Belfort, Marlene

    2014-05-01

    Group II introns are commonly believed to be the progenitors of spliceosomal introns, but they are notably absent from nuclear genomes. Barriers to group II intron function in nuclear genomes therefore beg examination. A previous study showed that nuclear expression of a group II intron in yeast results in nonsense-mediated decay and translational repression of mRNA, and that these roadblocks to expression are group II intron-specific. To determine the molecular basis for repression of gene expression, we investigated cellular dynamics of processed group II intron RNAs, from transcription to cellular localization. Our data show pre-mRNA mislocalization to the cytoplasm, where the RNAs are targeted to foci. Furthermore, tenacious mRNA-pre-mRNA interactions, based on intron-exon binding sequences, result in reduced abundance of spliced mRNAs. Nuclear retention of pre-mRNA prevents this interaction and relieves these expression blocks. In addition to providing a mechanistic rationale for group II intron-specific repression, our data support the hypothesis that RNA silencing of the host gene contributed to expulsion of group II introns from nuclear genomes and drove the evolution of spliceosomal introns.

  12. American Physicists, Nuclear Weapons in World War II, and Social Responsibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badash, Lawrence

    2005-06-01

    Social responsibility in science has a centuries-long history, but it was such a minor thread that most scientists were unaware of the concept. Even toward the conclusion of the Manhattan Project, which produced the first nuclear weapons, only a handful of its participants had some reservations about use of a weapon of mass destruction. But the explosions over Hiroshima and Nagasaki not only made society more aware of the importance of science, they made scientists more aware of their responsibility to society. I describe the development of the concept of social responsibility and its appearance among American scientists both before and after the end of World War II.

  13. Rare earth elements in Angra dos Reis and Lewis Cliff 86010, two meteorites with similar but distinct magma evolutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crozaz, Ghislaine; Mckay, Gordon

    1990-01-01

    Data are presented on ion microprobe measurements of REE and selected trace element abundances in individual grains of merrillite, fassaite, olivine, kirschsteinite, and plagioclase of Lewis Cliff 86010 (LEW 86010) meteorite and in merrillite and fassaite grains of Angra dos Reis (ADOR). Results show a close relationship between the two meteorites and support a magmatic origin for LEW 86010. However, the measurements indicate that, despite numerous common characteristics, the two meteorites must have been produced in separate magmatic events involving similar but distinct processes and parent melts.

  14. A nuclear export sequence in GPN-loop GTPase 1, an essential protein for nuclear targeting of RNA polymerase II, is necessary and sufficient for nuclear export.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Pardo, Humberto; Barbosa-Camacho, Angel A; Pérez-Mejía, Ana E; Lara-Chacón, Bárbara; Salas-Estrada, Leslie A; Robledo-Rivera, Angélica Y; Montero-Morán, Gabriela M; Lara-González, Samuel; Calera, Mónica R; Sánchez-Olea, Roberto

    2012-10-01

    XAB1/Gpn1 is a GTPase that associates with RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) in a GTP-dependent manner. Although XAB1/Gpn1 is essential for nuclear accumulation of RNAPII, the underlying mechanism is not known. A XAB1/Gpn1-EYFP fluorescent protein, like endogenous XAB1/Gpn1, localized to the cytoplasm but it rapidly accumulated in the cell nucleus in the presence of leptomycin B, a chemical inhibitor of the nuclear transport receptor Crm1. Crm1 recognizes short peptides in substrate proteins called nuclear export sequences (NES). Here, we employed site-directed mutagenesis and fluorescence microscopy to assess the functionality of all six putative NESs in XAB1/Gpn1. Mutating five of the six putative NESs did not alter the cytoplasmic localization of XAB1/Gpn1-EYFP. However, a V302A/L304A double mutant XAB1/Gpn1-EYFP protein was clearly accumulated in the cell nucleus, indicating the disruption of a functional NES. This functional XAB1/Gpn1 NES displays all features present in most common and potent NESs, including, in addition to Φ1-Φ4, a critical fifth hydrophobic amino acid Φ0. Therefore, in human Gpn1 this NES spans amino acids 292-LERLRKDMGSVAL-304. XAB1/Gpn1 NES is remarkably conserved during evolution. XAB1/Gpn1 NES was sufficient for nuclear export activity, as it caused a complete exclusion of EYFP from the cell nucleus. Molecular modeling of XAB1/Gpn1 provided a mechanistic reason for NES selection, as functionality correlated with accessibility, and it also suggested a mechanism for NES inhibition by intramolecular masking. In conclusion, we have identified a highly active, evolutionarily conserved NES in XAB1/Gpn1 that is critical for nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling and steady-state cytoplasmic localization of XAB1/Gpn1.

  15. Spectroscopic, thermal characterization and cytotoxic activity of bi-, tri- and tetra-nuclear Pd(II) and Pt(II) complexes with diSchiff base ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegazy, Wael Hussein

    2014-10-01

    In this paper; new di-, tri-, and tetra-nuclear Pd(II) and Pt(II) complexes of N,N‧-bis(3,4-dihydroxybenzylidene)ethan-1,2-diamine (EDH4), N,N‧-bis(3,4-dihydroxy-benzylidene)-benzene-1,2-diamine (PDH4) and N,N‧-bis-(3,4-dihydroxybenzylidene)-4,5-dimethyl-1,2-diamine (MPDH4) ligands were synthesized by two different methods. The first method involve the synthesis of the three ligands from condensation reaction of 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde (L‧H2) with ethylenediamine (en), o-phenylenediamine (o-PD), or 4,5-dimethyl-1,2-phenylendiamine (DMPD) in a mole ratio of 2:1 followed by the reaction of the resulting Schiff bases ligands with Pd(II) or Pt(II) ions in the presence of 2,2‧-dipyridyl (L) to form the di- and tri-nuclear metal complexes. The second method involve the condensation of the Pd complex LPd(II)L‧, (L = 2,2‧-dipyridyl, L‧ = 4-formylbenzene-1,2-bis(olate)) with en, o-PD, or DMPD in a mole ratio of 2:1, respectively, followed by reaction with PdCl2 to form di-, tri-, and tetra-nuclear palladium(II) complexes, respectively. Structures of ligands and metal complexes are characterized by physical properties, FT-IR spectra and nuclear magnetic resonance. The geometries of metal complexes are suggested according to elemental analysis, electronic absorption spectra, thermal analysis, atomic absorption, magnetic susceptibility and molar conductance. Cytotoxic activity against lung large cell carcinoma (H460), prostate carcinoma (DU145), breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7), amelanotic melanoma (M-14), colon adenocarcinoma (HT-29), and chronic myelogenous leukemia (K562) is also reported.

  16. Phase II: Field Detector Development For Undeclared/Declared Nuclear Testing For Treaty Verfiation Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Kriz, M.; Hunter, D.; Riley, T.

    2015-10-02

    Radioactive xenon isotopes are a critical part of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) for the detection or confirmation of nuclear weapons tests as well as on-site treaty verification monitoring. On-site monitoring is not currently conducted because there are no commercially available small/robust field detector devices to measure the radioactive xenon isotopes. Xenon is an ideal signature to detect clandestine nuclear events since they are difficult to contain and can diffuse and migrate through soils due to their inert nature. There are four key radioxenon isotopes used in monitoring: 135Xe (9 hour half-life), 133mXe (2 day half-life), 133Xe (5 day half-life) and 131mXe (12 day half-life) that decay through beta emission and gamma emission. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is a leader in the field of gas collections and has developed highly selective molecular sieves that allow for the collection of xenon gas directly from air. Phase I assessed the development of a small, robust beta-gamma coincidence counting system, that combines collection and in situ detection methodologies. Phase II of the project began development of the custom electronics enabling 2D beta-gamma coincidence analysis in a field portable system. This will be a significant advancement for field detection/quantification of short-lived xenon isotopes that would not survive transport time for laboratory analysis.

  17. Numerical evaluation of the production of radionuclides in a nuclear reactor (Part II).

    PubMed

    Mirzadeh, S; Walsh, P

    1998-04-01

    A computer program called LAURA has been developed to predict the production rates of any member of a nuclei network undergoing spontaneous decay and/or induced neutron transformation in a nuclear reactor. The theoretical bases for the development of LAURA were discussed in Part I. In particular, in Part I, we described how an expression based on the Rubinson (1949) approach is used to evaluate the depletion function. In this paper (Part II), we describe the full simulation of radionuclide production including the decomposition of a reaction network into independent linear chains, provisions for periodic reactor shutdown and restart, and implementation of an approximate solution given by Raykin and Shlyakhter (1989) to account for the effect of feedback due to alpha decay. Also included are some examples which demonstrate possible uses for LAURA.

  18. Nuclear Resonance Vibrational Spectra of Five-Coordinate Imidazole-ligated Iron(II) Porphyrinates

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Chuanjiang; Barabanschikov, Alexander; Ellison, Mary K.; Zhao, Jiyong; Alp, E. Ercan; Sturhahn, Wolfgang; Zgierski, Marek Z.; Sage, J. Timothy; Scheidt, W. Robert

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear resonance vibrational spectra have been obtained for six five-coordinate imidazole-ligated iron(II) porphyrinates, [Fe(Por)(L)] (Por = tetraphenylporphyrinate, octaethylporphyrinate, tetratolylporphyrinate or protoporphyrinate IX and L = 2-methylimidazole or 1,2-dimethylimidazole). Measurements have been made on both powder and oriented crystal samples. The spectra are dominated by strong signals around 200–300 cm−1. Although the in-plane and out-of-plane vibrations are seriously overlapped, oriented crystal spectra allow their deconvolution. Thus, oriented crystal experimental data, along with DFT calculations, enable the assignment of key vibrations in the spectra. Molecular dynamics are also discussed. The nature of the Fe–NIm vibrations has been elaborated further than was possible from resonance Raman studies. Our study suggests that the Fe motions are coupled with the porphyrin core and peripheral groups motions. Both peripheral groups and their conformations have significant influence on the vibrational spectra (position and shape). PMID:22243131

  19. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power. Report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume II. Proliferation resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    The purpose of this volume is limited to an assessment of the relative effects that particular choices of nuclear-power systems, for whatever reasons, may have on the possible spread of nuclear-weapons capabilities. This volume addresses the concern that non-nuclear-weapons states may be able to initiate efforts to acquire or to improve nuclear-weapons capabilities through civilian nuclear-power programs; it also addresses the concern that subnational groups may obtain and abuse the nuclear materials or facilities of such programs, whether in nuclear-weapons states (NWS's) or nonnuclear-weapons states (NNW's). Accordingly, this volume emphasizes one important factor in such decisions, the resistance of nuclear-power systems to the proliferation of nuclear-weapons capabilities.

  20. Measurement of Nuclear Recoils in the CDMS II Dark Matter Search

    SciTech Connect

    Fallows, Scott Mathew

    2014-12-01

    The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) experiment is designed to directly detect elastic scatters of weakly-interacting massive dark matter particles (WIMPs), on target nuclei in semiconductor crystals composed of Si and Ge. These scatters would occur very rarely, in an overwhelming background composed primarily of electron recoils from photons and electrons, as well as a smaller but non-negligible background of WIMP-like nuclear recoils from neutrons. The CDMS II generation of detectors simultaneously measure ionization and athermal phonon signals from each scatter, allowing discrimination against virtually all electron recoils in the detector bulk. Pulse-shape timing analysis allows discrimination against nearly all remaining electron recoils taking place near detector surfaces. Along with carefully limited neutron backgrounds, this experimental program allowed for \\background- free" operation of CDMS II at Soudan, with less than one background event expected in each WIMP-search analysis. As a result, exclusionary upper-limits on WIMP-nucleon interaction cross section were placed over a wide range of candidate WIMP masses, ruling out large new regions of parameter space.

  1. SCOPE 28: Environmental consequences of nuclear war. Volume II. Ecological and agricultural effects

    SciTech Connect

    Harwell, M.A.; Hutchinson, T.C.; Cropper, W.P. Jr.; Harwell, C.C.; Grover, H.D.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents papers on the environmental and biological impacts of nuclear weapons. Topics considered include ecological principles relevant to nuclear war, the vulnerability of ecological systems to the climatic effects of nuclear war, additional potential effects of nuclear war on ecological systems, the potential effects of nuclear war on agricultural productivity, food availability after nuclear war, experiences and extrapolations from Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and the integration of effects on human populations.

  2. Analysis of Radionuclide Releases from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident Part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achim, Pascal; Monfort, Marguerite; Le Petit, Gilbert; Gross, Philippe; Douysset, Guilhem; Taffary, Thomas; Blanchard, Xavier; Moulin, Christophe

    2014-03-01

    The present part of the publication (Part II) deals with long range dispersion of radionuclides emitted into the atmosphere during the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident that occurred after the March 11, 2011 tsunami. The first part (Part I) is dedicated to the accident features relying on radionuclide detections performed by monitoring stations of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization network. In this study, the emissions of the three fission products Cs-137, I-131 and Xe-133 are investigated. Regarding Xe-133, the total release is estimated to be of the order of 6 × 1018 Bq emitted during the explosions of units 1, 2 and 3. The total source term estimated gives a fraction of core inventory of about 8 × 1018 Bq at the time of reactors shutdown. This result suggests that at least 80 % of the core inventory has been released into the atmosphere and indicates a broad meltdown of reactor cores. Total atmospheric releases of Cs-137 and I-131 aerosols are estimated to be 1016 and 1017 Bq, respectively. By neglecting gas/particulate conversion phenomena, the total release of I-131 (gas + aerosol) could be estimated to be 4 × 1017 Bq. Atmospheric transport simulations suggest that the main air emissions have occurred during the events of March 14, 2011 (UTC) and that no major release occurred after March 23. The radioactivity emitted into the atmosphere could represent 10 % of the Chernobyl accident releases for I-131 and Cs-137.

  3. Nuclear heating, radiation damage, and waste management options for the HYLIFE-II final focus magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Latkowski, J F; Moir, R W; House, P A

    1999-08-09

    Heavy-ion fusion (HIF) designs for inertial fusion energy (XFE) power plants typically require final focusing magnets just outside the reaction chamber and blanket. Due to penetrations within the chamber and blanket, the magnets are exposed to a radiation environment. Although the magnet bores would be sized to avoid line-of-sight irradiation, the magnets still would be susceptible to nuclear heating and radiation damage from neutrons and y-rays. Additionally, the magnets must be included in waste management considerations due to neutron activation. Modified versions of the HYLIFE-II IFE power plant featuring two-sided illumination by arrays of 32 or 96 beams from each side are presented. A simple, point-of-departure quadrupole magnet design is assumed, and a three-dimensional neutronics model is created for the Flibe pocket, first wall, blanket, shield, and final two focusing magnets. This work details state-of-the-art neutronics calculations and shows that the final focus system needs to be included in the economic and environmental considerations for the driver-chamber interface of any HIF IFE power plant design.

  4. MAP kinase-signaling controls nuclear translocation of tripeptidyl-peptidase II in response to DNA damage and oxidative stress

    SciTech Connect

    Preta, Giulio; Klark, Rainier de; Chakraborti, Shankhamala; Glas, Rickard

    2010-08-27

    Research highlights: {yields} Nuclear translocation of TPPII occurs in response to different DNA damage inducers. {yields} Nuclear accumulation of TPPII is linked to ROS and anti-oxidant enzyme levels. {yields} MAPKs control nuclear accumulation of TPPII. {yields} Inhibited nuclear accumulation of TPPII decreases DNA damage-induced {gamma}-H2AX expression. -- Abstract: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are a continuous hazard in eukaroytic cells by their ability to cause damage to biomolecules, in particular to DNA. Previous data indicated that the cytosolic serine peptidase tripeptidyl-peptidase II (TPPII) translocates into the nucleus of most tumor cell lines in response to {gamma}-irradiation and ROS production; an event that promoted p53 expression as well as caspase-activation. We here observed that nuclear translocation of TPPII was dependent on signaling by MAP kinases, including p38MAPK. Further, this was caused by several types of DNA-damaging drugs, a DNA cross-linker (cisplatinum), an inhibitor of topoisomerase II (etoposide), and to some extent also by nucleoside-analogues (5-fluorouracil, hydroxyurea). In the minority of tumor cell lines where TPPII was not translocated into the nucleus in response to DNA damage we observed reduced intracellular ROS levels, and the expression levels of redox defense systems were increased. Further, treatment with the ROS-inducer {gamma}-hexa-chloro-cyclohexane ({gamma}-HCH, lindane), an inhibitor of GAP junctions, restored nuclear translocation of TPPII in these cell lines upon {gamma}-irradiation. Moreover, blocking nuclear translocation of TPPII in etoposide-treated cells, by using a peptide-derived inhibitor (Z-Gly-Leu-Ala-OH), attenuated expression of {gamma}-H2AX in {gamma}-irradiated melanoma cells. Our results indicated a role for TPPII in MAPK-dependent DNA damage signaling.

  5. INFORMATION: Inspection Report on "Removal of Categories I and II Special Nuclear Material from Sandia National Laboratories-New Mexico"

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Sandia National Laboratories-New Mexico (Sandia) develops science-based technologies in support of national security in areas such as nuclear weapons, nonproliferation, military technologies, and homeland security. Sandia's primary mission is ensuring that the U.S. nuclear arsenal is safe, secure, and reliable and can fully support the Nation's deterrence policy. Part of this mission includes systems engineering of nuclear weapons; research, design, and development of non-nuclear components; manufacturing of non-nuclear weapons components; the provision of safety, security, and reliability assessments of stockpile weapons; and the conduct of high-explosives research and development and environmental testing. Sandia Corporation, a subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, operates Sandia for the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). On May 7, 2004, the Secretary announced that the Department would evaluate missions at DOE sites to consolidate Special Nuclear Material (SNM) in the most secure environments possible. The Administrator of the NNSA said that this effort was a key part of an overall plan to transform the nuclear weapons complex into a smaller, safer, more secure, and more efficient national security enterprise. In February 2008, Sandia was the first site to report it had reduced its on-site inventory of nuclear material below 'Categories I and II' levels, which require the highest level of security to protect material such as plutonium and highly enriched uranium. The Office of Inspector General initiated an inspection to determine if Sandia made appropriate adjustments to its security posture in response to the removal of the Categories I and II SNM. We found that Sandia adjusted its security posture in response to the removal of Categories I and II SNM. For example, security posts were closed; unneeded protective force weapons and equipment were excessed from the site; and, Sandia's Site Safeguards and

  6. Alternative gene expression in type I and type II cells may enable further nuclear changes during conjugation of Blepharisma japonicum.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Mayumi; Tanaka, Yuri; Suzaki, Toshinobu; Harumoto, Terue

    2012-03-01

    In contrast to most ciliates, meiosis and successive nuclear changes during conjugation occur only in heterotypic pairs in Blepharisma. It has been suggested that homotypic pairs are ready for conjugation, but lack a trigger to initiate the nuclear changes, and the conjugation process is arrested before the onset of meiosis. To explore the possible nature of the trigger, we previously identified the genes BjCdk1 (homologous to cdk1/cdc2), Bj4HPPD (4-hydroxy-phenylpyruvate dioxygenase) and BjCks (cyclin dependent kinase regulatory subunit) whose expression is up-regulated in gamone1-treated type II cells. In this study, we investigated the molecular structures of these three genes, and compared their expression patterns in homotypic and heterotypic pairs, finding remarkable differences. BjCdk1, Bj4HPPD and BjCks were expressed specifically in gamone1-treated type II cells, but not in gamone2-treated type I cells. In heterotypic pairs, the expression of these genes stayed at the same level or gradually decreased throughout the entire process of conjugation, but it rapidly decreased and ceased after 10hours in homotypic pairs. These results indicate that some genes are expressed in a mating-type specific manner. Alternative gene expression in mating type I and type II cells and merging of individual factors in a heterotypic pair may induce nuclear changes including meiosis.

  7. Assessment of RELAP5/MOD2 against a main feedwater turbopump trip transient in the Vandellos II Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Llopis, C.; Casals, A.; Perez, J.; Mendizabal, R.

    1993-12-01

    The Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear (CSN) and the Asociacion Nuclear Vandellos (ANV) have developed a model of Vandellos II Nuclear Power Plant. The ANV collaboration consisted in the supply of design and actual data, the cooperation in the simulation of the control systems and other model components, as well as in the results analysis. The obtained model has been assessed against the following transients occurred in plant: A trip from the 100% power level (CSN); a load rejection from 100% to 50% (CSN); a load rejection from 75% to 65% (ANV); and, a feedwater turbopump trip (ANV). This copy is a report of the feedwater turbopump trip transient simulation. This transient actually occurred in the plant on June 19, 1989.

  8. Integrated nuclear and conventional theater warfare simulation (INWARS) documentation. Part IV. User's manual component. Volume II. Combat interactions input. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Aldrich, J.R.; Gilmer, J.B.

    1980-02-08

    This is Volume II of the User's Manual Component of the Integrated Nuclear and Conventional Theater Warfare Simulation (INWARS) documentation. It presents the content and format of user inputs to the INWARS treatment of combat interactions.

  9. Anti-immunoglobulin M activates nuclear calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II in human B lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    We and others have previously shown that the nuclear protein, Ets-1, is phosphorylated in a calcium-dependent manner after ligation of immunoglobulin (Ig) M on B lymphocytes. As this phosphorylation was independent of protein kinase C activity, we tested whether a calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaM kinase) might phosphorylate the Ets-1 protein after elevation of intracellular free calcium concentrations. The dephosphorylated form of Ets-1 has been shown to bind to chromatin, suggesting that the operative kinase should be detectable in the nucleus. We prepared nuclear extracts from two human B cell lines in which increased intracellular free calcium levels correlated with increased phosphorylation of the Ets-1 protein. Activity of the CaM kinases was determined using a synthetic peptide substrate both in the absence and presence of an inhibitor specific for the CaM kinase family, KN-62. Stimulation of cells with anti-IgM led to increased activity of a nuclear kinase that could phosphorylate the peptide, and this activity was reduced by 10 microM KN-62. Kinase activity was reduced in lysates preadsorbed using an antibody specific for CaM kinase II. Two-dimensional phosphopeptide maps of the Ets-1 protein from cells incubated with ionomycin or anti-IgM contained two unique phosphopeptides that were absent in untreated cells. Incubation of isolated Ets-1 protein with purified CaM kinase II produced phosphorylation of peptides that migrated identically to those found in cells incubated with either anti-IgM or ionomycin. These data suggest a model of signal transduction by the antigen receptor on B lymphocytes in which increased intracellular free calcium can rapidly activate nuclear CaM kinase II, potentially resulting in phosphorylation and regulation of DNA-binding proteins. PMID:7500040

  10. Analysis of TOPAZ II and SPACE-R space nuclear power plants using a modified thermionic model

    SciTech Connect

    Habedank, O.D.

    1993-03-01

    Models based on the TDS thermionic diode model were developed for the TOPAZ II and SPACE-R nuclear power systems. Due to computer code limitations inherent in the TDS model, only the TOPAZ II system model ran successfully. Several parameter studies were conducted on the TOPAZ II model. These studies determined system performance and efficiency while varying the following: (1) the coolant flow inlet temperatures; (2) the rate of coolant temperature change; (3) the power profile of the core; and (4) the cesium reservoir temperature. Analysis of the results indicate that the model accurately represented the TOPAZ II system, underestimating published data by 10%. Coolant flow parameter studies indicate that raising coolant flow temperatures up to 100 K higher increases system power by put to 5%. Additional increases in temperature result in gradual performance degradation. Varying the axial power profile of the core from the actual peaked profile to a flat profile results in a negligible 0.3% change in total system performance. The peaked profile used in TOPAZ II produces the highest system efficiency of all the profiles modeled. The cesium pressure study indicates that the system is operating above optimum cesium pressure and that system performance is strongly dependent on cesium pressure. Increasing cesium reservoir temperature above design temperature by 30 K decreases system efficiency by 30%.

  11. Comparison of codes and neutron IC data used in US and Russia for the Topaz-II nuclear reactor assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Glushkov, Y.S.; Ponomarev-Stepnoi, N.N.; Kompanietz, G.V.; Gomin, Y.A.; Maiorov, L.V.; Lobynstev, V.A.; Polyakov, D.N.; Sapir, J.; Streetman, J.R.

    1993-11-01

    Topaz-II is a heterogeneous, epithermal reactor, fueled with highly enriched uranium-dioxide, cooled with NaK, and moderated with zirconium-hydride. The reactor core contains 37 single-cell thermionic fuel elements, and is surrounded by a radial beryllium reflector that contains 12 rotatable control drums with poison segments. For the physics analysis of TOPAZ II it is necessary to use the Monte Carlo method. The United States (US) and Russia used two different Monte Carlo codes, namely MCNP and MCU-2, respectively. The work described in this paper was aimed at comparing the codes and neutronic data used in the US and Russia for verification of Topaz-II nuclear safety. For this purpose, the US and Russia developed a joint benchmark model of the Topaz-II reactor. The American and Russian teams performed independent computations for a series of variants representing potential water immersion accidents. Comparison of the MCNP and MCU-2 codes showed somewhat different results both for the absolute values of k{sub eff} and for reactivity effects. Future calculations will be performed to obtain a detailed understanding of the reasons for such discrepancies. For these analyses it will be necessary for the US and Russian teams to exchange neutronic data on Topaz-II physics calculations.

  12. Rubisco in marine symbiotic dinoflagellates: form II enzymes in eukaryotic oxygenic phototrophs encoded by a nuclear multigene family.

    PubMed

    Rowan, R; Whitney, S M; Fowler, A; Yellowlees, D

    1996-03-01

    Genes encoding ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) were cloned from dinoflagellate symbionts (Symbiodinium spp) of the giant clam Tridacna gigas and characterized. Strikingly, Symbiodinium Rubisco is completely different from other eukaryotic (form I) Rubiscos: it is a form II enzyme that is approximately 65% identical to Rubisco from Rhodospirillum rubrum (Rubisco forms I and II are approximately 25 to 30% identical); it is nuclear encoded by a multigene family; and the predominantly expressed Rubisco is encoded as a precursor polyprotein. One clone appears to contain a predominantly expressed Rubisco locus (rbcA), as determined by RNA gel blot analysis of Symbiodinium RNA and sequencing of purified Rubisco protein. Another contains an enigmatic locus (rbcG) that exhibits an unprecedented pattern of amino acid replacement but does not appear to be a pseudogene. The expression of rbcG has not been analyzed; it was detected only in the minor of two taxa of Symbiodinium that occur together in T. gigas. This study confirms and describes a previously unrecognized branch of Rubisco's evolution: a eukaryotic form II enzyme that participates in oxygenic photosynthesis and is encoded by a diverse, nuclear multigene family.

  13. A serine/arginine-rich nuclear matrix cyclophilin interacts with the C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II.

    PubMed Central

    Bourquin, J P; Stagljar, I; Meier, P; Moosmann, P; Silke, J; Baechi, T; Georgiev, O; Schaffner, W

    1997-01-01

    The largest subunit of RNA polymerase II shows a striking difference in the degree of phosphorylation, depending on its functional state: initiating and elongating polymerases are unphosphorylated and highly phosphorylated respectively. Phosphorylation mostly occurs at the C-terminal domain (CTD), which consists of a repetitive heptapeptide structure. Using the yeast two-hybrid system, we have selected for mammalian proteins that interact with the phosphorylated CTD of mammalian RNA polymerase II. A prominent isolate, designated SRcyp/CASP10, specifically interacts with the CTD not only in vivo but also in vitro . It contains a serine/arginine-rich (SR) domain, similar to that found in the SR protein family of pre-mRNA splicing factors, which is required for interaction with the CTD. Most remarkably, the N-terminal region of SRcyp includes a peptidyl-prolyl cis - trans isomerase domain characteristic of immunophilins/cyclophilins (Cyp), a protein family implicated in protein folding, assembly and transport. SRcyp is a nuclear protein with a characteristic distribution in large irregularly shaped nuclear speckles and co-localizes perfectly with the SR domain-containing splicing factor SC35. Recent independent investigations have provided complementary data, such as an association of the phosphorylated form of RNA polymerase II with the nuclear speckles, impaired splicing in a CTD deletion background and inhibition of in vitro splicing by CTD peptides. Taken together, these data indicate that factors directly or indirectly involved in splicing are associated with the elongating RNA polymerases, from where they might translocate to the nascent transcripts to ensure efficient splicing, concomitant with transcription. PMID:9153302

  14. (14)C, delta(13)C and total C content in soils around a Brazilian PWR nuclear power plant.

    PubMed

    Dias, Cíntia Melazo; Telles, Everaldo C; Santos, Roberto Ventura; Stenström, Kristina; Nícoli, Iêda Gomes; da Silveira Corrêa, Rosangela; Skog, Göran

    2009-04-01

    Nuclear power plants release (14)C during routine operation mainly as airborne gaseous effluents. Because of the long half-life (5730 years) and biological importance of this radionuclide (it is incorporated in plant tissue by photosynthesis), several countries have monitoring programs in order to quantify and control these emissions. This paper compares the activity of (14)C in soils taken within 1km from a Brazilian nuclear power plant with soils taken within a reference area located 50km away from the reactor site. Analyses of total carbon, delta(13)C and (137)Cs were also performed in order to understand the local soil dynamics. Except for one of the profiles, the isotopic composition of soil organic carbon reflected the actual forest vegetation present in both areas. The (137)Cs data show that the soils from the base of hills are probably allocthonous. The (14)C measurements showed that there is no accumulation due to the operation of the nuclear facility, although excess (14)C was found in the litter taken in the area close to power plant. This indicates that the anthropogenic signal observed in the litter fall has not been transferred yet to the soil. This study is part of an extensive research programme in which other samples including air, vegetation and gaseous effluents (taken in the vent stack of the Brazilian nuclear power reactors Angra I and II) were also analyzed. The present paper aimed to evaluate how (14)C emissions from the nuclear power plant are transferred and stored by soils present in the surroundings of the reactor site. This is the first study concerning anthropogenic (14)C in soils in Brazil.

  15. Cleavage of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor and nuclear accumulation of the cytoplasmic carboxy-terminal fragment.

    PubMed

    Cook, Julia L; Mills, Sarah J; Naquin, Ryan T; Alam, Jawed; Re, Richard N

    2007-04-01

    Our published studies show that the distribution of the ANG II type 1 (AT(1)) receptor (AT(1)R), expressed as a enhanced yellow fluorescent fusion (YFP) protein (AT(1)R/EYFP), is altered upon cellular treatment with ANG II or coexpression with intracellular ANG II. AT(1)R accumulates in nuclei of cells only in the presence of ANG II. Several transmembrane receptors are known to accumulate in nuclei, some as holoreceptors and others as cleaved receptor products. The present study was designed to determine whether the AT(1)R is cleaved before nuclear transport. A plasmid encoding a rat AT(1)R labeled at the amino terminus with enhanced cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) and at the carboxy terminus with EYFP was employed. Image analyses of this protein in COS-7 cells, CCF-STTG1 glial cells, and A10 vascular smooth muscle cells show the two fluorescent moieties to be largely spatially colocalized in untreated cells. ANG II treatment, however, leads to a separation of the fluorescent moieties with yellow fluorescence accumulating in more than 30% of cellular nuclei. Immunoblot analyses of extracts and conditioned media from transfected cells indicate that the CFP domain fused to the extracellular amino-terminal AT(1)R domain is cleaved from the membrane and that the YFP domain, together with the intracellular cytoplasmic carboxy terminus of the AT(1)R, is also cleaved from the membrane-bound receptor. The carboxy terminus of the AT(1)R is essential for cleavage; cleavage does not occur in protein deleted with respect to this region. Overexpressed native AT(1)R (nonfusion) is also cleaved; the intracellular 6-kDa cytoplasmic domain product accumulates to a significantly higher level with ANG II treatment.

  16. Analysis of TOPAZ II and SPACE-R space nuclear power plants using a modified thermionic model. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Habedank, O.D.

    1993-03-01

    Models based on the TDS thermionic diode model were developed for TOPAZ II and SPACER nuclear power systems. Several parameter studies were conducted with the TOPAZ II model. These determined system performance and efficiency while varying the following: (1) Coolant flow inlet temperatures. (2) Rate of coolant temperature change. (3) Power profile of the core. (4) Cesium reservoir temperature. Analysis of results indicate the model accurately represented the TOPAZ II system, underestimating published data by 10%. Coolant flow studies indicate that raising coolant temperatures up to 100 K higher increases system power by up to 5%. Additional increases in temperature result in gradual performance degradation. Varying the axial power profile of the core from the actual peaked profile to a flat profile results in a negligible 0.3% change in system performance. The peaked profile used in TOPAZ II produces the highest system efficiency of all the profiles modeled. The cesium pressure study indicates the system is operating above optimum cesium pressure and system performance is strongly dependent on cesium pressure. Increasing cesium reservoir temperature above design temperature by 30 K decreases system efficiency by 30%.

  17. Binding of type II nuclear receptors and estrogen receptor to full and half-site estrogen response elements in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Klinge, C M; Bodenner, D L; Desai, D; Niles, R M; Traish, A M

    1997-01-01

    The mechanism by which retinoids, thyroid hormone (T3) and estrogens modulate the growth of breast cancer cells is unclear. Since nuclear type II nuclear receptors, including retinoic acid receptor (RAR), retinoid X receptor (RXR) and thyroid hormone receptor (TR), bind direct repeats (DR) of the estrogen response elements (ERE) half-site (5'-AGGTCA-3'), we examined the ability of estrogen receptor (ER) versus type II nuclear receptors, i.e. RARalpha, beta and gamma, RXRbeta, TRalpha and TRbeta, to bind various EREs in vitro . ER bound a consensus ERE, containing a perfectly palindromic 17 bp inverted repeat (IR), as a homodimer. In contrast, ER did not bind to a single ERE half-site. Likewise, ER did not bind two tandem (38 bp apart) half-sites, but low ER binding was detected to three tandem copies of the same half-site. RARalpha,beta or gamma bound both ERE and half-site constructs as a homodimer. RXRbeta did not bind full or half-site EREs, nor did RXRbeta enhance RARalpha binding to a full ERE. However, RARalpha and RXRbeta bound a half-site ERE cooperatively forming a dimeric complex. The RARalpha-RXRbeta heterodimer bound the Xenopus vitellogenin B1 estrogen responsive unit, with two non-consensus EREs, with higher affinity than one or two copies of the full or half-site ERE. Both TRalpha and TRbeta bound the full and the half-site ERE as monomers and homodimers and cooperatively as heterodimers with RXRbeta. We suggest that the cellular concentrations of nuclear receptors and their ligands, and the nature of the ERE or half-site sequence and those of its flanking sequences determine the occupation of EREs in estrogen-regulated genes in vivo . PMID:9115356

  18. Nuclear Thermal Rocket Element Environmental Simulator (NTREES) Phase II Upgrade Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emrich, William J.; Moran, Robert P.; Pearson, J. Bose

    2013-01-01

    To support the on-going nuclear thermal propulsion effort, a state-of-the-art non nuclear experimental test setup has been constructed to evaluate the performance characteristics of candidate fuel element materials and geometries in representative environments. The facility to perform this testing is referred to as the Nuclear Thermal Rocket Element Environment Simulator (NTREES). This device can simulate the environmental conditions (minus the radiation) to which nuclear rocket fuel components will be subjected during reactor operation. Test articles mounted in the simulator are inductively heated in such a manner so as to accurately reproduce the temperatures and heat fluxes which would normally occur as a result of nuclear fission and would be exposed to flowing hydrogen. Initial testing of a somewhat prototypical fuel element has been successfully performed in NTREES and the facility has now been shutdown to allow for an extensive reconfiguration of the facility which will result in a significant upgrade in its capabilities. Keywords: Nuclear Thermal Propulsion, Simulator

  19. A nuclear-encoded protein of prokaryotic origin is essential for the stability of photosystem II in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed Central

    Meurer, J; Plücken, H; Kowallik, K V; Westhoff, P

    1998-01-01

    To understand the regulatory mechanisms underlying the biogenesis of photosystem II (PSII) we have characterized the nuclear mutant hcf136 of Arabidopsis thaliana and isolated the affected gene. The mutant is devoid of any photosystem II activity, and none of the nuclear- and plastome-encoded subunits of this photosystem accumulate to significant levels. Protein labelling studies in the presence of cycloheximide showed that the plastome-encoded PSII subunits are synthesized but are not stable. The HCF136 gene was isolated by virtue of its T-DNA tag, and its identity was confirmed by complementation of homozygous hcf136 seedlings. Immunoblot analysis of fractionated chloroplasts showed that the HCF136 protein is a lumenal protein, found only in stromal thylakoid lamellae. The HCF136 protein is produced already in dark-grown seedlings and its levels do not increase dramatically during light-induced greening. This accumulation profile confirms the mutational data by showing that the HCF136 protein must be present when PSII complexes are made. HCF136 homologues are found in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis species PCC6803 (slr2034) and the cyanelle genome of Cyanophora paradoxa (ORF333), but are lacking in the plastomes of chlorophytes and metaphytes as well as from those of rhodo- and chromophytes. We conclude that HCF136 encodes a stability and/or assembly factor of PSII which dates back to the cyanobacterial-like endosymbiont that led to the plastids of the present photosynthetic eukaryotes. PMID:9736608

  20. A role for nuclear translocation of tripeptidyl-peptidase II in reactive oxygen species-dependent DNA damage responses

    SciTech Connect

    Preta, Giulio; Klark, Rainier de; Glas, Rickard

    2009-11-27

    Responses to DNA damage are influenced by cellular metabolism through the continuous production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), of which most are by-products of mitochondrial respiration. ROS have a strong influence on signaling pathways during responses to DNA damage, by relatively unclear mechanisms. Previous reports have shown conflicting data on a possible role for tripeptidyl-peptidase II (TPPII), a large cytosolic peptidase, within the DNA damage response. Here we show that TPPII translocated into the nucleus in a p160-ROCK-dependent fashion in response to {gamma}-irradiation, and that nuclear expression of TPPII was present in most {gamma}-irradiated transformed cell lines. We used a panel of nine cell lines of diverse tissue origin, including four lymphoma cell lines (T, B and Hodgkins lymphoma), a melanoma, a sarcoma, a colon and two breast carcinomas, where seven out of nine cell lines showed nuclear TPPII expression after {gamma}-irradiation. Further, this required cellular production of ROS; treatment with either N-acetyl-Cysteine (anti-oxidant) or Rotenone (inhibitor of mitochondrial respiration) inhibited nuclear accumulation of TPPII. The local density of cells was important for nuclear accumulation of TPPII at early time-points following {gamma}-irradiation (at 1-4 h), indicating a bystander effect. Further, we showed that the peptide-based inhibitor Z-Gly-Leu-Ala-OH, but not its analogue Z-Gly-(D)-Leu-Ala-OH, excluded TPPII from the nucleus. This correlated with reduced nuclear expression of p53 as well as caspase-3 and -9 activation in {gamma}-irradiated lymphoma cells. Our data suggest a role for TPPII in ROS-dependent DNA damage responses, through alteration of its localization from the cytosol into the nucleus.

  1. Nuclear abnormalities in buccal mucosa cells of patients with type I and II diabetes treated with folic acid.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Meda, B C; Zamora-Perez, A L; Muñoz-Magallanes, T; Sánchez-Parada, M G; García Bañuelos, J J; Guerrero-Velázquez, C; Sánchez-Orozco, L V; Vera-Cruz, J M; Armendáriz-Borunda, J; Zúñiga-González, G M

    2016-02-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is characterized by high blood glucose. Excessive production of free radicals may cause oxidative damage to DNA and other molecules, leading to complications of the disease. It may be possible to delay or reduce such damage by administration of antioxidants such as folic acid (FA). The objective of this study was to determine the effect of FA on nuclear abnormalities (NAs) in the oral mucosa of patients with DM. NAs (micronucleated cells, binucleated cells, pyknotic nuclei, karyorrhexis, karyolysis, abnormally condensed chromatin, and nuclear buds) were analyzed in 2000 cells from 45 healthy individuals (control group) and 55 patients with controlled or uncontrolled type I or II DM; 35 patients in the latter group were treated with FA. Samples were taken from the FA group before and after treatment. An increased rate of NAs was found in patients with DM in comparison with that of the control group (P<0.001). FA supplementation in patients with DM reduced the frequency of NAs (20.4 ± 8.0 before treatment vs. 10.5 ± 5.2 after treatment; P<0.001). The type I and type II DM and controlled and uncontrolled DM subgroups were analyzed in terms of sex, age, and smoking habit. The significantly reduced frequencies of buccal mucosa cells with micronuclei, binucleation, pyknosis, karyorrhexis, karyorrhexis+abnormally condensed chromatin, karyolysis, and nuclear buds produced by FA supplementation in DM patients (P<0.02) are consistent with the idea that free radicals are responsible for the increased frequency of NAs in DM patients.

  2. Nuclear abnormalities in buccal mucosa cells of patients with type I and II diabetes treated with folic acid.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Meda, B C; Zamora-Perez, A L; Muñoz-Magallanes, T; Sánchez-Parada, M G; García Bañuelos, J J; Guerrero-Velázquez, C; Sánchez-Orozco, L V; Vera-Cruz, J M; Armendáriz-Borunda, J; Zúñiga-González, G M

    2016-02-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is characterized by high blood glucose. Excessive production of free radicals may cause oxidative damage to DNA and other molecules, leading to complications of the disease. It may be possible to delay or reduce such damage by administration of antioxidants such as folic acid (FA). The objective of this study was to determine the effect of FA on nuclear abnormalities (NAs) in the oral mucosa of patients with DM. NAs (micronucleated cells, binucleated cells, pyknotic nuclei, karyorrhexis, karyolysis, abnormally condensed chromatin, and nuclear buds) were analyzed in 2000 cells from 45 healthy individuals (control group) and 55 patients with controlled or uncontrolled type I or II DM; 35 patients in the latter group were treated with FA. Samples were taken from the FA group before and after treatment. An increased rate of NAs was found in patients with DM in comparison with that of the control group (P<0.001). FA supplementation in patients with DM reduced the frequency of NAs (20.4 ± 8.0 before treatment vs. 10.5 ± 5.2 after treatment; P<0.001). The type I and type II DM and controlled and uncontrolled DM subgroups were analyzed in terms of sex, age, and smoking habit. The significantly reduced frequencies of buccal mucosa cells with micronuclei, binucleation, pyknosis, karyorrhexis, karyorrhexis+abnormally condensed chromatin, karyolysis, and nuclear buds produced by FA supplementation in DM patients (P<0.02) are consistent with the idea that free radicals are responsible for the increased frequency of NAs in DM patients. PMID:26921015

  3. Isolation of plasma and nuclear membranes of thymocytes. II. Biochemical composition

    PubMed Central

    1978-01-01

    Thymocyte plasma and nuclear membranes obtained by the procedure described in the accompanying paper were analyzed for their biochemical composition. Plasma membranes were very rich in phospholipid, cholesterol, sialic aicd; they did not contain nucleic acids. In comparison, nuclear membranes had a lower phospholipid to protein ratio and contained much less sialic acid and cholesterol. 50% of the cellular cholesterol and of the membrane-bound sialic acid were found in the plasma membranes, 14% in the nuclear membranes. Live cells were labeled with 131I, and the acid-insoluble radioactivity was followed in the subfractions. A good correlation with the distribution and enrichment of plasma membrane market-enzymes was obtained. Label enrichment was about 50-fold in the two lightest of the three plasma membrane fractions. 60% of the label was contained in the plasma membranes, only 4% in the nuclear membranes. Cross-contamination of these two types of membranes was thus negligible. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-gel electrophoresis revealed three different patterns specific for, respectively, plasma membranes, the microsomal-mitochondrial fraction, and nuclear membranes. Each pattern was characterized by a set of proteins and glycoproteins, among which high molecular weight glycoproteins could be considered as marker-proteins of, respectively, 280,000, 260,000, and 230,000 daltons. 131I-labeling of live cells tagged with a very high specific activity three glycoproteins of mol wt 280,000, 200,000, and 135,000 daltons. Nuclear membranes prepared from labeled isolated nuclei had a set of labeled proteins completely different from plasma membranes. PMID:307000

  4. Ultra-thin 242mAm fuel elements in nuclear reactors. II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ronen, Y.; Raitses, G.

    2004-04-01

    There is growing interest in using 242mAm as a nuclear fuel for space reactors and nuclear batteries. In this paper, we discuss different 242mAm enrichments, as well as fuel weight requirements, to produce a critical reactor. It was found that relatively low enrichments of 242mAm, about 10 w/o, are enough to guarantee criticality. Such low enrichments might eliminate the need for a 242mAm enrichment process. It was also found that the best results for low 242mAm requirements are obtained with a moderator to fuel volume ratio of 10,000.

  5. Neutron measurements in the Vandellòs II nuclear power plant with a Bonner sphere system.

    PubMed

    Fernández, F; Bakali, M; Tomás, M; Muller, H; Pochat, J L

    2004-01-01

    In some Spanish nuclear power plants of pressurised water reactor (PWR) type, albedo thermoluminescence dosemeters are used for personal dosimetry while survey meters, based on a thermal-neutron detector inside a cylindrical or spherical moderator, are used for dose rate assessment in routine monitoring. The response of both systems is highly dependent on the energy of the existing neutron fields. They are usually calibrated by means of ISO neutron sources with energy distributions quite different from those encountered at these installations. Spectrometric measurements with a Bonner sphere system (BSS) allow us to determine the reference dosimetric values. The UAB group, under request from the National Coordinated Research Action, was in charge of characterising the neutron fields and evaluating the response of personal dosemeters at several measurement points inside the containment building of the Catalan Nuclear Power Plant Vandellòs II. The neutron fields were characterised at five places using the UAB-BSS and a home made unfolding code called MITOM. The results obtained confirm the presence of low-energy components in the neutron field in most of the selected points. Moreover, we have found no influence of the nuclear fuel burning on the shape of the spectrum.

  6. Neutron measurements in the Vandellòs II nuclear power plant with a Bonner sphere system.

    PubMed

    Fernández, F; Bakali, M; Tomás, M; Muller, H; Pochat, J L

    2004-01-01

    In some Spanish nuclear power plants of pressurised water reactor (PWR) type, albedo thermoluminescence dosemeters are used for personal dosimetry while survey meters, based on a thermal-neutron detector inside a cylindrical or spherical moderator, are used for dose rate assessment in routine monitoring. The response of both systems is highly dependent on the energy of the existing neutron fields. They are usually calibrated by means of ISO neutron sources with energy distributions quite different from those encountered at these installations. Spectrometric measurements with a Bonner sphere system (BSS) allow us to determine the reference dosimetric values. The UAB group, under request from the National Coordinated Research Action, was in charge of characterising the neutron fields and evaluating the response of personal dosemeters at several measurement points inside the containment building of the Catalan Nuclear Power Plant Vandellòs II. The neutron fields were characterised at five places using the UAB-BSS and a home made unfolding code called MITOM. The results obtained confirm the presence of low-energy components in the neutron field in most of the selected points. Moreover, we have found no influence of the nuclear fuel burning on the shape of the spectrum. PMID:15353701

  7. Accidental Nuclear War: The Growing Peril. Part I [and] Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newcombe, Alan, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Two volumes designed to increase awareness of accidental nuclear war dangers are presented. The first of 5 sections in volume I proposes that although accidental war is preventable, the current arms race and secrecy about accidents and false alarms increase the possibility of an accidental war. Section 2 posits that decreased decision-making time…

  8. Description of induced nuclear fission with Skyrme energy functionals. II. Finite temperature effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schunck, N.; Duke, D.; Carr, H.

    2015-03-01

    Understanding the mechanisms of induced nuclear fission for a broad range of neutron energies could help resolve fundamental science issues, such as the formation of elements in the universe, but could have also a large impact on societal applications in energy production or nuclear waste management. The goal of this paper is to set up the foundations of a microscopic theory to study the static aspects of induced fission as a function of the excitation energy of the incident neutron, from thermal to fast neutrons. To account for the high excitation energy of the compound nucleus, we employ a statistical approach based on finite temperature nuclear density functional theory with Skyrme energy densities, which we benchmark on the 239Pu(n ,f ) reaction. We compute the evolution of the least-energy fission pathway across multidimensional potential energy surfaces with up to five collective variables as a function of the nuclear temperature and predict the evolution of both the inner and the outer fission barriers as a function of the excitation energy of the compound nucleus. We show that the coupling to the continuum induced by the finite temperature is negligible in the range of neutron energies relevant for many applications of neutron-induced fission. We prove that the concept of quantum localization introduced recently can be extended to T >0 , and we apply the method to study the interaction energy and total kinetic energy of fission fragments as a function of the temperature for the most probable fission. While large uncertainties in theoretical modeling remain, we conclude that a finite temperature nuclear density functional may provide a useful framework to obtain accurate predictions of fission fragment properties.

  9. Investigation of injury/illness data at a nuclear facility. Part II

    DOE PAGES

    Cournoyer, Michael E.; Garcia, Vincent E.; Sandoval, Arnold N.; George, Gerald L.; Gubernatis, David C.; Schreiber, Stephen B.

    2015-07-01

    At Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), there are several nuclear facilities, accelerator facilities, radiological facilities, explosives sites, moderate- and high-hazard non-nuclear facilities, biosciences laboratory, etc. The Plutonium Science and Manufacturing Directorate (ADPSM) provides special nuclear material research, process development, technology demonstration, and manufacturing capabilities. ADPSM manages the LANL Plutonium Facility. Within the Radiological Control Area at TA-55 (PF-4), chemical and metallurgical operations with plutonium and other hazardous materials are performed. LANL Health and Safety Programs investigate injury and illness data. In this study, statistically significant trends have been identified and compared for LANL, ADPSM, and PF-4 injury/illness cases. A previouslymore » described output metric is used to measures LANL management progress towards meeting its operational safety objectives and goals. Timelines are used to determine trends in Injury/Illness types. Pareto Charts are used to prioritize causal factors. The data generated from analysis of Injury/Illness data have helped identify and reduce the number of corresponding causal factors.« less

  10. Investigation of injury/illness data at a nuclear facility. Part II

    SciTech Connect

    Cournoyer, Michael E.; Garcia, Vincent E.; Sandoval, Arnold N.; George, Gerald L.; Gubernatis, David C.; Schreiber, Stephen B.

    2015-07-01

    At Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), there are several nuclear facilities, accelerator facilities, radiological facilities, explosives sites, moderate- and high-hazard non-nuclear facilities, biosciences laboratory, etc. The Plutonium Science and Manufacturing Directorate (ADPSM) provides special nuclear material research, process development, technology demonstration, and manufacturing capabilities. ADPSM manages the LANL Plutonium Facility. Within the Radiological Control Area at TA-55 (PF-4), chemical and metallurgical operations with plutonium and other hazardous materials are performed. LANL Health and Safety Programs investigate injury and illness data. In this study, statistically significant trends have been identified and compared for LANL, ADPSM, and PF-4 injury/illness cases. A previously described output metric is used to measures LANL management progress towards meeting its operational safety objectives and goals. Timelines are used to determine trends in Injury/Illness types. Pareto Charts are used to prioritize causal factors. The data generated from analysis of Injury/Illness data have helped identify and reduce the number of corresponding causal factors.

  11. Genetics of Male Sterility in Gynodioecious Plantago Coronopus. II. Nuclear Genetic Variation

    PubMed Central

    Koelewijn, H. P.; Van-Damme, JMM.

    1995-01-01

    Inheritance of male sterility was studied in the gynodioecious species Plantago coronopus using five plants and their descendants from an area of ~50 m(2) from each of four locations. In each location, crosses between these five plants yielded the entire array of possible sex phenotypes. Both nuclear and cytoplasmic genes were involved. Emphasis is placed on the nuclear (restorer) genetics of two cytoplasmic types. For both types, multiple interacting nuclear genes were demonstrated. These genes carried either dominant or recessive restorer alleles. The exact number of genes involved could not be determined, because different genetic models could be proposed for each location and no common genetic solution could be given. At least five genes, three with dominant and two with recessive restorer allele action, were involved with both cytoplasmic types. Segregation patterns of partially male sterile plants suggested that they are due to incomplete dominance at restorer loci. Restorer genes interact in different ways. In most instances models with independent restorer gene action were sufficient to explain the crossing results. However, for one case we propose a model with epistatic restorer gene action. There was a consistent difference in the segregation of male sterility between plants from the two cytoplasmic types. Hermaphrodites of cytoplasmic type 2 hardly segregated male steriles, in contrast to plants with cytoplasmic type 1. PMID:7789776

  12. Poisson regression analysis of the mortality among a cohort of World War II nuclear industry workers

    SciTech Connect

    Frome, E.L.; Cragle, D.L.; McLain, R.W. )

    1990-08-01

    A historical cohort mortality study was conducted among 28,008 white male employees who had worked for at least 1 month in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, during World War II. The workers were employed at two plants that were producing enriched uranium and a research and development laboratory. Vital status was ascertained through 1980 for 98.1% of the cohort members and death certificates were obtained for 96.8% of the 11,671 decedents. A modified version of the traditional standardized mortality ratio (SMR) analysis was used to compare the cause-specific mortality experience of the World War II workers with the U.S. white male population. An SMR and a trend statistic were computed for each cause-of-death category for the 30-year interval from 1950 to 1980. The SMR for all causes was 1.11, and there was a significant upward trend of 0.74% per year. The excess mortality was primarily due to lung cancer and diseases of the respiratory system. Poisson regression methods were used to evaluate the influence of duration of employment, facility of employment, socioeconomic status, birth year, period of follow-up, and radiation exposure on cause-specific mortality. Maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters in a main-effects model were obtained to describe the joint effects of these six factors on cause-specific mortality of the World War II workers. We show that these multivariate regression techniques provide a useful extension of conventional SMR analysis and illustrate their effective use in a large occupational cohort study.

  13. Theory and Implementation of Nuclear Safety System Codes - Part II: System Code Closure Relations, Validation, and Limitations

    SciTech Connect

    Glenn A Roth; Fatih Aydogan

    2014-09-01

    This is Part II of two articles describing the details of thermal-hydraulic sys- tem codes. In this second part of the article series, the system code closure relationships (used to model thermal and mechanical non-equilibrium and the coupling of the phases) for the governing equations are discussed and evaluated. These include several thermal and hydraulic models, such as heat transfer coefficients for various flow regimes, two phase pressure correlations, two phase friction correlations, drag coefficients and interfacial models be- tween the fields. These models are often developed from experimental data. The experiment conditions should be understood to evaluate the efficacy of the closure models. Code verification and validation, including Separate Effects Tests (SETs) and Integral effects tests (IETs) is also assessed. It can be shown from the assessments that the test cases cover a significant section of the system code capabilities, but some of the more advanced reactor designs will push the limits of validation for the codes. Lastly, the limitations of the codes are discussed by considering next generation power plants, such as Small Modular Reactors (SMRs), analyz- ing not only existing nuclear power plants, but also next generation nuclear power plants. The nuclear industry is developing new, innovative reactor designs, such as Small Modular Reactors (SMRs), High-Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors (HTGRs) and others. Sub-types of these reactor designs utilize pebbles, prismatic graphite moderators, helical steam generators, in- novative fuel types, and many other design features that may not be fully analyzed by current system codes. This second part completes the series on the comparison and evaluation of the selected reactor system codes by discussing the closure relations, val- idation and limitations. These two articles indicate areas where the models can be improved to adequately address issues with new reactor design and development.

  14. Electron-Nuclear Double Resonance of a Protein That Contains Copper: Evidence for Nitrogen Coordination to Cu(II) in Stellacyanin

    PubMed Central

    Rist, Günther H.; Hyde, James S.; Vänngård, Tore

    1970-01-01

    Electron-nuclear double resonance has been used to study ligand hyperfine interactions of the copper (II) complex in a frozen solution of the blue protein stellacyanin. It is shown that the copper ion coordinates with at least one nitrogen ligand, and probably more than one, and that the copper ion is in a hydrophobic environment. PMID:16591867

  15. A probabilistic seismic risk assessment procedure for nuclear power plants: (II) Application

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huang, Y.-N.; Whittaker, A.S.; Luco, N.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the procedures and results of intensity- and time-based seismic risk assessments of a sample nuclear power plant (NPP) to demonstrate the risk-assessment methodology proposed in its companion paper. The intensity-based assessments include three sets of sensitivity studies to identify the impact of the following factors on the seismic vulnerability of the sample NPP, namely: (1) the description of fragility curves for primary and secondary components of NPPs, (2) the number of simulations of NPP response required for risk assessment, and (3) the correlation in responses between NPP components. The time-based assessment is performed as a series of intensity-based assessments. The studies illustrate the utility of the response-based fragility curves and the inclusion of the correlation in the responses of NPP components directly in the risk computation. ?? 2011 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. SPATIALLY RESOLVED CHEMISTRY IN NEARBY GALAXIES. II. THE NUCLEAR BAR IN MAFFEI 2

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, David S.; Turner, Jean L. E-mail: turner@astro.ucla.edu

    2012-08-20

    We present 2''-10'' imaging of 11 transitions from 9 molecular species across the nuclear bar in Maffei 2. The data were obtained with the BIMA and OVRO interferometers. The 10 detected transitions are compared with existing CO isotopologues, HCN, CS, and millimeter continuum data. Dramatic spatial variations among the mapped species are observed across the nuclear bar. A principal component analysis is performed to characterize correlations between the transitions, star formation, and molecular column density. The analysis reveals that HCN, HNC, HCO{sup +}, and 3 mm continuum are tightly correlated, indicating a direct connection to massive star formation. We find two main morphologically distinct chemical groups, CH{sub 3}OH, SiO, and HNCO comprising the grain chemistry molecules, versus HCN, HNC, HCO{sup +}, and C{sub 2}H, molecules strong in the presence of star formation. The grain chemistry molecules, HNCO, CH{sub 3}OH, and SiO, trace hydrodynamical bar shocks. The near constancy of the HNCO/CH{sub 3}OH, SiO/CH{sub 3}OH, and SiO/HNCO ratios argues that shock properties are uniform across the nucleus. HCN/HCO{sup +}, HCN/HNC, HCN/CS, and HCN/CO ratios are explained primarily by variations in density. High HCO{sup +}/N{sub 2}H{sup +} ratios are correlated with the C{sub 2}H line, suggesting that this ratio may be a powerful new dense photon-dominated region probe in external galaxies. C{sub 2}H reveals a molecular outflow along the minor axis. The morphology and kinematics of the outflow are consistent with an outflow age of 6-7 Myr.

  17. Assessment of RELAP5/MOD2 against a 10% load rejection transient from 75% steady state in the Vandellos II Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Llopis, C.; Casals, A.; Perez, J.; Mendizabal, R.

    1993-05-01

    The Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear (CSN) and the Asociacion Nuclear Vandellos have developed a model of Vandellos II Nuclear Power Plant. The ANV collaboration consisted in the supply of design and actual data, the cooperation in the simulation of the control systems and other model components, as well as in the results analysis. The obtained model has been assessed against the following transients occurred in plant: A trip from the 100% power level (CSN); A load rejection from 100% to 50% (CSN); A load rejection from 75% to 65% (ANV); A feedwater turbopump trip (ANV). This copy is a report of the load rejection from 75% to 65% transient simulation. This transient was one of the tests carried out in Vandellos II NPP during the startup tests.

  18. Tripeptidyl Peptidase II Mediates Levels of Nuclear Phosphorylated ERK1 and ERK2*

    PubMed Central

    Wiemhoefer, Anne; Stargardt, Anita; van der Linden, Wouter A.; Renner, Maria C.; van Kesteren, Ronald E.; Stap, Jan; Raspe, Marcel A.; Tomkinson, Birgitta; Kessels, Helmut W.; Ovaa, Huib; Overkleeft, Herman S.; Florea, Bogdan; Reits, Eric A.

    2015-01-01

    Tripeptidyl peptidase II (TPP2) is a serine peptidase involved in various biological processes, including antigen processing, cell growth, DNA repair, and neuropeptide mediated signaling. The underlying mechanisms of how a peptidase can influence this multitude of processes still remain unknown. We identified rapid proteomic changes in neuroblastoma cells following selective TPP2 inhibition using the known reversible inhibitor butabindide, as well as a new, more potent, and irreversible peptide phosphonate inhibitor. Our data show that TPP2 inhibition indirectly but rapidly decreases the levels of active, di-phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 (ERK1) and ERK2 in the nucleus, thereby down-regulating signal transduction downstream of growth factors and mitogenic stimuli. We conclude that TPP2 mediates many important cellular functions by controlling ERK1 and ERK2 phosphorylation. For instance, we show that TPP2 inhibition of neurons in the hippocampus leads to an excessive strengthening of synapses, indicating that TPP2 activity is crucial for normal brain function. PMID:26041847

  19. Natural selection with nuclear and cytoplasmic transmission. II. Tests with Drosophila from diverse populations.

    PubMed

    Clark, A G

    1985-09-01

    Observations of intraspecific variation in organelle DNA have prompted a renewed interest in the evolutionary consequences of cytoplasmically transmitted factors. Attempts to quantify the significance of cytoplasmic effects are frequently limited by the difficulty in partitioning the cause of reciprocal cross differences among a series of possibilities. In the experiment reported here the nuclear genomes of a set of six lines of Drosophila melanogaster from diverse geographic locations were replaced in a series of cytoplasms. The segregation of the SM5 balancer chromosome was scored in a factorial design, and the data allowed a partitioning of variance such that cytoplasmic effects were distinguished from maternal effects and meiotic drive. An attempt was made to avoid the confounding problem of hybrid dysgenesis by performing the entire experiment (including chromosomal extractions) in a P cytotype. Results indicated a significant contribution of cytoplasm to the variance in SM5 segregation. Error variance showed an increasing trend as the experiment proceeded, and additional tests indicated that this was due to an accumulation of chromosomal mutations. These findings are interpreted in light of the population genetic theory that addresses the maintenance of cytoplasmic polymorphism.

  20. Parallel Algorithms and Software for Nuclear, Energy, and Environmental Applications. Part II: Multiphysics Software

    SciTech Connect

    Derek Gaston; Luanjing Guo; Glen Hansen; Hai Huang; Richard Johnson; Dana Knoll; Chris Newman; Hyeong Kae Park; Robert Podgorney; Michael Tonks; Richard Williamson

    2012-09-01

    This paper is the second part of a two part sequence on multiphysics algorithms and software. The first [1] focused on the algorithms; this part treats the multiphysics software framework and applications based on it. Tight coupling is typically designed into the analysis application at inception, as such an application is strongly tied to a composite nonlinear solver that arrives at the final solution by treating all equations simultaneously. The application must also take care to minimize both time and space error between the physics, particularly if more than one mesh representation is needed in the solution process. This paper presents an application framework that was specifically designed to support tightly coupled multiphysics analysis. The Multiphysics Object Oriented Simulation Environment (MOOSE) is based on the Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov (JFNK) method combined with physics-based preconditioning to provide the underlying mathematical structure for applications. The report concludes with the presentation of a host of nuclear, energy, and environmental applications that demonstrate the efficacy of the approach and the utility of a well-designed multiphysics framework.

  1. Design of sample carrier for neutron irradiation facility at TRIGA MARK II nuclear reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Y.; Hamid, N. A.; Mansor, M. A.; Ahmad, M. H. A. R. M.; Yusof, M. R.; Yazid, H.; Mohamed, A. A.

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this work is to design a sample carrier for neutron irradiation experiment at beam ports of research nuclear reactor, the Reaktor TRIGA PUSPATI (RTP). The sample carrier was designed so that irradiation experiment can be performed safely by researchers. This development will resolve the transferring of sample issues faced by the researchers at the facility when performing neutron irradiation studies. The function of sample carrier is to ensure the sample for the irradiation process can be transferred into and out from the beam port of the reactor safely and effectively. The design model used was House of Quality Method (HOQ) which is usually used for developing specifications for product and develop numerical target to work towards and determining how well we can meet up to the needs. The chosen sample carrier (product) consists of cylindrical casing shape with hydraulic cylinders transportation method. The sample placing can be done manually, locomotion was by wheel while shielding used was made of boron materials. The sample carrier design can shield thermal neutron during irradiation of sample so that only low fluencies fast neutron irradiates the sample.

  2. TRIGA Mark II nuclear reactor facility. Final report, 1 July 1980--30 June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, B.C.

    1997-05-01

    This report is a final culmination of activities funded through the Department of Energy`s (DOE) University Reactor Sharing Program, Grant DE-FG02-80ER10273, during the period 1 July 1980 through 30 June 1995. Progress reports have been periodically issued to the DOE, namely the Reactor Facility Annual Reports C00-2082/2219-7 through C00-2082/10723-21, which are contained as an appendix to this report. Due to the extent of time covered by this grant, summary tables are presented. Table 1 lists the fiscal year financial obligations of the grant. As listed in the original grant proposals, the DOE grant financed 70% of project costs, namely the total amount spent of these projects minus materials costs and technical support. Thus the bulk of funds was spent directly on reactor operations. With the exception of a few years, spending was in excess of the grant amount. As shown in Tables 2 and 3, the Reactor Sharing grant funded a immense number of research projects in nuclear engineering, geology, animal science, chemistry, anthropology, veterinary medicine, and many other fields. A list of these users is provided. Out of the average 3000 visitors per year, some groups participated in classes involving the reactor such as Boy Scout Merit Badge classes, teacher`s workshops, and summer internships. A large number of these projects met the requirements for the Reactor Sharing grant, but were funded by the University instead.

  3. Dynamics of asymmetric binary glass formers. II. Results from nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Bock, D.; Kahlau, R.; Pötzschner, B.; Körber, T.; Wagner, E.; Rössler, E. A.

    2014-03-07

    Various {sup 2}H and {sup 31}P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy techniques are applied to probe the component dynamics of the binary glass former tripropyl phosphate (TPP)/polystyrene-d{sub 3} (PS) over the full concentration range. The results are quantitatively compared to those of a dielectric spectroscopy (DS) study on the same system previously published [R. Kahlau, D. Bock, B. Schmidtke, and E. A. Rössler, J. Chem. Phys. 140, 044509 (2014)]. While the PS dynamics does not significantly change in the mixtures compared to that of neat PS, two fractions of TPP molecules are identified, one joining the glass transition of PS in the mixture (α{sub 1}-process), the second reorienting isotropically (α{sub 2}-process) even in the rigid matrix of PS, although at low concentration resembling a secondary process regarding its manifestation in the DS spectra. Pronounced dynamical heterogeneities are found for the TPP α{sub 2}-process, showing up in extremely stretched, quasi-logarithmic stimulated echo decays. While the time window of NMR is insufficient for recording the full correlation functions, DS results, covering a larger dynamical range, provide a satisfactory interpolation of the NMR data. Two-dimensional {sup 31}P NMR spectra prove exchange within the broadly distributed α{sub 2}-process. As demonstrated by {sup 2}H NMR, the PS matrix reflects the faster α{sub 2}-process of TPP by performing a spatially highly hindered motion on the same timescale.

  4. Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of a labeled peptide bound to a class II major histocompatibility complex molecule.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, P C; Altman, J D; Boniface, J J; Sakaguchi, K; Reay, P A; Omichinski, J G; Appella, E; Davis, M M

    1993-07-20

    The formation of peptide/major histocompatibility complex (MHC) complexes and their subsequent recognition by T cells is a pivotal event in the initiation of an immune response. While X-ray crystal structures are now available for class I MHC/peptide complexes, little detailed structural information is known about the class II MHC equivalent, and there are no solution structure data for either. A 16 amino acid residue moth cytochrome c peptide (residues 88 to 103) was 13C-labeled for two-dimensional isotope-edited NMR analysis. The peptide was labeled either selectively in the methyl groups of alanine residues or uniformly at every carbon position, and bound to unlabeled soluble mouse I-Ek class II MHC molecules. Although alpha-helical in the native cytochrome c protein and with no uniform structure in solution, the peptide is bound to the I-Ek molecule with the alpha-carbon atoms of the 11 C-terminal residues held in the binding groove. This indicates that the class II MHC peptide binding site is somewhat larger than that of class I MHC molecules (> or = 11 amino acid residues versus 8 to 10 amino acid residues), consistent with recent data on eluted peptides. Despite the large size of the complex (approximately 70 kDa), nuclear Overhauser effects are clearly detectable between peptide side-chains and the MHC molecule. Indications of the buried or exposed nature of particular side-chains within the bound peptide are derived from the NMR data and these are used together with information from previous biological studies to propose a crude model of the interaction of the peptide with the groove of the MHC molecule. We find no evidence for a conformational change in the peptide/MHC complex in the spectra at pH 5.0 versus pH 7.0, despite a 40-fold faster on-rate for the peptide at the lower pH value. PMID:8393933

  5. Tetramethylpyrazine inhibits agiontensin II-induced nuclear factor-kappaB activation and bone morphogenetic protein-2 downregulation in rat vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xin-Yu; Ruan, Qiu-Rong; Zhu, Da-He; Zhu, Min; Qu, Zhi-Ling; Lu, Jun

    2007-06-25

    Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP), an effective component of traditional Chinese medicine Chuanxiong, is commonly used to resolve embolism. Its possible therapeutic effect against atherosclerosis has received considerable attention recently. Angiotensin II (Ang II) is highly implicated in the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), resulting in atherosclerosis. The mechanisms of TMP in the proliferation of VSMCs induced by Ang II remain to be defined. The present study was aimed to study the effect of TMP on Ang II-induced VSMC proliferation through detection of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activity and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) expression. Primary cultured rat aortic smooth muscle cells were divided into the control group, Ang II group, Ang II + TMP group and TMP group. Cells in each group were harvested at different time points (15, 30 and 60 min for detection of NF-kappaB activity; 6, 12 and 24 h for measurement of BMP-2 expression). NF-kappaB activation was identified as nuclear staining by immunohistochemistry. BMP-2 expression was observed through Western blot, immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. The results showed that: (1) Ang II stimulated the activation of NF-kappaB. Translocation of NF-kappaB p65 subunit from cytoplasm to nucleus appeared as early as 15 min, peaked at 30 min (P<0.01) and declined after 1 h. (2) TMP inhibited Ang II-induced NF-kappaB activation (P<0.01). (3) Ang II increased BMP-2 expression at 6 h but declined it significantly at 12 and 24 h (P<0.01). (4) BMP-2 expression was also kept at high level at 6 h in Ang II + TMP group but maintained at the normal level at 12 and 24 h. (5) There was no significant difference in NF-kappaB activation and BMP-2 expression between the control group and TMP group. These results indicate that TMP inhibits Ang II-induced VSMC proliferation through repression of NF-kappaB activation and BMP-2 reduction, and BMP-2 expression is independent of the NF-kappaB pathway. In

  6. Proliferation-associated nuclear antigen Ki-S1 is identical with topoisomerase II alpha. Delineation of a carboxy-terminal epitope with peptide antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Boege, F.; Andersen, A.; Jensen, S.; Zeidler, R.; Kreipe, H.

    1995-01-01

    Proliferation-linked expression of the nuclear Ki-S1 antigen is a significant prognostic indicator in mammary carcinomas. Here, we show staining of a protein of 170 kd by Ki-S1 antibody in immunoblots of Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing human topoisomerase II alpha but not in the parental strain. In HL-60 cells containing both isoforms of human topoisomerase II, Ki-S1 antibody binds selectively to the 170-kd isoenzyme in a similar fashion as peptide-antibodies directed against amino acid residues 1 to 15 or 1512 to 1530 of human topoisomerase II alpha. Conversely, antibodies directed against carboxyl-terminal sequences of human topoisomerase II beta selectively stain a 180-kd protein. The immunoreactive pattern of V8 endoproteinase restriction digests of human topoisomerase II alpha was identical for Ki-S1-antibody and peptide-antibodies directed against residues 1512 to 1530 but different for peptide-antibodies directed against residues 1 to 15. The Rf values of the smallest fragment commonly recognized by Ki-S1 antibody and the carboxy terminus-specific peptide-antibody place the Ki-S1 epitope within the last 495 carboxyl-terminal amino acid residues of topoisomerase II alpha. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:7539979

  7. FINESSE: study of the issues, experiments and facilities for fusion nuclear technology research and development. Interim report. Volume II

    SciTech Connect

    Abdou, M.

    1984-10-01

    The Nuclear Fusion Issues chapter contains a comprehensive list of engineering issues for fusion reactor nuclear components. The list explicitly defines the uncertainties associated with the engineering option of a fusion reactor and addresses the potential consequences resulting from each issue. The next chapter identifies the fusion nuclear technology testing needs up to the engineering demonstration stage. (MOW)

  8. Nanocellulose/nanobentonite composite anchored with multi-carboxyl functional groups as an adsorbent for the effective removal of Cobalt(II) from nuclear industry wastewater samples.

    PubMed

    Anirudhan, T S; Deepa, J R; Christa, J

    2016-04-01

    A novel adsorbent, poly(itaconic acid/methacrylic acid)-grafted-nanocellulose/nanobentonite composite [P(IA/MAA)-g-NC/NB] with multi carboxyl functional groups for the effective removal of Cobalt(II) [Co(II)] from aqueous solutions. The adsorbent was characterized using FTIR, XRD, SEM-EDS, AFM and potentiometric titrations before and after adsorption of Co(II) ions. FTIR spectra revealed that Co(II) adsorption on to the polymer may be due to the involvement of COOH groups. The surface morphological changes were observed by the SEM images. The pH was optimized as 6.0. An adsorbent dose of 2.0g/L found to be sufficient for the complete removal of Co(II) from 100mg/L at room temperature. Pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order models were tested to describe kinetic data and adsorption of Co(II) follows pseudo-second-order model. The equilibrium attained at 120min. Isotherm studies were conducted and data were analyzed using Langmuir, Freundlich and Sips isotherm models and best fit was Sips model. Thermodynamic study confirmed endothermic and physical nature of adsorption of the Co(II) onto the adsorbent. Desorption experiments were done with 0.1MHCl proved that without significant loss in performance adsorbent could be reused for six cycles. The practical efficacy and effectiveness of the adsorbent were tested using nuclear industrial wastewater. A double stage batch adsorption system was designed from the adsorption isotherm data of Co(II) by constructing operating lines. PMID:26844393

  9. Nanocellulose/nanobentonite composite anchored with multi-carboxyl functional groups as an adsorbent for the effective removal of Cobalt(II) from nuclear industry wastewater samples.

    PubMed

    Anirudhan, T S; Deepa, J R; Christa, J

    2016-04-01

    A novel adsorbent, poly(itaconic acid/methacrylic acid)-grafted-nanocellulose/nanobentonite composite [P(IA/MAA)-g-NC/NB] with multi carboxyl functional groups for the effective removal of Cobalt(II) [Co(II)] from aqueous solutions. The adsorbent was characterized using FTIR, XRD, SEM-EDS, AFM and potentiometric titrations before and after adsorption of Co(II) ions. FTIR spectra revealed that Co(II) adsorption on to the polymer may be due to the involvement of COOH groups. The surface morphological changes were observed by the SEM images. The pH was optimized as 6.0. An adsorbent dose of 2.0g/L found to be sufficient for the complete removal of Co(II) from 100mg/L at room temperature. Pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order models were tested to describe kinetic data and adsorption of Co(II) follows pseudo-second-order model. The equilibrium attained at 120min. Isotherm studies were conducted and data were analyzed using Langmuir, Freundlich and Sips isotherm models and best fit was Sips model. Thermodynamic study confirmed endothermic and physical nature of adsorption of the Co(II) onto the adsorbent. Desorption experiments were done with 0.1MHCl proved that without significant loss in performance adsorbent could be reused for six cycles. The practical efficacy and effectiveness of the adsorbent were tested using nuclear industrial wastewater. A double stage batch adsorption system was designed from the adsorption isotherm data of Co(II) by constructing operating lines.

  10. A Conserved Nuclear Cyclophilin Is Required for Both RNA Polymerase II Elongation and Co-transcriptional Splicing in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jeong H; Rechsteiner, Andreas; Strome, Susan; Kelly, William G

    2016-08-01

    The elongation phase of transcription by RNA Polymerase II (Pol II) involves numerous events that are tightly coordinated, including RNA processing, histone modification, and chromatin remodeling. RNA splicing factors are associated with elongating Pol II, and the interdependent coupling of splicing and elongation has been documented in several systems. Here we identify a conserved, multi-domain cyclophilin family member, SIG-7, as an essential factor for both normal transcription elongation and co-transcriptional splicing. In embryos depleted for SIG-7, RNA levels for over a thousand zygotically expressed genes are substantially reduced, Pol II becomes significantly reduced at the 3' end of genes, marks of transcription elongation are reduced, and unspliced mRNAs accumulate. Our findings suggest that SIG-7 plays a central role in both Pol II elongation and co-transcriptional splicing and may provide an important link for their coordination and regulation. PMID:27541139

  11. A Conserved Nuclear Cyclophilin Is Required for Both RNA Polymerase II Elongation and Co-transcriptional Splicing in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Jeong H.; Rechsteiner, Andreas; Strome, Susan; Kelly, William G.

    2016-01-01

    The elongation phase of transcription by RNA Polymerase II (Pol II) involves numerous events that are tightly coordinated, including RNA processing, histone modification, and chromatin remodeling. RNA splicing factors are associated with elongating Pol II, and the interdependent coupling of splicing and elongation has been documented in several systems. Here we identify a conserved, multi-domain cyclophilin family member, SIG-7, as an essential factor for both normal transcription elongation and co-transcriptional splicing. In embryos depleted for SIG-7, RNA levels for over a thousand zygotically expressed genes are substantially reduced, Pol II becomes significantly reduced at the 3’ end of genes, marks of transcription elongation are reduced, and unspliced mRNAs accumulate. Our findings suggest that SIG-7 plays a central role in both Pol II elongation and co-transcriptional splicing and may provide an important link for their coordination and regulation. PMID:27541139

  12. Cyclam Derivatives with a Bis(phosphinate) or a Phosphinato-Phosphonate Pendant Arm: Ligands for Fast and Efficient Copper(II) Complexation for Nuclear Medical Applications.

    PubMed

    David, Tomáš; Kubíček, Vojtěch; Gutten, Ondrej; Lubal, Přemysl; Kotek, Jan; Pietzsch, Hans-Jürgen; Rulíšek, Lubomír; Hermann, Petr

    2015-12-21

    Cyclam derivatives bearing one geminal bis(phosphinic acid), -CH2PO2HCH2PO2H2 (H2L(1)), or phosphinic-phosphonic acid, -CH2PO2HCH2PO3H2 (H3L(2)), pendant arm were synthesized and studied as potential copper(II) chelators for nuclear medical applications. The ligands showed good selectivity for copper(II) over zinc(II) and nickel(II) ions (log KCuL = 25.8 and 27.7 for H2L(1) and H3L(2), respectively). Kinetic study revealed an unusual three-step complex formation mechanism. The initial equilibrium step leads to out-of-cage complexes with Cu(2+) bound by the phosphorus-containing pendant arm. These species quickly rearrange to an in-cage complex with cyclam conformation II, which isomerizes to another in-cage complex with cyclam conformation I. The first in-cage complex is quantitatively formed in seconds (pH ≈5, 25 °C, Cu:L = 1:1, cM ≈ 1 mM). At pH >12, I isomers undergo nitrogen atom inversion, leading to III isomers; the structure of the III-[Cu(HL(2))] complex in the solid state was confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. In an alkaline solution, interconversion of the I and III isomers is mutual, leading to the same equilibrium isomeric mixture; such behavior has been observed here for the first time for copper(II) complexes of cyclam derivatives. Quantum-chemical calculations showed small energetic differences between the isomeric complexes of H3L(2) compared with analogous data for isomeric complexes of cyclam derivatives with one or two methylphosphonic acid pendant arm(s). Acid-assisted dissociation proved the kinetic inertness of the complexes. Preliminary radiolabeling of H2L(1) and H3L(2) with (64)Cu was fast and efficient, even at room temperature, giving specific activities of around 70 GBq of (64)Cu per 1 μmol of the ligand (pH 6.2, 10 min, ca. 90 equiv of the ligand). These specific activities were much higher than those of H3nota and H4dota complexes prepared under identical conditions. The rare combination of simple ligand synthesis, very

  13. Analysis of heavy metals from water, sediment, and tissues of Labeo angra (Hamilton, 1822), from an Ox-box lake- an wetland site from Assam, India.

    PubMed

    Das, Suchismita; Choudhury, Shamim Sultana

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the regional impacts of heavy metals (Mn, Fe, Mg, Ca, Cu, Zn, Cd, Cr, Pb and Ni) on water, sediment and a native, teleost fish species, Labeo angra, inhabiting a flood plain wetland of Barak River in Assam, India. Heavy metal concentrations in the water, sediments and fish were measured; bioaccumulation factor, metal pollution index as well as condition indices were calculated, to assess the pollution load and health status of the fish. Multivariate statistical analysis was used on wetland water and sediment heavy metals to ascertain the possible sources and seasonal variations of the pollutants. Results showed that most heavy metals in the wetland water and sediments exceeded the water (drinking and irrigation) and sediment quality guidelines, respectively. Seasonal variations were observed for geogenic heavy metals, Mn, Fe, Mg and Ca while no seasonal variations were observed for anthropogenic heavy metals, Cu, Cd, Cr, Pb and Ni. Multivariate statistical analysis showed that there was strong correlation between geogenic and anthropogenic heavy metals in water and sediment, both originating from the common anthropogenic sources. Accumulation of most of the metals in all the tissues was above the safe limits as recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization. High bioaccumulation factors and metal pollution index for these metals in the different tissues revealed that metals were extensively bio-accumulated and bioconcentrated. Condition indices in fish from the wetland suggested metabolic abnormalities. PMID:26422176

  14. ASPECTS OF THE ECOLOGY OF PHLEBOTOMINES (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) IN AN AREA OF CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS OCCURRENCE, MUNICIPALITY OF ANGRA DOS REIS, COAST OF RIO DE JANEIRO STATE, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    de Aguiar, Gustavo Marins; de Azevedo, Alfredo Carlos Rodrigues; de Medeiros, Wagner Muniz; Alves, João Ricardo Carreira; Rendeiro, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    Over a complete two-year period, phlebotomine specimens were caught in an area of cutaneous leishmaniasis occurrence in the municipality of Angra dos Reis. A manual suction tube was used to catch phlebotomines on house walls, and also light traps in domestic and peridomestic settings and in the forest. This yielded 14,170 specimens of 13 species: two in the genus Brumptomyia and eleven in the genus Lutzomyia. L. intermedia predominantly in domestic and peridomestic settings, with little presence in the forest, with the same trend being found in relation to L. migonei, thus proving that these species have adapted to the human environment. L. fischeri appeared to be eclectic regarding location, but was seen to be proportionally more endophilic. L. intermedia and L. migonei were more numerous in peridomestic settings, throughout the year, while L. fischeri was more numerous in domestic settings except in March, April, May and September. From the prevalence of L. intermedia, its proven anthropophily and findings of this species naturally infected with Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, it can be incriminated as the main vector for this agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the study area, especially in the peridomestic environment. L. fischeri may be a coadjuvant in carrying the parasite. PMID:24626417

  15. Aspects of the ecology of phlebotomines (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in an area of cutaneous leishmaniasis occurrence, municipality of Angra dos Reis, coast of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, Gustavo Marins de; de Azevedo, Alfredo Carlos Rodrigues; Medeiros, Wagner Muniz de; Alves, João Ricardo Carreira; Rendeiro, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    Over a complete two-year period, phlebotomine specimens were caught in an area of cutaneous leishmaniasis occurrence in the municipality of Angra dos Reis. A manual suction tube was used to catch phlebotomines on house walls, and also light traps in domestic and peridomestic settings and in the forest. This yielded 14,170 specimens of 13 species: two in the genus Brumptomyia and eleven in the genus Lutzomyia. L. intermedia predominantly in domestic and peridomestic settings, with little presence in the forest, with the same trend being found in relation to L. migonei, thus proving that these species have adapted to the human environment. L. fischeri appeared to be eclectic regarding location, but was seen to be proportionally more endophilic. L. intermedia and L. migonei were more numerous in peridomestic settings, throughout the year, while L. fischeri was more numerous in domestic settings except in March, April, May and September. From the prevalence of L. intermedia, its proven anthropophily and findings of this species naturally infected with Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, it can be incriminated as the main vector for this agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the study area, especially in the peridomestic environment. L. fischeri may be a coadjuvant in carrying the parasite. PMID:24626417

  16. Analysis of heavy metals from water, sediment, and tissues of Labeo angra (Hamilton, 1822), from an Ox-box lake- an wetland site from Assam, India.

    PubMed

    Das, Suchismita; Choudhury, Shamim Sultana

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the regional impacts of heavy metals (Mn, Fe, Mg, Ca, Cu, Zn, Cd, Cr, Pb and Ni) on water, sediment and a native, teleost fish species, Labeo angra, inhabiting a flood plain wetland of Barak River in Assam, India. Heavy metal concentrations in the water, sediments and fish were measured; bioaccumulation factor, metal pollution index as well as condition indices were calculated, to assess the pollution load and health status of the fish. Multivariate statistical analysis was used on wetland water and sediment heavy metals to ascertain the possible sources and seasonal variations of the pollutants. Results showed that most heavy metals in the wetland water and sediments exceeded the water (drinking and irrigation) and sediment quality guidelines, respectively. Seasonal variations were observed for geogenic heavy metals, Mn, Fe, Mg and Ca while no seasonal variations were observed for anthropogenic heavy metals, Cu, Cd, Cr, Pb and Ni. Multivariate statistical analysis showed that there was strong correlation between geogenic and anthropogenic heavy metals in water and sediment, both originating from the common anthropogenic sources. Accumulation of most of the metals in all the tissues was above the safe limits as recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization. High bioaccumulation factors and metal pollution index for these metals in the different tissues revealed that metals were extensively bio-accumulated and bioconcentrated. Condition indices in fish from the wetland suggested metabolic abnormalities.

  17. Orphan nuclear receptor small heterodimer partner inhibits angiotensin II- stimulated PAI-1 expression in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyeong-Min; Seo, Hye-Young; Kim, Mi-Kyung; Min, Ae-Kyung; Ryu, Seong-Yeol; Kim, Yoon-Nyun; Park, Young Joo; Choi, Hueng-Sik; Lee, Ki-Up; Park, Wan-Ju; Park, Keun-Gyu; Lee, In-Kyu

    2010-01-31

    Angiotensin II is a major effector molecule in the development of cardiovascular disease. In vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), angiotensin II promotes cellular proliferation and extracellular matrix accumulation through the upregulation of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) expression. Previously, we demonstrated that small heterodimer partner (SHP) represses PAI-1 expression in the liver through the inhibition of TGF-beta signaling pathways. Here, we investigated whether SHP inhibited angiotensin II-stimulated PAI-1 expression in VSMCs. Adenovirus-mediated overexpression of SHP (Ad- SHP) in VSMCs inhibited angiotensin II- and TGF-beta-stimulated PAI-1 expression. Ad-SHP also inhibited angiotensin II-, TGF-beta- and Smad3-stimulated PAI-1 promoter activity, and angiotensin II-stimulated AP-1 activity. The level of PAI-1 expression was significantly higher in VSMCs of SHP(-/-) mice than wild type mice. Moreover, loss of SHP increased PAI-1 mRNA expression after angiotensin II treatment. These results suggest that SHP inhibits PAI-1 expression in VSMCs through the suppression of TGF-beta/Smad3 and AP-1 activity. Thus, agents that target the induction of SHP expression in VSMCs might help prevent the development and progression of atherosclerosis.

  18. The nuclear matrix protein p255 is a highly phosphorylated form of RNA polymerase II largest subunit which associates with spliceosomes.

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, M; Lauriault, P; Dubois, M F; Lavoie, S; Bensaude, O; Chabot, B

    1996-01-01

    The monoclonal antibody CC-3 recognizes a phosphodependent epitope on a 255 kDa nuclear matrix protein (p255) recently shown to associate with splicing complexes as part of the [U4/U6.U5] tri-snRNP particle [Chabot et al. (1995) Nucleic Acids Res. 23, 3206-3213]. In mouse and Drosophila cultured cells the electrophoretic mobility of p255, faster in the latter species, was identical to that of the hyperphosphorylated form of RNA polymerase II largest subunit (IIo). The CC-3 immunoreactivity of p255 was abolished by 5,6-dichloro-1-beta-D-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole, which is known to cause the dephosphorylation of the C-terminal domain of subunit IIo by inhibiting the TFIIH-associated kinase. The identity of p255 was confirmed by showing that CC-3-immunoprecipitated p255 was recognized by POL3/3 and 8WG16, two antibodies specific to RNA polymerase II largest subunit. Lastly, the recovery of RNA polymerase II largest subunit from HeLa splicing mixtures was compromised by EDTA, which prevents the interaction of p255 with splicing complexes and inhibits splicing. Our results indicate that p255 represents a highly phosphorylated form of RNA polymerase II largest subunit physically associated with spliceosomes and possibly involved in coupling transcription to RNA processing. PMID:8972849

  19. Nukes II: the nuclear power industry wants another chance. This time, it promises to do things right

    SciTech Connect

    De Young, H.G.

    1985-03-01

    Anticipating a comback for nuclear power, the nuclear industry points to the need for reliable supplies of electricity to provide over 35% of US energy requirements. The industry faces both technical and institutional problems, in contrast to the mature industry of other countries, and promises to improve its performance in safety design and efficiency. Pointing to design advances, robotics, computerized simulation and other techniques, the industry feels that regulation will be more reasonable and costs will be reduced. Economic solutions include building smaller plants and using modular construction. The biggest uncertainty, however, is whether the public will buy either the need for additional capacity or nuclear power to fill that need.

  20. Cd(II) complexes with different nuclearity and dimensionality based on 3-hydrazino-4-amino-1,2,4-triazole

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Cai-Xia; Zhang, Jian-Guo Yin, Xin; Jin, Xin; Li, Tong; Zhang, Tong-Lai; Zhou, Zun-Ning

    2015-03-15

    A series of zero- to two-dimensional Cd(II) coordination compounds have been synthesized by the reaction of Cd(II) salts and 3-hydrazino-4-amino-1,2,4-triazole di-hydrochloride (HATr·2HCl). [CdCl{sub 2}(HATr){sub 2}] (1) and [Cd{sub 2}Cl{sub 4}(HATr){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}] (2) have discrete mononuclear and binuclear structures, respectively. [Cd(HATr){sub 2}(ClO{sub 4}){sub 2}]{sub n} (3) presents polymeric 1-D chain and [Cd{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}Cl{sub 2}(HATr){sub 2}]{sub n} (4) shows 2-D frameworks. All Cd(II) ions exhibit distorted octahedral configurations in 1–3, whilst both hexa and heptacoordinated Cd(II) are formed in 4. The HATr ligands adopt chelating coordinated mode in 1, while tri-dentate bridging–chelating mode in 2–4. The chloride ion is a mono-coordinated ligand in 1 and 2, but it bridges two adjacent metal ions in 4. Furthermore, thermal behaviors have been investigated and the results reveal that all complexes have good thermal stability. The impact sensitivity test indicates that complex 3 is sensitive to impact stimuli. - Graphical abstract: Four Cd(II) complexes based on 3-hydrazino-4-amino-1,2,4-triazole ligands exhibit diverse structures from mononuclear to 2D networks. - Highlights: • Cd(II) complexes containing 3-hydrazino-4-amino-1,2,4-triazole ligands. • Mononuclear, binuclear, 1-D and 2-D structures. • Good thermal stability. • Thermal decomposition kinetics.

  1. Launch Vehicle Fire Accident Preliminary Analysis of a Liquid-Metal Cooled Thermionic Nuclear Reactor: TOPAZ-II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, G.; Zhao, S.; Ruan, K.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, launch vehicle propellant fire accident analysis of TOPAZ-II reactor has been done by a thermionic reactor core analytic code-TATRHG(A) developed by author. When a rocket explodes on a launch pad, its payload-TOPAZ-II can be subjected to a severe thermal environment from the resulting fireball. The extreme temperatures associated with propellant fires can create a destructive environment in or near the fireball. Different kind of propellants - liquid propellant and solid propellant which will lead to different fire temperature are considered. Preliminary analysis shows that the solid propellant fires can melt the whole toxic beryllium radial reflector.

  2. Nuclear Technology. Course 32: Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques II. Module 32-5, Fundamentals of Eddy Current Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espy, John

    This fifth in a series of six modules for a course titled Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques II describes the fundamental concepts applicable to eddy current testing in general. The module follows a typical format that includes the following sections: (1) introduction, (2) module prerequisites, (3) objectives, (4) notes to…

  3. Nuclear Technology. Course 32: Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques II. Module 32-6, Operation of Eddy Current Test Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espy, John; Selleck, Ben

    This sixth in a series of six modules for a course titled Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques II details eddy current examination of steam generator tubing. The module follows a typical format that includes the following sections: (1) introduction, (2) module prerequisites, (3) objectives, (4) notes to instructor/student, (5) subject…

  4. Nuclear Technology. Course 32: Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques II. Module 32-1, Fundamentals of Ultrasonic Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spaulding, Bruce

    This first in a series of six modules for a course titled Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques II introduces the student/trainee to the basic behavior of ultrasound, describes ultrasonic test equipment, and outlines the principal methods of ultrasonic testing. The module follows a typical format that includes the following sections: (1)…

  5. Nuclear Technology. Course 32: Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques II. Module 32-2, Operation of Ultrasonic Test Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espy, John

    This second in a series of six modules for a course titled Nondestructive Examination (NDE) II describes specific ultrasonic test techniques and calibration principles. The module follows a typical format that includes the following sections: (1) introduction, (2) module prerequisites, (3) objectives, (4) notes to instructor/student, (5) subject…

  6. Nuclear Technology. Course 32: Nondestructive Examination (NDE) II. Module 32-3, Fundamentals of Magnetic Particle Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groseclose, Richard

    This third in a series of six modules for a course titled Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques II explains the principles of magnets and magnetic fields and how they are applied in magnetic particle testing, describes the theory and methods of magnetizing test specimens, describes the test equipment used, discusses the principles and…

  7. Nuclear Technology. Course 32: Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques II. Module 32-4, Operation of Magnetic Particle Test Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groseclose, Richard

    This fourth in a series of six modules for a course titled Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques II describes the specific technique variables and options which are available to the test technician, provides instructions for selecting and operating the appropriate test equipment, describes physical criteria for detectable discontinuities,…

  8. Survey II of Public and Leadership Attitudes Toward Nuclear Power Development in the United States. Study No. 2628.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris (Louis) and Associates, Inc., New York, NY.

    This publication details a national survey done by Louis Harris and Associates, similar to one done in 1975, to assess attitudes toward nuclear power in the United States. The survey consisted of three parts. The first part was in-person, door-to-door interviews with 1,597 randomly selected households nationwide. The second part was 309…

  9. The Politics of Forgetting: Otto Hahn and the German Nuclear-Fission Project in World War II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sime, Ruth Lewin

    2012-03-01

    As the co-discoverer of nuclear fission and director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Chemistry, Otto Hahn (1879-1968) took part in Germany`s nuclear-fission project throughout the Second World War. I outline Hahn's efforts to mobilize his institute for military-related research; his inclusion in high-level scientific structures of the military and the state; and his institute's research programs in neutron physics, isotope separation, transuranium elements, and fission products, all of potential military importance for a bomb or a reactor and almost all of it secret. These activities are contrasted with Hahn's deliberate misrepresentations after the war, when he claimed that his wartime work had been nothing but "purely scientific" fundamental research that was openly published and of no military relevance.

  10. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of the interaction of FN-C/H II, a pentadecapeptide from fibronectin, with heparin

    SciTech Connect

    Hari, S.P.; Rabenstein, D.L.

    1995-12-01

    Arrest of circulating tumor cells by adhesion to components of the extracellular matrix (ECM) is a critical step in metastasis. Tumor cell adhesion involves the binding of cell surface receptors, including heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) receptors, to fibronectin and other proteins of the ECM. Interruption of tumor cell adhesion has therapeutic potential in metastasis prevention. The peptide FN-C/H II, a pentadecapeptide (KNNQKSEPLIGRKKT) from module III{sub 14} of fibronectin binds to the heparan sulfate part of HSPG on the surface of highly metastatic mouse melanoma cells, and inhibits experimental metastasis of the melanoma cells, presumably by inhibition of their arrest by competitive binding to cell surface receptor sites. In this poster, results of one and two dimensional NMR studies to characterize FN-C/H II and related peptides and their binding by heparin will be reported. Structural information obtained from NOESY spectra for FN-C/H II indicates that the peptide free in solution has little structure, but that the heparin-complexed peptide is highly structured. NOESY data for the bound peptide are consistent with a helical structure. In the helical structure, 3 of the 5 arginine and lysine residues are located together on one side, thus presenting a region of high positive charge density for binding to the highly negatively charged heparin.

  11. Specification and verification of nuclear-power-plant training-simulator response characteristics. Part II. Conclusions and recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, P M; Selby, D L; Kerlin, T W; Felkins, L

    1982-05-01

    The nuclear industry should adopt and NRC regulatory and research actions should support the systems approach to training as a structured framework for development and validation of personnel training systems. Potential exists for improving the ability to assess simulator fidelity. Systems Identification Technology offers a potential framework for model validation. Installation of the data collection/recording equipment required by NUREG-0696 could provide a vastly improved source of data for simulator fidelity assessment. The NRC needs to continue its post-TMI actions to involve itself more rigorously and more formally in the entire process of NPP personnel training system development. However, this involvement should be a participative one with industry. The existing similator standards and guidelines should be reorganized to support the use of systems approach to training. The standards should require and support a holistic approach to training system development that recognizes simulators and simulator training as only parts of the complete training program and full-scope, high-fidelity, site-specific simulators as only one useful training device. Some recommendations for adapting the SAT/ISD process to the nuclear industry are: The formation of an NRC/industry planning/coordination group, a program planning study to develop a programmatic plan, development of a user's guide and NRC/industry workshops to establish common terminology and practice, and a pilot study applying the adopted SAT/ISD methodology to an actual nuclear industry training program.

  12. Public perception of the nuclear area in Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Imeida, R.A. de

    2013-07-01

    In Brazil electricity production is proving increasingly important, the Brazilian government has recently launched the National Energy Plan, PNE-2030 which aims, among other objectives, to conclude construction of the Angra 3 plant and to deploy new nuclear power plants in the Northeast region. The Brazilian government wants to assess how the public has perceived its energy policy and what the public thinks about the nuclear issue. A public opinion survey was performed and sampling resulted in 127 respondents who were stratified by gender, age and educational level. The survey results show that although most respondents have post-graduate degrees, 64.6% are not aware of, or had never heard of PNE-2030. While 72 respondents consider nuclear energy as an alternative source of clean energy, 84 respondents did not know where the next Brazilian nuclear power plant will be built. The nuclear regulator, CNEN, is seen by 45.7% of respondents as the body that has most credibility to talk about the safety of nuclear power plants and the media most used to obtain information about the nuclear area were newspapers and discussion forums, with 52 and 50 votes respectively. These results prove the need to implement communication plans with clear and concise goals for different segments of society, since the degree of understanding differs within each segment.

  13. Measurements of miniature ionization chamber currents in the JSI TRIGA Mark II reactor demonstrate the importance of the delayed contribution to the photon field in nuclear reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radulović, Vladimir; Fourmentel, Damien; Barbot, Loïc; Villard, Jean-François; Kaiba, Tanja; Gašper, Žerovnik; Snoj, Luka

    2015-12-01

    The characterization of experimental locations of a research nuclear reactor implies the determination of neutron and photon flux levels within, with the best achievable accuracy. In nuclear reactors, photon fluxes are commonly calculated by Monte Carlo simulations but rarely measured on-line. In this context, experiments were conducted with a miniature gas ionization chamber (MIC) based on miniature fission chamber mechanical parts, recently developed by the CEA (French Atomic Energy and Alternative Energies Commission) irradiated in the core of the Jožef Stefan Institute TRIGA Mark II reactor in Ljubljana, Slovenia. The aim of the study was to compare the measured MIC currents with calculated currents based on simulations with the MCNP6 code. A discrepancy of around 50% was observed between the measured and the calculated currents; in the latter taking into consideration only the prompt photon field. Further experimental measurements of MIC currents following reactor SCRAMs (reactor shutdown with rapid insertions of control rods) provide evidence that over 30% of the total measured signal is due to the delayed photon field, originating from fission and activation products, which are untreated in the calculations. In the comparison between the measured and calculated values, these findings imply an overall discrepancy of less than 20% of the total signal which is still unexplained.

  14. Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II contributes to inhibitor of nuclear factor-kappa B kinase complex activation in Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Maubach, Gunter; Sokolova, Olga; Wolfien, Markus; Rothkötter, Hermann-Josef; Naumann, Michael

    2013-09-15

    Helicobacter pylori, a class I carcinogen, induces a proinflammatory response by activating the transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) in gastric epithelial cells. This inflammatory condition could lead to chronic gastritis, which is epidemiologically and biologically linked to the development of gastric cancer. So far, there exists no clear knowledge on how H. pylori induces the NF-κB-mediated inflammatory response. In our study, we investigated the role of Ca(2+) /calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CAMKII), calmodulin, protein kinases C (PKCs) and the CARMA3-Bcl10-MALT1 (CBM) complex in conjunction with H. pylori-induced activation of NF-κB via the inhibitor of nuclear factor-kappa B kinase (IKK) complex. We use specific inhibitors and/or RNA interference to assess the contribution of these components. Our results show that CAMKII and calmodulin contribute to IKK complex activation and thus to the induction of NF-κB in response to H. pylori infection, but not in response to TNF-α. Thus, our findings are specific for H. pylori infected cells. Neither the PKCs α, δ, θ, nor the CBM complex itself is involved in the activation of NF-κB by H. pylori. The contribution of CAMKII and calmodulin, but not PKCs/CBM to the induction of an inflammatory response by H. pylori infection augment the understanding of the molecular mechanism involved and provide potential new disease markers for the diagnosis of gastric inflammatory diseases including gastric cancer.

  15. Molecular characterization of PsbW, a nuclear-encoded component of the photosystem II reaction center complex in spinach.

    PubMed Central

    Lorković, Z J; Schröder, W P; Pakrasi, H B; Irrgang, K D; Herrmann, R G; Oelmüller, R

    1995-01-01

    We describe the isolation and characterization of cDNAs encoding the precursor polypeptide of the 6.1-kDa polypeptide associated with the reaction center core of the photosystem II complex from spinach. PsbW, the gene encoding this polypeptide, is present in a single copy per haploid genome. The mature polypeptide with 54 amino acid residues is characterized by a hydrophobic transmembrane segment, and, although an intrinsic membrane protein, it carries a bipartite transit peptide of 83 amino acid residues which directs the N terminus of the mature protein into the chloroplast lumen. Thylakoid integration of this polypeptide does not require a delta pH across the membrane, nor is it azide-sensitive, suggesting that the polypeptide chain inserts spontaneously in an as yet unknown way. The PsbW mRNA levels are light regulated. Similar to cytochrome b559 and PsbS, but different from the chlorophyll-complexing polypeptides D1, D2, CP43, and CP47 of photosystem II, PsbW is present in etiolated spinach seedlings. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7568046

  16. Assessment of RELAP5/MOD2 against a turbine trip from 100% power in the Vandellos II nuclear power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Llopis, C.; Perez, J.; Mendizabal, R.

    1993-06-01

    An assessment of RELAP5/MOD2 cycle 36.04 against a turbine trip from 100% power in the Vandellos II NPP (Spain) is presented. The work is inscribed in the framework of the Spanish contribution to ICAP Project. The model used in the simulation consists of a single loop, a steam generator and a steam line up to the steam header all of them enlarged on a scale of 3:1; and full-scaled reactor vessel and pressurizer. The results of calculations have been in reasonable agreement with plant measurements. An additional study has been performed to check the ability of a model in which all the plant components are full-scaled to reproduce the transient. A second study has been performed using the Homogeneous Equilibrium Model in the pressurizer, trying to elucidate the influence of the velocity slip in the primary depressurization rate.

  17. An analysis of thermionic space nuclear reactor power system: II. Merits of using safety drums for backup control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Genk, Mahomed S.; Xue, Huimin

    1993-01-01

    An analysis is performed to investigate the merits of using the TOPAZ-II safety drums for a backup control to prevent a reactivity excursion, stabilize the reactor, and achieve steady-state power operation, following a severe hypothetical reactivity initiated accident (RIA). Such an RIA is assumed to occur during the system start-up in orbit due to a malfunction of the drive mechanism of the control drums, causing the nine drums to accidentally rotate the full 180° outward. Results show that an immediate, inward rotation of the three safety drums to an angle of 80° will shutdown the reactor, however, a delay time of 10 s will not only prevents a reactivity excursion, but also enables operating the reactor at a steady-state thermal power of about 33.3 kW (0.9 kW per TFE). Conversely, when the immediate rotation of the safety drums is to a larger angle of 100°, a steady-state operation at about 37 kW can be achieved, but a delay of 10 s causes a reactivity excursion and overheating of the TFEs. It is therefor concluded that, should the drive mechanism be modified to enable rotating the safety drums for TOPAZ-II reactor at variable speeds of and below 22.5°/s, the three safety drums could be used successfully for a backup control, following an RIA. However, since the reactivity worth of the three safety drums is only 2.0, the maximum steady-state electric power achievable for the system is limited to approximately 0.25 kW, at which the fission power is about 37 kW and the emitter temperature is approximaely 1500 K. To alleviate such a limitation and enable operation at nominal design conditions (fission power of about 107 kW or a system's total electric power of 5.6 kW), the reactivity worth of the safety drums would have to be increased by at least 0.24. An additional increase in the safety drums' worth will also be necessary to maintain steady-state operation of the system at nominal conditions throughout the mission lifetime, with all nine control drums fully

  18. An analysis of thermionic space nuclear reactor power system: II. Merits of using safety drums for backup control

    SciTech Connect

    El-Genk, M.S.; Huimin Xue )

    1993-01-10

    An analysis is performed to investigate the merits of using the TOPAZ-II safety drums for a backup control to prevent a reactivity excursion, stabilize the reactor, and achieve steady-state power operation, following a severe hypothetical reactivity initiated accident (RIA). Such an RIA is assumed to occur during the system start-up in orbit due to a malfunction of the drive mechanism of the control drums, causing the nine drums to accidentally rotate the full 180[degree] outward. Results show that an immediate, inward rotation of the three safety drums to an angle of 80[degree] will shutdown the reactor, however, a delay time of 10 s will not only prevents a reactivity excursion, but also enables operating the reactor at a steady-state thermal power of about 33.3 kW (0.9 kW per TFE). Conversely, when the immediate rotation of the safety drums is to a larger angle of 100[degree], a steady-state operation at about 37 kW can be achieved, but a delay of 10 s causes a reactivity excursion and overheating of the TFEs. It is therefor concluded that, should the drive mechanism be modified to enable rotating the safety drums for TOPAZ-II reactor at variable speeds of and below 22.5[degree]/s, the three safety drums could be used successfully for a backup control, following an RIA. However, since the reactivity worth of the three safety drums is only $2.0, the maximum steady-state electric power achievable for the system is limited to approximately 0.25 kW, at which the fission power is about 37 kW and the emitter temperature is approximaely 1500 K. To alleviate such a limitation and enable operation at nominal design conditions (fission power of about 107 kW or a system's total electric power of 5.6 kW), the reactivity worth of the safety drums would have to be increased by at least $0.24.

  19. The Chloroplast Function Database II: a comprehensive collection of homozygous mutants and their phenotypic/genotypic traits for nuclear-encoded chloroplast proteins.

    PubMed

    Myouga, Fumiyoshi; Akiyama, Kenji; Tomonaga, Yumi; Kato, Aya; Sato, Yuka; Kobayashi, Megumi; Nagata, Noriko; Sakurai, Tetsuya; Shinozaki, Kazuo

    2013-02-01

    The Chloroplast Function Database has so far offered phenotype information on mutants of the nuclear-encoded chloroplast proteins in Arabidopsis that pertains to >200 phenotypic data sets that were obtained from 1,722 transposon- or T-DNA-tagged lines. Here, we present the development of the second version of the database, which is named the Chloroplast Function Database II and was redesigned to increase the number of mutant characters and new user-friendly tools for data mining and integration. The upgraded database offers information on genome-wide mutant screens for any visible phenotype against 2,495 tagged lines to create a comprehensive homozygous mutant collection. The collection consists of 147 lines with seedling phenotypes and 185 lines for which we could not obtain homozygotes, as well as 1,740 homozygotes with wild-type phenotypes. Besides providing basic information about primer lists that were used for the PCR genotyping of T-DNA-tagged lines and explanations about the preparation of homozygous mutants and phenotype screening, the database includes access to a link between the gene locus and existing publicly available databases. This gives users access to a combined pool of data, enabling them to gain valuable insights into biological processes. In addition, high-resolution images of plastid morphologies of mutants with seedling-specific chloroplast defects as observed with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) are available in the current database. This database is used to compare the phenotypes of visually identifiable mutants with their plastid ultrastructures and to evaluate their potential significance from characteristic patterns of plastid morphology in vivo. Thus, the Chloroplast Function Database II is a useful and comprehensive information resource that can help researchers to connect individual Arabidopsis genes to plastid functions on the basis of phenotype analysis of our tagged mutant collection. It can be freely accessed at http://rarge.psc.riken.jp/chloroplast/.

  20. Enhanced thermal conductivity oxide nuclear fuels by co-sintering with BeO: II. Fuel performance and neutronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoy, Kevin; Mays, Claude

    2008-04-01

    The fuel rod performance and neutronics of enhanced thermal conductivity oxide (ECO) nuclear fuel with BeO have been compared to those of standard UO 2 fuel. The standards of comparison were that the ECO fuel should have the same infinite neutron-multiplication factor kinf at end of life and provide the same energy extraction per fuel assembly over its lifetime. The BeO displaces some uranium, so equivalence with standard UO 2 fuel was obtained by increasing the burnup and slightly increasing the enrichment. The COPERNIC fuel rod performance code was adapted to account for the effect of BeO on thermal properties. The materials considered were standard UO 2, UO 2 with 4.0 vol.% BeO, and UO 2 with 9.6 vol.% BeO. The smaller amount of BeO was assumed to provide increases in thermal conductivity of 0, 5, or 10%, whereas the larger amount was assumed to provide an increase of 50%. A significant improvement in performance was seen, as evidenced by reduced temperatures, internal rod pressures, and fission gas release, even with modest (5-10%) increases in thermal conductivity. The benefits increased monotonically with increasing thermal conductivity. Improvements in LOCA initialization performance were also seen. A neutronic calculation considered a transition from standard UO 2 fuel to ECO fuel. The calculation indicated that only a small increase in enrichment is required to maintain the kinf at end of life. The smallness of the change was attributed to the neutron-multiplication reaction of Be with fast neutrons and the moderating effect of BeO. Adoption of ECO fuel was predicted to provide a net reduction in uranium cost. Requirements for industrial hygiene were found to be comparable to those for processing of UO 2.

  1. Identification of polyproline II regions derived from the proline-rich nuclear receptor coactivators PNRC and PNRC2: new insights for ERα coactivator interactions.

    PubMed

    Byrne, C; Miclet, E; Broutin, I; Gallo, D; Pelekanou, V; Kampa, M; Castanas, E; Leclercq, G; Jacquot, Y

    2013-10-01

    Protein-protein interactions are crucial for signal transductions required for cell differentiation and proliferation. Their modulation is therefore key to the development of therapeutic alternatives, particularly in the context of cancer. According to literature data, the polyproline-rich nuclear receptor coactivators PNRC and PNRC2 interact with estrogen receptor (ERα) through their PxxP SH3-binding motifs. In a search to identify the molecular features governing this interaction, we explored using electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectroscopy and molecular dynamics (MD) calculations, the capacity of a range of putative biologically active peptides derived from these proteins and containing this PxxP motif(s) to form polyproline II (PPII) domains. An additional more exhaustive structural study on a lead PPII peptide was also performed using 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. With the exception of one of all the investigated peptides (PNRC-D), binding assays failed to detect any affinity for Grb2 SH3 domains, suggesting that PPII motifs issued from Grb2 antagonists have a binding mode distinct from those derived from Grb2 agonists. Instead, the peptides revealed a competitive binding ability against a synthetic peptide (ERα17p) with a putative PPII-cognate domain located within a coregulator recruitment region of ERα (AF-2 site). Our work, which constitutes the first structure-related interaction study concerning PNRC and PNRC2, supports not only the existence of PxxP-induced PPII sequences in these coregulators, but also confirms the presence of a PPII recognition site in the AF-2 of the steroid receptor ERα, a region important for transcription regulation.

  2. Alternative energy source II; Proceedings of the Second Miami International Conference, Miami Beach, Fla., December 10-13, 1979. Volume 6 - Nuclear energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veziroglu, T. N.

    This volume examines conventional nuclear energy, breeder reactors, and thermonuclear energy. The particular papers presented consider current developments in nuclear breeder technology, fusion-driven fissile fuel breeder systems, and the fusion fission hybrid reactor. The implications of nuclear energy utilization in the Phillipines and the internationally safeguarded atomic fuel exchanger center for the Asian-Pacific basin are also discussed.

  3. Angiotensin II Triggers Expression of the Adrenal Gland Zona Glomerulosa-Specific 3β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Isoenzyme through De Novo Protein Synthesis of the Orphan Nuclear Receptors NGFIB and NURR1

    PubMed Central

    Ota, Takumi; Yamazaki, Fumiyoshi; Yarimizu, Daisuke; Okada, Kazuki; Murai, Iori; Hayashi, Hida; Kunisue, Sumihiro; Nakagawa, Yuuki; Okamura, Hitoshi

    2014-01-01

    The 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) is an enzyme crucial for steroid synthesis. Two different 3β-HSD isoforms exist in humans. Classically, HSD3B2 was considered the principal isoform present in the adrenal. However, we recently showed that the alternative isoform, HSD3B1, is expressed specifically within the adrenal zona glomerulosa (ZG), where aldosterone is produced, raising the question of why this isozyme needs to be expressed in this cell type. Here we show that in both human and mouse, expression of the ZG isoform 3β-HSD is rapidly induced upon angiotensin II (AngII) stimulation. AngII is the key peptide hormone regulating the capacity of aldosterone synthesis. Using the human adrenocortical H295R cells as a model system, we show that the ZG isoform HSD3B1 differs from HSD3B2 in the ability to respond to AngII. Mechanistically, the induction of HSD3B1 involves de novo protein synthesis of the nuclear orphan receptors NGFIB and NURR1. The HSD3B1 promoter contains a functional NGFIB/NURR1-responsive element to which these proteins bind in response to AngII. Knockdown of these proteins and overexpression of a dominant negative NGFIB both reduce the AngII responsiveness of HSD3B1. Thus, the AngII-NGFIB/NURR1 pathway controls HSD3B1. Our work reveals HSD3B1 as a new regulatory target of AngII. PMID:25092869

  4. Mitochondrial and nuclear localization of topoisomerase II in the flagellate Bodo saltans (Kinetoplastida), a species with non-catenated kinetoplast DNA.

    PubMed

    Gaziová, Ivana; Lukes, Julius

    2003-03-28

    We have studied topoisomerase II (topo II) in the cells of Bodo saltans, a free-living bodonid (Kinetoplastida). Phylogenetic analysis based on the sequence of the entire topo II gene, which is a single-copy gene, confirmed that B. saltans is a predecessor of parasitic trypanosomatids. Antibodies generated against either an overexpressed unique C-terminal region of topo II or a synthetic oligopeptide derived from the same region did not cross-react with cell lysates of related trypanosomatids, while they recognized a single specific band in the B. saltans lysate. Immunolocalization experiments using both antibodies showed that topo II is evenly dispersed throughout the kinetoplast. This is in striking difference from the localization of topo II in other flagellates, where it occurs in two antipodal centers flanking the kinetoplast disk. Moreover, the same topo II has a distinct localization in multiple loci at the periphery of the nucleus of B. saltans. With a minicircle probe derived from the conserved region we have shown that all relaxed non-catenated minicircles are confined to the globular kinetoplast DNA bundle. Therefore, in the mitochondrion of this primitive eukaryote topo II does not catenate relaxed DNA circles into a network in vivo, while a decatenating activity is present in partially purified cell lysates.

  5. Posttranslational Modification of the AU-Rich Element Binding Protein HuR by Protein Kinase Cδ Elicits Angiotensin II-Induced Stabilization and Nuclear Export of Cyclooxygenase 2 mRNA▿

    PubMed Central

    Doller, Anke; Akool, El-Sayed; Huwiler, Andrea; Müller, Roswitha; Radeke, Heinfried H.; Pfeilschifter, Josef; Eberhardt, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    The mRNA stabilizing factor HuR is involved in the posttranscriptional regulation of many genes, including that coding for cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2). Employing RNA interference technology and actinomycin D experiments, we demonstrate that in human mesangial cells (hMC) the amplification of cytokine-induced COX-2 by angiotensin II (AngII) occurs via a HuR-mediated increase of mRNA stability. Using COX-2 promoter constructs with different portions of the 3′ untranslated region of COX-2, we found that the increase in COX-2 mRNA stability is attributable to a distal class III type of AU-rich element (ARE). Likewise, the RNA immunoprecipitation assay showed AngII-induced binding of HuR to this ARE. Using the RNA pulldown assay, we demonstrate that the AngII-caused HuR assembly with COX-2 mRNA is found in free and cytoskeleton-bound polysomes indicative of an active RNP complex. Mechanistically, the increased HuR binding to COX-2-ARE by AngII is accompanied by increased nucleocytoplasmic HuR shuttling and depends on protein kinase Cδ (PKCδ), which physically interacts with nuclear HuR, thereby promoting its phosphorylation. Mapping of phosphorylation sites identified serines 221 and 318 as critical target sites for PKCδ-triggered HuR phosphorylation and AngII-induced HuR export to the cytoplasm. Posttranslational modification of HuR by PKCδ represents an important novel mode of HuR activation implied in renal COX-2 regulation. PMID:18285462

  6. Deployment of a three-dimensional array of Micro-Pocket Fission Detector triads (MPFD3) for real-time, in-core neutron flux measurements in the Kansas State University TRIGA Mark-II Nuclear Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohmes, Martin Francis

    A Micro-Pocket Fission Detector (MPFD) is a miniaturized type of fission chamber developed for use inside a nuclear reactor. Their unique design allows them to be located between or even inside fuel pins while being built from materials which give them an operational lifetime comparable to or exceeding the life of the fuel. While other types of neutron detectors have been made for use inside a nuclear reactor, the MPFD is the first neutron detector which can survive sustained use inside a nuclear reactor while providing a real-time measurement of the neutron flux. This dissertation covers the deployment of MPFDs as a large three-dimensional array inside the Kansas State University TRIGA Mark-II Nuclear Reactor for real-time neutron flux measurements. This entails advancements in the design, construction, and packaging of the Micro-Pocket Fission Detector Triads with incorporated Thermocouple, or MPFD3-T. Specialized electronics and software also had to be designed and built in order to make a functional system capable of collecting real-time data from up to 60 MPFD3-Ts, or 180 individual MPFDs and 60 thermocouples. Design of the electronics required the development of detailed simulations and analysis for determining the theoretical response of the detectors and determination of their size. The results of this research shows that MPFDs can operate for extended times inside a nuclear reactor and can be utilized toward the use as distributed neutron detector arrays for advanced reactor control systems and power mapping. These functions are critical for continued gains in efficiency of nuclear power reactors while also improving safety through relatively inexpensive redundancy.

  7. The LLNL Heavy Element Facility -- Facility Management, Authorization Basis, and Readiness Assessment Lessons Learned in the Heavy Element Facility (B251) Transition from Category II Nuclear Facility to Radiological Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, M; Anderson, B; Brown, E; Gray, L

    2006-04-10

    This paper presents Facility Management, Readiness Assessment, and Authorization Basis experience gained and lessons learned during the Heavy Element Facility Risk Reduction Program (RRP). The RRP was tasked with removing contaminated glove boxes, radioactive inventory, and contaminated ventilation systems from the Heavy Element Facility (B251) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The RRP was successful in its goal in April 2005 with the successful downgrade of B251 from a Category II Nuclear Facility to a Radiological Facility. The expertise gained and the lessons learned during the planning and conduct of the RRP included development of unique approaches in work planning/work control (''Expect the unexpected and confirm the expected'') and facility management. These approaches minimized worker dose and resulted in significant safety improvements and operational efficiencies. These lessons learned can help similar operational and management activities at other sites, including facilities restarting operations or new facility startup. B251 was constructed at LLNL to provide research areas for conducting experiments in radiochemistry using transuranic elements. Activities at B251 once included the preparation of tracer sets associated with the underground testing of nuclear devices and basic research devoted to a better understanding of the chemical and nuclear behavior of the transuranic elements. Due to the age of the facility, even with preventative maintenance, facility safety and experimental systems were deteriorating. A variety of seismic standards were used in the facility design and construction, which encompassed eight building increments constructed over a period of 26 years. The cost to bring the facility into compliance with the current seismic and other requirements was prohibitive, and simply maintaining B251 as a Category II nuclear facility posed serious cost considerations under a changing regulatory environment. Considering the high

  8. Lipid droplets go nuclear.

    PubMed

    Farese, Robert V; Walther, Tobias C

    2016-01-01

    Lipid droplets (LDs) are sometimes found in the nucleus of some cells. In this issue, Ohsaki et al. (2016. J. Cell Biol. http://dx.doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201507122) show that the nuclear membrane, promyelocytic leukemia bodies, and the protein PML-II play a role in nuclear LD formation, suggesting functional relationships between these structures. PMID:26728852

  9. Kinetically Inert Bispidol-Based Cu(II) Chelate for Potential Application to (64/67)Cu Nuclear Medicine and Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Roux, Amandine; Nonat, Aline M; Brandel, Jérémy; Hubscher-Bruder, Véronique; Charbonnière, Loïc J

    2015-05-01

    A family of 2,4-pyridyl-disubstituted bispidol derivatives bearing methylene carboxylic acid ethyl esters (L1-L3), methylene carboxylic acids (L4 and L5), or methylenethiophene (L6) groups were synthesized. In water, all ligands form rigid 1:1 complexes in the presence of Zn(II) in which the bicycle adopts a chair-chair conformation (cis isomer), as observed by (1)H NMR and, in the case of ligand L1, by an X-ray diffraction crystal structure. Interestingly, addition of Zn(II) ions on ligand L1 induces a metal-mediated selective hydrolysis of the ethyl esters. This selective hydrolysis was not observed upon addition of other cations such as Na(+), Mg(+), and Ca(2+). Reduction of the central ketone was achieved to prevent ring opening via retro Diels-Alder reactions and to afford highly stable and water-soluble ligands (L4, L5, L6). The complexation properties of L4 and L6 were studied in solution, with a particular interest for ligand L4. Fast complexation occurs in strongly acidic media (pH = 1), with a high affinity toward Cu(II) (log KCuL4 = 19.2(3), pCu = 17.0 at pH 7.4, pCu = -log[Cufree], [Cu] = 1 × 10(-6) M, [L] = 1 × 10(-5) M) and high selectivity versus Co(II), Ni(II), and Zn(II), as shown by the values of the binding constants obtained from potentiometric and spectrophotometric titrations. Reversible redox potential with E1/2 = -430 mV (vs normal hydrogen electrode) was measured. The complex was found to be fairly inert from acid-assisted dissociation experiments in 5 M HClO4 (t1/2 = 110 d at 25 °C).

  10. Heat shock protein 70 protects against seizure-induced neuronal cell death in the hippocampus following experimental status epilepticus via inhibition of nuclear factor-κB activation-induced nitric oxide synthase II expression.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chiung-Chih; Chen, Shang-Der; Lin, Tsu-Kung; Chang, Wen-Neng; Liou, Chia-Wei; Chang, Alice Y W; Chan, Samuel H H; Chuang, Yao-Chung

    2014-02-01

    Status epilepticus induces subcellular changes that may eventually lead to neuronal cell death in the hippocampus. Based on an animal model of status epilepticus, our laboratory showed previously that sustained hippocampal seizure activity activates nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and upregulates nitric oxide synthase (NOS) II gene expression, leading to apoptotic neuronal cell death in the hippocampus. The present study examined the potential modulatory role of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) on NF-κB signaling in the hippocampus following experimental status epilepticus. In Sprague-Dawley rats, kainic acid (KA) was microinjected unilaterally into the hippocampal CA3 subfield to induce prolonged bilateral seizure activity. Expression of HSP70 was elevated as early as 1h after the elicitation of sustained seizure activity, followed by a progressive elevation that peaked at 24h. Pretreatment with an antisense oligonucleotide against hsp70 decreased the HSP70 expression, and significantly augmented IκB kinase (IKK) activity and phosphorylation of IκBα, alongside enhanced nuclear translocation and DNA binding activity of NF-κB in the hippocampal CA3 neurons and glial cells. These cellular events were followed by enhanced upregulation of NOS II and peroxynitrite expression 3h after sustained seizure activity that led to an increase of caspase-3 and DNA fragmentation in the hippocampal CA3 neurons 7days after experimental status epilepticus. We concluded that HSP70 protects against apoptotic cell death induced by NF-κB activation and NOS II-peroxynitrite signaling cascade in the hippocampal CA3 and glial cells following experimental status epilepticus via suppression of IKK activity and deactivation of IκBα.

  11. Emergency preparedness and the licensing process for commercial nuclear power reactors. Part II. Oversight hearing before the Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations of the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, House of Representatives, Ninety-Eighth Congress, First Session on the San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station, July 8, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    Part II of the hearing record covers testimony given in Santa Ana, California by several panels made up of regulatory commissioners, local and state agencies, the Federal Emergency Management Agency, nuclear engineers, and intervenors. At issue was how the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) treats emergency preparedness in the licensing process and how well utilities and governmental bodies comply with preparedness rules. The purpose was to identify and deal with problems in meeting preparedness requirements, particularly with changes made since the Three Mile Island accident. The testimony focused on licensing issues at the San Onofre reactor site, which is in an earthquake-prone area, although other western plants were also discussed. An appendix with additional statements, reports, and correspondence follows the testimony of the 12 witnesses.

  12. Characterization of degraded EBR-II fuel from the ICPP-603 basin: National spent nuclear fuel program, FY 1999 final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pahl, R. G.

    2000-04-17

    Characterization data is reported for sodium bonded Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) fuel which had been stored underwater in containers since the late 1970's. Sixteen stainless steel storage containers were retrieved from the ICPP-603 storage pool at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) in Idaho. Ten of the containers had leaked water due to improper sealing. In the container chosen for detailed destructive analysis, the stainless steel cladding on the uranium alloy fuel had ruptured and fuel oxide particulate formed and filled the bottom of the container. Headspace gas analysis determined that greater than 99% hydrogen was present. Cesium-137, which had leached out of the fuel during the aqueous corrosion process, dominated the radionuclide source term of the water. The metallic sodium from the fuel element bond had reacted with the water, forming a caustic solution of NaOH.

  13. Nuclear blast response computer program. Volume II. Doublet-lattice and piston theory aerodynamics. Final report, May 1975-June 1977. [VIBRA-6 code

    SciTech Connect

    Giesing, J.P.; Kalman, T.P.; Rodden, W.P.; Croxen, H.H.; McGrew, J.A.

    1981-08-01

    The VIBRA-6 computer program is a digital computer program developed to deter the response of aircraft to nuclear explosions when flying at subsonic speeds. It is similar to the VIBRA-4 program but uses the latest Doublet-Lattice Method for obtaining subsonic aerodynamic forces for arbitrary lifting surface-body configurations. The Doublet-Lattice procedure has been extended to account for the moving blast wave by considering it as a traveling gust. The nuclear blast representation remains the same as that used in the VIBRA-4 program but the method of solution of the equations of motion has been changed from that of numerical integration of quasi-steady equations of motion to a Fourier transform procedure to move from frequency domain solutions to time history solutions. The concept of dynamic core has been introduced to the program thus removing any restrictions on the size of the aircraft idealization which can be analyzed.

  14. Results of the European Commission MARINA II study: part I--general information and effects of discharges by the nuclear industry.

    PubMed

    Betti, M; Aldave de las Heras, L; Janssens, A; Henrich, E; Hunter, G; Gerchikov, M; Dutton, M; van Weers, A W; Nielsen, S; Simmonds, J; Bexon, A; Sazykina, T

    2004-01-01

    From the collated data relevant to discharges by the nuclear industry, it results that the input of beta activity (excluding Chernobyl fallout and tritium) into the OSPAR region decreased by a factor of 4 from 1986 to 1991, reaching by this date the same level as in the early 1950s. Over the same period the discharges of the alpha activity into the OSPAR region also decreased by a factor 3, the same trend has been seen also for tritium. Since 1986 the effective dose to members of the critical group in the vicinity of Sellafield and Cap de La Hague was consistently below the ICRP and EU limit of 1 mSv per year to members of the general public. The overall radiological impact from nuclear industry on the population of the European Union from the OSPAR area has decreased from 280 manSv y(-1) in 1978 to 14 manSv y(-1) in 2000. PMID:15063552

  15. Health effects model for nuclear power plant accident consequence analysis. Part I. Introduction, integration, and summary. Part II. Scientific basis for health effects models

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J.S.; Moeller, D.W.; Cooper, D.W.

    1985-07-01

    Analysis of the radiological health effects of nuclear power plant accidents requires models for predicting early health effects, cancers and benign thyroid nodules, and genetic effects. Since the publication of the Reactor Safety Study, additional information on radiological health effects has become available. This report summarizes the efforts of a program designed to provide revised health effects models for nuclear power plant accident consequence modeling. The new models for early effects address four causes of mortality and nine categories of morbidity. The models for early effects are based upon two parameter Weibull functions. They permit evaluation of the influence of dose protraction and address the issue of variation in radiosensitivity among the population. The piecewise-linear dose-response models used in the Reactor Safety Study to predict cancers and thyroid nodules have been replaced by linear and linear-quadratic models. The new models reflect the most recently reported results of the follow-up of the survivors of the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and permit analysis of both morbidity and mortality. The new models for genetic effects allow prediction of genetic risks in each of the first five generations after an accident and include information on the relative severity of various classes of genetic effects. The uncertainty in modeloling radiological health risks is addressed by providing central, upper, and lower estimates of risks. An approach is outlined for summarizing the health consequences of nuclear power plant accidents. 298 refs., 9 figs., 49 tabs.

  16. Assessment of RELAP5/MOD2 against a load rejection from 100% to 50% power in the Vandellos II nuclear power plant. International Agreeement Report

    SciTech Connect

    Llopis, C.; Mendizabal, R.; Perez, J.

    1993-06-01

    An assessment of RELAP5/MOD2 cycle 36.04 against a load rejection from 100% to 50% power in Vandals II NPP (Spain) is presented. The work is inscribed in the framework of the Spanish contribution to ICAP Project. The model used in the simulation consists of a single loop, a steam generator and a steam line up to the steam header all of them enlarged on a scale of 3:1, and full-scaled reactor vessel and pressurizer. The results of the calculations have been in reasonable agreement with plant measurements.

  17. Assessment of RELAP5/MOD2 against a load rejection from 100% to 50% power in the Vandellos II nuclear power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Llopis, C. ); Mendizabal, R.; Perez, J. )

    1993-06-01

    An assessment of RELAP5/MOD2 cycle 36.04 against a load rejection from 100% to 50% power in Vandals II NPP (Spain) is presented. The work is inscribed in the framework of the Spanish contribution to ICAP Project. The model used in the simulation consists of a single loop, a steam generator and a steam line up to the steam header all of them enlarged on a scale of 3:1, and full-scaled reactor vessel and pressurizer. The results of the calculations have been in reasonable agreement with plant measurements.

  18. I. Excluded Volume Effects in Ising Cluster Distributions and Nuclear Multifragmentation II. Multiple-Chance Effects in α-Particle Evaporation

    SciTech Connect

    Breus, Dimitry Eugene

    2005-05-16

    In Part 1, geometric clusters of the Ising model are studied as possible model clusters for nuclear multifragmentation. These clusters may not be considered as non-interacting (ideal gas) due to excluded volume effect which predominantly is the artifact of the cluster's finite size. Interaction significantly complicates the use of clusters in the analysis of thermodynamic systems. Stillinger's theory is used as a basis for the analysis, which within the RFL (Reiss, Frisch, Lebowitz) fluid-of-spheres approximation produces a prediction for cluster concentrations well obeyed by geometric clusters of the Ising model. If thermodynamic condition of phase coexistence is met, these concentrations can be incorporated into a differential equation procedure of moderate complexity to elucidate the liquid-vapor phase diagram of the system with cluster interaction included. The drawback of increased complexity is outweighted by the reward of greater accuracy of the phase diagram, as it is demonstrated by the Ising model. A novel nuclear-cluster analysis procedure is developed by modifying Fisher's model to contain cluster interaction and employing the differential equation procedure to obtain thermodynamic variables. With this procedure applied to geometric clusters, the guidelines are developed to look for excluded volume effect in nuclear multifragmentation. In part 2, an explanation is offered for the recently observed oscillations in the energy spectra of α-particles emitted from hot compound nuclei. Contrary to what was previously expected, the oscillations are assumed to be caused by the multiple-chance nature of α-evaporation. In a semi-empirical fashion this assumption is successfully confirmed by a technique of two-spectra decomposition which treats experimental α-spectra has having contributions from at least two independent emitters. Building upon the success of the multiple-chance explanation of the oscillations, Moretto's single-chance evaporation theory is

  19. Nuclear Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Parents/Teachers Resource Links for Students Glossary Nuclear Medicine What is nuclear medicine? What are radioactive tracers? ... funded researchers advancing nuclear medicine? What is nuclear medicine? Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty that uses ...

  20. Chromosome aberrations induced in human lymphocytes by U-235 fission neutrons: I. Irradiation of human blood samples in the "dry cell" of the TRIGA Mark II nuclear reactor.

    PubMed

    Fajgelj, A; Lakoski, A; Horvat, D; Remec, I; Skrk, J; Stegnar, P

    1991-11-01

    A set-up for irradiation of biological samples in the TRIGA Mark II research reactor in Ljubljana is described. Threshold activation detectors were used for characterisation of the neutron flux, and the accompanying gamma dose was measured by TLDs. Human peripheral blood samples were irradiated "in vitro" and biological effects evaluated according to the unstable chromosomal aberrations induced. Biological effects of two types of cultivation of irradiated blood samples, the first immediately after irradiation and the second after 96 h storage, were studied. A significant difference in the incidence of chromosomal aberrations between these two types of samples was obtained, while our dose-response curve fitting coefficients alpha 1 = (7.71 +/- 0.09) x 10(-2) Gy-1 (immediate cultivation) and alpha 2 = (11.03 +/- 0.08) x 10(-2) Gy-1 (96 h delayed cultivation) are in both cases lower than could be found in the literature.

  1. Chromosome aberrations induced in human lymphocytes by U-235 fission neutrons: I. Irradiation of human blood samples in the "dry cell" of the TRIGA Mark II nuclear reactor.

    PubMed

    Fajgelj, A; Lakoski, A; Horvat, D; Remec, I; Skrk, J; Stegnar, P

    1991-11-01

    A set-up for irradiation of biological samples in the TRIGA Mark II research reactor in Ljubljana is described. Threshold activation detectors were used for characterisation of the neutron flux, and the accompanying gamma dose was measured by TLDs. Human peripheral blood samples were irradiated "in vitro" and biological effects evaluated according to the unstable chromosomal aberrations induced. Biological effects of two types of cultivation of irradiated blood samples, the first immediately after irradiation and the second after 96 h storage, were studied. A significant difference in the incidence of chromosomal aberrations between these two types of samples was obtained, while our dose-response curve fitting coefficients alpha 1 = (7.71 +/- 0.09) x 10(-2) Gy-1 (immediate cultivation) and alpha 2 = (11.03 +/- 0.08) x 10(-2) Gy-1 (96 h delayed cultivation) are in both cases lower than could be found in the literature. PMID:1962281

  2. Diffusion in the vicinity of standard-design nuclear power plants--II. Wind-tunnel evaluation of building-wake characteristics.

    PubMed

    Payne, A W; Snyder, W H; Binkowski, F S; Watson, J E

    1982-12-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to simulate radiopollutant effluents released to the atmosphere from two standard-design nuclear power plants. The main objective of the study was to compare the dispersion in the wakes of the plants with that in a simulated atmospheric boundary layer. Dispersion functions are determined that describe the spread of the effluent plume in the wake of each plant. These dispersion functions are described by power laws. They are determined for three incident wind angles and the number of stacks associated with each plant. Lateral plume spread was directly related to the silhouette area of the plants. A graphical technique is presented relating the lateral dispersion to the associated silhouette area of the building or building complex.

  3. 360-MHz 1H nuclear-magnetic-resonance spectroscopy of sialyl-oligosaccharides from patients with sialidosis (mucolipidosis I and II).

    PubMed

    Dorland, L; Haverkamp, J; Viliegenthart, J F; Strecker, G; Michalski, J C; Fournet, B; Spik, G; Montreuil, J

    1978-06-15

    360-MHz proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectra were recorded of 10 sialyl-oligosaccharides isolated from urine of sialidosis patients. Their structures are related to the complex asparagine-linked glycan chains of glycoproteins. By correlation of these spectra and comparison with spectra of reference glycopeptides and sialyl-lactose isomers it was possible to assign all signals belonging to anomeric, mannose H-2, sialic acid H-3 and N-acetyl protons. The number of the consituting monosaccharide residues of the oligomers can be obtained by integration of the above-mentioned signals. The chemical shifts of the anomeric and mannose H-2 protons give information about the type of glycan structure (mono-, bi-, triantennary) and the presence of terminal sialic acid at each of the antennas. The chemical shifts of sialic acid H-3 protons are typical for sialic acid residues in 2 leads to 3 or 2 leads to 6 linkage to galactose.

  4. Unsymmetrical Chelation of N-Thioether-Functionalized Bis(diphenylphosphino)amine-Type Ligands and Substituent Effects on the Nuclearity of Iron(II) Complexes: Structures, Magnetism, and Bonding.

    PubMed

    Fliedel, Christophe; Rosa, Vitor; Falceto, Andrés; Rosa, Patrick; Alvarez, Santiago; Braunstein, Pierre

    2015-07-01

    Starting from the short-bite ligands N-thioether-functionalized bis(diphenylphosphino)amine-type (Ph2P)2N(CH2)3SMe (1) and (Ph2P)2N(p-C6H4)SMe (2), the Fe(II) complexes [FeCl2(1)]n (3), [FeCl2(2)]2 (4), [Fe(OAc)(1)2]PF6 (5), and [Fe(OAc)(2)2]PF6 (6) were synthesized and characterized by Fourier transform IR, mass spectrometry, elemental analysis, and also by X-ray diffraction for 3, 4, and 6. Complex 3 is a coordination polymer in which 1 acts as a P,P-pseudochelate and a (P,P),S-bridge, whereas 4 has a chlorido-bridged dinuclear structure in which 2 acts only as a P,P-pseudochelate. Since these complexes were obtained under strictly similar synthetic and crystallization conditions, these unexpected differences were ascribed to the different spacer between the nitrogen atom and the −SMe group. In both compounds, one Fe–P bond was found to be unusually long, and a theoretical analysis was performed to unravel the electronic or steric reasons for this difference. Density functional theory calculations were performed for a set of complexes of general formula [FeCl2(SR2){R21PN(R2)P′R23}] (R = H, Me; R1, R2, and R3 = H, Me, Ph), to understand the reasons for the significant deviation of the iron coordination sphere away from tetrahedral as well as from trigonal bipyramidal and the varying degree of unsymmetry of the two Fe–P bonds involving pseudochelating PN(R)P ligands. Electronic factors nicely explain the observed structures, and steric reasons were further ruled out by the structural analysis in the solid-state of the bis-chelated complex 6, which displays usual and equivalent Fe–P bond lengths. Magnetic susceptibility studies were performed to examine how the structural differences between 3 and 4 would affect the interactions between the iron centers, and it was concluded that 3 behaves as an isolated high-spin Fe(II) mononuclear complex, while significant intra- and intermolecular ferromagnetic interactions were evidenced for 4 at low temperatures

  5. Synthesis, crystal structure and magnetic properties of three unprecedented tri-nuclear and one very rare tetra-nuclear copper(II) Schiff-base complexes supported by mixed azido/phenoxo/nitrato or acetato bridges.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Chaitali; Drew, Michael G B; Ruiz, Eliseo; Estrader, Marta; Diaz, Carmen; Ghosh, Ashutosh

    2010-08-28

    Three novel mixed bridged trinuclear and one tetranuclear copper(II) complexes of tridentate NNO donor Schiff base ligands [Cu(3)(L(1))(2)(mu(1,1)-N(3))(2)(CH(3)OH)(2)(BF(4))(2)] (1), [Cu(3)(L(1))(2)(mu(1,1)-N(3))(2)(mu-NO(3)-1kappaO:2kappaO')(2)] (2), [Cu(3)(L(2))(2)(mu(1,1)-N(3))(2)(mu-NO(3)-1kappaO:2kappaO')(2)] (3) and [Cu(4)(L(3))(2)(mu(1,1)-N(3))(4)(mu-CH(3)COO-1kappaO:2kappaO')(2)] (4) have been synthesized by reaction of the respective tridentate ligands (L(1) = 2-[1-(2-dimethylamino-ethylimino)-ethyl]-phenol, L(2) = 2-[1-(2-diethylamino-ethylimino)-ethyl]-phenol, L(3) = 2-[1-(2-dimethylamino-ethylimino)-methyl]-phenol) with the corresponding copper(ii) salts in the presence of NaN(3). The complexes are characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses and variable-temperature magnetic measurements. Complex 1 is composed of two terminal [Cu(L(1))(mu(1,1)-N(3))] units connected by a central [Cu(BF(4))(2)] unit through nitrogen atoms of end-on azido ligands and a phenoxo oxygen atom of the tridentate ligand. The structures of 2 and 3 are very similar; the only difference is that the central unit is [Cu(NO(3))(2)] and the nitrate group forms an additional mu-NO(3)-1kappaO:2kappaO' bridge between the terminal and central copper atoms. In complex 4, the central unit is a di-mu(1,1)-N(3) bridged dicopper entity, [Cu(2)(mu(1,1)-N(3))(2)(CH(3)COO)(2)] that connects two terminal [Cu(L(3))(mu(1,1)-N(3))] units through end-on azido, phenoxo oxygen and mu-CH(3)COO-1kappaO:2kappaO' triple bridges to result in a tetranuclear unit. Analyses of variable-temperature magnetic susceptibility data indicates that there is a global weak antiferromagnetic interaction between the copper(II) ions in complexes 1-3, with the exchange parameter J of -9.86, -11.6 and -19.98 cm(-1) for 1-3, respectively. In complex 4 theoretical calculations show the presence of an antiferromagnetic coupling in the triple bridging ligands (acetato, phenoxo and azido) while the interaction

  6. Nuclear localization of eukaryotic class II release factor (eRF3): implication for the multifunction of eRF3 in ciliates Euplotes cell.

    PubMed

    Chai, Baofeng; Wang, Wei; Liang, Aihua

    2008-03-01

    Class II polypeptide release factor (eRF3), a ribosome and eRF1-dependent GTPase, is an important factor, which acts cooperatively with eRF1 to promote hydrolysis of the ester bond linking the polypeptide chain with the peptidyl site tRNA in process of termination of protein synthesis. We prepared antibodies against eRF3 of Euplotes octocarinatus, and performed localization studies by immunoelectron microscopy in the ciliate. Our results indicate that eRF3 is present both in the cytoplasm and the two types of nuclei of this organism. The functions of eRF3 in these nuclei were analyzed by RNA interference methods. The nuclei loose their shape in eRF3 gene-interfered Euplotes cells, suggesting that eRF3 is probably involved in the morphological organization of nuclei. This suggests that eRF3 is a multifunctional protein with roles additionals to its function in the process of termination of protein synthesis.

  7. MHC II tetramers visualize human CD4+ T cell responses to Epstein-Barr virus infection and demonstrate atypical kinetics of the nuclear antigen EBNA1 response.

    PubMed

    Long, Heather M; Chagoury, Odette L; Leese, Alison M; Ryan, Gordon B; James, Eddie; Morton, Laura T; Abbott, Rachel J M; Sabbah, Shereen; Kwok, William; Rickinson, Alan B

    2013-05-01

    Virus-specific CD4(+) T cells are key orchestrators of host responses to viral infection yet, compared with their CD8(+) T cell counterparts, remain poorly characterized at the single cell level. Here we use nine MHC II-epitope peptide tetramers to visualize human CD4(+) T cell responses to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), the causative agent of infectious mononucleosis (IM), a disease associated with large virus-specific CD8(+) T cell responses. We find that, while not approaching virus-specific CD8(+) T cell expansions in magnitude, activated CD4(+) T cells specific for epitopes in the latent antigen EBNA2 and four lytic cycle antigens are detected at high frequencies in acute IM blood. They then fall rapidly to values typical of life-long virus carriage where most tetramer-positive cells display conventional memory markers but some, unexpectedly, revert to a naive-like phenotype. In contrast CD4(+) T cell responses to EBNA1 epitopes are greatly delayed in IM patients, in line with the well-known but hitherto unexplained delay in EBNA1 IgG antibody responses. We present evidence from an in vitro system that may explain these unusual kinetics. Unlike other EBNAs and lytic cycle proteins, EBNA1 is not naturally released from EBV-infected cells as a source of antigen for CD4(+) T cell priming. PMID:23569328

  8. TAF4, a subunit of transcription factor II D, directs promoter occupancy of nuclear receptor HNF4A during post-natal hepatocyte differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Alpern, Daniil; Langer, Diana; Ballester, Benoit; Le Gras, Stephanie; Romier, Christophe; Mengus, Gabrielle; Davidson, Irwin

    2014-01-01

    The functions of the TAF subunits of mammalian TFIID in physiological processes remain poorly characterised. In this study, we describe a novel function of TAFs in directing genomic occupancy of a transcriptional activator. Using liver-specific inactivation in mice, we show that the TAF4 subunit of TFIID is required for post-natal hepatocyte maturation. TAF4 promotes pre-initiation complex (PIC) formation at post-natal expressed liver function genes and down-regulates a subset of embryonic expressed genes by increased RNA polymerase II pausing. The TAF4–TAF12 heterodimer interacts directly with HNF4A and in vivo TAF4 is necessary to maintain HNF4A-directed embryonic gene expression at post-natal stages and promotes HNF4A occupancy of functional cis-regulatory elements adjacent to the transcription start sites of post-natal expressed genes. Stable HNF4A occupancy of these regulatory elements requires TAF4-dependent PIC formation highlighting that these are mutually dependent events. Local promoter-proximal HNF4A–TFIID interactions therefore act as instructive signals for post-natal hepatocyte differentiation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03613.001 PMID:25209997

  9. Mechanical behaviors of the dispersion nuclear fuel plates induced by fuel particle swelling and thermal effect II: Effects of variations of the fuel particle diameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Shurong; Wang, Qiming; Huo, Yongzhong

    2010-02-01

    In order to predict the irradiation mechanical behaviors of plate-type dispersion nuclear fuel elements, the total burnup is divided into two stages: the initial stage and the increasing stage. At the initial stage, the thermal effects induced by the high temperature differences between the operation temperatures and the room temperature are mainly considered; and at the increasing stage, the intense mechanical interactions between the fuel particles and the matrix due to the irradiation swelling of fuel particles are focused on. The large-deformation thermo-elasto-plasticity finite element analysis is performed to evaluate the effects of particle diameters on the in-pile mechanical behaviors of fuel elements. The research results indicate that: (1) the maximum Mises stresses and equivalent plastic strains at the matrix increase with the fuel particle diameters; the effects of particle diameters on the maximum first principal stresses vary with burnup, and the considered case with the largest particle diameter holds the maximum values all along; (2) at the cladding near the interface between the fuel meat and the cladding, the Mises stresses and the first principal stresses undergo major changes with increasing burnup, and different variations exist for different particle diameter cases; (3) the maximum Mises stresses at the fuel particles rise with the particle diameters.

  10. Effects of alien and intraspecies cytoplasms on manifestation of nuclear genes for wheat resistance to brown rust: II. Specificity of cytoplasm influence on different Lr genes

    SciTech Connect

    Voluevich, E.A.; Buloichik, A.A.; Palilova, A.N.

    1995-04-01

    Specificity of expression of the major nuclear genes Lr to two brown rust clones in hybrids with the same maternal cytoplasm was analyzed. It was evaluated by a resistant: susceptible ratio in the F{sub 2}. Reciprocal hybrids were obtained from the cross between the progeny of homozygous susceptible plants of the cultivar Penjamo 62 and its alloplasmatic lines carrying cytoplasms of Triticum dicoccoides var. fulvovillosum, Aegilops squarrosa var. typical, Agropyron trichophorum, and isogenic lines of the cultivar Thatcher (Th) with the Lr1, Lr9, Lr15, and Lr19 genes. It was shown that the effect of the Lr1 gene in the cytoplasm of cultivar Thatcher and in eu-, and alloplasmatic forms of Penjamo 62 was less expressed than that of other Lr genes. Cytoplasm of the alloplasmatic line (dicoccoides)-Penjamo 62 was the only exception: in the F{sub 2}, hybrids with Th (Lr1) had a higher yield of resistant forms than those with Th (Lr15). In the hybrid combinations studied, expression and/or transmission of the Lr19 gene was more significant than that of other genes. This gene had no advantages over Lr15 and Lr19 only in cytoplasm of the alloplasmatic line (squarrosa)-Penjamo 62. In certain hybrid cytoplasms, the display of the Lr1, Lr15, and Lr19 genes, in contrast to Lr9, varied with the virulence of the pathogen clones. 15 refs., 5 tabs.

  11. GC base sequence recognition by oligo(imidazolecarboxamide) and C-terminus-modified analogues of distamycin deduced from circular dichroism, proton nuclear magnetic resonance, and methidiumpropylethylenediaminetetraacetate-iron(II) footprinting studies.

    PubMed

    Lee, M; Rhodes, A L; Wyatt, M D; Forrow, S; Hartley, J A

    1993-04-27

    The DNA binding properties of a series of imidazole-containing and C-terminus-modified analogues 4-7 of distamycin are described. These analogues contain one to four imidazole units, respectively. Data from the ethidium displacement assay showed that these compounds bind in the minor groove of DNA, with the relative order of binding constants of 6 (Im3) > 7 (Im4) > 5 (Im2) > 4 (Im1). The reduced binding constants of these compounds for poly(dA-dT) relative to distamycin, while they still interact strongly with poly(dG-dC), provided evidence of GC sequence acceptance. The preferences for GC-rich sequences by these compounds were established from a combination of circular dichroism (CD) titration, proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR), and methidiumpropylethylenediaminetetraacetate-iron(II) [MPE.Fe-(II)] footprinting studies. In the CD studies, these compounds produced significantly larger DNA-induced ligand bands with poly(dG-dC) than poly(dA-dT) at comparable ligand concentrations. 1H-NMR studies of the binding of 5 to d-[CATGGCCATG]2 provided further evidence of the recognition of GC sequences by these compounds, and suggested that the ligand was located on the underlined sequence in the minor groove with the C-terminus oriented over the T residue. MPE footprinting studies on a GC-rich BamHI/SalI fragment of pBR322 provided unambiguous evidence for the GC sequence selectivity for some of these compounds. Compounds 4 and 7 produced poor footprints on the gels; however, analogues 5 and 6 gave strong footprints.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Nuclear corroboration of DNA-DNA hybridization in deep phylogenies of hummingbirds, swifts, and passerines: the phylogenetic utility of ZENK (ii).

    PubMed

    Chubb, Alison L

    2004-01-01

    This paper documents the phylogenetic utility of ZENK at the avian intra-ordinal level using hummingbirds, swifts, and passerines as case studies. ZENK sequences (1.7 kb) were used to reconstruct separate gene trees containing the major lineages of each group, and the three trees were examined for congruence with existing DNA-DNA hybridization trees. The results indicate both that ZENK is an appropriate nuclear marker for resolving relationships deep in the avian tree, and that many relationships within these three particular groups are congruent among the different datasets. Specifically, within hummingbirds there was topological agreement that the major hummingbird lineages diverged in a graded manner from the "hermits," to the "mangoes," to the "coquettes," to the "emeralds," and finally to a sister relationship between the "mountain-gems" and the "bees." Concerning swifts, the deepest divergences were congruent: treeswifts (Hemiprocnidae) were sister to the typical swifts (Apodidae), and the subfamily Apodinae was monophyletic relative to Cypseloidinae. Within Apodinae, however, were short, unresolved branches among the swiftlets, spinetails, and more typical swifts; a finding which coincides with other datasets. Within passerine birds, there was congruent support for monophyly of sub-oscines and oscines, and within sub-oscines, for monophyly of New World groups relative to the Old World lineages. New World sub-oscines split into superfamilies Furnaroidea and Tyrannoidea, with the Tyrannoid relationships completely congruent among ZENK and DNA-DNA hybridization trees. Within Furnaroidea, however, there was some incongruence regarding the positions of Thamnophilidae and Formicariidae. Concerning oscine passerines, both datasets showed a split between Corvida and Passerida and confirmed the traditional membership of passerid superfamilies Muscicapoidea and Passeroidea. Monophyly of Sylvioidea, however, remained uncertain, as did the relationships among the

  13. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of ancient buried wood-II. Observations on the origin of coal from lignite to bituminous coal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatcher, P.G.; Breger, I.A.; Szeverenyi, N.; Maciel, G.E.

    1982-01-01

    Coalified logs ranging in age from Late Pennsylvania to Miocene and in rank from lignite B to bituminous coal were analyzed by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) utilizing the cross-polarization, magic-angle spinning technique, as well as by infrared spectroscopy. The results of this study indicate that at least three major stages of coalification can be observed as wood gradually undergoes transformation to bituminous coal. The first stage involves hydrolysis and loss of cellulose from wood with retention and differential concentration of the resistant lignin. The second stage involves conversion of the lignin residues directly to coalified wood of lignitic rank, during which the oxygen content of intermediate diagenetic products remains constant as the hydrogen content and the carbon content increases. These changes are thought to involve loss of methoxyl groups, water, and C3 side chains from the lignin. In the third major stage of coalification, the coalified wood increases in rank to subbituminous and bituminous coal; during this stage the oxygen content decreases, hydrogen remains constant, and the carbon content increases. These changes are thought to result from loss of soluble humic acids that are rich in oxygen and that are mobilized during compaction and dewatering. Relatively resistant resinous substances are differentially concentrated in the coal during this stage. The hypothesis that humic acids are formed as mobile by-products of the coalification of lignin and function only as vehicles for removal of oxygen represents a dramatic departure from commonly accepted views that they are relatively low-molecular-weight intermediates formed during the degradation of lignin that then condense to form high-molecular-weight coal structures. ?? 1982.

  14. Nuclear corroboration of DNA-DNA hybridization in deep phylogenies of hummingbirds, swifts, and passerines: the phylogenetic utility of ZENK (ii).

    PubMed

    Chubb, Alison L

    2004-01-01

    This paper documents the phylogenetic utility of ZENK at the avian intra-ordinal level using hummingbirds, swifts, and passerines as case studies. ZENK sequences (1.7 kb) were used to reconstruct separate gene trees containing the major lineages of each group, and the three trees were examined for congruence with existing DNA-DNA hybridization trees. The results indicate both that ZENK is an appropriate nuclear marker for resolving relationships deep in the avian tree, and that many relationships within these three particular groups are congruent among the different datasets. Specifically, within hummingbirds there was topological agreement that the major hummingbird lineages diverged in a graded manner from the "hermits," to the "mangoes," to the "coquettes," to the "emeralds," and finally to a sister relationship between the "mountain-gems" and the "bees." Concerning swifts, the deepest divergences were congruent: treeswifts (Hemiprocnidae) were sister to the typical swifts (Apodidae), and the subfamily Apodinae was monophyletic relative to Cypseloidinae. Within Apodinae, however, were short, unresolved branches among the swiftlets, spinetails, and more typical swifts; a finding which coincides with other datasets. Within passerine birds, there was congruent support for monophyly of sub-oscines and oscines, and within sub-oscines, for monophyly of New World groups relative to the Old World lineages. New World sub-oscines split into superfamilies Furnaroidea and Tyrannoidea, with the Tyrannoid relationships completely congruent among ZENK and DNA-DNA hybridization trees. Within Furnaroidea, however, there was some incongruence regarding the positions of Thamnophilidae and Formicariidae. Concerning oscine passerines, both datasets showed a split between Corvida and Passerida and confirmed the traditional membership of passerid superfamilies Muscicapoidea and Passeroidea. Monophyly of Sylvioidea, however, remained uncertain, as did the relationships among the

  15. Options Study - Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    R. Wigeland; T. Taiwo; M. Todosow; W. Halsey; J. Gehin

    2010-09-01

    The Options Study has been conducted for the purpose of evaluating the potential of alternative integrated nuclear fuel cycle options to favorably address the issues associated with a continuing or expanding use of nuclear power in the United States. The study produced information that can be used to inform decisions identifying potential directions for research and development on such fuel cycle options. An integrated nuclear fuel cycle option is defined in this study as including all aspects of the entire nuclear fuel cycle, from obtaining natural resources for fuel to the ultimate disposal of used nuclear fuel (UNF) or radioactive wastes. Issues such as nuclear waste management, especially the increasing inventory of used nuclear fuel, the current uncertainty about used fuel disposal, and the risk of nuclear weapons proliferation have contributed to the reluctance to expand the use of nuclear power, even though it is recognized that nuclear power is a safe and reliable method of producing electricity. In this Options Study, current, evolutionary, and revolutionary nuclear energy options were all considered, including the use of uranium and thorium, and both once-through and recycle approaches. Available information has been collected and reviewed in order to evaluate the ability of an option to clearly address the challenges associated with the current implementation and potential expansion of commercial nuclear power in the United States. This Options Study is a comprehensive consideration and review of fuel cycle and technology options, including those for disposal, and is not constrained by any limitations that may be imposed by economics, technical maturity, past policy, or speculated future conditions. This Phase II report is intended to be used in conjunction with the Phase I report, and much information in that report is not repeated here, although some information has been updated to reflect recent developments. The focus in this Options Study was to

  16. Radiological investigations at the "Taiga" nuclear explosion site, part II: man-made γ-ray emitting radionuclides in the ground and the resultant kerma rate in air.

    PubMed

    Ramzaev, V; Repin, V; Medvedev, A; Khramtsov, E; Timofeeva, M; Yakovlev, V

    2012-07-01

    Samples of soil and epigeic lichens were collected from the "Taiga" peaceful nuclear explosion site (61.30°N 56.60°E, the Perm region, Russia) in 2009 and analyzed using high resolution γ-ray spectrometry. For soil samples obtained at six different plots, two products of fission ((137)Cs and (155)Eu), five products of neutron activation ((60)Co, (94)Nb, (152)Eu, (154)Eu, (207)Bi) and (241)Am have been identified and quantified. The maximal activity concentrations of (60)Co, (137)Cs, and (241)Am for the soils samples were measured as 1650, 7100, and 6800 Bq kg(-1) (d.w.), respectively. The deposit of (137)Cs for the top 20 cm of soil on the tested plots at the "Taiga" site ranged from 30 to 1020 kBq m(-2); the maximal value greatly (by almost 3 orders of magnitude) exceeded the regional background (from global fallout) level of 1.4 kBq m(-2). (137)Cs contributes approximately 57% of the total ground inventory of the man-made γ-ray emitters for the six plots tested at the "Taiga" site. The other major radionuclides -(241)Am and (60)Co, constitute around 40%. Such radionuclides as (60)Co, (137)Cs, (241)Am, and (207)Bi have also been determined for the epigeic lichens (genera Cladonia) that colonized certain areas at the ground lip produced by the "Taiga" explosion. Maximal activity concentrations (up to 80 Bq kg(-1) for (60)Co, 580 Bq kg(-1) for (137)Cs, 200 Bq kg(-1) for (241)Am, and 5 Bq kg(-1) for (207)Bi; all are given in terms of d.w.) have been detected for the lower dead section of the organisms. The air kerma rates associated with the anthropogenic sources of gamma radiation have been calculated using the data obtained from the laboratory analysis. For the six plots tested, the kerma rates ranged from 50 to 1200 nGy h(-1); on average, 51% of the dose can be attributed to (137)Cs and 45% to (60)Co. These estimates agree reasonably well with the results of the in situ measurements made during our field survey of the "Taiga" site in August

  17. Radiological investigations at the "Taiga" nuclear explosion site, part II: man-made γ-ray emitting radionuclides in the ground and the resultant kerma rate in air.

    PubMed

    Ramzaev, V; Repin, V; Medvedev, A; Khramtsov, E; Timofeeva, M; Yakovlev, V

    2012-07-01

    Samples of soil and epigeic lichens were collected from the "Taiga" peaceful nuclear explosion site (61.30°N 56.60°E, the Perm region, Russia) in 2009 and analyzed using high resolution γ-ray spectrometry. For soil samples obtained at six different plots, two products of fission ((137)Cs and (155)Eu), five products of neutron activation ((60)Co, (94)Nb, (152)Eu, (154)Eu, (207)Bi) and (241)Am have been identified and quantified. The maximal activity concentrations of (60)Co, (137)Cs, and (241)Am for the soils samples were measured as 1650, 7100, and 6800 Bq kg(-1) (d.w.), respectively. The deposit of (137)Cs for the top 20 cm of soil on the tested plots at the "Taiga" site ranged from 30 to 1020 kBq m(-2); the maximal value greatly (by almost 3 orders of magnitude) exceeded the regional background (from global fallout) level of 1.4 kBq m(-2). (137)Cs contributes approximately 57% of the total ground inventory of the man-made γ-ray emitters for the six plots tested at the "Taiga" site. The other major radionuclides -(241)Am and (60)Co, constitute around 40%. Such radionuclides as (60)Co, (137)Cs, (241)Am, and (207)Bi have also been determined for the epigeic lichens (genera Cladonia) that colonized certain areas at the ground lip produced by the "Taiga" explosion. Maximal activity concentrations (up to 80 Bq kg(-1) for (60)Co, 580 Bq kg(-1) for (137)Cs, 200 Bq kg(-1) for (241)Am, and 5 Bq kg(-1) for (207)Bi; all are given in terms of d.w.) have been detected for the lower dead section of the organisms. The air kerma rates associated with the anthropogenic sources of gamma radiation have been calculated using the data obtained from the laboratory analysis. For the six plots tested, the kerma rates ranged from 50 to 1200 nGy h(-1); on average, 51% of the dose can be attributed to (137)Cs and 45% to (60)Co. These estimates agree reasonably well with the results of the in situ measurements made during our field survey of the "Taiga" site in August

  18. Operate a Nuclear Power Plant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frimpter, Bonnie J.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes classroom use of a computer program originally published in Creative Computing magazine. "The Nuclear Power Plant" (runs on Apple II with 48K memory) simulates the operating of a nuclear generating station, requiring students to make decisions as they assume the task of managing the plant. (JN)

  19. Nuclear rights - nuclear wrongs

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, E.F.; Miller, F.D.; Paul, J.; Ahrens, J.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 11 selections. The titles are: Three Ways to Kill Innocent Bystanders: Some Conundrums Concerning the Morality of War; The International Defense of Liberty; Two Concepts of Deterrence; Nuclear Deterrence and Arms Control; Ethical Issues for the 1980s; The Moral Status of Nuclear Deterrent Threats; Optimal Deterrence; Morality and Paradoxical Deterrence; Immoral Risks: A Deontological Critique of Nuclear Deterrence; No War Without Dictatorship, No Peace Without Democracy: Foreign Policy as Domestic Politics; Marxism-Leninism and its Strategic Implications for the United States; Tocqueveille War.

  20. Tyrosinaemia II.

    PubMed

    Colditz, P B; Yu, J S; Billson, F A; Rogers, M; Molloy, H F; O'Halloran, M; Wilcken, B

    1984-08-18

    Four cases of tyrosinaemia type II (Richner-Hanhart syndrome) are reported. This syndrome consists of corneal erosions, palmar and plantar hyperkeratoses, and sometimes mental retardation. Presentation with photophobia and dendritic corneal ulceration or circumscribed palmoplantar keratoderma should alert the physician to the possible diagnosis of tyrosinaemia II. Early diagnosis is important, as the clinical picture can be modified by dietary restriction.

  1. Nuclear ventriculography

    MedlinePlus

    ... ventriculography (RNV); Multiple gate acquisition scan (MUGA); Nuclear cardiology; Cardiomyopathy - nuclear ventriculography ... 56. Udelson JE, Dilsizian V, Bonow RO. Nuclear cardiology. In: Bonow RO, Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby ...

  2. Nuclear Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badawi, Ramsey D.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the use of nuclear medicine techniques in diagnosis and therapy. Describes instrumentation in diagnostic nuclear medicine and predicts future trends in nuclear medicine imaging technology. (Author/MM)

  3. Photosystem II

    ScienceCinema

    James Barber

    2016-07-12

    James Barber, Ernst Chain Professor of Biochemistry at Imperial College, London, gives a BSA Distinguished Lecture titled, "The Structure and Function of Photosystem II: The Water-Splitting Enzyme of Photosynthesis."

  4. TARN II project

    SciTech Connect

    Katayama, T.

    1985-04-01

    On the basis of the achievement of the accelerator studies at present TARN, it is decided to construct the new ring TARN II which will be operated as an accumulator, accelerator, cooler and stretcher. It has the maximum magnetic rigidity of 7 Txm corresponding to the proton energy 1.3 GeV and the ring diameter is around 23 m. Light and heavy ions from the SF cyclotron will be injected and accelerated to the working energy where the ring will be operated as a desired mode, for example a cooler ring mode. At the cooler ring operation, the strong cooling devices such as stochastic and electron beam coolings will work together with the internal gas jet target for the precise nuclear experiments. TARN II is currently under the contruction with the schedule of completion in 1986. In this paper general features of the project are presented.

  5. Nuclear weapons and nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Cassel, C.; McCally, M.; Abraham, H.

    1984-01-01

    This book examines the potential radiation hazards and environmental impacts of nuclear weapons. Topics considered include medical responsibility and thermonuclear war, the threat of nuclear war, nuclear weaponry, biological effects, radiation injury, decontamination, long-term effects, ecological effects, psychological aspects, the economic implications of nuclear weapons and war, ethics, civil defense, arms control, nuclear winter, and long-term biological consequences of nuclear war.

  6. Nuclear Theory - Nuclear Power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svenne, J. P.; Canton, L.; Kozier, K. S.

    2008-01-01

    The results from modern nuclear theory are accurate and reliable enough to be used for practical applications, in particular for scattering that involves few-nucleon systems of importance to nuclear power. Using well-established nucleon-nucleon (NN) interactions that fit well the NN scattering data, and the AGS form of the three-body theory, we have performed precise calculations of low-energy neutron-deuteron (n+d) scattering. We show that three-nucleon force effects that have impact on the low-energy vector analyzing powers have no practical effects on the angular distribution of the n+d cross-section. There appear to be problems for this scattering in the evaluated nuclear data file (ENDF) libraries, at the incident neutron energies less than 3.2 MeV. Supporting experimental data in this energy region are rather old (>25 years), sparse and often inconsistent. Our three-body results at low energies, 50 keV to 10.0 MeV, are compared to the ENDF/B-VII.0 and JENDL (Japanese Evaluated Nuclear Data Library) -3.3 evaluated angular distributions. The impact of these results on the calculated reactivity for various critical systems involving heavy water is shown.

  7. Tech Area II: A history

    SciTech Connect

    Ullrich, R.

    1998-07-01

    This report documents the history of the major buildings in Sandia National Laboratories` Technical Area II. It was prepared in support of the Department of Energy`s compliance with Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act. Technical Area II was designed and constructed in 1948 specifically for the final assembly of the non-nuclear components of nuclear weapons, and was the primary site conducting such assembly until 1952. Both the architecture and location of the oldest buildings in the area reflect their original purpose. Assembly activities continued in Area II from 1952 to 1957, but the major responsibility for this work shifted to other sites in the Atomic Energy Commission`s integrated contractor complex. Gradually, additional buildings were constructed and the original buildings were modified. After 1960, the Area`s primary purpose was the research and testing of high-explosive components for nuclear weapons. In 1994, Sandia constructed new facilities for work on high-explosive components outside of the original Area II diamond-shaped parcel. Most of the buildings in the area are vacant and Sandia has no plans to use them. They are proposed for decontamination and demolition as funding becomes available.

  8. Nuclear choices

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfson, R.

    1991-01-01

    This book contains part of the series New Liberal Arts, which is intended to make science and technology more accessible to students of the liberal arts. Volume in hand provides a comprehensive, multifaceted examination of nuclear energy, in nontechnical terms. Wolfson explains the basics of nuclear energy and radiation, nuclear power..., and nuclear weapons..., and he invites readers to make their own judgments on controversial nuclear issues. Illustrated with photos and diagrams. Each chapter contains suggestions for additional reading and a glossary. For policy, science, and general collections in all libraries. (ES) Topics contained include Atoms and nuclei. Effects and uses of radiation. Energy and People. Reactor safety. Nuclear strategy. Defense in the nuclear age. Nuclear power, nuclear weapons, and nuclear futures.

  9. Endless generations of nuclear weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, T.B.

    1986-11-01

    The author feels that pursuit of Star Wars and continued US nuclear testing is blocking progress toward the eventual worldwide elimination of nuclear weapons. It is also bound to reveal new ways to attack military or civilian targets that will, in turn, stimulate further searches for new types of offensive and defensive nuclear weapons. Some of these developments could intensify the belief that limited nuclear wars can be fought and won. In short, development of new generations of nuclear weapons will provide the kind of positive feedback to the nuclear arms race that will greatly expand its dangers and its costs. Further proliferation of new types of nuclear weapons will increase the already extreme complexity of military planning and response, and the attendant dangers of nuclear war occurring by accident or through misinterpretation of information. Assessments of possible new military threats will become more uncertain as the complexities increase. Uncertainty can lead to catastrophic mistakes. Real or mistakenly perceived gaps in nuclear preparedness are likely to be used as further arguments for vast new military expenditures. We may all come to long for the relative simplicity of military nuclear issues during the first decade or so following the end of World War II. For these reasons, the author is convinced that there should be a halt to all nuclear tests, worldwide, as soon as possible. 2 references.

  10. Risk perspectives for TOPAZ II flight mission

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, A.C. Jr.; Haskin, F.E.

    1993-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a preliminary estimate of the nuclear-related public health risk presented by launching and operating the Russian TOPAZ II space reactor as part of the Nuclear Electric Propulsion Space Test Program (NEPSTP). This risk is then compared to the risks from the operation of commercial nuclear power reactors and previously planned and/or launched space nuclear power missions. For the current mission profile, the initial estimate of the risk posed by launching and operating TOPAZ II is significantly less (at least two orders of magnitude) than that estimated for prior space nuclear missions. Even allowing for the large uncertainties in this estimate, it does not appear that the NEPSTP mission will present a significant health risk to the public.

  11. SAGE II

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-02-16

    ... of stratospheric aerosols, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, water vapor and cloud occurrence by mapping vertical profiles and calculating ... (i.e. MLS and SAGE III versus HALOE) Fixed various bugs Details are in the  SAGE II V7.00 Release Notes .   ...

  12. Swedish nuclear waste efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Rydberg, J.

    1981-09-01

    After the introduction of a law prohibiting the start-up of any new nuclear power plant until the utility had shown that the waste produced by the plant could be taken care of in an absolutely safe way, the Swedish nuclear utilities in December 1976 embarked on the Nuclear Fuel Safety Project, which in November 1977 presented a first report, Handling of Spent Nuclear Fuel and Final Storage of Vitrified Waste (KBS-I), and in November 1978 a second report, Handling and Final Storage of Unreprocessed Spent Nuclear Fuel (KBS II). These summary reports were supported by 120 technical reports prepared by 450 experts. The project engaged 70 private and governmental institutions at a total cost of US $15 million. The KBS-I and KBS-II reports are summarized in this document, as are also continued waste research efforts carried out by KBS, SKBF, PRAV, ASEA and other Swedish organizations. The KBS reports describe all steps (except reprocessing) in handling chain from removal from a reactor of spent fuel elements until their radioactive waste products are finally disposed of, in canisters, in an underground granite depository. The KBS concept relies on engineered multibarrier systems in combination with final storage in thoroughly investigated stable geologic formations. This report also briefly describes other activities carried out by the nuclear industry, namely, the construction of a central storage facility for spent fuel elements (to be in operation by 1985), a repository for reactor waste (to be in operation by 1988), and an intermediate storage facility for vitrified high-level waste (to be in operation by 1990). The R and D activities are updated to September 1981.

  13. PORT II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muniz, Beau

    2009-01-01

    One unique project that the Prototype lab worked on was PORT I (Post-landing Orion Recovery Test). PORT is designed to test and develop the system and components needed to recover the Orion capsule once it splashes down in the ocean. PORT II is designated as a follow up to PORT I that will utilize a mock up pressure vessel that is spatially compar able to the final Orion capsule.

  14. BORE II

    2015-08-01

    Bore II, co-developed by Berkeley Lab researchers Frank Hale, Chin-Fu Tsang, and Christine Doughty, provides vital information for solving water quality and supply problems and for improving remediation of contaminated sites. Termed "hydrophysical logging," this technology is based on the concept of measuring repeated depth profiles of fluid electric conductivity in a borehole that is pumping. As fluid enters the wellbore, its distinct electric conductivity causes peaks in the conductivity log that grow and migratemore » upward with time. Analysis of the evolution of the peaks enables characterization of groundwater flow distribution more quickly, more cost effectively, and with higher resolution than ever before. Combining the unique interpretation software Bore II with advanced downhole instrumentation (the hydrophysical logging tool), the method quantifies inflow and outflow locations, their associated flow rates, and the basic water quality parameters of the associated formation waters (e.g., pH, oxidation-reduction potential, temperature). In addition, when applied in conjunction with downhole fluid sampling, Bore II makes possible a complete assessment of contaminant concentration within groundwater.« less

  15. BORE II

    SciTech Connect

    2015-08-01

    Bore II, co-developed by Berkeley Lab researchers Frank Hale, Chin-Fu Tsang, and Christine Doughty, provides vital information for solving water quality and supply problems and for improving remediation of contaminated sites. Termed "hydrophysical logging," this technology is based on the concept of measuring repeated depth profiles of fluid electric conductivity in a borehole that is pumping. As fluid enters the wellbore, its distinct electric conductivity causes peaks in the conductivity log that grow and migrate upward with time. Analysis of the evolution of the peaks enables characterization of groundwater flow distribution more quickly, more cost effectively, and with higher resolution than ever before. Combining the unique interpretation software Bore II with advanced downhole instrumentation (the hydrophysical logging tool), the method quantifies inflow and outflow locations, their associated flow rates, and the basic water quality parameters of the associated formation waters (e.g., pH, oxidation-reduction potential, temperature). In addition, when applied in conjunction with downhole fluid sampling, Bore II makes possible a complete assessment of contaminant concentration within groundwater.

  16. Nuclear Winter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrlich, Anne

    1984-01-01

    "Nuclear Winter" was recently coined to describe the climatic and biological effects of a nuclear war. These effects are discussed based on models, simulations, scenarios, and projections. Effects on human populations are also considered. (JN)

  17. Nuclear Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Provides a brief review of the latest developments in nuclear chemistry. Nuclear research today is directed toward increased activity in radiopharmaceuticals and formation of new isotopes by high-energy, heavy-ion collisions. (Author/BB)

  18. Nuclear Scans

    MedlinePlus

    Nuclear scans use radioactive substances to see structures and functions inside your body. They use a special ... images. Most scans take 20 to 45 minutes. Nuclear scans can help doctors diagnose many conditions, including ...

  19. Nuclear Fuels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, J. Thomas

    1983-01-01

    Trends in and factors related to the nuclear industry and nuclear fuel production are discussed. Topics addressed include nuclear reactors, survival of the U.S. uranium industry, production costs, budget cuts by the Department of Energy and U.S. Geological survey for resource studies, mining, and research/development activities. (JN)

  20. Nuclear weapons, nuclear effects, nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Bing, G.F.

    1991-08-20

    This paper provides a brief and mostly non-technical description of the militarily important features of nuclear weapons, of the physical phenomena associated with individual explosions, and of the expected or possible results of the use of many weapons in a nuclear war. Most emphasis is on the effects of so-called ``strategic exchanges.``

  1. Soviet theater nuclear capabilities: the European nuclear balance in transition

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, R.

    1983-08-31

    This memorandum examined the changing strategic and theater nuclear environment; Soviet theater nuclear force improvements and doctrine; the implications of Soviet theater nuclear buildup for deterrence and the defense of Europe; and NATO's response. The author concludes that the changing balance of theater capabilities has resulted in a devaluation of deterrence, a decline in Western self-confidence, and an increase in NATO's vulnerabilities. The author also contends that if the Soviet Union is unwilling to negotiate a significant reduction intermediate-range nuclear forces that now pose a serious threat to the West, the NATO deployment of Pershing II and cruise missiles will not only help to restore balance to the NATO/Warsaw Pact nuclear equation, but will also enhance deterrence, reduce NATO's vulnerabilities, and thus, will contribute to crisis stability in Europe.

  2. Nuclear Structure Research at TRIUMF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrett, P. E.; Andreyev, A.; Austin, R. A. E.; Ball, G. C.; Bandyopadhyay, D.; Becker, J. A.; Boston, A. J.; Chakrawarthy, R. S.; Cline, D.; Cooper, R. J.; Churchman, R.; Cross, D.; Dashdorj, D.; Demand, G. A.; Dimmock, M. R.; Drake, T. E.; Finlay, P.; Gagon-Miosan, F.; Gallant, A. T.; Green, K. L.; Grint, A. N.; Grinyer, G. F.; Hackman, G.; Harkness, L. J.; Hayes, A. B.; Kanungo, R.; Kulp, W. D.; Leach, K. G.; Lee, G.; Leslie, J. R.; Martin, J.-P.; Mattoon, C.; Mills, W. J.; Morton, A. C.; Mythili, S.; Nelson, L.; Newman, O.; Nolan, P. J.; Padilla-Rodal, E.; Pearson, C. J.; Phillips, A. A.; Porter-Peden, M.; Ressler, J. J.; Roy, R.; Ruiz, C.; Savajols, H.; Sarazin, F.; Schumaker, M. A.; Scraggs, D. P.; Scraggs, H. C.; Strange, M. D.; Svensson, C. E.; Waddington, J. C.; Wan, J. M.; Whitbeck, A.; Williams, S. J.; Wong, J.; Wood, J. L.; Wu, C. Y.; Zganjar, E. F.

    2007-04-01

    The radioactive beam laboratory at TRIUMF is currently the highest power ISOL facility in the world. Taking advantage of the high-intensity beams, major programs in nuclear astrophysics, nuclear structure, and weak interaction studies have begun. The low-energy area, ISAC-I, is capable of delivering beams up to mass 30 at approx 1.7 MeV/u or 60 keV up to the mass of the primary target, whereas ISAC-II will ultimately provide beams up to mass 150 and approx 6.5 MeV/u. Major gamma -ray spectrometers for nuclear structure research consist of the 8pi spectrometer at ISAC-I, and the TIGRESS spectrometer now being constructed for ISAC-II. Results from recent experiments investigating the beta -decay of nuclei near N=90 and Coulomb excitation of 20,21Na are presented that highlight the capabilities of the spectrometers.

  3. Nuclear mortality

    SciTech Connect

    Krauthammer, C.

    1983-10-01

    The author notes that the anti-nuclear movement is shifting its focus from bodily harm to concern for the impact on our souls from building and threatening the use of nuclear weapons. Two aspects of nuclear deterrence receiving the most public attention are the freeze effort to halt weapons modernization and the no-first-use effort to take down the nuclear umbrella. Opponents attack both the countervalue and the counterforce approach, but the arguments of the Catholic bishops, Jonathan Schell, and others stop short of unilateral disarmament, which would be the greatest threat to our survival. Mr. Krauthammer observes that nuclear deterrence has worked, however, and will continue to be useful only if potential adversaries believe we have the will to use nuclear weapons. 2 references. (DCK)

  4. Nuclear astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Haxton, W.C.

    1992-01-01

    The problem of core-collapse supernovae is used to illustrate the many connections between nuclear astrophysics and the problems nuclear physicists study in terrestrial laboratories. Efforts to better understand the collapse and mantle ejection are also motivated by a variety of interdisciplinary issues in nuclear, particle, and astrophysics, including galactic chemical evolution, neutrino masses and mixing, and stellar cooling by the emission of new particles. The current status of theory and observations is summarized.

  5. Nuclear astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Haxton, W.C.

    1992-12-31

    The problem of core-collapse supernovae is used to illustrate the many connections between nuclear astrophysics and the problems nuclear physicists study in terrestrial laboratories. Efforts to better understand the collapse and mantle ejection are also motivated by a variety of interdisciplinary issues in nuclear, particle, and astrophysics, including galactic chemical evolution, neutrino masses and mixing, and stellar cooling by the emission of new particles. The current status of theory and observations is summarized.

  6. The Bad News and the Good about Nuclear Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basta, Nicholas

    1986-01-01

    Traces the changes in the nuclear energy field since World War II, citing distinct periods of growth in the nuclear industry, as well as downtrends. Analyzes the reasons for the changes in public support for nuclear energy and the impact upon careers in the field. (TW)

  7. 77 FR 18271 - Terrestrial Environmental Studies for Nuclear Power Stations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-27

    ... decommissioning. II. Further Information DG-4016, was published in the Federal Register on August 12, 2011 (76 FR... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Terrestrial Environmental Studies for Nuclear Power Stations AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory...

  8. Environmental crimes at the Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Facility. Documents before the Subcommittee on Investigations and Oversight of the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology, US House of Representatives, One Hundred Second Congress, Second Session, Volume II

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    On Thursday, September 17, 1992, and on Friday, September 18, 1992, the Subcommittee on Investigations and Oversight, House Committee on Science, Space, and Technology, hearing testimony on the Rocky Flats Nuclear Facility, requested certain information and documentation that was deferred. This written statement is provided in response to the requested information from Special Agent Jon Lipsky by the Subcommittee during Mr. Lipsky's testimony.

  9. Angiotensin II: Immunohistochemical Study in Sardinian Pterygium

    PubMed Central

    Demurtas, P.; Corrias, M.; Zucca, I.; Piras, F.; Sirigu, P.; Perra, M.T.

    2014-01-01

    The Angiotensin II (Ang II) is the principal effector peptide of the RAS system. It has a pleiotropic effect and, beside its physiological role, it has the property to stimulate angiogenesis and activate multiple signalling pathways related to cell proliferation. The purpose of the study was to determinate the Ang II expression and localization in Sardinian pterygium and normal conjunctiva by immunohistochemistry, and its possible involvement in the development and progression of the disease. Twenty-three pterygiums and eleven normal conjunctiva specimens obtained from Sardinian patients, were processed for paraffin embedding and assessed for the immunohistochemi-cal revelation of Ang II. Significant Ang II expression was identified in pterygium and conjunctiva. Particularly, thirteen pterygium specimens (n=13) displayed exclusively moderate to strong nuclear staining; some specimens (n=5) showed exclusively a moderate cytoplasmic immunoreactivity, and few specimens (n=2) displayed moderate to strong immunoreactivity in both cytoplasm and nucleus. Only 3 specimens were negative. Statistical significance difference in respect of nuclear and cytoplasmic localization was observed between normal conjunctiva and pterygium (P=0.020). The results showed a predominant intranuclear localization of Ang II in pterygium epithelial cells, in spite of conjunctiva that mainly showed cytoplasmic localization. These findings suggest a possible role for Ang II in the development and/or progression of pterygium mediated by the activation of local RAS system. PMID:25308851

  10. Nuclear Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drago, Alessandro

    2005-04-01

    The activity of the Italian nuclear physicists community in the field of Nuclear Astrophysics is reported. The researches here described have been performed within the project "Fisica teorica del nucleo e dei sistemi a multi corpi", supported by the Ministero dell'Istruzione, dell'Università e della Ricerca.

  11. Nuclear safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buden, D.

    1991-01-01

    Topics dealing with nuclear safety are addressed which include the following: general safety requirements; safety design requirements; terrestrial safety; SP-100 Flight System key safety requirements; potential mission accidents and hazards; key safety features; ground operations; launch operations; flight operations; disposal; safety concerns; licensing; the nuclear engine for rocket vehicle application (NERVA) design philosophy; the NERVA flight safety program; and the NERVA safety plan.

  12. Nuclear hostages

    SciTech Connect

    O'Keefe, B.J.

    1983-01-01

    Classical physics since Roentgen's discovery of X-rays led quickly to work on atomic structure and the Nuclear Age. The author traces the history of decisions to pursue nuclear fission, the organization of the Manhattan Project, the compromises of the 1963 test ban treaty, and the dilemma of nuclear weapons development and deployment that now hold mankind hostage. He reviews the rationale for limited nuclear war, first strike, massive retaliation, non-proliferation, and the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) treaties. He argues that the concepts of mobile MX weapons, fratricide, and population dispersal for civil defense are unworkable, suggesting a program of unilaterally withdrawing tactical nuclear weapons from Europe and strengthening intelligence and law-enforcement powers to withstand terrorist activity. Economic cooperation and political reconciliation may take a generation to achieve, but should be our national goal.

  13. Recent developments in Topaz II reactor safety assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, A.C.

    1993-07-01

    In December 1991, the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) decided to investigate the possibility of a US launch of a Russian Topaz II space nuclear power system. The primary mission goal would be to demonstrate and evaluate Nuclear Electric Propulsion technology to establish a capability for future civilian and military missions. A preliminary nuclear safety assessment, involving selected safety analyses, was initiated to determine whether or not a space mission could be conducted safely and within budget constraints. This paper describes the preliminary safety assessment results and the nuclear safety program now being established for the Nuclear Electric Propulsion Space Test Program (NEPSTP).

  14. A Conversation with William A. Fowler Part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenberg, John

    2005-06-01

    Physicist William A.Fowler initiated an experimental program in nuclear astrophysics after World War II. He recalls here the Steady State versus Big Bang controversy and his celebrated collaboration with Fred Hoyle and Geoffrey and Margaret Burbidge on nucleosynthesis in stars. He also comments on the shift away from nuclear physics in universities to large accelerators and national laboratories.

  15. Nuclear Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bombaci, Ignazio

    2003-04-01

    In this report I will try to illustrate some of the main research themes and "hot topics" in nuclear astrophysics. The particular aim of the present report is to briefly illustrate the research activities, in the field of nuclear astrophysics, performed by the Italian nuclear physicist community within the "Programma di Interesse Nazionale su Fisica Teorica del Nucleo e dei Sistemi a Molti Corpi" (National Research Program on Theoretical Physics of Nuclei and Many Body Systems) supported by the "Ministero dell'Istruzione dell'Università e della Ricerca".

  16. Nuclear Speckles

    PubMed Central

    Spector, David L.; Lamond, Angus I.

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear speckles, also known as interchromatin granule clusters, are nuclear domains enriched in pre-mRNA splicing factors, located in the interchromatin regions of the nucleoplasm of mammalian cells. When observed by immunofluorescence microscopy, they usually appear as 20–50 irregularly shaped structures that vary in size. Speckles are dynamic structures, and their constituents can exchange continuously with the nucleoplasm and other nuclear locations, including active transcription sites. Studies on the composition, structure, and dynamics of speckles have provided an important paradigm for understanding the functional organization of the nucleus and the dynamics of the gene expression machinery. PMID:20926517

  17. (Nuclear theory). [Research in nuclear physics

    SciTech Connect

    Haxton, W.

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses research in nuclear physics. Topics covered in this paper are: symmetry principles; nuclear astrophysics; nuclear structure; quark-gluon plasma; quantum chromodynamics; symmetry breaking; nuclear deformation; and cold fusion. (LSP)

  18. Institute for Nuclear Theory annual report No. 2, 1 March 1991--29 February 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Haxton, W.; Henley, E. M.

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses research on the following topics in Nuclear physics: electromagnetic interactions and few-nucleon systems; N*'s and nucleon structure; mesons and fields in nuclei; and nuclear astrophysics of type II supernovae. (LSP).

  19. Nuclear forces

    SciTech Connect

    Machleidt, R.

    2013-06-10

    These lectures present an introduction into the theory of nuclear forces. We focus mainly on the modern approach, in which the forces between nucleons emerge from low-energy QCD via chiral effective field theory.

  20. Nuclear Disarmament.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Christopher

    1982-01-01

    Material about nuclear disarmament and the arms race should be included in secondary school curricula. Teachers can present this technical, controversial, and frightening material in a balanced and comprehensible way. Resources for instructional materials are listed. (PP)

  1. Nuclear battlefields

    SciTech Connect

    Arkin, W.M.; Fieldhouse, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    This book provides complete data on the nuclear operations and research facilities in the U.S.A., the U.S.S.R., France, China and the U.K. It describes detailed estimates on the U.S.S.R.'s nuclear stockpile for over 500 locations. It shows how non-nuclear countries cooperate with the world-wide war machine. And it maps the U.S. nuclear facilities from Little America, WY, and Charleston, SC, to the battleships patroling the world's oceans and subs stalking under the sea. The data were gathered from unclassified sources through the Freedom of Information Act, from data supplied to military installations, and from weapons source books. It provides guidance for policymakers, government and corporate officials.

  2. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Sherman, J.; Sharbaugh, J.E.; Fauth, W.L. Jr.; Palladino, N.J.; DeHuff, P.G.

    1962-10-23

    A nuclear reactor incorporating seed and blanket assemblies is designed. Means are provided for obtaining samples of the coolant from the blanket assemblies and for varying the flow of coolant through the blanket assemblies. (AEC)

  3. Nuclear Data

    SciTech Connect

    White, Morgan C.

    2014-01-23

    PowerPoint presentation targeted for educational use. Nuclear data comes from a variety of sources and in many flavors. Understanding where the data you use comes from and what flavor it is can be essential to understand and interpret your results. This talk will discuss the nuclear data pipeline with particular emphasis on providing links to additional resources that can be used to explore the issues you will encounter.

  4. Nuclear Nonproliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Atkins-Duffin, C E

    2008-12-10

    With an explosion equivalent of about 20kT of TNT, the Trinity test was the first demonstration of a nuclear weapon. Conducted on July 16, 1945 in Alamogordo, NM this site is now a Registered National Historic Landmark. The concept and applicability of nuclear power was demonstrated on December 20, 1951 with the Experimental Breeder Reactor Number One (EBR-1) lit four light bulbs. This reactor is now a Registered National Historic Landmark, located near Arco, ID. From that moment forward it had been clearly demonstrated that nuclear energy has both peaceful and military applications and that the civilian and military fuel cycles can overlap. For the more than fifty years since the Atoms for Peace program, a key objective of nuclear policy has been to enable the wider peaceful use of nuclear energy while preventing the spread of nuclear weapons. Volumes have been written on the impact of these two actions on the world by advocates and critics; pundits and practioners; politicians and technologists. The nations of the world have woven together a delicate balance of treaties, agreements, frameworks and handshakes that are representative of the timeframe in which they were constructed and how they have evolved in time. Collectively these vehicles attempt to keep political will, nuclear materials and technology in check. This paper captures only the briefest abstract of the more significant aspects on the Nonproliferation Regime. Of particular relevance to this discussion is the special nonproliferation sensitivity associated with the uranium isotope separation and spent fuel reprocessing aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle.

  5. Nuclear Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gargano, Angela

    2003-04-01

    An account of recent studies in the field of theoretical nuclear structure is reported. These studies concern essentially research activities performed under the Italian project "Fisica Teorica del Nucleo e dei Sistemi a Molti Corpi". Special attention is addressed to results obtained during the last two years as regards the development of new many-body techniques as well as the interpretation of new experimental aspects of nuclear structure.

  6. Nuclear astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnould, M.; Takahashi, K.

    1999-03-01

    Nuclear astrophysics is that branch of astrophysics which helps understanding of the Universe, or at least some of its many faces, through the knowledge of the microcosm of the atomic nucleus. It attempts to find as many nuclear physics imprints as possible in the macrocosm, and to decipher what those messages are telling us about the varied constituent objects in the Universe at present and in the past. In the last decades much advance has been made in nuclear astrophysics thanks to the sometimes spectacular progress made in the modelling of the structure and evolution of the stars, in the quality and diversity of the astronomical observations, as well as in the experimental and theoretical understanding of the atomic nucleus and of its spontaneous or induced transformations. Developments in other subfields of physics and chemistry have also contributed to that advance. Notwithstanding the accomplishment, many long-standing problems remain to be solved, and the theoretical understanding of a large variety of observational facts needs to be put on safer grounds. In addition, new questions are continuously emerging, and new facts endangering old ideas. This review shows that astrophysics has been, and still is, highly demanding to nuclear physics in both its experimental and theoretical components. On top of the fact that large varieties of nuclei have to be dealt with, these nuclei are immersed in highly unusual environments which may have a significant impact on their static properties, the diversity of their transmutation modes, and on the probabilities of these modes. In order to have a chance of solving some of the problems nuclear astrophysics is facing, the astrophysicists and nuclear physicists are obviously bound to put their competence in common, and have sometimes to benefit from the help of other fields of physics, like particle physics, plasma physics or solid-state physics. Given the highly varied and complex aspects, we pick here some specific nuclear

  7. Nuclear telemedicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, R. T.; Szasz, I. J.

    1990-06-01

    Diagnostic nuclear medicine patient images have been transniitted for 8 years from a regional conununity hospital to a university teaching hospital 700 kiloinetres away employing slow scan TV and telephone. Transruission and interpretation were done at the end of each working day or as circumstances required in cases of emergencies. Referring physicians received the nuclear medicine procedure report at the end of the completion day or within few minutes of completion in case of emergency procedures. To date more than 25 patient studies have been transmitted for interpretation. Blinded reinterpretation of the original hard copy data of 350 patient studies resulted in 100 agreement with the interpretation of transmitted data. This technique provides high quality diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine services in remote hospitals where the services of an on-site nuclear physician is not available. 2. HISTORY Eight years ago when the nuclear medicine physician at Trail Regional Hospital left the Trail area and an other could not be recruited we examined the feasibility of image transmission by phone for interpretation since closing the department would have imposed unacceptable physical and financial hardship and medical constraints on the patient population the nearest nuclear medicine facility was at some 8 hours drive away. In hospital patients would have to be treated either based purely on physical findings or flown to Vancouver at considerable cost to the health care system (estimated cost $1500.

  8. Exploring the conformational energy landscape of glassy disaccharides by cross polarization magic angle spinning 13C nuclear magnetic resonance and numerical simulations. II. Enhanced molecular flexibility in amorphous trehalose.

    PubMed

    Lefort, Ronan; Bordat, Patrice; Cesaro, Attilio; Descamps, Marc

    2007-01-01

    This paper uses chemical shift surfaces to simulate experimental (13)C cross polarization magic angle spinning spectra for amorphous solid state disaccharides, paying particular attention to the glycosidic linkage atoms in trehalose, sucrose, and lactose. The combination of molecular mechanics with density functional theory/gauge invariant atomic orbital ab initio methods provides reliable structural information on the conformational distribution in the glass. The results are interpreted in terms of an enhanced flexibility that trehalose possesses in the amorphous solid state, at least on the time scale of (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance measurements. Implications of these findings for the fragility of trehalose glass and bioprotectant action are discussed. PMID:17212504

  9. Exploring the conformational energy landscape of glassy disaccharides by cross polarization magic angle spinning 13C nuclear magnetic resonance and numerical simulations. II. Enhanced molecular flexibility in amorphous trehalose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefort, Ronan; Bordat, Patrice; Cesaro, Attilio; Descamps, Marc

    2007-01-01

    This paper uses chemical shift surfaces to simulate experimental C13 cross polarization magic angle spinning spectra for amorphous solid state disaccharides, paying particular attention to the glycosidic linkage atoms in trehalose, sucrose, and lactose. The combination of molecular mechanics with density functional theory/gauge invariant atomic orbital ab initio methods provides reliable structural information on the conformational distribution in the glass. The results are interpreted in terms of an enhanced flexibility that trehalose possesses in the amorphous solid state, at least on the time scale of C13 nuclear magnetic resonance measurements. Implications of these findings for the fragility of trehalose glass and bioprotectant action are discussed.

  10. Theoretical study of the nuclear spin-molecular rotation coupling for relativistic electrons and non-relativistic nuclei. II. Quantitative results in HX (X = H,F,Cl,Br,I) compounds.

    PubMed

    Aucar, I Agustín; Gómez, Sergio S; Melo, Juan I; Giribet, Claudia C; Ruiz de Azúa, Martín C

    2013-04-01

    In the present work, numerical results of the nuclear spin-rotation (SR) tensor in the series of compounds HX (X = H,F,Cl,Br,I) within relativistic 4-component expressions obtained by Aucar et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 136, 204119 (2012)] are presented. The SR tensors of both the H and X nuclei are discussed. Calculations were carried out within the relativistic Linear Response formalism at the Random Phase Approximation with the DIRAC program. For the halogen nucleus X, correlation effects on the non-relativistic values are shown to be of similar magnitude and opposite sign to relativistic effects. For the light H nucleus, by means of the linear response within the elimination of the small component approach it is shown that the whole relativistic effect is given by the spin-orbit operator combined with the Fermi contact operator. Comparison of "best estimate" calculated values with experimental results yield differences smaller than 2%-3% in all cases. The validity of "Flygare's relation" linking the SR tensor and the NMR nuclear magnetic shielding tensor in the present series of compounds is analyzed.

  11. Curcumin-enhanced chemosensitivity of FDA-approved platinum (II)-based anti-cancer drugs involves downregulation of nuclear endonuclease G and NF-κB as well as induction of apoptosis and G2/M arrest.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying-Ti; Liu, Hsiao-Sheng; Su, Chun-Li

    2014-05-01

    Curcumin, an active natural compound in turmeric and curry, has been reported to exhibit anti-cancer effect. Cisplatin, carboplatin and oxaliplatin are used to treat various types of cancers. However, acquired resistance and toxicities are observed. Here, the addition of curcumin significantly increased cytotoxicity of the anti-cancer drugs on human colorectal cancer HT-29 cells, producing synergistic (cisplatin and carboplatin) and additivity (oxaliplatin) effects. Treatments in combination with curcumin resulted in a significantly increased induction of apoptosis and occurrence of G2/M arrest. Nuclear apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), EndoG and NF-κB were elevated by anti-cancer drugs, suggesting the involvement of AIF and EndoG. The addition of curcumin suppressed nuclear AIF and EndoG and reversed anti-cancer drugs-induced NF-κB expression, suggesting the association of EndoG and NF-κB in curcumin-enhanced chemosensitivity. Therefore, the intake of foods rich in curcumin or curcumin-containing supplements should be taken into consideration for patients receiving chemotherapy to optimize the outcome of treatments.

  12. Morphology of nuclear transcription.

    PubMed

    Weipoltshammer, Klara; Schöfer, Christian

    2016-04-01

    Gene expression control is a fundamental determinant of cellular life with transcription being the most important step. The spatial nuclear arrangement of the transcription process driven by RNA polymerases II and III is nonrandomly organized in foci, which is believed to add another regulatory layer on gene expression control. RNA polymerase I transcription takes place within a specialized organelle, the nucleolus. Transcription of ribosomal RNA directly responds to metabolic requirements, which in turn is reflected in the architecture of nucleoli. It differs from that of the other polymerases with respect to the gene template organization, transcription rate, and epigenetic expression control, whereas other features are shared like the formation of DNA loops bringing genes and components of the transcription machinery in close proximity. In recent years, significant advances have been made in the understanding of the structural prerequisites of nuclear transcription, of the arrangement in the nuclear volume, and of the dynamics of these entities. Here, we compare ribosomal RNA and mRNA transcription side by side and review the current understanding focusing on structural aspects of transcription foci, of their constituents, and of the dynamical behavior of these components with respect to foci formation, disassembly, and cell cycle. PMID:26847177

  13. The Topaz-II project: A technical teaming of US and Russian scientists

    SciTech Connect

    Thome, F.V.; Wyant, F.J.; Oglobin, B.

    1994-12-31

    This report describes research efforts associated with the Topaz-II project and thermionic conversion. The Thermionic System Evaluation test is a program that is executed by Air FOrce Phillips Laboratory and involves the purchase of two Russian TOPAZ II space nuclear power reactor systems and support equipment necessary for nonuclear ground testing. The laboratory also is involved with the The Nuclear Electric Propulsion Space Test Power System that involes the evaluation of the TOPAZ II system from a safety perspective.

  14. Nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-05-01

    This paper discusses how, as part of the Department of Energy's implementation of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, DOE is required to investigate a site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada and, if it determines that the site is suitable, recommend to the President its selection for a nuclear waste repository. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission, in considering development of the plan, issued five objections, one of which is DOE's failure to recognize the range of alternative conceptual models of the Yucca Mountain site that can be supported by the limited existing technical data. At the end of the quarter DOE directed its project offices in Washington and Texas to begin orderly phase-out of all site-specific repository activities. Costs for this phase-out are $53 million for the Deaf Smith site and $85 million for the Hanford site.

  15. Nuclear scales

    SciTech Connect

    Friar, J.L.

    1998-12-01

    Nuclear scales are discussed from the nuclear physics viewpoint. The conventional nuclear potential is characterized as a black box that interpolates nucleon-nucleon (NN) data, while being constrained by the best possible theoretical input. The latter consists of the longer-range parts of the NN force (e.g., OPEP, TPEP, the {pi}-{gamma} force), which can be calculated using chiral perturbation theory and gauged using modern phase-shift analyses. The shorter-range parts of the force are effectively parameterized by moments of the interaction that are independent of the details of the force model, in analogy to chiral perturbation theory. Results of GFMC calculations in light nuclei are interpreted in terms of fundamental scales, which are in good agreement with expectations from chiral effective field theories. Problems with spin-orbit-type observables are noted.

  16. Nuclear pursuits

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    This table lists quantities of warheads (in stockpile, peak number per year, total number built, number of known test explosions), weapon development milestones (developers of the atomic bomb and hydrogen bomb, date of first operational ICBM, first nuclear-powered naval SSN in service, first MIRVed missile deployed), and testing milestones (first fission test, type of boosted fission weapon, multistage thermonuclear test, number of months from fission bomb to multistage thermonuclear bomb, etc.), and nuclear infrastructure (assembly plants, plutonium production reactors, uranium enrichment plants, etc.). Countries included in the tally are the United States, Soviet Union, Britain, France, and China.

  17. Spectroscopic (FT-IR, FT-Raman, 1H, 13C NMR, UV/VIS), thermogravimetric and antimicrobial studies of Ca(II), Mn(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II) complexes of ferulic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalinowska, M.; Piekut, J.; Bruss, A.; Follet, C.; Sienkiewicz-Gromiuk, J.; Świsłocka, R.; Rzączyńska, Z.; Lewandowski, W.

    2014-03-01

    The molecular structure of Mn(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II) and Ca(II) ferulates (4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamates) was studied. The selected metal ferulates were synthesized. Their composition was established by means of elementary and thermogravimetric analysis. The following spectroscopic methods were used: infrared (FT-IR), Raman (FT-Raman), nuclear magnetic resonance (13C, 1H NMR) and ultraviolet-visible (UV/VIS). On the basis of obtained results the electronic charge distribution in studied metal complexes in comparison with ferulic acid molecule was discussed. The microbiological study of ferulic acid and ferulates toward Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Candida albicans, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Proteus vulgaris was done.

  18. Nuclear power: Fourth edition

    SciTech Connect

    Deutsch, R.W.

    1986-01-01

    This book describes the basics of nuclear power generation, explaining both the benefits and the real and imagined risks of nuclear power. It includes a discussion of the Three Mile Island accident and its effects. Nuclear Power has been used in the public information programs of more than 100 utilities. The contents discussed are: Nuclear Power and People; Why Nuclear Power. Electricity produced by coal; Electricity produced by nuclear fuel; Nuclear plant sites in the United States; Short History of Commercial Nuclear Power; U.S. nuclear submarines, Regulation of Nuclear Power Plants; Licensing process, Nuclear Power Plant Operator Training; Nuclear power plant simulator, Are Nuclear Plants Safe.; Containment structure, Nuclear Power Plant Insurance; Is Radiation Dangerous.; Man-made radiation, What is Nuclear Fuel.; Fuel cycle for commercial nuclear power plants; Warm Water Discharge; Cooling tower; Protection of Radioactive Materials; Plutonium and Proliferation; Disposal of Radioactive Wastes; Are Alternate Energy Sources Available.; Nuclear Opposition; and Nuclear Power in the Future.

  19. Russian nuclear-powered submarine decommissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Bukharin, O.; Handler, J.

    1995-11-01

    Russia is facing technical, economic and organizational difficulties in dismantling its oversized and unsafe fleet of nuclear powered submarines. The inability of Russia to deal effectively with the submarine decommissioning crisis increases the risk of environmental disaster and may hamper the implementation of the START I and START II treaties. This paper discusses the nuclear fleet support infrastructure, the problems of submarine decommissioning, and recommends international cooperation in addressing these problems.

  20. The second coming of the nuclear age

    SciTech Connect

    Ikle, F.C.

    1996-01-01

    Nuclear weapons were used for the first and only time in World War II, and the world has grown accustomed to their nonuse. But the overwhelming deterrent forces that worked during the Cold War will not provide protection against the new threats: terrorism and catastrophic accident. The arsenals and mindsets of the past half-century present a formidable barrier to change, but the United States must lead the way in preventing nuclear weapons from becoming acceptable.

  1. Fifty years with nuclear fission

    SciTech Connect

    Behrens, J.W.; Carlson, A.D. )

    1989-01-01

    The news of the discovery of nucler fission, by Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassmann in Germany, was brought to the United States by Niels Bohr in January 1939. Since its discovery, the United States, and the world for that matter, has never been the same. It therefore seemed appropriate to acknowledge the fiftieth anniversary of its discovery by holding a topical meeting entitled, Fifty years with nuclear fission,'' in the United States during the year 1989. The objective of the meeting was to bring together pioneers of the nuclear industry and other scientists and engineers to report on reminiscences of the past and on the more recent developments in fission science and technology. The conference highlighted the early pioneers of the nuclear industry by dedicating a full day (April 26), consisting of two plenary sessions, at the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) in Washington, DC. More recent developments in fission science and technology in addition to historical reflections were topics for two full days of sessions (April 27 and 28) at the main sites of the NIST in Gaithersburg, Maryland. The wide range of topics covered by Volume 2 of this topical meeting included plenary invited, and contributed sessions entitled, Nuclear fission -- a prospective; reactors II; fission science II; medical and industrial applications by by-products; reactors and safeguards; general research, instrumentation, and by-products; and fission data, astrophysics, and space applications. The individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  2. TRUPACT-II, a regulatory perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory, P.C.; Spooner, O.R.

    1995-12-31

    The Transuranic Package Transporter II (TRUPACT-II) is a US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) certified Type B packaging for the shipment of contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) material by the US Department of Energy (DOE). The NRC approved the TRUPACT-II design as meeting the requirements of Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 71 (10 CFR 71) and issued Certificate of Compliance (CofC) Number 9218 to the DOE. There are currently 15 certified TRUPACT-IIs. Additional TRUPACT-IIs will be required to make more than 15,000 shipments of CH-TRU waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site near Carlsbad, New Mexico. The TRUPACT-II may also be used for the DOE inter-site and intra-site shipments of CH-TRU waste. The Land Withdrawal Act (Public Law 102-579), enacted by the US Congress, October 30, 1992, and an agreement between the DOE and the State of New Mexico, signed August 4, 1987, both stipulate that only NRC approved packaging may be used for shipments of TRU waste to the WIPP. Early in the TRUPACT-II development phase it was decided that the transportation system (tractor, trailer, and TRUPACT-II) should be highway legal on all routes without the need for oversize and/or overweight permits. In large measure, public acceptance of the DOE`s efforts to safely transport CH-TRU waste depends on the public`s perception that the TRUPACT-II is in compliance with all applicable regulations, standards, and quality assurance requirements. This paper addresses some of the numerous regulations applicable to Type B packaging, and it describes how the TRUPACT-II complies with these regulations.

  3. The Nuclear Education and Staffing Challenge: Rebuilding Critical Skills in Nuclear Science and Technology.

    SciTech Connect

    Wogman, Ned A.; Bond, Leonard J.; Waltar, Alan E.; Leber, R. E.

    2005-01-01

    The United States, the Department of Energy (DOE) and its National Laboratories, including the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), are facing a serious attrition of nuclear scientists and engineers and their capabilities through the effects of aging staff. Within the DOE laboratories, 75% of nuclear personnel will be eligible to retire by 2010. It is expected that there will be a significant loss of senior nuclear science and technology staff at PNNL within five years. PNNL's nuclear legacy is firmly rooted in the DOE Hanford site, the World War II Manhattan Project, and subsequent programs. Historically, PNNL was a laboratory where 70% of its activities were nuclear/radiological, and now just under 50% of its current business science and technology are nuclear and radiologically oriented. Programs in the areas of Nuclear Legacies, Global Security, Nonproliferation, Homeland Security and National Defense, Radiobiology and Nuclear Energy still involve more than 1,000 of the 3,800 current laboratory staff, and these include more than 420 staff who are certified as nuclear/radiological scientists and engineers. This paper presents the current challenges faced by PNNL that require an emerging strategy to solve the nuclear staffing issues through the maintenance and replenishment of the human nuclear capital needed to support PNNL nuclear science and technology programs.

  4. The Nuclear Education and Staffing Challenge: Rebuilding Critical Skills in Nuclear Science and Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Wogman, Ned A.; Bond, Leonard J.; Waltar, Alan E.; Leber, R E.

    2005-01-01

    The United States, the Department of Energy (DOE) and its National Laboratories, including the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), are facing a serious attrition of nuclear scientists and engineers and their capabilities through the effects of aging staff. Within the DOE laboratories, 75% of nuclear personnel will be eligible to retire by 2010. It is expected that there will be a significant loss of senior nuclear science and technology staff at PNNL within five years. PNNL's nuclear legacy is firmly rooted in the DOE Hanford site, the World War II Manhattan Project, and subsequent programs. Historically, PNNL was a laboratory were 70% of its activities were nuclear/radiological, and now just under 50% of its current business science and technology are nuclear and radiologically oriented. Programs in the areas of Nuclear Legacies, Global Security, Nonproliferation, Homeland Security and National Defense, Radiobiology and Nuclear Energy still involve more than 1,000 of the 3,800 current laboratory staff, and these include more than 420 staff who are certified as nuclear/radiological scientists and engineers. This paper presents the current challenges faced by PNNL that require an emerging strategy to solve the nuclear staffing issues through the maintenance and replenishment of the human nuclear capital needed to support PNNL nuclear science and technology programs.

  5. Nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, H.N. Jr.

    1986-10-17

    In 1985 and 1986 nuclear medicine became more and more oriented toward in vov chemistry, chiefly as a result of advances in positron emission tomography (PET). The most important trend was the extension of PET technology into the care of patients with brain tumors, epilepsy, and heart disease. A second trend was the increasing use of single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT).

  6. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Treshow, M.

    1961-09-01

    A boiling-water nuclear reactor is described wherein control is effected by varying the moderator-to-fuel ratio in the reactor core. This is accomplished by providing control tubes containing a liquid control moderator in the reactor core and providing means for varying the amount of control moderatcr within the control tubes.

  7. Nuclear Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Education, Harrisburg. Bureau of Curriculum Services.

    This document is a report on a course in nuclear science for the high school curriculum. The course is designed to provide a basic but comprehensive understanding of the atom in the light of modern knowledge, and to show how people attempt to harness the tremendous energy liberated through fission and fusion reactions. The course crosses what are…

  8. Nuclear Misinformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Daniel F.; Kendall, Henry W.

    1975-01-01

    Many scientists feel that research into nuclear safety has been diverted or distorted, and the results of the research concealed or inaccurately reported on a large number of occasions. Of particular concern have been the emergency cooling systems which have not, as yet, been adequately tested. (Author/MA)

  9. Nuclear explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Broyles, A.A.

    1982-07-01

    A summary of the physics of a nuclear bomb explosion and its effects on human beings is presented at the level of a sophomore general physics course without calculus. It is designed to supplement a standard text for such a course and problems are included.

  10. Nuclear energy.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Peter D

    2010-01-01

    The technical principles and practices of the civil nuclear industry are described with particular reference to fission and its products, natural and artificial radioactivity elements principally concerned and their relationships, main types of reactor, safety issues, the fuel cycle, waste management, issues related to weapon proliferation, environmental considerations and possible future developments.

  11. Nuclear Terrorism.

    SciTech Connect

    Hecker, Siegfried S.

    2001-01-01

    As pointed out by several speakers, the level of violence and destruction in terrorist attacks has increased significantly during the past decade. Fortunately, few have involved weapons of mass destruction, and none have achieved mass casualties. The Aum Shinrikyo release of lethal nerve agent, sarin, in the Tokyo subway on March 20, 1995 clearly broke new ground by crossing the threshold in attempting mass casualties with chemical weapons. However, of all weapons of mass destruction, nuclear weapons still represent the most frightening threat to humankind. Nuclear weapons possess an enormous destructive force. The immediacy and scale of destruction are unmatched. In addition to destruction, terrorism also aims to create fear among the public and governments. Here also, nuclear weapons are unmatched. The public's fear of nuclear weapons or, for that matter, of all radioactivity is intense. To some extent, this fear arises from a sense of unlimited vulnerability. That is, radioactivity is seen as unbounded in three dimensions - distance, it is viewed as having unlimited reach; quantity, it is viewed as having deadly consequences in the smallest doses (the public is often told - incorrectly, of course - that one atom of plutonium will kill); and time, if it does not kill you immediately, then it will cause cancer decades hence.

  12. Topaz II preliminary safety assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, A.C. ); Standley, V. ); Voss, S.S. ); Haskin, E. )

    1993-01-10

    The Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) decided to investigate the possibility of launching a Russian Topaz II space nuclear power system. A preliminary safety assessment was conducted to determine whether or not a space mission could be conducted safely and within budget constraints. As part of this assessment, a safety policy and safety functional requirements were developed to guide both the safety assessment and future Topaz II activities. A review of the Russian flight safety program was conducted and documented. Our preliminary safety assessment included a top level event tree, neutronic analysis of normal and accident configurations, an evaluation of temperature coefficients of reactivity, a reentry and disposal analysis, and analysis of postulated launch abort impact accidents, and an analysis of postulated propellant fire and explosion accidents. Based on the assessment, it appears that it will be possible to safely launch the Topaz II system in the U.S. with some possible system modifications. The principal system modifications will probably include design changes to preclude water flooded criticality and to assure intact reentry.

  13. START II and the politics of arms control in Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Lepingwell, J.W.R.

    1995-12-31

    The arguments for nuclear weapons reduction in the post-Cold War era are compelling, but as the nuclear confrontation has receded, so has the urgency attached to the destruction of nuclear weapons. In Russia, pressing economic and political problems have diverted attention from the nuclear issue, while the polarization of politics has reduced chances for the early ratification of START II. The increasing mistrust of the West in Russian political conservative circles, combined with the cost of disarmament, have given rise to a strong lobby for slowing the arms reduction process. 88 refs. 3 tabs.

  14. Recent developments in Topaz-II reactor safety assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, A.C. )

    1993-01-01

    In December 1991, the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) decided to investigate the possibility of a US launch of a Russian Topaz-II space nuclear power system. The primary mission goal would be to demonstrate and evaluate nuclear electric propulsion technology to establish a capability for future civilian and military missions. A preliminary nuclear safety analysis was initiated to determine whether or not a space mission could be conducted safely and within budget constraints. This paper describes preliminary safety analysis results and the nuclear safety program now being established for the NEP space test (NEPST).

  15. Corrigendum to "Gains from the upgrade of the cold neutron triple-axis spectrometer FLEXX at the BER-II reactor" [Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 729 (2013) 220-226

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, M. D.; Quintero-Castro, D. L.; Toft-Petersen, R.; Groitl, F.; Skoulatos, M.; Rule, K. C.; Habicht, K.

    2014-12-01

    It has been recently brought to our attention that there are two errors in Fig. 2 of the article, "Gains from the upgrade of the cold neutron triple-axis spectrometer FLEXX at the BER-II reactor", published in volume 729, pages 220-226 of this journal in 2013. Firstly, the right hand vertical axis labels should read "Integrated Flux (107 n cm-2 s-1)" rather than "Integrated Flux (108 n cm-2s-1)". Secondly, the implicit comparison between the integrated peak area of a monochromator rocking scan and the neutron flux measured by gold foil activation in the figure is invalid. Rather, the peak height should be used as shown in corrected Fig. 1. These corrections, however, do not invalidate the conclusions of the paper, which is that up to an order of magnitude gain in count rate has been achieved from the upgrade of the primary spectrometer of the FLEXX instrument in Berlin. The authors would like to apologize for any inconvenience caused.

  16. Correlation of radioactive-waste-treatment costs and the environmental impact of waste effluents in the nuclear fuel cycle: conversion of yellow cake to uranium hexafluoride. Part II. The solvent extraction-fluorination process

    SciTech Connect

    Sears, M.B.; Etnier, E.L.; Hill, G.S.; Patton, B.D.; Witherspoon, J.P.; Yen, S.N.

    1983-03-01

    A cost/benefit study was made to determine the cost and effectiveness of radioactive waste (radwaste) treatment systems for decreasing the release of radioactive materials and chemicals from a model uranium hexafluoride (UF/sub 6/) production plant using the solvent extraction-fluorination process, and to evaluate the radiological impact (dose commitment) of the release materials on the environment. The model plant processes 10,000 metric tons of uranium per year. Base-case waste treatment is the minimum necessary to operate the process. Effluents meet the radiological requirements listed in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10, Part 20 (10 CFR 20), Appendix B, Table II, but may not be acceptable chemically at all sites. Additional radwaste treatment techniques are applied to the base-case plant in a series of case studies to decrease the amounts of radioactive materials released and to reduce the amounts of radioactive materials released and to reduce the radiological dose commitment to the population in the surrounding area. The costs for the added waste treatment operations and the corresponding dose committment are correlated with the annual cost for treatment of the radwastes. The status of the radwaste treatment methods used in the case studies is discussed. Much of the technology used in the advanced cases will require development and demonstration, or else is proprietary and unavailable for immediate use. The methodology and assumptions for the radiological doses are found in ORNL-4992.

  17. Radon and Thoron Measured in Petrol and Gas-oil Exhaust Fumes by Using CR-39 and LR-115 II Nuclear Track Detectors: Radiation Doses to the Respiratory Tract of Mechanic Workers.

    PubMed

    Misdaq, M A; Chaouqi, A; Ouguidi, J; Touti, R; Mortassim, A

    2015-06-01

    Mechanic workers are exposed to exhaust fumes when controlling vehicle engines in motion inside repair shops. To assess radiation doses due to radon short-lived progeny from the inhalation of exhaust fumes by mechanic workers, concentrations of these radionuclides were measured in petrol (gasoline) and gas-oil exhaust fumes by evaluating mean critical angles of etching of the CR-39 and LR-115 type II SSNTDs for alpha particles emitted by the radon and thoron decay series. Committed effective doses due to ²¹⁸Po and ²¹⁴Po short-lived radon decay products from the inhalation of petrol and gas-oil exhaust fumes by workers were evaluated. A maximum value of 1.35 mSv y⁻¹ due to radon short-lived decay products from the inhalation of gas-oil exhaust fumes by mechanic workers was found, which is lower than the (3-10 mSv y⁻¹) dose limit interval for workers.

  18. Nuclear eclectic power.

    PubMed

    Rose, D J

    1974-04-19

    The uranium and thorium resources, the technology, and the social impacts all seem to presage an even sharper increase in nuclear power for electric generation than had hitherto been predicted. There are more future consequences. The "hydrogen economy." Nuclear power plants operate best at constant power and full load. Thus, a largely nuclear electric economy has the problem of utilizing substantial off-peak capacity; the additional energy generation can typically be half the normal daily demand. Thus, the option of generating hydrogen as a nonpolluting fuel receives two boosts: excess nuclear capacity to produce it, plus much higher future costs for oil and natural gas. However, the so-called "hydrogen economy" must await the excess capacity, which will not occur until the end of the century. Nonelectric uses. By analyses similar to those performed here, raw nuclear heat can be shown to be cheaper than heat from many other fuel sources, especially nonpolluting ones. This will be particularly true as domestic natural gas supplies become more scarce. Nuclear heat becomes attractive for industrial purposes, and even for urban district heating, provided (i) the temperature is high enough (this is no problem for district heating, but could be for industry; the HTGR's and breeders, with 600 degrees C or more available, have the advantage); (ii) there is a market for large quantities (a heat rate of 3800 Mw thermal, the reactor size permitted today, will heat Boston, with some to spare); and (iii) the social costs become more definitely resolved in favor of nuclear power. Capital requirements. Nuclear-electric installations are very capital-intensive. One trillion dollars for the plants, backup industry, and so forth is only 2 percent of the total gross national product (GNP) between 1974 and 2000, at a growth rate of 4 percent per year. But capital accumulation tends to run at about 10 percent of the GNP, so the nuclear requirements make a sizable perturbation. Also

  19. Nuclear eclectic power.

    PubMed

    Rose, D J

    1974-04-19

    The uranium and thorium resources, the technology, and the social impacts all seem to presage an even sharper increase in nuclear power for electric generation than had hitherto been predicted. There are more future consequences. The "hydrogen economy." Nuclear power plants operate best at constant power and full load. Thus, a largely nuclear electric economy has the problem of utilizing substantial off-peak capacity; the additional energy generation can typically be half the normal daily demand. Thus, the option of generating hydrogen as a nonpolluting fuel receives two boosts: excess nuclear capacity to produce it, plus much higher future costs for oil and natural gas. However, the so-called "hydrogen economy" must await the excess capacity, which will not occur until the end of the century. Nonelectric uses. By analyses similar to those performed here, raw nuclear heat can be shown to be cheaper than heat from many other fuel sources, especially nonpolluting ones. This will be particularly true as domestic natural gas supplies become more scarce. Nuclear heat becomes attractive for industrial purposes, and even for urban district heating, provided (i) the temperature is high enough (this is no problem for district heating, but could be for industry; the HTGR's and breeders, with 600 degrees C or more available, have the advantage); (ii) there is a market for large quantities (a heat rate of 3800 Mw thermal, the reactor size permitted today, will heat Boston, with some to spare); and (iii) the social costs become more definitely resolved in favor of nuclear power. Capital requirements. Nuclear-electric installations are very capital-intensive. One trillion dollars for the plants, backup industry, and so forth is only 2 percent of the total gross national product (GNP) between 1974 and 2000, at a growth rate of 4 percent per year. But capital accumulation tends to run at about 10 percent of the GNP, so the nuclear requirements make a sizable perturbation. Also

  20. Nuclear politics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranson, John

    2009-04-01

    The sentiments expressed by Sidney Drell in his forum article "The nuclear threat: a new start" (February pp16-17) are laudable, but it was disappointing to find this almost entirely political story in isolation. The article, which outlined the prospects for reducing weapons stockpiles under the new US administration, would have been more pertinent as an introduction to a series describing the technology used in detecting nuclear-testing activity. It would have been interesting to discuss the specific equipment and methods used, together with the analysis and correlation techniques - along with an indication of how sensitive and reliable they are (if the information is not classified). It is far easier to detect an explosive event than it is to detect and quantify weapons stores, which is a key factor for any negotiated solution. Apart from deductions based on actual inspection and satellite surveillance, are there other techniques that can be applied to this issue?

  1. NUCLEAR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Long, E.; Ashby, J.W.

    1958-09-16

    ABS>A graphite moderator structure is presented for a nuclear reactor compriscd of an assembly of similarly orientated prismatic graphite blocks arranged on spaced longitudinal axes lying in common planes wherein the planes of the walls of the blocks are positioned so as to be twisted reintive to the planes of said axes so thatthe unlmpeded dtrect paths in direction wholly across the walls of the blocks are limited to the width of the blocks plus spacing between the blocks.

  2. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, C.R.

    1962-07-24

    A fluidized bed nuclear reactor and a method of operating such a reactor are described. In the design means are provided for flowing a liquid moderator upwardly through the center of a bed of pellets of a nentron-fissionable material at such a rate as to obtain particulate fluidization while constraining the lower pontion of the bed into a conical shape. A smooth circulation of particles rising in the center and falling at the outside of the bed is thereby established. (AEC)

  3. Nuclear Chirality

    SciTech Connect

    Starosta, Krzysztof

    2005-04-05

    Nuclear chirality is a novel manifestation of spontaneous symmetry breaking resulting from an orthogonal coupling of angular momentum vectors in triaxial nuclei. Three perpendicular angular momenta can form two systems of opposite handedness; the time reversal operator, which reverses orientation of each of the angular momentum components, relates these two systems. The status of current experimental searches for chiral doubling of states, as well as recent progress on the theoretical side is reviewed.

  4. Nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    Radioactive waste is mounting at U.S. nuclear power plants at a rate of more than 2,000 metric tons a year. Pursuant to statute and anticipating that a geologic repository would be available in 1998, the Department of Energy (DOE) entered into disposal contracts with nuclear utilities. Now, however, DOE does not expect the repository to be ready before 2010. For this reason, DOE does not want to develop a facility for monitored retrievable storage (MRS) by 1998. This book is concerned about how best to store the waste until a repository is available, congressional requesters asked GAO to review the alternatives of continued storage at utilities' reactor sites or transferring waste to an MRS facility, GAO assessed the likelihood of an MRSA facility operating by 1998, legal implications if DOE is not able to take delivery of wastes in 1998, propriety of using the Nuclear Waste Fund-from which DOE's waste program costs are paid-to pay utilities for on-site storage capacity added after 1998, ability of utilities to store their waste on-site until a repository is operating, and relative costs and safety of the two storage alternatives.

  5. Nuclear terrorism.

    PubMed

    Hogan, David E; Kellison, Ted

    2002-06-01

    Recent events have heightened awareness of the potential for terrorist attacks employing nonconventional weaponry such as biological agents and radiation. Historically, the philosophy of nuclear risk has focused on global or strategic nuclear exchanges and the resulting damage from large-scale releases. Currently, nuclear accidents or terrorist attacks involving low-level or regional release of radiation are considered the most likely events. Thus far, there have been several regional radiation incidents exposing hundreds of thousands of people to radiation, but there have been only a limited number of significant contaminations resulting in death. There are several different types of radioactive particles that differ in mass, extent of radiation emitted, and the degree to which tissue penetration occurs. Radiation affects its toxicity on biological systems by ionization, which creates tissue damage by the generation of free radicals, disruption of chemical bonds, and directly damaging cellular DNA and enzymes. The extent of damage depends on the type of radioisotope and the radiation dose. Radiation doses exceeding 2 to 10 Gy are considered lethal. Optimal management of radiation casualties requires knowledge of the type and dose of radiation received, a recognition of the manifestations of radiation sickness, and the use of standard medical care, decontamination, and decorporation techniques. PMID:12074488

  6. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Grebe, J.J.

    1959-07-14

    High temperature reactors which are uniquely adapted to serve as the heat source for nuclear pcwered rockets are described. The reactor is comprised essentially of an outer tubular heat resistant casing which provides the main coolant passageway to and away from the reactor core within the casing and in which the working fluid is preferably hydrogen or helium gas which is permitted to vaporize from a liquid storage tank. The reactor core has a generally spherical shape formed entirely of an active material comprised of fissile material and a moderator material which serves as a diluent. The active material is fabricated as a gas permeable porous material and is interlaced in a random manner with very small inter-connecting bores or capillary tubes through which the coolant gas may flow. The entire reactor is divided into successive sections along the direction of the temperature gradient or coolant flow, each section utilizing materials of construction which are most advantageous from a nuclear standpoint and which at the same time can withstand the operating temperature of that particular zone. This design results in a nuclear reactor characterized simultaneously by a minimum critiral size and mass and by the ability to heat a working fluid to an extremely high temperature.

  7. Nuclear photonics

    SciTech Connect

    Habs, D.; Guenther, M. M.; Jentschel, M.; Thirolf, P. G.

    2012-07-09

    With the planned new {gamma}-beam facilities like MEGa-ray at LLNL (USA) or ELI-NP at Bucharest (Romania) with 10{sup 13}{gamma}/s and a band width of {Delta}E{gamma}/E{gamma} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup -3}, a new era of {gamma} beams with energies up to 20MeV comes into operation, compared to the present world-leading HI{gamma}S facility at Duke University (USA) with 10{sup 8}{gamma}/s and {Delta}E{gamma}/E{gamma} Almost-Equal-To 3 Dot-Operator 10{sup -2}. In the long run even a seeded quantum FEL for {gamma} beams may become possible, with much higher brilliance and spectral flux. At the same time new exciting possibilities open up for focused {gamma} beams. Here we describe a new experiment at the {gamma} beam of the ILL reactor (Grenoble, France), where we observed for the first time that the index of refraction for {gamma} beams is determined by virtual pair creation. Using a combination of refractive and reflective optics, efficient monochromators for {gamma} beams are being developed. Thus, we have to optimize the total system: the {gamma}-beam facility, the {gamma}-beam optics and {gamma} detectors. We can trade {gamma} intensity for band width, going down to {Delta}E{gamma}/E{gamma} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup -6} and address individual nuclear levels. The term 'nuclear photonics' stresses the importance of nuclear applications. We can address with {gamma}-beams individual nuclear isotopes and not just elements like with X-ray beams. Compared to X rays, {gamma} beams can penetrate much deeper into big samples like radioactive waste barrels, motors or batteries. We can perform tomography and microscopy studies by focusing down to {mu}m resolution using Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence (NRF) for detection with eV resolution and high spatial resolution at the same time. We discuss the dominating M1 and E1 excitations like the scissors mode, two-phonon quadrupole octupole excitations, pygmy dipole excitations or giant dipole excitations under the new facet of

  8. Nuclear photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habs, D.; Günther, M. M.; Jentschel, M.; Thirolf, P. G.

    2012-07-01

    With the planned new γ-beam facilities like MEGa-ray at LLNL (USA) or ELI-NP at Bucharest (Romania) with 1013 γ/s and a band width of ΔEγ/Eγ≈10-3, a new era of γ beams with energies up to 20MeV comes into operation, compared to the present world-leading HIγS facility at Duke University (USA) with 108 γ/s and ΔEγ/Eγ≈3ṡ10-2. In the long run even a seeded quantum FEL for γ beams may become possible, with much higher brilliance and spectral flux. At the same time new exciting possibilities open up for focused γ beams. Here we describe a new experiment at the γ beam of the ILL reactor (Grenoble, France), where we observed for the first time that the index of refraction for γ beams is determined by virtual pair creation. Using a combination of refractive and reflective optics, efficient monochromators for γ beams are being developed. Thus, we have to optimize the total system: the γ-beam facility, the γ-beam optics and γ detectors. We can trade γ intensity for band width, going down to ΔEγ/Eγ≈10-6 and address individual nuclear levels. The term "nuclear photonics" stresses the importance of nuclear applications. We can address with γ-beams individual nuclear isotopes and not just elements like with X-ray beams. Compared to X rays, γ beams can penetrate much deeper into big samples like radioactive waste barrels, motors or batteries. We can perform tomography and microscopy studies by focusing down to μm resolution using Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence (NRF) for detection with eV resolution and high spatial resolution at the same time. We discuss the dominating M1 and E1 excitations like the scissors mode, two-phonon quadrupole octupole excitations, pygmy dipole excitations or giant dipole excitations under the new facet of applications. We find many new applications in biomedicine, green energy, radioactive waste management or homeland security. Also more brilliant secondary beams of neutrons and positrons can be produced.

  9. Who Should Control Nuclear Technology? A Curriculum Unit for Contemporary U.S. and World History, Grades 9-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimney, Michelle; Boston, Jane

    Since the end of World War II and the onset of the "new age," nuclear technology has remained high on the world's agenda as questions regarding sovereignty and the balance of power, control of the development and spread of nuclear weapons, non-military uses for nuclear technology, and nuclear safety are debated among and within nations. The "club"…

  10. Voices of survival in the nuclear age

    SciTech Connect

    Paulson, D.

    1986-01-01

    In this book, 120 well-know people debate the nuclear war issue. The views of such people as Hugh M. Downs, William F. Buckley, Jr., Phyllis Diller, Stacey Keach, Indiria Gandhi, Joan Baez, Richard Pryor, Tom Hayde, H.H. Pope John Paul II, and Charles E. Osgood are given in four sections: The Problem, The Response, The Prognosis, and the Solution.

  11. Condensed Matter Nuclear Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biberian, Jean-Paul

    2006-02-01

    . Bloch ions / T. A. Chubb. II. Inhibited diffusion driven surface transmutations / T. A. Chubb. III. Bloch nuclides, Iwamura transmutations, and Oriani showers / T. A. Chubb. Bose-Einstein condensate. Theoretical study of nuclear reactions induced by Bose-Einstein condensation in Pd / K.-I. Tsuchiya and H. Okumura. Proposal for new experimental tests of the Bose-Einstein condensation mechanism for low-energy nuclear reaction and transmutation processes in deuterium loaded micro- and nano-scale cavities / Y. E. Kim ... [et al.]. Mixtures of charged bosons confined in harmonic traps and Bose-Einstein condensation mechanism for low-energy nuclear reactions and transmutation processes in condensed matters / Y. E. Kim and A. L. Zubarev. Alternative interpretation of low-energy nuclear reaction processes with deuterated metals based on the Bose-Einstein condensation mechanism / Y. E. Kim and T. O. Passell. Multi-body fusion. [symbol]He/[symbol]He production ratios by tetrahedral symmetric condensation / A. Takahashi. Phonon coupling. Phonon-exchange models: some new results / P. L. Hagelstein. Neutron clusters. Cold fusion phenomenon and solid state nuclear physics / H. Kozima. Neutrinos, magnetic monopoles. Neutrino-driven nuclear reactions of cold fusion and transmutation / V. Filimonov. Light monopoles theory: an overview of their effects in physics, chemistry, biology, and nuclear science (weak interactions) / G. Lochak. Electrons clusters and magnetic monopoles / M. Rambaut. Others. Effects of atomic electrons on nuclear stability and radioactive decay / D. V. Filippov, L. I. Urutskoev, and A. A. Rukhadze. Search for erzion nuclear catalysis chains from cosmic ray erzions stopping in organic scintillator / Yu. N. Bazhutov and E. V. Pletnikov. Low-energy nuclear reactions resulting as picometer interactions with similarity to K-shell electron capture / H. Hora ... [et al.] -- 5. Other topics. On the possible magnetic mechanism of shortening the runaway of RBMK-1000 reactor

  12. TRUPACT-II Operating and Maintenance Instructions

    SciTech Connect

    Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Waste Isolation Division

    1999-12-31

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II) Shipping Package and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificate of Compliance (C of C) 9218. In the event there is a conflict between this document and the TRUPACT-II SARP, the TRUPACT-II SARP shall govern. TRUPACT-II C of C number 9218 states, ''... each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application.'' It further states, ''... each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the application.'' Chapter 9 of the TRUPACT-II SARP charges the Westinghouse Electric Corporation Waste Isolation Division (WID) with assuring that the TRUPACT-II is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. To meet this requirement and verify consistency of operations when loading and unloading the TRUPACT-II on the trailer, placing a payload in the packaging, unloading the payload from the packaging, or performing maintenance, the U.S. Department of Energy Carlsbad Area Office (U.S. DOE/CAO) finds it necessary to implement the changes that follow. This TRUPACT-II maintenance document represents a change to previous philosophy regarding site specific procedures for the use of the TRUPACT-II. This document details the instructions to be followed to consistently operate and maintain the TRUPACT-II. The intent of these instructions is to ensure that all users of the TRUPACT-II follow the same or equivalent instructions. Users may achieve this intent by any of the following methods: (1) Utilizing these instructions as is, or (2

  13. The Nuclear Power and Nuclear Weapons Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leventhal, Paul

    1990-01-01

    Explains problems enforcing the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) of 1968. Provides factual charts and details concerning the production of nuclear energy and arms, the processing and disposal of waste products, and outlines the nuclear fuel cycle. Discusses safeguards, the risk of nuclear terrorism, and ways to deal with these problems. (NL)

  14. The nuclear arsenals and nuclear disarmament.

    PubMed

    Barnaby, F

    1998-01-01

    Current world stockpiles of nuclear weapons and the status of treaties for nuclear disarmament and the ultimate elimination of nuclear weapons are summarised. The need for including stockpiles of civil plutonium in a programme for ending production and disposing of fissile materials is emphasized, and the ultimate difficulty of disposing of the last few nuclear weapons discussed.

  15. The Nuclear Power/Nuclear Weapons Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Totten, Sam; Totten, Martha Wescoat

    1985-01-01

    Once they have nuclear power, most countries will divert nuclear materials from commercial to military programs. In excerpts from the book "Facing the Danger" (by Totten, S. and M. W., Crossing Press, 1984), five anti-nuclear activists explain how and why they have been addressing the nuclear connection. (RM)

  16. RNA Polymerases of Maize: Nuclear RNA Polymerases*

    PubMed Central

    Strain, Gustave C.; Mullinix, Kathleen P.; Bogorad, Lawrence

    1971-01-01

    Two DNA-dependent RNA polymerases of nuclear origin have been purified from leaves of Zea mays. The two enzymes can be separated on DEAE-cellulose columns. Enzymes I and II are eluted with 0.08 and 0.20 M (NH4)2SO4, respectively. Both enzymes prefer maize nuclear DNA as a template; they are also more active in the presence of Mg++ than Mn++ and are inhibited by (NH4)2-SO4 or KCl. Neither enzyme is inhibited by rifamycin SV. Enzyme II is strongly inhibited by α-amanitin, whereas enzyme I is not significantly affected. Their ability to use native and denatured DNA as templates varies according to the extent and method of purification of the polymerase. Furthermore, enzyme II can be resolved by DEAE-chromatography or glycerol-gradient centrifugation into two components, one of which prefers native DNA, while the other prefers denatured DNA. PMID:5288239

  17. FIRE II - Cirrus Data Sets

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-07-26

    FIRE II - Cirrus Data Sets First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) II ... stratocumulus systems, the radiative properties of these clouds and their interactions. Relevant Documents:  FIRE Project Guide FIRE II - Cirrus Home Page FIRE II - Cirrus Mission Summaries ...

  18. Development of KURAMA-II and its operation in Fukushima

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanigaki, M.; Okumura, R.; Takamiya, K.; Sato, N.; Yoshino, H.; Yoshinaga, H.; Kobayashi, Y.; Uehara, A.; Yamana, H.

    2015-05-01

    A carborne survey system, named as KURAMA (Kyoto University RAdiation MApping system), was developed as a response to the nuclear accident at TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in 2011. Now the system has evolved into KURAMA-II, characterized by its compactness, autonomous operation, and acquisition of pulse-height spectrum data. A two-year field test of radiation monitoring by KURAMA-II on local buses, performed by Kyoto University, has successfully proceeded to the phase of official operation by the Fukushima prefectural government, supported by Kyoto University and JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency). An outline and the current status of KURAMA-II, including some results of the continuous monitoring by KURAMA-II on local buses in Fukushima, are introduced.

  19. Nuclear security

    SciTech Connect

    Dingell, J.D.

    1991-02-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, located in Livermore, California, generates and controls large numbers of classified documents associated with the research and testing of nuclear weapons. Concern has been raised about the potential for espionage at the laboratory and the national security implications of classified documents being stolen. This paper determines the extent of missing classified documents at the laboratory and assesses the adequacy of accountability over classified documents in the laboratory's custody. Audit coverage was limited to the approximately 600,000 secret documents in the laboratory's custody. The adequacy of DOE's oversight of the laboratory's secret document control program was also assessed.

  20. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Young, G.

    1963-01-01

    This patent covers a power-producing nuclear reactor in which fuel rods of slightly enriched U are moderated by heavy water and cooled by liquid metal. The fuel rods arranged parallel to one another in a circle are contained in a large outer closed-end conduit that extends into a tank containing the heavy water. Liquid metal is introduced into the large conduit by a small inner conduit that extends within the circle of fuel rods to a point near the lower closed end of the outer conduit. (AEC) Production Reactors

  1. Nuclear energy.

    PubMed

    Grandin, Karl; Jagers, Peter; Kullander, Sven

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear energy can play a role in carbon free production of electrical energy, thus making it interesting for tomorrow's energy mix. However, several issues have to be addressed. In fission technology, the design of so-called fourth generation reactors show great promise, in particular in addressing materials efficiency and safety issues. If successfully developed, such reactors may have an important and sustainable part in future energy production. Working fusion reactors may be even more materials efficient and environmental friendly, but also need more development and research. The roadmap for development of fourth generation fission and fusion reactors, therefore, asks for attention and research in these fields must be strengthened.

  2. Nuclear energy.

    PubMed

    Grandin, Karl; Jagers, Peter; Kullander, Sven

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear energy can play a role in carbon free production of electrical energy, thus making it interesting for tomorrow's energy mix. However, several issues have to be addressed. In fission technology, the design of so-called fourth generation reactors show great promise, in particular in addressing materials efficiency and safety issues. If successfully developed, such reactors may have an important and sustainable part in future energy production. Working fusion reactors may be even more materials efficient and environmental friendly, but also need more development and research. The roadmap for development of fourth generation fission and fusion reactors, therefore, asks for attention and research in these fields must be strengthened. PMID:20873683

  3. NUCLEAR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Long, E.; Ashley, J.W.

    1958-12-16

    A graphite moderator structure is described for a gas-cooled nuclear reactor having a vertical orlentation wherein the structure is physically stable with regard to dlmensional changes due to Wigner growth properties of the graphite, and leakage of coolant gas along spaces in the structure is reduced. The structure is comprised of stacks of unlform right prismatic graphite blocks positioned in layers extending in the direction of the lengths of the blocks, the adjacent end faces of the blocks being separated by pairs of tiles. The blocks and tiles have central bores which are in alignment when assembled and are provided with cooperatlng keys and keyways for physical stability.

  4. Dictionary of nuclear engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Sube, R.

    1985-01-01

    Ralf Sube, an experienced compiler of three wellknown four-language reference works has now prepared this glossary of nuclear engineering terms in English, German, French and Russian. Based on the proven lexicography of the Technik-Worterbuch series, it comprises about 30,000 terms in each language covering the following: Nuclear and Atomic Physics; Nuclear Radiation and Isotopes; Nuclear Materials; Nuclear Facilties; Nuclear Power Industry; Nuclear Weapons.

  5. Consequences of Regional Scale Nuclear Conflicts and Acts of Individual Nuclear Terrorism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toon, O. B.; Turco, R. P.; Robock, A.; Bardeen, C.; Oman, L.; Stenchikov, G. L.

    2006-12-01

    The number of nuclear warheads in the world has fallen by about a factor of three since its peak in 1986. However, the potential exists for numerous regional nuclear arms races, and for a significant expansion in the number of nuclear weapons states. Eight countries are known to have nuclear weapons, 2 are constructing them, and an additional 32 nations already have the fissile material needed to build weapons if they so desire. Population and economic activity worldwide are congregated to an increasing extent in "megacities", which are ideal targets for nuclear weapons. We find that low yield weapons, which new nuclear powers are likely to construct, can produce 100 times as many fatalities and 100 times as much smoke from fires per kt yield as high-yield weapons, if they are targeted at city centers. A single low-yield nuclear detonation in an urban center could lead to more fatalities, in some cases by orders of magnitude, than have occurred in major historical conflicts. A regional war between the smallest current nuclear states involving 100 15-kt explosions (less than 0.1% of the explosive yield of the current global nuclear arsenal) could produce direct fatalities comparable to all of those worldwide in World War II (WW-II), or to those once estimated for a "counterforce" nuclear war between the superpowers. Portions of megacities attacked with nuclear devices or exposed to fallout of long-lived isotopes, through armed conflict or terrorism, would likely be abandoned indefinitely, with severe national and international implications. Smoke from urban firestorms in a regional war might induce significant climatic and ozone anomalies on global scales. While there are many uncertainties in the issues we discuss here, the major uncertainties are the type and scale of conflict that might occur. Each of these potential hazards deserves careful analysis by governments worldwide advised by a broad section of the world scientific community, as well as widespread

  6. Use of cermet fueled nuclear reactors for direct nuclear propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharyya, S.K.; Carlson, L.W.; Kuczen, K.D.; Hanan, N.A.; Palmer, R.G.; Von Hoomissen, J.; Chiu, W.; Haaland, R.

    1988-07-01

    There has been a renewal of interest in Direct Nuclear Propulsion (DNP) because of the Air Force Forecast II recommendation for the development of the technology. Several nuclear concepts have been proposed to meet the Direct Nuclear Propulsion challenge. In this paper we will present results of an initial study of the potential of a cermet fueled nuclear system in providing the desired DNP capabilities and featuring a set of unique safety characteristics. The concept of cermet fuel for DNP applications was first developed by ANL and GE working independently more than 20 years ago. The two organizations came to several remarkably consistent conclusions. The present work has consisted of collecting a unified set of design parameters from the set of design results produced in the earlier work. The conclusion of this exercise was that a cermet-fueled DNP design looked extremely promising from performance and safety considerations and that it deserves serious consideration when the decision to develop one or more concepts for DNP is made.

  7. Topaz II preliminary safety assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, A.C. ); Standley, V. ); Voss, S.S. ); Haskin, E. . Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering)

    1992-01-01

    The Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) decided to investigate the possibility of launching a Russian Topaz 11 space nuclear power system. A preliminary safety assessment was conducted to determine whether or not a space mission could be conducted safely and within budget constraints. As part of this assessment, a safety policy and safety functional requirements were developed to guide both the safely assessment and future Topaz II activities. A review of the Russian flight safety program was conducted and documented. Our preliminary safety assessment included a top level event tree, neutronic analysis of normal and accident configurations, an evaluation of temperature coefficients of reactivity, a reentry and disposal analysis, and analysis of postulated launch abort impact accidents, and an analysis of postulated propellant fire and explosion accidents. Based on the assessment, it appears that it will be possible to safely launch the Topaz II system in the US with some possible system modifications. The principal system modifications will probably include design changes to preclude water flooded criticality and to assure intact reentry.

  8. Nuclear "waffles"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, A. S.; Berry, D. K.; Briggs, C. M.; Caplan, M. E.; Horowitz, C. J.

    2014-11-01

    Background: The dense neutron-rich matter found in supernovae and inside neutron stars is expected to form complex nonuniform phases, often referred to as nuclear pasta. The pasta shapes depend on density, temperature and proton fraction and determine many transport properties in supernovae and neutron star crusts. Purpose: To characterize the topology and compute two observables, the radial distribution function (RDF) g (r ) and the structure factor S (q ) , for systems with proton fractions Yp=0.10 ,0.20 ,0.30 , and 0.40 at about one-third of nuclear saturation density, n =0.050 fm-3 , and temperatures near k T =1 MeV . Methods: We use two recently developed hybrid CPU/GPU codes to perform large scale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with 51 200 and 409 600 nucleons. From the output of the MD simulations we obtain the two desired observables. Results: We compute and discuss the differences in topology and observables for each simulation. We observe that the two lowest proton fraction systems simulated, Yp=0.10 and 0.20 , equilibrate quickly and form liquidlike structures. Meanwhile, the two higher proton fraction systems, Yp=0.30 and 0.40 , take a longer time to equilibrate and organize themselves in solidlike periodic structures. Furthermore, the Yp=0.40 system is made up of slabs, lasagna phase, interconnected by defects while the Yp=0.30 systems consist of a stack of perforated plates, the nuclear waffle phase. Conclusions: The periodic configurations observed in our MD simulations for proton fractions Yp≥0.30 have important consequences for the structure factors S (q ) of protons and neutrons, which relate to many transport properties of supernovae and neutron star crust. A detailed study of the waffle phase and how its structure depends on temperature, size of the simulation, and the screening length showed that finite-size effects appear to be under control and, also, that the plates in the waffle phase merge at temperatures slightly above 1.0 MeV and

  9. Perspectives of The Interagency Nuclear Safety Review Panel (INSRP) on future nuclear powered space missions

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, L.B. ); Pyatt, D.W. ); Sholtis, J.A. ); Winchester, R.O. , c/o Directorate of Nuclear Surety, Kirtland AFB, New Mexico 87117 )

    1993-01-10

    The Interagency Nuclear Safety Review Panel (INSRP) has provided reviews of all nuclear powered spacecraft launched by the United States. The two most recent launches were Ulysses in 1990 and Galileo in 1989. One reactor was launched in 1965 (SNAP-10A). All other U.S. space missions have utilized radioisotopic thermoelectric generators (RTGs). There are several missions in the next few years that are to be nuclear powered, including one that would utilize the Topaz II reactor purchased from Russia. INSRP must realign itself to perform parallel safety assessments of a reactor powered space mission, which has not been done in about thirty years, and RTG powered missions.

  10. Data trimming, nuclear emissions, and climate change.

    PubMed

    Shrader-Frechette, Kristin Sharon

    2009-03-01

    Ethics requires good science. Many scientists, government leaders, and industry representatives support tripling of global-nuclear-energy capacity on the grounds that nuclear fission is "carbon free" and "releases no greenhouse gases." However, such claims are scientifically questionable (and thus likely to lead to ethically questionable energy choices) for at least 3 reasons. (i) They rely on trimming the data on nuclear greenhouse-gas emissions (GHGE), perhaps in part because flawed Kyoto Protocol conventions require no full nuclear-fuel-cycle assessment of carbon content. (ii) They underestimate nuclear-fuel-cycle releases by erroneously assuming that mostly high-grade uranium ore, with much lower emissions, is used. (iii) They inconsistently compare nuclear-related GHGE only to those from fossil fuels, rather than to those from the best GHG-avoiding energy technologies. Once scientists take account of (i)-(iii), it is possible to show that although the nuclear fuel cycle releases (per kWh) much fewer GHG than coal and oil, nevertheless it releases far more GHG than wind and solar-photovoltaic. Although there may be other, ethical, reasons to support nuclear tripling, reducing or avoiding GHG does not appear to be one of them.

  11. Type II universal spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hervik, S.; Málek, T.; Pravda, V.; Pravdová, A.

    2015-12-01

    We study type II universal metrics of the Lorentzian signature. These metrics simultaneously solve vacuum field equations of all theories of gravitation with the Lagrangian being a polynomial curvature invariant constructed from the metric, the Riemann tensor and its covariant derivatives of an arbitrary order. We provide examples of type II universal metrics for all composite number dimensions. On the other hand, we have no examples for prime number dimensions and we prove the non-existence of type II universal spacetimes in five dimensions. We also present type II vacuum solutions of selected classes of gravitational theories, such as Lovelock, quadratic and L({{Riemann}}) gravities.

  12. Angiotensin II receptor signalling.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Derek; Yee, Daniel K; Fluharty, Steven J

    2007-05-01

    Angiotensin II plays a key role in the regulation of body fluid homeostasis. To correct body fluid deficits that occur during hypovolaemia, an animal needs to ingest both water and electrolytes. Thus, it is not surprising that angiotensin II, which is synthesized in response to hypovolaemia, acts centrally to increase both water and NaCl intake. Here, we review findings relating to the properties of angiotensin II receptors that give rise to changes in behaviour. Data are described to suggest that divergent signal transduction pathways are responsible for separable behavioural responses to angiotensin II, and a hypothesis is proposed to explain how this divergence may map onto neural circuits in the brain.

  13. Nuclear Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veres, G.

    This chapter is devoted to the fundamental concepts of nuclear fusion. To be more precise, it is devoted to the theoretical basics of fusion reactions between light nuclei such as hydrogen, helium, boron, and lithium. The discussion is limited because our purpose is to focus on laboratory-scale fusion experiments that aim at gaining energy from the fusion process. After discussing the methods of calculating the fusion cross section, it will be shown that sustained fusion reactions with energy gain must happen in a thermal medium because, in beam-target experiments, the energy of the beam is randomized faster than the fusion rate. Following a brief introduction to the elements of plasma physics, the chapter is concluded with the introduction of the most prominent fusion reactions ongoing in the Sun.

  14. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Grebe, J.J.

    1959-12-15

    A reactor which is particularly adapted tu serve as a heat source for a nuclear powered alrcraft or rocket is described. The core of this reactor consists of a porous refractory modera;or body which is impregnated with fissionable nuclei. The core is designed so that its surface forms tapered inlet and outlet ducts which are separated by the porous moderator body. In operation a gaseous working fluid is circulated through the inlet ducts to the surface of the moderator, enters and passes through the porous body, and is heated therein. The hot gas emerges into the outlet ducts and is available to provide thrust. The principle advantage is that tremendous quantities of gas can be quickly heated without suffering an excessive pressure drop.

  15. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Christy, R.F.

    1958-07-15

    A nuclear reactor of the homogeneous liquid fuel type is described wherein the fissionable isotope is suspended or dissolved in a liquid moderator such as water. The reactor core is comprised essentially of a spherical vessel for containing the reactive composition surrounded by a reflector, preferably of beryllium oxide. The reactive composition may be an ordinary water solution of a soluble salt of uranium, the quantity of fissionable isotope in solution being sufficient to provide a critical mass in the vessel. The liquid fuel is stored in a tank of non-crtttcal geometry below the reactor vessel and outside of the reflector and is passed from the tank to the vessel through a pipe connecting the two by air pressure means. Neutron absorbing control and safety rods are operated within slots in the reflector adjacent to the vessel.

  16. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Miller, H.I.; Smith, R.C.

    1958-01-21

    This patent relates to nuclear reactors of the type which use a liquid fuel, such as a solution of uranyl sulfate in ordinary water which acts as the moderator. The reactor is comprised of a spherical vessel having a diameter of about 12 inches substantially surrounded by a reflector of beryllium oxide. Conventionnl control rods and safety rods are operated in slots in the reflector outside the vessel to control the operation of the reactor. An additional means for increasing the safety factor of the reactor by raising the ratio of delayed neutrons to prompt neutrons, is provided and consists of a soluble sulfate salt of beryllium dissolved in the liquid fuel in the proper proportion to obtain the result desired.

  17. Nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Wade, Elman E.

    1979-01-01

    A nuclear reactor including two rotatable plugs and a positive top core holddown structure. The top core holddown structure is divided into two parts: a small core cover, and a large core cover. The small core cover, and the upper internals associated therewith, are attached to the small rotating plug, and the large core cover, with its associated upper internals, is attached to the large rotating plug. By so splitting the core holddown structures, under-the-plug refueling is accomplished without the necessity of enlarging the reactor pressure vessel to provide a storage space for the core holddown structure during refueling. Additionally, the small and large rotating plugs, and their associated core covers, are arranged such that the separation of the two core covers to permit rotation is accomplished without the installation of complex lifting mechanisms.

  18. Nuclear deterrence: Does it deter

    SciTech Connect

    Catudal, H.M.

    1986-01-01

    In this book the author challenges the basic assumptions upon which rest nuclear deterrence policy. Deterrence theory, he argues, has simply been imposed on the post-WW II period with the observation, 'you can't test a negative.' The escalation of military spending by all major powers, and the development and deployment of new destabilizing weapons systems, the author concludes, is a strong indication that deterrence has in fact failed. The larger failure is that of the ineffective use of classical diplomacy as a means of 'influencing and controlling the potential for conflict...with other states.'

  19. Nuclear exoticism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penionzhkevich, Yu. E.

    2016-07-01

    Extreme states of nuclearmatter (such that feature high spins, large deformations, high density and temperature, or a large excess of neutrons and protons) play an important role in studying fundamental properties of nuclei and are helpful in solving the problem of constructing the equation of state for nuclear matter. The synthesis of neutron-rich nuclei near the nucleon drip lines and investigation of their properties permit drawing conclusions about the positions of these boundaries and deducing information about unusual states of such nuclei and about their decays. At the present time, experimental investigations along these lines can only be performed via the cooperation of leading research centers that possess powerful heavy-ion accelerators, such as the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN and the heavy-ion cyclotrons at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR, Dubna), where respective experiments are being conducted by physicists from about 20 JINR member countries. The present article gives a survey of the most recent results in the realms of super neutron-rich nuclei. Implications of the change in the structure of such nuclei near the nucleon drip lines are discussed. Information about the results obtained by measuring the masses (binding energies) of exotic nuclei, the nucleon-distribution radii (neutron halo) and momentum distributions in them, and their deformations and quantum properties is presented. It is shown that the properties of nuclei lying near the stability boundaries differ strongly from the properties of other nuclei. The problem of the stability of nuclei that is associated with the magic numbers of 20 and 28 is discussed along with the effect of new magic numbers.

  20. Nuclear power for Mars surface

    SciTech Connect

    Houts, M.G.; Buksa, J.J.; Howe, S.D.

    1993-01-01

    Safe, reliable, low-mass, low-volume, long-life nuclear fission power supplies are an attractive option for meeting lunar and Martian surface power requirements. Two factors will have a strong impact on the suitability of a surface nuclear power supply: the technology used by the reactor and the overall system mass. Because thermionic technology is well suited for surface applications, this paper briefly discusses the existing 6 kWe Russian TOPAZ II reactor and two near-term US thermionic space nuclear power supplies capable of providing 40 kWe. Man-rated shielding will be a significant fraction of the mass of any surface nuclear fission power supply. Because of the importance of optimizing the reactor shield, this paper presents detailed calculations related to the shielding properties of lunar and Martian soil, and the effectiveness of using existing craters to shield a reactor. Preliminary results indicate that it may be desirable to incorporate neutron shielding into the reactor design, but when possible in-situ materials should be used. Preliminary calculations also indicate that while existing craters could provide substantial shielding, radiation scatter off of the crater rim may limit the overall shielding effectiveness of the crater. 7 refs.

  1. Type II oestrogen binding sites in human colorectal carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Piantelli, M; Ricci, R; Larocca, L M; Rinelli, A; Capelli, A; Rizzo, S; Scambia, G; Ranelletti, F O

    1990-01-01

    Seven cases of colorectal adenocarcinomas were investigated for the presence of oestrogen receptors and progesterone receptors. The tumours specifically bound oestradiol. This binding almost exclusively resulted from the presence of high numbers of type II oestrogen binding sites. Oestrogen receptors were absent or present at very low concentrations. Immunohistochemical investigation of nuclear oestrogen receptors gave negative results. This indicates that antioestrogen receptor antibodies recognise oestrogen receptors but not type II oestrogen binding sites. The presence of specific type II oestrogen binding sites and progesterone binding offers further evidence for a potential role for these steroids and their receptors in colorectal carcinoma. PMID:2266171

  2. Nuclear war: Opposing viewpoints

    SciTech Connect

    Szumski, B.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents opposing viewpoints on nuclear war. Topics discussed include: how nuclear would begin; would humanity survive; would civil defense work; will an arms agreement work; and can space weapons reduce the risk of nuclear war.

  3. Nuclear analytical chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Brune, D.; Forkman, B.; Persson, B.

    1984-01-01

    This book covers the general theories and techniques of nuclear chemical analysis, directed at applications in analytical chemistry, nuclear medicine, radiophysics, agriculture, environmental sciences, geological exploration, industrial process control, etc. The main principles of nuclear physics and nuclear detection on which the analysis is based are briefly outlined. An attempt is made to emphasise the fundamentals of activation analysis, detection and activation methods, as well as their applications. The book provides guidance in analytical chemistry, agriculture, environmental and biomedical sciences, etc. The contents include: the nuclear periodic system; nuclear decay; nuclear reactions; nuclear radiation sources; interaction of radiation with matter; principles of radiation detectors; nuclear electronics; statistical methods and spectral analysis; methods of radiation detection; neutron activation analysis; charged particle activation analysis; photon activation analysis; sample preparation and chemical separation; nuclear chemical analysis in biological and medical research; the use of nuclear chemical analysis in the field of criminology; nuclear chemical analysis in environmental sciences, geology and mineral exploration; and radiation protection.

  4. Nuclear Quadrupole Moments and Nuclear Shell Structure

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Townes, C. H.; Foley, H. M.; Low, W.

    1950-06-23

    Describes a simple model, based on nuclear shell considerations, which leads to the proper behavior of known nuclear quadrupole moments, although predictions of the magnitudes of some quadrupole moments are seriously in error.

  5. Nuclear thermal/nuclear electric hybrids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, B. D.

    1991-01-01

    A description is given of the nuclear thermal and nuclear electric hybrid. The specifications are described along with its mission performance. Next, the technical status, development requirements, and some cost estimates are provided.

  6. Ovarian Cancer Stage II

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Ovarian Cancer Stage II Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1650x675 View Download Large: 3300x1350 View Download Title: Ovarian Cancer Stage II Description: Three-panel drawing of stage ...

  7. World War II Homefront.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Rachel

    2002-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography that provides Web sites focusing on the U.S. homefront during World War II. Covers various topics such as the homefront, Japanese Americans, women during World War II, posters, and African Americans. Includes lesson plan sources and a list of additional resources. (CMK)

  8. Acrylamide catalytically inhibits topoisomerase II in V79 cells.

    PubMed

    Sciandrello, Giulia; Mauro, Maurizio; Caradonna, Fabio; Catanzaro, Irene; Saverini, Marghereth; Barbata, Giusi

    2010-04-01

    The vinyl monomer acrylamide is characterized by the presence of an alpha,beta-unsaturated carbonyl group that makes it reactive towards thiol, hydroxyl or amino groups and towards the nucleophilic centers in DNA. The ability of acrylamide to chemically modify protein thiols has prompted us to consider topoisomerase II as one possible target of acrylamide, since agents targeting protein sulfhydryl groups act as either catalytic inhibitors or poisons of topoisomerase II. Nuclear extracts from V79 Chinese hamster cells incubated with acrylamide reduced topoisomerase II activity as inferred by an inability to convert kinetoplast DNA to the decatenated form. Nuclear extracts incubated with acrylamide pre-incubated with DTT converted kinetoplast DNA to the decatenated form, suggesting that acrylamide influences topoisomerase II activity through reaction with sulfhydryl groups on the enzyme. Furthermore, acrylamide did not induce the pBR322 DNA cleavage, as assessed by cleavage assay; thus, it cannot be regarded as a poison of topoisomerase II. As a catalytic inhibitor, acrylamide antagonizes the effect of etoposide, a topoisomerase II poison, as determined by clonogenic assay in V79 cells. This antagonism is confirmed by band depletion assay, from which it can be inferred that acrylamide reduces the level of catalytically active cellular topoisomerase II available for the action of etoposide. PMID:20006698

  9. Nuclear Fuel Cycle & Vulnerabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, Brian D.

    2012-06-18

    The objective of safeguards is the timely detection of diversion of significant quantities of nuclear material from peaceful nuclear activities to the manufacture of nuclear weapons or of other nuclear explosive devices or for purposes unknown, and deterrence of such diversion by the risk of early detection. The safeguards system should be designed to provide credible assurances that there has been no diversion of declared nuclear material and no undeclared nuclear material and activities.

  10. [Cr(III)8M(II)6](12+) Coordination Cubes (M(II)=Cu, Co).

    PubMed

    Sanz, Sergio; O'Connor, Helen M; Pineda, Eufemio Moreno; Pedersen, Kasper S; Nichol, Gary S; Mønsted, Ole; Weihe, Høgni; Piligkos, Stergios; McInnes, Eric J L; Lusby, Paul J; Brechin, Euan K

    2015-06-01

    [Cr(III)8M(II)6](12+) (M(II) =Cu, Co) coordination cubes were constructed from a simple [Cr(III) L3 ] metalloligand and a "naked" M(II) salt. The flexibility in the design proffers the potential to tune the physical properties, as all the constituent parts of the cage can be changed without structural alteration. Computational techniques (known in theoretical nuclear physics as statistical spectroscopy) in tandem with EPR spectroscopy are used to interpret the magnetic behavior.

  11. Advanced nuclear precleaner

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, S.R.

    1997-10-01

    This Phase II Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program`s goal is to develop a dynamic, self-cleaning air precleaner for high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration systems that would extend significantly the life of HEPA filter banks by reducing the particulate matter that causes filter fouling and increased pack pressure. HEPA filters are widely used in DOE, Department of Defense, and a variety of commercial facilities. InnovaTech, Inc. (Formerly Micro Composite materials Corporation) has developed a proprietary dynamic separation device using a concept called Boundary Layer Momentum Transfer (BLMT) to extract particulate matter from fluid process streams. When used as a prefilter in the HVAC systems or downstream of waste vitrifiers in nuclear power plants, fuel processing facilities, and weapons decommissioning factories, the BLMT filter will dramatically extend the service life and increase the operation efficiency of existing HEPA filtration systems. The BLMT filter is self cleaning, so there will be no degraded flow or increased pressure drop. Because the BLMT filtration process is independent of temperature, it can be designed to work in ambient, medium, or high-temperature applications. During Phase II, the authors are continuing development of the computerized flow simulation model to include turbulence and incorporate expansion into a three-dimensional model that includes airflow behavior inside the filter housing before entering the active BLMT device. A full-scale (1000 ACFM) prototype filter is being designed to meet existing HEPA filter standards and will be fabricated for subsequent testing. Extensive in-house testing will be performed to determine a full range of performance characteristics. Final testing and evaluation of the prototype filter will be conducted at a DOE Quality Assurance Filter Test Station.

  12. Deterrence and nuclear strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Lodal, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    Mr. Lodal sees the social aspects of an effective deterrence policy as no less important than its technological aspects; further, programs and policies must be put in place that enhance social cohesion, that demonstrate the will to carry through on the strategy that we in the Western world subscribe to. It is the challenge of this political objective that most demands our attention. He feels that, if we are to remain secure, we must restore not only political cohesion to the Western alliance but a sensible political relationship between the United States and the Soviet Union as well. Such a relationship will of necessity provide for arms control. If we are able to maintain the arms control agreements reached to date, including the ABM treaty and SALT II, we will be a step ahead. It is to be hoped that the administration taking office in January of 1981 can restore order to our political relationships and avoid the necessity of a major defense program change such as the one suggested here. Unfortunately, the risk of this not happening is very real, according to Mr. Lodal. Therefore, the conceptualizing of concrete policies to improve our strategic nuclear posture becomes imperative. Adding limited defenses to our traditional doctrine is simply the best of a set of difficult choices. Such defenses would make our threatened use of battlefield nuclear weapons more credible, and they would restore a measure of extended deterrence; battlefield weapons could be used with the knowledge that only a massive Soviet attack would harm the US homeland. Thus, the defense would create a second firebreak in the ladder of escalation.

  13. Nuclear weapons modernizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristensen, Hans M.

    2014-05-01

    This article reviews the nuclear weapons modernization programs underway in the world's nine nuclear weapons states. It concludes that despite significant reductions in overall weapons inventories since the end of the Cold War, the pace of reductions is slowing - four of the nuclear weapons states are even increasing their arsenals, and all the nuclear weapons states are busy modernizing their remaining arsenals in what appears to be a dynamic and counterproductive nuclear competition. The author questions whether perpetual modernization combined with no specific plan for the elimination of nuclear weapons is consistent with the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and concludes that new limits on nuclear modernizations are needed.

  14. Nuclear weapons modernizations

    SciTech Connect

    Kristensen, Hans M.

    2014-05-09

    This article reviews the nuclear weapons modernization programs underway in the world's nine nuclear weapons states. It concludes that despite significant reductions in overall weapons inventories since the end of the Cold War, the pace of reductions is slowing - four of the nuclear weapons states are even increasing their arsenals, and all the nuclear weapons states are busy modernizing their remaining arsenals in what appears to be a dynamic and counterproductive nuclear competition. The author questions whether perpetual modernization combined with no specific plan for the elimination of nuclear weapons is consistent with the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and concludes that new limits on nuclear modernizations are needed.

  15. Nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Thomson, Wallace B.

    2004-03-16

    A nuclear reactor comprising a cylindrical pressure vessel, an elongated annular core centrally disposed within and spaced from the pressure vessel, and a plurality of ducts disposed longitudinally of the pressure vessel about the periphery thereof, said core comprising an annular active portion, an annular reflector just inside the active portion, and an annular reflector just outside the active a portion, said annular active portion comprising rectangular slab, porous fuel elements radially disposed around the inner reflector and extending the length of the active portion, wedge-shaped, porous moderator elements disposed adjacent one face of each fuel element and extending the length of the fuel element, the fuel and moderator elements being oriented so that the fuel elements face each other and the moderator elements do likewise, adjacent moderator elements being spaced to provide air inlet channels, and adjacent fuel elements being spaced to provide air outlet channels which communicate with the interior of the peripheral ducts, and means for introducing air into the air inlet channels which passes through the porous moderator elements and porous fuel elements to the outlet channel.

  16. The Arabidopsis Nuclear Pore and Nuclear Envelope

    PubMed Central

    Meier, Iris; Brkljacic, Jelena

    2010-01-01

    The nuclear envelope is a double membrane structure that separates the eukaryotic cytoplasm from the nucleoplasm. The nuclear pores embedded in the nuclear envelope are the sole gateways for macromolecular trafficking in and out of the nucleus. The nuclear pore complexes assembled at the nuclear pores are large protein conglomerates composed of multiple units of about 30 different nucleoporins. Proteins and RNAs traffic through the nuclear pore complexes, enabled by the interacting activities of nuclear transport receptors, nucleoporins, and elements of the Ran GTPase cycle. In addition to directional and possibly selective protein and RNA nuclear import and export, the nuclear pore gains increasing prominence as a spatial organizer of cellular processes, such as sumoylation and desumoylation. Individual nucleoporins and whole nuclear pore subcomplexes traffic to specific mitotic locations and have mitotic functions, for example at the kinetochores, in spindle assembly, and in conjunction with the checkpoints. Mutants of nucleoporin genes and genes of nuclear transport components lead to a wide array of defects from human diseases to compromised plant defense responses. The nuclear envelope acts as a repository of calcium, and its inner membrane is populated by functionally unique proteins connected to both chromatin and—through the nuclear envelope lumen—the cytoplasmic cytoskeleton. Plant nuclear pore and nuclear envelope research—predominantly focusing on Arabidopsis as a model—is discovering both similarities and surprisingly unique aspects compared to the more mature model systems. This chapter gives an overview of our current knowledge in the field and of exciting areas awaiting further exploration. PMID:22303264

  17. Uterine type II estrogen-binding sites are not of eosinophil origin

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-05

    A recent report suggested that nuclear type II sites in the rat uterus are of eosinophil origin and may represent (/sup 3/H)estradiol binding to eosinophil peroxidase. To further evaluate this hypothesis the authors examined the response of nuclear type II sites to estrogen under conditions where eosinophils are not present. Results of the experiments show that physiological levels of estradiol-17..beta.. (10 nM for 72 h) will stimulate nuclear type II sites in highly purified cultures of rat uterine stromal and myometrial cells. The magnitude of the response of type II sites to estradiol in these stromal (4-fold) and myometrial (80-fold) cell cultures was essentially identical to that observed in the uterine cell types following in vivo estrogen treatment. Since these highly purified cultures of uterine cells were prepared from the uterus of a 21-day ovariectomized rat which is devoid of eosinophils, it was concluded that estradiol stimulation of nuclear type II sites is a direct intracellular response to estrogen which occurs independent of eosinophil accumulation. Furthermore, it was found that type II sites in the rat uterus are not peroxidase. Stimulation of cytosol and nuclear type II sites by estrogen in the rat uterus is a direct intracellular response to the hormone unrelated to eosinophil accumulation and/or peroxidase activity.

  18. Short-lived radionuclides in nuclear medicine - II

    SciTech Connect

    Budinger, T.F.; Peng, C.T.

    1985-11-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) has been applied effectively in the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease, the prognosis of stroke, and the evaluation of the efficacy of tumor therapy. In addition, PET has been applied to studies of the neuroreceptor distribution in the human brain, to studies of epilepsy and congenital disorders of the brain, and to the study of flow and metabolism of the human heart muscle. Of the many current investigations of PET, the three discussed here are now of clinical importance for patient care.

  19. Pyrochemical Treatment of Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    K. M. Goff; K. L. Howden; G. M. Teske; T. A. Johnson

    2005-10-01

    Over the last 10 years, pyrochemical treatment of spent nuclear fuel has progressed from demonstration activities to engineering-scale production operations. As part of the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative within the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology, pyrochemical treatment operations are being performed as part of the treatment of fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor II at the Idaho National Laboratory. Integral to these treatment operations are research and development activities that are focused on scaling further the technology, developing and implementing process improvements, qualifying the resulting high-level waste forms, and demonstrating the overall pyrochemical fuel cycle.

  20. Nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Pennell, William E.; Rowan, William J.

    1977-01-01

    A nuclear reactor in which the core components, including fuel-rod assemblies, control-rod assemblies, fertile rod-assemblies, and removable shielding assemblies, are supported by a plurality of separate inlet modular units. These units are referred to as inlet module units to distinguish them from the modules of the upper internals of the reactor. The modular units are supported, each removable independently of the others, in liners in the supporting structure for the lower internals of the reactor. The core assemblies are removably supported in integral receptacles or sockets of the modular units. The liners, units, sockets and assmblies have inlet openings for entry of the fluid. The modular units are each removably mounted in the liners with fluid seals interposed between the opening in the liner and inlet module into which the fluid enters and the upper and lower portion of the liner. Each assembly is similarly mounted in a corresponding receptacle with fluid seals interposed between the openings where the fluid enters and the lower portion of the receptacle or fitting closely in these regions. As fluid flows along each core assembly a pressure drop is produced along the fluid so that the fluid which emerges from each core assembly is at a lower pressure than the fluid which enters the core assembly. However because of the seals interposed in the mountings of the units and assemblies the pressures above and below the units and assemblies are balanced and the units are held in the liners and the assemblies are held in the receptacles by their weights as they have a higher specific gravity than the fluid. The low-pressure spaces between each module and its liner and between each core assembly and its module is vented to the low-pressure regions of the vessel to assure that fluid which leaks through the seals does not accumulate and destroy the hydraulic balance.

  1. Nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Yant, Howard W.; Stinebiser, Karl W.; Anzur, Gregory C.

    1977-01-01

    A nuclear reactor, particularly a liquid-metal breeder reactor, whose upper internals include outlet modules for channeling the liquid-metal coolant from selected areas of the outlet of the core vertically to the outlet plenum. The modules are composed of a highly-refractory, high corrosion-resistant alloy, for example, INCONEL-718. Each module is disposed to confine and channel generally vertically the coolant emitted from a subplurality of core-component assemblies. Each module has a grid with openings, each opening disposed to receive the coolant from an assembly of the subplurality. The grid in addition serves as a holdown for the assemblies of the corresponding subplurality preventing their excessive ejection upwardly from the core. In the region directly over the core the outlet modules are of such peripheral form that they nest forming a continuum over the core-component assemblies whose outlet coolant they confine. Each subassembly includes a chimney which confines the coolant emitted by its corresponding subassemblies to generally vertical flow between the outlet of the core and the outlet plenum. Each subplurality of assemblies whose emitted coolant is confined by an outlet module includes assemblies which emit lower-temperature coolant, for example, a control-rod assembly, or fertile assemblies, and assemblies which emit coolant of substantially higher temperature, for example, fuel-rod assemblies. The coolants of different temperatures are mixed in the chimneys reducing the effect of stripping (hot-cold temperature fluctuations) on the remainder of the upper internals which are composed typically of AISI-304 or AISI-316 stainless steel.

  2. Cell cycle-dependent regulation of RNA polymerase II basal transcription activity.

    PubMed Central

    Yonaha, M; Chibazakura, T; Kitajima, S; Yasukochi, Y

    1995-01-01

    Regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II (pol II) in eukaryotic cells requires both basal and regulatory transcription factors. In this report we have investigated in vitro pol II basal transcription activity during the cell cycle by using nuclear extracts from synchronized HeLa cells. It is shown that pol II basal transcription activity is low in the S and G2 phases and high in early G1 phase and TFIID is the rate limiting component of pol II basal transcription activity during the cell cycle. Further analyses reveal that TFIID exists as a less active form in the S and G2 phases and nuclear extracts from S and G2 phase cells contain a heat-sensitive repressor(s) of TATA box binding protein (TBP). These results suggest that pol II basal transcription activity is regulated by a qualitative change in the TFIID complex, which could involve repression of TBP, during the cell cycle. Images PMID:7479063

  3. 10 CFR Appendix II to Part 960 - NRC and EPA Requirements for Preclosure Repository Performance

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Pt. 960, App. II Appendix II to Part 960—NRC and EPA Requirements for Preclosure Repository Performance Under proposed 40 CFR part 191, subpart A... combined annual dose equivalent to any member of the public due to: (i) operations covered by 40 CFR...

  4. 10 CFR Appendix II to Part 960 - NRC and EPA Requirements for Preclosure Repository Performance

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Pt. 960, App. II Appendix II to Part 960—NRC and EPA Requirements for Preclosure Repository Performance Under proposed 40 CFR part 191, subpart A... combined annual dose equivalent to any member of the public due to: (i) operations covered by 40 CFR...

  5. 10 CFR Appendix II to Part 960 - NRC and EPA Requirements for Preclosure Repository Performance

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Pt. 960, App. II Appendix II to Part 960—NRC and EPA Requirements for Preclosure Repository Performance Under proposed 40 CFR part 191, subpart A... combined annual dose equivalent to any member of the public due to: (i) operations covered by 40 CFR...

  6. 10 CFR Appendix II to Part 960 - NRC and EPA Requirements for Preclosure Repository Performance

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Pt. 960, App. II Appendix II to Part 960—NRC and EPA Requirements for Preclosure Repository Performance Under proposed 40 CFR part 191, subpart A... combined annual dose equivalent to any member of the public due to: (i) operations covered by 40 CFR...

  7. 10 CFR Appendix II to Part 960 - NRC and EPA Requirements for Preclosure Repository Performance

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Pt. 960, App. II Appendix II to Part 960—NRC and EPA Requirements for Preclosure Repository Performance Under proposed 40 CFR part 191, subpart A... combined annual dose equivalent to any member of the public due to: (i) operations covered by 40 CFR...

  8. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart II of... - Volatile Organic HAP (VOHAP) Limits for Marine Coatings

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Volatile Organic HAP (VOHAP) Limits... (Surface Coating) Pt. 63, Subpt. II, Table 2 Table 2 to Subpart II of Part 63—Volatile Organic HAP (VOHAP... 571 728 Mist 610 2,235 Navigational aids 550 1,597 Nonskid 340 571 728 Nuclear 420 841 1,069...

  9. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart II of... - Volatile Organic HAP (VOHAP) Limits for Marine Coatings

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Volatile Organic HAP (VOHAP) Limits... (Surface Coating) Pt. 63, Subpt. II, Table 2 Table 2 to Subpart II of Part 63—Volatile Organic HAP (VOHAP... 571 728 Mist 610 2,235 Navigational aids 550 1,597 Nonskid 340 571 728 Nuclear 420 841 1,069...

  10. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart II of... - Volatile Organic HAP (VOHAP) Limits for Marine Coatings

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Volatile Organic HAP (VOHAP) Limits... (Surface Coating) Pt. 63, Subpt. II, Table 2 Table 2 to Subpart II of Part 63—Volatile Organic HAP (VOHAP... 571 728 Mist 610 2,235 Navigational aids 550 1,597 Nonskid 340 571 728 Nuclear 420 841 1,069...

  11. Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) II

    MedlinePlus

    Sipple syndrome; MEN II; Pheochromocytoma - MEN II; Thyroid cancer - pheochromocytoma; Parathyroid cancer - pheochromocytoma ... The cause of MEN II is a defect in a gene called RET. This defect causes many tumors to appear in the same ...

  12. 10 CFR 840.5 - Criterion II-Substantial damages to persons offsite or property offsite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Criterion II-Substantial damages to persons offsite or property offsite. 840.5 Section 840.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY EXTRAORDINARY NUCLEAR OCCURRENCES § 840.5... nuclear, or byproduct material; or (2) DOE finds that $2,500,000 or more of damage offsite has been...

  13. 10 CFR 840.5 - Criterion II-Substantial damages to persons offsite or property offsite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Criterion II-Substantial damages to persons offsite or property offsite. 840.5 Section 840.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY EXTRAORDINARY NUCLEAR OCCURRENCES § 840.5... nuclear, or byproduct material; or (2) DOE finds that $2,500,000 or more of damage offsite has been...

  14. 10 CFR 840.5 - Criterion II-Substantial damages to persons offsite or property offsite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Criterion II-Substantial damages to persons offsite or property offsite. 840.5 Section 840.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY EXTRAORDINARY NUCLEAR OCCURRENCES § 840.5... nuclear, or byproduct material; or (2) DOE finds that $2,500,000 or more of damage offsite has been...

  15. 10 CFR 840.5 - Criterion II-Substantial damages to persons offsite or property offsite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Criterion II-Substantial damages to persons offsite or property offsite. 840.5 Section 840.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY EXTRAORDINARY NUCLEAR OCCURRENCES § 840.5... nuclear, or byproduct material; or (2) DOE finds that $2,500,000 or more of damage offsite has been...

  16. 10 CFR 840.5 - Criterion II-Substantial damages to persons offsite or property offsite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Criterion II-Substantial damages to persons offsite or property offsite. 840.5 Section 840.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY EXTRAORDINARY NUCLEAR OCCURRENCES § 840.5... nuclear, or byproduct material; or (2) DOE finds that $2,500,000 or more of damage offsite has been...

  17. The New Nuclear Nations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spector, Leonard S.

    1990-01-01

    Explores the issue of nuclear proliferation, noting that the countries with nuclear capability now include Israel, South Africa, India, and Pakistan. Describes the role and problems of the United States in halting nuclearization. Supplies charts, maps, and information concerning the state of nuclear capability in each country. (NL)

  18. Nuclear medicine annual, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, L.M.; Weissmann, H.S.

    1984-01-01

    The following topics are reviewed in this work: nuclear physicians role in planning for and handling radiation accidents; the role of nuclear medicine in evaluating the hypertensive patient; studies of the heart with radionuclides; role of radionuclide imaging in the patient undergoing chemotherapy; hematologic nuclear medicine; the role of nuclear medicine in sports related injuries; radionuclide evaluation of hepatic function with emphasis on cholestatis.

  19. Terrorists and Nuclear Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krieger, David

    1975-01-01

    This essay explores the ways terrorist groups may gain possession of nuclear materials; the way in which they may use nuclear weapons and other nuclear technologies to their benefit; and various courses of action designed to minimize the possibilities of terrorists utilizing nuclear technology to their benefit and society's detriment. (BT)

  20. Nuclear Reaction Data Centers

    SciTech Connect

    McLane, V.; Nordborg, C.; Lemmel, H.D.; Manokhin, V.N.

    1988-01-01

    The cooperating Nuclear Reaction Data Centers are involved in the compilation and exchange of nuclear reaction data for incident neutrons, charged particles and photons. Individual centers may also have services in other areas, e.g., evaluated data, nuclear structure and decay data, reactor physics, nuclear safety; some of this information may also be exchanged between interested centers. 20 refs., 1 tab.

  1. Nuclear air cushion vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    The state-of-the-art of the still-conceptual nuclear air cushion vehicle, particularly the nuclear powerplant is identified. Using mission studies and cost estimates, some of the advantages of nuclear power for large air cushion vehicles are described. The technology studies on mobile nuclear powerplants and conceptual ACV systems/missions studies are summarized.

  2. Frontiers of Nuclear Structure

    SciTech Connect

    Nazarewicz, Witold

    1997-12-31

    Current developments in nuclear structure at the `limits` are discussed. The studies of nuclear behavior at extreme conditions provide us with invaluable information about the nature of the nuclear interaction and nucleonic correlations at various energy-distance scales. In this talk frontiers of nuclear structure are briefly reviewed from a theoretical perspective, mainly concentrating on medium-mass and heavy nuclei.

  3. Stars and Nuclei. Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ames, Oakes

    1972-01-01

    A brief review of the evidence that nuclear reactions are the main source of stellar energy, how nuclear reactions synthesize the elements, and how nuclear reactions determine the course of stellar evolution. (Author/CP)

  4. [Chilean nuclear policy].

    PubMed

    Bobadilla, E

    1996-06-01

    This official document is statement of the President of the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission, Dr. Eduardo Bobadilla, about the nuclear policy of the Chilean State, Thanks to the international policy adopted by presidents Aylwin (1990-1994) and his successor Frei Ruiz Tagle (1994-), a nuclear development plan, protected by the Chilean entrance to the nuclear weapons non proliferation treaty and Tlatelolco Denuclearization treaty, has started. Chile will be able to develop without interference, an autonomous nuclear electrical system and other pacific uses of nuclear energy. Chile also supports a new international treaty to ban nuclear weapon tests.

  5. Network II Database

    1994-11-07

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Rail and Barge Network II Database is a representation of the rail and barge system of the United States. The network is derived from the Federal Rail Administration (FRA) rail database.

  6. Factor II deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood. It leads to problems with blood clotting (coagulation). Factor II is also known as prothrombin. ... blood clots form. This process is called the coagulation cascade. It involves special proteins called coagulation, or ...

  7. Nuclear Methods for Transmutation of Nuclear Waste: Problems, Perspextives, Cooperative Research - Proceedings of the International Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khankhasayev, Zhanat B.; Kurmanov, Hans; Plendl, Mikhail Kh.

    1996-12-01

    The Table of Contents for the full book PDF is as follows: * Preface * I. Review of Current Status of Nuclear Transmutation Projects * Accelerator-Driven Systems — Survey of the Research Programs in the World * The Los Alamos Accelerator-Driven Transmutation of Nuclear Waste Concept * Nuclear Waste Transmutation Program in the Czech Republic * Tentative Results of the ISTC Supported Study of the ADTT Plutonium Disposition * Recent Neutron Physics Investigations for the Back End of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle * Optimisation of Accelerator Systems for Transmutation of Nuclear Waste * Proton Linac of the Moscow Meson Factory for the ADTT Experiments * II. Computer Modeling of Nuclear Waste Transmutation Methods and Systems * Transmutation of Minor Actinides in Different Nuclear Facilities * Monte Carlo Modeling of Electro-nuclear Processes with Nonlinear Effects * Simulation of Hybrid Systems with a GEANT Based Program * Computer Study of 90Sr and 137Cs Transmutation by Proton Beam * Methods and Computer Codes for Burn-Up and Fast Transients Calculations in Subcritical Systems with External Sources * New Model of Calculation of Fission Product Yields for the ADTT Problem * Monte Carlo Simulation of Accelerator-Reactor Systems * III. Data Basis for Transmutation of Actinides and Fission Products * Nuclear Data in the Accelerator Driven Transmutation Problem * Nuclear Data to Study Radiation Damage, Activation, and Transmutation of Materials Irradiated by Particles of Intermediate and High Energies * Radium Institute Investigations on the Intermediate Energy Nuclear Data on Hybrid Nuclear Technologies * Nuclear Data Requirements in Intermediate Energy Range for Improvement of Calculations of ADTT Target Processes * IV. Experimental Studies and Projects * ADTT Experiments at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center * Neutron Multiplicity Distributions for GeV Proton Induced Spallation Reactions on Thin and Thick Targets of Pb and U * Solid State Nuclear Track Detector and

  8. LADTAP II: technical reference and user guide

    SciTech Connect

    Strenge, D.L.; Peloquin, R.A.; Whelan, G.

    1986-04-01

    This report describes the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission computer program LADTAP II, which performs environmental dose analyses for releases of radioactive effluents from nuclear power plants into surface waters. The analyses estimate radiation dose to individuals, population groups, and biota from ingestion (aquatic foods, water, and terrestrial irrigated foods) and external exposure (shoreline, swimming, and boating) pathways. The calculated doses provide information for National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) evaluations and for determining compliance with Appendix I of 10 CFR 50 (the ''ALARA'' philosophy). The report also instructs the user in preparing input to the program, describes the mathematical models that are used, and supplies detailed information on program structure and parameters used to modify the program.

  9. GASPAR II: Technical reference and user guide

    SciTech Connect

    Strenge, D.L.; Bander, T.J.; Soldat, J.K.

    1987-03-01

    This report describes the computer program GASPAR II used by the staff of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to perform environmental dose analyses for releases of radioactive effluents from nuclear power plants into the atmosphere. The analyses estimate radiation dose to individuals and population groups from inhalation, ingestion (terrestrial foods), and external-exposure (ground and plume) pathways. The calculated doses provide information for National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) evaluations and for determining compliance with Appendix I of 10 CFR 50 (the ''ALARA'' philosophy). The report also instructs the user in preparing input to the program, describes the mathematical models that are used, and supplies detailed information on program structure and parameters used to modify the program. 20 refs., 11 figs., 77 tabs.

  10. Extended Deterrence, Nuclear Proliferation, and START III

    SciTech Connect

    Speed, R.D.

    2000-06-20

    Early in the Cold War, the United States adopted a policy of ''extended nuclear deterrence'' to protect its allies by threatening a nuclear strike against any state that attacks these allies. This threat can (in principle) be used to try to deter an enemy attack using conventional weapons or one using nuclear, chemical, or biological weapons. The credibility of a nuclear threat has long been subject to debate and is dependent on many complex geopolitical factors, not the least of which is the military capabilities of the opposing sides. The ending of the Cold War has led to a significant decrease in the number of strategic nuclear weapons deployed by the United States and Russia. START II, which was recently ratified by the Russian Duma, will (if implemented) reduce the number deployed strategic nuclear weapons on each side to 3500, compared to a level of over 11,000 at the end of the Cold War in 1991. The tentative limit established by Presidents Clinton and Yeltsin for START III would reduce the strategic force level to 2000-2500. However, the Russians (along with a number of arms control advocates) now argue that the level should be reduced even further--to 1500 warheads or less. The conventional view is that ''deep cuts'' in nuclear weapons are necessary to discourage nuclear proliferation. Thus, as part of the bargain to get the non-nuclear states to agree to the renewal of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, the United States pledged to work towards greater reductions in strategic forces. Without movement in the direction of deep cuts, it is thought by many analysts that some countries may decide to build their own nuclear weapons. Indeed, this was part of the rationale India used to justify its own nuclear weapons program. However, there is also some concern that deep cuts (to 1500 or lower) in the U.S. strategic nuclear arsenal could have the opposite effect. The fear is that such cuts might undermine extended deterrence and cause a crisis in confidence

  11. H II Regions in Interacting Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frattare, L. M.; Keel, W. C.; Laurikainen, E.

    1993-12-01

    We present a census of H II regions in 50 pairs of interacting galaxies, carried out on CCD and ISIT narrow-band images from Kitt Peak, Lowell, and La Palma. Objects were identified objectively using peak finding at multiple Gaussian smoothing levels to allow for the fact that the larger H II regions are marginally resolved, and measured using aperture photometry. We consider statistics of the space distribution, radial distribution, and luminosity functions. Preliminary analysis shows that the enhancement in star formation is strongest not only in the nuclear regions, but in preferred annuli as well. Interactions can produce significant asymmetries in the star-formation distribution. Some interacting galaxies show flatter luminosity functions for H II regions than seen in normal galaxies, either through an excess of very luminous star-forming complexes or a change in their clumping properties. We compare the statistics of both the location and luminosity of H II regions in interacting systems to results on isolated spirals. This work was supported by the NSF through REU grant AST-9300413 and EPSCoR grant EHR-9108761.

  12. Mobile Bacterial Group II Introns at the Crux of Eukaryotic Evolution.

    PubMed

    Lambowitz, Alan M; Belfort, Marlene

    2015-02-01

    This review focuses on recent developments in our understanding of group II intron function, the relationships of these introns to retrotransposons and spliceosomes, and how their common features have informed thinking about bacterial group II introns as key elements in eukaryotic evolution. Reverse transcriptase-mediated and host factor-aided intron retrohoming pathways are considered along with retrotransposition mechanisms to novel sites in bacteria, where group II introns are thought to have originated. DNA target recognition and movement by target-primed reverse transcription infer an evolutionary relationship among group II introns, non-LTR retrotransposons, such as LINE elements, and telomerase. Additionally, group II introns are almost certainly the progenitors of spliceosomal introns. Their profound similarities include splicing chemistry extending to RNA catalysis, reaction stereochemistry, and the position of two divalent metals that perform catalysis at the RNA active site. There are also sequence and structural similarities between group II introns and the spliceosome's small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) and between a highly conserved core spliceosomal protein Prp8 and a group II intron-like reverse transcriptase. It has been proposed that group II introns entered eukaryotes during bacterial endosymbiosis or bacterial-archaeal fusion, proliferated within the nuclear genome, necessitating evolution of the nuclear envelope, and fragmented giving rise to spliceosomal introns. Thus, these bacterial self-splicing mobile elements have fundamentally impacted the composition of extant eukaryotic genomes, including the human genome, most of which is derived from close relatives of mobile group II introns.

  13. Mobile Bacterial Group II Introns at the Crux of Eukaryotic Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Lambowitz, Alan M.; Belfort, Marlene

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY This review focuses on recent developments in our understanding of group II intron function, the relationships of these introns to retrotransposons and spliceosomes, and how their common features have informed thinking about bacterial group II introns as key elements in eukaryotic evolution. Reverse transcriptase-mediated and host factor-aided intron retrohoming pathways are considered along with retrotransposition mechanisms to novel sites in bacteria, where group II introns are thought to have originated. DNA target recognition and movement by target-primed reverse transcription infer an evolutionary relationship among group II introns, non-LTR retrotransposons, such as LINE elements, and telomerase. Additionally, group II introns are almost certainly the progenitors of spliceosomal introns. Their profound similarities include splicing chemistry extending to RNA catalysis, reaction stereochemistry, and the position of two divalent metals that perform catalysis at the RNA active site. There are also sequence and structural similarities between group II introns and the spliceosome’s small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) and between a highly conserved core spliceosomal protein Prp8 and a group II intron-like reverse transcriptase. It has been proposed that group II introns entered eukaryotes during bacterial endosymbiosis or bacterial-archaeal fusion, proliferated within the nuclear genome, necessitating evolution of the nuclear envelope, and fragmented giving rise to spliceosomal introns. Thus, these bacterial self-splicing mobile elements have fundamentally impacted the composition of extant eukaryotic genomes, including the human genome, most of which is derived from close relatives of mobile group II introns. PMID:25878921

  14. Intergenerational issues regarding nuclear power, nuclear waste, and nuclear weapons.

    PubMed

    Ahearne, J F

    2000-12-01

    Nuclear power, nuclear waste, and nuclear weapons raise substantial public concern in many countries. While new support for nuclear power can be found in arguments concerning greenhouse gases and global warming, the long-term existence of radioactive waste has led to requirements for 10,000-year isolation. Some of the support for such requirements is based on intergenerational equity arguments. This, however, places a very high value on lives far in the future. An alternative is to use discounting, as is applied to other resource applications. Nuclear weapons, even though being dismantled by the major nations, are growing in number due to the increase in the number of countries possessing these weapons of mass destruction. This is an unfortunate legacy for future generations. PMID:11314726

  15. Phosphonate Based High Nuclearity Magnetic Cages.

    PubMed

    Sheikh, Javeed Ahmad; Jena, Himanshu Sekhar; Clearfield, Abraham; Konar, Sanjit

    2016-06-21

    Transition metal based high nuclearity molecular magnetic cages are a very important class of compounds owing to their potential applications in fabricating new generation molecular magnets such as single molecular magnets, magnetic refrigerants, etc. Most of the reported polynuclear cages contain carboxylates or alkoxides as ligands. However, the binding ability of phosphonates with transition metal ions is stronger than the carboxylates or alkoxides. The presence of three oxygen donor sites enables phosphonates to bridge up to nine metal centers simultaneously. But very few phosphonate based transition metal cages were reported in the literature until recently, mainly because of synthetic difficulties, propensity to result in layered compounds, and also their poor crystalline properties. Accordingly, various synthetic strategies have been followed by several groups in order to overcome such synthetic difficulties. These strategies mainly include use of small preformed metal precursors, proper choice of coligands along with the phosphonate ligands, and use of sterically hindered bulky phosphonate ligands. Currently, the phosphonate system offers a library of high nuclearity transition metal and mixed metal (3d-4f) cages with aesthetically pleasing structures and interesting magnetic properties. This Account is in the form of a research landscape on our efforts to synthesize and characterize new types of phosphonate based high nuclearity paramagnetic transition metal cages. We quite often experienced synthetic difficulties with such versatile systems in assembling high nuclearity metal cages. Few methods have been emphasized for the self-assembly of phosphonate systems with suitable transition metal ions in achieving high nuclearity. We highlighted our journey from 2005 until today for phosphonate based high nuclearity transition metal cages with V(IV/V), Mn(II/III), Fe(III), Co(II), Ni(II), and Cu(II) metal ions and their magnetic properties. We observed that

  16. Nuclear Structure Aspects in Nuclear Astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Michael Scott

    2006-12-01

    Nuclear Astrophysics as a broad and diverse field of study can be viewed as a magnifier of the impact of microscopic processes on the evolution of macroscopic events. One of the primary goals in Nuclear Astrophysics is the understanding of the nucleosynthesis processes that take place in the cosmos and the simulation of the correlated stellar and explosive burning scenarios. These simulations are strongly dependent on the input from Nuclear Physics which sets the time scale for all stellar dynamic processes--from giga-years of stellar evolution to milliseconds of stellar explosions--and provides the basis for most of the signatures that we have for the interpretation of these events--from stellar luminosities, elemental and isotopic abundances to neutrino flux from distant supernovae. The Nuclear Physics input comes through nuclear structure, low energy reaction rates, nuclear masses, and decay rates. There is a common perception that low energy reaction rates are the most important component of the required nuclear physics input; however, in this article we take a broader approach and present an overview of the close correlation between various nuclear structure aspects and their impact on nuclear astrophysics. We discuss the interplay between the weak and the strong forces on stellar time scales due to the limitations they provide for the evolution of slow and rapid burning processes. The effects of shell structure in nuclei on stellar burning processes as well as the impact of clustering in nuclei is outlined. Furthermore we illustrate the effects of the various nuclear structure aspects on the major nucleosynthesis processes that have been identified in the last few decades. We summarize and provide a coherent overview of the impact of all aspects of nuclear structure on nuclear astrophysics.

  17. 10 CFR 73.51 - Requirements for the physical protection of stored spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. 73.51 Section 73.51 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION... radioactive waste pursuant to paragraphs (a)(1)(i), (ii), and (2) of this section. This includes— (1) Spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste stored under a specific license issued pursuant to part...

  18. 10 CFR 73.51 - Requirements for the physical protection of stored spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. 73.51 Section 73.51 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION... radioactive waste pursuant to paragraphs (a)(1)(i), (ii), and (2) of this section. This includes— (1) Spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste stored under a specific license issued pursuant to part...

  19. 10 CFR 73.51 - Requirements for the physical protection of stored spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. 73.51 Section 73.51 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION... radioactive waste pursuant to paragraphs (a)(1)(i), (ii), and (2) of this section. This includes— (1) Spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste stored under a specific license issued pursuant to part...

  20. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Roe, C R.; Yang, B-Z; Brunengraber, H; Roe, D S.; Wallace, M; Garritson, B K.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II (CPT II) deficiency is an important cause of recurrent rhabdomyolysis in children and adults. Current treatment includes dietary fat restriction, with increased carbohydrate intake and exercise restriction to avoid muscle pain and rhabdomyolysis. Methods: CPT II enzyme assay, DNA mutation analysis, quantitative analysis of acylcarnitines in blood and cultured fibroblasts, urinary organic acids, the standardized 36-item Short-Form Health Status survey (SF-36) version 2, and bioelectric impedance for body fat composition. Diet treatment with triheptanoin at 30% to 35% of total daily caloric intake was used for all patients. Results: Seven patients with CPT II deficiency were studied from 7 to 61 months on the triheptanoin (anaplerotic) diet. Five had previous episodes of rhabdomyolysis requiring hospitalizations and muscle pain on exertion prior to the diet (two younger patients had not had rhabdomyolysis). While on the diet, only two patients experienced mild muscle pain with exercise. During short periods of noncompliance, two patients experienced rhabdomyolysis with exercise. None experienced rhabdomyolysis or hospitalizations while on the diet. All patients returned to normal physical activities including strenuous sports. Exercise restriction was eliminated. Previously abnormal SF-36 physical composite scores returned to normal levels that persisted for the duration of the therapy in all five symptomatic patients. Conclusions: The triheptanoin diet seems to be an effective therapy for adult-onset carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiency. GLOSSARY ALT = alanine aminotransferase; AST = aspartate aminotransferase; ATP = adenosine triphosphate; BHP = β-hydroxypentanoate; BKP = β-ketopentanoate; BKP-CoA = β-ketopentanoyl–coenzyme A; BUN = blood urea nitrogen; CAC = citric acid cycle; CoA = coenzyme A; CPK = creatine phosphokinase; CPT II = carnitine palmitoyltransferase II; LDL = low-density lipoprotein; MCT

  1. Biogenesis of RNA polymerases II and III requires the conserved GPN small GTPases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Minaker, Sean W; Filiatrault, Megan C; Ben-Aroya, Shay; Hieter, Philip; Stirling, Peter C

    2013-03-01

    The GPN proteins are a poorly characterized and deeply evolutionarily conserved family of three paralogous small GTPases, Gpn1, 2, and 3. The founding member, GPN1/NPA3/XAB1, is proposed to function in nuclear import of RNA polymerase II along with a recently described protein called Iwr1. Here we show that the previously uncharacterized protein Gpn2 binds both Gpn3 and Npa3/Gpn1 and that temperature-sensitive alleles of Saccharomyces cerevisiae GPN2 and GPN3 exhibit genetic interactions with RNA polymerase II mutants, hypersensitivity to transcription inhibition, and defects in RNA polymerase II nuclear localization. Importantly, we identify previously unrecognized RNA polymerase III localization defects in GPN2, GPN3, and IWR1 mutant backgrounds but find no localization defects of unrelated nuclear proteins or of RNA polymerase I. Previously, it was unclear whether the GPN proteins and Iwr1 had overlapping function in RNA polymerase II assembly or import. In this study, we show that the nuclear import defect of iwr1Δ, but not the GPN2 or GPN3 mutant defects, is partially suppressed by fusion of a nuclear localization signal to the RNA polymerase II subunit Rpb3. These data, combined with strong genetic interactions between GPN2 and IWR1, suggest that the GPN proteins function upstream of Iwr1 in RNA polymerase II and III biogenesis. We propose that the three GPN proteins execute a common, and likely essential, function in RNA polymerase assembly and transport.

  2. Biogenesis of RNA Polymerases II and III Requires the Conserved GPN Small GTPases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Minaker, Sean W.; Filiatrault, Megan C.; Ben-Aroya, Shay; Hieter, Philip; Stirling, Peter C.

    2013-01-01

    The GPN proteins are a poorly characterized and deeply evolutionarily conserved family of three paralogous small GTPases, Gpn1, 2, and 3. The founding member, GPN1/NPA3/XAB1, is proposed to function in nuclear import of RNA polymerase II along with a recently described protein called Iwr1. Here we show that the previously uncharacterized protein Gpn2 binds both Gpn3 and Npa3/Gpn1 and that temperature-sensitive alleles of Saccharomyces cerevisiae GPN2 and GPN3 exhibit genetic interactions with RNA polymerase II mutants, hypersensitivity to transcription inhibition, and defects in RNA polymerase II nuclear localization. Importantly, we identify previously unrecognized RNA polymerase III localization defects in GPN2, GPN3, and IWR1 mutant backgrounds but find no localization defects of unrelated nuclear proteins or of RNA polymerase I. Previously, it was unclear whether the GPN proteins and Iwr1 had overlapping function in RNA polymerase II assembly or import. In this study, we show that the nuclear import defect of iwr1Δ, but not the GPN2 or GPN3 mutant defects, is partially suppressed by fusion of a nuclear localization signal to the RNA polymerase II subunit Rpb3. These data, combined with strong genetic interactions between GPN2 and IWR1, suggest that the GPN proteins function upstream of Iwr1 in RNA polymerase II and III biogenesis. We propose that the three GPN proteins execute a common, and likely essential, function in RNA polymerase assembly and transport. PMID:23267056

  3. Biogenesis of nuclear bodies.

    PubMed

    Dundr, Miroslav; Misteli, Tom

    2010-12-01

    The nucleus is unique amongst cellular organelles in that it contains a myriad of discrete suborganelles. These nuclear bodies are morphologically and molecularly distinct entities, and they host specific nuclear processes. Although the mode of biogenesis appears to differ widely between individual nuclear bodies, several common design principles are emerging, particularly, the ability of nuclear bodies to form de novo, a role of RNA as a structural element and self-organization as a mode of formation. The controlled biogenesis of nuclear bodies is essential for faithful maintenance of nuclear architecture during the cell cycle and is an important part of cellular responses to intra- and extracellular events.

  4. Nuclear Waste Disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Gee, Glendon W.; Meyer, Philip D.; Ward, Andy L.

    2005-01-12

    Nuclear wastes are by-products of nuclear weapons production and nuclear power generation, plus residuals of radioactive materials used by industry, medicine, agriculture, and academia. Their distinctive nature and potential hazard make nuclear wastes not only the most dangerous waste ever created by mankind, but also one of the most controversial and regulated with respect to disposal. Nuclear waste issues, related to uncertainties in geologic disposal and long-term protection, combined with potential misuse by terrorist groups, have created uneasiness and fear in the general public and remain stumbling blocks for further development of a nuclear industry in a world that may soon be facing a global energy crisis.

  5. Monitoring the Durability Performance of Concrete in Nuclear Waste Containment. Technical Progress Report No. 3

    SciTech Connect

    Ulm, Franz-Josef

    2000-03-31

    OAK-B135 Monitoring the Durability Performance of Concrete in Nuclear Waste Containment. Technical Progress Report No. 3(NOTE: Part II A item 1 indicates ''PAPER'', but a report is attached electronically)

  6. Fifty years with nuclear fission. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Behrens, J.W.; Carlson, A.D.

    1989-12-31

    The news of the discovery of nucler fission, by Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassmann in Germany, was brought to the United States by Niels Bohr in January 1939. Since its discovery, the United States, and the world for that matter, has never been the same. It therefore seemed appropriate to acknowledge the fiftieth anniversary of its discovery by holding a topical meeting entitled, ``Fifty years with nuclear fission,`` in the United States during the year 1989. The objective of the meeting was to bring together pioneers of the nuclear industry and other scientists and engineers to report on reminiscences of the past and on the more recent developments in fission science and technology. The conference highlighted the early pioneers of the nuclear industry by dedicating a full day (April 26), consisting of two plenary sessions, at the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) in Washington, DC. More recent developments in fission science and technology in addition to historical reflections were topics for two full days of sessions (April 27 and 28) at the main sites of the NIST in Gaithersburg, Maryland. The wide range of topics covered by Volume 2 of this topical meeting included plenary invited, and contributed sessions entitled, Nuclear fission -- a prospective; reactors II; fission science II; medical and industrial applications by by-products; reactors and safeguards; general research, instrumentation, and by-products; and fission data, astrophysics, and space applications. The individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  7. Nuclear Concrete Materials Database Phase I Development

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Weiju; Naus, Dan J

    2012-05-01

    The FY 2011 accomplishments in Phase I development of the Nuclear Concrete Materials Database to support the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program are summarized. The database has been developed using the ORNL materials database infrastructure established for the Gen IV Materials Handbook to achieve cost reduction and development efficiency. In this Phase I development, the database has been successfully designed and constructed to manage documents in the Portable Document Format generated from the Structural Materials Handbook that contains nuclear concrete materials data and related information. The completion of the Phase I database has established a solid foundation for Phase II development, in which a digital database will be designed and constructed to manage nuclear concrete materials data in various digitized formats to facilitate electronic and mathematical processing for analysis, modeling, and design applications.

  8. PEP-II Status

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, M.; Bertsche, K.; Browne, M.; Cai, Y.; Cheng, W.; Colocho, W.; Decker, F.-J.; Donald, M.; Ecklund, S.; Erickson, R.; Fisher, A.S.; Fox, J.; Heifets, S.; Himel, T.; Iverson, R.; Kulikov, A.; Novokhatski, A.; Pacak, V.; Pivi, M.; Rivetta, C.; Ross, M.; /SLAC /Saclay /Frascati

    2008-07-25

    PEP-II and BaBar have just finished run 7, the last run of the SLAC B-factory. PEP-II was one of the few high-current e+e- colliding accelerators and holds the present world record for stored electrons and stored positrons. It has stored 2.07 A of electrons, nearly 3 times the design current of 0.75 A and it has stored 3.21 A of positrons, 1.5 times more than the design current of 2.14 A. High-current beams require careful design of several systems. The feedback systems that control instabilities, the RF system stability loops, and especially the vacuum systems have to handle the higher power demands. We present here some of the accomplishments of the PEP-II accelerator and some of the problems we encountered while running high-current beams.

  9. About APPLE II Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, T.; Zimoch, D.

    2007-01-19

    The operation of an APPLE II based undulator beamline with all its polarization states (linear horizontal and vertical, circular and elliptical, and continous variation of the linear vector) requires an effective description allowing an automated calculation of gap and shift parameter as function of energy and operation mode. The extension of the linear polarization range from 0 to 180 deg. requires 4 shiftable magnet arrrays, permitting use of the APU (adjustable phase undulator) concept. Studies for a pure fixed gap APPLE II for the SLS revealed surprising symmetries between circular and linear polarization modes allowing for simplified operation. A semi-analytical model covering all types of APPLE II and its implementation will be presented.

  10. About APPLE II Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, T.; Zimoch, D.

    2007-01-01

    The operation of an APPLE II based undulator beamline with all its polarization states (linear horizontal and vertical, circular and elliptical, and continous variation of the linear vector) requires an effective description allowing an automated calculation of gap and shift parameter as function of energy and operation mode. The extension of the linear polarization range from 0 to 180° requires 4 shiftable magnet arrrays, permitting use of the APU (adjustable phase undulator) concept. Studies for a pure fixed gap APPLE II for the SLS revealed surprising symmetries between circular and linear polarization modes allowing for simplified operation. A semi-analytical model covering all types of APPLE II and its implementation will be presented.

  11. Mod II engine performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richey, Albert E.; Huang, Shyan-Cherng

    1987-01-01

    The testing of a prototype of an automotive Stirling engine, the Mod II, is discussed. The Mod II is a one-piece cast block with a V-4 single-crankshaft configuration and an annular regenerator/cooler design. The initial testing of Mod II concentrated on the basic engine, with auxiliaries driven by power sources external to the engine. The performance of the engine was tested at 720 C set temperature and 820 C tube temperature. At 720 C, it is observed that the power deficiency is speed dependent and linear, with a weak pressure dependency, and at 820 C, the power deficiency is speed and pressure dependent. The effects of buoyancy and nozzle spray pattern on the heater temperature spread are investigated. The characterization of the oil pump and the operating cycle and temperature spread tests are proposed for further evaluation of the engine.

  12. Evaluating Russian space nuclear reactor technology for United States applications

    SciTech Connect

    Polansky, G.F.; Schmidt, G.L.; Voss, S.S.; Reynolds, E.L.

    1994-08-01

    Space nuclear power and nuclear electric propulsion are considered important technologies for planetary exploration, as well as selected earth orbit applications. The Nuclear Electric Propulsion Space Test Program (NEPSTP) was intended to provide an early flight demonstration of these technologies at relatively low cost through extensive use of existing Russian technology. The key element of Russian technology employed in the program was the Topaz II reactor. Refocusing of the activities of the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO), combined with budgetary pressures, forced the cancellation of the NEPSTP at the end of the 1993 fiscal year. The NEPSTP was faced with many unique flight qualification issues. In general, the launch of a spacecraft employing a nuclear reactor power system complicates many spacecraft qualification activities. However, the NEPSTP activities were further complicated because the reactor power system was a Russian design. Therefore, this program considered not only the unique flight qualification issues associated with space nuclear power, but also with differences between Russian and United States flight qualification procedures. This paper presents an overview of the NEPSTP. The program goals, the proposed mission, the spacecraft, and the Topaz II space nuclear power system are described. The subject of flight qualification is examined and the inherent difficulties of qualifying a space reactor are described. The differences between United States and Russian flight qualification procedures are explored. A plan is then described that was developed to determine an appropriate flight qualification program for the Topaz II reactor to support a possible NEPSTP launch.

  13. Triptolide Induced Transcriptional Arrest is Associated with Changes in Nuclear Sub-Structure

    PubMed Central

    Leuenroth, Stephanie J.; Crews, Craig M.

    2008-01-01

    Triptolide, an active component of the medicinal herb, lei gong teng, is a potent anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory therapeutic. It potently inhibits NFκB transcriptional activation subsequent to DNA binding, although a precise mechanism is as yet unknown. Here, we report that triptolide also induces distinct nuclear sub-structural changes in HeLa cells. These changes in the nucleolus and nuclear speckles are reversible and dependent on both time and concentration. Furthermore, nuclear changes occurred within hours of triptolide treatment and were calcium and caspase independent. Rounding of nuclear speckles, an indication of transcriptional arrest was evident and was associated with a decrease in RNA Polymerase II CTD Ser2 phosphorylation. Additionally, the nucleolus disassembled and RNA Pol I activity declined subsequent to RNA Pol II inhibition. We therefore conclude that triptolide causes global transcriptional arrest as evidenced by inactivity of RNA polymerases I and II and the subsequent alteration in nuclear sub-structure. PMID:18593926

  14. The Eutelsat II programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgio, Claude; Dumesnil, Jean-Jacques

    Eutelsat II is designed to provide Europe with Ku-band communication and TV services with 16 active channels of 50 W power output. In-orbit reconfigurable antenna feed networks permit customized transmission offering either medium-gain over the whole of Europe or high-gain over tailored geographic areas, allowing TV reception on dishes as small as 60 cm. The payload design makes use of only two antennas, each comprising a dual dish reflector and two reconfigurable primary feed arrays. This paper gives an overview of the Eutelsat II mission, and presents a technical description of the satellite, the program schedule, and future prospects.

  15. SAGE II Ozone Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunnold, Derek; Wang, Ray

    2002-01-01

    Publications from 1999-2002 describing research funded by the SAGE II contract to Dr. Cunnold and Dr. Wang are listed below. Our most recent accomplishments include a detailed analysis of the quality of SAGE II, v6.1, ozone measurements below 20 km altitude (Wang et al., 2002 and Kar et al., 2002) and an analysis of the consistency between SAGE upper stratospheric ozone trends and model predictions with emphasis on hemispheric asymmetry (Li et al., 2001). Abstracts of the 11 papers are attached.

  16. Nuclear Security for Floating Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Skiba, James M.; Scherer, Carolynn P.

    2015-10-13

    Recently there has been a lot of interest in small modular reactors. A specific type of these small modular reactors (SMR,) are marine based power plants called floating nuclear power plants (FNPP). These FNPPs are typically built by countries with extensive knowledge of nuclear energy, such as Russia, France, China and the US. These FNPPs are built in one country and then sent to countries in need of power and/or seawater desalination. Fifteen countries have expressed interest in acquiring such power stations. Some designs for such power stations are briefly summarized. Several different avenues for cooperation in FNPP technology are proposed, including IAEA nuclear security (i.e. safeguards), multilateral or bilateral agreements, and working with Russian design that incorporates nuclear safeguards for IAEA inspections in non-nuclear weapons states

  17. Nuclear power failure signals end of an era

    SciTech Connect

    Mariotte, M.

    1996-07-01

    In the United States, {open_quotes}the nuclear industry is dead, kaput, finished{close_quotes} says Michael Mariotte, executive director of the Nuclear Information and Resource Service in Washington, D.C. Why? Investors are reluctant to gamble their money on a future generation of supposedly safe, economic nuclear power plants. {open_quotes}in 1979, the `safe` Three Mile Island-2 reactor turned a several-hundred-million-dollar investment into a billion-dollar loss in a matter of hours,{close_quotes} Mariotte says. {open_quotes}In fact, investing in nuclear power at this point would be like investing in the Titanic II.{close_quotes} However, diehard proponents of nuclear energy persist in their optimism for a new nuclear age, Mariotte says. These nuclear backers see the need to replace aging plants with a new generation of safer plants. But would a new generation of reactors really be safer? {open_quotes}To date, the industry may spur some new nuclear plants, it is more likely to lead to alternative renewable sources of energy that are more economical. {open_quotes}The nuclear age has ended as a result of inefficiency and unacceptable risks...After 50 years of sustained abuse, the Earth has finally and deservedly entered the end of the nuclear age,{close_quotes} Mariotte says.

  18. Nuclear fear revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crease, Robert P.

    2010-10-01

    In 1988 the science historian Spencer Weart published a groundbreaking book called Nuclear Fear: A History of Images, which examined visions of radiation damage and nuclear disaster in newspapers, television, film, literature, advertisements and popular culture.

  19. Nuclear disarmament verification

    SciTech Connect

    DeVolpi, A.

    1993-12-31

    Arms control treaties, unilateral actions, and cooperative activities -- reflecting the defusing of East-West tensions -- are causing nuclear weapons to be disarmed and dismantled worldwide. In order to provide for future reductions and to build confidence in the permanency of this disarmament, verification procedures and technologies would play an important role. This paper outlines arms-control objectives, treaty organization, and actions that could be undertaken. For the purposes of this Workshop on Verification, nuclear disarmament has been divided into five topical subareas: Converting nuclear-weapons production complexes, Eliminating and monitoring nuclear-weapons delivery systems, Disabling and destroying nuclear warheads, Demilitarizing or non-military utilization of special nuclear materials, and Inhibiting nuclear arms in non-nuclear-weapons states. This paper concludes with an overview of potential methods for verification.

  20. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP)

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's history with nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) technology goes back to the earliest days of the Agency. The Manned Lunar Rover Vehicle and the Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Applications p...

  1. Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This report contains brief papers that discusses the following topics: Fundamental Symmetries in the Nucleus; Internucleon Interactions; Dynamics of Very Light Nuclei; Facets of the Nuclear Many-Body Problem; and Nuclear Instruments and Methods.

  2. Fundamentals in Nuclear Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basdevant, Jean-Louis, Rich, James, Spiro, Michael

    This course on nuclear physics leads the reader to the exploration of the field from nuclei to astrophysical issues. Much nuclear phenomenology can be understood from simple arguments such as those based on the Pauli principle and the Coulomb barrier. This book is concerned with extrapolating from such arguments and illustrating nuclear systematics with experimental data. Starting with the basic concepts in nuclear physics, nuclear models, and reactions, the book covers nuclear decays and the fundamental electro-weak interactions, radioactivity, and nuclear energy. After the discussions of fission and fusion leading into nuclear astrophysics, there is a presentation of the latest ideas about cosmology. As a primer this course will lay the foundations for more specialized subjects. This book emerged from a series of topical courses the authors delivered at the Ecole Polytechnique and will be useful for graduate students and for scientists in a variety of fields.

  3. RBC nuclear scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003835.htm RBC nuclear scan To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. An RBC nuclear scan uses small amounts of radioactive material to ...

  4. Teaching "The Nuclear Predicament."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carman, Philip; Kneeshaw, Stephen

    1987-01-01

    Contends that courses on nuclear war must help students examine the political, social, religious, philosophical, economic, and moral assumptions which characterized the dilemma of nuclear armament/disarmament. Describes the upper level undergraduate course taught by the authors. (JDH)

  5. Nuclear radiation actuated valve

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, David W.; Schively, Dixon P.

    1985-01-01

    A nuclear radiation actuated valve for a nuclear reactor. The valve has a valve first part (such as a valve rod with piston) and a valve second part (such as a valve tube surrounding the valve rod, with the valve tube having side slots surrounding the piston). Both valve parts have known nuclear radiation swelling characteristics. The valve's first part is positioned to receive nuclear radiation from the nuclear reactor's fuel region. The valve's second part is positioned so that its nuclear radiation induced swelling is different from that of the valve's first part. The valve's second part also is positioned so that the valve's first and second parts create a valve orifice which changes in size due to the different nuclear radiation caused swelling of the valve's first part compared to the valve's second part. The valve may be used in a nuclear reactor's core coolant system.

  6. Stalled RNAP-II molecules bound to non-coding rDNA spacers are required for normal nucleolus architecture.

    PubMed

    Freire-Picos, M A; Landeira-Ameijeiras, V; Mayán, María D

    2013-07-01

    The correct distribution of nuclear domains is critical for the maintenance of normal cellular processes such as transcription and replication, which are regulated depending on their location and surroundings. The most well-characterized nuclear domain, the nucleolus, is essential for cell survival and metabolism. Alterations in nucleolar structure affect nuclear dynamics; however, how the nucleolus and the rest of the nuclear domains are interconnected is largely unknown. In this report, we demonstrate that RNAP-II is vital for the maintenance of the typical crescent-shaped structure of the nucleolar rDNA repeats and rRNA transcription. When stalled RNAP-II molecules are not bound to the chromatin, the nucleolus loses its typical crescent-shaped structure. However, the RNAP-II interaction with Seh1p, or cryptic transcription by RNAP-II, is not critical for morphological changes.

  7. Nuclear power browning out

    SciTech Connect

    Flavin, C.; Lenssen, N.

    1996-05-01

    When the sad history of nuclear power is written, April 26, 1986, will be recorded as the day the dream died. The explosion at the Chernobyl plant was a terrible human tragedy- and it delivered a stark verdict on the hope that nuclear power will one day replace fossil fuel-based energy systems. Nuclear advocates may soldier on, but a decade after Chernobyl it is clear that nuclear power is no longer a viable energy option for the twenty-first century.

  8. Nuclear air cushion vehicles.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    This paper serves several functions. It identifies the 'state-of-the-art' of the still-conceptual nuclear air cushion vehicle, particularly the nuclear powerplant. Using mission studies and cost estimates, the report describes some of the advantages of nuclear power for large air cushion vehicles. The paper also summarizes the technology studies on mobile nuclear powerplants and conceptual ACV systems/missions studies that have been performed at NASA Lewis Research Center.

  9. Extended [C II] Emission in Local Luminous Infrared Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz-Santos, T.; Armus, L.; Charmandaris, V.; Stacey, G.; Murphy, E. J.; Haan, S.; Stierwalt, S.; Malhotra, S.; Appleton, P.; Inami, H.; Magdis, G. E.; Elbaz, D.; Evans, A. S.; Mazzarella, J. M.; Surace, J. A.; van der Werf, P. P.; Xu, C. K.; Lu, N.; Meijerink, R.; Howell, J. H.; Petric, A. O.; Veilleux, S.; Sanders, D. B.

    2014-06-01

    We present Herschel/PACS observations of extended [C II] 157.7 μm line emission detected on ~1-10 kpc scales in 60 local luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) from the Great Observatories All-sky LIRG Survey. We find that most of the extra-nuclear emission show [C II]/FIR ratios >=4 × 10-3, larger than the mean ratio seen in the nuclei, and similar to those found in the extended disks of normal star-forming galaxies and the diffuse interstellar medium of our Galaxy. The [C II] "deficits" found in the most luminous local LIRGs are therefore restricted to their nuclei. There is a trend for LIRGs with warmer nuclei to show larger differences between their nuclear and extra-nuclear [C II]/FIR ratios. We find an anti-correlation between [C II]/FIR and the luminosity surface density, ΣIR, for the extended emission in the spatially resolved galaxies. However, there is an offset between this trend and that found for the LIRG nuclei. We use this offset to derive a beam filling-factor for the star-forming regions within the LIRG disks of ~6% relative to their nuclei. We confront the observed trend to photo-dissociation region models and find that the slope of the correlation is much shallower than the model predictions. Finally, we compare the correlation found between [C II]/FIR and ΣIR with measurements of high-redshift starbursting IR-luminous galaxies.

  10. Nuclear fact book

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, O. F.; Platt, A. M.; Robinson, J. V.

    1983-05-01

    This reference provides significant highlights and summary facts in the following areas: general energy; nuclear energy; nuclear fuel cycle; uranium supply and enrichment; nuclear reactors; spent fuel and advanced repacking concepts; reprocessing; high-level waste; gaseous waste; transuranic waste; low-level waste; remedial action; transportation; disposal; radiation information; environment; legislation; socio-political aspects; conversion factors; and a glossary. (GHT)

  11. Nuclear energy technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buden, David

    1992-01-01

    An overview of space nuclear energy technologies is presented. The development and characteristics of radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG's) and space nuclear power reactors are discussed. In addition, the policy and issues related to public safety and the use of nuclear power sources in space are addressed.

  12. NUCLEAR REACTOR CONTROL SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Epler, E.P.; Hanauer, S.H.; Oakes, L.C.

    1959-11-01

    A control system is described for a nuclear reactor using enriched uranium fuel of the type of the swimming pool and other heterogeneous nuclear reactors. Circuits are included for automatically removing and inserting the control rods during the course of normal operation. Appropriate safety circuits close down the nuclear reactor in the event of emergency.

  13. Revitalizing Nuclear Safety Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC.

    This report covers the general issues involved in nuclear safety research and points out the areas needing detailed consideration. Topics included are: (1) "Principles of Nuclear Safety Research" (examining who should fund, who should conduct, and who should set the agenda for nuclear safety research); (2) "Elements of a Future Agenda for Nuclear…

  14. Basic Nuclear Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    Basic concepts of nuclear structures, radiation, nuclear reactions, and health physics are presented in this text, prepared for naval officers. Applications to the area of nuclear power are described in connection with pressurized water reactors, experimental boiling water reactors, homogeneous reactor experiments, and experimental breeder…

  15. Effects of Nuclear Weapons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sartori, Leo

    1983-01-01

    Fundamental principles governing nuclear explosions and their effects are discussed, including three components of a nuclear explosion (thermal radiation, shock wave, nuclear radiation). Describes how effects of these components depend on the weapon's yield, its height of burst, and distance of detonation point. Includes effects of three…

  16. Teaching Nuclear History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holl, Jack M.; Convis, Sheila C.

    1991-01-01

    Presents results of a survey of the teaching about nuclear history at U.S. colleges and universities. Reports the existence of a well-established and extensive literature, a focus on nuclear weapons or warfare, and a concentration on nuclear citizenship, therapy, or eschatology for courses outside of history departments. Discusses individual…

  17. College Algebra II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Carl; And Others

    Presented are student performance objectives, a student progress chart, and assignment sheets with objective and diagnostic measures for the stated performance objectives in College Algebra II. Topics covered include: differencing and complements; real numbers; factoring; fractions; linear equations; exponents and radicals; complex numbers,…

  18. Listen & Learn II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Community Building Resources, Spruce Grove (Alberta).

    Six community builders in Edmonton, Alberta, planned, developed, and implemented Listen and Learn II, a reflective research project in asset-based community building, over a 6-month period in 1998. They met regularly over 2 months to plan the research and design a method that was open to participation at any stage, encouraged exchange of…

  19. Instant Insanity II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richmond, Tom; Young, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    "Instant Insanity II" is a sliding mechanical puzzle whose solution requires the special alignment of 16 colored tiles. We count the number of solutions of the puzzle's classic challenge and show that the more difficult ultimate challenge has, up to row permutation, exactly two solutions, and further show that no…

  20. Dissecting Diversity Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Frank

    2005-01-01

    This article presents "Dissecting Diversity, Part II," the conclusion of a wide-ranging two-part roundtable discussion on diversity in higher education. The participants were as follows: Lezli Baskerville, J.D., President and CEO of the National Association for Equal Opportunity (NAFEO); Dr. Gerald E. Gipp, Executive Director of the American…

  1. Periodontics II: Course Proposal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dordick, Bruce

    A proposal is presented for Periodontics II, a course offered at the Community College of Philadelphia to give the dental hygiene/assisting student an understanding of the disease states of the periodontium and their treatment. A standardized course proposal cover form is given, followed by a statement of purpose for the course, a list of major…

  2. Civil defense: a deterrent to nuclear war. Student essay

    SciTech Connect

    Atkins, G.C.

    1982-04-19

    Nuclear war has been feared by the entire world since the end of World War II. Since the early 1960s, the Soviet Union has been continually improving both its capability to wage nuclear war and, more important, to protect its population. Population protection or civil defense is the principal issue discussed, with emphasis on Soviet accomplishments and fluctuation of US policy. This issue is discussed from the viewpoint of many noted authors. The conclusion reached indicates that there can be deterrence to nuclear war through civil protection. This conclusion is reinforced with the efforts of the Soviets and the gains made by the US over the past three years.

  3. Novel roles of intracrine angiotensin II and signalling mechanisms in kidney cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhuo, Jia L; Li, Xiao C

    2008-01-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) has powerful sodium-retaining, growth-promoting and pro-inflammatory properties in addition to its physiological role in maintaining body salt and fluid balance and blood pressure homeostasis. Increased circulating and local tissue Ang II is one of the most important factors contributing to the development of sodium and fluid retention, hypertension and target organ damage. The importance of Ang II in the pathogenesis of hypertension and target organ injury is best demonstrated by the effectiveness of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and AT1-receptor antagonists in treating hypertension and progressive renal disease including diabetic nephropathy. The detrimental effects of Ang II are mediated primarily by the AT1-receptor, while the AT2-receptor may oppose the AT1-receptor. The classical view of the AT1-receptor-mediated effects of Ang II is that the agonist binds its receptors at the cell surface, and following receptor phosphorylation, activates downstream signal transduction pathways and intracellular responses. However, evidence is emerging that binding of Ang II to its cell surface AT1-receptors also activates endocytotic (or internalisation) processes that promote trafficking of both the effector and the receptor into intracellular compartments. Whether internalised Ang II has important intracrine and signalling actions is not well understood. The purpose of this article is to review recent advances in Ang II research with focus on the mechanisms underlying high levels of intracellular Ang II in proximal tubule cells and the contribution of receptor-mediated endocytosis of extracellular Ang II. Further attention is devoted to the question whether intracellular and/or internalised Ang II plays a physiological role by activating cytoplasmic or nuclear receptors in proximal tubule cells. This information may aid future development of drugs to prevent and treat Ang II-induced target organ injury in cardiovascular and renal

  4. Safety analysis report for the TRUPACT-II shipping package (condensed version). Volume 1, Rev. 14

    SciTech Connect

    1994-10-01

    The condensed version of the TRUPACT-II Contact Handled Transuranic Waste Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) contains essential material required by TRUPACT-II users, plus additional contents (payload) information previously submitted to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. All or part of the following sections, which are not required by users of the TRUPACT-II, are deleted from the condensed version: (i) structural analysis, (ii) thermal analysis, (iii) containment analysis, (iv) criticality analysis, (v) shielding analysis, and (vi) hypothetical accident test results.

  5. Indefensible weapons: the political and psychological case against nuclearism

    SciTech Connect

    Lifton, R.J.; Falk, R.

    1982-01-01

    The authors contend that the political and psychological power of nuclear weapons make them even more dangerous than their destructive power alone. They explore the political and psychological dependencies on nuclear weapons, which they call the disease of nuclearism. With this medical approach, they examine both the disease and the symptoms, which can be fatal. Section I, by Lifton, deals with the psychological problem of imagining the reality of nuclear weapons, the denial that they could be used, and the numbing of human feeling. Section II, by Falk, treats the political anatomy of the disease. Together they conclude that acceptance of nuclearism leads to despair and a semblance of death. They urge a broad-based popular movement to commit individual resources and action to eradicate the disease and restore mankind to health. 106 references. (DCK)

  6. "Fat Man and Little Boy": The Cinematic Representation of Interests in the Nuclear Weapons Organization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Bryan C.

    1993-01-01

    Examines the ironic "problems" of the 1989 Hollywood film "Fat Man and Little Boy" (portraying the construction of the atomic bomb at the Los Alamos Laboratory during World War II) to demonstrate the ideological operations of nuclear texts, and the role of the nuclear weapons organization as a symbolic form in cultural discourse. (SR)

  7. Commercial nuclear power 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-28

    This report presents the status at the end of 1989 and the outlook for commercial nuclear capacity and generation for all countries in the world with free market economies (FME). The report provides documentation of the US nuclear capacity and generation projections through 2030. The long-term projections of US nuclear capacity and generation are provided to the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) for use in estimating nuclear waste fund revenues and to aid in planning the disposal of nuclear waste. These projections also support the Energy Information Administration's annual report, Domestic Uranium Mining and Milling Industry: Viability Assessment, and are provided to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The foreign nuclear capacity projections are used by the DOE uranium enrichment program in assessing potential markets for future enrichment contracts. The two major sections of this report discuss US and foreign commercial nuclear power. The US section (Chapters 2 and 3) deals with (1) the status of nuclear power as of the end of 1989; (2) projections of nuclear capacity and generation at 5-year intervals from 1990 through 2030; and (3) a discussion of institutional and technical issues that affect nuclear power. The nuclear capacity projections are discussed in terms of two projection periods: the intermediate term through 2010 and the long term through 2030. A No New Orders case is presented for each of the projection periods, as well as Lower Reference and Upper Reference cases. 5 figs., 30 tabs.

  8. History of Nuclear India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaturvedi, Ram

    2000-04-01

    India emerged as a free and democratic country in 1947, and entered into the nuclear age in 1948 by establishing the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), with Homi Bhabha as the chairman. Later on the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) was created under the Office of the Prime Minister Jawahar Lal Nehru. Initially the AEC and DAE received international cooperation, and by 1963 India had two research reactors and four nuclear power reactors. In spite of the humiliating defeat in the border war by China in 1962 and China's nuclear testing in 1964, India continued to adhere to the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. On May 18, 1974 India performed a 15 kt Peaceful Nuclear Explosion (PNE). The western powers considered it nuclear weapons proliferation and cut off all financial and technical help, even for the production of nuclear power. However, India used existing infrastructure to build nuclear power reactors and exploded both fission and fusion devices on May 11 and 13, 1998. The international community viewed the later activity as a serious road block for the Non-Proliferation Treaty and the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty; both deemed essential to stop the spread of nuclear weapons. India considers these treaties favoring nuclear states and is prepared to sign if genuine nuclear disarmament is included as an integral part of these treaties.

  9. Role of Bound Zn(II) in the CadC Cd(II)/Pb(II)/Zn(II)-Responsive Repressor

    SciTech Connect

    Kandegedara, A.; Thiyagarajan, S; Kondapalli, K; Stemmler, T; Rosen, B

    2009-01-01

    The Staphylococcus aureus plasmid pI258 cadCA operon encodes a P-type ATPase, CadA, that confers resistance to Cd(II)/Pb(II)/Zn(II). Expression is regulated by CadC, a homodimeric repressor that dissociates from the cad operator/promoter upon binding of Cd(II), Pb(II), or Zn(II). CadC is a member of the ArsR/SmtB family of metalloregulatory proteins. The crystal structure of CadC shows two types of metal binding sites, termed Site 1 and Site 2, and the homodimer has two of each. Site 1 is the physiological inducer binding site. The two Site 2 metal binding sites are formed at the dimerization interface. Site 2 is not regulatory in CadC but is regulatory in the homologue SmtB. Here the role of each site was investigated by mutagenesis. Both sites bind either Cd(II) or Zn(II). However, Site 1 has higher affinity for Cd(II) over Zn(II), and Site 2 prefers Zn(II) over Cd(II). Site 2 is not required for either derepression or dimerization. The crystal structure of the wild type with bound Zn(II) and of a mutant lacking Site 2 was compared with the SmtB structure with and without bound Zn(II). We propose that an arginine residue allows for Zn(II) regulation in SmtB and, conversely, a glycine results in a lack of regulation by Zn(II) in CadC. We propose that a glycine residue was ancestral whether the repressor binds Zn(II) at a Site 2 like CadC or has no Site 2 like the paralogous ArsR and implies that acquisition of regulatory ability in SmtB was a more recent evolutionary event.

  10. Thermodynamics of nuclear transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ching-Hao; Mehta, Pankaj; Elbaum, Michael

    Molecular transport across the nuclear envelope is important for eukaryotes for gene expression and signaling. Experimental studies have revealed that nuclear transport is inherently a nonequilibrium process and actively consumes energy. In this work we present a thermodynamics theory of nuclear transport for a major class of nuclear transporters that are mediated by the small GTPase Ran. We identify the molecular elements responsible for powering nuclear transport, which we term the ``Ran battery'' and find that the efficiency of transport, measured by the cargo nuclear localization ratio, is limited by competition between cargo molecules and RanGTP to bind transport receptors, as well as the amount of NTF2 (i.e. RanGDP carrier) available to circulate the energy flow. This picture complements our current understanding of nuclear transport by providing a comprehensive thermodynamics framework to decipher the underlying biochemical machinery. Pm and CHW were supported by a Simons Investigator in the Mathematical Modeling in Living Systems grant (to PM).

  11. Overview of nuclear data

    SciTech Connect

    Firestone, R.B.

    2003-06-30

    For many years, nuclear structure and decay data have been compiled and disseminated by an International Network of Nuclear Structure and Decay Data (NSDD) evaluators under the auspices of the International Nuclear Data Committee (INDC) of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). In this lecture I will discuss the kinds of data that are available and describe various ways to obtain this information. We will learn about some of the publications that are available and Internet sources of nuclear data. You will be introduced to Isotope Explorer software for retrieving and displaying nuclear structure and radioactive decay data. The on-line resources Table of Radioactive Isotopes, PGAA Database Viewer, Nuclear Science Reference Search, Table of Isotopes Educational Website, and other information sources will be discussed. Exercises will be provided to increase your ability to understand, access, and use nuclear data.

  12. Radiation chemistry for modern nuclear energy development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmielewski, Andrzej G.; Szołucha, Monika M.

    2016-07-01

    Radiation chemistry plays a significant role in modern nuclear energy development. Pioneering research in nuclear science, for example the development of generation IV nuclear reactors, cannot be pursued without chemical solutions. Present issues related to light water reactors concern radiolysis of water in the primary circuit; long-term storage of spent nuclear fuel; radiation effects on cables and wire insulation, and on ion exchangers used for water purification; as well as the procedures of radioactive waste reprocessing and storage. Radiation effects on materials and enhanced corrosion are crucial in current (II/III/III+) and future (IV) generation reactors, and in waste management, deep geological disposal and spent fuel reprocessing. The new generation of reactors (III+ and IV) impose new challenges for radiation chemists due to their new conditions of operation and the usage of new types of coolant. In the case of the supercritical water-cooled reactor (SCWR), water chemistry control may be the key factor in preventing corrosion of reactor structural materials. This paper mainly focuses on radiation effects on long-term performance and safety in the development of nuclear power plants.

  13. Environmental consequences of nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Harwell, M.A.; Hutchinson, T.C.; Cropper, W.P. Jr.; Harwell, C.C.; Grover, H.D.

    1989-01-01

    This book addresses the ecological, agricultural, and human effects of nuclear war. The topics covered include: Ecological principles relevant to nuclear war; Vulnerability of ecological systems to climatic effects on nuclear war; Additional potential effects of nuclear war on ecological systems; Potential effects of nuclear war on agricultural productivity; Food availability after nuclear war; and Experiences and extrapolations from Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

  14. Nuclear Reactor Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stacey, Weston M.

    2001-02-01

    An authoritative textbook and up-to-date professional's guide to basic and advanced principles and practices Nuclear reactors now account for a significant portion of the electrical power generated worldwide. At the same time, the past few decades have seen an ever-increasing number of industrial, medical, military, and research applications for nuclear reactors. Nuclear reactor physics is the core discipline of nuclear engineering, and as the first comprehensive textbook and reference on basic and advanced nuclear reactor physics to appear in a quarter century, this book fills a large gap in the professional literature. Nuclear Reactor Physics is a textbook for students new to the subject, for others who need a basic understanding of how nuclear reactors work, as well as for those who are, or wish to become, specialists in nuclear reactor physics and reactor physics computations. It is also a valuable resource for engineers responsible for the operation of nuclear reactors. Dr. Weston Stacey begins with clear presentations of the basic physical principles, nuclear data, and computational methodology needed to understand both the static and dynamic behaviors of nuclear reactors. This is followed by in-depth discussions of advanced concepts, including extensive treatment of neutron transport computational methods. As an aid to comprehension and quick mastery of computational skills, he provides numerous examples illustrating step-by-step procedures for performing the calculations described and chapter-end problems. Nuclear Reactor Physics is a useful textbook and working reference. It is an excellent self-teaching guide for research scientists, engineers, and technicians involved in industrial, research, and military applications of nuclear reactors, as well as government regulators who wish to increase their understanding of nuclear reactors.

  15. Nucleolus: the fascinating nuclear body

    PubMed Central

    Sirri, Valentina; Urcuqui-Inchima, Silvio; Roussel, Pascal

    2007-01-01

    Nucleoli are the prominent contrasted structures of the cell nucleus. In the nucleolus, ribosomal RNAs are synthesized, processed and assembled with ribosomal proteins. RNA polymerase I synthesizes the ribosomal RNAs and this activity is cell cycle regulated. The nucleolus reveals the functional organization of the nucleus in which the compartmentation of the different steps of ribosome biogenesis is observed whereas the nucleolar machineries are in permanent exchange with the nucleoplasm and other nuclear bodies. After mitosis, nucleolar assembly is a time and space regulated process controlled by the cell cycle. In addition, by generating a large volume in the nucleus with apparently no RNA polymerase II activity, the nucleolus creates a domain of retention/sequestration of molecules normally active outside the nucleolus. Viruses interact with the nucleolus and recruit nucleolar proteins to facilitate virus replication. The nucleolus is also a sensor of stress due to the redistribution of the ribosomal proteins in the nucleoplasm by nucleolus disruption. The nucleolus plays several crucial functions in the nucleus: in addition to its function as ribosome factory of the cells it is a multifunctional nuclear domain, and nucleolar activity is linked with several pathologies. Perspectives on the evolution of this research area are proposed. PMID:18046571

  16. Operation DOMINIC II, Shots LITTLE FELLER II, JOHNIE BOY, SMALL BOY, LITTLE FELLER I, 7 July-17 July 1962. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Ponton, J.; Maag, C.; Rohrer, S.; Shepanek, R.

    1983-01-31

    This report describes the activities of an estimated 3,000 DOD personnel, both military and civilian, in Operation DOMINIC II, the eighth peacetime series of nuclear weapons tests, conducted in Nevada from 7 July through 17 July 1962. Activities engaging DOD personnel included the Exercise IVY FLATS troop maneuver, joint DASA and AEC scientific experiments to evaluate the effects of the nuclear devices, and air support.

  17. Moving Cell Boundaries Drive Nuclear Shaping during Cell Spreading

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuan; Lovett, David; Zhang, Qiao; Neelam, Srujana; Kuchibhotla, Ram Anirudh; Zhu, Ruijun; Gundersen, Gregg G.; Lele, Tanmay P.; Dickinson, Richard B.

    2015-01-01

    The nucleus has a smooth, regular appearance in normal cells, and its shape is greatly altered in human pathologies. Yet, how the cell establishes nuclear shape is not well understood. We imaged the dynamics of nuclear shaping in NIH3T3 fibroblasts. Nuclei translated toward the substratum and began flattening during the early stages of cell spreading. Initially, nuclear height and width correlated with the degree of cell spreading, but over time, reached steady-state values even as the cell continued to spread. Actomyosin activity, actomyosin bundles, microtubules, and intermediate filaments, as well as the LINC complex, were all dispensable for nuclear flattening as long as the cell could spread. Inhibition of actin polymerization as well as myosin light chain kinase with the drug ML7 limited both the initial spreading of cells and flattening of nuclei, and for well-spread cells, inhibition of myosin-II ATPase with the drug blebbistatin decreased cell spreading with associated nuclear rounding. Together, these results show that cell spreading is necessary and sufficient to drive nuclear flattening under a wide range of conditions, including in the presence or absence of myosin activity. To explain this observation, we propose a computational model for nuclear and cell mechanics that shows how frictional transmission of stress from the moving cell boundaries to the nuclear surface shapes the nucleus during early cell spreading. Our results point to a surprisingly simple mechanical system in cells for establishing nuclear shapes. PMID:26287620

  18. Introducing CAML II

    SciTech Connect

    Pelaia II, Tom; Boyes, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Channel Access Markup Language (CAML) is a XML based markup language and implementation for displaying EPICS channel access controls within a web browser. The CAML II project expanded upon the work of CAML I adding more features and greater integration with other web technologies. The most dramatic new feature introduced in CAML II is the introduction of a namespace so CAML controls can be embedded within XHTML documents. A repetition template with macro substitution allows for rapid coding of arbitrary XHTML repetitions. Enhancements have been made to several controls including more powerful plotting options. Advanced formatting options were introduced for text controls. Virtual process variables allow for custom calculations. An EDL to CAML translator eases the transition from EDM screens to CAML pages.

  19. RADTRAN II user guide

    SciTech Connect

    Madsen, M M; Wilmot, E L; Taylor, J M

    1983-02-01

    RADTRAN II is a flexible analytical tool for calculating both the incident-free and accident impacts of transporting radioactive materials. The consequences from incident-free shipments are apportioned among eight population subgroups and can be calculated for several transport modes. The radiological accident risk (probability times consequence summed over all postulated accidents) is calculated in terms of early fatalities, early morbidities, latent cancer fatalities, genetic effects, and economic impacts. Groundshine, inhalation, direct exposure, resuspension, and cloudshine dose pathways are modeled to calculate the radiological health risks from accidents. Economic impacts are evaluated based on costs for emergency response, cleanup, evacuation, income loss, and land use. RADTRAN II can be applied to specific scenario evaluations (individual transport modes or specified combinations), to compare alternative modes or to evaluate generic radioactive material shipments. Unit-risk factors can easily be evaluated to aid in performing generic analyses when several options must be compared with the amount of travel as the only variable.

  20. Results from SAGE II

    SciTech Connect

    Nico, J.S.

    1994-10-01

    The Russian-American Gallium solar neutrino Experiment (SAGE) began the second phase of operation (SAGE II) in September of 1992. Monthly measurements of the integral flux of solar neutrinos have been made with 55 tonnes of gallium. The K-peak results of the first nine runs of SAGE II give a capture rate of 66{sub -13}{sup +18} (stat) {sub -7}{sup +5} (sys) SNU. Combined with the SAGE I result of 73{sub -16}{sup +18} (stat) {sub -7}{sup 5} (sys) SNU, the capture rate is 69{sub -11}{sup +11} (stat) {sub -7}{sup +5} (sys) SNU. This represents only 52%--56% of the capture rate predicted by different Standard Solar Models.

  1. Ribosomal Database Project II

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) provides ribosome related data and services to the scientific community, including online data analysis and aligned and annotated Bacterial small-subunit 16S rRNA sequences. As of March 2008, RDP Release 10 is available and currently (August 2009) contains 1,074,075 aligned 16S rRNA sequences. Data that can be downloaded include zipped GenBank and FASTA alignment files, a histogram (in Excel) of the number of RDP sequences spanning each base position, data in the Functional Gene Pipeline Repository, and various user submitted data. The RDP-II website also provides numerous analysis tools.[From the RDP-II home page at http://rdp.cme.msu.edu/index.jsp

  2. Evolution of the nuclear receptor gene superfamily.

    PubMed Central

    Laudet, V; Hänni, C; Coll, J; Catzeflis, F; Stéhelin, D

    1992-01-01

    Nuclear receptor genes represent a large family of genes encoding receptors for various hydrophobic ligands such as steroids, vitamin D, retinoic acid and thyroid hormones. This family also contains genes encoding putative receptors for unknown ligands. Nuclear receptor gene products are composed of several domains important for transcriptional activation, DNA binding (C domain), hormone binding and dimerization (E domain). It is not known whether these genes have evolved through gene duplication from a common ancestor or if their different domains came from different independent sources. To test these possibilities we have constructed and compared the phylogenetic trees derived from two different domains of 30 nuclear receptor genes. The tree built from the DNA binding C domain clearly shows a common progeny of all nuclear receptors, which can be grouped into three subfamilies: (i) thyroid hormone and retinoic acid receptors, (ii) orphan receptors and (iii) steroid hormone receptors. The tree constructed from the central part of the E domain which is implicated in transcriptional regulation and dimerization shows the same distribution in three subfamilies but two groups of receptors are in a different position from that in the C domain tree: (i) the Drosophila knirps family genes have acquired very different E domains during evolution, and (ii) the vitamin D and ecdysone receptors, as well as the FTZ-F1 and the NGF1B genes, seem to have DNA binding and hormone binding domains belonging to different classes. These data suggest a complex evolutionary history for nuclear receptor genes in which gene duplication events and swapping between domains of different origins took place. PMID:1312460

  3. {bar K}-NUCLEAR Deeply Bound States?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gal, Avraham

    Following the prediction by Akaishi and Yamazaki of relatively narrow {bar K}-nuclear states, deeply bound by over 100 MeV where the main decay channel {bar K} N -> π Σ is closed, several experimental signals in stopped K- reactions on light nuclei have been interpreted recently as due to such states. In this talk I review (i) the evidence from K--atom data for a deep bar K-nucleus potential, as attractive as V{bar K}(ρ 0) ˜ -(150 - 200) MeV at nuclear matter density, that could support such states; and (ii) the theoretical arguments for a shallow potential, V{bar K}(ρ 0) ˜ -(40 - 60) MeV. I then review a recent work by Mareš, Friedman and Gal in which {bar K}-nuclear bound states are generated dynamically across the periodic table, using a RMF Lagrangian that couples the {bar K} to the scalar and vector meson fields mediating the nuclear interactions. The reduced phase space available for {bar K} absorption from these bound states is taken into account by adding a density- and energy-dependent imaginary term, underlying the corresponding {bar K}-nuclear level widths, with a strength constrained by K--atom fits. Substantial polarization of the core nucleus is found for light nuclei, with central nuclear densities enhanced by almost a factor of two. The binding energies and widths calculated in this dynamical model differ appreciably from those calculated for a static nucleus. These calculations provide a lower limit of Γ {bar K} ˜ 50 ± 10 MeV on the width of nuclear bound states for {bar K} binding energy in the range B{bar K} = 100 - 200 MeV.

  4. Nuclear structures in Tribolium castaneum oocytes.

    PubMed

    Bogolyubov, Dmitry S; Batalova, Florina M; Kiselyov, Artyom M; Stepanova, Irina S

    2013-10-01

    The first ultrastructural and immunomorphological characteristics of the karyosphere (karyosome) and extrachromosomal nuclear bodies in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, are presented. The karyosphere forms early in the diplotene stage of meiotic prophase by the gathering of all oocyte chromosomes in a limited nuclear volume. Using the BrUTP assay, T. castaneum oocyte chromosomes united in the karyosphere maintain their transcriptional activity until the end of oocyte growth. Hyperphosphorylated RNA polymerase II and basal transcription factors (TFIID and TFIIH) were detected in the perichromatin region of the karyosphere. The T. castaneum karyosphere has an extrachromosomal capsule that separates chromosomes from the rest of the nucleoplasm. Certain structural proteins (F-actin, lamin B) were found in the capsule. Unexpectedly, the karyosphere capsule in T. castaneum oocytes was found to be enriched in TMG-capped snRNAs, which suggests that the capsule is not only a structural support for the karyosphere, but may be involved in biogenesis of snRNPs. We also identified the counterparts of 'universal' extrachromosomal nuclear domains, Cajal bodies (CBs) and interchromatin granule clusters (IGCs). Nuclear bodies containing IGC marker protein SC35 display some features unusual for typical IGCs. SC35 domains in T. castaneum oocytes are predominantly fibrillar complex bodies that do not contain trimethyl guanosine (TMG)-capped small nuclear (sn) RNAs. Microinjections of 2'-O-methyl (U)22 probes into the oocytes allowed revealing poly(A)+ RNAs in these nuclear domains. Several proteins related to mRNA export (heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein core protein A1, export adapters Y14 and Aly and export receptor NXF1) were also detected there. We believe that unusual SC35 nuclear domains of T. castaneum oocytes are possibly involved in mRNP but not snRNP biogenesis.

  5. RISTA II trials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, John R.

    1998-11-01

    Northrop Grumman Corporation has developed an advanced 2nd generation IR sensor system under the guidance of the US Army's Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD) as part of an Advanced Concept Technology Demonstration (ACTD) called Counter Mobile Rocket Launcher (CMRL). Designed to support rapid counter fire against mobile targets from an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), the sensor system, called reconnaissance IR surveillance target acquisition (RISTA II), consists of a 2nd generation FLIR/line scanner, a digital data link, a ground processing facility, and an aided target recognizer (AiTF). The concept of operation together with component details was reported at the passive sensors IRIS in March, 1996. The performance testing of the RISTA II System was reported at the National IRIS in November, 1997. The RISTA II sensor has subsequently undergone performance testing on a Royal Netherlands Air Force F-16 for a manned reconnaissance application in August and October, 1997, at Volkel Airbase, Netherlands. That testing showed performance compatible with the medium altitude IR sensor performance. The results of that testing, together with flight test imagery, will be presented.

  6. Nuclear charge and neutron radii and nuclear matter: Trend analysis in Skyrme density-functional-theory approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinhard, P.-G.; Nazarewicz, W.

    2016-05-01

    Background: Radii of charge and neutron distributions are fundamental nuclear properties. They depend on both nuclear interaction parameters related to the equation of state of infinite nuclear matter and on quantal shell effects, which are strongly impacted by the presence of nuclear surface. Purpose: In this work, by studying the correlation of charge and neutron radii, and neutron skin, with nuclear matter parameters, we assess different mechanisms that drive nuclear sizes. Method: We apply nuclear density functional theory using a family of Skyrme functionals obtained by means of optimization protocols, which do not include any radius information. By performing the Monte Carlo sampling of reasonable functionals around the optimal parametrization, we scan all correlations between nuclear matter properties and observables characterizing charge and neutron distributions of spherical closed-shell nuclei 48Ca,208Pb, and 298Fl. Results: By considering the influence of various nuclear matter properties on charge and neutron radii in a multidimensional parameter space of Skyrme functionals, we demonstrate the existence of two strong relationships: (i) between the nuclear charge radii and the saturation density of symmetric nuclear matter ρ0, and (ii) between the neutron skins and the slope of the symmetry energy L . The impact of other nuclear matter properties on nuclear radii is weak or nonexistent. For functionals optimized to experimental binding energies only, proton and neutron radii are found to be weakly correlated due to canceling trends from different nuclear matter characteristics. Conclusion: The existence of only two strong relations connecting nuclear radii with nuclear matter properties has important consequences. First, by requiring that the nuclear functional reproduces the empirical saturation point of symmetric nuclear matter practically fixes the charge (or proton) radii, and vice versa. This explains the recent results of ab initio calculations

  7. British nuclear policymaking

    SciTech Connect

    Bowie, C.J.; Platt, A.

    1984-01-01

    This study analyzes the domestic political, economic, and bureaucratic factors that affect the nuclear policymaking process in Great Britain. Its major conclusion is that, although there have been changes in that process in recent years (notably the current involvement of a segment of the British public in the debate about the deployment of intermediate-range nuclear forces), future British nuclear policymaking will remain much what it has been in the past. Three ideas are central to understanding British thinking on the subject: (1) Britain's long-standing resolve to have her own national nuclear force is largely traceable to her desire to maintain first-rank standing among the nations of the world in spite of loss of empire. (2) Financial considerations have always been important--so much so that they have usually dominated issues of nuclear policy. (3) The executive branch of government dominates the nuclear policymaking process but does not always present a united front. The United States heavily influences British nuclear policy through having supplied Britain since the late 1950s with nuclear data and components of nuclear weapon systems such as Polaris and Trident. The relationship works both ways since the U.S. depends on Britain as a base for deployment of both conventional and nuclear systems.

  8. NUCLEAR DATABASES FOR REACTOR APPLICATIONS.

    SciTech Connect

    PRITYCHENKO, B.; ARCILLA, R.; BURROWS, T.; HERMAN, M.W.; MUGHABGHAB, S.; OBLOZINSKY, P.; ROCHMAN, D.; SONZOGNI, A.A.; TULI, J.; WINCHELL, D.F.

    2006-06-05

    The National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC): An overview of nuclear databases, related products, nuclear data Web services and publications. The NNDC collects, evaluates, and disseminates nuclear physics data for basic research and applied nuclear technologies. The NNDC maintains and contributes to the nuclear reaction (ENDF, CSISRS) and nuclear structure databases along with several others databases (CapGam, MIRD, IRDF-2002) and provides coordination for the Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) and the US Nuclear Data Program (USNDP). The Center produces several publications and codes such as Atlas of Neutron Resonances, Nuclear Wallet Cards booklets and develops codes, such as nuclear reaction model code Empire.

  9. Dry Processing of Used Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    K. M. Goff; M. F. Simpson

    2009-09-01

    Dry (non-aqueous) separations technologies have been used for treatment of used nuclear fuel since the 1960s, and they are still being developed and demonstrated in many countries. Dry technologies offer potential advantages compared to traditional aqueous separations including: compactness, resistance to radiation effects, criticality control benefits, compatibility with advanced fuel types, and ability to produce low purity products. Within the Department of Energy’s Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative, an electrochemical process employing molten salts is being developed for recycle of fast reactor fuel and treatment of light water reactor oxide fuel to produce a feed for fast reactors. Much of the development of this technology is based on treatment of used Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) fuel, which is metallic. Electrochemical treatment of the EBR-II fuel has been ongoing in the Fuel Conditioning Facility, located at the Materials and Fuel Complex of Idaho National Laboratory since 1996. More than 3.8 metric tons of heavy metal of metallic fast reactor fuel have been treated using this technology. This paper will summarize the status of electrochemical development and demonstration activities with used nuclear fuel, including high-level waste work. A historic perspective on the background of dry processing will also be provided.

  10. Nuclear hormone receptor functions in keratinocyte and melanocyte homeostasis, epidermal carcinogenesis and melanomagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Hyter, Stephen; Indra, Arup K

    2013-01-01

    Skin homeostasis is maintained, in part, through regulation of gene expression orchestrated by type II nuclear hormone receptors in a cell and context specific manner. This group of transcriptional regulators is implicated in various cellular processes including epidermal proliferation, differentiation, permeability barrier formation, follicular cycling and inflammatory responses. Endogenous ligands for the receptors regulate actions during skin development and maintenance of tissue homeostasis. Type II nuclear receptor signaling is also important for cellular crosstalk between multiple cell types in the skin. Overall, these nuclear receptors are critical players in keratinocyte and melanocyte biology and present targets for cutaneous disease management. PMID:23395795

  11. The conserved domain CR2 of Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen leader protein is responsible not only for nuclear matrix association but also for nuclear localization.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, A; Kawaguchi, Y; Kitabayashi, I; Ohki, M; Hirai, K

    2001-01-20

    There is a growing body of evidence for the importance of the nuclear matrix in various nuclear events including gene expression and DNA replication. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen leader protein (EBNA-LP) is a nuclear matrix-associated protein that has been suggested to play an important role in EBV-induced transformation. To define the biological significance of the association of EBNA-LP with the nuclear matrix, we mapped the domain of EBNA-LP responsible for nuclear matrix association and investigated the functions of the EBNA-LP mutant mutagenized by substitution of alanines for the cluster of arginine residues in the mapped region. The results of the present study were as follows. (i) Transiently expressed EBNA-LP in COS-7 or BOSC23 cells was associated with the nuclear matrix, similarly to that in EBV-infected B cells. (ii) Mutational analysis of EBNA-LP revealed that a 10-amino acid segment of EBNA-LP is critical for nuclear matrix association of the protein. Interestingly, the identified region overlapped with the region CR2 of EBNA-LP conserved among a subset of primate gammaherpesviruses. The identified segment is referred to as EBNA-LP NMTS (nuclear matrix targeting signal). (iii) The EBNA-LP mutant with the arginine to alanine substitutions in NMTS was no longer localized not only to the nuclear matrix but also to the nucleus. (iv) The EBNA-LP mutant lacked its ability to coactivate EBNA-2-dependent transactivation. These results indicated that EBNA-LP needs to be localized in the nucleus and/or associated with the nuclear matrix through CR2 to elicit its function such as the coactivation of the EBNA-2-dependent transcriptional activation. PMID:11162796

  12. Nuclear Science References Database

    SciTech Connect

    Pritychenko, B.; Běták, E.; Singh, B.; Totans, J.

    2014-06-15

    The Nuclear Science References (NSR) database together with its associated Web interface, is the world's only comprehensive source of easily accessible low- and intermediate-energy nuclear physics bibliographic information for more than 210,000 articles since the beginning of nuclear science. The weekly-updated NSR database provides essential support for nuclear data evaluation, compilation and research activities. The principles of the database and Web application development and maintenance are described. Examples of nuclear structure, reaction and decay applications are specifically included. The complete NSR database is freely available at the websites of the National Nuclear Data Center (http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/nsr) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (http://www-nds.iaea.org/nsr)

  13. The arginine methyltransferase PRMT5 regulates CIITA-dependent MHC II transcription.

    PubMed

    Fan, Zhiwen; Kong, Xiaocen; Xia, Jun; Wu, Xiaoyan; Li, He; Xu, Huihui; Fang, Mingming; Xu, Yong

    2016-05-01

    Class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC II) dependent antigen presentation serves as a key step in mammalian adaptive immunity and host defense. In antigen presenting cells (e.g., macrophages), MHC II transcription can be activated by interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and mediated by class II transactivator (CIITA). The underlying epigenetic mechanism, however, is not completely understood. Here we report that following IFN-γ stimulation, symmetrically dimethylated histone H3 arginine 2 (H3R2Me2s) accumulated on the MHC II promoter along with CIITA. IFN-γ augmented expression, nuclear translocation, and promoter binding of the protein arginine methyltransferase PRMT5 in macrophages. Over-expression of PRMT5 potentiated IFN-γ induced activation of MHC II transcription in an enzyme activity-dependent manner. In contrast, PRMT5 silencing or inhibition of PRMT5 activity by methylthioadenosine (MTA) suppressed MHC II transactivation by IFN-γ. CIITA interacted with and recruited PRMT5 to the MHC II promoter and mediated the synergy between PRMT5 and ASH2/WDR5 to activate MHC II transcription. PRMT5 expression was down-regulated in senescent and H2O2-treated macrophages rendering ineffectual induction of MHC II transcription by IFN-γ. Taken together, our data reveal a pathophysiologically relevant role for PRMT5 in MHC II transactivation in macrophages. PMID:26972221

  14. Ongoing Space Nuclear Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.

    2007-01-01

    Most ongoing US activities related to space nuclear power and propulsion are sponsored by NASA. NASA-spons0red space nuclear work is currently focused on evaluating potential fission surface power (FSP) systems and on radioisotope power systems (RPS). In addition, significant efforts related to nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) systems have been completed and will provide a starting point for potential future NTP work.

  15. Assessing the nuclear age

    SciTech Connect

    Ackland, L.; McGuire, S.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents papers on nuclear weapons and arms control. Topics considered include historical aspects, the arms race, nuclear power, flaws in the non-proliferation treaty, North-South issues, East-West confrontation, Soviet decision making with regard to national defense, US and Soviet perspectives on national security, ballistic missile defense (''Star Wars''), political aspects, nuclear winter, stockpiles, US foreign policy, and military strategy.

  16. Nuclear power in space

    SciTech Connect

    Aftergood, S. ); Hafemeister, D.W. ); Prilutsky, O.F.; Rodionov, S.N. ); Primack, J.R. )

    1991-06-01

    Nuclear reactors have provided energy for satellites-with nearly disastrous results. Now the US government is proposing to build nuclear-powered boosters to launch Star Wars defenses. These authors represent scientific groups that are opposed to the use of nuclear power in near space. The authors feel that the best course for space-borne reactors is to ban them from Earth orbit and use them in deep space.

  17. Nuclear power in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Written and verbal testimony presented before the House Subcommittee on Energy Research and Development is documented. Current research efforts related to space nuclear power are discussed including the SP-100 Space Reactor Program, development of radioisotope thermoelectric generators, and the Advanced Nuclear Systems Program. Funding, research and test facilities, specific space mission requirements, and the comparison of solar and nuclear power systems are addressed. Witnesses included representatives from DOD, NASA, DOE, universities, and private industry.

  18. Nuclear Proliferation Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Professor William Potter

    2005-11-28

    William C. Potter, Director of the Center for Non Proliferation Studies and the Center for Russian and Eurasian Studies at the Monterey Institute of International Studies, will present nuclear proliferation challenges following the 2005 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) Review Conference. In addition to elucidating reasons for, and implications of, the conference’s failure, Dr. Potter will discuss common ground between nuclear proliferation and terrorism issues and whether corrective action can be taken.

  19. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2012-05-15

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  20. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2010-07-13

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  1. Nuclear Fabrication Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Levesque, Stephen

    2013-04-05

    This report summarizes the activities undertaken by EWI while under contract from the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) for the management and operation of the Nuclear Fabrication Consortium (NFC). The NFC was established by EWI to independently develop, evaluate, and deploy fabrication approaches and data that support the re-establishment of the U.S. nuclear industry: ensuring that the supply chain will be competitive on a global stage, enabling more cost-effective and reliable nuclear power in a carbon constrained environment. The NFC provided a forum for member original equipment manufactures (OEM), fabricators, manufacturers, and materials suppliers to effectively engage with each other and rebuild the capacity of this supply chain by : Identifying and removing impediments to the implementation of new construction and fabrication techniques and approaches for nuclear equipment, including system components and nuclear plants. Providing and facilitating detailed scientific-based studies on new approaches and technologies that will have positive impacts on the cost of building of nuclear plants. Analyzing and disseminating information about future nuclear fabrication technologies and how they could impact the North American and the International Nuclear Marketplace. Facilitating dialog and initiate alignment among fabricators, owners, trade associations, and government agencies. Supporting industry in helping to create a larger qualified nuclear supplier network. Acting as an unbiased technology resource to evaluate, develop, and demonstrate new manufacturing technologies. Creating welder and inspector training programs to help enable the necessary workforce for the upcoming construction work. Serving as a focal point for technology, policy, and politically interested parties to share ideas and concepts associated with fabrication across the nuclear industry. The report the objectives and summaries of the Nuclear Fabrication Consortium

  2. Nuclear free zone

    SciTech Connect

    Christoffel, T.

    1987-07-01

    Health professionals have played a leading role in alerting and educating the public regarding the danger of nuclear war which has been described as the last epidemic our civilization will know. Having convinced most people that the use of nuclear weapons would mean intolerable consequences, groups such as Physicians for Social Responsibility have focused on the second critical question how likely is it that these weapons will be used. The oultlook is grim. This article describes the nuclear free zone movement, explores relevant legal questions, and shows how the political potential of nuclear free zones threatens to open a deep rift in the American constitutional system.

  3. Nuclear reactor apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Wade, Elman E.

    1978-01-01

    A lifting, rotating and sealing apparatus for nuclear reactors utilizing rotating plugs above the nuclear reactor core. This apparatus permits rotation of the plugs to provide under the plug refueling of a nuclear core. It also provides a means by which positive top core holddown can be utilized. Both of these operations are accomplished by means of the apparatus lifting the top core holddown structure off the nuclear core while stationary, and maintaining this structure in its elevated position during plug rotation. During both of these operations, the interface between the rotating member and its supporting member is sealingly maintained.

  4. Technologists for Nuclear Medicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Huey D.

    1974-01-01

    Physicians need support personnel for work with radioisotopes in diagnosing dangerous diseases. The Nuclear Medicine Technology (NMT) Program at Hillsborough Community College in Tampa, Florida, is described. (MW)

  5. Cyber security evaluation of II&C technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Ken

    2014-11-01

    The Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is a research and development program sponsored by the Department of Energy, which is conducted in close collaboration with industry to provide the technical foundations for licensing and managing the long-term, safe and economical operation of current nuclear power plants The LWRS Program serves to help the US nuclear industry adopt new technologies and engineering solutions that facilitate the continued safe operation of the plants and extension of the current operating licenses. Within the LWRS Program, the Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control (II&C) Systems Technologies Pathway conducts targeted research and development (R&D) to address aging and reliability concerns with the legacy instrumentation and control and related information systems of the U.S. operating light water reactor (LWR) fleet. The II&C Pathway is conducted by Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Cyber security is a common concern among nuclear utilities and other nuclear industry stakeholders regarding the digital technologies that are being developed under this program. This concern extends to the point of calling into question whether these types of technologies could ever be deployed in nuclear plants given the possibility that the information in them can be compromised and the technologies themselves can potentially be exploited to serve as attack vectors for adversaries. To this end, a cyber security evaluation has been conducted of these technologies to determine whether they constitute a threat beyond what the nuclear plants already manage within their regulatory-required cyber security programs. Specifically, the evaluation is based on NEI 08-09, which is the industry’s template for cyber security programs and evaluations, accepted by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as responsive to the requirements of the nuclear power plant cyber security regulation found in 10 CFR 73.54. The evaluation was conducted by a

  6. Structural insights into transcription initiation by RNA polymerase II

    PubMed Central

    Grünberg, Sebastian; Hahn, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Transcriptional regulation is one of the most important steps in control of cell identity, growth, differentiation and development. Many signaling pathways controlling these processes ultimately target the core transcription machinery that, for protein coding genes, consists of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) and the general transcription factors (GTFs). New studies on the structure and mechanism of the core assembly and how it interfaces with promoter DNA and coactivator complexes have given tremendous insight into early steps in the initiation process, genome-wide binding, and mechanisms conserved for all nuclear and archaeal Pols. Here we review recent developments in dissecting the architecture of the Pol II core machinery with a focus on early and regulated steps in transcription initiation. PMID:24120742

  7. Atmospheric effects and societal consequences of regional scale nuclear conflicts and acts of individual nuclear terrorism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toon, O. B.; Turco, R. P.; Robock, A.; Bardeen, C.; Oman, L.; Stenchikov, G. L.

    2007-04-01

    We assess the potential damage and smoke production associated with the detonation of small nuclear weapons in modern megacities. While the number of nuclear warheads in the world has fallen by about a factor of three since its peak in 1986, the number of nuclear weapons states is increasing and the potential exists for numerous regional nuclear arms races. Eight countries are known to have nuclear weapons, 2 are constructing them, and an additional 32 nations already have the fissile material needed to build substantial arsenals of low-yield (Hiroshima-sized) explosives. Population and economic activity worldwide are congregated to an increasing extent in megacities, which might be targeted in a nuclear conflict. We find that low yield weapons, which new nuclear powers are likely to construct, can produce 100 times as many fatalities and 100 times as much smoke from fires per kt yield as previously estimated in analyses for full scale nuclear wars using high-yield weapons, if the small weapons are targeted at city centers. A single "small" nuclear detonation in an urban center could lead to more fatalities, in some cases by orders of magnitude, than have occurred in the major historical conflicts of many countries. We analyze the likely outcome of a regional nuclear exchange involving 100 15-kt explosions (less than 0.1% of the explosive yield of the current global nuclear arsenal). We find that such an exchange could produce direct fatalities comparable to all of those worldwide in World War II, or to those once estimated for a "counterforce" nuclear war between the superpowers. Megacities exposed to atmospheric fallout of long-lived radionuclides would likely be abandoned indefinitely, with severe national and international implications. Our analysis shows that smoke from urban firestorms in a regional war would rise into the upper troposphere due to pyro-convection. Robock et al. (2007) show that the smoke would subsequently rise deep into the stratosphere due

  8. PREFACE: EPS Euroconference XIX Nuclear Physics Divisional Conference: New Trends in Nuclear Physics Applications and Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-06-01

    It was with great pleasure that the Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics of the University of Pavia and the INFN (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare) Structure of Pavia organised the XIX Nuclear Physics Divisional Conference of the European Physical Society, which was held in the historical buildings of the University of Pavia from 5-9 September 2005. The Conference was devoted to the discussion of the most recent experimental and theoretical achievements in the field of Nuclear Physics applications, as well as of the latest developments in technological tools related to Nuclear Physics research. The University of Pavia has a long tradition in Physics and in Applied Physics, being the site where Alessandro Volta developed his "pila", the precursor of the modern battery. This is the place where the first experiments with electricity were conducted and where the term "capacitance" used for capacitors was invented. Today the University hosts a Triga Mark II nuclear reactor, which is used by the Departments of the University of Pavia and by other Universities and private companies as well. Moreover, Pavia is the site selected for the construction of the CNAO complex "Centro Nazionale di Adroterapia Oncologica" (National Centre for Oncological Hadrontherapy), planned for 2005-2008 which represents a unique facility in Italy and will be among the first complexes of this type in Europe. The Conference has gathered together experts in various fields from different countries and has been the occasion to review the present status and to discuss the new emerging trends in Nuclear Physics and its applications to multidisciplinary researches and the development of new technologies. The following topics were treated: Nuclear Techniques in Medicine and Life Sciences (Cancer Therapy, new Imaging and Diagnostics Tools, Radioisotope production, Radiation Protection and Dosimetry). Applications of Nuclear Techniques in Art, Archaeometry and other Interdisciplinary fields

  9. MESODIF-II. Variable Trajectory Plume Segment Model

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, D.C.; Hegley, H.L.; Fox, T.D.

    1986-06-01

    MESODIF-II which embodies a variable trajectory plume segment atmospheric transport model, is designed to predict normalized air concentrations and deposition of radioactive, but otherwise non-reactive, effluents released from one or two levels over the same position in an xy-plane. In such a model, calculated particle trajectories vary as synoptic scale wind varies. At all sampling times, the particles are connected to form a segmented plume centerline. The lateral and vertical dimensions of the plume are determined by a parameterization of turbulence scale diffusion. The impetus for the development of this model arose from the need of the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission to assess radiological effects resulting from routine nuclear power reactor operations, as outlined in United States Nuclear Regulatory Guide 1.111.

  10. NSLS II Vacuum System

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreira, M.; Doom, L.; Hseuh, H.; Longo, C.; Settepani, P.; Wilson, K.; Hu, J.

    2009-09-13

    National Synchrotron Light Source II, being constructed at Brookhaven, is a 3-GeV, 500 mA, 3rd generation synchrotron radiation facility with ultra low emittance electron beams. The storage ring vacuum system has a circumference of 792 m and consists of over 250 vacuum chambers with a simulated average operating pressure of less than 1 x 10{sup -9} mbar. A summary of the update design of the vacuum system including girder supports of the chambers, gauges, vacuum pumps, bellows, beam position monitors and simulation of the average pressure will be shown. A brief description of the techniques and procedures for cleaning and mounting the chambers are given.

  11. Delta II Mars Pathfinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Final preparations for lift off of the DELTA II Mars Pathfinder Rocket are shown. Activities include loading the liquid oxygen, completing the construction of the Rover, and placing the Rover into the Lander. After the countdown, important visual events include the launch of the Delta Rocket, burnout and separation of the three Solid Rocket Boosters, and the main engine cutoff. The cutoff of the main engine marks the beginning of the second stage engine. After the completion of the second stage, the third stage engine ignites and then cuts off. Once the third stage engine cuts off spacecraft separation occurs.

  12. Run II luminosity progress

    SciTech Connect

    Gollwitzer, K.; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    The Fermilab Tevatron Collider Run II program continues at the energy and luminosity frontier of high energy particle physics. To the collider experiments CDF and D0, over 3 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity has been delivered to each. Upgrades and improvements in the Antiproton Source of the production and collection of antiprotons have led to increased number of particles stored in the Recycler. Electron cooling and associated improvements have help make a brighter antiproton beam at collisions. Tevatron improvements to handle the increased number of particles and the beam lifetimes have resulted in an increase in luminosity.

  13. Low Noise Borehole Triaxial Seismometer Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, James D; McClung, David W

    2006-11-06

    This report describes the preliminary design and the effort to date of Phase II of a Low Noise Borehole Triaxial Seismometer for use in networks of seismic stations for monitoring underground nuclear explosions. The design uses the latest technology of broadband seismic instrumentation. Each parameter of the seismometer is defined in terms of the known physical limits of the parameter. These limits are defined by the commercially available components, and the physical size constraints. A theoretical design is proposed, and a preliminary prototype model of the proposed instrument has been built. This prototype used the sensor module of the KS2000. The installation equipment (hole locks, etc.) has been designed and one unit has been installed in a borehole. The final design of the sensors and electronics and leveling mechanism is in process. Noise testing is scheduled for the last quarter of 2006.

  14. An integrated mechanism of cardiomyocyte nuclear Ca(2+) signaling.

    PubMed

    Ibarra, Cristián; Vicencio, Jose Miguel; Varas-Godoy, Manuel; Jaimovich, Enrique; Rothermel, Beverly A; Uhlén, Per; Hill, Joseph A; Lavandero, Sergio

    2014-10-01

    In cardiomyocytes, Ca(2+) plays a central role in governing both contraction and signaling events that regulate gene expression. Current evidence indicates that discrimination between these two critical functions is achieved by segregating Ca(2+) within subcellular microdomains: transcription is regulated by Ca(2+) release within nuclear microdomains, and excitation-contraction coupling is regulated by cytosolic Ca(2+). Accordingly, a variety of agonists that control cardiomyocyte gene expression, such as endothelin-1, angiotensin-II or insulin-like growth factor-1, share the feature of triggering nuclear Ca(2+) signals. However, signaling pathways coupling surface receptor activation to nuclear Ca(2+) release, and the phenotypic responses to such signals, differ between agonists. According to earlier hypotheses, the selective control of nuclear Ca(2+) signals by activation of plasma membrane receptors relies on the strategic localization of inositol trisphosphate receptors at the nuclear envelope. There, they mediate Ca(2+) release from perinuclear Ca(2+) stores upon binding of inositol trisphosphate generated in the cytosol, which diffuses into the nucleus. More recently, identification of such receptors at nuclear membranes or perinuclear sarcolemmal invaginations has uncovered novel mechanisms whereby agonists control nuclear Ca(2+) release. In this review, we discuss mechanisms for the selective control of nuclear Ca(2+) signals with special focus on emerging models of agonist receptor activation.

  15. An integrated mechanism of cardiomyocyte nuclear Ca2+ signaling

    PubMed Central

    Ibarra, Cristián; Vicencio, Jose Miguel; Varas-Godoy, Manuel; Jaimovich, Enrique; Rothermel, Beverly A.; Uhlén, Per; Hill, Joseph A.; Lavandero, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    In cardiomyocytes, Ca2+ plays a central role in governing both contraction and signaling events that regulate gene expression. Current evidence indicates that discrimination between these two critical functions is achieved by segregating Ca2+ within subcellular microdomains: transcription is regulated by Ca2+ release within nuclear microdomains, and excitation–contraction coupling is regulated by cytosolic Ca2+. Accordingly, a variety of agonists that control cardiomyocyte gene expression, such as endothelin-1, angiotensin-II or insulin-like growth factor-1, share the feature of triggering nuclear Ca2+ signals. However, signaling pathways coupling surface receptor activation to nuclear Ca2+ release, and the phenotypic responses to such signals, differ between agonists. According to earlier hypotheses, the selective control of nuclear Ca2+ signals by activation of plasma membrane receptors relies on the strategic localization of inositol trisphosphate receptors at the nuclear envelope. There, they mediate Ca2+ release from perinuclear Ca2+ stores upon binding of inositol trisphosphate generated in the cytosol, which diffuses into the nucleus. More recently, identification of such receptors at nuclear membranes or perinuclear sarcolemmal invaginations has uncovered novel mechanisms whereby agonists control nuclear Ca2+ release. In this review, we discuss mechanisms for the selective control of nuclear Ca2+ signals with special focus on emerging models of agonist receptor activation. PMID:24997440

  16. Nuclear space power safety and facility guidelines study

    SciTech Connect

    Mehlman, W.F.

    1995-09-11

    This report addresses safety guidelines for space nuclear reactor power missions and was prepared by The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) under a Department of Energy grant, DE-FG01-94NE32180 dated 27 September 1994. This grant was based on a proposal submitted by the JHU/APL in response to an {open_quotes}Invitation for Proposals Designed to Support Federal Agencies and Commercial Interests in Meeting Special Power and Propulsion Needs for Future Space Missions{close_quotes}. The United States has not launched a nuclear reactor since SNAP 10A in April 1965 although many Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) have been launched. An RTG powered system is planned for launch as part of the Cassini mission to Saturn in 1997. Recently the Ballistic Missile Defense Office (BMDO) sponsored the Nuclear Electric Propulsion Space Test Program (NEPSTP) which was to demonstrate and evaluate the Russian-built TOPAZ II nuclear reactor as a power source in space. As of late 1993 the flight portion of this program was canceled but work to investigate the attributes of the reactor were continued but at a reduced level. While the future of space nuclear power systems is uncertain there are potential space missions which would require space nuclear power systems. The differences between space nuclear power systems and RTG devices are sufficient that safety and facility requirements warrant a review in the context of the unique features of a space nuclear reactor power system.

  17. An integrated mechanism of cardiomyocyte nuclear Ca(2+) signaling.

    PubMed

    Ibarra, Cristián; Vicencio, Jose Miguel; Varas-Godoy, Manuel; Jaimovich, Enrique; Rothermel, Beverly A; Uhlén, Per; Hill, Joseph A; Lavandero, Sergio

    2014-10-01

    In cardiomyocytes, Ca(2+) plays a central role in governing both contraction and signaling events that regulate gene expression. Current evidence indicates that discrimination between these two critical functions is achieved by segregating Ca(2+) within subcellular microdomains: transcription is regulated by Ca(2+) release within nuclear microdomains, and excitation-contraction coupling is regulated by cytosolic Ca(2+). Accordingly, a variety of agonists that control cardiomyocyte gene expression, such as endothelin-1, angiotensin-II or insulin-like growth factor-1, share the feature of triggering nuclear Ca(2+) signals. However, signaling pathways coupling surface receptor activation to nuclear Ca(2+) release, and the phenotypic responses to such signals, differ between agonists. According to earlier hypotheses, the selective control of nuclear Ca(2+) signals by activation of plasma membrane receptors relies on the strategic localization of inositol trisphosphate receptors at the nuclear envelope. There, they mediate Ca(2+) release from perinuclear Ca(2+) stores upon binding of inositol trisphosphate generated in the cytosol, which diffuses into the nucleus. More recently, identification of such receptors at nuclear membranes or perinuclear sarcolemmal invaginations has uncovered novel mechanisms whereby agonists control nuclear Ca(2+) release. In this review, we discuss mechanisms for the selective control of nuclear Ca(2+) signals with special focus on emerging models of agonist receptor activation. PMID:24997440

  18. Nuclear Energy and the Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria).

    "Nuclear Energy and the Environment" is a pocket folder of removable leaflets concerned with two major topics: Nuclear energy and Nuclear Techniques. Under Nuclear Energy, leaflets concerning the topics of "Radiation--A Fact of Life,""The Impact of a Fact: 1963 Test Ban Treaty,""Energy Needs and Nuclear Power,""Power Reactor Safety,""Transport,"…

  19. Gordon Conference on Nuclear Research

    SciTech Connect

    Austin, S.M.

    1983-09-01

    Session topics were: quarks and nuclear physics; anomalons and anti-protons; the independent particle structure of nuclei; relativistic descriptions of nuclear structure and scattering; nuclear structure at high excitation; advances in nuclear astrophysics; properties of nuclear material; the earliest moments of the universe; and pions and spin excitations in nuclei.

  20. Nuclear modernization and arms control in NATO

    SciTech Connect

    Kanter, A.

    1988-12-01

    The INF Treaty and its aftermath have not simply returned NATO to a world without ground-launched cruise missiles (GLCMs), Pershing II, and the SS-20, but have crystallized and reinforced long-standing questions about the credibility of NATO's strategy of flexible response, the appropriate role of theater nuclear weapons in the future, and the prospects for continued U.S. leadership of the Alliance. These issues come together in a consideration of whether and how NATO should modernize its remaining nuclear forces. This Note analyzes different ways in which NATO can respond to the nuclear requirements that flow from its strategy. It considers how INF Treaty constraints and prospective START limits, as well as the special place and concerns of the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG), bear on the various possibilities. It also assesses the implications of different choices for Alliance cohesion, U.S. leadership of NATO, and extended deterrence. On the basis of that analysis, it describes an approach to NATO nuclear modernization and arms control.

  1. Nuclear-Powered Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arce, Gary

    1992-01-01

    Describes an exercise to develop interest and understanding about nuclear energy in which students make presentations regarding a proposal to build a hypothetical nuclear power plant. Students spend two weeks researching the topic; give testimony before a "Senate Energy Committee"; and vote on the proposal. Background information is provided. (MDH)

  2. Exotic nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenske, H.; Dhar, M.; Tsoneva, N.; Wilhelm, J.

    2016-01-01

    Recent developments of nuclear structure theory for exotic nuclei are addressed. The inclusion of hyperons and nucleon resonances is discussed. Nuclear multipole response functions, hyperon interactions in infinite matter and in neutron stars and theoretical aspects of excitations of nucleon resonances in nuclei are discussed.

  3. Nuclear Taskforce Summation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1979

    At the end of 1978, there were approximately 230 nuclear-fueled electric generating plants around the world; 72 of these were in the United States. Each plant requires an operations-and-maintenance workforce of 92 people, and attrition occurs at a rate of 8% per year. Requirements for a nuclear taskforce and job training, in view of current…

  4. High energy nuclear structures

    SciTech Connect

    Boguta, J.; Kunz, J.

    1984-03-09

    In conventional nuclear physics the nucleus is described as a non-relativistic many-body system, which is governed by the Schroedinger equation. Nucleons interact in this framework via static two-body potentials, mesonic degrees of freedom are neglected. An alternative description of nuclear physics in terms of a relativistic field theory has been developed by Walecka. The model Lagrangian containing baryons, sigma-mesons and ..omega..-mesons was subsequently extended to include also ..pi..-mesons and rho-mesons. An essential feature of such a nuclear Lagrangian is its renormalizability. In addition to the description of known nuclear structure the field theoretical approach may reveal entirely new nuclear phenomena, based on the explicit treatment of mesonic degrees of freedom. The existence of such abnormal nuclear states was proposed by Lee and Wick employing the sigma-model Lagrangian. There the non-linearity of the meson field equations allows for soliton solutions in the presence of nucleons, in particular the sigma-field may exhibit a kink. Different types of soliton solutions occur in gauge theories with hidden symmetries. In the phenomenological Lagrangian the rho-meson is described by a non-abelian gauge field, that acquires its mass spontaneously due to the non-vanishing vacuum expectation value of a Higgs field. A general ansatz for soliton solutions of such a gauge theory was given by Dashen et al. A specific solution and its possible implications for nuclear physics like anomalous nuclear states were discussed by Boguta.

  5. Nuclear Charge Radii Systematics

    SciTech Connect

    Marinova, Krassimira

    2015-09-15

    This paper is a brief overview of the existing systematics on nuclear mean square charge radii, obtained by a combined analysis of data from different types of experiment. The various techniques yielding data on nuclear charge radii are summarized. Their specific feature complexities and the accuracy and precision of the obtained information are also discussed.

  6. Talk About Nuclear Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tremlett, Lewis

    1976-01-01

    Presents an overview of the relation of nuclear power to human health and the environment, and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of nuclear power as an energy source urging technical educators to inculcate an awareness of the problems associated with the production of energy. Describes the fission reaction process, the hazards of…

  7. Nuclear physics and cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Coc, Alain

    2014-05-09

    There are important aspects of Cosmology, the scientific study of the large scale properties of the universe as a whole, for which nuclear physics can provide insights. Here, we will focus on Standard Big-Bang Nucleosynthesis and we refer to the previous edition of the School [1] for the aspects concerning the variations of constants in nuclear cosmo-physics.

  8. Nuclear effects at HERA

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1996-07-01

    The development of a nuclear beam facility at HERA would allow the study of fundamental features of quark and gluon interactions in QCD. I briefly review the physics underlying nuclear shadowing and anti-shadowing as well as other diffractive and jet fragmentation processes that can be studies in high energy electron-nucleus collisions.

  9. Nuclear Shuttle in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    This 1970 artist's concept shows a Nuclear Shuttle in flight. As envisioned by Marshall Space Flight Center Program Development engineers, the Nuclear Shuttle would deliver payloads to lunar orbit or other destinations then return to Earth orbit for refueling and additional missions.

  10. Nucleation of nuclear bodies.

    PubMed

    Dundr, Miroslav

    2013-01-01

    The nucleus is a complex organelle containing numerous highly dynamic, structurally stable domains and bodies, harboring functions that have only begun to be defined. However, the molecular mechanisms for their formation are still poorly understood. Recently it has been shown that a nuclear body can form de novo by self-organization. But little is known regarding what triggers the formation of a nuclear body and how subsequent assembly steps are orchestrated. Nuclear bodies are frequently associated with specific active gene loci that directly contribute to their formation. Both coding and noncoding RNAs can initiate the assembly of nuclear bodies with which they are physiologically associated. Thus, the formation of nuclear bodies occurs via recruitment and consequent accumulation of resident proteins in the nuclear bodies by nucleating RNA acting as a seeder. In this chapter I describe how to set up an experimental cell system to probe de novo biogenesis of a nuclear body by nucleating RNA and nuclear body components tethered on chromatin. PMID:23980018

  11. Nuclear Power Plants. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyerly, Ray L.; Mitchell, Walter, III

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. Among the topics discussed are: Why Use Nuclear Power?; From Atoms to Electricity; Reactor Types; Typical Plant Design Features; The Cost of Nuclear Power; Plants in the United States; Developments in Foreign…

  12. Nuclear Weapons and Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howie, David I.

    1984-01-01

    The growing debate on nuclear weapons in recent years has begun to make inroads into school curricula. Elementary and secondary school teachers now face the important task of educating their students on issues relating to nuclear war without indoctrinating them to a particular point of view. (JBM)

  13. Vertical nuclear proliferation.

    PubMed

    Sidel, Victor W

    2007-01-01

    All the nuclear-weapon states are working to develop new nuclear-weapon systems and upgrade their existing ones. Although the US Congress has recently blocked further development of small nuclear weapons and earth-penetrating nuclear weapons, the United States is planning a range of new warheads under the Reliable Replacement Warhead programme, and renewing its nuclear weapons infrastructure. The United Kingdom is spending 1 billion pounds sterling on updating the Atomic Weapons Establishment at Aldermaston, and about 20 billion pounds sterling on replacing its Vanguard submarines and maintaining its Trident warhead stockpile. The US has withdrawn from the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty and plans to install missile defence systems in Poland and the Czech Republic; Russia threatens to upgrade its nuclear countermeasures. The nuclear-weapon states should comply with their obligations under Article VI of the Non-Proliferation Treaty, as summarised in the 13-point plan agreed at the 2000 NPT Review Conference, and they should negotiate a Nuclear Weapons Convention.

  14. Nuclear Power Plant Technician

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, George A.

    1975-01-01

    The author recognizes a body of basic knowledge in nuclear power plant technoogy that can be taught in school programs, and lists the various courses, aiming to fill the anticipated need for nuclear-trained manpower--persons holding an associate degree in engineering technology. (Author/BP)

  15. Vented nuclear fuel element

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, Leonard N.; Kaznoff, Alexis I.

    1979-01-01

    A nuclear fuel cell for use in a thermionic nuclear reactor in which a small conduit extends from the outside surface of the emitter to the center of the fuel mass of the emitter body to permit escape of volatile and gaseous fission products collected in the center thereof by virtue of molecular migration of the gases to the hotter region of the fuel.

  16. Under the Nuclear Umbrella.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Leon F.

    1987-01-01

    Entertains the thesis that social work has a stake in the technological-humanistic debate and should greet the recent and spectacular technological failures with protest and alarm. Discusses relationship of nuclear issue and social work, effects of nuclear issue on children, and Chernobyl. Advocates pacifism, activism, and a coherent conception of…

  17. TRAINING NUCLEAR TECHNICIANS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KOVNER, EDGAR A.

    PROBLEMS CONFRONTED BY PLANNERS OF NUCLEAR PROGRAMS AT THE TECHNICIAN LEVEL INCLUDE (1) LACK OF PRECEDENT IN CURRICULUM, COURSE OUTLINES, AND GRADUATE PLACEMENT, (2) DIFFICULTY IN DETERMINING COSTS OF LABORATORY CONSTRUCTION, EQUIPMENT, AND OPERATION, AND (3) REQUIREMENT OF ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION LICENSES IN NUCLEAR OCCUPATIONS. A 92-SEMESTER…

  18. Evaluation of the computerized procedures Manual II (COPMA II)

    SciTech Connect

    Converse, S.A.

    1995-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a computerized procedure system, the Computerized Procedure Manual II (COPMA-II), on the performance and mental workload of licensed reactor operators. To evaluate COPMA-II, eight teams of two operators were trained to operate a scaled pressurized water reactor facility (SPWRF) with traditional paper procedures and with COPMA-II. Following training, each team operated the SPWRF under normal operating conditions with both paper procedures and COPMA-II. The teams then performed one of two accident scenarios with paper procedures, but performed the remaining accident scenario with COPMA-II. Performance measures and subjective estimates of mental workload were recorded for each performance trial. The most important finding of the study was that the operators committed only half as many errors during the accident scenarios with COPMA-II as they committed with paper procedures. However, time to initiate a procedure was fastest for paper procedures for accident scenario trials. For performance under normal operating conditions, there was no difference in time to initiate or to complete a procedure, or in the number of errors committed with paper procedures and with COPMA-II. There were no consistent differences in the mental workload ratings operators recorded for trials with paper procedures and COPMA-II.

  19. The A-bomb, 50 years later: The evolution of nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Kotz, D.

    1995-08-01

    In the wake of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings, the U.S. government began to invest heavily in its nuclear program. Nuclear medicine stood to gain from these postwar policies, but it also suffered some setbacks. Fifty years ago this month, two atomic bombs were dropped on Japan, killing thousands of civilians and ushering in a quick and final end to World War II. The beginning of the post-war era signaled the birth of nuclear medicine as it is widely applied today. In fact, the same nuclear reactor that produced elements for the A-bomb project was turned over for the mass production of radionuclides for medicine and industry. The link between the A-bomb and nuclear medicine, however, has always been a sensitive subject among nuclear physicians whose patients may associate radionuclide injections with mushroom clouds. Although this link is not justified, the government`s interest in developing nuclear technology following World War II did have a significant impact on nuclear medicine: on the upside, millions of federal dollars were funneled into the production of radionuclides for research and medicine. On the downside, Congress established the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC)-which later became the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-to oversee safety issues, making nuclear medicine the only medical field regulated by a federal agency.

  20. Nuclear physics: Macroscopic aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Swiatecki, W.J.

    1993-12-01

    A systematic macroscopic, leptodermous approach to nuclear statics and dynamics is described, based formally on the assumptions {h_bar} {yields} 0 and b/R << 1, where b is the surface diffuseness and R the nuclear radius. The resulting static model of shell-corrected nuclear binding energies and deformabilities is accurate to better than 1 part in a thousand and yields a firm determination of the principal properties of the nuclear fluid. As regards dynamics, the above approach suggests that nuclear shape evolutions will often be dominated by dissipation, but quantitative comparisons with experimental data are more difficult than in the case of statics. In its simplest liquid drop version the model exhibits interesting formal connections to the classic astronomical problem of rotating gravitating masses.

  1. World nuclear outlook 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    As part of the EIA program to provide energy information, this analysis report presents the current status and projections through 2010 of nuclear capacity, generation, and fuel cycle requirements for all countries in the world using nuclear power to generate electricity for commercial use. It also contains information and forecasts of developments in the uranium market. Long-term projections of US nuclear capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharges for three different scenarios through 2040 are developed for the Department of Energy`s Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). In turn, the OCRWM provides partial funding for preparation of this report. The projections of uranium requirements are provided to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) for preparation of the Nuclear Energy Agency/OECD report, Summary of Nuclear Power and Fuel Cycle Data in OECD Member Countries.

  2. World nuclear outlook 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-29

    As part of the EIA program to provide energy information, this analysis report presents the current status and projections through 2015 of nuclear capacity, generation, and fuel cycle requirements for all countries in the world using nuclear power to generate electricity for commercial use. It also contains information and forecasts of developments in the uranium market. Long-term projections of US nuclear capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharges for two different scenarios through 2040 are developed for the Department of Energy`s Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). In turn, the OCRWM provides partial funding for preparation of this report. The projections of uranium requirements are provided to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) for preparation of the Nuclear Energy Agency/OECD report, Summary of Nuclear Power and Fuel Cycle Data in OECD Member Countries.

  3. Management of Global Nuclear Materials for International Security

    SciTech Connect

    Isaacs, T; Choi, J-S

    2003-09-18

    Nuclear materials were first used to end the World War II. They were produced and maintained during the cold war for global security reasons. In the succeeding 50 years since the Atoms for Peace Initiative, nuclear materials were produced and used in global civilian reactors and fuel cycles intended for peaceful purposes. The Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) of 1970 established a framework for appropriate applications of both defense and civilian nuclear activities by nuclear weapons states and non-nuclear weapons states. As global inventories of nuclear materials continue to grow, in a diverse and dynamically changing manner, it is time to evaluate current and future trends and needed actions: what are the current circumstances, what has been done to date, what has worked and what hasn't? The aim is to identify mutually reinforcing programmatic directions, leading to global partnerships that measurably enhance international security. Essential elements are material protection, control and accountability (MPC&A) of separated nuclear materials, interim storage, and geologic repositories for all nuclear materials destined for final disposal. Cooperation among key partners, such as the MPC&A program between the U.S. and Russia for nuclear materials from dismantled weapons, is necessary for interim storage and final disposal of nuclear materials. Such cooperative partnerships can lead to a new nuclear regime where a complete fuel cycle service with fuel leasing and spent fuel take-back can be offered to reactor users. The service can effectively minimize or even eliminate the incentive or rationale for the user-countries to develop their indigenous enrichment and reprocessing technologies. International cooperation, supported by governments of key countries can be best to facilitate the forum for formation of such cooperative partnerships.

  4. Nuclear war, nuclear proliferation, and their consequences

    SciTech Connect

    Sanruddin, A.K.

    1986-01-01

    The proceedings of a colloquium convened by the Groupe de Bellerive offers the contributions of Carl Sagan, Gabriel Garcia Marquez, Kenneth Galbraith, Pierre Trudeau, Edward Kennedy, and other eminent scientists, politicians, and strategists on the subject of the proliferation of nuclear weaponry and its potential ramifications.

  5. Nuclear excitation and precompound nuclear reactions

    SciTech Connect

    De, A.; Ray, S.; Ghosh, S.K.

    1988-06-01

    The angular distribution of nucleons emitted in nucleon-induced precompound nuclear reactions are calculated taking into account the effect of excitation on the kinematics of nucleon-nucleon scattering inside the target-plus-projectile system. The results are compared with quantum mechanical calculations and those of reaction models based on a pure nucleon-nucleon collision picture.

  6. Nuclear Powerplant Safety: Source Terms. Nuclear Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Nuclear Energy Office.

    There has been increased public interest in the potential effects of nuclear powerplant accidents since the Soviet reactor accident at Chernobyl. People have begun to look for more information about the amount of radioactivity that might be released into the environment as a result of such an accident. When this issue is discussed by people…

  7. The nuclear pore complex and nuclear transport.

    PubMed

    Wente, Susan R; Rout, Michael P

    2010-10-01

    Internal membrane bound structures sequester all genetic material in eukaryotic cells. The most prominent of these structures is the nucleus, which is bounded by a double membrane termed the nuclear envelope (NE). Though this NE separates the nucleoplasm and genetic material within the nucleus from the surrounding cytoplasm, it is studded throughout with portals called nuclear pore complexes (NPCs). The NPC is a highly selective, bidirectional transporter for a tremendous range of protein and ribonucleoprotein cargoes. All the while the NPC must prevent the passage of nonspecific macromolecules, yet allow the free diffusion of water, sugars, and ions. These many types of nuclear transport are regulated at multiple stages, and the NPC carries binding sites for many of the proteins that modulate and modify the cargoes as they pass across the NE. Assembly, maintenance, and repair of the NPC must somehow occur while maintaining the integrity of the NE. Finally, the NPC appears to be an anchor for localization of many nuclear processes, including gene activation and cell cycle regulation. All these requirements demonstrate the complex design of the NPC and the integral role it plays in key cellular processes. PMID:20630994

  8. Intramolecular Nuclear Flux Densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barth, I.; Daniel, C.; Gindensperger, E.; Manz, J.; PéRez-Torres, J. F.; Schild, A.; Stemmle, C.; Sulzer, D.; Yang, Y.

    The topic of this survey article has seen a renaissance during the past couple of years. Here we present and extend the results for various phenomena which we have published from 2012-2014, with gratitude to our coauthors. The new phenomena include (a) the first reduced nuclear flux densities in vibrating diatomic molecules or ions which have been deduced from experimental pump-probe spectra; these "experimental" nuclear flux densities reveal several quantum effects including (b) the "quantum accordion", i.e., during the turn from bond stretch to bond compression, the diatomic system never stands still — instead, various parts of it with different bond lengths flow into opposite directions. (c) Wavepacket interferometry has been extended from nuclear densities to flux densities, again revealing new phenomena: For example, (d) a vibrating nuclear wave function with compact initial shape may split into two partial waves which run into opposite directions, thus causing interfering flux densities. (e) Tunneling in symmetric 1-dimensional double-well systems yields maximum values of the associated nuclear flux density just below the potential barrier; this is in marked contrast with negligible values of the nuclear density just below the barrier. (f) Nuclear flux densities of pseudorotating nuclei may induce huge magnetic fields. A common methodologic theme of all topics is the continuity equation which connects the time derivative of the nuclear density to the divergence of the flux density, subject to the proper boundary conditions. (g) Nearly identical nuclear densities with different boundary conditions may be related to entirely different flux densities, e.g., during tunneling in cyclic versus non-cyclic systems. The original continuity equation, density and flux density of all nuclei, or of all nuclear degrees of freedom, may be reduced to the corresponding quantities for just a single nucleus, or just a single degree of freedom.

  9. US nuclear weapons policy

    SciTech Connect

    May, M.

    1990-12-05

    We are closing chapter one'' of the nuclear age. Whatever happens to the Soviet Union and to Europe, some of the major determinants of nuclear policy will not be what they have been for the last forty-five years. Part of the task for US nuclear weapons policy is to adapt its nuclear forces and the oganizations managing them to the present, highly uncertain, but not urgently competitive situation between the US and the Soviet Union. Containment is no longer the appropriate watchword. Stabilization in the face of uncertainty, a more complicated and politically less readily communicable goal, may come closer. A second and more difficult part of the task is to deal with what may be the greatest potential source of danger to come out of the end of the cold war: the breakup of some of the cooperative institutions that managed the nuclear threat and were created by the cold war. These cooperative institutions, principally the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the Warsaw Pact, the US-Japan alliance, were not created specifically to manage the nuclear threat, but manage it they did. A third task for nuclear weapons policy is that of dealing with nuclear proliferation under modern conditions when the technologies needed to field effective nuclear weapons systems and their command and control apparatus are ever more widely available, and the leverage over some potential proliferators, which stemmed from superpower military support, is likely to be on the wane. This paper will make some suggestions regarding these tasks, bearing in mind that the unsettled nature of that part of the world most likely to become involved in nuclear weapons decisions today must make any suggestions tentative and the allowance for surprise more than usually important.

  10. 76 FR 19148 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Entergy Nuclear Vermont Yankee, LLC, Vermont Yankee Nuclear...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Entergy Nuclear Vermont Yankee, LLC, Vermont Yankee Nuclear... (10 CFR), Section 2.206, ``Requests for Action under this Subpart,'' the U.S. Nuclear...

  11. 75 FR 39057 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Entergy Nuclear Vermont Yankee, LLC; Vermont Yankee Nuclear...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Entergy Nuclear Vermont Yankee, LLC; Vermont Yankee Nuclear... CFR), Section 2.206, ``Requests for Action under this Subpart,'' the U.S. Nuclear...

  12. The nuclear dynamo; Can a nuclear tornado annihilate nations

    SciTech Connect

    McNally, J.R. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of the hypothesis of a nuclear dynamo for a controlled nuclear fusion reactor. This dynamo hypothesis suggests properties for a nuclear tornado that could annihilate nations if accidentally triggered by a single high yield to weight nuclear weapon detonation. The formerly classified reports on ignition of the atmosphere, the properties of a nuclear dynamo, methods to achieve a nuclear dynamo in the laboratory, and the analogy of a nuclear dynamo to a nuclear tornado are discussed. An unclassified international study of this question is urged.

  13. Stockpile Stewardship: How we Ensure the Nuclear Deterrent without Testing

    SciTech Connect

    2014-09-04

    In the 1990s, the U.S. nuclear weapons program shifted emphasis from developing new designs to dismantling thousands of existing weapons and maintaining a much smaller enduring stockpile. The United States ceased underground nuclear testing, and the Department of Energy created the Stockpile Stewardship Program to maintain the safety, security, and reliability of the U.S. nuclear deterrent without full-scale testing. This video gives a behind the scenes look at a set of unique capabilities at Lawrence Livermore that are indispensable to the Stockpile Stewardship Program: high performance computing, the Superblock category II nuclear facility, the JASPER a two stage gas gun, the High Explosive Applications Facility (HEAF), the National Ignition Facility (NIF), and the Site 300 contained firing facility.

  14. Stockpile Stewardship: How we Ensure the Nuclear Deterrent without Testing

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    In the 1990s, the U.S. nuclear weapons program shifted emphasis from developing new designs to dismantling thousands of existing weapons and maintaining a much smaller enduring stockpile. The United States ceased underground nuclear testing, and the Department of Energy created the Stockpile Stewardship Program to maintain the safety, security, and reliability of the U.S. nuclear deterrent without full-scale testing. This video gives a behind the scenes look at a set of unique capabilities at Lawrence Livermore that are indispensable to the Stockpile Stewardship Program: high performance computing, the Superblock category II nuclear facility, the JASPER a two stage gas gun, the High Explosive Applications Facility (HEAF), the National Ignition Facility (NIF), and the Site 300 contained firing facility.

  15. Lifetime Measurements of Tagged Exotic- and Unbound Nuclear States

    SciTech Connect

    Cullen, D. M.

    2011-11-30

    A new Differential Plunger device for measuring pico-second lifetimes of Unbound Nuclear States (DPUNS) is being built at The University of Manchester. DPUNS has been designed to work with alpha-, beta- and isomer-tagging methods using the existing JUROGAM II--RITU--GREAT infrastructure at the University of Jyvaskyla, Finland. The importance of proton emission from nuclei is that it provides valuable nuclear-structure information as direct input to nuclear models beyond the drip line. New experimental data beyond the drip line can provide new extensions to these models especially with the possible coupling of weakly bound and unbound states to the continuum. The results of the first experiments to measure lifetimes of unbound nuclear states with this method was discussed along with possible future experiments which can be addressed with DPUNS using proton-, isomer- and alpha-tagging.

  16. Flavonoids as dietary regulators of nuclear receptor activity

    PubMed Central

    Avior, Yishai; Bomze, David; Ramon, Ory

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic diseases such as obesity, type II diabetes, and dyslipidemia are a rising cause of mortality worldwide. The progression of many metabolic diseases is fundamentally regulated on the transcriptional level by a family of ligand-activated transcription factors, called nuclear receptors, which detect and respond to metabolic changes. Their role in maintaining metabolic homeostasis makes nuclear receptors an important pharmaceutical and dietary target. This review will present the growing evidence that flavonoids, natural secondary plant metabolites, are important regulators of nuclear receptor activity. Structural similarities between flavonoids and cholesterol derivatives combined with the promiscuous nature of most nuclear receptors provide a wealth of possibilities for pharmaceutical and dietary modulation of metabolism. While the challenges of bringing flavonoid-derived therapeutics to the market are significant, we consider this rapidly growing field to be an essential aspect of the functional food initiative and an important mine for pharmaceutical compounds. PMID:23598551

  17. Supporting Our Nation's Nuclear Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, Peter

    2011-01-01

    On the 60th anniversary of the world's first nuclear power plant to produce electricity, Assistant Secretary for Nuclear Energy Peter Lyons discusses the Energy Department's and the Administration's commitment to promoting a nuclear renaissance in the United States.

  18. Radiological Effects of Nuclear War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Charles S.

    1988-01-01

    Described are the global effects of nuclear war. Discussed are radiation dosages, limited nuclear attacks, strategic arms reductions, and other results reported at the workshop on nuclear war issues in Moscow in March 1988. (CW)

  19. Supporting Our Nation's Nuclear Industry

    ScienceCinema

    Lyons, Peter

    2016-07-12

    On the 60th anniversary of the world's first nuclear power plant to produce electricity, Assistant Secretary for Nuclear Energy Peter Lyons discusses the Energy Department's and the Administration's commitment to promoting a nuclear renaissance in the United States.

  20. Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... produced by: Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org ... I’d like to talk to you about nuclear medicine. Nuclear medicine offers the potential to identify ...